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The Lyric Aeneid: A Fat Sacrifice to a Slender Muse


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THE LYRIC AENEID : A FAT SACRIFICE TO A SLENDER MUSE By Laura E. Mawhinney A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2005

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank foremost the professors of my committee, Dr. Timothy Johnson, Dr. Gareth Schmeling, and Dr. Jennifer Rea, for guiding and advising me throughout my research and graduate studies. I am grateful to you Big Tim for suppressing your natural inclinations, and Dr. S. for not. Ms. Druscilla Gurahoo deserves my utmost gratitude, without whom I would have been lost (and quite hungry). I would like to thank my parents and my brothers and sisters whose support and encouragement kept me good these past years. Finally, to all my friends and fellow students who didnt. ii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...............................................................................................ii ABSTRACT...........................................................................................................................iv CHAPTERS 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................1 2 THE POETOMACHIA: HELLENISTIC POETRY AND THE CALLIMACHEAN AESTHETIC........................................................................4 3 POETAE DOCTI: THE CALLIMACHEAN AESTHETIC IN ROMAN LYRIC......................................................................................................................20 4 THE FAT LITTLE VERGIL..........................................................................38 5 THE LITTLE FAT VERGIL..........................................................................48 6 CONCLUSION.....................................................................................................64 WORKS CITED..................................................................................................................66 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH............................................................................................72 iii

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts THE LYRIC AENEID: A FAT SACRIFICE TO A SLENDER MUSE By Laura E. Mawhinney May 2005 Chair: Dr. Timothy S. Johnson Major Department: Classics Vergils Aeneid is a lyrical epic. Aeneas journey from Troy to Rome resounds with the epic tradition of heroes and wars, gods and men. Vergil creates his epic from deep within the context of the Homeric canon to validate and reinforce the historical and mythological ideals of his contemporary Romans. Vergil engages his contemporary audience with a communal and personal voice not heard in the Homeric epics: cano. The following chapters will trace specific literary influences at work from Homer to Vergil which allowed Vergils communal, lyrical voice to merge with his impersonal, epic voice. Like Vergil, the first chapter will start with Homer and will also introduce the emergence of the Callimachean aesthetic of fatness and thinness. The second chapter will examine the reception and interpretation of Callimacheanism in Roman lyric. The remaining chapters first discuss Vergils adaptation of the Homeric voice, and then explore how Vergil blends Hellenistic and Augustan poetic theory to let his own Muse soar. iv

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ajoidev, to; me;n quvo~ o{tti pavciston qrevyai, th;]n Mou`san d wjgaqe; leptalevhn: 1 Singer, feed your sacrifice to be as fat as possible, But keep your Muse slender. Vergil never dies. His Aeneid invigorates the Latin epic genre and encourages Ovid, Statius, and Lucan after him to pick up the epic pen. Vergil becomes a guide through purgatory in Dantes Divine Comedy, achieves an almost prophetic status in the middle ages, and even peeks into the recent film Troy in a somewhat comical Excalibur scene between Hector and Vergils hero Aeneas. In his own time, Vergil innovatively recasts the Homeric epics and canonizes the history and tradition of his own people. Perellius Faustus would have us believe that Vergil plagiarizes Homer and steals his epics. 2 But imitation of past tradition, in fact, was essential to classical writers who used previous models to lay the foundation for and validate their own works. 3 Most ancient and modern writers and scholars are more receptive to Vergils imitation. Bowra, Clausen, and Pschl, 4 for example, examine Vergils written adaptation of the oral tradition (imitatio) and consider Vergils literary transformation of Homers oral 1 Call. Aet. 1.23-24 Pf. 2 Unfortunately Faustus catalogue of Vergilian thefts, Furta, do not survive; cf. Clausen (1966) 75. 3 Williams (1968) 250; Clausen (1966) 75; cf. Conte (1986) and Williams (1983). 4 Bowra (1966); Clausen (1966), Pschl (1962) 1-32. 1

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2 songs ( aemulatio ). Vergil re-imagines the Homeric heroes in his own Aeneas and creates a more personal hero than Odysseus and Achilles as Parry and Pschl argue. 5 Although scholars read Vergils Aeneas as a more personal hero, very little is said about Vergils own personalization of the epic voice. Heinze, Otis, and Segal give brief attention to moments when Vergil asserts his own voice behind the words and actions of his characters. 6 Yet the influence of these few has been hardly noticed, because the strong association between the epic genre and the absence of a personal voice, which Homer standardized in his impersonal invocations of the Muses and which Aristotle emphasized in his Poetics seems to advise against searching Vergils Aeneid too closely for the consciousness of the singer. Shifts in community, philosophy, and literacy had made the imitation of Homerand thus the epic genrea rocky course, if not altogether unmanageable. Callimachus in the 3 rd century B. C. engaged in a polemic against epic which carried into Vergils own time. The writers in Vergils literary circle adhered to Callimachean aesthetics in their poetic theory and practice and composed in the lesser genres which encapsulated brevitas the personal voice, and self-referentiality. In step with his contemporaries, Vergil announces his allegiance to the Callimachean aesthetic in the recusatio of Eclogue 6 (1-8). He will not write in the greater (Homeric) genre of kings and heroes and he instead turns to Hesiod, Nicander, and Theocritus for inspiration. 7 Vergils poetic art in the lesser genres firmly establishes him as a leading voice of the Maecenas circle. Then after he has become a prominent writer in the lesser genres, 5 Parry (1966); Pschl (1962). 6 Heinze (1993) 202, 207-208; Otis (1963) 51; Segal (1974) 37. 7 Otis (1963) 63.

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3 Vergil seemingly abandons his Callimachean recusatio against epic and turns to the greater epic genre in his Aeneid Vergils journey from the lesser to greater genres not only seems to contradict the poetic ambitions of his younger poetic identity but the poetic theories of the other Augustan poets. This rather typical reading of Vergils career is simply too slender. Horace surpasses his immediate lyric predecessors, the neoterics, and revives the personal poetry of the lesser genre, lyric, with its original communal power. Likewise Vergil emulates the founder of Greek literature, the epic Homer, and thus immortalizes himself within the epic canon. Indeed, Vergil conquers the vast gap between oral and literary epic and in the process makes his hero Aeneas relevant to his contemporary audience, and Vergils literary achievement certainly does not stop there. Vergil is not writing within an isolated competition between himself and Homer ; the poetic rhetoric and dialogue of his contemporaries, most notably Horace, emphasize the communal nature of poetry, which is essential to both epic and lyric. In the Aeneid, Vergil adopts the same communal force as the lyric Horace. Vergils Aeneid is fully Callimachean: both fat and thin. In literary terms, the epic (fat) Aeneid is lyrical (thin).

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CHAPTER 2 THE POETOMACHIA: 1 HELLENISTIC POETRY AND THE CALLIMACHEAN AESTHETIC Mousevwn d ouj mavla fido;~ ejgwv 2 I am not especially sparing of the Muses. During the Hellenistic Age, literature and philosophy fused as scholars became poets. Poets turned their critical, scholastic eye to the literary traditions first established by Homer and judged all successive poetry by that masters standards. Callimachus saturates his own texts with criticisms which detail his disparagement of Hellenistic poetry, and he forcefully denounces the path that poets had taken from Homer to their own times. Still, the exact targets of Callimachus criticisms are hard to determine with any certainty. The problem becomes more difficult because the inadequate notations of scholiasts guide modern scholars. Callimachus and his contemporaries lived in an atmosphere which encouraged the exploration of literary standards. Aristotles Peripatetic school reached Alexandria through Demetrius of Phaleron, a student of Theophrastus, who may have been involved in the building of the Museion under Ptolemy Soter. 3 Zenodotus became the first librarian of the Museion, followed by Apollonius Rhodius and Eratosthenes. 4 Other 1 I have borrowed this term from Vessey (1971) 4-5. 2 Call. fr. 538b Pf. 3 Brink (1946) 11 discusses how Callimachus and Aristotle share the same views in philosophy but as poets differ in opinions of literary theory. 4 Bulloch (1985) 547-549. 4

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5 scholar-poets such as Lycophron, Alexander Aetolus, and Callimachus were in charge of cataloguing the immense depository of texts at the Library. 5 Through their work, the Alexandrians were in constant dialogue with the writers of the past. In forming impressions of past poets, Alexandrians were not working from a blank slate, especially in regard to Homer. Aristotle praises Homer in his Poetics as the source of literature from which writers of tragedy, comedy, and iambos draw their inspiration. Thus for the Alexandrians, Homer spoke with a pure voice from which all other voices flowed. 6 In discussing tragedy against the backdrop of epic, Aristotle distinguishes the narrative of the Iliad and Odyssey, which encompasses multiple levels of action and character, from the narrative of tragedy which must be simplified. 7 Homer establishes a unity in his narrative through the action of the plot while interjecting his own voice as little as possible. 8 The poet sings in epic meter (dactylic hexameter), fills his song to epic length, and fattens the plot with episodic units. The way in which Homer constructs his plot and works within the confines of epic meter and length becomes the canon by which Aristotle judges all other poetry. Homer wholly depends upon the oral tradition of the bards when composing his song. 9 This oral tradition discourages the poet from completely altering the outcome of known 5 Bulloch (1985) 547. 6 Newman (1986) 3. 7 Arist. Po. 1459b: 20-30. 8 Arist. Po. 1451a: 1-27; 1459a: 47-48. 9 Lord (1960) 28: What is of importance here is not th e fact of exactness or lack of exactness, but the constant emphasis by the singer on his ro le in the tradition. It is not the creative role that we have stressed for the purpose of clarifying a misunderstanding a bout oral style, but the role of conserver of the tradition.

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6 plots, 10 but Homer renews tradition by exploiting elements of character and recognition within the smaller episodic components. 11 When Homer transitions from one episode to the next, he charms the audience into a suspension of reality so that what might seem irrational or implausible to the plot overall escapes the notice of the audience. 12 Therefore, episodes encapsulate surprise and creativity, but the audience remains focused on the general movement of the plot itself rather than the details of each episode. Homer simplifies the plot enough that listeners can keep the beginning and the end that is, the goal of the songin their minds. 13 Writers after Homer used his poems as exem pla for their own epics by extracting the mythological elements and the historic, legendary scope of the material and projecting these onto contemporary events. 14 These Hellenistic writers, however, disassociated themselves from the legendary past and chose to write on events in their own time. 15 As a result, they struggled to appropriately blend the mythological, poetic style of Homer with contemporary history. 16 By Callimachus time in the third century B. C., mythology and the world of the gods had lost their ability to contribute to the high style and gravitas of epic poetry within view of its contemporary setting. Audiences, for example, would no longer accept that soldiers in the Persian wars readily 10 Aristotle ( Po. 1453b: 31-32) provides, for example, the gene ric story of Orestes killing Clytemnestra. 11 Arist. Po. 1453b: 35-6. 12 Arist. Po. 1460a: 57-64. 13 Arist. Po. 1459b: 15-16. 14 Otis (1963) 6-11; Newman (1986) 17. 15 For example, Rhianos wrote an epic on the Second Messenian War, among other epics on historical topics ( Achaika, Thessalika, Eliaka ). Other historical epicists include: Phaistos ( Lakedamonika ); Apollonius ( Ktisis Rhodou, Alexandreias ); Philo the Elder who wrote Jewi sh epics; cf. Otis (1963) 16-17. 16 Otis (1963) 6-8; Newman (1986) 23-30.

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7 and easily intermingled with the gods on the battlefield. 17 Consequently, epic poets wrote light poems which reduced the role of mythology or wrote historical epics that attempted to conform the Homeric canon to modern, historical events. Serious poetry that effectively incorporated both gods and men was left to the tragedians. 18 Choerilus of Samos and Antimachus, two poets against whom Callimachus directs some of his most potent attacks, typify the trend of epic poets to divide the mythological and historical aspects of Homer into two separate threads. Choerilus imitated the historical aspects of the Homeric poems in his epic on Xerxes invasion of Greece, written around 400 B. C. 19 Antimachus, writing in the fifth or fourth century B.C., avoided history and wrote a mythological epic, the Thebais 20 These two epics are representative of the split in Hellenistic epic between old (Choerilian/historic) epic and new (Antimachean/mythological) epic, and reconciling these two aspects was a central struggle for Hellenistic authors. 21 The mythological Thebais of Antimachus seems to have been received with more acclaim in the Hellenistic period than Choerilus historical Persika, although little survives of the texts or their reception. Choerilus versified history and thus defied the Aristotelean and Callimachean doctrine that history and poetry represent two separate 17 As in the epic about the Persian wars written by Choerilus of Samos ( Persika); see Otis (1963) 9. 18 Williams (1968) 33; Ne wman (1986) 26, 39. 19 Otis (1963) 9-10; Hollis (2000) 13. 20 Otis (1963) 10; Vessey (1971) 1. 21 The terms old and new belong to Briggs. The distinction is that o ld refers to historical epicists such as Choerilus of Iasos, Choerilus of Samos, or Rhianos. In the new category belong the epics of Antimachus and Apollonius, who focus on the mythol ogical aspects of Homer. In Apollonius in particular, Briggs describes the authors use of my thology, which no longer functions as the source of history for his Hellenistic audience. Briggs (1981) 950-953: His attitude to myth allows its essential power and beauty to carry much of the weight, although one ne ver imagines that Apollonius is describing real or true events.

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8 facets of literature. 22 Whereas the art of poetry relies on a certain suspension of believability, historical narration describes actual events in singular moments of reality (sequential or not). 23 Another Choerilus, of Iasos, who wrote historical epic on the campaigns of Alexander, becomes a symbol of bad epic poetry for the Romans in the Augustan period and comes under attack by Horace. 24 Horaces criticisms are many and deprecatory, and concentrate on the fact that Choerilus wrote for profit ( Epist.2.1.23044; Ars 357-60 ) Not only does a versified history not constitute poetry, but writing for profit can threaten the art out of the composition. 25 Antimachus is one of the first to rival Homer by outdoing Homer at his own game and utilizes an obscure and archaic style that earned him the reputation of a poeta doctus. 26 Even Plato ordered that the text of the Thebais be preserved 27 and marked it for future generations. Nevertheless, by the time of the Alexandrians, Antimachus also comes under criticism so that later the Roman poets regard him as an example of the lengthy swollen poetry denounced by Callimachus. Catullus hopes that the small masterpieces of his friend Calvus will be close to his heart, but he leaves the people to enjoy Antimachus swollen style ( parva mei mihi sint cordi mo nimenta ,| at populus 22 Newman (1986) 26. 23 Newman (1986) 40. Aristotle ( Po. 1459a: 14-17) draws a further distin ction between the unity of the plot in history and poetry. As mentioned above, the beginning and end of a plot must be in the audiences mind as they learn the poets treatment of tradition. In historical writing, there is not necessarily a distinct end nor does the narrative work towards this end. 24 The writer who keeps making the same mistake an d the cithara player who keeps messing up on the same note becomes another Choerilus to Horace (Hor. Ars 355-357). 25 Johnson (2005) 23-24. 26 Otis (1963) 10; Bulloch (1985) 546. 27 Vessey (1971) 1-2. Cicero ( Brutus 51) says that Plato was alone in his opinion: Plato . .mihi unus instar est centum milium

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9 tumido gaudeat Antimacho ; Cat. 95b) 28 Propertius further denounces Antimachus epic for misappropriating his narrow elegiac voice for grave epic themes ( incipe iam angusto versus includere torno 2.3.43). 29 The attitudes of the Roman poets also reflect Callimachus criticism of Antimachus in his epigrams. Callimachus attacks the Lyde in his work against Praxiphanes (fr. 589 Pf.) where he criticizes Plato for holding the poem in such high regard. 30 Callimachus further disparages the Lyde for being fat and plain ( pacu; gravmma kai; ouj torovn, Call. fr. 398 Pf.) 31 Although these criticisms specifically address Antimachus elegiac work rather than his epic, they do address elements of style and typify the way in which Callimachus will defend his own poetry in the prologue of his Aetia Callimachus does not confine his criticism to Antimachus; he also takes aim at Apollonius and his Argonautica. 32 The Suda provides the primary evidence for Callimachus attacks on Apollonius and his epic style, where an entry identifies Apollonius as the target of Callimachus invective Ibis 33 The notion of an actual argument between the two poets is not documented in any of their own texts, but is only 28 Vessey (1971) 2-3. 29 Propertius uses the term angustus to describe Callimachean poetry: intonet angusto pectore Callimachus 2.1.40; illa vel angusto mecum requiescere lecto 1.8b.34; nos contra angusto versantes proelia lecto 2.1.45; See also Prop. 1.9.812. Vessey (1971) 9 argues that Propertius gives a luci d insight into the disput e by balancing the epic tradition (Homer and Antimachus) against the elegiac tradition (Callimachus and Philitas) and each poets suitability to their genre. The rejection of Antimach us continues beyond the Classical period and the poet becomes characterized as verbose. Porphyrio writes: ut viginti quattuor volumina impleverit, antequam septem duces usque ad Thebas perduceret (ad Hor. Ars 146). 30 Cameron (1995) 304. 31 Lefkowitz (1980) 8. 32 Lefkowitz (1980) 1-19; Bulloch (1985) 561. 33 See Lefkowitz (1980) for the history of the an cient scholars interactions with the texts.

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10 evidenced in the scholiasts, and then noted by modern scholars. 34 According to the scholiasts, Callimachus and Apollonius traded insults. Callimachus attacked Apollonius work, charging that a big book is a big evil (fr. 465 Pf.). 35 Apollonius answers back: Callimachusrefuse, triviality, woodenhead! | The cause is Callimachus, who wrote the Causes ( Kallivmaco~ to; kavqarma, to; paivgnion, oJ xuvlino~ nou`~ | aijvtio~ oJ gravya~ Aijvtia Kallivmaco~, AP 11.276) 36 The vitae and scholiast remarks can often prove anecdotal and exaggerated, but in this case they can be clarified through the poetry of these two poets and critics. Although the texts of Apollonius and Callimachus do not substantiate in themselves the existence of a rivalry, they do reveal that the two writers interacted with each others works. The ancient vitae state that Apollonius was a student of Callimachus. Although this student-teacher relationship may be another exaggeration of the vitae, the influence of the two poets on one another is clear. 37 Callimachus influence on Apollonius Argonautica has been shown to be pervasive. 38 Apollonius imitates Callimachus, for example, when Jason thrusts his hands in the air and promises sacrifice to the Pythian Apollo in return for a safe landing of the Argo (Call. Aet fr. 1.18 Pf., A.R. 34 Lefkowitz (1980) 4 writes, the ultimate source of the biographers information is poetry by and about Callimachus and Apollonius. Not directly, of course, but through that curious process of objectification that characterizes ancient scholarship, by which th e humorous is taken seriously, and conventional metaphor is interpreted as literal fact. 35 Atheneus provides the account: o{ti Kallivmaco~ oJ grammatiko;~ to; mevga biblivon i[son e[legen ei\nai tw/` megavlw/ kakw/` (fr. 465 Pf.). For the most complete disc ussion of the relationship between Callimachus and Apollonius, see Lefkowitz (1980). 36 The translation is Camerons ( 1995) 227. Cameron (227-230) rejects the possibility that this epigram belongs to Apollonius Rhodius. 37 Lefkowitz (1980) 12 cites these instances as narrative metaphors for influence. Vit. A .8 calls Apollonius a maqhthv~ of Callimachus; cf. Lefkowitz (1980) 1. 38 Knken (2001) 78 lists the allusions he sees to Callimachus in every book of the Argonautica For common stylistic elements between Callimachu s and Apollonius, see Briggs (1981) 950-953.

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11 Arg 1.367-425 ) Apollonius also describes specific aetiologies found in Callimachus, such as the origin of the Argos anchor (Call. Aet. fr. 108-9 Pf., A. R. Arg. 1.955 ) Apollonius, too, provided a source for Callimachus own works. Callimachus Athena addresses Chariclo with the same sense and diction (both use the rare word palinavgreton) that Phineus uses to address Jason in the Argonautica (Call. Hymn V: 1034; A. R. Arg. 2.444-5). 39 The scholiasts, who give evidence for the quarrel, point out some of these similarities, but, as Lefkow itz writes, they werent as sensitive about questions of imitatio as we have become, or they might have suggested that Callimachus collaborated with Apollonius. 40 Even given this high degree of interaction between Callimachus and the epicist Apollonius, it is only common sense that Callimachus criticisms take a wide look at multiple authors and genres. Callimachus disparaging remarks cannot be confined to a specific author or genre with unanimous certainty. Callimachus criticisms, such as pacuv, mevga, and ouj torovn, consistently, however, emphasize style. The Aetia and Hecale provide the greatest source of information about Callimachus views on style. What can be learned from these texts, then, is not whom he is attacking, but rather what stylistic standards Callimachus is advocating via his criticism. The prologue to the Aetia (fr. 1.17; 17-24 Pf.) figures most prominently in discussions of the Callimachean aesthetic: . . .] i moi Telci`ne~ ejpitruvzousin ajoidh/`, nhvide~ oi} Mouvsh~ oujk ejgevnonto fivloi, ei{neken oujc e}n a[eisma dihneke;~ h] basil [h . . ]. a~ ejn pollai`~ h[nusa ciliavsin 39 Knken (2001): 78; Cameron (1995) 247-262; Lefkowitz (1980) 15. K nken (2001) 79 disagrees with this hypothesis of mutual borrowing. 40 Lefkowitz (1980) 15; Lefkowitz (17-18) sees even more correspondence when she examines the two poets influence on Vergil. She conc ludes, I think that one can see that Vergil at least thought that Callimachus and Apollonius were fighting on th e same side in the Battle of the Books.

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12 h] . . . ] ou~ h{rwa~, e[po~ d ejpi; tutqo;n eJl [ivssw pai`~ a{te, tw`n d ejtevwn hJ deka;~ oujk ojlivgh. Aet. 1.1-7 e[llete Baskanivh~ ojloo;n gevno~: au\qi de; tevcnh/ krivnete, ] mh; scoivnw/ Persivdi th;n sofivhn: mhd ajp ejmeu` difa`te mevga yofevousan ajoidhvn tivktesqai: bronta`n oujk ejmovn, ajlla; Diov~. kai; ga;r o{te prwvtiston ejmoi`~ ejpi; devlton e[qhka gouvnasin, jA [pov ] llwn ei\pen o{ moi Luvkio~: . . . ]. . ajoidev, to; me;n quvo~ o{tti pavciston qrevyai, th; ] n Mou`san d wjgaqe; leptalevhn: Aet. 1.17-24 (I know that) the Telchines mutter at my song, those foolish men who are not the friends of the Muse, because I did not sing of kings and heroes in one continuous song in countless verses, and I roll out the slender word like a child, though I am not few in the number of my years. || Then judge my skill by its art, not by the Persian rope. Dont look for me to produce a great song sounding an empty noise. Thundering is not mine, but Zeus. For when I first placed the tablet upon my knees, Lycian Apollo said to me: Singer, feed your sacrifice to be as fat as possible, but keep a slender Muse. In Callimachus vision of the Lycian Apollo, he defends his own poetry by criticizing elements of style most readily identified with the creator of Greek literaturethe epic Homer. Callimachus accosts the Telchines 41 for insisting that he sing of kings and heroes in one continuous song ( e}n a[eisma dihneke;~ ) 42 Nor will he sing of these kings and heroes at length in a poem numbering thousands of lines ( e;n pollai`~. . ciliavsin). Thundering, or writing a song loudly resounding such as the Iliad and Odyssey is for the 41 Scholars do not agree on the identification of the Te lchines. Scholars, ancient and modern, generally identify the Telchines as Callimachus critics, see Bulloch (1985) 558; Briggs (1981) 951. Lefkowitz (1980) 11 believes the Telchines are anonymo us critics and states: the Telc hines and his reply to them, like Apollos speech, represent a ficticious situation. My thologically, the Telchines are a fabled goblin-race of metal-workers, skilled in magic, who inhabited some of the Greek islands and whose most renowned characteristics were jealousy, maliciousness and possession of the Evil Eye; Bulloch (1985) 558. 42 Cameron (1992) 266-267 provides a hist ory of the readings and conjectures of this line. We lack the (possible) adjectives which modify kings and heroes, and thus cl ear interpretation of Callimachus meaning is impossible. Cameron further notes that Ve rgil translates this phrase with a different twist: cum canerem reges et proelia (Ec 6.3). See Pagn (1991) for further textual emendations.

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13 godlike Homer (the Zeus of the epic poets). 43 Like his predecessor Aristotle, Callimachus draws his poetic canon against a Homeric backdrop. Callimachus defines his poetry as to content in the negative: not long, and not on the heroic world. These criteria certainly indicate that Callimachus refuses to write an epic. 44 Nevertheless, Callimachus envisions more than the negative, and encompasses more than the rejection of any specific genre. Through Apollos instructions, while he rejects one single long narrative, he puts forward positively his own poetic program. Callimachus vision concerns both voice and narrative, elements of structure and style. 45 He commands the Telchines not to look at what he would not write, but at the art of what he does write ( tevcnh/ | krivnete ). The Lycian Apollo commands Callimachus to feed his sacrifice to be as fat as possible ( pavciston ), but to keep the Muse slender ( th;n Mou`san leptalevhn). Here, Callimachus reinforces this point of the slender Muse further as he recalls the slender word of the previous lines ( e[po~ d ejpi; tutqovn ). Apollos vision of Callimachean style presents a paradox when he recommends poetry that is at once slender ( leptalevhn, tutqo;n ) and fat (pavciston ). By these seemingly contrasting elements of style, Callimachus brings to the foreground the question of continuous narrative ( eJ;n ajveisma dihnekev~ ). Again, the audience is in the realm of epic, dwelling on aesthetics of length and heroes, and thus the Thunderer himself, Homer. Homer sings of heroes in thousands of lines, but his narrative is 43 Bulloch (1985) 559. 44 Aristotle ( Po. 1459b.4-5) cites length as one of the two (the ot her being meter) criteria which differentiate epic from tragedy. 45 It is useful here to recall another epigram of Callim achus which disparages the cyclic poets for dragging the reader this way and that: ejcqaivrw to; poivhma to; kukliko;n oujdev keleuvqwi | caivrw ti;~ pollou;~ wJ`de kai; wJde fevrei ( Epigr 38.1-2 Pf.); see Bulloch (1985) 560.

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14 discontinuous and episodic. 46 In fact, as outlined by Aristotle in the Poetics Homer embraces both aspects of the fat and slender which Callimachus praises. Homer saturated his text with all the qualities that in later literature could only be unwoven by different threads of genres, such as tragedy, history, and mythological narrative. Homer keeps his Muse slender by weaving together a simple plot from the greater tradition of the Trojan wars. 47 Callimachus therefore does not concentrate his criticism so much on length and subject matter as on voice and narrative. He will not write an epic of Homeric length in a non-Homeric voice. Callimachus criticism in fact envalues Homeric expression, as is clear from his praise for Homer in the Hymn to Apollo. Callimachus writes that his own voice is superior to the other writers of the time because his is closer to the source Homer. 48 Callimachus sings with the Homeric voice and embraces both the fat (a multiplex of tone and topics) and slender (the episodic). This is why Antimachus epic can at once be fat ( pacuv ) but still miss its mark by not being slender. Choerilus of Iasos, too, writes many verses at great length, but lacks the brevity needed to keep Homer awake. 49 This paradox becomes the essence of Callimachus criticisms, a critical element that the Romans adopt as brevitas. 50 46 Cameron (1992) 309 hits the nail on the head when he comments, not all epics do consist of unbroken narrativemost conpsciously the two long est and most famous of all, the Iliad and Odyssey. 47 Arist.Po. 1459a-1459b. 48 Lefkowitz (1980) 5. 49 Hor. Ars 359. 50 See Horace, Ars 25: brevis esse laboro Newman (1986) 22 comments that in distinguishing between Homer and his imitators, Hellenistic critics, following Aristotle, ha d pronounced Homer to be superior precisely on the grounds of his brevity.

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15 The stylistic emphasis in Callimachus poetic dictum was a primary concern for Propertius, who refers to the poets statements of style in advising a fellow poet. In 2.34b, Propertius advises his friend Lynceus, who has fallen in love, on how to write poetry that uses language and style appropriate to its genre. He begins by listing models that would be useless for Lynceus to follow: the natural philosophy of Socrates and Aratus. Lynceus should rather imitate Philitas elegies and the dreams of the notinflated Callimachus ( tu satius memorem Musis imitere Philitan | et non inflati somnia Callimachi ; 31-32). But in his advice, Propertius does not recall Callimachus the elegist, he refers to Callimachus the author of aetiologies. Propertius somnia Callimachi directly references Callimachus vision of the Lycian Apollo in the Aetia 51 The subject matter of the Aetia will not benefit the elegist, thus Propertius must be emphasizing the stylistic program set forth in Callimachus prologue. As Propertius draws his interpretation of Callimachus vision, not only themes but style takes center stage. Lynceus should avoid the epic themes of the flooding Achelous and the wandering Maeander ( non rursus licet Aetoli referas Acheloi 33; atque etiam ut Phrygio fallax Maeandria campo | errat et ipsa suas decipit unda vias 35-36), 52 and likewise he should avoid writing tragedies in the Aeschylean form ( desine et Aeschyleo componere verba coturno, 41). Propertius then immediately returns to the Aetia and recalls Callimachus use of Diov~ as symbolic of Homer: You will not go more safely than Antimachus, nor will you go more safely than Homer, for the right girl despises the great gods ( tu non 51 If Nairns conjecture ( Aratei ) for ( Erecthei ) is correct, then as Camps (1966a) 224-5 notes, Propertius anticipates the Callimachean reference in the previous lines ( aut quid Aratei tibi prosunt carmina lecti, 29). 52 Propertius description of the deceitful Maeander, which wanders through the camp and tricks its own courses, is reminiscent of Callimachus disparagemen t of the cyclic poets who wander this way and that (See above). The Maeander is known for its winding course which inspired Daedalus labyrinth (Camps 1966a) 227.

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16 Antimacho, non tutior ibis Homero: | despicit et magnos recta puella deos 45-46). Propertius is concerned that Lynceus style, like these wandering and flooding rivers, is overblown and not in control, which will result in an unsafe journey for both author and audience. In the Hecale Callimachus shows his Telchines how an epic should be written and puts his criticisms to the test. Here, Callimachus describes the adventures of Theseus and the killing of the Marathon bull, and creates a name for his epic from the owner of a cottage in which the hero spends the night. 53 Callimachus draws heavily from conventional epic (Homeric) style by subordinating his own voice to the epic narrative, beginning in medias res and infusing Homeric similes and borrowings into his heroic epic. 54 However, the narrative of his work, like Homer, is discontinuously episodic and does not encroach upon the poorly styled e}n a[eisma dihnekev~ 55 Callimachus fattens his poetic sacrifice by exploiting obscure myth an d rejuvenating traditional aspects of heroic and mythic elements. At the same time he ex tracts a voice from his archaic, traditional narrative that can speak with relevancy to his contemporary Alexandrians. 56 Bulloch writes, Callimachus studied insistence on examining with a shrewdly quizzical eye the very ordinary and practical aspects [of the poetic tradition] . was a highly individual choice and set poetry on a new direction which was to prove fruitful for centuries to come. 57 53 Cameron (1992) 312. 54 Cameron (1992) 312; Bulloch (1985) 563; Rengakos (2002) 143-145 find s many Homeric borrowings in the texts of Callimachus and Apollonius. Rengakos hypothesizes that these borrowings represent the actual manuscript tradition rather than conjectures and uses the two authors to reconstruct the Homeric texts. He writes (146) that the two poets make up a remarkably rich collection of memoria Homerica . 55 Brink (1946) 17. 56 Bulloch (1985) 557, 564. 57 Bulloch (1985) 557.

