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Effect of Content Area Reading Strategy on Achievement in Secondary Agriscience


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EFFECT OF CONTENT AREA READING STRATEGY ON ACHIEVEMENT IN SECONDARY AGRISCIENCE By TRAVIS DALE PARK A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2005

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Copyright 2005 by Travis Dale Park

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This document is dedicated to my wife, Lacy, and our dog, Beaux.

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iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First of all, I would like to thank the facu lty and staff in the Agricultural Education and Communication Department at the Univer sity of Florida. I have learned about research, teaching, and extension from this fine group of people. They have also taught a young person more about character, integrity, and professionalism than could have been imagined. My gratitude is extended to Dr. Ed Osborne, my committee chair, for his tireless efforts to guide this dissertation study, his continual challenge to my thinking about agriscience research, and his example as a mentor. I would also like to thank Dr. Rick Rudd, who lent an ear, a shoulder, and a kind word when I needed it most. I appreciate Dr. Howard Ladewigs guidance and professionalism in methodology, as well as his intellectual though t processes and questioning skills. I am also grateful to Dr. Barbara Pace for our discussions about r eading and her challenge of my research perspectives and patience as I atte mpted to learn a new content area. I also must recognize Dr. Nick Place for his example as a professor and for providing opportunities to partic ipate in extension activities while at UF. And, while he is no pool shark, I appreciate the intricacies of Dr. Glenn Israel and the wonderful opportunity to get to know him and study from him. Secondly, I could never have gotten this fa r without the friendships and high-level discussions that were generated in 310 Rolfs Hall and various annexes. I truly appreciate and respect the example of all the doctoral graduates who have left Rolfs Hall to make their mark on the world and agricultural education, communication, leadership, and

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iv extension. Whether it was John s laughter, Gradys pranks, Li sas friendship, Nicoles honesty, Loris crises, or Chris highly philosophical friend ship, I have taken something from each of you. Their examples, laughter, and friendship have meant the world. They made this an enjoyable ride. The current group of 310 stall mates also de serves recognition. Kris and I have been through a bit together and it will be f un to graduate with he r and see her career explode. Ill also rememb er fondly Nicks total enthusiasm, Wendys complexity, Steves friendship, Erics professionalis m and love for his wife, Emilys common interests in the Amish, and Curts damned personality. Everyone should thank David for bringing this group together w ith the parties at the Jones pool. I must also thank Amanda for her teaching example and work ethi c. While the atmosphere has lightened, it is no less professional or challenging. Th ey are a wonderful gr oup of people who will continue to do great things a nd make a real difference in the lives of many students. Someday I hope that my children are blessed to have them as teachers. Of course I need to than k my parents and family. Without the secure foundation from which to work, a person can accomplish but little. Fortunately, I have an extremely strong support group who sends cards, makes phone calls, and visits, although Norma spends way too much time down here. Joe a nd Bettye Lou Park are my inspirations in education and whom I strive to be like in making a family and becoming involved in a community. I would also like to thank my br others Aaron and Jeremy and their families for just being. Daniel and Anna Marie may never read this, but they should know how much fun it is to play with them and anticip ate seeing them. Last, but not least, I thank Grandma for always believing in the best of all of us and being my biggest champion.

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v Randy and Norma also deserve credit, beginni ng with the financial assistance to make the move to Florida as we ll as the visits and demanding that I drink a beer(s) on the beach. I thank them so much for helping keep al l of this in perspective. I also want to thank Kipp and Jennifer for their encouragem ent and for providing an escape as we talked CUBS baseball. This whole endeavor would never have happened without my wife, Lacy, and our dog, Beaux. Lacy provided so much encouragem ent, help, and consol ation when things did not go right. Lacy sacrificed so much as our lives became entwined with the AEC Department. Many graduate students have Lacy to thank for helping bring them to UF and helping them graduate as well. I love he r. Lacys heart of gold and determination to make everyone feel welcome and important is something that we could all learn from. We wanted to make a positive difference when we came to UF, and I think that we did it mostly out of Lacys efforts. She is my in spiration, my light, and the love of my life. Beauxs pretty good, too, but not quite as cozy and a lot more slobbery. The agriculture teach ers in Indiana and the studen ts and community in and around Tri-County School Corporation deserve recogni tion, for were it not for their examples and our collective experiences, I woul d have no foundation upon which to pose questions, no stories to share with prospect ive teachers, and no grounding for the Ivory Tower. Leaving home was difficult, and I hope that I make them proud, and please know that we are working to get back home. There are a couple of stops along the way; keep a cold Coke handy. Thanks to Ray, John, Van, Dave, Pat, and George.

