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Preparation and Evaluation of Polymer Composite Multilayers on SiO2 for Use in Medical Systems


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PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF POLYMER COMPOSITE MULTILAYERS ON SiO 2 FOR USE IN MEDICAL SYSTEMS By HEATHER ANN TROTTER A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2005

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Copyright 2005 by Heather Ann Trotter

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I first would like to acknowledge my mother and family, who are my life support. They are the reason I am here. I would like to recognize the staff in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Florida. This program has given me opportunities I never imagined. I would like to give special thanks to my advisor, Dr. Abbas Zaman. His patience and guidance have made these accomplishments possible. I would also like to thank my co-advisor, Dr. Richard Partch. His drive and commitment to research have inspired and motivated me throughout this work. My other committee members, Dr. Ron Baney and Dr. Karl-Johan Sderholm, are recognized for their insightful discussions and positive attitudes. I am also grateful for the financial support provided by the University of Florida Particle Engineering Research Center (NSF Grant No. EEC-94-02989) and the industrial partners of the Particle Engineering Research Center. Nissan Chemical Industries, Ltd., is acknowledged for the donation of the nano-sized SiO 2 particles. Help from Mr. Eric Hughes for conducting some of the experiments and Mr. Scott Brown is greatly acknowledged. Miss Jennifer Brandt is acknowledged for valuable discussions and emotional support. iii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iii LIST OF TABLES.............................................................................................................vi LIST OF FIGURES..........................................................................................................vii ABSTRACT.......................................................................................................................ix CHAPTER 1 LITERATURE REVIEW AND INTRODUCTION....................................................1 Introduction to Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Research....................................................1 Applications for Polyelectrolyte Multilayered Particles.......................................3 Current Characterization Techniques for Polyelectrolyte Multilayers..................5 Novelty and Scope of Study.........................................................................................6 Goal of Study................................................................................................................8 2 MATERIALS AND METHODS...............................................................................10 Introduction to Materials: Biomedical Applications..................................................10 Materials.....................................................................................................................10 Study of PDADMAC Adsorption...............................................................................11 Kinetics of Adsorption........................................................................................12 Adsorption Isotherm............................................................................................13 Electrophoretic Mobility (EPM) Measurements.................................................13 Desorption Study.................................................................................................15 Study of PSS Adsorption............................................................................................16 Rheology.....................................................................................................................16 Properties of Suspensions for Rheological Studies.............................................17 Preparation of Suspensions for Parallel Plate Method........................................18 Parallel Plate Rheological Measurements...........................................................19 Measurement of Adsorption Layer Thickness of PDADMAC...........................19 Preparation of suspensions for glass capillary method................................20 Glass capillary rheological measurements...................................................21 Effective volume fraction (EVF) calculations.............................................23 R g (Radius of Gyration) Calculations.........................................................................23 Study of NanoSiO 2 Layer...........................................................................................24 iv

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3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.................................................................................26 Adsorption of PDADMAC.........................................................................................26 Desorption of PDADMAC and PSS...........................................................................31 Zeta Potential..............................................................................................................32 Adsorbed Layer Thickness.........................................................................................35 Rheology of Dispersions of Multilayered Particles....................................................39 NanoSiO 2 ....................................................................................................................41 4 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.........................................................................44 5 FUTURE WORK........................................................................................................47 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................50 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................57 v

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TABLE Table page Table 3-1: PDADMAC adsorbed layer thickness values obtained by various methods...38 vi

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1: Schematic of forces influencing properties of layer-by-layer films, and the applications achieved by controlling or manipulating interactions [31]....................4 2-1: Chemical structures of PDADMAC and PSS repeat units.......................................11 2-2: A schematic of the double layer and ion distribution on a particles surface (upper part of figure), and a depiction of the zeta potential at the shear (lower part of figure).......................................................................................................................14 2-3: Schematic showing the layer-by-layer adsorption of PDADMAC and PSS on SiO 2 core particle.....................................................................................................16 2-4: Cannon-Fenske glass capillary viscometer..............................................................21 3-1: Adsorption density as a function of time for SiO 2 -PDADMAC system (25C, pH = 4.58)......................................................................................................................27 3-2: Adsorption density as a function of equilibrium concentration of PDADMAC onto the surface of SiO 2 particles (25C, pH = 4.58)...............................................29 3-3: Zeta potential as a function of polymer dosage for SiO 2 -PDADMAC system (25C, pH = 4.58).....................................................................................................30 3-4: Desorption study of PDADMAC on SiO 2 particles after centrifuging and washing with deionized water..................................................................................32 3-5: Zeta potential measurements showing the change in surface charge as PDADMAC (Layer Number 1), PSS (Layer Number 2), PDADMAC (Layer Number 3), and PSS (Layer Number 4) are added (25C, pH = 4.35, in the absence of salt).........................................................................................................33 3-6: Relative viscosities of dispersions versus volume fraction of SiO 2 in water...........36 3-7: Relative viscosity of SiO 2 dispersion versus 200,000 molecular weight PDADMAC dosage..................................................................................................37 vii

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3-8: Adsorbed layer thickness of PDADMAC on surface of 1.5 m SiO 2 particles, using effective volume fraction calculations, as concentration of PDADMAC increases...................................................................................................................37 3-9: Viscosity versus shear rate at increasing dosage of PDADMAC on core SiO 2 particles....................................................................................................................40 3-10: Viscosity versus dosage of PDADMAC on core SiO 2 particles as a function of increasing shear rate.................................................................................................40 3-11: Viscosity versus shear rate of core SiO 2 particles, PDADMAC-coated SiO 2 and PSS-PDADMAC-coated SiO 2 ..................................................................................41 3-12: SEM of 1.5 m SiO 2 core particles..........................................................................42 3-13: SEM of 1.5 m SiO 2 particles completely covered with PDADMAC (MW = 200,000)....................................................................................................................42 3-14: SEM of nanoSiO 2 adsorbed onto PDADMAC-coated SiO 2 ....................................43 viii

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF POLYMER COMPOSITE MULTILAYERS ON SiO 2 FOR USE IN MEDICAL SYSTEMS By Heather Ann Trotter May 2005 Chair: Abbas A. Zaman Major Department: Materials Science and Engineering Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) have been consecutively adsorbed onto 1.5-m charged silica (SiO 2 ) particles to model the assembling of multilayered particles for use in time released drug delivery particle systems. Time dependent adsorption studies indicate that, due to the strong ionic charge of the dissociated polycation in water, adsorption is complete in less than 30 minutes. Indications of the maximum adsorption density, changes in surface charge, and stability of the layered particles are demonstrated through adsorption isotherms and electrophoretic mobility (EPM) measurements. Further stability of the PDADMAC layer is demonstrated through multiwashing with ultra pure deionized water. Preliminary desorption studies of the PSS layer also illustrate a stabilized two-layer system. Also, in this study, a systematic investigation on the viscosity behavior of concentrated dispersions of silica particles with adsorbed PDADMAC and PSS layers has ix

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been performed. The variation of shear viscosity and storage and loss moduli as a function of layer number was investigated. The study illustrates that the adsorption of PDADMAC increases the viscosity. Ideal conditions for maximum bridging flocculation were also observed. From viscosity measurements of the PSS layer, a structural formation was observed at low shear rates that broke down as shear rate increased. Viscosity measurements showed that adding polymer layers to create multilayered composite particles affects the rheological properties of the particles. Adsorbed layer thickness of PDADMAC was determined using viscosity data for dispersions of bare SiO 2 particles and dispersions of PDADMAC-coated SiO 2 particles. A comparison shows that experimental values, using relative viscosity, were comparable to values recorded in literature using different methods. After adding SiO 2 nanoparticles (nanoSiO 2 ) to the mixture of PDADMAC-coated SiO 2 EPM and SEM showed a change in surface charge as well as surface roughness, indicating that the nanoSiO 2 has been adsorbed onto the layered particles. Future work includes surface and bulk property changes due to the nanoSiO 2 on the surface, as well as stabilizing this layer. x

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CHAPTER 1 LITERATURE REVIEW AND INTRODUCTION Introduction to Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Research In recent years, there has been increasing interest surrounding the fabrication of composite microand nano-structured materials using the self-assembly of polymers. A number of novel possibilities arise from using self-assembly processes of polymers: by involving electrostatic interactions, multilayered materials with unique and tailored properties can be built. The pioneering work on synthetic nanoscale heterostructures of organic molecules was carried out by the Kuhn group [1] in the late 1960s using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique, in which monolayers of polymer are formed on a water surface and then transferred onto a solid support as a single layer of molecular chains on the surface. Their experiments with donor and acceptor dyes in different layers of LB films provided direct proof of distance-dependent Frster energy transfer on the nanoscale. These experiments were also the first true nanomanipulations, as they allowed for the mechanical handling of individual molecular layers (such as separation and contact formation) with ngstrom precision. However, the LB technique requires special equipment and has severe limitations with respect to substrate size and topology as well as film quality and stability. Hong and Decher first proved the concept of alternating exposure of a charged substrate to solutions of positive or negative polyelectrolytes [2]. Provided that each adsorption step leads to charge inversion of the surface, the subsequent deposition finally results in a layered complex, stabilized by strong electrostatic forces, so-called self1

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2 assembled polyelectrolyte multilayers. Since the electrostatic interactions are a very general principle, the process is very versatile with respect to the incorporation of different charged compounds or nanoobjects. As building blocks, for example, inorganic nanoparticles such as gold colloids [3], functional polymers such as temperature-sensitive compounds [4], orientable chromophores [5, 6], and mesogenic units inducing local order [7] have been employed. Further work involves the deposition of proteins into multilayers [8-12]. This principle of layer formation has not only been applied to achieve adsorption onto planar substrates but has even been applied to colloidal particles [13-16], a development which had a major impact in the field. The use of colloidal surfaces is particularly attractive, since not only can the core particle be controlled but also the particles within the layers. Microand nanoparticles are being studied for use in drug delivery systems [17] as well as removing toxins during water treatment [18]. Layered particles can maximize the amount of drug carried and help control diffusion rates as well as concentrations of toxins adsorbed, whether in the body or the environment. And recently, core particles that have been removed to produce hollow shell materials have promising structures for future applications [4, 19-22]. A number of external parameters, such as ionic strength of the solutions, the polyion concentration, the charge density of the polyions, and the molecular weight, are known to influence the resulting layer structure. By varying these parameters during the deposition process, there are an infinite number of structures and, thus, properties for these tailored formations.

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3 Multilayered films of organic compounds on solid surfaces have been studied for more than 60 years because they allow fabrication of multicomposite molecular assemblies of tailored architecture [2, 23-25]. It has been well documented that the physisorption or chemisorption of polyelectrolytes onto suface-functionalized substrates can lead to the deposition of molecularly thin surface films. The controlled and selective surface modification of colloidal particles allows the fabrication of composite materials with tailored and unique properties for various applications in the areas of coating, electronics, photonics, catalysis, sensing, and separations. Composite particles that contain an inner core covered by a shell exhibit significantly different properties from those of the core itself (for example, surface chemical composition, increased stability, higher surface area, as well as different magnetic and optical properties). The surface properties are governed by the characteristics of the shell coating [26]. The interest in the fabrication of layer-by-layer assembled multicomposite particles has increased in the last few years as evidenced by the increase in the number of papers dealing with this issue. Polyelectrolytes bearing dissociated ionic groups are one type of matter that can be used as the multilayered shell of these composite particles. Their unique properties, dominated by strong long-range electrostatic interactions, have been studied extensively over the past few decades [27, 28], and due to their ability to adsorb strongly onto oppositely charged surfaces, polyelectrolytes make good candidates for creating the multilayered shells on core particles. The concept of electrostatically driven assembly of multilayer structures allows for the incorporation of a wealth of different materials [29]. Applications for Polyelectrolyte Multilayered Particles There is a wide application of natural and synthetic polymers in medicine, paper making, mineral separation, paint and food industries, cosmetics and pharmacy, water

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4 treatment processes, and soil remediation [30]. A thorough understanding of polyelectrolytes has become increasingly important in biochemistry and molecular biology. The reason is that virtually all proteins, as well as DNA, are polyelectrolytes. Their interactions with each other and with the charged cell membrane are still very much a mystery. As shown schematically in Fig. 1-1, electrostatic interactions between the polyion in solution and the surface are the key to the final structure of the polyion layered thin film; however, secondary, shorter range forces also play a role in determining the film thickness, the final morphology of the film, the surface properties, and in some cases, can determine whether or not stable multilayers can form at all. Figure 1-1: Schematic of forces influencing properties of layer-by-layer films, and the Electrostatic Forces Dispersion Forces H-bonding Layer Thickness Layer Morphology Surface Properties Transport Properties Applications: Separations Drug Delivery ites tterning s Biosensors Dental Compos Selective Pa Selective Membrane applications achieved by controlling or manipulating interactions [31].

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5 These secondary interactions can also play a role in the selective deposition of polymers on surfaces, the formation of acentric polar structures, and the nature of permeation and ion transport within the film [31]. An understanding of these interactions, as well as an ability to combine polyions with other charged systems, dimensional polymer structures and patterns, selective membranes, and a range of functional organic and organic-organic hybrid composite thin films can be produced. Ionic interactions are the most versatile; they permit the use of water as a solvent, which is both environmentally attractive and allows the use of charged biopolymers such as DNA, as well as polyelectrolytes, proteins, colloids, and many other charged or chargeable materials. One potential property of such devices is a simple dynamic structure in which the distance between two layers of hard objects (colloids or proteins) is adjusted by controlling the degree of swelling in an intermediate soft layer (polyelectrolyte) simply by changing, for example, humidity. The physiochemical properties of the resulting architectures can be largely modified by varying the number of deposited layers, by changing the nature of the polyelectrolytes, the pH or the ionic strength. The large versatility of the concept allows numerous applications in the biomedical field ranging from modification of biomaterial surfaces to the construction of enzymatic nanoreactors in which a cascade of reactions can be induced. Current Characterization Techniques for Polyelectrolyte Multilayers There are many ways to determine layer thickness as well as surface roughness. Some of the techniques that have been used are transmission electron microscopy (TEM) [21], single-particle light scattering (SPLS) [13], scanning electron microscopy (SEM) [21], atomic force microscopy (AFM) [32], nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) [33], IR-spectroscopy, x-ray reflectivity [34], and using tagged molecules (e.g., 14 C).

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6 Considerable published evidence exists [35-39] on the ability of polyelectrolytes to associate on the surface of particles, but the stability of such single or multilayer assemblies has not been thoroughly evaluated. The major advantages of layer-by-layer adsorption from solution are that multiple unique materials can be incorporated in individual layers on core particles and that the final particle architectures and properties are completely determined by the deposition sequence. Novelty and Scope of Study In this thesis, the basic principles of layer formation and internal properties of multilayer formation was studied, starting from simple concepts describing the initial adsorption process, and then advancing towards the bulk properties of the system, such as flow properties. The focus was on fundamental physical properties and the evolution of more realistic models from first simple model ideas for a drug delivery particulate system. Oppositely charged polyelectrolytes were used as multilayers on SiO 2 core particles. The layers of polyelectrolytes represent layers of oppositely charged species such as proteins and biological drugs. SiO 2 was used as the core because it has been used in many biomedical composites and is the main component in dental composites. If layered particles are to delivery drugs or absorb toxins from the body or the environment, a core material like SiO 2 is a practical choice. As layers of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes are sequentially adsorbed, the surface properties of the particles changesurface chemistry, charge, sizeaffecting bulk properties such as the conditions for flocculation and viscosity. The layers were prepared and characterized using kinetics of adsorption, adsorption studies, as well as electrophoresis and desorption studies. The mechanism of adsorption can be described as the self-assembly process involving electrostatic interactions. The internal dynamics and stability of the interacting

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7 layers were expected to be strongly dependent on the coupling of the charges between subsequently deposited layers. For biopolymers such as DNA and proteins, the association between counterions and the backbone chain is electrostatic in origin. In order to design new technologies with charged polymers the fundamental time scales and length scales of polymer and counterion association need to be quantified. Charged polymers present a challenge due to the long-range electrostatic interactions and coupled dynamics between small, fast-moving counterions and polymers. Practical methods such as Langmuir adsorption isotherms and electrophoretic mobility measurements were used to characterize the change of chemistry and charge on the surface. The thickness of the polymer layer which gives rise to steric stability depends on the conformation of the polymer at the interface. In order to determine the adsorbed layer thickness of the first polymer layer, conditions were kept natural with no salt or pH adjustments. At first, polyelectrolytes were mainly used as rheology modifiers, and one of the most interesting uses of these materials has been the stabilization of a wide variety of colloidal systems. The specificity of interactions between the particles as a function of polymer layer is studied mainly through zeta potential measurements and rheological methods. In the case of inorganic oxides dispersed in water, due to the interaction of the solid colloidal particles with the dispersing phase, there is the development of charged surface sites (depending on the dispersing phase pH) according to these reactions [40]: oxide MOH + H + oxide MOH 2 + (1) oxide M + + H 2 O (2) oxide MOH + OH oxide M(OH) 2 (3)

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8 oxide MO + H 2 O (4) An ionic surface is formed and, because of these charges, ions of opposite charge tend to cluster. During the past forty years, theories have been developed to describe the adsorption and conformation of polymer at the solid-liquid interface and also, theories have been developed to explain particle-particle interactions in the presence of polymers [16, 41-43]. Several important factors such as Brownian motion of the particles, particle size, particle size distribution, particle shape, volume fraction of the particles, the viscosity of the suspending media, and the range of particle-particle interactions govern the suspension properties. Goal of Study In order to tailor specific properties, a basic understanding of the structure and the control of the process of layer formation is required. There is thus a demand for further fundamental studies and for basic physical understanding. Specific properties of polyelectrolyte multilayers, which are of fundamental physical interest, include the fact that polyelectrolyte multilayers form two-dimensionally stratified layers, which grow step by step in three dimensions. This leads to a behavior being dominated by internal interfaces, and differing from the corresponding volume properties of the material. In order to use these particles as a model for drug delivery or medical composite systems, the appropriate methods for preparation and characterization must be performed. After successfully creating multilayers of nanoscale films on SiO 2 core particles, nanoscale SiO 2 was adsorbed onto rthe positively charged surface.

