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Crack Control in Toppings for Precast Flat Slab Bridge Deck Construction


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CRACK CONTROL IN TOPPI NGS FOR PRECAST FLAT SLAB BRIDGE DECK CONSTRUCTION By LAZARO ALFONSO A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2005

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Copyright 2005 by Lazaro Alfonso

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To my late grandparents, Antonio Amado Alfonso and Ermigio Gonzalez

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iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank my supervisory committee chair a nd graduate advisor, Dr. H.R. Hamilton III, for his guidance throughout this research a nd my graduate studies. I would also like to thank the rest of my committee, Dr. Rona ld A. Cook and Dr. Gary R. Consolazio, for their support. Special thanks go to the Florida Departme nt of Transportation (FDOT) Structures Lab personnel, especially Marc Ansley for his help and for making the construction of the bridge decks possible. I appreciate Frank Cobb, Tony Johnston, David Allen, Paul Tighe, Steve Eudy, and the OPS personnel for th eir professionalism and sense of humor. They provided a setting that was a pleasure to work in. I thank Nycon, Inc.; W.R. Grace & Co.; and TechFab, LLC, for their contributions to the project. I thank my best friend, Bonnie Serina, for her caring support through the completion of this project. I would also like to thank my family. Without their support, and the Lord’s guidance, I w ould not be where I am today.

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v TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES............................................................................................................vii LIST OF FIGURES...........................................................................................................ix CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 Background...................................................................................................................1 Purpose of Study...........................................................................................................2 2 SITE EVALUATIONS.................................................................................................3 Turkey Creek Bridge....................................................................................................3 Mill Creek Bridge.........................................................................................................4 Cow Creek Bridge........................................................................................................5 Summary.......................................................................................................................5 3 LITERATURE REVIEW.............................................................................................8 4 EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM.................................................................................13 Introduction.................................................................................................................13 Design and Fabrication...............................................................................................21 Site Layout..................................................................................................................26 Slab Placement....................................................................................................27 Topping Reinforcement.......................................................................................28 Topping Placement..............................................................................................30 Summary..............................................................................................................44 Instrumentation...........................................................................................................48 Restrained Shrinkage Rings........................................................................................51 5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.................................................................................54 Compressive Strength a nd Modulus of Elasticity......................................................54 Pressure Tension Test.................................................................................................55 Restrained Ring Test...................................................................................................57

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vi Thermocouple Data....................................................................................................59 Topping Observations.................................................................................................59 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.....................................................62 APPENDIX A FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF TR ANSPORTAION PSBEAM PROGRAM.........64 B TOPPING PLACEMENT DAILY SUMMARY.......................................................80 C CYLINDER TEST RESULTS...................................................................................89 D WEATHER DATA.....................................................................................................93 E THERMOCOUPLE DATA........................................................................................96 F CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS.............................................................................101 LIST OF REFERENCES.................................................................................................109 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................111

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vii LIST OF TABLES Table page 1 Methods considered for cont rolling shrinkage cracking.........................................14 2 Concrete type for brid ge superstructures.................................................................18 3 FDOT structural concrete specifications.................................................................18 4 Master proportional limits.......................................................................................18 5 Maximum tensile stresses developed in topping.....................................................20 6 Maximum principal stress in model C....................................................................21 7 Concrete mixture components for precast slabs......................................................24 8 Flat slab identification number and location...........................................................25 9 Specimen designation and topping treatment..........................................................31 10 Cylinder test schedule.............................................................................................33 11 Workability ranking scale.......................................................................................34 12 Material properties for fi bers used in SYN topping................................................35 13 Mixture proportions for SYN topping.....................................................................36 14 Properties for synthetic micro fibers.......................................................................37 15 Properties for steel fibers used in BND and STL toppings.....................................37 16 Mixture proportions for BND topping....................................................................39 17 Carbon-fiber strand strength....................................................................................40 18 Physical properties for carbon-fiber grid.................................................................41 19 Mixture proportions for GRD topping....................................................................41 20 Mixture proportions for STL topping......................................................................42

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viii 21 Mixture proportions for SRA topping.....................................................................43 22 Mixture proportions for CTL topping.....................................................................44 23 Workability rating/slump relationship....................................................................45 24 Concrete mixture summary.....................................................................................45 25 Timeline from batching to casting..........................................................................46 26 Concrete mixture w/c ratios....................................................................................46 27 Compressive strength of concrete cylinders............................................................54 28 Modulus of elasticity of concrete cylinders............................................................55 29 Tensile strength of concrete cylinde rs using pressure tension test..........................55 30 Average crack width for GRD, SRA, and CTL rings.............................................58 31 Average crack width for SYN, BND, and STL rings..............................................58

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ix LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 Typical prestressed slab panels.................................................................................2 2 Repairs to cracks on Turkey Creek Bridge...............................................................3 3 Reflective crack on topping of Mill Creek Bridge....................................................4 4 Cow Creek Bridge cross-section...............................................................................5 5 Control joint and bearing detail.................................................................................6 6 Transverse cracks at a control joint on the Cow Creek Bridge.................................6 7 Average crack width vs. fiber volume for polypropylene fibers.............................11 8 Average crack width vs. fibe r volume for steel fibers............................................11 9 Maximum crack width vs. aspect ratio....................................................................12 10 Maximum crack width vs. specific fiber surface....................................................12 11 Finite element analysis Model A.............................................................................19 12 Finite element analysis Model B.............................................................................20 13 Finite element analysis Model C.............................................................................20 14 Typical cross-section thr ough precast slab specimen.............................................22 15 Reinforcement detail at end of slab.........................................................................22 16 Reinforcement at end of flat slab............................................................................23 17 Flat slab reinforcement layout.................................................................................23 18 Typical slab layout on casting bed..........................................................................25 19 Casting of flat slabs.................................................................................................25 20 Finished flat slab with hoisting anchors installed...................................................26

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x 21 Typical bearing pad placement...............................................................................27 22 Concrete supports with neoprene beari ng pads before placement of precast slabs.........................................................................................................................2 8 23 Slab site layout........................................................................................................29 24 Typical superstructure end elevation view..............................................................29 25 Reinforcement and formwork on precas t slabs before topping placement.............30 26 Topping reinforcement layout.................................................................................30 27 Displacement gage locations and superstructure and topping designation.............31 28 Pressure tension testing equipment.........................................................................34 29 Synthetic fibers used in SYN topping.....................................................................35 30 Synthetic fibers used in BND topping.....................................................................38 31 Steel fibers used in BND and STL toppings...........................................................38 32 Carbon-fiber grid used in GRD topping..................................................................40 33 GRD topping grid location cross-section................................................................40 34 Normalized timeline for construc tion of the half-span toppings.............................47 35 Partial plan view of specimens with typical thermocouple layout..........................49 36 Partial section view of specimen with typical thermocouple profile layout...........49 37 Monitored locations for each topping.....................................................................50 38 Displacement gage a ttachment bracket...................................................................51 39 Profile view of displacement gage placement at span end......................................51 40 Restrained shrinkage ring........................................................................................52 41 Typical restrained ring specimen............................................................................53 42 Tensile strength using pr essure tension test............................................................56 43 Coefficient of variation for load rate using pressure tension test............................56 44 Coefficient of variation for tensile strength using pressure tension test.................56 45 Humidity and temperature for Sept. 2004...............................................................57

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xi 46 Temperature data through de pth of topping for SRA-3..........................................59 47 Displacement of superstructure S-A.......................................................................60 48 Displacement of superstructure S-B........................................................................61 49 Displacement of superstructure S-C........................................................................61 50 Displacement of superstructure S-D.......................................................................61 51 LRFD PSBeam input 1............................................................................................64 52 LRFD PSBeam input 2............................................................................................65 53 LRFD PSBeam input 3............................................................................................66 54 LRFD PSBeam input 4............................................................................................67 55 LRFD PSBeam output 1..........................................................................................68 56 LRFD PSBeam output 2..........................................................................................69 57 LRFD PSBeam output 3..........................................................................................70 58 LRFD PSBeam output 4..........................................................................................71 59 LRFD PSBeam output 5..........................................................................................72 60 LRFD PSBeam output 6..........................................................................................73 61 LRFD PSBeam output 7..........................................................................................74 62 LRFD PSBeam output 8..........................................................................................75 63 LRFD PSBeam output 9..........................................................................................76 64 LRFD PSBeam output 10........................................................................................77 65 LRFD PSBeam output 11........................................................................................78 66 LRFD PSBeam output 12........................................................................................79 67 Modulus of elasticity charts for SYN topping........................................................89 68 Modulus of elasticity charts for BND topping........................................................89 69 Modulus of elasticity charts for GRD topping........................................................89 70 Modulus of elasticity charts for STL topping.........................................................90

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xii 71 Modulus of elasticity charts for SRA topping.........................................................90 72 Modulus of elasticity charts for CTL topping.........................................................90 73 Compressive strength of cylinders at 3, 28, & 56-days..........................................91 74 Coefficient of variation for load rate using pressure tension test............................91 75 Coefficient of variation for stre ngth using pressure tension test.............................91 76 Tensile strength using pr essure tension test............................................................92 77 June 2004 humidity a nd temperature data...............................................................93 78 July 2004 humidity and temperature data...............................................................93 79 August 2004 humidity and temperature data..........................................................94 80 September 2004 humidity and temperature data.....................................................94 81 October 2004 humidity and temperature data.........................................................94 82 November 2004 humidity and temperature data.....................................................95 83 December 2004 humidity and temperature data......................................................95 84 January 2005 humidity and temperature data.........................................................95 85 SYN-1 curing temperatures.....................................................................................96 86 SYN-2 curing temperatures.....................................................................................96 87 SYN-3 curing temperatures.....................................................................................97 88 BND-1 curing temperatures....................................................................................97 89 BND-2 curing temperatures....................................................................................97 90 BND-3 curing temperatures....................................................................................98 91 STL-1 curing temperatures......................................................................................98 92 STL-2 curing temperatures......................................................................................98 93 STL-3 curing temperatures......................................................................................99 94 SRA-1 curing temperatures.....................................................................................99 95 SRA-2 curing temperatures.....................................................................................99

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xiii 96 SRA-3 curing temperatures...................................................................................100 97 CTL-3 curing temperatures...................................................................................100 98 Plan and elevation views of specimens.................................................................102 99 Site layout of specimens........................................................................................103 100 Instrumentation and testing notes..........................................................................104 101 Concrete placement, finishing, and curing notes..................................................105 102 Flat slab detail drawings........................................................................................106 103 Flat slab reinforcement details..............................................................................107 104 Restrained ring test fabrication drawing...............................................................108

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xiv Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Engineering CRACK CONTROL IN TOPPI NGS FOR PRECAST FLAT SLAB BRIDGE DECK CONSTRUCTION By Lazaro Alfonso May 2005 Chair: H.R. Hamilton III Co chair: R A. Cook. Major Department: Civil and Coastal Engineering This thesis presents the results of several techniques that were evaluated to provide crack control in the cast portion of a precast flat slab bridge. Poor curing techniques and improper placement of the reinforcement has caused excessive shrinkage cracking in a number of flat slab bridges in Florida. In conjunction with the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT), four full-scale flat slab bridge spans were c onstructed to test the field performance of the toppings. FDOT guidelines were followed in the design and construction of the decks. The toppings incorp orated either steel fi bers, synthetic fibers, a steel/synthetic fibe r blend, carbon-fiber grid, or a shri nkage-reducing admixture. The toppings were monitored visually for cr acking for 30 weeks and are currently under observation in Tallahassee, Florida. As of March 2005, no cracks had developed in the toppings, because insufficient tensile stresses were generated. Fiber reinfo rced mixtures performed better in reducing

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xv average crack width using the restrained ri ng test, and their performance improved with increasing fiber volume. Crack control treat ments did not affect concrete modulus of elasticity or tensile strength. The results presented herein were based on observations during construction, results of materials te sts, and performance of the toppings.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Background Precast flat slab bridges are a practical alte rnative to traditiona l deck/girder designs used for short span bridges. Using precast sl abs reduces the price of bridge construction by virtually eliminating the need for formwork thus making it economically attractive. It allows for faster construction time and qui cker project turnover. According to the FDOT’s Structures Manual (2004b) the price of the superstructu re on a flat slab bridge is the least per square foot, when compared to other designs used in Florida. Flat slab bridges consist of prestressed, precast concrete deck panels that span from bent to bent. The panels act as permanent forms for a cast-in-place deck. The top surface of the flat slab is roughened to transfer horizontal shear. In some cases, transverse reinforcement is placed, to ensure horizontal shear transfer. A topping is then placed over the precast flat slab, which allows the comp osite to act as a single unit. Some panels incorporate a shear key to transfer transverse shear. The keys usually contain welded wire mesh, reinforcing bars, or both as we ll as non-shrink grout. The topping contains transverse and longitudinal reinforcement in tended to provide crack control and lateral transfer of shear between th e panels. Figure 1 shows recently erected prestressed slabs before topping placement. These panels have horizontal shear reinforcement and shear keys. Poor curing techniques and improper pl acement of reinforcement has caused excessive shrinkage cracking in a number of flat slab bri dges in Florida. Excessive

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2 cracking is unsightly, can affect the durability of the wearing surface, and can lead to corrosion of the reinforcement. Figure 1. Typical prestressed slab panels Purpose of Study The focus of this research was to evaluate techniques for providing crack control in the cast portion of a precast flat slab bridge. A review of met hods that have been used to control cracking on bridge decks was conducted. Several systems were considered and chosen for use in the experimental program based on their effectiveness, ease of implementation and application, and effect on the labor and construction cost of the bridge. These systems were then evaluated on fu ll-scale precast flat sl ab bridge spans. Specimen size and shape were chosen to clos ely match existing field conditions and steps were taken to ensure that toppings were expos ed to similar curing conditions. They were left outside to weather, and were monitore d visually for cracking. Crack width, crack distribution, ease of applicati on, and the overall cost of each system were compared and ranked based on performance. Recommendati ons are made for changes to flat slab bridge construction technique s based on their performance.

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3 CHAPTER 2 SITE EVALUATIONS Site visits were conducted by the author to assess crack patterns on selected existing flat slab bridges. Three Central Fl orida bridges were visi ted: Turkey Creek Bridge (No. 700203), Mill Creek Bridge (No. 364056), and Cow Creek Bridge (No. 314001). All of these have reflective longitudinal cracks over the joints in the flat slabs, and transverse cracks over the bents. Turkey Creek Bridge The Turkey Creek Bridge is located on US 1 south of Melbourne. It is a simply supported, six-span bridge with 12 in deep prec ast flat slabs with shear keys and an 8 in topping. The topping is reinforced with No. 5 ba rs at 12 in on center in each direction. The topping has extensive longit udinal cracks that vary in size. Reflective cracks are located over each flat slab joint. Many of the cracks have been repaired with epoxy (Figure 2) and show no signs of continued cracking. Figure 2. Repairs to cracks on Turkey Creek Bridge

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4 A large number of vehicles were using the bri dge on the day of the visit. In addition to showing the most cracking, it also carries the largest traffic volume of the three bridges. Mill Creek Bridge The Mill Creek Bridge is located on CR318 north of Ft. McCoy. It is a simply supported, two-span bridge composed of 15 in deep precast flat slabs. The topping has a reflective crack over each flat slab joint (Fig ure 3) that measures an average of 0.016 in. Cracks were also noted over the middle bent where the flat slabs meet end to end. The control joint is located at the center and runs with the span of the bridge. All of these cracks are relatively small a nd have not affected the perf ormance of the bridge. No construction drawings were available for this bridge. Figure 3. Reflective crack on topping of Mill Creek Bridge

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5 Cow Creek Bridge Cow Creek Bridge is located on CR 340 just west of High Springs. It is a five-span bridge with 12 in deep flat slabs w ith shear keys and a 6 in topping (Figure 4). The flat slabs have horizontal shear reinforcement and the topping has No. 5 reinforcing bars at 6 in on center in the transverse direc tion and at 12 in on cen ter in the longitudinal direction. Previous assessment by the FDOT sh owed that the reinforcement bars in the topping were incorrectly insta lled at 4 to 5 in below the topping. The topping has a reflective longitudinal crack over each joint in the flat slab. These cracks measured an average of 0.028 in. It also has cracks along most of the saw-cut jo ints located over the bents. Figure 5 shows the typical saw cut a nd bearing located over every bent. Concrete has spalled in some areas adjacent to the cuts ( Figure 6). This type of cracking occurs when the control joints are cut after the concrete has set. The longitudinal cracks do not appear to have affected the performance of the bridge. GROUT-FILLED SHEAR KEY HORIZONTAL SHEAR REINFORCEMENT 4'-0" 12" 6" #5 REBAR @ 6" O.C. #5 REBAR @ 12" O.C. Figure 4. Cow Creek Bridge cross-section Summary Three precast flat slab bridges with rein forced concrete toppings were visually inspected. The Cow Creek and Turkey Creek bridges had shear keys built into the

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6 prestressed slabs. Slab dept h varied from bridge to bridge. All of the bridges had a reflective longitudinal crack over each flat slab joint and multiple transverse cracks over L C PADS NEOPRENE BEARING EXPANSION JOINT PREMOLDED MATERIAL EXTRUDED POLYSTYRENE BENT JOINT 1.6" X 0.2" SAWCUT Figure 5. Control join t and bearing detail Figure 6. Transverse cracks at a c ontrol joint on the Cow Creek Bridge

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7 the bents where the topping goes into nega tive moment. The topping on the Cow Creek Bridge was spalling at these locations. The Turkey Creek Bridge showed the most cracking and is the only one to have been repaired.

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8 CHAPTER 3 LITERATURE REVIEW Cracking of bridge decks is not a problem th at is specific to flat slab bridges. Although limited research has been conducted dealing specifically with cracking on this type of bridge, a good deal of research has been performed on deck cracking of traditional slab/girder and deck slab bridges. Several of the factors listed by Issa (1999) are common causes of deck cracking. Poor curing procedures which promote hi gh evaporation rates and a large amount of shrinkage. Use of high slump concrete Excessive amount of water in the concre te as a result of inadequate mixture proportions and re-tempering of concrete. Insufficient top reinforcement concre te cover and improper placement of reinforcement. Cracks may not be the result of bad de sign but rather an outcome of poor construction practice. Researchers have tested several methods to control cracking that can be easily implemented and though they do not increase th e tensile strength of the concrete, they do improve its shrinkage and post crack behavior Many of these have been implemented by transportation departments and have proven to work in the field. The New York Thruway Authority (NYT A) and the Ohio Turnpike Commission (OTC) have successfully used shrinkage compensating c oncrete (SCC) to control shrinkage cracking on bridge decks (Rame y, Pittman, and Webster 1999). Although the

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9 NYTA had problems with deck scaling in the bridge decks that used SCC it was determined not to be a factor. The OTC had the greatest success with SCC. They have replaced 269 bridge decks with SCC and only 11 have shown minor or moderate cracking with none showing severe cracking. This sa me study also showed that good quality SCC requires continuous curing to activate the ettringite fo rmation. The OTC requires contractors to use fog spraying under certain weather conditions, always use monolecular film to retard evaporation, and control the curing water temperature to avoid thermal shock. They also require wet curing for seven days, which is necessary because SCC will crack if any ettringite is activated after the concrete hardens. Use of SCC requires strict curing techniques to effectivel y eliminate shrinkage cracks. Research has shown that shrinkage reduci ng admixtures (SRA) effectively reduce drying shrinkage of concrete and, subseque ntly, cracking. Tests show a reduction in drying shrinkage of about 50 to 60% at 28 da ys, and 40 to 50% after 12 weeks (Nmai et al. 1998). Restrained ring tests showed that concrete mixtures with SRA decrease the rate of residual stress development by decr easing the surface tension of water by up to 54% (Pease et al. 2005). A considerable redu ction in crack width occurs as compared with normal concrete depending on the type and amount of SRA used (Shah, Karaguler, and Sarigaphuti 1992). SRA can be integrated in the mixture or appl ied topically to the concrete surface after bleeding stops. Bette r results are obtained with larger surface application rates. Mixing SRA inte grally, however, is more effective. Rectangular slabs and ring type specimens have been used to demonstrate the ability of synthetic fibers to control cracking resulting from volume changes due to plastic and drying shrinkage. Synthetic fi bers were shown to reduce the amount of

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10 plastic shrinkage cracking when compared to the use of welded wire mesh (Shah, Sarigaphuti, Karaguler 1994). They tested polypropylene, steel, and cellulose fibers using a restrained ring test at 0.5%, 0 .25%, and 0.5% by volume, respectively. The maximum crack width was reduced by 70% at those dosage rates. The ability of the fibers to control cracking is partially due to the decrease in the am ount of bleed water (Nanni, Ludwig, and McGillis 1991; Sorous hian, Mirza, and Alhozaimy 1993). The authors suggested that the presence of fibe rs reduced settlement of the aggregate particles, thus eliminating damaging capillary bleed channels and preventing an increase in inter-granular pressures in the plastic conc rete. Adding synthetic fibers also decreases the initial and final set times of the concrete. Decreasing the time that the concrete is left exposed to the environment in a plastic state promotes reduced shrinkage cracking. A series of tests run by Balaguru (1994) on steel, synthetic, and cellulose fibers reveals that the fiber’s aspect ratio (le ngth/diameter) seems to be a major factor contributing to crack reduction. An increase in fiber content also co ntributed to a smaller crack area and width. The same results we re obtained by Banthia and Yan (2000), and Grzybowski and Shah (1990) (Figure 7-Figure 10). Fibers with a high aspect ratio have more contact area with the concrete mixture consequently, more stress is transferred by the fiber before pull-out. Increases in fiber c ontent usually lead to smaller crack widths. Too much fiber, however, may affect the workability of the concrete mixture and cause entanglement into large clumps. Fiber lengt h, volume, and specific fiber surface (total surface area of all fibe rs within a unit volume of com posite) are all major contributing factors to the am ount of cracking.

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11 Figure 7. Average crack width vs. fiber volume for polypropylene fibers (Grzybowski and Shah 1990) Figure 8. Average crack width vs. fiber vol ume for steel fibers (Grzybowski and Shah)

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12 Figure 9. Maximum crack width vs. asp ect ratio (Grzybowski and Shah 1990) Figure 10. Maximum crack width vs. specifi c fiber surface (Grzybowski and Shah 1990) Little research was found on use of a rigi d carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite grid to control bridge deck crack ing. A CFRP grid would make it possible to reinforce the concrete near the surface. Flexure testing by Makizumi, Sakamoto, and Okada (1992) placed a carbon-fiber grid, prestressed strands, and in some cases, reinforcing bars, in small beams. The gr id was placed 3mm from the extreme face in tension. Cracks were reduced by half in cas es with reinforcing bars. Specimens that contained only grid and pr estressing met the minimum cr ack size requirements proposed by the Japan Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE).

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13 CHAPTER 4 EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM Introduction Several methods of controlling cracking were considered for testing (Table 1). The concrete toppings that were ev aluated contained either synthetic fiber, steel fiber, a blend of steel and synthetic fibers, a shrinkage re ducing admixture, or a carbon-fiber grid. They were selected based on their ease of a pplication and their effect on the construction and labor cost of the bridge deck. Many of these are presen tly used in the construction industry. A standard FDOT Class II (bridge d eck) mixture was also used as a basis for comparison.

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14Table 1. Methods considered for controlling shrinkage cracking Method of control Advantages Disadvantages Comments Test Control n/a n/a n/a Yes Transverse post-tensioning – precast panels are posttensioned together before topping is placed. Reduce transverse reinforcement requirements. Difficult and costly on small, low-volume projects Curing must still be carefully implemented n/a No Shrinkage compensating cement: Concrete will increase in volume after setting and during early age hardening by activation of ettringite (ACI 223-98) No special equipment or techniques are needed Delay in pouring causes loss in slump (ACI 223-98) Curing must be carefully monitored Concrete must remain as wet as possible during curing in order to activate ettringite. Concrete expands during wet cure No effect on creep (ACI 223-98) No modification of formwork is needed (ACI 223-98) Used to control dry shrinkage No Shrinkage reducing admixtures: Reduces capillary tension that develops within the concrete pores as it cures (Pease, Shah, Weiss 2005) Easily mixed in at jobsite or at cement plant Considerable reduction in crack width as compared with plain concrete (Shah, Karaguler, and Sarigaphuti 1992) Volume of water added into mix must be reduced by volume of admixture added into mix (Pease, Shah, Weiss 2005) Yes

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15Table 1. Continued Method of control Advantages Disadvantages Comments Test Fiber reinforced concrete: Randomly distributed fibers carry tensile stresses after cracking Discontinuous and distributed randomly Loss in slump, not in workability (ACI 544.1R) Easily incorporated into mix Balling may become a problem if fiber lengths are too long (ACI 544.1R) Many types and lengths available All bonding is mechanical (ACI 544.1R) Synthetic fibers: Commercially available fibers shown to distribute cracks and decrease crack size (ACI 544.1R) Most fibers will not increase the flexural or comp ressive strength of the concrete (ACI 544.1R) Fiber dimensions influence shrinkage cracking Mostly used in flat slab work to control bleeding and plastic shrinkage (ACI 544.1R) Acrylic Not much research has been conducted Has been used to control plastic shrinkage (ACI 544.1R) No Aramid Expensive when compared to other fibers Mostly used as asbestos cement replacement in high stress areas (ACI 544.1R) No Carbon Reduces creep Reduces shrinkage significantly (ACI 544.1R) Difficult to achieve a uniform mix (ACI 544.1R) Research shows that carbon fibers have reduced shrinkage of unrestrained concrete by 9/10 (ACI 544.1R) No Nylon Widely used in industryMoisture regain must be taken into account at high fiber volume content (ACI 544.1R) Shown to have decreased shrinkage by 25% (ACI 544.1R) No

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16Table 1. Continued Method of control Advantages Disadvantages Comments Test Polyester No consensus on long term durability of fibers in portland cement concrete (ACI 544.1R) Not widely used in industry No Polypropylene Significantly reduces bleed water (ACI 544.1R) Widely used in industry Shown to reduce total plastic shrinkage crack area and maximum crack width at 0.1 % fiber volume fraction (Soroushian, Mirza, and Alhozaimy 1995) Yes Steel fibers Many shapes and sizes available Use of high aspect ratio fibers provide high resistance to pullout (ACI 544.1R) Widely used in industry Surface fibers will corrode (surface staining?) If large cracks form, fibers across opening will corrode (ACI 544.1R) May not reduce total amount of shrinkage but increase number of cracks reducing crack size (ACI 544.1R) Yes Natural fibers Very inexpensive Requires special mix proportioning to counteract retardation effects of glucose in fibers (ACI 544.1R) Not widely used in industry No

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17Table 1. Continued Method of control Advantages Disadvantages Comments Test Carbon FRP Grid: Grid system carries tensile stresses after cracking at depth of installation Available in different sizes Can be placed at a specific depth May not be available in large sheets Manufacturer recommended that concrete be screeded at level where mesh is placed Not much information available on its use to control cracking FDOT allows placement of grid at in below surface Yes Glass FRP Grid: Grid system carries tensile stresses after cracking at depth of installation Available in different sizes Can be placed at a specific depth Concrete may need to be screeded at level where mesh is placed Not much information available on its use to control cracking FDOT allows placement of grid at in below surface No

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18 Each concrete mixture that was used for the precast slab s and the toppings conformed to the parameters set forth in th e FDOT Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Construction (2004a) (Table 2, Table 3, and Table 4). All of the concrete toppings had the same proportion of ingredie nts within acceptable tolerances. They varied only in the type of system that wa s incorporated into the mixture to control cracking. Table 2. Concrete type fo r bridge superstructures Component Slightly Aggressive Environment Moderately Aggressive Environment Extremely Aggressive Environment Precast Superstructure and Prestressed Elements Type I or Type II Type I or Type III with Fly Ash or Slag, Type II, Type IP, Type IS, or Type IP(MS) Type II with Fly Ash or Slag C.I.P. Superstructure Slabs and Barriers Type I Type I with Fly Ash or Slag, Type II, Type IP, Type IS, or Type IP(MS) Type II with Fly Ash or Slag Table 3. FDOT structural concrete specifications Class of Concrete Specified Minimum Strength (28-day) (psi) Target Slump (in) Air content Range (%) II (Bridge Deck) 4,500 3* 1 to 6 IV 5,500 3 1 to 6 *The engineer may allow higher target slump, not to exceed 7 in when a Type F or Type G admixture is used. Table 4. Master proportional limits Class of Concrete Minimum Total Cementitious Materials lbs/yd3 *Maximum Water Cementitious Materials Ratio lb/lb II (Bridge Deck) 611 0.44 IV 658 0.41 *The calculation of the water to cementitious materials ratio (w/cm) is based on the total cementitious material including silica fume, slag, fly ash, or Metakaolin. Four full-scale bridge decks were constr ucted to test the performance of the toppings. The Cow Creek Bridge was select ed as a model for the design because it