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vi TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iii LIST OF TABLES.............................................................................................................xi LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................xiii ABSTRACT.....................................................................................................................xi v CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 Introduction to the Study..............................................................................................1 Background of the Study..............................................................................................1 Need for Reading...................................................................................................2 Reading Failures....................................................................................................2 Secondary Reading................................................................................................4 Reader.............................................................................................................5 Text.................................................................................................................6 Activity...........................................................................................................7 Sociocultural context......................................................................................7 Teacher...........................................................................................................9 Problem Statement......................................................................................................10 Purpose of the Study...................................................................................................12 Statement of Objectives..............................................................................................12 Hypotheses..................................................................................................................12 Qualitative Inquiry......................................................................................................13 Significance of the Study............................................................................................13 Definition of Terms....................................................................................................15 Gender.................................................................................................................15 Ethnicity..............................................................................................................15 Socioeconomic Status (SES)...............................................................................16 Grade Level.........................................................................................................16 Grade Point Average (GPA)................................................................................16 Treatment Group.................................................................................................16 Comparison Group..............................................................................................16 Reading................................................................................................................16 Content Area Reading.........................................................................................17

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vii Comprehension....................................................................................................17 Microperiod.........................................................................................................18 Motivation to Read..............................................................................................18 Comprehension Portion of th e Agriculture Post-Test.........................................19 FCAT Reading Levels.........................................................................................19 Engaged Readers.................................................................................................19 Struggling Readers..............................................................................................19 Limitations of the Study.............................................................................................20 Summary.....................................................................................................................21 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE.....................................................................................23 Introduction.................................................................................................................23 Philosophical Theories of Reading.............................................................................24 Schema Theory....................................................................................................24 Reader-Response Theory.....................................................................................25 Sociocultural Theory of Reading.........................................................................26 Theoretical Framework for Comprehension...............................................................27 Key Variables in This Study.......................................................................................28 Sociocultural Context..........................................................................................28 Teacher................................................................................................................30 Attitude.........................................................................................................31 Teacher preparation and knowledge of strategies........................................33 Reader..................................................................................................................34 Gender..........................................................................................................36 Age / Grade Level........................................................................................37 Ethnicity.......................................................................................................37 Socioeconomic Status..................................................................................38 Reading Ability............................................................................................39 Interest..........................................................................................................40 Prior Knowledge..........................................................................................40 Prior Reading Experiences...........................................................................41 Activity................................................................................................................42 Reading in the three microperiods...............................................................42 Reading Strategies...............................................................................................44 Reading Strategy Instruction......................................................................................44 Goals of Reading St rategy Instruction................................................................48 Multiple Strategy Instruction...............................................................................49 Activating Prior Knowledge................................................................................50 Setting Purpose....................................................................................................52 Reading and Thinking Aloud..............................................................................53 Organizing Information.......................................................................................54 Summarizing........................................................................................................59 Outcome Variables.....................................................................................................60 Comprehension....................................................................................................60 Motivation...........................................................................................................60 Motivations Impact on Strategy Use and Comprehension.................................62

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viii Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) and Standardized Testing...........63 Summary.....................................................................................................................63 3 METHODS.................................................................................................................65 Introduction.................................................................................................................65 Research Design.........................................................................................................67 Procedures...................................................................................................................70 Population...................................................................................................................72 Subject Selection: Agrisc ience Foundations Students.......................................72 Subject Selection: Agriscience Teachers............................................................73 Sample Size.........................................................................................................73 Instrumentation and Data Collection..........................................................................74 Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test............................................................75 Textbook..............................................................................................................77 Lesson Plans and Agriscience Comprehension Assessments.............................78 Motivation to Read Assessment..........................................................................79 Treatment Delivery Accountability............................................................................82 Analysis of Data.........................................................................................................82 Long Interviews..........................................................................................................84 Summary.....................................................................................................................85 4 FINDINGS..................................................................................................................87 Introduction.................................................................................................................87 Objective 1: Descript ion of Participants.............................................................89 Gender..........................................................................................................92 Grade level...................................................................................................92 Ethnicity.......................................................................................................93 SES...............................................................................................................94 GPA..............................................................................................................95 FCAT reading level......................................................................................96 Motivation to read........................................................................................96 Agriculture comprehension..........................................................................97 Reading habits of students............................................................................98 Relationships between variables................................................................100 Objective 2: Variance in Ag ricultural Post-Test Scores...................................103 Objective 3: Variance in the Motivation to Read Post-Test.............................105 Objective 4: Variance in Comprehension Scores of the Agriculture Post-Test105 Hypothesis Tests.......................................................................................................107 Teacher Interviews....................................................................................................107 Attributes of Agriscience Teachers and Agriscience Students..........................108 Agriscience teachers indicated an in terest in helping students learn.........108 Agriscience teachers stated that c ontent area reading was important........109 Agriscience teachers incorporated content area reading strategies............110 Agriscience teachers were not avid re aders themselves and/or were poor readers.....................................................................................................112