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9 Recently, shear thinning and shear thickening have been predicted and observed [44, 45]. Shear thickening is believed to be correlated to the loss of close packed layer ordering [46]. Addition of a polymer to a colloidal dispersion is also found to change the structural ordering dramatically and often leads to a phase separation [43, 47]. Behavior of charged colloids as a function of volume fraction () and ionic strength has been extensively studied both experimentally [48] as well as theoretically [49]; however, the stability of colloidal dispersions as a function of surface charge density has been examined only recently [50, 51]. The importance of the change in rheological properties was examined as layer number increases. As the number of polymer layers on the surface increases, the effective volume fraction, and thus the viscosity also increases. The conditions for flocculation also change. It is important to understand how the rheological properties can be affected by adding polyelectrolyte layers if the particles are to be used as drug delivery devices or for the adsorption of toxins.

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CHAPTER 2 MATERIALS AND METHODS Introduction to Materials: Biomedical Applications SiO 2 is used for a variety of biomedical applications. This material is used as filler in dental composites, in nanostructured materials and coatings for biomedical sensors [52], for coatings on hip replacements, and coatings with antibacterial activity. Nanoporous SiO 2 in also used in biomedical applications. SiO 2 particles are known to have a high binding capacity for DNA [53], and it is possible to put entire genes into nanoporous SiO 2 One can envision using these SiO 2 particles as vectors for targeted drug or DNA delivery [54]. Since SiO 2 has a negative surface charge at pH > 3, this material is a good candidate to model a drug delivery system with electrostatic interactions. Materials The SiO 2 particles used in this study were nearly monodisperse of approximately 1.5 m in diameter (d 50 value) with a specific surface area of 2.19 m 2 /g [39]. The purity and density of the powder were 99.9% and 2.1 g/cm 3 respectively. SiO 2 particles were provided by Geltech Corporation and were used as received. Sizing of the SiO 2 particles was performed using the Coulter LS230 at pH = 9 so that the SiO 2 particles were completely dispersed. Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC), M w < 200,000, and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS), M w = 70,000, were purchased from Aldrich and were used as received, at 20% wt and 30% wt in water, respectively. PDADMAC and PSS repeat units are shown in Fig. 3-1. As stated earlier, the charged 10

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11 polymers model charged species such as proteins, DNA, and some biological drugs used to remove toxins. The SiO 2 nanoparticles (19% wt SiO 2 suspension in water, diameter = 13 nm as determined from TEM) were provided by from Nissan Chemical Industries, Ltd. The water used in all experiments was high-purity deionized water prepared in a three-stage Millipore Milli-Q Plus 185 purification system and had a resistivity of 18 M/cm. All experiments in this work were conducted in the absence of any added salt and under the natural pH of the system. All centrifugations were conducted for 15 minutes at 8000 rpm (14400g). PDADMAC PSS Figure 2-1: Chemical structures of PDADMAC and PSS repeat units. Study of PDADMAC Adsorption The multilayers of charged polymers were formed by alternating adsorption of polycations and polyanions. Since SiO 2 has a negative surface charge at the conditions used, the PDADMAC was the first layer to be adsorbed. In order to understand the properties and structure of what is made, an investigative study was done. This study began with determining the adsorption development of PDADMAC on SiO 2 particles. All adsorption experiments were conducted at room temperature (25C) using suspensions of 2% vol SiO 2 with no salt added. The SiO 2 particles were added to varying polyelectrolyte dosages using a 1-g/L aqueous PDADMAC stock solution.

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12 Depending upon the polymer dosage, the PDADMAC stock solution was diluted with high purity deionized water to the desired concentration and used as the suspending fluid. The required mass of dry particles was slowly added to the PDADMAC solution. After addition of particles, the suspensions were ultrasonicated for eight minutes and left on a Burrell Model 75 wrist shaker for 15 minutes in order for equilibrium and maximum adsorption to be reached. Ultrasonicating and shaking ensures a uniformly charged surface on the core SiO 2 particles by exposing the entire surface to the polycation. After equilibration, the samples were centrifuged. The supernatant was stored in a refrigerator and later used for analysis by Tekmar-Dorhman Phoenix 8000 Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analyzer. TOC measurements were made on the Tekmar-Dorhman Phoenix 8000 TOC Analyzer utilizing UV light and chemical oxidation techniques to break down species containing organic carbon (such as polymers or surfactants) to CO 2 which is then analyzed using a non-dispersive infra-red (NDIR) detector for quantification. The instrument can analyze samples containing as little as 2 ppb carbon. Kinetics of Adsorption Another important part of preparing multilayered particles for use in drug delivery is the time of adsorption. Whether the layered particles will by adsorbing toxins in the body or releasing drugs, kinetics and diffusion are very important to understand. In biomedical applications, it is vital to know how long the drugs or other materials will be in contact with the cell membranes or how quickly the particles can adsorb substances harmful to the body. To study the kinetics of adsorption, all dispersions were prepared at a polymer dosage of 6 mg/(g solids). The required mass of dry particles was slowly added to the PDADMAC solution, and the suspensions were sonicated for five minutes and left on the shaker for times ranging from 0 to 180 minutes. The samples were then

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13 centrifuged and the supernatant removed. The residual polymer solutions were stored in a refrigerator and later used for residual carbon analysis. The TOC helped to determine how much polymer was adsorbed on the surface of the particles, and then a correlation between time and concentration were made. Adsorption Isotherm Also important is to determine the adsorption density of the polymer on the surface. The molecular weight as well as chemical structure of the polyion can affect the density of the polymer on the surface. It has been well established that adsorbed concentration as well as ionic strength can affect the morphology on the surface [7, 16, 35, 55]. After centrifugation, the supernatants were analyzed for organic carbon. Using a dilution factor of 100, high-purity deionized water was used to dilute the residual solutions. The TOC calibration produced an acceptance criteria of R 2 = 0.99972 for aqueous solutions of PDADMAC. Electrophoretic Mobility (EPM) Measurements A practical method for determining if the surface charge of the SiO 2 particles has changed after adding the cationic polyelectrolyte into the system is to use electrophoretic mobility (EPM) measurements. Electrophoretic mobility is the rate of migration per unit of electric field strength of a charged particle in a solution under the influence of an applied electric field. From the EPM measurements, the zeta potential, or electric potential at the shear plane, can be determined. The shear plane (slipping plane) is an imaginary surface separating the thin layer of liquid bound to the solid surface and showing elastic behavior from the rest of liquid showing normal viscous behavior. The net charge at the particle surface affects the ion distribution in the nearby region, increasing the concentration of counterions close to the surface. Thus, an electric double

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14 layer is formed in the region of the particle-liquid interface. Figure 2-2 shows this double layer and where the zeta potential originates. This double layer (upper part of figure) consists of two parts: an inner region that includes ions bound relatively tightly to the surface, and an outer region where a balance of electrostatic forces and random thermal motion determines the ion distribution. The potential in this region, therefore, decays with increasing distance from the surface until, at sufficient distance, it reaches the bulk solution value, conventionally taken to be zero. This decay is shown by the lower part of the figure and the indication is given that the zeta potential is the value at the surface of shear [56]. Figure 2-2: A schematic of the double layer and ion distribution on a particles surface (upper part of figure), and a depiction of the zeta potential at the shear (lower part of figure). Electrophoretic mobilities of the bare SiO 2 and PDADMAC-coated SiO 2 particles were measured using a Zeta Reader Mark 21 at 25C with no salt added. The apparatus

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15 transforms the electrophoretic mobility u (m 2 /Vs) into a -potential (mV) by using the Smoluchowski relation = u/ (5) where (Pas) and (C/mV) are the viscosity and permittivity of the solution, respectively. Measured amounts of dry SiO 2 were added the 1-g/L PDADMAC stock solution to achieve a range of dosages. The 0.05% vol dispersions of the bare SiO 2 and the 0.05% vol dispersions of the PDADMAC-coated SiO 2 were sonicated for three minutes to break up any aggregates and left on the shaker for 30 minutes to ensure equilibrium and complete PDADMAC adsorption before the measurements were made. Desorption Study For either drug delivery or toxin removal, desorption of the polymer layers is important to understand. If drugs are to be incorporated into a multilayered particulate system, they must remain adsorbed until the external parameters change and they can be released. Desorption behavior is a crucial part of achieving safe and effective time released drug delivery systems. For toxin removal, the multilayers must stay intact while in the body and adsorbing toxins. For these desorption studies, dispersions of 2% vol were prepared at a polymer dosage of 15 mg/(g solids), ultrasonicated for five minutes and left on the shaker for one hour. The samples were centrifuged and the supernatant removed. The residual polymer solutions were stored in a refrigerator until analyzed by TOC. High-purity deionized water was added to redisperse the samples in 2% vol dispersions. The samples were ultrasonicated for five minutes, left on the shaker for one hour, and centrifuged again. The multiwashing steps were repeated up to five times.

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16 Study of PSS Adsorption In order to achieve multilayers, an anionic polyelectrolyte is used, PSS. After centrifugation and removal of residual PDADMAC, the particles were suspended in a solution containing 15 mg/(g solids) of PSS polymer. After addition of the particles, the 2% vol suspensions were ultrasonicated for eight minutes and left on a Burrell Model 75 wrist shaker for one hour to ensure complete polyanion adsorption onto the PDADMAC-coated SiO 2 particles. Excess polyelectrolyte was removed after centrifugation. Figure 2-3: Schematic showing the layer-by-layer adsorption of PDADMAC and PSS on SiO 2 core particle. Rheology While the rheology of suspensions of hard spheres seems to be rather well understood by now [39, 44, 57, 58], the flow behavior of particles stabilized by multilayers of long polymer chains is still in need of further investigation. Rheological studies of multilayered particles is a novel idea. Depending on the application of the particles, they will be influenced by external forces. One of these forces, shear, is easily induced in processing as well as for quality purposes. The rheology measurements can give an idea of the physical properties of the particles. Environments where the multilayered particles will experience shear are the bloodstream, processing conditions, and perhaps, while being injected into the body. No one has shown the effects of shear as layer number and composition changes. The rheological study performed involves each

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17 the PDADMAC and PSS layers. Both polyions have different molecular weights, chain lengths, and chemical structures. These factors will have an affect on the particle-particle interactions as well as over long-range hydrostatic interactions. Rheological measurements are how to quantify these affects. Properties of Suspensions for Rheological Studies Since the rheological properties of suspensions vary over an extremely wide range depending upon volume fraction of the particles, shear rate, and particle-particle interactions [59], different kinds of rheological instruments must be used to determine the viscosity of the suspensions at different shear rates and volume fraction of the particles. Since deviations from homogeneity (e.g., phase separation) and sedimentation of the particles can lead to serious errors, it is most important to make sure the samples have been ultrasonicated and left on the shaker for a suitable time period. The method used to determine the rheological properties of suspensions depends on the characteristics of the material to be studied. From the rheological point of view, suspensions can be classified as follows [60]: 1. Dilute, low viscosity stable suspensions (viscous fluids) 2. Concentrated, high viscosity stable suspensions (viscoelastic fluids) 3. Solid suspensions (elastic solids) 4. Flocculated and coagulated suspensions (viscoelastic fluids with time dependent properties) The state of a suspension at rest is determined by a balance between the Brownian motion of the particles and interparticle forces. The suspension is considered to be dilute if the Brownian motion is dominant and concentrated if particle-particle interactions predominate [58].

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18 Preparation of Suspensions for Parallel Plate Method All SiO 2 suspensions were prepared at room temperature (25C) with 50% vol of solids, with no salt added. PDADMAC was the first layer to be deposited on the SiO 2 core particles. The SiO 2 particles were added to varying polyelectrolyte dosages using a 30and 60-g/L aqueous PDADMAC stock solution. Depending upon the polymer dosage, the PDADMAC stock solution was diluted with high purity deionized water to the desired concentration and used as the suspending fluid. The required mass of dry particles was slowly added to the PDADMAC solution. After addition of particles, the suspensions were ultrasonicated for 30 minutes and left on a Burrell Model 75 wrist shaker for 24 hours in order for equilibrium and maximum adsorption to be reached. Ultrasonicating and shaking ensures a uniformly charged surface on the core silica particles by exposing the entire surface to the polycation. Using Paar Physica UDS 200 rheometer, at 25C, viscosity as a function of shear rate was measured at increasing PDADMAC dosage, 0 to 20 mg/(g solids). PSS was added as the second layer onto the PDADMAC-coated SiO 2 particles. After centrifugation and removal of residual PDADMAC, the particles were suspended in a solution containing 15 mg/(g solids) of PSS polymer. After addition of the particles, the 50% vol suspensions were sonicated for 30 minutes and left on a Burrell Model 75 wrist shaker for 24 hours to ensure complete polyanion adsorption onto the PDADMAC-coated SiO 2 particles. Excess polyelectrolyte was removed after centrifugation. All samples were sonicated for five minutes prior to running the rheometer. Only 15 mg/(g solids) PSS was used for viscosity measurements.

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19 Parallel Plate Rheological Measurements The Paar Physica UDS 200 is a rotational rheometer that can be used to measure shear viscosity, viscoelastic functions, creep, and yield stress of materials using different geometries such as cone-and-plate, parallel-plate, and concentric cylinder. Tests can be performed under controlled "shear rate" or controlled "stress. In this study, the parallel-plate geometry is used and the tempertature controlled at 25C. The sample is loaded into the space between the two plates. One of the confining surfaces is held stationary, while the other one is made to rotate. The applied torque required to turn the rotating plate is measured. This method will be used to determine differences in viscosity and storage and loss moduli as the layer composition changes. Changes in viscosity should be seen since the effective volume fraction of the particles is increasing. Changes in storage and loss modulus will give an idea of any structural organization, such as gelation, that may be occurring. Measurement of Adsorption Layer Thickness of PDADMAC Adsorbed layer thickness, h is dependent on polymer chemistry, chain length, ionic strength of the solvent, pH, and the ionic strength of the polyion. The thickness of the polymer layer changes the properties of the particles, such as viscosity, and can affect the applications and processing limitations. The modification of the viscosity by an adsorbed layer of a surfactant or a polymer can be modeled in terms of an appropriate increase h of the radius a of the particles. This leads to the increase in the volume fraction, of the particles, which is related to the viscosity of the suspension through Einsteins equation [61]:

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20 / o = 1 + k (6) where (Pas) is the viscosity of the suspension and o (Pas) is the viscosity of the liquid phase. Einstein determined a k coefficient equal to 2.5, which is only valid for an infinitely dilute suspension. The SiO 2 particles in this study have a radius of 0.75 m, and are considered fine, so it is necessary to determine the value of k, Einsteins coefficient. Other methods of determining the adsorbed layer thickness of a polymer on colloids are repoted in the literature. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) [62], small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) [63],TEM [32], x-ray reflectivity [24], and uv-vis absorbance [21]. All of these methods require the knowledge of complicated equipment and derivations. In this work, the relationship between changes in relative viscosity due to the addition of the polyions is used (Einsteins equation) as well as radius of gyration (R g ) calculations. Preparation of suspensions for glass capillary method Two sets of suspensions were prepared for the glass capillary method. The first, a series of stable SiO 2 suspensions (SiO 2 and deionized water) exhibiting various volume fractions up to 20% vol SiO 2 were prepared. After ultrasonicating and shaking for 24 hours, the viscosities () were determined. The second set of suspensions contained SiO 2 particles and varying PDADMAC concentrations up to 4% vol SiO 2 The SiO 2 particles were added to varying PDADMAC concentrations. Depending on the dosage, the PDADMAC stock solution was diluted with high purity deionized water to the desired concentration and used as the suspending fluid. Several suspensions were prepared at a natural pH of 3 with various PDADMAC

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21 concentrations (MW < 200000). After ultrasonicating and shaking for 24 hours, the viscosity of the suspensions () and of the corresponding mother liquors ( o ) were measured. Glass capillary rheological measurements The glass capillary method was used to determine the adsorbed layer thickness of PDADMAC on SiO 2 particles. The glass capillary method has been shown to be an effective method of determining the viscosity of dilute stable supensions over a wide range by varying the capillary diameter [64]. In this simple technique, the time required for a given volume of sample to flow through the length of the capillary, from point A to B, under its own hydrostatic head is measured. Figure 2-4: Cannon-Fenske glass capillary viscometer. Flow (efflux) times, t (s), are related to the viscosity of the sample by an equation of the form / = = at + b/t (7)

