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Media Portrayals of Cubans and Haitians: A Comparative Study of the New York Times


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MEDIA PORTRAYALS OF CUBANS AND HAITIANS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE NEW YORK TIMES By MANOUCHEKA CELESTE A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN MASS COMMUNICATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2005

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Copyright 2005 by Manoucheka Celeste

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This is dedicated to the people who live these stories and MM&I for believing.

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iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like thank everyone who has not only supported, but also challenged me in this process. I would like to thank my committee chair, Dr. Michael Leslie, for his guidance and great effort, and willingness to ch allenge students. He went to great lengths to see this project through. I would also like to thank my committee members: Dr. Marilyn Roberts and Dr. Helena K. Sark io. Dr. Roberts was a wonderful source of knowledge and played an integral role in guiding my methods and findings. Dr. Sarkio has been supportive and engaging. Her thorough editing, and advice inside and outside of the classroom have been invaluable. I thank family for setting an example of what hard work and dedication is all about. They allowed me to disappear for the last semester to complete this project. I thank my sister, Slande, for always leading the way and little brothers, James and Alix, for being great human beings and my inspiration. Also I extend thanks to my dearest life friends and SGRho sisters Manoucheka T., Magda, Candace, Shannon, and Mona, for always supporting me and still being my friends despite my virtual disappearance during this project. I thank my mass communication and GHD partner in crime, Dawn, for being there through the crazy adventures this past year. I could not imagine going through it with anyone else, and I know that we'll be always be friends. I thank Chantal, for being fabulous and very special, and for dealing with my frantic phone calls and random needs for a boost. I thank Nicole for her courage, common sense, sense of humor, and energy. I

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v thank Jasmine Johnson for always putting her best foot forward and inspiring me to do same. Her compassion and willingness to listen has made a big difference. I also thank Fran Ricardo, Cyrus, Lohse Beeland, the Milwees, Rhonda Douglas, and all of the amazing individuals who have helped shape my college career and overall outlook on life. I am forever grateful for all that they have done. Finally, I thank my journalism mentors and friends for their dedication to the field and setting an example (Jim Baltzelle, Charles Harris, Cynthia, Daneesha, Romina, Diana, and Role Models Foundation).

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vi TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................................ iv LIST OF TABLES..................................................... viii ABSTRACT........................................................... ix CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION .................................................... 1 2BACKGROUND ..................................................... 4 Cubans and the United States........................................... 4 Haitians and the United States ........................................... 6 3LITERATURE REVIEW............................................. 10 Media and Public Opinion............................................. 10 Framing Theory and the Media Construction of Reality ...................... 11 Minority/Immigrant Representation in Media.............................. 13 Assimilation, Core Culture and the Media: A Look at Immigration ............ 15 Homophily-Heterophily, Ethnocentrism and Media Framing.................. 18 4METHODOLOGY .................................................. 20 Newspaper Selection................................................. 21 Time Frame........................................................ 22 Search Terms....................................................... 23 Approach and Coding................................................ 23 Reliability and Intersubjectivity ........................................ 24 5FINDINGS......................................................... 27 Cuban Framing...................................................... 28 Haitian Framing ..................................................... 31 Findings for Research Question 1....................................... 35 Findings for Research Question 2....................................... 36 Findings for Research Question 3....................................... 37 Findings for Research Question 4....................................... 39

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vii 6CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION .................................... 42 Implications of This Study............................................. 46 Limitations of This Study............................................. 50 Suggestions for Future Research ........................................ 50 APPENDIX ACODING SHEET.................................................... 53 BFRAMES.......................................................... 54 REFERENCES........................................................ 57 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................. 62

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viii LIST OF TABLES Table page 5-1Cuba: Positive frames ............................................... 29 5-2Cuba: Negative frames.............................................. 30 5-3Haiti: Positive frames ............................................... 32 5-4Haiti: Negative frames .............................................. 33 5-5Frames........................................................... 37 B-1Cuba: Positive frames ............................................... 54 B-2Cuba: Negative frames.............................................. 55 B-3Haiti: Positive frames ............................................... 55 B-4Haiti: Negative frames .............................................. 56

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ix ABSTRACT Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Mass Communication MEDIA PORTRAYALS OF CUBANS AND HAITIANS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE NEW YORK TIMES By Manoucheka Celeste May 2005 Chair: Michael Leslie Major Department: Mass Communication Cubans and Haitians presently are arguably two of the most controversial immigrant groups in the United States. The countries are within hours by air from the United States. Cuba, the closer of the two countries, is a mere 50 kilometers from Florida's Key West. More than their locations, Cuba and Haiti have similarities and differences in terms of history, and their current states are often presented as dichotomies and present an opportunity to compare their media coverage. New York Times articles were used to examine how Cubans and Haitians were framed from January 1, 1994, through December 31, 2004. The analysis was comparative, looking at differences and similarities in the coverage. A sample of 177 articles was analyzed for frequently occurring themes, catchphrases, and figures of speech. The sample included 81 articles for Cubans and 96 for Haitians. Overall both groups were framed negatively. Cubans were framed more positively than Haitians, with negative and positive frames being at or near one to one ratio, 70 positive frames to 78

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x negative frames. Haitians were framed overwhelmingly negatively, with 206 negative frames and 23 positive frames. For Cubans, the three dominant positive frames that emerged were Character Strength, Political Involvement, and Success. The most dominant negative frames for Cubans were Delinquent Cuban Government, Character Weakness, and Immigrants. It is important to note, the Success frame was dominated by sports and, in one case, entertainment articles. The most dominant positive frames for Haitians were Character Strength and Politically Active. Only 16.6% of the stories about Haitians (n=16) contained positive frames. There were six dominant negative frames that emerged for Haitians. They are Character Weakness, Poor, Victim, Troubled Nation, Primitive Other, and Immigrant. Haitians and Cubans were framed negatively, with Cubans being framed more positively. Societal acceptance can be examined through media portrayals, as this study has done. The coverage of these and other ethnic and migrant groups are driven by ethnocentrism and perceived differences. Journalists need diversity education, knowledge of mass communication theory, and representative newsrooms in order to better serve and reflect the increasingly diverse population in the United States.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Cubans and Haitians presently are arguably two of the most controversial immigrant groups in the United States. The countries are within hours via air from the United States. Cuba, the closer of the two countries, is a mere 50 kilometers from Florida’s Key West. The Central Intelligence Agency’s (CIA) (2005) World Factbook online says that Cuba blames the 1961 U.S. embargo for its difficulties and it identifies one of the problems with Cuba as illicit immigration to the U.S. (CIA, 2005). About Haiti, the World Factbook says the country is plagued with political violence and is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere (CIA). Cubans and Haitians have received a great deal of media coverage in the past 20 years. A noticeable amount of the stories written about Cubans and Haitians focus on immigration issues and on the countries’ turmoil which “catches our attention for a while, but then blends into daily fare of more violence elsewhere, other famines, mass migrations, and political strife to which we have become accustomed” (Chierici, 1996). Their similarities and differences in terms of history and current state are often presented as dichotomies and present an opportunity to compare their media coverage. Scholars have noted the differential treatment in regard to immigration policies that Cubans enjoy over Haitians: Neither Dominicans fleeing the civil war of 1965, nor Haitians fleeing the terror of Papa Doc Duvalier and a string of Haitian military juntas, got

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2 comparable treatment. Washington routinely rejected asylum requests from Haitians picked up at sea while it invariably granted asylum to the far smaller number of Cuban balseros. Under Clinton, many Haitians were even forcibly returned to their country. (Gonzalez, 2000, p. 108) The purpose of this study is to take a closer look at the relationship between each group in terms of their individual histories and their presence in the United States. This study seeks to examine the relationship of each group with the United States through the lenses of a major national newspaper. This thesis will use framing analysis to examine differences in how the two groups are represented in the media and attempt to identify some factors that may lead to differences in their representation. Based on the assumptions of ethnocentrism and heterophily and homophily in reporting, the following main questions are asked: •Are Cubans and Haitians portrayed negatively? •Are Cubans portrayed more positively than Haitians? •Which group is portrayed to have positive qualities such as educated, hardworking, with higher financial standing, more entrepreneurial, better spoken, and social acceptance? •Which group is most frequently portrayed with the opposite qualities including being uneducated, lazy, poor, poorly spoken, and socially unaccepted? This study is significant for two main reasons. The first is that Cubans and Haitians are two controversial groups that get a great deal of media coverage. Communist leader Fidel Castro has caught numerous headlines in the United States since he has been in power. Haiti’s numerous leaders have also been seen in the U.S. news, particularly during political turbulence. Cuba and Haiti have also made headlines with illegal immigration to the nearby United States. In addition, the two countries are linked by their relative closeness in the Caribbean. Cuban and Haitian

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3 migrants also live in close proximity in the United States in cites such as New York, Miami and Chicago. Cubans and Haitians constitute two of the fastest growing immigrant groups. Between 1990 and 2000 the Haitian population in Florida doubled to 267,689, according to the U.S. Census Bureau (2005), but other sources estimate higher numbers (Stepick, Stepick, & Kretsedemas, 2001). As of 1999, more than a half million Cubans lived in South Florida (Rumbaut, 1999). In Rumbaut’s South Florida sample, immigrant groups consisted of Cubans, Haitians, Jamaicans, Colombians, Nicaraguans, Dominicans and others from Latin America and the Caribbean. Jamaicans and Haitians are concentrated in South Florida and are among the top recent immigration groups in terms of size (Rumbaut, 1999). The same is true of Cubans. This research will add to an already rich body of framing literature, specifically regarding immigrant groups. The research is important because of the changing make-up of the U.S. population. The United States has been described as unfinished and a nation of immigrants (Lacey & Longman, 1997). The growth of the number of foreign-born persons living in the United States is quite dramatic. The immigrant population increased from 20 to 27 million between 1990 and 1997. By 1997, there were 3 million foreign-born children and nearly 11 million U.S.-born children under 18 with at least one foreign-born parent (Rumbaut, 1999). The U.S. Bureau of Census (2005) estimates major shifts in minority groups, with Latinos becoming the majority by 2010. Now, more than ever, it is important to understand the different groups that define the United States and how the media interacts with each group and why.

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4 CHAPTER 2 BACKGROUND Cubans and the United States Cuba, if the United States would have been successful in its attempts, would have been the 51st state today. But unlike Puerto Rico, Cuba and its battle-tested independence army were hard to subdue and the U.S. occupation was difficult (Gonzalez, 2000). The United States occupied the island-nation on three occasions and, in order to protect their investments, installed Batista as the ruler in 1934, a man who welcomed foreign investors (Gonzalez, 2000). By the mid-1950s under Batista’s rule Cuba’s economy, which was heavily dependent on the United States, began to collapse with high unemployment, prostitution and corruption (Gonzalez, 2000). Fidel Castro’s guerrillas overthrew the dictator in 1959 (Gonzalez, 2000). Coming to the United States Cubans have been deemed special refugees because of the U.S. immigration policy that allows them to stay once they set foot on U.S. soil (Gonzalez, 2000). This policy, which many have criticized as preferential when compared to policy toward other immigrant groups such as Haitians, is a result of the U.S.’s conflict with communist Cuba. Since the start of his reign, the United States has made numerous efforts to overthrow Castro. In 1994, Bill Clinton was the first U.S. president to call for an end of this policy, after more than one million Cubans were reported to have fled Cuba for the United States (Gonzalez, 2000).

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5 Cuban migration to the United States began in the 1950s when Castro initiated his radical revolution and Cubans sought asylum (Soruco, 1996). More than 215,000 left for the United States during the first four years (Gonzalez, 2000). There were three major migrations since Castro’s revolution. The first migration started in 1959 after Castro came into power and ended in 1962 during the Cuban missile crisis. These “golden exiles” consisted of lawyers, physicians, engineers, managers, and clerks (Soruco, 1996). A large number of these exiles were White, educated, and city dwellers (Fagen, Brody, & O’Leary, 1968). The second migration, from 1962 though 1979, brought mostly women, young children and the relatives of the previous refugees (Soruco, 1996). Diplomatic arrangements were made in 1966 to conduct daily flights from Havana to Miami until 1979 (Soruco, 1996). The effects of the exiles were felt in Miami in the form of strained resources, which led to the Refugee Resettlement Program that relocated exiles to other parts of the country (Soruco, 1996). The third migration, the Muriel lift refugees, came in 1980 and included ‘misfits’ and mentally ill individuals (Soruco, 1996). Working class people who wanted political asylum were also a part of this migration. This migration most closely represented Cuba’s native population (Soruco, 1996). The people were younger and had a greater percentage of blacks and mulattos (Bach, Bach, & Triplett, 1982). A crime wave followed these Cubans’ arrivals, which stigmatized all Muriel refugees, and all Cubans faced open hostility (Soruco, 1996). “Because the new population was largely black, it forced the earlier arrivals to face the racial reality of Cuba—the Cuba to which they longed to return. After Muriel, many of the established refugees were less eager to return to the island” (Soruco, 1996, p. 10).

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6 Life in the United States The Cuban exile community has grown, with a powerful political machine and extensive social networks (Soruco, 1996). Although the population is dispersing, the largest enclave is found in South Florida. Soruco (1996) attributed Cuban’s success to their demographic makeup, hard work, and sacrifice and the generosity of local and federal governments that helped them resettle. As mentioned previously, the refugees of the 1960s and 1970s were largely from the upper and middle class and brought technical skills. With those demographic characteristics, in addition to the massive aid the federal government dispensed to them, Cubans became the country’s most prosperous Hispanic immigrants (Gonzalez, 2000). Haitians and the United States Haiti is the first free black nation and second oldest independent nation in the Americas after the United States. At one point, it was the richest colony in the Americas because of its sugar and coffee (Stepick, 1998). The relationship between the United States and Haiti has been rocky since before the birth of the new Republic. The slaves’ victory over French colonizers ended Napoleon Bonaparte dream of making Hispaniola a fortress island to defend French interests in the new world (Gilles, 2002). Some historians question whether North America would be as it is today without the Haitian Revolution (Gilles, 2002). Haitians won their independence from their French colonizers in 1804. The United States joined European forces in France’s violent repression of Haiti’s slave rebellion (Chomsky, 2003). The U.S. government refused to acknowledge the new nation’s independence, although they acknowledged former Spanish colonies like Argentina, Mexico and Chile around 1822 (Gilles, 2000). Recognition did not come from the United States

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7 until 1862, 37 years after France had done so. In the meantime, Haiti’s government invited slaves from around the world and especially from the United States to come there. The potential for the new Republic giving their slaves revolutionary ideas irritated the United States, which did not abolish slavery until 1863. Haiti’s independence threatened the slave economies of the rest of the Caribbean and the southern United States (Stepick, 1998). Governments isolated Haiti economically and politically and the effects of that early isolation can be seen today (Stepick, 1998). The United States occupied Haiti on two separate occasions, the first being from 1915 to 1934, a violent introduction of American racism to the island (Gilles, 2002): Numerous U.S. interventions culminated in Woodrow Wilson’s invasion of Haiti and the Dominican Republic, where his warriorsas viciously racist as the Administration in Washingtonmurdered and destroyed, reinstituted slavery, dismantled the constitutional system because the backward Haitians were unwilling to turn their country into a U.S. plantation, and established the National Guards that ran the countries by violence and terror after the Marines finally left. (Chomsky, 2003, p. 18) U.S. political leaders have openly called Haiti a backward country, and Haitians an inferior people. In an article about U.S. intervention in Haiti, McLaughlin of the McLaughlin group was cited for calling Haiti a “disaster—100 years behind the rest of the Hemisphere” (Douglas, 1994). Coming to the United States Stepick, a leading immigration scholar, identified Haitians as an important new immigrant group that comes from the Caribbean and one that contains many members who are also refugees (1998). In the 1970s and 1980s the media introduced Haitians coming to South Florida as a new phenomenon, but the only thing that was

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8 new was the Haitians’ destination (Stepick, 1998). Previous migrants relocated to France, French-speaking Canada, the northeastern United States and the Dominican Republic (Stepick, 1998). Haitians permanently migrated to the United States in small numbers until the late 1950s, approximately 500 per year. Another 3,000 came as tourists, students and on business during the same time period. Increased immigration occurred when Kennedy objected to human rights violations. The first people to leave were in the upper class and to the left, followed by the Black middle class in 1964 (Stepick, 1998). In 1965, the Immigration Act enabled close relatives to join their family members. The “boat people” phenomenon was introduced by the media as “boatloads of seemingly desperately poor and pathetic peoples washed onto South Florida’s shores” (Boswell, 1982; Miller, 1984). They first appeared in late 1963 and then again in 1973 (Stepick, 1998). They began to arrive regularly in 1977. “Since then, the U.S. government has conducted a resolute campaign to keep Haitian refugees from coming to Florida,” (Stepick, 1998, p. 5). The U.S. government identified Haitians as economic refugees like Mexicans and Texas, despite of advocates asserting that the “boat people” were political refugees fleeing persecution and probable death (Stepick, 1998). The U.S. government’s policy toward Haitians has been debated by immigration scholars, some who have deemed the policy biased (Lawless, 1992). In their dealings with Haitian immigrants, American government agencies are clearly characterized by ‘ideological and r acial bias which continues to distort decisions as to which applications for refugee status or asylum will be approached’ according to Walter Fauntroy, the Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus Task Force on Haiti and the expanded bipartisan Congressional Task Force on Haiti. (Lawless, 1992, p. 64)

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9 Life in the United States There have been a number of programs that may be reflective of what Haitians experience when they arrive in the United States. President Jimmy Carter’s INS commissioner in 1977 wanted to be fairer towards Haitians, saying that they should be released from jail and allowed to work. A Florida congressman called him into his office and allegedly told him that “We don’t want anymore goddam Black refugees in Florida” (Stepick, 1998). A Haitian program was then started to return any Haitian who arrived by airplane or boat and did not have proper documentation (Stepick, 1998). This program also kept refugees from seeing lawyers (Stepick, 1998) and hence Haitians became the group with the highest rejection rate of political asylum applications (Haitian Refugee Center v. Civiletti, 1980). In 1992, President George H. Bush issued the Kennebunk Port Order that strengthened Reagan’s interdiction policy. According to this order, Haitians intercepted by the U.S. Coast Guard would no longer have the opportunity to plead their cases to the on-board team of the State Department and INS. They would be returned to Haiti without the opportunity to apply for political asylum. “After the initial sympathy they received at some of the affluent Florida beach communities, the Haitian ‘boat people’ soon fell prey to the usual discriminatory treatment reserved for Blacks and the poor in the United States” (Lawless, 1992).