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17 Just as Callimachus criticisms on style color Propertius advice to Lynceus, Callimachus vision of Lycian Apollo guides Roman poets in their compositions. The Augustan poets most pointedly declare their allegiance to Callimachean standards of style and innovation through the recusatio Poets such as Horace, Propertius, Vergil, and Ovid refuse to write poetry of a grand style and instead turn to genres which were in general considered light. 58 In these recusationes the Augustans elevate the grand (epic) style of poetry to a plane above their own abilities so that they themselves appear incapable of or unsuitable for approaching it. The poets become apologetic that they cannot write poetry worthy of the epic meter and describe their own poetry in Callimachean language tenuis, deductus, parvus The Augustans invent within the Callimachean aesthetic the opportunity to praise their own wo rk or addressee, even if with a little feigned modesty. 59 Horace, for example, addresses his refusa l to write epic poetry in terms of his own inability and lack of epic strength. Horace declares that he will not sing of the deeds of Caesar: . nec sermones ego mallem repentis per humum quam res componere gestas terrarumque situs et flumina dicere et arces montibus impositas et barbara regna tuisque auspiciis totum confecta duella per orbem, claustraque custodem pacis cohibentia Ianum et formidatam Parthis te principe Romam, 58 Typical examples of the Augustan recusatio include Vergil (Ec. 6. 1-8), Horace ( Carm. 1.6, 1.20, 2.12, 4.2), Propertius (2.1, 2.10, 2.15, 3.3), and Ovid ( Ars 1.25-30). For the definitions of the recusatio, see Race (1978), Davis (1991), Lyne (1995), and Johnson (2005). Race (1978) 180-181 comments that the Hellenistic recusatio becomes stylized and sets the standards of genus grande and genus tenue for the Augustans. Race further discusses the conventional vocabulary of a recusatio. Race notes language of personal preference ( me iuvat, odi ), ability ( vires ), external compulsion ( nec patitur, vetuit ), and decorum ( pudor decet, convenit ). 59 Johnson (2005) 48 emphasizes the importance of th e opportunity for poetic self-definition in the recusatio.

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18 si, quantum cuperem, possem quoque; sed neque parvum carmen maiestas recipit tua, nec meus audet rem temptare pudor, quam vires ferre recusent. Epist.2.1.250-259 I would no more place composing my satires, which crawl upon the earth, above speaking of historical events, telling stories of places on the earth an rivers speaking of citadels placed on mountains, and foreign kingdoms, and wars completed throughout the world under your auspices, and Rome feared by the Parthians with you as leader, even if I were able, as much as I would want to sing these; but neither does your majesty allow my small lyric nor does my modesty dare to try this thing which my strength forbids me to undertake. Horace refuses to write grand praise for Caesar and uses Callimachean language in his denial. Horaces small contribution in his lyric genre ( parvum |carmen 257-258) could not do justice to Augustus majesty ( maiestas tua 258). But while Augustus majesty is the very topic which Horace declares too lofty for his earthy poetry, Horace actually praises Augustus deeds in this refusal to sing them ( res gestas 251): Augustus conquered foreign kingdoms ( barbara regna 254) and put an end to wars ( confecta duella 255). Horace has turned his refusal to write encomiastic poetr y for Augustus into an opportunity to praise his deeds. While claiming the Callimachean aesthetic, Horace has incorporated praise for Augustus into his own chosen genre, lyric. So too will Propertius claim that his own slender style is not suitable for grand epic themes when he admonishes Maecenas for asking him to sail too vast a sea. Such grand sails are not fitting for his ship ( quid me scribendi tam vastum mittis in aequor?|non sunt apta meae grandia vela rati 3.9.3-4). 60 Propertius disavowal, however, includes grand praise for Maecenas, Augustus closest comrade ( Caesaris et famae uestigia iuncta tenebis:|Maecenatis erunt uera topaea fides 3.9.33-34). 60 Race (1978) 190. See also Horace 4.15.3-4: ne parva Tyrrhenum per aequor|vela darem. Rutherford (1989) 44 continues, Epic, as often in recusatio provides a foil against which the less ambitious but more creative or thoughtful work that the poet does offer can been seen to best advantage. See also Johnson (2005) 48.

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19 The paradox within the Callimachean poetic vision warns us that when the Augustan poets contrast their own slender style against the grand style of epic poetry, we should not read them from too narrow a point of view. Despite claims of feebleness and lack of vigor, the Augustans continue on from the recuatio and soar in their own genre. 61 For the Augustans, the Callimachean aesthetic remains a paradox of thinness and fatness. 61 Smith (1968) 57.

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CHAPTER 3 POETAE DOCTI: THE CALLIMACHEAN AESTHETIC IN ROMAN LYRIC mhv me tovn ejn Dwdw`ni levgoi movnon ouJvneka calkovn hjvgeiron 1 May he not say I only struck the bronze at Dodona. Callimachus standard of fat sacrifices and slender Muses acts as a lens through which the Roman poets in the first century B. C. look back to archaic Greek epic and lyric as sources of imitation. Catullus and the neoterics embrace and rival the literary standards of Callimachus and the Alexandrians through their poetry, and through the process become estranged from the original spirit of the archaic Greek poets. Horace, however, starts with the Greek lyricists themselves and infuses his poetry with Callimachean standards in order to both imitate and emulate the full potential of lyric poetry. The archaic lyric poets played a key role for early Greek communities by performing hymns for festivals, drinking songs for symposia, and songs centered on the state and politics 2 to the tune of a lyre. 3 Homer and the epic poets had acted as historians for these communities and reinforced the common tradition for the myths and beliefs of the polis. The archaic lyric poets in turn depended on these shared myths and beliefs to create a universality in their hymns and songs that would be performed for 1 Call. fr. 483 Pf. People who were garrulous were said to strike the bronze at Dodona; cf. Trypanis (1978) 252. 2 Williams (1968) 32-33; Segal (1985) 165-166. 3 Miller (1994) 12; Commager (1965) 83. 20

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21 both public and private audiences. 4 But what differentiated epic and lyric song was the self-referentiality afforded to the lyric singer. Archaic lyric poets gain this self-referentiality by appealing to the universality of the polis in terms of the individual. When Archilochus describes hiding his shield in the bushes, for example, we hear the thoughts and emotions from the perspective of the poet himsef (5 W). 5 Archilochus then consoles himself: why do I care about that shield? I ask. I will get another one no worse (tiv moi mevlei ajspi;~ ejkeivnh;|ejrrevtw: ejxau`ti~ kthvsomai ouj kakivw). Whereas Homer might explicitly explain the sharp pain that comes over the hero at this loss or describe him as foolish (nhvpio~) or cowardly (deilov~), Archilochus shows his emotions to his audience. Archilochus threw his shield away in order to save himself, although he hesitated to do so (oujk ejqevlwn). Likewise, Mimnermus discontent at the onset of old age (1 W), Alcaeus joy at Myrsilus death (332 L-P), and Sapphos jealousy at a lovers conversation (31 L-P) equally construct a persona of the poet that is foreign to Homeric epic. In these lyric scenes, the poets describe emotions in intimate personal terms (such as the subtle flame that runs through Sapphos body or the swelling of her tongue) so that the audience can fill in any dramatic gaps with their own experiences and beliefs. 6 Tradition had defined the epic singer in his moment of performance, whereas in performance the Greek lyricists voice and persona 4 Johnson (1982) 54. Johnson (1982) thoroughly examines the universal nature of lyric; see especially his discussions on Greek lyric (29-74). 5 Barron and Easterling (1985) 119; Johnson (1982) 29-30; 72. Miller (1994) 12-19 does not actually consider Archilochus lyric because his voice is heavily influenced by Homer. Miller further denies that archaic Greek lyric poets sing in the poetic I because their voices are inextricable from the polis. Regardless of the level of poetic I in the archaic lyric poems, the point I am trying to emphasize is that the singers still create an un-Homeric persona in terms of the individual against the backdrop of the universal. See Johnson (1982) 82-86 and Harvey (2001) for a discussion on the history of the classification of the Greek lyric poets. 6 Johnson (1982) 72-74.

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22 emerge so that the audience, even at times beyond the poets own era, may construct a picture or notion of the artist himself. 7 As the polis moved from the sixth to fifth centuries, the context of universality changed when philosophers began to question the validity of the tradition set by Homer and the epic poets. During this time, Homer and his world began to drift into the distance and to be replaced by a more studied and systematic atmosphere that tested ideas outside of the world of the polis. 8 The emergence of writing further encouraged and provided the means for individuals to search for explanations outside of the traditional beliefs of the polis. 9 The new focus on the written word shifted the communal experience of public performance into a possibly more private experience within a text itself. 10 The community of the polis gradually shifted from one which shared a common tradition of myths to one in which individuals examined the nature of history and mythology with a rationalist view. Therefore, the universality of the polis moved out of a shared social and political context and into a philosophical, literary context more independent of the community. This new literary universality did not necessarily change the communal nature of lyric poetry, but it did alter the way in which poets would develop their self-referentiality. Like Archilochus and Sappho, Hellenistic lyric poets created polymetric poems in terms 7 Johnson (1982) 29-30; Commager (1965) 83. Lord (1960) 28 stresses the constant emphasis by the singer on his role in the tradition. It is not the creative role that we have stressed for the purpose of clarifying a misunderstanding about oral style, but the role of conserver of the tradition. 8 Johnson (1982) 55; Bing (1988) 12-13. 9 Bing (1988) 12-17. Bing (27-40) describes the changing role of the Muses as the polis transitions from an oral to literary focus. Bing states, books have become the vehicle, at least, of poetic inspiration, if not its equivalent. 10Miller (1994) 122-124; Bing (1988) 17, 37: a person or place can exist wherever one finds a book.

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23 of the individual. But because they could no longer appeal to a social or political commonality, they wrote in terms of the new literary universality. The lyric poet, therefore, became an individual in terms of the written word and operated within a literary self-referentiality. Whereas the oral poetry of the archaic Greek lyric poets by its nature did not allow for extensive self-referentiality from song to song, the new written word allowed poets to allude to the works of others and even to their own works. 11 Poets pushed self-referentiality further and began to reference themselves in terms of how they had already presented themselves. They wrote collections of poems in which the poetic persona reacts with different emotions in different episodes. Reading lyric, then, was no longer a process of transitioning from one episode to another in the way that one could read Homer. Readers had to look beyond the lyric poets persona in one individual episode, and seek greater meaning by keeping in mind the poets persona in the situation before, the present situation, and a possible future situation. The poet thus created a lyric consciousness which revealed a level of individuality and emotion beyond each lyric episode and which was enhanced with each reading of the text. 12 As poets showed an increased interest in developing new expressions of self-referentiality within their own texts, they gradually abandoned the social and political potential of lyric. Poets instead became literary constructs and conscious of their own self-expression and artistry. 13 Lyricists took up positions as objective reviewers of their own work and thus in effect became literary critics. When Apollo comes to Callimachus, 11 Miller (1994) 4-5. 12 I am using Millers terminology. Miller (1994) 1-2 defines lyric consciousness as a projection of a self-reflexive consciousness that shifts, changes, and adds meaning with multiple readings of a literary collection. 13 Johnson (1982) 102.

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24 for example, his instructions are not so much about the power of the Muse, but the vision reveals what qualities the poet prefers in his own art. The poet has become scholar. Rather than speaking to the community of the polis, poets wrote in a highly allusive and erudite style that could only be shared and enjoyed by a more select literary community. 14 The garland of Meleager, Parthenius, and Philodemus, only three of what were no doubt numerous sources, introduced these Hellenistic standards of lyric poetry to the Roman poets, but with varied results and effects on individual arts. 15 Both Catullus and Horace, adopted the literary self-referentiality of Hellenistic lyric into their native Latin tongue. Catullus and the neoterics, however, pushed Hellenistic self-referentiality almost the point of an outright rejection of society. 16 When they did engage the social world, they spoke in a new neoteric language which emphasized their political withdrawal, using traditionally public values such as foedus, fides, and amicitia to express private and personal relationships. 17 Horace, on the other hand, utilized the written word and literary self-referentiality to revive the potential of the lyric poets original social and political referentiality. 14 Johnson (1982) 102 notes that with Callimachus and the new focus of literary referentiality, lyric becomes oblique, learned, derivative. For further reference, see the comments of Bing (1988) 27 and Quinn (1969) 26. 15 Ross (1969) 162. Philodemus was from the Macedonian colony of Gadara and was a student of Zeno; cf. Frank (1920b) 109. Philodemus brought aesthetics of Epicurean philosophy and poetic theory to the Roman poets of the first century B. C. including Vergil, Plotius Tucca, Lucius Varius Rufus, Quintilius Varus, Catullus, and possibly Horace; see Sider (1995) for Philodemus direct influence on the Roman poets. Vergil may have composed a farewell propemptikon (Cat.V) in which he leaves rhetoric for poetry and presumably leaves Rome to study at Naples where Philodemus, along with Siro, was influential; on Vergils early career cf. Frank (1920a; 1920b) and Rutherford (1989). 16 Broege (1976) 171; Miller (1994) 135. 17 Miller (1994) 135; Ross (1969) 80-95; Lyne (1980) 25-26. See also Lynes introduction in which he discusses the institutions of love and marriage in Late Republican Rome.

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25 Catullus and some of his fellow poets inherited the title of neoteric or Poetae Novi from Cicero, 18 and these neoteroi possibly discussed and exchanged poetry between themselves as a type of literary circle. 19 As equestrians, the neoterics (possible members are Catullus, Valerius Cato, Calvus, Cinna, Furius Bibaculus, and Cornificius) were removed from the political obligations of the elite order and naturally became a circle apart from the noble class. 20 As they looked inward to themselves, these poets formed a closed literary circle in which poetry was not written for the polis at large but more for personal exchanges between themselves, the new literary elite. 21 The very idea that Catullus and his contemporaries formed an isolated literary circle comes from Catullus poems themselves. Catullus numerous references to his fellow poets created an on-going literary dialogue within his collection which illuminated Catullus stylistic dictum. Catullus, for example, describes writing lyric with Calvus as they play with poetry in various meters (Hesterno, Licini, die otiosi | multum lusimus in meis 18 Att. 7.2.1, tw`n newtevrwn; Orat. 161, poetae novi; cf. Quinn (1969) 47; Lyne (1978) 167. See also Tusc. 3.45 in which Cicero calls the group cantores Euphorionis; Lyne (1978) 167. Cicero does not identify who might be included in his group of neoterics, nor is it clear if he is being critical of the poetic group. Laughton (1970) 3 concludes that Ciceros remark in Att.7.2.1 is a statement of his own poetic style rather than a criticism aimed at the neoteroi. Lyne (1978) 168, Quinn (1969) 21, and Ferguson (1966) 871-872 argue that Cicero is deprecatory with these remarks, although Quinn and Lyne believe that Cicero is talking to a literary group that proceeds Catullus. According to Seneca, Cicero said that even if he could live his life again he still would not read the lyric poets (Epist.49.5); cf. Johnson (1982) 76. 19 Lyne (1978) 167 identifies the group as a literary circle. The evidence for this is controversial. I prefer Quinn (1969) 48-49 who identifies Catullus interaction with other poets (14, 22, 35, 36, 50, 65, 95, 116) as evidence that there was structured dialogue exchanged between the poets: Catullus own poems make it clear that he was one of a group of poets who shared confidences, aspirations and ideas about poetry and literary criticism. It is also clear that these ideas had a permanent influence on Roman poetry. 20 Miller (1994) 132. 21 Seneca the Elder commented that there were poets who imitated the esoteric language of neoterics in his age: they were mad on the dictionary (ejpi; to; lexico;n maivnontai, Contr. 9.26); cf. Wilkinson (1990) 428 n.82. Quinn (1969) 68 further notes that, firstly, this is hard poetrynot for the general public, but for the lettered lite who have the culture needed to appreciate its subtleties and the enthusiasm for tracking them down. Secondly, it is the poetry of art for arts sake, the poetry of the littrature pure: above all in its most serious productions at the highest level of intent but also in the nugae, the uselessness of which is deliberately emphasized.

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26 tabellis | ut convenerat esse delicatos |scribens versiculos uterque nostrum|ludebat numero modo hoc modo illoc, 50.1-5). The two poets compose little verses (versiculos, 4) at leisure (otiosi, 1). Catullus longs to see and to be with Calvus at once (ut tecum loquerer simulque ut essem, 13) so that they can again compose verses in this ideal poetic situation: light-hearted (delicatos, 3) and away from the crowd. When Catullus addresses his fellow poets in other poems, he reveals the literary standards of this poetic circle, which look back to the highly allusive and erudite lyric of Callimachean and Hellenistic verse. 22 Like Callimachus, Catullus enumerates what is good about poetry in terms of what is bad. Catullus, for example, praises Cinnas Zmyrna in terms of invective against Volusius Annales. 23 He envisions the doom of Volusius collection at Padua (Volusi Annales Paduam morientur ad ipsam, 95.7) and muses over the nice wrapping paper they will provide for fish (et laxas scombris saepe dabunt tunicas, 8). Similar to the poems which babbled on in thousands of lines in Callimachus vision, Volusiuss poems are tumid and not at all like the slender, polished monument of his friend Cinna (parva mei mihi sunt cordi monumenta sodalis;|at populus tumido gaudeat Antimacho, 9-10). This is not the first time that Catullus disparaged Volusius Annales, and the reader here is reminded of Volusius cacata charta (36.1). Catullus thus creates a stylistic dialogue with his fellow-poets in terms of his literary criticism of others. Catullus repeated interplay with his contemporaries throughout his collection 24 created a microcosm of literary criticism which was more distant from the political and social world in which he lived. 22 See poems 65, 66, and 116 for Catullus Callimachean style; cf. Lyne (1978) 183. 23 Lyne (1978) 171: the polemic not only confirms the cohesion of the three candidates for the neoteric school; it may be some guide to the nature of its programme. 24 See also 14, 22, 35, 65, 116; cf. Lyne (1978) 167.

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27 Catullus further constructs a personal microcosm through sophisticated self-referentiality in his Lesbia poems by re-visiting his character as a lover in various situations with his beloved. The reader encounters Catullus infatuated persona as he struggles to define the number of kisses that would satisfy his mad love (5,7). Catullus exaggerates the hundreds and thousands of kisses that he might steal from his lover (da mi basia mille, deinde centum . ., 5.6-9) and emphasizes the whimsical, blissful love that he and Lesbia share. The lovers are cut off from society as they reject the rumors of the more severe old men (rumoresque senum severiorum|omnes unius aestimemus assis, 1-2) and then deceive anyone who would be judgmental as to the extent of their love (aut ne quis malus invidere possit|cum tantum sciat esse basiorum, 11-12). Catullus again uses hyperbole to describe a satisfactory amount of kisses that would satiate himonly as many the are grains of Libyan sands in silphium-bearing Cyrene (quam magnus numerus Libyssae harenae|lasarpiciferis iacet Cyrenis, 7.2). 25 This time he is madly in love (vesano Catullo, 10) and emphasizes his insanity as he worries that curious minds might count the kisses and bewitch the lovers with evil curses (quae nec pernumerare curiosi|possint nec mala fascinare lingua, 11-12). The language of the two poems (basia, 5.7; basiationes 7.1; mille. .centum, 5.7; quot, 7.1) and the hyperboles which Catullus uses to measure the kisses establish a literary link between the episodes. Catullus creates an implicit level of consciousness as the reader sees him on an emotional level in the two separate episodes. When taken in context of the previous poem (5), the reader now sees in poem 7 an almost paranoid pathos in Catullus persona, which focuses on the seclusion and secrecy of the lovers. By considering the similarities in Catullus emotions in the two episodes, the reader also 25 I am progressing through Catullus poems sequentially as we have them in modern collections. It is not clear whether Catullus arranged his poems as we have them today. For a detailed discussion of arrangement, see Wisemans comments in Catulluan Questions (1969).

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28 realizes the extent of Catullus infatuation with Lesbia. If either of Catullus basia poems were considered in isolation, the reader might think that a momentary love enveloped the poet. Catullus, however, created an emotional continuity within the different contexts so that the reader sees his deep infatuation. The depth of the poets self-blinding love for Lesbia adds to the shock of the break-up. Catullus commands himself to stop being silly and to face the facts (Miser Catulle, desinas ineptire|et quod vides perisse perditum ducas, 8.1-2): his girlfriend does not want him anymore (nunc iam illa non vult, 9). Catullus apostrophe both to himself (desinas, 1; obstinata mente perfer, obdura, 11; obdura, 18) and to his absent girlfriend (scelesta, vae te, quae tibi manet vita?|quis nunc te adibit? cui videberis bella? . ., 15-18) demonstrate the emotional process that Catullus goes through in his attempts to deal with the break-up. The audience sees Catullus first dealing with the hurt and then turning to vindictiveness. After telling himself to suck it up, Catullus becomes cruel toward his girlfriend and declares that he will no longer seek her company nor ask about her (nec te requiret nec rogabit invitam, 13). Soon in fact, no one at all will ask after her (at tu dolebis cum rogaberis nulla, 14). By the end of poem 8, Catullus has returned to the same, calm resignation with which he had begun (at tu, Catulle, destinatus obdura, 18). Catullus intense focus on his own emotions in the episode (miser, 1; impotens, 9; obstinata mente, 11; destinatus, 18) and his descriptive language allow the audience insight into his persona so that the reader experiences Catullus rejection with him. Because Catullus empowers his poem with so much descriptive language, his audience can still experience and understand his emotional loss in an isolated reading of the poem. When the poem is read as part of the collection, however, the audience can

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29 see Catullus feelings on a dynamic plane of emotional ups and downs. 26 The unwilling lover is not an isolated moment but a part of Catullus greater design and consciouness. Catullus constructs a literary reference to his former infatuated persona blissfully seeking endless kisses (soles occidere et redire possunt, 5.4; fulsere quondam candidi tibi soles, 8.3) 27 so that the reader, who has experienced the lovestruck Catullus demanding innumerable kisses, confronts Catullus rejection poem with a deeper understanding and sympathy of the break-up. When Catullus later experiences another trying time in his relationship, he only needs to say that I have and I love (85) to bring the reader back to the dynamic of his love lost. 28 The reader re-visits the infatuated Catullus and the rejected Catullus, the kisses, the furtive lovers, and the break-up. This resultant backdrop of feeling against which we read the entire collection establishes Catullus lyric consciousness and allows the poet to actually share his experiences with his audiences. Horace considers the poet who knows only how to sing Catullus and Calvus a primate (simius iste|nil praeter Calvum et doctus cantare Catullum, S.1.10.18-19). Catullus and the neoterics may have successfully brought Callimachean standards of innovation to their poetry, but Horace claims to be the first to return to the primary spirit of lyric song (libera per vacuum posui vestigia princeps, non aliena meo pressi pede, Epist.1.19.21-22). Horace looks beyond his immediate Roman predecessors to the archaic Greek lyricists who drank a substance more potent than water (nulla placere diu nec vivere carmina possunt| quae 26 Wiseman (1985) 137: there are two stages to be borne in mind: that of the first-time reader of the collection, recognising the Lesbia relationship as a major theme and having his insight into it progressively developed as he proceeds; and that of the returning reader, who knows what comes afterwards, and can use his knowledge to pick up cross-references in both directions. I think it is a fair assumption that Catullus hoped for readers who would not be satisfied with going through the collection only once. 27 Catullus reinforces this literary allusion a few lines afterwards (fulsere vere candidi tibi soles, 8.8). 28 Lyne (1980) 52 comments, We share the experience with the poet and thereby come to an intuitive appreciation of often inexpressible things. And that is a richer adventure than being told the expressible.

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30 scribuntur aquae potoribus, Epist.1.19.2-3) and performed songs that could affect and influence the polis. Horace, who is not satisified with the personal context of Catullus nugae, imbues his song with a communal self-consciousness which surfaces repeatedly throughout his lyric collection and which looks back to the original, political and social potency of archaic lyric poetry. In Horaces first ode of his tribiblos, he introduces his poetic dictum: the viewpoint from which he wants the reader to approach his lyric. Horace constructs a Greek setting and through it claims and re-presents the social function of the lyric poet. He begins the song with a dedication to Maecenas: Maecenas atavis edite regibus o et praesidium et dulce decus meum: sunt quos curriculo pulverem Olympicum collegisse iuvat metaque fervidis evitata rotis palmaque nobilis terrarum dominos evehit ad deos; hunc, si mobilium turba Quiritium certat tergeminis tollere honoribus; 1.1.1-8 Maecenas, born from royal ancestors, O my guard and my sweet honor: there are those whom it pleases to have gathered Olympic dust on their chariot; and both the end-posts turned round with eager wheels and the noble palm carries them as masters of the earth to the gods. This one delights, if the crowd of noble Quirites struggles to raise him with triple honors. The song quickly steps into the world of archaic Greek lyric and its meter. 29 The address may be to a noble Roman, but the cadence remains decidedly Greek, signified by the vocative () which like its Greek counterpart (wj`) remains unelided. Horace now borrows the construction of the priamel (sunt quos, 3) from the Greek lyricists when he lists the glories that occupy others and that are outside his own aspirations over the next 29 The meter here is First Asclepiadean. The next eight odes, known as the Parade Odes, are each in a specific meter which establishes Horaces scope of borrowing and rivalry through the metrics. Lowrie (1995) argues that Horace extends this rivalry beyond the metrics of the Parade Odes through 1-18 by invoking individual lyricists themselves.

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31 strophes. 30 Horace extends the Greek setting and metaphor as he describes those for whom it is pleasing to gather Olympic dust on their chariots (3-4) in a distinctly Pindaric style. Horace ends his priamel on an ostensibly Greek tone: me doctarum hederae praemia frontium dis miscent superis, me gelidum nemus Nympharumque leves cum Satyris chori secernunt populo, si neque tibias Euterpe cohibet nec Polyhymnia Lesboum refugit tendere barbiton. quodsi me lyricis vatibus inseres, sublimi feriam sidera vertice. 1.1.29-36 The ivies, prizes of learned minds, mix me with the gods above; the chilly grove and the light choruses of Nymphs with Satyrs seclude me from the people, if neither Euterpe restrains her reed-pipes nor if Polyhymnia fails to tune the Lesbian lyre. But if you enroll me in the lyric canon, I will knock the top of the stars with my head. Groves, their nymphs, the satyrs and their choruses, all joined by the Muses Euterpe and Polyhymnia create a literary celebration that is decidedly Greek. But throughout the party Horace shifts the focus to himself. The repetition of me. . me. . me (29-30; 35), the independence from the Roman crowd (secernunt populo, 32), and the final striking image of Horaces fame reaching the stars (feriam, 36) weave the poet into a Greek world. He becomes inseparable from the Greek images, literally sewing himself within the Greek lines. In the center of his Greek priamel, Horace shifts the setting to Roman themes. Horace is just not looking back to Greek originals, but within this lyric context he will speak to his contemporary Romans in their own language. One man exhalts in being raised into office by his fellow Quirites (7-8), another rejoices in tilling his fathers land 30 For the early Greek priamel, see Sappho 16 L-P; Pindar fr. 221 Schr.; Solon fr.1 D for the Greek priamel; cf. Fraenkel (1957) 232-233; N.-H. (1970) 2-4. For the form of priamel, see Race (1982).

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32 (9-10). Horace continues through the occupations that give others joymerchants, sailors, soldiers, and hunters. Horace has brought his poem out of the Greek literary context into a political context that speaks to the community of Romans. Horace is not merely concerned with a literary aspect of writing Greek verses; Quirinus himself thought he was insane if here merely wanted to re-write Greek poetry (S.1.10.31-35). The Roman community is central to Horaces ode and he avoids isolating his audience from his poetry by directly speaking to them. Horace is not just translating, but transforming lyric by making the Latin lyre assessable in a voice not spoken before (hunc ego, non alio dictum prius ore, Latinus volgavi fidicen, Epist. 1.19.32-33). Thus Horace does not strive to become a mere imitator of the Greek poets by translating verses; he will only be satisfied by becoming equal to the immortalized lyric canon. 31 At the same time that Horace emulates the sources of Greek lyric themselves, he adheres to the Callimachean standards of innovation. Horace imbues his texts with a self-referentiality that establishes his consciouness by speaking in a voice not heard before. Horaces introductory poem (C.1) anticipates the situations and episodes of the rest of the collection so that Horace invites the reader to approach the artistic collection as interplay. 32 After addressing Maecenas, Horace returns to themes of patrons and politics in 1.2 and 1.3: the first to Augustus, the second to another member of the circle, Vergil. When Horace sings to Varro (1.6), the reader is again in the world of patronage 31 The canon of nine lyric poets includes Alcman, Alcaeus, Anacreon, Bacchylides, Ibycus, Pindar, Sappho, Simonides, and Stesichorus (Oxford Classical Dictionary) 900. 32 I agree with Fraenkel (1957) 26 who cautions the reader not to look beyond a single ode for meaning. What I am suggesting is that Horace, following the tradition of lyric, asks us to consider one situation at one time and then at another. When we consider this self-referentiality, we see a transformation of the poet. Consider, for example, the first and last odes of the collection, in which Horace first writes a somewhat modest (even if feigned) wish to be enrolled in the lyric canon (1.1.29-31) and then at last boldly declares that he has surpassed his models and created a more lasting monument (3.30).

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33 and politics. The structure of the priamel foreshadows the Pindaric priamel in 1.7 and the Pindaric motto in 1.12. In addition, the metrical variations of the Parade Odes complement the meter of 1.1. Rather than offering nugae for his readers, Horaces introductory poem establishes his communal consciousness, that Horaces social contexts are never far from his own mind, nor will they be distant from the audiences mind as they move through the collection. I have not overlooked Maecenas. Horace gives his patron the prime position in his lyric collection, and thereby highlights a more select audiencea private literary circle which influenced Horaces poetry. At the same time, Maecenas, the first word in the collection, indicates Horaces principal and foremost concernto be communal. Horatian lyric has political connections. Maecenas and Augustus poets formed a literary circle into which Horace was initiated in 38/37 B. C. 33 The Augustan poets, like the neoterics, adhered to Callimachean standards of literary innovation, 34 and exchanged poetry and creative philosophies between themselves. Unlike the politically withdrawn neoterics, however, Maecenas circle maintained direct contact with Romes political elite. Through their patron, the statesman Maecenas who held such close political ties to Augustus, 35 the poets had the opportunity to directly address matters of public policy. Just as the archaic Greek lyricists engaged and performed a social function for the polis, Horace relies on the political connections of his circle to engage a wider Roman audience. Thus he renews the spirit of the archaic Greek lyric poets, one which engages and performs a social function for the polis. The Greek meter, Pindaric style, and Greek 33 Reckford (1959) 198. 34 See my discussion of the Augustan recusatio in Chapter 1. 35 For Maecenas political career, see Reckford (1959) 195-197; Dalzell (1956) 151-152.