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22 where (cP) is the dynamic viscosity, (g/cm 3 ) is the density of the fluid, (is the kinematic viscosity (cSt), and a (cSt/s) and b are instrument constants. The last term in the above equation is related to the kinetic energy correction which is negligible for flow times over about two minutes. The liquid in the bulb above the capillary provides the driving force, and since the height change is relatively small, pressure changes are small during the test. Glass capillary viscometers are usually used for low viscosity samples. Capillaries of different diameters are used for different viscosity ranges to keep flow time through the capillary in the range of 2-5 minutes. In this case, one capillary diameter was used. Before the measurement was made, the capillary was cleaned of all debris and dried with compressed air. After the sample was suctioned into the glass capillary up to the appropriate line, the glass capillary was immersed in a constant temperature bath of 25C. After waiting five minutes to allow for temperature equilibration and no bubbles were present, the timer was started and stopped when the sample reached the appropriate marks on the glass capillary. This procedure was repeated three times. Since all the readings were within 180-360 seconds, only one glass capillary was used. The visocmeter calibration constant was multiplied by the average time (in seconds) to determine the kinematic viscosity, of the sample by using the above equation with b = 0. The kinematic vsicosity was then multiplied by the density of the suspension, shown in Eqn. 8. to determine the relative viscosity, = / (8)

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23 Effective volume fraction (EVF) calculations The adsorbed polymer creates a coating on the surface of the particle with a significant thickness and therefore, the particles have an effective radius, a eff that is larger than the radius of the core particles. These systems may be treated as hard spheres if an effective volume fraction is used instead of the core volume fraction of the particles [57]. Effective volume fraction (EVF) is defined as [41] eff = (a eff /a) 3 (9) where eff is effective volume fraction, and is the core volume fraction of the particles. In the case of sterically stabilized suspensions, a eff may be written as [41] a eff = a + (10) where (nm) is the adsorbed layer thickness. R g (Radius of Gyration) Calculations One method to calculate the adsorbed layer thickness without making experimental measurements, is to use the radius of gyration, R g of the polymer. The R g is the measure of the end-to-end distance a polymer chain. Therefore, the thickness of the monolayer of polymer on the surface of the SiO 2 particles should be close in value to the R g R g however, depends on the solvent, the temperature, the molecular weight, and chemical composition of the polymer. Depending on the conformation of the polymer on the surface, the R g may or may not be a good predictor of adsorbed layer thickness. By using the equations r 2 = NL 2 (11) and R g 2 = r 2 /6 (12)

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24 the R g can be estimated. N is the number of segments in the polymer chain and depends on the molecular weight and chemical structure. L is the length of each segment, or the persistence length. Persistence length is the average projection of the end-to-end vector on the tangent to the chain contour at a chain end in the limit of infinite chain length. The persistence length is the basic characteristic of the worm-like chain [65]. Tricot [66] reports a persistence length of 27 for PDADMAC (MW = 250,000 g/mol). This is not the molecular weight of the PDADMAC used in this work, so the calculated R g will be an approximation. Study of NanoSiO 2 Layer In this work, the nanoSiO 2 represents charged drugs that can be delivered to the bodys cells. For toxin removal, by incorporating nanoparticles as one of the layers, there is an increase in surface area as well as surface energy. Adsorption of toxins should increase due to the addition of a monolayer of nanoparticles. After removing excess PDADMAC from the PDADMAC-coated SiO 2 suspension, a 25-g/L solution of ultra pure water and nanoSiO 2 was added. In order to confirm that the nanoSiO 2 was adsorbed onto the positively charged surface, zeta potential measurements were made using the Colloidal Dynamic Acoustosizer IIs. The Colloidal Dynamics Acoustosizer uses the Electrokinetic Sonic Amplitude (ESA) effect. Charged particles in suspension are forced to move by an oscillating electric field to produce acoustic compression waves (i.e., sound waves at the frequency of the excitation). Changes in density as the particles move towards and away from the electrodes generate acoustic waves at the surface of the electrodes as an echo of the excitation. The amplitude of the acoustic response is proportional to the velocity of the particle caused by the electric field. The velocity is proportional to the electric field amplitude. The "constant" of proportionality is the

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25 dynamic mobility, which can be shown to be a function of particle size, zeta potential, frequency, and phase lag of the particles velocity relative to the excitation frequency. This relationship is used to extract the particle size and surface charge (zeta potential) from measurement of the ESA. The advantage of this technique is that it can be applied to very concentrated suspensions (up to 40 vol%). After the zeta potential measurments were conducted, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine any changes in surface structure of the layered particles.

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CHAPTER 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Adsorption of PDADMAC Kinetics of adsorption was studied to determine the time it takes for complete adsorption of PDADMAC onto the surface of the SiO 2 particles to occur. Fig. 3-1 shows the results from this kinetics study. Adsorption density of the polymer was determined as a function of time for samples prepared using a polymer dosage of 6 mg/(g solids). After mixing the particles with the polymer solution, samples were ultrasonicated for five minutes and then left on a shaker for a given period of time, ranging from 0 to 180 minutes. An adsorption density of 0.4 mg/m 2 is reached in less than 30 minutes. The time of centrifugation and ultrasonication are included in the final time of adsorption. The adsorption density varies by less than 0.1 mg/m 2 but shows a steady plateau around 0.4 mg/m 2 The shape of the kinetic curve is typical: a linear increase, which ends rather abruptly. This study shows that the polycation completely adsorbs to the SiO 2 surface very quickly. In the fabrication of multilayers adsorbed onto colloids, additional aspects have to be considered: competing with the formation of a defined monolayer around the particle is the process of coagulation of partly covered particles. The corresponding timescales of adsorption and coagulation are crucial for successful multilayer formation on single colloids, as seen from the following: the rate of polymer chain adsorption (s/m 2 ) onto a particle is given by [67]: k ads = 4R pa D pol c pol (13) 26

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27 using the assumption of an irreversible and diffusion controlled adsorption. R pa () is the radius of the particle D pol (m 2 /s) is the polymer diffusion coefficient, c pol (mg/mL) the polymer concentration. The competing process, the rate of collisions (s/m 2 ) between particles, can be described k coll = 4R pa 2D pa c pa (14) with D pa (m 2 /s) and c pa (mg/mL) as the diffusion coefficient and concentration of particles, respectively. The factor 2 takes into account the fact that both objects are diffusing. The requirement of a fast chain adsorption is thus fulfilled if the polymer concentration is large compared to the particle concentration. For medical composite systems like drug delivery processes, if charged species are used and electrostatic interaction is the mechanism of adsorption, it is important to understand the kinetics of this charged process, whether it be for the process of adsorbing toxins or processing the multilayered systems. For removing toxins, the process of adsorbing charged chemicals or molecules must be quick in order to avoid the death of cells. 00.20.40.6050100150200Time, minutes, mg/m2 Figure 3-1: Adsorption density as a function of time for SiO 2 -PDADMAC system (25C, pH = 4.58).

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28 For the 2% vol SiO 2 suspension containing PDADMAC (M w < 200,000 g/mol), an adsorption isotherm was determined by analyzing the initial solution and the residual solution removed after centrifuging. The adsorption isotherm for SiO 2 suspension containing PDADMAC can be seen in Fig. 3-2. This curve has a typical shape with a very steep increase at extremely low C eq followed by a saturation plateau where is nearly independent of concentration. is the adsorption density of the polycation adsorbed on the surface of the particles. The residual solution was tested for organic carbon by TOC measurements. In Fig. 3-2, coverages approaching 0.5 mg/m 2 were observed at high concentrations of PDADMAC, on the apparent plateau of the isotherm. At the surface of the SiO 2 the average interfacial conformation of the PDADMAC chains may be changing with coverage to include some segments that are loosely attached to the surface, as small tails or loops. This may result from repulsions within the adsorbed layer, which can be long range at the low ionic strength [55]. When increasing the amount of polymer added to the system, giving higher coverages above 0.6 mg/m 2 the ionic strength is increased by ions brought along with the polymer. The increase in ionic strength resulting from the additional polymer in the system may screen long-range electrostatic repulsions, allowing chains to approach more closely or adsorb more flatly with decreased mobility [42]. The amount of polyelectrolyte adsorbed depends on the charge density of the surface, as well as the pH and ionic strength of the solution. The and charge density along the chain, and the pH and ionic strength are dominating parameters for polyelectrolyte adsorption to hard surfaces. In this study, the pH and ionic strength were not adjusted. Therefore, the flexibility, morphology, thickness, and transport properties of the monolayer depends on the chemical structure, MW, and

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29 amount of polyelectrolyte adsorbed. Error analysis of this study included preparing three samples for each point and each sample was analyzed three times. The error calculated was negligible on the plot presented. 0.00.20.40.60.00.20.40.60.81.0Ceq g/L, mg/m2 Figure 3-2: Adsorption density as a function of equilibrium concentration of PDADMAC onto the surface of SiO 2 particles (25C, pH = 4.58). The zeta potential is a measure of electrostatic interactions between solid particles covered by polymer layers, and its magnitude depends on the adsorbed concentrations. The magnitude of the zeta potential gives an indication of the potential stability of the colloidal system. Literature reports that the SiO 2 surface charge is dependent on the pH value and the electrolyte concentration. At pH > 3, SiO 2 has a negative surface charge, and the surface becomes more negatively charged with increasing pH. In the case of bare SiO 2 there is a plateau in basic solution, and the point of zero charge, near pH = 3.0 3.5 [42]. The bare SiO 2 particles are well dispersed above pH = 3, and the negative charge of the SiO 2 surface will allow for electrostatic adsorption of the PDADMAC onto the SiO 2 core particles. At a pH < 3, the surface of the SiO 2 particles will have a positive charge, and a PDADMAC monolayer will not form based on electrostatic forces.

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30 Fig. 3-3 represents zeta potential as a function of PDADMAC dosage and, as can be observed, the magnitude of zeta potential increases as more polymer is adsorbed onto the surface of SiO 2 particles. As shown in Fig. 3-3, zeta potential will reach a plateau at a polymer dosage of 10 mg/(g solids). This dosage corresponds with the adsorption density of 0.5 mg/m 2 shown in Fig. 3-2. -40-200204060800510152025PDADMAC Dosage, mg/(g solids)Smoluchowski Zeta Potential, mV Figure 3-3: Zeta potential as a function of polymer dosage for SiO 2 -PDADMAC system (25C, pH = 4.58). Both figures indicate that maximum saturation of the 1.5-m SiO 2 particles, in natural pH and ionic strength conditions, occurs at an adsorption density of 0.5 mg/m 2 of PDADMAC. Increasing the amount of polymer stabilizes the dispersion, and none or only very weak repulsive forces exist in such a case. The zeta potential also increases but begins to level off around +62 mV. Optimal flocculation in salt-free environments is observed at the isoelectric point ( = 0). The plateau indicates a complete saturation of SiO 2 core particles with the polycation above 10 mg/(g solids). For error analysis four samples for each point were analyzed four times due to the sensitivity of the TOC analysis. The error was negligible the on the plot presented. Particles with zeta

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31 potentials more positive than +30 mV are normally considered stable, and at a zeta potential of +62 mV, the surface of SiO 2 is completely covered with the PDADMAC. Desorption of PDADMAC and PSS To study the desorption of PDADMAC from the surface of SiO 2 particles, samples were centrifuged and re-dispersed in pure water several times. The supernatants were analyzed for desorbed carbon using a TOC analyzer. The bare SiO 2 particles were mixed with a concentration of 0.63 g/L of PDADMAC. The supernatant removed after the first centrifugation contained 0.57 g/L of PDADMAC, shown in Fig. 3-4, leaving 0.06 g/L PDADMAC on the surface of the SiO 2 particles. After adding deionized water, redispersing the PDADMAC-coated particles, and centrifuging again, the desorbed PDADMAC in the supernatant is measured using TOC up to five times. This study indicates that after centrifuging and washing with water, the PDADMAC was not removed from the surface of the SiO 2 particles. Preliminary TOC measurements on the desorption of PSS produce similar results. After centrifugation, not all of the PSS was removed from the solution. PSS remained on the surface of the PDADMAC-coated SiO 2 particles. EPM measurements also supported this observation. The polymer layers must remain intact throughout the processing procedure. Excess polyion in solution is removed through physical means and washing with pure water. The electrostatic interaction between the layers and the surface of the SiO 2 is very strong. For a drug delivery system, however, the layers of polymer should be released due to changes in external parameters, such as pH, glucose concentration (for diabetes), or even high toxin levels. These parameters will have to be looked at in regards to the diffusion of the polymers away from the surface of the particles.

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32 00.20.40.60.8012345Number of WashesDesorbed Polymer, g/L Figure 3-4: Desorption study of PDADMAC on SiO 2 particles after centrifuging and washing with deionized water. Zeta Potential EPM measurements were conducted to follow the assembly of the PDADMAC/PSS multilayers onto the surface of SiO 2 particles. In the absence of polymers, SiO 2 samples exhibited a zeta potential of nearly equal to -23 mV in pure water (pH = 5). The zeta potential of the SiO 2 particles can be altered, depending on whether a polycation or a polyanion is adsorbed as the outermost layer [32]. The zeta potential of each layer is shown in Fig. 3-5. The zeta potential of the PDADMAC layer was +64 mV, a value consistent with the outermost layer being a polycation. The assembly of the second layer of PSS caused a reversal in sign of the zeta potential, from +64 mV to mV, an indication that the outermost layer is a polyanion. This reversal in sign occurred up to four total layers on the surface of the SiO 2 core particles, ending with a negative zeta potential, or PSS.

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33 -60-40-200204060800123Layer NumberSmoluchowski Zeta Potential, mV 4 Figure 3-5: Zeta potential measurements showing the change in surface charge as PDADMAC (Layer Number 1), PSS (Layer Number 2), PDADMAC (Layer Number 3), and PSS (Layer Number 4) are added (25C, pH = 4.35, in the absence of salt). The zeta potential measurements were conducted at a pH ~ 5.3 (above the isoelectric point of SiO 2 ), bare SiO 2 bears an overall negative charge at this pH. As subsequent adsorption of PDADMAC and PSS layers occurred, the zeta potential exhibited changes from positive to negative, respectively. The zeta potential values were +62 mV when PDADMAC formed the outermost layer and about mV when PSS formed the outer layer on the SiO 2 core particles. Caruso et al. [32] have reported a value of +45 mV for zeta potential when PDADMAC forms the outermost layer in the presence of 0.5 M NaCl in the system. The difference between the zeta potential values is due to the presence of salt in the system used by these investigators. The alternating sign of zeta potentials observed are characteristic of stepwise growth of multilayer films on colloids [14]. A similarly regular zeta potential has been observed after deposition of various polyion pairs. An interesting feature is the fact that the zeta potential oscillates between the same values, with saturation occurring around 60 mV after polycation adsorption, and around mV for polyanion adsorption. This implies that saturation occurs when a

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34 fixed potential is reached, independently of material employed. It provides evidence for the electrostatic repulsion by the outer layer being the mechanism controlling the adsorbed amount, and limiting further adsorption, and not the polyion stoichiometry with respect to the underlying layer. The silica-water interface contains a variety of silanol groups (Si-O-H) that can ionize to produce negative charges (Si-O ). Although the density of surface charges on silica at pH = 5 is quite low, the density of potential counterion sites is high because the silanol protons can exchange for other adsorbed cations [68]. This allows for the polycation adsorption. Additionally, the protonation of the oligomer itself contributes to the ionic strength of the solution. The influence of ions on the coverage in Fig. 3-2, however, cannot be observed since no salt was added to the system. The increase in ionic strength resulting from the addition of polymer to the system may screen long-range electrostatic repulsions, allowing chains to approach more closely or adsorb more flatly with decreased mobility. The charge of the polyions leads to enlarged polymer coils due to electrostatic repulsion between charged segments. Furthermore, adsorption of polyions onto oppositely charged particles is dominated by electrostatic forces whereby the adsorbed amount depends on shape, size, and conformation of the polyion coils. At low ionic strength, polyelectrolytes with high charge density, such as PDADMAC, tend to adsorb in a planar structure with a large portion of adsorbed trains [69]. As suggested by Schwarz et al. [70], the question remains that to what extent zeta potential and adsorption measurements can be applied to characterize stability or instability of dispersions in the presence of polyelectrolytes. As shown in Fig. 3-4, the

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35 magnitude of zeta potential increases by increasing the amount of polymer in the system. The repulsive forces which are caused by the positive charges of the polycations increase with increasing concentration of polyelectrolyte. This difference in magnitude of the zeta potential can be ascribed to variations in the conformation of the polyelectrolytes at the surface of quartz [71], which may arise from the differences in underlying surface morphology of the particles. The alternating values do qualitatively demonstrate a successful recharging of the particles surface with each polyelectrolyte deposition [68]. Adsorption of polyelectrolytes on oppositely charged surfaces depends strongly on the electrostatic interaction, so the nature and concentration of the salt in solution and the pH of solution may have a significant role. It has been observed that PDADMAC adsorption on the surface of SiO 2 particles increases with KCl concentrations [71]. Bremmell et al. [72] measured forces between SiO 2 surfaces in the presence of a cationic copolymer and 0.1 mM NaCl. They found that the force was purely attractive at low concentrations and repulsive above 50 ppm. Adsorbed Layer Thickness Adsorbed layer thickness can be calculated using many methods, as stated earlier. For example, when using UV-vis adsorption spectroscopy or x-ray reflectivity after the fabrication of multilayered particles [2, 24], the observed interference pattern, called Kiessig fringes, can be analyzed to give the overall film thickness as a function of layer number [24, 73]. As with many other systems prepared by this technique, they show that the total thickness of the multilayer assemblies increases linearly with the number of adsorbed layers, indicating a stepwise and regular deposition process. However, using these methods can be difficult and time consuming.