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10 CHAPTER 3 LITERATURE REVIEW Media and Public Opinion The media have long been linked with public opinion and acceptance of groups and ideas. “The media play a major role in framing public opinion and debate (Beck, 1998, p. 144). In regards to social movements, the media socially construct reality for their audience by presenting the actors and issues in a way that may influence the public’s opinion and/or acti on (Kruse, 2001). For individuals who have little information, the media may be especially influential (Kruse, 2001). It is important to examine how the media portray people and issues in order to get a better grasp of how they fit into society. The media use meaning-laden codes that define “reality” (Beck, 1998; Fiske, 1987). A code is a “system of signs whose rules and conventions are shared amongst members of a culture, and which is used to generate and circulate meanings in and for that culture” (Fiske, 1987, p. 4). Reality is not universal and is already encoded. For example, the concept of woman has cultural codes and is interpreted in media texts that are encountered daily (Beck, 1998). The mass media perpetuate Western codes by playing on dichotomies (either/or, you/me, good/bad). Those who do not fit the good qualifications (male/white/middle class/Christian) are automatically cast as bad (Beck, 1998). The media’s influences and long-term effects are difficult to measure because of the

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11 media’s pervasiveness (Parker, 1996). Hispanics, according to Taylor, Lee, and Stern’s (1995) study of minorities and magazine advertising, are underrepresented, which “sends a subtle signal about their lack of full acceptance in mainstream society” (Jussim, 1990). Framing Theory and the Media Construction of Reality Another media function is “to inculcate individuals with the values, beliefs and codes of behavior that will integrate them into the institutional structures of the larger society” (Herman & Chomsky, 1988). This is in part accomplished through the mediated construction of reality—where the “social knowledge which the media selectively circulate is ranked and arranged within the great normative and evaluative classifications, within the preferred meanings and interpretations” (Hall, 1977). Media frames are usually unobtrusive and encompass principles of selection, emphasis, exclusion, and presentation routinely used by journalists to organize discourse (Entman, 1993). The audiences take part in framing when engaging in meaning construction (Gamson, 1989). Entman (1993) said the concept of framing offers a consistent way to describe the power of communication text. Framing analysis shows the precise way in which influence over human consciousness is exerted by the transfer (or communication) of information from one location (news report) to that consciousness (Gamson & Modigliani, 1989). Gitlin said that “We frame reality in order to negotiate it, manage it, comprehend it, and choose appropriate repertoires of cognition and action (Gitlin, 1980). Journalists develop frames by highlighting what is important (Entman, 1993). This is especially true within the media, where familiar cultural symbols are

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12 employed to frame information in ways that appeal immediately to the target audience (Nomai & Dionisopoulos, 2002). Entman also wrote that the process of framing includes the function of selection and salience. To frame is to select some aspect of a perceived reality and make it more salient in communication text in such a way as to promote a particular problem definition, casual interpretation, moral evaluation, and /or treatment recommendation for the item discussed. . Frames, then define problems —determine what a causal agent is doing with what costs and benefits, usually measured in terms of common cultural values; diagnose causes —identify the forces creating the problem ; make moral judgments —evaluate causal agents and their effects; and suggest remedies —offer and justify treatments for the problems and predict their likely effects. (Entman, 1993, p. 52) Entman’s problem-solution identification approach to framing will be the focus of this study. Familiar cultural symbols can be employed effectively to frame material, drawing attention to certain aspects and away from others. In the framing process potential articles are either included or excluded from a message or its interpretation by virtue of the communicator’s organizing principle (Maher, 2001). Theorists say this theory provides a way of assessing how the media can elaborate or reinforce a dominant public culture (Thomas & Evans, 1986). The media also perform a crucial role in the public representation of unequal social relations and the play of cultural power (Lacey & Longman, 1997). Through this representation, the audience can construct a sense of who we are and are not in relation to us and them, insider and outsider, colonizer and colonized, citizen and foreigner, normal and the deviant, and “the west” and “the rest” (Lacey & Longman, 1997). The media can affirm cultural diversity and provide the space where identities or the interests of others can be challenged. Lacey and Longman (1997) argue that

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13 the mainstream media all too often produce xenophobic reporting and racist portrayal while committing to the ideal and practice of an inclusive multi-ethnic, multicultural society. Minority/Immigrant Representation in Media Numerous mass media scholars have found that the portrayals of minorities in the news have been negative (Entman & Rojecki, 2000; Hunt, 1997; Lester, 1996). In an analysis of network news, Entman and Rojecki (2000) found that 75.5% of the stories focused exclusively on Whites, while 6.3% focused on non-White groups. In this study, Blacks were disproportionately misrepresented as sources in stories. The few stories that featured Blacks as sources dealt with sports, crime, entertainment and discrimination. The study found that Blacks were disproportionately represented in crime stories. Judging from the transcribed years of ABC, the network mainly discusses Blacks as such when they suffer or commit crime, or otherwise fall victim and require attention from government (and, perhaps, taxpayers). By tying appearances of Blacks so frequently to crime and victimization, the news constructs African-Americans as a distinct source of disruption. (Entman & Rojecki 2000, p. 67) In a 1992 study Entman found that when African-Americans and Whites are accused of similarly serious offenses, Blacks appear to be treated in a more “dehumanized” manner that their White counterparts. In an inter-group comparison, Turk, Richstad, Bryson, and Johnson (1989) found that Latinos were more likely than Whites to be central characters in stories involving “problem issues” such as judicial and crime (Dixon & Linz, 2000). In Canada, Fleras (1994) explained that ethnic minority images are consistently the stereotypical ones where unfounded generalizations veer toward

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14 comical or grotesque. They are shown as pimps, high school dropouts, homeless teens and drug pushers (Fleras, 1994). Fleras (1994) added that ethnic minorities’ lived experiences are reduced to the level of an “angle” for spicing up a story and they are not shown as people with something important to say. Merskin (1998) investigated the television portrayals of Native Americans. Nearly one-third of the respondents found negative portrayals to be negative and inaccurate. Merskin (1998) quoted a Kootenai man during the study about Native Americans in media. “They keep showing us on some reservation but not really a part of society and they always show us not fitting into society” (p. 335). Ethnic and migrant groups are also considered on the basis of over-generalized physical, emotional, and intellectual characteristics (Merskin, 1998). A Navajo woman in Merskin’s study pointed out that when Native Americans are portrayed, the representations often don’t consider the differences between tribes, presenting one homogenous image (Merskin, 1998). Participants in the study also found positive portrayals, but the portrayals were still considered inaccurate. Researchers have asserted that the impact of minority marginality in the media further entrenches the invisibility of ethnic minorities in society (Fleras, 1995). Some researchers have found that ethnic minorities in Canada do not see themselves mirrored in the media, and this perpetuates feelings of rejection, trivializes their contributions, and devalues their role as citizens in their nations (Mahtani, 2001). This invisibility in the media contributes to a sense of “otherness” for minority groups. Mahtani (2001) noted that, The absence of complex representations of minorities also problematically encourages whiteness as the norm in the media, where “whiteness quietly embraces our common-sense ways . of thinking . what we are told is

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15 ‘normal,’ neutral or universal, simply becomes the way it is.” (as cited in Mizra, 1997, p. 3) Assimilation, Core Culture and the Media: A Look at Immigration Sociolinguist Joshua Fishman (1961) asserted that in American life, the core culture or core society in American life as being made up mainly of White Protestants in the middle class. If there is anything in American life which can be described as an over-all American culture which serves as a reference point for immigrants and their children, it can best be described as, it seems to us, as the middle-class cultural patterns of, largely, white Protestant, Anglo-Saxon origins. (Gordon, 1964, p. 72) It is debated whether or not there is a need for an identified core culture and to what extent. The core culture notion is driven by hegemonic forces, ethnocentrism, and orientalism. Much like race, the notion of a core culture was created to distinguish the “other.” Edward Said, founder of Orientalism, suggested that the discourses of power, culture, and imperialism historically construct binary oppositions between the East and the West, positing the Orient as the other. This Eurocentric discourse is produced, valorized, and validated by demonized representations of the other. It is interpreted through the intertextuality of logocentric narratives, and mediated through texts that are far removed from the circumstantial and everyday reality of the world (Altheide, 1994). As Said (as quoted in Altheide, 1994) observed, [t]he power to narrate [represent] or to block other narratives from forming and emerging, is very important to culture and imperialism, and constitutes one of the main connections between them. . In time, culture comes to be associated, often aggressively, with the nation or the state; this differentiates “us” from “them,” almost always with some degree of xenophobia. Culture in this sense is a source of identity, and a rather combative one at that, as we see in recent “returns” to culture and tradition. (Altheide, 1994)

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16 Alba and Nee (1997) defend the usefulness of assimilation but argue that Gordon’s (1964) ideas of a core culture, which resembles that of Huntington (2004) on some level does not fully recognize that the United States is more mixed and the American culture continues to evolve. Alba and Nee said that with minority ethnic cultures within the mainstream, their cultu res are absorbed along with their AngloAmerican equivalents. This absorption creates a hybrid culture (Alba & Nee, 1997). The idea that the culture is still evolving supports the existence of a core culture because the core culture is consistently changing. Congruent with hegemony, which provides an explanation to the struggle within the power structure of a society, noting tactics the dominant group uses to maintain power, there will always be a dominant group, although the membership may change. While hegemonic forces deeply saturate the consciousness of society as a complex combination of internal structures that must be continually renewed, recreated, and defended, Raymond Williams explained that these structures are regularly challenged and may be modified by emergent oppositional and alternative forces within society (Williams, 1977, 1988). Huntington (2004) asserts strongly that there is a core culture that all who wish to be successful in the United States must prescribe to and embrace. He said that, “There is only the American dream created by an Angl o-Protestant society. Mexican Americans will share that dream in English” (2004, p.45). Huntington defends and explains the plight of the nativists who feel threaten ed by the emergence of a new majority that changes the political and cultural landscape of the United States. Huntington’s notions blanketed in the language of war, are outdated, although he obviously is not alone in his views. He cites Theodore Roosevelt, who in 1917, said there must be one flag and one

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17 language. Roosevelt didn’t say which language, but Huntington insists it must be the language of the Declaration of Independence and other famous speeches in U.S. history. Huntington and Parks (1928) do share in the sentiment of potential conflict in how immigrants interact with the host society. Parks recognizes that the process of assimilation (and acculturation) take place at varying speeds, and the process is slower when people who are radically different come together. He said that racial problems occur in situations where assimilation and acculturation take place very slowly or not at all. Whereas Parks notes that the conflicts arise out of difference in physical traits, which make it difficult to fully assimilate as with the example of the Japanese, Huntington is a bit more specific about his ideas. Huntington claims that Latin Americans, specifically Mexicans and Cubans, and their unwillingness to assimilate and speak English are the cause of conflict. Huntington said that White Anglos have fought back by passing legislation such as Proposition 187 that limits social services to children of illegal immigrants, and will continue to fight back by other means. Huntington’s notions of core culture and assimilation to assess the impact of Latino, and particularly Mexican, migration on U.S. society are in direct conflict with Parks (1928), who celebrated the marginal men that represent immigrants. Parks wrote, “He was a man on the margin of two cultures and two societies, which never completely interpenetrated and fused,” (1928, p. 892). Huntington’s notions challenge Alba and Nee’s assumptions that both cultures are changed in the process of assimilation to be the reality. Huntington’s notions on the impact of culture class are fruitful in providing another perspective, that of nativists, which is an important one to have when considering the coverage of immigrant groups in the media.

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18 Homophily-Heterophily, Ethnocentrism and Media Framing Homophily refers to the similarities that individuals who interact share such as beliefs, values, education, cultural similarities, race, social status, etc. (Rogers & Bhowmik, 1970). Heterophily refers to differences along the same dimensions. The phenomenon of ethnocentrism is defined by Preiswerk and Perrot as “The attitude of a group which consists of attributing to itself a central position compared to other groups, valuing positively its achievements and particular characteristics, adopting a projective type of behavior towards out groups and interpreting the out groups’ behavior through the in group’s mode of thinking” (1978, p. 14). Homophily and heterophily provide the reference point in which people see themselves, especially in regard to the common cultural values that Entman identified are used to define problems in the process framing. Gans (1980) identified a classic typology of “enduring values” of U.S. journalists that Gans labels as “ethnocentrism and “altruistic democracy.” In ethnocentrism, the U.S. is the best country in the world, and in altruistic democracy, U.S. politics reflect public interest. Journalists are telling the story of America even when they try to be objective, (Gans, 1980). These enduring values have often been tested in research to examine U.S. media coverage of issues in other countries. Portrayals of countries that are culturally, economically, and politically close, regardless of size or proximity, make ethnocentric bias evident (McQuail, 1987). In a study of U.S. newspaper coverage of Sudanese refugees, Robins (2003) found that many of the articles recycled incomplete images of Africa to meet American expectations. Negative events in another part of the world do not bear the same relationship to these norms and are therefore read differently. Third World countries are, for example, conventionally represented in western news as places of famines and natural disaster, of social revolution, and of political corruption. These events are not seen as disrupting their social norms, but as confirming ours, confirming our

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19 dominant sense that western democracies provide the basics of life for everyone, are stable, and fairly and honestly governed. (Fiske 1987, p. 285, as cited by Chandler, n.d.). It is assumed that U.S. journalists are influenced by both homophily-heterophily as well as ethnocentrism. It is with these assumptions that the following research questions are posed: •R1: Are Haitians and Cubans portrayed negatively in The New York Times ? •R2: Are Cubans are portrayed more positively than Haitians in The New York Times ? •R3: Which group is portrayed to have positive qualities such as educated, hardworking, with higher financial standing, more entrepreneurial, better spoken, and social acceptance in The New York Times ? •R4: Which group is most frequently portrayed with opposite qualities including being uneducated, lazy, poor, poorly spoken, and socially unaccepted in The New York Times ? These positive and negative attributes were chosen because they are often referred to in conversations about American life. They are based on the standards of the “core culture.” Those who are successful in American society are those, as Huntington noted, who possess the attributes of the founders and other Americans, with language as an example. Hard work and entrepreneurship are some of the principles celebrated by the Protestant ethic on which the United States was founded. These principals fuel the American dream. Negative attributes are in turn, those that do not fit into the ideal American society. Those with negative attributes such as lazy are considered misfits and as the literature suggests are demonized.

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20 CHAPTER 4 METHODOLOGY This analysis focuses on newspaper news accounts of Cubans and Haitians to answer the research questions. Frames were extracted from the articles in order to perform this task using articles from the New York Times Frame analysis was chosen as a method because of its qualitative strengths and systematic possibilities. Framing analysis “is more far-reaching than a simple explanation of the themes or subjects,” noted Kerbel, Apee, and Ross (2000, p. 12) Advocates of this approach assert that “that framing analysis offers media researchers better techniques with which to (a) observe the content of messages and of the frame or frames in these messages and (b) design studies that explore the effects of these frames on outcomes spanning individual to group processes” (Esser & D’Angelo, 2003, p. 622; D’Angelo, 2002; Scheufele, 1999). A cultural studies approach will be used to investigate the research questions. Carragee and Roefs (2004) suggest, in keeping with early sociological research on framing, framing processes be examined within the context of the distribution of social and political power. As this literature review has argued, there are number of factors that may impact how immigrant groups are portrayed, including their role in the political and social structure in the United States. As Carragee and Roefs (2004) cited, the origins of frame research in media sociology directly linked the framing process to the distribution of social and political power of America (Gitlin, 1980; Tuchman, 1978). Carragee and

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21 Roefs’ (2004) critique and suggestions on how framing research is approached resembles that of Entman (1993), who called for different ideas on framing analysis to be brought together in one location to address what he termed the “fractured paradigm.” Newspaper Selection News articles were sampled from the New York Times which is considered the most prestigious national newspaper, and because Times coverage of the two groups is perhaps the most indicative of national media coverage (Winter & Eyal, 1981). In addition to its national circulation, New York Times wire articles are also used by smaller newspapers throughout the nation. There are also large populations of Cubans and Haitians living in New York City and its surrounding areas. The New York Times has a circulation of more than one million, the third largest circulation in the United States, according to Editor and Publisher the U.S. newspaper trade organization (Aiken, 2003). According to Merrill, the New York Times is thorough, a characteristic that warrants the label “the paper of record” (Merrill, 1968). It is this label that fosters trust among readers, which could heighten the effectiveness of the frames they create and/or reflect. It is not expected that all articles used in this analysis were well read by all subscribers or people with access, but the New York Times’ circulation size and influence in setting the national agenda suggest that the articles were read by a large audience. It is important to note that in addition to being circulated throughout the country, the New York Times primarily serves New York City, perhaps the most diverse city in the United States. Often used as a point of en try, New York City and surrounding areas are home to large immigrant populations. In serving such a diverse population one could reasonably assume that the New York Times’ coverage would be representative of this environment. With so many different immigrant groups living in this coverage area, it

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22 would have been possible to choose two other groups to analyze. However, as stated in the introduction, Cubans and Haitians have a unique relationship in terms of how they fit in American society. Time Frame The sample was from January 1, 1994, to December 31, 2004. The dates were selected to reflect the events of the past 11 years. Originally, the time frame included January 1, 1994, through January 1, 2004. An additional year was added in order to have more articles and, in turn, better representation of the universe. Each group has specific events that have lead to media coverage, but the dates are not in sync. For example, the Elian Gonzalez custody story started at the end of 1999, while Haiti experienced turmoil that lead to the ousting of its president in 2003. There were also high levels of immigration during this period, which is addressed in the background section. Scattering the dates could potentially compromise the systematic approach of the research. Looking at the past decade allows sufficient opportunity to collect diverse data for both groups. The article search yielded 177 articles that were coded. There were 96 articles for Haitians and 81 articles for Cubans. Nine constructed weeks were taken from each fiveyear period as suggested by Lacy, Riffe, Stodda rd, Martin, and Chang (2001). Lacy et al. examined a 5-year sample of news articles from one newspaper, using 6 to 10 weeks, to see which sample would be most efficient in inferring to the population. They concluded that 9 constructed weeks for every five -period provided maximum efficiency. This procedure is likely to include variations across years because all years are included during the period (Lacy et al., 2001). Two random weeks were constructed for the 11th year. Lacy et al. noted research sampling less than 5 years should use 2 constructed

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23 weeks from each year (2001). These methods were replicated to sample articles for this study. Constructed week samples identify all Mondays, and randomly select one Monday, then identify all Tuesdays, and randomly select one Tuesday to “construct” a week that ensures each source of cyclic vari ation—each day of the week is represented equally” (Lacy et al., 2001, p. 837). Search Terms The articles were sampled from the LexisNexis Newspaper database. The purposive sample includes news and features articles and excludes editorials, reviews, letters to the editors, etc. The search terms used were Cuba or Cuban and Haiti or Haitian in two separate searches. Only stories that are about or focus on Cuba, Cuban(s), Haiti, or Haitian(s) were selected. Articles that mention the search terms in passing, such as a geographical point of reference, were excluded. Approach and Coding Early and some current framing research involve one researcher working alone as the sole expert at identifying frames (Tankard, 2003). The “List of Frames” approach was used to measure media frames. For the purpose of this research, this list will be referred to as the Framing Analysis Guide. This approach is based on the theoretical definition of framing that asserts: A frame is a central organizing idea for news content that supplies a context and suggests what the issue is through the use of selection, emphasis, exclusion, and elaboration. (Tankard, 2003, p. 100-101). The idea of elaboration was added to include the function of building a frame (Tankard, 2003).

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24 This approach proposes identifying a guide for examining the domain under discussion (Tankard, 2003). The Framing Analysis Guide method focuses on how the issue is defined by inclusion and exclusion of certain key terms, uncovering terms through an examination of media content through a list of framing mechanisms (Tankard, 2003). A list of 11 such mechanisms, or focal points, was proposed to identify framing (Tankard, 2003): •Headlines and kickers (small headlines over the main headlines). •Subheads. •Photographs. •Photo captions. •Leads (the beginning of news stories). •Selection of sources or affiliations. •Selection of quotes. •Pull quotes (quotes that are blown up in size for emphasis). •Logos (graphic identification of the particular series an article belongs to). •Statistics, charts, and graphs. •Concluding statements or paragraphs of articles. According to Tankard (2003), this approach makes the rules for identifying frames explicit and takes the subjectivity out of frame identification. Tankard said The approach is not necessarily heavily quantitative. Rather, it attempts to be systematic about frame identification and to show that there are defining characteristics of media frames that different observers can recognize and agree upon. The point is not to be quantitative for its own sake, but to take the subjectivity out of the identification of frames. (pp. 103-4) Each article was regarded as unit of analysis and only text was analyzed. Photographs were not analyzed, so mechanisms three and four were not coded. Also, LexisNexis articles did not include mechanisms 8, 9 and 10, so they were also excluded from the analysis. Articles were first read and coded for attributes that emerged. Similar attributes were aggregated into frames (Appendix B). Reliability and Intersubjectivity References to the issue of reliability involved in frame analysis were made by Gamson (1989):

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25 It is difficult . to get adequate reliability with such a genotypic category as a frame or a story line. But by identifying the particular signature elements for a given frame—the metaphors, catchphrases, or other symbolic devices typically used to convey it—it is possible to find phenotypic expressions that can be reliably coded. (p. 159) Three coders were used for the print material. The codebook was explained and coders worked at an individual pace. The researcher followed Gamson and Modigliani (1989) in presenting detailed examples of the most commonly used frames to allow readers to form their own judgments about the validity of the frames used (Kruse, 2001). The same coder coded the material at two different times. Coders discussed the data for richness and reconciled any conflicts. Attributes were identified and frames grouped by likeness once all articles were coded. The most dominant frames are discussed in Chapter 5. Each coder had a distinct background, which may have affected the way coding was approached, which was balanced by the Frame Guide to add objectivity. The first coder was a female from Haiti who has lived in the United States for 15 years. She studied mass communication at the graduate level at the University of Florida. The second coder was a female international student from Sri Lanka. She had been in the United States for five years and studied mass communication at the graduate level at the University of Florida. The third coder was a White female native to Florida. She was married to a Cuban-American man and studied environmental science at the undergraduate level. All coders were fluent in English. The various backgrounds of the coders provided a rich opportunity for testing intersubjectivity. Very few differences existed when coding was discussed. It is also important to note that the three coders were not members of what has been called the “core culture” because of their backgrounds and life experiences. It can be argued that their different cultures and experiences may have

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26 colored the way they saw Haitians and Cubanssee portrayed in the media. Still, it is believed that this study can be replicated with essentially the same findings using coders from the “core culture” (White, middle-class, Protestant) with similar findings.