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19 displays the type of crack patte rns that this project is investigating and it has similarities in design with the other evaluated bridges and ot her existing flat slab bridges in Florida. A redesign of the bridge deck was conducted to ensure that the fullscale model conforms to the latest design codes. Each deck was approximately 12 ft wide and spanned 30 ft. The toppings were 6 in deep and exposed to similar environmental conditions as existing flat slab bridges in Florida. A linear elastic finite element analysis was performed on a preliminary design to model drying shrinkage at 50% and 80% humidity. The co ncrete topping was divided into three sub-layers with an overall thickness of 6 in and th e precast flat slab assumed to yield no shrinkage. Partial symmetry finite element models were used due to the plane symmetry of the geometry. The model was 8 ft. long and 4 ft. wide. Three boundary conditions along edges of the slabs were considered. The first, Model A (Figure 11), imposed vertical and tr anslational constraints on the bottom plane of the precast concrete deck while the s econd, Model B (Figure 12), only had vertical constraints. Model C (Figure 13) restrained translational movement and allowed vertical motion. Figure 11. Finite elem ent analysis Model A As shown in Table 5, the first two mode ls generated similar maximum principal stresses in the topping. However, the dire ction of the stresses was dependent on the

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20 boundary constraint imposed on the bottom of the precast flat slab. More severe tensile stresses were generated at the corners in the contact zone of the topping and the flat slab in Model C (Table 6). Figure 12. Finite elem ent analysis Model B Figure 13. Finite elem ent analysis Model C Table 5. Maximum tensile st resses developed in topping Model Relative Humidity Time (days) Maximum Tensile Stress (psi) Maximum Stress Component 10 351.0 20 648.3 A 80 30 913.7 xx 5 556.9 10 1054.4 A 50 30 2741.2 xx 10 337.9 20 622.2 B 80 30 871.7 yy 5 536.6 10 1013.8 B 50 30 2616.5 yy

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21 Table 6. Maximum principal stress in model C Model Relative Humidity Time (days) Maximum Principal Tensile Stress (psi) 5 536.6 10 967.4 C 50 30 2278.5 10 310.4 20 565.6 C 80 30 760.0 Design and Fabrication The flat slab analysis and design was done using LRFD Prestressed Beam Program v1.85 (Mathcad based computer program) de veloped by the FDOT Structures Design Office. The program analyzes prestressed concrete beams in accordance with the AASHTO LRFD Specification (2001) and the FD OT’s Structures Manual (2004b). Input and output from the program are found in Appendix A. Twelve full-scale precast slabs were constructed by Dura-Stress Inc., a Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute (PCI) certified plant, in Leesburg, Florida. The slabs were similar in size and design to th e Cow Creek slabs with a length of 30-ft. Unlike the Cow Creek Bridge, the flat slabs us ed to construct the test specimens did not have shear keys. The Texas DOT has had su ccess with flat slab bridges without shear keys (Cook and Leinwohl 1997) and elimina ting them would help reduce labor and construction costs. Each slab had twelve in diameter lo-lax prestressing strands tensioned to 31 kips each. The two center strands were debonded 3 ft. from each end of the slab. The slabs were also reinforced with mild steel. Vertical shear reinforcement was provided every 12 in. U-shaped reinforcing bars, spaced at 12 in, provided horizontal shear reinforcement. Mild steel was al so provided at each end of the slabs for confinement. All of the st eel had a minimum concrete cover of 2 in. Reinforcement

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22 details are shown in Figure 14 and Figure 15. Complete reinforcement details are found in Appendix F. Figure 16 and Figure 17 s how the constructed reinforcement system. 12 9 8 71011 6 5 4 3 2 1 DEBONDED 3' STRANDS 2 3 4 2" 12" PRESTRESSING STRANDS C LL C 1 2 LO-LAX STRANDS REINFORCEMENT REINFORCEMENT 4'-0" #4 U-SHAPED #5 LONGINTUDINAL #4 REINFORCEMENT Figure 14. Typical cross-secti on through precast slab specimen #5 LONGITUDINAL REINFORCEMENT #4 REINFORCEMENT @ 12" O.C. #4 CONFINEMENT REINFORCEMENT 5 SPACES @ 3" = 15" 4'-0" EQUALLY SPACED REINFORCEMENTC L#4 U-SHAPED @ 12" O.C. PRESTRESSING STRANDS NOT SHOWN FOR CLARITY. Figure 15. Reinforcement detail at end of slab The concrete used for the slabs was a Cl ass IV FDOT concrete mixture. The mixture design provided by the manufacturer is shown in Table 7. Based on the specifications found in Table 2, the concrete is intended for use in a mildly aggressive environment as defined by the FDOT’s St andard Specification for Road and Bridge

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23 Construction (2004a). It was batched onsite and delivered to the casting bed in trucks equipped with pumps to place the concrete. Figure 16. Reinforcement at end of flat slab Figure 17. Flat slab reinforcement layout

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24 Table 7. Concrete mixture components for precast slabs Material Type Amount per CY Cement AASHTO M-85 Type II 800 lbs Mineral Admixture NA NA Water -308 lbs Aggregate Sand 2 1150 lbs Aggregate #67 Granite 2 1750 lbs Admixture Air Entraining 0 oz Admixture Water Reducer 24 oz Admixture Superplasticizer 72 oz The slabs were constructed in three groups of four as indicated in Table 8. The layout on the casting bed is shown in Figure 18. Steel plates and pl ywood were used as formwork for the slabs. A truck pumped the c oncrete onto the bed starting at slab No. 4 and moved towards slab No. 1 as the conc rete was placed (Figure 19). Each truck transported approximately 5 cubic yards (C Y) of concrete. One truck immediately continued placing concrete as the previous one finished. A total of three deliveries were needed to complete the casting of one group of slabs. The co ncrete was not screeded as it was placed. Personnel from the prestressing yard raked the concrete into place as it was pumped onto the casting bed. The surfaces were raked to ensure a rough finish to aid in horizontal shear transfer from the topping to the slab and a hoisting anchor was embedded into each corner of the precast sl abs (Figure 20). Curing agents were not applied to the surface of the concrete. Cylinders were taken to ensure adequate strength at release, document 28-day strength, and for possible future use. The cylinders collected for future use have yet to be tested. Additionally, plant quality control pe rsonnel collected five cylinders from each group to check the release and 28-day strengt h. The designed minimu m release strength and 28-day strength were 4500 psi and 5500 psi respectively.

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25 Table 8. Flat slab identi fication number and location Designation Casting Date & Time Location on Casting Bed 1 Day Compressive Strength Release Date & Time 28-Day Compressive Strength FS1-1 1 FS1-2 2 FS1-3 3 FS1-4 5/5/2004 1:30PM 4 3873 psi 5/7/2004 7:00AM 8963 psi FS2-1 1 FS2-2 2 FS2-3 3 FS2-4 5/11/2004 10:30AM 4 3403 psi 5/13/2004 7:00AM 8403 psi FS3-1 1 FS3-2 2 FS3-3 3 FS3-4 5/14/2004 11:00AM 4 3685 psi 5/17/2004 7:00AM 7975 psi N 4321 CASTING BED APPROX. 12' APPROX. 25' 123' PRESTRESSING STRANDS BULKHEAD Figure 18. Typical slab layout on casting bed Figure 19. Casting of flat slabs

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26 Figure 20. Finished flat slab with hoisting anchors installed Two cylinders were tested 24 hours after casting to determine the strength of the slabs. None of the slabs attained the minimum releas e strength within 24 hour s. They remained on the casting bed for an additional day to allo w the concrete to gain strength. It was assumed that the minimum release strengt h would be exceeded 48 hours after casting; therefore, additional cylinders were not tested to verify it. Twenty-eight day strength, transfer dates and times are shown in Table 8. The precast slabs were stored at the pres tressing yard for approximately six weeks while the test site was prepared. The slabs were stored in three stacks. Each stack contained four flat slabs. The slabs and th e cylinders were exposed to the environment during this period. Site Layout Four single span flat slab bridge superstructures were constructed at the FDOT Maintenance Yard located at 2612 Springhill Rd. in Tallahassee, FL. Reinforced

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27 concrete supports for the flat slabs were constructed by the FDOT Structures Lab personnel to elevate the slab s to a convenient working he ight above the ground. The precast slabs were supported by neoprene bearin g pads placed using a three-point system shown in Figure 21. This pattern was used on the Cow Creek Bridge and is currently used successfully by the Texas DOT (Cook & Lein wohl 1997). A view of the site before the placement of the precast slabs is shown in Figure 22. Each specimen consisted of three flat slab panels to ensure the possibili ty that at least one of the two joints would produce reflective cracks NEOPRENE BEARING PAD FLAT SLAB SUPPORT REINFORCED CONCRETE 12'-2" 30'-0" 29'-0" Figure 21. Typical be aring pad placement Slab Placement The flat slabs were delivered and pl aced on June 29, 2004. The panels were transported to the site on flat bed trailers. Each trailer carri ed two flat slabs. The first delivery was at 9:00 AM and approxima tely every half hour thereafter.

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28 Figure 22. Concrete supports with neoprene be aring pads before placement of precast slabs A crane was onsite to unload and place the fl at slabs on the supports. The panels were unloaded and installed in the order that they arrived. Concrete cyli nders that were cast along with the slabs were also brought to th e site and placed near the precast slabs. Figure 23 shows an overview of the specimens a nd flat slab orientation that made them up. A single specimen was composed of three adjacent flat slabs with a 1 in gap between them. A 1- in diameter backer rod was inst alled between the panels near the surface of the precast slab to retain th e fresh concrete (Figure 24). Formwork was erected on the edges of each deck for the placement of the topping. It was composed of in plywood that had one side sealed to preven t moisture absorption from the concrete mixture (Figure 25). Once the formwork was erected the topping reinforcement was installed. The formwork was removed seven days after casting the toppings. Topping Reinforcement The size and spacing of the reinforcemen t was designed using the AASHTO LRFD Specification (2001) and the FDOT Structures Manual (2004b). No. 5 reinforcing bars

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29 were installed in the longitudinal and transver se directions spaced at 12 in on-center with 2 in of concrete cover. This spacing is the minimum reinforcement required for shrinkage and temperature control. Th e maximum allowable spacing was used to maximize the shrinkage tensile stresses in the concrete. FS2-3 FS1-1 FS1-2 FS2-4 FS1-3 FS1-4 FS3-3 FS3-2 FS3-1 FS2-1 FS2-2 FS3-4N Figure 23. Slab site layout DISPLACEMENT GAGE PRECAST SLAB 6" TOPPING NEOPRENE BEARING PAD REINFORCED CONCRETE SUPPORT 1-1 2 BACKER ROD Figure 24. Typical superstruc ture end elevation view

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30 Figure 25. Reinforcement and formwork on precast slabs before topping placement The longitudinal reinforcement was placed firs t and tied to the flat slab’s horizontal shear reinforcement with wire ties. The tran sverse reinforcement was then placed over it and tied (Figure 26). Figure 26. Topping reinforcement layout Topping Placement The toppings were cast daily during the week of July 26, 2004. Figure 27 shows the layout of the toppings w ith their respective designations shown in Table 9. Toppings

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31 that had a similar mixture were paired up to minimize shrinkage-cross-over effects over a span. N S-A S-D S-C S-B 3 4 12 43 12 43 1 2 43 1 2 SRACTL BNDSYN GRD STL Figure 27. Displacement gage locations a nd superstructure and topping designation Table 9. Specimen designa tion and topping treatment Symbol Topping Treatment SYN Synthetic fibers BND Blended fibers GRD Carbon fiber grid STL Steel fibers SRA Shrinkage reducing admixture CTL None

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32 The STL and BND toppings were combined b ecause each had steel fibers incorporated into their concrete mixtures. To ensure that the CTL topping was not affected by crossover effects and that it remain ed valid as a basis for comparison it was cast on a single span. The SRA topping was also cast on a single span because of the lower overall shrinkage expected of this type of conc rete. The remaining two toppings, GRD and SYN, were cast on a single span. Any toppings that shared a span were cast within 2 days of each other. The toppings were exposed to direct sunlight from sunrise to sunset except for the CTL topping. A large tree located on the northea st corner of S-D (Figure 27) cast a large shadow on the topping until early afternoon. The CTL topping was purposefully located on S-D to see if it would develop cracks under the best curing conditi ons available at the site. Ideally, if the CTL toppi ng cracked, the other toppings w ould have either cracked or restrained the formation of cracks. Before the concrete placement, the surface was cleaned of debris with a blower and then wetted to prevent excessive water abso rption from the fresh concrete topping. Front or rear discharge ready-mix trucks delivered th e concrete to the site. Addition of water to the concrete mixes was performed by the concrete plant’s personnel. Following the addition of the topping treatment the truck deposited the concrete directly onto the slabs. The concrete was leveled with a vibratory screed and finished with a 3 ft bull float. A curing compound was sprayed on the surface af ter the bleed water, if any, had evaporated. The compound was manufactured by W.R. Meadows and met the standards of the FDOT Standard Specification for Road and Bridge Construction (2004a).

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33 The fresh concrete was tested for air c ontent and slump in accordance with ASTM C173 and ASTM C143, respectively. The in itial slump was measured upon delivery and after the addition of water a nd/or crack control system. The air content was measured after all modifications were made to the delivered mix. Twenty-seven cylinders were cast for each topping in accordance with ASTM C31. Lids were place on the cylinders after coll ection and removed the following day. The cylinders remained in their molds and allowe d to cure on their respective topping until they were tested. Tests were conducted for co mpressive and tensile strength as well as for modulus of elasticity at the ages shown in Table 10. Table 10. Cylinder test schedule Cylinder Age (days) Pressure Tension Test Compressive Test ASTM C39 Elastic Modulus ASTM C469 3 yes NA NA 7 yes yes NA 28 yes yes yes 56 yes yes yes Tensile strength was measured using the pr essure tension test (Figure 28). The equipment consisted of a cylindrical chambe r for pressurizing th e specimen, nitrogen filled tank, collars for the ends of the specimen, and a computer that records data supplied by a pressure transducer. This procedure requ ired the operator to open a valve by hand to apply pressure to a 4 in by 8 in concrete cylinder for each test. The load rate was determined by watching a monitor that plotted a load versus time line, which should be in the range of 35 psi/sec. Li (2004) deta ils the test equipment and procedure. Workability of the fresh mixture was ranke d by the author from 1 to 4 according to the scale outlined in Table 11. The rankings were subjective, based on visual and physical observations as well as feedb ack from personnel casting the topping.

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34 T Figure 28. Pressure tension testing equipment (Li 2004) Table 11. Workability ranking scale Rank Workability 1 Very good 2 Good 3 Poor 4 Very poor Very good workability is defined as a mixt ure that easily flowed down the chute and consolidated around reinforcem ent with little to no vi bration. A mixture with good workability flowed down the chute and conso lidated around the reinforcement with some vibration. If the mixture flowed down th e chute with aid and consolidated around reinforcement with vibration it was classified as having poor workability. A mixture with very poor workability required physical effo rt to aid it down the chute and required excessive vibration to consolidate it. Synthetic fiber (SYN) Polypropylene\polyethylene monofilament fibe rs (Figure 29) were used in the SYN topping at a dosage rate of 6 lbs/CY. The material properties provided by the fiber’s

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35 manufacturer are given in Table 12 and the c oncrete mixture’s consti tuents are shown in Table 13. Figure 29. Synthetic fibe rs used in SYN topping Table 12. Material properties for fibers used in SYN topping. Specific Gravity 0.92 Absorption None Modulus of Elasticity 1,378 ksi Tensile Strength 90 ksi Melting Point 320F Ignition Point 1,094F Alkali, Acid and Salt Resistance High Twenty-four pounds of fibers were fed in to the mixing drum over a period of 4 min. They were dispersed manually to prevent balling and allowed to mix for 70 revolutions of the drum as per manufactur er’s recommendations. Even after mixing, however, some of the fibers were entangled and not fully coated with cement paste. Seven gallons of water was added to the mixture after a slump test measured 1 in. This

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36 volume of water was based on the delivery tick et, which subsequently was discovered to have been incorrect. Table 13. Mixture pro portions for SYN topping Material Design Qty. *RequiredBatched DifferenceDifference (%) Moisture (%) #57 Stone (lbs) 1640 6685 6620 -65 -0.97 1.90 Sand (lbs) 1324 5460 5430 -30 -0.55 3.10 Cement (lbs) 495 1980 1965 -15 -0.76 NA Fly Ash (lbs) 120 480 345 -135 -28.13 NA Air (oz) 1.8 7.2 7 -0.20 -2.78 NA WR (oz) 33.8 135.2 135 -0.20 -0.15 NA Water (gal) 25 65.58 65 -0.58 -0.89 NA *Amount required for 4 CY. Quantities provided by ready-mix plant. Consequently, the actual w/c ratio was 0.38, wh ich was significantly lower than the target value. At the time of casting, the mixture ha d a slump of 3 in a nd an air content of 2.5%. The workability of the SYN mixture was less than ideal. The fresh concrete did not flow down the chute and required excessive raking and vibrating during placement. Low w/c ratio, low air content, a nd incorrect amount of fly ash and cement contributed to poor workability. Following screeding, only a light sheen formed on the surface with no bleed water or bleed channels visible. Blended fiber (BND) The BND topping was a blended fiber conc rete mixture composed of synthetic (Figure 30) and steel fibers (Figure 31). The synthetic fibers were in long multifilament nylon fibers while the steel fibers were 2 in long with a crimped profile.

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37 Table 14 andTable 15 outline the material properties of the synthetic and steel fibers provided by the manufacturer. Sy nthetic and steel fibe rs were used at a dosage rate of 1 lb/CY and 25 lbs/CY respectively. Table 16 shows the batched quantities of the ingredients in the BND mixture. Synthetic fibers were incorporated into th e mixture first so that the steel fibers would help disperse them in the mixture. A slump test, run afte r the drum revolved 70 times, measured 3 in. Eight gallons of wate r were added to the mixture to increase the workability and the w/c ratio. The concrete mixture had a final w/c ratio of 0.44, air content of 3.5%, and slump of 4 in. The mixture flowed down the chut e without any agitation and had good workability. It was easily scr eeded and finished. Bleed wate r or bleed cha nnels were not visible on the surface of the topping. Table 14. Properties for synthetic micro fibers Specific Gravity 1.16 Absorption 4.5% Modulus of Elasticity 750 ksi Tensile Strength 130 ksi Melting Point 435F Ignition Point 1,094F Alkali and Acid Resistance High Filament Diameter 23 microns Fiber Length 0.75 in Table 15. Properties for steel fibe rs used in BND and STL toppings Specific Gravity 7.86 Absorption None Modulus of Elasticity 29,000 ksi Tensile Strength Minimum 100 ksi Melting Point 2,760F Fiber Length 2 in Equivalent Diameter 0.035 in Aspect Ratio 57

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38 Figure 30. Synthetic fibe rs used in BND topping Figure 31. Steel fibers used in BND and STL toppings

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39 Table 16. Mixture pro portions for BND topping Material Design Qty. *RequiredBatched DifferenceDifference (%) Moisture (%) #57 Stone (lbs) 1640 6672 6700 28 0.42 1.70 Sand (lbs) 1324 5455 5420 -35 -0.64 3.00 Cement (lbs) 495 1980 1985 5 0.25 NA Fly Ash (lbs) 120 480 445 -35 -7.29 NA Air (oz) 1.8 7.2 7 -0.20 -2.78 NA WR (oz) 33.8 135.20 135 -0.20 -0.15 NA Water (gal) 31 88.60 89 0.40 0.45 NA *Amount required for 4 CY. Quantities provided by ready-mix plant. Carbon-fiber grid (GRD) A 1.6 in by 1.8 in carbon-fiber grid (Figur e 32) was embedded in the GRD topping (Figure 33) to provide crack control near th e surface of the topping. Results from tensile tests performed on grid specimens are show n in Table 17. The material properties supplied by the manufacturer are listed in Tabl e 18. The grid was placed one inch below the surface of the topping to prevent spalli ng or delamination. This positioned it below the minimum in wearing surface required by the FDOT Structures Manual (2004b). The concrete was screeded at the embedment depth to provide a level surface for the placement of the grid. A float was used to fully coat the grid with concrete paste. The topping placement was then completed with a 1 in layer of concrete placed over the grid. Bleed water was clearly visible on th e surface of the topping as it cured. An initial slump of 4 in was measured befo re any water was added to the mixture. Five gallons of water were added to in crease the w/c ratio to 0.40, which brought the slump to 6 in.

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40 Figure 32. Carbon-fiber grid used in GRD topping PRECAST SLAB 6" 1" TOPPING CARBON-FIBER GRID Figure 33. GRD topping grid location cross-section Table 17. Carbon-fibe r strand strength. Specimen Fiber Direction Strength (ksi) Tensile Modulus (ksi) *1 Vertical 68.5 7665 2 Vertical 126.2 8549 3 Hoop 98 9671 4 Hoop 110.8 11516 *Specimen had a thick epoxy laye r that increased the crosssectional area used to determine strength therefore underestimating strength. It could not be increased any further because the mixture would have become too fluid and possibly segregated. Table 19 shows the batched constituents that make up the GRD

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41 concrete mixture. At the time of casting, th e concrete had a slump of 6 in and 3% air content. The fresh concrete had good wo rkability and flowed easily into place. Table 18. Physical properties for carbon-fiber grid Fiber Type Carbon Grid Spacing (in) 1.6 x 1.8 % of Grid Openness 69 Nominal Tensile (lbs/strand: warp x fill) 1000 x 1000 Nominal Tensile (lbs/foot) 6,650 x 7,500 Crossover Shear Strength (lbs) 40 Resin Type Epoxy Fabric Weight (oz/SY) 11 Table 19. Mixture pro portions for GRD topping Material Design Qty. *RequiredBatched DifferenceDifference (%) Moisture (%) #57 Stone (lbs) 1640 6678 6760 82 1.23 1.80 Sand (lbs) 1324 5455 5410 -45 -0.82 3.00 Cement (lbs) 495 1980 2005 25 1.26 NA Fly Ash (lbs) 120 480 465 -15 -3.13 NA Air (oz) 1.8 7.2 7.0 -0.20 -2.78 NA WR (oz) 34 136 136 0.00 0.00 NA Water (Gal) 31 80.81 81 0.19 0.24 NA *Amount required for 4 CY. Quantities provided by ready-mix plant. Steel fiber (STL) The STL and BND toppings contained the same type of steel fibers. Their properties are listed in Table 15 and batched quantities are shown in Table 20. A dosage rate of 60 lbs/CY was used in order to pr ovide a high fiber count per CY and better performance comparison with the SYN and BND toppings. Unlike the previous toppings, water was added to the mixture before the fibers. Sixteen gallons of water were added to the mixture to overcome the decrease in workability and slump caused by the

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42 fibers. The fibers were sepa rated as they were deposited in to the mixing drum to prevent balling within the mixture. Unlike any of the other toppings, heat generated by the hydration of the cement was felt as it was mixe d. It was believed that an incorrect amount of water was added after seeing the consistency of the mixture. The concrete was extremely stiff and did not flow down the c hute or consolidate ar ound the reinforcement and formwork. Eight gallons of water was adde d but the concrete was still not workable. No more water was added because the conc rete was already at a w/c ratio of 0.44. The workability of the STL mixture was poor er than the BND mixture. Like the BND topping, the concrete did not flow down the chute and needed to be raked and vibrated into place. It was extremely difficu lt to screed and level off the concrete. The poor workability was attributed to an incorrect water dosage and low air content. A high range water reducer could be added to help reduce friction within the mixture thereby improving workability. No bleed water was visible on the surface of the topping. Table 20. Mixture pro portions for STL topping Material Design Qty. RequiredBatched DifferenceDifference (%) Moisture (%) #57 Stone (lbs) 1640 6678 6670 -8 -0.12 1.80 Sand (lbs) 1324 5455 5430 -25 -0.46 3.00 Cement (lbs) 495 1980 2110 130 6.57 NA Fly Ash (lbs) 120 480 465 -15 -3.13 NA Air (oz) 1.8 7.2 7.0 -0.20 -2.78 NA WR (oz) 34 136 136 0.00 0.00 NA Water (gal) 31 80.81 80 -0.81 -1.00 NA *Amount required for 4 CY. Quantities provided by ready-mix plant.

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43 Shrinkage reducing admixture (SRA) A shrinkage reducing admixture (SRA) wa s added to a concrete mixture at a recommended dosage rate of 1-7/8 gal/CY. Table 21 shows the batched materials for the SRA topping. Slump tests conducted before an d after dosing indicated that the SRA did not affect the slump. Twenty gallons of water were added to increase the w/c ratio to a level comparable to the other toppings. Th e mixture easily flow ed down the chute and around the reinforcement. It had very good wo rkability and was screeded and finished without any difficulty. Table 21. Mixture pro portions for SRA topping Material Design Qty. *RequiredBatched DifferenceDifference (%) Moisture (%) #57 Stone (lbs) 1640 13356 13330 -26 -0.19 1.80 Sand (lbs) 1324 10910 10810 -100 -0.92 3.00 Cement (lbs) 495 3960 4030 70 1.77 NA Fly Ash (lbs) 120 960 930 -30 -3.13 NA Air (oz) 1.8 14.4 14 -0.40 -2.78 NA WR (oz) 33.8 270.4 270 -0.40 -0.15 NA Water (gal) 31 145.62 145 -0.62 -0.43 NA *Amount required for 8 CY. Quantities provided by ready-mix plant. Control topping (CTL) The same concrete mixture that was used for the GRD topping was ordered for the CTL topping (Table 22). Like the SRA t opping, 20 gallons of water were added to increase the w/c ratio. The final mixture had very good workability and easily flowed around the reinforcement. Bleed channels were clearly visible on the topping as the

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44 bleed water surfaced and ran off the sides of the topping. This topping produced the most bleed water. Table 22. Mixture pro portions for CTL topping Material Design Qty. *RequiredBatched DifferenceDifference (%) Moisture (%) #57 Stone (lbs) 1640 13774 13670 -104 -0.76 1.80 Sand (lbs) 1324 11251 11150 -101 -0.90 3.00 Cement (lbs) 495 4083.8 4045 -38.8 -0.95 NA Fly Ash (lbs) 120 990 940 -50 -5.05 NA Air (oz) 1.8 14.85 15 0.15 1.01 NA WR (oz) 33.8 278.85 279 0.15 0.05 NA Water (gal) 31 167.30 167 -0.30 -0.18 NA *Amount required for 8 CY. Quantities provided by ready-mix plant. Summary While these topping treatments can easily be incorporated into a concrete mixture, the variability in workability between the topp ing treatments needs to be addressed. As Table 23 shows, there was a correlation betw een the workability rating and the slump. The mixtures that received a poor or very poor rating had slumps less than 3 in and low air contents when compared to the 6% allo wed by the FDOT Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Construction ( 2004a) (Table 3). The effect of the air content is more pronounced in the poorly rated mixtures becaus e of the friction cause d by the presence of fibers. Higher air contents would provide mo re air bubbles that act like ball bearings for the fibers to slide against which would reduce friction within the fresh concrete mixture. The workability of the SYN topping was also a ffected by the 28% shortage of fly ash in the mixture (Table 13). This shortage prev ented the fibers from being fully coated with

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45 cement paste after initial mixi ng thus degrading its workab ility. Its workability was partially improved by adding water to the mixtur e to ensure that the fibers were coated but it could have been further improved by a dding enough water to increase the w/c ratio to 0.44. Some of the workability issues in the STL topping may be attributed to an incorrect water dosage. This was based on observing the mixture during slump test No. 3. The workability of the concrete would ha ve improved after adding 24 gal of water. The workability of the poorly rated mixtures could have been improved by increasing the amount of air-entraining admixture, waterreducing admixture or adding a high-rangewater-reducing admixture. Table 23. Workability ra ting/slump relationship Topping Workability Rating Slump (in) SYN 3 3 BND 2 4 GRD 1 6 STL 4 2 SRA 1 5 CTL 1 5 A summary of the test results and tasks completed with each topping is outlined in Table 24. The air content of all the toppings was low given that the FDOT allows up to 6%. Table 25 documents a timeline for ta sks completed on each topping. The batched and cast w/c ratios of the concrete mixtures are shown in Table 26. Table 24. Concrete mixture summary Topping Slump Test #1 (in) Admixture (Gal) Fiber Amount (lbs/CY) Slump Test #2 (in) Additional Water (gal) Slump Test #3 (in) Air Content (%) SYN 4 NA 6 1 7 3 2.5 BND 2 NA 1 micro 25 steel 3 8 4 3.5 GRD 4 NA NA NA 5 6 3 STL 2 NA 60 NA 24 2 2 SRA 1 15 NA 2 20 5 1.5 CTL 2 NA NA NA 20 5 1

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46 Table 25. Timeline from batching to casting Topping Delivery Batch Start Plant Depa rture Arrival Time Casting Start SYN July 26th 8:47AM 8:57AM 9:10AM 9:45AM BND July 27th 8:42AM 8:50AM 9:07AM 9:35AM GRD July 28th 8:45AM 8:57AM 9:07AM 9:22AM STL July 28th 9:56AM 10:15AM 10:26AM 10:58AM SRA July 29th 8:32AM 8:49AM 9:05AM 9:35AM CTL July 30th 8:30AM 8:50AM 9:02AM 9:20AM Table 26. Concrete mixture w/c ratios Topping Batched w/c Ratio Jobsite w/c Ratio SYN 0.36 0.38 BND 0.42 0.44 GRD 0.39 0.40 STL 0.37 0.44 SRA 0.35 0.39 CTL 0.39 0.43 As Figure 34 shows, workability issues with the STL and SYN mixtures affected the finishing time of the toppings. Toppings with fiber treatments took the longest to complete. Screeding of the toppings comme nced once casting was approximately half completed except on the BND topping which starte d immediately after it was cast. More time was spent screeding the GRD topping beca use it was performed twice, once to level the surface for placement of the grid, and a second time to level off the concrete. The time it took to install the grid includes the screeding time yet it was completed faster than the others because of good work ability of the mixture. Timeline data for the SRA and CTL toppings were not listed for comparison because they were tw ice the size of the documented toppings. Though the most expensive of the topping treatments tested, the SRA required the least amount of effort to incorporate into the mixture. The SRA was packaged in 5 gal pails that were easily pou red into the mixing drum.