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36 Einsteins equation relates linearly the viscosity of the suspension to the volume fraction of particles in suspension. For dilute solutions (< 4% vol) a k coefficient is equal to 2.5. Fig. 3-6 shows that above 4% vol the suspension begins to deviate from Einsteins equation. r = 4.5763 + 0.9331 r = 2.5 + 11.001.201.401.601.8000.020.040.060.080.10.120.140.160.180.2Relative Viscosity, r Figure 3-6: Relative viscosities of dispersions versus volume fraction of SiO 2 in water. In order to determine adsorbed layer thickness for PDADMAC (MW < 200,000), increasing concentrations of PDADMAC were added to the SiO 2 core particles. As expected at a dosage of 10 mg/(g solids) a plateau begins, as shown in Fig. 3-7. From the previous adsorption isotherms and EPM measurements, this value makes sense. Complete coverage of the core particles was occurring. To determine the adsorbed layer thickness of the PDADMAC, a relative viscosity located on the plateau was used for calculations. For a PDADMAC dosage of 12 mg/(g solids), the relative viscosity recorded, 1.1989, corresponds to a volume fraction of 0.050, which amounts to 1.25 times the initial volume fraction, 0.04. As the SiO 2 particle has a radius of 0.75 m, if the volume fraction is multiplied by 1.25, the radius will be multiplied by (1.25) 1/3 which is an increase in radius that corresponds to a polymer thickness of 58 nm.

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37 Fig. 3-7 shows the increase in relative viscosity as a function of polymer concentration. It is clear that above 12 mg/(g solids) a monolayer of PDADMAC has adsorbed. The relative viscosity values at PDADMAC concentrations above 12 mg/(g solids) were used to plot the adsorbed layer thickness versus dosage of PDADMAC in Fig. 3-8. 0.800.850.900.951.001.051.101.151.201.25024681012141618Dosage of PDADMAC, mg/(g solids)Relative Viscosity, r Figure 3-7: Relative viscosity of SiO 2 dispersion versus 200,000 molecular weight PDADMAC dosage. 01020304050607081012141Dosage of PDADMAC, mg/(g solids), nm 6 Figure 3-8: Adsorbed layer thickness of PDADMAC on surface of 1.5 m SiO 2 particles, using effective volume fraction calculations, as concentration of PDADMAC increases.

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38 It can be seen that at a critical dosage, a monolayer of PDADMAC is formed. By using the glass capillary and calculating the relative viscosities of the samples, the thickness of the adsorbed layer can be determined. The persistence length of the 250,000 molecular weight polymer and equations (6) and (7) were used to determine the adsorbed layer thickness. These values are listed in Table 3-1 and are compared with adsorbed layer thickness values obtained using other techniques. The radius of gyration of a polymer is dependent on molecular weight, ionic strength of the solution, temperature, and chain length. Caruso and Mhwald [32] have used single particle light scattering (SPLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine adsorbed layer thickness of polymer/particle multilayers. They also report an error of 10%. Table 3-1: PDADMAC adsorbed layer thickness values obtained by various methods. Layer Thickness (nm) Layer Number SPLS [32] SEM [32] TEM [32] r R g 1 24 38 30 58 49 Due to error involved using the instruments and differences in the composition of the core particles, ionic strength, and pH of the systems, deviations from Caruso and Mhwalds work are expected. Caruso and Mhwald used negatively charged polystyrene latex particles of diameter 640 nm, and they adjusted the ionic strength of their PDADMAC solution to 10 -3 M NaCl and the pH to 5.6. In this work, SiO 2 is the core particle (d = 1.5 m), and the ionic strength and pH (3-4) are not adjusted. Since the values are within the same magnitude, it can be concluded that the glass capillary method can be fairly accurate when determining the adsorbed layer thickness of the PDADMAC on the surface of SiO 2 core particles.

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39 The glass capillary method was used to determine the kinematic viscosity, This method is very sensitive to temperature and dispersion of the particles in the suspending fluid. The samples were ultrasonicated and the particles dispersed well. The error, however, calculated using this method was very small. Many dispersions were run multiple times in order to exclude error in this data. Rheology of Dispersions of Multilayered Particles Rheology measurements were made using the parallel plate geometry as PDADMAC concentration increases. Fig. 3-9 shows a distinct increase in viscosity initially at low shear rates. This makes sense because as the PDADMAC is adsorbing onto the SiO 2 surface, the adsorbed layer thickness, and thus the effective volume also increases. At low shear rates the viscosity increases by a factor of 10. In the case of 5 mg/(g solids), the viscosity has the maximum value. In order to explain this behavior, it is necessary to note that complete coverage of the SiO 2 particles does not occur until 10 mg/(g solids) PDADMAC solution is added. Therefore, it can be concluded that at this dosage only part of the SiO 2 particle surfaces are covered. When the particles are only partly covered with polymer, the adsorbed polymer can form macromolecular bridge by adsorbing onto two particles simultaneously. A dosage of 5 mg/(g solids) appears to be the condition for maximum bridging flocculation. At high shear rates, the bridging structures are broken down due to the high shear. At high shear, the double layer deforms and the effective volume fraction is affected. In Fig. 3-9, the viscosity in all cases shows a decrease at higher shear rates. At low shear rates interparticle forces dominate, whereas at high shear rates hydrodynamic forces dominate.

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40 0.010.11110100100010000Shear Rate, s-1Visocity, Pa.s 0 mg/(g solids) 5 mg/(g solids) 10 mg/(g solids) 12.5 mg/(g solids) 15 mg/(g solids) 20 mg/(g solids) Figure 3-9: Viscosity versus shear rate at increasing dosage of PDADMAC on core SiO 2 particles. In Fig. 3-10 at a dosage of 5 mg/(g solids) a peak can been seen at low shear rates. As the shear rate increases, this peak gradually disappears, another indication of the optimal conditions of bridging flocculation. At higher shear rates, the particles are dominated by long range hydrodynamic forces. For error analysis, three samples for each point were analyzed three times. The error was negligible to the plot presented. 0.010.1105101520Dosage, mg/(g solids)Viscosity, Pa.s 1.43 s-1 5.90 s-1 34.8 s-1 205 s-1 848 s-1 Figure 3-10: Viscosity versus dosage of PDADMAC on core SiO 2 particles as a function of increasing shear rate.

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41 After the second layer, PSS, is added to the surface the effective volume fraction increases again. At low shear rates, the viscosity is 100 times higher, but at high shear rates the viscosities converge. This indicates structure formation at low shear rates. This structure may be a gel formation. At low shear rates, the interaction between the suspended particles is relatively weak and the system is predominantly viscous in nature, while in the region of higher shear, the system becomes predominantly elastic and the adsorbed polymer layers may interpenetrate or be compressed [74]. 0.0010.010.111010010001101001000Shear Rate, s-1Viscosity, Pa? s PSS layer PDADMAC layer SiO2 Figure 3-11: Viscosity versus shear rate of core SiO 2 particles, PDADMAC-coated SiO 2 and PSS-PDADMAC-coated SiO 2 NanoSiO 2 Fig. 3-12 is an SEM picture of 1.5 m core SiO 2 particles. This picture exhibits well the monodispersity of the core particles. After adding the appropriate concentration of PDADMAC to the dispersion, the particles appear more ordered and less aggregated (Fig. 3-13). The particles become more disperse due to the polyelectrolyte acting as a dispersant. The particles are still monodisperse and appear to have a smooth surface.

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42 Figure 3-12: SEM of 1.5 m SiO 2 core particles. Figure 3-13: SEM of 1.5 m SiO 2 particles completely covered with PDADMAC (MW = 200,000) Fig. 3-14 shows the nanoSiO 2 adsorbed onto PDADMAC-coated SiO 2 particles. The surface of the particles appears rough. This roughness is the nanoSiO 2 particles. The particles are also attached and are flocculated. This may be due to the increase in surface energy of the system. As the surface area of the particles increases due to the addition of nanoSiO 2 the surface energy also increases. Future work indicates that this will be a problem for drug delivery and toxin removal systems. The layered particles need to be able to circulate throughout the environment they are in and have maximum surface exposure to be successful in their application. Another reason for the flocculation is that the nanoSiO 2 may have been added too quickly. The particles did not have enough

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43 time for steric stabilization to occur. The exposed positive charges of the PDADMAC caused the particles to stick together. Figure 3-14: SEM of nanoSiO 2 adsorbed onto PDADMAC-coated SiO 2

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CHAPTER 4 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS In this work, the stability of polycation and polyanion multilayers on SiO 2 were examined, both as a fundamental exercise and as a basis for future quantitative interpretations of adsorbed high-molecular-weight cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes for use in colloid drug delivery systems or toxin removal. The ionic strength and pH was not adjusted, and for all the conditions studied, data for coverages above 0.5 mg/m 2 were found to show complete polyelectrolyte coverage on the SiO 2 particles for both PDADMAC and PSS. For the natural pH range of our experiments (pH = 4-5), SiO 2 particles had a negative charge. EPM measurements confirmed this behavior. An adsorption isotherm of adsorbed polycation as a function of equilibrium concentration showed a characteristic plateau at 0.5 mg/m 2 At and above this concentration, the PDADMAC is completely covering the surface of the SiO 2 core particles. The kinetics study further showed that complete coverage and stability of the particle-polymer system occurs in less than 30 minutes. This quick adsorption time makes sense since the PDADMAC has a strong ionic charge when dissociated in water. This work demonstrates that a homogenous and stable polyelectrolyte, both polycationic and polyanionic, can be adsorbed onto micron-sized SiO 2 core particles in a controlled, stepwise adsorption using electrostatic forces as the basis of motivation. Zeta potential reversal with deposition of each layer was observed. Desorption studies under multiwashing conditions shows stable layered structures. Adsorption isotherms and EPM measurements both verify adsorption of polyelectrolytes onto SiO 2 core particles. The 44

PAGE 55

45 employment of colloidal particles as templates for the assembly of multilayer shells of inorganic-organic materials through solution adsorption provides a viable route to the production of tailored new materials with unique properties for drug delivery or adsorption of toxins. Control of stability and bulk rheological properties is an important part of colloid systems. It is also of fundamental interest to understand the relation between the colloidal properties and factors such as interparticle forces, hydrodynamic interactions, and physical and chemical characteristics of the system that govern the dispersion properties [74]. The rheological measurements conducted showed that as the layer number increases, the viscosity also increases. For the PSS layer, there may be a structural organization of the particles at low shear rates that is disrupted at higher shear rates. These measurements showed a large change in the bulk properties of the particles. By adding one and two layers of polymer on the surface of the SiO 2 particle, changes can be observed. After a stable PDADMAC layer was demonstrated, nanoSiO 2 was added into the system. With no pH adjustments, the nanoSiO 2 have a negative surface charge. It was hypothesized that the nanoSiO 2 should adsorbed onto the PDADMAC-coated SiO 2 particles. Zeta potential measurements confirmed that the nanoSiO 2 was adsorbed onto the surface, but did not exhibit a stable structure on the surface of the layered particles. At a pH of 4.3, the zeta potential of the particles was .23 mV. Further characterizations are needed at this point. SEM pictures indicated that there was a definite change in surface structure of the layered particles. This structure is described as a rougher surface as compared to the

PAGE 56

46 PDADMAC-coated SiO 2 The PDADMAC-coated SiO 2 micrographs exhibit very smooth surfaces of evenly dispersed particles. After adding nanoSiO 2 into the layered structure, the surfaces appear rough, and the particles are not well-dispersed. The layered particles are sticking together. This indicates that the system cannot be considered stable. The particles cannot be used as single drug delivery systems if they are agglomerated. Further research must be done in order to resolve this issue.

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CHAPTER 5 FUTURE WORK For a number of applications, such as in controlled release or in separation technology, it is of interest whether the properties of polyelectrolyte multilayers can be changed by varying the external conditions, since controllable and tunable properties are required. This concerns, for example, the control of permeation by external parameters. In addition to this, the response of polyelectrolyte multilayers to external parameters can be analyzed in terms of basic information on their internal material properties. For example, swelling experiments provide insight into the interactions within polyelectrolyte multilayers, and thus for example the internal hydrophobicity. Predicting overall material properties as a consequence of the internal composition and local interactions remains a challenging task. Polyelectrolyte multilayers are complex materials with interesting properties on several length scales. Each layer has its own unique properties, and the multilayered structure creates a three-dimensional structure in which the layers combined create a particle with its own unique properties. The growth of polyelectrolyte multilayers on colloid particles has been demonstrated and shown to be a fairly simple process. However, from previous SEM pictures, the surface layer on the 13-nm SiO 2 particles does not appear to be stable, in the sense that the layered particles appear to be aggregating. Zeta potential measurements show that the surface charge is consistent with the nanoSiO 2 covering the surface completely (-14.3 mV, pH = 4.3). In order to stabilize this system, the layered particles 47

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48 cannot be sticking together. Consideration into adjusting the parameters of adsorption should be considered. Once the nanoSiO 2 is stabilized on the surface, experiments involving toxins found in water as well as other classified bio-toxins. There has also been some work in using nanosupsensions as nanoparticulate drug delivery systems.[75] It would be promising work to begin incorporating drugs into the layers using electrostatics. In order to use the systems is drug deliver, there will also have to be diffusion studies of the polymer layers. The external parameters that affect diffusion rates will have to be determined and stated. Some work regarding the diffusion of polyions in polyelectrolyte multilayers has begun [76]. Further desorption studies in changing pH environments should also be considered. It is known that pH has an important role in the layer thickness, morphology, and surface properties of the polyelectrolyte structures, but it is unknown how is can affect the stability of the layers. In principle all polyelectrolytes should be suitable for incorporation into multilayer assemblies; and in addition to this, this study has shown the incorporation of nanoparticles as a layer. This implies that there is no principle restriction to polyelectrolyte, and that the construction of multilayer assemblies should also be possible by using charged particles. As an example of such particles we have chosen nanoSiO 2 For future work, the nanoparticles bind to the charged PDADMAC surface and partially penetrates it. It is not known how the stable these nanoparticles are as a layer, as well, whether or not multilayers can be formed on nanoparticles. It may be possible that the next deposition layer, whether it be PDADMAC, a silanol (for silylating the surface), or

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49 another positively charged polymer species (protein, DNA, etc), fills holes between the nanoparticles, and the layer surface restored. Uniform layers of large biomolecules or biomolecular assemblies under controlled conditions can be achieved. The future, however, of multilayered SiO 2 particles lies in adsorption of toxins, heavy metal ions, and corrosive molecules. By using an adsorbent and layering that adsorbent with nanoparticles increases the surface area as well as the surface energy. These particles would be ideal for adsorption processes and can be studied further. There is much potential in medical composite systems for these layered particles.

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56 71. Donath, E., D. Walther, V.N. Shilov, E. Knippel, A. Budde, K. Lowack, C.A. Helm, and H. Mhwald, Nonlinear Hairy Layer Theory of Electrophoretic Fingerprinting Applied to Consecutive Layer by Layer Polyelectrolyte Adsorption onto Charged Polystyrene Latex Particles. Langmuir, 1997, 13(20): p. 5294-5305. 72. Bremmell, K.E., G.J. Jameson, and S. Biggs, Polyelectrolyte Adsorption at the Solid/Liquid Interface Interaction Forces and Stability. Colloids and Surfaces A Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 1998, 139(2): p. 199-211. 73. Knoll, W., Self-Assembled Microstructures at Interfaces. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, 1996, 1(1): p. 137-143. 74. Zaman, A.A. and N. Delorme, Effect of Polymer Bridging on Rheological Properties of Dispersions of Charged Silica Particles in the Presence of Low-Molecular-Weight Physically Adsorbed Poly(ethylene oxide). Rheologica Acta, 2002, 41(5): p. 408-417. 75. Rao, G.C.S., M.S. Kumar, N. Mathivanan, M.E.B. Rao, Nanosuspensions as the Most Promising Approach in Nanoparticulate Drug Delivery Systems. Pharmazie, 2004, 59(1): p. 5-9. 76. Lavalle, P., V. Vivet, N. Jessel, G. Decher, J.C. Voegel, P.J. Mesini, and P. Schaaf, Direct Evidence for Vertical Diffusion and Exchange Processes of Polyanions and Polycations in Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Films. Macromolecules, 2004, 37(3): p. 1159-1162.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH I was born in 1980 and grew up in Tampa, Florida. I graduated from Berkeley Preparatory School, Tampa, Florida, in June 1999. I was accepted into the University of Florida and finished my Bachelor of Science in materials science and engineering, specializing in polymers, in the summer of 2003. I continued with my Master of Science, also in materials science and engineering, at the University of Florida. I plan to receive my Master of Science in May 2005. I met my future husband, Chad Macuszonok, in 1999, and we are planning our wedding for August 2005. This is the beginning of the rest of our lives. 57


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Title: Preparation and Evaluation of Polymer Composite Multilayers on SiO2 for Use in Medical Systems
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

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PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF POLYMER COMPOSITE MULTILAYERS
ON Si02 FOR USE IN MEDICAL SYSTEMS
















By

HEATHER ANN TROTTER


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2005





























Copyright 2005

by

Heather Ann Trotter















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I first would like to acknowledge my mother and family, who are my life support.

They are the reason I am here. I would like to recognize the staff in the Department of

Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Florida. This program has given

me opportunities I never imagined. I would like to give special thanks to my advisor, Dr.

Abbas Zaman. His patience and guidance have made these accomplishments possible. I

would also like to thank my co-advisor, Dr. Richard Partch. His drive and commitment

to research have inspired and motivated me throughout this work. My other committee

members, Dr. Ron Baney and Dr. Karl-Johan Soderholm, are recognized for their

insightful discussions and positive attitudes.

