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Vanguard assemblages

University of Florida Institutional Repository

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V A N G U A R D A S S E M B L A G E S : N E W M E D I A A N D T H E E N T H Y M E M E B y P A T R I C K J O H N M C H E N R Y A T H E S I S P R E S E N T E D T O T H E G R A D U A T E S C H O O L O F T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F F L O R I D A I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F A R T S U N I V E R S I T Y O F F L O R I D A 2005

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C opyr i ght 2005 by P a t r i c k J ohn M c H e nr y

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i i i A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S I t ha nk D r G r e gor y U l m e r f or be i ng s t e a df a s t i n s uppor t i ng m y a t t r a c t i on t o c or nuc opi a s A n i m m e ns e a m ount of pa t i e nc e w a s r e qui r e d on hi s pa r t t o a l l ow t he t i m e f or t hi s t he s i s t o t a ke s ha pe H i s c ont i nue d pa s s i on f or t he hum a ni t i e s a nd a r t s i s r e c ogni z e d w i t h c om pl e t e a dm i r a t i on. I a l s o t ha nk D r T e r r y H a r pol d f o r hi s i ns i ght s t i m e a c ut e know l e dge a nd i nt e r e s t i n t hi s pr oj e c t I t ha nk m y m ot he r a nd f a t he r f o r t he i r l ove a nd s uppor t

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i v T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S pa ge A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i i i A B S T R A C T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v C H A P T E R 1 S C E N O G R A P H Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 C O L L A G E A N D M O N T A G E A E S T H E T I C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3 A E S T H E T I C T O M A T E R I A L I Z A T I O N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4 E N T H Y M E M E A S M E T H O D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 L I S T O F R E F E R E N C E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 B I O G R A P H I C A L S K E T C H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

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v A bs t r a c t of T he s i s P r e s e nt e d t o t he G r a dua t e S c hool of t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e nt o f t he R e qui r e m e nt s f or t he M a s t e r of A r t s V A N G U A R D A S S E M B L A G E S : N E W M E D I A A N D T H E E N T H Y M E M E B y P a t r i c k J ohn M c H e nr y M a y 2005 C ha i r : G r e gor y L U l m e r M a j or D e pa r t m e nt : E ngl i s h T hi s pr oj e c t t he o r i z e s how t he D i s c i pl i ne m a y c ont i nue i nt e ns i f yi ng a r gum e nt a t i ve s t r uc t ur e s i ni t i a t e d by A r i s t ot l e t o pe r s ua de a s oc i a l body. I n pa r t i c ul a r v i s ua l w r i t i ng m e t hods de m ons t r a t e w a ys t o a r gue w i t h t he e nt hy m e m e r a t he r t ha n s c i e nt i f i c or a na l yt i c a l s yl l ogi s m s B e gi nni ng w i t h t he a va nt g a r de of t he 1920s L e f t m e t hods a nd pr oc e dur a l s e t s a r i s e t ha t e qui p s oc i e t y t o pe r c e i ve a nd i nt e r a c t w i t h t he w or l d i n ne w w a ys c ont i nui ng i nt o t he t w e nt y f i r s t c e nt ur y. H o w t he a r t i s t i c t e c hni que s of c ol l a ge a nd m ont a ge t r a ns f or m i nt o t he c ul t ur a l m e t a phor s f or ne w m e di a be c om e s a c r uc i a l m ove m e nt L e v M a novi c h t he or i z e s t hi s m ove m e nt a nd e ns ur e s t ha t va ngua r d a e s t he t i c s c ont i nue t he i r i nt e ns i f i c a t i on i n r e l a t i on t o ne w m e di a by be i ng p r oj e c t e d i n t he f or e gr ou nd o f hum a n c om pu t e r i nt e r f a c e T r a c i ng ope r a t i ons l i ke c ut a nd pa s t e f r om t he hi s t or i c a l a va nt ga r de ne o a va nt ga r de a nd f i na l l y t o t he m e t a a va nt ga r de a l l ow s s pe c ul a t i ons t o a r i s e c onc e r ni ng t he m e t hod a nd l ogi c o f i m a ge s i n r e l a t i on t o no r m a t i v e l a ngua ge m ode l s a nd t he i r a r gum e nt a t i ve c ount e r pa r t s G i l l e s D e l e uz e a nd F l i x G ua t t a r i s A T hous and P l at e aus

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vi pr ovi de s a l a ngua ge m ode l t ha t a s s i s t s e xpl i c a t i ng a w or ki ng t he or y of w ha t e nt a i l s t he a c t of a ut hor i ng w i t h di gi t a l t oo l s e qui ppe d w i t h a c ut a nd pa s t e f unc t i on. H ow a n a va nt ga r de a s s e m bl a ge a nd D e l e uz e a nd G ua t t a r i s a s s e m bl a ge i nt e r c ha nge de m ons t r a t e a w a y t o e nha nc e t he us e o f e nt hym e m a t i c a r gum e nt a t i on i n t he hum a ni t i e s N e w m e di a c ont i nue s t o m odi f y t he r he t o r i c a nd l ogi c of c ol l a ge a n d m ont a ge but a l s o s i m ul t a ne ous l y m a r ks a c ha nge i n a ppa r a t us T he s e c ha nge s e f f e c t ua t e a ne w e nga ge m e nt w i t h t he e nt hym e m e t ha t m a i nt a i ns a pot e nt i a l f or a m o r e r e s pons i bl e pe r s ua s i ve s oc i a l a r gum e nt t ha n c ur r e nt l y f ound i n e nt e r t a i nm e nt a nd po l i t i c a l di s c our s e s

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1 C H A P T E R 1 S C E N O G R A P H Y I n 1950 C ha r l e s O l s on publ i s he d P r oj e c t i ve V e r s e a ye a r be f or e he be c a m e t he di r e c t or of B l a c k M ount a i n C ol l e ge w o r ki ng w i t h e xpe r i m e nt a l a r t i s t s l i ke J ohn C a ge R obe r t R a us c he nbe r g, M e r c e C unni ngha m a nd F r a nz K l i ne I t m a r ke d a s i gni f i c a nt e ve nt i n t e r m s o f c om pos i t i on: O l s on t ur ne d t ow a r ds r e s t r uc t ur i ng t he a c t of c om pos i ng i t s e l f pr oj e c t i ve pr o j e c t i l e pe r c us s i ve pr os pe c t i ve ve r s e by c a l l i ng f o r a n ope n f i e l d of c om pos i t i on. O l s on a r gue s t ha t a poe m a t a l l p oi nt s be a hi gh e ne r gy c ons t r uc t a nd, a t a l l poi nt s a n e ne r gy d i s c ha r ge ( 345) O l s on c a l l s f o r ki ne t i c c om pos i t i on t ha t br i ngs us up, ba ng, a ga i ns t t e ns e s i n f a c t a ga i ns t s ynt a x, i n f a c t a ga i ns t gr a m m a r ge ne r a l l y t ha t i s a s w e ha ve i nhe r i t e d i t ( 3 49) I n a m ove m e nt t ha t I now r e a d i n pos t m ode r n t e r m s ( poi nt l i ne f i e l d) O l s on de c r e e s t ha t t he l a w of t he l i ne w hi c h pr oj e c t i ve ve r s e c r e a t e s m us t be he w n t o, obe ye d, a nd t ha t t he c onve nt i ons w hi c h l ogi c ha s f or c e d on s ynt a x m us t be br oke n ope n a s qui e t l y a s m us t t he t oo s e t f e e t o f t he ol d l i ne ( 350) T e c hnol ogy, how e ve r s m a l l t he s i gni f i c a nc e m i gh t a ppe a r i n t he e s s a y, pr ovi de s a f or e s ha dow i ng of m y i nt e r e s t s he r e : I t i s t he a dva nt a ge of t he t ype w r i t e r t ha t due t o i t s r i gi di t y a nd i t s s pa c e pr e c i s i ons i t c a n, f or a poe t i ndi c a t e e xa c t l y t he br e a t h, t he pa us e s t he s us pe ns i on s e ve n of s yl l a bl e s t he j uxt a pos i t i ons e ve n of pa r t s of phr a s e s w hi c h he i nt e nds F o r t he f i r s t t i m e t he poe t ha s t he s t a ve a nd t he ba r a m us i c i a n ha s ha d. ( 351) O l s o n a nd ot he r B l a c k M ount a i n poe t s a nd a r t i s t s be ga n t o t hi nk o f c om pos i ng be i ng a c t i ve a nd a l i ve ( ha ppe ni ngs ) i ns t e a d o f r e f l e c t i ve a nd r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l c om pos i ng t ha t

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2 doe s not s e e k de s c r i pt i on, but pr om ot e s e na c t i ng. O l s on not e s a c ha nge i n a ppa r a t us ; t he t ool s f or c om pos i ng c ha nge d, a nd i n a c c or da nc e h e s ought w a ys t o w or k w i t h ne w t ool s W i t hi n t he D i s c i pl i ne t he c om put e r m a r ks a m uc h m or e c om pl e x c ha ngi ng i n t ool s t ha n t he t ype w r i t e r L i ke O l s on, w e do not h a ve a ny de f i ni t i ve m e t hodo l ogi e s f or w r i t i ng w i t h di gi t a l t ool s N e w m e di a i s w i t h out a c ons e ns u s i n t e r m s of a ppl i c a bi l i t y. T he i nt e r e s t he r e i s i n de ve l opi ng a t he or y of w or k i ng w i t h di gi t a l t ool s m a i nl y w i t h c om put e r s w i t h a c ut a nd pa s t e f unc t i on e m be dd e d i nt o t he i r f r a m e w or ks P r e s e nt l y t he s e m a c hi ne s a r e f ound i n c l a s s r oom s a nd t he of f i c e s of m e m be r s of t he D i s c i pl i ne a m ong ot he r m e di a t ool s a nd obj e c t s l i ke books vi de oc a s s e t t e s D V D s m oni t or s pr oj e c t or s t e l e vi s i ons e t c E ve n he r e t hough w e m a y de m a r c a t e w ha t i s di s t i nc t i ve a bout t he c om put e r : a l l t he p r e vi ous t ype s of m e di a c ol l a ps e t oge t he r w i t hi n a c om put e r T o di s c us s t he s e m a t t e r s I w i l l t he o r i z e a bout t he pot e nt i a l i t i e s t ha t s t e m f r om s uc c e s s i ve a va nt ga r de m ove m e nt s A t t hi s l e ve l c e r t a i n l ogi c s t e c hni que s a nd poe t i c s a r i s e t ha t e qui p s oc i e t y a nd c ul t u r e t o l a s t i nt o t he e nd of t he c e nt ur y. T he va ngua r d a e s t he t i c of c ol l a ge a nd m ont a ge w hi c h w i l l be e x t r a c t e d f r om P e t e r B r ge r s T he or y of t he A v ant G ar de be c om e s m e di a t he or i s t L e v M a novi c h s f ounda t i ona l m e t a phor a n d r a t i ona l e f or ne w m e di a F ol l ow i ng a t ool l i ke c u t a nd pa s t e a s i t m ove s t h r ough s uc c e s s i ve a va nt ga r de m ove m e nt s i nc l udi ng t he pr e s e nt pot e nt i a l w i t h ne w m e di a a nd hum a n c om put e r i nt e r f a c e a p r ogr e s s i ve l ogi c i s f or m e d t ha t s uppl e m e nt s nor m a t i ve a p pr oa c he s t o a c a de m i c w r i t i ng. T he goa l i s t o e s t a bl i s h t ha t s pe c i a l i z e d a nd quot i di a n w r i t i ng m e t hods a r e pos s i bl e w i t h t he s e ve r a l l ogi c s ne w m e di a o f f e r s : e nt hym e m a t i c de c om pos i t i on, i nf e r e nc e i ndi r e c t i on, a nd va r i a t i on G i l l e s D e l e uz e a nd F l i x G ua t t a r i s t he or i e s

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3 r e ga r di ng l a ngua ge a nd w r i t i ng w i l l be de pl oye d f or de f i ni ng t he ope r a t i ng pr a c t i c e s r he t or i c a nd l ogi c o f a pe r s on us i ng a di g i t a l t ool w i t h a c ut a nd pa s t e f unc t i on I n pa r t i c ul a r a va nt ga r de t e r m i nol ogy l i ke a s s e m bl a ge be c om e s c om pounde d a nd c om pl i c a t e d w he n j uxt a pos e d w i t h D e l e uz e a nd G ua t t a r i s a s s e m bl a ge D e l e uz e a nd G ua t t a r i pr ovi de a n e xi s t i ng t he or y of l a ngua ge t ha t ope r a t e s w i t h B a kht i n s di a l ogi c a l pr i nc i pl e w hi c h i s t o s a y t ha t w e a l r e a dy ha ve a t h e or y of l a ngua ge t h a t i s e nt hym e m a t i c I n t hi s w a y, c e r t a i n t e r m s m a y be dr a m a t i z e d, i nt e r l a c e d, a nd pr oj e c t e d. J e a n L uc N a nc y e c hoe s a n i m por t a nt pr i nc i pl e r e ga r di ng a D e l e uz i a n a ppr oa c h: D e l e uz e s i nt e r e s t i n t he c i ne m a i s not j us t a ppe nd e d t o hi s w or k: i t i s a t t he c e n t r e i n t he pr oj e c t i ve pr i nc i pl e o f t h i s t hought I t i s a c i ne m a t hought i n t he s e ns e of ha vi ng i t s ow n or de r a nd s c r e e n, a s i ngul a r pl a ne o f pr e s e nt a t i on a nd c ons t r uc t i on of di s pl a c e m e nt s a nd dr a m a t i z a t i on of c onc e pt s ( t h e w or d c onc e pt m e a ns t hi s f o r D e l e uz e m a ki ng c i ne m a t i c ) ( 110 ) A s w i t h O l s e n, D e l e uz e a nd G ua t t a r i m y a t t e m pt i s t o f i nd i n w ha t w a ys c om pos i ng s hi f t s w i t h t he ope n f i e l d o f ne w m e di a how t o m a ke t he va ngua r d a e s t he t i c pr oj e c t i ve i n c ont e m por a r y a c a de m i c c om pos i t i on. A l l of t he s e q ue s t i ons a nd pos t ul a t e s m us t be ke pt w i t hi n t he f r a m e of a c a de m i c w r i t i ng; w e w a nt t o i m pr ove on pr i o r m e t hods f or c om pos i ng a n a r gum e nt W e ne e d a m odi f i e d r he t o r i c l ogi c a nd poe t i c s t ha t pa r a l l e l s s hi f t s i n t ool s a nd t e c hnol ogi e s C i ne m a a nd a dve r t i s i ng, t he e nt i r e b r e a dt h of e nt e r t a i nm e nt di s c our s e w r i t e s w i t h t he t ool s a nd de m ons t r a t e s t he i r e f f e c t i ve ne s s F r om E i s e ns t e i n f or w a r d, t he c i ne m a be c om e s a m e t hodol ogy i t pos s i bl y ha s i t s ow n l a ngua ge A dve r t i s i ng s ys t e m a t i z e s our unde r s t a ndi ng of i m a g e s a nd t he i r i nhe r e nt a r gum e nt s t hr ough a r t i s t i c t e c hni que s t ur ne d i nt o t e c hni c a l m e t hods M ul t i pl e m e t hods f or a r gu i ng c ont i nue t o s ur f a c e a nd t he i r c om m on s t r uc t ur e s r e m a i n i de nt i c a l f or c e nt ur i e s

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4 S i nc e A r i s t ot l e s c odi f i c a t i on of a r gum e nt a t i on i n R he t or i c T opi c s a nd P r i or A nal y t i c s w e f i nd a l l t he e s s e nt i a l e l e m e nt s of a r g um e nt : f or m c ont e nt i nduc t i on de duc t i on, e nt hym e m e e xa m pl e a nd s yl l ogi s m M y i nt e r e s t i s not i n s c i e nt i f i c s yl l ogi s m s us e d f or a na l ys i s but r he t or i c a l s yl l ogi s m s us e d f or pe r s ua s i on. T hi s i s our c om m on t hr e a d i n t he D i s c i pl i ne : how t o e f f e c t i ve l y pe r s uade i nt e r l oc ut or s of ou r pos i t i ons I t i s not a m a t t e r of de s c r i bi ng our da t a w i t h a c c ur a c y, but i t i s a l s o not t he c a s e t o di s ba nd a c c ur a c y i n e nt i r e t y e i t he r ; unl i ke t he s c i e nc e s t he H um a ni t i e s m us t pe r s ua s i ve l y pr e s e nt t he ut i l i t y a nd w or t h o f r e s e a r c h. I w oul d l i ke t o c om bi ne R ol a nd B a r t he s r e a di ng o f t he e nt hym e m e w i t hi n S/ Z a nd T he Se m i ot i c C hal l e nge t o e xe m pl i f y t he e nt h ym e m e s us e a nd t he n e xt r a pol a t e i t a s a de vi c e B a r t he s S/ Z or di na t e s how t he e nt hym e m e f unc t i ons i n a l i t e r a r y t e xt B a l z a c s Sar r as i ne by s how i ng how t he e nt hym e m e i s a n i nc om pl e t e de duc t i ve o r p r oba bl e s yl l ogi s m : L a Z a m bi ne l l a i s f r i ght e ne d by a poppi ng c or k, t hus L a Z a m bi ne l l a i s t i m i d ( S/ Z 148 ) W ha t B a r t he s hi ghl i gh t s i s t he m ove m e nt be t w e e n t he t w o pr opos i t i ons : how doe s one de duc e t he m i s s i ng m a j or p r e m i s e t hr oug h a s s oc i a t i on? A s f or t he m a j or p r e m i s e i t de r i ve s f r om t he na r c i s s i s t i c z one ( w om a n i s a dor a bl e ) t he ps yc hol ogi c a l z one ( w om a n i s t i m i d) t he a e s t h e t i c z one ( w om a n i s be a ut i f ul ) ; w ha t e s t a bl i s he s t hi s m a j or pr e m i s e i s i n c onf or m i t y w i t h t he de f i ni t i on of e nt hym e m e not a s c i e nt i f i c t r u t h, but c om m on kn ow l e dge a n e ndox a T hus t he s na r e s S a r r a s i ne s e t s f or hi m s e l f a r e ba s e d on t he m os t s oc i a l di s c our s e ( S/ Z 148) T he e nt hym e m e i s t he r he t or i c a l s yl l ogi s m of publ i c know l e dge par e x c e l l e nc e a s i t ope r a t e s w i t h e ndox al know l e dge e xi s t i ng publ i c know l e dge t ha t c i r c ul a t e s f r e e l y t hr ough va r i ous z one s a nd s oc i a l r e gi s t e r s W i t h i n T he Se m i ot i c C hal l e nge B a r t he s s pe nds m or e t i m e on t he e nt hym e m e by t r a c i ng i t s us e t hr ough A r i s t ot e l i a n a nd Q ui nt i l i a n f or m a t i ons F or A r i s t ot l e a nd h i s f ol l ow e r s t he e nt hym e m e i s a s yl l ogi s m o f p r oba bi l i t y, no t ba s e d on t he t r ue a nd

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5 i m m e di a t e w h i c h i s t o s a y t ha t i t m ove s f r o m t h e pr oba bl e i e s t a r t i ng f r om w ha t t he publ i c t hi nks ( SC 57 ) I n oppos i t i on t o s c i e nt i f i c a bs t r a c t r e a s oni ng f or a na l ys i s t he e nt hym e m e i s publ i c r e a s oni ng, c a pa bl e of be i ng d e pl oye d by a nyone T he e nt hym e m e s or i g i na t i on i n t he s oc i a l s phe r e a nd c o r r e s ponde nc e t o pr oba bi l i t y a nd p r e s e nt a t i on a f f or ds pe r s ua s i on, not de m ons t r a t i on ; f o r A r i s t ot l e t he e nt hym e m e i s s uf f i c i e nt l y de f i ne d by t he pr obabl e c ha r a c t e r of i t s pr e m i s e s ( SC 58) T he e xa m pl e f r om S/ Z de m ons t r a t e s a n a dhe r e nc e t o pr oba bi l i t y of s oc i a l know l e dge ; t o s ol ve t he i n t e r va l be t w e e n t he t w o pr opos i t i ons a n out s i de s oc i a l kn ow l e dge ( e ndox a ) m us t be c a l l e d upon t o di s c ove r t he m a j o r pr e m i s e T he e nt hym e m e c a r r i e s a pe da gogi c a l r e s i due t ow a r ds w ha t B a r t he s t e r m s t he j our ne y of t he s yl l ogi s m : t he e nt hym e m e i s no t a s yl l ogi s m t r unc a t e d by de f e c t or c or r upt i on, but be c a us e t he l i s t e ne r m us t be gr a nt e d t he pl e a s ur e of c ont r i but i ng t o t he c ons t r uc t i on of t he a r gum e nt ; i t i s s om e t hi ng l i ke c om pl e t i ng a gi v e n pa t t e r n o r gr i d ( SC 60) R a t he r t ha n de a l i ng w i t h t he pl e a s ur e of f ol l o w i ng a di r e c t a r gum e nt B a r t he s l oc a t e s a pl e a s ur e i n i nc om pl e t e r e a s oni ng t ha t va l ue s a s ur pl us of t hought ove r l a ngua ge ( SC 60) B a r t he s t e r m i nol ogy hi nt s a t not i ons of i nt e r a c t i vi t y, a ddi t i on, a nd pr oc e s s T he e nt hym e m e s j our ne y i s a t o a nd f r o m ot i on, a l w a ys a m ove m e nt f o r w a r d by j uxt a pos i ng pr opos i t i ons or ut t e r a nc e s a nd t he n a ba c kw a r d m ot i on of s ur pl us t ha t c om pl e t e s t he i nt e r va l a f t e r a l l of t he da t a i s p r ovi d e d. W e c on f r ont a m odi f i e d gr a m m a r t ha t l e a ps be t w e e n poi nt s e xc e e di ng l i ne a r e xpe c t a t i ons F o r i ns t a nc e t he l ogi c pe r m i t s s ubt r a c t i on of t he ve r b o r t he s uppr e s s i on of t he s u bj e c t C onc l us i ons s us pe nd a l l s e c ur i t y t ow a r ds c om pl e t i on by r e l yi ng on pr oba bi l i t y a nd i nt e r a c t i on.