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ix Agriscience courses were populated with students possessing a wide range of reading abilities........................................................................112 Approaches to Instruc tion in Agriscience.........................................................113 Teachers used lecture-discussion, teacher-centered approaches to instruction...............................................................................................113 Reading was minimized in agriscience courses prior to initiating the study........................................................................................................115 Agriscience Teachers and Their Use of Content Area Reading in Agriscience117 Agriscience teachers had limited understanding about implementing CARS......................................................................................................117 Agriscience teachers used a variet y of other reading materials.................118 Teachers Participate in Professional De velopment Related to Content Area Reading..........................................................................................................119 Agriscience teachers need assi stance with implementing CARS..............119 Pressures to Teach Reading...............................................................................120 Students Motivation to Read............................................................................121 Student motivation to read was lacking.....................................................121 When teachers were interested in th e reading and comfortable with using CARS, they were more effective w ith motivating students to read and use CARS................................................................................................123 Teachers indicated that they would continue to implement CARS in agriscience courses.................................................................................124 Summary...................................................................................................................124 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS...........................126 Introduction...............................................................................................................126 Methods....................................................................................................................128 Summary of Findings...............................................................................................130 Research Objectives..................................................................................................130 Objective 1: Description of Stude nts Participating in This Study....................130 Objective 2: Description of the Vari ance in Agriculture Post-Test Scores......134 Objective 3: Description of the Vari ance in the Motivation to Read Score.....135 Objective 4: Description of the Vari ance in the Agricultural Comprehension Scores.............................................................................................................135 Research Hypotheses................................................................................................136 Research Questions...................................................................................................136 Question 1: How do agriculture teachers perceive their role in developing students reading comprehension skills?.......................................................137 Question 2: What are teachers re actions to implementing CARS in agriscience?....................................................................................................137 Question 3: How do agriscience teachers model good literacy?......................138 Question 4: What strategies are effective in assisti ng agriscience teachers in implementing CARS?....................................................................................138 Question 5: What are the barriers to reading instruction in agriscience?.........139 Conclusions...............................................................................................................139

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x Discussion and Implications.....................................................................................140 Objective 1: Description of the St udents Participating in This Study..............140 Conclusion 1A: students in Agriscience Foundations are generally ninth graders, White, male, and higher SES....................................................140 Conclusion 1B: Students read below grade level.......................................141 Conclusion 1C: treatment group students read significantly more hours per week for pleasure and increased ti me per week of pleasure reading143 Conclusion 1D: students are generally lack ing in motivation to read........144 Objective 2: Description of the Variance in Agriculture Post-Test..................146 Conclusion 2: demographic factors explain variance in agriculture posttest score.................................................................................................146 Objective 3: Description of the Va riance in Motivation to Read Score...........147 Conclusion 3: student characteri stics do not significantly impact motivation to read...................................................................................147 Objective 4: Description of the Va riance in Agricultural Comprehension Scores.............................................................................................................148 Conclusion 4: white students ea rning higher GPA and FCAT reading levels score higher on comprehension....................................................148 Conclusions Regarding the Hypotheses...................................................................149 Ha 1: Comprehension of Agricultural Concepts.................................................149 Ha 2: Motivation to Read...................................................................................151 Interviews..........................................................................................................152 Conclusion 6A: agriscience teachers had implemented few or no CARS.153 Conclusion 6B: limited knowledge of and confidence in using CARS.....154 Conclusion 6C: comparison group teachers implement many strategies...156 Conclusion 6D: pressure to implement read ing and CARS in agriscience157 Conclusion 6E: motivation to implement CARS.......................................158 Recommendations for Practitioners..........................................................................159 Recommendations for Further Research..................................................................161 APPENDIX A CORRESPONDENCE WITH TEACHERS............................................................162 B DATA REPORTING FORMS.................................................................................173 C LESSON PLANS: COMPARISON GROUP..........................................................177 D LESSON PLANS: TREATMENT GROUP............................................................229 E PANEL OF EXPERTS.............................................................................................340 F INSTRUMENTS......................................................................................................341 LIST OF REFERENCES.................................................................................................349 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................372