I am also grateful for the financial support provided by the University of Florida

Particle Engineering Research Center (NSF Grant No. EEC-94-02989) and the industrial

partners of the Particle Engineering Research Center. Nissan Chemical Industries, Ltd.,

is acknowledged for the donation of the nano-sized Si02 particles. Help from Mr. Eric

Hughes for conducting some of the experiments and Mr. Scott Brown is greatly

acknowledged. Miss Jennifer Brandt is acknowledged for valuable discussions and

emotional support.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iii

LIST OF TABLES ............. ...................... ................................. .......... .. vi

LIST OF FIGURE S ......... ..................................... ........... vii

ABSTRACT ........ .............. ............. ...... ...................... ix

CHAPTER

1 LITERATURE REVIEW AND INTRODUCTION................................1

Introduction to Polyelectrolyte M ultilayer Research...................................................1
Applications for Polyelectrolyte Multilayered Particles ......................................3
Current Characterization Techniques for Polyelectrolyte Multilayers................5
N ovelty and Scope of Study ............................................................................. 6
G oal of Study ............................................................... .... ..... ........ 8

2 M ATERIALS AND M ETHOD S ........................................... ........................ 10

Introduction to Materials: Biomedical Applications ..............................................10
M a te ria ls ...................................................................................................1 0
Study of PDADMAC Adsorption.... ............................ ..................11
K inetics of A dsorption .......................................................... ......... .............. 12
A dsorption Isotherm .................... ...... .. ............. ............ .... .. .............. 13
Electrophoretic Mobility (EPM) Measurements ...........................................13
D esorption Study .................................................... .... ........... 15
Study of P SS A dsorption ................. .............. .................................. ............... 16
Rheology .................. ..... .... ... ....... ...... .. .............. 16
Properties of Suspensions for Rheological Studies..................................17
Preparation of Suspensions for Parallel Plate Method .......................................18
Parallel Plate Rheological M easurem ents ................................ .....................19
Measurement of Adsorption Layer Thickness of PDADMAC ........................ 19
Preparation of suspensions for glass capillary method .............................20
Glass capillary theological measurements ...............................................21
Effective volume fraction (EVF) calculations .......................................... 23
Rg (Radius of Gyration) Calculations.............................. ...............23
Study of N anoSiO 2 Layer ........................................................................ 24










3 RESULTS AND DISCU SSION ........................................... .......................... 26

Adsorption of PDADMAC .............. ..................... ............... 26
Desorption of PDADMAC and PSS ................... .................. ................ 31
Z eta P potential ................................................................... 32
A dsorbed Layer Thickness ................................................. ............................ 35
Rheology of Dispersions of Multilayered Particles .................................................39
N an o S iO 2 ...................................................................4 1

4 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.......................................................................44

5 FU TU RE W O RK ........................ .......................... .. .... ....... ........ 47

L IST O F R E FE R E N C E S ....................................................................... ... ...................50

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E TCH ..................................................................... ..................57







































v
















TABLE

Table page


Table 3-1: PDADMAC adsorbed layer thickness values obtained by various methods. ..38















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure pge

1-1: Schematic of forces influencing properties of layer-by-layer films, and the
applications achieved by controlling or manipulating interactions [31]. ...................4

2-1: Chemical structures of PDADMAC and PSS repeat units............... ...............11

2-2: A schematic of the double layer and ion distribution on a particles surface (upper
part of figure), and a depiction of the zeta potential at the shear (lower part of
figure). ...............................................................................14

2-3: Schematic showing the layer-by-layer adsorption of PDADMAC and PSS on
SiO 2 core particle. ........................ .... .................. .. .... .. .. .. ........... 16

2-4: Cannon-Fenske glass capillary viscom eter. ........................................ .................21

3-1: Adsorption density as a function of time for SiO2-PDADMAC system (250C, pH
= 4 .5 8 ). ........................................................................... 2 7

3-2: Adsorption density as a function of equilibrium concentration of PDADMAC
onto the surface of SiO2 particles (250C, pH = 4.58) ............................................ 29

3-3: Zeta potential as a function of polymer dosage for SiO2-PDADMAC system
(25C pH = 4.58) .......................................................................30

3-4: Desorption study of PDADMAC on SiO2 particles after centrifuging and
washing with deionized water. ........................................ ............................ 32

3-5: Zeta potential measurements showing the change in surface charge as
PDADMAC (Layer Number 1), PSS (Layer Number 2), PDADMAC (Layer
Number 3), and PSS (Layer Number 4) are added (250C, pH = 4.35, in the
absence of salt). ........................................................................33

3-6: Relative viscosities of dispersions versus volume fraction of SiO2 in water. .........36

3-7: Relative viscosity of SiO2 dispersion versus 200,000 molecular weight
PD AD M A C dosage ......................................... ....... ........ .. ........ .... 37









3-8: Adsorbed layer thickness of PDADMAC on surface of 1.5 [m SiO2 particles,
using effective volume fraction calculations, as concentration of PDADMAC
increases. ............................................................................37

3-9: Viscosity versus shear rate at increasing dosage of PDADMAC on core SiO2
p articles. .......................................................... ................ 4 0

3-10: Viscosity versus dosage of PDADMAC on core SiO2 particles as a function of
increasing shear rate. .......................... ...................... ... .. ...... .... ...........40

3-11: Viscosity versus shear rate of core SiO2 particles, PDADMAC-coated SiO2, and
P SS-PD A D M A C -coated Si 2...................................................................... .... ..41

3-12: SEM of 1.5 m SiO 2 core particles. ............................................... .....................42

3-13: SEM of 1.5 [tm SiO2 particles completely covered with PDADMAC (MW =
2 0 0 ,0 0 0 )............................. ............................................................. ............... 4 2

3-14: SEM of nanoSiO2 adsorbed onto PDADMAC-coated Si2. ..................................43















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF POLYMER COMPOSITE MULTILAYERS
ON Si02 FOR USE IN MEDICAL SYSTEMS

By

Heather Ann Trotter

May 2005

Chair: Abbas A. Zaman
Major Department: Materials Science and Engineering

Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) and poly(sodium 4-

styrenesulfonate) (PSS) have been consecutively adsorbed onto 1.5-rm charged silica

(Si02) particles to model the assembling of multilayered particles for use in time released

drug delivery particle systems. Time dependent adsorption studies indicate that, due to

the strong ionic charge of the dissociated polycation in water, adsorption is complete in

less than 30 minutes. Indications of the maximum adsorption density, changes in surface

charge, and stability of the layered particles are demonstrated through adsorption

isotherms and electrophoretic mobility (EPM) measurements. Further stability of the

PDADMAC layer is demonstrated through multiwashing with ultra pure deionized water.

Preliminary desorption studies of the PSS layer also illustrate a stabilized two-layer

system.

Also, in this study, a systematic investigation on the viscosity behavior of

concentrated dispersions of silica particles with adsorbed PDADMAC and PSS layers has









been performed. The variation of shear viscosity and storage and loss moduli as a

function of layer number was investigated. The study illustrates that the adsorption of

PDADMAC increases the viscosity. Ideal conditions for maximum bridging flocculation

were also observed. From viscosity measurements of the PSS layer, a structural

formation was observed at low shear rates that broke down as shear rate increased.

Viscosity measurements showed that adding polymer layers to create multilayered

composite particles affects the theological properties of the particles.

Adsorbed layer thickness of PDADMAC was determined using viscosity data for

dispersions of bare SiO2 particles and dispersions of PDADMAC-coated SiO2 particles.

A comparison shows that experimental values, using relative viscosity, were comparable

to values recorded in literature using different methods.

After adding SiO2 nanoparticles (nanoSiO2) to the mixture of PDADMAC-coated

SiO2, EPM and SEM showed a change in surface charge as well as surface roughness,

indicating that the nanoSiO2 has been adsorbed onto the layered particles. Future work

includes surface and bulk property changes due to the nanoSiO2 on the surface, as well as

stabilizing this layer.














CHAPTER 1
LITERATURE REVIEW AND INTRODUCTION

Introduction to Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Research

In recent years, there has been increasing interest surrounding the fabrication of

composite micro- and nano-structured materials using the self-assembly of polymers. A

number of novel possibilities arise from using self-assembly processes of polymers: by

involving electrostatic interactions, multilayered materials with unique and tailored

properties can be built. The pioneering work on synthetic nanoscale heterostructures of

organic molecules was carried out by the Kuhn group [1] in the late 1960s using the

Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique, in which monolayers of polymer are formed on a

water surface and then transferred onto a solid support as a single layer of molecular

chains on the surface. Their experiments with donor and acceptor dyes in different layers

of LB films provided direct proof of distance-dependent Forster energy transfer on the

nanoscale. These experiments were also the first true nanomanipulations, as they allowed

for the mechanical handling of individual molecular layers (such as separation and

contact formation) with Angstrom precision. However, the LB technique requires special

equipment and has severe limitations with respect to substrate size and topology as well

as film quality and stability.

Hong and Decher first proved the concept of alternating exposure of a charged

substrate to solutions of positive or negative polyelectrolytes [2]. Provided that each

adsorption step leads to charge inversion of the surface, the subsequent deposition finally

results in a layered complex, stabilized by strong electrostatic forces, so-called self-









assembled polyelectrolyte multilayers. Since the electrostatic interactions are a very

general principle, the process is very versatile with respect to the incorporation of

different charged compounds or nanoobjects. As building blocks, for example, inorganic

nanoparticles such as gold colloids [3], functional polymers such as temperature-sensitive

compounds [4], orientable chromophores [5, 6], and mesogenic units inducing local order

[7] have been employed. Further work involves the deposition of proteins into

multilayers [8-12].

This principle of layer formation has not only been applied to achieve adsorption

onto planar substrates but has even been applied to colloidal particles [13-16], a

development which had a major impact in the field. The use of colloidal surfaces is

particularly attractive, since not only can the core particle be controlled but also the

particles within the layers. Micro- and nanoparticles are being studied for use in drug

delivery systems [17] as well as removing toxins during water treatment [18]. Layered

particles can maximize the amount of drug carried and help control diffusion rates as well

as concentrations of toxins adsorbed, whether in the body or the environment. And

recently, core particles that have been removed to produce hollow shell materials have

promising structures for future applications [4, 19-22].

A number of external parameters, such as ionic strength of the solutions, the

polyion concentration, the charge density of the polyions, and the molecular weight, are

known to influence the resulting layer structure. By varying these parameters during the

deposition process, there are an infinite number of structures and, thus, properties for

these tailored formations.









Multilayered films of organic compounds on solid surfaces have been studied for

more than 60 years because they allow fabrication of multicomposite molecular

assemblies of tailored architecture [2, 23-25]. It has been well documented that the

physisorption or chemisorption of polyelectrolytes onto suface-functionalized substrates

can lead to the deposition of molecularly thin surface films. The controlled and selective

surface modification of colloidal particles allows the fabrication of composite materials

with tailored and unique properties for various applications in the areas of coating,

electronics, photonics, catalysis, sensing, and separations. Composite particles that

contain an inner core covered by a shell exhibit significantly different properties from

those of the core itself (for example, surface chemical composition, increased stability,

higher surface area, as well as different magnetic and optical properties). The surface

properties are governed by the characteristics of the shell coating [26]. The interest in the

fabrication of layer-by-layer assembled multicomposite particles has increased in the last

few years as evidenced by the increase in the number of papers dealing with this issue.

Polyelectrolytes bearing dissociated ionic groups are one type of matter that can be

used as the multilayered shell of these composite particles. Their unique properties,

dominated by strong long-range electrostatic interactions, have been studied extensively

over the past few decades [27, 28], and due to their ability to adsorb strongly onto

oppositely charged surfaces, polyelectrolytes make good candidates for creating the

multilayered shells on core particles. The concept of electrostatically driven assembly of

multilayer structures allows for the incorporation of a wealth of different materials [29].

Applications for Polyelectrolyte Multilayered Particles

There is a wide application of natural and synthetic polymers in medicine, paper

making, mineral separation, paint and food industries, cosmetics and pharmacy, water









treatment processes, and soil remediation [30]. A thorough understanding of

polyelectrolytes has become increasingly important in biochemistry and molecular

biology. The reason is that virtually all proteins, as well as DNA, are polyelectrolytes.

Their interactions with each other and with the charged cell membrane are still very much

a mystery.

As shown schematically in Fig. 1-1, electrostatic interactions between the polyion

in solution and the surface are the key to the final structure of the polyion layered thin

film; however, secondary, shorter range forces also play a role in determining the film

thickness, the final morphology of the film, the surface properties, and in some cases, can

determine whether or not stable multilayers can form at all.


IDispersion Forces



Layer Thickness
Layer Morphology
Surface Properties
Transport Properties


H-----bi
H-bonding
I j


Applications:
Separations Drug Delivery
Biosensors Dental Composites
Selective Patterning Selective Membranes



Figure 1-1: Schematic of forces influencing properties of layer-by-layer films, and the
applications achieved by controlling or manipulating interactions [31].









These secondary interactions can also play a role in the selective deposition of polymers

on surfaces, the formation of acentric polar structures, and the nature of permeation and

ion transport within the film [31]. An understanding of these interactions, as well as an

ability to combine polyions with other charged systems, dimensional polymer structures

and patterns, selective membranes, and a range of functional organic and organic-organic

hybrid composite thin films can be produced.

Ionic interactions are the most versatile; they permit the use of water as a solvent,

which is both environmentally attractive and allows the use of charged biopolymers such

as DNA, as well as polyelectrolytes, proteins, colloids, and many other charged or

chargeable materials. One potential property of such devices is a simple dynamic

structure in which the distance between two layers of "hard" objects colloidss or proteins)

is adjusted by controlling the degree of swelling in an intermediate "soft" layer

polyelectrolytee) simply by changing, for example, humidity. The physiochemical

properties of the resulting architectures can be largely modified by varying the number of

deposited layers, by changing the nature of the polyelectrolytes, the pH or the ionic

strength. The large versatility of the concept allows numerous applications in the

biomedical field ranging from modification of biomaterial surfaces to the construction of

enzymatic nanoreactors in which a cascade of reactions can be induced.

Current Characterization Techniques for Polyelectrolyte Multilayers

There are many ways to determine layer thickness as well as surface roughness.

Some of the techniques that have been used are transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

[21], single-particle light scattering (SPLS) [13], scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

[21], atomic force microscopy (AFM) [32], nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) [33], IR-

spectroscopy, x-ray reflectivity [34], and using tagged molecules (e.g., 14C).









Considerable published evidence exists [35-39] on the ability of polyelectrolytes to

associate on the surface of particles, but the stability of such single or multilayer

assemblies has not been thoroughly evaluated. The major advantages of layer-by-layer

adsorption from solution are that multiple unique materials can be incorporated in

individual layers on core particles and that the final particle architectures and properties

are completely determined by the deposition sequence.

Novelty and Scope of Study

In this thesis, the basic principles of layer formation and internal properties of

multilayer formation was studied, starting from simple concepts describing the initial

adsorption process, and then advancing towards the bulk properties of the system, such as

flow properties. The focus was on fundamental physical properties and the evolution of

more realistic models from first simple model ideas for a drug delivery particulate

system. Oppositely charged polyelectrolytes were used as multilayers on SiO2 core

particles. The layers of polyelectrolytes represent layers of oppositely charged species

such as proteins and biological drugs. SiO2 was used as the core because it has been used

in many biomedical composites and is the main component in dental composites. If

layered particles are to delivery drugs or absorb toxins from the body or the environment,

a core material like SiO2 is a practical choice. As layers of oppositely charged

polyelectrolytes are sequentially adsorbed, the surface properties of the particles

change-surface chemistry, charge, size-affecting bulk properties such as the

conditions for flocculation and viscosity. The layers were prepared and characterized

using kinetics of adsorption, adsorption studies, as well as electrophoresis and desorption

studies. The mechanism of adsorption can be described as the self-assembly process

involving electrostatic interactions. The internal dynamics and stability of the interacting









layers were expected to be strongly dependent on the coupling of the charges between

subsequently deposited layers.

For biopolymers such as DNA and proteins, the association between counterions

and the backbone chain is electrostatic in origin. In order to design new technologies

with charged polymers the fundamental time scales and length scales of polymer and

counterion association need to be quantified. Charged polymers present a challenge due

to the long-range electrostatic interactions and coupled dynamics between small, fast-

moving counterions and polymers. Practical methods such as Langmuir adsorption

isotherms and electrophoretic mobility measurements were used to characterize the

change of chemistry and charge on the surface. The thickness of the polymer layer which

gives rise to steric stability depends on the conformation of the polymer at the interface.

In order to determine the adsorbed layer thickness of the first polymer layer, conditions

were kept natural with no salt or pH adjustments.

At first, polyelectrolytes were mainly used as rheology modifiers, and one of the

most interesting uses of these materials has been the stabilization of a wide variety of

colloidal systems. The specificity of interactions between the particles as a function of

polymer layer is studied mainly through zeta potential measurements and theological

methods. In the case of inorganic oxides dispersed in water, due to the interaction of the

solid colloidal particles with the dispersing phase, there is the development of charged

surface sites (depending on the dispersing phase pH) according to these reactions [40]:

oxide MOH + H+ <- oxide MOH2+ (1)

<- oxide M+ + H20 (2)

oxide MOH + OH- -> oxide M(OH)2- (3)









-> oxide MO- + H20 (4)

An ionic surface is formed and, because of these charges, ions of opposite charge tend to

cluster.