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34 allusions throughout the ode emphasize that Horace looks beyond the neoterics who withdrew from politics to the Greek lyricists who performed an integral role for the polis. Horace confirms the broad and more communal power of the poet with emphatic statements of his poetic program at the end of his second and third books. The lyric poet commands a prophetic and vatic function to such an extent that he defies the narrow strictures of the neoterics. In C.2.20, Horace transcends boundaries: Non usitata nec tenui ferar pinna biformis per liquidum aethera vates neque in terris morabor longius invidiaque maior urbis relinquam. non ego, pauperum sanguis parentum, non ego, quem vocas, dilecte Maecenas, obibo nec Stygia cohibebor unda. 2.20.1-8 I will not fly on an common or slender wing, two-formed through the liquid air, a vates, nor will I be delayed on the lands too long, and I will triumph over the envy of the city. Not I, the son of poor parents, not I, whom you invite, beloved Maecenas, will die, and I will not inhabit the Stygian waves. Horace will not be borne on a common or slender wing (non usitata nec tenui . penna, 2.20.1-2) through the liquid air. The vates (3) will never look upon the Stygian banks (7-8). Rather, he will glide far and wide as a bird (canorus ales, 15-16), visiting the shores of the groaning Bosphorus and the Hyperborean fields (14-16). Horace juxtaposes the broad range of his poetry to the common and slender wing of his opening line and uses Callimachean language (non usitata nec tenui ) to define the stylistic qualities that will bring him immortality. Horace will be original and will reject the narrow project, and give the Callimachean aesthetic a new, communal focus. Horace becomes both the vates and the ales in this poem, biformis (2). Part of him will die, but the other will reach far and wide and never meet the underworlds gloom.

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35 Accordingly in the beginning of the song, the phsyical world takes center stage: air (2) and land (3), patrons (7) and cities (5). At this stage Horaces poetic ego dominates, appearing twice in the first stanza in line-final positions (ferar 1, morabor 3) and within each of the lines of the second stanza (relinquam . ego, 5; ego, 6; obibo, 7; cohibebor, 8). The anaphora iam, iam (9) emphasizes a shift into metaphor: Horaces metamorphosis into the swan. Horace, the person, is reduced to a single passive verb (mutor, 10). Horace as the ales moves into a more eternal and metaphorical state as new rough skin (pelles, 10) and light feathers spring throughout his fingers and toes (leves. . plumae, 11-12). Horace the person now becomes entirely secondary to the imagery of far-off lands and peoples and the realm of the unreal. By the final two stanzas the poet is nearly absent as the poet and appears only as a single me in the fifth stanza. Still, Horaces does not lose himself, but through his poetry he is transformed into a universal and eternal presence. The final addressees of this poem are mourners in a communal moment. In this last stanza, Horace returns to the vatic power of the archaic lyric poet in terms of the social and political community. He instructs the crowd of mourners to stop their grief: absint inane funere neniae luctusque turpes et querimoniae; conpesce clamorem ac sepulcri mitte supervacuos honores. 2.20.21-24 Let your dirges be absent from this empty funeral, and your vile griefs and laments; hold your shouting in check and send away your empty honors from the tomb. Horace quickly shifts from the far-off lands of the Hiber and Rhone to a private moment, and appeals to the crowd in terms of personal grief (luctus, querimoniae). Horace settles on this final impression of the poem and expresses his universal power as a vates in the context of communitythe Roman people. Here he speaks more in the manner

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36 of an archaic Greek poet as he appeals to a universal moment of his polis. By releasing the polis from their grief through his poetry, Horace has asserted the political and social potential of the lyric. Through this power to be influential in even the most personal moments, Horace writes with a timeless relevance that will carry his name and word beyond the Stygian shores. At the end of his second book Horace emphasized the nations far and wide that would read his lyric, and now in the final moment of his first collection he emphasizes the immortality of his achievement: Exegi monumentum aere perenius regalique situ pyramidum altius, quod non imber edax, non Aquilo inpotens possit diruere aut innumerabilis annorum series et fuga temporum. Non omnis moriar multaque pars mei vitabit Libitinam; usque ego postera crescam laude recens, dum Capitolium scandet cum tacita virgine pontifex. Dicar, qua violens obstrepit Aufidus et qua pauper aquae Daunus agrestium regnavit populorum, ex humili potens princeps Aeolium carmen ad Italos deduxisse modos. Sume superbiam quaesitam meritis et mihi Delphica lauro cinge volens, Melpomene, comam. I have built a monument more lasting than bronze and more lofty than the site of the regal pyramids, which neither the devouring storm nor the violent North Wind is able to demolish or the innumerable passings of the years, and the flights of times. I shall not wholly die, and a great part of me will avoid Libitina. Continuously onwards I will grow recent with praise, while the pontifex climbs the Capitoline with the silent virgin. I shall be spoken of, wherever the violent Aufidus roars and wherever Daunus, poor of water, has ruled over the rural peoples; I am rising from my humble start to become powerful, the first to have led Aeolian song to Italian meters. Receive the pride won by my service and willingly wreath my hair with the Delphic laurel, Melpomene. Throughout the poem Horace highlights his role in the lyric tradition as the poet who has created a lasting achievement. Echoes of the bold statement of far-reaching influence

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37 from 2.20 resound through 3.30. Again, Horace boldly declares his prominence in the emphatic first person (exegi monumentum aere perenius, 1). Horace remains the primary focus of the poem as he proclaims that he shall not wholly die, and a great part of him will avoid the shades of death (non omnis moriar multaque pars mei|vitabit Libitinam, 6-7). He himself will grow with praise (ego postera|crescam laude, 7-8) and he will be famed among people far and wide (dicar, qua violens obstrepit Aufidus, 10). Now in this last poem of the collection, Horace defines his monumentum (ex humili potens|princeps Aeolium carmen ad Italos|deduxisse modos, 12-14). Horace frames his achievement on a communal moment as the Pontifex Maximus and Vestal march through the center of his poem. Because Horace has created referentiality in the personal and private moments of the community, as long as the polis stands, the community can reference and identify with his lyrics. Now as Horace reaches prominence in the lyric canon and crowns his head with victorious ivies, Horaces immortality is contigent on the community of the polis. In Horace, lyric poetry has once again become inherently political. He writes according to the Callimachean standards of fat sacrifices and slender Muses, but avoids speaking to an isolated literary community by personalizing communal moments, and Horace himself has achieved eternal vatic status through these personal, communal moments.

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CHAPTER 4 THE FAT LITTLE VERGIL ajmavrturon oujde;n ajeivdw 1 I sing nothing unattested. Horace would be named by peoples far and wide for ages to come because his poetry touched upon universal moments for the community. Yet even when read outside of the immediate political context, readers could experience Horaces lyrics because they are grounded in the personal, human universality. Vergil too strives to achieve this poetic immortality but faces an opposite challenge: transforming epic, an inherently political genre, into a personal setting, which will give him relevance to an audience beyond his own age. Just as Horace bypassed his immediate predecessors in favor of archaic Greek models, Vergil seeks inspiration from the masterHomer. Vergil imitates Homeric language and style to fatten his poetic sacrifice and narrates in episodic elements which keep his Muse slender. Vergil further adopts the bards vatic role as he narrates the history of his Roman people against the backdrop of the Greek epic tradition. Vergil explicitly states his allegiance to Homer in the proem to his epic. Scholarship has noted that Vergils proem follows the proemia of Homers epics in structure. 2 Closer analysis shows thematic parallels in the construction of the epic hero, 1 Call. fr. 612 Pf. 2 For the structure of the Aeneid and its relationship to the Iliad and Odyssey, see Heinze (1903); Williams (1968); Knauer (1964a), (1964b), (1990); Cairns (1989); Farrell (1991); Perkell (1999). 38

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39 the journey, and the invocation to the Muse. Vergils first words arma uirumque follow the theme-first convention used by Homer. 3 Vergil next references the poetic voice ( cano ) and then continues into a narratio concerning the deeds of the hero (2-4). 4 Homer identified Zeus and Apollo as adverse deities, 5 and Vergil now points to Juno (4) as the antagonistic goddess who drives his hero to suffer. This queen of the gods immediately returns into the narrative as the source of conflict for the hero ( dolens regina deum, 9) and forces him to undergo endless labors (10-11). Vergil alerts the audience to his imitation by citing precise titles: arma ( Iliad ) and uirum ( Odyssey ). 6 Vergil begins with the Iliad. Although the three heroes in the proemia each suffer at the hands of the gods, both Achilles and Aeneas face adversity as a direct result of the god ejx ouJ` (6) and ob iram (4). Furthermore, both the proemia of the Iliad and the Aeneid end with the renaming of the hero: di`o~ jAcilleuv~ (7) and insignem pietate (10) However, the opening lines to the Aeneid parallel the proem to the Odyssey more closely than the proem to the Iliad Vergils vir mirrors Homers avjnhr In the Iliad the wrath of the hero is the subject, but in both the Odyssey and the Aeneid the poet tells the story of the man himself. After the hero is introduced by a relative clause ( o{~ mavla polla; ,1; qui primus ab oris 1), Vergils vir is thrown ( iactatus 3) just as Homers hero is knocked about ( plavgcqh 2). Both heroes suffer the forces of nature: the avjnhr suffers 3 Perkell (1999) 29. In comparison, both the Iliad ( mhvnin ) and the Odyssey ( ajvndra ) begin with the subject of the epic. 4 After the invocation in the Iliad, Homer sings the deeds of Achilles who brought innumerable sufferings upon the Achaeans (2), sent many stout-hearted souls to Hades (3-4), and left the bodies of heroes behind as loot for dogs and birds (4-5). See Weber (1987) 270 for further metrical allegiance to the Iliad Similarly in the Odyssey, Homer describes the deeds of Odysseus in a narratio following the invocation: he destroyed the holy city of Troy (2); he saw and learned of many cities and the mindset of men (3). 5 Diov~ ( Il.1.5); Lhtou`~ kai; Dio;~ uiJov~ (1.9); JUperivono~ jHelivoio (Od. 1.8). 6 This analysis largely confirms Cairns (1989).

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40 many toils on the sea ( polla; d oJv g ejn povntw/ pavqen 4), while Vergils vir is tossed about on land and on sea, and suffers also much in war ( multa quoque et bello passus 5). Furthermore, this avjnhr and vir suffer at the hands of deities, just as Zeus directed the course of the wrath in the Iliad (5). The avjnhr and vir struggle against this adverse god toward a final goalone to secure his own safe return, the other to found a city. At the end of both proemia, the poets have introduced two men, both still unnamed, both the leaders of men, and both struggling to accomplish a mission. Vergil extends his imitation beyond the proem and often quotes from the Iliad and the Odyssey as he narrates his Roman epic. Aeneas first speech, in fact, quotes Odysseus speech when he laments his own fated wanderings. Such imitations launch a pattern of verbal reminiscences between the Aeneid and its Homeric predecessors. Both Aeneas and Odysseus cry out, three and four times blessed are those who died at wide Troy ( tri;~ mavkare~ Danaoi; kai; tetravki~, oi} tovt ojvlonto | Troivh/ ejn eujreivh/ Od. 5.306-7; o terque quaterque beati, | quis ante ora patrum Troiae sub moenibus altis | contigit oppetere! 1.94-96). 7 As leaders, Odysseus and Aeneas express comfort to their companions who suffer the wanderings with them in the same words: O companions, we are not ignorant of hardships ( w\ fivloi, ouj gavr pwv ti kakw`n ajdahvmonev~ eijmen, 12.208; O socii (neque enim ignari sumus ante malorum) 1.198). 8 Vergil even leaves the reader at the end of his epic with a Homeric paraphrase as Turnus life leaves its chilled limbs and slips into the shades below ( yuch; d ejk rJeqevwn ptamevnh jAidovsde bebhvkei | oJ;n povtmon govwsa, lipou`s ajndroth`ta kai; hJvbhn, Il. 16.656-7; ast illi soluuntur frigore membra 7 Clausen (1966) 77-79; Pschl (1962) 26. 8 Pschl (1962) 26.

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41 |uitaque cum gemitu fugit indignata sub umbras, 12.951-2). 9 Through Vergils imitation the Homeric models are never far from the audiences mind so that they read the Aeneid as an extension of the Homeric tradition. Vergils allegiance to Homer includes structure, which effects the basic plot-lines of his epic. Vergil condenses the events of the Iliad and Odyssey into his narrative. 10 Just as Circe and Calypso detained the Odyssean hero, for example, the African queen Dido delays Aeneas from reaching his homeland. Aeneas and the Trojans hold funeral games for Anchises in the same manner that the Greeks celebrate games for Patroclus ( Il. 23.226-897). Both the Odyssean hero and Vergilian hero visit the underworld and meet warriors and family members from their past ( A. 6, Od .11). Vergils narration of battle scenes, enumerations of aristeiai, and descriptions of councils of gods enhance his imitation of Homeric plots and situate the trials of Aeneas deep within the Homeric tradition. Vergil thus reasserts his Homeric inspiration on multiple levels of narrative, from plot lines to the language itself. Vergils loaded introduction arma uirumque anticipates the Homeric structure of his narrative. Vergil conceives the first half of the Aeneid as the Odyssey and the second half as the Iliad 11 The introductory uirumque and the narratio on the deeds of Aeneas reinforce the first half as Odyssean, while the second invocation at the beginning of 9 Harrison (1971) 166. 10 This argument is confirmed in Knauer who writes th e definitive analysis of the similaries in Homeric and Vergilian plot lines in die Aeneis und Homer (1964a). See also his article Vergils Aeneid and Homer (1990) and Heinzes work Virgils epische Technik (1903). 11 Duckworth (1962) 11 extensively outlines the various structural patterns of the Aeneid He notes the bipartite structure of the two halves and also examines a tri-partite division of the books, which is again reinforced by allusion in the opening scenes of the Aeneid (1.1-96). The mention of Carthago and the description of the old city (1.13-22) symbolizes the first third of the book (1-4: Aeneas at Carthage and Dido). Jupiters prophecy (1.257-296) foreshadows the second third of the book (5-7: Latium, preparation for war, Romes history and destiny). Finally, the Furor impius (1.294) anticipates the last third of the book, which concentrates on the wars and battles themselves.

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42 Aeneid 7 ( A. 7.37-44) marks the halfway point and the transition to the Iliad 12 Vergil does not adapt the whole of the Odyssey, but rather, as Knauer notes, extracts only the parts of Odysseus epilogoi which are important to his own narrative. 13 Therefore, Vergil does not merely imitate the language or themes of Homer, he imitates the actual compositional methods of the epic bard. Just as Vergil borrowed select parts of the Homeric tradition, Homer borrowed select parts from the oral tradition. 14 Thus Vergil does not rewrite or reinvent Homer, but uses his epics as a spring-board for his own epic. In his imitation Vergil alludes to parts of the Homeric texts and allows Homer and the tradition to speak. As Aeneas and his men wander closer to Italy, they skim by the mythical monsters Scylla and Charybdis (3.554-560). Because Vergils audience of contemporary Romans would not readily believe that the historical Aeneas would encounter such fanciful creatures, Vergil only allows Aeneas to hear the monsters from afar ( audimus longe fractasque ad litora uoces 3.556). 15 Vergils Aeneas grazes past the shores of the Cyclops and again only sees the mythic al creatures from a distance (3.655-661). Vergil keeps Aeneas struggles and narrative as the primary focus, and we see Homers 12 Duckworth (1962) 3-10. Anderson (1957) discusses Vergils imitation of the Iliad in the second half of the book in depth. He argues that Vergils Trojans ev olve from a race of defeat and actually succeed the role of the Greeks as the victorious race. Anderson (27-30) further argues that Vergil works through the events of the last half of his epic so that Troy and the Trojans actually fall ( occidit, occideritque sinas cum nomine Troia 12.828), which is necessary for Rome to rise again. 13 Knauer (1990) 397-401. 14 Arist. Po .1456a.36-54; 1459a-1459b. Aristotle cautions poets to keep their plot lines manageable by selecting only certain aspects of the tradition. Ar istotle observes that Home r himself selects only the important parts of the tradition and does not retell ev ery aspect of the Trojan War, but sings only of the struggles of two heroes. Vergil constructs his poem to be read in the same way. See also the comments of Heinze (1903) 3-4, Otis (1963) 36, and Papanghelis (1999) 275-279. 15 Papanghelis (1999) 277-290: sailing too close to this particular Homeric coast is not an option for the Virgilian text: the Aeneid comes close enough to Odysseus fantas y world to catch its echobut it will not be drawn into it. Vergil treats Aeneas enco unter with the Sirens in a similar fashion.

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43 world only from a distance. Vergil interweaves his own narrative with the scenes of the Homeric story and then allows his audiences familiarity with the tradition to fill in the gaps. The audience brings their own literary awareness and their experiences to the text, and thus they interact with Vergils narrative, supplying their own knowledge when Vergil withholds his. Vergil fattens his work with Homeric references but he keeps his Muse slender in the same manner as Homer by composing in episodes. The ancient vitae state that Vergil wrote the episodes of his narrative first without regard to chronology or development of the narrative. 16 Only then did he sew the episodes together into a united narrative. 17 Vergil therefore divides the whole of his narrative into episodic components such as Aeneas arrival at Carthage, Didos death, and Aeneas descent to the underworld. 18 The episodes focus on a particular scene, narrative, or dramatic event of the epic which could be read separately from the main narrative. 19 The result of Vergils episodic manner of composition is that the audience experiences the entire narrative as a series of brief events. Vergil thus achieves a brevitas which keeps his audience actively involved at each transition. 16 Suet. Vit .94-96R; cf. Quinn (1968) 73. 17 Duckworth (1962) 1; Quinn (1968) 72-73. Quinn breaks the Aeneid into 167 episodes of two types: one which expresses a well deve loped coherent structure that is esse ntial to narrative; the other which is less coherent and provides a link to the first type of Episode. 18 Heinze (1903) 348. 19 Heinze (1903) 210 argues that Vergil s epic was written to be sung, an d thus the individual components of the narrative had to be short enough to be read at one sitting, but relevant enough to the main plot that the listeners could keep in mind th at they were hearing only one part of the entire epic. Bowra (1966) 5356 divides oral (which he terms auth entic) and literary epic according to various criteria, including the use of episodes. In authentic epic, he observes, episod es are not as tightly woven and focus only on necessary elements. In literary epics such as the Aeneid it is Vergils prerogative to pack each line with as much significance as possible, to make each word do its utmost work and to secure that careful attention which the reader, unlike the listener, can give.

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44 Vergil can surprise the reader with each episodic turn, but he keeps the focus of each of his episodes solidly on the action and goal of the Aeneid Aristotle praises episodes because they allow the audience to experience the action of the epic in terms of multiple tragic moments of role reversal, recognition, and suffering. 20 But Aristotle warns against writing an entirely episodic narrative in which each episode has no relevance to the poem as a whole. 21 Vergil carefully interweaves the drama and action of each episode into the action of the main narrative. When Aeneas first visits Carthage, for example, he marvels at the sight of the rising city (1.418-440). Aeneas sees the parts of the city which were once huts ( magalia 421) turn into structures of civilization: walls (423), a citadel (424), gates (427) and a th eater decked with huge columns (427-428). Amid his wonder and amazement, Aeneas cries out, O they are fortunate whose walls already rise! ( O fortunati, quorum iam moenia surgunt, 437). The lengthy descriptions of Carthages rising city and Aeneas words bring us back to the action of the very beginning of the epic ( atque altae moenia Romae 1.7). Aeneas focuses his attention on Carthage, but the struggle to found his citythe purpose of his questis the prominent theme of the episode. Here in Carthage Aeneas first dared to hope for a better future for his men ( hic primum Aeneas sperare salutem|ausus 1.451-452) but his hope soon turns sour. As Vergil describes Didos consuming grief and pain, he does not allow the focus of the episode to become fixed too exclusively on Dido, but rather Vergil demonstrates his preoccupation with the events of the main narrative. After Mercury commands Aeneas to quit his delays and return to the fulfillment of his destiny (4.265-276), Vergil describes Didos 20 Arist. Po. 1459b.1-6; 1459a.7-17. 21 Arist. Po. 1451b.48-55.

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45 distress in a frenzy of furor that overwhelms the narrative of Aeneas visit to Carthage. Rumor brings the news of Aeneas departure to the queen who rages through her city like a Bacchant (300-304). She has been utterly deserted and left with no remnant of Aeneas, not even a child that would console her in her distress ( si quis mihi paruulus aula|luderet Aeneas, qui te tamen ore referret,|non equidem omnino capta ac deserta uiderer 328330). Vergil progressively directs the scene toward Aeneas who is preparing his fleet for departure. Aeneas, however, is enveloped in concerns for the grieving queen as he considers how he might console her ( At pius Aeneas, quamquam lenire dolentem|solando cupit et dictis auertere curas 393-394). As the Trojans burden their ships with supplies for their journey, Vergil interrupts and speaks directly to Dido who oversees the actions of the Trojans: What feelings did you have Dido, as you look upon these things? What groans did you keep giving? ( quis tibi tum, Dido, cernenti talia sensus ,| quosve dabas gemitus 408-409). Dido and her grief pervades the sequence of events, but in her last outburst of emotion, the moment belongs to the Trojans. Didos frenzy concludes in a curse against the Trojan race: nullus amor populis nec foedera sunto. exoriare aliquis nostris ex ossibus ultor qui face Dardanios ferroque sequare colonos, nunc, olim, quocumque dabunt se tempore uires. litora litoribus contraria, fluctibus undas imprecor, arma armis: pugnent ipsique nepotesque. 4.624-629 May there be no love or treaties for your people. May there be an avenger to rise from our bones who will follow the Dardanian colonists with sword and firebrand, now, once and at whatever time strength will give itself. I beg for shores against shores, waves against wa ves, arms against arms. May they and their descendants fight. In the end, Didos rage has culminated in a curse that adds to the suffering and toil of the Trojans and their descendants, Vergils Romans. Vergil takes us back to

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46 Aeneas buffered about on the sea by Junos storms, to the battles already suffered at Troy, and looks ahead to the battles that await the Trojans in Italy and the Carthaginian wars. Dido in her maddened state will speak her last words in a resolute prayer to the shades of death ( dulces exuuiae 651), and thus Vergil has hinged the episodes climax of emotion on the burden which he placed on Aeneas and his men at the beginning of his epic ( tantae molis erat Romanam condere gentem 1.33). 22 Vergil has included within the main narrative of Aeneas journey the collapse of another exile and her city. Within the episode, however, the audience never loses sigh t of the greater context of the narrative so that the individual episodeand others like it,such as those with Evander (8), Nisus (9), and Aeneas shield (8)maintains the brevity of the narrative and at the same time adds depth and meaning to the greater themes of the epic. Vergil has thus not only imitated Homer, but he has become the Homeric bard. Vergil validates his epic as history by sewing his narrative deep within a Homeric context. Simultaneously he maintains credibility with his contemporary audience by selecting only relevant parts of the Homeric tradition and only alluding to less relevant mythologies so that the reader actively participates in the narrative and interprets what is left unsaid. Vergil achieves brevity through his shifting episodic narrative but fattens his Muse through the dramatic events of each episode. Even at the most basic level of these episodes, we see Vergils greater design: to work through the toils and sufferings that were necessary to found the Roman race. Vergil hoists the history of his people on his 22 We can see Vergils focus on the goal of his narrative in comparison to the later novelist Petronius. As Schmeling (1991: 358-359; 358 n. 22) notes, when Petronius alludes to the Dido and Aeneas episode in his Satyricon he is able to surprise and redirect the actions of his characters and the plot itself. In Vergils case, however, tradition and the inevitabilit y of his ending dictate the cour se of the narrative. Schmeling continues, the story of Dido and Aeneas moves inev itably from its beginning to its clearly predestined conclusion. . .Virgil lives under the constant anxiety of the ending of Aeneas story.

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47 shoulders and carries epic out of the disparagement of Callimachus criticisms to establish a completely revitalized tradition.

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CHAPTER 5 THE LITTLE FAT VERGIL a[kapna ga;r aije;n ajoidoiv quvomen 1 For we singers always sacrifice unburned offerings (to the Muses). Propertius announces Vergils Aeneid as a grand birth: Give way Roman and Greek authors, something greater than the Iliad is being born! (cedite Romani scriptores, cedite Grai!|nescio quid maius nascitur Iliade, 2.34b.65-66). Vergil has accomplished more than fattening his text with a Homeric voice, he has made the epic voice his own. 2 As Vergil looks back to the original master, he does not forget the standards of innovation set by Callimachus nor does he ignore the literary programs of his immediate literary circle. Like Horace, the most notable lyricist of this circle, Vergil exploits the self-referentiality that a literary text allows and concentrates the greater focus of his narrative into recurring personal moments. On a literary level we read Vergils Aeneid within a Homeric context, but Vergil turns his narrative inward with a personal, lyrical focus so that we experience his poem on a universal, communal level. Vergils opening themes of arms and men deeply embed the reader in a Homeric context. Structural and compositional elements throughout the Aeneid reinforce this Homeric imitation. But Vergil sings cano, an entirely un-Homeric disavowal of the 1 Call.fr. 494 Pf.; cf. Trypanis (1975) 257. 2 Clausen (1964a) 142: As Clausen notes, Vergil is most himself, most Roman, when imitating Homer or some other Greek poet, as if he were then most conscious of his own individuality. 48

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49 Muses as inspiration. 3 Vergil projects a greater individualism in his voice than Homer who uses imperative invocations to his Muse to begin each of his epics ( mh`nin ajveide, qea; Il .1.1; jvAndra moi ejvnnepe, Mou`sa, Od .1.1). Homer immediately presents himself as the bard through which the Muses sing. Vergils Muse, however, must wait eight lines before Vergil will call upon her for inspiration ( Musa, mihi causas memora 8). Musa remains first in the line, but mihi directly follows and undercuts the power of the invoked Muse. Furthermore, Vergil does not ask his Muse to sing or speak through him; rather, he asks her only to remind him ( memora 8). 4 Vergil reinforces the poets control of the narrative in his invocation for the second half of the Aeneid Vergil calls upon Erato to come, give ear, while he himself tells of the wars that have come upon Italian shores ( Nunc age, 5 qui reges, Erato, quae tempora . expediam, et primae revocabo exordia pugnae 7.37, 40). The Muse as inspiration is absent from this invocation as the reader first encounters the poets ego, expediam (40), which is reinforced by the elision ( expediam et) that moves the line swiftly to reuocabo (40). Vergil actually takes over for himself the role of memory which he had previously assigned to the Muse ( Musa, mihi causas memora 1.8), and with reuocabo Vergil does not relinquish control: I will revive the memory of things. 6 3 Miller (1986) argues that the disavowal of the divine Muse is programmatic as seen through invocations by Propertius, Ovid, and Persius. Vergil is not the fi rst to sing in the first person. Williams (1968) 36-37 lists instances of the first person invocation by A pollonius, Callimachus, and Theocritus. Kopff (1981) 927-944 argues that the invocation in the Little Iliad (cf. Hor.Ars 136-137) provided the model for Vergils epic and describes other parallels between the two epic s. Vergils disavowal of a Homeric Muse is more than a claim to the first person but is a signifier of a consciousness that Vergil will develop throughout his epic. 4 Clausen (1964a) argues that Vergils use of memora is a literary allusion. He expl ains that Vergils appeal to the Muse is not an appeal to the trad ition but to the specific Homeric texts. 5 This use of age gives a colloquial feel to the address, which differs from the formal structure of Homers invocations. Williams (1968) 738 cites other colloquial instances of age, such as Mercurys speech to Aeneas ( heia age, rumpe moras 4.569) and Charons speech to Aeneas ( fare age, qui uenias, iam instinc, 6.389). 6 Oxford Latin Dictionary 13b: to recall to mind; revive the memory of.

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50 Vergils first words arma uirumque cano encapsulate his poetic program, which the bard then revives and enhances throughout his text. 7 His subject will be an Iliad and Odyssey but he himelf will sing it. Vergil imbues his text with a Horation referentiality and introduces the reader to a degree of self-referentiality not found in Homer, a type of lyric consciousness. Just as Horace introduced his poetic program for the tribiblos in his opening song, Vergil begins with a condensed program of how he will write his epic. He operates from this program throughout his narrative so that the reader perceives in each episode a poetic intent and consciouness that looks back to the poets own plan, cano Vergils opening lines anticipate the forthcoming action of the poem and establish a pattern of referentiality that the oral nature of the Homeric epics did not allow. 8 When Vergil describes Carthage, Jupiters prophecy, and the impius furor that awaits Aeneas, he establishes a foundation for his epic that readers will work from and look back to as they progress through the ep ic. After the invocation, Vergil physically places Carthage opposite Italy ( Karthago, Italiam contra, 1.13) and at length details the city and Junos intense protection of its peoples (1 2-18). After Juno has scattered his fleet on the sea, Aeneas beaches his ships on the shores of this same Carthage (1.305). Vergil does not remind us of Junos fierce protection of the city and her queen Dido, but we recall her devotion from the opening lines. Vergil again asks us to recall Junos 7 Vergils declaration of a poetic program in the first lines of his poem is a weighty construction. Weber (1987) 262-267 notes the rare metrical pattern of the opening three words (trochee + amphibrach + iamb). Weber, citing Catullus 64 in which the poet uses a neoteric vocabulary to present his poetic genre, also notes the importance of the incipit to poets as an opportunity for poetic statement. The opening lines provide occasion for poets to state how they one day wa nt to be quoted. We might consider Horaces use of his Greek models in the motto construction, in which he begins wi th a quote from an earlier Greek lyric (e.g. Carm .1.1.4, 1.12, 1.16, 1.18, and 1.37). Feeney (1993) 44 notes that this construction is a mark of homage both to his poetic models and to th e scholars who had catalogued them under the incipit and it is a self-referential anticipation of how he himself w ill one day be cited. We might thus consider Vergils incipit as Iliad (arma ), Odyssey ( uirum), me ( cano ). 8 Both Pschl (1962) 13-32 and Duckworth (1962) 1-11 note and expand upon this literary and symbolic referentiality in Vergils opening lines.

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51 motivations from the previous episodes when the goddess plans a marriage for Dido and Aeneas (4.92-104) and initiates the strife that will alienate Carthage from Italy. Carthage is now in reality against Italy, and when the Sibyl sings of horrible wars that await Aeneas and his men (6.86), Vergil brings us back to these opening lines. Simultaneously he casts our thoughts forward to the Italian wars which await us in his epic and the Carthaginian wars which await the actual Roman race. 9 Vergil again references his own work when Jupiter prophesizes the ultimate outcome of Aeneas journey. The prophesy naturally functions as a literary device to foreshadow forthcoming trials, but Vergil also achieves self-referentiality on a symbolic level. As Jupiter enumerates the prominent descendents of Aeneas such as Ascanius (1.267-271), Romulus (273-282), and Augustus (283-288), he symbolically reviews Roman history and its heroes from past to present (6.756-892). Jupiter tells his daughter Venus that Faith, Vesta, and Romulus and Remus will bring laws to Aeneas race so that the twin gates of war will close ( cana Fides et Vesta, Remo cum fratre Quirinus|iura dabunt; dirae ferro et compagibus artis|claudentur Belli portae, 1.292-294). Vergil directly references monuments which frame the Roman forum: the temple to Fides on the Capitoline, the temple to Vesta in the forum, and the gates of Janus. 10 The physical monuments symbolically anticipate Aeneas arrival into Latium and his tour through Evanders city ( A. 8). Lastly, Jupiter prophesizes that an impious furor will rage inside these gates of Janusthe gods hands tied behind his back and his mouth bloodied (1.294-296). The 9 Cf. Pschl (1962) 15. Pschl (1324) examines multiple levels of sy mbolic unity within the first three hundred lines of the Aeneid, which encompass wars, politics, history, and mythology. 10 For the location of the temples, see the entr ies in Steinby (1993), Richardson (1992), and the Oxford Classical Dictionary The location of the temple of Janus and the gate is dubious, but we know that the gate played a role in the triumphal route which took victor ious Roman generals through the forum; see also R. D. Williams (1972) 182-183.