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xi LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1. Fry Readability.........................................................................................................77 3-2. Canonical discriminant coefficients for the Adapted Motivations for Reading Questionnaire ( n = 37)..............................................................................................81 4-1. Schools participating in the study............................................................................90 4-2. Instructional time on Agriscience Foundations lessons...........................................91 4-3. Number of strategies employed................................................................................92 4-4. Student gender distribution......................................................................................92 4-5. Student grade level distribution................................................................................93 4-6. Student ethnic ity distribution...................................................................................94 4-7. Student SES distribution as determ ined by free and reduced lunch counts.............94 4-8. Student letter grade distribution...............................................................................95 4-9. Student FCAT reading level distribution.................................................................96 4-10. Motivation to read assessment scores ( n = 95)........................................................97 4-11. Students agriculture preand post-test performance (percent correct)...................98 4-12. Reading habits of students ( n = 95)..........................................................................99 4-13. Change in reading habits of students ( n = 95)........................................................100 4-14. Correlations between continuous variables............................................................102 4-15. Point biserial correlations between categorical variables.......................................103 4-16. Backward regression analysis to pr edict agricultu re comprehension scorea..........105

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xii 4-17. Backward regression analysis to predict comprehension portion of the agriculture post-testa...............................................................................................106 5-1. School district level FCAT reading levels ( n = 1778)a..........................................131

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xiii LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1. A Heuristic for Thinking About Reading Comprehension......................................18 2-1. A Heuristic for Thinking About Reading Comprehension......................................27 2-2. Strategies of Proficient Readers...............................................................................43

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xiv Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy EFFECT OF CONTENT AREA READING STRATEGY ON ACHIEVEMENT IN SECONDARY AGRISCIENCE By Travis Dale Park May 2005 Chair: Ed Osborne Major Department: Agricultur al Education and Communication This study addressed improving agrisc ience students comprehension by implementing content area reading strategies (CARS). Objectives included describing grade level, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), grade point average (GPA), and Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) reading levels of students, and describing variance in agriculture comprehens ion and motivation to read explained by these characteristics. Hypotheses included students (Ha1) comprehension of agricultural concepts and (Ha2) motivation to read will be significantly greater using CARS versus those using teachers normal instruction. Questions lead ing qualitative inquiry included 1) how do agriculture teachers develop students readi ng comprehension skills, 2) how do teachers implement CARS, and 3) what are the barriers to reading instruction? Independent variables were CARS versus the teachers norm al instruction. Dependent variables were motivation to read and agriculture comprehension. Antecedent

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xv variables were gender, grade le vel, ethnicity, and SES. FC AT reading levels, GPA, and agriculture and motivation pr e-tests were covariates. A quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group design determined the effect of implementing CARS on agricultu ral comprehension and attitu de toward reading of a purposively selected sample (n = 95) of s econdary agriscience students, enrolled in Agriscience Foundations in Fl orida. The study compared CARS instruction with the teachers normal instruction. Over 60% of students read at the lowe st two FCAT reading levels, while 11.6% read at the highest two levels. Students were generally lacking in motivation to read. Agriculture pre-test score, gr ade level, GPA, gender, ethn icity, and FCAT reading level predicted 65.0% of variance in agriculture pos t-test scores. Regre ssion analysis did not produce a model that was statistically signifi cant for motivation to read. GPA and FCAT reading level predicted 39.4% of variance in the comprehens ion portion post-test score. Because the treatment effect produced no signifi cant correlations and was not significant in explaining the variance in any of the models, MANCOVA and ANCOVA procedures were not conducted. Prior to the study, agriscience teachers implemented few or no CARS. They possessed limited knowledge and confiden ce in using CARS. Teachers in the comparison group implemented twice as many st rategies, yet their students arrived at nearly the same level of agricultural compre hension and motivation as students in the treatment group.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Introduction to the Study This study used a quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group design to determine the effect of implementing read ing strategies on the agricultural content knowledge and attitude toward reading of secondary agrisc ience students, specifically students enrolled in the ninth-grade Agriscie nce Foundations course. The study utilized intact classes of ninth-grade students in si x Florida high schools. The study focused on implementing reading strategies in each of the three micro-periods of reading: prereading, during reading, and post-reading (S now, 2002). The study compared the set of reading strategies with the teachers normal routine of instruction. Background of the Study With assessment and accountability permeati ng our educational system, all teachers are being called upon to demonstrate their effectiveness in teaching and improving students achievement in math, science, and reading. Further, adolescents entering the adult world in the 21st century will read a nd write more than any other time in human history (Moore, Bean, Birdyshaw, & Rycik, 19 99, p. 3). The world is teeming with text and information; thus students must employ ma ny comprehension skills to navigate this complex of information. All high school gr aduates must possess skills necessary for understanding, creating, and a pplying meaning from text (Snow, 2002; Whipple, 1925), so reading must occur in all areas of l earning (DArcangelo, 2002), including secondary agriscience.