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27 CHAPTER 5 FINDINGS This analysis is concerned with the frames that New York Times articles used to portray Cubans and Haitians. A total of 177 articles were examined: 81 for Cubans and 96 for Haitians. The articles were analyzed for frequently occurring words, catchphrases, themes and reporters’ frames with the use of Tankards’ (2003) mechanism identified in Chapter 4. Frames were identified as either positive (+) or negative (-) to answer the research questions. Neutral frames are also discussed in this analysis. Neutral frames are those that do not show the group(s) in either a positive or negative light. For example, some articles identified Cuban exiles as being anti-Castro without making judgments. The study revealed major frames that both groups shared, as well as frames that were unique to each group. An article could possess positive and negative frames. The news coverage reflected times where the groups had salient issues in the news. Coverage of Haitians peaked in 1994, a year with a great deal of political activity in Haiti, as well as attempted immigration to the United States. There were at least four articles in less salient years. Coverage of Cubans was a bit more sporadic. In 1997, there was only one article, but in 2000, in the midst of the Elian Gonzalez case, there were 21 articles. The articles appeared in various sections in the newspapers, including sports, the front page and metropolitan sections. The coverage was at two geographical levels for Haitians and three levels for Cubans. For Haitians, articles that originated in Haiti dominated. These stories were about natural disasters, politics, Haiti’s economy and U.S. involvement in Haiti. The next level was Haitians in the United States, which had many

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28 references to Abner Louima, a man who was physically assaulted by police officers in New York and also mostly covered immigration. Cubans were covered primarily in the United States with articles on immigration, defection and politics. In term of politics, Cuban leaders emerged out of South Florida and New York. Next, Cubans were covered in Cuba, which resulted in most of the neutral frames because they simply framed Cuba as a communist nation and Cuban Americans as defectors and anti-Castro. In a few instances, Cubans were covered in other countries, as was the case of the article on Cuban doctors working in South Africa. We will first look at the frames that emerged during this study and then answer the research questions. For Cubans, the three dominant positive frames that emerged were Character Strength, Political Involvement, and Success. All articles quoted in this chapter are from the New York Times published between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2004. Individual authors' names are given in the text. Cuban Framing The Character Strength Frame, the most dominant overall frame for Cubans, as well as the most dominant positive frame for Cubans, encompassed desirable traits such as courageous, hardworking, religious, forgiving, loyal, family oriented, innovative, and compassionate. Defectors, especially sports stars and dancers, were shown as courageous as their stories were told with movement. This can best be illustrated in a story about a member of the Cuban boxing team who got in touch with his former teammate, who also defected: “What a beautiful coincidence,” said Barthemely, a welterweight who defected by swimming 11 miles across Guantanamo Bay to the United States Navy Base on Cuba’s southern tip in September 1993. . Hurtado said that, like other Cuban athletes who have defected, he would like to turn professional. (AP, November 2, 1994)

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29 Table 5-1.Cuba: Positive frames Frame Percent distribution of Positive frames and (overall %) Appearance Character strength44 (18)31 Politically active34 (14)24 Successful16 (6)11 Competent to choose3 (1)2 Culturally influential1 (-)1 Creative1 (-)1 Note :Percentages less than one were not listed. The Character Strength Frame had a larger presence for Cubans in Cuba than those in the United States. American sources are often used to validate the positive characteristics. This can be seen in a story about Cuban refugees waiting in Panama to go to the United States: “I’m confident the world, including the United States, will find a solution to this,” General Wilson said. “Most of these people are well-educated and decent. They just want to get out of Limbo and get on with their lives.” (Special to The New York Times December 12, 1994) The Political Involvement Frame was used to show Cubans as not only involved in politics, but also influential in this arena. While Cubans in the United States as well as those in Cuba are shown in the frame, the political influence was limited to Cubans in the United States and much of the influence, according to the articles, was toward influencing the fate of exiles and U.S. policy toward Castro’s government. As for influence on policy toward Cuba, an article on the U.S. easing sanctions on Cuba provides a good example. Anti-Castro Cuban-Americans in Florida, a hotly contested state in the presidential election, were able to win new restrictions on travel to Cuba and prohibitions on the United States government credit and private financing for any sales. (Holmes & Alvarez, October 19, 2000) This frame was most evident during the Elian Gonzalez story that began in late 1999. In one article, one of the other survivors of the same boat trip as Elian Gonzalez

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30 sought help from the Cuban community, specifically the Cuban American National Foundation. But Ms. Horta said that if the foundation “moved mountains” for Elian, it could do something to get her daughter out of Cuba. (AP, November 7, 2000) The Success Frame was prominent mostly in reference to sports, specifically baseball. Baseball player Orlando Hernandez was shown as the poster boy for Cuban success stories. One story led with Looking more like a major league veteran than a refugee who has been in the United States half a year, Orlando Hernandez turned in another superb effort tonight on his climb through the Yankee system. ( The New York Times April 28, 1998) While the successful athletes appear as positive frames, their portrayed dominance in this arena resemble that of African-Americans. The most dominant negative frames for Cubans were Delinquent Cuban Government, Character Weakness, and Immigrants. Table 5-2.Cuba: Negative frames Frame Percent distribution of negative frames and (overall %) Appearance Character weakness 26 (12)20 Government delinquency 15 (7)12 Immigrants 22 (10)17 Poor 4 (2)3 Victim8 (4)6 Politically influential3 (1)2 Cubaeconomic turmoil 1 (-)1 Hijackers 4 (2)3 Dominated by U.S.4 (2)3 Cuban-American backlash 3 (1)2 Anti-American1 (-)1 Not human 1 (-) 1 Cuba not free 1 (-)1 Communist Cuba 3 (1)2 Note :Percentage does not equal 100 because not all frames were used for this chart. Percentages less than one were not listed. The Immigrant Frame includes showing Cubans as desperate, refugees and highlights the preferential treatment that Cubans receive from the U.S. government.

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31 The Cuban refugees, more than 30,000, had set out for Florida in boats and rafts over the summer, when American immigration policy changed to deny them entry into the country. The story continues: Before the raft refugees there were “fence jumpers” like Felix Wilson, 56. (Navarro, December 24, 1994) The Delinquent Cuban Government Frame included human rights violations, abuse and untrustworthiness of the Cuban government and President Fidel Castro. One article demonstrated how comparisons are used to highlight Cuba’s differences. The article compares Cuba’s political situation to the openness of the baseball gesture. Despite the excitement over the Baltimore Orioles’ exhibition game here and the veneer of openness it conveys, American baseball comes to Cuba in a climate of heightened political repression. The same article compares the situation to the visit from the Pope. International human rights monitors said Cuba’s latest retrenching only served to underscore how little the situation has changed, even after Pope Paul II, during his visit here last year, urged Cuba to open up to the world. But perhaps because of the high expectations raised by the Pope’s visit, the Government now finds itself the target of international condemnation over its new curbs and the recent sentencing of four dissidents charged with sedition. (Navarro, March 28, 1999). The Character Weakness Frame is the opposite of the Character Strength Frame, and highlights undesired traits such as untrustworthiness, criminality, selfishness and dishonesty. This frame is best demonstrated in the article about a Cuban I.N.S. official who was accused of espionage and framed as untrustworthy and criminal. “He disclosed classified information for no better purpose than his own personal reasons, his own personal gain,” Mr. Miner said. “He took it to the realm of control to the United States government and gave it to someone else to use however they wanted.” (Bragg, May 31, 2000) Haitian Framing As can be seen in Tables 5-3 and 5-4, far more negative frames emerged for Haitians than positive frames. Only 16.6% of the stories about Haitians (n=16) contained

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32 positive frames. The most dominant positive frames for Haitians were Character Strength, and Politically Active. Table 5-3.Haiti: Positive frames Frame Percent distribution of positive frames and (overall %) Appearance Character Strength57 (6)13 Politically Active30 (3)7 Successful4 (-)1 Entrepreneurial9 (1)2 Note :Percentages less than one were not listed. The Character Strength Frame, which was found in only six articles encompassed persistence, courage and hardworking. One example of this frame was shown in an article about a Haitian female journalism that was battling with the Haitian government. She is shown as educated, courageous and resilient: A homecoming queen turned crusading journalist, she is tall and elegant. Her hair pulled back smartly, she looks you straight in the eye. The article continues She joined the station, and they (Montas and her future husband) became an elegant couple, who did stories on controversial topics that tested how far they could push the limits—Jean called it sniffing. (Gonzalez, March 29, 2003) It’s important to note that this article contained some of the most negative frames about Haitians, specifically political leaders and business people in Haiti. This is most apparent in the story’s lead: The Haitian government wants Michele Montas to believe that common criminals killed her husband, Jean Dominique. . Never mind that he was the country’s most famous journalist and fiercest critic of government corruption. Never mind that President Jean-Bertrand Aristide and several government ministers reportedly huddled with the investigating judge before the indictments were issued on Monday. (Gonzalez, March 29, 2003) The Politically Active Frame did not indicate political influence and only appeared in seven articles. Also Haitians political activity in the United States is often

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33 subsidizes by supporters or sympathizers, as was the case of Abner Loiuma, who was advised by the Reverend Al Sharpton and the politicians who have joined in to support refugees. An article on the reaction of Haitians in Little Haiti in Miami on the violence in Haiti and refugees coming to the United States illustrates this, but not without showing Haitians as victims. Many of the detainees, who are being held at the Broward Transitional Center, have lost relatives in the violence that has swept Haiti in the recent weeks, Ms. Little said. . Ms. Little and other immigration advocates are lobbying Washington to ease its policy on Haitian refugees. In the immediate term, they seek temporary protective status for Haitians here who might otherwise be deported. But Representative Kendrick B. Meek, a Miami Democrat who joined in their effort, said there had been no progress. (Goodnough, February 24, 2004) There were six dominant negative frames that emerged for Haitians. They are Character Weakness, Poor, Victim, Troubled Nation, Primitive Other, and Immigrant. Table 5-4.Haiti: Negative frames Frame Percent distribution of negative frames and (overall %) Appearance Character Weakness19 (17)39 Poor17 (15)34 Victim13 (12)27 Troubled Nation12 (11)25 Primitive Other10 (9)21 Immigrant11 (9)22 Voodoo1 (-)2 Drugs1.5 (-)3 a burden1.5 (-)3 U.S. as savior4 (3)8 Note :Percentages less than one were not listed. The Character Weakness Frame, the most dominant frame, identifies undesirable attributes such as criminality, cunningness, delinquency, and untrustworthiness. One article used quoted an unnamed diplomat to construct this frame. “Aristide has completely outwitted the Americans on this,” one diplomat here said. “Rather than confront his patrons directly, he has moved inn a roundabout, typically Haitian fashion to dismantle the army.” (Rohter, February 22, 1995)

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34 The Poor Frame, the second most dominant frame for Haiti and Haitians, included Haitians in Haiti and abroad, with Haiti frequently referred to as “the poorest nation in the Western Hemisphere.” Approximately one third of the articles (n=30) framed Haiti the country, Haitians in Haiti, and Haitians in the United States as poor. One technique that was repeated in addition to the above stated catchphrase was the identification of slums or other places of residence: Said Joseph Antonio Cochon, 42, a militant in La Saline, a lawless slum here. (Polgreen, October 7, 2004). In Cite Soleil, a slum whose residents have benefited from water, food and schools provided by Mr. Aristide. (Gonzalez, November 27, 2000) The Victim Frame was the most subtle frame. Haitians were portrayed as victims lacking agency, mostly in situations out of their control. This was most apparent in coverage of floods and hurricanes as well as the Abner Louima case. The Troubled Nation Frame showed Haiti as a lost state with violence and chaos. Haiti was shown as hopeless, helpless and a waste of time and resources. One article epitomized this frame, starting with its headline, “Life is Hard and Short in Haiti’s Bleak Villages.” The story lead was the following: Diplomats call Haiti a “failed state,” a nation done in by dictators and disasters. (Weiner, March 14, 2004) The article continued Governments and juntas rise and fall, 15 in the last 18 years, doing nothing to stop Haiti from sliding off into the sea. . In a country where nothing works, the group looks after 200,000 people. Additionally, Weiner included voodoo in his article, a frame that emerged, but was not dominant.

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35 “If we had someone to represent us in the government, I would say to him, we cannot live in a nation without security,” said Mr. Dipera, the voodoo priest of Plaine Danger. “There is no law here.” This frame confirms Stepick’s observation that people hold the folk model that imagines that Haitians’ religion is filled with real cannibals and zombies (Stepick, 1998). The Primitive Other Frame, inspired by the concept of Orientalism, shows Haitians as childlike, barbaric and not completely human. In immigration articles Haitians are described like objects, with the words packed, crammed and jammed. Hurricane articles, especially those in 2004 were even more brutal of their descriptions of Haitians corpses. One example of this frame showing Haitians as childlike can be seen in an article that talks about Haiti’s army in 1994. The story’s headline was “Haiti’s New Militia Drills with Sticks.” During earlier drills, when some of them had been told to aim and dry fire their weapons, they had yelled, “Bang!” (Bragg, August 11, 1994) Another article uses a quote to accomplish a similar feat of framing Haitians as inferior. “Haitians are being ground up like hamburger because the clowns who run the government don’t know how to behave like adults,” Mr. Obey said. (Greenhouse, April 15, 1994) The Immigrant Frame showed Haitians as unwanted elements in receiving or host societies, specifically the United States. In this frame, Haitians were often identified as “Haitian immigrants” and referred to as “boat people.” In the 14 articles that mentioned the Louima case, only one did not identify him as a Haitian immigrant. Findings for Research Question 1 The first research question asked if Haitians and Cubans are portrayed negatively. The data supports that Haitians and Cubans were portrayed negatively.

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36 While positive frames appeared frequently for Cubans, almost just as many negative frames appeared. Some of the positive frames such as Successful had negative implications by showing mostly athletes as successful. When Cuban leaders were shown, they were sometimes shown as controlling as was the case of the Mayor of Hialeah. The story had the headline, “A South Florida Strongman Pushes for Secession from MiamiDade County.” Although the article describes the Mayor as charismatic, they also show him as a micro-manager and politically motivated. The Cuban government was framed as communists, which in the United States is seen as an enemy, even after the end of the Cold War. The Cuban government was responsible for most of the negative frames, including Character Weakness. The data clearly shows that Haitians are framed negatively, especially when looking at the lack of positive frames and abundance of negative frames that appeared for this group. The Haitian government, much like that of Cuba, owned a great deal of the negative frames, such as corrupt and unstable. Haiti was portrayed as poor and helpless, dependent on the U.S. for survival. One article about a get rich scheme, showed Haitians as gullible, childlike and greedy. That same sort of story is shown in the U.S. frequently, but in those cases Americans are shown as innocent victims. Haitians in the United States did not fare any better that those living in Haiti. Haitians in the U.S. were portrayed as victims, unfaithful and criminal. Findings for Research Question 2 The second research question asked if Cubans are framed more positively than Haitians. The data suggests that this question can be answered affirmatively.

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37 Table 5-5.Frames PositiveNegativeNeutral Cubans707822 Haitians232065 Negative frames of Haitians appeared almost ten times more that positive frames. Only 10% of the frames that appeared for Haitians were positive. Cubans fared much better. There is almost a one to one ratio of the appearance of positive frames to negative frames. As noted previously, Cubans are framed as having positive characteristics such as successful, courageous, educated and religious. Positive frames for Haitians consisted of politically active, resilient and hardworking, but again these frames were few. One way to illustrate this assertion is to compare how Cubans and Haitians in the United States were identified. Cubans in the United were most often identified as exiles, while Haitians are identified as immigrants and refugees. Exiles are heroic in that they rejected Castro and Communism. They fled toward democracies, which the West reveres. In the case of Abner Louima, when he was repeatedly identified as a Haitian immigrant, perhaps being identified as a Haitian or an immigrant would have made the frame less effective. The ethnicity and citizenship status of the officers accused of abusing him were not any of the articles. In a time when immigration is a topic of heated debate, identifying someone as such, unnecessarily, as in the case of Louima, becomes a powerful framing technique. Lou Dobbs and other American figures and politicians have made it clear that they do not want more immigrants entering this nation, despite the fact that it was founded by immigrants. Findings for Research Question 3 The third research question asked which group is portrayed to have positive qualities such as educated, hardworking, with higher financial standing, more

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38 entrepreneurial, better spoken, and social acceptance. Cubans were shown as having positive qualities. Articles about the last two U.S. elections made mention of Cubans’ cultural and political influence. Articles about the U.S. policy in Cuba note that American politicians were trying to please Cubans in South Florida. Character Strength was by the dominant frame. Three articles framed Cubans as educated, using doctors and scholars as sources. Surprisingly only two articles framed Cubans as religious, but another two framed them as forgiving. Three articles portrayed Cubans as hardworking. One example of this frame can be seen in an article on Cuban doctors working in South Africa. The Cubans all speak English. Besides, the nurses say, the Cubans are far more willing than the South Africans to learn Zulu. “They try very hard,” said Latine Sizani, who has worked at the hospital for 24 years. “And besides, the patients—they can always read from the face if he is a nice man.” “The feedback we are getting is that we are getting more than we paid for,” Mr. Hlongwane said. “They are a caring lot and they are not materialistic. They are doing more than their contracts ask them to do.” (Daley, May 10, 1998) Cubans were shown to be more financially stable. Cubans in the U.S. that appeared in articles had employment and some were wealthy. Cuba was not framed as a poor country. In fact, one article portrayed Cuba as exceptional in comparison to countries that are supposed to be on its level. This can be seen in the lead of an article about Cuba’s health care system. At the big, modern hospital on one end of this provincial city, the medical staff commands the sort of technology that most poor countries can only dream about. (Golden, October 30, 1994) Neither group was shown as entrepreneurial and there was not enough evidence to show which group was shown as better spoken. In terms of social acceptance, Cubans were shown as the group that was more accepted by American society. From the

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39 sympathetic quote above from Bob Dole about the decency of the Cuban people to an article about a building in South Florida that is a ‘beacon’ to exiles, Cubans are shown as a part of American society. It is, however, important to note that in two articles there appeared to be some backlash towards, specifically regarding the use of their political influence. This can best seen in an article regarding special accommodations made to certify Cuban Doctors in the United States. First, the person who pushed for the accommodations was discredited: State Senator Alberto Gutman, a Cuban-American Republican from Miami who has been sentenced to prison for Medicare fraud and gave up his seat last year after he was indicted, persuaded the Board of Medicine to change some questions and translate the exam into Spanish. The Cuban doctors were then shown as monsters being released: Other medical organizations have expressed opposition as well, contending that these accommodations are, in effect, unleashing an underqualified group of doctors on an unsuspecting public. The preferential treatment that the Cuban doctors received was questioned: While many Cuban exiles have passed the required test of other doctors, the fact that one group of exiles is getting so much attention has raised concerns among members of the medical establishment in Florida and beyond. (Kilborn, May 14, 2000) Findings for Research Question 4 The fourth research question asked which group is said to have the opposite qualities including uneducated, lazy, poor, poorly spoken, and socially unaccepted. Haitians were shown with overwhelmingly negative and undesirable traits. The nation is shown as poor and its people as well those in the Diaspora are framed as poor. One article about a needy woman who had problems identified her as Haitian. It is important to note that the reporter, while identifying this poor woman as Haitian also framed her as hardworking. The fourth graph of the article read

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40 Since coming to New York from Haiti in 1969, Marie, now a teacher’s assistant at a public school, had always worked. She reared four children on her own; they were poor but happy. But last February after a brief marriage broke up, Marie and her family were evicted. They began a nine-month odyssey through the city’s shelter system. (Herszenhorn, December 27, 1996) Only one article framed Haitians as lazy, but the same articles showed Haitians as childlike, greedy, criminal, and gullible. The story lead Intoxicated by the promise of easy money, thousands of Haitians here and abroad sold their cars, mortgaged their homes and emptied their savings accounts in recent months to invest in cooperatives that promised astonishing monthly returns of 10 percent. The article continued Mathematically, it should have self-destructed earlier,” one banker said. “Drug money definitely allowed them to last much longer.” (Gonzalez, July 26, 2002) Three articles showed Haitians as uneducated and ignorant. One article on AIDS in the Caribbean contained numerous negative frames about Haitians, including the poorest nation in the Western Hemisphere. But the dominant frame was the ignorance of Haitians: As it has in their native country, AIDS has ravaged the bayetes, where superstition, poverty and prejudice conspire against hope. The brother of one AIDS patient recently told Sister Anne Lees, a nun who runs several health and nutrition projects, that the man had died from a spell cast by a creditor. Haitians were not only shown as ignorant, but as savages who could not control their urges: “It’s very difficult to confront reality if you do not think this disease exists,” Sister Anne said. “Even if you told someone they were H.I.V. positive, they would not believe it. They would just go off and have sex with the first person they saw.” (Gonzalez, May 18, 2003) Barbaric, criminal, untrustworthy, cunning, and delinquent are all socially undesirable traits. Haitians were frequently shown with these frames and shown as socially unaccepted. The numerous “boat” people making their way to the United States

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41 were often shown as not human. They were framed as being packed into tiny boats without agency, and were shown as burdens in three articles.