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52 furor foreshadows more than the Italian wars themselves but the wrath and violent passion which drive the soldiers and heroes all the way through to the conclusion of Vergils epic ( furiis accensus 12.946). Vergil symbolically anticipates the events of his narrative so that as an audience we no longer approach the episodes in a linear fashion, but rather we consider how episodic scenes work on a symbolic level towards the goal of the main narrative. Within arma uirumque cano, Vergil creates a symbolic referentiality not found in the Iliad and the Odyssey. Thus the tradition, a specifically Homeric tradition, to which Vergil is inextricably and avowedly bound becomes a foundation into which Vergil inserts his lyric consciousness. The rich epic context of these Homeric scenes allows Vergil to write as a lyric poet, with referentiality, deictic emotions, and universal appeal in terms of the personal. The differences between the first speeches of Odysseus and Aeneas as stranded warriors on the open sea indicate how Vergil will give his episodes dramatic, emotional levels of feeling in terms of personal suffering. Vergil gives us glimpses of Aeneas reacting on an emotional level in different situations so that as we progress through the text we form an awareness of Aeneas inner thoughts and emotions. We begin to see Aeneas in terms of a complex emotional context rather than an individual reacting to an isolated episode, which in turn allows us to reconsider Aeneas each time we encounter him in a new situation. The contrasting motivations of Odysseus and Aeneas become apparent when Aeneas speaks his first words, which quote Odysseus lament. Both heroes appeal to the gods and curse their fates, but Aeneas shows a deeper emotional concern for his people entirely absent from his counterpart Odysseus. The two cry out: tri;~ mavkare~ Danaoi; kai; tetravki~, oi} tovt ojvlonto Troivh/ ejn eujreivh/ cavrin jAtrei?dh/si fevronte~.

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53 wJ~ dh; ejgwv g o[felon qanevein kai; povtmon ejpispei`n h[[mati tw/` o{te moi plei`stoi calkhvrea dou`ra Trw`e~ ejpevrriyan peri; Phlei?wni qanovnti. tw` k e[lacon kterevwn, kaiv meu klevo~ h\gon jAcaioiv: nu`n dev me leugalevw/ qanavtw/ ei{marto aJlw`nai. Od. 5.306-312 Three and four times blessed are the Danaans who, giving help to the sons of Atreus, died there in wide Troy. Thus I wanted to die and to fall to my fate on that day when more Trojans who were gathered around the dying Achilles hurled their bronze-tipped spears at me. Then I would have obtained proper funeral rites and the Acheans would bear my fame. But now it is fated that I wander until my mournful death. terque quaterque beati, quis ante ora patrum Troiae sub moenibus altis contigit oppetere! o Danaum fortissime gentis Tydide! mene Iliacis occumbere campis non potuisse tuaque animam hanc effundere dextra, saevus ubi Aeacidae telo iacet Hector, ubi ingens Sarpedon, ubi tot Simois correpta sub undis scuta uirum galeasque et fortia corpora uoluit! 1.94-101 Three and four times blessed are those who chanced to fall before the faces of their fathers under the high walls of Troy! O Diomedes, most brave of the Greek race! O that I was not able to fall on the Ilian battlefields and pour forth this soul by your right hand, where fierce Hector lies killed by the spear of Achilles, where huge Sarpedon lies dead, where the Simois has rolled over so many shields and has seized under its waves the helmets and brave bodies of men! Both heroes rather unheroically cry out in their frustration and wish that they would have escaped the present trial by dying at Troy. Odysseus wishes that he had been among those warriors fighting for Agamemnon and Menelaus, who fell on Troys plain (306-7). He yearns to have died and met his lot (308) while the Trojans were attacking him ( moi 309). Then the Achaeans would honor his fame ( meu klevo~ 311). But these things did not happen, and Odysseus fears he will suffer a miserable death at sea (312). His own lot, his own burial, and his own fame consume Odysseus thoughts as he laments his fate.

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54 As Aeneas cries out, he at first quotes Odysseus word for word: three and four times blessed!, but by the end of his speech his worries move beyond his own fate to the fate of his Trojan comrades. Although Aeneas speech closely parallels that of Odysseus in structure (a relative clause and infinitive constructions), Troiae emphatically placed at the center of its line is a heavy word for Aeneas who yearns to have died under the high walls of his homeland. Aeneas life takes on meaning because it is always in relationship to his community, Troy. Whereas Odysseus and his comrades fought for two foreign leaders, Aeneas and the Trojans battled for their homeland and lost. To have died at Troy would have been to die before the faces of parents ( ante ora patrum, 95). Troy, mentioned by name now for the fifth time in the first one hundred lines, is the central locus of meaning for Aeneas and his men: Troy produced offspring that would overturn Carthage ( Troiano a sanguine duci 1.19), Juno had waged war for the Greeks against the Trojans (ad Troiam pro caris gesserat Argis 1.24) and she had scattered them on the sea ( iactatos aequore toto | Troas 1.29-30). Most importantly, Aeneas suffers exile from this Troy: ( Troiae . fato profugus 1.1-2). 11 From this Troy Aeneas first took his father, son, and Penates, and at this very point the fates burdened him with the fate of his people. In personal terms, Aeneas appeals to the universality of suffering. Aeneas only touches lightly upon his own near death at Troy by evoking Diomedes, the bravest of the race of Danaus who almost killed him (97). 12 The form of apostrophe brings the lament into a more universal context and differs from Odysseus wish to have died on the battlefield, a more individualistic focus which is emphasized with a first person verb 11 Troiae in line 1 also holds central position. Both inst ances are in the third foot following a caesura. 12 Il.5.297-313; R. D. W illiams (1972) 168.

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55 ( o[felon 308) and pronouns ( ejgw v 308; moi 309). On the other hand, Vergil introduces us to Aeneas so that we experience the inner thoughts of the communal hero who bears the weight of the Trojan race ( genus unde Latinum| Albanique patres atque altae moenia Romae, 1.6-7). Aeneas grief for Hector (99) and the men whom the Simois rolled under its waves (100-101) generalize his speech in terms of Trojan loss and suffering, rather than the personal loss of burial rites and klevo~ which Odysseus laments. The reader pities the hero Aeneas who has suffered but in terms of what the Trojan race itself has lost. 13 Instead of enumerating the ways he wishes to have died at Troy and the cost that it would have been to his own heroic stat us, Aeneas personal grief and worry is shown through his pain and suffering for all the Trojans. Aeneas personal voice appeals to the universal, a lyric moment embedded within an entirely epic, Homeric context. At the same time that Vergil repeatedly steeps the reader in a Homeric context, he inserts his own poetic voice by asking the reader to reconsider the situation in a Roman context, presented and strengthened by the singer Verg il. Vergil, after delaying any action from the hero for ninety lines, points the reader back to the first reference to Aeneas. As we experience the Aeneas stranded on the sea, we recall the Aeneas of the proem who will suffer until he establishes his gods in his city ( dum conderet urbem | inferretque deos Latio 1.56). Aeneas here too differs from Odysseus who is driven by a personal motivation to return home ( novston 1.5; novstimon h\mar 1.9). Aeneas, on the other hand, suffers for his city ( urbem 1.5) and his race ( genus, 6). The reader hears Aeneas outcry within this context and gains an emotional perspective that enhances the depth of Aeneas speech. 13 Pschl (1962) 53: Homers heroes suffer through lov e of self in the high Aristotelian sense. And Vergils other protagonists, Dido and Turnus, suffer in a similar way; but Aeneas suffers for the sake of others.

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56 Writing emotive narrative alone does not set Vergil apart from Homer nor does it make him lyrical. It is the fact that he brings his audience back to these moments of personal grief again and again throughout the narrative so that the reader actually experiences Aeneas emotions as Aeneas at one time laments his fate as a hero lost at sea, at another time mourns over those lost in the wars when he gazes upon the Daedalean doors (6.14-41), and at another time pities the death of his comrades son (11.29-63). Through the course of the Aeneid the reader considers Aeneas in terms of his emotional reactions as well as his actions themselves. These scenes cause the audience to revisit Aeneas in different contexts, and ultimately bring the reader back to the Aeneas of the proem who bears the fate of his race. It is this self-consciousness, a course directed by the will of the singer, that sets the Aeneid into a lyric mode. Vergil colors his epic with these personal, more intimate moments so that readers develop a familiarity with Aeneas character throughout his text. Vergil only needs to touch upon certain aspects of Aeneas character to trigger the readers own consciouness. Vergil does not always need to explicitly explain particular reasons behind Aeneas actions because the reader brings this familiarity with Aeneas to each next situation and jointly experiences the trials of Aeneas. In two separate episodes of the Aeneid Vergil uses the same words to describe Aeneas reaction to fleeing shades, both which quote an Odyssean original. By comparing how Vergil imitates this passage on separate occasions, we can see how he will rely on the readers consciousness to fill in any dramatic gaps: tri;~ me;n ejfwrmhvqhn, eJlevein tev me qumo;~ ajnwvgei, tri;~ dev moi ejk ceirw`n skih/` ei[kelon h] kai; ojneivrw/ e[ptat . ejmoi; d a[co~ ojxu; genevsketo khrovqi ma`llon Od. 11.206-8

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57 Three times I rushed forth, and my spirit compelled me to grab her. Three times her ghost flew from my hands like a shade or a dream. Then a more sharp pain came upon my heart. ter conatus ibi collo dare bracchia circum; ter frustra comprensa manus effugit imago, par leuibus uentis uolucrique simillima somno. 2.792-4; 6.700-702 There, three times I tried to put my arms around her neck; three times in vain her image, almost grasped, fled my hands, her image equal to the light winds and most similar to swift sleep. The Vergilian lines are a near translation: both heroes try to grasp the fleeing shade, and the shades escape both their hands like a dream. The audience knows Odysseus thoughts and feelings only through his actions and what he does. Odysseus rushes forth ( ejfwrmhvqhn ) because his spirit compels him ( me qumo;~ ajnwvgei ), and a harsh pain sets in upon his heart when he grasps at the empty shade ( a[co~ ojxu; genevsketo khrovqi ). The reader judges Aeneas emotions through the words Aeneas speaks. Aeneas himself relates how Creusa has deserted him ( deseruit, 791) 14 and Aeneas describes how he tried to grasp her shade ( conatus ). The reader discerns Aeneas emotions through his narrative, first with the vain attempts by Aeneas to throw his arms around his mother ( frustra), then when her shade is actually grasped ( conprensa ). Aeneas encapsulates the moment in 14 Segal (1974) 34-36 argues that Ve rgil describes Aeneas emotional pathos at two separate times in the text to imitate the repetitive nature of oral poetry; cf. Br own (1990) for further analysis of Vergils sensitivity to the repetition of the Homeric songs. According to Segal, when Aeneas loses his wife, he is consumed by personal emotions but when he loses his father he becomes focused on his greater purpose. Heinze (1903) 224 too will argue that Aeneas as a character ev olves through the text and reaches the ideal that Vergil envisions for him. I want to be clear in my argument that although Vergil constructs his narrative so that we weigh Aeneas actions against his previous actions, this does not necessi tate that Aeneas evolves to a certain ideal. In fact, as Otis (1976) 9 n.2 notes Aeneas actually seems to relapse in the sense of psychological development as we move through the te xt. I think that arguments of a development in Aeneas character are based on too linear a reading of Ve rgils text. Vergils lyrical presentation of Aeneas emotions in various episodes encourage us to evaluate Aeneas actions not just in terms of his past actions, but in terms of his future actions. Because he writes in an episodic narrative, Vergil does not emphasize the actions of each episode in terms of the previous episode, but rather he con centrates the events on the fulfillment of the purpose of the main narrative. Th us, instead of assessing Aeneas character based on a linear journey from Troy to Rome, we might rather consider Aeneas in the context of the purpose of the Aeneid

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58 images of futilityAeneas arms reaching for Creusa neck, his empty grasps, the shade disappearing into the wind. Aeneas makes all other actions contingent on the primary reality, effugit a dead-end verb that gives the action a sense of finality and completion. Vergil describes the escaping ghost of Aeneas father Anchises with the same Odyssean quote (6.700-702). In both episodes, Vergil imitates the lines of Homer but re-casts them on an emotional level. The images of futility in the scene give us glimpses into Aeneas inner-thoughts and permits us to infer how these emotions relate to the main narrative when we bring our familiarity with Aeneas to the text. After the scenes of his wife and father fleeing his futile grasps, Aeneas turns his attention to the task at hand rather than lingering on the emotion of the moment ( sic demum socios consumpta nocte reuiso, 2.795; interea uidet Aeneas in ualle reducta | seclusum nemus 6.703-4). E. L. Harrison argues that Aeneas reaction does not entirely parallel Odysseus reaction in the same situation. He notes a remarkable sterility about the aftermath, with Aeneas showing not the slightest reaction to this highly dramatic incident. .. 15 This in fact is most Vergilian. Vergil leaves out the emotional aftermath of the scene because we know from earlier episodes that Aeneas carries a burden and purpose which is greater than Odysseus struggle to return home. At the end of the scene Vergil leaves us to interpolate Aeneas motives in terms of how we have already seen him: lamenting the fate of his comrades at sea, hoisting his father on his shoulders to save him from the burning city, abandoning a city and a queen where he first dared to hope for better times. Now, when turning from the fleeing shade of his wife and father, Aeneas again moves onto greater themes. As Segal notes, Vergil does not linger on the emotion of the 15 Harrison (1971) 167-168 stresses that Odysseus enco unter with his mother and the moment of her elusive escape provide an introduction for a narrati ve on the nature of the soul and the reason why Odysseus cant grasp his mother ( Od .11.215-224), whereas Vergils quotation marks the end of a scene.

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59 moment precisely because there are far greater things at handthe safe escape of his comrades and the fate of his people. 16 The audience experiences Aeneas emotions through the narrative and must weigh Aeneas reaction against the other emotional settings in which Vergil has cast him. Here Vergil is the lyric poet, deictic rather than didactic, 17 showing Aeneas emotions rather than explicitly stating them at two separate moments of the narrative. 18 Vergils Aeneas, even when losing his father for a second time (6.700-702), always keeps the burden of his race in mind throughout his actions. When Aeneas turns away from the ghost of his father, he turns away to fulfill his fate to re-establish the Trojans in a foreign land. In the sixth book of his epic, Vergil has the opportunity to blatantly glorify the race that Aeneas will found as he narrates Aeneas noble descendents. But Vergil sends his epic into a lyrical mode and universalizes the emotional loss that is inherent to the citys establishment in an expressive, deictic moment. He does not tell us that Rome will be great, he shows us and leaves us to consider the suffering and grief in the context of our own personal reflection. 19 16 Segal (1974) 37-40 notes that Homers lengthened ep ic mode puts Odysseus grief within the ebb and flow of the narrative. The formulaic line krueroi`o tetarpwvmesqa govoio (11.212) also gives a generic quality to Odysseus feelings. Segal continues, the broader time-scale of the Homeric poem lets us see such moments as part of the continuities and exp ected, gradual rhythms of human existence. In the Aeneid such moments come as discerete, violent outbursts of emotion; and epic breadth gives way to something like lyrical intensity. 17 Deictic descriptions are a fundamental char acteristic of lyric; cf. Johnson (1982) 74. 18 Segal (1974) 51-52 defines Vergils pu rpose as highlighting the ambiguity and mystery of such moments. Vergil is more self-consciously aware that the issu es with which he deals do not admit of such definiteness or clarity [as they do in the Iliad]. The fact that tension, hesi tation, and ambiguity exist may be more important for the understanding of the Aeneid than the mutually exclusive correctness of one or the other interpretations. Segal picks up on what Otis (1963) terms Vergils subjective style. Segal and Harrisons differing views of Vergils adaptation of th e Homeric lines are what Otis (50-51) admits as a disadvantage of Vergils subjective style. Homers objective style gives us a clear interpretation of his characterizations. 19 Cf. Clausen (1964a, 1964b) and Parry (1966).

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60 Vergils description of Aeneas descent to the underworld has Homeric precedent. From past episodes, we know that Odysseus and Aeneas bear different burdens and here again in the underworld Vergil contrasts Odysseus own personal goals with the larger, national goals of his hero Aeneas. Odysseus recognizes his mother in the underworld (11.85) but will not talk to her until Teiresias assures him of a safe return home (89). Teiresias prophesizes that although Poseidon has great ambitions of keeping the hero from reaching his country, nevert heless Odysseus will reach Ithaca and restore order to his home (100-124). Teiresias a ssures Odysseus of his personal safety, and Odysseus now turns to his mother Anticlea. Odysseus motives for speaking to his mother are again personal as he expresses his primary concerns: he asks how she herself came to the underworld (170-173), where his father and his son are (174), and whether his wife is protecting his home and possessions (175-179). Odysseus vainly tries to clasp his mothers ghost, as discussed above, and proceeds to meet the souls of women and heroes in the underworld. Vergils similar plot-lines and quotations of Odysseus speeches demonstrates that we are deep within a Homeric context, but again Vergil manipulates the epic setting with a personal, lyric consciouness so that the audience experiences the ramifacations of Aeneas journey along with the hero. Aeneas learns of his destiny from the Sibyl in the upperworld (6.83-97) but longs to journey to th e underworld to visit his father (108-123). He appeals to the Sibyl in terms of the pietas that he has shown by saving his father from the flames of burning Troy (110-111) and by enduring the perils of the sea with his ailing father (113). This pietas compels him to see his father once more ( ire ad conspectum cari genitoris et ora|contingat, 108-109) and to undergo the toils of Avernus. 20 Vergil contrasts 20 Heinze (1903) 351.

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61 Odysseus personal motivations against Aeneas personal understanding of the universal concept of pietas. Aeneas appeal to the Sibyl betrays his devotion to his father. Through his direct appeal we see Aeneas devotion to his fatherland. Aeneas enters the underworld in an act of pietas and brings with him the burden his devotion has set upon him. In the underworld, Anchises shows his son the glory that his devotion will bring to the Roman race. From Jupiters prophesy in Aeneid 1 the reader already knows that glory awaits the Roman people. The Roman race has been given power without end (1.279) and will one day pacify the nations (1.283-296). Anchises indentifies for his son the glorious Romans who will roam the earth: the lineage of the Roman kings (6.756770), the birth of Romulus (6.777-780), and th e rise of the Caesars and the golden age (6.789-797). When Anchises advises Aeneas, he addresses him as a Roman in terms which directly speak to his contemporary audien ce: Be mindful to rule your people with power, Roman, (these will be your arts), and introduces the custom of peace on them, and spare the subjected and war against the proud to the end, ( tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memento|(hae tibi erunt artes), pacique imponere morem,|parcere subiectis et debellare superbos 12.851-853). 21 The Roman Aeneas brings a custom of domination and of peace to his people and he immediately sees the elde r Marcellus enjoying this glorified labor. This Carthaginian hero Marcellus 22 rejoices in his victorious moment with his fellow Romans ( magno turbante tumultu 857) 23 and dedicates the most cherished spoils ( spoliis 21 Augustus writes that he established a sim ilar program in his own imperial government: Bella terra et mari civilia externaque toto in orbe terrarum saepe gessi, victorque omnibus veniam petent ibus civibus peperci. Externas gentes, quibus tuto ignosci potuit, conservare quam excidere malui (R.G. 3). 22 R.D. Williams (1972) 513. 23 Cf. Hor. Carm .1.1.7-8: hunc, si mobilium turba Quiritium|ce rtat tergeminis tollere honoribus

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62 opimis 855) to father Quirinus (854-859). Vergil creates an optimistic picture of the extent and nature of Roman rule, which he reinforces in this hero celebrating the triumphal peace that Aeneas will bring to his race. Surprisingly Vergil passes on the opportunity to sing any specifics about the golden age prophesized by Jupiter and Anchises. Instead he turns the celebratory image of Marcellus into a moment of lamentation and sorrow. Aeneas sees a soldier accompanying the triumphant elder Marcellus, but this young warrior bears an unhappy expression and a downcast face ( sed frons laeta parum et deiecto lumina vultu 6.862). Vergil describes both Aeneas and Anchises emotion and anguish with the intimate tone of an apostrophe when they see this younger Marcellus, the nephew of the emperor Augustus. Aeneas cries out, What a clamor of companions there is around him! What greatness there is in him! ( qui strepitus circa comitum! quantum instar in ipso 865). Anchises explains the sad fates of Augustus nephew Marcellus, a contemporary of Vergils audience, with another exclamatory outcry: Alas, what pietas what faith of our forefathers and what a hand inconquerable in war!. . Alas, pitiable boy, if in any way you might break your harsh fates, you will be Marcellus, ( heu pietas, heu prisca fides invictaque bello|dextera! . heu, miserande puer, si qua fata aspera rumpas,|tu Marcellus eris 878-879; 882-883). The repetition of heu . heu. . heu raises the drama of Anchises speech and we actually hear the repeated anguish and groans of Anchises in the lines. Anchises laments the young Marcellus pietas and fides moral characteristics which directly speak to Vergils contemporary audience. Vergil is playing with the definition of his audienceis Anchises addressing Aeneas or is he reaching into the future to speak to Vergils Romans? The form of the apostrophe further obscures the actual speaker of the lines. The apostrophe of Aeneas and Anchises objectifies their own voice so that the

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63 lamentation comes from a deeper well of emotion, perhaps from Vergil himself. Vergil speaks from an entirely personal level of suffering that is not alien to Aeneas, his contemporary Romans, or we ourselves today. Thus Vergil creates a universal moment which any audience may share. At the end of Aeneas katabasis, Vergil leaves us with the outbursts of emotion which allow us to understand the suffering of the moment, to revisit the trials of Aeneas and his own people, and to reflect upon our own experiences of suffering. In the end Vergil has not told us how to feel about the golden age which Jupiter and Anchises prophesized, but he has allowed us to experience it. Vergils cano I sing, through the more active inclusion of his audience within the composition of his narrative, has become canemus, we sing. Given the communal nature of the Aeneid the fat epic Vergil may be closer to the thin lyric Horace than ever imagined: virtute functos more patrum duces Lydis remixto carmine tibiis Troiamque et Anchisen et almae progeniem Veneris canemus C. 4.15.29-32 Let us sing of leaders who lived their lives virtuously according to the custom of our fathers in a song mixed with Lydian reed pipes, and let us sing of Troy and Anchises and the son of kind Venus.

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CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION oujde; boh; khvruko~ ejlivnusen 1 And the cry of the herald did not rest. The fatter, older Vergil may not be that different from the younger Vergil. In the middle of his Eclogues, Vergil sings directly to his audience in the first person canerem (Ec.6.3-8): cum canerem reges et proelia, Cynthius aurem vellit et admonuit: pastorem, Tityre, pinguis pascere oportet ovis, deductum dicere carmen. Nunc ego (namque super tibi erunt qui dicere laudes, Vare, tuas cupiant et tristia condere bella) agrestem tenui meditabor harundine Musam. While I was singing of kings and battles, Cynthian Apollo grabbed my ear and warned me: It benefits the shepherd to pasture fat sheep, but to sing a slender song. Now I (for indeed there will be those who will want to sing your praises for you, Varus, and to fashion the sad wars) will reflect upon the rural Muse with a light reed. Vergils Apollo admonishes him with the same advice Apollo gave to Callimachus: poet, make your sacrifices fat, but keep your Muse slender. Vergil operates within the Callimachean paradox of fatness (pinguis) and thinness (deductum) and Callimachus kings and heroes become Vergils kings and battles. But Vergil is actually interrupted. Callimachus had only started to place his writing tablet upon his knees, whereas Vergil claims to have already begun his composition: while I was singing (canerem). It should not be a surprise, then, that when the older Vergil again put a pen to epic, he returns to 1 Call. fr. 526 Pf. 64

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65 where Apollo interrupted him. Vergil was singing of kings and battles and now, in an ironic twist, he will sing of arms and a man. How seriously, then, should we take Vergils recusatio ? Horace and Propertius later use Vergils recusatio as a stylistic device to elevate the status of their own poetry. Vergil too pits his own bucolic poetry against the military emphasis of the epic kings and battles of his recusatio and specifically Varus own military achievements. 2 But Propertius and Horace never actually attempted to unfurl their sails on the epic sea whereas Vergil gives us the impression that he had already tested or was anticipating testing the waters. With the Aeneid Vergil demonstrates that his slender Callimachean sails are entirely apt for the vast epic waters of Homer. 2 Rutherford (1989) 44; cf. Elder (1961).

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WORKS CITED EDITIONS, DICTIONARIES, LEXICA Barber, E. A.. (1960) Sexti Properti Carmina. Oxford Glare, P. G. W. (1982) Oxford Latin Dictionary. Oxford Hornblower, S. and Spawforth, A. (1996) eds. The Oxford Classical Dictionary. Oxford Klingner, F. (1959) Horatius: Opera. Leipzig Muehll, von der, P. (1984) Homeri Odyssea. Stuttgart Murray, A. T. (1978) Homer: The Iliad. Cambridge, MA Mynors, R. A. B. (1969) P. Vergili Maronis Opera. Oxford Pfeiffer, R. (1949) Callimachus. Oxford Richardson, L. (1992) A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. Baltimore Trypanis, C. A. (1975) ed. Callimachus: Fragments. Cambridge, MA Williams, R. D. (1972) ed. Virgil: Aeneid I-VI. Bristol (1973) ed. Virgil: Aeneid VII-XII. Bristol OTHER WORKS Anderson, W. S. (1957) Vergils Second Iliad, TAPA 88: 17-30 Barron, J. P. and Easterling, P. E. (1985) Elegy and Iambus, in Easterling and Knox (1985), 117-164 Bertman, S. (1976) ed. The Conflict of Generations in Ancient Greece and Rome. Amsterdam Bing, P. (1988) The Well Read Muse. Gttingen Bowra, C. M. (1966) Some Characteristics of Literary Epic, in Commager (1966), 53-61 66

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67 Briggs, Jr., W. W. (1981) Virgil and the Hellenistic Epic, ANRW 31.2: 948-984 Brink, C. O. (1946) Callimachus and Aristotle: An Inquiry into Callimachus PROS PRAXIFANHN, CQ 40: 11-26 Broege, V. (1976) The Generation Gap in Catullus and the Lyric Poetry of Horace, in Bertman (1976), 171-204 Brown (1990) The Homeric Background to a Vergilian Repetition (Aeneid 1.744 = 3.516), AJP 111: 182-186 Bulloch, A. W. (1985) Hellenistic Poetry, in Easterling and Knox (1985), 541-598 Cairns, F. (1989) Virgils Augustan Epic Cambridge Cameron, A. (1992) Genre and Style in Callimachus, TAPA 122: 305-312 (1995) Callimachus and His Critics Princeton Camps, W. A. (1966a) Propertius: Elegies: Book II Bristol (1966b) Propertius: Elegies: Book III Bristol Clausen, W. (1964a) An Interpretation of the Aeneid , HSCP 68: 139-147 (1964b) Callimachus and Latin Poetry, GRBS 5: 181-196 (1966) An Interpretation of the Aeneid , in Commager (1966), 75-88 Commager, S. (1965) Notes on Some Poems of Catullus, HSCP 70: 83-110 (1966) ed. Virgil: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, NJ Conte, G. B. (1986) The Rhetoric of Imitation: Genre and Poetic Memory in Virgil and Other Latin Poets. Ithaca Dalzell, A. (1956) Maecenas and the Poets, Phoenix 10: 151-162 Davis, G. (1991) Polyhymnia: The Rhetoric of Horation Lyric Discourse. Berkeley Duckworth, G. (1962) Structural Patterns and Proportions in Vergils Aeneid. Ann Arbor Easterling, P. E. and Knox, B. N. W. (1985) eds. The Cambridge History of Classical Literature. Cambridge Elder, J. P. (1961) Non Iniussa Cano: Virgils Sixth Eclogue, HSCP 65: 109-125

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68 Farrell, J. (1991) Vergils Georgics and the Traditions of Ancient Epic. New York Feeney, D. C. (1993) Horace and the Greek Lyric Poets, in Rudd (1993), 41-63 Ferguson, J. (1966) Catullus and Cicero, Latomus 25: 871-872 Foley, J.M. (1986) Oral Tradition in Literature. Columbia, MO Fraenkel, E. (1957) Horace Oxford Frank, T. (1920a) Vergils Apprenticeship. I, CP 15: 23-38 (1920b) Vergils Apprenticeship. II, CP 15: 103-119 Harrison, E. L. (1971) The Subtlety of the Oral Poet, Eranos 69: 166-8 (1976) Structure and Meaning in Vergils Aeneid , Papers of the Liverpool Latin Seminar 2: 101-112 (1981) The Structure of the Aeneid: Observations on the Links between the Books, ANRW 31.1: 359-393 Harrison, S. J. (1990) ed. Oxford Readings in Vergils Aeneid Oxford Harvey, A. E. (2001) The Classification of Greek Lyric Poetry, in Nagy (2001a), 1-20 Heinze, R. (1903) Virgils epische Technik. Bristol; trans. Harvey, H. et al. (1993) Vergils Epic Technique Hollis, A.S. (2000) The Reputation and Influence of Choerilus of Samos, ZPE 130: 1315 Johnson, T. (2005) A Symposion of Praise: Horace Returns to Lyric in Odes IV Madison Johnson, W. R. (1982) The Idea of Lyric Berkeley Jones, C. P. (1968) Parody in Catullus 44, Hermes 96: 379-383 Kallendorf, C. (1993) ed. Vergil. New York Kazazis, J. N. and Rengakos, A. (1999) eds. Euphrosyne: Studies in Ancient Epic and its Legacy in Honor of Dimitris N. Maronitis Stuttgart Knauer, G. N. (1964a) Die Aeneis und Homer Gttingen (1964b) Vergils Aeneid and Homer, GRBS 5: 61-84 (1990) Vergils Aeneid and Homer, in S. J. Harrison (1990), 390-412

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69 Khnken, A. (2001) Hellenistic Chronology: Theocritus, Callimachus, and Apollonius Rhodius, in Papanghelis and Rengakos (2001), 193-216 Kopff (1981) Vergil and the Cyclic Epics, ANRW 31.2: 919-947 Laughton, E. (1970) Disertissime Romuli nepotum, CP 65: 1-7 Lee, M. (1975) Catullus in the Odes of Horace, Ramus 4: 33-48 Lefkowitz, M. R. (1980) The Quarrel between Callimachos and Apollonius, ZPE 40: 120 Lord, A. (1960) The Singer of Tales. Cambridge, MA Lowrie, M. (1995) A Parade of Lyric Predecessors: Horace C. 1.12-18, Phoenix 49: 3348 Lyne, R. O. A. M. (1978) The Neoteric Poets, CQ 28: 167-187 (1980) The Latin Love Poets. Oxford (1995) Horace: Behind the Public Poetry New Haven Matthews, V. J. (1979) Antimachos in the Aitia Prologue, Mnemosyne 32: 128-137 Miller, J. F. (1986) Disclaiming Divine Inspiration: A Programmatic Pattern, WS 99: 151-164 Miller, P. (1994) Lyric Texts and Lyric Consciousness London Montanari, F. (2002) ed., Omero Tremlisa Anni Dopo Roma Nagy, G. (2001a) ed. Greek Literature, vol. 3: Greek Literature in the Archaic Period. New York (2001b) ed. Greek Literature, vol. 7: Greek Literature in the Hellenistic Period New York Newman, J. K. (1986) The Classical Epic Tradition Madison Nisbet, R. G. M. and Hubbard, M. (1970) A Commentary on Horace: Odes Book 1. Oxford Obbink, D. (1995) ed. Philodemus and Poetry Oxford Otis, B. (1963) Virgil: A Study in Civilized Poetry Oxford (1976) Virgilian Narrative in the Light of its Precursors and Successors, SPh 73: 128

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70 Pagn, V., Knen, L., and Luppe, W. (1991) Explanations of Callimachean jAivtia , ZPE 88: 157-164 Papanghelis, T. (1999) relegens erratora litora: Virgils reflexive Odyssey, in Kazazis and Rengakos (1999), 275-290 Papanghelis, T. and Rengakos, A. (2001) eds. A Companion to Apollonius Rhodius. Leiden Parry, A. (1966) The Two Voices of Virgils Aeneid , in Commager (1966), 107-123 Perkell, C. (1999) Reading Vergils Aeneid Norman, OK Pschl, V. (1962) The Art of the Aeneid; trans. Gerda Seligson. Ann Arbor Quinn, K. (1968) Virgils Aeneid. Ann Arbor (1969) The Catullan Revolution. Ann Arbor Race, W. H. (1978) Odes 1.20: An Horation Recusatio , CSCA 11: 179-196 (1982) The Classical Priamel from Homer to Boethius, Menemosyne Suppl. 74 Reckford, K. (1959) Horace and Maecenas, TAPA 90: 195-208 Rengakos, A (2001) Apollonius Rhodius as a Homeric Scholar, in Nagy (2001b), 241-264 (2002) The Hellenistic Poets as Homeric Critics, in Montanari (2002) 143-158 Ross, D. O. (1969) Style and Tradition in Catullus Cambridge Rudd, N. (1993) ed. Horace 2000: A Celebration, Essays for the Bimillennium. London Rutherford, R. B. (1989) Virgils Poetic Ambitions in Eclogue 6, G&R 36: 42-50 Santirocco, M. (1980) Horaces Odes and the Ancient Poetry Book, Arethusa 13: 43-58 Schmeling, G. (1991) The Satyricon : A Sense of an Ending, RhM 134: 352-377 Segal, C. (1974) Vanishing Shades: Virgil and Homeric Repetitions, Eranos 72: 34-52 (1985) Archaic Choral Lyric, in Easterling and Knox (1985) 165-201 Sider, D. (1995) The Epicurean Philosopher as Hellenistic Poet, in Obbink (1995), 4257 Smith, P. L. (1968) Poetic Tensions in the Horation Recusatio, AJP 89: 56-65

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71 Steinby, M. (1993) Lexicon Topographicum Urbis Romae Roma Tatum, J. (1988) Catullus Criticism of Cicero, TAPA 118: 179-184 Tracy, H. L. (1965) The lyric poets repertoire, CJ 61: 22-26 Vessey, D.W. T. C. (1971) The Reputation of Antimachus of Colophon, Hermes 99: 120 Weber, C. (1987) Metrical Imitatio in the Proem to the Aeneid, HSCP 91: 261-271 Wilkinson, L. P. (1990) The Language of Virgil and Horace, in S. J. Harrison (1990) 413-428 Williams, G. (1968) Tradition and Originality in Roman Poetry Oxford (1983) Roman Poets as Literary Historians: Some Aspects of imitatio , ICS 8: 211237 Wiseman, T. P. (1969) Catullan Questions Surrey (1985) Catullus and His World: A Repraisal Cambridge

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Laura Mawhinney was born in Thornhill, Ontario, on September 24, 1980. She moved from Canada with her family in 1982 and attended school in Marietta, Georgia. In 1998 she moved to Manlius, New York, and graduated from Fayetteville-Manlius High School. She graduated from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, in 2003 with a Bachelor of Arts in classics. She will receive a Master of Arts in classics from the University of Florida in 2005. 72


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THE LYRIC AENEID:
A FAT SACRIFICE TO A SLENDER MUSE








By

Laura E. Mawhinney


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR
THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2005
















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to thank foremost the professors of my committee, Dr. Timothy

Johnson, Dr. Gareth Schmeling, and Dr. Jennifer Rea, for guiding and advising me

throughout my research and graduate studies. I am grateful to you Big Tim for

suppressing your natural inclinations, and Dr. S. for not. Ms. Druscilla Gurahoo

deserves my utmost gratitude, without whom I would have been lost (and quite hungry).