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2 Need for Reading Adolescents need to have strong reading skills so they can excel in academics, create meaning in their environment, a nd productively function in society (Forget & Bottoms, 2000; Meltzer, 2001). Students need reading skills in car eers, households, in citizenship, and in their pe rsonal lives (DArcangelo, 2002; Guthrie, 1988; Guthrie, Schafer, Wang, & Afflerbach, 1995; Meltzer). The reading and literacy development of adolescents prepares them for success and le arning in school and throughout their lives beyond school (National Reading Pane l [NRP], 2000; Vacca, 2002a). Students need reading skills to analyze and comprehend the plethora of knowledge and facts available through the Internet and other media (Moore et al., 1999; Swafford & Kallus, 2002; Vacca, 2002b). Good readers can internalize information, make critical decisions, and form opinions (DArcangelo, 200 2). Building students literacy skills empowers students to grow, improve, and de velop; yet most secondary educational systems are not adequately preparing students to develop the types a nd levels of reading and literacy necessary for success. Reading Failures Reading is necessary for learning, yet st udents may not be obtaining the reading help that they need to be successful. Stude nts in the United States compare poorly with their counterparts in other developed countri es, especially where content knowledge and literacy are central to the curriculum (Snow, 2002). This lack of reading and comprehension ability in high school translates into failures later in life. Students are unprepared for the academic language encount ered in college (Wright, 1998). Little advancement is being made in developing the reading skills of secondary students (Snow).

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3 The basic level of reading i ndicates that students can de monstrate partial mastery of reading. They possess the prerequisite knowle dge and skills necessary for performing at grade level but cannot demonstrate mastery of reading. Nationally, 32% of eighth grade boys and 19% of eighth grade gi rls cannot read at this basi c level (National Center for Educational Statistics [NCES] 2001). This means that th ese students cannot understand texts, make interpretations, or relate to text concepts. At the twelfth grade, these figures are only slightly better: 26% of all students failing to r ead at the basic level, including 30% of boys and 17% of girls (NCES; Wirt et al., 2004). Further, since 1971 the reading ability of the nations 17-year-olds has remain ed relatively consistent, neither improving nor declining (NCES). Educators are maki ng little advancement in teaching students how to comprehend and apply text, especi ally for struggling readers (Cappella & Weinstein, 2001). One aspect of reading is th e construction of meaning from text (Snow, 2002). Yet, fewer than five percent of adolescents, st udents in grades eight through twelve, can extend or elaborate the meanings of material s they read (Moore et al., 1999; NCES, 2001, 2003). This means that secondary students cannot combine information from their own background knowledge or information in other text s with material that they are currently reading in order to construct meaning and solve problems. They cannot generate new knowledge from text. They cannot construct meaning from text and are at risk for reading failure. Failure to learn to read has contributed to students alienation from education (Vacca & Vacca, 2002). The children most at ri sk for reading failure are the poor and otherwise estranged from school (Cappell a & Weinstein, 2001; Wirt et al., 2004;

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4 Zimmerman & Brown, 2003). While a portion of students lack the basic reading skills and are alienated from school, almost all students need support in learning vocabulary, managing reading styles, developing a positive attitude toward liter acy, and learning and applying reading strategies independen tly (Meltzer, 2001; M oore et al., 1999). Secondary Reading Reading in secondary schools and content areas is vital to students development of comprehension skills. Yet many students lack the requisite skills to understand and apply meaning from texts. Therefor e they disengage with reading in the content areas and for pleasure. Further, content area texts of ten contain complex and difficult vocabulary, structure, and concepts (Kim, Vaughn, Wanze k, & Wei, 2004). The reading activities are also demanding and involve problem solving a nd critical thinking. Teachers are often unprepared to teach reading strategies and do not employ reading on a regular basis (Bintz, 1997; Cresson, 1999; Digisi, 1993; Me nke & Davey, 1994). As the context of reading in secondary schools shifts with each passing period, st udents are required to shift knowledge, thinking skills, and contex ts in order to comprehend coursework. Additionally, students often fa il to realize the connection between reading in content areas and applications in their personal lives. Readence, Bean, and Baldwin (1989) pr oposed assumptions and misconceptions about reading in content areas that must be overcome for learning to take place. These assumptions and misconceptions include: 1. Students have learned to r ead in elementary schools. 2. Students have sufficient prior knowledge to cope with important information in content text. 3. The processes involved in efficiently r eading and comprehending in content texts are identical to those utilized in reading in elementary school.