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6 T he e nt hym e m e how e ve r i s ope n t o c or r upt i on i n t e r m s of m a ni pul a t i on; a dve r t i s i ng i s t he m os t a c ut e m ode l T he i nf e r e nc e of t he e xc i s e d pr e m i s e c r e a t e s a n i nt e r va l of i nt e r pr e t a t i on w hi c h m a y be m ut a t e d, l i ke B a r t he s e xa m pl e of L a Z a m bi ne l l a A s t he e nt hym e m e r e l i e s on publ i c kn ow l e dge i t a f f or ds t he oppor t uni t y t o e xpl oi t t he s t e r e ot ype s of t he s oc i a l di s c our s e a nd t he r e by c ont i nue t he r e dunda nc y. W ha t w e a r e s e e ki ng i s a m e t hod of e nga gi ng t he e nt hym e m e i n a n a c a de m i c di s c our s e w he r e t he e xc i s e d pr e m i s e i s a l s o s i m ul t a ne ous l y g i ve n on t he s ur f a c e H ow do w e us e t he l ogi c of t he e nt hym e m e w i t h ne w m e di a t o e s t a bl i s h a w r i t i ng m e t hod t ha t s i m ul t a ne ous l y de pl oys t he l ogi c of t he e nt hym e m e w i t hhol di ng of i nf or m a t i on a nd i nduc i ng t he r e s ponde nt t o c r e a t e a s ur pl us o f kno w l e dge but t ha t a l s o e xpos e s t he e xc i s e d pr e m i s e on t he s ur f a c e f o r i t s a r t i f i c i a l i t y? P e r ha ps w e m a y pos e t hi s que s t i on i n t e r m s of a c ol l a ge : w he n c om pos i ng a c ol l a ge w e ha ve a l l t he pi e c e s a va i l a bl e f or vi e w i ng t he pi e c e s a r e t he m s e l ve s i m a ge s ( not e s s e nt i a l l y pi c t ogr a phi c ) w hi c h c a us e s a n i nt e r va l of i nt e r p r e t a t i on t o oc c ur by c om pl e t i ng t he pa t t e r n a nd gr i d I n s hor t w e a r e s e e ki ng a t he or y of t he e nt hym e m e t ha t w or ks i n c onj unc t i on w i t h t he m e t hods of c ol l a ge a nd m ont a ge ; t he c ol l a ge s i m ul t a ne ous l y e xpos e s a nd w i t hhol ds l i ke a n i de ogr a m pr e s e nt i ng a n i m a ge w i t hout de s c r i pt i on. T he i de a m ove s f r om how t o de s c r i be t he i nf or m a t i on t o how t o pr e s e nt t he i nf o r m a t i on. A s hi f t i n r he t or i c a l s t r a t e gi e s i s r e qui r e d a s t he e m pha s i s s w i t c he s f r om how t o pe r s ua de di r e c t l y t o a n i nd i r e c t m e t hod I f w e w i nnow out t he s e a r c h f ur t he r f i gur i ng a m e t hodol ogy f or i nc or po r a t i ng t he t e c hni que s of c ol l a ge a nd m ont a ge s t e m f r om a r gu m e nt s de c a de s ol d. G r e gor y L U l m e r s 1983 e s s a y T he O bj e c t o f P os t C r i t i c i s m pos e s a s i m i l a r que s t i on, w i t h t he unde r pi nni ng of B a r t he s by a s ki ng our e s s e nt i a l q ue s t i on:

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7 W i l l t he c ol l a ge / m ont a ge r e vol ut i on i n r e pr e s e nt a t i on be a dm i t t e d i nt o t he a c a de m i c e s s a y, i nt o t he di s c our s e of know l e dge r e p l a c i ng t he r e a l i s t c r i t i c i s m ba s e d on t he not i ons of t r ut h a s c or r e s ponde nc e t o or c o r r e c t r e p r oduc t i on o f a r e f e r e nt obj e c t o f s t udy? ( 86) A f t e r t w o de c a de s t he D i s c i pl i ne i s ye t t o m a ke up i t s m i nd W e m a y s i t ua t e our t hought t e m por a l l y; l i ke B a r t h e s U l m e r s que s t i on s e e m s r a di c a l a t t he t i m e due t o t he c ur r e nt a ppa r a t us pr e s e nt i n t he D i s c i pl i ne m a i nl y l i t e r a t e t ool s ( O l s on s t ype w r i t e r a nd now a w or d pr oc e s s or ) O ve r t w e nt y ye a r s l a t e r t he que s t i on s e e m s a s i f i t m us t be a ddr e s s e d s i nc e our e n t i r e a ppa r a t us i s unde r goi ng s w e e pi ng c ha nge s w i t h t he i nt r oduc t i on of c om put e r s ; w e a r e now ope r a t i ng w i t h U l m e r s ne ol ogi s m e l e c t r a c y. T he que s t i on i s no l onge r a r a di c a l que s t i on, but a m a nda t or y one

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8 C H A P T E R 2 C O L L A G E A N D M O N T A G E A E S T H E T I C T he m e d i a t he or i s t w ho de ve l ops c ol l a ge a nd m on t a ge a s t he f ounda t i ons of c om put i ng i s L e v M a novi c h. B e f o r e be c om i ng e nt r e nc he d i n how M a novi c h a l i gns t he a va nt ga r de a e s t he t i c a nd ne w m e di a w e ne e d t o e xpl i c a t e t he f ounda t i ons of c ol l a ge a nd m ont a ge w i t h t he a va nt ga r de P e t e r B r ge r s T he or y of t he A v ant gar de pa ys pa r t i c ul a r a t t e nt i on t o t he i de a t ha t a s m ont a ge a nd phot om on t a ge de ve l op, c ubi s m pa r a l l e l s but t r a ns l a t e s t he t e c hni c a l de vi c e i nt o a n a r t i s t i c de vi c e w i t h c ol l a ge : A t he or y o f t he a va nt ga r de m us t be gi n w i t h t he c o nc e pt of m ont a ge t ha t i s s ugge s t e d by t he e a r l y c ubi s t c ol l a ge s W ha t di s t i n gui s he s t he m f r om t he t e c hni que s of c om pos i t i on de ve l ope d s i nc e t he R e na i s s a nc e i s t he i ns e r t i on of r e a l i t y f r a gm e nt s i nt o t he pa i nt i ng, i e t he i ns e r t i o n of m a t e r i a l t ha t ha s be e n l e f t unc ha nge d by t he a r t i s t ( B r ge r 77) 1 I f w e f ol l ow B r ge r s e xa m pl e of a he r m e ne ut i c c i r c l e or ga ni c c om pos i t i on i s c ons t r uc t e d i n a c c or da nc e w i t h t he s ynt a gm a t i c pa t t e r n w he r e t he pa r t s a nd w hol e a c hi e ve a di a l e c t i c a l uni t y. I n t hi s c l a s s i c w r i t i ng m ode t he pa r t a nd w hol e m a y onl y be unde r s t ood t hr ough one a not he r I n i no r ga ni c c om pos i t i on, T he pa r t s e m a nc i pa t e t he m s e l ve s f r om a s upe r or di na t e w hol e ; t he y a r e n o l onge r i t s e s s e nt i a l e l e m e nt s ( B r ge r 80) T u r ni ng t o B r e t on s a ut om a t i c t e xt s a s a n e xa m pl e t he c i r c ul a r f l ow i s i n t e r r upt e d a s t he r e ne e d not be a c om pl e t e d pr opos i t i on I n a n a ut om a t i c t e xt t ha t s t r i ngs i m a ge s t oge t he r s om e c oul d be m i s s i ng, ye t t he t e xt w oul d not be s i gni f i c a nt l y a f f e c t e dW ha t 1 B u r g e r d o e s n o t i n c l u d e a v a n t g a r d e f i l m S i m i l a r a p p r o a c h e s m a y b e l o c a t e d i n n e o a v a n t g a r d e f i l m m a k e r s s u c h a s S t a n B r a k h a g e a n d B r u c e C o n n e r B r a k h a g e s M o t h l i g h t i n c l u d e s t h e c u t a n d p a s t e f u n c t i o n b y t a p i n g p i e c e s o f m o t h s d i r e c t l y t o t h e f i l m a n d C o n n e r s A M o v i e b e c o m e s a d a t a b a s e o f p r i o r f i l m i m a g e s o r g a n i z e d i n a n i n o r g a n i c s e q u e n c e

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9 i s de c i s i ve a r e not t he e ve nt s i n t he i r di s t i nc t i ve ne s s but t he c ons t r uc t i on p r i nc i pl e t ha t unde r l i e s t he s e que nc e of e ve nt s ( B r ge r 80 ) A ne w pr i nc i pl e l ogi c i s f or m e d w i t h dya di c c ons e que nc e s ; t he pr oc e s s of c ons t r uc t i ng o ut w e i ghs t he f i na l p r oduc t a di s r upt i on i n m e a ns e nds r a t i ona l i t y a nd t hought m ove s t o a m oda l i t y of i nf e r e nc e by c a us i ng a l e a p be t w e e n i nc ongr ue nt pi e c e s T he a va nt ga r de f or c e c ol l a ge i n t o e xt e ns i on a nd m odi f i e s i t s s i m pl i s t i c a t t r i but e s T he l ogi c o f c ol l a ge p r ovi de s a ge ne r a l a t t i t ude t o w a r ds t he l a ngua ge f unc t i on o f t he pi e c e T o s pe c ul a t e be yond B r ge r c ol l a ge e s t a bl i s he s i t s ow n l ogi c of ho m onym y by i nc e s s a nt l y c r e a t i ng puns T o t e a r t he pi e c e a nd i n s e r t i t i nt o a ne w c ont e xt i s t o s i m ul t a ne ous l y e s t a bl i s h a pun. W he n R obe r t R a us c he nb e r g i nc l ude s a phot ogr a ph of J ohn F K e nne dy i n t o a C om bi ne i t s houl d be not e d t ha t t he i m a ge e xi s t s i n bot h c ont e xt s ; t he i m a ge be c om e s s t r a t i f i e d a nd l a ye r e d, w hi c h c a us e s s e ve r a l s i gni f i e ds t o be t r i gge r e d s i m ul t a ne ous l y. T e a r i ng t he pi e c e e ve n i f t h e a va nt ga r di s t a t t e m pt s t o ki l l t he m a t e r i a l i s not a n a c t of s i m pl e t r a ns pos i t i on o r t r a ns l a t i on; r e s i due s a nd t r a c e s of pr i or m e a ni ngs m a y not be e c l i ps e d. T hi s m ove m e nt of c a r r yi ng m e a ni ngs i nt o va r i ous c ont e xt s or t o m ove t he pi e c e f r o m s i t ua t i on t o s i t ua t i on, c r e a t e s t he e ni gm a t ha t i nf e r e nc e i s c a l l e d on t o s ol ve T h i s a c t i s not t he c r e a t i on of a ddi t i ona l m e a ni ngs l i ke a ddi ng f ur t he r a s s oc i a t i ons but di s pl a c e s t he s uppos e dl y f i xe d m e a ni ng t he pi e c e i s i n i ni t i a l l y a t hought pr oc e s s of de c om p os i t i on, di s a s s oc i a t i on, or di f f us i on. T o c om pos e i s t o de c om pos e t o e f f e c t ua t e a m ul t i pl i c i t y. T he a va nt ga r de be c om e s m a r ke d by a t e nde nc y t o w a r ds de c om pos i t i on r a t he r t ha n c om pos i t i on. I m a ge a nd r e pr e s e nt a t i on be c o m e di s r upt e d w i t h t he i nve nt i on of p hot ogr a phy a nd t he i nc or por a t i on of phot ogr a phs i nt o t he w or k of a r t W he n K a s i m i r

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10 M a l e vi c h pl a c e s a phot ogr a ph of t he M ona L i s a i nt o hi s c ol l a ge C om pos i t i on w i t h M ona t he r e i s a n i m m e di a t e di s r upt i on i n how i m a gi ng f unc t i ons w i t hi n t he vi s ua l a r t s A s B r ge r s a ys be c a us e t he a dve nt of phot og r a phy m a ke s pos s i bl e t he pr e c i s e m e c ha ni c a l r e pr oduc t i on of r e a l i t y t he m i m e t i c f unc t i on o f t he f i ne a r t s w i t he r s ( 32) T he a va nt ga r de doe s not di vor c e t he de ve l opi ng t e c hnol ogi c a l c ondi t i on f r om a r t i s t i c pr odu c t i on but r a t he r m i m e s i t s i nt r us i on i nt o a r t ; t e c hnol ogy t ur ns f r om be i ng a n i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e t o a de pe nde nt va r i a bl e L i ke M a l e vi c h s t i t l e t he a va nt ga r de w o r ks w i t h m e di a M ont a ge a nd c ol l a ge c a us e a n i nt e r va l t o f or m i n i nt e r pr e t a t i on, t o l e a p be t w e e n s oc i a l c ont e xt s T he r e i s s om e t hi ng out s i de t he gi v e n, s om e t hi ng t ha t m us t be i n f e r r e d. W e m a y s a y t ha t or ga ni c c om pos i t i on r e l i e s on a c e r t a i n ki nd o f s yl l ogi s t i c l ogi c l i ke c a t e gor i c a l a nd c ondi t i ona l s yl l ogi s m s ; c om pos i t i o n a nd r e c e pt i on a r e l i ne a r a nd di r e c t B ut w i t h i nor ga ni c c om pos i t i on, w e c onf r ont a l e a p i n t hought a s f r a gm e nt s a r e s t r e w n t oge t he r I f w e r e m a i n w i t hi n s yl l ogi s t i c l ogi c w e m a y s a y t ha t t he a va nt ga r de m ove s t o a t r unc a t e d or i nc om pl e t e s yl l ogi s m or t he e nt hym e m e ( s up e r l i ne a r a nd i nd i r e c t ) F or B r ge r t he a va nt ga r de w or k r e m a i ns i nc om pl e t e : one c a n s e e t ha t a l t hough t he y a l l ow one t o di s c ove r a p r i nc i pl e c ons t r uc t i on t he y do n ot s how a s ynt he s i s i n t he s e ns e of a uni t y of m e a ni ng ( B r ge r 79) F or e xa m pl e D uc ha m p s W hy N ot Sne e z e R os e S l av y ? a s s e m bl e s m a r bl e c ube s a t he r m o m e t e r a nd a c ut t l e bone i ns i de a n ol d r e c t a ngul a r bi r dc a ge W hi l e not a m ont a ge or phot om ont a ge t he a s s e m bl i ng of di s pa r a t e R e a dy M a de s s i m ul t a ne ou s l y a bi de s by a m ont a ge l ogi c : w e i ght ( he a vy m a r bl e ) p r om i s e d s w e e t ne s s ( f a ke s uga r c ube s ) m i s s i ng w a r m t h ( t he r m om e t e r ) poe t r y ( bi r ds ong) a r r e s t e d f l i ght ( c ut t l e bone a nd bi r dc a ge ) a nd a r t ( C ubi s m a nd a l s o t he us e of m a r bl e ) a c c e nt ua t e s

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11 t he f l i ppa nt t i t l e of t he w o r k; w hy no t do s om e t hi ng l i ke s ne e z i ng, t ha t c a t ha r t i c r e a c t i on t ha t gr ow s f r om a t i c kl e t o a c l i m a t i c e xpl os i on l e a vi ng onl y t r a c e s be hi nd ( D uc ham p 7 8) ? M or e s uc c i nc t l y, c l a s s i c i s t c om pos i t i on a bi de s by c ont i nui t y w hi l e a va nt ga r de c om pos i t i on a bi de s by c ont i gui t y. D uc ha m p r e l i e s on e ndox al know l e dge t o c a r r y out h i s a r gum e nt a ga i ns t a r t a s a n e s s e nt i a l i z e d c onc e pt by e s t a bl i s hi ng a ne w c ongr ue nc y w i t h s uppos e dl y i nc ongr ue nt f ound obj e c t s O pe r a t i ng by de c om pos i t i on a nd di s a s s oc i a t i on, de ve l opi ng a c onc e pt of t he i nor ga ni c w or k o f a r t i s a c e nt r a l t a s k of t he a va nt ga r de ( B r ge r 68) T he a va nt ga r de w or k of a r t hi nge s on t he i de a of a n i nt e r va l a s i n a l l e gor y, be c a us e i t pe r m i t s one t o s e pa r a t e t hos e a s pe c t s t ha t r e l a t e t o pr oduc t i on a nd t o a e s t he t i c e f f e c t a t t he a na l yt i c a l l e ve l a nd ye t t o c onc e i ve of t he m a s a uni t y ( 70) T he w or k c ons i de r s i t s e l f i n t e r m s of a r t i f i c i a l i t y. I f a r t i f i c i a l m a t e r i a l i s i nc or por a t e d i n t o t he w or k i t i s j us t t ha t m a t e r i a l F or t he a va nt ga r de t he a c t i vi t y i n i t i a l l y c ons i s t s i n not hi ng o t he r t ha n i n ki l l i ng t he l i f e of t he m a t e r i a l t ha t i s i n t e a r i ng i t out of i t s f unc t i ona l c ont e xt t ha t gi ve s i t m e a ni ng ( B r ge r 70 ) T he r e i s a ge ne r a l unde r s t a ndi ng of how t he m a t e r i a l s por t r a y di f f e r e nt m e a ni ngs : P i c a s s o a nd B r a que us e a ny m a t e r i a l s t o r e nova t e a r t t he R us s i a n a va nt ga r de s ought m a s s pr oduc e d m a t e r i a l s t o r e f l e c t t he ne w pol i t i c a l or de r a nd t he D a da i s t s e xe r c i s e phot om ont a ge a s a m e a ns of pr ot e s t E ve r y obj e c t a l w a ys a l r e a dy ha s a c i r c ul a t i ng m e a ni ng t ha t m a y be t r a ns f e r r e d i n t o ot he r c ont e xt s no obj e c t i s vi r gi na l B r ge r r e f e r e nc e s W a l t e r B e nj a m i n s t he o r y of a l l e gor y i n r e l a t i on t o c ol l a ge T he e xt r a c t i on of t hi s c onc e pt a s s i s t s B r ge r s not i on o f c ol l a ge a s a b r e a k i n m e a ni ngs a n i nt e r r upt i on i n a nt i c i pa t e d i n t e r va l s a nd a c e s s a t i on of o r ga ni c f o r m s I f w e be gi n t o t hi nk of t he or ga ni c ( c l a s s i c i s t ) c om pos i t i on a nd i n or ga ni c ( a va nt ga r de ) c om pos i t i on i n

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12 t e r m s of w r i t i ng m e t hods w e m a y pos i t t ha t t he i n or ga ni c s t yl e r e l i e s on r e c onne c t i ng f r a gm e nt s i nt o e i t he r a n i nc om pl e t e c om pos i t i on o r a n ove r l oa de d c om pos i t i on w he r e t he m e a ni ngs ove r l a p one a not he r a nd e xc e e d a ny or ga ni c i s m 2 M a t e r i a l f or t he a va nt ga r de e xi s t s a s a n e m pt y s i gn, t o w hi c h onl y t he y c a n i m pa r t s i gni f i c a nc e by t e a r i ng i t out o f a t ot a l i t y a nd t ur ni ng i t i n t o a f r a gm e nt ( 70) 3 B r g e r s l a ngua ge i s pr obl e m a t i c i f r e a d a s a s t r a t e gy t o nul l i f y m e a ni ng i ns t e a d of a s a w a y t o nul l i f y not i ons of f i xe d m e a ni ngs M e a ni ng i s a n a r t i f i c i a l s oc i a l l y a nd c ul t ur a l l y i ns c r i be d f unc t i on T he s i gn be c om e s m or e l i ke a m odul a r uni t w i t h t he a bi l i t y t o be r e m ove d f r om one l oc a t i on on l y t o be i nc l ude d i n a not he r B r ge r s t he or i e s r e ga r di ng t he a va nt ga r de hi ghl i ght how w e a ppr oa c h ne w m e di a T he e nt hym e m a t i c l ogi c a l t e r s how w e nor m a t i ve l y a ppr oa c h A r i s t ot e l i a n l og i c W he n t he pi e c e i s r e m ove d f r om one c ont e xt a nd pl a c e d i n a not he r t he e nt hym e m e a r i s e s f r om our c om m on e ndox al know l e dge t o r e s i t ua t e t he m e a ni ngs t oge t he r T hi s m e t hod of j uxt a pos i t i on be c om e s l i ke B a r t he s e xa m pl e i n Sa r r as i ne of a poppi ng c or k a nd a t i m i d w om a n. H ow w e de duc e t he m e a ni ng be hi nd t he j uxt a pos i t i on de pe nds on a l e ve l o f c om m on s oc i a l know l e dge N ow w e m us t c ons i de r how c ol l a ge a nd m ont a ge f unc t i on w i t h e nt hym e m a t i c l ogi c i n ne w m e di a 2 F o r e x a m p l e a c o l l a g e w i t h t o o m a n y e y e s f o r o n e f a c e o r t o o m a n y o r g a n s f o r o n e o r g a n i c b o d y 3 T h i s t y p e o f e m p t y s i g n e s c a p e s s e m i o t i c s a n d h e r m e n e u t i c c i r c l e s ; t h e s i g n b e c o m e s m o r e l i k e a p o s t s t r u c t u r a l i s t u n i t i n s t e a d o f b e i n g b o u n d u p a s a s i g n i f i e r / s i g n i f i e d