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42 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION Portes (1995), one of the leading immigra tion scholars, in his study of children of migrants asserted that there are circumstances in which assimilation does not lead to economic progress and social acceptance, and that opposite may occur. He asserted that not all immigrants are equal, as he explained with segmented assimilation. For example, human capital immigrants who are already educated or skilled assimilate differently than labor immigrants. Portes compared diffe rent groups, including Haitians and Cubans. The older and better established Cuban community moved farther along the path of institutional development, including the creation of a network of parochial and private schools. Enrollment in these schools insulates Cuban-American children from contact with downtrodden groups as we ll as from outside discrimination. . Very different is the situation of Haitians in Miami and Mexicans in San Diego. Neither community possesses a well-developed ethnic economy that can generate autonomous opportunities for its members. . Haitians have clustered in an impoverished neighborhood adjacent to Liberty City, the largest inner-city ghetto in Miami. . The Haitian community lacks a private school system and their youth must attend public inner-city schools. There, initially well-mannered Haitian American youths are ridiculed for their accent, their docility, and their obedience of school staff. (Portes, 1995, 263-264) In the case of Haitian Americans, families struggle with preventing downward assimilation: As the case of Haitian Americans in south Florida indicates, good intentions and high aspirations are not enough when st ructural forces place individuals in conditions of insurmountable disadvantage. (Portes, 1995, p. 275) It is with Portes’ observation in mind that we will precede with this conclusion. Media scholars, including Entman, Hall and Hunt, have done extensive research on how media portray different ethnic groups including African-Americans and Latinos.

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43 Immigration scholars, including Portes (1995) examined the role of immigrants in society and how they adjust. This study focused on the media’s role in portraying two salient immigrant groups. This study supports the idea that the media still has further to go in improving its coverage of diverse populations. The New York Times considered one of the elite newspapers, provided coverage that was not surprising in its overall negative tones for both groups. The findings in this study show The New York Times framed Cubans and Haitians negatively. Haitians were portrayed negatively to a higher degree, with significantly few frames present. While Cubans were framed negatively, the ratio of positive and negative frames was almost one to one. The first research question asked if Cubans and Haitians were framed negatively. The findings were that they were indeed framed negatively, with both groups sharing Character Weakness and Government Deli nquency frames. The Poor Frame could be expected for Haitians because of the nation’s financial standing, although the extent was enormous. The Other Frame that emerged supports the Otherness discourse that notes a distinction between “us” and “them.” Latham identified the traits of otherness in films. “Together, they reveal how ordinary film ads could eroticize, vilify, and belittle people in subtle ways that appealed to dominant social expectations, fears, and desires (Latham, 2002, p. 5). The second research question asked if Cubans were portrayed more positively than Haitians. The study found that Cubans were framed more positively than Haitians. Taylor, Lee, and Stern’s (1995) assertions that underrepresentation send subtle signals about the lack of full acceptance in mainstream society can also be applied to the findings of this study. Research findings for Questions 3 and 4 note that Cubans were shown to

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44 have more socially acceptable frames than Haitians. The signals about Haitians were characterized by the abundance of negative frames. As Portes (1995) noted, different immigr ant groups have different capital, which shape how they assimilate and in turn how they are accepted in society. Societal acceptance can be examined through media portrayals, as this study has done. Cubans and Cuban Americans have a strong social network and established businesses, which lend to political strength. Haitians and Haitian Americans do not have the same social networks and businesses. Heterophily can refer to the differences in the way that the reporters see themselves in terms of beliefs, values, education, cultural similarities, race, and social status, and potentially impact how they cover Cubans and Haitians subjects. The particularly negative framing of Haitians is heightened by their overtly different race and social status to that of the majority of journalists. While neither group completely fit the “core culture” or “core society,” Cubans, although they are a group that could be identified as racially mixed, are portrayed as predominantly White. In the articles that were examined, few of the Cubans in the articles used in this study, including Celia Cruz were Afro-Cuban, although they were not identified as such. The whitening of Cuban identity in the media may lead to more social acceptance. Cubans also speak Spanish and as shown in the data are portrayed as successful and influential. While there are Cuba ns that belong to different classes, those in the upper or middle class, based on their positions, were often used as sources or subjects in this study. Huntington argued against the ethnic enclave that Cubans have created in south Florida, calling it contempt of culture and the “Hispanization of Miami.” In the nativist view, Cuban-Americans who live in this enclave or are resistant to assimilate are not truly American. Many C ubans and Cuban-Americans have spread out

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45 throughout the country where perhaps they have less community support and must assimilate faster rather than doing what has been labeled by Stepick (1998) and Portes (1995) as “acculturation in reverse.” Haitians also have some traits that affect the probability of assimilation. The vast majority of Haitians are Black. Unlike Cubans, Haitians speak a language that is even less widespread, Haitian Creole. Because the language is native to only one country and spoken in very few places in the United States, the demand for Haitians to learn English is even greater. Haitians, in terms of attempting to learn the language would please Huntington and others who support nativist ideals. Still, Haitians were portrayed as belonging to the lower class, often placed in the Poor Frame. Haitians as well as Cubans are predominantly Catholic, but the religious angle only appeared a few times in the sample. As stated above, there are factors that affect each group’s probability of assimilation and cultural change. Cubans, more than Haitians are able to assimilate because they are shown to possess more of the traits of the “core culture.” Haitians, despite their language shift, are still Black and poor. Like Parks (1928) noted with the Japanese case of assimilation, while class and language may be transcended, race is the most obvious trait that cannot be overlooked when a group joins a news society. Those groups or group members who do not or are not able to assimilate fully, are what Parks define as marginal men, living on the margins of the mainstream society between two cultures. They are also reflected as such in the media, as this study found. They are identified as the “other” and their differences as similarities in relation to “core society” are highlighted. Cubans’ slightly more positive coverage is a reflection of the similarities that they have to the “core culture.” Backlash and negative frames appeared when they

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46 deviated from the “core cultures’ expectations. Haitians’ overwhelmingly negative coverage is a reflection of their obvious and irreconcilable differences and societal rejection. Other ideas of culture can be examined with the findings of this study. One is the notion of the United States as a “melting pot.” This supports the ideas that both cultures are changed as a result of interaction. Cubans and Haitians would become more American as American society because a little more Cuban or Haitians. Another idea is that the receiving country, the United States in this instance, would embrace different cultures and promote a multicultural society. Multiculturalism promotes interaction between different people, with the each person maintaining their individuality and identity. Multiculturalism has gained popularity, as can be seen at universities who have turned their attention toward creating campuses that embrace multiculturalism. For either of these ideas to come to fruition, mainstream society must be accepting of the groups with which they interact. Taylor, Lee, and Stern’s (1995) assertions that underrepresentation sends subtle signals about the lack of full acceptance in mainstream society is applicable to the findings of this study. Implications of This Study This study adds to the scholarly mass communication literature by reinforcing the significance of framing theory and focusing on two ethnic and immigrant groups in understanding the mass media and how they shape public opinion. We live in a world of constant change and with the extreme rate that communication technology is advancing, contact with people from different regi ons occurs instantaneously. Messages about society, including social acceptability and identity formation are transferred, usually from North to South. Journalists play a special role in public opinion formation and in helping

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47 individuals shape the way they see the world. Perhaps, journalists can take that role with a stronger sense of responsibility. Journalists must not only react to what happens in society, specifically the change in the people who live in it, but must be leaders in helping people understand each other. This understanding begins with accurate portrayals of all groups. Many scholars have asserted that underrepresentation and misrepresentation of minority groups lead to misunderstandings by the general public about the world they live in. As stated in the introduction, the projected change in the U.S. population is not negotiable. While the increase in the number of minorities has fueled the nativist rhetoric, as argued by Huntington, it is a reality that American society must prepare for. The United States' immigration policy has been in the news, especially since September 11. Public figures including CNN commentator Lou Dobbs have called for protecting U.S. borders and keeping jobs within the borders. Mexicans have been the recent focus of border control discussions. Immigration studies have often associated Mexicans and Haitians in terms of the similarities in their demographics, while Cubans have been associated with different Asian groups, such as the Vietnamese. Inadequate portrayals further damage members of the group as well as society by promoting a lack of acceptance. Negative portrayals could also have an impact on decision-makers, specifically those in immigration policy. This can be inferred by evaluating the strength of the preferential status of Cuban immigran ts who in this study were found to have a more positive portrayal versus the immigration policy toward Haitians who were portrayed more negatively. The findings of this study support Entman’s problem-solution approach to framing, which asserts that frames define problems, diagnose causes, make moral

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48 judgments and suggest remedies This is best seen in immigration articles that involve both groups. In the Cuban case, illegal immigration to the United States is identified as a problem, especially as a source of strain on South Florida’s resources. Fidel Castro’s government and political restrictions were identified as the cause of Cuban immigration to the United States. The moral judgments made were mostly toward Castro. Political and economic instability are often identified as the source of Haitian immigration to south Florida. Like Cubans, this migration occurs in spurts. In this case of Haitians, remedies are not suggested because the situation in Haiti is framed as hopeless. The findings of this study also support studies that found portrayals of minorities to be negative (Entman & Rojecki, 2000; Hunt, 1997; Merskin, 1998). These minorities, Haitians more that Cubans according to the findings, are dehumanized. They are shown as a mass, without names, without histories, without families, without identity. Haitians, more so than Cubans, are framed as commodities, with governments debating over who is allowed to travel where. The individual’s free will is portrayed as non-existent; this again is truer for Haitians than Cubans. The portrayals put these minorities in a subclass. When these individuals are identified by their ethnicity, while other individuals are validated simply with a name, Cubans and Haitians, along with other ethnic group members, are set apart from everyone who is considered “normal” in this society. This alienation, as scholars have found, have an impact on members of the minority groups. Scholars, including Tajfel (1982) and Gerg en (1985) have theorized that the way minorities are portrayed in various media inflicts what Gergen terms “dignitary harm,” by virtue of the use of demeaning stereotypes, repetitive, and unrepresentative images which help, in part, to shape minority group social identities (Fischoff, Franco, Gram, Hernandez, & Parker, 2001).

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49 The negative portrayals of minorities and ethnic groups, specifically the two that were examined in this study, have proliferated across media and have become rather obvious. By reading a newspaper or watching television news one can make inferences. Writers and editors who may have the best intentions are reinforcing stereotypes in headlines and at the top of the stories. On February 26, CNN.com’s headline about Haitians read “Boat people fleeing Haitian crisis.” One February Orlando Sentinel article lead with “They call them dirty Haitians.” Haitians, joined by Cubans, protested the video game “Grand Theft Auto: Vice City” that portrayed Haitians, Cubans, and Columbians as drug lords and gang members in 2003. At one level in the game, a character says: "I hate these Haitians" and "I'm gonna kill me a Haitian" (Rhor, 2003). The hit movie “Bad Boys 2” featured actors from Martinique who portrayed Haitian gang members with dreadlocks and thick, comedic accents. With all these examples and the lack of personal interaction with Haitians, as Entman and Rojecki (2000) noted people are left with only the mediated images to catalog people. Journalists are on the frontline when it comes to creating mediated messages. In order to address inadequate portrayals of various groups, it is necessary to look at how journalists are trained. Journalism programs and organizations should be proactive in educating journalists about mass communication theory, including framing and media effects theories. An awareness of mass communication theory will enable journalists to look at their work and practices critically. Education in diversity issues and ethics must also play a larger role. This will better equip journalists to provide more complex representations of minorities. In addition, the newsroom must also be more reflective of the population. Numerous organizations such as Freedom Forum have been proactive in

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50 recruiting and training minority journalists. Still, minorities are leaving the newsroom. News organizations must make an effort to retain these individuals. Limitations of This Study One potential limitation of this study is that despite the time frame, only a limited number of articles were available. One reason for this is the lack of presence of both groups in everyday news. The coverage of Cubans and Haitians was sporadic and surrounded major events such as the Elian Gonzalez case and the Louima Abner case that caught this nation’s attention. Also, another sampling method could have potentially yielded in more articles. LexisNexis was very helpful in retrieving articles, but to ensure that all possible articles were accounted for hard copies of the New York Times for the 11 year period would have to be retrieved. This was not feasible for this research. Suggestions for Future Research Comparing Cubans and Haitians was extremely helpful. Soruco (1996) did a study of Cuban Americans in South Florida and a similar study of Haitians would be complementary. A large number of the articles originated from Miami and surrounding municipalities. This study did not examine the Miami Herald or Sun-Sentinel because it sought to investigate the questions on a national level. It is estimated that frames would be even more apparent in either of these newspapers because of the political situation and access to members of those communities. The Miami Herald, more than the Sun-Sentinel would be interesting to study because of the newspaper’s long history in the area and its staff demographics. As of the summer of 2003, the Miami Herald employed only one full-time Haitian reporter, and a few more Cuban reporters. Perhaps a study comparing the New York Times to the Miami Herald could compare coverage of either group and would provide rich data.

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51 Other newspapers, such as the Los Angeles Times and Boston Globes would also be interesting to study. It would be possible to study regional differences, especially in areas that have other immigrant groups that are dominant. For example, the Los Angeles Times serves a population with a large number of Mexicans and Asians. How does the population makeup affect coverage? Ethnic media also provides another research possibility, examining how members of the ethnic groups portray themselves and comparing that to the how the mainstream media portray them. While this study examined 11 years of coverage, a wider time frame would provide an even clearer picture. It is suggested that coverage since the 1950s would show how portrayals have evolved. Television covera ge would be another suggestion for future research. In television coverage the public not only hears the story, but they are also given images with which to associate the groups or topics represented. Image analysis from news print of each group would achieve similar goals. There were numerous images used with the articles, if analyzed that alone could tell a story. Looking at the data critically, class and race issues emerged and were discussed. Gender issues were also present, specifically the shortage of women’s voices in the articles. This is especially true for the coverage of Haitians, where only 15 women were used as subjects or sources. A closer look at gender issues in the coverage of immigrant groups, Haitians, Cubans, and Mexicans, would add a great deal of depth to the body of mass communication literature. This is especially important because women in the United States have also been represented disproportionately in the U.S. media and this research would indicate whether that representation is transferred to women in minority groups. I would hypothesis that women of other ethnic and minority groups would be

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52 represented even less accurately by the media than those who resemble the “core culture” more closely. A final suggestion would be to compare U.S. news sources to those in other countries such as France, Canada, and England to see if the frames that emerged in this study are shared across borders. Along the lines of international coverage, a study looking at how Cuban newspapers cover Haitians versus how Haitian newspapers cover Cubans would provide additional insight. Ethnocentrism applies to other cultures. Looking at coverage of media outside of the United States will reveal how ethnocentrism manifests itself abroad.

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53 APPENDIX A CODING SHEET Date: 1.Headlines and kickers (small headlines over the main headlines). 3. Lead (the beginning of news stories). 4. Selection of sources or affiliations. 5. Selection of Quotes. 9. Concluding statements or paragraphs of articles. 10.Topic of Story: 11.List possible frames, framing t echniques (can directly on story) Note how or if the article frames any or all members of the group by the following characteristics. Also list key words that indicate this. Educated Hard-working Entrepreneurial Politically active Delinquency Criminal Poor Lazy Untrustworthy Read the item carefully several times. Paragraph by paragraph examine for the presence of key words and phrases, quotes, loaded words and phrases, tone symbols, figurative language, themes, visual images, quotation marks (which can be used to delegitimize), figures of speech to present or maintain particular themes and sources used and excluded, focus on events rather than issues (ignoring goals and missions and focusing on surface details). If focus is on issue, list what issues are brought up (medical, political, gender-related, etc.). Note the dominant viewpoint. Note any secondary viewpoints. Indicate the frame that each quote is intended to advance or reinforce. Highlight examples of text from the item that illustrate the framing techniques that are used in the story.

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54 APPENDIX B FRAMES Table B-1.Cuba: Positive frames Attributes Character StrengthReligious Forgiving Loyal Hopeful Compassionate Hardworking Heroic or courageous Decent Worldly Diligent Grateful Family oriented Educated Talented Innovative Productive Politically ActivePolitically active Politically influential SuccessfulSuccessful Triumphant Affluent

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55 Table B-2.Cuba: Negative frames Attributes Character weaknessCriminal Dishonest Delinquent Selfish Disruptive Opportunistic Abuse of power (in U.S.) Untrustworthy Manipulative Disloyal Unruly Litigious ImmigrantsRefugees Desperate Cuba vs. Haiti Preferential treatment Rafter/boater Desperate Government delinquencyCunning (Castro) Human rights violators Untrustworthy Abusive government Not free Communist Table B-3.Haiti: Positive frames Attributes Character strengthResilient/persistent Courageous Honest Educated Hardworking Community-oriented Politically Active politically active

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56 Table B-4.Haiti: Negative frames Attributes Character weaknessUnfaithful Lazy Untrustworthy Cunning Proud Criminal Delinquent Judgmental Dishonest lack of social responsibility PoorPoverty Slums "Poorest country in hemisphere" VictimVictim Troubled nationUnable to self govern Hopeless Chaotic Violence Dirty Primitive otherGullible Foolish Helpless Childlike Primitive Uneducated barbaric/uncivilized Immigrantillegal immigrant boat people Refugee Immigrant

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60 Lawless, R. (1992). Haitis bad press: Origins, development, and consequences Rochester, VT: Schenkman Books. Lester, P. M. (1996). Images that injure: Pictorial stereotypes in the media Westport, CT: Praeger. Maher, M. (2001). Framing: An emerging para digm or a phase of agenda setting? In S. Reese, O. Gandy, & A. Grant (Eds.), Framing public life: Perspectives on media and our understanding of the social world. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. McQuail, D. (1987). Mass communication theory: An introduction (2nd ed.). London: Sage. Merrill, J. (1968 ). The elite press: Great newspapers of the world New York: Pitman. Merskin, D. (1998). Sending up signals: A survey of Native American media use and representation in the mass media. The Howard Journal of Communications, 9 333-345. Miller, J. (1984). The plight of Haitian refugees New York: Praeger. Mizra, H. (1997). Introduction: Mapping a ge nealogy of Black British feminism. In H. Mizra (Ed.), Black British feminism: A reader (pp. 1-30). London: Routledge. New York Times (1994, January 2, December 31). Various articles. Nomai, A. J., & Dionisopoulos, G. N. (2002). Framing the Cubas narrative: The American dream and the capitalist reality. Communication Studies, 53 (2), 97-112. Parker, E. (1996, February 4). How women interact with models in advertising Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Conference Papers.. Parks, R. (1928). Human migration and the marginal man. The American Journal of Sociology, 33 (6), 881-893. Portes, A. (1995). Children of immigrants: Segmented assimilation and its determinants. In A. Portes (Ed.), The economic sociology of immigration (pp. 248-279). New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Rhor, M. (2003, December 8). Video game offends Haitians. Boston Globe Retrieved March 30, 2005, from http://www.hauinc.org/html/bulletin/pdf/Video_game_offends_Haitians.pdf Robins, M. (2003). Lost Boys and the promised land: U.S. newspaper coverage of Sudanese Refugees. Journalism, 4 (1), 29-49.

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62 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Manoucheka Celeste was born in Port-au-Prince Haiti and moved to the United States in 1988. She has lived in Kissimmee and Altamonte Springs, Florida, and graduated from Lake Brantley High School. She received a Bachelor of Science in Journalism degree in 2003 from the University of Florida, where she was inducted into the Hall of Fame. Manoucheka has interned at newspapers across Florida including the Florida Times-Union, Ocala Star-Banner, and the Miami Herald Manoucheka is also a Chips Quinn Journalism Scholar. Manoucheka enjoys traveling. She studied abroad in The Netherlands in 2001 and was a marketing and public relations intern for Air Serv International in Uganda through the Coca-Cola World Citizenship Program in 2004.


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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0010546/00001

Material Information

Title: Media Portrayals of Cubans and Haitians: A Comparative Study of the New York Times
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Language: English
Creator: Celeste, Manoucheka
Publication Date: 2005
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0010546:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0010546/00001

Material Information

Title: Media Portrayals of Cubans and Haitians: A Comparative Study of the New York Times
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Language: English
Creator: Celeste, Manoucheka
Publication Date: 2005
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0010546:00001


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Full Text











MEDIA PORTRAYALS OF CUBANS AND HAITIANS:
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE NEW YORK TIMES















By

MANOUCHEKA CELESTE


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS IN MASS COMMUNICATION

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2005

































Copyright 2005

by

Manoucheka Celeste















This is dedicated to the people who live these stories
and MM&I for believing.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like thank everyone who has not only supported, but also challenged me

in this process. I would like to thank my committee chair, Dr. Michael Leslie, for his

guidance and great effort, and willingness to challenge students. He went to great lengths

to see this project through. I would also like to thank my committee members: Dr.