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5 4. Remedial reading classes will provide str uggling readers with the necessary reading skills for success in subject-matter reading. 5. Content reading means teaching skills not directly related to subject areas. 6. Subject matter specialists are information dispensers. Reader As students move from middle to high sc hool, demands on literacy skills increase, and students must become more adept at mee ting the challenges of sophisticated content area reading and information (Baer & Nour ie, 1993; Jacobs, 2002; Meltzer, 2001; Musthafa, 1996; Snow, 2002; Tomlinson, 1995). Whereas reading in elementary schools focuses on learning to read, secondary and c ontent area reading fo cuses on reading to learn (Baer & Nourie; Moore et al., 1999). Although students ha ve learned to read, they begin to struggle with reading comprehensi on after the fourth gr ade (Allington, 2002). After elementary school reading courses, st udents receive few opportunities for intensive instruction in reading and comprehension in middle or secondary school (Durkin, 1978; Forget & Bottoms, 2000; Meltzer; Snow). This lack of instruction contributes to the widening gap of reading abil ities among students and their subsequent alienation from reading (Bryant, 2003; Baer & N ourie; Tovani & Keene, 2000). These struggling, alienated readers deve lop a downward spiral of reading experiences (Cibrowski, 1995; Readence et al., 1989). They expend more time and energy in constructing meaning from text and exhibit a labored and choppy reading style that strains their attention and interest (Cibrowski, p. 96). Struggling readers overattend to individual words and are unable to use context to predict meaning and develop comprehension. In essence, their mired at tempts at comprehending text elicit poor performance and poor attitudes toward readi ng, resulting in less time spent reading. For

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6 students who struggle with reading, school b ecomes a period of life to endure, rather than a pathway to success (Bean, 2001, 12). Time spent reading is related to reading success and is associated with positive attitudes toward additional reading, increased knowledge of the world, and provisions for worthwhile life experiences. The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Reading Report Card reported that students who read more for school and pleasure had higher average reading scores than stude nts who did not read (Donahue, Voelkl, Campbell, & Mazzeo, 1999). However, the am ount of time students dedicate to reading for pleasure declines through school (Guthrie, 2001; Moore et al., 1999, Readence, Bean, & Baldwin, 1998). Encouraging stud ents to read is vital for th eir success even outside of school (Bean, 2001), yet content area teachers are rarely mentioned as positive role models for reading in seconda ry schools (Readence et al.). Text The structure and syntax of text become more complex and demanding in content areas (Allington, 2002). Accordi ng to the Strategic Literacy Initiative (2 001), Reading is a different task when we read literature, science texts, historical analyses, newspapers, tax forms, [which is why] teaching students how to read texts in academic disciplines is a key part of teaching them th ese disciplines (p. 1). While textbooks are the predominant form of reading material in classrooms, teach ers also rely upon technical and trade books, magazines, newspapers, the Internet, and other electronic text s (Vacca & Vacca, 2002). Understanding the language of content areas is essential to student comprehension and achievement. If students fail to grasp the language, then they fail to grasp the concepts in the language (Meltzer, 2001). Students must be able to learn from the language of expository texts, even when the topic is unfamiliar and the reading is

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7 demanding (Alexander & Kulikowich, 1991; Bart on, Heidema, & Jordan, 2002). Content area texts are conceptually dense and organi zed for information, thus demanding special reading skills for inference and critical thinking (Allingt on, 2002) and to discern the worthwhile information (Bean, 2001). Le ss skilled readers may require adaptive techniques to help in comprehending e xpository texts (Horton, Lovitt, & Bergerud, 1990). With the variety and difficulty of te xt materials found in secondary agriscience courses, navigating these challenging texts may be nearly impossible for some students without teacher assistance. Activity Students may realize they are poor readers but lack the knowledge of strategies to improve their reading abilitie s (DArcangelo, 2002; Forget & Bottoms, 2000; Horton et al., 1990). Many secondary students are at ri sk of reading failure and need reading instruction to continue to build their readi ng skills. They do not know how to read for comprehension and have not developed the skill s necessary to learn e ffectively from text (Bulgren & Scanlon, 1997-98; DArcangelo; Forget & Bottom s; Horton et al.). Many older students do not receive the support needed to help them grow from fluent decoders into strategic readers (Vacca, 2002). Teacher s must adopt strategic teaching practices that will help students acquire both concepts critical to curricular content and learning strategies they need to be independent learne rs and processors of information (Bulgren & Scanlon, p. 292). Sociocultural context The overarching goal of content area reading is to foster the development of active, engaged, independent readers and learners (Forget & Bottoms, 2000). Content area reading is difficult (Allington, 2002; Bryant Ugel, & Thompson, 1999), especially as