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13 C H A P T E R 3 A E S T H E T I C T O M A T E R I A L I Z A T I O N M a novi c h a s s i s t s i n a ddr e s s i ng how w e m ove f r om a va ngua r d a e s t he t i c s t o ne w m e di a or r a t he r how w e r e c ogni z e va ngua r d t e c hni que s i n ne w m e di a H i s a r t i c l e A va nt G a r de a s S of t w a r e a l l ow s i ni t i a l f o r m ul a t i ons r e ga r di ng how va ngua r d a e s t he t i c s be c a m e t he f ounda t i on s of ne w m e di a : T he t e c hni que s i nt r oduc e d by m ode r ni s t a va nt ga r de t ur n out t o be s uf f i c i e nt l y e f f e c t i ve t o l a s t f or t he r e s t o f t he c e nt ur y. M a s s vi s ua l c ul t ur e onl y pus he s f ur t he r w ha t w a s a l r e a dy i nve nt e d, i nt e ns i f yi ng pa r t i c ul a r t e c hni que s a nd m i xi ng t he m t oge t he r i n ne w c om bi na t i ons ( A G S 1) T hi s i ni t i a l d i f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he a va nt ga r de a nd w ha t M a novi c h t e r m s i n r e l a t i on t o ne w m e di a t he ne w m e di a a va nt ga r de hi nge s o n t he i de a o f i nve nt i ng ne w m e t hods of a c c e s s i ng i nf or m a t i on; t he hi s t or i c a l a nd ne o a v a nt ga r de e s t a bl i s he d m ul t i f a r i ous t e c hni que s s ui t a bl e t o l a s t t hr ough t he e nd of t he t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y a nd t he be gi nni ng o f t he t w e nt y f i r s t c e nt ur y. T o m odi f y a nd c ol l a ps e s om e of M a novi c h s t e r m s t oge t he r a nd t o a voi d t e r m s l i ke ne w ne o I w i l l r e f e r t o t he a va nt ga r de i n r e l a t i on t o ne w m e di a a s m e t a a va nt ga r de 1 T he s a m e t e c hni que s de ve l ope d by t he a va nt ga r de L e f t a t t he be gi nni ng of t he t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y m ont a ge c ol l a ge phot om ont a ge c ut a nd pa s t e e t c do not a l t e r a t a f oun da t i ona l l e ve l ; i ns t e a d, t he i r us e s i nt e ns i f y i n de gr e e : I n s hor t a s f a r a s t he c ul t ur a l l a ngua ge s a r e c onc e r ne d, ne w m e di a i s s t i l l ol d m e di a ( A G S 2) A c c or di ngl y, 1 I a m m o d i f y i n g n e w m e d i a a v a n t g a r d e a n d t h e m e d i a t y p e t h e y u t i l i z e m e t a m e d i a u s i n g m e t a d e s i g n

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14 i f w e vi e w t he a va nt ga r de a s a m ove m e nt t ha t m a de c om pos i ng a pol ybl e nd o f a va i l a bl e s t yl e s t he n t he s e s t yl e s a nd t e c hni que s a r e a l s o i nt e ns i f i e d s o a s t o a l l ow f or m o r e c om bi na t i ons T o c om pos e a c ol l a ge m ont a ge or a s s e m bl a ge us i ng a va nt ga r de m e t hods of c ut a nd pa s t e c ha nge s r a di c a l l y w i t h hum a n c om put e r i nt e r f a c e ( H C I ) 2 W ha t M a novi c h a s s i s t s i n r e l a yi ng w i t h pr e c i s i on i s t ha t t he a va nt ga r de r a t i ona l e i s c a r r i e d i nt o ne w m e di a by i nt e gr a t i ng a va s t a m ou nt of va r yi ng w r i t i ng m e t hods i nt o one m a c hi ne ; w e m a y now c om pos e w i t h a l l a r t i s t i c di m e ns i ons a t onc e f r om t he R e na i s s a nc e t o t he c i ne m a I t i s not t ha t t he a va nt ga r de i nt e nde d t o i nve nt t he f ounda t i ons of ne w m e di a but r a t he r t he l og i c a nd t e c hni que s c r e a t e d by t he m be c om e t he m os t e qui ppe d de vi c e s a nd t ool s t o c r e a t e a n u ni nt e nt i ona l r he t or i c f or ne w m e di a A s M a novi c h hi g hl i ght s w i t h hi s c i ne m a t i c a na l og y i n T he L anguage of N e w M e di a D z i ga V e r t ov s M an w i t h a M ov i e C am e r a f unc t i o ne d a s a s i gni f i c a nt s i gnpos t f or f ut u r e w r i t i ng s ys t e m s f r o m t he s oc i a l l y e m be dde d ki no e ye t o a vi s ua l i z a t i on of not onl y t he f or e gr ound o f t h e c i ne m a t i c pr oc e s s ( r a w m a t e r i a l s f i l m i ng i n pr oc e s s r e c e pt i on, e t c ) but t he ba c kgr ound ( how f i l m a nt i c i pa t e s t he da t a ba s e w i t h e di t i ng a nd c om pos i t i ng) M a novi c h r e l a ys di r e c t l y t ha t w ha t ha d be e n t he f o r e gr ound i n t e c hni c a l pr oc e dur e s a nd i nf or m a t i on pr oc e s s i ng t he va ngua r d a e s t he t i c now be c om e s m e s he d w i t h t he ba c kgr ound of c om put i ng on a s i ngl e s ur f a c e : T he t e c hni que s i nve nt e d by t he 1920s L e f t a r t i s t s be c a m e e m be dde d i n t he c om m a nds a nd i nt e r f a c e m e t a phor s o f c om put e r s of t w a r e I n s hor t t he a va nt ga r de v i s i on be c a m e m a t e r i a l i z e d i n a c om put e r ( A G S 3) T he a va nt ga r de s f or e gr ound be c om e s t he ba c kgr ound of c om put i ng. I n 2 T h e t e r m h u m a n c o m p u t e r i n t e r f a c e i s b e i n g d e a l t w i t h g e n e r a l l y w i t h o u t n e g a t i n g t h e o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n g r a p h i c a l u s e r i n t e r f a c e t h a t h i g h l i g h t s t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e c u t t i n g a n d p a s t i n g o f i m a g e s i n t o o n e s u r f a c e ( s i n c e t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e M a c O S i n 1 9 8 4 )

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15 t e r m s of i ns t i t ut i ona l pr a c t i c e s t h i s a c t s a s a m e t a phor f o r w r i t i ng c onve nt i ons ; t he a va nt ga r de ha s be c om e t he ba c kgr o und, t he i r a r t i s t i c de vi c e s t ur n i nt o t e c hni c a l a c hi e ve m e nt s a nd c ut a nd pa s t e be c om e s a nor m a t i ve f unc t i on f or p r ogr a m s l i ke M S W or d. W e a r e not s e e ki ng m e t hods t o i m p r ove w r i t i ng i n t e r m s o f e f f i c i e nc y, but how a n e f f i c i e nt m a c hi ne pe r m i t s c om pl e x w r i t i ng. W e a r e de a l i ng w i t h a n i nve r s e r e l a t i ons hi p t ha t M a novi c h w i l l a s s i s t i n a ddr e s s i ng a nd a i d i n t he or i z i ng how t o br i ng t he v a ngua r d a e s t he t i c t o t he s ur f a c e how t o i nt e ns i f y a nd t r a ns l a t e B r ge r s va ngua r d a e s t he t i c s i n t e r m s of ne w m e di a a nd how t o a l l ow bot h t he va ngua r d t e c hni que s and r a t i ona l e t o be na t ur a l i z e d i n w r i t i ng F o r e xa m pl e t he a va nt ga r de s t r a t e gy of c ol l a ge r e e m e r ge d a s a c ut a nd pa s t e c om m a nd, t he m os t ba s i c ope r a t i on one c a n pe r f o r m on a ny c om put e r da t a bu t i t i s pr obl e m a t i c t o r e duc e c ut a nd pa s t e t o a ba s i c c om m a nd f or c o m pos i ng a c l a s s i c i s t s w or k. T he t ool s i nhe r e nt t o H C I i na ugur a t e ne w w a ys t o a c c e s s a n d or ga ni z e a ny i n f or m a t i on t ha t i nc l ude s a c ha nge i n a ppa r a t us a nd s oc i a l m e t hodo l ogi e s I n s hor t I w i s h t o e xp l i c a t e M a novi c h s a r gum e nt s t ha t t he a va nt ga r de s t e c hni que s a r e m a t e r i a l i z e d i n H C I a nd doe s not e m be d t he va ngua r d a e s t he t i c i nt o t he ba c kgr ound; H C I p r om ot e s a r a di c a l pot e nt i a l t o m a i nt a i n va ngua r d a e s t he t i c s a s a w r i t i ng m e t hodol ogy a nd pr oc e dur a l s e t i n t he f or e gr ound of i ns t i t ut i ona l a nd a c a de m i c w r i t i n g how t o c ont i nue t he i nt e ns i f i c a t i on i nhe r e nt t o t he a va nt ga r de I f t he a va nt ga r de e s t a bl i s h t he ba s i c c om m a nds f or c om put i ng, t he n t he y a l s o c ont i nue t o c om m a nd o ur a t t e nt i on t o r e a l i z e t ha t i nve nt i ve w r i t i ng m e t hods m a y c ont i nue t o f l our i s h. T he c ur r e nt t a s k, a s M a novi c h s a ys i s t o c r e a t e a n e f f i c i e nt s t r uc t u r e a nd t oo l s f or w or k i ng w i t h a r bi t r a r y i n f or m a t i on i nf or m a t i o n w hi c h i s a l w a ys c ha ngi ng a nd a l w a ys

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16 gr ow s ( A G S 6) T he a va nt ga r de t a s k of t e a r i n g t he pi e c e f r om i t s c ont e xt a nd t he r e by de nounc i ng t he uni t y of t he pa r t i c ul a r a nd uni ve r s a l i s a dva nc e d t hr ough t he l ogi c of hype r l i nki ng: H ype r l i nki ng s e pa r a t e s da t a f r om i t s s t r uc t ur e T hi s m a ke s c r e a t i on a nd di s t r i but i on of m e s s a ge s e xt r e m e l y e f f i c i e nt : t he s a m e da t a c a n be e ndl e s s l y a s s e m bl e d i n ne w s t r uc t ur e s ; pa r t s of a s i ngl e doc um e nt c a n e xi s t i n phys i c a l l y di s t i nc t l oc a t i ons ( i e a doc um e nt ha s a di s t r i but e d r e pr e s e nt a t i on) ( A G S 4) H ype r l i nki ng, a s a l ogi c a l l ow s s i m ul t a ne ous l y di s pa r a t e m a ni f e s t a t i ons of da t a e s t a bl i s hi ng a c ont i nuous a s s e m bl a ge of de c om pos i t i on. T he i ns t i nc t i ve l ogi c be hi nd hype r l i nki ng pe r m i t s not onl y va r i a t i on but a l s o pe r m i t s va r yi ng r e c e pt i on a nd r e c yc l i ng. O ne H T M L s t a t e m e nt i m a ge j a va s c r i pt m e di a o bj e c t e t c m a y be a c c e s s e d i t s s our c e vi e w e d a nd c opi e d w i t hout a t e r m i na l s t oppi ng p oi nt a w r i t i ng pr oc e dur e o f c ont i nuous va r i a t i on. H ype r l i nki ng a c c e nt ua t e s t he va ngua r d i nt e r va l w i t h a w e b of i nt e r va l s ; pi e c e s s i m ul t a ne ous l y t r a ns f or m a nd r e l oc a t e W e now ha ve a s i ngl e pl a ne t ha t obf us c a t e s a ny c e nt r a l i z a t i on. H C I s i m ul t a ne ous l y e s t a bl i s he s w i ndow f r a m e s w i t h m ul t i pl e pa ge s a nd w i ndow s C l a s s i c w r i t i ng t ool s l i ke t he pa ge m a i nt a i n t he i r or i gi na l f unc t i on, but a l s o a dd ne w f unc t i ons ; t he p a ge a s a di s c ur s i ve s pa c i ng a l l ow s f or m ul t i pl e w i ndow s a nd va r i ous obj e c t s t o be de a l t w i t h on a s i ngl e s ur f a c e a s ol i di f yi ng of ba c kgr ound a nd f or e g r ound. M a novi c h a s s oc i a t e s t he s e a t t r i but e s w i t h m ont a ge : I n w i ndow i nt e r f a c e t he t w o oppos i t e s t e m por a l m ont a ge a nd m ont a ge w i t hi n t h e s hot f i na l l y c om e t oge t he r ( A G S 5) T he pr og r e s s i on of t he a va nt ga r de i nt o t he m e t a a va nt ga r de c r e a t e s t hi s pot e nt i a l of s i m ul t a ne i t y; t he c om bi ni ng of bot h m ont a ge e f f e c t s on a s i ngl e s ur f a c e e xc e e ds pr i or m e t hods a n d c r e a t e s ne w w r i t i ng pot e nt i a l s ; pr i or a va nt ga r de t e c hni que s ove r l a y a nd ove r l a p i n w a ys i m pos s i bl e be f or e H C I

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17 T he not i on of ne w i t s e l f how e ve r m us t be pl a c e d i n s us pe ns i on. O ne o f M a novi c h s m os t i nt r i gui ng a r gu m e nt s c om e s a c r os s i n a pos t m ode r n c ont e xt T he m e t a a va nt ga r di s t i s s i m i l a r t o pr e vi ous a va nt ga r di s t s by not be i ng c onc e r ne d w i t h ne w i n a s e ns e of or i gi na l : T he ne w a va nt ga r de i s no l onge r c onc e r ne d w i t h s e e i ng or r e p r e s e nt i ng t he w or l d i n ne w w a ys but r a t he r w i t h a c c e s s i ng a nd us i ng i n ne w w a ys pr e vi ous l y a c c um ul a t e d m e di a I n t hi s r e s pe c t ne w m e di a i s p os t m e di a or m e t a m e di a a s i t us e s ol d m e di a a s i t s pr i m a r y m a t e r i a l ( A G S 10 ) T he ne w i n t hi s s e ns e a c t s a s a t r ope f o r r e a c c e s s i ng a nd r e de ve l opi ng ol d m e di a ; t hi s i s t he m e t hod f o r how t he a va nt ga r de be c a m e e m be dde d i n c om put i ng M a n R a y s a s s e m bl a ge s a nd B r uc e C onne r s w a x s c ul pt ur e s 3 c r e a t e d t o be de s t r oye d s o a s t o a l l ow a ne w obj e c t t o t a ke i t s pl a c e do not ne e d t o de s t r oy t he i r obj e c t s ; t he l ogi c o f hype r m e di a s ol i c i t s a c ons t a nt r e s huf f l i ng of i nf or m a t i on a nd poi nt s o f e nt r y i nt o va r yi ng da t a T he m e t a a va nt ga r de w r i t i ng pr oc e dur e s r e s e m bl e D uc ha m p s f i l m A ne m i c c i n m a : e ndl e s s r e vol ut i ons of t e xt ua l r hyt hm s a nd i m a ge s c i r c l i ng i n s uc c e s s i ve punni ng onl y t he m e t a a v a nt ga r de i s w i t hout a t e r m i na l s t oppi ng poi nt I f w e s t a y w i t h D uc ha m p a s a n e xa m pl e hi s not i o n of f ound obj e c t s a nd R e a dy M a de s r e c e i ve i nc r e a s e d s i gni f i c a nc e i n ne w m e di a : I n c om put e r c ul t ur e a m e di a obj e c t i s t ypi c a l l y a s s e m bl e d f r om r e a dy m a de e l e m e nt s s uc h a s i c ons t e xt ur e s vi de o c l i ps 3 D m ode l s c om pl e t e a ni m a t i on s e que nc e s r e a dy t o us e vi r t ua l c ha r a c t e r s c hunks of J a va s c r i pt c ode D i r e c t o r L i ngo s c r i pt s e t c ( A G S 4) L i ke a c l a s s i c i s t c om pos i t i on pr oc e s s r e f e r e nc i ng gr a m m a r books ha ndbo oks pr i or a r gum e nt a t i ve s t r uc t ur e s a m e t a a va nt ga r de c o m pos i t i on ha s s i m i l a r r e f e r e nc e poi nt s t hr ough he l p f i l e s i ns t r uc t i on m a nua l s e t c N e w m e di a m a y be c om pos e d a c c ur a t e l y 3 M a n o v i c h m e n t i o n s s i m i l a r l y t h a t a r t i s t s s u c h a s B r u c e C o n n o r R o b e r t R a u s c h e n b e r g a n d J a m e s R o s e n q u i s t s i m i l a r l y g i v e u p t h e i d e a o f c r e a t i n g t o t a l l y n e w i m a g e s ( A G S 1 0 )

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18 w i t h i nc om pl e t e c om pr e he ns i on, l i ke a R e a dy M a de c om pos i t i on t ha t doe s not r e qui r e pr i or a r t i s t i c s ki l l s ; j a va s c r i pt s i m a ge s t e xt doc u m e nt s H T M L c ode m a y be c ut a nd pa s t e d i nt o va r i ous a ppl i c a t i ons due t o a l l m e di a be i ng m odul a r M a novi c h c r e di t s t he 1920s L e f t a va nt ga r de f or c r e a t i ng t he f or m s t o r e pr e s e nt a nd s e e t he w or l d i n ne w w a ys but a l s o hi ghl i ght s t ha t m e t a a va nt ga r di s t s a r e c onc e r ne d w i t h ne w w a ys t o r e w or k t he c odi f i e d f or m s a nd m a ni pul a t e i nf or m a t i on w i t h t he t e c hni que s of hype r m e di a da t a ba s e s s e a r c h e ngi ne s da t a m i ni ng, i m a ge p r oc e s s i ng, vi s ua l i z a t i on, s i m ul a t i on ( A G S 10 ) M e t a a va nt ga r de t e c hni que s a r e m e di a a c c e s s ge ne r a t i on, m a ni pul a t i on a nd a na l ys i s F or m s r e m a i n t he s a m e but how t he s e f o r m s c a n be us e d c ha nge s r a di c a l l y ( A G S 11) F or f or m ul a t i ons on how t he t e c hni que s be c om e e m be dde d i nt o s of t w a r e a not he r o f M a novi c h s a r t i c l e s i s of us e N e w M e di a f r om B or ge s t o H T M L i s s t r a i ght f or w a r d i n a ppr oa c hi ng w ho t he m e t a a va nt ga r di s t s a r e a nd w ha t w or ks t he y c r e a t e M a novi c h l oc a t e s va r i ous c om put e r s c i e nt i s t s e ngi ne e r s a nd s of t w a r e de ve l ope r s a s t he gr e a t e s t a r t i s t s of t he t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y ( f r om J C R L i c kl i de r t o T i m B e r ne r s L e e ) T he c ur r e nt gr e a t a va nt ga r de w or ks a r e A dobe P hot os hop a nd F i na l C ut P r o: T he gr e a t e s t a va nt ga r de f i l m i s s of t w a r e s uc h a s F i na l C ut P r o or A f t e r E f f e c t s w hi c h c ont a i ns t he pos s i bi l i t i e s of c om bi ni ng t oge t he r t hous a nds of s e pa r a t e t r a c ks i nt o a s i ngl e m ovi e a s w e l l a s s e t t i ng va r i ous r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n a l l t he s e di f f e r e nt t r a c ks a nd i t t hus i t de ve l ops t he a va nt ga r de i de a of a f i l m a s a n a bs t r a c t vi s ua l s c or e t o i t s l ogi c a l e nd a nd be yond. ( N M 15) M y i nt e r e s t i n t hi s s t a t e m e nt i s w ha t l e a ds M a novi c h t o s uc h a c l a i m N o l onge r a r e w e c onc e r ne d w i t h t he c r e a t i on of a r t w or ks or m a ni f e s t os now t he f oc us t ur ns t o de ve l opm e nt a ppl i c a t i on, a nd e xe c u t i on. W e f i nd i n t he s e t hi nke r s a nd c om put i c i a ns a f ul l a nd c om pl e x unde r s t a ndi ng of pr i o r a va nt ga r de m e t hods as t e c hni que s

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19 T he l ogi c o f ne w m e di a a nd t ha t of t he a r t w or l d c l a s h. M a novi c h hi ghl i ght s a s i gni f i c a nt br e a k i n t e r m s of how w r i t i ng i s p r oduc e d a nd pr e s e nt e d. N e w m e di a i ns t a l l a t i ons a nd ne t a r t p r oj e c t s unde r c ut no r m a t i v e a ve nue s of di s t r i but i on; a r t a s s um e s pr ope r c ha nne l s of d i s t r i but i on, a c or r e c t or de r a nd a ut hor i a l c ont r ol ove r a one o f a ki nd w or k of a r t a nd vi e w e d i n pr ope r l oc a t i ons l i ke ga l l e r i e s m us e um s a nd a uc t i ons ( N M 14) N e w m e di a pr i vi l e ge s t he e xi s t e nc e of pot e n t i a l l y num e r ous c opi e s ; i nf i ni t e l y m a ny di f f e r e nt s t a t e s of t he s a m e w o r k; a ut hor us e r s ym bi os i s ( t he us e r c a n c ha nge t he w or k t hr ough i nt e r a c t i vi t y ) ; t he c ol l e c t i ve ; c ol l a bo r a t i ve a ut hor s hi p; a nd ne t w or k di s t r i but i on ( w hi c h bypa s s e s t he a r t s ys t e m di s t r i but i on c ha nne l s ) ( N M 14) T o c or r e l a t e t hi s s t a t e m e nt w i t h t he pr e s e nt s t a t us of a c a de m i c publ i s hi ng, c om pos i ng a nd publ i s hi ng w i t h ne w m e di a a c t s w i t h s ub ve r s i ve po t e nt i a l ; di s t r i but i on c ha nge s r a di c a l l y a l ong w i t h publ i s hi ng, but pe r ha ps m or e i m por t a nt l y, how one c om pos e s a pi e c e t o be publ i s he d. I f w e be gi n r e t hi nki ng a t t hi s ba s e l e ve l not onl y a r e m e t hods of di s t r i but i on a nd c om pos i t i on s hi f t i ng, bu t a l s o how w r i t i ng i nt e r a c t s w i t h t he w or l d T he l ogi c o f ne w m e di a pr e s e nt s a s i gni f i c a nt c ul t ur a l s hi f t i n m e t ho ds a nd t e c hni que s of r e pr e s e nt a t i on. L i ke pr e vi ous a va nt ga r de m ove m e nt s w e l e ve l t r a di t i ons a nd e nga ge s e ve r a l c ul t ur a l pr a c t i c e s s i m ul t a n e ous l y ( w or ki ng w i t h t he r a di c a l l y di s pa r a t e ) a l pha be t i c phonol ogi c pi c t ogr a phi c c i ne m a t i c hi e r ogl yphi c r e bus w r i t i n g, e t c T he m e t a phor of H C I i s onl y be gi nni ng t o be t r a ns l a t e d i nt o c ul t u r a l l ogi c T he l ogi c of m on t a ge c ol l a ge a nd e nt hym e m a t i c i nf e r e nc e be c om e s na t ur a l i z e d i n i m a ge or i e nt a t e d gr a phi c a l us e r i nt e r f a c e s N ot i ons o f f i xi t y a nd c onc r e t e ne s s i n r e ga r ds t o i nf o r m a t i on a nd di s t r i but i on