Marilyn Roberts and Dr. Helena K. Sarkio. Dr. Roberts was a wonderful source of

knowledge and played an integral role in guiding my methods and findings. Dr. Sarkio

has been supportive and engaging. Her thorough editing, and advice inside and outside of

the classroom have been invaluable.

I thank family for setting an example of what hard work and dedication is all

about. They allowed me to disappear for the last semester to complete this project. I

thank my sister, Slande, for always leading the way and little brothers, James and Alix,

for being great human beings and my inspiration. Also I extend thanks to my dearest life

friends and SGRho sisters Manoucheka T., Magda, Candace, Shannon, and Mona, for

always supporting me and still being my friends despite my virtual disappearance during

this project.

I thank my mass communication and GHD partner in crime, Dawn, for being

there through the crazy adventures this past year. I could not imagine going through it

with anyone else, and I know that we'll be always be friends. I thank Chantal, for being

fabulous and very special, and for dealing with my frantic phone calls and random needs

for a boost. I thank Nicole for her courage, common sense, sense of humor, and energy. I









thank Jasmine Johnson for always putting her best foot forward and inspiring me to do

same. Her compassion and willingness to listen has made a big difference. I also thank

Fran Ricardo, Cyrus, Lohse Beeland, the Milwees, Rhonda Douglas, and all of the

amazing individuals who have helped shape my college career and overall outlook on

life. I am forever grateful for all that they have done. Finally, I thank my journalism

mentors and friends for their dedication to the field and setting an example (Jim

Baltzelle, Charles Harris, Cynthia, Daneesha, Romina, Diana, and Role Models

Foundation).

















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

ACKNOW LEDGM ENTS ................................................ iv

LIST OF TABLES ......... ........................................... viii

ABSTRACT ......... ................................................. ix

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ........ ..........................................1

2 BACKGROUND ........................................... 4

Cubans and the United States ................ ......................... 4
Haitians and the United States ............... ......................... 6

3 LITERATURE REVIEW ................ .......................... 10

Media and Public Opinion ............... .......................... 10
Framing Theory and the Media Construction of Reality ................... .. 11
Minority/Immigrant Representation in Media .......................... 13
Assimilation, Core Culture and the Media: A Look at Immigration ............ 15
Homophily-Heterophily, Ethnocentrism and Media Framing .................. 18


4 METHODOLOGY .............

Newspaper Selection ........... .
Time Frame .......... .. .....
Search Term s .................
Approach and Coding .......... .
Reliability and Intersubjectivity ...

5 FINDINGS ..............

Cuban Framing ..................
Haitian Framing .................
Findings for Research Question 1 ...
Findings for Research Question 2 ...
Findings for Research Question 3 ...
Findings for Research Question 4 ...


. . . . . . . . . 2 0

. . . . . . . . . 2 1
............................. ....... 22
..................................... 23
. . . . . . . . . 2 3
. . . . . . . . . 2 4

............................. ....... 27

..................................... 28
... . . . . . . . . 3 1
. . . . . . . . . 3 5
. . . . . . . . . 3 6
. . . . . . . . . 3 7
. . . . . . . . . 3 9











6 CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION ............... .................. 42

Implications of This Study .............. .......................... 46
Limitations of This Study ......... ....................... ......... 50
Suggestions for Future Research ................ ..................... 50

APPENDIX

A CODING SHEET ......... .......................................... 53

B FRAMES ........ ............................................... .54

REFERENCES ....... ............................................... 57

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ........................................... 62















LIST OF TABLES

Table page

5-1 Cuba: Positive frames .......... ............................ ......... 29

5-2 Cuba: Negative frames .............. .................... ........ 30

5-3 Haiti: Positive frames ............................................. 32

5-4 Haiti: Negative frames ............... ........................... 33

5-5 Frames ........ ................................................. 37

B-1 Cuba: Positive frames .......... ............................ ......... 54

B-2 Cuba: Negative frames .............. .................... ........ 55

B-3 Haiti: Positive frames ............................................. 55

B-4 Haiti: Negative frames ................ ...................... 56















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Mass Communication

MEDIA PORTRAYALS OF CUBANS AND HAITIANS:
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE NEW YORK TIMES

By

Manoucheka Celeste

May 2005

Chair: Michael Leslie
Major Department: Mass Communication

Cubans and Haitians presently are arguably two of the most controversial

immigrant groups in the United States. The countries are within hours by air from the

United States. Cuba, the closer of the two countries, is a mere 50 kilometers from

Florida's Key West. More than their locations, Cuba and Haiti have similarities and

differences in terms of history, and their current states are often presented as dichotomies

and present an opportunity to compare their media coverage.

New York Times articles were used to examine how Cubans and Haitians were

framed from January 1, 1994, through December 31, 2004. The analysis was

comparative, looking at differences and similarities in the coverage. A sample of 177

articles was analyzed for frequently occurring themes, catchphrases, and figures of

speech. The sample included 81 articles for Cubans and 96 for Haitians. Overall both

groups were framed negatively. Cubans were framed more positively than Haitians, with

negative and positive frames being at or near one to one ratio, 70 positive frames to 78









negative frames. Haitians were framed overwhelmingly negatively, with 206 negative

frames and 23 positive frames.

For Cubans, the three dominant positive frames that emerged were Character

Strength, Political Involvement, and Success. The most dominant negative frames for

Cubans were Delinquent Cuban Government, Character Weakness, and Immigrants. It is

important to note, the Success frame was dominated by sports and, in one case,

entertainment articles.

The most dominant positive frames for Haitians were Character Strength and

Politically Active. Only 16.6% of the stories about Haitians (n=16) contained positive

frames. There were six dominant negative frames that emerged for Haitians. They are

Character Weakness, Poor, Victim, Troubled Nation, Primitive Other, and Immigrant.

Haitians and Cubans were framed negatively, with Cubans being framed more

positively. Societal acceptance can be examined through media portrayals, as this study

has done. The coverage of these and other ethnic and migrant groups are driven by

ethnocentrism and perceived differences. Journalists need diversity education, knowledge

of mass communication theory, and representative newsrooms in order to better serve

and reflect the increasingly diverse population in the United States.















CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Cubans and Haitians presently are arguably two of the most controversial

immigrant groups in the United States. The countries are within hours via air from the

United States. Cuba, the closer of the two countries, is a mere 50 kilometers from

Florida's Key West. The Central Intelligence Agency's (CIA) (2005) World Factbook

online says that Cuba blames the 1961 U.S. embargo for its difficulties and it identifies

one of the problems with Cuba as illicit immigration to the U.S. (CIA, 2005). About

Haiti, the World Factbook says the country is plagued with political violence and is the

poorest country in the Western Hemisphere (CIA).

Cubans and Haitians have received a great deal of media coverage in the past 20

years. A noticeable amount of the stories written about Cubans and Haitians focus on

immigration issues and on the countries' turmoil which "catches our attention for a

while, but then blends into daily fare of more violence elsewhere, other famines, mass

migrations, and political strife to which we have become accustomed" (Chierici, 1996).

Their similarities and differences in terms of history and current state are often presented

as dichotomies and present an opportunity to compare their media coverage.

Scholars have noted the differential treatment in regard to immigration

policies that Cubans enjoy over Haitians:

Neither Dominicans fleeing the civil war of 1965, nor Haitians fleeing the
terror of Papa Doc Duvalier and a string of Haitian military juntas, got







2

comparable treatment. Washington routinely rejected asylum requests from
Haitians picked up at sea while it invariably granted asylum to the far smaller
number of Cuban balseros. Under Clinton, many Haitians were even forcibly
returned to their country. (Gonzalez, 2000, p. 108)

The purpose of this study is to take a closer look at the relationship between

each group in terms of their individual histories and their presence in the United

States. This study seeks to examine the relationship of each group with the United

States through the lenses of a major national newspaper. This thesis will use framing

analysis to examine differences in how the two groups are represented in the media

and attempt to identify some factors that may lead to differences in their

representation. Based on the assumptions of ethnocentrism and heterophily and

homophily in reporting, the following main questions are asked:

* Are Cubans and Haitians portrayed negatively?

* Are Cubans portrayed more positively than Haitians?

* Which group is portrayed to have positive qualities such as educated,
hardworking, with higher financial standing, more entrepreneurial, better
spoken, and social acceptance?

* Which group is most frequently portrayed with the opposite qualities including
being uneducated, lazy, poor, poorly spoken, and socially unaccepted?

This study is significant for two main reasons. The first is that Cubans and

Haitians are two controversial groups that get a great deal of media coverage.

Communist leader Fidel Castro has caught numerous headlines in the United States

since he has been in power. Haiti's numerous leaders have also been seen in the U.S.

news, particularly during political turbulence. Cuba and Haiti have also made

headlines with illegal immigration to the nearby United States. In addition, the two

countries are linked by their relative closeness in the Caribbean. Cuban and Haitian









migrants also live in close proximity in the United States in cites such as New York,

Miami and Chicago. Cubans and Haitians constitute two of the fastest growing

immigrant groups. Between 1990 and 2000 the Haitian population in Florida

doubled to 267,689, according to the U.S. Census Bureau (2005), but other sources

estimate higher numbers (Stepick, Stepick, & Kretsedemas, 2001). As of 1999, more

than a half million Cubans lived in South Florida (Rumbaut, 1999). In Rumbaut's

South Florida sample, immigrant groups consisted of Cubans, Haitians, Jamaicans,

Colombians, Nicaraguans, Dominicans and others from Latin America and the

Caribbean. Jamaicans and Haitians are concentrated in South Florida and are among

the top recent immigration groups in terms of size (Rumbaut, 1999). The same is

true of Cubans.

This research will add to an already rich body of framing literature,

specifically regarding immigrant groups. The research is important because of the

changing make-up of the U.S. population. The United States has been described as

unfinished and a nation of immigrants (Lacey & Longman, 1997). The growth of the

number of foreign-born persons living in the United States is quite dramatic. The

immigrant population increased from 20 to 27 million between 1990 and 1997. By

1997, there were 3 million foreign-born children and nearly 11 million U.S.-born

children under 18 with at least one foreign-born parent (Rumbaut, 1999). The U.S.

Bureau of Census (2005) estimates major shifts in minority groups, with Latinos

becoming the majority by 2010. Now, more than ever, it is important to understand

the different groups that define the United States and how the media interacts with

each group and why.















CHAPTER 2
BACKGROUND

Cubans and the United States

Cuba, if the United States would have been successful in its attempts, would

have been the 51st state today. But unlike Puerto Rico, Cuba and its battle-tested

independence army were hard to subdue and the U.S. occupation was difficult

(Gonzalez, 2000). The United States occupied the island-nation on three occasions

and, in order to protect their investments, installed Batista as the ruler in 1934, a man

who welcomed foreign investors (Gonzalez, 2000). By the mid-1950s under

Batista's rule Cuba's economy, which was heavily dependent on the United States,

began to collapse with high unemployment, prostitution and corruption (Gonzalez,

2000). Fidel Castro's guerrillas overthrew the dictator in 1959 (Gonzalez, 2000).

Coming to the United States

Cubans have been deemed special refugees because of the U.S. immigration

policy that allows them to stay once they set foot on U.S. soil (Gonzalez, 2000). This

policy, which many have criticized as preferential when compared to policy toward

other immigrant groups such as Haitians, is a result of the U.S.'s conflict with

communist Cuba. Since the start of his reign, the United States has made numerous

efforts to overthrow Castro. In 1994, Bill Clinton was the first U.S. president to call

for an end of this policy, after more than one million Cubans were reported to have

fled Cuba for the United States (Gonzalez, 2000).









Cuban migration to the United States began in the 1950s when Castro

initiated his radical revolution and Cubans sought asylum (Soruco, 1996). More than

215,000 left for the United States during the first four years (Gonzalez, 2000). There

were three major migrations since Castro's revolution. The first migration started in

1959 after Castro came into power and ended in 1962 during the Cuban missile

crisis. These "golden exiles" consisted of lawyers, physicians, engineers, managers,

and clerks (Soruco, 1996). A large number of these exiles were White, educated, and

city dwellers (Fagen, Brody, & O'Leary, 1968). The second migration, from 1962

though 1979, brought mostly women, young children and the relatives of the

previous refugees (Soruco, 1996). Diplomatic arrangements were made in 1966 to

conduct daily flights from Havana to Miami until 1979 (Soruco, 1996). The effects

of the exiles were felt in Miami in the form of strained resources, which led to the

Refugee Resettlement Program that relocated exiles to other parts of the country

(Soruco, 1996). The third migration, the Muriel lift refugees, came in 1980 and

included 'misfits' and mentally ill individuals (Soruco, 1996). Working class people

who wanted political asylum were also a part of this migration. This migration most

closely represented Cuba's native population (Soruco, 1996). The people were

younger and had a greater percentage of blacks and mulattos (Bach, Bach, &

Triplett, 1982). A crime wave followed these Cubans' arrivals, which stigmatized all

Muriel refugees, and all Cubans faced open hostility (Soruco, 1996). "Because the

new population was largely black, it forced the earlier arrivals to face the racial

reality of Cuba-the Cuba to which they longed to return. After Muriel, many of the

established refugees were less eager to return to the island" (Soruco, 1996, p. 10).









Life in the United States

The Cuban exile community has grown, with a powerful political machine

and extensive social networks (Soruco, 1996). Although the population is dispersing,

the largest enclave is found in South Florida. Soruco (1996) attributed Cuban's

success to their demographic makeup, hard work, and sacrifice and the generosity of

local and federal governments that helped them resettle. As mentioned previously,

the refugees of the 1960s and 1970s were largely from the upper and middle class

and brought technical skills. With those demographic characteristics, in addition to

the massive aid the federal government dispensed to them, Cubans became the

country's most prosperous Hispanic immigrants (Gonzalez, 2000).

Haitians and the United States

Haiti is the first free black nation and second oldest independent nation in the

Americas after the United States. At one point, it was the richest colony in the

Americas because of its sugar and coffee (Stepick, 1998). The relationship between

the United States and Haiti has been rocky since before the birth of the new

Republic. The slaves' victory over French colonizers ended Napoleon Bonaparte

dream of making Hispaniola a fortress island to defend French interests in the new

world (Gilles, 2002). Some historians question whether North America would be as

it is today without the Haitian Revolution (Gilles, 2002). Haitians won their

independence from their French colonizers in 1804. The United States joined

European forces in France's violent repression of Haiti's slave rebellion (Chomsky,

2003). The U.S. government refused to acknowledge the new nation's independence,

although they acknowledged former Spanish colonies like Argentina, Mexico and

Chile around 1822 (Gilles, 2000). Recognition did not come from the United States









until 1862, 37 years after France had done so. In the meantime, Haiti's government

invited slaves from around the world and especially from the United States to come

there. The potential for the new Republic giving their slaves revolutionary ideas

irritated the United States, which did not abolish slavery until 1863. Haiti's

independence threatened the slave economies of the rest of the Caribbean and the

southern United States (Stepick, 1998). Governments isolated Haiti economically

and politically and the effects of that early isolation can be seen today (Stepick,

1998).

The United States occupied Haiti on two separate occasions, the first being

from 1915 to 1934, a violent introduction of American racism to the island (Gilles,

2002):

Numerous U.S. interventions culminated in Woodrow Wilson's invasion of
Haiti and the Dominican Republic, where his warriors- as viciously racist as
the Administration in Washington- murdered and destroyed, reinstituted
slavery, dismantled the constitutional system because the backward Haitians
were unwilling to turn their country into a U.S. plantation, and established the
National Guards that ran the countries by violence and terror after the Marines
finally left. (Chomsky, 2003, p. 18)

U.S. political leaders have openly called Haiti a backward country, and

Haitians an inferior people. In an article about U.S. intervention in Haiti,

McLaughlin of the McLaughlin group was cited for calling Haiti a "disaster-100

years behind the rest of the Hemisphere" (Douglas, 1994).

Coming to the United States

Stepick, a leading immigration scholar, identified Haitians as an important

new immigrant group that comes from the Caribbean and one that contains many

members who are also refugees (1998). In the 1970s and 1980s the media introduced

Haitians coming to South Florida as a new phenomenon, but the only thing that was









new was the Haitians' destination (Stepick, 1998). Previous migrants relocated to

France, French-speaking Canada, the northeastern United States and the Dominican

Republic (Stepick, 1998). Haitians permanently migrated to the United States in

small numbers until the late 1950s, approximately 500 per year. Another 3,000 came

as tourists, students and on business during the same time period.

Increased immigration occurred when Kennedy objected to human rights

violations. The first people to leave were in the upper class and to the left, followed

by the Black middle class in 1964 (Stepick, 1998). In 1965, the Immigration Act

enabled close relatives to join their family members. The "boat people" phenomenon

was introduced by the media as "boatloads of seemingly desperately poor and

pathetic peoples washed onto South Florida's shores" (Boswell, 1982; Miller, 1984).

They first appeared in late 1963 and then again in 1973 (Stepick, 1998). They began

to arrive regularly in 1977. "Since then, the U.S. government has conducted a

resolute campaign to keep Haitian refugees from coming to Florida," (Stepick, 1998,

p. 5). The U.S. government identified Haitians as economic refugees like Mexicans

and Texas, despite of advocates asserting that the "boat people" were political

refugees fleeing persecution and probable death (Stepick, 1998).

The U.S. government's policy toward Haitians has been debated by

immigration scholars, some who have deemed the policy biased (Lawless, 1992).

In their dealings with Haitian immigrants, American government agencies are
clearly characterized by 'ideological and racial bias which continues to distort
decisions as to which applications for refugee status or asylum will be
approached' according to Walter Fauntroy, the Chair of the Congressional
Black Caucus Task Force on Haiti and the expanded bipartisan Congressional
Task Force on Haiti. (Lawless, 1992, p. 64)









Life in the United States

There have been a number of programs that may be reflective of what

Haitians experience when they arrive in the United States. President Jimmy Carter's

INS commissioner in 1977 wanted to be fairer towards Haitians, saying that they

should be released from jail and allowed to work. A Florida congressman called him

into his office and allegedly told him that "We don't want anymore goddam Black

refugees in Florida" (Stepick, 1998). A Haitian program was then started to return

any Haitian who arrived by airplane or boat and did not have proper documentation

(Stepick, 1998). This program also kept refugees from seeing lawyers (Stepick,

1998) and hence Haitians became the group with the highest rejection rate of

political asylum applications (Haitian Refugee Center v. Civiletti, 1980). In 1992,

President George H. Bush issued the Kennebunk Port Order that strengthened

Reagan's interdiction policy. According to this order, Haitians intercepted by the

U.S. Coast Guard would no longer have the opportunity to plead their cases to the

on-board team of the State Department and INS. They would be returned to Haiti

without the opportunity to apply for political asylum. "After the initial sympathy

they received at some of the affluent Florida beach communities, the Haitian 'boat

people' soon fell prey to the usual discriminatory treatment reserved for Blacks and

the poor in the United States" (Lawless, 1992).















CHAPTER 3
LITERATURE REVIEW

Media and Public Opinion

The media have long been linked with public opinion and acceptance of

groups and ideas. "The media play a major role in framing public opinion and debate

(Beck, 1998, p. 144). In regards to social movements, the media socially construct

reality for their audience by presenting the actors and issues in a way that may

influence the public's opinion and/or action (Kruse, 2001). For individuals who have

little information, the media may be especially influential (Kruse, 2001). It is

important to examine how the media portray people and issues in order to get a

better grasp of how they fit into society.

The media use meaning-laden codes that define "reality" (Beck, 1998; Fiske,

1987). A code is a "system of signs whose rules and conventions are shared amongst

members of a culture, and which is used to generate and circulate meanings in and

for that culture" (Fiske, 1987, p. 4). Reality is not universal and is already encoded.

For example, the concept of woman has cultural codes and is interpreted in media

texts that are encountered daily (Beck, 1998).

The mass media perpetuate Western codes by playing on dichotomies

(either/or, you/me, good/bad). Those who do not fit the good qualifications

(male/white/middle class/Christian) are automatically cast as bad (Beck, 1998). The

media's influences and long-term effects are difficult to measure because of the









media's pervasiveness (Parker, 1996). Hispanics, according to Taylor, Lee, and

Stern's (1995) study of minorities and magazine advertising, are underrepresented,

which "sends a subtle signal about their lack of full acceptance in mainstream

society" (Jussim, 1990).