During the past forty years, theories have been developed to describe the adsorption

and conformation of polymer at the solid-liquid interface and also, theories have been

developed to explain particle-particle interactions in the presence of polymers [16, 41-

43]. Several important factors such as Brownian motion of the particles, particle size,

particle size distribution, particle shape, volume fraction of the particles, the viscosity of

the suspending media, and the range of particle-particle interactions govern the

suspension properties.

Goal of Study

In order to tailor specific properties, a basic understanding of the structure and the

control of the process of layer formation is required. There is thus a demand for further

fundamental studies and for basic physical understanding. Specific properties of

polyelectrolyte multilayers, which are of fundamental physical interest, include the fact

that polyelectrolyte multilayers form two-dimensionally stratified layers, which grow step

by step in three dimensions. This leads to a behavior being dominated by internal

interfaces, and differing from the corresponding volume properties of the material.

In order to use these particles as a model for drug delivery or medical composite

systems, the appropriate methods for preparation and characterization must be performed.

After successfully creating multilayers of nanoscale films on SiO2 core particles,

nanoscale SiO2 was adsorbed onto rthe positively charged surface.









Recently, shear thinning and shear thickening have been predicted and observed

[44, 45]. Shear thickening is believed to be correlated to the loss of close packed layer

ordering [46]. Addition of a polymer to a colloidal dispersion is also found to change the

structural ordering dramatically and often leads to a phase separation [43, 47]. Behavior

of charged colloids as a function of volume fraction (4) and ionic strength has been

extensively studied both experimentally [48] as well as theoretically [49]; however, the

stability of colloidal dispersions as a function of surface charge density has been

examined only recently [50, 51].

The importance of the change in theological properties was examined as layer

number increases. As the number of polymer layers on the surface increases, the

effective volume fraction, and thus the viscosity also increases. The conditions for

flocculation also change. It is important to understand how the theological properties can

be affected by adding polyelectrolyte layers if the particles are to be used as drug delivery

devices or for the adsorption of toxins.














CHAPTER 2
MATERIALS AND METHODS

Introduction to Materials: Biomedical Applications

SiO2 is used for a variety of biomedical applications. This material is used as filler

in dental composites, in nanostructured materials and coatings for biomedical sensors

[52], for coatings on hip replacements, and coatings with antibacterial activity.

Nanoporous SiO2 in also used in biomedical applications. SiO2 particles are known to

have a high binding capacity for DNA [53], and it is possible to put entire genes into

nanoporous Si02. One can envision using these SiO2 particles as vectors for targeted

drug or DNA delivery [54]. Since Si02 has a negative surface charge at pH > 3, this

material is a good candidate to model a drug delivery system with electrostatic

interactions.

Materials

The Si02 particles used in this study were nearly monodisperse of approximately

1.5 tm in diameter (dso value) with a specific surface area of 2.19 m2/g [39]. The purity

and density of the powder were 99.9% and 2.1 g/cm3, respectively. Si02 particles were

provided by Geltech Corporation and were used as received. Sizing of the Si02 particles

was performed using the Coulter LS230 at pH = 9 so that the Si02 particles were

completely dispersed. Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC), Mw <

200,000, and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS), Mw = 70,000, were purchased from

Aldrich and were used as received, at 20% wt and 30% wt in water, respectively.

PDADMAC and PSS repeat units are shown in Fig. 3-1. As stated earlier, the charged









polymers model charged species such as proteins, DNA, and some biological drugs used

to remove toxins. The SiO2 nanoparticles (19% wt SiO2 suspension in water, diameter =

13 nm as determined from TEM) were provided by from Nissan Chemical Industries,

Ltd. The water used in all experiments was high-purity deionized water prepared in a

three-stage Millipore Milli-Q Plus 185 purification system and had a resistivity of 18

MQ/cm. All experiments in this work were conducted in the absence of any added salt

and under the natural pH of the system. All centrifugations were conducted for 15

minutes at 8000 rpm (14400g).


--CH2 CH -)

(-CH2 CH CH2H
\/n
N CI
N
CH + CH, SO3Na
PDADMAC PSS
Figure 2-1: Chemical structures of PDADMAC and PSS repeat units.

Study of PDADMAC Adsorption

The multilayers of charged polymers were formed by alternating adsorption of

polycations and polyanions. Since SiO2 has a negative surface charge at the conditions

used, the PDADMAC was the first layer to be adsorbed. In order to understand the

properties and structure of what is made, an investigative study was done. This study

began with determining the adsorption development of PDADMAC on SiO2 particles.

All adsorption experiments were conducted at room temperature (250C) using

suspensions of 2% vol SiO2, with no salt added. The SiO2 particles were added to

varying polyelectrolyte dosages using a 1-g/L aqueous PDADMAC stock solution.









Depending upon the polymer dosage, the PDADMAC stock solution was diluted with

high purity deionized water to the desired concentration and used as the suspending fluid.

The required mass of dry particles was slowly added to the PDADMAC solution. After

addition of particles, the suspensions were ultrasonicated for eight minutes and left on a

Burrell Model 75 wrist shaker for 15 minutes in order for equilibrium and maximum

adsorption to be reached. Ultrasonicating and shaking ensures a uniformly charged

surface on the core SiO2 particles by exposing the entire surface to the polycation. After

equilibration, the samples were centrifuged. The supernatant was stored in a refrigerator

and later used for analysis by Tekmar-Dorhman Phoenix 8000 Total Organic Carbon

(TOC) analyzer. TOC measurements were made on the Tekmar-Dorhman Phoenix 8000

TOC Analyzer utilizing UV light and chemical oxidation techniques to break down

species containing organic carbon (such as polymers or surfactants) to CO2 which is then

analyzed using a non-dispersive infra-red (NDIR) detector for quantification. The

instrument can analyze samples containing as little as 2 ppb carbon.

Kinetics of Adsorption

Another important part of preparing multilayered particles for use in drug delivery

is the time of adsorption. Whether the layered particles will by adsorbing toxins in the

body or releasing drugs, kinetics and diffusion are very important to understand. In

biomedical applications, it is vital to know how long the drugs or other materials will be

in contact with the cell membranes or how quickly the particles can adsorb substances

harmful to the body. To study the kinetics of adsorption, all dispersions were prepared at

a polymer dosage of 6 mg/(g solids). The required mass of dry particles was slowly

added to the PDADMAC solution, and the suspensions were sonicated for five minutes

and left on the shaker for times ranging from 0 to 180 minutes. The samples were then









centrifuged and the supernatant removed. The residual polymer solutions were stored in

a refrigerator and later used for residual carbon analysis. The TOC helped to determine

how much polymer was adsorbed on the surface of the particles, and then a correlation

between time and concentration were made.

Adsorption Isotherm

Also important is to determine the adsorption density of the polymer on the surface.

The molecular weight as well as chemical structure of the polyion can affect the density

of the polymer on the surface. It has been well established that adsorbed concentration as

well as ionic strength can affect the morphology on the surface [7, 16, 35, 55]. After

centrifugation, the supernatants were analyzed for organic carbon. Using a dilution factor

of 100, high-purity deionized water was used to dilute the residual solutions. The TOC

calibration produced an acceptance criteria of R2 = 0.99972 for aqueous solutions of

PDADMAC.

Electrophoretic Mobility (EPM) Measurements

A practical method for determining if the surface charge of the SiO2 particles has

changed after adding the cationic polyelectrolyte into the system is to use electrophoretic

mobility (EPM) measurements. Electrophoretic mobility is the rate of migration per unit

of electric field strength of a charged particle in a solution under the influence of an

applied electric field. From the EPM measurements, the zeta potential, or electric

potential at the shear plane, can be determined. The shear plane (slipping plane) is an

imaginary surface separating the thin layer of liquid bound to the solid surface and

showing elastic behavior from the rest of liquid showing normal viscous behavior. The

net charge at the particle surface affects the ion distribution in the nearby region,

increasing the concentration of counterions close to the surface. Thus, an electric double









layer is formed in the region of the particle-liquid interface. Figure 2-2 shows this double

layer and where the zeta potential originates. This double layer (upper part of figure)

consists of two parts: an inner region that includes ions bound relatively tightly to the

surface, and an outer region where a balance of electrostatic forces and random thermal

motion determines the ion distribution. The potential in this region, therefore, decays

with increasing distance from the surface until, at sufficient distance, it reaches the bulk

solution value, conventionally taken to be zero. This decay is shown by the lower part of

the figure and the indication is given that the zeta potential is the value at the surface of

shear [56].

Stern plane
Surface of sbear

I

e e

,e e *
ee

I s I

-- Stern layer








P-starnce

Figure 2-2: A schematic of the double layer and ion distribution on a particles surface
(upper part of figure), and a depiction of the zeta potential at the shear (lower
part of figure).

Electrophoretic mobilities of the bare SiO2 and PDADMAC-coated SiO2 particles

were measured using a Zeta Reader Mark 21 at 250C with no salt added. The apparatus









transforms the electrophoretic mobility u (m2/V-s) into a (-potential (mV) by using the

Smoluchowski relation

C U/ (5)

where r (Pa-s) and e (C/m-V) are the viscosity and permittivity of the solution,

respectively. Measured amounts of dry SiO2 were added the 1-g/L PDADMAC stock

solution to achieve a range of dosages. The 0.05% vol dispersions of the bare SiO2 and

the 0.05% vol dispersions of the PDADMAC-coated SiO2 were sonicated for three

minutes to break up any aggregates and left on the shaker for 30 minutes to ensure

equilibrium and complete PDADMAC adsorption before the measurements were made.

Desorption Study

For either drug delivery or toxin removal, desorption of the polymer layers is

important to understand. If drugs are to be incorporated into a multilayered particulate

system, they must remain adsorbed until the external parameters change and they can be

released. Desorption behavior is a crucial part of achieving safe and effective time

released drug delivery systems. For toxin removal, the multilayers must stay intact while

in the body and adsorbing toxins. For these desorption studies, dispersions of 2% vol

were prepared at a polymer dosage of 15 mg/(g solids), ultrasonicated for five minutes

and left on the shaker for one hour. The samples were centrifuged and the supernatant

removed. The residual polymer solutions were stored in a refrigerator until analyzed by

TOC. High-purity deionized water was added to redisperse the samples in 2% vol

dispersions. The samples were ultrasonicated for five minutes, left on the shaker for one

hour, and centrifuged again. The multiwashing steps were repeated up to five times.








Study of PSS Adsorption
In order to achieve multilayers, an anionic polyelectrolyte is used, PSS. After

centrifugation and removal of residual PDADMAC, the particles were suspended in a

solution containing 15 mg/(g solids) of PSS polymer. After addition of the particles, the

2% vol suspensions were ultrasonicated for eight minutes and left on a Burrell Model 75

wrist shaker for one hour to ensure complete polyanion adsorption onto the PDADMAC-

coated SiO2 particles. Excess polyelectrolyte was removed after centrifugation.





o II L
1U 'P* t'' I I
PADADMACAC

Figure 2-3: Schematic showing the layer-by-layer adsorption of PDADMAC and PSS on
SiO2 core particle.
Rheology
While the rheology of suspensions of hard spheres seems to be rather well

understood by now [39, 44, 57, 58], the flow behavior of particles stabilized by

multilayers of long polymer chains is still in need of further investigation. Rheological

studies of multilayered particles is a novel idea. Depending on the application of the

particles, they will be influenced by external forces. One of these forces, shear, is easily

induced in processing as well as for quality purposes. The rheology measurements can

give an idea of the physical properties of the particles. Environments where the

multilayered particles will experience shear are the bloodstream, processing conditions,

and perhaps, while being injected into the body. No one has shown the effects of shear as

layer number and composition changes. The theological study performed involves each









the PDADMAC and PSS layers. Both polyions have different molecular weights, chain

lengths, and chemical structures. These factors will have an affect on the particle-particle

interactions as well as over long-range hydrostatic interactions. Rheological

measurements are how to quantify these affects.

Properties of Suspensions for Rheological Studies

Since the theological properties of suspensions vary over an extremely wide range

depending upon volume fraction of the particles, shear rate, and particle-particle

interactions [59], different kinds of theological instruments must be used to determine the

viscosity of the suspensions at different shear rates and volume fraction of the particles.

Since deviations from homogeneity (e.g., phase separation) and sedimentation of the

particles can lead to serious errors, it is most important to make sure the samples have

been ultrasonicated and left on the shaker for a suitable time period. The method used to

determine the theological properties of suspensions depends on the characteristics of the

material to be studied. From the theological point of view, suspensions can be classified

as follows [60]:

1. Dilute, low viscosity stable suspensions (viscous fluids)

2. Concentrated, high viscosity stable suspensions viscoelasticc fluids)

3. Solid suspensions (elastic solids)

4. Flocculated and coagulated suspensions viscoelasticc fluids with time
dependent properties)

The state of a suspension at rest is determined by a balance between the Brownian motion

of the particles and interparticle forces. The suspension is considered to be dilute if the

Brownian motion is dominant and concentrated if particle-particle interactions

predominate [58].









Preparation of Suspensions for Parallel Plate Method

All SiO2 suspensions were prepared at room temperature (250C) with 50% vol of

solids, with no salt added. PDADMAC was the first layer to be deposited on the SiO2

core particles. The SiO2 particles were added to varying polyelectrolyte dosages using a

30- and 60-g/L aqueous PDADMAC stock solution. Depending upon the polymer

dosage, the PDADMAC stock solution was diluted with high purity deionized water to

the desired concentration and used as the suspending fluid. The required mass of dry

particles was slowly added to the PDADMAC solution. After addition of particles, the

suspensions were ultrasonicated for 30 minutes and left on a Burrell Model 75 wrist

shaker for 24 hours in order for equilibrium and maximum adsorption to be reached.

Ultrasonicating and shaking ensures a uniformly charged surface on the core silica

particles by exposing the entire surface to the polycation. Using Paar Physica UDS 200

rheometer, at 250C, viscosity as a function of shear rate was measured at increasing

PDADMAC dosage, 0 to 20 mg/(g solids).

PSS was added as the second layer onto the PDADMAC-coated SiO2 particles.

After centrifugation and removal of residual PDADMAC, the particles were suspended in

a solution containing 15 mg/(g solids) of PSS polymer. After addition of the particles,

the 50% vol suspensions were sonicated for 30 minutes and left on a Burrell Model 75

wrist shaker for 24 hours to ensure complete polyanion adsorption onto the PDADMAC-

coated SiO2 particles. Excess polyelectrolyte was removed after centrifugation. All

samples were sonicated for five minutes prior to running the rheometer. Only 15 mg/(g

solids) PSS was used for viscosity measurements.









Parallel Plate Rheological Measurements

The Paar Physica UDS 200 is a rotational rheometer that can be used to measure

shear viscosity, viscoelastic functions, creep, and yield stress of materials using different

geometries such as cone-and-plate, parallel-plate, and concentric cylinder. Tests can be

performed under controlled "shear rate" or controlled "stress." In this study, the parallel-

plate geometry is used and the temperature controlled at 250C. The sample is loaded

into the space between the two plates. One of the confining surfaces is held stationary,

while the other one is made to rotate. The applied torque required to turn the rotating

plate is measured.

This method will be used to determine differences in viscosity and storage and loss

moduli as the layer composition changes. Changes in viscosity should be seen since the

effective volume fraction of the particles is increasing. Changes in storage and loss

modulus will give an idea of any structural organization, such as gelation, that may be

occurring.

Measurement of Adsorption Layer Thickness of PDADMAC

Adsorbed layer thickness, 6h, is dependent on polymer chemistry, chain length,

ionic strength of the solvent, pH, and the ionic strength of the polyion. The thickness of

the polymer layer changes the properties of the particles, such as viscosity, and can affect

the applications and processing limitations. The modification of the viscosity by an

adsorbed layer of a surfactant or a polymer can be modeled in terms of an appropriate

increase 6h of the radius a of the particles. This leads to the increase in the volume

fraction, 4, of the particles, which is related to the viscosity of the suspension through

Einstein's equation [61]:









|/o = 1 + k) (6)

where [t (Pa-s) is the viscosity of the suspension and [to (Pa-s) is the viscosity of the liquid

phase. Einstein determined a k coefficient equal to 2.5, which is only valid for an

infinitely dilute suspension. The Si02 particles in this study have a radius of 0.75 |tm,

and are considered fine, so it is necessary to determine the value ofk, Einstein's

coefficient.

Other methods of determining the adsorbed layer thickness of a polymer on

colloids are reported in the literature. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) [62], small-

angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) [63],TEM [32], x-ray reflectivity [24], and uv-vis

absorbance [21]. All of these methods require the knowledge of complicated equipment

and derivations. In this work, the relationship between changes in relative viscosity due

to the addition of the polyions is used (Einstein's equation) as well as radius of gyration

(Rg) calculations.

Preparation of suspensions for glass capillary method

Two sets of suspensions were prepared for the glass capillary method. The first, a

series of stable SiO2 suspensions (Si02 and deionized water) exhibiting various volume

fractions up to 20% vol Si02 were prepared. After ultrasonicating and shaking for 24

hours, the viscosities ([t) were determined.

The second set of suspensions contained Si02 particles and varying PDADMAC

concentrations up to 4% vol Si02. The Si02 particles were added to varying PDADMAC

concentrations. Depending on the dosage, the PDADMAC stock solution was diluted

with high purity deionized water to the desired concentration and used as the suspending

fluid. Several suspensions were prepared at a natural pH of 3 with various PDADMAC










concentrations (MW < 200000). After ultrasonicating and shaking for 24 hours, the

viscosity of the suspensions ([t) and of the corresponding mother liquors ([o) were

measured.