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20 a r e be i ng unm oor e d; t he pe r s ona l a nd s oc i a l m a c hi ne s a c t a s ongoi ng a s s e m bl a ge s ope n e nde d a nd i n pe r pe t ua l i nt e r c ha nge M a novi c h r e l a ys how t he s e c ul t ur a l c ha nge s oc c ur r e d. H e de m ons t r a t e s t ha t t he l a t e t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y w e nt t hr ough r a di c a l c ha nge s l i ke t ha t of t he a va nt ga r de a t t he be gi nni ng of t he c e nt ur y: I n t he l a s t f e w de c a de s of t he t w e nt i e t h c e nt ur y m ode r n c om put i ng a nd ne t w or k t e c hnol ogy m a t e r i a l i z e d c e r t a i n ke y pr oj e c t s of m o de r n a r t de ve l ope d a ppr oxi m a t e l y a t t he s a m e t i m e I n t he p r oc e s s of t hi s m a t e r i a l i z a t i on, t he t e c hnol ogi e s ove r t ook a r t A s a r e s ul t t he s e t e c hnol ogi e s ha ve be c om e t he gr e a t e s t a r t w or ks of t oda y. ( N M 15) T he s e pos t ul a t i ons a s s i s t i n f or m ul a t i ng a t r a j e c t or y i n t e r m s of c om pos i ng; i t i s no t t he a r t i s t i c di m e ns i on of t he a va nt ga r de t ha t c ha nge s our i nt e r a c t i on w i t h w r i t i ng ( a l t hough, i nde e d, t he s e a r e not l a i d t o w a s t e e i t he r ) but r a t he r i t i s t he l ogi c a nd t e c hni que s t ha t ha ve be c om e t he m os t pe r va s i ve a nd i ns t r uc t i ona l T he di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n pr i or a va nt ga r de m ove m e nt s a nd t he m e t a a va nt ga r de i s M a novi c h s a ys a n i s s ue of c e nt r a l i z a t i on: O f c our s e s om e a r t i s t s a l r e a dy be ga n t o r e a c t t o t he e m e r gi ng m e di a e nvi r onm e nt by m a ki n g c ol l a ge s a nd phot o m ont a ge s c ons i s t i ng of ne w s pa pe r c l i ppi ngs e xi s t i ng phot og r a phs pi e c e s of pos t e r s a nd s o on; ye t t he s e pr a c t i c e s of m a ni pul a t i ng e xi s t i ng m e di a w e r e not ye t c e nt r a l ( N M 22) T he s e t e c hni que s be c om e m a t e r i a l i z e d i n c om put i ng e m be dde d by m e t a a va nt ga r di s t s T he s oc i a l di m e ns i on of t he s e t e c hni que s i s c ur r e nt l y d e f i ni ng ope r a t i ng pr oc e dur e s f or i ndi vi dua l a nd c ol l e c t i ve know l e dge p r oduc t i on, c om m uni c a t i on, a nd e xp r e s s i on. A s D uc ha m p s R e a dy M a de s pr e s c r i be I a m i nt e r e s t e d i n how t o i n f us e t he s e ope r a t i ons i nt o c om pos i ng w i t hi n t he i ns t i t ut i on; how t o w r i t e c ol l a bor a t i ve l y, c ol l e c t i ve l y, w i t h i m a ge s a nd f ound c ul t ur a l obj e c t s a nd w i t hi n a ne t w or ke d e nvi r onm e nt t h a t pe r m i t s a n a s s e m bl a ge t o c ont i nue va r yi ng w i t h i m m e ns e s pe e d.

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21 I f i t i s pos s i bl e t o g r oup M a novi c h s va r i ous t he m e s i nt o a n ove r a r c hi ng c onc e pt w e m us t r e t ur n t o hi s s t r e s s of pos t m ode r ni s m T h i s not i on a r i s e s r e pe a t e dl y by unde r pi nni ng t he l og i c of ne w m e di a w i t h r e t hi nki ng a nd r e w o r ki ng pa s t c ul t u r a l obj e c t s m e di a a nd t e c hnol ogi e s T he pos t m ode r n a c c um ul a t i on of huge m e di a a s s e t s a nd t he a r r i va l of ne w e l e c t r oni c a nd di gi t a l t oo l s w hi c h m a de i t ve r y e a s y t o a c c e s s a nd r e w or k t he s e a s s e t s s e r ve s a s a r e l a y f or m y c ur r e nt a r gum e nt ( N M 23) E ve n i f vi e w e d a s a m e t a phor I w oul d l i ke t o s t r e s s not i on s of how ne w m e di a a c t s s o a s t o s i m ul t a ne ous l y r e t hi nk how w e i nt e r a c t w i t h pa s t c ul t ur a l f or m s a nd t e c hni que s ( e s pe c i a l l y A r i s t ot e l i a n e nt hym e m a t i c a r gum e nt s ) w hi l e a l s o pr opos i ng va s t r oom f o r i nve nt i on of ne w f or m s W e ha ve t he t e c hni que s t e c hnol ogy, a nd l ogi c t o t he o r i z e a m e t hod f or c om pos i ng w or ks t ha t r e s i t ua t e a nd i nt e ns i f y pa s t w r i t i ng t e c hni que s ; w a ys t o c r e a t e a s s e m bl a ge s t ha t de s i r e va r i a t i on a nd i n f e r e nc e ; a nd m e t hods f o r de ve l opi ng w r i t i ng c ol l a bor a t i ve l y a nd c ol l e c t i ve l y. T he s e e s t a bl i s h t he ope r a t i ng p r a c t i c e s r he t or i c a nd l ogi c f o r a m e t a a va nt ga r di s t us i ng a di gi t a l m a c hi ne w i t h a n i nt e ns i f i e d c ut a nd pa s t e f unc t i on. T o f or m a l i z e t he s e m e t hods D e l e uz e a nd G ua t t a r i p r ovi de a t he o r y of l a ngua ge a nd w r i t i ng e s s e nt i a l t o ne w m e di a a nd e nt hym e m a t i c w r i t i ng

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22 C H A P T E R 4 E N T H Y M E M E A S M E T H O D T ur ni ng t o G i l l e s D e l e uz e a nd F l i x G ua t t a r i i s a m ove m e nt t o l oc a t e a n e xi s t i ng t he or y of l a ngua ge a nd w r i t i ng t ha t c or r e s ponds t o a n a va nt ga r de r a t i ona l e W e m a y l oc a t e t he or i e s t ha t not onl y ha ve t he c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of l a ngua ge be i ng a c ol l a ge but our s e l ve s be i ng a n i nor ga ni c c om pos i t i on t ha t r e s e m bl e s a c ol l a ge T he s e t he or i e s a s s i s t i n unde r s t a ndi ng w ha t i t m e a ns f o r a pe r s on t o w r i t e w ha t t hi s a c t e nt a i l s a nd w ha t pot e nt i a l r e s ul t s w i l l f ol l ow f r om s uc h a n a c t W e m a y t hi nk of t hi s a s a m e t hod t o unpa c k B r ge r a nd M a novi c h by pos i ng a que s t i on : how do w e c ont i nue w r i t i ng w i t h e nt hym e m a t i c l ogi c a nd f ur t he r m odi f y t he i nhe r e n t s t r a t e gi e s of p r oba bi l i t y, s uppr e s s i on, a nd pe r s ua s i on? I w oul d l i ke t o t a ke a n i ndi r e c t c our s e a nd m a p out a n ove r a r c hi ng not i on o f c ol l a ge I f w e be gi n w i t h H e nr i B e r gs on, w e f i nd a c or pus of t hough t t ow a r ds di s a s s o c i a t i on a nd de c om pos i t i on. B odi e s 1 be gi n t o be pl a c e d i n e xt e ns i on: m e m or y i s l oc a t e d i n m a t t e r w hi c h i s t o s a y t ha t bodi e s be gi n t o f unc t i on t hr ough i nor ga ni c di f f us i on. I n M at t e r and M e m or y w e f i nd D e l e uz e s i nc l i na t i ons t ow a r ds bodi e s w i t hout or ga ns a nd t he s e l f a s c ol l a ge : I t s e l f a n i m a ge t he body c a nnot s t or e up i m a ge s s i nc e i t f o r m s a pa r t of t he i m a ge s a nd t hi s i s w hy i t i s a c hi m e r i c a l e nt e r p r i s e t o s e e k t o l oc a l i z e t he pa s t or e ve n pr e s e nt pe r c e pt i ons i n t he b r a i n: t he y a r e not i n i t ; i t i s t he br a i n t ha t i s i n t he m ( M M 151) 1 B o d y a n d b o d i e s b e c o m e s a c o m p l e x m e t a p h o r i c a l t e r m f o r b o t h a p h y s i c a l b o d y a n d a l s o a s i n S t o i c e m b o d i m e n t : W e m a y t a k e t h e w o r d b o d y i n i t s b r o a d e s t s e n s e ( t h e r e a r e m e n t a l b o d i e s s o u l s a r e b o d i e s e t c ) ( A T P 8 0 )

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23 B e r gs on s t hought l e a ds t o de c e nt r a l i z a t i on, a pi e c e m e a l c om pos i t i on w he r e m e m or y a nd pe r c e pt i on be c om e e xt e r na l I n D e l e uz e s t he or y o f t he c i ne m a w e f i nd B e r gs oni a n pr i nc i pl e s t ha t i nt e ns i f y t he c ol l a ge e f f e c t of a bod y s i nor ga ni c m a ke up. D e l e uz e s s t a t e m e nt s on e xpe r i m e nt a l c i ne m a i n C i ne m a 2 ha ve a n unde r pi nni ng of c ol l a ge l ogi c D e l e uz e s c i ne m a r e que s t s gi ve m e a body a nd gi ve m e a b r a i n, w hi c h i s t o s a y t ha t w e a r e de a l i ng w i t h a c i ne m a body s ym b i os i s : B ody or b r a i n i s w ha t t he c i ne m a de m a nds t o be gi ve n t o i t w ha t i t gi ve s i t s e l f w ha t i t i nve nt s i t s e l f ( 204) B e r gs oni a n e xt e r na l i z a t i on be c om e s a D e l e uz i a n c i ne m a t i c phi l os ophy t he br a i n i s t he s c r e e n, t he c a m e r a i s t he e ye I s a y t he pr e c e di ng r e m a r ks not t o i m pl y t ha t c ol l a ge i s t he ove r a r c hi ng t hr e a d f or D e l e uz e a nd t he r e by r e duc e hi s t hought t o a c onc e pt but onl y t o hi ghl i ght i t s e xi s t e nc e i n a l a r ge r s c ope be f or e f oc us i ng na r r ow l y L i ke t he l ogi c of de c om pos i t i on be i ng a t t he ba s e of c ol l a ge D e l e uz e s e e m s t o i nc or po r a t e B e r gs on s not i ons of de c om pos i t i on a nd di s a s s o c i a t i on t o a l a r ge e xt e nt i n e s t a bl i s hi ng s uc c e s s i ve i nor ga ni c t he or i e s 2 E ve n i f w e t ur n br i e f l y t o D e l uz e s s e c ond C i ne m a book, w e f i nd not i ons of de c om pos i t i on a ga i n: T he m ove m e nt i m a ge doe s not r e pr oduc e a w or l d but c ons t i t ut e s a n a ut onom ous w or l d, m a de up of br e a ks a nd di s pr opo r t i on, de pr i ve d of a l l i t s c e nt r e s a dd r e s s i ng i t s e l f a s s uc h t o a vi e w e r w ho i s i n hi m s e l f no l ong e r c e nt r e of hi s ow n pe r c e pt i on. T he pe r c i pi e ns a nd t he pe r c i pi ha ve l os t t he i r poi nt s of gr a vi t y ( C i ne m a 2 36 7 ) W e s houl d not f o r ge t t ha t D e l e uz e s C i ne m a books a r e a t a xonom y of s i gns a va s t i nde x of how t he c i ne m a w r i t e s H ow e ve r t he hyb r i d bo dy t ha t t he c i ne m a c r e a t e s i s due t o a s ym bi os i s be t w e e n t he body a nd t he c i ne m a m a c hi ne W e f i nd c o r r e l a t i ng hyb r i d bodi e s 2 I n p a r t i c u l a r I a m r e f e r e n c i n g B e r g s o n s n o t i o n o f d e c o m p o s i t i o n a n d d i s a s s o c i a t i o n t h a t b e c o m e s p e r v a s i v e i n D e l e u z e : A n d w e g o o n a l s o f r o m t h e w h o l e t o t h e p a r t s b y a p r o c e s s o f d e c o m p o s i t i o n a p r o c e s s w h i c h c o n s i s t s i n b r e a k i n g u p f o r t h e g r e a t e r c o n v e n i e n c e o f p r a c t i c a l l i f e t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e r e a l A s s o c i a t i o n t h e n i s n o t t h e p r i m a r y f a c t : d i s s o c i a t i o n i s w h a t w e b e g i n w i t h ( M M 1 6 5 )

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24 i n t e r m s of l i t e r a t u r e ; P r ous t & Si gns i ni t i a t e s t he b odi e s w i t hout or ga ns a t t he e nd of t he t e xt w i t h a s pi de r na r r a t or s ym bi os e s : t he w e b a nd t he s pi de r t he w e b a nd t he body a r e one a nd t he s a m e m a c hi ne ( 182 ) W ha t w e a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n a r e t he pos s i bi l i t i e s of hum a n c om put e r i nt e r f a c e : w ha t w r i t i ng m a y be pr oduc e d w i t h a m a c hi ne t ha t i nc or por a t e s t he r a t i ona l e r he t o r i c a nd l ogi c o f c o l l a ge a nd m ont a ge ? D e l e uz e pr ovi de s a n e xa m pl e w i t h m ont a ge i n C i n e m a 1 T he e nt hym e m e ope r a t e s w i t hi n t he ac t i on i m age ( A c t i on S i t ua t i o n A c t i on ) F ol l ow i ng t he t a xonom i c a l a ppr oa c h t o t he r e gi m e of s i gns f or t he c i ne m a D e l e uz e l a be l s t he a c t i on i m a ge w i t h P e i r c e s i nde x P e i r c e s e xa m pl e o f t he i nde x a c t s a s a pr a gm a t i c e xa m pl e of t he e nt hym e m e : f or e xa m pl e a pi e c e o f m ol d w i t h a bul l e t hol e i n i t a s a s i gn f or a s hot ; f or w i t hout t he s hot t he r e w oul d ha ve be e n no hol e ; bu t t he r e i s a hol e t he r e w he t he r a nybody ha s t he s e ns e t o a t t r i b ut e i t t o a s hot o r no t 3 ( L ogi c 10 ) D e l e uz e c a r r i e s t he e nt hym e m a t i c i nde x t o s i t ua t e m on t a ge a s i ndi r e c t i on: T he s i t ua t i on i s t hus de duc e d f r om t he a c t i on, by i m m e di a t e i nf e r e nc e or by r e l a t i ve l y c om pl e x r e a s oni ng. S i nc e t he s i t ua t i on i s not gi ve n f or i t s e l f t he i nde x he r e i s a n i nde x of l a c k; i t i m pl i e s a ga p i n t he na r r a t i ve ( C i ne m a 1 160) D e l e uz e s a bbr e vi a t i o n f or t he s hot s e que nc e i s m i s l e a di ng i f t he pr i or pa s s a ge s a r e not a c c ount e d f or I t i s not t ha t t he c a m e r a e ye s how s us A S A but i ns t e a d w e m ove i m m e di a t e l y f r om A t o A w i t hou t t he s i t ua t i on be i ng f r a m e d di r e c t l y T he i m por t a nc e o f t he a c t i on i m a ge a s a n e xa m pl e i s t ha t D e l e uz e i s a l r e a dy s e a r c hi ng f or m e t hods t o w r i t e i ndi r e c t l y T he i m p or t a nc e of t he c i ne m a e s pe c i a l l y t he a c t i on i m a ge ( A S A m on t a ge ) i s t ha t t he s i t ua t i on ( S ) i s a c om m on ho r i z on o f s oc i a l know l e dge ( e ndox a ) D e l e uz e us e s t he e xa m pl e of t he c i ne m a t i c W e s t e r n a s t he g r e a t 3 B a r t h e s s i m i l a r l y d e p l o y s t h e i n d e x t o m a r k t h e s u p p r e s s e d p r e m i s e : A w o m a n h a s g i v e n b i r t h : t h i s i s t h e s u r e i n d e x ( t e k m e r i o n ) t h a t s h e h a d i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h a m a n ( S C 6 1 )

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25 e xa m pl e of t he s i t ua t i on a s i nt e r va l ( S ) w he n t w o o ppos i ng ga z e s r e l a y a c om pl e t e s c e ne of t e ns i on a nd oppos i t i on T he c i ne m a be gi ns t o a r gue i ndi r e c t l y w hi c h i s t o s a y t ha t w e ha ve a l ogi c of s uppr e s s i on. W e a r e a ppr oa c hi ng w ha t B a r t he s e xpl a i ns a s a t ype of e nt hym e m e t ha t i s Q ui nt i l i a n m a de pr e dom i na nt i n t he M i ddl e A ge s T he va l ue of t h i s t ype of a r gu m e nt i s t ha t i t i s a pe r f e c t s yl l ogi s m i n t he m i nd but i m pe r f e c t i n e xpr e s s i on; i n s hor t i t i s a n a c c i de nt of l a ngua ge a de vi a t i on ( SC 58 ) W e r e c e i ve on t he s c r e e n A A but w e c om pr e he nd t he pe r f e c t e d s yl l ogi s m A S A m e nt a l l y w i t hout f or e s t a l l i ng t he a r gu m e nt B ut i t w i l l t a ke c om bi ni ng M a novi c h, D e l e uz e a nd G ua t t a r i t oge t he r t o m a p out how t he e nt hym e m e be c om e s de m ons t r a t i ve i n ne w m e di a I f w e r e c a l l t ha t M a novi c h pos i t s a ut hor us e r s ym b i os i s a s a m a i n l ogi c of ne w m e di a t he n w e ha ve a n e nt r y poi nt i nt o A T hous an d P l at e aus : E ve n t e c hnol ogy m a ke s t he m i s t a ke of c ons i de r i ng t ool s i n i s ol a t i on: t ool s e xi s t onl y i n r e l a t i on t o t he i nt e r m i ngl i ngs t he y m a ke po s s i bl e or t ha t m a ke t he m pos s i bl e T he s t i r r up e nt a i l s a ne w m a n ho r s e s ym bi os i s t ha t a t t he s a m e t i m e e nt a i l s ne w w e a pons a nd i ns t r um e nt s T ool s a r e i n s e pa r a bl e f r om s ym bi os e s or a m a l ga m a t i ons de f i ni ng a N a t ur e S oc i e t y m a c hi ni c a s s e m bl a ge ( 90) D e l e uz e a nd G ua t t a r i e f f e c t ua t e a ne w w a y t o t hi n k a bout m a c hi ne s a nd a s s e m bl a ge s by pr ovi di ng a n a bs t r a c t t he or y of l a ngua ge t ha t s o l i c i t s a t ype of w r i t i ng t ha t i s r e l e va nt t o a pe r s on us i ng a di gi t a l t ool w i t h a c ut a nd pa s t e f unc t i on. L i ke t he a va nt ga r de t e c hni que s t ha t be c a m e e m be dde d i n t he l ogi c a nd f ounda t i ona l m e t a phor s of ne w m e di a D e l e uz e a nd G ua t t a r i be gi n t o t he or i z e a bout a m e t hod of c om pos i ng w i t h a l a ngua ge m a c hi ne t ha t e s c a pe s f i xi t y a nd or de r t h r ough a va r i a bl e s t a t e of de c om pos i t i on D e l e uz e a nd G ua t t a r i vi e w l a ngua ge a s a c ons t a nt a s s e m bl a ge w i t hout f i xe d l i m i t s a nd s ol i di f i e d z one s of s i gni f i c a t i on. I n s hor t be c a us e l a ngua ge i s a n a s s e m bl a ge i t goe s t hr ough a l l pr i or f l ow s s i m ul t a ne ous l y ( s e m i ot i c m a t e r i a l a nd s oc i a l ) W i t hi n t he pl a t e a u P os t ul a t e s on L i ngui s t i c s a l a ngua ge m o de l i s put f or t h c ons i s t i ng of t he or de r

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26 w or d, a s s e m bl a ge a nd i ndi r e c t di s c our s e H ow t h e s e t hr e e i nt e r a c t s e r ve a s our r he t or i c a nd l ogi c f o r a m e t a a va nt ga r di s t T he or de r w or d r e pl a c e s a s pe e c h a c t i n qua l i f i e d de gr e e s : t he t e r m a c t s a s a pun t ha t pl a ys on a l l f l ow s s i m ul t a ne o us l y. T he or de r w or d s i gni f i e s di r e c t i on i n l a ngua ge or de r s a s c om m a nds a nd o r de r a s a t ype of or ga ni z a t i on. A l r e a dy w e a r e de a l i ng w i t h a l a ngua ge f unc t i on out s i de of nor m a t i ve c om pr e he n s i on; or de r w or ds a r e m a r ke d by r e dunda nc y, not by r ul e s : R a t he r i t i s a r e l a t i on o f r e dundanc y T he or de r w or d i t s e l f i s t he r e dunda nc y of t he a c t a nd t he s t a t e m e nt N e w s pa pe r s ne w s pr oc e e d by r e dunda nc y, i n t ha t t he y t e l l us w ha t w e m us t t hi nk r e t a i n e x pe c t e t c ( A T P 79 ) I n a n A r i s t ot e l i a n s e ns e t hi s r e dunda nc y r e gul a t e s t he s uc c e s s r a t e of t he e nt hym e m e H ow of t e n a c e r t a i n i m a ge t he M ona L i s a f o r e xa m pl e c i r c ul a t e s c or r e s ponds t o t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of t he a r gum e nt T o a r gue i n t hi s w a y ha s a t w o f o l d c ons e que nc e : i t i s hi ghl y e f f e c t i ve a nd t hi s m a y be e xe m pl i f i e d t hr ough a dve r t i s i ng a nd f i l m ( a nd t he e nt i r e c om m odi t y or i e nt e d E nt e r t a i n m e nt di s c our s e ) W e m a y a s s oc i a t e t hi s t o t he vi e w of a n e nt hym e m e w i t h a di m i ni s he d l ogi c a s i n a dve r t i s i ng. I f w e a da pt our l e ve l o f c om pr e he ns i on t o t he l e ve l of t he publ i c c om m on s e ns e o r nor m a t i ve opi ni on, t he s uc c e s s of t he a r gum e nt i s not onl y m or e l i ke l y, but m or e pe r s ua s i ve ( r e pe t i t i on on pa r w i t h pe r s ua s i on) B ut w e ha ve t he ot he r s i de of t he o r de r w or d s o t o s pe a k, w hi c h a l l ow s us t o b r e a k w i t h r e dunda n c y. T hi s i s w ha t t he a va nt ga r de t hr ough a l l pe r i ods ( a nd w ha t t he m e t a a va nt ga r di s t m a i nt a i ns t he pot e nt i a l f o r ) de m ons t r a t e s w i t h e xt r e m e pr e c i s i on; w e m a y di s r upt t he r e dund a nc y a nd m ove i n t he ot he r di r e c t i on W e m a y r a i s e t he di s pa r a t e na t ur e t o a hi ghe r de g r e e a nd r i p t he pi e c e f r om i t s no r m a t i ve r ol e W e m a y c ons t r uc t e nt hym e m e s t ha t e xpos e t he i nhe r e nt s t e r e ot ype s of a s oc i a l