I would like to thank my parents and my brothers and sisters whose support and

encouragement kept me good these past years. Finally, to all my friends and fellow

students who didn't.

















TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKN O W LED G EM EN TS ............................................................................................ ii

A B ST R A C T ........................................................................................ ................... .......... iv

CHAPTERS

1 IN T R O D U CT IO N ............................ .......................................................... 1

2 THE POETOMACHIA: HELLENISTIC POETRY AND THE
CALLIMACHEAN AESTHETIC..................................................................... 4

3 POETAE DOCTI: THE CALLIMACHEAN AESTHETIC IN ROMAN
L Y R IC ................................................................................... ................. .......... 2 0

4 THE "FAT LITTLE" VERGIL................................... ............ .. 38

5 THE "LITTLE FAT" VERGIL................................... ............. 48

6 C O N CL U SIO N .................................................................. ....................... 64

W O R K S C IT E D .............. ............................................................ .............. .............. 66

BIO G RA PH ICAL SK ETCH ......................................................... ........................... 72























iii

















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in
Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts

THE LYRIC AENEID:
A FAT SACRIFICE TO A SLENDER MUSE

By

Laura E. Mawhinney

May 2005


Chair: Dr. Timothy S. Johnson
Major Department: Classics

Vergil's Aeneid is a lyrical epic. Aeneas' journey from Troy to Rome resounds

with the epic tradition of heroes and wars, gods and men. Vergil creates his epic from

deep within the context of the Homeric canon to validate and reinforce the historical

and mythological ideals of his contemporary Romans. Vergil engages his contemporary

audience with a communal and personal voice not heard in the Homeric epics: cano.

The following chapters will trace specific literary influences at work from Homer

to Vergil which allowed Vergil's communal, lyrical voice to merge with his impersonal,

epic voice. Like Vergil, the first chapter will start with Homer and will also introduce the

emergence of the Callimachean aesthetic of "fatness" and "thinness." The second

chapter will examine the reception and interpretation of Callimacheanism in Roman

lyric. The remaining chapters first discuss Vergil's adaptation of the Homeric voice, and

then explore how Vergil blends Hellenistic and Augustan poetic theory to let his own

Muse soar.

















CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

OL084, rTO iLv 160S OTTL rCXL(-TOV
Op eai, r+lv Mo-aav 8' &'yaOAe XeewraXT'qv-'

"Singer, feed your sacrifice to be as fat as possible,
But keep your Muse slender."

Vergil never dies. His Aeneidinvigorates the Latin epic genre and encourages

Ovid, Statius, and Lucan after him to pick up the epic pen. Vergil becomes a guide

through purgatory in Dante's Divine Comedy, achieves an almost prophetic status in the

middle ages, and even peeks into the recent film Troy in a somewhat comical Excalibur

scene between Hector and Vergil's hero Aeneas. In his own time, Vergil innovatively

recasts the Homeric epics and canonizes the history and tradition of his own people.

Perellius Faustus would have us believe that Vergil plagiarizes Homer and steals

his epics.2 But imitation of past tradition, in fact, was essential to classical writers who

used previous models to lay the foundation for and validate their own works.3 Most

ancient and modem writers and scholars are more receptive to Vergil's imitation.

Bowra, Clausen, and P6schl,4 for example, examine Vergil's written adaptation of the

oral tradition (imitatio) and consider Vergil's literary transformation of Homer's oral





1 Call. Aet. 1.23-24 Pf

2 Unfortunately Faustus' catalogue of Vergilian "thefts," Furta, do not survive; cf. Clausen (1966) 75.

3 Williams (1968) 250; Clausen (1966) 75; cf. Conte (1986) and Williams (1983).

4 Bowra (1966); Clausen (1966), Poschl (1962) 1-32.










songs (aemulatio). Vergil re-imagines the Homeric heroes in his own Aeneas and creates a

more personal hero than Odysseus and Achilles as Parry and Poschl argue.5

Although scholars read Vergil's Aeneas as a more personal hero, very little is said

about Vergil's own personalization of the epic voice. Heinze, Otis, and Segal give brief

attention to moments when Vergil asserts his own voice behind the words and actions of

his characters.6 Yet the influence of these few has been hardly noticed, because the

strong association between the epic genre and the absence of a personal voice, which

Homer standardized in his impersonal invocations of the Muses and which Aristotle

emphasized in his Poetics, seems to advise against searching Vergil's Aeneid too closely for

the consciousness of the singer.

Shifts in community, philosophy, and literacy had made the imitation of

Homer-and thus the epic genre-a rocky course, if not altogether unmanageable.

Callimachus in the 3rd century B. C. engaged in a polemic against epic which carried into

Vergil's own time. The writers in Vergil's literary circle adhered to Callimachean

aesthetics in their poetic theory and practice and composed in the "lesser" genres which

encapsulated brevitas, the personal voice, and self-referentiality. In step with his

contemporaries, Vergil announces his allegiance to the Callimachean aesthetic in the

recusatio of Eclogue 6 (1-8). He will not write in the "greater" (Homeric) genre of kings

and heroes and he instead turns to Hesiod, Nicander, and Theocritus for inspiration.

Vergil's poetic art in the "lesser" genres firmly establishes him as a leading voice of the

Maecenas circle. Then after he has become a prominent writer in the "lesser" genres,


5 Parry (1966); P6schl (1962).

6 Heinze (1993) 202, 207-208; Otis (1963) 51; Segal (1974) 37.

7 Otis (1963) 63.










Vergil seemingly abandons his Callimachean recusatio against epic and turns to the

"greater" epic genre in his Aeneid. Vergil's journey from the "lesser" to "greater" genres

not only seems to contradict the poetic ambitions of his younger poetic identity but the

poetic theories of the other Augustan poets.

This rather typical reading of Vergil's career is simply too "slender." Horace

surpasses his immediate lyric predecessors, the neoterics, and revives the personal poetry

of the "lesser" genre, lyric, with its original communal power. Likewise Vergil emulates

the founder of Greek literature, the epic Homer, and thus immortalizes himself within

the epic canon. Indeed, Vergil conquers the vast gap between oral and literary epic and

in the process makes his hero Aeneas relevant to his contemporary audience, and

Vergil's literary achievement certainly does not stop there. Vergil is not writing within an

isolated competition between himself and Homer; the poetic rhetoric and dialogue of his

contemporaries, most notably Horace, emphasize the communal nature of poetry, which

is essential to both epic and lyric. In the Aeneid, Vergil adopts the same communal force

as the lyric Horace. Vergil's Aeneid is fully Callimachean: both fat and thin. In literary

terms, the epic (fat) Aeneid is lyrical (thin).

















CHAPTER 2
THE POETOMACHIA:1 HELLENISTIC POETRY AND THE CALLIMACHEAN
AESTHETIC

Mouo-awv 8' o pdC.Xa 8S os e'y

"I am not especially sparing of the Muses."

During the Hellenistic Age, literature and philosophy fused as scholars became

poets. Poets turned their critical, scholastic eye to the literary traditions first established

by Homer and judged all successive poetry by that master's standards. Callimachus

saturates his own texts with criticisms which detail his disparagement of Hellenistic

poetry, and he forcefully denounces the path that poets had taken from Homer to their

own times. Still, the exact targets of Callimachus' criticisms are hard to determine with

any certainty. The problem becomes more difficult because the inadequate notations of

scholiasts guide modern scholars.

Callimachus and his contemporaries lived in an atmosphere which encouraged

the exploration of literary standards. Aristotle's Peripatetic school reached Alexandria

through Demetrius of Phaleron, a student of Theophrastus, who may have been

involved in the building of the Museion under Ptolemy Soter.3 Zenodotus became the

first librarian of the Museion, followed by Apollonius Rhodius and Eratosthenes.4 Other


1 I have borrowed this term from Vessey (1971) 4-5.

2 Call. fr. 538b Pf.

3 Brink (1946) 11 discusses how Callimachus and Aristotle share the same views in philosophy but as poets
differ in opinions of literary theory.

4 Bulloch (1985) 547-549.










scholar-poets such as Lycophron, Alexander Aetolus, and Callimachus were in charge of

cataloguing the immense depository of texts at the Library.5 Through their work, the

Alexandrians were in constant dialogue with the writers of the past.

In forming impressions of past poets, Alexandrians were not working from a

blank slate, especially in regard to Homer. Aristotle praises Homer in his Poetics as the

source of literature from which writers of tragedy, comedy, and iambos draw their

inspiration. Thus for the Alexandrians, Homer spoke with a pure voice from which all

other voices flowed.6 In discussing tragedy against the backdrop of epic, Aristotle

distinguishes the narrative of the Iliad and Odyssey, which encompasses multiple levels of

action and character, from the narrative of tragedy which must be simplified. Homer

establishes a unity in his narrative through the action of the plot while interjecting his

own voice as little as possible.8 The poet sings in epic meter (dactylic hexameter), fills

his song to epic length, and fattens the plot with episodic units.

The way in which Homer constructs his plot and works within the confines of

epic meter and length becomes the canon by which Aristotle judges all other poetry.

Homer wholly depends upon the oral tradition of the bards when composing his song.9

This oral tradition discourages the poet from completely altering the outcome of known





5 Bulloch (1985) 547.

6 Newman (1986) 3.

7Arist. Po. 1459b: 20-30.

8 Arist. Po. 1451a: 1-27; 1459a: 47-48.

9 Lord (1960) 28: "What is of importance here is not the fact of exactness or lack of exactness, but the
constant emphasis by the singer on his role in the tradition. It is not the creative role that we have stressed
for the purpose of clarifying a misunderstanding about oral style, but the role of conserver of the
tradition."










plots,'" but Homer renews tradition by exploiting elements of character and recognition

within the smaller episodic components." When Homer transitions from one episode to

the next, he charms the audience into a suspension of reality so that what might seem

irrational or implausible to the plot overall escapes the notice of the audience.2

Therefore, episodes encapsulate surprise and creativity, but the audience remains focused

on the general movement of the plot itself rather than the details of each episode.

Homer simplifies the plot enough that listeners can keep the beginning and the end-

that is, the goal of the song-in their minds.13

Writers after Homer used his poems as exempla for their own epics by extracting

the mythological elements and the historic, legendary scope of the material and

projecting these onto contemporary events.4 These Hellenistic writers, however,

disassociated themselves from the legendary past and chose to write on events in their

own time." As a result, they struggled to appropriately blend the mythological, poetic

style of Homer with contemporary history.16 By Callimachus' time in the third century

B. C., mythology and the world of the gods had lost their ability to contribute to the

"high style" and graitas of epic poetry within view of its contemporary setting.

Audiences, for example, would no longer accept that soldiers in the Persian wars readily


10 Aristotle (Po. 14:. '.1. 31-32) provides, for example, the generic story of Orestes killing Clytemnestra.

11 Arist. Po. 1453b: 35-6.

12 Arist. Po. 1460a: 57-64.

13 Arist. Po. 1459b: 15-16.

14 Otis (1963) 6-11; Newman (1986) 17.

15 For example, Rhianos wrote an epic on the Second Messenian War, among other epics on historical
topics (Achaika, Thessalika, Eliaka). Other historical epicists include: Phaistos (Lakedamonika); Apollonius
(Ktisis Rhodou, Alexandreias); Philo the Elder who wrote Jewish epics; cf. Otis (1963) 16-17.

16 Otis (1963) 6-8; Newman (1986) 23-30.










and easily intermingled with the gods on the battlefield." Consequently, epic poets

wrote light poems which reduced the role of mythology or wrote historical epics that

attempted to conform the Homeric canon to modern, historical events. Serious poetry

that effectively incorporated both gods and men was left to the tragedians.8

Choerilus of Samos and Antimachus, two poets against whom Callimachus

directs some of his most potent attacks, typify the trend of epic poets to divide the

mythological and historical aspects of Homer into two separate threads. Choerilus

imitated the historical aspects of the Homeric poems in his epic on Xerxes' invasion of

Greece, written around 400 B. C.9 Antimachus, writing in the fifth or fourth century

B.C., avoided history and wrote a mythological epic, the Thebais.20 These two epics are

representative of the split in Hellenistic epic between "old" (Choerilian/historic) epic

and "new" (Antimachean/mythological) epic, and reconciling these two aspects was a

central struggle for Hellenistic authors.21

The mythological Thebais of Antimachus seems to have been received with more

acclaim in the Hellenistic period than Choerilus' historical Persika, although little survives

of the texts or their reception. Choerilus versified history and thus defied the

Aristotelean and Callimachean doctrine that history and poetry represent two separate


17 As in the epic about the Persian wars written by Choerilus of Samos (Persika); see Otis (1963) 9.

18 Williams (1968) 33; Newman (1986) 26, 39.

19 Otis (1963) 9-10; Hollis (2000) 13.

20 Otis (1963) 10; Vessey (1971) 1.

21 The terms "old" and "new" belong to Briggs. The distinction is that "old" refers to historical epicists
such as Choerilus of lasos, Choerilus of Samos, or Rhianos. In the "new" category belong the epics of
Antimachus and Apollonius, who focus on the mythological aspects of Homer. In Apollonius in
particular, Briggs describes the author's use of :n rl. .1.._ which no longer functions as the source of
history for his Hellenistic audience. Briggs (1981) 950-953: "His attitude to myth allows its essential power
and beauty to carry much of the weight, although one never imagines that Apollonius is describing 'real' or
'true' events."










facets of literature. Whereas the art of poetry relies on a certain suspension of

believability, historical narration describes actual events in singular moments of reality

(sequential or not).23 Another Choerilus, of lasos, who wrote historical epic on the

campaigns of Alexander, becomes a symbol of bad epic poetry for the Romans in the

Augustan period and comes under attack by Horace.24 Horace's criticisms are many and

deprecatory, and concentrate on the fact that Choerilus wrote for profit (Epist.2.1.230-

44; Ars 357-60). Not only does a versified history not constitute poetry, but writing for

profit can threaten the art out of the composition.25

Antimachus is one of the first to "rival Homer by outdoing Homer at his own

game" and utilizes an obscure and archaic style that earned him the reputation of apoeta

doctus.26 Even Plato ordered that the text of the Thebais be preserved27 and marked it for

future generations. Nevertheless, by the time of the Alexandrians, Antimachus also

comes under criticism so that later the Roman poets regard him as an example of the

lengthy swollen poetry denounced by Callimachus. Catullus hopes that the small

masterpieces of his friend Calvus will be close to his heart, but he leaves the people to

enjoy Antimachus' swollen style (,;-'' mei mihi sint cordi monimenta , I atpopulus



22 Newman (1986) 26.

23 Newman (1986) 40. Aristotle (Po. 1459a: 14-17) draws a further distinction between the unity of the
plot in history and poetry. As mentioned above, the beginning and end of a plot must be in the audience's
mind as they learn the poet's treatment of tradition. In historical writing, there is not necessarily a distinct
end nor does the narrative work towards this end.

24 The writer who keeps making the same mistake and the cithara player who keeps messing up on the
same note becomes another Choerilus to Horace (Hor.Ars 355-357).

25Johnson (2005) 23-24.

26 Otis (1963) 10; Bulloch (1985) 546.

27 Vessey (1971) 1-2. Cicero (Brutus 51) says that Plato was alone in his opinion: Plato .. .mihi unus instar est
centum milium.










tumidogaudeatAntimacho; Cat. 95b).2 Propertius further denounces Antimachus' epic for

misappropriating his narrow elegiac voice for grave epic themes (incipe iam angusto versus

includere torno, 2.3.43).29

The attitudes of the Roman poets also reflect Callimachus' criticism of

Antimachus in his epigrams. Callimachus attacks the Lyde in his work against

Praxiphanes (fr. 589 Pf.) where he criticizes Plato for holding the poem in such high

regard."3 Callimachus further disparages the Lyde for being fat and plain (-rayv ypd.LLa

KCLL OU Topov, Call. fr. 398 Pf.).3 Although these criticisms specifically address

Antimachus' elegiac work rather than his epic, they do address elements of style and

typify the way in which Callimachus will defend his own poetry in the prologue of his

Aetia.

Callimachus does not confine his criticism to Antimachus; he also takes aim at

Apollonius and his 1 ... ... 32 The Suda provides the primary evidence for

Callimachus' attacks on Apollonius and his epic style, where an entry identifies

Apollonius as the target of Callimachus' invective Ibis.3 The notion of an actual

argument between the two poets is not documented in any of their own texts, but is only


28 Vessey (1971) 2-3.

29 Propertius uses the term angustus to describe Callimachean poetry: intoned angustopectore Callimachus, 2.1.40;
illa vel angusto mecum requiescere lecto, 1.8b.34; nos contra angusto versantes proelia lecto, 2.1.45; See also Prop. 1.9.8-
12. Vessey (1971) 9 argues that Propertius gives a lucid insight into the dispute by balancing the epic
tradition (Homer and Antimachus) against the elegiac tradition (Callimachus and Philitas) and each poet's
suitability to their genre. The rejection of Antimachus continues beyond the Classical period and the poet
becomes characterized as verbose. Porphyrio writes: ut viginti quattuor volumina impleverit, antequam septem
duces usque ad Thebas perduceret (ad Hor. Ars 146).

30 Cameron (1995) 304.

31 Lefkowitz (1980) 8.

32 Lefkowitz (1980) 1-19; Bulloch (1985) 561.

33 See Lefkowitz (1980) for the history of the ancient scholars' interactions with the texts.










evidenced in the scholiasts, and then noted by modern scholars.34 According to the

scholiasts, Callimachus and Apollonius traded insults. Callimachus attacked Apollonius'

work, charging that a big book is a big evil (fr. 465 Pf.).3 Apollonius answers back:

"Callimachus-refuse, triviality, woodenhead! | The cause is Callimachus, who wrote the

Causes" (KaXXLaxos ro KGO PapC, VL, r 'yvv LVOS VOS a v-rLOS 6 ypd4as

Altria KaXXL aXos, AP 11.276).36 The vitae and scholiast remarks can often prove

anecdotal and e: .._. ...r it .1. but in this case they can be clarified through the poetry of

these two poets and critics.

Although the texts of Apollonius and Callimachus do not substantiate in

themselves the existence of a rivalry, they do reveal that the two writers interacted with

each other's works. The ancient vitae state that Apollonius was a student of Callimachus.

Although this student-teacher relationship may be another e:: t._. ..r ti. .n- of the vitae, the

influence of the two poets on one another is clear.7 Callimachus' influence on

Apollonius' 1... 'has been shown to be pervasive.38 Apollonius imitates

Callimachus, for example, when Jason thrusts his hands in the air and promises sacrifice

to the Pythian Apollo in return for a safe landing of the Argo (Call. Aet. fr. 1.18 Pf., A.R.


34 Lefkowitz (1980) 4 writes, "the ultimate source of the biographers' information is poetry by and about
Callimachus and Apollonius. Not directly, of course, but through that curious process of objectification
that characterizes ancient scholarship, by which the humorous is taken seriously, and conventional
metaphor is interpreted as literal fact."

35 Atheneus provides the account: -rL KaXXiMpaXos 6 ypLapQ[p-TLKOS 7T ya L.X'iov 'Ltov aeyEv E'vaL
-r(i p[eyiXp KCaKT (fr. 465 Pf.). For the most complete discussion of the relationship between Callimachus
and Apollonius, see Lefkowitz (1980).

36 The translation is Cameron's (1995) 227. Cameron (227-230) rejects the possibility that this epigram
belongs to Apollonius Rhodius.

37 Lefkowitz (1980) 12 cites these instances as "narrative metaphors for influence." Vit.A.8 calls
Apollonius a paL'-ris of Callimachus; cf. Lefkowitz (1980) 1.

38 Konken (2001) 78 lists the allusions he sees to Callimachus in every book of the Argonautica. For
common stylistic elements between Callimachus and Apollonius, see Briggs (1981) 950-953.










Ag. 1.367-425). Apollonius also describes specific aetiologies found in Callimachus,

such as the origin of the Argo's anchor (Call. Aet. fr. 108-9 Pf., A. R. Arg. 1.955).

Apollonius, too, provided a source for Callimachus' own works. Callimachus' Athena

addresses Chariclo with the same sense and diction (both use the rare word

-raXivdype-ov) that Phineus uses to address Jason in the Algonautica (Call. Hymn V: 103-

4; A. R. Arg. 2.444-5).39 The scholiasts, who give evidence for the quarrel, point out

some of these similarities, but, as Lefkowitz writes, they "weren't as sensitive about

questions of imitatio as we have become, or they might have suggested that Callimachus

collaborated with Apollonius."40

Even given this high degree of interaction between Callimachus and the epicist

Apollonius, it is only common sense that Callimachus' criticisms take a wide look at

multiple authors and genres. Callimachus' disparaging remarks cannot be confined to a

specific author or genre with unanimous certainty. Callimachus' criticisms, such as

araYX, ,4eya, and o' -op6v, consistently, however, emphasize style. The Aetia and Hecale

provide the greatest source of information about Callimachus' views on style. What can

be learned from these texts, then, is not whom he is attacking, but rather what stylistic

standards Callimachus is advocating via his criticism. The prologue to the Aetia (fr. 1.1-

7; 17-24 Pf.) figures most prominently in discussions of the Callimachean aesthetic:

..... .]L LOL TeXxives e'rL-Tpl.oU(3tv ,LOL8,
v'L8ESs oi MoU ms O1,K eyEvovTOo kiXoL,
E'ZEKEjv OU ev ClELOUCL SL' vEKes 'ij Ba~aX[n'
.....]. as iv i-roXXcais 'ivuaa XLXLaLV


39 Konken (2001): 78; Cameron (1995) 247-262; Lefkowitz (1980) 15. Konken (2001) 79 disagrees with
this hypothesis of mutual borrowing.

40 Lefkowitz (1980) 15; Lefkowitz (17-18) sees even more correspondence when she examines the two
poet's influence on Vergil. She concludes, "I think that one can see that Vergil at least thought that
Callimachus and Apollonius were fighting on the same side in the Battle of the Books."










...... ]ous 'ipcwas, e7ros 8' E riL -JUrov X[LaaW
-rars a-re, TriV 8' e.TeoV '9 8eKLSJ O .K oXiy'q.
Aet.1.1-7

eXXere BaUKaQVLqJS oXoOV yeVOLSJ' aC6LL e8 NXV
KpLVEE, ] LJL) a~OL'VJ( Hep L8i TiLVJ aooL'rv
VLwn8' a'-r' eOVe0 8I1di-Te VL'ya Cio4ouaCav &oi8'jv
T-LKT-reearL povTralv OUK eVLOV, L'XX'J ALoS.
KaCL yCp OTe TLpLt)fJTLCUTOV EkoiiS EiTi 8XTov EGO'fKa
yoIvaa v,'A[r6]XXwv 'T ev 6 pLOL AlKLOS'
".......] o. r'oIT, TO v OV o s 6OTTL rTnC(xL(TOV
OpeCaiL, Trilv MoOaav 8' (&,yace Xe-rr-aXe'qv"
Aet.1.17-24

(I know that) the Telchines mutter at my song, those foolish men who are not
the friends of the Muse, because I did not sing of kings and heroes in one
continuous song in countless verses, and I roll out the slender word like a child,
though I am not few in the number of my years. Then judge my skill by its
art, not by the Persian rope. Don't look for me to produce a great song
sounding an empty noise. Thundering is not mine, but Zeus'. For when I first
placed the tablet upon my knees, Lycian Apollo said to me: "Singer, feed your
sacrifice to be as fat as possible, but keep a slender Muse."

In Callimachus' vision of the Lycian Apollo, he defends his own poetry by criticizing

elements of style most readily identified with the creator of Greek literature-the epic

Homer. Callimachus accosts the Telchines41 for insisting that he sing of kings and

heroes in one continuous song (iv deipL~C 8L'qveKes).42 Nor will he sing of these kings

and heroes at length in a poem numbering thousands of lines (ev -roXXCas. .. XLXLdoLv).

"Thundering," or writing a song loudly resounding such as the Iliad and Odyssey is for the




41 Scholars do not agree on the identification of the Telchines. Scholars, ancient and modem, generally
identify the Telchines as Callimachus' critics, see Bulloch (1985) 558; Briggs (1981) 951. Lefkowitz (1980)
11 believes the Telchines are anonymous critics and states: "the Telchines and his reply to them, like
Apollo's speech, represent a ficticious situation." Mythologically, the Telchines are a "fabled goblin-race
of metal-workers, skilled in magic, who inhabited some of the Greek islands and whose most renowned
characteristics were jealousy, maliciousness and possession of the Evil Eye;" Bulloch (1985) 558.

42 Cameron (1992) 266-267 provides a history of the readings and conjectures of this line. We lack the
(possible) adjectives which modify "kings and heroes," and thus clear interpretation of Callimachus'
meaning is impossible. Cameron further notes that Vergil translates this phrase with a different twist: cum
canerem reges etroeia (Ec. 6.3). See Pagan (1991) for further textual emendations.










godlike Homer (the Zeus of the epic poets).43 Like his predecessor Aristotle,

Callimachus draws his poetic canon against a Homeric backdrop.

Callimachus defines his poetry as to content in the negative: not long, and not on

the heroic world. These criteria certainly indicate that Callimachus refuses to write an

epic.44 Nevertheless, Callimachus envisions more than the negative, and encompasses

more than the rejection of any specific genre. Through Apollo's instructions, while he

rejects one single long narrative, he puts forward positively his own poetic program.

Callimachus' vision concerns both voice and narrative, elements of structure and style.45

He commands the Telchines not to look at what he would not write, but at the art of

what he does write (TrXVv'I KpLV-re). The Lycian Apollo commands Callimachus to feed

his sacrifice to be as fat as possible (irdia-rov), but to keep the Muse slender (rrv

MoOaav Xe--rcmaXelv). Here, Callimachus reinforces this point of the slender Muse

further as he recalls the slender word of the previous lines (irros 8' 4'Tr -ruo6v).

Apollo's vision of Callimachean style presents a paradox when he recommends

poetry that is at once slender (Xe-araXk'rv, -r-Oov) and fat (-rdrXUTov). By these

seemingly contrasting elements of style, Callimachus brings to the foreground the

question of continuous narrative (ev dei-CLa 8'qveiK4s). Again, the audience is in the

realm of epic, dwelling on aesthetics of length and heroes, and thus the Thunderer

himself, Homer. Homer sings of heroes in thousands of lines, but his narrative is




43 Bulloch (1985) 559.

44 Aristotle (Po.1459b.4-5) cites length as one of the two (the other being meter) criteria which differentiate
epic from tragedy.

45 It is useful here to recall another epigram of Callimachus' which disparages the cyclic poets for dragging
the reader this way and that: ,X6alpo -T rolrllpa -r KUKXLKoV 084e KeXeUAoL IXalpto rTLs rroXXos d86
Kal (8E 4pEL(Epigr. 38.1-2 Pf); see Bulloch (1985) 560.










discontinuous and episodic." In fact, as outlined by Aristotle in the Poetics, Homer

embraces both aspects of the fat and slender which Callimachus praises. Homer

saturated his text with all the qualities that in later literature could only be unwoven by

different threads of genres, such as tragedy, history, and mythological narrative. Homer

keeps his Muse slender by weaving together a simple plot from the greater tradition of

the Trojan wars.4

Callimachus therefore does not concentrate his criticism so much on length and

subject matter as on voice and narrative. He will not write an epic of Homeric length in

a non-Homeric voice. Callimachus' criticism in fact envalues Homeric expression, as is

clear from his praise for Homer in the Hymn to Apollo. Callimachus writes that his own

voice is superior to the other writers of the time because his is closer to the source-

Homer.48 Callimachus sings with the Homeric voice and embraces both the fat (a

multiplex of tone and topics) and slender (the episodic). This is why Antimachus' epic

can at once be fat (-.raX) but still miss its mark by not being slender. Choerilus of lasos,

too, writes many verses at great length, but lacks the brevity needed to keep Homer

awake.49 This paradox becomes the essence of Callimachus' criticisms, a critical element

that the Romans adopt as brevitas.50





46 Cameron (1992) 309 hits the nail on the head when he comments, "not all epics do consist of unbroken
narrative-most conpsciously the two longest and most famous of all, the Iliad and Odssey."