Framing Theory and the Media Construction of Reality

Another media function is "to inculcate individuals with the values, beliefs and

codes of behavior that will integrate them into the institutional structures of the

larger society" (Herman & Chomsky, 1988). This is in part accomplished through

the mediated construction of reality-where the "social knowledge which the media

selectively circulate is ranked and arranged within the great normative and

evaluative classifications, within the preferred meanings and interpretations" (Hall,

1977). Media frames are usually unobtrusive and encompass principles of selection,

emphasis, exclusion, and presentation routinely used by journalists to organize

discourse (Entman, 1993). The audiences take part in framing when engaging in

meaning construction (Gamson, 1989).

Entman (1993) said the concept of framing offers a consistent way to

describe the power of communication text. Framing analysis shows the precise way

in which influence over human consciousness is exerted by the transfer (or

communication) of information from one location (news report) to that

consciousness (Gamson & Modigliani, 1989). Gitlin said that "We frame reality in

order to negotiate it, manage it, comprehend it, and choose appropriate repertoires of

cognition and action (Gitlin, 1980).

Journalists develop frames by highlighting what is important (Entman, 1993).

This is especially true within the media, where familiar cultural symbols are









employed to frame information in ways that appeal immediately to the target

audience (Nomai & Dionisopoulos, 2002). Entman also wrote that the process of

framing includes the function of selection and salience.

To frame is to select some aspect of a perceived reality and make it more
salient in communication text in such a way as to promote a particular problem
definition, casual interpretation, moral evaluation, and /or treatment
recommendation for the item discussed. Frames, then define
problems-determine what a causal agent is doing with what costs and
benefits, usually measured in terms of common cultural values; diagnose
causes-identify the forces creating the problem; make moral
judgments-evaluate causal agents and their effects; and \ne\ft
remedies-offer and justify treatments for the problems and predict their likely
effects. (Entman, 1993, p. 52)

Entman's problem-solution identification approach to framing will be the focus of

this study.

Familiar cultural symbols can be employed effectively to frame material,

drawing attention to certain aspects and away from others. In the framing process

potential articles are either included or excluded from a message or its interpretation

by virtue of the communicator's organizing principle (Maher, 2001). Theorists say

this theory provides a way of assessing how the media can elaborate or reinforce a

dominant public culture (Thomas & Evans, 1986).

The media also perform a crucial role in the public representation of unequal

social relations and the play of cultural power (Lacey & Longman, 1997). Through

this representation, the audience can construct a sense of who we are and are not in

relation to us and them, insider and outsider, colonizer and colonized, citizen and

foreigner, normal and the deviant, and "the west" and "the rest" (Lacey & Longman,

1997). The media can affirm cultural diversity and provide the space where identities

or the interests of others can be challenged. Lacey and Longman (1997) argue that









the mainstream media all too often produce xenophobic reporting and racist

portrayal while committing to the ideal and practice of an inclusive multi-ethnic,

multicultural society.

Minority/Immigrant Representation in Media

Numerous mass media scholars have found that the portrayals of minorities

in the news have been negative (Entman & Rojecki, 2000; Hunt, 1997; Lester,

1996). In an analysis of network news, Entman and Rojecki (2000) found that 75.5%

of the stories focused exclusively on Whites, while 6.3% focused on non-White

groups. In this study, Blacks were disproportionately misrepresented as sources in

stories. The few stories that featured Blacks as sources dealt with sports, crime,

entertainment and discrimination. The study found that Blacks were

disproportionately represented in crime stories.

Judging from the transcribed years of ABC, the network mainly discusses
Blacks as such when they suffer or commit crime, or otherwise fall victim and
require attention from government (and, perhaps, taxpayers). By tying
appearances of Blacks so frequently to crime and victimization, the news
constructs African-Americans as a distinct source of disruption. (Entman &
Rojecki 2000, p. 67)

In a 1992 study Entman found that when African-Americans and Whites are

accused of similarly serious offenses, Blacks appear to be treated in a more

"dehumanized" manner that their White counterparts. In an inter-group comparison,

Turk, Richstad, Bryson, and Johnson (1989) found that Latinos were more likely

than Whites to be central characters in stories involving "problem issues" such as

judicial and crime (Dixon & Linz, 2000).

In Canada, Fleras (1994) explained that ethnic minority images are

consistently the stereotypical ones where unfounded generalizations veer toward









comical or grotesque. They are shown as pimps, high school dropouts, homeless

teens and drug pushers (Fleras, 1994). Fleras (1994) added that ethnic minorities'

lived experiences are reduced to the level of an "angle" for spicing up a story and

they are not shown as people with something important to say.

Merskin (1998) investigated the television portrayals of Native Americans.

Nearly one-third of the respondents found negative portrayals to be negative and

inaccurate. Merskin (1998) quoted a Kootenai man during the study about Native

Americans in media. "They keep showing us on some reservation but not really a

part of society and they always show us not fitting into society" (p. 335). Ethnic and

migrant groups are also considered on the basis of over-generalized physical,

emotional, and intellectual characteristics (Merskin, 1998). A Navajo woman in

Merskin's study pointed out that when Native Americans are portrayed, the

representations often don't consider the differences between tribes, presenting one

homogenous image (Merskin, 1998). Participants in the study also found positive

portrayals, but the portrayals were still considered inaccurate.

Researchers have asserted that the impact of minority marginality in the

media further entrenches the invisibility of ethnic minorities in society (Fleras,

1995). Some researchers have found that ethnic minorities in Canada do not see

themselves mirrored in the media, and this perpetuates feelings of rejection,

trivializes their contributions, and devalues their role as citizens in their nations

(Mahtani, 2001). This invisibility in the media contributes to a sense of"otherness"

for minority groups. Mahtani (2001) noted that,

The absence of complex representations of minorities also problematically
encourages whiteness as the norm in the media, where "whiteness quietly
embraces our common-sense ways .. of thinking .. what we are told is









'normal,' neutral or universal, simply becomes the way it is." (as cited in
Mizra, 1997, p. 3)

Assimilation, Core Culture and the Media: A Look at Immigration

Sociolinguist Joshua Fishman (1961) asserted that in American life, the core

culture or core society in American life as being made up mainly of White

Protestants in the middle class.

If there is anything in American life which can be described as an over-all
American culture which serves as a reference point for immigrants and their
children, it can best be described as, it seems to us, as the middle-class cultural
patterns of, largely, white Protestant, Anglo-Saxon origins. (Gordon, 1964, p.
72)

It is debated whether or not there is a need for an identified core culture and to what

extent.

The core culture notion is driven by hegemonic forces, ethnocentrism, and

orientalism. Much like race, the notion of a core culture was created to distinguish

the "other." Edward Said, founder of Orientalism, suggested that the discourses of

power, culture, and imperialism historically construct binary opposition between

the East and the West, positing the Orient as the other. This Eurocentric discourse is

produced, valorized, and validated by demonized representations of the other. It is

interpreted through the intertextuality of logocentric narratives, and mediated

through texts that are far removed from the circumstantial and everyday reality of

the world (Altheide, 1994). As Said (as quoted in Altheide, 1994) observed,

[t]he power to narrate [represent] or to block other narratives from forming and
emerging, is very important to culture and imperialism, and constitutes one of
the main connections between them. ... In time, culture comes to be
associated, often aggressively, with the nation or the state; this differentiates
"us" from "them," almost always with some degree of xenophobia. Culture in
this sense is a source of identity, and a rather combative one at that, as we see
in recent "returns" to culture and tradition. (Altheide, 1994)









Alba and Nee (1997) defend the usefulness of assimilation but argue that

Gordon's (1964) ideas of a core culture, which resembles that of Huntington (2004)

on some level does not fully recognize that the United States is more mixed and the

American culture continues to evolve. Alba and Nee said that with minority ethnic

cultures within the mainstream, their cultures are absorbed along with their Anglo-

American equivalents. This absorption creates a hybrid culture (Alba & Nee, 1997).

The idea that the culture is still evolving supports the existence of a core culture

because the core culture is consistently changing. Congruent with hegemony, which

provides an explanation to the struggle within the power structure of a society,

noting tactics the dominant group uses to maintain power, there will always be a

dominant group, although the membership may change. While hegemonic forces

deeply saturate the consciousness of society as a complex combination of internal

structures that must be continually renewed, recreated, and defended, Raymond

Williams explained that these structures are regularly challenged and may be

modified by emergent oppositional and alternative forces within society (Williams,

1977, 1988).

Huntington (2004) asserts strongly that there is a core culture that all who wish to

be successful in the United States must prescribe to and embrace. He said that, "There is

only the American dream created by an Anglo-Protestant society. Mexican Americans

will share that dream in English" (2004, p.45). Huntington defends and explains the

plight of the nativists who feel threatened by the emergence of a new majority that

changes the political and cultural landscape of the United States. Huntington's notions

blanketed in the language of war, are outdated, although he obviously is not alone in his

views. He cites Theodore Roosevelt, who in 1917, said there must be one flag and one









language. Roosevelt didn't say which language, but Huntington insists it must be the

language of the Declaration of Independence and other famous speeches in U.S. history.

Huntington and Parks (1928) do share in the sentiment of potential conflict in

how immigrants interact with the host society. Parks recognizes that the process of

assimilation (and acculturation) take place at varying speeds, and the process is slower

when people who are radically different come together. He said that racial problems

occur in situations where assimilation and acculturation take place very slowly or not at

all. Whereas Parks notes that the conflicts arise out of difference in physical traits, which

make it difficult to fully assimilate as with the example of the Japanese, Huntington is a

bit more specific about his ideas. Huntington claims that Latin Americans, specifically

Mexicans and Cubans, and their unwillingness to assimilate and speak English are the

cause of conflict. Huntington said that White Anglos have fought back by passing

legislation such as Proposition 187 that limits social services to children of illegal

immigrants, and will continue to fight back by other means.

Huntington's notions of core culture and assimilation to assess the impact of

Latino, and particularly Mexican, migration on U.S. society are in direct conflict with

Parks (1928), who celebrated the marginal men that represent immigrants. Parks wrote,

"He was a man on the margin of two cultures and two societies, which never completely

interpenetrated and fused," (1928, p. 892). Huntington's notions challenge Alba and

Nee's assumptions that both cultures are changed in the process of assimilation to be the

reality. Huntington's notions on the impact of culture class are fruitful in providing

another perspective, that of nativists, which is an important one to have when considering

the coverage of immigrant groups in the media.









Homophily-Heterophily, Ethnocentrism and Media Framing

Homophily refers to the similarities that individuals who interact share such as

beliefs, values, education, cultural similarities, race, social status, etc. (Rogers &

Bhowmik, 1970). Heterophily refers to differences along the same dimensions. The

phenomenon of ethnocentrism is defined by Preiswerk and Perrot as "The attitude of a

group which consists of attributing to itself a central position compared to other groups,

valuing positively its achievements and particular characteristics, adopting a projective

type of behavior towards out groups and interpreting the out groups' behavior through

the in group's mode of thinking" (1978, p. 14). Homophily and heterophily provide the

reference point in which people see themselves, especially in regard to the common

cultural values that Entman identified are used to define problems in the process framing.

Gans (1980) identified a classic typology of "enduring values" of U.S. journalists

that Gans labels as "ethnocentrism and "altruistic democracy." In ethnocentrism, the

U.S. is the best country in the world, and in altruistic democracy, U.S. politics reflect

public interest. Journalists are telling the story of America even when they try to be

objective, (Gans, 1980). These enduring values have often been tested in research to

examine U.S. media coverage of issues in other countries. Portrayals of countries that are

culturally, economically, and politically close, regardless of size or proximity, make

ethnocentric bias evident (McQuail, 1987). In a study of U.S. newspaper coverage of

Sudanese refugees, Robins (2003) found that many of the articles recycled incomplete

images of Africa to meet American expectations.

Negative events in another part of the world do not bear the same relationship to
these norms and are therefore read differently. Third World countries are, for
example, conventionally represented in western news as places of famines and
natural disaster, of social revolution, and of political corruption. These events are
not seen as disrupting their social norms, but as confirming ours, confirming our









dominant sense that western democracies provide the basics of life for everyone,
are stable, and fairly and honestly governed. (Fiske 1987, p. 285, as cited by
Chandler, n.d.).

It is assumed that U.S. journalists are influenced by both homophily-heterophily

as well as ethnocentrism. It is with these assumptions that the following research

questions are posed:

* RI: Are Haitians and Cubans portrayed negatively in The New York Times?

* R2: Are Cubans are portrayed more positively than Haitians in The New York
Times?

* R3: Which group is portrayed to have positive qualities such as educated,
hardworking, with higher financial standing, more entrepreneurial, better spoken,
and social acceptance in The New York Times?

* R4: Which group is most frequently portrayed with opposite qualities including
being uneducated, lazy, poor, poorly spoken, and socially unaccepted in The New
York Times?

These positive and negative attributes were chosen because they are often referred

to in conversations about American life. They are based on the standards of the "core

culture." Those who are successful in American society are those, as Huntington noted,

who possess the attributes of the founders and other Americans, with language as an

example. Hard work and entrepreneurship are some of the principles celebrated by the

Protestant ethic on which the United States was founded. These principals fuel the

American dream. Negative attributes are in turn, those that do not fit into the ideal

American society. Those with negative attributes such as lazy are considered misfits and

as the literature suggests are demonized.















CHAPTER 4
METHODOLOGY

This analysis focuses on newspaper news accounts of Cubans and Haitians to

answer the research questions. Frames were extracted from the articles in order to

perform this task using articles from the New York Times.

Frame analysis was chosen as a method because of its qualitative strengths and

systematic possibilities. Framing analysis "is more far-reaching than a simple explanation

of the themes or subjects," noted Kerbel, Apee, and Ross (2000, p. 12) Advocates of this

approach assert that "that framing analysis offers media researchers better techniques

with which to (a) observe the content of messages and of the frame or frames in these

messages and (b) design studies that explore the effects of these frames on outcomes

spanning individual to group processes" (Esser & D'Angelo, 2003, p. 622; D'Angelo,

2002; Scheufele, 1999).

A cultural studies approach will be used to investigate the research questions.

Carragee and Roefs (2004) suggest, in keeping with early sociological research on

framing, framing processes be examined within the context of the distribution of social

and political power. As this literature review has argued, there are number of factors that

may impact how immigrant groups are portrayed, including their role in the political and

social structure in the United States. As Carragee and Roefs (2004) cited, the origins of

frame research in media sociology directly linked the framing process to the distribution

of social and political power of America (Gitlin, 1980; Tuchman, 1978). Carragee and







21

Roefs' (2004) critique and suggestions on how framing research is approached resembles

that of Entman (1993), who called for different ideas on framing analysis to be brought

together in one location to address what he termed the "fractured paradigm."

Newspaper Selection

News articles were sampled from the New York Times, which is considered the

most prestigious national newspaper, and because Times coverage of the two groups is

perhaps the most indicative of national media coverage (Winter & Eyal, 1981). In

addition to its national circulation, New York Times wire articles are also used by smaller

newspapers throughout the nation. There are also large populations of Cubans and

Haitians living in New York City and its surrounding areas. The New York Times has a

circulation of more than one million, the third largest circulation in the United States,

according to Editor and Publisher, the U.S. newspaper trade organization (Aiken, 2003).

According to Merrill, the New York Times is thorough, a characteristic that warrants the

label "the paper of record" (Merrill, 1968). It is this label that fosters trust among readers,

which could heighten the effectiveness of the frames they create and/or reflect. It is not

expected that all articles used in this analysis were well read by all subscribers or people

with access, but the New York Times' circulation size and influence in setting the national

agenda suggest that the articles were read by a large audience.

It is important to note that in addition to being circulated throughout the country,

the New York Times primarily serves New York City, perhaps the most diverse city in the

United States. Often used as a point of entry, New York City and surrounding areas are

home to large immigrant populations. In serving such a diverse population one could

reasonably assume that the New York Times' coverage would be representative of this

environment. With so many different immigrant groups living in this coverage area, it









would have been possible to choose two other groups to analyze. However, as stated in

the introduction, Cubans and Haitians have a unique relationship in terms of how they fit

in American society.

Time Frame

The sample was from January 1, 1994, to December 31, 2004. The dates were

selected to reflect the events of the past 11 years. Originally, the time frame included

January 1, 1994, through January 1, 2004. An additional year was added in order to have

more articles and, in turn, better representation of the universe. Each group has specific

events that have lead to media coverage, but the dates are not in sync. For example, the

Elian Gonzalez custody story started at the end of 1999, while Haiti experienced turmoil

that lead to the ousting of its president in 2003. There were also high levels of

immigration during this period, which is addressed in the background section. Scattering

the dates could potentially compromise the systematic approach of the research. Looking

at the past decade allows sufficient opportunity to collect diverse data for both groups.

The article search yielded 177 articles that were coded. There were 96 articles for

Haitians and 81 articles for Cubans. Nine constructed weeks were taken from each five-

year period as suggested by Lacy, Riffe, Stoddard, Martin, and Chang (2001). Lacy et al.

examined a 5-year sample of news articles from one newspaper, using 6 to 10 weeks, to

see which sample would be most efficient in inferring to the population. They concluded

that 9 constructed weeks for every five-period provided maximum efficiency. This

procedure is likely to include variations across years because all years are included

during the period (Lacy et al., 2001). Two random weeks were constructed for the 11th

year. Lacy et al. noted research sampling less than 5 years should use 2 constructed









weeks from each year (2001). These methods were replicated to sample articles for this

study.

Constructed week samples identify all Mondays, and randomly select one

Monday, then identify all Tuesdays, and randomly select one Tuesday to "construct" a

week that ensures each source of cyclic variation-each day of the week is represented

equally" (Lacy et al., 2001, p. 837).

Search Terms

The articles were sampled from the LexisNexis Newspaper database. The

purposive sample includes news and features articles and excludes editorials, reviews,

letters to the editors, etc. The search terms used were Cuba or Cuban and Haiti or

Haitian in two separate searches. Only stories that are about or focus on Cuba, Cuban(s),

Haiti, or Haitian(s) were selected. Articles that mention the search terms in passing, such

as a geographical point of reference, were excluded.

Approach and Coding

Early and some current framing research involve one researcher working alone as

the sole expert at identifying frames (Tankard, 2003). The "List of Frames" approach was

used to measure media frames. For the purpose of this research, this list will be referred

to as the Framing Analysis Guide. This approach is based on the theoretical definition of

framing that asserts:

A frame is a central organizing idea for news content that supplies a context and
suggests what the issue is through the use of selection, emphasis, exclusion, and
elaboration. (Tankard, 2003, p. 100-101).

The idea of elaboration was added to include the function of building a frame (Tankard,

2003).









This approach proposes identifying a guide for examining the domain under

discussion (Tankard, 2003). The Framing Analysis Guide method focuses on how the

issue is defined by inclusion and exclusion of certain key terms, uncovering terms

through an examination of media content through a list of framing mechanisms (Tankard,

2003). A list of 11 such mechanisms, or focal points, was proposed to identify framing

(Tankard, 2003):

* Headlines and kickers (small headlines over the main headlines).
* Subheads.
* Photographs.
S Photo captions.
S Leads (the beginning of news stories).
* Selection of sources or affiliations.
* Selection of quotes.
S Pull quotes (quotes that are blown up in size for emphasis).
S Logos (graphic identification of the particular series an article belongs to).
* Statistics, charts, and graphs.
* Concluding statements or paragraphs of articles.

According to Tankard (2003), this approach makes the rules for identifying

frames explicit and takes the subjectivity out of frame identification. Tankard said

The approach is not necessarily heavily quantitative. Rather, it attempts to be
systematic about frame identification and to show that there are defining
characteristics of media frames that different observers can recognize and agree
upon. The point is not to be quantitative for its own sake, but to take the
subjectivity out of the identification of frames. (pp. 103-4)

Each article was regarded as unit of analysis and only text was analyzed.

Photographs were not analyzed, so mechanisms three and four were not coded. Also,

LexisNexis articles did not include mechanisms 8, 9 and 10, so they were also excluded

from the analysis. Articles were first read and coded for attributes that emerged. Similar

attributes were aggregated into frames (Appendix B).

Reliability and Intersubjectivity

References to the issue of reliability involved in frame analysis were made by

Gamson (1989):









It is difficult... to get adequate reliability with such a genotypic category as a
frame or a story line. But by identifying the particular signature elements for a
given frame-the metaphors, catchphrases, or other symbolic devices typically
used to convey it-it is possible to find phenotypic expressions that can be reliably
coded. (p. 159)

Three coders were used for the print material. The codebook was explained and

coders worked at an individual pace. The researcher followed Gamson and Modigliani

(1989) in presenting detailed examples of the most commonly used frames to allow

readers to form their own judgments about the validity of the frames used (Kruse, 2001).

The same coder coded the material at two different times. Coders discussed the data for

richness and reconciled any conflicts. Attributes were identified and frames grouped by

likeness once all articles were coded. The most dominant frames are discussed in

Chapter 5.