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27 body. D uc ha m p a nd t he D a da i s t s be c om e our f or e r unni ng l e a de r s i n t hi s m ove m e nt : t he y t e a r obj e c t s f r om t he i r pr e s c r i be d s oc i a l r ol e s a nd us e t he m a s a n a t t a c k on a know l e dge s ys t e m A r t f o r e xa m pl e T he s e nt e nc e i s a n e xa m pl e of how t he or de r w o r d, t h r ough r e dunda nt us a ge be c om e s e s t a bl i s h e d. T he s e nt e nc e be c om e s a pun: t o f ol l ow a s e nt e nc e i n a l i ne a r or de r a s i t o r de r s t he r e a de r t o do, i s a de a t h s e nt e nc e T he s e nt e nc e be c om e s a w oundi ng pr oj e c t i l e t hr ough r e dunda nc y. A voi di ng t he de a t h s e nt e nc e of r e dunda nc y be c om e s a m a i n goa l a nd t hi s be c om e s t he e xe r c i s e s of t he a va nt ga r de T o de c om pos e a nd ki l l m e a ni ng i s pr e c i s e l y t o r e j e c t t he s t r uc t ur e d or de r of e xpe c t a t i ons i n vi s ua l w r i t i ng. T o t e a r t he pi e c e a nd di s a s s oc i a t e a c t s a s m e t hods t o r e a s s e m bl e t he or de r w or d i n di f f e r e nt c om bi na t i ons T he ke y t o t hi s m e t hod i s t o c a us e t he di r e c t i on of l a ngua ge t o t ur n i ndi r e c t t o f o r c e l a ngua ge t o c ha nge ve c t or s t a ke of f on a w i t c h s l i ne s ke w i ng i nt o unt e r r i t or i a l i z e d z one s t o f or c e a d i s pl a c e m e nt a nd m a ke l a ngua ge be a r t he w e i ght of w ha t i t i s not A s D e l e uz e a nd G ua t t a r i s a y, t he or de r w o r d i s dy a di c a nd i f w e a r e t o w r i t e w i t h t he l ogi c of t he o r de r w or d w e m us t w r i t e w i t h bo t h of i t s f unc t i ons : B ut t he or de r w or d i s al s o s om e t hi ng e l s e i ns e pa r a bl y c onne c t e d: i t i s l i ke a w a r ni ng c r y o r a m e s s a ge t o f l e e I t w oul d be ove r s i m pl i f yi ng t o s a y t ha t f l i ght i s a r e a c t i on a ga i ns t t he o r de r w or d ; r a t he r i t i s i nc l ude d i n i t a s i t s ot he r f a c e i n a c om pl e x a s s e m bl a ge i t s ot he r c om pone nt ( A T P 106) P a r t of t he or de r w or d s i nt r i ns i c m a k e up i s t he pa s s w or d, a n e l e m e nt w i t hi n t he or de r w o r d t ha t a l l ow s a n e l e m e nt o f pa s s a ge f r om t he g i ve n t o t he non gi ve n: T he r e a r e pa s s w or ds be ne a t h or de r w or ds W or ds t ha t pa s s w or ds t ha t a r e c om pone nt s of pa s s a ge w he r e a s or de r w or ds m a r k s t oppa ge s or or ga ni z e d, s t r a t i f i e d c om pos i t i ons A s i ngl e t hi ng or w or d un doubt e dl y ha s t hi s t w o f ol d

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28 na t ur e : i t i s ne c e s s a r y t o e xt r a c t one f r om t he ot he r t o t r a ns f or m t he c om pos i t i ons of or de r i nt o c om pone nt s of pa s s a ge ( A T P 110) W e m a y not s e pa r a t e t he o r de r w or d f r om t he pa s s w or d; t he i r l ogi c pr om ot e s a c e r t a i n hom onym y. B y a l w a ys i nc l udi ng a t l e a s t a doubl e f unc t i on a nd a doubl e a r t i c ul a t i on w i t hi n t he o r de r w or d t he r e i s a n unde r l yi ng s t r e s s on i ndi r e c t i on, a w a y t o di s or ga ni z e t he or de r w o r d a nd de l i m i t t he s t oppa ge s T he t a s k be c om e s t o not i c e a nd ope r a t e w i t h bot h m e a ni ngs t o r e c ogni z e t he di s or de r of t he o r d e r w or d a nd t o s t r a t i f y i t s m e a ni ngs A l i gni ng t he o r de r w or d a nd t he a va nt ga r de pi e c e pr oduc e s s i m i l a r l ogi c a l f unc t i ons T o r e m ove t he pi e c e f r om a t ot a l i t y a l l ow s i t s pa s s w or d t o be e xpos e d a nd i t s m e a ni ng t o e s c a pe f i xe d a nd de l i m i t e d z one s T he e nt hym e m a t i c pe r s ua s i ve w r i t i ng w e a r e s e e ki ng ope r a t e s w i t h t he pa s s w or d. W e m a y s a y t ha t t hi s i s w ha t t he a va nt ga r de de m ons t r a t e s r e pe a t e dl y: t o r e c ogni z e t he r e pe t i t i on of c e r t a i n c u l t ur a l f o r m s a nd t o pl a c e t hos e r e pe t i t i ons a ga i ns t e xpe c t a t i ons t o s uppr e s s t he e x pe c t e d, a nd t o m a ke r e c i pi e nt s r e s pons i bl e f or w ha t t he y a l l ow t o be r e pe a t e d s oc i a l l y. D i s c our s e s l i ke a dve r t i s i ng s uppr e s s t he une xpe c t e d s o a s t o i nduc e a s t a nda r d r e pe r t oi r e o f r e dunda nt i m a ge s T he or d e r w or d be c om e s a t a l l m om e nt s a m e di a t e d di s c our s e L i ke t he l ogi c of m ont a ge a nd c ol l a ge a s i t ua t i ona l c ont e xt a l w a ys e xi s t s w hi c h i s t o s a y t he r e i s a l w a ys a t ype of i nt e r f e r e nc e t ha t f unc t i ons out s i de of t he g i ve n i n l a ngua ge T o l oc a t e t hi s s ur pl u s s i t ua t i on a nd c ont e xt D e l e uz e a nd G ua t t a r i c i t e B a kht i n: A s V ol o i nov [ B a kht i n] s a ys a s l ong a s l i ngui s t i c s e xt r a c t s c ons t a nt s i t i s i nc a pa bl e of he l pi ng us unde r s t a nd how a s i ngl e w or d c a n be a c om pl e t e e nunc i a t i on; t he r e m us t be a n e xt r a s om e t hi ng t h a t r e m a i ns out s i de of t he s c ope of t he e nt i r e s e t of l i ngui s t i c c a t e gor i e s a nd de f i ni t i ons e ve n t hough i t i s s t i l l e nt i r e l y w i t hi n t he pur vi e w of t he t he or y of e nunc i a t i on or l a ngua ge T he o r de r w or d i s pr e c i s e l y t ha t va r i a bl e t ha t m a ke s t he w or d a s s uc h a n e nunc i a t i on. T he i ns t a nt a ne ous ne s s of t he or de r w o r d, i t s i m m e di a c y, gi ve s i t a pow e r of va r i a t i on i n r e l a t i on t o t he bodi e s t o w hi c h t he t r a ns f or m a t i on i s a t t r i but e d. ( A T P 82 )

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29 T o w r i t e w i t h t he e xt r a s om e t hi ng i s t he oppo r t uni t y c ol l a ge a nd m ont a ge p r ovi de D i s pl a c i ng a pi e c e a nd m ovi ng i t i nt o a not he r c ont e xt i s t o b r i ng t he e xt r a s om e t hi ng t o a ne w s i t ua t i on t o e f f e c t ua t e a d i f f e r e nt m e a ni ng w i t h t he s a m e pi e c e N e w m e di a a c c e l e r a t e s t he c i r c ul a t i on of pi e c e s I f w e r e f e r e nc e B a kht i n, w e m a y be gi n t o unpa c k t he i m m e ns i t y be hi nd i ndi r e c t di s c our s e t hr ough hi s di a l ogi c a l p r i nc i pl e T z ve t a n T odor ov s M i k hai l B ak ht i n hi ghl i ght s t ha t t he l ogi c of t he di a l ogi c a l p r i nc i pl e i s t he e nt hym e m e or a s V ol os hi nov/ B a kht i n s a ys T he quot i di a n ut t e r a nc e e ndow e d w i t h s i gni f i c a t i on i s t he r e f o r e c om pos e d of t w o pa r t s : ( 1) a r e a l i z e d o r a c t ua l i z e d ve r ba l pa r t a nd ( 2) a n i m p l i e d pa r t T ha t i s w hy a n ut t e r a nc e c a n be c om pa r e d t o a n e nt hy m e m e ( 4 1) U nde r ne a t h t he quot i di a n ut t e r a nc e ( or de r w or d ) w e ha ve a n i nt e r va l o f i n f e r e nc e a m ong s i t ua t i ona l c ont e xt s L i ke t he D e l e uz i a n a c t i on i m a ge t he s i t ua t i on i s t he i nde x t ha t de duc t i on m us t be e nga ge d t o s ol ve T h i s i s a m odul a r a ppr oa c h t o l a ngua ge T he or de r w or d or pi e c e i s a n e m pt y s i gn w i t hout a ny pe r m a ne nc e T r a ns pos i ng t he pi e c e i n t o a ne w c ont e xt vi a c ut a nd pa s t e i s t o e f f e c t ua t e a nd s ha pe a ne w m e a ni ng. D e l e uz e s e xa m pl e of t he a c t i on i m a ge de ve l ops a m e t hod t o w r i t e pr a gm a t i c a l l y but w i t h va s t l y di f f e r e nt a t t r i but e s t ha n a c l a s s i c i s t di r e c t c om po s i t i on. T he a c t i on i m a ge c a n be pa r a l l e l e d t o t he s t r uc t ur e of a n e nt hym e m e : A c t i on ( p r e m i s e 1) a p r e s e nt but not a r t i c ul a t e d S i t ua t i on ( p r e m i s e 2) A c t i on ( c o nc l us i on) A s D e l e uz e s t a t e d e a r l i e r i t i s t he c a s e t ha t w e r e c e i ve t he w i t hhe l d s i t ua t i on af t e r bot h a c t i on s hot s ( w e s e e t he ga z e s a nd t he n de duc e t he c onf l i c t ) G r a m m a r a nd l a ngua ge be nd a nd c ur ve : t o pr oc e e d f or w a r ds but t he n ba c kw a r ds t o c om pl e t e t he s e nt e nc e t he m e a ns e nd r a t i ona l i t y of

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30 s ubj e c t a nd pr e di c a t e a r e r e m ove d T hi s r e s ul t s i n a s uf f i c i e nt br e a k t o t he s ynt a c t i c a l a nd gr a m m a t i c a l s e nt e nc e a s w e ha ve a m e t hod t o pl a c e obl i ga t or y de m a nds i n va r i a t i on: F or t he que s t i on w a s not how t o e l ude t he or de r w or d, but how t o e l ude t he de a t h s e nt e nc e i t e nve l ops how t o de ve l op i t s pow e r o f e s c a pe how t o pr e ve nt e s c a pe f r om ve e r i ng i nt o t he i m a gi na r y or f a l l i ng i nt o a bl a c k hol e how t o m a i nt a i n or dr a w out t he r e vol ut i ona r y pot e nt i a l i t y of t he or de r w or d. ( A T P 110) T o w r i t e w i t h t he e nt hym e m e i s t o e nga ge t he l ogi c of hype r m e di a T he s e n t e nc e a nd s ynt a x be c om e s s upe r l i ne a r by l e a vi ng ga ps a nd i nde xe s of i nf or m a t i on t o be r e t r i e ve d: T hi s i m pl i e s s upe r l i ne a r i t y, i n o t he r w o r ds a pl a n e w hos e e l e m e nt s no l onge r ha ve a f i xe d l i ne a r o r de r : t he r hi z om e m ode l ( A T P 92) D i a gr a m m i ng a s e nt e nc e w oul d no l onge r be l i ke t r a c i ng out a c r ys t a l l i ne s t r uc t ur e f o r t he hype r s e nt e nc e i s m or e a m or phous a nd m ut a bl e L a ngua ge i s w i t hou t a gr a m m a r ; l a n gua ge ( s ) ha ve gr a m m a r ( s ) T o a r gue w i t h t he e nt hym e m e i s t o a r gue w i t h a l l t he pr e vi ous s oc i a l a nd publ i c m e a ni ngs br ought w i t h a pa r t i c ul a r obj e c t N e w m e di a f a c i l i t a t e s t hi s m e t hod w i t h t he va s t e s t c ul t ur a l a r c hi ve t o da t e : t he i nt e r ne t T o c o m pos e w i t h a c om put e r i s t he a bi l i t y t o c om pos e a c ol l a ge t o e f f e c t ua t e ne w m e a ni ngs f o r a l r e a dy c i r c ul a t i ng obj e c t s W he n D uc ha m p pl a c e s hi s F ount ai n i n a n a r t e xhi bi t i on he c ount s on t he publ i c t o unde r s t a nd a nd r e t a i n t he i r nor m a t i ve m e a ni ngs t ow a r ds t he o bj e c t s ( ur i na l a nd t he i ns t i t ut i on) D uc ha m p m a ke s bot h obj e c t s t a ke a ne w r e s pons i bi l i t y, t o s how t he i r l i nka ge on t he s ur f a c e t o m a ke bot h be a r t he w e i ght of a r t i f i c i a l i t y. E nga gi ng t he e nt hym e m e i s t o f ol l ow t he a va nt ga r de i n t e r m s of be i ng a t t he c ut t i ng e dge of s oc i a l f or m a t i ons I f w e r e f e r e nc e D e l e uz e a nd G ua t t a r i s i de a s of t e ns or s t he c ut t i ng e dge o f t he a s s e m bl a ge w hos e s i de f a c e s unt e r r i t or i a l i z e d z one s oppor t uni t i e s f or va r i a t i on unde r s c or e t he e nt hym e m e I t i s not a p r oc e s s of a s s oc i a t i on, but of de c om pos i t i on a nd di s a s s oc i a t i on by w a y of s ubt r a c t i ng a nd t e a r i ng a pi e c e f r om a

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31 t ot a l i t y. A s D e l e uz e a nd G ua t t a r i s a y, t he p r oc e s s i s a doubl e m ove m e nt : S ub t r a c t a nd pl a c e i n va r i a t i on, r e m ove a nd pl a c e i n va r i a t i on: a s i ngl e ope r a t i on ( A T P 104) L i ke t he e nt hym e m e t hi s m e t hod of va r i a t i on ope r a t e s by a n e qua t i on of ( n 1) T o pl a c e i n va r i a t i on w i t h t e ns or s i s a m e t hod o f c ut t i ng t ha t a s s ur e s t he va r i a t i on of t he va r i a bl e by s ubt r a c t i ng i n e a c h i ns t a nc e t he va l ue o f t he c ons t a nt ( n 1) ( A T P 99) I n c om pa r i s on w i t h t he e nt hym e m e n a c t s a s t he r e dunda nt s oc i a l l y i ns c r i be d m e a ni ng w he r e t he i n t e r va l i s i ni t i a t e d by s uppr e s s i on or t r unc a t i on. W e m a y c onc l ude t ha t t he r e s ponde nt ope r a t i ng on t he l e ve l of e ndox al know l e dge c om pl e t e s t he e qua t i on w i t h ( n + 1 ) by s uppl e m e nt i ng t he i nc om pl e t e l ogi c a l e qua t i on w i t h a s ha r e d hor i z on of s oc i a l know l e dge T hr oughout va r i ous i nt e r l oc ut i ons or i nt e r a c t i ons n r e m a i ns a va r i a bl e w i t hout c ons t a nc y a s i t s l i de s a l ong t he i nt e r s e c t i ons of c om m on s oc i a l know l e dge T he va r i a bl e n i s w i t hout f i xe d a nd de m a r c a t e d s oc i a l r e gi s t e r s be c a us e e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt s t r a t i f i e s t he m e a ni ng a t a di f f e r e nt l e ve l P e r ha ps m or e s uc c i nc t l y, t he va r i a bl e n e ns ur e s t ha t r e dunda nc y ne ve r be c om e s a c ons t a nt by a l w a ys pos i t i oni ng t he a s s e m bl a ge i n c ons t a nt va r i a t i on a s i t c ont i nue s t o c a r ve c ont i nu e s be c om i ng, e ve n a s i t a t t e m p t s t o r e a c h a pl a t e a u. D e l e uz e a nd G ua t t a r i s t hi nki ng c or r e s ponds c l os e l y t o a n a va nt ga r de a ppr oa c h t o l a ngua ge T he y p r e s uppos e a c om pl e t e i nve r s i o n of no r m a t i ve l a ngua ge m ode l s F or e xa m pl e w he n t he a va nt ga r de t e a r t he pi e c e f r om i t s t ot a l i t y w e m a y s pe c ul a t e t ha t t he y a r e pl a c i ng t he pi e c e ba c k i nt o i t s ha bi t a t of i ndi r e c t di s c our s e I n t hi s w a y a s D e l e uz e a nd G ua t t a r i s a y, i t i s no l onge r a bout oppos i ng c o ns t a nt a nd va r i a bl e bu t t ha t t o m a ke s om e t hi ng a c ons t a nt i s a t r e a t m e nt of t he va r i a bl e ( A T P 103) T o m a ke l a ngua ge c ons t a nt r e qui r e s m or e e f f or t t ha n t o m a ke i t va r y. T o m a ke a n i m a ge r e dunda nt i s m uc h

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32 m or e di f f i c ul t t ha n t o b r e a k i t s r e dunda nc y. 4 T he r e l a t i ons hi p of t he pa s s w or d a nd or de r w or d a r e not e w or t hy he r e T he o r de r di r e c t i on, a nd c om m a nd of t he or de r w or d s e e m na t ur a l onl y t o t he e xt e nt t ha t t he i r r e dunda n c y pa r a l l e l s W ha t D e l e uz e a nd G ua t t a r i hi ghl i ght i s t ha t b r e a ki ng w i t h t he or de r w or d s r e dunda nc y i s t o br i ng t he pa s s w or d out f r om a dor m a nt s t a t us w hi c h a l s o f or e gr ounds a l a ngua ge s ys t e m ba s e d on va r i a t i on r a t he r t ha n l i ne a r c ons t a nc y. T he r e i s a B a kht i ni a n pr i nc i pl e a t w or k or a s T odo r ov s a ys e ve r y ut t e r a nc e i s a l s o r e l a t e d t o pr e vi ous u t t e r a nc e s t hus c r e a t i ng i n t e r t e x t ual ( or di a l ogi c a l ) r e l a t i ons ( 48) W ha t w e f i n d a t w or k a nd t he pot e nt i a l i t y of w hi c h i s br ought t o t he f o r e w i t h ne w m e di a i s t he a bi l i t y t o c ons t a nt l y r e s huf f l e a nd r e o r ga ni z e w r i t i ng due t o t he l ogi c o f hype r l i nki ng: t he y a r e not on l y s upe r l i ne a r a nd s upr a s e gm e nt a l e l e m e nt s i n c ont r a s t t o l i n e a r s e gm e nt a l e l e m e nt s ; t he i r ve r y c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s gi ve t he m t he pow e r t o pl a c e a l l t he e l e m e nt s of l a ngua ge i n a s t a t e of c ont i nuous va r i a t i on ( A T P 103) T he r e i s a n oppor t uni t y t o s e pa r a t e da t a f r om i t s s t r uc t u r e t o c hop t he l i nks o f r e dunda nc y i n t o p i e c e s a nd r e pi e c e t he m t oge t he r W e a r e a ppr oa c hi ng a l a ngua ge m ode l a nd a g r a m m a r w i t h va r i a bl e r ul e s i ns t e a d of obl i ga t or y r ul e s A s D e l e uz e a nd G ua t t a r i s a y, i t i s l i ke a ga m e t ha t ha s not i nva r i a bl e a nd obl i ga t or y r ul e s but o pt i ona l r ul e s t ha t c e a s e l e s s l y va r y w i t h t he va r i a t i on i t s e l f a s i n a ga m e i n w hi c h e a c h m o ve c ha nge s t he r ul e s ( A T P 100 ) B ut t o l i m i t t he r a di c a l i nc l i na t i ons t hus f a r i t i s no t t h e goa l t o r e m ove pr i o r g r a m m a t i c a l s t r uc t ur e s a nd l a ngua ge f unc t i ons i n a s uppos i t i on t ow a r d s pr oc l a i m i ng t he i r i ne f f e c t i ve ne s s N e w m e di a doe s not c onc e r n i t s e l f w i t h r e duc i ng a ny l a ngua ge f unc t i on 4 E s t a b l i s h i n g C o c a C o l a a s a n i m a g e o f i c o n i c s t a t u s f a r o u t w e i g h s t h e t i m e a n d e f f o r t i n v o l v e d i n m a k i n g i t a n e w s i g n