47Arist.Po.1459a-1459b.

48 Lefkowitz (1980) 5.

49 Hor.Ars 359.

50 See Horace, Ars 25: brevis esse labor. Newman (1986) 22 comments that "in distinguishing between
Homer and his imitators, Hellenistic critics, following Aristotle, had pronounced Homer to be superior
precisely on the grounds of his brevity."










The stylistic emphasis in Callimachus' poetic dictum was a primary concern for

Propertius, who refers to the poet's statements of style in advising a fellow poet. In

2.34b, Propertius advises his friend Lynceus, who has fallen in love, on how to write

poetry that uses language and style appropriate to its genre. He begins by listing models

that would be useless for Lynceus to follow: the natural philosophy of Socrates and

Aratus. Lynceus should rather imitate Philitas' elegies and the dreams of the "not-

inflated" Callimachus (tu satius memorem Musis imitere Philitan et non inflati somnia

C 31-32). But in his advice, Propertius does not recall Callimachus the elegist,

he refers to Callimachus the author of aetiologies. Propertius' somnia C directly

references Callimachus' vision of the Lycian Apollo in the Aetia.s5 The subject matter of

the Aetia will not benefit the elegist, thus Propertius must be emphasizing the stylistic

program set forth in Callimachus' prologue.

As Propertius draws his interpretation of Callimachus' vision, not only themes

but style takes center stage. Lynceus should avoid the epic themes of the flooding

Achelous and the wandering Maeander (non rursus licetAetoli referas Acheloi, 33; atque etiam

ut P' Maeandria campo errat et ipsa suas deipit unda vias, 35-36),52 and likewise he

should avoid writing tragedies in the Aeschylean form (desine etAeschyleo componere verba

coturno, 41). Propertius then immediately returns to the Aetia and recalls Callimachus' use

of AiOs as symbolic of Homer: "You will not go more safely than Antimachus, nor will

you go more safely than Homer, for the right girl despises the great gods" (tu non


51 If Nairn's conjecture (Aratez) for (Erecthei) is correct, then as Camps (1966a) 224-5 notes, Propertius
anticipates the Callimachean reference in the previous lines (aut quidAratei tibiprosunt carmina lecti, 29).

52 Propertius' description of the deceitful Maeander, which wanders through the camp and tricks its own
courses, is reminiscent of Callimachus' disparagement of the cyclic poets who wander this way and that
(See above). The Maeander is known for its winding course which inspired Daedalus' labyrinth (Camps
1966a) 227.










Antimacho, non tutior ibis Homero: despicit et magnos rectal. '.~.Z deos, 45-46). Propertius is

concerned that Lynceus' style, like these wandering and flooding rivers, is overblown and

not in control, which will result in an unsafe journey for both author and audience.

In the Hecale, Callimachus shows his Telchines how an epic should be written

and puts his criticisms to the test. Here, Callimachus describes the adventures of

Theseus and the killing of the Marathon bull, and creates a name for his epic from the

owner of a cottage in which the hero spends the night.3 Callimachus draws heavily from

conventional epic (Homeric) style by subordinating his own voice to the epic narrative,

beginning in medias res, and infusing Homeric similes and borrowings into his heroic

epic.54 However, the narrative of his work, like Homer, is discontinuously episodic and

does not encroach upon the poorly styled ev deai-aC &8'veics.55 Callimachus fattens his

poetic sacrifice by exploiting obscure myth and rejuvenating traditional aspects of heroic

and mythic elements. At the same time he extracts a voice from his archaic, traditional

narrative that can speak with relevancy to his contemporary Alexandrians.56 Bulloch

writes, "Callimachus' studied insistence on examining with a shrewdly quizzical eye the

very ordinary and practical aspects [of the poetic tradition] ... was a highly individual

choice and set poetry on a new direction which was to prove fruitful for centuries to

";57
come.5



53 Cameron (1992) 312.

54 Cameron (1992) 312; Bulloch (1985) 563; Rengakos (2002) 143-145 finds many Homeric borrowings in
the texts of Callimachus and Apollonius. Rengakos hypothesizes that these borrowings represent the
actual manuscript tradition rather than conjectures and uses the two authors to reconstruct the Homeric
texts. He writes (146) that the two poets "make up a remarkably rich collection of memorial Homerica."

55 Brink (1946) 17.

56 Bulloch (1985) 557, 564.

57 Bulloch (1985) 557.










Just as Callimachus' criticisms on style color Propertius' advice to Lynceus,

Callimachus' vision of Lycian Apollo guides Roman poets in their compositions. The

Augustan poets most pointedly declare their allegiance to Callimachean standards of style

and innovation through the recusatio. Poets such as Horace, Propertius, Vergil, and Ovid

refuse to write poetry of a grand style and instead turn to genres which were in general

considered light.58 In these recusationes, the Augustans elevate the grand (epic) style of

poetry to a plane above their own abilities so that they themselves appear incapable of or

unsuitable for approaching it. The poets become apologetic that they cannot write

poetry worthy of the epic meter and describe their own poetry in Callimachean

language-tenuis, deductus, parvus. The Augustans invent within the Callimachean

aesthetic the opportunity to praise their own work or addressee, even if with a little

feigned modesty.59

Horace, for example, addresses his refusal to write epic poetry in terms of his

own inability and lack of epic strength. Horace declares that he will not sing of the

deeds of Caesar:

... nec sermones ego mallem
repentis per humum quam res componere gestas
terrarumque situs et flumina dicere et arces
montibus impositas et barbara regna tuisque
auspiciis totum confecta duella per orbem,
claustraque custodem pacis cohibentia lanum
et formidatam Parthis te principle Romam,


58 Typical examples of the Augustan recusatio include Vergil (Ec. 6. 1-8), Horace (Carm.1.6, 1.20, 2.12, 4.2),
Propertius (2.1, 2.10, 2.15, 3.3), and Ovid (Ars 1.25-30). For the definitions of the recusatio, see Race
(1978), Davis (1991), Lyne (1995), and Johnson (2005). Race (1978) 180-181 comments that the
Hellenistic recusatio becomes stylized and sets the standards ofgenusgrande and genus tenue for the Augustans.
Race further discusses the conventional vocabulary of a recusatio. Race notes language of personal
preference (me iuvat, odi), ability (vires), external compulsion (necpatitur, vetuit), and decorum (pudor decet,
convenit).

59 Johnson (2005) 48 emphasizes the importance of the opportunity for poetic self-definition in the
recusatio.










si, quantum cuperem, possem quoque; sed neque parvum
carmen maiestas recipit tua, nec meus audet
rem temptare pudor, quam vires ferre recusent.
Epist.2.1.250-259

I would no more place composing my satires, which crawl upon the earth, above
speaking of historical events, telling stories of places on the earth an rivers
speaking of citadels placed on mountains, and foreign kingdoms, and wars
completed throughout the world under your auspices, and Rome feared by the
Parthians with you as leader, even if I were able, as much as I would want to sing
these; but neither does your majesty allow my small lyric nor does my modesty
dare to try this thing which my strength forbids me to undertake.


Horace refuses to write grand praise for Caesar and uses Callimachean language in his

denial. Horace's small contribution in his lyric genre (parvum I carmen, 257-258) could not

do justice to Augustus' majesty (maiestas tua, 258). But while Augustus' majesty is the

very topic which Horace declares too lofty for his earthy poetry, Horace actually praises

Augustus' deeds in this refusal to sing them (resgestas, 251): Augustus conquered foreign

kingdoms (barbara regna, 254) and put an end to wars (confecta 1. ,, 255). Horace has

turned his refusal to write encomiastic poetry for Augustus into an opportunity to praise

his deeds. While claiming the Callimachean aesthetic, Horace has incorporated praise for

Augustus into his own chosen genre, lyric. So too will Propertius claim that his own

slender style is not suitable for grand epic themes when he admonishes Maecenas for

asking him to sail too vast a sea. Such grand sails are not fitting for his ship (quid me

scrbendi tam vastum mittis in aequor? I non sunt apta meaegrandia vela rati, 3.9.3-4).60 Propertius'

disavowal, however, includes grand praise for Maecenas, Augustus' closest comrade

(Caesaris etfamae uestigia iuncta tenebis: I Maecenatis erunt uera topaea fides, 3.9.33-34,





60 Race (1978) 190. See also Horace 4.15.3-4: neparva Tyrrhenumper aequor vela darem. Rutherford (1989) 44
continues, "Epic, as often in recusatio, provides a foil against which the less ambitious but more creative or
thoughtful work that the poet does offer can been seen to best advantage." See also Johnson (2005) 48.










The paradox within the Callimachean poetic vision warns us that when the

Augustan poets contrast their own slender style against the grand style of epic poetry, we

should not read them from too narrow a point of view. Despite claims of feebleness and

lack of vigor, the Augustans continue on from the recuatio and soar in their own genre.6

For the Augustans, the Callimachean aesthetic remains a paradox of "thinness" and

"fatness."


61 Smith (1968) 57.

















CHAPTER 3
POETAE DOCTI: THE CALLIMACHEAN AESTHETIC IN ROMAN LYRIC

SVe TOrV ev AWt8 tv X4yoi VOVOV ouVEKcL XaXKov i"yELpov

"May he not say I only struck the bronze at Dodona."

Callimachus' standard of fat sacrifices and slender Muses acts as a lens through

which the Roman poets in the first century B. C. look back to archaic Greek epic and

lyric as sources of imitation. Catullus and the neoterics embrace and rival the literary

standards of Callimachus and the Alexandrians through their poetry, and through the

process become estranged from the original spirit of the archaic Greek poets. Horace,

however, starts with the Greek lyricists themselves and infuses his poetry with

Callimachean standards in order to both imitate and emulate the full potential of lyric

poetry.

The archaic lyric poets played a key role for early Greek communities by

performing hymns for festivals, drinking songs for symposia, and songs centered on the

state and politics2 to the tune of a lyre.3 Homer and the epic poets had acted as

historians for these communities and reinforced the common tradition for the myths and

beliefs of thepolis. The archaic lyric poets in turn depended on these shared myths and

beliefs to create a universality in their hymns and songs that would be performed for


1 Call. fr. 483 Pf. People who were garrulous were said to "strike the bronze at Dodona;" cf. Trypanis
(1978) 252.

2 Williams (1968) 32-33; Segal (1985) 165-166.

3 Miller (1994) 12; Commager (1965) 83.










both public and private audiences. But what differentiated epic and lyric song was the

self-referentiality afforded to the lyric singer.

Archaic lyric poets gain this self-referentiality by appealing to the universality of

the polis in terms of the individual. When Archilochus describes hiding his shield in the

bushes, for example, we hear the thoughts and emotions from the perspective of the

poet himself (5 W).s Archilochus then consoles himself: "why do I care about that

shield?' I ask. I will get another one no worse" (7T pOL piEXE &o-rr's KEKcVlr; I ppeT(W'

eia-LTS KTr oI JLL o KCKKLt)). Whereas Homer might explicitly explain the sharp pain

that comes over the hero at this loss or describe him as foolish (v-riffos) or cowardly

(8se6s), Archilochus shows his emotions to his audience. Archilochus threw his shield

away in order to save himself, although he hesitated to do so (o K ieXtwv). Likewise,

Mimnermus' discontent at the onset of old age (1 W), Alcaeus' joy at Myrsilus' death

(332 L-P), and Sappho's jealousy at a lover's conversation (31 L-P) equally construct a

persona of the poet that is foreign to Homeric epic. In these lyric scenes, the poets

describe emotions in intimate personal terms (such as the subtle flame that runs through

Sappho's body or the swelling of her tongue) so that the audience can fill in any dramatic

gaps with their own experiences and beliefs.6 Tradition had defined the epic singer in his

moment of performance, whereas in performance the Greek lyricist's voice and persona


4Johnson (1982) 54. Johnson (1982) thoroughly examines the universal nature of lyric; see especially his
discussions on Greek lyric (29-74).

5 Barron and Easterling (1985) 119; Johnson (1982) 29-30; 72. Miller (1994) 12-19 does not actually
consider Archilochus lyric because his voice is heavily influenced by Homer. Miller further denies that
archaic Greek lyric poets sing in the "poetic "' because their voices are inextricable from the polis.
Regardless of the level of "poetic 1" in the archaic lyric poems, the point I am trying to emphasize is that
the singers still create an un-Homeric persona in terms of the individual against the backdrop of the
universal. See Johnson (1982) 82-86 and Harvey (2001) for a discussion on the history of the classification
of the Greek lyric poets.

6 Johnson (1982) 72-74.










emerge so that the audience, even at times beyond the poet's own era, may construct a

picture or notion of the artist himself.

As the polis moved from the sixth to fifth centuries, the context of universality

changed when philosophers began to question the validity of the tradition set by Homer

and the epic poets. During this time, Homer and his world began to drift into the

distance and to be replaced by a more studied and systematic atmosphere that tested

ideas outside of the world of the pois.8 The emergence of writing further encouraged

and provided the means for individuals to search for explanations outside of the

traditional beliefs of the pois.' The new focus on the written word shifted the communal

experience of public performance into a possibly more private experience within a text

itself.10 The community of the pois gradually shifted from one which shared a common

tradition of myths to one in which individuals examined the nature of history and

mythology with a rationalist view. Therefore, the universality of the polls moved out of a

shared social and political context and into a philosophical, literary context more

independent of the community.

This new literary universality did not necessarily change the communal nature of

lyric poetry, but it did alter the way in which poets would develop their self-referentiality.

Like Archilochus and Sappho, Hellenistic lyric poets created polymetric poems in terms



Johnson (1982) 29-30; Commager (1965) 83. Lord (1960) 28 stresses "the constant emphasis by the
singer on his role in the tradition. It is not the creative role that we have stressed for the purpose of
clarifying a misunderstanding about oral style, but the role of conserver of the tradition."

SJohnson (1982) 55; Bing (1988) 12-13.

9 Bing (1988) 12-17. Bing (27-40) describes the changing role of the Muses as thepolis transitions from an
oral to literary focus. Bing states, "books have become the vehicle, at least, of poetic inspiration, if not its
equivalent."

10Miller (1994) 122-124; Bing (1988) 17, 37: "a person or place can exist wherever one finds a book."










of the individual. But because they could no longer appeal to a social or political

commonality, they wrote in terms of the new literary universality. The lyric poet,

therefore, became an individual in terms of the written word and operated within a

literary self-referentiality. Whereas the oral poetry of the archaic Greek lyric poets by its

nature did not allow for extensive self-referentiality from song to song, the new written

word allowed poets to allude to the works of others and even to their own works."

Poets pushed self-referentiality further and began to reference themselves in terms of

how they had already presented themselves. They wrote collections of poems in which

the poetic persona reacts with different emotions in different episodes. Reading lyric,

then, was no longer a process of transitioning from one episode to another in the way

that one could read Homer. Readers had to look beyond the lyric poet's persona in one

individual episode, and seek greater meaning by keeping in mind the poet's persona in the

situation before, the present situation, and a possible future situation. The poet thus

created a lyric consciousness which revealed a level of individuality and emotion beyond

each lyric episode and which was enhanced with each reading of the text.2

As poets showed an increased interest in developing new expressions of self-

referentiality within their own texts, they gradually abandoned the social and political

potential of lyric. Poets instead became literary constructs and conscious of their own

self-expression and artistry.3 Lyricists took up positions as objective reviewers of their

own work and thus in effect became literary critics. When Apollo comes to Callimachus,



11 Miller (1994) 4-5.

12 I am using Miller's terminology. Miller (1994) 1-2 defines lyric consciousness as a projection of a self-
reflexive consciousness that shifts, changes, and adds meaning with multiple readings of a literary
collection.

13Johnson (1982) 102.










for example, his instructions are not so much about the power of the Muse, but the

vision reveals what qualities the poet prefers in his own art. The poet has become

scholar. Rather than speaking to the community of thepolis, poets wrote in a highly

allusive and erudite style that could only be shared and enjoyed by a more select literary

community.4

The garland of Meleager, Parthenius, and Philodemus, only three of what were

no doubt numerous sources, introduced these Hellenistic standards of lyric poetry to the

Roman poets, but with varied results and effects on individual arts. 5 Both Catullus and

Horace, adopted the literary self-referentiality of Hellenistic lyric into their native Latin

tongue. Catullus and the neoterics, however, pushed Hellenistic self-referentiality almost

the point of an outright rejection of society. 6 When they did engage the social world,

they spoke in a new neoteric language which emphasized their political withdrawal, using

traditionally public values such asfoedus, fides, and amicitia to express private and personal

relationships." Horace, on the other hand, utilized the written word and literary self-

referentiality to revive the potential of the lyric poet's original social and political

referentiality.



14Johnson (1982) 102 notes that with Callimachus and the new focus of literary referentiality, lyric
becomes "oblique, learned, derivative." For further reference, see the comments of Bing (1988) 27 and
Quinn (1969) 26.

15 Ross (1969) 162. Philodemus was from the Macedonian colony of Gadara and was a student of Zeno;
cf. Frank (1920b) 109. Philodemus brought aesthetics of Epicurean philosophy and poetic theory to the
Roman poets of the first century B. C. including Vergil, Plotius Tucca, Lucius Varius Rufus, Quintilius
Varus, Catullus, and possibly Horace; see Sider (1995) for Philodemus' direct influence on the Roman
poets. Vergil may have composed a farewellpmpemptikon (Cat.V) in which he leaves rhetoric for poetry
and presumably leaves Rome to study at Naples where Philodemus, along with Siro, was influential; on
Vergil's early career cf. Frank (1920a; 1920b) and Rutherford (1989).

16 Broege (1976) 171; Miller (1994) 135.

17 Miller (1994) 135; Ross (1969) 80-95; Lyne (1980) 25-26. See also Lyne's introduction in which he
discusses the institutions of love and marriage in Late Republican Rome.










Catullus and some of his fellow poets inherited the title of "neoteric" or Poetae

Novi from Cicero,18 and these neoteroi possibly discussed and exchanged poetry between

themselves as a type of literary circle.'9 As equestrians, the neoterics (possible members

are Catullus, Valerius Cato, Calvus, Cinna, Furius Bibaculus, and Cornificius) were

removed from the political obligations of the elite order and naturally became a circle

apart from the noble class."2 As they looked inward to themselves, these poets formed a

closed literary circle in which poetry was not written for the polis at large but more for

personal exchanges between themselves, the new literary elite.21

The very idea that Catullus and his contemporaries formed an isolated literary

circle comes from Catullus' poems themselves. Catullus' numerous references to his

fellow poets created an on-going literary dialogue within his collection which illuminated

Catullus' stylistic dictum. Catullus, for example, describes writing lyric with Calvus as

they play with poetry in various meters (Hesterno, Lidni, die otiosi '. '.;. lusimus in meis



18 Att. 7.2.1, -r(iv veo-rpmv; Orat. 161,poetae novi; cf. Quinn (1969) 47; Lyne (1978) 167. See also Tusc.
3.45 in which Cicero calls the group cantores Euphorionis; Lyne (1978) 167. Cicero does not identify who
might be included in his group of neoterics, nor is it clear if he is being critical of the poetic group.
Laughton (1970) 3 concludes that Cicero's remark in Att.7.2.1 is a statement of his own poetic style rather
than a criticism aimed at the neoteroi. Lyne (1978) 168, Quinn (1969) 21, and Ferguson (1966) 871-872
argue that Cicero is deprecatory with these remarks, although Quinn and Lyne believe that Cicero is
talking to a literary group that proceeds Catullus. According to Seneca, Cicero said that even if he could
live his life again he still would not read the lyric poets (Epist.49.5); cf. Johnson (1982) 76.

19 Lyne (1978) 167 identifies the group as a literary circle. The evidence for this is controversial. I prefer
Quinn (1969) 48-49 who identifies Catullus' interaction with other poets (14, 22, 35, 36, 50, 65, 95, 116) as
evidence that there was structured dialogue exchanged between the poets: "Catullus' own poems make it
clear that he was one of a group of poets who shared confidences, aspirations and ideas about poetry and
literary criticism. It is also clear that these ideas had a permanent influence on Roman poetry."

20 Miller (1994) 132.

21 Seneca the Elder commented that there were poets who imitated the esoteric language of neoterics in his
age: they were mad on the dictionary (4t T- Xe,_LXv paLvov-rL, Contr. 9.26); cf. Wilkinson (1990) 428
n.82. Quinn (1969) 68 further notes that, "firstly, this is hard poetry-not for the general public, but for
the lettered lite who have the culture needed to appreciate its subtleties and the enthusiasm for tracking
them down. Secondly, it is the poetry of art for art's sake, the poetry of the littirature pure: above all in its
most serious productions at the highest level of intent but also in the nugae, the uselessness of which is
deliberately emphasized."










.... | ut convenerat esse delicatos I scbens versiculos uterque nostrum I ludebat numero modo hoc

modo illoc, 50.1-5). The two poets compose little verses (versiculos, 4) at leisure (otiosi, 1).

Catullus longs to see and to be with Calvus at once (ut tecum loquerer simulque ut essem, 13)

so that they can again compose verses in this ideal poetic situation: light-hearted (delicatos,

3) and away from the crowd.

When Catullus addresses his fellow poets in other poems, he reveals the literary

standards of this poetic circle, which look back to the highly allusive and erudite lyric of

Callimachean and Hellenistic verse.2 Like Callimachus, Catullus enumerates what is

good about poetry in terms of what is bad. Catullus, for example, praises Cinna's Zmyma

in terms of invective against Volusius' Annales.2 He envisions the doom of Volusius'

collection at Padua (Volusi Annales Paduam modrenturad ipsam, 95.7) and muses over the

nice wrapping paper they will provide for fish (et laxas scombnrs saepe dabunt tunicas, 8).

Similar to the poems which babbled on in thousands of lines in Callimachus' vision,

Volusius's poems are tumid and not at all like the slender, polished monument of his

friend Cinna (.,.;- mei mihi sunt cordi monument sodalis; a atpopulus tumido gaudeatAntimacho,

9-10). This is not the first time that Catullus disparaged Volusius' Annales, and the reader

here is reminded of Volusius' cacata charta (36.1). Catullus thus creates a stylistic dialogue

with his fellow-poets in terms of his literary criticism of others. Catullus' repeated

interplay with his contemporaries throughout his collection24 created a microcosm of

literary criticism which was more distant from the political and social world in which he

lived.

22 See poems 65, 66, and 116 for Catullus' Callimachean style; cf. Lyne (1978) 183.

23 Lyne (1978) 171: "the polemic not only confirms the cohesion of the three candidates for the neoteric
school; it may be some guide to the nature of its programme."

24 See also 14, 22, 35, 65, 116; cf. Lyne (1978) 167.










Catullus further constructs a personal microcosm through sophisticated self-

referentiality in his Lesbia poems by re-visiting his character as a lover in various

situations with his beloved. The reader encounters Catullus' infatuated persona as he

struggles to define the number of kisses that would satisfy his mad love (5,7). Catullus

exaggerates the hundreds and thousands of kisses that he might steal from his lover (da

mi basia :.., deinde centum .. ., 5.6-9) and emphasizes the whimsical, blissful love that he

and Lesbia share. The lovers are cut off from society as they reject the rumors of the

more severe old men (umoresque senum seve/orum I omnes unius aestimemus assis, 1-2) and then

deceive anyone who would be judgmental as to the extent of their love (aut ne quis malus

inviderepossit cum tantum sciat esse basiorum, 11-12). Catullus again uses hyperbole to

describe a satisfactory amount of kisses that would satiate him-only as many the are

grains of Libyan sands in silphium-bearing Cyrene (quam magnus numbers Libyssae

harenae I lasarpiiferis iacet Cjrenis, 7.2).25 This time he is madly in love (vesano Catullo, 10)

and emphasizes his insanity as he worries that curious minds might count the kisses and

bewitch the lovers with evil curses (quae necpernumerare cuiosi Ipossint nec malafascdnare

lingua, 11-12). The language of the two poems (basia, 5.7; basiationes 7.1; ; '. .centum,

5.7; quot, 7.1) and the hyperboles which Catullus uses to measure the kisses establish a

literary link between the episodes. Catullus creates an implicit level of consciousness as

the reader sees him on an emotional level in the two separate episodes. When taken in

context of the previous poem (5), the reader now sees in poem 7 an almost paranoid

pathos in Catullus' persona, which focuses on the seclusion and secrecy of the lovers. By

considering the similarities in Catullus' emotions in the two episodes, the reader also



25 I am progressing through Catullus' poems sequentially as we have them in modem collections. It is not
clear whether Catullus arranged his poems as we have them today. For a detailed discussion of
arrangement, see Wisemans' comments in Catulluan Questions (1969).










realizes the extent of Catullus' infatuation with Lesbia. If either of Catullus' basia poems

were considered in isolation, the reader might think that a momentary love enveloped

the poet. Catullus, however, created an emotional continuity within the different

contexts so that the reader sees his deep infatuation.

The depth of the poet's self-blinding love for Lesbia adds to the shock of the

break-up. Catullus commands himself to stop being silly and to face the facts ,.\1 ..

Catulle, desinas ineptire et quod videsperisseperditum ducas, 8.1-2): his girlfriend does not want

him anymore (nunc iam illa non vult, 9). Catullus' apostrophe both to himself (desinas, 1;

obstinata mente perfer, obdura, 11; obdura, 18) and to his absent girlfriend (scelesta, vae te, quae

tibi manet vita? quis nunc te adibit? ci videberis ..., 15-18) demonstrate the emotional

process that Catullus goes through in his attempts to deal with the break-up. The

audience sees Catullus first dealing with the hurt and then turning to vindictiveness.

After telling himself to "suck it up," Catullus becomes cruel toward his girlfriend and

declares that he will no longer seek her company nor ask about her (nec te required nec

rogabit invitam, 13). Soon in fact, no one at all will ask after her (at tu dolebis cum rogaberis

..,, 14). By the end of poem 8, Catullus has returned to the same, calm resignation

with which he had begun (at tu, Catulle, destinatus obdura, 18). Catullus' intense focus on

his own emotions in the episode (miser, 1; impotens, 9; obstinata mente, 11; destinatus, 18) and

his descriptive language allow the audience insight into his persona so that the reader

experiences Catullus' rejection with him.

Because Catullus empowers his poem with so much descriptive language, his

audience can still experience and understand his emotional loss in an isolated reading of

the poem. When the poem is read as part of the collection, however, the audience can










see Catullus' feelings on a dynamic plane of emotional ups and downs.26 The "unwilling

lover" is not an isolated moment but a part of Catullus' greater design and consciousness.

Catullus constructs a literary reference to his former infatuated persona blissfully seeking

endless kisses (soles occidere et redirepossunt, 5.4;fulsere quondam candidi tibi soles, 8.3)2 so that

the reader, who has experienced the lovestruck Catullus demanding innumerable kisses,

confronts Catullus' rejection poem with a deeper understanding and sympathy of the

break-up. When Catullus later experiences another trying time in his relationship, he

only needs to say that "I have and I love" (85) to bring the reader back to the dynamic of

his love lost.28 The reader re-visits the infatuated Catullus and the rejected Catullus, the

kisses, the furtive lovers, and the break-up. This resultant backdrop of feeling against

which we read the entire collection establishes Catullus' lyric consciousness and allows

the poet to actually share his experiences with his audiences.

Horace considers the poet who knows only how to sing "Catullus" and "Calvus"

a primate (simius iste nilpraeter Calvum et doctus cantare Catullum, S.1.10.18-19). Catullus and

the neoterics may have successfully brought Callimachean standards of innovation to

their poetry, but Horace claims to be the first to return to the primary spirit of lyric song

(ibera per vacuum posui vestigia pinceps, non aliena meopressipede, Epist.1.19.21-22). Horace

looks beyond his immediate Roman predecessors to the archaic Greek lyricists who

drank a substance more potent than water (.... placere diu nec vivere carminapossunt quae


26 Wiseman (1985) 137: "there are two stages to be borne in mind: that of the first-time reader of the
collection, recognizing the 'Lesbia' relationship as a major theme and having his insight into it
progressively developed as he proceeds; and that of the returning reader, who knows what comes
afterwards, and can use his knowledge to pick up cross-references in both directions. I think it is a fair
assumption that Catullus hoped for readers who would not be satisfied with going through the collection
only once."

27 Catullus reinforces this literary allusion a few lines afterwards (fulsere vere candidi tibi soles, 8.8).

28 Lyne (1980) 52 comments, "We share the experience with the poet and thereby come to an intuitive
appreciation of often inexpressible things. And that is a richer adventure than being told the expressible."










scmbuntur aquaepotoribus, Epist.1.19.2-3) and performed songs that could affect and

influence the polis. Horace, who is not satisfied with the personal context of Catullus'

nugae, imbues his song with a communal self-consciousness which surfaces repeatedly

throughout his lyric collection and which looks back to the original, political and social

potency of archaic lyric poetry.

In Horace's first ode of his tribiblos, he introduces his poetic dictum: the

viewpoint from which he wants the reader to approach his lyric. Horace constructs a

Greek setting and through it claims and re-presents the social function of the lyric poet.

He begins the song with a dedication to Maecenas:

Maecenas atavis edite regibus
o et praesidium et dulce decus meum:
sunt quos curriculo pulverem Olympicum
collegisse iuvat metaque fervidis
evitata rotis palmaque nobilis
terrarum dominos evehit ad deos;
hunc, si mobilium turba Quiritium
certat tergeminis tollere honoribus;
1.1.1-8

Maecenas, born from royal ancestors, O my guard and my sweet honor: there
are those whom it pleases to have gathered Olympic dust on their chariot; and
both the end-posts turned round with eager wheels and the noble palm carries
them as masters of the earth to the gods. This one delights, if the crowd of
noble Quirites struggles to raise him with triple honors.

The song quickly steps into the world of archaic Greek lyric and its meter.29 The address

may be to a noble Roman, but the cadence remains decidedly Greek, signified by the

vocative (o) which like its Greek counterpart (4) remains unelided. Horace now borrows

the construction of the priamel (sunt quos, 3) from the Greek lyricists when he lists the

glories that occupy others and that are outside his own aspirations over the next

29 The meter here is First Asclepiadean. The next eight odes, known as the Parade Odes, are each in a
specific meter which establishes Horace's scope of borrowing and rivalry through the metrics. Lowrie
(1995) argues that Horace extends this rivalry beyond the metrics of the Parade Odes through 1-18 by
invoking individual lyricists themselves.










strophes.0 Horace extends the Greek setting and metaphor as he describes those for

whom it is pleasing to gather Olympic dust on their chariots (3-4) in a distinctly Pindaric

style. Horace ends his priamel on an ostensibly Greek tone:

me doctarum hederae praemia frontium
dis miscent superis, me gelidum nemus
Nympharumque leves cum Satyris chori
secerunt populo, si neque tibias
Euterpe cohibet nec Polyhymnia
Lesboum refugit tender barbiton.
quodsi me lyrics vatibus inseres,
sublimi feriam sidera vertice.
1.1.29-36

The ivies, prizes of learned minds, mix me with the gods above; the chilly grove
and the light choruses of Nymphs with Satyrs seclude me from the people, if
neither Euterpe restrains her reed-pipes nor if Polyhymnia fails to tune the
Lesbian lyre. But if you enroll me in the lyric canon, I will knock the top of the
stars with my head.