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47 0:00 0:15 0:30 0:45 1:00 Casting StartScreeding Start Casting Finish Screeding Finish TaskTime (min) SYN BND GRD STL Figure 34. Normalized timeline for c onstruction of the half-span toppings This treatment should have minimal impact on the labor cost as it on ly took an additional 10 min. to incorporate and mix into the concre te. Some ready-mix plants will deliver a concrete mixture with SRA. No shrinkage -reducing admixtures are currently on the FDOT’s qualified products list and will need to be approved before they can be used in the field. The fiber treatments were the least expens ive measure tested to control cracking. They are available from numerous manufactur ers in a variety of materials and lengths, and due to their popularity, fiber reinforced mixtures can be ordered from ready-mix plants. If fibers are added at the job site, they should be scattered by hand as they are placed in the mixing drum to prevent balling. Mixtures with higher fiber volumes such as those used for the SYN and STL toppings s hould incorporate a hi gh-range-water-reducer to improve the workability. This will reduce the risk of an excessive amount of water added to the mixture at the job site. Carbon-fiber grids are not as commonly av ailable as the other methods that were tested and, if not planned for ahead of time, projects may experience delays because they must be obtained from a specialty supplier. Constructing a GRD topping in the field

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48 requires more time to implement than the other treatment methods due to the double screeding of the topping. Quality control play s a larger role with this system because the grid must be installed at the sp ecified depth to be effective. If it is placed too deep in the topping it will not provide its maximum reinforcement potential. An advantage of this system is that no modifications need to be made to current FDOT approved mixtures and it allows the designer to specify where the crack control system should be installed. Instrumentation The bridge decks were instrumented to monitor temperature gradients through the depth of the toppings and disp lacements at the corners. The temperature was monitored at three locations in the toppings during the placement of the concrete. Displacement gages were installed at the corners of the bridge deck to measure movement due to curling or thermal changes. Type K thermocouples were installed at th ree locations in each topping (Figure 35). Each monitoring location consisted of three thermocouples distributed in the vertical plane through the depth of the topping (Figure 36). Each set of thermocouples was tied to a 5 in long No. 3 reinforcing bar to keep them in place while the concrete was placed. The No. 3 bar was tied to the topping reinforc ement or the flat slab’s horizontal shear reinforcement. The wires ran along the top of the flat slab to the nearest joint. They were fed past the backer rod and ran towards the side of the specimen. All the wires for a given topping were tied togeth er and labeled with the locatio n that was being monitored. Male type K plugs were installe d at the ends of the wires. Nine locations were monitored for each topping (Figure 37). Two four channel data loggers (eight total channels) were used to record the temperat ure data. One of the channels was used to monitor the temperature at two locations.

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49 DATALOGGER TYPE K THERMOCOUPLES 7'-6" OR 15'-0" 4'-0" 2'-0" 4'-0" Figure 35. Partial plan view of specime ns with typical thermocouple layout TYPE K THERMOCOUPLES 6" 1" 1" 2" 2" SUPPORT BAR TOPPING PRECAST SLAB WIRE PLACED BETWEEN TO DATALOGGER FLAT SLABS Figure 36. Partial section view of specime n with typical thermocouple profile layout The plugs were alternated on this channel approximately ev ery half hour. The time and wire label was documented every time they were alternated. The data loggers were not left on-site overnight due to security concerns therefore te mperature data was collected for approximately 8 to 10 hours on the days of the topping placement. Since the CTL and GRD toppings are the same FDOT approve d mixture, temperature data was only collected for the CTL topping.

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50 N TYPE K THERMOCOUPLES S-CS-D S-BS-A 123 123 123 321 321 321 CTL SRA GRD SYN BND STL Figure 37. Monitored locations for each topping Displacement gages were installed at the corners of the bridge decks to monitor vertical or in-plane movement (Figure 27) They were manufactured by Preservation Resource Group, Inc. and had a measurement ra nge of 0.79 in in the vertical direction and 1.57 in in-plane. As shown in Figure 38, st eel brackets were used to mount the gages to the superstructure support. The opposite end of the gage wa s attached to the flat slab with screws (Figure 39).

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51 Figure 38. Displacement gage attachment bracket PRECAST SLAB NEOPRENE BEARING PAD 6" TOPPING REINFORCED CONCRETE DISPLACEMENT GAGE SUPPORT Figure 39. Profile view of displace ment gage placement at span end Restrained Shrinkage Rings A restrained shrinkage ring te st was performed on all of the toppings. The test was used to compare the time to cracking and the number and size of cracks between the concrete mixtures used for the toppings. The test was modeled after a ring test used to measure the cracking potential of concrete a nd mortar (See, Attiogbe, and Miltenberger

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52 2003). The dimensions of the apparatus were similar but, unlike the test it was modeled after, strain gages were not used and th e tests were conducted outdoors, exposed to changing temperature and humid ity levels (Figure 40 & Figure 41). A concrete ring was cast for each of the toppings a nd the top of the ring was sealed with a curing compound to induce drying from the outer surfaces only. The formwork was removed from the ring after 24 h. They were measured weekly for two months and biweekly thereafter with a shop microscope. The ring with the GRD mixture was the only one that did not incorporate its respective crack control treatment. Hence, the results do not take into account the performance of the carbon-fiber grid. BOLTS NOT SHOWN FOR CLARITY5 16" BOLTS & SLOTTED FENDER WASHERS 16" SONOTUBE1 8" SMOOTH NONABSORBANT PLASTIC1 2" BC PLYWOOD BASE 12" SCH. 80 STEEL PIPE 12 3/4" 11 3/4" 16 1/4" 6" 16" 18" 18" Figure 40. Restrained shrinkage ring

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53 Figure 41. Typical rest rained ring specimen

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54 CHAPTER 5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Compressive Strength and Modulus of Elasticity Cylinder tests were conducted at 3, 28, and 56 days for compressive strength and at 28 and 56 days for modulus of elasticity in accordance with ASTM C39 and ASTM C469, respectively. Results are based on an average of three tests. Table 27 shows the results of the compressive strength for each of the toppings. The CTL topping had a 28-day compressive st rength of 6156 psi, we ll above the 4500 psi design strength. The STL topping had the hi ghest compressive st rength of all the toppings due to the presence of steel fibers and an over-dosage of cement (Table 20). However, steel fibers in the B ND mixture did not correlate with an increase in strength. The lower overall strength of the SYN topping may be attributed to an under-dosage of fly ash and cement in the mixture (Table 13) Low w/c ratios did not indicate a higher strength concrete. Table 27. Compressive streng th of concrete cylinders Topping 3-Day (psi) 28-Day (psi) 56-Day (psi) w/c ratio SYN 3614 5756 6376 0.38 BND 2769 6004 6572 0.44 GRD 3128 6501 7068 0.40 STL 4021 7123 8141 0.44 SRA 3129 6290 6488 0.39 CTL 2923 6156 7061 0.43 The modulus of elasticity results are shown in Table 28. Different testing equipment was used to conduct 28 and 56-da y modulus and may account for the slight

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55 decrease in modulus within some of the topp ings. Results indicate that the treatments had a minimal effect on the modulus of elasticity. Table 28. Modulus of elastic ity of concrete cylinders Topping 28-Day Modulus (ksi) 56-Day Modulus (ksi) SYN 4219.6 4263.0 BND 4331.3 4208.6 GRD 4328.4 4371.3 STL 4696.5 4403.0 SRA 4636.6 4264.4 CTL 4442.9 4204.9 Pressure Tension Test The concrete tensile strength was measured using the pressure tension test. Results were based on an average of three tests and are shown in Figure 42 and Table 29. Unexpectedly, the tensile strengths of the sp ecimens were found to decrease over time. The decrease was attributed to the variabili ty inherent in the system because it was difficult to maintain the same load rate fo r each specimen, and throughout a test. The load rates were analyzed and their coefficients of variation (COV) are presented in Figure 43. As more tests were conducte d, the COV of the load rates decreased. The COV within each test, made up of three specimens, wa s calculated and found not to be largely affected by the variability in the load rate (Figure 44). Based on th e results of the 56 day test, the treatments had a minimal effect on the tensile strength of the concrete. Table 29. Tensile strength of concrete cylinders using pressure tension test Topping 3-Day (psi) 7-Day (psi) 28-Day (psi) 56-Day (psi) SYN 656 659 839 667 BND 744 738 526 604 GRD 705 702 570 649 STL 752 613 607 691 SRA 806 794 563 655 CTL 657 728 638 658

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56 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 372856 DaysStrength (psi) SYN BND GRD STL SRA CTL Figure 42. Tensile strength us ing pressure tension test 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40372856 DaysCOV (%) SYN BND GRD STL SRA CTL Figure 43. Coefficient of variation for lo ad rate using pressure tension test 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 372856 DaysCOV (%) SYN BND GRD STL SRA CTL Figure 44. Coefficient of vari ation for tensile strength us ing pressure tension test

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57 Restrained Ring Test Cracks were first observed on the SYN, B ND, GRD, and STL rings approximately 60 days after casting. Though microcracks may have been present, cracks became visible after the humidity levels remained below 70% for an eight day period (Figure 45). The BND and GRD rings had two cracks, one acro ss from the other, while the SYN and STL rings had one. No cracks were observed on the concrete toppings. Approximately 40 days later, cracks were observed on the SRA and CTL rings, after the humidity level went below 70%. Again, no cracks were obs erved on the toppings. The variability in the humidity and temperature at the site cont ributed to the long time to cracking of the rings when compared to research that shows cracking at much earlier ages when the rings are kept in a controlled environment (G rzybowski and Shah 1990; Shah, Karaguler, Sarigaphuti 1992). 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 1-Sep8-Sep15-Sep22-Sep29-Sep DateRelative Humidity (%)60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100Temperature (F) Humidity Temperature First crack formation on rings Figure 45. Humidity and temperature for Sept. 2004 Average crack widths are presented in Ta ble 30 and Table 31. Crack widths on the STL ring were smaller than the other rings and consistent with previous research (Grzybowski and Shah 1990). Their research showed decreasing average crack widths with increasing fiber volume. This was conf irmed in comparing the performance of the

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58 STL and BND rings. Ignoring the presence of synthetic micro fibers in the BND ring, the STL ring, with the higher fiber volume, pe rformed better in reducing crack width. Table 30. Average crack width for GRD, SRA, and CTL rings GRD (in) SRA (in) CTL (in) Approx. Days After Casting No. 1 No. 2 No. 1 No. 2 No. 1 57 0.004 0.003 NA NA NA 64 0.004 0.003 NA NA NA 83 0.004 0.003 NA NA NA 99 0.004 0.004 0.002 0.002 0.008 113 0.008 0.005 0.002 0.002 0.008 127 0.008 0.005 0.002 0.002 0.008 141 0.01 0.006 0.002 0.002 0.028 160 0.01 0.006 0.002 0.002 0.028 169 0.01 0.006 0.002 0.002 0.028 Table 31. Average crack width for SYN, BND, and STL rings SYN(in) BND (in) STL (in) Approx. Days After Casting No. 1 No. 1 No. 2 No. 1 No. 2 57 0.004 0.001 0.001 0.001 NA 64 0.004 0.001 0.001 0.001 NA 83 0.005 0.002 0.001 0.001 NA 99 0.006 0.004 0.002 0.001 0.001 113 0.006 0.004 0.002 0.001 0.001 127 0.006 0.004 0.002 0.001 0.001 141 0.007 0.004 0.002 0.001 0.001 160 0.007 0.005 0.002 0.001 0.001 169 0.007 0.005 0.002 0.001 0.001 Crack widths on the SRA ring were si gnificantly smaller than those on the untreated mixtures. The rings with the tw o unmodified mixtures, CTL and GRD, had the widest cracks of all the ri ngs. The GRD ring unexpectedly developed a second crack opposite of the first one possibly due to restra int at the concrete/steel interface. As previously stated, the results of the GRD ri ng do not take into acc ount the effectiveness of the carbon-fiber grid.

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59 Thermocouple Data Temperature data measured through each t opping’s depth at the time of casting is presented in Appendix F. While most of th e toppings had a temperature difference of approximately 5F, a 13.2F temperature grad ient was measured approximately five hours after casting in the SRA topping (Figure 46) at locati on 3. This may promote the formation of internal micro cr acks in hot weather concreting. 70 80 90 100 110 120 1309:00 AM11:00 AM1:00 PM3:00 PM TimeTemperature (F) Ambient Top Mid Bottom Figure 46. Temperature data thr ough depth of topping for SRA-3 Topping Observations After 30 weeks of observation, no cracks in the topping, over the flat slab joints, were visible. Several factors inherent in the design and construction may have prevented the formation of cracks. The FDOT’s Standard Specification for Ro ad and Bridge Construction (2004a) was strictly adhered to. All of the concrete mi xtures were at or below the maximum 0.44 w/c ratio and were within tolerances allowed for air content and slump. Reinforcement in the toppings was also installed with 2 in of c over as outlined in the FDOT’s Structures Manual (2004b). These factors provided a br idge deck that was in compliance with current FDOT standards.

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60 Use of a curing compound may have aided in the prevention of cracks. An FDOT approved compound was sprayed on the toppi ng after the bleed water, if any, had evaporated. It sealed the surface and prevented water from evaporating out of the topping in the first few week s after casting which is wh en the majority of drying shrinkage occurs. Finally, the restraint of th e specimens may not have matched the restraint provided on existing flat slab bridges. For cracks to develop, the system mu st be restrained to induce internal tensile stresses in the concrete as it tries to shrink. The bearing pads may not have provided adequate restraint for the bridge deck. The neoprene pads were 1 in thick whereas those used on the Cow Creek Br idge measured 1 in thick. The pads may have undergone a shear deformation to accommodate the shrinking topping. The displacements would be too small measure with the gages. They also showed no signs of lifting or curling at the corners (Figure 47-Fi gure 50). The readings provide clues that show the system either acted in an unre strained manner or insufficient strain was generated in the topping. Fu rthermore, measurements show that the superstructures with continuous toppings along the sp an, S-C and S-D, had a negati ve displacement while the discontinuous toppings did not. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 25-Jul13-Sep2-Nov22-Dec10-Feb DateDisplacement (mm) S-A1 SA-2 SA-3 SA-4 Figure 47. Displacement of superstructure S-A

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61 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 25-Jul13-Sep2-Nov22-Dec10-Feb DateDisplacement (mm) SB-1 SB-2 SB-3 SB-4 Figure 48. Displacement of superstructure S-B. Gage SB-2 was bumped on August 5, 2004 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 25-Jul13-Sep2-Nov22-Dec10-Feb DateDisplacement (mm) S-C1 S-C2 S-C3 S-C4 Figure 49. Displacement of superstructure S-C -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 25-Jul13-Sep2-Nov22-Dec10-Feb DateDisplacement (mm) S-D1 S-D2 S-D3 S-D4 Figure 50. Displacement of superstructure S-D

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62 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The focus of this research was to evaluate techniques for providing crack control in the topping of a precast flat slab bridge. Cr ack control treatments were selected based on their effectiveness, ease of implementation and application, and e ffect on the labor and construction cost of the bridge The toppings incorporated e ither: steel fibers, synthetic fibers, steel/synthetic fiber bl end, carbon-fiber grid, or a sh rinkage-reducing-admixture. Four full-scale bridge supers tructures were constructed to evaluate the crack control treatments. Each superstructure was composed of three adjacent flat slabs with a 6 in concrete topping. The treatments were each in corporated into a standard FDOT approved concrete mixture and cast on-site. Cylinder tests were conducted for compressi ve and tensile strength, and modulus of elasticity. The cracking performance of the tr eatments was evaluated using a restrained ring test. After 30 weeks of observation, cracks were not visible in the t opping over the flat slab joints. Plastic shrinkage cracks were visible in the CTL, SRA, and GRD toppings. Therefore, it is recommended that the bearing pads be relocated to the center flat-slabs and the toppings be stressed by mechanical mean s. The results of the restrained ring test will then be correlated to the performance of the toppings. The performance of the carbon fiber will also be compared to the other toppings and recommendations will be made to changes in flat-slab bridge construction.

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63 Based on observations during construction, the results of the materials tests, and the performance of the toppings, the following is concluded: Insufficient tensile stresses were genera ted in the toppings to induce cracking. Fiber reinforced concrete with fiber volu mes such as those used for the STL and SYN toppings should incorporate a hi gh-range-water reducer to improve workability The crack control treatments did not affect the concrete’s modul us of elasticity or tensile strength. The STL, SYN, and BND mixtures perfor med better in reducing the average crack width than the CTL mixture, us ing the restrained ring test. Smaller average crack widths were attained with higher fiber volumes using the restrained ring test.

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64 APPENDIX A FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTAION PSBEAM PROGRAM The top of the precast beam is the location of the origin for the coordinate system. Plan, Elevation, and Cross Section Data newDate"XX" newDesignedBy"XX" newProject"XX" Enter or Change Project Data Only change the new values, if current data values are OK, leave the double X XX () in the newData field. newComment"4 ft wide 12 inch thk 30 ft span" Comment"4 ft wide 12 inch thk 30 ft span" DataFileToBeCreated"C:\FDOT_STR\Programs\LRFDPbeamE1.85\4 ft original span.dat" ExistingDataFile"C:\FDOT_STR\Programs\LRFDPbeamE1.85\4 ft original span.dat" DataFileToBeCreatedvec2strREADPRN"PbeamFileCreated.dat" () () ExistingDataFilevec2strREADPRN"PbeamFileName.dat" () () Date"Dec 12, 2003" DesignedBy"Laz Alfonso" Project"Research Design" LRFD English Prestressed Beam ProgramData Input Figure 51. LRFD PSBeam input 1

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65 This should be either "interior" or "exterior" newBeamPosition XX Thicknessbeam12in see Partial Section newThicknessbeamXXin Gap1in see Partial Section(LRFD 3.6.1.1.1) newGapXXin tintegral.ws0.5in wearing surface thickness cast with the deck (SDG 7.2.1) newtintegral.wsXXin Weightfuture.ws0.015 kip ft2 future wearing surface (SDG Table 3.1) newWeightfuture.wsXX kip ft2 NumberOfBeams11 number of beams in the span cross section(LRFD 4.6.2.2.1) newNumberOfBeamsXX newSectionType XX SectionType"transformed" transformed = "transformed" gross = "gross" Skew0deg see Plan View newSkew0deg Plan View Echo of InputInput New Values Lbeam30ft see Beam Elevation newLbeam30ft BearingDistance6in see Beam Elevation newBearingDistanceXXin PadWidth6in width of the bearing pad used in the shear calculations see Beam Elevation newPadWidthXXin Widthbeam4ft see Partial Section newWidthbeamXXft Widthadj.beam4ft used to calculate the live load distribution to exterior beams. Not used for interior beams newWidthadj.beamXXft Overhang0ft see Partial Section newOverhangXXft tslab6in see Partial Section, not including integral WS newtslabXXin tslab.delta1in maximum additional slab thickness over support to accomodate camber, used for additional DL only newtslab.deltaXXin de1.5 ft see Partial Section (3 ft max). corrected to ASSHTO definition internally (LRFD 4.6.2.2.1) newdeXXft BeamPosition"interior" Figure 52. LRFD PSBeam input 2

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66strength of slab concrete newfc.slabXXksi fc.beam5.5ksi strength of beam concrete newfc.beam5.5ksi fci.beam4.5ksi release beam strength newfci.beam4.5ksi slab0.15 kip ft3 density of slab concrete, used for load calculations new slabXX kip ft3 beam0.15 kip ft3 density of beam concrete, used for load calculations new beamXX kip ft3 Environment"moderately" This should be either "slightly" "moderately" or "extremely" newEnvironment XXMaterial Properties Prestressing Tendons fpu270ksi tendon ultimate tensile strength, used for stress calcs newfpuXXksi Ep28500ksi tendon modulus of elasticity newEpXXksi Permit Truck Axle Loads and Spacings PermitAxles2 This is the number of wheel loads that comprise the permit truck, max for dll is 11. A value must be entered for newPermitAxles for changes to newPermitAxleLoad or newPermitAxleSpacing to register newPermitAxlesXX Togglepermit.only0 If this value is 1 only the permit live load is considered otherwise the HL-93 live load is used for stresses and the worst case for Strength checks newTogglepermit.only XX Permit_uniform_LL0 lbf ft Uniform live load to be considered in conjuction with the Permit Vehicle (per lane) newPermit_uniform_LLXX lbf ft Indexes used to identify values in the P and d vectors newPermitAxles ifnewPermitAxlesXX 1 newPermitAxles () PermitAxleLoad 8 32 kip q0newPermitAxles1 () qt 0newPermitAxles newPermitAxleLoadqXXkip XXkip XXkip XXkip XXkip XXkip XXkip XXkip XXkip newPermitAxleSpacingqt0ft XXft XXft XXft XXft XXft XXft XXft XXft 0ft The PermitAxleSpacing vector contains the spacings between the concentrated loads. The first and last values are place holders and should always be zero PermitAxleSpacing 0 14 0 ft Material Properties ConcreteThis should be either "Florida" or "Standard" depending on the type of course aggregate used. newAggregateType XX AggregateType"Standard" fc.slab4.5ksi Figure 53. LRFD PSBeam input 3

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67 newAslab.rebarXX in2ft dslab.rebar2.5in distance from top of slab to centroid of longitudinal steel newdslab.rebarXXin As.long1.55in2 area of longitudinal mild reinforcing in the flexural tension zone of the beam newAs.long1.55in2 dlong2in absolute distance from top of the beam to the centroid of the longitudinal steel in the flexural tension zone newdlong2in BarSize5 Size of bars used to create As.long needed to calculate development length newBarSize XXLoadsComposite and non-composite dead loads are calculated based on the provided data and FDOT standards. In the main and detailed programs are locations where changes to the non-composite or composite dead loads can be made. These locations are noted as Add_wnoncomp and Add_wcomp for non-composite and composite loads respectively. Loads can be added by setting these values equal to positive values and subtracted by setting them equal to a negative value. The program will calculate and apply the HL-93 live load automatically. Additional permit loads must be listed in the permit truck section above.end of data input Material Properties Mild Steel fy60ksi mild steel yield strength newfyXXksi Es29000ksi mild steel modulus of elasticity newEsXXksi H75 % relative humidity(LRFD 5.9.5.4.2) newHXX tj1.5 time in days between jacking and transfer newtjXX (LRFD 5.9.5.4.4b) Aslab.rebar0.31 in2ft area of longitudinal slab reinf per unit width of slab, both layers combined Figure 54. LRFD PSBeam input 4

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68 PicturesectionWRITEPRN "co o ( WRITEPRN "loc a ( Overhang 0ft BeamSpacing 4.083 ft tslab6 in hbuildup0 in Skew 0 deg tintegral.ws0.5 in NumberOfBeams 11 tslab.delta1 in BeamTypeTog "FLT12" These are typically the FDOT designations found in our standards. The user can also create a coordinate file for a custom shape. In all cases the top of the beam is at the y=0 ordinate. BeamPosition "interior" For calculating distribution factors must be either interior or exterior SectionType "transformed" be4.083ft effective slab width LRFD 4.6.2.6 user_gmom0 user_gshear0 If user_gmom (the moment distribution factor) or user_gshear ( the shear distribution factor) is set to zero the program's calculated value will be used. If they are other than zero then this user inputed value will be used. LRFD English Prestressed Beam DesignProgram Project"Research Design" DesignedBy"Laz Alfonso" Date"Dec 12, 2003" Legend TanDataEntry YellowCheckValues GreyCommentsGraphs The CR values displayed are Capacity Ratios which give the ratio of the provided capacity divided by the required Reference:C:\FDOT_STR\Programs\LRFDPbeamE1.85\ProgramFiles\section1.mcd(R)Bridge Layout and Dimensions Comment "4 ft wide 12 inch thk 30 ft span" filename "C:\FDOT_STR\Programs\LRFDPbeamE1.85\4 ft original span.dat" The top of the precast beam is the location of the origin WRITEPRN "b e ( DataMessage "This is a 4 feet wide, 12 inch thick, flat slab section design Lbeam30 ft BearingDistance 6 in Span 29 ft PadWidth 6 in Figure 55. LRFD PSBeam output 1

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69type of course aggregate, either "Florida" or "Standard" AggregateType "Standard" relative humidity H 75 Material Properties Prestressing Tendons and Mild Steel tendon ultimate tensile strength fpu270 ksi tendon modulus of elasticity Ep28500 ksi time in days between jacking and transfer tj1.5 ratio of tendon modulus to beam concrete modulus np6.677 mild steel yield strength fy60 ksi mild steel modulus of elasticity Es29000 ksi ratio of rebar modulus to beam concrete modulus nm6.794 d distance from top of slab to centroid of slab reinf. dslab.rebar2.5 in area per unit width of longitudinal slab reinf. Aslab.rebar0.31 in2ft Section Properties Beam and Slab 01234 1 0.5 0 0.5 slab effective slab beam Total Slab, Effective Slab, and BeamfeetfeetMaterial Properties Concrete Corrosion Classification Environment "moderately" density of slab concrete slab0.15 kip ft3 strength of slab concrete fc.slab4.5 ksi density of beam concrete beam0.15 kip ft3 strength of beam concrete fc.beam5.5 ksi release beam strength fci.beam4.5 ksi weight of future wearing surface Weightfuture.ws0.015 kip ft2 initial conc. modulus of elasticity Eci3861 ksi used in distribution calculation nd1.106 concrete modulus of elasticity Ec4268 ksi Figure 56. LRFD PSBeam output 2

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70maxVdl.comp2 kip maxMdl.comp14 kipft wcomposite0.14 kip ft wfuture.ws0.061 kip ft wbarrier0.076 kip ft Add_wcomp0 kip ft 051015202530 5 5 10 15 Composite Dead Load Moments and ShearMdl.comp nkipft Vdl.comp nkip Locationnft maxVdl.non.comp13.5 kip maxMdl.non.comp98.5 kipft (wslab includes buildup) Add_wnoncomp0 kip ft wnoncomposite0.931 kip ft wforms0 kip ft wbeam0.599 kip ft wslab0.332 kip ft 051015202530 50 50 100 Noncomp. Dead Load Moments and ShearMdl.non.comp nkipft Vdl.non.comp nkip Locationnft note: at release, span length is the full length of the beam maxMrelease67.4 kipft wbeam0.599 kip ft 051015202530 50 50 100 Release Dead Load Moments and ShearsMrelease nkipft Vrelease nkip Locationnft Loads Release, Non composite, Composite, and Live Load (truck and lane) PermitAxleSpacingT0140 ()ft PermitAxleLoadT832 ()kip PermitUniformLoad 0 lbf ft PermitAxles 2 Number of wheel loads that comprise the permit truck Permit Loads As.long1.55 in2 area of mild reinf lumped at centroid of bar locations dlong2 in d distance from top of beam to centroid of mild flexural tension reinf. Figure 57. LRFD PSBeam output 3

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71 051015202530 3 2 1 1 Rel. Comp. & Final Ten. (Bot., Allow)fbot.beam.rel nksi fall.comp.rel nksi fbot.beam.stage8.c2 nksi fall.tension nksi Locationnft Summary of Initial Compression and Final Tension Prestress for Iteration Purposes. These two stress checks usually control See graphs in proceeding sections for full details. Reference:C:\FDOT_STR\Programs\LRFDPbeamE1.85\ProgramFiles\section2.mcd(R) Strand Geometry Double click on the Strand Geometry icon to specify type, location, size, and debonding of strands. Then click on Stranddata and press F9 to read in the data. StranddataaREADPRN "tendsect.dat" () wREADPRN "strand.dat" () xREADPRN "area.dat" () yREADPRN "shield.dat" () zREADPRN "distance.dat" () wxyza () Design Prestress Tendon Geometry A suggested method of iteration is to fill the beam with tendons beginning in the middle of the bottom row, filling the row out ward, then continuing on to the middle of the next lowest row. Typically ,the minimum number of tendon is reached when midspan tensile stress is below the LRFD Service III Limit stress. Next, tendons should be debonded in pairs according to the Structur es Design Guidelines until the end compression stress are below the LRFD Service I Limit stress. These two limits typically contr ol the design (see graph below). (service value) ReactionDL16.026 kip (service value includes truck impact) ReactionLL24.381 kip gmom0.32 gshear0.32 BeamPosition "interior" Live load distribution factors (includes impact) maxVdist.live.pos23.7 kip (includes impact) maxMdist.live.pos155.1 kipft 051015202530 50 50 100 150 200 Distributed LL Moments and Shears Mdist.live.pos nkipft Vdist.live.pos nkip Vdist.live.neg nkip Mshrdist.live.pos nkipft Mshrdist.live.neg nkipft Locationnft Figure 58. LRFD PSBeam output 4