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8 students change classes, and they are required to shift the focus of their content knowledge (DArcangelo, 2002). Within the co ntext of diverse content areas, students are expected to remember volumes of fact s, figures, and information (Baer & Nourie, 1993). Content area reading emphasizes applic ation, as well as reading to learn and comprehension of content area material (B aer & Nourie). Thes e factors compound to make reading in the content area a challeng e for many students. Thus, subject area teachers may be in the best position to teach how to read for l earning and application (Readence et al., 1989). The type of reading required for comprehe nsion in different s ubject areas differs across content areas. Vocabulary and concepts in content areas are more specialized and technical in nature than read ing for pleasure. New vocabul ary words are introduced at a rapid pace and are vital for comprehension of the subject matter (A llington, 2002; Baer & Nourie, 1993). Beginning in the fourth grade, students encounter voc abulary that is less conversational and familiar, while being mo re specialized, technical, and abstract (Allington). Content area reading . freque ntly covers concepts that extend beyond the knowledge of many children and adds to this difficulty by introducing [information] in rapid-fire fashion (Baer & Nourie, p. 1). Further, in order for students to fully comprehend ideas and concepts in text, hands-o n activities, field trips, discussions, and other experiences are often necessary for full comprehension, vocabulary development, and concept knowledge (Duke & Pearson, 2002). Adolescents need well-devel oped reading instruction in content areas in order to improve comprehension and learning (Meltz er, 2001; Moore et al ., 1999). Students should be able to question themselves about what they have read, synthesize information

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9 from various sources, identify and understa nd vocabulary, recognize text structure and learn from that structure, organize informati on in class notes, interp ret symbol systems in content areas, judge information for their own understanding, and eval uate authors ideas and perspectives (S now, 2002; Vacca, 2002). Teacher In order to help students learn from te xtual information, teaching reading is every teachers responsibility. Good instruction is the most e ffective means of increasing student comprehension and developing skill ed readers (Snow, 2002; Tomlinson, 1995). Because many content areas use text, the res ponsibility for teaching reading strategies belongs to all teachers in all subjec ts (Alexander & Kulikowich, 1991; Florida Department of Education [FDOE], 2004a ; Vacca, 2002). Yet, few teachers employ reading strategies in their classrooms (Ba rry, 2002; Bean, 1997; Durkin, 1978; Irvin & Connors, 1989; Ivey, 2002; Menke & Da vey, 1994; Morawski & Brunhuber, 1995). Teachers have three primary reasons for failing to use reading strategies: 1) teachers feel inadequate to handle reading probl ems in their classrooms, 2) teachers feel that reading instruction infringes on cont ent area time, and 3) many teachers deny the importance of reading techniques (Barry, 2002; Bean, 1997; Cresson, 1999; Digisi, 1993; Durkin, 1978; Moore et al., 1999; Rhoder, 2002; Snow, 2002; Stewart & OBrien, 1989). These provide the reasons why many conten t area teachers do not teach or reinforce reading in their content area. Many teachers deny responsib ility for teaching students to read and write (DArcangelo, 2002; Forget & Bottoms, 2000; Jacobs, 2002; Moore et al.; Vaughn, Klinger, & Bryant, 2001). Secondary teachers expect students to have the reading abilities necessary to read in the c ontent areas (Readence et al., 1989; Snow). They perceive their primary function as prep aring students in thei r subject area for high

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10 school or college (DArcangelo; Forget & Bott oms; Jacobs; Moore et al.; Vacca, 2002). Some teachers even strive to minimize the am ount of reading and writing in their classes (Allen, 2000; Cziko, 1998). Content area teachers can make a differen ce in students education by incorporating reading strategies into mini-l essons as they teach their c ontent area repertoire (Baer & Nourie, 1993; Vacca, 2002). Reading instru ction includes promoting active, mindful reading and teaching students to use st rategies (Rhoder, 2002, p. 498). Teachers can teach strategies that help activate studen ts prior knowledge and clearly define the purposes for reading (McKenna & Robinson, 2002) This instruction in the development and use of reading strategies requires explanation, mode ling, practice, and application (Vacca). Teaching collections or packages of reading comprehension strategies improves student comprehension of many kinds of texts (Duke & Pearson, 2002). Problem Statement Reading strategies are vitally important fo r all content areas, es pecially technical science areas such as agriscience. Reading correlates to comprehe nsion and learning in the content area for many students; howeve r, many high school students do not know how to read for comprehension (Forget & Bottoms, 2000; Moore et al., 1999; NCES, 2001; Snow, 2002). Research has demonstrated that when teachers infuse reading strategies into their content area lessons a nd develop structured reading assignments in the classroom, student performance and le arning also increase (Forget & Bottoms; McKenna & Robinson, 2002; Meltzer, 2001; Moore et al.; Snow; Tomlinson, 1995; Vacca, 2002). The primary problem addressed in this study was the continuing subpar reading performance of a large number of secondary students and the lack of research on