Groves, their nymphs, the satyrs and their choruses, all joined by the Muses Euterpe and

Polyhymnia create a literary celebration that is decidedly Greek. But throughout the

party Horace shifts the focus to himself. The repetition of me.. me... me (29-30; 35),

the independence from the Roman crowd (seceruntpopulo, 32), and the final striking

image of Horace's fame reaching the stars (feriam, 36) weave the poet into a Greek world.

He becomes inseparable from the Greek images, literally sewing himself within the

Greek lines.

In the center of his Greek priamel, Horace shifts the setting to Roman themes.

Horace is just not looking back to Greek originals, but within this lyric context he will

speak to his contemporary Romans in their own language. One man exhalts in being

raised into office by his fellow Quirites (7-8), another rejoices in tilling his father's land



30 For the early Greek priamel, see Sappho 16 L-P; Pindar fr. 221 Schr.; Solon fr.1 D for the Greek
priamel; cf. Fraenkel (1957) 232-233; N.-H. (1970) 2-4. For the form of priamel, see Race (1982).










(9-10). Horace continues through the occupations that give others joy-merchants,

sailors, soldiers, and hunters. Horace has brought his poem out of the Greek literary

context into a political context that speaks to the community of Romans. Horace is not

merely concerned with a literary aspect of writing Greek verses; Quirinus himself

thought he was insane if here merely wanted to re-write Greek poetry (S.1.10.31-35).

The Roman community is central to Horace's ode and he avoids isolating his audience

from his poetry by directly speaking to them. Horace is not just translating, but

transforming lyric by making the Latin lyre assessable in a voice not spoken before (hunc

ego, non alio dictum prius ore, Latinus volgavi fidicen, Epist. 1.19.32-33). Thus Horace does not

strive to become a mere imitator of the Greek poets by translating verses; he will only be

satisfied by becoming equal to the immortalized lyric canon.3 At the same time that

Horace emulates the sources of Greek lyric themselves, he adheres to the Callimachean

standards of innovation. Horace imbues his texts with a self-referentiality that

establishes his consciousness by speaking in a voice not heard before.

Horace's introductory poem (C.1) anticipates the situations and episodes of the

rest of the collection so that Horace invites the reader to approach the artistic collection

as interplay.32 After addressing Maecenas, Horace returns to themes of patrons and

politics in 1.2 and 1.3: the first to Augustus, the second to another member of the circle,

Vergil. When Horace sings to Varro (1.6), the reader is again in the world of patronage



31 The canon of nine lyric poets includes Alcman, Alcaeus, Anacreon, Bacchylides, Ibycus, Pindar, Sappho,
Simonides, and Stesichorus (Oxford Classical Dictionary) 900.

32 I agree with Fraenkel (1957) 26 who cautions the reader not to look beyond a single ode for meaning.
What I am suggesting is that Horace, following the tradition of lyric, asks us to consider one situation at
one time and then at another. When we consider this self-referentiality, we see a transformation of the
poet. Consider, for example, the first and last odes of the collection, in which Horace first writes a
somewhat modest (even if feigned) wish to be enrolled in the lyric canon (1.1.29-31) and then at last boldly
declares that he has surpassed his models and created a more lasting monument (3.30).










and politics. The structure of the priamel foreshadows the Pindaric priamel in 1.7 and

the Pindaric motto in 1.12. In addition, the metrical variations of the Parade Odes

complement the meter of 1.1. Rather than offering nugae for his readers, Horace's

introductory poem establishes his communal consciousness, that Horace's social

contexts are never far from his own mind, nor will they be distant from the audience's

mind as they move through the collection.

I have not overlooked Maecenas. Horace gives his patron the prime position in

his lyric collection, and thereby highlights a more select audience-a private literary

circle which influenced Horace's poetry. At the same time, Maecenas, the first word in

the collection, indicates Horace's principal and foremost concern-to be communal.

Horatian lyric has political connections. Maecenas and Augustus' poets formed a literary

circle into which Horace was initiated in 38/37 B. C.33 The Augustan poets, like the

neoterics, adhered to Callimachean standards of literary innovation,34 and exchanged

poetry and creative philosophies between themselves. Unlike the politically withdrawn

neoterics, however, Maecenas' circle maintained direct contact with Rome's political

elite. Through their patron, the statesman Maecenas who held such close political ties to

Augustus,35 the poets had the opportunity to directly address matters of public policy.

Just as the archaic Greek lyricists engaged and performed a social function for thepolis,

Horace relies on the political connections of his circle to engage a wider Roman

audience. Thus he renews the spirit of the archaic Greek lyric poets, one which engages

and performs a social function for the polis. The Greek meter, Pindaric style, and Greek



33 Reckford (1959) 198.

34See my discussion of the Augustan recusatio in Chapter 1.

35 For Maecenas' political career, see Reckford (1959) 195-197; Dalzell (1956) 151-152.










allusions throughout the ode emphasize that Horace looks beyond the neoterics who

withdrew from politics to the Greek lyricists who performed an integral role for the pois.

Horace confirms the broad and more communal power of the poet with

emphatic statements of his poetic program at the end of his second and third books.

The lyric poet commands a prophetic and vatic function to such an extent that he defies

the narrow strictures of the neoterics. In C.2.20, Horace transcends boundaries:

Non usitata nec tenui ferar
pinna biformis per liquidum aethera
vates neque in terris morabor
longius invidiaque maior

urbis relinquam. non ego, pauperum
sanguis parentum, non ego, quem vocas,
dilecte Maecenas, obibo
nec Stygia cohibebor unda.
2.20.1-8

I will not fly on an common or slender wing, two-formed through the liquid
air, a vates, nor will I be delayed on the lands too long, and I will triumph over
the envy of the city. Not I, the son of poor parents, not I, whom you invite,
beloved Maecenas, will die, and I will not inhabit the Stygian waves.

Horace will not be borne on a common or slender wing (non usitata nec tenui. penna,

2.20.1-2) through the liquid air. The vates (3) will never look upon the Stygian banks (7-

8). Rather, he will glide far and wide as a bird (canorus ales, 15-16), visiting the shores of

the groaning Bosphorus and the Hyperborean fields (14-16). Horace juxtaposes the

broad range of his poetry to the common and slender wing of his opening line and uses

Callimachean language (non usitata nec tenuz) to define the stylistic qualities that will bring

him immortality. Horace will be original and will reject the narrow project, and give the

Callimachean aesthetic a new, communal focus.

Horace becomes both the vates and the ales in this poem, biformis (2). Part of him

will die, but the other will reach far and wide and never meet the underworld's gloom.










Accordingly in the beginning of the song, the phsyical world takes center stage: air (2)

and land (3), patrons (7) and cities (5). At this stage Horace's poetic ego dominates,

appearing twice in the first stanza in line-final positions (ferar 1, morabor 3) and within

each of the lines of the second stanza (relinquam ... ego, 5; ego, 6; obibo, 7; cohibebor, 8). The

anaphora iam, iam (9) emphasizes a shift into metaphor: Horace's metamorphosis into

the swan. Horace, the person, is reduced to a single passive verb (mutor, 10). Horace as

the ales moves into a more eternal and metaphorical state as new rough skin (pelles, 10)

and light feathers spring throughout his fingers and toes (leves... .plumae, 11-12). Horace

the person now becomes entirely secondary to the imagery of far-off lands and peoples

and the realm of the unreal. By the final two stanzas the poet is nearly absent as the poet

and appears only as a single me in the fifth stanza. Still, Horaces does not lose himself,

but through his poetry he is transformed into a universal and eternal presence.

The final addressees of this poem are mourners in a communal moment. In this

last stanza, Horace returns to the vatic power of the archaic lyric poet in terms of the

social and political community. He instructs the crowd of mourners to stop their grief:

absint inane funere neniae
luctusque turpes et querimoniae;
conpesce clamorem ac sepulcri
mitte supervacuos honors.
2.20.21-24

Let your dirges be absent from this empty funeral, and your vile griefs and
laments; hold your shouting in check and send away your empty honors from the
tomb.

Horace quickly shifts from the far-off lands of the Hiber and Rhone to a private

moment, and appeals to the crowd in terms of personal grief (luctus, querimoniae). Horace

settles on this final impression of the poem and expresses his universal power as a vates

in the context of community-the Roman people. Here he speaks more in the manner









of an archaic Greek poet as he appeals to a universal moment of his pols. By releasing

the polis from their grief through his poetry, Horace has asserted the political and social

potential of the lyric. Through this power to be influential in even the most personal

moments, Horace writes with a timeless relevance that will carry his name and word

beyond the Stygian shores.

At the end of his second book Horace emphasized the nations far and wide that

would read his lyric, and now in the final moment of his first collection he emphasizes

the immortality of his achievement:

Exegi monumentum aere perenius
regalique situ pyramidum altius,
quod non imber edax, non Aquilo inpotens
possit diruere aut innumerabilis
annorum series et fuga temporum.
Non omnis moriar multaque pars mei
vitabit Libitinam; usque ego postera
crescam laude recens, dum Capitolium
scandet cum tacita virgine pontifex.
Dicar, qua violens obstrepit Aufidus
et qua pauper aquae Daunus agrestium
regnavit populorum, ex humili potens
princeps Aeolium carmen ad Italos
deduxisse modos. Sume superbiam
quaesitam meritis et mihi Delphica
lauro cinge volens, Melpomene, comam.

I have built a monument more lasting than bronze and more lofty than the site
of the regal pyramids, which neither the devouring storm nor the violent North
Wind is able to demolish or the innumerable passing of the years, and the flights
of times. I shall not wholly die, and a great part of me will avoid Libitina.
Continuously onwards I will grow recent with praise, while the pontifex climbs
the Capitoline with the silent virgin. I shall be spoken of, wherever the violent
Aufidus roars and wherever Daunus, poor of water, has ruled over the rural
peoples; I am rising from my humble start to become powerful, the first to have
led Aeolian song to Italian meters. Receive the pride won by my service and
willingly wreath my hair with the Delphic laurel, Melpomene.

Throughout the poem Horace highlights his role in the lyric tradition as the poet who

has created a lasting achievement. Echoes of the bold statement of far-reaching influence










from 2.20 resound through 3.30. Again, Horace boldly declares his prominence in the

emphatic first person (exegi monumentum aereperenius, 1). Horace remains the primary

focus of the poem as he proclaims that he shall not wholly die, and a great part of him

will avoid the shades of death (non omnis moriar multaquepars meil vitabit Libitinam, 6-7). He

himself will grow with praise (egopostera crescam laude, 7-8) and he will be famed among

people far and wide (dicar, qua violens obstrepitAufidus, 10). Now in this last poem of the

collection, Horace defines his monumentum (ex humilipotens Iprnceps Aeolium carmen ad

Italos I deduxisse modos, 12-14).

Horace frames his achievement on a communal moment as the Pontifex

Maximus and Vestal march through the center of his poem. Because Horace has created

referentiality in the personal and private moments of the community, as long as thepolis

stands, the community can reference and identify with his lyrics. Now as Horace reaches

prominence in the lyric canon and crowns his head with victorious ivies, Horace's

immortality is contigent on the community of the polis.

In Horace, lyric poetry has once again become inherently political. He writes

according to the Callimachean standards of fat sacrifices and slender Muses, but avoids

speaking to an isolated literary community by personalizing communal moments, and

Horace himself has achieved eternal vatic status through these personal, communal

moments.
















CHAPTER 4
THE "FAT LITTLE" VERGIL

ApLLprupov oiSv eLa)n'

"I sing nothing unattested."

Horace would be named by peoples far and wide for ages to come because his

poetry touched upon universal moments for the community. Yet even when read

outside of the immediate political context, readers could experience Horace's lyrics

because they are grounded in the personal, human universality. Vergil too strives to

achieve this poetic immortality but faces an opposite challenge: transforming epic, an

inherently political genre, into a personal setting, which will give him relevance to an

audience beyond his own age. Just as Horace bypassed his immediate predecessors in

favor of archaic Greek models, Vergil seeks inspiration from the master-Homer.

Vergil imitates Homeric language and style to fatten his poetic sacrifice and narrates in

episodic elements which keep his Muse slender. Vergil further adopts the bard's vatic

role as he narrates the history of his Roman people against the backdrop of the Greek

epic tradition.

Vergil explicitly states his allegiance to Homer in the proem to his epic.

Scholarship has noted that Vergil's proem follows the proemia of Homer's epics in

structure." Closer analysis shows thematic parallels in the construction of the epic hero,



1 Call. fr. 612 Pf.

2 For the structure of the Aeneid and its relationship to the Iliad and Odyssey, see Heinze (1903); Williams
(1968); Knauer (1964a), (1' '- .41 (1990); Cairns (1989); Farrell (1991); Perkell (1999).










the journey, and the invocation to the Muse. Vergil's first words arma uirmque follow

the theme-first convention used by Homer.3 Vergil next references the poetic voice

(cano) and then continues into a narratio concerning the deeds of the hero (2-4).4 Homer

identified Zeus and Apollo as adverse deities,5 and Vergil now points to Juno (4) as the

antagonistic goddess who drives his hero to suffer. This queen of the gods immediately

returns into the narrative as the source of conflict for the hero (dolens regina deum, 9) and

forces him to undergo endless labors (10-11).

Vergil alerts the audience to his imitation by citing precise titles: arma (Iliad) and

uirum (Odyssey).6 Vergil begins with the Iliad. Although the three heroes in the proemia

each suffer at the hands of the gods, both Achilles and Aeneas face adversity as a direct

result of the god-E ow5 (6) and ob iram (4). Furthermore, both the proemia of the Iliad

and the Aeneid end with the renaming of the hero: 8los 'AXiXXeUs (7) and insignem pietate

(10). However, the opening lines to the Aeneid parallel the proem to the Odyssey more

closely than the proem to the Iliad. Vergil's virmirrors Homer's avLlp. In the Iliad, the

wrath of the hero is the subject, but in both the Odyssey and the Aeneid the poet tells the

story of the man himself. After the hero is introduced by a relative clause (6s pdAXa

TroXXa,1; qui primus ab oris, 1), Vergil's ir is thrown (iactatus, 3) just as Homer's hero is

knocked about (-rrXyX'dy q, 2). Both heroes suffer the forces of nature: the avrlp suffers



3 Perkell (1999) 29. In comparison, both the Iliad (p jvLv) and the Odyssy (dv8pa) begin with the subject of
the epic.

4 After the invocation in the Iliad, Homer sings the deeds of Achilles who brought innumerable sufferings
upon the Achaeans (2), sent many stout-hearted souls to Hades (3-4), and left the bodies of heroes behind
as loot for dogs and birds (4-5). See Weber (1987) 270 for further metrical allegiance to the Iliad. Similarly
in the Odyssey, Homer describes the deeds of Odysseus in a narratio following the invocation: he destroyed
the holy city of Troy (2); he saw and learned of many cities and the mindset of men (3).

5 AL6s (/1.1.5); A'vrofi5 KaL AL6S UtL6 (1.9);'Y(TrpLovos 'HEXOLO (Od. 1.8).

6 This analysis largely confirms Cairns (1989).










many toils on the sea (iroXXd 8' 6 y' ev IrovT6 -rrdev, 4), while Vergil's 'iris tossed

about on land and on sea, and suffers also much in war (multa quoque et .l,.,passus, 5).

Furthermore, this avrlp and vir suffer at the hands of deities, just as Zeus directed the

course of the wrath in the Iliad (5). The avrlp and vir struggle against this adverse god

toward a final goal-one to secure his own safe return, the other to found a city. At the

end of both proemia, the poets have introduced two men, both still unnamed, both the

leaders of men, and both struggling to accomplish a mission.

Vergil extends his imitation beyond the proem and often quotes from the Iliad

and the Odyssey as he narrates his Roman epic. Aeneas' first speech, in fact, quotes

Odysseus' speech when he laments his own fated wanderings. Such imitations launch a

pattern of verbal reminiscences between the Aeneid and its Homeric predecessors. Both

Aeneas and Odysseus cry out, "three and four times blessed are those who died at wide

Troy" (-rp'sL VdKCLES ACVaO'L KcL TETpLKLS, T-OT' XovTo I TpoL' ev eUpel,', Od.

5.306-7; o terque quaterque beati, I quis ante orapatrum Troiae sub moenibus altis contigit

oppetere!, 1.94-96). As leaders, Odysseus and Aeneas express comfort to their

companions who suffer the wanderings with them in the same words: "O companions,

we are not ignorant of hardships" (W LXoi, o0 ydp rrw TL KCLK V a8rCL'oves EL ev,

12.208; O socii (neque enim ignari sumus ante malorum), 1.198).8 Vergil even leaves the reader

at the end of his epic with a Homeric paraphrase as Turnus' life leaves its chilled limbs

and slips into the shades below (muXq' 8' 6K p etwv 7rTarcLvQl'A Ai86&u- pEPE'KEL I

TOT6LOv Yo(TacL, XLIroO' av8poTrTCL KaCL 3'qv, 21.16.656-7; ast..'soluunturfrigore membra




7 Clausen (1966) 77-79; P6schl (1962) 26.

8 P6schl (1962) 26.










Suitaque cumgemitufugit indignata sub umbras, 12.951-2).9 Through Vergil's imitation the

Homeric models are never far from the audience's mind so that they read the Aeneid as

an extension of the Homeric tradition.

Vergil's allegiance to Homer includes structure, which effects the basic plot-lines

of his epic. Vergil condenses the events of the Iliad and Odyssey into his narrative.10 Just

as Circe and Calypso detained the Odyssean hero, for example, the African queen Dido

delays Aeneas from reaching his homeland. Aeneas and the Trojans hold funeral games

for Anchises in the same manner that the Greeks celebrate games for Patroclus

(1/.23.226-897). Both the Odyssean hero and Vergilian hero visit the underworld and

meet warriors and family members from their past (A.6, Od.11). Vergil's narration of

battle scenes, enumerations of aristeiai, and descriptions of councils of gods enhance his

imitation of Homeric plots and situate the trials of Aeneas deep within the Homeric

tradition. Vergil thus reasserts his Homeric inspiration on multiple levels of narrative,

from plot lines to the language itself.

Vergil's loaded introduction arma uirumque anticipates the Homeric structure of

his narrative. Vergil conceives the first half of the Aeneid as the Odyssey and the second

half as the Iliad. 11 The introductory uirumque and the narratio on the deeds of Aeneas

reinforce the first half as Odyssean, while the second invocation at the beginning of


9 Harrison (1971) 166.

10 This argument is confirmed in Knauer who writes the definitive analysis of the similaries in Homeric
and Vergilian plot lines in die Aeneis und Homer (1964a). See also his article "Vergil's Aeneid and Homer"
(1990) and Heinze's work Virgils epische Technik (1903).

1 Duckworth (1962) 11 extensively outlines the various structural patterns of the Aeneid. He notes the bi-
partite structure of the two halves and also examines a tri-partite division of the books, which is again
reinforced by allusion in the opening scenes of the Aeneid (1.1-96). The mention of Carthago and the
description of the old city (1.13-22) symbolizes the first third of the book (1-4: Aeneas at Carthage and
Dido). Jupiter's prophecy (1.257-296) foreshadows the second third of the book (5-7: Latium, preparation
for war, Rome's history and destiny). Finally, the Furorimpius (1.294) anticipates the last third of the book,
which concentrates on the wars and battles themselves.










Aeneid 7 (A.7.37-44) marks the halfway point and the transition to the Iliad.12 Vergil does

not adapt the whole of the Odyssey, but rather, as Knauer notes, extracts only the parts of

Odysseus' epilogoi which are important to his own narrative.3 Therefore, Vergil does not

merely imitate the language or themes of Homer, he imitates the actual compositional

methods of the epic bard. Just as Vergil borrowed select parts of the Homeric tradition,

Homer borrowed select parts from the oral tradition.14 Thus Vergil does not rewrite or

reinvent Homer, but uses his epics as a spring-board for his own epic.

In his imitation Vergil alludes to parts of the Homeric texts and allows Homer

and the tradition to speak. As Aeneas and his men wander closer to Italy, they skim by

the mythical monsters Scylla and Charybdis (3.554-560). Because Vergil's audience of

contemporary Romans would not readily believe that the historical Aeneas would

encounter such fanciful creatures, Vergil only allows Aeneas to hear the monsters from

afar (audimus longefractasque ad litora uoces, 3.556).15 Vergil's Aeneas grazes past the shores

of the Cyclops and again only sees the mythical creatures from a distance (3.655-661).

Vergil keeps Aeneas' struggles and narrative as the primary focus, and we see Homer's



12 Duckworth (1962) 3-10. Anderson (1957) discusses Vergil's imitation of the Iliadin the second half of
the book in depth. He argues that Vergil's Trojans evolve from a race of defeat and actually succeed the
role of the Greeks as the victorious race. Anderson (27-30) further argues that Vergil works through the
events of the last half of his epic so that Troy and the Trojans actually fall (occidit, occideritque sinas cum nominee
Troia, 12.828), which is necessary for Rome to rise again.

13 Knauer (1990) 397-401.

14 Arist. Po.1456a.36-54; 1459a-1459b. Aristotle cautions poets to keep their plot lines manageable by
selecting only certain aspects of the tradition. Aristotle observes that Homer himself selects only the
important parts of the tradition and does not retell every aspect of the Trojan War, but sings only of the
struggles of two heroes. Vergil constructs his poem to be read in the same way. See also the comments of
Heinze (1903) 3-4, Otis (1963) 36, and Papanghelis (1999) 275-279.

15 Papanghelis (1999) 277-290: "sailing too close to this particular Homeric coast is not an option for the
Virgilian text: the Aeneid comes close enough to Odysseus' fantasy world to catch its echo-but it will not
be drawn into it." Vergil treats Aeneas' encounter with the Sirens in a similar fashion.










world only from a distance. Vergil interweaves his own narrative with the scenes of the

Homeric story and then allows his audience's familiarity with the tradition to fill in the

gaps. The audience brings their own literary awareness and their experiences to the text,

and thus they interact with Vergil's narrative, supplying their own knowledge when

Vergil withholds his.

Vergil fattens his work with Homeric references but he keeps his Muse slender in

the same manner as Homer by composing in episodes. The ancient vitae state that Vergil

wrote the episodes of his narrative first without regard to chronology or development of

the narrative.'6 Only then did he sew the episodes together into a united narrative."

Vergil therefore divides the whole of his narrative into episodic components such as

Aeneas' arrival at Carthage, Dido's death, and Aeneas' descent to the underworld.'8 The

episodes focus on a particular scene, narrative, or dramatic event of the epic which could

be read separately from the main narrative.9 The result of Vergil's episodic manner of

composition is that the audience experiences the entire narrative as a series of brief

events. Vergil thus achieves a brevitas which keeps his audience actively involved at each

transition.




16 Suet. lit.94-96R; cf. Quinn (1968) 73.

17 Duckworth (1962) 1; Quinn (1968) 72-73. Quinn breaks the Aeneidinto 167 episodes of two types: one
which expresses a "well developed coherent structure" that is essential to narrative; the other which is
"less coherent" and provides "a link to the first type of Episode."

18 Heinze (1903) 348.

19 Heinze (1903) 210 argues that Vergil's epic was written to be sung, and thus the individual components
of the narrative had to be short enough to be read at one sitting, but relevant enough to the main plot that
the listeners could keep in mind that they were hearing only one part of the entire epic. Bowra (1966) 53-
56 divides oral (which he terms authentic) and literary epic according to various criteria, including the use
of episodes. In authentic epic, he observes, episodes are not as tightly woven and focus only on necessary
elements. In literary epics such as the Aeneid, it is Vergil's prerogative to "pack each line with as much
significance as possible, to make each word do its utmost work and to secure that careful attention which
the reader, unlike the listener, can give."










Vergil can surprise the reader with each episodic turn, but he keeps the focus of

each of his episodes solidly on the action and goal of the Aeneid. Aristotle praises

episodes because they allow the audience to experience the action of the epic in terms of

multiple tragic moments of role reversal, recognition, and suffering."2 But Aristotle

warns against writing an entirely episodic narrative in which each episode has no

relevance to the poem as a whole.21 Vergil carefully interweaves the drama and action of

each episode into the action of the main narrative. When Aeneas first visits Carthage,

for example, he marvels at the sight of the rising city (1.418-440). Aeneas sees the parts

of the city which were once huts (magalia, 421) turn into structures of civilization: walls

(423), a citadel (424), gates (427) and a theater decked with huge columns (427-428).

Amid his wonder and amazement, Aeneas cries out, "O they are fortunate whose walls

already rise!" (Ofortunati, quorum Jam moenia suzgunt, 437). The lengthy descriptions of

Carthage's rising city and Aeneas' words bring us back to the action of the very

beginning of the epic (atque altae moenia Romae, 1.7). Aeneas focuses his attention on

Carthage, but the struggle to found his city-the purpose of his quest-is the prominent

theme of the episode.

Here in Carthage Aeneas first dared to hope for a better future for his men (hic

primum Aeneas sperare salutem I ausus, 1.451-452) but his hope soon turns sour. As Vergil

describes Dido's consuming grief and pain, he does not allow the focus of the episode to

become fixed too exclusively on Dido, but rather Vergil demonstrates his preoccupation

with the events of the main narrative. After Mercury commands Aeneas to quit his

delays and return to the fulfillment of his destiny (4.265-276), Vergil describes Dido's


20 Arist. Po.1459b.l-6; 1459a.7-17.

21 Arist. Po.1451b.48-55.










distress in a frenzy of furor that overwhelms the narrative of Aeneas' visit to Carthage.

Rumor brings the news of Aeneas' departure to the queen who rages through her city

like a Bacchant (300-304). She has been utterly deserted and left with no remnant of

Aeneas, not even a child that would console her in her distress (si quis mihiparulus

aula luderetAeneas, qui te tamen ore referred, non equidem omnino capta ac desert uiderer, 328-

330). Vergil progressively directs the scene toward Aeneas who is preparing his fleet for

departure. Aeneas, however, is enveloped in concerns for the grieving queen as he

considers how he might console her (Atpius Aeneas, quamquam lenire dolentem solando cupit

et dictis auertere curas, 393-3 '4,. As the Trojans burden their ships with supplies for their

journey, Vergil interrupts and speaks directly to Dido who oversees the actions of the

Trojans: "What feelings did you have Dido, as you look upon these things? What groans

did you keep giving?" (quis tibi turn, Dido, cernenti talia sensus, I quosve dabasgemitus, 408-409).

Dido and her grief pervades the sequence of events, but in her last outburst of emotion,

the moment belongs to the Trojans. Dido's frenzy concludes in a curse against the

Trojan race:

nullus amor populis nec foedera sunto.
exoriare aliquis nostris ex ossibus ultor
qui face Dardanios ferroque square colonos,
nunc, olim, quocumque dabunt se tempore uires.
litora litoribus contraria, fluctibus undas
imprecor, arma armis: pugnent ipsique nepotesque.
4.624-629

May there be no love or treaties for your people. May there be an avenger to rise
from our bones who will follow the Dardanian colonists with sword and
firebrand, now, once and at whatever time strength will give itself. I beg for
shores against shores, waves against waves, arms against arms. May they and
their descendants fight.

In the end, Dido's rage has culminated in a curse that adds to the suffering and

toil of the Trojans and their descendants, Vergil's Romans. Vergil takes us back to










Aeneas buffered about on the sea by Juno's storms, to the battles already suffered at

Troy, and looks ahead to the battles that await the Trojans in Italy and the Carthaginian

wars. Dido in her maddened state will speak her last words in a resolute prayer to the

shades of death (dulces exuiaae, 651), and thus Vergil has hinged the episode's climax of

emotion on the burden which he placed on Aeneas and his men at the beginning of his

epic (tantae molis erat Romanam conderegentem, 1.33).22 Vergil has included within the main

narrative of Aeneas' journey the collapse of another exile and her city. Within the

episode, however, the audience never loses sight of the greater context of the narrative

so that the individual episode-and others like it,such as those with Evander (8), Nisus

(9), and Aeneas' shield (8)-maintains the brevity of the narrative and at the same time

adds depth and meaning to the greater themes of the epic.

Vergil has thus not only imitated Homer, but he has become the Homeric bard.

Vergil validates his epic as history by sewing his narrative deep within a Homeric

context. Simultaneously he maintains credibility with his contemporary audience by

selecting only relevant parts of the Homeric tradition and only alluding to less relevant

mythologies so that the reader actively participates in the narrative and interprets what is

left unsaid. Vergil achieves brevity through his shifting episodic narrative but fattens his

Muse through the dramatic events of each episode. Even at the most basic level of these

episodes, we see Vergil's greater design: to work through the toils and sufferings that

were necessary to found the Roman race. Vergil hoists the history of his people on his



22 We can see Vergil's focus on the goal of his narrative in comparison to the later novelist Petronius. As
Schmeling (1991: 358-359; 358 n.22) notes, when Petronius alludes to the Dido and Aeneas episode in his
Satyricon, he is able to surprise and redirect the actions of his characters and the plot itself In Vergil's case,
however, tradition and the inevitability of his ending dictate the course of the narrative. Schmeling
continues, "the story of Dido and Aeneas moves inevitably from its beginning to its clearly predestined
conclusion. Virgil lives under the constant anxiety of the ending of Aeneas' story."






47


shoulders and carries epic out of the disparagement of Callimachus' criticisms to

establish a completely revitalized tradition.

















CHAPTER 5
THE "LITTLE FAT" VERGIL

,'iKarva yap alev OL8OL 0O 1oEV

"For we singers always sacrifice unburned offerings (to the Muses)."

Propertius announces Vergil's Aeneid as a grand birth: "Give way Roman and

Greek authors, something greater than the Iliad is being born!" (cedite Romani scriptores,

cedite Grai! I nesco quid maius nascitur Iliade, 2.34b.65-66). Vergil has accomplished more

than fattening his text with a Homeric voice, he has made the epic voice his own.2 As

Vergil looks back to the original master, he does not forget the standards of innovation

set by Callimachus nor does he ignore the literary programs of his immediate literary

circle. Like Horace, the most notable lyricist of this circle, Vergil exploits the self-

referentiality that a literary text allows and concentrates the greater focus of his narrative

into recurring personal moments. On a literary level we read Vergil's Aeneid within a

Homeric context, but Vergil turns his narrative inward with a personal, lyrical focus so

that we experience his poem on a universal, communal level.

Vergil's opening themes of arms and men deeply embed the reader in a Homeric

context. Structural and compositional elements throughout the Aeneid reinforce this

Homeric imitation. But Vergil sings cano, an entirely un-Homeric disavowal of the





1 Call.fr. 494 Pf.; cf. Trypanis (1975) 257.
2 Clausen (1964a) 142: As Clausen notes, Vergil is "most himself, most Roman, when imitating Homer or
some other Greek poet, as if he were then most conscious of his own individuality."










Muses as inspiration. Vergil projects a greater individualism in his voice than Homer

who uses imperative invocations to his Muse to begin each of his epics (pTIVLV d8ELe,

06e, 21.1; 'Av8pa pLOL E vve-re, Mo(o-a, Od.1.1). Homer immediately presents himself

as the bard through which the Muses sing. Vergil's Muse, however, must wait eight lines

before Vergil will call upon her for inspiration .\1 mihi causes memora, 8). Musa

remains first in the line, but mihi directly follows and undercuts the power of the invoked

Muse. Furthermore, Vergil does not ask his Muse to sing or speak through him; rather,

he asks her only to remind him (memora, 8).4 Vergil reinforces the poet's control of the

narrative in his invocation for the second half of the Aeneid. Vergil calls upon Erato to

"come, give ear," while he himself tells of the wars that have come upon Italian shores

(Nunc age, qui reges, Erato, quae tempora ... expediam, etprimae revocabo exordiapugnae, 7.37,

40). The Muse as inspiration is absent from this invocation as the reader first encounters

the poet's ego, expediam (40), which is reinforced by the elision (expediam et) that moves

the line swiftly to reuocabo (40). Vergil actually takes over for himself the role of memory

which he had previously assigned to the Muse \ mihi causes memora, 1.8), and with

reuocabo, Vergil does not relinquish control: "I will revive the memory of things."6




3 Miller (1986) argues that the disavowal of the divine Muse is programmatic as seen through invocations
by Propertius, Ovid, and Persius. Vergil is not the first to sing in the first person. Williams (1968) 36-37
lists instances of the first person invocation by Apollonius, Callimachus, and Theocritus. Kopff (1981)
927-944 argues that the invocation in the Little Iliad (cf. Hor.Ars 136-137) provided the model for Vergil's
epic and describes other parallels between the two epics. Vergil's disavowal of a Homeric Muse is more
than a claim to the first person but is a signifier of a consciousness that Vergil will develop throughout his
epic.