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72total area of strands db.ps0.5 in diameter of Prestressing strand minPrestressType () 0 0 low lax 1 stress relieved fpy243 ksi tendon yield strength fpj203 ksi prestress jacking stress Lshielding T30 ()ft Aps.row T0.31.5 ()in2 dps.row 01234567 0 1 -0.771-0.771-0.771-0.771-0.771-0.771-0.771-0.771 -0.771-0.771-0.771-0.771-0.771-0.771-0.771-0.771ft Tendon Layout 00.81.62.43.24 1.01 0.65 0.29 0.0657 0.42 0.78 1.14 1.5 Debonded Full Length Draped Beam Surface TotalNumberOfTendons 12 NumberOfDebondedTendons 2 NumberOfDrapedTendons 0 StrandSize "1/2 in low lax" StrandArea 0.153 in2 JackingForceper.strand30.982 kip minCR_fcomp.rel2.212 Check_fcomp.rel"OK" minCR_ftension.stage82.894 Check_ftension.stage8"OK" check strand pattern for debonding limits (per row and total) and for debonded strands on outside edge of strand pattern Check0 No Debonded tendon on outside row, Check1 less than 40% Debonded in any row, Check2 less than 25% Debonded total CheckPattern0"OK" CheckPattern1"OK" CheckPattern2"OK" Section and tendon properties Abeam3.996 ft2 Concrete area of beam Ibeam6.893103 in4 Gross Moment of Inertia of Beam Gross Moment of Inertia Composite Section ycomp3.152 in Dist. from top of beam to CG of composite section Icomp2.24104 in4 Adeck1.847 ft2 Concrete area of deck slab Aps1.8 in2 Figure 59. LRFD PSBeam output 5

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73fpefpj 87.071 % fpTotfpj 12.929 % fpifpj 96.024 % fpifpj 3.976 % percentages fpe176 ksi fpTot26 ksi fpR24.5 ksi fpSR5.8 ksi fpCR7.9 ksi fpi194 ksi fpi8 ksi fpES5.8 ksi fpR12.2 ksi fpj202.5 ksi Prestress Losses (LRFD 5.9.5) maxMpos.Ser3237 kipft maxMpos.Ser1268 kipft 051015202530 100 100 200 300 Service I & III MomentsMpos.Ser1 nkipft Mpos.Ser3 nkipft Locationnft SERVICE LIMIT STATE 051015202530 0.78 0.76 0.74 Bonded Length of Debonded Strands 051015202530 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Location of Depressed Strands Figure 60. LRFD PSBeam output 6

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74(Service I (PS + DL)*0.5 +LL) Check_fcomp.stage8.c3"OK" minCR_fcomp.stage8.c33.766 (Service I PS + DL +LL) Check_fcomp.stage8.c2"OK" minCR_fcomp.stage8.c23.603 (Service I PS + DL ) Check_fcomp.stage8.c1"OK" minCR_fcomp.stage8.c13.729 (Service III PS + DL +LL*0.8) Check_ftension.stage8"OK" minCR_ftension.stage82.894 Final Check_fcomp.rel"OK" minCR_fcomp.rel2.212 Check_ftension.rel"OK" minCR_ftension.rel7.041 051015202530 3 2 1 1 Release Stresses (Top, Bot., Allow.)ftop.beam.rel nksi fbot.beam.rel nksi fall.tension.rel nksi fall.comp.rel nksi Locationnft Release Stress Limitations for Concrete Release and Final (LRFD 5.9.4) Check_fpe"OK" 0.8fpy 194 ksi Check_fpt"OK" Stress Limitations for P/S tendons (LRFD 5.9.3) Figure 61. LRFD PSBeam output 7

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75 051015202530 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0.5 Final Stresses (Top, Bot., Allowable) ftop.beam.stage8.c2 nksi fbot.beam.stage8.c2 nksi ftop.beam.stage8.c1 nksi ftop.beam.stage8.c3 nksi fall.tension nksi fall.comp.case2 nksi fall.comp.case1 nksi fall.comp.case3 nksi Locationnft Summary of Values at Midspan Compression stresses are negative and tensile stresses are positive Stresses "Stage 1 2 4 6 8 "Top of Beam (ksi) 0.293 0.328 0.283 0.64 0.916 "Bott of Beam (ksi)" 0.943 0.794 0.839 0.481 0.153 Stage 1 ---> At release with the span length equal to the length of the beam. Prestress losses are elastic shortening and over night relax Stage 2 ---> Same as release with the addition of the remaining prestress losses applied to the transformed beam Stage 4 ---> Same as stage 2 with supports changed from the end of the beam to the bearing locations Stage 6 ---> Stage 4 with the addition of non-composite dead load excluding beam weight which has been included since Stage 1 Stage 8 ---> Stage 6 with the addition of composite dead load and live loads applied to the composite section PrestressForce "Condition "Release" "Final (about composite centroid)" "Axial (kip)" 357.3739 323.7221 "Moment (kip*ft)" 99.0955 164.6951 Properties "Section "Net Beam "Transformed Beam "Composite "Area (in^2) 582.58 594.84 877.07 "Inertia (in^4) 7014.2 7147.13 23140.02 "distance to centroid from top of bm (in)" 5.92 5.99 3.14 Figure 62. LRFD PSBeam output 8

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76ServiceMoments "Type "Release" "Non-composite (includes bm wt.)" "Composite" "Distributed Live Load" "Value (kip*ft)" 67.4 98.5 14.4 154.5 STRENGTH LIMIT STATE Reference:C:\FDOT_STR\Programs\LRFDPbeamE1.85\ProgramFiles\section3.mcd(R)Moment Nominal Resistance versus Ultimate Strength Cases I and II 051015202530 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 Nominal and Ultimate Moment Strength momMnmn0 kipft 1.2 Mcr mn kipft Mpos.Str1 mnkipft Mpos.Str2 mnkipft Mreqdmnkipft Locationmnft maxMpos.Str1414 kipft minCRstr1.mom1.127 CheckMomentCapacity "OK" Strength Shear and Associated Moment 051015202530 0 200 400 Strength Shear and Associated MomentVu.Str nkip Mshru.Str nkipft Locationnft maxVu.Str56 kip maxMshru.Str396 kipft e Figure 63. LRFD PSBeam output 9

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77S2 stirrup s 12 12 12 12 12 in NumberSpaces 0 0 0 0 15 Astirrup0 0 0 0 0.8 in2 S3 stirrup S4 stirrup EndCover 0 in The number of spaces for the S4 stirrup is calculated by the program to complete the half beam length 024681012141618202224 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 Shear Steel Required vs. ProvidedAv.reqd hsin2ft Av.prov.shr hsin2ft StirLocArea1 2 Avminin2ft Locationishearft Endanchft Locationhsft Locationhsft StirLocArea0 Locationhsft minCRShearCapacity2 CheckShearCapacity "N.A." minCRStirArea10 CheckStirArea "N.A." minCRStirrupArea1.161 CheckMinStirArea "N.A." CheckMaxStirSpacing "N.A." CheckAnchorageSteel "N.A." Check and Design Shear, Interface and Anchorage Reinforcement The interface_factor accounts for situations where not all of the shear reinforcing is embedded in the poured in place slab Locally assigned stirrup sizes and spacings (Values less than 0 are ignored) To change the values from the input file enter the new values into the vectors below. Input only those that you wish to change, values that are less than one will not alter the original input values. user_AstirrupnspacingsXXin2 XXin2 XXin2 XXin2 XXin2 user_snspacingsXXin XXin XXin XXin XXin user_NumberSpacesnspacingsXX XX XX XX XX interface_factornspacings0.5 1 1 1 1 A stirrup S1 stirrup S2 stirrup S3 stirrup S4 stirrup Reference:C:\FDOT_STR\Programs\LRFDPbeamE1.85\ProgramFiles\section4.mcd(R) Stirrup sizes and spacings used in analysis A stirrup S1 stirrup Figure 64. LRFD PSBeam output 10

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78 0246810121416 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Shear Capacity Required vs. ProvidedVu.Str hskip shrVn hs kip shrVs.prov.shr hs kip shrVc hs kip shrVp hs kip LocationishearLocationhsft Check Longitudinal Steel 0246810121416 0 200 400 600 Longitudinal Steel Required vs. ProvidedVlong.reqd hskip Vlong.prov hskip Locationhsft minCRLongSteel0.5 CheckLongSteel "N.A." If NG can also adjust with shear reinforcingCheck Interface Steel Typically shear steel is extended up into the deck slab. These calculations are based on that assumption that the shear steel functions as interface reinforcing. The interface_factor can be used to adjust this assumption MinInterfaceReinfReqd "N.A." If Avf.design or Avf.min is greater than 0 in2/ft, interface steel is required. Avf.min0 in2ft maxAvf.des0.1 in2ft MinLegsPerRow 0 CheckInterfaceSpacing "N.A." Figure 65. LRFD PSBeam output 11

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79Check_fcomp.stage8.c1"OK" Check_fcomp.stage8.c2"OK" Check_fcomp.stage8.c3"OK" CheckMomentCapacity "OK" CheckMaxCapacity "N.A." CheckStirArea "N.A." CheckShearCapacity "N.A." CheckMinStirArea "N.A." CheckMaxStirSpacing "N.A." CheckLongSteel "N.A." CheckInterfaceSpacing "N.A." CheckAnchorageSteel "N.A." CheckMaxReinforcement "OK" CheckInterfaceSteel "OK" CheckStrandFit "OK" TotalCheck "OK" 0246810121416 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Interface Steel Required vs ProvidedAvf.reqd hs in 2 ft Av.prov.interface hs in 2 ft Locationhsft CheckInterfaceSteel if TotalInterfaceSteelProvided TotalInterfaceSteelRequired 0.001 in2 1 "OK" "No Good" CheckInterfaceSteel "OK" Check Anchorage Steel for Bursting and Calculate Confinement Steel CheckAnchorageSteel "N.A." use #3 bars @ 6 in for confinement TotalNoConfineBars 8 value includes bars at both ends Summary of Design Checks AcceptInteriorM "OK" AcceptExteriorM "OK" AcceptInteriorV "OK" Check_fpt"OK" Check_fpe"OK" Check_ftension.rel"OK" Check_fcomp.rel"OK" Check_ftension.stage8"OK" Figure 66. LRFD PSBeam output 12

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80 APPENDIX B TOPPING PLACEMENT DAILY SUMMARY Synthetic Fiber Topping Flat slabs were cleaned with a blower Concrete batched at 8:47AM Truck leaves plant at 8:57AM Truck arrived at site at 9:10AM. Truck #118, Tag N2322B Driver did not have material delivery ticket Driver’s ticket lists a 4” slump was delivered Flat slabs were sprayed with water Slump test #1 performed at 9:20AM 4-1/2” slump Started adding Strux 90/40 fibers 9:20AM-9:24AM Fibers were introduced by hand into th e drum mixer. They were dispersed manually as they were deposited. Counted 70 revolutions from 9:24AM to 9:28AM Slump test was attempted to see the effect the fibers had on the mix. The fibers were not uniformly mixed in. There was a lot of bundling. Slump test #2 performed at 9:30AM 1-3/4” slump Instructed driver to add 6 gal to achiev e a .44 w/c. This was based on a mixture proportions I obtained from Tallahassee Redi Mix (TRM) on a visit last Monday, July 19th. Slump test #3 performed at 9:40AM 3-1/4” slump

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81 Placed concrete from 9:45AM-10:12AM Workability was terrible. The concrete wa s raked and vibrated down the shute. It was then raked into place. Most of the c oncrete was moved between 4’ & 5’ to its final position. It was then vibrated. Screeding started as when the concrete placement was halfway down the topping. Screeding finished at 10:30AM Floating started as screeding took pla ce. Finished floating at 10:32AM An air content of 2.5% was measured 27 cylinders were collected and capped. They were collected late in the cycle of events. The collection of cylinders w ill take place at an earlier time on the remaining toppings. The steel ring was cast There has not been any bleed water visible on the surface of the topping Curing compound was applied at 12:20PM Clouds rolled in at 12:36PM and blocked out the sun Went to TRM to obtain a copy of the ba tched materials for today’s concrete mixture. Turns out we were low on the am ount of water we could add to the mix. Blended Fiber Topping Met with Casey Peterson, Quality Control Manager for TRM at about 7:45AM Based on yesterday’s problems with placing the concrete and the low w/c ratio we wanted to discuss our options to improve th e workability of the mixture. He said he could modify the mixture any way we wanted to. We discussed the possibility of reducing the amount of water reducer so as to maximize our w/ c ratio while still having a reasonable slump…4”-6”. Based on conversations with Dr. Hamilton, I instructed Casey to send the same mix. We would control th e w/c ratio at the site. Flat slabs were cleaned with a blower Concrete batched at 8:42AM Truck left plant at 8:50AM Truck arrived at the site at 9:07AM

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82 Flat slabs were sprayed with water Collected material ticket from driver and calculated allowable additional water Form was filled out incorrectly and we worked under the assumption that we only had 7 oz of water reducer in the mix. Th is did not affect our calculations and was discovered later on that afternoon. Driver’s delivery ticket list s a 4” slump was delivered Slump test #1 performed at 9:15AM 2-3/4” slump Fibers were added to the concrete mixture Synthetic micro fibers were added at 9:16AM. 1lb/CY Steel fibers were added at 9:16AM-9:22AM. 25 lbs/CY The steel fibers were added second so that they would help separate the already present micro fibers Counted 70 revolutions from 9:22AM to 9:26AM Slump test #2 performed at 9:26AM 3-3/4” slump Instructed driver to add 8 gal to mixture. Based on 1” slump loss for every gallon of water per CY. We were shoot ing for a .44 w/c and a 5-3/4 slump. Slump test #3 performed at 9:35AM 4-3/4 slump Placed concrete from 9:35AM – 9:45AM Concrete had very good workability. It fl owed down the shute easily. Most of the concrete was moved between 2’ & 3’ to its final position. It was then vibrated. Backer rod fell through and was reinst alled and secured from 9:45AM until 9:55AM Screeding started when the concrete placem ent was of the way down the topping. Floating started as screeding took place. Floating started at 10:06AM and finished at 10:17AM

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83 Screeding was finished at 10:10AM An air content of 3.5% was measured 27 cylinders were collected and cap ped while the concrete was placed The steel ring was cast while the concrete was placed There has not been any bleed water visible on the surface of the topping Curing compound was applied at 1:10PM Clouds rolled in at 1:20PM and rain star ted at 1:30PM. Some of the curing compound was washed off. GRD Topping Both flat slabs were cleaned with a blower Concrete batched at 8:45AM Truck left plant at 8:57AM Truck arrived at the site at 9:07AM Flat slabs were sprayed with water • Collected material ticket from driver and calculated allowa ble additional water Form was incorrectly filled out again. This was noticed immediately and did not affect any calculations. Driver’s delivery ticket list s a 4” slump was delivered Slump test #1 performed at 9:11AM 4-3/4” slump Instructed driver to add 5 gal of water to mix. This would put us at a .44 w/c based on the delivery ticket. Slump test #2 performed at 9:16AM 6-1/4” slump Placed concrete from 9:22AM – 9:29AM

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84 Screeding took place as concrete was placed. This finished the concrete 1” below its final surface to allo w for grid installation Wooden 2”x6” screed was run over the topping two times This process was much easier than I expected Grid was laid out from9:30AM – 9:35AM Grid is 42” wide. There is a grid joint at the center with a two hole overlap. The outer strips overlap about 8” with the inner strips Grid was floating lightly to ha ve it “stick” to concrete. All the grid came in contact with the concrete. There was no loss of contact due to the grid wanting to roll up. Concrete was topped off from 9:35AM – 9:43AM Driver was extremely good at placing concrete where it was needed. He backed the truck up and swung the shute as the concrete was placed Concrete was screeded as it was topped off. The final screeding finished at 9:46AM Floating was done from 9:49AM – 9:55AM An air content of 3% was measured 27 cylinders were collected while the conc rete was placed. They were not capped The steel ring was cast while the concrete was placed Bleed water was visible on the surface as it cured Curing compound was applied at 2:00PM It started to rain at 3:05PM Steel Fiber Topping Concrete batched at 9:56AM Truck left plant at 10:15AM Truck arrived at th e site at 10:26AM Flat slabs were sprayed with water

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85 Collected material ticket from driver and calculated allowable additional water Form was incorrectly filled out Driver’s delivery ticket list s a 4” slump was delivered Slump test #1 performed at 10:31AM 2” slump Instructed driver to add 16 gallons of water. This wa s based off of the delivery ticket. It would put us at a .44 w/c A slump test was not taken after the water was added Fibers added to the mix from 10:37AM – 10:49AM I could feel the heat generated by the mix as I was adding the fibers Counted 70 revolutions from 10:49AM to 10:53AM Slump test #2 performed at 10:54 AM 2” slump Placed concrete at 10:58AM The mix was extremely stiff. It seems lik e there is not enough water in the mix. One wouldn’t be able to tell that 16 gall ons of water were added to the mix. The mix was raked and vibrated down the shute. This mix is much more difficult to work than the synthetic mix. Instructed the driver to a dd 8 gallons of water at 11:03AM. Based on 1” slump loss for every gallon of water per CY. We we re shooting for a 4” slump and expected the w/c ratio to go over the max of .44. A slump test was not performed after the water was added. Placement continued at 11:10AM. The mi x was somewhat workable after the water was added. It still requi red the vibrator and the rake to get it down the shute. Most of the concrete was moved betw een 4’ & 5’ to its final position. Topped off at 11:20AM Screeded from 11:25AM – 11:50AM Concrete was floated but most of it was di fficult to finish. There were many voids on the surface in the area of the initial pour.

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86 An air content of 2% was measured 27 cylinders were collected and capped while the concrete was placed. They were collected after the final 8 gall ons of water were added. The steel ring was cast while the concrete was placed, after the final 8 gallons of water were added. No bleed water was seen on the surface Curing compound was applied at 2:40PM It started to rain at 3:05PM. At 3:18 PM some of the curing compound was washed off SRA Topping I called the plant earlier to request a 2” slump concrete because we did not know the effect the SRA would have on the mix Flat slabs were cleaned with a blower Concrete was batched at 8:32AM Truck left the plant at 8:49AM Truck arrived at the site at 9:05AM Collected material ticket from driver and calculated allowable additional water Slump test #1 performed at 9:13AM 1-3/4” slump Added 15 gallons of SRA from 9:16AM – 9:21AM while truck was mixing at high speed Much easier to add when compared to fibers Not as worried about integration into mixture. Slump test #2 performed at 9:24AM 2” slump Instructed driver to add 20 gallons of water at 9:26AM Based on 1” slump loss for every gallon of water per CY. We were shooting for a 4” slump. Slump test #3 performed at 9:30AM

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87 5” slump Placed concrete from 9:35Am – 9:55AM Concrete flowed easily down the shute. Mo st of the concrete was raked between 2’ & 3’ to its final position. It had very good workability. An air content of 1.5% was measured 27 cylinders were collected and cappe d while the concrete was placed. The steel ring was cast while the concrete was placed Screeded from 9:48AM – 10:10AM Floating was done by a different person today. This may have an effect on plastic cracking. Noticed bleed water on the surface I left site in order to r un p. t. tests in Gainesville Curing compound applied by structures lab personnel. Control Topping Flat slabs were cleaned with a blower Concrete was batched at 8:30AM Truck left the plant at 8:50AM Truck arrived at the site at 9:02AM Collected material ticket from driver and calculated allowable additional water Slump test #1 performed at 9:04AM 2-3/4” slump Instructed driver to add 20 gallons of water to mixture Slump test #2 performed at 9:15AM 5” slump Placed concrete from 9:20AM -9:34AM

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88 Concrete had good workability Concrete screeded from 9:27AM – 9:45AM Floating was done by a different person today. This may have an effect on plastic cracking. 27 cylinders were collected and cappe d while the concrete was placed. Measured an air content of 1% The steel ring was cast while the concrete was placed There was a lot of bleed water on the surf ace. The bleed channels were clearly visible. Water was running off the sides of the formwork. Left site in order to run pressu re tension tests in Gainesville Curing compound applied by structures lab personnel

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89 APPENDIX C CYLINDER TEST RESULTS MOE = 4,164,048 R2 = 0.9996 MOE = 4,304,938 R2 = 0.9997 MOE = 4,171,969 R2 = 0.99970 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 0.00000.00010.00020.00030.00040.00050.0006 Strain (in/in)Stress (psi) MOE = 4,188,231 R2 = 0.9996 MOE = 4,337,675 R2 = 0.9998 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 0.00000.00020.00040.00060.0008 Strain (in/in)Stress (psi) (a) (b) Figure 67. Modulus of elas ticity charts for SYN topping. a) 28-day, b) 56-day 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 0.00000.00010.00020.00030.00040.00050.0006 Strain (in/in)Stress (psi)MOE = 4,440,680 R2 = 0.9992 MOE = 4,393,122 R2 = 0.9996 MOE = 4,179,718 R2 = 0.9999 MOE = 4,287,230 R2 = 0.9999 MOE = 4,129,956 R2 = 0.9990 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 0.00000.00020.00040.00060.0008 Strain (in/in)Stress (psi) (a) (b) Figure 68. Modulus of elas ticity charts for BND topping. a) 28-day, b) 56-day MOE = 4,322,883 R2 = 0.9998 MOE = 4,125,036 R2 = 0.9999 MOE = 4,463,108 R2 = 0.9996 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 0.00000.00010.00020.00030.00040.00050.0006 Strain (in/in)Stress (psi) MOE = 4,484,206 R2 = 0.9997 MOE = 4,258,370 R2 = 0.9994 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 0.00000.00020.00040.00060.0008 Strain (in/in)Stress (psi) (a) (b) Figure 69. Modulus of elas ticity charts for GRD topping. a) 28-day, b) 56-day

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90 MOE = 4,652,455 R2 = 0.9999 MOE = 4,760,190 R2 = 0.9998 MOE = 4,656,458 R2 = 0.9997 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 0.00000.00020.00040.00060.0008 Strain (in/in)Stress (psi) MOE = 4,392,156 R2 = 0.9998 MOE = 4,413,748 R2 = 0.9979 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 0.00000.00020.00040.00060.0008 Strain (in/in)Stress (psi) (a) (b) Figure 70. Modulus of elas ticity charts for STL topping. a) 28-day, b) 56-day MOE = 4,468,499 R2 = 0.9999 MOE = 4,625,750 R2 = 0.9998 MOE= 4,770,255 R2 = 0.9997 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 0.00000.00020.00040.0006 Strain (in/in)Stress (psi) MOE = 4,335,415 R2 = 0.9996 MOE = 4,193,329 R2 = 0.9971 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 0.00000.00020.00040.00060.0008 Strain (in/in)Stress (psi) (a) (b) Figure 71. Modulus of elas ticity charts for SRA topping. a) 28-day, b) 56-day MOE = 4,272,968 R2 = 0.9999 MOE = 4,515,448 R2 = 0.9995 MOE= 4,470,722 R2 = 0.9998 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 0.00000.00020.00040.0006 Strain (in/in)Stress (psi) MOE = 4,174,409 R2 = 0.9995 MOE = 4,235,346 R2 = 0.9994 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 0.00000.00020.00040.00060.0008 Strain (in/in)Stress (psi) (a) (b) Figure 72. Modulus of elas ticity charts for CTL topping. a) 28-day, b) 56-day

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91 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 032856 DaysCompressive Strength (psi) SYN BND GRD STL SRA CTL Figure 73. Compressive strength of cylinders at 3, 28, & 56-days 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40372856 DaysCOV (%) SYN BND GRD STL SRA CTL Figure 74. Coefficient of variation for lo ad rate using pressure tension test 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 372856 DaysCOV (%) SYN BND GRD STL SRA CTL Figure 75. Coefficient of variation for strength usi ng pressure tension test

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92 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 372856 DaysStrength (psi) SYN BND GRD STL SRA CTL Figure 76. Tensile strength us ing pressure tension test

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93 APPENDIX D WEATHER DATA Temperature and relative humidity data was collected from a weather station located approximately 2 miles away at the Tall ahassee Regional Airpor t. It is operated by the National Climatic Data Center. 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 1-Jun8-Jun15-Jun22-Jun29-Jun DateRelative Humidity (%)60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100Temperature (F) Humidity Temperature Figure 77. June 2004 humidity and temperature data 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 1-Jul8-Jul15-Jul22-Jul29-Jul DateRelative Humidity (%)60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100Temperature (F) Humidity Temperature Figure 78. July 2004 humidity and temperature data

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94 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 1-Aug8-Aug15-Aug22-Aug29-Aug DateRelative Humidity60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100Temperature (F) Humidity Temperature Figure 79. August 2004 humidity and temperature data 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 1-Sep8-Sep15-Sep22-Sep29-Sep DateRelative Humidity (%)60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100Temperature (F) Humidity Temperature Figure 80. September 2004 humidi ty and temperature data 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 1-Oct8-Oct15-Oct22-Oct29-OctDateRelative Humidity (%)55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100Temperature (F) Humidity Temperature Figure 81. October 2004 humid ity and temperature data

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95 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1-Nov8-Nov15-Nov22-Nov29-NovDateRelative Humidity (%)30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100Temperature (F) Humidity Tempeature Figure 82. November 2004 humidi ty and temperature data 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1-Dec8-Dec15-Dec22-Dec29-Dec DateRelative Humidity (%)30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100Temperature (F) Humidity Temperature Figure 83. December 2004 humidi ty and temperature data 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 31-Dec7-Jan14-Jan21-Jan28-Jan DateRelative Humidity (%)30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100Temperature (F) Humidity Temperature Figure 84. January 2005 humidity and temperature data

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96 APPENDIX E THERMOCOUPLE DATA Synthetic Fiber Topping See Figure 36 and Figure 37 for locati on of thermocouples within topping. 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 1208:56 AM10:56 AM12:56 PM2:56 PM4:56 PMTimeTemperature (F) Ambient Top Mid Bottom Figure 85. SYN-1 curing temperatures 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 1208:56 AM10:56 AM12:56 PM2:56 PM4:56 PMTimeTemperature (F) Ambient Top Mid Bottom Figure 86. SYN-2 curing temperatures

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97 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 1208:56 AM10:56 AM12:56 PM2:56 PM4:56 PMTimeTemperature (F) Ambient Temp. Top Mid Bottom Figure 87. SYN-3 curing temperatures Blended Fiber Topping 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 1109:00 AM11:00 AM1:00 PM3:00 PM5:00 PMTimeTemperature (F) Ambient Top Mid Bottom Figure 88. BND-1 curing temperatures 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 1109:00 AM11:00 AM1:00 PM3:00 PM5:00 PMTimeTemperature (F) Ambient Top Mid Bottom Figure 89. BND-2 curing temperatures

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98 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 9:00 AM11:00 AM1:00 PM3:00 PM5:00 PMTimeTemperature (F) Ambient Top Mid Bottom Figure 90. BND-3 curing temperatures Steel Fiber Topping 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 1159:00 AM11:00 AM1:00 PM3:00 PMTimeTemperature (F) Ambient Top Mid Bottom Figure 91. STL-1 curing temperatures 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 9:00 AM11:00 AM1:00 PM3:00 PMTimeTemperature (F) Ambient Top Mid Bottom Figure 92. STL-2 curing temperatures

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99 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 1159:00 AM11:00 AM1:00 PM3:00 PMTimeTemperature (F) Ambient Top Mid Bottom Figure 93. STL-3 curing temperatures SRA Topping 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 9:00 AM11:00 AM1:00 PM3:00 PMTimeTemperature (F) Ambient Top Mid Bottom Figure 94. SRA-1 curing temperatures 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 9:00 AM11:00 AM1:00 PM3:00 PMTimeTemperature (F) Ambient Top Mid Bottom Figure 95. SRA-2 curing temperatures

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100 70 80 90 100 110 120 1309:00 AM11:00 AM1:00 PM3:00 PM TimeTemperature (F) Ambient Top Mid Bottom Figure 96. SRA-3 curing temperatures Control Topping 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 1209:00 AM11:00 AM1:00 PM3:00 PM5:00 PM7:00 PMTimeTemperature (F) Ambient Top Mid Bottom Figure 97. CTL-3 curing temperatures

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APPENDIX F CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS

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102 1 7 Figure 98. Plan and eleva tion views of specimens

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103 27 Figure 99. Site layout of specimens

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104 37 Figure 100. Instrumentation and testing notes

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105 47 Figure 101. Concrete placement, finishing, and curing notes

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106 57 Figure 102. Flat slab detail drawings

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107 6 7 Figure 103. Flat slab reinforcement details

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108 7 7 Figure 104. Restrained ring test fabrication drawing

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109 LIST OF REFERENCES AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specificat ions, Second Edition (2001 Interim), Customary U.S. Units, American Associa tion of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC, 1998. American Concrete Institute, “State-of-th e-Art Report on Fiber Reinforced Concrete,” ACI 544.1R-96, ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, Re-approved 2002. American Concrete Institute, “Standard Pr actice for the Use of Shrinkage-Compensating Concrete,” ACI 223-98, ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, 1998. Balaguru, P., “Contribution of Fibers to Crack Reduction of Cement Composites.” ACI Materials Journal Vol. 91, No. 3, 1994, pp. 280-288. Banthia, N., and Yan, C., “Shri nkage Cracking in Polyolefin Fiber Reinforced Concrete,” ACI Materials Journal Vol. 97, No. 4, 2000, pp. 432-437. Cook, R.A., Leinwohl, R.J., “Precast Option fo r Flat Slab Bridges”, Structures and Materials Research Report No. 97-1, E ngineering and Industrial Experiment Station, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, August, 1997. FDOT Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Construction, 2004a, State Specifications Office, Florida Departme nt of Transportati on, Tallahassee, FL, http://www.dot.state.fl.us/specificationso ffice/2004BK/toc.htm, Last accessed Mar. 2005 FDOT Structures Manual, 2004b, FDOT Structur es Design Office, Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, FL http://www.dot.state.fl.us/structures/St ructuresManual/2004January/Structures_Ma nual.htm, Last accessed Mar. 2005. Grzybowski, M., and Shah, S. P., “Shrinkage Cracking of Fiber Reinforced Concrete,” ACI Materials Journal Vol. 87, No. 2, 1990, pp. 138-148. Issa, M.A., “Investigation of Cracking in Concrete Bridge Decks at Early Ages,” Journal of Bridge Engineering Vol. 4, No. 2, May 1999, pp. 116-124. Li, G., “The Effect of Moisture Content on th e Tensile Strength Properties of Concrete,” Masters Thesis, Dept. of Civil and Coasta l Engineering, University of Florida, 2004

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110 Makizumi, T., Sakamoto, Y., and Okada, S., “Control of Cracking by Use of Carbon Fiber Net as Reinforcement for Concrete,” Fiber-Reinforced-Plastic Reinforcement for Concrete Structures — Internationa l Symposium, SP-138 (American Concrete Institute 1992), pp. 287-295. Nmai, C. K.; Tomita, R.; Hondo, F.; and Buffenbarger, J., “Shrinkage-Reducing Admixtures,” Concrete International Vol. 20, No. 4, April 1998, pp. 31-37. Nanni, A.; Ludwig, D. A.; and McGillis, T., “Plastic Shrinkage Cracking of Restrained Fiber-Reinforced Concrete,” Transportation Research Record No. 1382, 1991, pp. 69-72. Pease, B. J., Shah, H. R., Hossain, A. B ., and Weiss, W. J., "Restrained Shrinkage Behavior of Mixtures Containing Shrinka ge Reducing Admixtures and Fibers," International Conference on Advances in Concrete Composites and Structures (ICACS), Chennai, India, January 2005. http://bridge.ecn.purdue.edu/%7Econcret e/weiss/publications /r_conference/RC032.pdf Last accessed Mar. 2005. Ramey, G. E., Pittman, D. W., and Webster, G. K., “Shrinkage-Compensating Concrete for Bridge Decks,” Concrete International Vol. 24, No. 4, April 1999, pp. 29-34. See, H. T., Attiogbe, E. K., and Miltenberger M. A., “Shrinkage Cracking Characteristics of Concrete Using Ring Specimens,” ACI Materials Journal Vol. 100, No. 3, 2003, pp. 239-245. Shah, S. P., Karaguler, M. E., and Sariga phuti, M., ”Effects of Shrinkage Reducing Admixtures on Restrained Shri nkage Cracking of Concrete,” ACI Materials Journa l, Vol. 89, No. 3, 1992, pp. 289-295. Shah, S. P., Sarigaphuti, M., and Karaguler, M. E., “Comparison of Shrinkage Cracking Performance of Different Types of Fibers and Wiremesh,” Fiber Reinforced Concrete, Developments and Innovations, SP-142 (American Concrete Institute 1994), pp. 1-18. Soroushian, P., Mirza, F., and Alhozaim y, A., “Plastic Shri nkage Cracking of Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Concrete,” ACI Materials Journal Vol. 92, No. 5, 1993, pp. 553-560.