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33 t o de gr e e z e r o; w e a r e i nt e r e s t e d i n s uppl e m e nt i ng a nd a ddi ng on ne w w i ngs t o a n i ns t i t ut i ona l s t r uc t ur e t ha t ha s r e a c he d i t s oc c upa t i ona l l i m i t w i t h c ur r e nt m e t hods T he m e t hod f or a r gui ng w i t h t he e nt hym e m e i s t o e nga ge i n a s oc i a l di s c our s e A r i s t ot l e a l i gne d de duc t i ve e nt hym e m e s w i t h r he t o r i c a l s yl l ogi s m s a nd w r i t i ng w i t h ne w m e di a of f e r s a c ha nc e t o c ont i nue t hi s m e t hod. T o t e a r a p i e c e f r om i t s r e dunda nt r ol e a nd pa s t e i t i nt o a ne w c ont e xt i s t o f or c e t he r e c i pi e nt t o c om pl e t e t he l ogi s t i c a l m ove m e nt s T he e nt hym e m e m a y be us e d i n a c a d e m i a on pa r w i t h t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of a dve r t i s i ng, but w i t h m o r e r e s pons i bi l i t y. N e w m e di a a l l ow s t he c ol l a ge t o be r e s pons i bl e f or w ha t i t e xpos e s I t a l l ow s one t o c r e a t e a hype r l i nk, t o s e pa r a t e t he da t a f r om i t s s t r uc t ur e a nd e xpos e i t s o r i gi ns ; t he i m a ge c a n be hype r l i nke d t o p r e e s t a bl i s he d s our c e s T o c om pos e a ne w m e di a c ol l a ge w oul d be t o ha ve t he o ppor t uni t y t o p r ovi de l i nks t o t he r e dunda nt c ont e xt s t he pi e c e c a m e f r o m F or e xa m pl e a c ol l a ge m a y be m a de us i ng H T M L s t a t e m e nt s e a c h obj e c t t a ke n f r om a n a r c hi ve l i ke G oogl e c om t o c oor di na t e a ne w s upe r l i ne a r s e nt e nc e w i t h a l l t he i nf or m a t i on on t h e s c r e e n a t onc e H ow a l l t he va r y i ng i m a ge s m e di a obj e c t s e t c c o m bi ne t o f o r m a n a r gum e nt r e l i e s on t he r e c i pi e nt t o t ur n t he i nc om pl e t e s yl l ogi s m on t h e s c r e e n i nt o a pe r f e c t s yl l ogi s m i n t he m i nd. W e m a y de m a r c a t e e s s e nt i a l f e a t ur e s of how t he e nt hy m e m e i s us e d i n ne w m e di a : ( 1) t he a ppr oa c h t ow a r ds e nt hym e m a t i c pe r s ua s i ve a r gum e nt s c ont i nue s t he l ogi c i ni t i a t e d by A r i s t ot l e t o w o r k w i t h s oc i a l know l e dge ; ( 2) t he a i m f or ne w m e di a i s t o di s r upt t he s t a nda r d r e pe r t oi r e o f r e dunda nc y c i r c u l a t i ng w i t h c ul t u r a l obj e c t s ; ( 3 ) ne w m e di a pe r f or m s t he s e t a s ks by di s a s s oc i a t i on a nd d e c om pos i ng t he e s t a bl i s he d f i xi t y of or de r w or ds R a t he r t ha n i ns t i t ut i ons l i ke a dve r t i s i ng w he r e t he m a ni pul a t i on r e l i e s on

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34 a s s oc i a t i on, ne w m e di a ha s t he pot e nt i a l t o c ont i nu e t h e va ngua r d a e s t he t i c of di s a s s o c i a t i on by f or c i ng t he i ndi vi dua t e d obj e c t b e a r i t s pa s s w or d c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s a s a m ul t i pl i c i t y. C ol l a ge a nd m ont a ge a r e s l ow p r oc e s s e s t ha t be gi n w i t h t he a c c um ul a t i on of da t a t ha t c a n t a ke e xor bi t a nt a m ount s of t i m e N e w m e di a w i t h i nhe r e nt a l go r i t hm s a nd m odul a r i t y, a r e c a t a l ys t s t o t he s e pr oc e dur e s T he a m ount of m a t e r i a l on t he i nt e r ne t a l l of w hi c h c a r r i e s s oc i a l a nd c ul t ur a l m e a ni ngs a c c e l e r a t e s t he s pe e d a nd e a s e of c om pos i ng a n e nt hym e m a t i c a r gum e nt T he r i c hn e s s of t he pr oc e s s l i e s i n i t s s oc i a l di m e ns i ons T he e nt hym e m e f r om A r i s t ot l e f or w a r ds m a r ks a w a y t o a r gue s oc i a l l y. T he m os t a c ut e m ode l f or t hi s a r gum e nt a t i ve pr a c t i c e i s w i t hi n e nt e r t a i nm e nt a nd pol i t i c a l di s c our s e s W e f i nd i r r e s pons i bl e a r gum e n t s t ha t m a ni pul a t e s oc i a l know l e dge a nd f unne l r e dunda nc y i nt o a ps e udo t r a ns c e nde nt a l r e pe t i t i on t h r ough i m a ge c i r c ul a t i on ( a na t i ona l i s t i c i m a ge ) I m a ge s be c om e i c oni c w hi c h i s t o s a y t ha t t he s oc i a l a nd c ul t ur a l m e a ni ngs a r e i m m e di a t e B y i nt e r s e c t i ng t he a va nt ga r de a nd ne w m e di a w e f i nd a n oppo r t uni t y t o s ubt r a c t f r om r e dunda nc y a nd m a ke t he e nt hy m e m a t i c a r gum e nt c a r r y i t s i m m e ns e pow e r o f pe r s ua s i on. E ve n w i t hout a c ur r e nt pr a gm a t i c c ons e ns u s t ow a r ds a c a de m i c w r i t i ng, t he pe da gogi c a l va l ue c a nn ot be di s m i s s e d; t he e nt hym e m e i s a t hought pr oc e s s of e xpos ur e t ha t a l l ude s t o w a ys of de duc i ng how i m a ge r e pe r t oi r e s f or m a nd be c om e r e dunda nt t o t he poi n t of no r m a l c y.

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35 L I S T O F R E F E R E N C E S B a r t he s R ol a nd. S / Z : A n E s s ay T r a ns R i c ha r d M i l l e r N e w Y or k: H i l l a nd W a ng, 1974. T he Se m i ot i c C hal l e nge T r a ns R i c ha r d H o w a r d. N e w Y or k: H i l l a nd W a ng, 1988. B e r gs on, H e nr i M a t t e r and M e m or y T r a ns N a n c y M a r ga r e t P a ul a nd W S c ot t P a l m e r N e w Y or k: Z one 1991 B r ge r P e t e r T he or y of t he A v ant G ar de T r a ns M i c ha e l S ha w M i nne a pol i s : U o f M i nne s ot a P 1984. D e l e uz e G i l l e s C i ne m a 1 : T he M ov e m e nt I m age T r a ns H ugh T om l i ns on a nd B a r ba r a H a bbe r j a m M i n ne a pol i s : U o f M i nne s ot a P 1986 . C i ne m a 2: T he T i m e I m age T r a ns H ugh T o m l i ns on a nd R obe r t G a l e t a M i n ne a pol i s : U of M i nne s ot a P 1989 . P r ous t & Si gns T r a ns R i c ha r d H ow a r d. M i nne a pol i s : U of M i nne s ot a P 2000. D e l e uz e G i l l e s a nd F l i x G ua t t a r i A T hous and P l at e aus : C api t al i s m and Sc hi z ophr e ni a T r a ns B r i a n M a s s um i M i nne a pol i s : U of M i nne s ot a P 1987. M a c D ona l d, S c ot t A v ant G ar de F i l m : M ot i on St u di e s C a m br i dge : C a m br i dge U P 1993. M a novi c h, L e v. A va nt G a r de a s S o f t w a r e L e v M anov i c h: C ul t ur al Sof t w ar e 27 F e br ua r y 2005 < ht t p: / / w w w m a novi c h. ne t / doc s / a va nt ga r d e _a s _s of t w a r e doc > . T he L anguage of N e w M e di a C a m br i dge : M I T P r e s s 2001. N e w M e di a f r om B or ge s t o H T M L T he N e w M e di a R e ade r E d N oa h W a r dr i p F r ui n a nd N i c k M ont f or t C a m br i dge : M I T P r e s s 2002. 13 25. M i nk, J a ni s M ar c e l D uc ham p : A r t as A nt i A r t K l n: T a s c he n, 2000 N a nc y, J e a n L uc T he D e l e uz i a n F o l d of T hough t D e l e uz e : A C r i t i c al R e ade r E d. P a ul P a t t on. C a m br i dge : B l a c kw e l l 1996 107 11 3. O l s on, C ha r l e s P r oj e c t i ve V e r s e T ow ar d t he O pe n F i e l d: P oe t s on t he A r t of P oe t r y 1800 1950 M i ddl e t ow n: W e s l e ya n U P 2004. 34 4 354.

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36 P e i r c e C ha r l e s S a nde r s L ogi c a s S e m i ot i c Se m i ot i c s : A n I nt r oduc t or y A nt hol ogy E d. R obe r t E I nni s B l oom i ngt on: I ndi a na U P 19 84. 4 23. S e i t z W i l l i a m C T he A r t of A s s e m bl age N e w Y or k: M us e um of M ode r n A r t 1961. T odor ov, T z ve t a n. M i k hai l B ak ht i n: T he D i al ogi c al P r i nc i pl e T r a ns W l a d G odz i c h. M i nne a pol i s : U of M i nne s ot a P 1984. U l m e r G r e gor y L T he O bj e c t of P os t C r i t i c i s m T he A nt i A e s t he t i c : E s s ay s on P os t m ode r n C ul t ur e E d H a l F os t e r P o r t T ow ns e nd: B a y P r e s s 1983. 83 110. W a l dm a n, D i a ne C ol l age A s s e m bl age and t he F ound O bj e c t N e w Y or k: H a r r y N A br a m s 1992.

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37 B I O G R A P H I C A L S K E T C H P a t r i c k M c H e nr y r e c e i ve d hi s B a c he l or o f A r t s de gr e e i n E ngl i s h f r om t he U ni ve r s i t y of C e nt r a l F l or i da i n 2002 A f t e r c om p l e t i ng hi s unde r gr a dua t e hono r s t he s i s on W a l t W hi t m a n, he t he n a c c e pt e d a n a s s i s t a nt s hi p pos i t i on a t t he U ni ve r s i t y o f F l o r i da i n 2003 M r M c H e nr y w i l l gr a dua t e i n M a y 200 5 w i t h a M a s t e r of A r t s i n E ngl i s h c on c e nt r a t i ng i n T he or y S t udi e s a nd pos s i bl y c ont i nue hi s P h. D w or k a t a l a t e r da t e i n a n unde t e r m i ne d l oc a l e H i s a c a de m i c i nt e r e s t s i nc l u de C r i t i c a l T he o r y, N e w M e di a a nd V i s ua l S t udi e s


Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0010505/00001

Material Information

Title: Vanguard assemblages : new media and the enthymeme
Physical Description: vi, 37 p.
Language: English
Creator: McHenry, Patrick John ( Dissertant )
Ulmer, Gregory L. ( Thesis advisor )
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2005
Copyright Date: 2005

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: English thesis, M.A   ( local )
Dissertations, Academic -- UF -- English   ( local )

Notes

Abstract: This project theorizes how the Discipline may continue intensifying argumentative structures initiated by Aristotle to persuade a social body. In particular, visual writing methods demonstrate ways to argue with the enthymeme rather than scientific or analytical syllogisms. Beginning with the avant-garde of the 1920s Left, methods and procedural sets arise that equip society to perceive and interact with the world in new ways continuing into the twenty-first century. How the artistic techniques of collage and montage transform into the cultural metaphors for new media becomes a crucial movement. Lev Manovich theorizes this movement and ensures that vanguard aesthetics continue their intensification in relation to new media by being projected in the foreground of human-computer interface. Tracing operations like 'cut and paste' from the historical avant-garde, neo-avant-garde, and finally to the 'meta-avant-garde' allows speculations to arise concerning the method and logic of images in relation to normative language models and their argumentative counterparts. Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari's A Thousand Plateaus provides a language model that assists explicating a working theory of what entails the act of authoring with digital tools equipped with a 'cut and paste' function. How an avant-garde assemblage and Deleuze and Guattari's assemblage interchange demonstrate a way to enhance the use of enthymematic argumentation in the humanities. New media continues to modify the rhetoric and logic of collage and montage but also simultaneously marks a change in apparatus. These changes effectuate a new engagement with the enthymeme that maintains a potential for a more responsible persuasive social argument than currently found in entertainment and political discourses.
General Note: Title from title page of source document.
General Note: Document formatted into pages; contains 43 pages.
General Note: Includes vita.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.)--University of Florida, 2005.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0010505:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0010505/00001

Material Information

Title: Vanguard assemblages : new media and the enthymeme
Physical Description: vi, 37 p.
Language: English
Creator: McHenry, Patrick John ( Dissertant )
Ulmer, Gregory L. ( Thesis advisor )
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2005
Copyright Date: 2005

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: English thesis, M.A   ( local )
Dissertations, Academic -- UF -- English   ( local )

Notes

Abstract: This project theorizes how the Discipline may continue intensifying argumentative structures initiated by Aristotle to persuade a social body. In particular, visual writing methods demonstrate ways to argue with the enthymeme rather than scientific or analytical syllogisms. Beginning with the avant-garde of the 1920s Left, methods and procedural sets arise that equip society to perceive and interact with the world in new ways continuing into the twenty-first century. How the artistic techniques of collage and montage transform into the cultural metaphors for new media becomes a crucial movement. Lev Manovich theorizes this movement and ensures that vanguard aesthetics continue their intensification in relation to new media by being projected in the foreground of human-computer interface. Tracing operations like 'cut and paste' from the historical avant-garde, neo-avant-garde, and finally to the 'meta-avant-garde' allows speculations to arise concerning the method and logic of images in relation to normative language models and their argumentative counterparts. Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari's A Thousand Plateaus provides a language model that assists explicating a working theory of what entails the act of authoring with digital tools equipped with a 'cut and paste' function. How an avant-garde assemblage and Deleuze and Guattari's assemblage interchange demonstrate a way to enhance the use of enthymematic argumentation in the humanities. New media continues to modify the rhetoric and logic of collage and montage but also simultaneously marks a change in apparatus. These changes effectuate a new engagement with the enthymeme that maintains a potential for a more responsible persuasive social argument than currently found in entertainment and political discourses.
General Note: Title from title page of source document.
General Note: Document formatted into pages; contains 43 pages.
General Note: Includes vita.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.)--University of Florida, 2005.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0010505:00001


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VANGUARD ASSEMBLAGES: NEW MEDIA AND THE ENTHYMEME


By

PATRICK JOHN MCHENRY



















A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2005



























Copyright 2005

by

Patrick John McHenry















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I thank Dr. Gregory Ulmer for being steadfast in supporting my attraction to

cornucopias. An immense amount of patience was required on his part to allow the time

for this thesis to take shape. His continued passion for the humanities and arts is

recognized with complete admiration. I also thank Dr. Terry Harpold for his insights,

time, acute knowledge and interest in this project. I thank my mother and father for their

love and support.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ..............................................................................................iii

A B S T R A C T ...................................................................... ................................... . v

CHAPTER

1 S C E N O G R A P H Y .................................................................................................... 1

2 COLLAGE AND MONTAGE AESTHETIC ....................................................... 8

3 AESTHETIC TO MATERIALIZATION........................................................... 13

4 EN TH YM EM E A S M ETH OD ...................................... ........ ............................ 22

L IST O F R E FE R E N C E S.................................................................................. 35

BIO GRA PH ICAL SK ETCH ... ................................................................. .............. 37















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Master of Arts

VANGUARD ASSEMBLAGES: NEW MEDIA AND THE ENTHYMEME

By

Patrick John McHenry

May 2005

Chair: Gregory L. Ulmer
Major Department: English

This project theorizes how the Discipline may continue intensifying argumentative

structures initiated by Aristotle to persuade a social body. In particular, visual writing

methods demonstrate ways to argue with the enthymeme rather than scientific or

analytical syllogisms. Beginning with the avant-garde of the 1920s Left, methods and

procedural sets arise that equip society to perceive and interact with the world in new

ways continuing into the twenty-first century. How the artistic techniques of collage and

montage transform into the cultural metaphors for new media becomes a crucial

movement. Lev Manovich theorizes this movement and ensures that vanguard aesthetics

continue their intensification in relation to new media by being projected in the

foreground of human-computer interface.

Tracing operations like "cut and paste" from the historical avant-garde, neo-avant-

garde, and finally to the "meta-avant-garde" allows speculations to arise concerning the

method and logic of images in relation to normative language models and their

argumentative counterparts. Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari's A Thousand Plateaus









provides a language model that assists explicating a working theory of what entails the

act of authoring with digital tools equipped with a "cut and paste" function. How an

avant-garde assemblage and Deleuze and Guattari's assemblage interchange demonstrate

a way to enhance the use of enthymematic argumentation in the humanities. New media

continues to modify the rhetoric and logic of collage and montage but also

simultaneously marks a change in apparatus. These changes effectuate a new

engagement with the enthymeme that maintains a potential for a more responsible

persuasive social argument than currently found in entertainment and political discourses.














CHAPTER 1
SCENOGRAPHY

In 1950 Charles Olson published "Projective Verse," a year before he became the

director of Black Mountain College, working with experimental artists like John Cage,

Robert Rauschenberg, Merce Cunningham, and Franz Kline. It marked a significant

event in terms of composition: Olson turned towards restructuring the act of composing

itself-projective, projectile, percussive, prospective verse-by calling for an open field

of composition.

Olson argues that a poem "at all points, be a high energy-construct and, at all

points, an energy-discharge" (345). Olson calls for kinetic composition that "brings us

up, bang, against tenses, in fact against syntax, in fact against grammar generally, that is,

as we have inherited it" (349). In a movement that I now read in postmodern terms

(point, line, field), Olson decrees that "the law of the line, which projective verse creates,

must be hewn to, obeyed, and that the conventions which logic has forced on syntax must

be broken open as quietly as must the too set feet of the old line" (350).

Technology, however small the significance might appear in the essay, provides a

foreshadowing of my interests here:

It is the advantage of the typewriter that, due to its rigidity and its space precisions,
it can, for a poet, indicate exactly the breath, the pauses, the suspensions even of
syllables, the juxtapositions even of parts of phrases, which he intends. For the first
time the poet has the stave and the bar a musician has had. (351)

Olson and other Black Mountain poets and artists began to think of composing being

active and alive (happenings) instead of reflective and representational-composing that









does not seek description, but promotes enacting. Olson notes a change in apparatus; the

tools for composing changed, and in accordance, he sought ways to work with new tools.

Within the Discipline, the computer marks a much more complex changing in

tools than the typewriter. Like Olson, we do not have any definitive methodologies for

writing with digital tools. New media is without a consensus in terms of applicability.

The interest here is in developing a theory of working with digital tools, mainly with

computers with a "cut and paste" function embedded into their frameworks. Presently,

these machines are found in classrooms and the offices of members of the Discipline

among other media tools and objects like books, videocassettes, DVDs, monitors,

projectors, televisions, etc. Even here though we may demarcate what is distinctive about

the computer: all the previous types of media collapse together within a computer.

To discuss these matters, I will theorize about the potentialities that stem from

successive avant-garde movements. At this level certain logics, techniques, and poetics

arise that equip society and culture to last into the end of the century. The vanguard

aesthetic of collage and montage, which will be extracted from Peter Btrger's Theory of

the Avant-Garde, becomes media theorist Lev Manovich's foundational metaphor and

rationale for new media. Following a tool like "cut and paste" as it moves through

successive avant-garde movements, including the present potential with new media and

human-computer interface, a progressive logic is formed that supplements normative

approaches to academic writing.

The goal is to establish that specialized and quotidian writing methods are

possible with the several logics new media offers: enthymematic decomposition,

inference, indirection, and variation. Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari's theories









regarding language and writing will be deployed for defining the operating practices,

rhetoric, and logic of a person using a digital tool with a "cut and paste" function. In

particular, avant-garde terminology like "assemblage" becomes compounded and

complicated when juxtaposed with Deleuze and Guattari's "assemblage." Deleuze and

Guattari provide an existing theory of language that operates with Bakhtin's dialogical

principle, which is to say that we already have a theory of language that is enthymematic.

In this way, certain terms may be dramatized, interlaced, and projected. Jean-Luc Nancy

echoes an important principle regarding a Deleuzian approach:

Deleuze's interest in the cinema is not just appended to his work: it is at the centre,
in the projective principle of this thought. It is a cinema-thought, in the sense of
having its own order and screen, a singular plane of presentation and construction,
of displacements and dramatization of concepts (the word 'concept' means this for
Deleuze-making cinematic). (110)

As with Olsen, Deleuze and Guattari, my attempt is to find in what ways composing

shifts with the open field of new media-how to make the vanguard aesthetic projective

in contemporary academic composition.

All of these questions and postulates must be kept within the frame of academic

writing; we want to improve on prior methods for composing an argument. We need a

modified rhetoric, logic, and poetics that parallels shifts in tools and technologies.

Cinema and advertising, the entire breadth of entertainment discourse, writes with the

tools and demonstrates their effectiveness. From Eisenstein forward, the cinema

becomes a methodology-it possibly has its own language. Advertising systematizes our

understanding of images and their inherent arguments through artistic techniques turned

into technical methods. Multiple methods for arguing continue to surface and their

common structures remain identical for centuries.









Since Aristotle's codification of argumentation in Rhetoric, Topics, and Prior

Analytics, we find all the essential elements of argument: form, content, induction,

deduction, enthymeme, example, and syllogism. My interest is not in scientific

syllogisms used for analysis, but rhetorical syllogisms used for persuasion. This is our

common thread in the Discipline: how to effectively persuade interlocutors of our

positions. It is not a matter of describing our data with accuracy, but it is also not the

case to disband accuracy in entirety either; unlike the sciences, the Humanities must

persuasively present the utility and worth of research.

I would like to combine Roland Barthes' reading of the enthymeme within S/Z

and The Semiotic Challenge to exemplify the enthymeme's use and then extrapolate it as

a device. Barthes S/Z ordinates how the enthymeme functions in a literary text, Balzac's

Sarrasine, by showing how the enthymeme is an incomplete, deductive, or probable

syllogism: "La Zambinella is frightened by a popping cork, thus La Zambinella is timid"

(S/Z 148). What Barthes highlights is the movement between the two propositions: how

does one deduce the missing major premise through association?