Glass capillary theological measurements

The glass capillary method was used to determine the adsorbed layer thickness of

PDADMAC on SiO2 particles. The glass capillary method has been shown to be an

effective method of determining the viscosity of dilute stable suspensions over a wide

range by varying the capillary diameter [64]. In this simple technique, the time required

for a given volume of sample to flow through the length of the capillary, from point A to

B, under its own hydrostatic head is measured.









FA


?-~ B









Figure 2-4: Cannon-Fenske glass capillary viscometer.

Flow effluxx) times, t (s), are related to the viscosity of the sample by an equation of the

form


[t/p = v = at + b/t (7)









where [t (cP) is the dynamic viscosity, p (g/cm3) is the density of the fluid, v (is the

kinematic viscosity (cSt), and a (cSt/s) and b are instrument constants. The last term in

the above equation is related to the kinetic energy correction which is negligible for flow

times over about two minutes.

The liquid in the bulb above the capillary provides the driving force, and since the

height change is relatively small, pressure changes are small during the test. Glass

capillary viscometers are usually used for low viscosity samples. Capillaries of different

diameters are used for different viscosity ranges to keep flow time through the capillary

in the range of 2-5 minutes. In this case, one capillary diameter was used.

Before the measurement was made, the capillary was cleaned of all debris and dried

with compressed air. After the sample was suctioned into the glass capillary up to the

appropriate line, the glass capillary was immersed in a constant temperature bath of

25 C. After waiting five minutes to allow for temperature equilibration and no bubbles

were present, the timer was started and stopped when the sample reached the appropriate

marks on the glass capillary. This procedure was repeated three times. Since all the

readings were within 180-360 seconds, only one glass capillary was used.

The visocmeter calibration constant was multiplied by the average time (in

seconds) to determine the kinematic viscosity, v, of the sample by using the above

equation with b = 0. The kinematic vsicosity was then multiplied by the density of the

suspension, p, shown in Eqn. 8. to determine the relative viscosity, [t.

v = [/p (8)









Effective volume fraction (EVF) calculations

The adsorbed polymer creates a coating on the surface of the particle with a

significant thickness and therefore, the particles have an effective radius, aef, that is

larger than the radius of the core particles. These systems may be treated as hard spheres

if an effective volume fraction is used instead of the core volume fraction of the particles

[57]. Effective volume fraction (EVF) is defined as [41]

4eff = (aff/a)3 (9)

where 4eff is effective volume fraction, and 4 is the core volume fraction of the particles.

In the case of sterically stabilized suspensions, aef may be written as [41]

aff = a + 6 (10)

where 6 (nm) is the adsorbed layer thickness.

Rg (Radius of Gyration) Calculations

One method to calculate the adsorbed layer thickness without making experimental

measurements, is to use the radius of gyration, Rg, of the polymer. The Rg is the measure

of the end-to-end distance a polymer chain. Therefore, the thickness of the monolayer of

polymer on the surface of the SiO2 particles should be close in value to the Rg. Rg,

however, depends on the solvent, the temperature, the molecular weight, and chemical

composition of the polymer. Depending on the conformation of the polymer on the

surface, the Rg may or may not be a good predictor of adsorbed layer thickness. By using

the equations

r2 = NL2 (11)

and


Rg2 = r2/6 (12)









the Rg can be estimated. N is the number of segments in the polymer chain and depends

on the molecular weight and chemical structure. L is the length of each segment, or the

persistence length. Persistence length is the average projection of the end-to-end vector

on the tangent to the chain contour at a chain end in the limit of infinite chain length. The

persistence length is the basic characteristic of the worm-like chain [65]. Tricot [66]

reports a persistence length of 27 A for PDADMAC (MW = 250,000 g/mol). This is not

the molecular weight of the PDADMAC used in this work, so the calculated Rg will be an

approximation.

Study of NanoSiO2 Layer

In this work, the nanoSiO2 represents charged drugs that can be delivered to the

body's cells. For toxin removal, by incorporating nanoparticles as one of the layers, there

is an increase in surface area as well as surface energy. Adsorption of toxins should

increase due to the addition of a monolayer of nanoparticles. After removing excess

PDADMAC from the PDADMAC-coated SiO2 suspension, a 25-g/L solution of ultra

pure water and nanoSiO2 was added. In order to confirm that the nanoSiO2 was adsorbed

onto the positively charged surface, zeta potential measurements were made using the

Colloidal Dynamic Acoustosizer IIs. The Colloidal Dynamics Acoustosizer uses the

Electrokinetic Sonic Amplitude (ESA) effect. Charged particles in suspension are forced

to move by an oscillating electric field to produce acoustic compression waves (i.e.,

sound waves at the frequency of the excitation). Changes in density as the particles move

towards and away from the electrodes generate acoustic waves at the surface of the

electrodes as an echo of the excitation. The amplitude of the acoustic response is

proportional to the velocity of the particle caused by the electric field. The velocity is

proportional to the electric field amplitude. The "constant" of proportionality is the









dynamic mobility, which can be shown to be a function of particle size, zeta potential,

frequency, and phase lag of the particles velocity relative to the excitation frequency.

This relationship is used to extract the particle size and surface charge (zeta potential)

from measurement of the ESA. The advantage of this technique is that it can be applied

to very concentrated suspensions (up to 40 vol%).

After the zeta potential measurements were conducted, scanning electron

microscopy (SEM) was used to determine any changes in surface structure of the layered

particles.














CHAPTER 3
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Adsorption of PDADMAC

Kinetics of adsorption was studied to determine the time it takes for complete

adsorption of PDADMAC onto the surface of the SiO2 particles to occur. Fig. 3-1 shows

the results from this kinetics study. Adsorption density of the polymer was determined as

a function of time for samples prepared using a polymer dosage of 6 mg/(g solids). After

mixing the particles with the polymer solution, samples were ultrasonicated for five

minutes and then left on a shaker for a given period of time, ranging from 0 to 180

minutes. An adsorption density of 0.4 mg/m2 is reached in less than 30 minutes. The

time of centrifugation and ultrasonication are included in the final time of adsorption.

The adsorption density varies by less than 0.1 mg/m2, but shows a steady plateau around

0.4 mg/m2. The shape of the kinetic curve is typical: a linear increase, which ends rather

abruptly. This study shows that the polycation completely adsorbs to the SiO2 surface

very quickly. In the fabrication of multilayers adsorbed onto colloids, additional aspects

have to be considered: competing with the formation of a defined monolayer around the

particle is the process of coagulation of partly covered particles. The corresponding

timescales of adsorption and coagulation are crucial for successful multilayer formation

on single colloids, as seen from the following: the rate of polymer chain adsorption (s/m2)

onto a particle is given by [67]:

kads = 47lRpaDpolCpol (13)









using the assumption of an irreversible and diffusion controlled adsorption. Rpa (A) is the

radius of the particle Dpol (m2/s) is the polymer diffusion coefficient, cpoi (mg/mL) the

polymer concentration. The competing process, the rate of collisions (s/m2) between

particles, can be described

kcoll = 4l7Rpa2Dpacpa (14)

with Dpa (m2/s) and Cpa (mg/mL) as the diffusion coefficient and concentration of

particles, respectively. The factor 2 takes into account the fact that both objects are

diffusing. The requirement of a fast chain adsorption is thus fulfilled if the polymer

concentration is large compared to the particle concentration.

For medical composite systems like drug delivery processes, if charged species

are used and electrostatic interaction is the mechanism of adsorption, it is important to

understand the kinetics of this charged process, whether it be for the process of adsorbing

toxins or processing the multilayered systems. For removing toxins, the process of

adsorbing charged chemicals or molecules must be quick in order to avoid the death of

cells.


0.6


4 0.4 *

E
S0.2



0 i- -
0 50 100 150 200
Time, minutes

Figure 3-1: Adsorption density as a function of time for SiO2-PDADMAC system (250C,
pH = 4.58).









For the 2% vol SiO2 suspension containing PDADMAC (Mw < 200,000 g/mol), an

adsorption isotherm was determined by analyzing the initial solution and the residual

solution removed after centrifuging. The adsorption isotherm for SiO2 suspension

containing PDADMAC can be seen in Fig. 3-2. This curve has a typical shape with a

very steep increase at extremely low Ceq, followed by a saturation plateau where F is

nearly independent of concentration. F is the adsorption density of the polycation

adsorbed on the surface of the particles. The residual solution was tested for organic

carbon by TOC measurements. In Fig. 3-2, coverages approaching 0.5 mg/m2 were

observed at high concentrations of PDADMAC, on the apparent plateau of the isotherm.

At the surface of the SiO2, the average interfacial conformation of the PDADMAC chains

may be changing with coverage to include some segments that are loosely attached to the

surface, as small tails or loops. This may result from repulsions within the adsorbed

layer, which can be long range at the low ionic strength [55]. When increasing the

amount of polymer added to the system, giving higher coverages above 0.6 mg/m2, the

ionic strength is increased by ions brought along with the polymer. The increase in ionic

strength resulting from the additional polymer in the system may screen long-range

electrostatic repulsions, allowing chains to approach more closely or adsorb more flatly

with decreased mobility [42]. The amount of polyelectrolyte adsorbed depends on the

charge density of the surface, c, as well as the pH and ionic strength of the solution. The

c and charge density along the chain, and the pH and ionic strength are dominating

parameters for polyelectrolyte adsorption to hard surfaces. In this study, the pH and ionic

strength were not adjusted. Therefore, the flexibility, morphology, thickness, and

transport properties of the monolayer depends on the chemical structure, MW, and









amount of polyelectrolyte adsorbed. Error analysis of this study included preparing three

samples for each point and each sample was analyzed three times. The error calculated

was negligible on the plot presented.




0.6
0
N *
E 0.4





0.0

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

Ceq g/L
Figure 3-2: Adsorption density as a function of equilibrium concentration of PDADMAC
onto the surface of SiO2 particles (250C, pH = 4.58).

The zeta potential is a measure of electrostatic interactions between solid particles

covered by polymer layers, and its magnitude depends on the adsorbed concentrations.

The magnitude of the zeta potential gives an indication of the potential stability of the

colloidal system. Literature reports that the SiO2 surface charge is dependent on the pH

value and the electrolyte concentration. At pH > 3, SiO2 has a negative surface charge,

and the surface becomes more negatively charged with increasing pH. In the case of bare

SiO2, there is a plateau in basic solution, and the point of zero charge, near pH = 3.0 3.5

[42]. The bare SiO2 particles are well dispersed above pH = 3, and the negative charge of

the SiO2 surface will allow for electrostatic adsorption of the PDADMAC onto the SiO2

core particles. At a pH < 3, the surface of the SiO2 particles will have a positive charge,

and a PDADMAC monolayer will not form based on electrostatic forces.









Fig. 3-3 represents zeta potential as a function of PDADMAC dosage and, as can

be observed, the magnitude of zeta potential increases as more polymer is adsorbed onto

the surface of SiO2 particles. As shown in Fig. 3-3, zeta potential will reach a plateau at a

polymer dosage of 10 mg/(g solids). This dosage corresponds with the adsorption density

of 0.5 mg/m2, shown in Fig. 3-2.


80

60 f *

n 40- 4

N > 20
E
0
S0 ,-- i ---,-- i --- --
S5 10 15 20
-20

E -40
PDADMAC Dosage, mg/(g solids)

Figure 3-3: Zeta potential as a function of polymer dosage for SiO2-PDADMAC system
(25C, pH = 4.58).

Both figures indicate that maximum saturation of the 1.5-[tm SiO2 particles, in natural pH

and ionic strength conditions, occurs at an adsorption density of 0.5 mg/m2 of

PDADMAC. Increasing the amount of polymer stabilizes the dispersion, and none or

only very weak repulsive forces exist in such a case. The zeta potential also increases but

begins to level off around +62 mV. Optimal flocculation in salt-free environments is

observed at the isoelectric point (C = 0). The plateau indicates a complete saturation of

SiO2 core particles with the polycation above 10 mg/(g solids). For error analysis four

samples for each point were analyzed four times due to the sensitivity of the TOC

analysis. The error was negligible the on the plot presented. Particles with zeta









potentials more positive than +30 mV are normally considered stable, and at a zeta

potential of +62 mV, the surface of SiO2 is completely covered with the PDADMAC.

Desorption of PDADMAC and PSS

To study the desorption of PDADMAC from the surface of SiO2 particles, samples

were centrifuged and re-dispersed in pure water several times. The supernatants were

analyzed for desorbed carbon using a TOC analyzer. The bare SiO2 particles were mixed

with a concentration of 0.63 g/L of PDADMAC. The supernatant removed after the first

centrifugation contained 0.57 g/L of PDADMAC, shown in Fig. 3-4, leaving 0.06 g/L

PDADMAC on the surface of the SiO2 particles. After adding deionized water,

redispersing the PDADMAC-coated particles, and centrifuging again, the desorbed

PDADMAC in the supernatant is measured using TOC up to five times. This study

indicates that after centrifuging and washing with water, the PDADMAC was not

removed from the surface of the SiO2 particles. Preliminary TOC measurements on the

desorption of PSS produce similar results. After centrifugation, not all of the PSS was

removed from the solution. PSS remained on the surface of the PDADMAC-coated SiO2

particles. EPM measurements also supported this observation.

The polymer layers must remain intact throughout the processing procedure.

Excess polyion in solution is removed through physical means and washing with pure

water. The electrostatic interaction between the layers and the surface of the SiO2 is very

strong. For a drug delivery system, however, the layers of polymer should be released

due to changes in external parameters, such as pH, glucose concentration (for diabetes),

or even high toxin levels. These parameters will have to be looked at in regards to the

diffusion of the polymers away from the surface of the particles.











0.8

-j
S0.6
I \

0.4 \

E 0.2- \

0
0 A-------
0 1 2 3 4 5
Number of Washes

Figure 3-4: Desorption study of PDADMAC on SiO2 particles after centrifuging and
washing with deionized water.

Zeta Potential

EPM measurements were conducted to follow the assembly of the

PDADMAC/PSS multilayers onto the surface of SiO2 particles. In the absence of

polymers, SiO2 samples exhibited a zeta potential of nearly equal to -23 mV in pure water

(pH = 5). The zeta potential of the SiO2 particles can be altered, depending on whether a

polycation or a polyanion is adsorbed as the outermost layer [32]. The zeta potential of

each layer is shown in Fig. 3-5. The zeta potential of the PDADMAC layer was +64 mV,

a value consistent with the outermost layer being a polycation. The assembly of the

second layer of PSS caused a reversal in sign of the zeta potential, from +64 mV to -42

mV, an indication that the outermost layer is a polyanion. This reversal in sign occurred

up to four total layers on the surface of the SiO2 core particles, ending with a negative

zeta potential, or PSS.










80
S60- A
0 40 /
S20\




E
-201 (
5 -40
E -601
u( 0 1 2 3 4
Layer Number

Figure 3-5: Zeta potential measurements showing the change in surface charge as
PDADMAC (Layer Number 1), PSS (Layer Number 2), PDADMAC (Layer
Number 3), and PSS (Layer Number 4) are added (250C, pH = 4.35, in the
absence of salt).

The zeta potential measurements were conducted at a pH 5.3 (above the

isoelectric point of SiO2), bare SiO2 bears an overall negative charge at this pH. As

subsequent adsorption of PDADMAC and PSS layers occurred, the zeta potential

exhibited changes from positive to negative, respectively. The zeta potential values were

+62 mV when PDADMAC formed the outermost layer and about -42 mV when PSS

formed the outer layer on the SiO2 core particles. Caruso et al. [32] have reported a value

of +45 mV for zeta potential when PDADMAC forms the outermost layer in the presence

of 0.5 M NaCl in the system. The difference between the zeta potential values is due to

the presence of salt in the system used by these investigators. The alternating sign of zeta

potentials observed are characteristic of stepwise growth of multilayer films on colloids

[14]. A similarly regular zeta potential has been observed after deposition of various

polyion pairs. An interesting feature is the fact that the zeta potential oscillates between

the same values, with saturation occurring around 60 mV after polycation adsorption, and

around -40 mV for polyanion adsorption. This implies that saturation occurs when a









fixed potential is reached, independently of material employed. It provides evidence for

the electrostatic repulsion by the outer layer being the mechanism controlling the

adsorbed amount, and limiting further adsorption, and not the polyion stoichiometry with

respect to the underlying layer.

The silica-water interface contains a variety of silanol groups (Si-O-H) that can

ionize to produce negative charges (Si-O-). Although the density of surface charges on

silica at pH = 5 is quite low, the density of potential counterion sites is high because the

silanol protons can exchange for other adsorbed cations [68]. This allows for the

polycation adsorption. Additionally, the protonation of the oligomer itself contributes to

the ionic strength of the solution. The influence of ions on the coverage in Fig. 3-2,

however, cannot be observed since no salt was added to the system.

The increase in ionic strength resulting from the addition of polymer to the system

may screen long-range electrostatic repulsions, allowing chains to approach more closely

or adsorb more flatly with decreased mobility. The charge of the polyions leads to

enlarged polymer coils due to electrostatic repulsion between charged segments.

Furthermore, adsorption of polyions onto oppositely charged particles is dominated by

electrostatic forces whereby the adsorbed amount depends on shape, size, and

conformation of the polyion coils. At low ionic strength, polyelectrolytes with high

charge density, such as PDADMAC, tend to adsorb in a planar structure with a large

portion of adsorbed trains [69].