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111 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Lazaro Alfonso was born on July 4th, 1974, in Weehawken, New Jersey to parents Lazaro M. and Grisel Alfonso. In 1981 he moved to Miami, Florida. After graduating high school, he practiced as a licensed cont ractor in South Florida while attending Miami-Dade Community College where he earned an Associate in Arts Degree in 1996. He was admitted to the Colle ge of Engineering at the University of Florida in 2001. After graduating with a bach elor’s degree in civil engi neering in 2003, he entered graduate school at the Univer sity of Florida in the depa rtment of Civil and Coastal Engineering. After earning a Master of Engi neering degree with emphasis in structures in May 2005, he will work at a structural engineering consulting firm in West Palm Beach, Florida.


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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0010294/00001

Material Information

Title: Crack Control in Toppings for Precast Flat Slab Bridge Deck Construction
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0010294:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0010294/00001

Material Information

Title: Crack Control in Toppings for Precast Flat Slab Bridge Deck Construction
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0010294:00001


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CRACK CONTROL IN TOPPINGS FOR PRECAST FLAT SLAB BRIDGE DECK
CONSTRUCTION















By

LAZARO ALFONSO


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2005

































Copyright 2005

by

Lazaro Alfonso




























To my late grandparents, Antonio Amado Alfonso and Ermigio Gonzalez















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I thank my supervisory committee chair and graduate advisor, Dr. H.R. Hamilton

III, for his guidance throughout this research and my graduate studies. I would also like

to thank the rest of my committee, Dr. Ronald A. Cook and Dr. Gary R. Consolazio, for

their support.

Special thanks go to the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) Structures

Lab personnel, especially Marc Ansley for his help and for making the construction of

the bridge decks possible. I appreciate Frank Cobb, Tony Johnston, David Allen, Paul

Tighe, Steve Eudy, and the OPS personnel for their professionalism and sense of humor.

They provided a setting that was a pleasure to work in. I thank Nycon, Inc.; W.R. Grace

& Co.; and TechFab, LLC, for their contributions to the project.

I thank my best friend, Bonnie Serina, for her caring support through the

completion of this project. I would also like to thank my family. Without their support,

and the Lord's guidance, I would not be where I am today.















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

LIST OF TABLES .................. .................. ................. ........... ............ .. vii

LIST OF FIGURES ......... ......................... ...... ........ ............ ix

CHAPTER

1 IN TR OD U CTION ............................................... .. ......................... ..

B background ............................................................... .. ........ ...............
Purpose of Study .................................... ................................ .........2

2 SIT E E V A L U A T IO N S ....................................................................... ....................3

Turkey Creek Bridge .......................... .............. .......................... ....
M ill Creek Bridge ............... ................. .................................... .4
C ow C reek B ridge ................. .................................... ...... ........ .......... . ..
S u m m ary ................................................................................................... . 5

3 L IT E R A TU R E R E V IE W .................................................................. .....................8

4 EXPERIM ENTAL PROGRAM ........................................ ................................. 13

In tro d u ctio n ...................................... ................................................ 13
D design and Fabrication .......................................................................... ............... 21
Site L ay out ................................................................................................ .... 26
Slab P lacem ent .....................................................................27
Topping Reinforcem ent.................................. ........ ......... ............... 28
T popping Placem ent .............. .......................... .................... .. ... ...... ..... 30
S u m m ary ......... .. ......................................................................... ... 4 4
Instrumentation .............. ...... .. .......... ....... .... ............. .......... 48
Restrained Shrinkage Rings ......... .................................... ................ ............... 51

5 RESULTS AND DISCU SSION .......................................... ........................... 54

Compressive Strength and Modulus of Elasticity ..................................................54
Pressure Tension Test ........... ........................ .. ............. ...... ....... 55
R strained R ing Test ..... ........ ............................ ...................... 57



v









Therm couple D ata .......................... .............. ................. .... ....... 59
T opping O b serv ation s........................................................................ ...................59

6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................... 62

APPENDIX

A FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PSBEAM PROGRAM.........64

B TOPPING PLACEMENT DAILY SUMMARY ....................................................80

C CY LIN D ER TE ST R E SU L TS ........................................................ .....................89

D W E A TH E R D A T A ............................................................................. ............... 93

E THERMOCOUPLE DATA........................................ ................................... 96

F CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS ................................... .................................... 101

L IST O F R E FE R E N C E S ....................................................................... .................... 109

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ........................................................... .................111
















LIST OF TABLES

Table page

1 Methods considered for controlling shrinkage cracking ....................................... 14

2 Concrete type for bridge superstructures ......................................... .............. 18

3 FD OT structural concrete specifications.............................................................. 18

4 M aster proportional lim its ......................................................... .............. 18

5 Maximum tensile stresses developed in topping .............. ................................. 20

6 M maximum principal stress in model C .......................................... ..... ......... 21

7 Concrete mixture components for precast slabs.......................................... 24

8 Flat slab identification number and location........................................................ 25

9 Specim en designation and topping treatm ent............................... .................... 31

10 Cylinder test schedule ...... .... ...................................... .................... 33

11 W orkability ranking scale ............................................... ............................ 34

12 Material properties for fibers used in SYN topping......................................... 35

13 M mixture proportions for SY N topping................................................ .. .................. 36

14 Properties for synthetic micro fibers ............................................. ........... 37

15 Properties for steel fibers used in BND and STL toppings.............. .................. 37

16 Mixture proportions for BND topping ........................................................ 39

17 C arbon-fiber strand strength.......................................................... ... ... .............. 40

18 Physical properties for carbon-fiber grid.............................................. .................. 41

19 Mixture proportions for GRD topping ........................................................ 41

20 M mixture proportions for STL topping................................................ ... ................. 42









21 Mixture proportions for SRA topping........................................... 43

22 Mixture proportions for CTL topping .................... ..................................... 44

23 W orkability rating/slump relationship .......................................... ..... ......... 45

24 Concrete m ixture sum m ary .............. ............................................................ 45

25 Tim eline from watching to casting ........................................ ........ ........ ...... 46

26 Concrete m ixture w /c ratios .............. ........................................................... 46

27 Com pressive strength of concrete cylinders.................................. .................... 54

28 Modulus of elasticity of concrete cylinders .................................................... 55

29 Tensile strength of concrete cylinders using pressure tension test...................... 55

30 Average crack width for GRD, SRA, and CTL rings .......................................... 58

31 Average crack width for SYN, BND, and STL rings................................... 58

































viii
















LIST OF FIGURES

Figure page

1 Typical prestressed slab panels .......................................... ........................... 2

2 Repairs to cracks on Turkey Creek Bridge ........................................ .............. 3

3 Reflective crack on topping of Mill Creek Bridge................................................. 4

4 C ow C reek B ridge cross-section ................................................................... ...... 5

5 Control joint and bearing detail................................................... .............. 6

6 Transverse cracks at a control joint on the Cow Creek Bridge............................. 6

7 Average crack width vs. fiber volume for polypropylene fibers........................... 11

8 Average crack width vs. fiber volume for steel fibers ........................................ 11

9 M axim um crack w idth vs. aspect ratio.............................................. ... ... .............. 12

10 Maximum crack width vs. specific fiber surface .............................................. 12

11 Finite elem ent analysis M odel A ................................................... ... ................. 19

12 Finite element analysis Model B .................................................. ............... 20

13 Finite elem ent analysis M odel C ...................................................... ... ... .............. 20

14 Typical cross-section through precast slab specimen .......................................... 22

15 R einforcem ent detail at end of slab................................... ..................... .. ........ 22

16 R einforcem ent at end of flat slab ........................................ ....................... 23

17 Flat slab reinforcem ent layout ..................................................... .......... .... 23

18 Typical slab layout on casting bed ...................................................... .............. 25

19 C casting of flat slabs ............................................................ .......... ........ 25

20 Finished flat slab with hoisting anchors installed ............................................ 26









21 Typical bearing pad place ent ........................................... .................. ...... 27

22 Concrete supports with neoprene bearing pads before placement of precast
s la b s ......................................................................................................................... 2 8

2 3 S lab site lay o u t ............................................................................................... 2 9

24 Typical superstructure end elevation view........................................................ 29

25 Reinforcement and formwork on precast slabs before topping placement ............ 30

26 Topping reinforcem ent layout.......................................................... ......... .... 30

27 Displacement gage locations and superstructure and topping designation ............ 31

28 Pressure tension testing equipment .............. ............... ........................ 34

29 Synthetic fibers used in SYN topping .................................. .......................... 35

30 Synthetic fibers used in BN D topping................................................. .............. 38

31 Steel fibers used in BND and STL toppings ................................. .............. 38

32 Carbon-fiber grid used in GRD topping............................................ ... ... .............. 40

33 GRD topping grid location cross-section............................................................ 40

34 Normalized timeline for construction of the half-span toppings............................. 47

35 Partial plan view of specimens with typical thermocouple layout.......................... 49

36 Partial section view of specimen with typical thermocouple profile layout ......... 49

37 Monitored locations for each topping ....................................................... 50

38 Displacement gage attachment bracket............................................. .............. 51

39 Profile view of displacement gage placement at span end.................................. 51

40 Restrained shrinkage ring......................................................... .............. 52

41 Typical restrained ring specim en ........................................ ................... ..... 53

42 Tensile strength using pressure tension test......................................................... 56

43 Coefficient of variation for load rate using pressure tension test............................ 56

44 Coefficient of variation for tensile strength using pressure tension test ............... 56

45 Humidity and temperature for Sept. 2004............................................................ 57









46 Temperature data through depth of topping for SRA-3 ........................................ 59

47 Displacement of superstructure S-A ............................................. ........... 60

48 D isplacem ent of superstructure S-B .................................................. ... ................. 61

49 Displacement of superstructure S-C........................................................ ........ 61

50 Displacement of superstructure S-D ........................................................ 61

51 LRFD PSBeam input 1 ....................................................................... 64

52 L R F D P SB eam input 2 ............................................................................ .. .... ...... 65

53 L R F D P SB eam input 3 ............................................................................ .. .... ...... 66

54 L R F D P SB eam input 4 ............................................................................ .. .... ...... 67

55 L R FD P SB eam output 1 ........................................................................... ...... 68

56 L R F D P SB eam output 2 ................................................................................. 69

57 L R F D P SB eam output 3 ................................................................................. 70

58 L R F D P SB eam output 4 ................................................................................. 7 1

59 LRFD PSB eam output 5 ......................... ................................... ........... .............. 72

60 LRFD PSBeam output 6....................................................... 73

61 LRFD PSBeam output 7....................................................... 74

62 LRFD PSB eam output 8 ......................... .................................. .......................... 75

63 LRFD PSBeam output 9....................................................... 76

64 LRFD PSBeam output 10.................................................................... 77

65 L R FD P SB eam output 11 ................................................................................. ..... 78

66 L R F D P SB eam output 12 ........................................................................................ 79

67 Modulus of elasticity charts for SYN topping ..................................... ....... .. 89

68 M odulus of elasticity charts for BND topping .............................. .................... 89

69 Modulus of elasticity charts for GRD topping ............................................. 89

70 Modulus of elasticity charts for STL topping ................................ ............. 90









71 Modulus of elasticity charts for SRA topping............ ................................ 90

72 Modulus of elasticity charts for CTL topping...................... .... .............. 90

73 Compressive strength of cylinders at 3, 28, & 56-days ....................................... 91

74 Coefficient of variation for load rate using pressure tension test............................ 91

75 Coefficient of variation for strength using pressure tension test............................. 91

76 Tensile strength using pressure tension test ....................................................... 92

77 June 2004 hum idity and tem perature data............................................ ... .............. 93

78 July 2004 humidity and temperature data ...................................................... 93

79 August 2004 humidity and temperature data ................................. .............. 94

80 September 2004 humidity and temperature data .............. .................................. 94

81 October 2004 humidity and temperature data................................................... 94

82 November 2004 humidity and temperature data.................................. ............. 95

83 December 2004 humidity and temperature data..................................... .............. 95

84 January 2005 humidity and temperature data .............................................. 95

85 SY N -1 curing tem peratures................................................ ......................... 96

86 SY N -2 curing tem peratures................................................ ......................... 96

87 SY N -3 curing tem peratures................................................ ......................... 97

88 BN D -1 curing tem peratures .............. ........................................................... 97

89 BN D -2 curing tem peratures .............. ........................................................... 97

90 BN D -3 curing tem peratures .............. ........................................................... 98

91 STL -1 curing tem peratures................................................. ........... .............. 98

92 STL -2 curing tem peratures................................................. ........... .............. 98

93 STL -3 curing tem peratures................................................. ........... .............. 99

94 SR A -1 curing tem peratures .......................................................................... .... 99

95 SRA-2 curing temperatures ............................................. .... .............. 99









96 SRA -3 curing tem peratures ........................................................ ......... ..... 100

97 CTL-3 curing tem peratures .............. ............................................ .............. 100

98 Plan and elevation views of specimens............................................... 102

99 Site layout of specim ens.......................... .................. .................. .............. 103

100 Instrumentation and testing notes................................ .............. 104

101 Concrete placement, finishing, and curing notes ................................. ........... 105

102 Flat slab detail drawings.......................................... 106

103 Flat slab reinforcement details ................................... 107

104 Restrained ring test fabrication drawing ..................................... .............. 108















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Engineering

CRACK CONTROL IN TOPPINGS FOR PRECAST FLAT SLAB BRIDGE DECK
CONSTRUCTION

By

Lazaro Alfonso

May 2005

Chair: H.R. Hamilton III
Co chair: R A. Cook.
Major Department: Civil and Coastal Engineering

This thesis presents the results of several techniques that were evaluated to provide

crack control in the cast portion of a precast flat slab bridge. Poor curing techniques and

improper placement of the reinforcement has caused excessive shrinkage cracking in a

number of flat slab bridges in Florida. In conjunction with the Florida Department of

Transportation (FDOT), four full-scale flat slab bridge spans were constructed to test the

field performance of the toppings. FDOT guidelines were followed in the design and

construction of the decks. The toppings incorporated either steel fibers, synthetic fibers,

a steel/synthetic fiber blend, carbon-fiber grid, or a shrinkage-reducing admixture. The

toppings were monitored visually for cracking for 30 weeks and are currently under

observation in Tallahassee, Florida.

As of March 2005, no cracks had developed in the toppings, because insufficient

tensile stresses were generated. Fiber reinforced mixtures performed better in reducing









average crack width using the restrained ring test, and their performance improved with

increasing fiber volume. Crack control treatments did not affect concrete modulus of

elasticity or tensile strength. The results presented herein were based on observations

during construction, results of materials tests, and performance of the toppings.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Background

Precast flat slab bridges are a practical alternative to traditional deck/girder designs

used for short span bridges. Using precast slabs reduces the price of bridge construction

by virtually eliminating the need for formwork thus making it economically attractive. It

allows for faster construction time and quicker project turnover. According to the

FDOT's Structures Manual (2004b), the price of the superstructure on a flat slab bridge is

the least per square foot, when compared to other designs used in Florida.

Flat slab bridges consist of prestressed, precast concrete deck panels that span from

bent to bent. The panels act as permanent forms for a cast-in-place deck. The top surface

of the flat slab is roughened to transfer horizontal shear. In some cases, transverse

reinforcement is placed, to ensure horizontal shear transfer. A topping is then placed

over the precast flat slab, which allows the composite to act as a single unit. Some panels

incorporate a shear key to transfer transverse shear. The keys usually contain welded

wire mesh, reinforcing bars, or both as well as non-shrink grout. The topping contains

transverse and longitudinal reinforcement intended to provide crack control and lateral

transfer of shear between the panels. Figure 1 shows recently erected prestressed slabs

before topping placement. These panels have horizontal shear reinforcement and shear

keys.

Poor curing techniques and improper placement of reinforcement has caused

excessive shrinkage cracking in a number of flat slab bridges in Florida. Excessive









cracking is unsightly, can affect the durability of the wearing surface, and can lead to

corrosion of the reinforcement.















Figure 1. Typical prestressed slab panels

Purpose of Study

The focus of this research was to evaluate techniques for providing crack control in

the cast portion of a precast flat slab bridge. A review of methods that have been used to

control cracking on bridge decks was conducted. Several systems were considered and

chosen for use in the experimental program based on their effectiveness, ease of

implementation and application, and effect on the labor and construction cost of the

bridge. These systems were then evaluated on full-scale precast flat slab bridge spans.

Specimen size and shape were chosen to closely match existing field conditions and steps

were taken to ensure that toppings were exposed to similar curing conditions. They were

left outside to weather, and were monitored visually for cracking. Crack width, crack

distribution, ease of application, and the overall cost of each system were compared and

ranked based on performance. Recommendations are made for changes to flat slab

bridge construction techniques based on their performance.














CHAPTER 2
SITE EVALUATIONS

Site visits were conducted by the author to assess crack patterns on selected

existing flat slab bridges. Three Central Florida bridges were visited: Turkey Creek

Bridge (No. 700203), Mill Creek Bridge (No. 364056), and Cow Creek Bridge (No.

314001). All of these have reflective longitudinal cracks over the joints in the flat slabs,

and transverse cracks over the bents.

Turkey Creek Bridge

The Turkey Creek Bridge is located on US 1 south of Melbourne. It is a simply

supported, six-span bridge with 12 in deep precast flat slabs with shear keys and an 8 in

topping. The topping is reinforced with No. 5 bars at 12 in on center in each direction.

The topping has extensive longitudinal cracks that vary in size. Reflective cracks are

located over each flat slab joint. Many of the cracks have been repaired with epoxy

(Figure 2) and show no signs of continued cracking.


Figure 2. Repairs to cracks on Turkey Creek Bridge

3









A large number of vehicles were using the bridge on the day of the visit. In addition to

showing the most cracking, it also carries the largest traffic volume of the three bridges.

Mill Creek Bridge

The Mill Creek Bridge is located on CR318 north of Ft. McCoy. It is a simply

supported, two-span bridge composed of 15 in deep precast flat slabs. The topping has a

reflective crack over each flat slab joint (Figure 3) that measures an average of 0.016 in.

Cracks were also noted over the middle bent where the flat slabs meet end to end. The

control joint is located at the center and runs with the span of the bridge. All of these

cracks are relatively small and have not affected the performance of the bridge. No

construction drawings were available for this bridge.


Figure 3. Reflective crack on topping of Mill Creek Bridge









Cow Creek Bridge

Cow Creek Bridge is located on CR 340 just west of High Springs. It is a

five-span bridge with 12 in deep flat slabs with shear keys and a 6 in topping (Figure 4).

The flat slabs have horizontal shear reinforcement and the topping has No. 5 reinforcing

bars at 6 in on center in the transverse direction and at 12 in on center in the longitudinal

direction. Previous assessment by the FDOT showed that the reinforcement bars in the

topping were incorrectly installed at 4 to 5 in below the topping. The topping has a

reflective longitudinal crack over each joint in the flat slab. These cracks measured an

average of 0.028 in. It also has cracks along most of the saw-cut joints located over the

bents. Figure 5 shows the typical saw cut and bearing located over every bent. Concrete

has spalled in some areas adjacent to the cuts (

Figure 6). This type of cracking occurs when the control joints are cut after the

concrete has set. The longitudinal cracks do not appear to have affected the performance

of the bridge.

#5 REBAR @ 12" O.C.- HORIZONTAL SHEAR
#5 REBAR @ 6" O.C. REINFORCEMENT




4'-0"1
GROUT-FILLED SHEAR KEY\

Figure 4. Cow Creek Bridge cross-section

Summary

Three precast flat slab bridges with reinforced concrete toppings were visually

inspected. The Cow Creek and Turkey Creek bridges had shear keys built into the











prestressed slabs. Slab depth varied from bridge to bridge. All of the bridges had a

reflective longitudinal crack over each flat slab joint and multiple transverse cracks over

1.6" X 0.2" SAWCUT
JOINT BENT







PREMOLDED
EXPANSION JOINT
MATERIAL

I NEOPRENE BEARING
PADS

EXTRUDED
POLYSTYRENE


Figure 5. Control joint and bearing detail


Figure 6. Transverse cracks at a control joint on the Cow Creek Bridge






7


the bents where the topping goes into negative moment. The topping on the Cow Creek

Bridge was spelling at these locations. The Turkey Creek Bridge showed the most

cracking and is the only one to have been repaired.














CHAPTER 3
LITERATURE REVIEW

Cracking of bridge decks is not a problem that is specific to flat slab bridges.

Although limited research has been conducted dealing specifically with cracking on this

type of bridge, a good deal of research has been performed on deck cracking of

traditional slab/girder and deck slab bridges. Several of the factors listed by Issa (1999)

are common causes of deck cracking.

* Poor curing procedures which promote high evaporation rates and a large amount
of shrinkage.

* Use of high slump concrete

* Excessive amount of water in the concrete as a result of inadequate mixture
proportions and re-tempering of concrete.

* Insufficient top reinforcement concrete cover and improper placement of
reinforcement.

Cracks may not be the result of bad design but rather an outcome of poor

construction practice.

Researchers have tested several methods to control cracking that can be easily

implemented and though they do not increase the tensile strength of the concrete, they do

improve its shrinkage and post crack behavior. Many of these have been implemented by

transportation departments and have proven to work in the field.

The New York Thruway Authority (NYTA) and the Ohio Turnpike Commission

(OTC) have successfully used shrinkage compensating concrete (SCC) to control

shrinkage cracking on bridge decks (Ramey, Pittman, and Webster 1999). Although the









NYTA had problems with deck scaling in the bridge decks that used SCC it was

determined not to be a factor. The OTC had the greatest success with SCC. They have

replaced 269 bridge decks with SCC and only 11 have shown minor or moderate cracking

with none showing severe cracking. This same study also showed that good quality SCC

requires continuous curing to activate the ettringite formation. The OTC requires

contractors to use fog spraying under certain weather conditions, always use monolecular

film to retard evaporation, and control the curing water temperature to avoid thermal

shock. They also require wet curing for seven days, which is necessary because SCC will

crack if any ettringite is activated after the concrete hardens. Use of SCC requires strict

curing techniques to effectively eliminate shrinkage cracks.

Research has shown that shrinkage reducing admixtures (SRA) effectively reduce

drying shrinkage of concrete and, subsequently, cracking. Tests show a reduction in

drying shrinkage of about 50 to 60% at 28 days, and 40 to 50% after 12 weeks (Nmai et

al. 1998). Restrained ring tests showed that concrete mixtures with SRA decrease the

rate of residual stress development by decreasing the surface tension of water by up to

54% (Pease et al. 2005). A considerable reduction in crack width occurs as compared

with normal concrete depending on the type and amount of SRA used (Shah, Karaguler,

and Sarigaphuti 1992). SRA can be integrated in the mixture or applied topically to the

concrete surface after bleeding stops. Better results are obtained with larger surface

application rates. Mixing SRA integrally, however, is more effective.

Rectangular slabs and ring type specimens have been used to demonstrate the

ability of synthetic fibers to control cracking resulting from volume changes due to

plastic and drying shrinkage. Synthetic fibers were shown to reduce the amount of









plastic shrinkage cracking when compared to the use of welded wire mesh (Shah,

Sarigaphuti, Karaguler 1994). They tested polypropylene, steel, and cellulose fibers

using a restrained ring test at 0.5%, 0.25%, and 0.5% by volume, respectively. The

maximum crack width was reduced by 70% at those dosage rates. The ability of the

fibers to control cracking is partially due to the decrease in the amount of bleed water

(Nanni, Ludwig, and McGillis 1991; Soroushian, Mirza, and Alhozaimy 1993). The

authors suggested that the presence of fibers reduced settlement of the aggregate

particles, thus eliminating damaging capillary bleed channels and preventing an increase

in inter-granular pressures in the plastic concrete. Adding synthetic fibers also decreases

the initial and final set times of the concrete. Decreasing the time that the concrete is left

exposed to the environment in a plastic state promotes reduced shrinkage cracking.

A series of tests run by Balaguru (1994) on steel, synthetic, and cellulose fibers

reveals that the fiber's aspect ratio (length/diameter) seems to be a major factor

contributing to crack reduction. An increase in fiber content also contributed to a smaller

crack area and width. The same results were obtained by Banthia and Yan (2000), and

Grzybowski and Shah (1990) (Figure 7-Figure 10). Fibers with a high aspect ratio have

more contact area with the concrete mixture consequently, more stress is transferred by

the fiber before pull-out. Increases in fiber content usually lead to smaller crack widths.

Too much fiber, however, may affect the workability of the concrete mixture and cause

entanglement into large clumps. Fiber length, volume, and specific fiber surface (total

surface area of all fibers within a unit volume of composite) are all major contributing

factors to the amount of cracking.

































fiber volume (*)
Figure 7. Average crack width vs. fiber volume for polypropylene fibers (Grzybowski
and Shah 1990)


1.1

1.0

E
E as

0.7


O 0,5

Oa4



0.2

0.1
0


steel fiber
- A experimental results
results from the
Theoretical analysis
-3









-2.



I I O


0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
fiber volume (/%)
Figure 8. Average crack width vs. fiber volume for steel fibers (Grzybowski and Shah)







12














Figure 9. Maximum crack width vs. aspect ratio (Grzybowski and Shah 1990)
1,2
o 20 4. o 100 120 140 1 180i 2i00
Arivd F+ift LW
.lPuol 3%?fn I0.3 Pdyoefln spel:Polln b %ePdryaBn e15% 9t s(o
Figure 9. Maximum crack width vs. aspect ratio (Grzybowski and Shah 1990)



S1 -fSTMao






E04 -W = A*--4255(5


(1,2 -









composite grid to control bridge deck cracking. A CFRP grid would make it possible to

reinforce the concrete near the surface. Flexure testing by Makizumi, Sakamoto, and

Okada (1992) placed a carbon-fiber grid, prestressed strands, and in some cases,

reinforcing bars, in small beams. The grid was placed 3mm from the extreme face in

tension. Cracks were reduced by half in cases with reinforcing bars. Specimens that

contained only grid and prestressing met the minimum crack size requirements proposed

by the Japan Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE).