Each coder had a distinct background, which may have affected the way coding

was approached, which was balanced by the Frame Guide to add objectivity. The first

coder was a female from Haiti who has lived in the United States for 15 years. She

studied mass communication at the graduate level at the University of Florida. The

second coder was a female international student from Sri Lanka. She had been in the

United States for five years and studied mass communication at the graduate level at the

University of Florida. The third coder was a White female native to Florida. She was

married to a Cuban-American man and studied environmental science at the

undergraduate level. All coders were fluent in English. The various backgrounds of the

coders provided a rich opportunity for testing intersubjectivity. Very few differences

existed when coding was discussed. It is also important to note that the three coders were

not members of what has been called the "core culture" because of their backgrounds and

life experiences. It can be argued that their different cultures and experiences may have







26

colored the way they saw Haitians and Cubanssee portrayed in the media. Still, it is

believed that this study can be replicated with essentially the same findings using coders

from the "core culture" (White, middle-class, Protestant) with similar findings.















CHAPTER 5
FINDINGS

This analysis is concerned with the frames that New York Times articles used to

portray Cubans and Haitians. A total of 177 articles were examined: 81 for Cubans and

96 for Haitians. The articles were analyzed for frequently occurring words, catchphrases,

themes and reporters' frames with the use of Tankards' (2003) mechanism identified in

Chapter 4. Frames were identified as either positive (+) or negative (-) to answer the

research questions. Neutral frames are also discussed in this analysis. Neutral frames are

those that do not show the groups) in either a positive or negative light. For example,

some articles identified Cuban exiles as being anti-Castro without making judgments.

The study revealed major frames that both groups shared, as well as frames that were

unique to each group. An article could possess positive and negative frames.

The news coverage reflected times where the groups had salient issues in the

news. Coverage of Haitians peaked in 1994, a year with a great deal of political activity

in Haiti, as well as attempted immigration to the United States. There were at least four

articles in less salient years. Coverage of Cubans was a bit more sporadic. In 1997, there

was only one article, but in 2000, in the midst of the Elian Gonzalez case, there were 21

articles.

The articles appeared in various sections in the newspapers, including sports, the

front page and metropolitan sections. The coverage was at two geographical levels for

Haitians and three levels for Cubans. For Haitians, articles that originated in Haiti

dominated. These stories were about natural disasters, politics, Haiti's economy and U.S.

involvement in Haiti. The next level was Haitians in the United States, which had many

27









references to Abner Louima, a man who was physically assaulted by police officers in

New York and also mostly covered immigration. Cubans were covered primarily in the

United States with articles on immigration, defection and politics. In term of politics,

Cuban leaders emerged out of South Florida and New York. Next, Cubans were covered

in Cuba, which resulted in most of the neutral frames because they simply framed Cuba

as a communist nation and Cuban Americans as defectors and anti-Castro. In a few

instances, Cubans were covered in other countries, as was the case of the article on

Cuban doctors working in South Africa.

We will first look at the frames that emerged during this study and then answer

the research questions. For Cubans, the three dominant positive frames that emerged

were Character Strength, Political Involvement, and Success. All articles quoted in this

chapter are from the New York Times, published between January 1, 1994, and December

31, 2004. Individual authors' names are given in the text.

Cuban Framing

The Character Strength Frame, the most dominant overall frame for Cubans, as

well as the most dominant positive frame for Cubans, encompassed desirable traits such

as courageous, hardworking, religious, forgiving, loyal, family oriented, innovative, and

compassionate. Defectors, especially sports stars and dancers, were shown as courageous

as their stories were told with movement. This can best be illustrated in a story about a

member of the Cuban boxing team who got in touch with his former teammate, who also

defected:

"What a beautiful coincidence," said Barthemely, a welterweight who defected by
swimming 11 miles across Guantanamo Bay to the United States Navy Base on
Cuba's southern tip in September 1993.... Hurtado said that, like other Cuban
athletes who have defected, he would like to turn professional. (AP, November 2,
1994)









Table 5-1. Cuba: Positive frames
Percent distribution of
Frame Positive frames and (overall %) Appearance
Character strength 44 (18) 31
Politically active 34 (14) 24
Successful 16(6) 11
Competent to choose 3 (1) 2
Culturally influential 1 (-) 1
Creative 1 (-) 1
Note: Percentages less than one were not listed.

The Character Strength Frame had a larger presence for Cubans in Cuba than

those in the United States. American sources are often used to validate the positive

characteristics. This can be seen in a story about Cuban refugees waiting in Panama to go

to the United States:

"I'm confident the world, including the United States, will find a solution to this,"
General Wilson said. "Most of these people are well-educated and decent. They
just want to get out of Limbo and get on with their lives." (Special to The New
York Times, December 12, 1994)

The Political Involvement Frame was used to show Cubans as not only involved

in politics, but also influential in this arena. While Cubans in the United States as well as

those in Cuba are shown in the frame, the political influence was limited to Cubans in the

United States and much of the influence, according to the articles, was toward

influencing the fate of exiles and U.S. policy toward Castro's government. As for

influence on policy toward Cuba, an article on the U.S. easing sanctions on Cuba

provides a good example.

Anti-Castro Cuban-Americans in Florida, a hotly contested state in the
presidential election, were able to win new restrictions on travel to Cuba and
prohibitions on the United States government credit and private financing for any
sales. (Holmes & Alvarez, October 19, 2000)

This frame was most evident during the Elian Gonzalez story that began in late

1999. In one article, one of the other survivors of the same boat trip as Elian Gonzalez









sought help from the Cuban community, specifically the Cuban American National

Foundation.

But Ms. Horta said that if the foundation "moved mountains" for Elian, it could
do something to get her daughter out of Cuba. (AP, November 7, 2000)

The Success Frame was prominent mostly in reference to sports, specifically

baseball. Baseball player Orlando Hernandez was shown as the poster boy for Cuban

success stories. One story led with

Looking more like a major league veteran than a refugee who has been in the
United States half a year, Orlando Hernandez turned in another superb effort
tonight on his climb through the Yankee system. (The New York Times, April 28,
1998)

While the successful athletes appear as positive frames, their portrayed dominance in this

arena resemble that of African-Americans.

The most dominant negative frames for Cubans were Delinquent Cuban

Government, Character Weakness, and Immigrants.


Table 5-2. Cuba: Negative frames


Frame
Character weakness
Government delinquency
Immigrants
Poor
Victim
Politically influential
Cuba- economic turmoil
Hijackers
Dominated by U.S.
Cuban-American backlash
Anti-American


Percent distribution of negative
frames and (overall %)
26 (12)
15 (7)
22 (10)
4(2)
8(4)
3(1)
1 (-)
4(2)
4(2)
3(1)
1 (-)


Appearance
20
12
17
3
6
2


Not human 1 (-) 1
Cuba not free 1 (-) 1
Communist Cuba 3 (1) 2
Note: Percentage does not equal 100 because not all frames were used for this chart.
Percentages less than one were not listed.

The Immigrant Frame includes showing Cubans as desperate, refugees and

highlights the preferential treatment that Cubans receive from the U.S. government.







31

The Cuban refugees, more than 30,000, had set out for Florida in boats and rafts
over the summer, when American immigration policy changed to deny them entry
into the country.

The story continues:

Before the raft refugees there were "fence jumpers" like Felix Wilson, 56.
(Navarro, December 24, 1994)

The Delinquent Cuban Government Frame included human rights violations,

abuse and untrustworthiness of the Cuban government and President Fidel Castro. One

article demonstrated how comparisons are used to highlight Cuba's differences. The

article compares Cuba's political situation to the openness of the baseball gesture.

Despite the excitement over the Baltimore Orioles' exhibition game here and the
veneer of openness it conveys, American baseball comes to Cuba in a climate of
heightened political repression.

The same article compares the situation to the visit from the Pope.

International human rights monitors said Cuba's latest retrenching only served to
underscore how little the situation has changed, even after Pope Paul II, during
his visit here last year, urged Cuba to open up to the world. But perhaps because
of the high expectations raised by the Pope's visit, the Government now finds
itself the target of international condemnation over its new curbs and the recent
sentencing of four dissidents charged with sedition. (Navarro, March 28, 1999).

The Character Weakness Frame is the opposite of the Character Strength Frame,

and highlights undesired traits such as untrustworthiness, criminality, selfishness and

dishonesty. This frame is best demonstrated in the article about a Cuban I.N.S. official

who was accused of espionage and framed as untrustworthy and criminal.

"He disclosed classified information for no better purpose than his own personal
reasons, his own personal gain," Mr. Miner said. "He took it to the realm of
control to the United States government and gave it to someone else to use
however they wanted." (Bragg, May 31, 2000)

Haitian Framing

As can be seen in Tables 5-3 and 5-4, far more negative frames emerged for

Haitians than positive frames. Only 16.6% of the stories about Haitians (n=16) contained









positive frames. The most dominant positive frames for Haitians were Character

Strength, and Politically Active.

Table 5-3. Haiti: Positive frames
Percent distribution of positive
Frame frames and (overall %) Appearance
Character Strength 57 (6) 13
Politically Active 30 (3) 7
Successful 4 (-) 1
Entrepreneurial 9 (1) 2
Note: Percentages less than one were not listed.

The Character Strength Frame, which was found in only six articles encompassed

persistence, courage and hardworking. One example of this frame was shown in an

article about a Haitian female journalism that was battling with the Haitian government.

She is shown as educated, courageous and resilient:

A homecoming queen turned crusading journalist, she is tall and elegant. Her hair
pulled back smartly, she looks you straight in the eye.

The article continues

She joined the station, and they (Montas and her future husband) became an
elegant couple, who did stories on controversial topics that tested how far they
could push the limits-Jean called it sniffing. (Gonzalez, March 29, 2003)

It's important to note that this article contained some of the most negative frames

about Haitians, specifically political leaders and business people in Haiti. This is most

apparent in the story's lead:

The Haitian government wants Michele Montas to believe that common criminals
killed her husband, Jean Dominique. Never mind that he was the country's
most famous journalist and fiercest critic of government corruption. Never mind
that President Jean-Bertrand Aristide and several government ministers reportedly
huddled with the investigating judge before the indictments were issued on
Monday. (Gonzalez, March 29, 2003)

The Politically Active Frame did not indicate political influence and only

appeared in seven articles. Also Haitians political activity in the United States is often









subsidizes by supporters or sympathizers, as was the case of Abner Loiuma, who was

advised by the Reverend Al Sharpton and the politicians who have joined in to support

refugees. An article on the reaction of Haitians in Little Haiti in Miami on the violence in

Haiti and refugees coming to the United States illustrates this, but not without showing

Haitians as victims.

Many of the detainees, who are being held at the Broward Transitional Center,
have lost relatives in the violence that has swept Haiti in the recent weeks, Ms.
Little said .... Ms. Little and other immigration advocates are lobbying
Washington to ease its policy on Haitian refugees. In the immediate term, they
seek temporary protective status for Haitians here who might otherwise be
deported. But Representative Kendrick B. Meek, a Miami Democrat who joined
in their effort, said there had been no progress. (Goodnough, February 24, 2004)

There were six dominant negative frames that emerged for Haitians. They are

Character Weakness, Poor, Victim, Troubled Nation, Primitive Other, and Immigrant.

Table 5-4. Haiti: Negative frames
Percent distribution of negative
Frame frames and (overall %) Appearance
Character Weakness 19 (17) 39
Poor 17(15) 34
Victim 13 (12) 27
Troubled Nation 12(11) 25
Primitive Other 10 (9) 21
Immigrant 11 (9) 22
Voodoo 1(-) 2
Drugs 1.5(-) 3
a burden 1.5(-) 3
U.S. as savior 4 (3) 8
Note: Percentages less than one were not listed.

The Character Weakness Frame, the most dominant frame, identifies undesirable

attributes such as criminality, cunningness, delinquency, and untrustworthiness. One

article used quoted an unnamed diplomat to construct this frame.

"Aristide has completely outwitted the Americans on this," one diplomat here
said. "Rather than confront his patrons directly, he has moved inn a roundabout,
typically Haitian fashion to dismantle the army." (Rohter, February 22, 1995)







34

The Poor Frame, the second most dominant frame for Haiti and Haitians, included

Haitians in Haiti and abroad, with Haiti frequently referred to as "the poorest nation in

the Western Hemisphere." Approximately one third of the articles (n=30) framed Haiti

the country, Haitians in Haiti, and Haitians in the United States as poor. One technique

that was repeated in addition to the above stated catchphrase was the identification of

slums or other places of residence:

Said Joseph Antonio Cochon, 42, a militant in La Saline, a lawless slum here.
(Polgreen, October 7, 2004).

In Cite Soleil, a slum whose residents have benefited from water, food and
schools provided by Mr. Aristide. (Gonzalez, November 27, 2000)

The Victim Frame was the most subtle frame. Haitians were portrayed as victims

lacking agency, mostly in situations out of their control. This was most apparent in

coverage of floods and hurricanes as well as the Abner Louima case.

The Troubled Nation Frame showed Haiti as a lost state with violence and chaos.

Haiti was shown as hopeless, helpless and a waste of time and resources. One article

epitomized this frame, starting with its headline, "Life is Hard and Short in Haiti's Bleak

Villages." The story lead was the following:

Diplomats call Haiti a "failed state," a nation done in by dictators and disasters.
(Weiner, March 14, 2004)

The article continued

Governments and juntas rise and fall, 15 in the last 18 years, doing nothing to
stop Haiti from sliding off into the sea. ... In a country where nothing works, the
group looks after 200,000 people.

Additionally, Weiner included voodoo in his article, a frame that emerged, but was not

dominant.









"If we had someone to represent us in the government, I would say to him, we
cannot live in a nation without security," said Mr. Dipera, the voodoo priest of
Plaine Danger. "There is no law here."

This frame confirms Stepick's observation that people hold the folk model that

imagines that Haitians' religion is filled with real cannibals and zombies (Stepick, 1998).

The Primitive Other Frame, inspired by the concept of Orientalism, shows

Haitians as childlike, barbaric and not completely human. In immigration articles

Haitians are described like objects, with the words packed, crammed and jammed.

Hurricane articles, especially those in 2004 were even more brutal of their descriptions of

Haitians corpses. One example of this frame showing Haitians as childlike can be seen in

an article that talks about Haiti's army in 1994. The story's headline was "Haiti's New

Militia Drills with Sticks."

During earlier drills, when some of them had been told to aim and dry fire their
weapons, they had yelled, "Bang!" (Bragg, August 11, 1994)

Another article uses a quote to accomplish a similar feat of framing Haitians as inferior.

"Haitians are being ground up like hamburger because the clowns who run the
government don't know how to behave like adults," Mr. Obey said. (Greenhouse,
April 15, 1994)

The Immigrant Frame showed Haitians as unwanted elements in receiving or host

societies, specifically the United States. In this frame, Haitians were often identified as

"Haitian immigrants" and referred to as "boat people." In the 14 articles that mentioned

the Louima case, only one did not identify him as a Haitian immigrant.

Findings for Research Question 1

The first research question asked if Haitians and Cubans are portrayed negatively.

The data supports that Haitians and Cubans were portrayed negatively.









While positive frames appeared frequently for Cubans, almost just as many

negative frames appeared. Some of the positive frames such as Successful had negative

implications by showing mostly athletes as successful. When Cuban leaders were shown,

they were sometimes shown as controlling as was the case of the Mayor of Hialeah. The

story had the headline, "A South Florida Strongman Pushes for Secession from Miami-

Dade County." Although the article describes the Mayor as charismatic, they also show

him as a micro-manager and politically motivated. The Cuban government was framed as

communists, which in the United States is seen as an enemy, even after the end of the

Cold War. The Cuban government was responsible for most of the negative frames,

including Character Weakness.

The data clearly shows that Haitians are framed negatively, especially when

looking at the lack of positive frames and abundance of negative frames that appeared for

this group. The Haitian government, much like that of Cuba, owned a great deal of the

negative frames, such as corrupt and unstable. Haiti was portrayed as poor and helpless,

dependent on the U.S. for survival. One article about a get rich scheme, showed Haitians

as gullible, childlike and greedy. That same sort of story is shown in the U.S. frequently,

but in those cases Americans are shown as innocent victims. Haitians in the United States

did not fare any better that those living in Haiti. Haitians in the U.S. were portrayed as

victims, unfaithful and criminal.

Findings for Research Question 2

The second research question asked if Cubans are framed more positively than

Haitians. The data suggests that this question can be answered affirmatively.









Table 5-5. Frames
Positive Negative Neutral
Cubans 70 78 22
Haitians 23 206 5

Negative frames of Haitians appeared almost ten times more that positive frames.

Only 10% of the frames that appeared for Haitians were positive. Cubans fared much

better. There is almost a one to one ratio of the appearance of positive frames to negative

frames. As noted previously, Cubans are framed as having positive characteristics such

as successful, courageous, educated and religious. Positive frames for Haitians consisted

of politically active, resilient and hardworking, but again these frames were few. One

way to illustrate this assertion is to compare how Cubans and Haitians in the United

States were identified. Cubans in the United were most often identified as exiles, while

Haitians are identified as immigrants and refugees. Exiles are heroic in that they rejected

Castro and Communism. They fled toward democracies, which the West reveres. In the

case of Abner Louima, when he was repeatedly identified as a Haitian immigrant,

perhaps being identified as a Haitian or an immigrant would have made the frame less

effective. The ethnicity and citizenship status of the officers accused of abusing him were

not any of the articles. In a time when immigration is a topic of heated debate, identifying

someone as such, unnecessarily, as in the case of Louima, becomes a powerful framing

technique. Lou Dobbs and other American figures and politicians have made it clear that

they do not want more immigrants entering this nation, despite the fact that it was

founded by immigrants.

Findings for Research Question 3

The third research question asked which group is portrayed to have positive

qualities such as educated, hardworking, with higher financial standing, more









entrepreneurial, better spoken, and social acceptance. Cubans were shown as having

positive qualities. Articles about the last two U.S. elections made mention of Cubans'

cultural and political influence. Articles about the U.S. policy in Cuba note that

American politicians were trying to please Cubans in South Florida. Character Strength

was by the dominant frame. Three articles framed Cubans as educated, using doctors and

scholars as sources. Surprisingly only two articles framed Cubans as religious, but

another two framed them as forgiving.

Three articles portrayed Cubans as hardworking. One example of this frame can

be seen in an article on Cuban doctors working in South Africa.

The Cubans all speak English. Besides, the nurses say, the Cubans are far more
willing than the South Africans to learn Zulu.

"They try very hard," said Latine Sizani, who has worked at the hospital for 24
years. "And besides, the patients-they can always read from the face if he is a
nice man."

"The feedback we are getting is that we are getting more than we paid for," Mr.
Hlongwane said. "They are a caring lot and they are not materialistic. They are
doing more than their contracts ask them to do." (Daley, May 10, 1998)

Cubans were shown to be more financially stable. Cubans in the U.S. that

appeared in articles had employment and some were wealthy. Cuba was not framed as a

poor country. In fact, one article portrayed Cuba as exceptional in comparison to

countries that are supposed to be on its level. This can be seen in the lead of an article

about Cuba's health care system.

At the big, modern hospital on one end of this provincial city, the medical staff
commands the sort of technology that most poor countries can only dream about.
(Golden, October 30, 1994)

Neither group was shown as entrepreneurial and there was not enough evidence to

show which group was shown as better spoken. In terms of social acceptance, Cubans

were shown as the group that was more accepted by American society. From the









sympathetic quote above from Bob Dole about the decency of the Cuban people to an

article about a building in South Florida that is a 'beacon' to exiles, Cubans are shown as

a part of American society. It is, however, important to note that in two articles there

appeared to be some backlash towards, specifically regarding the use of their political

influence. This can best seen in an article regarding special accommodations made to

certify Cuban Doctors in the United States.

First, the person who pushed for the accommodations was discredited:

State Senator Alberto Gutman, a Cuban-American Republican from Miami who
has been sentenced to prison for Medicare fraud and gave up his seat last year
after he was indicted, persuaded the Board of Medicine to change some questions
and translate the exam into Spanish.

The Cuban doctors were then shown as monsters being released:

Other medical organizations have expressed opposition as well, contending that
these accommodations are, in effect, unleashing an underqualified group of
doctors on an unsuspecting public.

The preferential treatment that the Cuban doctors received was questioned:

While many Cuban exiles have passed the required test of other doctors, the fact
that one group of exiles is getting so much attention has raised concerns among
members of the medical establishment in Florida and beyond. (Kilborn, May 14,
2000)

Findings for Research Question 4

The fourth research question asked which group is said to have the opposite

qualities including uneducated, lazy, poor, poorly spoken, and socially unaccepted.