As for the major premise, it derives from the narcissistic zone (woman is adorable),
the psychological zone (woman is timid), the aesthetic zone (woman is beautiful);
what establishes this major premise is, in conformity with the definition of
enthymeme, not a scientific truth, but "common knowledge," an endoxa. Thus the
snares Sarrasine sets for himself are based on the most social discourse. (S/Z 148)

The enthymeme is the rhetorical syllogism of public knowledge par excellence as it

operates with endoxal knowledge-existing public knowledge that circulates freely

through various zones and social registers.

Within The Semiotic Challenge, Barthes spends more time on the enthymeme by

tracing its use through Aristotelian and Quintilian formations. For Aristotle and his

followers, the enthymeme is a syllogism of probability, not based on the "true and









immediate," which is to say that it moves "from the probable, i.e., starting from what the

public thinks" (SC 57). In opposition to scientific abstract reasoning for analysis, the

enthymeme is public reasoning, capable of being deployed by anyone. The enthymeme's

origination in the social sphere and correspondence to probability and presentation

"affords persuasion, not demonstration; for Aristotle, the enthymeme is sufficiently

defined by the probable character of its premises" (SC 58). The example from S/Z

demonstrates an adherence to probability of social knowledge; to solve the interval

between the two propositions, an outside social knowledge (endoxa) must be called upon

to discover the major premise.

The enthymeme carries a pedagogical residue towards what Barthes terms the

"journey" of the syllogism: "the enthymeme is not a syllogism truncated by defect or

corruption, but because the listener must be granted the pleasure of contributing to the

construction of the argument; it is something like completing a given pattern or grid" (SC

60). Rather than dealing with the pleasure of following a direct argument, Barthes

locates a pleasure in incomplete reasoning that values a "surplus of thought over

language" (SC 60). Barthes' terminology hints at notions of interactivity, addition, and

process. The enthymeme's journey is a to and fro motion, always a movement forward

by juxtaposing propositions or utterances, and then a backward motion of surplus that

completes the interval after all of the data is provided. We confront a modified grammar

that leaps between points exceeding linear expectations. For instance, the logic permits

subtraction of the verb or the suppression of the subject. Conclusions suspend all

security towards completion by relying on probability and interaction.









The enthymeme, however, is open to corruption in terms of manipulation;

advertising is the most acute model. The inference of the excised premise creates an

interval of interpretation, which may be mutated, like Barthes' example of La

Zambinella. As the enthymeme relies on public knowledge, it affords the opportunity to

exploit the stereotypes of the social discourse and thereby continue the redundancy.

What we are seeking is a method of engaging the enthymeme in an academic discourse

where the excised premise is also simultaneously given on the surface. How do we use

the logic of the enthymeme with new media to establish a writing method that

simultaneously deploys the logic of the enthymeme-withholding of information and

inducing the respondent to create a surplus of knowledge-but that also exposes the

excised premise on the surface for its artificiality? Perhaps we may pose this question in

terms of a collage: when composing a collage, we have all the "pieces" available for

viewing-the pieces are themselves images (not essentially pictographic)-which causes

an interval of interpretation to occur by completing the pattern and grid. In short, we are

seeking a theory of the enthymeme that works in conjunction with the methods of collage

and montage; the collage simultaneously exposes and withholds, like an ideogram

presenting an image without description. The idea moves from how to describe the

information to how to present the information. A shift in rhetorical strategies is required

as the emphasis switches from how to persuade directly to an indirect method.

If we winnow out the search further, figuring a methodology for incorporating the

techniques of collage and montage stem from arguments decades old. Gregory L.

Ulmer's 1983 essay "The Object of Post-Criticism" poses a similar question, with the

underpinning of Barthes, by asking our essential question:









Will the collage/montage revolution in representation be admitted into the
academic essay, into the discourse of knowledge, replacing the "realist" criticism
based on the notions of "truth" as correspondence to or correct reproduction of a
referent object of study? (86)

After two decades, the Discipline is yet to make up its mind. We may situate our thought

temporally; like Barthes, Ulmer's question seems radical at the time due to the current

apparatus present in the Discipline, mainly literate tools (Olson's typewriter and now a

word processor). Over twenty years later, the question seems as if it must be addressed

since our entire apparatus is undergoing sweeping changes with the introduction of

computers; we are now operating with Ulmer's neologism "electracy." The question is

no longer a radical question, but a mandatory one.















CHAPTER 2
COLLAGE AND MONTAGE AESTHETIC

The media theorist who develops collage and montage as the foundations of

computing is Lev Manovich. Before becoming entrenched in how Manovich aligns the

avant-garde aesthetic and new media, we need to explicate the foundations of collage and

montage with the avant-garde. Peter Burger's Theory of the Avant-garde pays particular

attention to the idea that as montage and photomontage develop, cubism parallels but

translates the technical device into an artistic device with collage:

A theory of the avant-garde must begin with the concept of montage that is
suggested by the early cubist collages. What distinguishes them from the
techniques of composition developed since the Renaissance is the insertion of
reality fragments into the painting, i.e., the insertion of material that has been left
unchanged by the artist. (Burger 77)1

If we follow Burger's example of a hermeneutic circle, organic composition is

constructed in accordance with the syntagmatic pattern where the parts and whole

achieve a dialectical unity. In this classic writing mode, the part and whole may only be

understood through one another. In inorganic composition, "The parts 'emancipate'

themselves from a superordinate whole; they are no longer its essential elements" (Burger

80). Turning to Breton's automatic texts as an example, the circular flow is interrupted

as there need not be a completed proposition. "In an automatic text that strings images

together, some could be missing, yet the text would not be significantly affected... What


1 Burger does not include avant-garde film. Similar approaches may be located in neo-avant-garde
filmmakers such as Stan Brakhage and Bruce Conner. Brakhage's Mothlight includes the "cut and paste"
function by taping pieces of moths directly to the film and Conner's A Movie becomes a database of prior
film images organized in an inorganic sequence.









is decisive are not the events in their distinctiveness but the construction principle that

underlies the sequence of events" (Burger 80). A new principle logic is formed with

dyadic consequences; the process of constructing outweighs the final product-a

disruption in means-ends rationality-and thought moves to a modality of inference by

causing a leap between incongruent pieces.

The avant-garde force collage into extension and modifies its simplistic attributes.

The logic of collage provides a general attitude towards the language function of the

piece. To speculate beyond Bfirger, collage establishes its own logic of homonymy by

incessantly creating puns. To tear the piece and insert it into a new context is to

simultaneously establish a pun. When Robert Rauschenberg includes a photograph of

John F. Kennedy into a Combine, it should be noted that the image exists in both

contexts; the image becomes stratified and layered, which causes several signifieds to be

triggered simultaneously. Tearing the piece, even if the avant-gardist attempts to "kill"

the material, is not an act of simple transposition or translation; residues and traces of

prior meanings may not be eclipsed. This movement of carrying meanings into various

contexts, or to move the piece from situation to situation, creates the enigma that

inference is called on to solve. This act is not the creation of additional meanings, like

adding further associations, but displaces the supposedly fixed meaning the piece is in

initially-a thought process of decomposition, disassociation, or diffusion. To compose

is to decompose, to effectuate a multiplicity.

The avant-garde becomes marked by a tendency towards decomposition rather

than composition. Image and representation become disrupted with the invention of

photography and the incorporation of photographs into the work of art. When Kasimir









Malevich places a photograph of the Mona Lisa into his collage Composition 1 ilh Mona,

there is an immediate disruption in how imaging functions within the visual arts. As

Burger says, "because the advent of photography makes possible the precise mechanical

reproduction of reality, the mimetic function of the fine arts withers" (32). The avant-

garde does not divorce the developing technological condition from artistic production,

but rather mimes its intrusion into art; technology turns from being an independent

variable to a dependent variable. Like Malevich's title, the avant-garde works il ilh

media.

Montage and collage cause an interval to form in interpretation, to leap between

social contexts. There is something outside the given, something that must be inferred.

We may say that organic composition relies on a certain kind of syllogistic logic, like

categorical and conditional syllogisms; composition and reception are linear and direct.

But with inorganic composition, we confront a leap in thought as fragments are strewn

together. If we remain within syllogistic logic, we may say that the avant-garde moves to

a truncated or incomplete syllogism, or the enthymeme (superlinear and indirect). For

Burger, the avant-garde work remains incomplete: "one can see that although they allow

one to discover a principle construction, they do not show a synthesis, in the sense of a

unity of meaning" (Burger 79). For example, Duchamp's Why Not Sneeze Rose Selavy?

assembles marble cubes, a thermometer, and a cuttlebone inside an old rectangular

birdcage. While not a montage or photomontage, the assembling of disparate Ready-

Mades simultaneously abides by a montage-logic: "weight (heavy marble), promised

sweetness (fake sugar cubes), missing warmth (thermometer), poetry (birdsong), arrested

flight (cuttlebone and birdcage) and art (Cubism, and also the use of marble)" accentuates









the flippant title of the work; "why not do something like sneezing, that cathartic reaction

that grows from a tickle to a climatic explosion leaving only traces behind" (Duchamp 7-

8)? More succinctly, classicist composition abides by continuity while avant-garde

composition abides by contiguity. Duchamp relies on endoxal knowledge to carry out his

argument against art as an essentialized concept by establishing a new congruency with

supposedly incongruent found objects.

Operating by decomposition and disassociation, developing a concept of the

inorganic work of art is a central task of the avant-garde (Burger 68). The avant-garde

work of art hinges on the idea of an interval as in allegory, "because it permits one to

separate those aspects that relate to production and to aesthetic effect at the analytical

level and yet to conceive of them as a unity" (70). The work considers itself in terms of

artificiality. If artificial material is incorporated into the work, "it is just that, material."

For the avant-garde, the "activity initially consists in nothing other than in killing the

'life' of the material, that is, in tearing it out of its functional context that gives it

meaning" (Burger 70). There is a general understanding of how the materials portray

different meanings: Picasso and Braque use any materials to renovate art, the Russian

avant-garde sought mass-produced materials to reflect the new political order, and the

Dadaists exercise photomontage as a means of protest. Every object always already has a

circulating meaning that may be transferred into other contexts-no object is virginal.

Burger references Walter Benjamin's theory of allegory in relation to collage. The

extraction of this concept assists Burger's notion of collage as a break in meanings, an

interruption in anticipated intervals, and a cessation of organic forms. If we begin to

think of the organic (classicist) composition and inorganic (avant-garde) composition in









terms of writing methods, we may posit that the inorganic "style" relies on reconnecting

fragments into either an incomplete composition or an overloaded composition where the

meanings overlap one another and exceed any organicism.2 Material for the avant-garde

exists as an "empty sign, to which only they can impart significance" by tearing it out of

a totality and turning it into a fragment (70).3 Burger's language is problematic if read as

a strategy to nullify meaning instead of as a way to nullify notions of fixed meanings.

Meaning is an artificial socially and culturally inscribed function. The sign becomes

more like a modular unit with the ability to be removed from one location only to be

included in another.

Buirger's theories regarding the avant-garde highlight how we approach new media.

The enthymematic logic alters how we normatively approach Aristotelian logic. When

the piece is removed from one context and placed in another, the enthymeme arises from

our common endoxal knowledge to re-situate the meanings together. This method of

juxtaposition becomes like Barthes' example in Sarrasine of a popping cork and a timid

woman. How we deduce the meaning behind the juxtaposition depends on a level of

common social knowledge. Now we must consider how collage and montage function

with enthymematic logic in new media.











2 For example, a collage with too many eyes for one face or too many organs for one organic body.

3 This type of empty sign escapes semiotics and hermeneutic circles; the sign becomes more like a
poststructuralist unit instead of being bound up as a signifier/signified.














CHAPTER 3
AESTHETIC TO MATERIALIZATION

Manovich assists in addressing how we move from a vanguard aesthetics to new

media, or rather, how we recognize vanguard techniques in new media. His article

"Avant-Garde as Software" allows initial formulations regarding how vanguard

aesthetics became the foundations of new media:

The techniques introduced by modernist avant-garde turn out to be sufficiently
effective to last for the rest of the century. Mass visual culture only pushes further
what was already invented, "intensifying" particular techniques and mixing them
together in new combinations. ("AGS" 1)

This initial difference between the avant-garde and what Manovich terms in relation to

new media, the "new media avant-garde," hinges on the idea of inventing new methods

of accessing information; the historical and neo-avant-garde established multifarious

techniques suitable to last through the end of the twentieth century and the beginning of

the twenty-first century. To modify and collapse some of Manovich's terms together,

and to avoid terms like "new-neo," I will refer to the avant-garde in relation to new media

as "meta-avant-garde." 1

The same techniques developed by the avant-garde Left at the beginning of the

twentieth century-montage, collage, photomontage, "cut and paste," etc.-do not alter

at a foundational level; instead, their uses intensify in degree: "In short, as far as the

cultural languages are concerned, new media is still old media" ("AGS" 2). Accordingly,



1 I am modifying "new media avant-garde" and the media type they utilize, "meta-media," using "meta-
design."









if we view the avant-garde as a movement that made composing a polyblend of available

styles, then these styles and techniques are also intensified so as to allow for more

combinations. To compose a collage, montage, or assemblage using avant-garde

methods of "cut and paste" changes radically with human-computer interface (HCI)2.

What Manovich assists in relaying with precision is that the avant-garde rationale is

carried into new media by integrating a vast amount of varying writing methods into one

machine; we may now compose with all artistic dimensions at once, from the

Renaissance to the cinema. It is not that the avant-garde intended to invent the

foundations of new media, but rather the logic and techniques created by them become

the most equipped devices and tools to create an unintentional rhetoric for new media.

As Manovich highlights with his cinematic analogy in The Language of New Media,

Dziga Vertov's Man / ith a Movie Camera functioned as a significant signpost for future

writing systems, from the socially embedded kino-eye to a visualization of not only the

foreground of the cinematic process (raw materials, filming-in-process, reception, etc.),

but the background (how film anticipates the database with editing and compositing).

Manovich relays directly that what had been the foreground in technical

procedures and information processing-the vanguard aesthetic-now becomes meshed

with the background of computing on a single surface: "The techniques invented by the

1920s Left artists became embedded in the commands and interface metaphors of

computer software. In short, the avant-garde vision became materialized in a computer"

("AGS" 3). The avant-garde's foreground becomes the background of computing. In


2 The term "human-computer interface" is being dealt with generally without negating the obvious
difference between "graphical-user interface" that highlights the integration of the "cutting" and "pasting"
of images into one surface (since the introduction of the MacOS in 1984).









terms of institutional practices, this acts as a metaphor for writing conventions; the avant-

garde has become the background, their artistic devices turn into technical achievements,

and "cut and paste" becomes a normative function for programs like MS Word. We are

not seeking methods to improve writing in terms of efficiency, but how an efficient

machine permits complex writing.

We are dealing with an inverse relationship that Manovich will assist in

addressing and aid in theorizing how to bring the vanguard aesthetic to the surface, how

to intensify and translate Btirger's vanguard aesthetics in terms of new media, and how to

allow both the vanguard techniques and rationale to be naturalized in writing. For

example, "the avant-garde strategy of collage reemerged as a 'cut and paste' command,

the most basic operation one can perform on any computer data," but it is problematic to

reduce "cut and paste" to a basic command for composing a classicist's work. The tools

inherent to HCI inaugurate new ways to access and organize any information that

includes a change in apparatus and social methodologies. In short, I wish to explicate

Manovich's arguments that the avant-garde's techniques are materialized in HCI and

does not embed the vanguard aesthetic into the background; HCI promotes a radical

potential to maintain vanguard aesthetics as a writing methodology and procedural set in

the foreground of institutional and academic writing-how to continue the intensification

inherent to the avant-garde. If the avant-garde establish the basic commands for

computing, then they also continue to command our attention to realize that inventive

writing methods may continue to flourish.

The current task, as Manovich says, "is to create an efficient structure and tools

for working with arbitrary information, information which is always changing and always









grows" ("AGS" 6). The avant-garde task of tearing the piece from its context and

thereby denouncing the unity of the particular and universal is advanced through the logic

of hyperlinking:

Hyperlinking separates data from its structure. This makes creation and distribution
of messages extremely efficient: the same data can be endlessly assembled in new
structures; parts of a single document can exist in physically distinct locations (i.e.,
a document has a distributed representation). ("AGS" 4)

Hyperlinking, as a logic, allows simultaneously disparate manifestations of data

establishing a continuous assemblage of decomposition. The instinctive logic behind

hyperlinking permits not only variation but also permits varying reception and recycling.

One HTML statement, image, java script, media object, etc. may be accessed-its source

viewed and copied-without a terminal stopping point, a writing procedure of continuous

variation. Hyperlinking accentuates the vanguard interval with a web of intervals; pieces

simultaneously transform and relocate.

We now have a single plane that obfuscates any centralization. HCI

simultaneously establishes window frames with multiple "pages" and "windows."

Classic writing tools like the "page" maintain their original function, but also add new

functions; the page as a discursive spacing allows for multiple windows and various

objects to be dealt with on a single surface-a solidifying of background and foreground.

Manovich associates these attributes with montage: "In window interface, the two

opposites-temporal montage and montage within the shot-finally come together"

("AGS" 5). The progression of the avant-garde into the meta-avant-garde creates this

potential of simultaneity; the combining of both montage effects on a single surface

exceeds prior methods and creates new writing potentials; prior avant-garde techniques

overlay and overlap in ways impossible before HCI.









The notion of "new" itself, however, must be placed in suspension. One of

Manovich's most intriguing arguments comes across in a postmodern context. The meta-

avant-gardist is similar to previous avant-gardists by not being concerned with "new" in a

sense of "original":

The new avant-garde is no longer concerned with seeing or representing the world
in new ways but rather with accessing and using in new ways previously
accumulated media. In this respect new media is post-media or meta-media, as it
uses old media as its primary material. ("AGS" 10)

The new in this sense acts as a trope for re-accessing and re-developing old media; this is

the method for how the avant-garde became embedded in computing. Man Ray's

assemblages and Bruce Conner's wax sculptures3-created to be destroyed so as to allow

a new object to take its place-do not need to destroy their objects; the logic of

hypermedia solicits a constant reshuffling of information and points of entry into varying

data. The meta-avant-garde writing procedures resemble Duchamp's film Anemic

cinema: endless revolutions of textual rhythms and images circling in successive

punning-only the meta-avant-garde is without a terminal stopping point.

If we stay with Duchamp as an example, his notion of found objects and Ready-

Mades receive increased significance in new media:

In computer culture a media object is typically assembled from ready-made
elements such as icons, textures, video clips, 3-D models, complete animation
sequences, ready-to-use virtual characters, chunks of Javascript code, Director
Lingo scripts, etc. ("AGS" 4)

Like a classicist composition process-referencing grammar books, handbooks, prior

argumentative structures-a meta-avant-garde composition has similar reference points

through help files, instruction manuals, etc. New media may be composed accurately


3 Manovich mentions similarly that "artists such as Bruce Connor, Robert Rauschenberg, and James
Rosenquist similarly give up the idea of creating totally 'new' images" ("AGS" 10).









with incomplete comprehension, like a Ready-Made composition that does not require

prior artistic skills; java scripts, images, text documents, HTML code, may be "cut and

pasted" into various applications due to all media being modular.

Manovich credits the 1920s Left avant-garde for creating the forms to represent

and see the world in new ways, but also highlights that meta-avant-gardists are concerned

with new ways to rework the codified forms and manipulate information with the

techniques of "hypermedia, databases, search engines, data mining, image processing,

visualization, simulation" ("AGS" 10). Meta-avant-garde techniques are "media access,

generation, manipulation and analysis. Forms remain the same, but how these forms can

be used changes radically" ("AGS" 11). For formulations on how the techniques become

embedded into software, another of Manovich's articles is of use.

"New Media from Borges to HTML" is straightforward in approaching who the

meta-avant-gardists are and what "works" they create. Manovich locates various

computer scientists, engineers, and software developers as the greatest artists of the

twentieth century (from J.C.R. Licklider to Tim Berners-Lee). The current great avant-

garde works are Adobe Photoshop and Final Cut Pro:

The greatest avant-garde film is software such as Final Cut Pro or After Effects
which contains the possibilities of combining together thousands of separate tracks
into a single movie, as well as setting various relationships between all these
different tracks-and it thus it develops the avant-garde idea of a film as an abstract
visual score to its logical end, and beyond. ("NM" 15)

My interest in this statement is what leads Manovich to such a claim. No longer are we

concerned with the creation of artworks or manifestos, now the focus turns to

development, application, and execution. We find in these thinkers and computicians a

full and complex understanding of prior avant-garde methods as techniques.









The logic of new media and that of the art world clash. Manovich highlights a

significant break in terms of how writing is produced and presented. New media

installations and net.art projects undercut normative avenues of distribution; art assumes

proper channels of distribution, a correct order and authorial control over a one-of-a-kind

work of art, and viewed in proper locations like galleries, museums, and auctions ("NM"

14). New media "privileges the existence of potentially numerous copies; infinitely

many different states of the same work; author-user symbiosis (the user can change the

work through interactivity); the collective; collaborative authorship; and network

distribution (which bypasses the art system distribution channels)" ("NM" 14). To

correlate this statement with the present status of academic publishing, composing and

publishing with new media acts with subversive potential; distribution changes radically

along with publishing, but perhaps more importantly, how one composes a piece to be

published.

If we begin rethinking at this base level, not only are methods of distribution and

composition shifting, but also how writing interacts with the world. The logic of new

media presents a significant cultural shift in methods and techniques of representation.

Like previous avant-garde movements, we level traditions and engage several cultural

practices simultaneously (working with the radically disparate)-alphabetic, phonologic,

pictographic, cinematic, hieroglyphic, rebus writing, etc. The metaphor of HCI is only

beginning to be translated into cultural logic. The logic of montage, collage, and

enthymematic inference becomes naturalized in image-orientated graphical user

interfaces. Notions of fixity and concreteness in regards to information and distribution









are being unmoored; the personal and social machines act as ongoing assemblages, open-

ended and in perpetual interchange.