CHAPTER 4
EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

Introduction

Several methods of controlling cracking were considered for testing (Table 1). The

concrete toppings that were evaluated contained either synthetic fiber, steel fiber, a blend

of steel and synthetic fibers, a shrinkage reducing admixture, or a carbon-fiber grid.

They were selected based on their ease of application and their effect on the construction

and labor cost of the bridge deck. Many of these are presently used in the construction

industry. A standard FDOT Class II (bridge deck) mixture was also used as a basis for

comparison.












Table 1. Methods considered for controlling shrinkage cracking
Method of control Advantages Disadvantages Comments Test
Control n/a n/a n/a Yes
Transverse post-tensioning Reduce transverse Difficult and costly on n/a No
precast panels are post- reinforcement small, low-volume
tensioned together before requirements. projects
topping is placed. Curing must still be
carefully implemented
Shrinkage compensating No special equipment Delay in pouring Concrete must remain as wet as No
cement: Concrete will or techniques are causes loss in slump possible during curing in order
increase in volume after setting needed (ACI 223-98) to activate ettringite.
and during early age hardening Curing must be Concrete expands during wet
by activation of ettringite carefully monitored cure
(ACI 223-98) No effect on creep (ACI 223-98)
No modification of formwork is
needed (ACI 223-98)
Used to control dry shrinkage
Shrinkage reducing Easily mixed in at Volume of water added into mix Yes
admixtures: Reduces capillary jobsite or at cement must be reduced by volume of
tension that develops within plant admixture added into mix
the concrete pores as it cures Considerable reduction (Pease, Shah, Weiss 2005)
(Pease, Shah, Weiss 2005) in crack width as
compared with plain
concrete (Shah,
Karaguler, and
Sarigaphuti 1992)












Table 1. Continued
Method of control Advantages Disadvantages Comments Test
Fiber reinforced concrete: Discontinuous and Balling may become a Many types and lengths
Randomly distributed fibers distributed randomly problem if fiber lengths available
carry tensile stresses after Loss in slump, not in are too long All bonding is mechanical
cracking workability (ACI 544.1R) (ACI 544.1R)
(ACI 544.1R)
Easily incorporated
into mix
Synthetic fibers: Most fibers will not increase the
Commercially available fibers flexural or compressive strength
shown to distribute cracks and of the concrete (ACI 544.1R)
decrease crack size Fiber dimensions influence
(ACI 544.1R) shrinkage cracking
Mostly used in flat slab work to
control bleeding and plastic
shrinkage (ACI 544.1R)
Acrylic Not much research has Has been used to control plastic No
been conducted shrinkage (ACI 544.1R)
Aramid Expensive when Mostly used as asbestos cement No
compared to other replacement in high stress areas
fibers (ACI 544.1R)
Carbon Reduces creep Difficult to achieve a Research shows that carbon No
Reduces shrinkage uniform mix fibers have reduced shrinkage of
significantly (ACI 544.1R) unrestrained concrete by 9/10
(ACI 544.1R) (ACI 544.1R)
Nylon Widely used in industry Moisture regain must Shown to have decreased No
be taken into account at shrinkage by 25% (ACI 544.1R)
high fiber volume
content (ACI 544.1R)












Table 1. Continued
Method of control Advantages Disadvantages Comments Test
Polyester No consensus on long Not widely used in industry No
term durability of fibers
in portland cement
concrete (ACI 544.1R)
Polypropylene Significantly reduces Shown to reduce total plastic Yes
bleed water shrinkage crack area and
(ACI 544.1R) maximum crack width at 0.1 %
Widely used in industry fiber volume fraction
(Soroushian, Mirza, and
Alhozaimy 1995)
Steel fibers Many shapes and sizes Surface fibers will May not reduce total amount of Yes
available corrode (surface shrinkage but increase number of
Use of high aspect ratio staining?) cracks reducing crack size
fibers provide high If large cracks form, (ACI 544.1R)
resistance to pullout fibers across opening
(ACI 544.1R) will corrode
Widely used in industry (ACI 544.1R)
Natural fibers Very inexpensive Requires special mix Not widely used in industry No
proportioning to
counteract retardation
effects of glucose in
fibers (ACI 544.1R)












Table 1. Continued
Method of control Advantages Disadvantages Comments Test
Carbon FRP Grid: Grid Available in different May not be available in Not much information available Yes
system carries tensile stresses sizes large sheets on its use to control cracking
after cracking at depth of Can be placed at a Manufacturer FDOT allows placement of grid
installation specific depth recommended that at 12 in below surface
concrete be screeded at
level where mesh is
placed
Glass FRP Grid: Grid system Available in different Concrete may need to Not much information available No
carries tensile stresses after sizes be screeded at level on its use to control cracking
cracking at depth of Can be placed at a where mesh is placed FDOT allows placement of grid
installation specific depth at 12 in below surface









Each concrete mixture that was used for the precast slabs and the toppings

conformed to the parameters set forth in the FDOT Standard Specifications for Road and

Bridge Construction (2004a) (Table 2, Table 3, and Table 4). All of the concrete

toppings had the same proportion of ingredients within acceptable tolerances. They

varied only in the type of system that was incorporated into the mixture to control

cracking.

Table 2. Concrete type for bridge superstructures
Component Slightly Aggressive Moderately Extremely
Environment Aggressive Aggressive
Environment Environment
Precast Superstructure Type I or Type II Type I or Type III Type II with Fly
and Prestressed with Fly Ash or Slag, Ash or Slag
Elements Type II, Type IP,
Type IS, or Type
IP(MS)
C.I.P. Superstructure Type I Type I with Fly Ash Type II with Fly
Slabs and Barriers or Slag, Type II, Ash or Slag
Type IP, Type IS, or
Type IP(MS)

Table 3. FDOT structural concrete specifications
Class of Concrete Specified Minimum Target Slump Air content Range
Strength (28-day) (psi) (in) (%)
II (Bridge Deck) 4,500 3* 1 to 6
IV 5,500 3 1 to 6
*The engineer may allow higher target slump, not to exceed 7 in when a Type F or Type
G admixture is used.

Table 4. Master proportional limits
Class of Concrete Minimum Total Cementitious *Maximum Water Cementitious
Materials lbs/yd3 Materials Ratio lb/lb
II (Bridge Deck) 611 0.44
IV 658 0.41
*The calculation of the water to cementitious materials ratio (w/cm) is based on the
total cementitious material including silica fume, slag, fly ash, or Metakaolin.

Four full-scale bridge decks were constructed to test the performance of the

toppings. The Cow Creek Bridge was selected as a model for the design because it










displays the type of crack patterns that this project is investigating and it has similarities

in design with the other evaluated bridges and other existing flat slab bridges in Florida.

A redesign of the bridge deck was conducted to ensure that the full-scale model conforms

to the latest design codes. Each deck was approximately 12 ft wide and spanned 30 ft.

The toppings were 6 in deep and exposed to similar environmental conditions as existing

flat slab bridges in Florida.

A linear elastic finite element analysis was performed on a preliminary design to

model drying shrinkage at 50% and 80% humidity. The concrete topping was divided

into three sub-layers with an overall thickness of 6 in and the precast flat slab assumed to

yield no shrinkage. Partial symmetry finite element models were used due to the plane

symmetry of the geometry. The model was 8 ft. long and 4 ft. wide.

Three boundary conditions along edges of the slabs were considered. The first,

Model A (Figure 11), imposed vertical and translational constraints on the bottom plane

of the precast concrete deck while the second, Model B (Figure 12), only had vertical

constraints. Model C (Figure 13) restrained translational movement and allowed vertical

motion.

BD




i' .
'Nr..




Figure 11. Finite element analysis Model A

As shown in Table 5, the first two models generated similar maximum principal

stresses in the topping. However, the direction of the stresses was dependent on the









boundary constraint imposed on the bottom of the precast flat slab. More severe tensile

stresses were generated at the corners in the contact zone of the topping and the flat slab

in Model C (Table 6).











Figure 12. Finite element analysis Model B


, 1[. . .,[ .



"I I : :i ::'ii :ii ir
I if1 : ,11'1i


Figure 13. Finite element analysis Model C

Table 5. Maximum tensile stresses developed in topping
Model Relative Time (days) Maximum Maximum Stress
Humidity Tensile Stress Component
(psi)
A 80 10 351.0 Cxx
20 648.3
30 913.7
A 50 5 556.9 Cxx
10 1054.4
30 2741.2
B 80 10 337.9 Gyy
20 622.2
30 871.7
B 50 5 536.6 Gyy
10 1013.8
30 2616.5


UI u, u,
C -









Table 6. Maximum principal stress in model C
Model Relative Time (days) Maximum
Humidity Principal Tensile
Stress (psi)
C 50 5 536.6
10 967.4
30 2278.5
C 80 10 310.4
20 565.6
30 760.0

Design and Fabrication

The flat slab analysis and design was done using LRFD Prestressed Beam Program

vl.85 (Mathcad based computer program) developed by the FDOT Structures Design

Office. The program analyzes prestressed concrete beams in accordance with the

AASHTO LRFD Specification (2001) and the FDOT's Structures Manual (2004b). Input

and output from the program are found in Appendix A.

Twelve full-scale precast slabs were constructed by Dura-Stress Inc., a

Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute (PCI) certified plant, in Leesburg, Florida. The

slabs were similar in size and design to the Cow Creek slabs with a length of 30-ft.

Unlike the Cow Creek Bridge, the flat slabs used to construct the test specimens did not

have shear keys. The Texas DOT has had success with flat slab bridges without shear

keys (Cook and Leinwohl 1997) and eliminating them would help reduce labor and

construction costs. Each slab had twelve 12 in diameter lo-lax prestressing strands

tensioned to 31 kips each. The two center strands were debonded 3 ft. from each end of

the slab. The slabs were also reinforced with mild steel. Vertical shear reinforcement

was provided every 12 in. U-shaped reinforcing bars, spaced at 12 in, provided horizontal

shear reinforcement. Mild steel was also provided at each end of the slabs for

confinement. All of the steel had a minimum concrete cover of 2 in. Reinforcement










details are shown in Figure 14 and Figure 15. Complete reinforcement details are found

in Appendix F. Figure 16 and Figure 17 show the constructed reinforcement system.

#4 U-SHAPED
REINFORCEMENT
#5 LONGINTUDINAL
REINFORCEMENT





1 2 3 4 56 78 9 10 11 12
r c I
S LO-LAX STRANDS
STRANDS DEBONDED 3' %-
#4 REINFORCEMENT

4'-0"

Figure 14. Typical cross-section through precast slab specimen

#4 CONFINEMENT REINFORCEMENT
5 SPACES @ 3" 15"
#4 REINFORCEMENT @ 12" O.C.


Swmnmr-i


-#4 U-SHAPED
REINFORCEMENT
(d 12" O.C.


#5 LONGITUDINAL REINFORCEMENT
EQUALLY SPACED
PRESTRESSING STRANDS NOT SHOWN FOR CLARITY.

Figure 15. Reinforcement detail at end of slab

The concrete used for the slabs was a Class IV FDOT concrete mixture. The

mixture design provided by the manufacturer is shown in Table 7. Based on the

specifications found in Table 2, the concrete is intended for use in a mildly aggressive

environment as defined by the FDOT's Standard Specification for Road and Bridge









Construction (2004a). It was batched onsite and delivered to the casting bed in trucks

equipped with pumps to place the concrete.


Figure 16. Reinforcement at end of flat slab
-9I. kcZ7- 4


Figure 17. Flat slab reinforcement layout









Table 7. Concrete mixture components for precast slabs
Material Type Amount per CY
Cement AASHTO M-85 800 lbs
Type II
Mineral Admixture NA NA
Water -- 308 lbs
Aggregate Sand 2 1150 lbs
Aggregate #67 Granite 2 1750 lbs
Admixture Air Entraining 0 oz
Admixture Water Reducer 24 oz
Admixture Superplasticizer 72 oz

The slabs were constructed in three groups of four as indicated in Table 8. The

layout on the casting bed is shown in Figure 18. Steel plates and plywood were used as

formwork for the slabs. A truck pumped the concrete onto the bed starting at slab No. 4

and moved towards slab No. 1 as the concrete was placed (Figure 19). Each truck

transported approximately 5 cubic yards (CY) of concrete. One truck immediately

continued placing concrete as the previous one finished. A total of three deliveries were

needed to complete the casting of one group of slabs. The concrete was not screeded as it

was placed. Personnel from the prestressing yard raked the concrete into place as it was

pumped onto the casting bed. The surfaces were raked to ensure a rough finish to aid in

horizontal shear transfer from the topping to the slab and a hoisting anchor was

embedded into each corner of the precast slabs (Figure 20). Curing agents were not

applied to the surface of the concrete.

Cylinders were taken to ensure adequate strength at release, document 28-day

strength, and for possible future use. The cylinders collected for future use have yet to be

tested. Additionally, plant quality control personnel collected five cylinders from each

group to check the release and 28-day strength. The designed minimum release strength

and 28-day strength were 4500 psi and 5500 psi respectively.










Table 8. Flat slab identification number and location
Designation Casting Location 1 Day Release 28-Day
Date & on Casting Compressive Date & Compressive
Time Bed Strength Time Strength
FS1-1 1
FS-1 5/5/2004
FS1-2 1:30PM 2 3873 psi 5/7/2004 8963 psi
FS1-3 3 z 7:00AM
FS1-4 4
FS2-1 1
FS2-2 5/11/2004 2 3403 psi 5/13/2004 8403 psi
FS2-3 10:30AM 3 z 7:00AM
FS2-4 4
FS3-1 1
F3-1 5/14/2004
FS3-2 11:00AM 2 3685 psi 5/17/2004 7975 psi
FS3-3 3 z 7:00AM
FS3-4 4


123'
APPROX. 25'


APPROX. 12'


Figure 18. Typical slab layout on casting bed


Figure 19. Casting of flat slabs






























Figure 20. Finished flat slab with hoisting anchors installed

Two cylinders were tested 24 hours after casting to determine the strength of the slabs.

None of the slabs attained the minimum release strength within 24 hours. They remained

on the casting bed for an additional day to allow the concrete to gain strength. It was

assumed that the minimum release strength would be exceeded 48 hours after casting;

therefore, additional cylinders were not tested to verify it. Twenty-eight day strength,

transfer dates and times are shown in Table 8.

The precast slabs were stored at the prestressing yard for approximately six weeks

while the test site was prepared. The slabs were stored in three stacks. Each stack

contained four flat slabs. The slabs and the cylinders were exposed to the environment

during this period.

Site Layout

Four single span flat slab bridge superstructures were constructed at the FDOT

Maintenance Yard located at 2612 Springhill Rd. in Tallahassee, FL. Reinforced










concrete supports for the flat slabs were constructed by the FDOT Structures Lab

personnel to elevate the slabs to a convenient working height above the ground. The

precast slabs were supported by neoprene bearing pads placed using a three-point system

shown in Figure 21. This pattern was used on the Cow Creek Bridge and is currently

used successfully by the Texas DOT (Cook & Leinwohl 1997). A view of the site before

the placement of the precast slabs is shown in Figure 22. Each specimen consisted of

three flat slab panels to ensure the possibility that at least one of the two joints would

produce reflective cracks

30'-0"
29'-0"















NEOPRENE BEARING PAD
REINFORCED CONCRETE
FLAT SLAB SUPPORT
Figure 21. Typical bearing pad placement

Slab Placement

The flat slabs were delivered and placed on June 29, 2004. The panels were

transported to the site on flat bed trailers. Each trailer carried two flat slabs. The first

delivery was at 9:00 AM and approximately every half hour thereafter.

























Figure 22. Concrete supports with neoprene bearing pads before placement of precast
slabs

A crane was onsite to unload and place the flat slabs on the supports. The panels were

unloaded and installed in the order that they arrived. Concrete cylinders that were cast

along with the slabs were also brought to the site and placed near the precast slabs.

Figure 23 shows an overview of the specimens and flat slab orientation that made them

up. A single specimen was composed of three adjacent flat slabs with a 1 in gap between

them. A 1-12 in diameter backer rod was installed between the panels near the surface of

the precast slab to retain the fresh concrete (Figure 24).

Formwork was erected on the edges of each deck for the placement of the topping.

It was composed of 34 in plywood that had one side sealed to prevent moisture absorption

from the concrete mixture (Figure 25). Once the formwork was erected the topping

reinforcement was installed. The formwork was removed seven days after casting the

toppings.

Topping Reinforcement

The size and spacing of the reinforcement was designed using the AASHTO LRFD

Specification (2001) and the FDOT Structures Manual (2004b). No. 5 reinforcing bars











were installed in the longitudinal and transverse directions spaced at 12 in on-center with


2 in of concrete cover. This spacing is the minimum reinforcement required for


shrinkage and temperature control. The maximum allowable spacing was used to


maximize the shrinkage tensile stresses in the concrete.


l l U U l l U


2I


U
runi


Figure 23. Slab site layout

6" TOPPING
PRECAST SLAB
NEOPRENE BEARING PAD
1-12 0 BACKER ROD








DISPLACEMENT GAGE
REINFORCED CONCRETE
SUPPORT

Figure 24. Typical superstructure end elevation view


m rq m -
(-11 li v ~


N-q r-l et
rCl r Il m



















-U._
u~r..


Figure 25. Reinforcement and formwork on precast slabs before topping placement

The longitudinal reinforcement was placed first and tied to the flat slab's horizontal

shear reinforcement with wire ties. The transverse reinforcement was then placed over it

and tied (Figure 26).


Figure 26. Topping reinforcement layout

Topping Placement

The toppings were cast daily during the week of July 26, 2004. Figure 27 shows

the layout of the toppings with their respective designations shown in Table 9. Toppings










that had a similar mixture were paired up to minimize shrinkage-cross-over effects over a

span.


4 3
L w '


SRA


4 3







CTL


1 2


BND


1 2


SYN


GRD


Figure 27. Displacement gage locations and superstructure and topping designation


Table 9. Specimen designation and topping treatment
Symbol Topping Treatment
SYN Synthetic fibers
BND Blended fibers
GRD Carbon fiber grid
STL Steel fibers
SRA Shrinkage reducing admixture
CTL None









The STL and BND toppings were combined because each had steel fibers incorporated

into their concrete mixtures. To ensure that the CTL topping was not affected by cross-

over effects and that it remained valid as a basis for comparison it was cast on a single

span. The SRA topping was also cast on a single span because of the lower overall

shrinkage expected of this type of concrete. The remaining two toppings, GRD and

SYN, were cast on a single span. Any toppings that shared a span were cast within 2

days of each other.

The toppings were exposed to direct sunlight from sunrise to sunset except for the

CTL topping. A large tree located on the northeast corer of S-D (Figure 27) cast a large

shadow on the topping until early afternoon. The CTL topping was purposefully located

on S-D to see if it would develop cracks under the best curing conditions available at the

site. Ideally, if the CTL topping cracked, the other toppings would have either cracked or

restrained the formation of cracks.

Before the concrete placement, the surface was cleaned of debris with a blower and

then wetted to prevent excessive water absorption from the fresh concrete topping. Front

or rear discharge ready-mix trucks delivered the concrete to the site. Addition of water to

the concrete mixes was performed by the concrete plant's personnel. Following the

addition of the topping treatment the truck deposited the concrete directly onto the slabs.

The concrete was leveled with a vibratory screed and finished with a 3 ft bull float. A

curing compound was sprayed on the surface after the bleed water, if any, had

evaporated. The compound was manufactured by W.R. Meadows and met the standards

of the FDOT Standard Specification for Road and Bridge Construction (2004a).









The fresh concrete was tested for air content and slump in accordance with ASTM

C173 and ASTM C143, respectively. The initial slump was measured upon delivery and

after the addition of water and/or crack control system. The air content was measured

after all modifications were made to the delivered mix.

Twenty-seven cylinders were cast for each topping in accordance with ASTM C31.

Lids were place on the cylinders after collection and removed the following day. The

cylinders remained in their molds and allowed to cure on their respective topping until

they were tested. Tests were conducted for compressive and tensile strength as well as

for modulus of elasticity at the ages shown in Table 10.

Table 10. Cylinder test schedule
Cylinder Age Pressure Compressive Test Elastic Modulus
(days) Tension Test ASTM C39 ASTM C469
3 yes NA NA
7 yes yes NA
28 yes yes yes
56 yes yes yes

Tensile strength was measured using the pressure tension test (Figure 28). The

equipment consisted of a cylindrical chamber for pressurizing the specimen, nitrogen

filled tank, collars for the ends of the specimen, and a computer that records data supplied

by a pressure transducer. This procedure required the operator to open a valve by hand to

apply pressure to a 4 in by 8 in concrete cylinder for each test. The load rate was

determined by watching a monitor that plotted a load versus time line, which should be in

the range of 35 psi/sec. Li (2004) details the test equipment and procedure.

Workability of the fresh mixture was ranked by the author from 1 to 4 according to

the scale outlined in Table 11. The rankings were subjective, based on visual and

physical observations as well as feedback from personnel casting the topping.


























Figure 28. Pressure tension testing equipment (Li 2004)

Table 11. Workability ranking scale
Rank Workability
1 Very good
2 Good
3 Poor
4 Very poor

Very good workability is defined as a mixture that easily flowed down the chute and

consolidated around reinforcement with little to no vibration. A mixture with good

workability flowed down the chute and consolidated around the reinforcement with some

vibration. If the mixture flowed down the chute with aid and consolidated around

reinforcement with vibration it was classified as having poor workability. A mixture with

very poor workability required physical effort to aid it down the chute and required

excessive vibration to consolidate it.

Synthetic fiber (SYN)

Polypropylene\polyethylene monofilament fibers (Figure 29) were used in the SYN

topping at a dosage rate of 6 lbs/CY. The material properties provided by the fiber's









manufacturer are given in Table 12 and the concrete mixture's constituents are shown in

Table 13.


41 5 6 7 9 I



Figure 29. Synthetic fibers used in SYN topping


Table 12. Material properties for fibers used in SYN topping.


Absorption None
Modulus of Elasticity 1,378 ksi
Tensile Strength 90 ksi
Melting Point 320F
Ignition Point 1,0940F
Alkali, Acid and Salt Resistance High

Twenty-four pounds of fibers were fed into the mixing drum over a period of 4

min. They were dispersed manually to prevent balling and allowed to mix for 70

revolutions of the drum as per manufacturer's recommendations. Even after mixing,

however, some of the fibers were entangled and not fully coated with cement paste.

Seven gallons of water was added to the mixture after a slump test measured 1A in. This


0.92


Specific Gravity









volume of water was based on the delivery ticket, which subsequently was discovered to

have been incorrect.

Table 13. Mixture proportions for SYN topping
Material Design *Required Batched Difference Difference Moisture
Qty. (%) (%)
#57 Stone 1640 6685 6620 -65 -0.97 1.90
(lbs)
Sand 1324 5460 5430 -30 -0.55 3.10
(lbs)
Cement 495 1980 1965 -15 -0.76 NA
(lbs)
Fly Ash 120 480 345 -135 -28.13 NA
(lbs)
Air (oz) 1.8 7.2 7 -0.20 -2.78 NA
WR (oz) 33.8 135.2 135 -0.20 -0.15 NA
Water 25 65.58 65 -0.58 -0.89 NA
(gal)
*Amount required for 4 CY.
Quantities provided by ready-mix plant.

Consequently, the actual w/c ratio was 0.38, which was significantly lower than the target

value. At the time of casting, the mixture had a slump of 314 in and an air content of

2.5%.

The workability of the SYN mixture was less than ideal. The fresh concrete did not

flow down the chute and required excessive raking and vibrating during placement. Low

w/c ratio, low air content, and incorrect amount of fly ash and cement contributed to poor

workability. Following screeding, only a light sheen formed on the surface with no bleed

water or bleed channels visible.

Blended fiber (BND)

The BND topping was a blended fiber concrete mixture composed of synthetic

(Figure 30) and steel fibers (Figure 31). The synthetic fibers were 3 in long

multifilament nylon fibers while the steel fibers were 2 in long with a crimped profile.









Table 14 andTable 15 outline the material properties of the synthetic and steel fibers

provided by the manufacturer. Synthetic and steel fibers were used at a dosage rate of 1

lb/CY and 25 lbs/CY respectively. Table 16 shows the batched quantities of the

ingredients in the BND mixture.

Synthetic fibers were incorporated into the mixture first so that the steel fibers

would help disperse them in the mixture. A slump test, run after the drum revolved 70

times, measured 334 in. Eight gallons of water were added to the mixture to increase the

workability and the w/c ratio. The concrete mixture had a final w/c ratio of 0.44, air

content of 3.5%, and slump of 434 in.

The mixture flowed down the chute without any agitation and had good

workability. It was easily screeded and finished. Bleed water or bleed channels were not

visible on the surface of the topping.

Table 14. Properties for synthetic micro fibers
Specific Gravity 1.16
Absorption 4.5%
Modulus of Elasticity 750 ksi
Tensile Strength 130 ksi
Melting Point 4350F
Ignition Point 1,0940F
Alkali and Acid Resistance High
Filament Diameter 23 microns
Fiber Length 0.75 in

Table 15. Properties for steel fibers used in BND and STL toppings
Specific Gravity 7.86
Absorption None
Modulus of Elasticity 29,000 ksi
Tensile Strength Minimum 100 ksi
Melting Point 2,760F
Fiber Length 2 in
Equivalent Diameter 0.035 in
Aspect Ratio 57

































Figure 30. Synthetic fibers used in BND topping


5 6 7 8 9 103


Figure 31. Steel fibers used in BND and STL toppings









Table 16. Mixture proportions for BND topping
Material Design *Required Batched Difference Difference Moisture
Qty. (%) (%)
#57 Stone 1640 6672 6700 28 0.42 1.70
(lbs)
Sand 1324 5455 5420 -35 -0.64 3.00
(lbs)
Cement 495 1980 1985 5 0.25 NA
(lbs)
Fly Ash 120 480 445 -35 -7.29 NA
(lbs)
Air (oz) 1.8 7.2 7 -0.20 -2.78 NA
WR (oz) 33.8 135.20 135 -0.20 -0.15 NA
Water 31 88.60 89 0.40 0.45 NA
(gal)
*Amount required for 4 CY.
Quantities provided by ready-mix plant.

Carbon-fiber grid (GRD)

A 1.6 in by 1.8 in carbon-fiber grid (Figure 32) was embedded in the GRD topping

(Figure 33) to provide crack control near the surface of the topping. Results from tensile

tests performed on grid specimens are shown in Table 17. The material properties

supplied by the manufacturer are listed in Table 18. The grid was placed one inch below

the surface of the topping to prevent spelling or delamination. This positioned it below

the minimum 12 in wearing surface required by the FDOT Structures Manual (2004b).

The concrete was screeded at the embedment depth to provide a level surface for the

placement of the grid. A float was used to fully coat the grid with concrete paste. The

topping placement was then completed with a 1 in layer of concrete placed over the grid.

Bleed water was clearly visible on the surface of the topping as it cured.

An initial slump of 43% in was measured before any water was added to the mixture.

Five gallons of water were added to increase the w/c ratio to 0.40, which brought the

slump to 63 in.

























Figure 32. Carbon-fiber grid used in GRD topping

CARBON-FIBER GRID
TOPPING
I| r ,--
-------------


i-PRECAST SLAB


Figure 33. GRD topping grid location cross-section

Table 17. Carbon-fiber strand strength.
Specimen Fiber Direction Strength Tensile Modulus
(ksi) (ksi)
*1 Vertical 68.5 7665
2 Vertical 126.2 8549
3 Hoop 98 9671
4 Hoop 110.8 11516
*Specimen had a thick epoxy layer that increased the cross-
sectional area used to determine strength therefore
underestimating strength.


It could not be increased any further because the mixture would have become too fluid

and possibly segregated. Table 19 shows the batched constituents that make up the GRD









concrete mixture. At the time of casting, the concrete had a slump of 63% in and 3% air

content. The fresh concrete had good workability and flowed easily into place.

Table 18. Physical properties for carbon-fiber grid
Fiber Type Carbon
Grid Spacing (in) 1.6 x 1.8
% of Grid Openness 69
Nominal Tensile (lbs/strand: warp x fill) 1000 x 1000
Nominal Tensile (lbs/foot) 6,650 x 7,500
Crossover Shear Strength (lbs) 40
Resin Type Epoxy
Fabric Weight (oz/SY) 11

Table 19. Mixture proportions for GRD topping
Material Design *Required Batched Difference Difference Moisture
Qty. (%) (%)
#57 Stone 1640 6678 6760 82 1.23 1.80
(lbs)
Sand 1324 5455 5410 -45 -0.82 3.00
(lbs)
Cement 495 1980 2005 25 1.26 NA
(lbs)
Fly Ash 120 480 465 -15 -3.13 NA
(lbs)
Air (oz) 1.8 7.2 7.0 -0.20 -2.78 NA
WR (oz) 34 136 136 0.00 0.00 NA
Water 31 80.81 81 0.19 0.24 NA
(Gal)
*Amount required for 4 CY.
Quantities provided by ready-mix plant.