4 Clausen (1964a) argues that Vergil's use of memora is a literary allusion. He explains that Vergil's appeal to
the Muse is not an appeal to the tradition but to the specific Homeric texts.

5 This use of age gives a colloquial feel to the address, which differs from the formal structure of Homer's
invocations. Williams (1968) 738 cites other colloquial instances of age, such as Mercury's speech to
Aeneas (heia age, rumpe moras, 4.569) and Charon's speech to Aeneas '" .' age, qui uenias, iam instinc, 6.389).

6 Oxford Latin Dictionary 13b: "to recall to mind;" "revive the memory of."










Vergil's first words arma uirumque cano encapsulate his poetic program, which the

bard then revives and enhances throughout his text. His subject will be an Iliad and

Odyssey, but he himelfwill sing it. Vergil imbues his text with a Horation referentiality

and introduces the reader to a degree of self-referentiality not found in Homer, a type of

lyric consciousness. Just as Horace introduced his poetic program for the tribiblos in his

opening song, Vergil begins with a condensed program of how he will write his epic. He

operates from this program throughout his narrative so that the reader perceives in each

episode a poetic intent and consciousness that looks back to the poet's own plan, cano.

Vergil's opening lines anticipate the forthcoming action of the poem and

establish a pattern of referentiality that the oral nature of the Homeric epics did not

allow.8 When Vergil describes Carthage, Jupiter's prophecy, and the impiusfuror that

awaits Aeneas, he establishes a foundation for his epic that readers will work from and

look back to as they progress through the epic. After the invocation, Vergil physically

places Carthage opposite Italy (K!.,, i',j. Italiam contra, 1.13) and at length details the city

and Juno's intense protection of its peoples (12-18). AfterJuno has scattered his fleet on

the sea, Aeneas beaches his ships on the shores of this same Carthage (1.305). Vergil

does not remind us of Juno's fierce protection of the city and her queen Dido, but we

recall her devotion from the opening lines. Vergil again asks us to recall Juno's


SVergil's declaration of a poetic program in the first lines of his poem is a weighty construction. Weber
(1987) 262-267 notes the rare metrical pattern of the opening three words trocheee + amphibrach + iamb).
Weber, citing Catullus 64 in which the poet uses a neoteric vocabulary to present his poetic genre, also
notes the importance of the inapit to poets as an opportunity for poetic statement. The opening lines
provide occasion for poets to state how they one day want to be quoted. We might consider Horace's use
of his Greek models in the "motto construction," in which he begins with a quote from an earlier Greek
lyric (e.g. Carm.1.1.4, 1.12, 1.16, 1.18, and 1.37). Feeney (1993) 44 notes that this construction "is a mark
of homage both to his poetic models and to the scholars who had catalogued them under the inpit, and it
is a self-referential anticipation of how he himself will one day be cited." We might thus consider Vergil's
inipit as Iliad (arma), Odyssey (uirm), me (cano).

8 Both Poschl (1962) 13-32 and Duckworth (1962) 1-11 note and expand upon this literary and symbolic
referentiality in Vergil's opening lines.










motivations from the previous episodes when the goddess plans a marriage for Dido and

Aeneas (4.92-104) and initiates the strife that will alienate Carthage from Italy. Carthage

is now in reality against Italy, and when the Sibyl sings of horrible wars that await Aeneas

and his men (6.86), Vergil brings us back to these opening lines. Simultaneously he casts

our thoughts forward to the Italian wars which await us in his epic and the Carthaginian

wars which await the actual Roman race.9

Vergil again references his own work when Jupiter prophesizes the ultimate

outcome of Aeneas' journey. The prophesy naturally functions as a literary device to

foreshadow forthcoming trials, but Vergil also achieves self-referentiality on a symbolic

level. As Jupiter enumerates the prominent descendents of Aeneas such as Ascanius

(1.267-271), Romulus (273-282), and Augustus (283-288), he symbolically reviews

Roman history and its heroes from past to present (6.756-892). Jupiter tells his daughter

Venus that Faith, Vesta, and Romulus and Remus will bring laws to Aeneas' race so that

the twin gates of war will close (cana Fides et Vesta, Remo cumfratre Quiinus iura dabunt;

diraeferro et compagibus artis claudentur B. 'portae, 1.292-294). Vergil directly references

monuments which frame the Roman forum: the temple to Fides on the Capitoline, the

temple to Vesta in the forum, and the gates of Janus.10 The physical monuments

symbolically anticipate Aeneas' arrival into Latium and his tour through Evander's city

(A.8). Lastly, Jupiter prophesizes that an impious furorwill rage inside these gates of

Janus-the god's hands tied behind his back and his mouth bloodied (1.294-296). The



9 Cf. Poschl (1962) 15. Poschl (13-24) examines multiple levels of symbolic unity within the first three
hundred lines of the Aeneid, which encompass wars, politics, history, and :n rlh..1.. _

10 For the location of the temples, see the entries in Steinby (1993), Richardson (1992), and the Oxford
Classical Dictionary. The location of the temple ofJanus and the gate is dubious, but we know that the gate
played a role in the triumphal route which took victorious Roman generals through the forum; see also R.
D. Williams (1972) 182-183.










furor foreshadows more than the Italian wars themselves but the wrath and violent

passion which drive the soldiers and heroes all the way through to the conclusion of

Vergil's epic (furiis accensus, 12.946). Vergil symbolically anticipates the events of his

narrative so that as an audience we no longer approach the episodes in a linear fashion,

but rather we consider how episodic scenes work on a symbolic level towards the goal of

the main narrative.

Within arma uirumque cano, Vergil creates a symbolic referentiality not found in

the Iliad and the Odyssey. Thus the tradition, a specifically Homeric tradition, to which

Vergil is inextricably and avowedly bound becomes a foundation into which Vergil

inserts his lyric consciousness. The rich epic context of these Homeric scenes allows

Vergil to write as a lyric poet, with referentiality, deictic emotions, and universal appeal in

terms of the personal. The differences between the first speeches of Odysseus and

Aeneas as stranded warriors on the open sea indicate how Vergil will give his episodes

dramatic, emotional levels of feeling in terms of personal suffering. Vergil gives us

glimpses of Aeneas reacting on an emotional level in different situations so that as we

progress through the text we form an awareness of Aeneas' inner thoughts and

emotions. We begin to see Aeneas in terms of a complex emotional context rather than

an individual reacting to an isolated episode, which in turn allows us to reconsider

Aeneas each time we encounter him in a new situation.

The contrasting motivations of Odysseus and Aeneas become apparent when

Aeneas speaks his first words, which quote Odysseus' lament. Both heroes appeal to the

gods and curse their fates, but Aeneas shows a deeper emotional concern for his people

entirely absent from his counterpart Odysseus. The two cry out:

'pLS CLtaKapES AcavaoL KaL Te-TpKLS, o' TOT-' oXovrT
TpoL'i Ev eupe, ydptiv A-pE48toai Aepovres.










as 687 Ey () 'y' &eXov Oav'ELV KaLL 'TrOTLOV EiT-rnTreiv
'iLaLT TO) OTE VLOL iTXeiToi XQaXK'ipea SoiTpa
Tpdtes E'irppi+lav -rrep' I'qrlXtwvi OavO6vTL.
TOr) K' eXaov Kc epWtv, KCL uPeu KXEOS 'yov 'Axaio.
vOv 84 uxe XeuyaXi OQav'M-) eipiap-ro iXDvai.
Od.5.306-312

Three and four times blessed are the Danaans who, giving help to the sons of
Atreus, died there in wide Troy. Thus I wanted to die and to fall to my fate on
that day when more Trojans who were gathered around the dying Achilles hurled
their bronze-tipped spears at me. Then I would have obtained proper funeral
rites and the Acheans would bear my fame. But now it is fated that I wander
until my mournful death.

terque quaterque beati,
quis ante ora patrum Troiae sub moenibus altis
contigit oppetere! o Danaum fortissime gentis
Tydide! mene Iliacis occumbere campis
non potuisse tuaque animam hanc effundere dextra,
saevus ubi Aeacidae telo iacet Hector, ubi ingens
Sarpedon, ubi tot Simois correpta sub undis
scuta uirum galeasque et fortia corpora uoluit!
1.94-101

Three and four times blessed are those who chanced to fall before the faces of
their fathers under the high walls of Troy! O Diomedes, most brave of the
Greek race! O that I was not able to fall on the Ilian battlefields and pour forth
this soul by your right hand, where fierce Hector lies killed by the spear of
Achilles, where huge Sarpedon lies dead, where the Simois has rolled over so
many shields and has seized under its waves the helmets and brave bodies of
men!

Both heroes rather unheroically cry out in their frustration and wish that they would

have escaped the present trial by dying at Troy. Odysseus wishes that he had been

among those warriors fighting for Agamemnon and Menelaus, who fell on Troy's plain

(306-7). He yearns to have died and met his lot (308) while the Trojans were attacking

him (iLOL, 309). Then the Achaeans would honor his fame (Peu KXEos, 311). But these

things did not happen, and Odysseus fears he will suffer a miserable death at sea (312).

His own lot, his own burial, and his own fame consume Odysseus' thoughts as he


laments his fate.










As Aeneas cries out, he at first quotes Odysseus word for word: "three and four

times blessed!," but by the end of his speech his worries move beyond his own fate to

the fate of his Trojan comrades. Although Aeneas' speech closely parallels that of

Odysseus in structure (a relative clause and infinitive constructions), Troiae, emphatically

placed at the center of its line is a heavy word for Aeneas who yearns to have died under

the high walls of his homeland. Aeneas' life takes on meaning because it is always in

relationship to his community, Troy. Whereas Odysseus and his comrades fought for

two foreign leaders, Aeneas and the Trojans battled for their homeland and lost. To

have died at Troy would have been to die before the faces of parents (ante orapatrum, 95).

Troy, mentioned by name now for the fifth time in the first one hundred lines, is the

central locus of meaning for Aeneas and his men: Troy produced offspring that would

overturn Carthage (Troiano a sanguine dud, 1.19), Juno had waged war for the Greeks

against the Trojans (ad Troiampro cais gesseratArgis, 1.24) and she had scattered them on

the sea (iactatos aequore toto Troas, 1.29-30). Most importantly, Aeneas suffers exile from

this Troy: (Troiae .fatoprofugus, 1.1-2). From this Troy Aeneas first took his father,

son, and Penates, and at this very point the fates burdened him with the fate of his

people.

In personal terms, Aeneas appeals to the universality of suffering. Aeneas only

touches lightly upon his own near death at Troy by evoking Diomedes, the bravest of

the race of Danaus who almost killed him (97).12 The form of apostrophe brings the

lament into a more universal context and differs from Odysseus' wish to have died on

the battlefield, a more individualistic focus which is emphasized with a first person verb


11 Troiae in line 1 also holds central position. Both instances are in the third foot following a caesura.
12 1/.5.297-313; R. D. Williams (1972) 168.










(6keXov, 308) and pronouns (yw, 308; ioL, 309). On the other hand, Vergil introduces

us to Aeneas so that we experience the inner thoughts of the communal hero who bears

the weight of the Trojan race (genus unde Latinum I A.l,'..L'. ., padres atque altae moenia Romae,

1.6-7). Aeneas' grief for Hector (99) and the men whom the Simois rolled under its

waves (100-101) generalize his speech in terms of Trojan loss and suffering, rather than

the personal loss of burial rites and KXEOS which Odysseus laments. The reader pities the

hero Aeneas who has suffered but in terms of what the Trojan race itself has lost.13

Instead of enumerating the ways he wishes to have died at Troy and the cost that

it would have been to his own heroic status, Aeneas' personal grief and worry is shown

through his pain and suffering for all the Trojans. Aeneas' personal voice appeals to the

universal, a lyric moment embedded within an entirely epic, Homeric context. At the

same time that Vergil repeatedly steeps the reader in a Homeric context, he inserts his

own poetic voice by asking the reader to reconsider the situation in a Roman context,

presented and strengthened by the singer Vergil. Vergil, after delaying any action from

the hero for ninety lines, points the reader back to the first reference to Aeneas. As we

experience the Aeneas stranded on the sea, we recall the Aeneas of the proem who will

suffer until he establishes his gods in his city (dum conderet urbem inferretque deos Latio, 1.5-

6). Aeneas here too differs from Odysseus who is driven by a personal motivation to

return home (v6rrov, 1.5; VO6L-rLOV jpLap, 1.9). Aeneas, on the other hand, suffers for

his city (urbem, 1.5) and his race (genus, 6). The reader hears Aeneas' outcry within this

context and gains an emotional perspective that enhances the depth of Aeneas' speech.




13 Poschl (1962) 53: "Homer's heroes suffer through 'love of self in the high Aristotelian sense. And
Vergil's other protagonists, Dido and Turnus, suffer in a similar way; but Aeneas suffers for the sake of
others."










Writing emotive narrative alone does not set Vergil apart from Homer nor does

it make him lyrical. It is the fact that he brings his audience back to these moments of

personal grief again and again throughout the narrative so that the reader actually

experiences Aeneas' emotions as Aeneas at one time laments his fate as a hero lost at sea,

at another time mourns over those lost in the wars when he gazes upon the Daedalean

doors (6.14-41), and at another time pities the death of his comrade's son (11.29-63).

Through the course of the Aeneid, the reader considers Aeneas in terms of his emotional

reactions as well as his actions themselves. These scenes cause the audience to revisit

Aeneas in different contexts, and ultimately bring the reader back to the Aeneas of the

proem who bears the fate of his race. It is this self-consciousness, a course directed by

the will of the singer, that sets the Aeneid into a lyric mode.

Vergil colors his epic with these personal, more intimate moments so that

readers develop a familiarity with Aeneas' character throughout his text. Vergil only

needs to touch upon certain aspects of Aeneas' character to trigger the reader's own

consciousness. Vergil does not always need to explicitly explain particular reasons behind

Aeneas' actions because the reader brings this familiarity with Aeneas to each next

situation and jointly experiences the trials of Aeneas. In two separate episodes of the

Aeneid, Vergil uses the same words to describe Aeneas' reaction to fleeing shades, both

which quote an Odyssean original. By comparing how Vergil imitates this passage on

separate occasions, we can see how he will rely on the reader's consciousness to fill in

any dramatic gaps:

-pis pv 4npw.'vO'qv, eXEeiv -rT ie Oup's vo yei,
-rp s 84 VLOL 6K XELPCiv OKL, ELKEXov i KQL o6veLpw
ei-rrr '. Eio'i 8' x OS 6O yevaEV oKETO K'opoiL L& XXov
Od.11.206-8










Three times I rushed forth, and my spirit compelled me to grab her. Three times
her ghost flew from my hands like a shade or a dream. Then a more sharp pain
came upon my heart.

ter conatus ibi collo dare bracchia circum;
ter frustra comprensa manus effugit imago,
par leuibus uentis uolucrique simillima somno.
2.792-4; 6.700-702

There, three times I tried to put my arms around her neck; three times in vain
her image, almost grasped, fled my hands, her image equal to the light winds and
most similar to swift sleep.

The Vergilian lines are a near translation: both heroes try to grasp the fleeing shade, and

the shades escape both their hands like a dream. The audience knows Odysseus'

thoughts and feelings only through his actions and what he does. Odysseus rushes forth

(i~4 pp,'&6rv) because his spirit compels him (p e OupLs a&voye), and a harsh pain sets in

upon his heart when he grasps at the empty shade (dXoos 6O~ yevEaKe-o K'rp6OL). The

reader judges Aeneas' emotions through the words Aeneas speaks. Aeneas himself

relates how Creusa has deserted him deserti, 791)14 and Aeneas describes how he tried

to grasp her shade (conatus). The reader discerns Aeneas' emotions through his narrative,

first with the vain attempts by Aeneas to throw his arms around his mother (frustra), then

when her shade is actually grasped (conprensa). Aeneas encapsulates the moment in


14 Segal (1974) 34-36 argues that Vergil describes Aeneas' emotionalpathos at two separate times in the text
to imitate the repetitive nature of oral poetry; cf. Brown (1990) for further analysis of Vergil's sensitivity to
the repetition of the Homeric songs. According to Segal, when Aeneas loses his wife, he is consumed by
personal emotions but when he loses his father he becomes focused on his greater purpose. Heinze
(1903) 224 too will argue that Aeneas as a character evolves through the text and reaches the ideal that
Vergil envisions for him. I want to be clear in my argument that although Vergil constructs his narrative
so that we weigh Aeneas' actions against his previous actions, this does not necessitate that Aeneas evolves
to a certain ideal. In fact, as Otis (1976) 9 n.2 notes, Aeneas actually seems to 'relapse' in the sense of
psychological development as we move through the text. I think that arguments of a development in
Aeneas' character are based on too linear a reading of Vergil's text. Vergil's lyrical presentation of Aeneas'
emotions in various episodes encourage us to evaluate Aeneas' actions not just in terms of his past actions,
but in terms of his future actions. Because he writes in an episodic narrative, Vergil does not emphasize
the actions of each episode in terms of the previous episode, but rather he concentrates the events on the
fulfillment of the purpose of the main narrative. Thus, instead of assessing Aeneas' character based on a
linear journey from Troy to Rome, we might rather consider Aeneas in the context of the purpose of the
Aeneid.










images of futility-Aeneas' arms reaching for Creusa' neck, his empty grasps, the shade

disappearing into the wind. Aeneas makes all other actions contingent on the primary

reality, ,. 7.'. a dead-end verb that gives the action a sense of finality and completion.

Vergil describes the escaping ghost of Aeneas' father Anchises with the same

Odyssean quote (6.700-702). In both episodes, Vergil imitates the lines of Homer but

re-casts them on an emotional level. The images of futility in the scene give us glimpses

into Aeneas' inner-thoughts and permits us to infer how these emotions relate to the

main narrative when we bring our familiarity with Aeneas to the text. After the scenes of

his wife and father fleeing his futile grasps, Aeneas turns his attention to the task at hand

rather than lingering on the emotion of the moment (sic demum socios consumpta nocte reuiso,

2.795; interea uidetAeneas in reducta I seclusum nemus, 6.703-4). E. L. Harrison argues

that Aeneas' reaction does not entirely parallel Odysseus' reaction in the same situation.

He notes a "remarkable sterility about the aftermath, with Aeneas showing not the

slightest reaction to this highly dramatic incident ..."'. This in fact is most Vergilian.

Vergil leaves out the emotional aftermath of the scene because we know from earlier

episodes that Aeneas carries a burden and purpose which is greater than Odysseus'

struggle to return home. At the end of the scene Vergil leaves us to interpolate Aeneas'

motives in terms of how we have already seen him: lamenting the fate of his comrades at

sea, hoisting his father on his shoulders to save him from the burning city, abandoning a

city and a queen where he first dared to hope for better times.

Now, when turning from the fleeing shade of his wife and father, Aeneas again

moves onto greater themes. As Segal notes, Vergil does not linger on the emotion of the


15 Harrison (1971) 167-168 stresses that Odysseus' encounter with his mother and the moment of her
elusive escape provide an introduction for a narrative on the nature of the soul and the reason why
Odysseus can't grasp his mother (Od.11.215-224), whereas Vergil's quotation marks the end of a scene.










moment precisely because there are far greater things at hand-the safe escape of his

comrades and the fate of his people.16 The audience experiences Aeneas' emotions

through the narrative and must weigh Aeneas' reaction against the other emotional

settings in which Vergil has cast him. Here Vergil is the lyric poet, deictic rather than

didactic,1 showing Aeneas' emotions rather than explicitly stating them at two separate

moments of the narrative.'8

Vergil's Aeneas, even when losing his father for a second time (6.700-702),

always keeps the burden of his race in mind throughout his actions. When Aeneas turns

away from the ghost of his father, he turns away to fulfill his fate to re-establish the

Trojans in a foreign land. In the sixth book of his epic, Vergil has the opportunity to

blatantly glorify the race that Aeneas will found as he narrates Aeneas' noble

descendents. But Vergil sends his epic into a lyrical mode and universalizes the

emotional loss that is inherent to the city's establishment in an expressive, deictic

moment. He does not tell us that Rome will be great, he shows us and leaves us to

consider the suffering and grief in the context of our own personal reflection.9



16 Segal (1974) 37-40 notes that Homer's lengthened epic mode puts Odysseus' grief within the ebb and
flow of the narrative. The formulaic line KpuEpoLo -r-rapirr;tea-6 y6oio (11.212) also gives a generic
quality to Odysseus' feelings. Segal continues, "the broader time-scale of the Homeric poem lets us see
such moments as part of the continuities and expected, gradual rhythms of human existence. In the Aeneid
such moments come as discerete, violent outbursts of emotion; and epic breadth gives way to something
like lyrical intensity."

17 Deictic descriptions are a fundamental characteristic of lyric; cf. Johnson (1982) 74.

18 Segal (1974) 51-52 defines Vergil's purpose as highlighting the ambiguity and mystery of such moments.
Vergil is "more self-consciously aware that the issues with which he deals do not admit of such
definiteness or clarity [as they do in the Iliada. The fact that tension, hesitation, and ambiguity exist may be
more important for the understanding of the Aeneid than the mutually exclusive correctness of one or the
other interpretations." Segal picks up on what Otis (1963) terms Vergil's subjective style. Segal and
Harrison's differing views of Vergil's adaptation of the Homeric lines are what Otis (50-51) admits as a
disadvantage of Vergil's subjective style. Homer's objective style gives us a clear interpretation of his
characterizations.

19 Cf. Clausen (1964a, 1' .41,, and Parry (1966).










Vergil's description of Aeneas' descent to the underworld has Homeric

precedent. From past episodes, we know that Odysseus and Aeneas bear different

burdens and here again in the underworld Vergil contrasts Odysseus' own personal goals

with the larger, national goals of his hero Aeneas. Odysseus recognizes his mother in the

underworld (11.85) but will not talk to her until Teiresias assures him of a safe return

home (89). Teiresias prophesizes that although Poseidon has great ambitions of keeping

the hero from reaching his country, nevertheless Odysseus will reach Ithaca and restore

order to his home (100-124). Teiresias assures Odysseus of his personal safety, and

Odysseus now turns to his mother Anticlea. Odysseus' motives for speaking to his

mother are again personal as he expresses his primary concerns: he asks how she herself

came to the underworld (170-173), where his father and his son are (174), and whether

his wife is protecting his home and possessions (175-179). Odysseus vainly tries to clasp

his mother's ghost, as discussed above, and proceeds to meet the souls of women and

heroes in the underworld.

Vergil's similar plot-lines and quotations of Odysseus' speeches demonstrates

that we are deep within a Homeric context, but again Vergil manipulates the epic setting

with a personal, lyric consciousness so that the audience experiences the ramifications of

Aeneas' journey along with the hero. Aeneas learns of his destiny from the Sibyl in the

upperworld (6.83-97) but longs to journey to the underworld to visit his father (108-123).

He appeals to the Sibyl in terms of the pietas that he has shown by saving his father from

the flames of burning Troy (110-111) and by enduring the perils of the sea with his ailing

father (113). This pietas compels him to see his father once more (ire ad conspectum can

genitoris et ora contingat, 108-109) and to undergo the toils of Avernus. 20 Vergil contrasts


20 Heinze (1903) 351.










Odysseus' personal motivations against Aeneas' personal understanding of the universal

concept ofpietas. Aeneas' appeal to the Sibyl betrays his devotion to his father. Through

his direct appeal we see Aeneas' devotion to his fatherland. Aeneas enters the

underworld in an act ofpietas and brings with him the burden his devotion has set upon

him.

In the underworld, Anchises shows his son the glory that his devotion will bring

to the Roman race. From Jupiter's prophesy in Aeneid 1 the reader already knows that

glory awaits the Roman people. The Roman race has been given power without end

(1.279) and will one day pacify the nations (1.283-296). Anchises indentifies for his son

the glorious Romans who will roam the earth: the lineage of the Roman kings (6.756-

770), the birth of Romulus (6.777-780), and the rise of the Caesars and the golden age

(6.789-797). When Anchises advises Aeneas, he addresses him as a Roman in terms

which directly speak to his contemporary audience: "Be mindful to rule your people with

power, Roman, (these will be your arts), and introduces the custom of peace on them,

and spare the subjected and war against the proud to the end," (tu regere impedo populous,

Romane, memento I (hae tibi erunt artes), pacique imponere more, parcere subiectis et ...

superbos, 12.851-853).21 The Roman Aeneas brings a custom of domination and of peace

to his people and he immediately sees the elder Marcellus enjoying this glorified labor.

This Carthaginian hero Marcellus 22 rejoices in his victorious moment with his fellow

Romans (magno turbante ,. '. .,. 857)23 and dedicates the most cherished spoils (spoliis



21 Augustus writes that he established a similar program in his own imperial government: Bella terra et man
civilian extemaque toto in orbe terrarum saepe gessi, victorque omnibus veniam petentibus civibuspeperci. Exteras genes,
quibus tuto ignoscipotuit, conserare quam excidere malui (R.G. 3).
22 R.D. Williams (1972) 513.

23 Cf. Hor. Carm.1.1.7-8: hunc, si mobilium turbaQuiritium I certat tergeminis tollere honoribus.










opimis, 855) to father Quirinus (854-859). Vergil creates an optimistic picture of the

extent and nature of Roman rule, which he reinforces in this hero celebrating the

triumphal peace that Aeneas will bring to his race.

Surprisingly Vergil passes on the opportunity to sing any specifics about the

golden age prophesized by Jupiter and Anchises. Instead he turns the celebratory image

of Marcellus into a moment of lamentation and sorrow. Aeneas sees a soldier

accompanying the triumphant elder Marcellus, but this young warrior bears an unhappy

expression and a downcast face (sedfrons laetaparum et deiecto lumina vultu, 6.862). Vergil

describes both Aeneas and Anchises' emotion and anguish with the intimate tone of an

apostrophe when they see this younger Marcellus, the nephew of the emperor Augustus.

Aeneas cries out, "What a clamor of companions there is around him! What greatness

there is in him!" (qui strepitus circa comitum! quantum instar in ipso, 865). Anchises explains

the sad fates of Augustus' nephew Marcellus, a contemporary of Vergil's audience, with

another exclamatory outcry: "Alas, whatpietas, what faith of our forefathers and what a

hand inconquerable in war!... Alas, pitiable boy, if in any way you might break your

harsh fates, you will be Marcellus," (heupietas, heuprisca fdes invictaque .ii dextera... heu,

miserandepuer, si qua fata aspera rumpas, I tu M ,;:. eds, 878-879; 882-883). The repetition

of heu ... heu. .. heu raises the drama of Anchises' speech and we actually hear the

repeated anguish and groans of Anchises in the lines.

Anchises laments the young Marcellus' pietas andfides, moral characteristics which

directly speak to Vergil's contemporary audience. Vergil is playing with the definition of

his audience-is Anchises addressing Aeneas or is he reaching into the future to speak to

Vergil's Romans? The form of the apostrophe further obscures the actual speaker of the

lines. The apostrophe of Aeneas and Anchises objectifies their own voice so that the










lamentation comes from a deeper well of emotion, perhaps from Vergil himself. Vergil

speaks from an entirely personal level of suffering that is not alien to Aeneas, his

contemporary Romans, or we ourselves today. Thus Vergil creates a universal moment

which any audience may share. At the end of Aeneas' katabasis, Vergil leaves us with the

outbursts of emotion which allow us to understand the suffering of the moment, to re-

visit the trials of Aeneas and his own people, and to reflect upon our own experiences of

suffering. In the end Vergil has not told us how to feel about the golden age which

Jupiter and Anchises prophesized, but he has allowed us to experience it.

Vergil's cano, "I sing," through the more active inclusion of his audience within

the composition of his narrative, has become canemus, "we sing." Given the communal

nature of the Aeneid, the "fat" epic Vergil may be closer to the "thin" lyric Horace than

ever imagined:

virtute functos more patrum duces
Lydis remixto carmine tibiis
Troiamque et Anchisen et almae
progeniem Veneris canemus.
C. 4.15.29-32

Let us sing of leaders who lived their lives virtuously according to the custom of
our fathers in a song mixed with Lydian reed pipes, and let us sing of Troy and
Anchises and the son of kind Venus.
















CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION

ou0e POo K piUKOS E'XVUaEV

"And the cry of the herald did not rest."

The "fatter," older Vergil may not be that different from the younger Vergil. In

the middle of his Eclogues, Vergil sings directly to his audience in the first person canerem

(Ec.6.3-8):

cum canerem reges et proelia, Cynthius aurem
vellit et admonuit: "pastorem, Tityre, pinguis
pascere oportet ovis, deductum dicere carmen."
Nunc ego (namque super tibi erunt qui dicere laudes,
Vare, tuas cupiant et tristia condere bella)
agrestem tenui meditabor harundine Musam.

While I was singing of kings and battles, Cynthian Apollo grabbed my ear and
warned me: "It benefits the shepherd to pasture fat sheep, but to sing a slender
song. Now I (for indeed there will be those who will want to sing your praises
for you, Varus, and to fashion the sad wars) will reflect upon the rural Muse with
a light reed.

Vergil's Apollo admonishes him with the same advice Apollo gave to Callimachus: "poet,

make your sacrifices fat, but keep your Muse slender." Vergil operates within the

Callimachean paradox of fatness (pinguis) and thinness (deductum) and Callimachus' kings

and heroes become Vergil's kings and battles. But Vergil is actually interrupted.

Callimachus had only started to place his writing tablet upon his knees, whereas Vergil

claims to have already begun his composition: "while I was singing" (canerem). It should

not be a surprise, then, that when the older Vergil again put a pen to epic, he returns to


1 Call. fr. 526 Pf.










where Apollo interrupted him. Vergil was singing of kings and battles and now, in an

ironic twist, he will sing of arms and a man.

How seriously, then, should we take Vergil's recusatio? Horace and Propertius

later use Vergil's recusatio as a stylistic device to elevate the status of their own poetry.

Vergil too pits his own bucolic poetry against the military emphasis of the epic kings and

battles of his recusatio and specifically Varus' own military achievements.2 But Propertius

and Horace never actually attempted to unfurl their sails on the epic sea whereas Vergil

gives us the impression that he had already tested or was anticipating testing the waters.

With the Aeneid Vergil demonstrates that his slender Callimachean sails are entirely apt

for the vast epic waters of Homer.


2 Rutherford (1989) 44; cf. Elder (1961).
















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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Laura Mawhinney was born in Thomhill, Ontario, on September 24, 1980. She

moved from Canada with her family in 1982 and attended school in Marietta, Georgia.

In 1998 she moved to Manlius, New York, and graduated from Fayetteville-Manlius

High School. She graduated from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, in 2003

with a Bachelor of Arts in classics. She will receive a Master of Arts in classics from the

University of Florida in 2005.