As suggested by Schwarz et al. [70], the question remains that to what extent zeta

potential and adsorption measurements can be applied to characterize stability or

instability of dispersions in the presence of polyelectrolytes. As shown in Fig. 3-4, the









magnitude of zeta potential increases by increasing the amount of polymer in the system.

The repulsive forces which are caused by the positive charges of the polycations increase

with increasing concentration of polyelectrolyte. This difference in magnitude of the zeta

potential can be ascribed to variations in the conformation of the polyelectrolytes at the

surface of quartz [71], which may arise from the differences in underlying surface

morphology of the particles. The alternating values do qualitatively demonstrate a

successful recharging of the particles surface with each polyelectrolyte deposition [68].

Adsorption of polyelectrolytes on oppositely charged surfaces depends strongly on

the electrostatic interaction, so the nature and concentration of the salt in solution and the

pH of solution may have a significant role. It has been observed that PDADMAC

adsorption on the surface of SiO2 particles increases with KC1 concentrations [71].

Bremmell et al. [72] measured forces between SiO2 surfaces in the presence of a cationic

copolymer and 0.1 mM NaC1. They found that the force was purely attractive at low

concentrations and repulsive above 50 ppm.

Adsorbed Layer Thickness

Adsorbed layer thickness can be calculated using many methods, as stated earlier.

For example, when using UV-vis adsorption spectroscopy or x-ray reflectivity after the

fabrication of multilayered particles [2, 24], the observed interference pattern, called

Kiessig fringes, can be analyzed to give the overall film thickness as a function of layer

number [24, 73]. As with many other systems prepared by this technique, they show that

the total thickness of the multilayer assemblies increases linearly with the number of

adsorbed layers, indicating a stepwise and regular deposition process. However, using

these methods can be difficult and time consuming.










Einstein's equation relates linearly the viscosity of the suspension to the volume

fraction of particles in suspension. For dilute solutions (< 4% vol) a k coefficient is equal

to 2.5. Fig. 3-6 shows that above 4% vol the suspension begins to deviate from

Einstein's equation.


1.80


S1.60 r = 4.5763(p + 0.9331

0
1.40


1.20
pr = 2.5(p + 1

1.00
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2



Figure 3-6: Relative viscosities of dispersions versus volume fraction of SiO2 in water.

In order to determine adsorbed layer thickness for PDADMAC (MW < 200,000),

increasing concentrations of PDADMAC were added to the SiO2 core particles. As

expected at a dosage of 10 mg/(g solids) a plateau begins, as shown in Fig. 3-7. From the

previous adsorption isotherms and EPM measurements, this value makes sense.

Complete coverage of the core particles was occurring. To determine the adsorbed layer

thickness of the PDADMAC, a relative viscosity located on the plateau was used for

calculations. For a PDADMAC dosage of 12 mg/(g solids), the relative viscosity

recorded, 1.1989, corresponds to a volume fraction of 0.050, which amounts to 1.25

times the initial volume fraction, 0.04. As the SiO2 particle has a radius of 0.75 ptm, if

the volume fraction is multiplied by 1.25, the radius will be multiplied by (1.25)1/3, which

is an increase in radius that corresponds to a polymer thickness of 58 nm.










Fig. 3-7 shows the increase in relative viscosity as a function of polymer

concentration. It is clear that above 12 mg/(g solids) a monolayer of PDADMAC has

adsorbed. The relative viscosity values at PDADMAC concentrations above 12 mg/(g

solids) were used to plot the adsorbed layer thickness versus dosage of PDADMAC in

Fig. 3-8.


1.25
1.20
1.15
1.10
0
I 1.05
> 1.00
0.95
S0.90
0.85
0.80
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
Dosage of PDADMAC, mg/(g solids)

Figure 3-7: Relative viscosity of SiO2 dispersion versus 200,000 molecular weight
PDADMAC dosage.


70
60 *
50
E 40
Pc 30
20
10
0

8 10 12 14 16

Dosage of PDADMAC, mg/(g solids)

Figure 3-8: Adsorbed layer thickness of PDADMAC on surface of 1.5 [mm SiO2 particles,
using effective volume fraction calculations, as concentration of PDADMAC
increases.









It can be seen that at a critical dosage, a monolayer of PDADMAC is formed. By using

the glass capillary and calculating the relative viscosities of the samples, the thickness of

the adsorbed layer can be determined.

The persistence length of the 250,000 molecular weight polymer and equations (6)

and (7) were used to determine the adsorbed layer thickness. These values are listed in

Table 3-1 and are compared with adsorbed layer thickness values obtained using other

techniques. The radius of gyration of a polymer is dependent on molecular weight, ionic

strength of the solution, temperature, and chain length. Caruso and Mohwald [32] have

used single particle light scattering (SPLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and

transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine adsorbed layer thickness of

polymer/particle multilayers. They also report an error of 10%.

Table 3-1: PDADMAC adsorbed layer thickness values obtained by various methods.

Layer Thickness (nm)
Layer Number SPLS [32] SEM [32] TEM [32] 1r Rg
1 24 38 30 58 49

Due to error involved using the instruments and differences in the composition of

the core particles, ionic strength, and pH of the systems, deviations from Caruso and

Mohwald's work are expected. Caruso and Mohwald used negatively charged

polystyrene latex particles of diameter 640 nm, and they adjusted the ionic strength of

their PDADMAC solution to 10-3 M NaCl and the pH to 5.6. In this work, SiO2 is the

core particle (d = 1.5 [tm), and the ionic strength and pH (3-4) are not adjusted. Since the

values are within the same magnitude, it can be concluded that the glass capillary method

can be fairly accurate when determining the adsorbed layer thickness of the PDADMAC

on the surface of SiO2 core particles.









The glass capillary method was used to determine the kinematic viscosity, v. This

method is very sensitive to temperature and dispersion of the particles in the suspending

fluid. The samples were ultrasonicated and the particles dispersed well. The error,

however, calculated using this method was very small. Many dispersions were run

multiple times in order to exclude error in this data.

Rheology of Dispersions of Multilayered Particles

Rheology measurements were made using the parallel plate geometry as

PDADMAC concentration increases. Fig. 3-9 shows a distinct increase in viscosity

initially at low shear rates. This makes sense because as the PDADMAC is adsorbing

onto the SiO2 surface, the adsorbed layer thickness, and thus the effective volume also

increases. At low shear rates the viscosity increases by a factor of 10. In the case of 5

mg/(g solids), the viscosity has the maximum value. In order to explain this behavior, it

is necessary to note that complete coverage of the SiO2 particles does not occur until 10

mg/(g solids) PDADMAC solution is added. Therefore, it can be concluded that at this

dosage only part of the SiO2 particle surfaces are covered. When the particles are only

partly covered with polymer, the adsorbed polymer can form macromolecular bridge by

adsorbing onto two particles simultaneously. A dosage of 5 mg/(g solids) appears to be

the condition for maximum bridging flocculation.

At high shear rates, the bridging structures are broken down due to the high shear.

At high shear, the double layer deforms and the effective volume fraction is affected. In

Fig. 3-9, the viscosity in all cases shows a decrease at higher shear rates. At low shear

rates interparticle forces dominate, whereas at high shear rates hydrodynamic forces

dominate.







40


1 -*-0 mg/(g solids)
---5 mg/(g solids)
-- F C10 mg/(g solids)
a. 12.5 mg/(g solids)
0.1 15 mg/(g solids)
o
C --0-20 mg/(g solids)



0.01
1 10 100 1000 10000
Shear Rate, s1

Figure 3-9: Viscosity versus shear rate at increasing dosage of PDADMAC on core SiO2
particles.

In Fig. 3-10 at a dosage of 5 mg/(g solids) a peak can been seen at low shear rates.

As the shear rate increases, this peak gradually disappears, another indication of the

optimal conditions of bridging flocculation. At higher shear rates, the particles are

dominated by long range hydrodynamic forces. For error analysis, three samples for each

point were analyzed three times. The error was negligible to the plot presented.





1.43 s-1
S-- 5.90 s-1
34.8 s-1
0.1
20 5 s-1
.0 848s-1



0.01
0 5 10 15 20
Dosage, mg/(g solids)


Figure 3-10: Viscosity versus dosage of PDADMAC on core SiO2 particles as a function
of increasing shear rate.










After the second layer, PSS, is added to the surface the effective volume fraction

increases again. At low shear rates, the viscosity is 100 times higher, but at high shear

rates the viscosities converge. This indicates structure formation at low shear rates. This

structure may be a gel formation. At low shear rates, the interaction between the

suspended particles is relatively weak and the system is predominantly viscous in nature,

while in the region of higher shear, the system becomes predominantly elastic and the

adsorbed polymer layers may interpenetrate or be compressed [74].


1000
PSS layer
100 g PDADMAC layer
B g _A Si02
10



0.1

0.01 A A A AAAAAAAAAAAAA

0.001
1 10 100 1000
Shear Rate, s1
Figure 3-11: Viscosity versus shear rate of core SiO2 particles, PDADMAC-coated SiO2,
and PSS-PDADMAC-coated SiO2.

NanoSiO2

Fig. 3-12 is an SEM picture of 1.5 ptm core SiO2 particles. This picture exhibits

well the monodispersity of the core particles. After adding the appropriate concentration

of PDADMAC to the dispersion, the particles appear more ordered and less aggregated

(Fig. 3-13). The particles become more disperse due to the polyelectrolyte acting as a

dispersant. The particles are still monodisperse and appear to have a smooth surface.























Figure 3-12: SEM of 1.5 |tm SiO2 core particles.














Figure 3-13: SEM of 1.5 |tm SiO2 particles completely covered with PDADMAC (MW =
200,000)

Fig. 3-14 shows the nanoSiO2 adsorbed onto PDADMAC-coated SiO2 particles.

The surface of the particles appears "rough." This "roughness" is the nanoSiO2 particles.

The particles are also attached and are flocculated. This may be due to the increase in

surface energy of the system. As the surface area of the particles increases due to the

addition of nanoSiO2, the surface energy also increases. Future work indicates that this

will be a problem for drug delivery and toxin removal systems. The layered particles

need to be able to circulate throughout the environment they are in and have maximum

surface exposure to be successful in their application. Another reason for the flocculation

is that the nanoSiO2 may have been added too quickly. The particles did not have enough









time for steric stabilization to occur. The exposed positive charges of the PDADMAC

caused the particles to stick together.


Figure 3-14: SEM of nanoSiO2 adsorbed onto PDADMAC-coated SiO2.













CHAPTER 4
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

In this work, the stability of polycation and polyanion multilayers on SiO2 were

examined, both as a fundamental exercise and as a basis for future quantitative

interpretations of adsorbed high-molecular-weight cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes

for use in colloid drug delivery systems or toxin removal. The ionic strength and pH was

not adjusted, and for all the conditions studied, data for coverages above 0.5 mg/m2 were

found to show complete polyelectrolyte coverage on the Si02 particles for both

PDADMAC and PSS. For the natural pH range of our experiments (pH = 4-5), Si02

particles had a negative charge. EPM measurements confirmed this behavior. An

adsorption isotherm of adsorbed polycation as a function of equilibrium concentration

showed a characteristic plateau at 0.5 mg/m2. At and above this concentration, the

PDADMAC is completely covering the surface of the SiO2 core particles. The kinetics

study further showed that complete coverage and stability of the particle-polymer system

occurs in less than 30 minutes. This quick adsorption time makes sense since the

PDADMAC has a strong ionic charge when dissociated in water.

This work demonstrates that a homogenous and stable polyelectrolyte, both

polycationic and polyanionic, can be adsorbed onto micron-sized Si02 core particles in a

controlled, stepwise adsorption using electrostatic forces as the basis of motivation. Zeta

potential reversal with deposition of each layer was observed. Desorption studies under

multiwashing conditions shows stable layered structures. Adsorption isotherms and EPM

measurements both verify adsorption of polyelectrolytes onto SiO2 core particles. The









employment of colloidal particles as templates for the assembly of multilayer shells of

inorganic-organic materials through solution adsorption provides a viable route to the

production of tailored new materials with unique properties for drug delivery or

adsorption of toxins.

Control of stability and bulk theological properties is an important part of colloid

systems. It is also of fundamental interest to understand the relation between the

colloidal properties and factors such as interparticle forces, hydrodynamic interactions,

and physical and chemical characteristics of the system that govern the dispersion

properties [74]. The theological measurements conducted showed that as the layer

number increases, the viscosity also increases. For the PSS layer, there may be a

structural organization of the particles at low shear rates that is disrupted at higher shear

rates. These measurements showed a large change in the bulk properties of the particles.

By adding one and two layers of polymer on the surface of the SiO2 particle, changes can

be observed.

After a stable PDADMAC layer was demonstrated, nanoSiO2 was added into the

system. With no pH adjustments, the nanoSiO2 have a negative surface charge. It was

hypothesized that the nanoSiO2 should adsorbed onto the PDADMAC-coated SiO2

particles. Zeta potential measurements confirmed that the nanoSiO2 was adsorbed onto

the surface, but did not exhibit a stable structure on the surface of the layered particles.

At a pH of 4.3, the zeta potential of the particles was -14.23 mV. Further

characterizations are needed at this point.

SEM pictures indicated that there was a definite change in surface structure of the

layered particles. This structure is described as a "rougher" surface as compared to the






46


PDADMAC-coated SiO2. The PDADMAC-coated SiO2 micrographs exhibit very

smooth surfaces of evenly dispersed particles. After adding nanoSiO2 into the layered

structure, the surfaces appear "rough," and the particles are not well-dispersed. The

layered particles are sticking together. This indicates that the system cannot be

considered stable. The particles cannot be used as single drug delivery systems if they

are agglomerated. Further research must be done in order to resolve this issue.














CHAPTER 5
FUTURE WORK

For a number of applications, such as in controlled release or in separation

technology, it is of interest whether the properties of polyelectrolyte multilayers can be

changed by varying the external conditions, since controllable and tunable properties are

required. This concerns, for example, the control of permeation by external parameters.

In addition to this, the response of polyelectrolyte multilayers to external parameters can

be analyzed in terms of basic information on their internal material properties. For

example, swelling experiments provide insight into the interactions within polyelectrolyte

multilayers, and thus for example the internal hydrophobicity.

Predicting overall material properties as a consequence of the internal

composition and local interactions remains a challenging task. Polyelectrolyte

multilayers are complex materials with interesting properties on several length scales.

Each layer has its own unique properties, and the multilayered structure creates a three-

dimensional structure in which the layers combined create a particle with it's own unique

properties.

The growth of polyelectrolyte multilayers on colloid particles has been

demonstrated and shown to be a fairly simple process. However, from previous SEM

pictures, the surface layer on the 13-nm SiO2 particles does not appear to be stable, in the

sense that the layered particles appear to be aggregating. Zeta potential measurements

show that the surface charge is consistent with the nanoSiO2 covering the surface

completely (-14.3 mV, pH = 4.3). In order to stabilize this system, the layered particles









cannot be sticking together. Consideration into adjusting the parameters of adsorption

should be considered.

Once the nanoSiO2 is stabilized on the surface, experiments involving toxins

found in water as well as other classified bio-toxins. There has also been some work in

using nanosupsensions as nanoparticulate drug delivery systems. [75] It would be

promising work to begin incorporating drugs into the layers using electrostatics. In order

to use the systems is drug deliver, there will also have to be diffusion studies of the

polymer layers. The external parameters that affect diffusion rates will have to be

determined and stated. Some work regarding the diffusion of polyions in polyelectrolyte

multilayers has begun [76].

Further desorption studies in changing pH environments should also be

considered. It is known that pH has an important role in the layer thickness, morphology,

and surface properties of the polyelectrolyte structures, but it is unknown how is can

affect the stability of the layers.

In principle all polyelectrolytes should be suitable for incorporation into

multilayer assemblies; and in addition to this, this study has shown the incorporation of

nanoparticles as a layer. This implies that there is no principle restriction to

polyelectrolyte, and that the construction of multilayer assemblies should also be possible

by using charged particles. As an example of such particles we have chosen nanoSiO2.

For future work, the nanoparticles bind to the charged PDADMAC surface and partially

penetrates it. It is not known how the stable these nanoparticles are as a layer, as well,

whether or not multilayers can be formed on nanoparticles. It may be possible that the

next deposition layer, whether it be PDADMAC, a silanol (for silylating the surface), or









another positively charged polymer species (protein, DNA, etc), fills holes between the

nanoparticles, and the layer surface restored. Uniform layers of large biomolecules or

biomolecular assemblies under controlled conditions can be achieved.

The future, however, of multilayered SiO2 particles lies in adsorption of toxins,

heavy metal ions, and corrosive molecules. By using an adsorbent and layering that

adsorbent with nanoparticles increases the surface area as well as the surface energy.

These particles would be ideal for adsorption processes and can be studied further. There

is much potential in medical composite systems for these layered particles.















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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

I was born in 1980 and grew up in Tampa, Florida. I graduated from Berkeley

Preparatory School, Tampa, Florida, in June 1999. I was accepted into the University of

Florida and finished my Bachelor of Science in materials science and engineering,

specializing in polymers, in the summer of 2003. I continued with my Master of Science,

also in materials science and engineering, at the University of Florida. I plan to receive

my Master of Science in May 2005.

I met my future husband, Chad Macuszonok, in 1999, and we are planning our

wedding for August 2005. This is the beginning of the rest of our lives.