Steel fiber (STL)

The STL and BND toppings contained the same type of steel fibers. Their

properties are listed in Table 15 and batched quantities are shown in Table 20. A dosage

rate of 60 lbs/CY was used in order to provide a high fiber count per CY and better

performance comparison with the SYN and BND toppings. Unlike the previous

toppings, water was added to the mixture before the fibers. Sixteen gallons of water were

added to the mixture to overcome the decrease in workability and slump caused by the









fibers. The fibers were separated as they were deposited into the mixing drum to prevent

balling within the mixture. Unlike any of the other toppings, heat generated by the

hydration of the cement was felt as it was mixed. It was believed that an incorrect

amount of water was added after seeing the consistency of the mixture. The concrete was

extremely stiff and did not flow down the chute or consolidate around the reinforcement

and formwork. Eight gallons of water was added but the concrete was still not workable.

No more water was added because the concrete was already at a w/c ratio of 0.44.

The workability of the STL mixture was poorer than the BND mixture. Like the

BND topping, the concrete did not flow down the chute and needed to be raked and

vibrated into place. It was extremely difficult to screed and level off the concrete. The

poor workability was attributed to an incorrect water dosage and low air content. A high

range water reducer could be added to help reduce friction within the mixture thereby

improving workability. No bleed water was visible on the surface of the topping.

Table 20. Mixture proportions for STL topping
Material Design Required Batched Difference Difference Moisture
Qty. (%) (%)
#57 Stone 1640 6678 6670 -8 -0.12 1.80
(lbs)
Sand 1324 5455 5430 -25 -0.46 3.00
(lbs)
Cement 495 1980 2110 130 6.57 NA
(lbs)
Fly Ash 120 480 465 -15 -3.13 NA
(lbs)
Air (oz) 1.8 7.2 7.0 -0.20 -2.78 NA
WR (oz) 34 136 136 0.00 0.00 NA
Water 31 80.81 80 -0.81 -1.00 NA
(gal)
*Amount required for 4 CY.
Quantities provided by ready-mix plant.









Shrinkage reducing admixture (SRA)

A shrinkage reducing admixture (SRA) was added to a concrete mixture at a

recommended dosage rate of 1-7/8 gal/CY. Table 21 shows the batched materials for the

SRA topping. Slump tests conducted before and after dosing indicated that the SRA did

not affect the slump. Twenty gallons of water were added to increase the w/c ratio to a

level comparable to the other toppings. The mixture easily flowed down the chute and

around the reinforcement. It had very good workability and was screeded and finished

without any difficulty.

Table 21. Mixture proportions for SRA topping
Material Design *Required Batched Difference Difference Moisture
Qty. (%) (%)
#57 Stone 1640 13356 13330 -26 -0.19 1.80
(lbs)
Sand 1324 10910 10810 -100 -0.92 3.00
(lbs)
Cement 495 3960 4030 70 1.77 NA
(lbs)
Fly Ash 120 960 930 -30 -3.13 NA
(lbs)
Air (oz) 1.8 14.4 14 -0.40 -2.78 NA
WR (oz) 33.8 270.4 270 -0.40 -0.15 NA
Water 31 145.62 145 -0.62 -0.43 NA
(gal)
*Amount required for 8 CY.
Quantities provided by ready-mix plant.

Control topping (CTL)

The same concrete mixture that was used for the GRD topping was ordered for the

CTL topping (Table 22). Like the SRA topping, 20 gallons of water were added to

increase the w/c ratio. The final mixture had very good workability and easily flowed

around the reinforcement. Bleed channels were clearly visible on the topping as the









bleed water surfaced and ran off the sides of the topping. This topping produced the most

bleed water.

Table 22. Mixture proportions for CTL topping
Material Design *Required Batched Difference Difference Moisture
Qty. (%) (%)
#57 Stone 1640 13774 13670 -104 -0.76 1.80
(lbs)
Sand 1324 11251 11150 -101 -0.90 3.00
(lbs)
Cement 495 4083.8 4045 -38.8 -0.95 NA
(lbs)
Fly Ash 120 990 940 -50 -5.05 NA
(lbs)
Air (oz) 1.8 14.85 15 0.15 1.01 NA
WR (oz) 33.8 278.85 279 0.15 0.05 NA
Water 31 167.30 167 -0.30 -0.18 NA
(gal)
*Amount required for 814 CY.
Quantities provided by ready-mix plant.

Summary

While these topping treatments can easily be incorporated into a concrete mixture,

the variability in workability between the topping treatments needs to be addressed. As

Table 23 shows, there was a correlation between the workability rating and the slump.

The mixtures that received a poor or very poor rating had slumps less than 3/4 in and low

air contents when compared to the 6% allowed by the FDOT Standard Specifications for

Road and Bridge Construction (2004a) (Table 3). The effect of the air content is more

pronounced in the poorly rated mixtures because of the friction caused by the presence of

fibers. Higher air contents would provide more air bubbles that act like ball bearings for

the fibers to slide against which would reduce friction within the fresh concrete mixture.

The workability of the SYN topping was also affected by the 28% shortage of fly ash in

the mixture (Table 13). This shortage prevented the fibers from being fully coated with









cement paste after initial mixing thus degrading its workability. Its workability was

partially improved by adding water to the mixture to ensure that the fibers were coated

but it could have been further improved by adding enough water to increase the w/c ratio

to 0.44. Some of the workability issues in the STL topping may be attributed to an

incorrect water dosage. This was based on observing the mixture during slump test No.

3. The workability of the concrete would have improved after adding 24 gal of water.

The workability of the poorly rated mixtures could have been improved by increasing the

amount of air-entraining admixture, water-reducing admixture or adding a high-range-

water-reducing admixture.

Table 23. Workability rating/slump relationship
Topping Workability Rating Slump (in)
SYN 3 31/4
BND 2 434
GRD 1 634
STL 4 2
SRA 1 5
CTL 1 5

A summary of the test results and tasks completed with each topping is outlined in

Table 24. The air content of all the toppings was low given that the FDOT allows up to

6%. Table 25 documents a timeline for tasks completed on each topping. The batched

and cast w/c ratios of the concrete mixtures are shown in Table 26.

Table 24. Concrete mixture summary
Topping Slump Admixture Fiber Slump Additional Slump Air
Test (Gal) Amount Test Water Test Content
#1 (in) (lbs/CY) #2 (in) (gal) #3 (in) (%)
SYN 41/2 NA 6 1/4 7 31/4 2.5
BND 234 NA 1 micro 3 3 8 434 3.5
25 steel
GRD 434 NA NA NA 5 634 3
STL 2 NA 60 NA 24 2 2
SRA 134 15 NA 2 20 5 1.5
CTL 234 NA NA NA 20 5 1










Table 25. Timeline from watching to casting
Topping Delivery Batch Start Plant Departure Arrival Time Casting Start
SYN July 26th 8:47AM 8:57AM 9:10AM 9:45AM
BND July 27th 8:42AM 8:50AM 9:07AM 9:35AM
GRD July 28th 8:45AM 8:57AM 9:07AM 9:22AM
STL July 28h 9:56AM 10:15AM 10:26AM 10:58AM
SRA July 29th 8:32AM 8:49AM 9:05AM 9:35AM
CTL July 30th 8:30AM 8:50AM 9:02AM 9:20AM

Table 26. Concrete mixture w/c ratios
Topping Batched Job site w/c
w/c Ratio Ratio
SYN 0.36 0.38
BND 0.42 0.44
GRD 0.39 0.40
STL 0.37 0.44
SRA 0.35 0.39
CTL 0.39 0.43

As Figure 34 shows, workability issues with the STL and SYN mixtures affected

the finishing time of the toppings. Toppings with fiber treatments took the longest to

complete. Screeding of the toppings commenced once casting was approximately half

completed except on the BND topping which started immediately after it was cast. More

time was spent screeding the GRD topping because it was performed twice, once to level

the surface for placement of the grid, and a second time to level off the concrete. The

time it took to install the grid includes the screeding time yet it was completed faster than

the others because of good workability of the mixture. Timeline data for the SRA and

CTL toppings were not listed for comparison because they were twice the size of the

documented toppings.

Though the most expensive of the topping treatments tested, the SRA required the

least amount of effort to incorporate into the mixture. The SRA was packaged in 5 gal

pails that were easily poured into the mixing drum.
















E
0:30 -S

-4-SYN
0:15 .--1-BND
GRD
STL
0:00 01. -----
Casting Start Screeding Casting Screeding
Start Finish Finish
Task
Figure 34. Normalized timeline for construction of the half-span toppings

This treatment should have minimal impact on the labor cost as it only took an additional

10 min. to incorporate and mix into the concrete. Some ready-mix plants will deliver a

concrete mixture with SRA. No shrinkage-reducing admixtures are currently on the

FDOT's qualified products list and will need to be approved before they can be used in

the field.

The fiber treatments were the least expensive measure tested to control cracking.

They are available from numerous manufacturers in a variety of materials and lengths,

and due to their popularity, fiber reinforced mixtures can be ordered from ready-mix

plants. If fibers are added at the job site, they should be scattered by hand as they are

placed in the mixing drum to prevent balling. Mixtures with higher fiber volumes such as

those used for the SYN and STL toppings should incorporate a high-range-water-reducer

to improve the workability. This will reduce the risk of an excessive amount of water

added to the mixture at the job site.

Carbon-fiber grids are not as commonly available as the other methods that were

tested and, if not planned for ahead of time, projects may experience delays because they

must be obtained from a specialty supplier. Constructing a GRD topping in the field









requires more time to implement than the other treatment methods due to the double

screeding of the topping. Quality control plays a larger role with this system because the

grid must be installed at the specified depth to be effective. If it is placed too deep in the

topping it will not provide its maximum reinforcement potential. An advantage of this

system is that no modifications need to be made to current FDOT approved mixtures and

it allows the designer to specify where the crack control system should be installed.

Instrumentation

The bridge decks were instrumented to monitor temperature gradients through the

depth of the toppings and displacements at the corners. The temperature was monitored

at three locations in the toppings during the placement of the concrete. Displacement

gages were installed at the corners of the bridge deck to measure movement due to

curling or thermal changes.

Type K thermocouples were installed at three locations in each topping (Figure 35).

Each monitoring location consisted of three thermocouples distributed in the vertical

plane through the depth of the topping (Figure 36). Each set of thermocouples was tied

to a 5 in long No. 3 reinforcing bar to keep them in place while the concrete was placed.

The No. 3 bar was tied to the topping reinforcement or the flat slab's horizontal shear

reinforcement. The wires ran along the top of the flat slab to the nearest joint. They were

fed past the backer rod and ran towards the side of the specimen. All the wires for a

given topping were tied together and labeled with the location that was being monitored.

Male type K plugs were installed at the ends of the wires.

Nine locations were monitored for each topping (Figure 37). Two four channel

data loggers (eight total channels) were used to record the temperature data. One of the

channels was used to monitor the temperature at two locations.



















7'-6" OR 15'-0"-


Figure 35. Partial plan view of specimens with typical thermocouple layout


I PRECASTT SLABI
WIRE PLACED BETWEEN
FLAT SLABS
TO DATALOGGER
Figure 36. Partial section view of specimen with typical thermocouple profile layout

The plugs were alternated on this channel approximately every half hour. The time and

wire label was documented every time they were alternated. The data loggers were not

left on-site overnight due to security concerns therefore temperature data was collected

for approximately 8 to 10 hours on the days of the topping placement. Since the CTL and

GRD toppings are the same FDOT approved mixture, temperature data was only

collected for the CTL topping.







50






N


3 2 S-C S-D 1 2 3
SRA CTL





TYPE K THERMOCOUPLES




---- """ ---- -- ---- ^--
321 123
BND SYN

S-B S-A

---r r ------- --- ^-
321 123
STL GRD



Figure 37. Monitored locations for each topping

Displacement gages were installed at the corners of the bridge decks to monitor

vertical or in-plane movement (Figure 27). They were manufactured by Preservation

Resource Group, Inc. and had a measurement range of 0.79 in in the vertical direction

and 1.57 in in-plane. As shown in Figure 38, steel brackets were used to mount the gages

to the superstructure support. The opposite end of the gage was attached to the flat slab

with screws (Figure 39).
































Figure 38. Displacement gage attachment bracket


6" TOPPING
PRECAST SLAB
NEOPRENE BEARING PAD







DISPLACEMENT GAGE
REINFORCED CONCRETE
SUPPORT

Figure 39. Profile view of displacement gage placement at span end

Restrained Shrinkage Rings

A restrained shrinkage ring test was performed on all of the toppings. The test was

used to compare the time to cracking and the number and size of cracks between the

concrete mixtures used for the toppings. The test was modeled after a ring test used to

measure the cracking potential of concrete and mortar (See, Attiogbe, and Miltenberger










2003). The dimensions of the apparatus were similar but, unlike the test it was modeled

after, strain gages were not used and the tests were conducted outdoors, exposed to

changing temperature and humidity levels (Figure 40 & Figure 41). A concrete ring was

cast for each of the toppings and the top of the ring was sealed with a curing compound to

induce drying from the outer surfaces only. The formwork was removed from the ring

after 24 h. They were measured weekly for two months and biweekly thereafter with a

shop microscope.

The ring with the GRD mixture was the only one that did not incorporate its

respective crack control treatment. Hence, the results do not take into account the

performance of the carbon-fiber grid.


-- 18" -1
S2" BC PLYWOOD BASE
11" SMOOTH NON-
ABSORBANT PLASTIC
0 12"0 SCH. 80 STEEL PIPE
S---- 16"O0 SONOTUBE
% 16"0 BOLTS & SLOTTED
FENDER WASHERS
16 1/4"
16"
12 3/4"
~T -- 113/4"


BOLTS NOT SHOWN FOR CLARITY

Figure 40. Restrained shrinkage ring

























Figure 41. Typical restrained ring specimen


r













CHAPTER 5
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Compressive Strength and Modulus of Elasticity

Cylinder tests were conducted at 3, 28, and 56 days for compressive strength and at

28 and 56 days for modulus of elasticity in accordance with ASTM C39 and ASTM

C469, respectively. Results are based on an average of three tests.

Table 27 shows the results of the compressive strength for each of the toppings.

The CTL topping had a 28-day compressive strength of 6156 psi, well above the 4500 psi

design strength. The STL topping had the highest compressive strength of all the

toppings due to the presence of steel fibers and an over-dosage of cement (Table 20).

However, steel fibers in the BND mixture did not correlate with an increase in strength.

The lower overall strength of the SYN topping may be attributed to an under-dosage of

fly ash and cement in the mixture (Table 13). Low w/c ratios did not indicate a higher

strength concrete.

Table 27. Compressive strength of concrete cylinders
Topping 3-Day 28-Day 56-Day w/c ratio
(pps) (psi) (psi)
SYN 3614 5756 6376 0.38
BND 2769 6004 6572 0.44
GRD 3128 6501 7068 0.40
STL 4021 7123 8141 0.44
SRA 3129 6290 6488 0.39
CTL 2923 6156 7061 0.43

The modulus of elasticity results are shown in Table 28. Different testing

equipment was used to conduct 28 and 56-day modulus and may account for the slight









decrease in modulus within some of the toppings. Results indicate that the treatments

had a minimal effect on the modulus of elasticity.

Table 28. Modulus of elasticity of concrete cylinders
Topping 28-Day Modulus 56-Day Modulus
(ksi) (ksi)
SYN 4219.6 4263.0
BND 4331.3 4208.6
GRD 4328.4 4371.3
STL 4696.5 4403.0
SRA 4636.6 4264.4
CTL 4442.9 4204.9

Pressure Tension Test

The concrete tensile strength was measured using the pressure tension test. Results

were based on an average of three tests and are shown in Figure 42 and Table 29.

Unexpectedly, the tensile strengths of the specimens were found to decrease over time.

The decrease was attributed to the variability inherent in the system because it was

difficult to maintain the same load rate for each specimen, and throughout a test. The load

rates were analyzed and their coefficients of variation (COV) are presented in Figure 43.

As more tests were conducted, the COV of the load rates decreased. The COV within

each test, made up of three specimens, was calculated and found not to be largely

affected by the variability in the load rate (Figure 44). Based on the results of the 56 day

test, the treatments had a minimal effect on the tensile strength of the concrete.

Table 29. Tensile strength of concrete cylinders using pressure tension test
Topping 3-Day 7-Day 28-Day 56-Day
(psi) (psi) (psi) (psi)
SYN 656 659 839 667
BND 744 738 526 604
GRD 705 702 570 649
STL 752 613 607 691
SRA 806 794 563 655
CTL 657 728 638 658













900

850

800

S750

1 700

S 650

600

550

500


37 Days 28 56

Figure 42. Tensile strength using pressure tension test


40
\ --SYN
35 -" BND
--GRD
30 -- -STL
S--SRA
25-
-CTL
>20
0
15

10

5

0


Figure 43. Coefficient of variation for load rate using pressure tension test


20
18
16
14
12





4
2
0


Figure 44. Coefficient of variation for tensile strength using pressure tension test


--SYN
-- BND
---GRD
--STL
SSRA
-'-CTL


--SYN BND -- GRD e- STL SRA --CTL
^ ,,,11






f^ -










Restrained Ring Test

Cracks were first observed on the SYN, BND, GRD, and STL rings approximately

60 days after casting. Though microcracks may have been present, cracks became visible

after the humidity levels remained below 70% for an eight day period (Figure 45). The

BND and GRD rings had two cracks, one across from the other, while the SYN and STL

rings had one. No cracks were observed on the concrete toppings. Approximately 40

days later, cracks were observed on the SRA and CTL rings, after the humidity level

went below 70%. Again, no cracks were observed on the toppings. The variability in

the humidity and temperature at the site contributed to the long time to cracking of the

rings when compared to research that shows cracking at much earlier ages when the rings

are kept in a controlled environment (Grzybowski and Shah 1990; Shah, Karaguler,

Sarigaphuti 1992).

100 100
95 --Humidity 95
First crack formation on rings Temperature
90 90
-> 85- A A A 85 L
I' a)
I 80 -80
S75 75
S70 70
65 -65
60 60
1-Sep 8-Sep 15-Sep 22-Sep 29-Sep
Date


Figure 45. Humidity and temperature for Sept. 2004

Average crack widths are presented in Table 30 and Table 31. Crack widths on the

STL ring were smaller than the other rings and consistent with previous research

(Grzybowski and Shah 1990). Their research showed decreasing average crack widths

with increasing fiber volume. This was confirmed in comparing the performance of the









STL and BND rings. Ignoring the presence of synthetic micro fibers in the BND ring, the

STL ring, with the higher fiber volume, performed better in reducing crack width.


Table 30 Average


k carc width for GRD SRA s


Approx. Days GRD (in) SRA (in) CTL (in)
After Casting No. 1 No. 2 No. 1 No. 2 No. 1
57 0.004 0.003 NA NA NA
64 0.004 0.003 NA NA NA
83 0.004 0.003 NA NA NA
99 0.004 0.004 0.002 0.002 0.008
113 0.008 0.005 0.002 0.002 0.008
127 0.008 0.005 0.002 0.002 0.008
141 0.01 0.006 0.002 0.002 0.028
160 0.01 0.006 0.002 0.002 0.028
169 0.01 0.006 0.002 0.002 0.028

Table 31. Average crack width for SYN, BND, and STL rings
Approx. Days SYN(in) BND (in) STL (in)
After Casting No. 1 No. 1 No. 2 No. 1 No. 2
57 0.004 0.001 0.001 0.001 NA
64 0.004 0.001 0.001 0.001 NA
83 0.005 0.002 0.001 0.001 NA
99 0.006 0.004 0.002 0.001 0.001
113 0.006 0.004 0.002 0.001 0.001
127 0.006 0.004 0.002 0.001 0.001
141 0.007 0.004 0.002 0.001 0.001
160 0.007 0.005 0.002 0.001 0.001
169 0.007 0.005 0.002 0.001 0.001

Crack widths on the SRA ring were significantly smaller than those on the

untreated mixtures. The rings with the two unmodified mixtures, CTL and GRD, had the

widest cracks of all the rings. The GRD ring unexpectedly developed a second crack

opposite of the first one possibly due to restraint at the concrete/steel interface. As

previously stated, the results of the GRD ring do not take into account the effectiveness


of the carbon-fiber grid.










Thermocouple Data

Temperature data measured through each topping's depth at the time of casting is

presented in Appendix F. While most of the toppings had a temperature difference of

approximately 50F, a 13.20F temperature gradient was measured approximately five

hours after casting in the SRA topping (Figure 46) at location 3. This may promote the

formation of internal micro cracks in hot weather concreting.


130
--Ambient
120 Top ..
Mid .
11 --Bottom
?110
Sf O------------' j -

100 ---
<- -
go
E 90-

80

70
9:00 AM 11:00 AM 1:00 PM 3:00 PM
Time
Figure 46. Temperature data through depth of topping for SRA-3

Topping Observations

After 30 weeks of observation, no cracks in the topping, over the flat slab joints,

were visible. Several factors inherent in the design and construction may have prevented

the formation of cracks.

The FDOT's Standard Specification for Road and Bridge Construction (2004a) was

strictly adhered to. All of the concrete mixtures were at or below the maximum 0.44 w/c

ratio and were within tolerances allowed for air content and slump. Reinforcement in the

toppings was also installed with 2 in of cover as outlined in the FDOT's Structures

Manual (2004b). These factors provided a bridge deck that was in compliance with

current FDOT standards.









Use of a curing compound may have aided in the prevention of cracks. An FDOT

approved compound was sprayed on the topping after the bleed water, if any, had

evaporated. It sealed the surface and prevented water from evaporating out of the

topping in the first few weeks after casting which is when the majority of drying

shrinkage occurs.

Finally, the restraint of the specimens may not have matched the restraint provided

on existing flat slab bridges. For cracks to develop, the system must be restrained to

induce internal tensile stresses in the concrete as it tries to shrink. The bearing pads may

not have provided adequate restraint for the bridge deck. The neoprene pads were 1 /2 in

thick whereas those used on the Cow Creek Bridge measured 1 in thick. The pads may

have undergone a shear deformation to accommodate the shrinking topping. The

displacements would be too small measure with the gages. They also showed no signs of

lifting or curling at the corners (Figure 47-Figure 50). The readings provide clues that

show the system either acted in an unrestrained manner or insufficient strain was

generated in the topping. Furthermore, measurements show that the superstructures with

continuous toppings along the span, S-C and S-D, had a negative displacement while the

discontinuous toppings did not.


S-A1 SA-2 t SA-3 SA-4
E 1.5 V




0 I .5I


25-Jul 13-Sep 2-Nov 22-Dec 10-Feb
Date
Figure 47. Displacement of superstructure S-A







61


3
2.5 SB-1 -SB-2 -SB-3 SB-4




E,
--- 2 .5 ,-----------

E 2
1.5 -- --
E 1
0.5
C- 0
S-0.5
-1 i
25-Jul 13-Sep 2-Nov 22-Dec 10-Feb
Date
Figure 48. Displacement of superstructure S-B. Gage SB-2 was bumped on August 5,
2004

0.6
0.4
E 0.2 -
0


cu -0.4
K -0.6
--S-C1 -- S-C2 --S-C3 S-C4
-0.8
25-Jul 13-Sep 2-Nov 22-Dec 10-Feb
Date
Figure 49. Displacement of superstructure S-C

0.8
S-D1 -"-S-D2 --S-D3 S-D4
S0.6
E 0.4
g 0.2
E
S0
u-0.2

-0.4
-0.6
25-Jul 13-Sep 2-Nov 22-Dec 10-Feb
Date
Figure 50. Displacement of superstructure S-D













CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The focus of this research was to evaluate techniques for providing crack control in

the topping of a precast flat slab bridge. Crack control treatments were selected based on

their effectiveness, ease of implementation and application, and effect on the labor and

construction cost of the bridge. The toppings incorporated either: steel fibers, synthetic

fibers, steel/synthetic fiber blend, carbon-fiber grid, or a shrinkage-reducing-admixture.

Four full-scale bridge superstructures were constructed to evaluate the crack control

treatments. Each superstructure was composed of three adjacent flat slabs with a 6 in

concrete topping. The treatments were each incorporated into a standard FDOT approved

concrete mixture and cast on-site.

Cylinder tests were conducted for compressive and tensile strength, and modulus of

elasticity. The cracking performance of the treatments was evaluated using a restrained

ring test.

After 30 weeks of observation, cracks were not visible in the topping over the flat

slab joints. Plastic shrinkage cracks were visible in the CTL, SRA, and GRD toppings.

Therefore, it is recommended that the bearing pads be relocated to the center flat-slabs

and the toppings be stressed by mechanical means. The results of the restrained ring test

will then be correlated to the performance of the toppings. The performance of the

carbon fiber will also be compared to the other toppings and recommendations will be

made to changes in flat-slab bridge construction.









Based on observations during construction, the results of the materials tests, and the

performance of the toppings, the following is concluded:

* Insufficient tensile stresses were generated in the toppings to induce cracking.

* Fiber reinforced concrete with fiber volumes such as those used for the STL and
SYN toppings should incorporate a high-range-water reducer to improve
workability

* The crack control treatments did not affect the concrete's modulus of elasticity or
tensile strength.

* The STL, SYN, and BND mixtures performed better in reducing the average crack
width than the CTL mixture, using the restrained ring test.

* Smaller average crack widths were attained with higher fiber volumes using the
restrained ring test.


















APPENDIX A
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PSBEAM PROGRAM


LRFD English Prestressed
Beam Program
Data Input


Project = "Research Design"
DesignedBy "LazAlfonso"
Date = "Dec 12. 2003"


ExistmgDataFile vec2str(READPPRa"PbeamFileName dat")) DataFileToBeCreated:= vec2str(READPRNP"PbeamFileCreated dat" ))
ExistmgDataFile= "C FDOTSTR\Programs\LRFDPbeamE1 85\4 ft origmal span dat"

DataFileToBeCreated = "C FDOTSTR\Programs\LRFDPbeamE1 85\4 ft origmal span dat"

Comment= "4 ft wide 12 mch thk 30 ft span"

newComment:= "4 ft wide 12 inch thk 30 ft span"
Only change the new values, f current data values are OK, leave the double X (XX) in the newDatafield.

Enter or Change Project Data

newProject := "XX" newDesignedBy := "XX" newDate := "XX"

Plan, Elevation, and Cross Section Data


Beam Length




Bearing Distance Span

Bearing

Elevation


Partial Section

Figure 51. LRFD PSBeam input 1


The top of the precast
beam is the location of
the origin for the
coordinate system.