Manovich relays how these cultural changes occurred. He demonstrates that the

late twentieth century went through radical changes like that of the avant-garde at the

beginning of the century:

In the last few decades of the twentieth century, modern computing and network
technology materialized certain key projects of modern art developed
approximately at the same time. In the process of this materialization, the
technologies overtook art... As a result these technologies have become the greatest
art works of today. ("NM" 15)

These postulations assist in formulating a trajectory in terms of composing; it is not the

artistic dimension of the avant-garde that changes our interaction with writing (although,

indeed, these are not laid to waste either), but rather it is the logic and techniques that

have become the most pervasive and instructional.

The difference between prior avant-garde movements and the meta-avant-garde

is, Manovich says, an issue of centralization: "Of course some artists already began to

react to the emerging media environment by making collages and photo-montages

consisting of newspaper clippings, existing photographs, pieces of posters, and so on; yet

these practices of manipulating existing media were not yet central." ("NM" 22). These

techniques become materialized in computing, embedded by meta-avant-gardists. The

social dimension of these techniques is currently defining operating procedures for

individual and collective knowledge production, communication, and expression. As

Duchamp's Ready-Mades prescribe, I am interested in how to infuse these operations

into composing within the institution; how to write collaboratively, collectively, with

images and found cultural objects, and within a networked environment that permits an

assemblage to continue varying with immense speed.









If it is possible to group Manovich's various themes into an overarching concept,

we must return to his stress of postmodernism. This notion arises repeatedly by

underpinning the logic of new media with re-thinking and re-working past cultural

objects, media, and technologies. The postmodern "accumulation of huge media assets

and the arrival of new electronic and digital tools which made it very easy to access and

re-work these assets" serves as a relay for my current argument ("NM" 23). Even if

viewed as a metaphor, I would like to stress notions of how new media acts so as to

simultaneously re-think how we interact with past cultural forms and techniques

(especially Aristotelian enthymematic arguments), while also proposing vast room for

invention of new forms. We have the techniques, technology, and logic to theorize a

method for composing "works" that re-situate and intensify past writing techniques; ways

to create assemblages that desire variation and inference; and methods for developing

writing collaboratively and collectively. These establish the operating practices, rhetoric,

and logic for a meta-avant-gardist using a digital machine with an intensified "cut and

paste" function. To formalize these methods, Deleuze and Guattari provide a theory of

language and writing essential to new media and enthymematic writing.















CHAPTER 4
ENTHYMEME AS METHOD

Turning to Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari is a movement to locate an existing

theory of language and writing that corresponds to an avant-garde rationale. We may

locate theories that not only have the characteristics of language being a collage, but our

selves being an inorganic composition that resembles a collage. These theories assist in

understanding what it means for a person to write, what this act entails, and what

potential results will follow from such an act. We may think of this as a method to

unpack Btirger and Manovich by posing a question: how do we continue writing with

enthymematic logic and further modify the inherent strategies of probability, suppression,

and persuasion?

I would like to take an indirect course and map out an overarching notion of

collage. If we begin with Henri Bergson, we find a corpus of thought towards

disassociation and decomposition. Bodies1 begin to be placed in extension: memory is

located in matter, which is to say that bodies begin to function through inorganic

diffusion. In Matter andMemory we find Deleuze's inclinations towards bodies without

organs and the self-as-collage:

Itself an image, the body cannot store up images, since it forms a part of the
images, and this is why it is a chimerical enterprise to seek to localize the past or
even present perceptions in the brain: they are not in it; it is the brain that is in
them. (MM 151)


' "Body" and "bodies" becomes a complex metaphorical term for both a physical body and also as in Stoic
embodiment: "We may take the word 'body' in its broadest sense (there are mental bodies, souls are
bodies, etc.)" (ATP 80).









Bergson's thought leads to decentralization, a piecemeal composition where memory and

perception become external. In Deleuze's theory of the cinema we find Bergsonian

principles that intensify the collage effect of a body's inorganic makeup. Deleuze's

statements on experimental cinema in Cinema 2 have an underpinning of collage logic.

Deleuze's cinema requests "give me a body" and "give me a brain," which is to say that

we are dealing with a cinema-body symbiosis: "Body or brain is what the cinema

demands to be given to it, what it gives itself, what it invents itself' (204). Bergsonian

externalization becomes a Deleuzian cinematic philosophy-the brain is the screen, the

camera is the eye.

I say the preceding remarks not to imply that collage is the overarching thread for

Deleuze, and thereby reduce his thought to a concept, but only to highlight its existence

in a larger scope before focusing narrowly. Like the logic of decomposition being at the

base of collage, Deleuze seems to incorporate Bergson's notions of decomposition and

disassociation to a large extent in establishing successive inorganic theories2. Even if we

turn briefly to Deluze's second Cinema book, we find notions of decomposition again:

The movement-image does not reproduce a world, but constitutes an autonomous
world, made up of breaks and disproportion, deprived of all its centres, addressing
itself as such to a viewer who is in himself no longer centre of his own perception.
The percipiens and the percipi have lost their points of gravity. (Cinema 2 36-7)

We should not forget that Deleuze's Cinema books are a taxonomy of signs, a vast index

of how the cinema writes. However, the hybrid body that the cinema creates is due to a

symbiosis between the body and the cinema-machine. We find correlating hybrid bodies



2 In particular I am referencing Bergson's notion of decomposition and disassociation that becomes
pervasive in Deleuze: "And we go on also from the whole to the parts, by a process of decomposition... a
process which consists in breaking up, for the greater convenience of practical life, the continuity of the
real. Association, then, is not the primary fact: dissociation is what we begin with" (MM 165).









in terms of literature; Proust & Signs initiates the bodies without organs at the end of the

text with a spider-narrator symbioses: "the web and the spider, the web and the body are

one and the same machine" (182). What we are interested in are the possibilities of

human-computer interface: what writing may be produced with a machine that

incorporates the rationale, rhetoric, and logic of collage and montage?

Deleuze provides an example with montage in Cinema 1. The enthymeme

operates within the action-image (Action-Situation-Action'). Following the taxonomical

approach to the regime of signs for the cinema, Deleuze labels the action-image with

Peirce's index. Peirce's example of the index acts as a pragmatic example of the

enthymeme: "for example, a piece of mold with a bullet-hole in it as a sign for a shot; for

without the shot there would have been no hole; but there is a hole there, whether

anybody has the sense to attribute it to a shot or not"3 ("Logic" 10). Deleuze carries the

enthymematic index to situate montage-as-indirection: "The situation is thus deduced

from the action, by immediate inference, or by relatively complex reasoning. Since the

situation is not given for itself, the index here is an index of lack; it implies a gap in the

narrative" (Cinema 1 160). Deleuze's abbreviation for the shot sequence is misleading if

the prior passages are not accounted for. It is not that the camera-eye shows us ASA', but

instead we move immediately from A to A' without the situation being framed directly.

The importance of the action-image as an example is that Deleuze is already

searching for methods to write indirectly. The importance of the cinema, especially the

action-image (ASA' montage), is that the situation (S) is a common horizon of social

knowledge (endoxa). Deleuze uses the example of the cinematic Western as the great

3 Barthes similarly deploys the index to mark the suppressed premise: "A woman has given birth: this is the
sure index (tekmerion) that she had intercourse with a man" (SC 61).









example of the situation as interval (S) when two opposing gazes relay a complete scene

of tension and opposition. The cinema begins to argue indirectly, which is to say that we

have a logic of suppression. We are approaching what Barthes explains as a type of

enthymeme that is Quintilian, made predominant in the Middle Ages. The value of this

type of argument is that it is "a perfect syllogism in the mind, but imperfect in

expression; in short, it is an accident of language, a deviation" (SC 58). We receive on

the screen AA', but we comprehend the perfected syllogism ASA' mentally without

forestalling the argument. But it will take combining Manovich, Deleuze and Guattari

together to map out how the enthymeme becomes demonstrative in new media.

If we recall that Manovich posits author-user symbiosis as a main logic of new

media, then we have an entry point into A Thousand Plateaus:

Even technology makes the mistake of considering tools in isolation: tools exist
only in relation to the interminglings they make possible or that make them
possible. The stirrup entails a new man-horse symbiosis that at the same time
entails new weapons and instruments. Tools are inseparable from symbioses or
amalgamations defining a Nature-Society machinic assemblage. (90)

Deleuze and Guattari effectuate a new way to think about "machines" and "assemblages"

by providing an abstract theory of language that solicits a type of writing that is relevant

to a person using a digital tool with a "cut and paste" function. Like the avant-garde

techniques that became embedded in the logic and foundational metaphors of new media,

Deleuze and Guattari begin to theorize about a method of composing with a language-

machine that escapes fixity and order through a variable state of decomposition.

Deleuze and Guattari view language as a constant assemblage, without fixed limits

and solidified zones of signification. In short, because language is an assemblage it goes

through all prior flows simultaneously (semiotic, material, and social). Within the

plateau "Postulates on Linguistics" a language model is put forth, consisting of the order-









word, assemblage, and indirect discourse. How these three interact serve as our rhetoric

and logic for a meta-avant-gardist.

The order-word replaces a speech act in qualified degrees: the term acts as a pun

that plays on all flows simultaneously. The order-word signifies direction in language,

orders as commands, and order as a type of organization. Already we are dealing with a

language function outside of normative comprehension; order-words are marked by

redundancy, not by rules: "Rather, it is a relation of redundancy. The order-word itself is

the redundancy of the act and the statement. Newspapers, news, proceed by redundancy,

in that they tell us what we 'must' think, retain, expect, etc." (ATP 79).

In an Aristotelian sense, this redundancy regulates the success rate of the

enthymeme. How often a certain image, the Mona Lisa for example, circulates

corresponds to the effectiveness of the argument. To argue in this way has a two-fold

consequence: it is highly effective and this may be exemplified through advertising and

film (and the entire commodity-oriented Entertainment discourse). We may associate

this to the view of an enthymeme with a diminished logic as in advertising. If we adapt

our level of comprehension to the level of the public, common sense, or normative

opinion, the success of the argument is not only more likely, but more persuasive

(repetition on par with persuasion). But we have the other side of the order-word, so to

speak, which allows us to break with redundancy. This is what the avant-garde, through

all periods (and what the meta-avant-gardist maintains the potential for), demonstrates

with extreme precision; we may disrupt the redundancy and move in the other direction.

We may raise the disparate nature to a higher degree and rip the piece from its normative

role. We may construct enthymemes that expose the inherent stereotypes of a social









body. Duchamp and the Dadaists become our forerunning leaders in this movement: they

tear objects from their prescribed social roles and use them as an attack on a knowledge

system, Art for example.

The "sentence" is an example of how the order-word, through redundant usage,

becomes established. The sentence becomes a pun: to follow a sentence in a linear order,

as it orders the reader to do, is a death sentence. The sentence becomes a wounding

projectile through redundancy. Avoiding the death sentence of redundancy becomes a

main goal, and this becomes the exercises of the avant-garde. To decompose and kill

meaning is precisely to reject the structured order of expectations in visual writing. To

tear the piece and disassociate acts as methods to reassemble the order-word in different

combinations. The key to this method is to cause the direction of language to turn

indirect, to force language to change vectors, take off on a "witch's line," skewing into

unterritorialized zones, to force a displacement and make language bear the weight of

what it is not.

As Deleuze and Guattari say, the order-word is dyadic and if we are to write with

the logic of the order-word, we must write with both of its functions: "But the order-word

is also mneii'hiiii else, inseparably connected: it is like a warning cry or a message to

flee. It would be oversimplifying to say that flight is a reaction against the order-word;

rather, it is included in it, as its other face in a complex assemblage, its other component"

(ATP 106). Part of the order-word's intrinsic makeup is the pass-word, an element within

the order-word that allows an element of passage from the given to the non-given:

There are pass-words beneath order-words. Words that pass, words that are
components of passage, whereas order-words mark stoppages or organized,
stratified compositions. A single thing or word undoubtedly has this two-fold









nature: it is necessary to extract one from the other-to transform the compositions
of order into components of passage. (A TP 110)

We may not separate the order-word from the pass-word; their logic promotes a certain

homonymy. By always including at least a double-function and a double-articulation

within the order-word, there is an underlying stress on indirection, a way to disorganize

the order-word and de-limit the stoppages. The task becomes to notice and operate with

both meanings, to recognize the disorder of the order-word and to stratify its meanings.

Aligning the order-word and the avant-garde piece produces similar logical functions. To

remove the piece from a totality allows its pass-word to be exposed and its meaning to

escape fixed and delimited zones. The enthymematic persuasive writing we are seeking

operates with the pass-word. We may say that this is what the avant-garde demonstrates

repeatedly: to recognize the repetition of certain cultural forms, and to place those

repetitions against expectations, to suppress the expected, and to make recipients

responsible for what they allow to be repeated socially. Discourses like advertising

suppress the unexpected so as to induce a standard repertoire of redundant images.

The order-word becomes at all moments a mediated discourse. Like the logic of

montage and collage, a situational context always exists, which is to say there is always a

type of interference that functions outside of the given in language. To locate this surplus

situation and context, Deleuze and Guattari cite Bakhtin:

As Vologinov [Bakhtin] says, as long as linguistics extracts constants, it is
incapable of helping us understand how a single word can be a complete
enunciation; there must be "an extra something" that "remains outside of the scope
of the entire set of linguistic categories and definitions," even though it is still
entirely within the purview of the theory of enunciation or language. The order-
word is precisely that variable that makes the word as such an enunciation. The
instantaneousness of the order-word, its immediacy, gives it a power of variation in
relation to the bodies to which the transformation is attributed. (A TP 82)









To write with the extra something is the opportunity collage and montage provide.

Displacing a piece and moving it into another context is to bring the extra something to a

new situation-to effectuate a different meaning with the same piece. New media

accelerates the circulation of pieces.

If we reference Bakhtin, we may begin to unpack the immensity behind indirect

discourse through his dialogical principle. Tzvetan Todorov'sMikhailBakhtin highlights

that the logic of the dialogical principle is the enthymeme, or as Voloshinov/Bakhtin

says, "The quotidian utterance endowed with signification is therefore composed of two

parts: (1) a realized or actualized verbal part, and (2) an implied part. That is why an

utterance can be compared to an 'enthymeme'" (41). Underneath the quotidian utterance

(order-word), we have an interval of inference among situational contexts. Like the

Deleuzian action-image, the situation is the index that deduction must be engaged to

solve. This is a modular approach to language. The order-word or piece is an empty sign

without any permanence. Transposing the piece into a new context via "cut and paste" is

to effectuate and shape a new meaning.

Deleuze's example of the action-image develops a method to write pragmatically

but with vastly different attributes than a classicist direct composition. The action-image

can be paralleled to the structure of an enthymeme: Action (premise 1) -- a present but

not articulated Situation (premise 2) -- Action' (conclusion). As Deleuze stated earlier, it

is the case that we receive the withheld situation after both action shots (we see the gazes

and then deduce the conflict). Grammar and language bend and curve: to proceed

forwards, but then backwards to complete the sentence-the means-end rationality of









subject and predicate are removed. This results in a sufficient break to the syntactical and

grammatical sentence as we have a method to place obligatory demands in variation:

For the question was not how to elude the order-word, but how to elude the death
sentence it envelops, how to develop its power of escape, how to prevent escape
from veering into the imaginary or falling into a black hole, how to maintain or
draw out the revolutionary potentiality of the order-word. (A TP 110)

To write i/ ih the enthymeme is to engage the logic of hypermedia. The sentence and

syntax becomes superlinear, by leaving gaps and indexes of information to be retrieved:

"This implies superlinearity, in other words, a plane whose elements no longer have a

fixed linear order: the rhizome model" (ATP 92). Diagramming a sentence would no

longer be like tracing out a crystalline structure, for the hypersentence is more amorphous

and mutable. Language is without a grammar; languages) have grammar(s).

To argue with the enthymeme is to argue with all the previous social and public

meanings brought with a particular object. New media facilitates this method with the

vastest cultural archive to date: the internet. To compose with a computer is the ability to

compose a collage, to effectuate new meanings for already circulating objects. When

Duchamp places his Fountain in an art exhibition, he counts on the public to understand

and retain their normative meanings towards the objects (urinal and the institution).

Duchamp makes both objects take a new responsibility, to show their linkage on the

surface, to make both bear the weight of artificiality.

Engaging the enthymeme is to follow the avant-garde in terms of being at the

cutting edge of social formations. If we reference Deleuze and Guattari's ideas of

tensors-the cutting edge of the assemblage whose side faces unterritorialized zones-

opportunities for variation underscore the enthymeme. It is not a process of association,

but of decomposition and disassociation by way of subtracting and tearing a piece from a









totality. As Deleuze and Guattari say, the process is a double movement: "Subtract and

place in variation, remove and place in variation: a single operation" (ATP 104). Like the

enthymeme, this method of variation operates by an equation of (n 1). To place in

variation with tensors is a method of cutting that "assures the variation of the variable by

subtracting in each instance the value of the constant (n 1)" (ATP 99). In comparison

with the enthymeme, n acts as the redundant socially inscribed meaning where the

interval is initiated by suppression or truncation. We may conclude that the respondent,

operating on the level of endoxal knowledge, completes the equation with (n + 1) by

supplementing the incomplete logical equation with a shared horizon of social

knowledge. Throughout various interlocutions or interactions, n remains a variable

without constancy as it slides along the intersections of common social knowledge. The

variable n is without fixed and demarcated social registers because each participant

stratifies the meaning at a different level. Perhaps more succinctly, the variable n ensures

that redundancy never becomes a constant by always positioning the assemblage in

constant variation as it continues to carve, continues becoming, even as it attempts to

reach a plateau.

Deleuze and Guattari's thinking corresponds closely to an avant-garde approach

to language. They presuppose a complete inversion of normative language models. For

example, when the avant-garde tear the piece from its totality, we may speculate that they

are placing the piece back into its habitat of indirect discourse. In this way, as Deleuze

and Guattari say, it is no longer about opposing constant and variable, but that to make

something a constant is a treatment of the variable (ATP 103). To make language

constant requires more effort than to make it vary. To make an image redundant is much









more difficult than to break its redundancy.4 The relationship of the pass-word and

order-word are noteworthy here. The order, direction, and command of the order-word

seem natural only to the extent that their redundancy parallels. What Deleuze and

Guattari highlight is that breaking with the order-word's redundancy is to bring the pass-

word out from a dormant status, which also foregrounds a language system based on

variation rather than linear constancy.

There is a Bakhtinian principle at work, or as Todorov says, "every utterance is

also related to previous utterances, thus creating intertextual (or dialogical) relations"

(48). What we find at work, and the potentiality of which is brought to the fore with new

media, is the ability to constantly reshuffle and reorganize writing due to the logic of

hyperlinking: "they are not only superlinear and 'suprasegmental' elements, in contrast to

linear segmental elements; their very characteristics give them the power to place all the

elements of language in a state of continuous variation" (ATP 103). There is an

opportunity to separate data from its structure, to chop the links of redundancy into pieces

and re-piece them together. We are approaching a language model and a grammar with

variable rules instead of obligatory rules. As Deleuze and Guattari say, it is like a game

that has "not invariable and obligatory rules, but optional rules that ceaselessly vary with

the variation itself, as in a game in which each move changes the rules" (ATP 100). But

to limit the radical inclinations thus far, it is not the goal to remove prior grammatical

structures and language functions in a supposition towards proclaiming their

ineffectiveness. New media does not concern itself with reducing any language function



4 Establishing Coca-Cola as an image of iconic status far outweighs the time and effort involved in making
it a new sign.









to degree zero; we are interested in supplementing and adding on new wings to an

institutional structure that has reached its occupational limit with current methods.

The method for arguing with the enthymeme is to engage in a social discourse.

Aristotle aligned deductive enthymemes with rhetorical syllogisms, and writing with new

media offers a chance to continue this method. To tear a piece from its redundant role

and paste it into a new context is to force the recipient to complete the logistical

movements. The enthymeme may be used in academia on par with the effectiveness of

advertising, but with more responsibility. New media allows the collage to be

responsible for what it exposes. It allows one to create a hyperlink, to separate the data

from its structure and expose its origins; the image can be hyperlinked to pre-established

sources. To compose a new media collage would be to have the opportunity to provide

links to the redundant contexts the piece came from. For example, a collage may be

made using HTML statements, each object taken from an archive like Google.com to

coordinate a new superlinear sentence, with all the information on the screen at once.

How all the varying images, media objects, etc. combine to form an argument relies on

the recipient to turn the incomplete syllogism on the screen into a perfect syllogism in the

mind.

We may demarcate essential features of how the enthymeme is used in new

media: (1) the approach towards enthymematic persuasive arguments continues the logic

initiated by Aristotle to work with social knowledge; (2) the aim for new media is to

disrupt the standard repertoire of redundancy circulating with cultural objects; (3) new

media performs these tasks by disassociation and decomposing the established fixity of

order-words. Rather than institutions like advertising where the manipulation relies on









association, new media has the potential to continue the vanguard aesthetic of

disassociation by forcing the individuated object bear its pass-word characteristics as a

multiplicity.

Collage and montage are slow processes that begin with the accumulation of data

that can take exorbitant amounts of time. New media, with inherent algorithms and

modularity, are catalysts to these procedures. The amount of material on the internet, all

of which carries social and cultural meanings, accelerates the speed and ease of

composing an enthymematic argument. The richness of the process lies in its social

dimensions. The enthymeme, from Aristotle forwards, marks a way to argue socially.

The most acute model for this argumentative practice is within entertainment and

political discourses. We find irresponsible arguments that manipulate social knowledge

and funnel redundancy into a pseudo transcendental repetition through "image"

circulation (a nationalistic image). Images become iconic, which is to say that the social

and cultural meanings are immediate. By intersecting the avant-garde and new media,

we find an opportunity to subtract from redundancy and make the enthymematic

argument carry its immense power of persuasion. Even without a current pragmatic

consensus towards academic writing, the pedagogical value cannot be dismissed; the

enthymeme is a thought process of exposure that alludes to ways of deducing how image

repertoires form and become redundant to the point of normalcy.
















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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Patrick McHenry received his Bachelor of Arts degree in English from the

University of Central Florida in 2002. After completing his undergraduate honors thesis

on Walt Whitman, he then accepted an assistantship position at the University of Florida

in 2003. Mr. McHenry will graduate in May 2005 with a Master of Arts in English

concentrating in Theory Studies and possibly continue his Ph.D. work at a later date in an

undetermined locale. His academic interests include Critical Theory, New Media, and

Visual Studies.