Haitians were shown with overwhelmingly negative and undesirable traits. The nation is

shown as poor and its people as well those in the Diaspora are framed as poor. One

article about a needy woman who had problems identified her as Haitian. It is important

to note that the reporter, while identifying this poor woman as Haitian also framed her as

hardworking. The fourth graph of the article read







40

Since coming to New York from Haiti in 1969, Marie, now a teacher's assistant at
a public school, had always worked. She reared four children on her own; they
were poor but happy. But last February after a brief marriage broke up, Marie and
her family were evicted. They began a nine-month odyssey through the city's
shelter system. (Herszenhorn, December 27, 1996)

Only one article framed Haitians as lazy, but the same articles showed Haitians as

childlike, greedy, criminal, and gullible. The story lead

Intoxicated by the promise of easy money, thousands of Haitians here and abroad
sold their cars, mortgaged their homes and emptied their savings accounts in
recent months to invest in cooperatives that promised astonishing monthly returns
of 10 percent.

The article continued

Mathematically, it should have self-destructed earlier," one banker said. "Drug
money definitely allowed them to last much longer." (Gonzalez, July 26, 2002)

Three articles showed Haitians as uneducated and ignorant. One article on AIDS

in the Caribbean contained numerous negative frames about Haitians, including the

poorest nation in the Western Hemisphere. But the dominant frame was the ignorance of

Haitians:

As it has in their native country, AIDS has ravaged the bayetes, where
superstition, poverty and prejudice conspire against hope. The brother of one
AIDS patient recently told Sister Anne Lees, a nun who runs several health and
nutrition projects, that the man had died from a spell cast by a creditor.

Haitians were not only shown as ignorant, but as savages who could not control their

urges:

"It's very difficult to confront reality if you do not think this disease exists,"
Sister Anne said. "Even if you told someone they were H.I.V. positive, they
would not believe it. They would just go off and have sex with the first person
they saw." (Gonzalez, May 18, 2003)

Barbaric, criminal, untrustworthy, cunning, and delinquent are all socially

undesirable traits. Haitians were frequently shown with these frames and shown as

socially unaccepted. The numerous "boat" people making their way to the United States







41

were often shown as not human. They were framed as being packed into tiny boats

without agency, and were shown as burdens in three articles.















CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION

Portes (1995), one of the leading immigration scholars, in his study of children of

migrants asserted that there are circumstances in which assimilation does not lead to

economic progress and social acceptance, and that opposite may occur. He asserted that

not all immigrants are equal, as he explained with segmented assimilation. For example,

human capital immigrants who are already educated or skilled assimilate differently than

labor immigrants. Portes compared different groups, including Haitians and Cubans.

The older and better established Cuban community moved farther along the path
of institutional development, including the creation of a network of parochial and
private schools. Enrollment in these schools insulates Cuban-American children
from contact with downtrodden groups as well as from outside discrimination. ...
Very different is the situation of Haitians in Miami and Mexicans in San Diego.
Neither community possesses a well-developed ethnic economy that can generate
autonomous opportunities for its members. Haitians have clustered in an
impoverished neighborhood adjacent to Liberty City, the largest inner-city ghetto
in Miami. The Haitian community lacks a private school system and their
youth must attend public inner-city schools. There, initially well-mannered
Haitian American youths are ridiculed for their accent, their docility, and their
obedience of school staff. (Portes, 1995, 263-264)

In the case of Haitian Americans, families struggle with preventing downward

assimilation:

As the case of Haitian Americans in south Florida indicates, good intentions and
high aspirations are not enough when structural forces place individuals in
conditions of insurmountable disadvantage. (Portes, 1995, p. 275)

It is with Portes' observation in mind that we will precede with this conclusion.

Media scholars, including Entman, Hall and Hunt, have done extensive research

on how media portray different ethnic groups, including African-Americans and Latinos.







43

Immigration scholars, including Portes (1995) examined the role of immigrants in society

and how they adjust. This study focused on the media's role in portraying two salient

immigrant groups. This study supports the idea that the media still has further to go in

improving its coverage of diverse populations. The New York Times, considered one of

the elite newspapers, provided coverage that was not surprising in its overall negative

tones for both groups.

The findings in this study show The New York Times framed Cubans and Haitians

negatively. Haitians were portrayed negatively to a higher degree, with significantly few

frames present. While Cubans were framed negatively, the ratio of positive and negative

frames was almost one to one.

The first research question asked if Cubans and Haitians were framed negatively.

The findings were that they were indeed framed negatively, with both groups sharing

Character Weakness and Government Delinquency frames. The Poor Frame could be

expected for Haitians because of the nation's financial standing, although the extent was

enormous. The Other Frame that emerged supports the Otherness discourse that notes a

distinction between "us" and "them." Latham identified the traits of otherness in films.

"Together, they reveal how ordinary film ads could eroticize, vilify, and belittle people in

subtle ways that appealed to dominant social expectations, fears, and desires (Latham,

2002, p. 5).

The second research question asked if Cubans were portrayed more positively

than Haitians. The study found that Cubans were framed more positively than Haitians.

Taylor, Lee, and Stern's (1995) assertions that underrepresentation send subtle signals

about the lack of full acceptance in mainstream society can also be applied to the findings

of this study. Research findings for Questions 3 and 4 note that Cubans were shown to









have more socially acceptable frames than Haitians. The signals about Haitians were

characterized by the abundance of negative frames.

As Portes (1995) noted, different immigrant groups have different capital, which

shape how they assimilate and in turn how they are accepted in society. Societal

acceptance can be examined through media portrayals, as this study has done. Cubans

and Cuban Americans have a strong social network and established businesses, which

lend to political strength. Haitians and Haitian Americans do not have the same social

networks and businesses. Heterophily can refer to the differences in the way that the

reporters see themselves in terms of beliefs, values, education, cultural similarities, race,

and social status, and potentially impact how they cover Cubans and Haitians subjects.

The particularly negative framing of Haitians is heightened by their overtly different race

and social status to that of the majority of journalists.

While neither group completely fit the "core culture" or "core society," Cubans,

although they are a group that could be identified as racially mixed, are portrayed as

predominantly White. In the articles that were examined, few of the Cubans in the

articles used in this study, including Celia Cruz were Afro-Cuban, although they were not

identified as such. The whitening of Cuban identity in the media may lead to more social

acceptance. Cubans also speak Spanish and as shown in the data are portrayed as

successful and influential. While there are Cubans that belong to different classes, those

in the upper or middle class, based on their positions, were often used as sources or

subjects in this study. Huntington argued against the ethnic enclave that Cubans have

created in south Florida, calling it contempt of culture and the "Hispanization of Miami."

In the nativist view, Cuban-Americans who live in this enclave or are resistant to

assimilate are not truly American. Many Cubans and Cuban-Americans have spread out









throughout the country where perhaps they have less community support and must

assimilate faster rather than doing what has been labeled by Stepick (1998) and Portes

(1995) as "acculturation in reverse."

Haitians also have some traits that affect the probability of assimilation. The vast

majority of Haitians are Black. Unlike Cubans, Haitians speak a language that is even

less widespread, Haitian Creole. Because the language is native to only one country and

spoken in very few places in the United States, the demand for Haitians to learn English

is even greater. Haitians, in terms of attempting to learn the language would please

Huntington and others who support nativist ideals. Still, Haitians were portrayed as

belonging to the lower class, often placed in the Poor Frame. Haitians as well as Cubans

are predominantly Catholic, but the religious angle only appeared a few times in the

sample.

As stated above, there are factors that affect each group's probability of

assimilation and cultural change. Cubans, more than Haitians are able to assimilate

because they are shown to possess more of the traits of the "core culture." Haitians,

despite their language shift, are still Black and poor. Like Parks (1928) noted with the

Japanese case of assimilation, while class and language may be transcended, race is the

most obvious trait that cannot be overlooked when a group joins a news society. Those

groups or group members who do not or are not able to assimilate fully, are what Parks

define as marginal men, living on the margins of the mainstream society between two

cultures. They are also reflected as such in the media, as this study found. They are

identified as the "other" and their differences as similarities in relation to "core society"

are highlighted. Cubans' slightly more positive coverage is a reflection of the similarities

that they have to the "core culture." Backlash and negative frames appeared when they









deviated from the "core cultures' expectations. Haitians' overwhelmingly negative

coverage is a reflection of their obvious and irreconcilable differences and societal

rejection.

Other ideas of culture can be examined with the findings of this study. One is the

notion of the United States as a "melting pot." This supports the ideas that both cultures

are changed as a result of interaction. Cubans and Haitians would become more

American as American society because a little more Cuban or Haitians. Another idea is

that the receiving country, the United States in this instance, would embrace different

cultures and promote a multicultural society. Multiculturalism promotes interaction

between different people, with the each person maintaining their individuality and

identity. Multiculturalism has gained popularity, as can be seen at universities who have

turned their attention toward creating campuses that embrace multiculturalism. For either

of these ideas to come to fruition, mainstream society must be accepting of the groups

with which they interact. Taylor, Lee, and Stern's (1995) assertions that

underrepresentation sends subtle signals about the lack of full acceptance in mainstream

society is applicable to the findings of this study.

Implications of This Study

This study adds to the scholarly mass communication literature by reinforcing the

significance of framing theory and focusing on two ethnic and immigrant groups in

understanding the mass media and how they shape public opinion. We live in a world of

constant change and with the extreme rate that communication technology is advancing,

contact with people from different regions occurs instantaneously. Messages about

society, including social acceptability and identity formation are transferred, usually from

North to South. Journalists play a special role in public opinion formation and in helping







47

individuals shape the way they see the world. Perhaps, journalists can take that role with

a stronger sense of responsibility. Journalists must not only react to what happens in

society, specifically the change in the people who live in it, but must be leaders in

helping people understand each other. This understanding begins with accurate portrayals

of all groups. Many scholars have asserted that underrepresentation and

misrepresentation of minority groups lead to misunderstandings by the general public

about the world they live in.

As stated in the introduction, the projected change in the U.S. population is not

negotiable. While the increase in the number of minorities has fueled the nativist rhetoric,

as argued by Huntington, it is a reality that American society must prepare for. The

United States' immigration policy has been in the news, especially since September 11.

Public figures including CNN commentator Lou Dobbs have called for protecting U.S.

borders and keeping jobs within the borders. Mexicans have been the recent focus of

border control discussions. Immigration studies have often associated Mexicans and

Haitians in terms of the similarities in their demographics, while Cubans have been

associated with different Asian groups, such as the Vietnamese. Inadequate portrayals

further damage members of the group as well as society by promoting a lack of

acceptance. Negative portrayals could also have an impact on decision-makers,

specifically those in immigration policy. This can be inferred by evaluating the strength

of the preferential status of Cuban immigrants who in this study were found to have a

more positive portrayal versus the immigration policy toward Haitians who were

portrayed more negatively.

The findings of this study support Entman's problem-solution approach to

framing, which asserts that frames define problems, diagnose causes, make moral









judgments and \/.'''\et remedies. This is best seen in immigration articles that involve

both groups. In the Cuban case, illegal immigration to the United States is identified as a

problem, especially as a source of strain on South Florida's resources. Fidel Castro's

government and political restrictions were identified as the cause of Cuban immigration

to the United States. The moral judgments made were mostly toward Castro. Political and

economic instability are often identified as the source of Haitian immigration to south

Florida. Like Cubans, this migration occurs in spurts. In this case of Haitians, remedies

are not suggested because the situation in Haiti is framed as hopeless.

The findings of this study also support studies that found portrayals of minorities

to be negative (Entman & Rojecki, 2000; Hunt, 1997; Merskin, 1998). These minorities,

Haitians more that Cubans according to the findings, are dehumanized. They are shown

as a mass, without names, without histories, without families, without identity. Haitians,

more so than Cubans, are framed as commodities, with governments debating over who

is allowed to travel where. The individual's free will is portrayed as non-existent; this

again is truer for Haitians than Cubans. The portrayals put these minorities in a subclass.

When these individuals are identified by their ethnicity, while other individuals are

validated simply with a name, Cubans and Haitians, along with other ethnic group

members, are set apart from everyone who is considered "normal" in this society. This

alienation, as scholars have found, have an impact on members of the minority groups.

Scholars, including Tajfel (1982) and Gergen (1985) have theorized that the way

minorities are portrayed in various media inflicts what Gergen terms "dignitary harm,"

by virtue of the use of demeaning stereotypes, repetitive, and unrepresentative images

which help, in part, to shape minority group social identities (Fischoff, Franco, Gram,

Hernandez, & Parker, 2001).







49

The negative portrayals of minorities and ethnic groups, specifically the two that

were examined in this study, have proliferated across media and have become rather

obvious. By reading a newspaper or watching television news one can make inferences.

Writers and editors who may have the best intentions are reinforcing stereotypes in

headlines and at the top of the stories. On February 26, CNN.com's headline about

Haitians read "Boat people fleeing Haitian crisis." One February Orlando Sentinel article

lead with "They call them dirty Haitians." Haitians, joined by Cubans, protested the

video game "Grand Theft Auto: Vice City" that portrayed Haitians, Cubans, and

Columbians as drug lords and gang members in 2003. At one level in the game, a

character says: "I hate these Haitians" and "I'm gonna kill me a Haitian" (Rhor, 2003).

The hit movie "BadBoys 2 featured actors from Martinique who portrayed Haitian

gang members with dreadlocks and thick, comedic accents. With all these examples and

the lack of personal interaction with Haitians, as Entman and Rojecki (2000) noted

people are left with only the mediated images to catalog people.

Journalists are on the frontline when it comes to creating mediated messages. In

order to address inadequate portrayals of various groups, it is necessary to look at how

journalists are trained. Journalism programs and organizations should be proactive in

educating journalists about mass communication theory, including framing and media

effects theories. An awareness of mass communication theory will enable journalists to

look at their work and practices critically. Education in diversity issues and ethics must

also play a larger role. This will better equip journalists to provide more complex

representations of minorities. In addition, the newsroom must also be more reflective of

the population. Numerous organizations such as Freedom Forum have been proactive in









recruiting and training minority journalists. Still, minorities are leaving the newsroom.

News organizations must make an effort to retain these individuals.

Limitations of This Study

One potential limitation of this study is that despite the time frame, only a limited

number of articles were available. One reason for this is the lack of presence of both

groups in everyday news. The coverage of Cubans and Haitians was sporadic and

surrounded major events such as the Elian Gonzalez case and the Louima Abner case that

caught this nation's attention. Also, another sampling method could have potentially

yielded in more articles. LexisNexis was very helpful in retrieving articles, but to ensure

that all possible articles were accounted for hard copies of the New York Times for the 11

year period would have to be retrieved. This was not feasible for this research.

Suggestions for Future Research

Comparing Cubans and Haitians was extremely helpful. Soruco (1996) did a

study of Cuban Americans in South Florida and a similar study of Haitians would be

complementary. A large number of the articles originated from Miami and surrounding

municipalities. This study did not examine the Miami Herald or Sun-Sentinel because it

sought to investigate the questions on a national level. It is estimated that frames would

be even more apparent in either of these newspapers because of the political situation and

access to members of those communities. The Miami Herald, more than the Sun-Sentinel,

would be interesting to study because of the newspaper's long history in the area and its

staff demographics. As of the summer of 2003, the Miami Herald employed only one

full-time Haitian reporter, and a few more Cuban reporters. Perhaps a study comparing

the New York Times to the Miami Herald could compare coverage of either group and

would provide rich data.







51

Other newspapers, such as the Los Angeles Times and Boston Globes, would also

be interesting to study. It would be possible to study regional differences, especially in

areas that have other immigrant groups that are dominant. For example, the Los Angeles

Times serves a population with a large number of Mexicans and Asians. How does the

population makeup affect coverage? Ethnic media also provides another research

possibility, examining how members of the ethnic groups portray themselves and

comparing that to the how the mainstream media portray them.

While this study examined 11 years of coverage, a wider time frame would

provide an even clearer picture. It is suggested that coverage since the 1950s would show

how portrayals have evolved. Television coverage would be another suggestion for future

research. In television coverage the public not only hears the story, but they are also

given images with which to associate the groups or topics represented. Image analysis

from news print of each group would achieve similar goals. There were numerous images

used with the articles, if analyzed that alone could tell a story.

Looking at the data critically, class and race issues emerged and were discussed.

Gender issues were also present, specifically the shortage of women's voices in the

articles. This is especially true for the coverage of Haitians, where only 15 women were

used as subjects or sources. A closer look at gender issues in the coverage of immigrant

groups, Haitians, Cubans, and Mexicans, would add a great deal of depth to the body of

mass communication literature. This is especially important because women in the

United States have also been represented disproportionately in the U.S. media and this

research would indicate whether that representation is transferred to women in minority

groups. I would hypothesis that women of other ethnic and minority groups would be







52

represented even less accurately by the media than those who resemble the "core culture"

more closely.

A final suggestion would be to compare U.S. news sources to those in other

countries such as France, Canada, and England to see if the frames that emerged in this

study are shared across borders. Along the lines of international coverage, a study

looking at how Cuban newspapers cover Haitians versus how Haitian newspapers cover

Cubans would provide additional insight. Ethnocentrism applies to other cultures.

Looking at coverage of media outside of the United States will reveal how ethnocentrism

manifests itself abroad.















APPENDIX A
CODING SHEET

Date:

1. Headlines and kickers (small headlines over the main headlines).
3. Lead (the beginning of news stories).
4. Selection of sources or affiliations.
5. Selection of Quotes.
9. Concluding statements or paragraphs of articles.
10. Topic of Story:
11. List possible frames, framing techniques (can directly on story)

Note how or if the article frames any or all members of the group by the following
characteristics. Also list key words that indicate this.

Educated
Hard-working
Entrepreneurial
Politically active
Delinquency
Criminal
Poor
Lazy
Untrustworthy

Read the item carefully several times. Paragraph by paragraph examine for the presence
of key words and phrases, quotes, loaded words and phrases, tone symbols, figurative
language, themes, visual images, quotation marks (which can be used to delegitimize),
figures of speech to present or maintain particular themes and sources used and excluded,
focus on events rather than issues (ignoring goals and missions and focusing on surface
details).
If focus is on issue, list what issues are brought up (medical, political, gender-related,
etc.). Note the dominant viewpoint. Note any secondary viewpoints. Indicate the frame
that each quote is intended to advance or reinforce. Highlight examples of text from the
item that illustrate the framing techniques that are used in the story.















APPENDIX B
FRAMES


Table B-1. Cuba: Positive frames
Attributes


Character Strength




















Politically Active


Successful


Religious
Forgiving
Loyal
Hopeful
Compassionate
Hardworking
Heroic or courageous
Decent
Worldly
Diligent
Grateful
Family oriented
Educated
Talented
Innovative
Productive

Politically active
Politically influential

Successful
Triumphant
Affluent









Table B-2. Cuba: Negative frames
Attributes


Character weakness


Immigrants


Government delinquency


Criminal
Dishonest
Delinquent
Selfish
Disruptive
Opportunistic
Abuse of power (in U.S.)
Untrustworthy
Manipulative
Disloyal
Unruly
Litigious

Refugees
Desperate
Cuba vs. Haiti
Preferential treatment
Rafter/boater
Desperate

Cunning (Castro)
Human rights violators
Untrustworthy
Abusive government
Not free
Communist


Table B-3. Haiti: Positive frames


Attributes


Character strength


Resilient/persistent
Courageous
Honest
Educated
Hardworking
Community-oriented
Politically Active
politically active









Table B-4. Haiti: Negative frames
Attributes


Character weakness


Poor


Victim


Troubled nation






Primitive other









Immigrant


Unfaithful
Lazy
Untrustworthy
Cunning
Proud
Criminal
Delinquent
Judgmental
Dishonest
lack of social responsibility

Poverty
Slums
"Poorest country in hemisphere"


Victim


Unable to self govern
Hopeless
Chaotic
Violence
Dirty

Gullible
Foolish
Helpless
Childlike
Primitive
Uneducated
barbaric/uncivilized

illegal immigrant
boat people
Refugee
Immigrant















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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Manoucheka Celeste was born in Port-au-Prince Haiti and moved to the United

States in 1988. She has lived in Kissimmee and Altamonte Springs, Florida, and

graduated from Lake Brantley High School. She received a Bachelor of Science in

Journalism degree in 2003 from the University of Florida, where she was inducted into

the Hall of Fame. Manoucheka has interned at newspapers across Florida including the

Florida Times-Union, Ocala Star-Banner, and the Miami Herald. Manoucheka is also a

Chips Quinn Journalism Scholar.

Manoucheka enjoys traveling. She studied abroad in The Netherlands in 2001 and

was a marketing and public relations intern for Air Serv International in Uganda through

the Coca-Cola World Citizenship Program in 2004.