Gap Widtlhbeam














Echo oflnput

Lbeam = 30ft


BearingDistance = 6 in


PadWidth =6 in


Widthbeam= 4ft


Widthadj.beam = 4ft


Overhang = Oft


tslab = 6in


see Beam Elevation


see Beam Elevation


width of the bearing pad- used in the shear
calculations see Beam Elevation

see Partial Section


used to calculate the live load distribution to exterior
beams. Not used for interior beams

see Partial Section


see Partial Section, not including integral WS


Input New Values

newLbeam:= 30-ft


newBearingDistance := XX in


newPadWidth := XX in


newWidthbeam:= XX-ft


newWidth adj.beam := XXft


newOverhang := XX-ft


newtslab := XX-in


tslab.delta = 1 in maximum additional slab thickness over support to
accommodate camber, usedfor additional DL only

de = -1.5ft see Partial Section (3ft max). (LRFD 4.6.2.2.1)
corrected to ASSHTO definition

BeamPosition = "interior" This should be either "interior" or "exterior"


Thickness beam = 12in

Gap= in

tintegral.ws= 0.5in


see Partial Section

see Partial Section (LRFD 3.6.1.1.1)

wearing surface thickness cast with the deck (SDG 7.2.1)


kip
Weightfuture.ws = 0.015--future wearing surface (SDG Table 3. 1)
ft2

NumberOfBeams= 11 number of beams in the span cross section (LRFD 4.6.2.2. 1)

SectionType = "transformed" transformed= "transformed" gross = "gross"


Skew= Odeg see Plan View


newtslab.delta:= XX-in


newde := XX-ft


newBeamPosition :=



newThickness beam:= XX-in

newGap := XX-in

newtintegral.ws := XX.in


newWeightfuture.ws := XX-.
ft2

newNumberOfBeams := XX

newSectionType = _



newSkew := 0deg


Figure 52. LRFD PSBeam input 2













Permit Truck Axle Loads and Spacings

PermitAxles = 2 This is the number of wheel loads that comprise the
permit truck, max for dll is 11. A value must be
entered for newPermitAxlefor changes to
newPermitAxleLoadornewPermitAxleSpacingto
register
Togglepermit.only = 0 1 only the permit live load is considered
otherwise the HL-93 live load is used for stresses and
the worst case for Strength checks


lbf
Permit uniform LL= 0 -
ft


Uniform live load to be considered in
conjunction with the Permit Vehicle (per
lane)


newPermitAxles:= XX





newTogglepermit.only XX



lbf
newPermit uniform LL:= XX--
ft


PermitAxleLoad= ( kip
1,32)


Indexes used to identify values in the P and d
vectors

newPermitAxles:= if(newPermitAxles = XX, 1,newPermitAxles)

q := 0.. (newPermitAxles 1) t:= 0.. newPermitAxles


The PermitAxleSpacing vector
contains the spacings between
the concentrated loads. The
first and last values are place
holders and should always be
zero

0
PermitAxleSpacing= 14 ft





Material Properties Concrete


newPermitAxleLoad :=
q

XX-kip
XX-kip
XX-kip
XX-kip
XX-kip
XX-kip
XX-kip
XX-kip
XX-kip


newPermitAxleSpacingqt :

0-ft
XX-ft
XX-ft
XX-ft
XX-ft
XX-ft
XX-ft
XX-ft
XX-ft
0-ft


AggregateType = "Standard"


fc.slab= 4.5ksi


fc.beam= 5.5ksi


fci.beam= 4.5ksi


This should be either "Florida" or "Standard"
depending on the type of course aggregate used.


strength ofslab
concrete

strength ofbeam
concrete

release beam strength


newAggregateType :



newfc.slab:= XX-ksi


newfc.beam:= 5.5-ksi


newfci.beam:= 4.5ksi


IYX1-


Yslab= 0.15
ft3


beam = 0.15ki
ft3

Environment = "moderately"


density of slab concrete, used for load
calculations


density of beam concrete, usedfor load
calculations

This should be either "slightly",
"moderately" or "extremely"


newslab := XX-kip
ft3

kip
newYbeam:= XX-p
ft3

newEnvironment :=
I XX 1


Material Properties Prestressing Tendons


tendon ultimate tensile strength, used for stress
calcs

tendon modulus ofelasticity


newfpu := XX-ksi


newEp := XX-ksi


fpu =270ksi


Ep = 28500ksi


Figure 53. LRFD PSBeam input 3












Material Properties -Mild Steel


mild steel yield strength


mild steel modulus of elasticity


% relative humidity

time in days between
jacking and transfer


(LRFD 5.9.5.4.2)


(LRFD 5.9.5.4.4b)


2
in
Aslab.rebar= 0.31--
ft


dslab.rebar= 2.5in


As.long= 1.55in2


area of longitudinal slab reinfper unit
width of slab, both layers combined

distance from top of slab to centrod of
longitudinal steel

area of longitudinal mild reinforcing in the
flexural tension zone of the beam


2
in
newAslab.rebar := XX--
ft


newdslab.rebar := XXin


newAs.long:= 1.55in2


absolute distance from top of the beam to the centroid
of the longitudinal steel in the flexural tension zone


Size of bars used to create As.long
needed to calculate development length


newdlong:= 2-in



newBarSize:=
IXX I


Composite and non-composite dead loads are calculated based on the provided data and FDOT standards. In the main and
detailed programs are locations where changes to the non-composite or composite dead loads can be made. These locations
are noted as Add w noncomp andAdd w compfor non-composite and composite loads respectively. Loads can be added by
setting these values equal to positive values and subtracted by setting them equal to a negative value. The program will
calculate and apply the HL-93 live ,'. .,.,f .r. *,,.,.' ','. Additional permit loads must be listed in the permit truck section
above.
end of data input

Figure 54. LRFD PSBeam input 4


fy= 60ksi


Es= 29000ksi


H= 75

tj= 1.5


newfy := XXksi


newEs := XX-ksi


newH := XX

newt := XX


long = 2in



BarSize= 5


Loads


















LRFD EnglishPrestressed
Beam Design

Program


Project = "Research Design"
DesignedBy = "Laz Alfonso"
Date= "Dec 12,2003"


Legend Tan= DataEntry Yellow= CheckValues Grey = Comments + Graphs
The CR values displayed are CapacityRatios which give the ratio of the provided capacity divided by the
required
Bridge Layout and Dimensions rL Reference C \FDOTSTR\Programs\LRFDPbeamE1 85\ProgramFiles\sectionl mcd(R)

Comment= "4 ft wide 12 inch thk30 ft span"
filename= "C:\FDOT_STR\Programs\LRFDPbeamE1.85\4 ft original span.dat"
The top of the precast beam is the location of the origin

Lbean





BearingDistancejB,1 i Span PadWidth-i I-

SBearing


Beam Elevation

DataMessage = "This is a 4 feet wide, 12 inch thick, flat slab section design "


BearmgDistance = 6 m


Span = 29 ft


WRITEPRNW"b<


PadWidth = 6 in


BeamSpacing




Partial Section




BeamSpacmg = 4.083 ft

tintegral ws = 0.5 m


tslab= 6in
NumberOfBeams= 11


WRITEPRN("coo



WRITEPRNP"loc:


buildup = 0m
tslab delta = 1 in


BeamTypeTog = "FLT12"


These are typically the FDOT
designations found in our standards. The
user can also create a coordinatefile for
a custom shape. In all cases the top of the
beam is at the y=0 ordinate.


BeamPosition = "interior"


For calculating
distribution factors must
be either interior or
exterior


SectionType = "transformed"


be = 4.083 ft


effective slab width
LRFD 4.6.2.6


user_g mom 0 userg shear 0 If userg om (the moment distributionfactor) or userg shear (the shear
distribution factor) is set to zero the program's calculated value will be used. If
they are other than zero then this user inputed value will be used.

Figure 55. LRFD PSBeam output 1


Lbeam= 30 ft


Picturesection


Overhang = Oft
Skew = 0 deg













Section Properties Beam and Slab


0 1 2 3
feet
- slab
- effective slab
- beam


Material Properties Concrete


Corrosion (


Environment = "moderately"


strength of slab
concrete
strength of beam
concrete
release beam strength

initial cone. modulus of
elasticity

concrete modulus of
elasticity

type ofcourse aggregate,
either "Florida"or
"Standard"


fc.slab = 4.5 ksi

fc.beam = 5.5 ksi

fci.beam 4.5 ksi

Eci =3861 ksi


E = 4268 ksi


AggregateType = "Standard"


density ofslab
concrete


density of beam
concrete

weight offuture
wearing surface

used in
distribution
calculation

relative humidity


Yslab = 0.15 kip
ft3

kip
Ybeam= 0.15
ft3

Weightfuture.ws


nd = 1.106


H=75


Material Properties Prestressing Tendons and Mild Steel


tendon ultimate
tensile strength

time in days between
jacking and transfer


tendon modulus
of elasticity


fpu = 270 ksi


tj = 1.5


Ep = 28500 ksi


ratio of tendon modulus np = 6.677
to beam concrete modulus


mild steel yeld strength fy = 60 ksi


ratio ofrebar modulus
to beam concrete modulus


nm = 6.794


d distancefrom top ofslab dslab.rebar = 2.5 in
to centroid ofslab reinf

Figure 56. LRFD PSBeam output 2


mild steel modulus
ofelasticity



area per unit width of
longitudinal slab reinf


Es = 29000 ksi



.2
in
Aslab.rebar = 0.31 --
ft


0.015
ft2















d distance from top of
beam to centrozd of
mildflexural tension


area ofmild reinf
lumped at centrold
ofbar locations


As long = 1.55 in2


Number of wheel loads that comprise the permit truck


PermitAxleLoadT = (8 32 )kip


PermitAxles = 2


lbf
PermitUnlformLoad = 0-
ft


PermitAxleSpacingT= (0 14 0)ft


Loads Release, Non composite, Composite, and Live Load (truck and lane)

Release Dead Load Moments and Shears


Release

kip ft

Release

kip


-50-


................ .............I


Wbeam 0.599
ft


ma4Mrelease) = 67.4 kip-ft


Location
ft

note: at release, span length is the full length of the beam


Noncomp Dead Load Moments and Shear


Wslab = 0.332 ip Wbeam = 0.599 k-i
ft ft
(wslab includes buildup)

maxMdl non comp) = 98.5 kipft


15-

Mdl comp
_____ 10
kip ft

Vdl compn 5

kip


Location
ft
0 kip k. p
Wforms = 0 Wnoncomposite = 0.931 --
ft ft


max(Vdl non comp) = 13.5 kip

Composite Dead Load Moments and Shear


kip
Add w noncomp 0.-
ft


kip
Wbarrier = 0.076 k
ft

ma4Mdl .cp) = 14 klp-ft


kip
Future ws = 0.061 ki
ft


kip
Composite = 0.14 ki
ft

max(Vdl comp) = 2 kip


Add w L0kip
Add wcomp ft
ft


Figure 57. LRFD PSBeam output 3


long = 2 in


Mdl non comp

kip ft

Vdl non comp n

kip









71




Distributed LL Moments and Shears


Locationn


Live load distribution factors


BeamPosition = "interior"


ReactionLL = 24.381 kip (service value includes truck impact)


ReactionDL = 16.026 kip (service value)


A suggested method ofiteration is tofill the beam with tendons beginning in the middle of the bottom row, filling the row outward,
then continuing on to the middle of the next lowest row. Typically ,the minimum number of tendon is reached when midspan
tensile stress is below the LRFD Service III Limit stress. Next, tendons should be debonded in pairs according to the Structures
Design Guidelnes until the end compression stress are below the LRFD Service I Limit stress. These two lmits typically control
the design (see graph below).


Design Prestress Tendon Geometry


Double click on the Strand Geometrylcon to (
specify type, location, size, and debondlng of :I:
strands Then click on Stranddata and press F9 to
read in the data Strand Geometry

n Reference C \FDOTSTR\Programs\LRFDPbeamE1 85\ProgramFiles\section:


Stranddata := a READPRN("tendsect.dat")
w READPRN("strand.dat")
x READPRN("area.dat")
y READPRN("shield.dat")
z READPRN("distance.dat")
(w x y z a)


Summary ofinitial Compression and Final Tension Prestress for teration Purposes. These two stress checks usually control.
See graphs in proceeding sections for full details.


fbot beam rel

ksi

all comp rel

ksi

fbot beam stage c2

ksi

all tension

ksi


Rel Comp & Final Ten (Bot, Allow)




------------
I -" I 25 I
5 r 10 15 20 .. 25 0



.............................. ......................


Locationn
ft


Figure 58. LRFD PSBeam output 4


M dist live pos n

kip-ft

Vdst hve pos n

kip

Vdist hve neg

kip

Mshr dist hve pos n

kip-ft



kip-ft


gshear = 0.32


gmom =0.32









72




mmin(CR_fomp rel) = 2.212 Check fomp rel "OK"


mm(CRftension stage) = 2.894 Check tension stage = "OK"


check strand patternfor debonding limits (per row and total) andfor debonded strands on outside edge of strand pattern
CheckO -No Debonded tendon on outside row, Checkl less than 40% Debonded in any row, Check2 less than 25% Debonded
total
CheckPattern 0 "OK"

CheckPattern 1 "OK"

CheckPattern 2 "OK"


Section and tendon properties

Abeam 3.996 ft2 Con


Ycomp -3.152 in Dis
CG

Adeck =1.847 ft2 Con


dbps 0.5 in dia

fpy = 243 ksi tern


T
Lshieldng = (3 0)ft



ApsrowT (0.3 1.5 )in2


icrete area of beam


t. from top of beam to
ofcomposite section

icrete area of deck slab


meter ofPrestressing strand

don yield strength


Ibeam = 6.893 x 103 in GrossMoment oflnerha ofBeam

4 4 GrossMoment of nerha
Icomp = 2.24 x 10 in Composite Section


Aps = 1.8 in total area ofstrands


mm(PrestressType ) = 0 0- low lax 1 stress reheved

fpj = 203 ksi prestress jacking stress


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
dps row 0 -0.771 -0.771 -0.771 -0.771 -0.771 -0.771 -0.771 -0.771 ft

1 -0.771 -0.771 -0.771 -0.771 -0.771 -0.771 -0.771 -0.771


Tendon Layout


1.5

1.14

0.78

0.42

0.0657

-0.29

-0.65

-1.01
0 0.8 1.6 2.4
Debonded
Full Length
--- Draped
Beam Surface

Figure 59. LRFD PSBeam output 5


TotalNumberOfTendons 12

NumberOfDebondedTendons 2


NumberOfDrapedTendons 0


StrandSize ="1/2 in low lax"


StrandArea =0.153 in


JackmgForce per strand = 30.982 kip


3.2 4













Location of Depressed Strands


0 5 10 15 20 25 30


Bonded Length of Debonded Strands


-0.78 '
0


SERVICE LIMIT STATE


Mpos Serl

kip ft

Mpos Ser3

kip ft


Service I & III Moments


Location
ft
i" !1 "/ = 237 kip.ft


Prestress Losses (LRFD 5.9.5)

fpj = 202.5 ksi AfpR1 = -2.2 ksi

AfpCR = -7.9 ksi AfpSR = -5.8 ksi


Afpl
percentages =-3.976 %
fpj


fpl
S= 96.(
fpj


AfpES = -5.8 ksi Afp, =

AfpR2 = -4.5 ksi AfpTot

AfpTot
)24 % 12.929 %
fpj


-8 ksi fpl = 1

= -26 ksi fpe =

fpe
-- = 87.071 %
fpj


Figure 60. LRFD PSBeam output 6


94 ksi

176 ksi


i (' 1, ., ,) = 268 kip.ft












Stress Limitations for P/S tendons (LRFD 5.9.3)

Check fpt = "OK" 0.8fpy = 194 ksi Check pe = "OK"


Stress Limitations for Concrete Release and Final (LRFD 5.9.4)

Release


Release Stresses (Top, Bot., Allow.)






0 5 *.. 1 15 2.0.........-* 25 /30


% . . .. .. .. .





-2-




-3-


Location
ft


min(CRftension.rel) = 7.041 Check ftension.rel "OK"

min(CR fcomp.rel) = 2.212 Checkfcomp.rel = "OK"

Final


min(CRftension.stage8) = 2.894 Check ftension.stage8 = "OK"


min(CRfcomp.stage8.cl) = 3.729 Check_fcomp.stage8.cl = "OK"


min(CRfcomp.stage8.c2) = 3.603 Check_fcomp.stage8.c2 = "OK"


min(CRfcomp.stage8.c3) = 3.766 Check_fcomp.stage8.c3 = "OK"

Figure 61. LRFD PSBeam output 7


(Service III, PS + DL +LL*0.8)


(Service I, PS + DL)


(Service I, PS + DL +LL)


(Service I, (PS + DL) *0.5 +LL)


ftop beam reln

ksi

fbot beam rel

ksi

fall tension rel

ksi

fall comp reln

ksi













Final Stresses (Top, Bot., Allowable)


-F-ret A-


S '.. O 15 2 2 o



.- /.... .
I
at '


-1i


of Values atMidspan
Location
ft
"Stage "Top of Beam (ksi) "BottofBeam (ksi)")
1 -0.293 -0.943 Compression stresses are negative
2 -0.328 0.794 and tensile stresses are positive
Stresses =
4 -0.283 -0.839
6 -0.64 -0.481
8 -0.916 0.153 )

Stage 1 ---> At release with the span length equal to the length of the beam. Prestress losses are elastic shortening and overnight

2 ---> Same as release with the addition of the remaining prestress losses apphed to the transformed beam

Stage 4 ---> Same as stage 2 with supports changed from the end of the beam to the bearing locations

Stage 6 ---> Stage 4 with the addition ofnon-composite dead load excluding beam weight which has been included since Stage 1

Stage 8 ---> Stage 6 with the addition ofcomposite dead load and live loads apphed to the composite section
"Condition "Axial (kip)" "Moment (ip*ft)")
PrestressForce = "Release" -357.3739 -99.0955
"Final (about composite centroid)" -323.7221 -164.6951 )


"Section "Area (in^2)
"Net Beam 582.58
Properties =
"Transformed Beam 594.84

"Composite 877.07

Figure 62. LRFD PSBeam output 8


"Inertia (in^4) "distance to centroid from top ofbm (in)
7014.2 -5.92
7147.13 -5.99
23140.02 -3.14 1


top beam stage c2

ksi

fbot beam stage c2n

ksi

top beam stage cln

ksi

ftop beam stage c3

ksi

fall tension

ksi

fall comp case2n

ksi

fall comp case n

ksi

fall comp case3n

ksi


.


-0.5-









76



"Type" "Value (kip*ft)"'

"Release" 67.4
ServiceMoments = "Non-composite (includes bm wt.)" 98.5
"Composite" 14.4
"Distributed Live Load" 154.5 )

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE
n, Reference:C:\FDOTSTR\Programs\LRFDPbeamE1.85\ProgramFiles\section3.mcd(R)

Moment Nominal Resistance versus Ultimate Strength Cases I and II



Nominal and Ultimate Moment Strength
600


.mom'(Mnmn)0 550


500
1.2-Mor


Mpos Strl mn
os Strl....... ...

kip.ft 400

pos Str2
mn 350
kip-ft

Mreqdmn 300
klpft-
f 250



200
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Locationmn
ft



ma{Mpos Strl) = 414 kip.ft min(CRstr mom) = 1.127 CheckMomentCapacity = "OK"

Strength Shear and Associated Moment

Strength Shear and Associated Moment
400

Vu Strn

kip

Mshrstr 200

kip-ft


-------------------------------------------------------

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Locationn
ft


ma(Vu Str) = 56 kip ma(Mshru Str) = 396 kip-ft

Figure 63. LRFD PSBeam output 9













Check and Design Shear, Interface andAnchorage Reinforcement
L assigned stirrup sizes and spacings (Values less than 0 are ignored)
To change the values from the enter the new values into the vectors
below. Input only those that you wish to change, values that are less than
one will not alter the original input values.


user s := user NumberSpaces
Snspacmings nspacmgs


XX in
XX-in
XX-in
XX-in
XX-in


xx
xx
xx
xx
xx


userA stirrup npacgs
nspacings

XX-in2
XX in2


XX. in2
XX. i



XX in2

XX in2


The interface factor accounts for
situations where not fthe shear
reinforcing is embedded in the
poured in place slab


interface factor ::
nspacmgs


1
1
1
1


rn Reference:C:\FDOT_STR\Programs\LRFDPbeamE1.85\ProgramFiles\section4.mcd(R)
Stirrup sizes and spacings used in analysis


(12
12
s = 12 in
12

S12)


0

NumberSpaces = 0
0

15)


0
0

Astirrup = 0 in2
0

0.8)


EndCover = 0 in The number of spaces for the S4 stirrup is calculated by the program to complete the


' length


Shear Steel Required vs. Provided
I1 I I I I I I


T .-. ..........................


2 I 6 in1 1 1 il I I Is 20 22 24
2 4 6 S 10 12 14 16 1i 20 22 24


min(( i. ', ',p A ) = 2

min(CRStirArea) = 10

min(CRStirupArea) = 1.161


Locationhs Locationhs a() Locationhs
--- -T X Area
CheckShearCapacity = "N.A." ft

CheckStirArea = "N.A."

CheckMinStirArea = "N.A."


CheckMaxStirSpacing = "N.A."

Figure 64. LRFD PSBeam output 10


CheckAnchorageSteel = "N.A."


A stirrup

S1 stirrup

S2 stirrup

S3 stirrup

S4 stirrup


A stirrup

S1 stirrup

S2 stirrup

S3 stirrup

S4 stirrup


in2





in2
ift;

StirLocArea
2

1




in 2
*ft*


0.6



0.5



0.4


0.3














Shear Capacity Required vs. Provided
m-m+-m-----m-------m-----


Locationlshear
























) 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Locationhs


Longitudinal Steel Required vs. Provided









- I
I



I


0 -
0 2


4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Locations


min(CRLongStee) = 0.5


CheckLongSteel = "N.A."


#NG can also adjust with shear reinforcing


Check Interface Steel

MinInterfaceReinfReqd = "N.A."


2
in
Avf.min = --
ft


.2
maAvf.des) = 0.1 i
ft


S. shear steel is extended up into the deck slab. These
calculations are based on that assumption that the shear steelfunctions
as interface reinforcing. The interface factor can be used to adjust this

Avfdesign orAvfmin is greater than 0 in -
interface steel is required.


MinLegsPerRow = 0


CheckInterfaceSpacing = "N.A."


Figure 65. LRFD PSBeam output 11


Vu Str hs

kip


sh- Vnhs
u hs
kip


shru Vs prov shrs

kip

_shr- Vchs

kip

shr- Vphs
kip
kip
mmmh


Check Longitudinal Steel


600

VI ,, I

kip 400



kip 200













Interface Steel Required vs Provided


*


*
I
I

I




I



S 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Locationhs
ft


heckli nterfnceSteel := if


TotalInterfaceSteelProvided


2 1
"
OK"
"
No Good" CheckInterf K"


STotalInterfaceSteelRequired + 0.001-in2

Check Anchorage Steel for Bursting and Calculate Confinement Steel


use #3 bars @ 6 in for confinement

Summary ofDesign Checks

AcceptInteriorM = "OK"

Check fpt = "OK"

Check fcomp.rel = "OK"

Checkfcomp.stage8.c2 = "OK"

CheckMaxCapacity = "N.A."

CheckMinStirArea = "N.A."

CheckInterfaceSpacing = "N.A."

CheckInterfaceSteel = "OK"

TotalCheck = "OK"


CheckAnchorageSteel = "N.A."

TotalNoConfineBars = 8



AcceptExteriorM = "OK"

Checkfpe = "OK"

Checkftension.stage8 = "OK"

Check fcomp.stage8.c3 = "OK"

CheckStirArea = "N.A."

CheckMaxStirSpacing = "N.A."

CheckAnchorageSteel ="N.A."

CheckStrandFit = "OK"


value includes bars at both ends



AcceptInteriorV = "OK"

Check ftension.rel = "OK"

Check fcomp.stage8.cl = "OK"

CheckMomentCapacity = "OK"

CheckShearCapacity = "N.A."

CheckLongSteel = "N.A."

CheckMaxReinforcement= "OK"


Figure 66. LRFD PSBeam output 12


2
in
ft



2
in
ft
ooo














APPENDIX B
TOPPING PLACEMENT DAILY SUMMARY

Synthetic Fiber Topping

* Flat slabs were cleaned with a blower

* Concrete batched at 8:47AM

* Truck leaves plant at 8:57AM

* Truck arrived at site at 9:10AM. Truck #118, Tag N2322B

* Driver did not have material delivery ticket

* Driver's ticket lists a 4" slump was delivered

* Flat slabs were sprayed with water

* Slump test #1 performed at 9:20AM

* 4-1/2" slump

* Started adding Strux 90/40 fibers 9:20AM-9:24AM

* Fibers were introduced by hand into the drum mixer. They were dispersed
manually as they were deposited.

* Counted 70 revolutions from 9:24AM to 9:28AM

* Slump test was attempted to see the effect the fibers had on the mix. The fibers
were not uniformly mixed in. There was a lot of bundling.

* Slump test #2 performed at 9:30AM

* 1-3/4" slump

* Instructed driver to add 6 gal to achieve a .44 w/c. This was based on a mixture
proportions I obtained from Tallahassee Redi Mix (TRM) on a visit last Monday,
July 19th.

* Slump test #3 performed at 9:40AM

* 3-1/4" slump









* Placed concrete from 9:45AM-10:12AM

* Workability was terrible. The concrete was raked and vibrated down the shute. It
was then raked into place. Most of the concrete was moved between 4' & 5' to its
final position. It was then vibrated.

* Screeding started as when the concrete placement was halfway down the topping.

* Screeding finished at 10:30AM

* Floating started as screeding took place. Finished floating at 10:32AM

* An air content of 2.5% was measured

* 27 cylinders were collected and capped. They were collected late in the cycle of
events. The collection of cylinders will take place at an earlier time on the
remaining toppings.

* The steel ring was cast

* There has not been any bleed water visible on the surface of the topping

* Curing compound was applied at 12:20PM

* Clouds rolled in at 12:36PM and blocked out the sun

* Went to TRM to obtain a copy of the batched materials for today's concrete
mixture. Turns out we were low on the amount of water we could add to the mix.

Blended Fiber Topping

* Met with Casey Peterson, Quality Control Manager for TRM at about 7:45AM

* Based on yesterday's problems with placing the concrete and the low w/c ratio we
wanted to discuss our options to improve the workability of the mixture. He said
he could modify the mixture any way we wanted to. We discussed the possibility
of reducing the amount of water reducer so as to maximize our w/c ratio while still
having a reasonable slump...4"-6". Based on conversations with Dr. Hamilton, I
instructed Casey to send the same mix. We would control the w/c ratio at the site.

* Flat slabs were cleaned with a blower

* Concrete batched at 8:42AM

* Truck left plant at 8:50AM

* Truck arrived at the site at 9:07AM









* Flat slabs were sprayed with water

* Collected material ticket from driver and calculated allowable additional water

* Form was filled out incorrectly and we worked under the assumption that we only
had 7 oz of water reducer in the mix. This did not affect our calculations and was
discovered later on that afternoon.

* Driver's delivery ticket lists a 4" slump was delivered

* Slump test #1 performed at 9:15AM

* 2-3/4" slump

* Fibers were added to the concrete mixture

* Synthetic micro fibers were added at 9:16AM. llb/CY

* Steel fibers were added at 9:16AM-9:22AM. 25 lbs/CY

* The steel fibers were added second so that they would help separate the already
present micro fibers

* Counted 70 revolutions from 9:22AM to 9:26AM

* Slump test #2 performed at 9:26AM

* 3-3/4" slump

* Instructed driver to add 8 gal to mixture. Based on 1" slump loss for every gallon
of water per CY. We were shooting for a .44 w/c and a 5-3/4 slump.

* Slump test #3 performed at 9:35AM

* 4-3/4 slump

* Placed concrete from 9:35AM 9:45AM

* Concrete had very good workability. It flowed down the shute easily. Most of the
concrete was moved between 2' & 3' to its final position. It was then vibrated.

* Backer rod fell through and was reinstalled and secured from 9:45AM until
9:55AM

* Screeding started when the concrete placement was 34 of the way down the topping.

* Floating started as screeding took place. Floating started at 10:06AM and finished
at 10:17AM









* Screeding was finished at 10:10AM

* An air content of 3.5% was measured

* 27 cylinders were collected and capped while the concrete was placed

* The steel ring was cast while the concrete was placed

* There has not been any bleed water visible on the surface of the topping

* Curing compound was applied at 1:10PM

* Clouds rolled in at 1:20PM and rain started at 1:30PM. Some of the curing
compound was washed off

GRD Topping

* Both flat slabs were cleaned with a blower

* Concrete batched at 8:45AM

* Truck left plant at 8:57AM

* Truck arrived at the site at 9:07AM

* Flat slabs were sprayed with water

* Collected material ticket from driver and calculated allowable additional water

* Form was incorrectly filled out again. This was noticed immediately and did not
affect any calculations.

* Driver's delivery ticket lists a 4" slump was delivered

* Slump test #1 performed at 9:11AM

* 4-3/4" slump

* Instructed driver to add 5 gal of water to mix. This would put us at a .44 w/c based
on the delivery ticket.

* Slump test #2 performed at 9:16AM

* 6-1/4" slump

* Placed concrete from 9:22AM 9:29AM









* Screeding took place as concrete was placed. This finished the concrete 1" below
its final surface to allow for grid installation

* Wooden 2"x6" screed was run over the topping two times

* This process was much easier than I expected

* Grid was laid out from9:30AM 9:35AM

* Grid is 42" wide. There is a grid joint at the center with a two hole overlap. The
outer strips overlap about 8" with the inner strips

* Grid was floating lightly to have it "stick" to concrete. All the grid came in contact
with the concrete. There was no loss of contact due to the grid wanting to roll up.

* Concrete was topped off from 9:35AM 9:43AM

* Driver was extremely good at placing concrete where it was needed. He backed the
truck up and swung the shute as the concrete was placed

* Concrete was screeded as it was topped off

* The final screeding finished at 9:46AM

* Floating was done from 9:49AM 9:55AM

* An air content of 3% was measured

* 27 cylinders were collected while the concrete was placed. They were not capped

* The steel ring was cast while the concrete was placed

* Bleed water was visible on the surface as it cured

* Curing compound was applied at 2:00PM

* It started to rain at 3:05PM

Steel Fiber Topping

* Concrete batched at 9:56AM

* Truck left plant at 10:15AM

* Truck arrived at the site at 10:26AM

* Flat slabs were sprayed with water









* Collected material ticket from driver and calculated allowable additional water

* Form was incorrectly filled out

* Driver's delivery ticket lists a 4" slump was delivered

* Slump test #1 performed at 10:31AM

* 2" slump

* Instructed driver to add 16 gallons of water. This was based off of the delivery
ticket. It would put us at a .44 w/c

* A slump test was not taken after the water was added

* Fibers added to the mix from 10:37AM 10:49AM

* I could feel the heat generated by the mix as I was adding the fibers

* Counted 70 revolutions from 10:49AM to 10:53AM

* Slump test #2 performed at 10:54 AM

* 2" slump

* Placed concrete at 10:58AM

* The mix was extremely stiff. It seems like there is not enough water in the mix.
One wouldn't be able to tell that 16 gallons of water were added to the mix. The
mix was raked and vibrated down the shute. This mix is much more difficult to
work than the synthetic mix.

* Instructed the driver to add 8 gallons of water at 11:03AM. Based on 1" slump loss
for every gallon of water per CY. We were shooting for a 4" slump and expected
the w/c ratio to go over the max of .44. A slump test was not performed after the
water was added.

* Placement continued at 11:10AM. The mix was somewhat workable after the
water was added. It still required the vibrator and the rake to get it down the shute.
Most of the concrete was moved between 4' & 5' to its final position.

* Topped off at 11:20AM

* Screeded from 11:25AM 11:50AM

* Concrete was floated but most of it was difficult to finish. There were many voids
on the surface in the area of the initial pour.