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11 effective strategies for integrating content ar ea reading in agriscien ce. Several reasons for focusing on reading improvement in high schools exist: All high school graduates are facing an increased need for a high degree of literacy, including the capacity to comprehend comp lex texts, yet comprehension outcomes are not improving. At an increasing rate, students in the Un ited States are falling behind in comparison with students in other count ries as they enter the later years of schooling when discipline-specific content and subject-matter learning are central to the curriculum. Little direct attention has been devoted to helping teachers develop the skills they need to promote reading comprehensi on and ensure cont ent learning through reading (Snow, 2002, p. xi). Several questions arise rega rding content area reading comprehension and students attitudes toward reading in seconda ry agriscience: How can high school agriscience teac hers improve students reading comprehension? What strategies are effective for improvi ng adolescents comprehension of text in agriscience? How does strategy instruction in agriscience affect motivation to read? What is the agriscience teach ers role in students comprehension and motivation to read. How do agriculture teachers perceive their role in assisting students in developing reading comprehension skills in agriscience? What are teachers reactions to implementi ng the content area reading strategies in agriscience? How effective are these efforts? How do agriscience teachers model good literacy? What strategies are effective in assist ing agriscience teachers in implementing content area reading strategies? What are the barriers to readi ng instruction in agriscience? The primary research question addre ssed in this study was, How does implementing content area reading strategies that focus on the three micro-periods of

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12 reading affect agriscience stude nts knowledge of agricultural concepts and motivation to read? Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to explore th e effects of content area reading strategy instruction on agriculture comprehension and motivation to read. The study also attempted to gain insights into a descript ion of students enrolled in Agriscience Foundations in Florida with regards to factors pertaini ng to reading achievement. Finally, the study attempted to investigate reasons how and why ag riscience teachers implement or fail to implement content area reading strategies in their agriscience courses. Statement of Objectives The objectives of this study were: 1. Describe the grade level, gender, et hnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading achievement levels of students participating in this study. 2. Describe the variance in agriculture post -score explained by th e linear combination of treatment group, grade level, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading achievement levels of students. 3. Describe the variance in motivation to r ead post-test score explained by the linear combination of treatment group, grade leve l, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading achievement levels of students. 4. Describe the variance in comprehension score explained by the linear combination of treatment group, grade level, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading achievement levels of students. Hypotheses For this study, resear ch hypotheses included, Ha 1: Comprehension of agricu ltural concepts will be significantly greater for secondary agriscience students using readi ng strategies versus those students using the teachers traditional routine in agriscience classes.

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13 Ha 2: Motivation to read will be significan tly greater for secondary agriscience students using reading strategies versus those students using the teachers traditional routine in agriscience classes. Qualitative Inquiry This study also attempted to answer que stions regarding agriscience teachers method of and reasons for implementing co ntent area reading st rategies in their Agriscience Foundations course. In order to accomplish this object ive, the following questions led the long interv iew process with teachers: 1. How do agriculture teachers perceive their role in assisting students in developing reading comprehension skills in agriscience? 2. What are teachers reactions to implementi ng the content area reading strategies in agriscience? How effective are these efforts? 3. How do agriscience teachers model good literacy? 4. What strategies are effective in assist ing agriscience teachers in implementing content area reading strategies? 5. What are the barriers to readi ng instruction in agriscience? Significance of the Study What does it mean to be literate in agricu lture? Literacy is the ability of the learner to perform reading and writing tasks (National Institute of Health, 2002, p. 6). Literacy is the ability to in teract with current knowledge, then create new knowledge and apply it to specific situations (B.G. P ace, personal communication, April 15, 2003). Literacy in a specific field depends upon th e processes and knowledge of that field. Successful reading in agriculture necessitate s students experiences and abilities in the food and fiber industry. Since agriscience courses are offered as career and technical education (CTE) electives in most high schools, students en rolling in these cour ses are often more motivated to learn about the content area and may be more motivated to implement

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14 reading strategies to gain the technical co mprehension necessary for problem-solving in agriculture. However, CTE programs, such as school-based agricu ltural education, are less likely to employ communica tion skills, such as writing reports, reading texts, and presenting speeches (Forget & Bottoms, 2000). To further exacerbate the problems of comprehension, agriscience courses do not re ly solely on textbooks but integrate other sources of information (Gartin, Varner-Fri ddle, Lawrence, Odell, & Rinehart, 1994), challenging students to comprehend more complex and technical materials. Agriscience programs have been striving to integrate math, reading, and science into classroom curricula (Belcher, McCaslin, & Headley, 1996). Ther e is great need for improvement in integration of core academic subject matter in CTE courses, although teachers often face difficulty w ith integration and assessment of core subjects (Conroy & Walker, 2000; Gartin et al., 1994). The di versity of content domains and teacher knowledge of literacy presents challenges to incorporating education in reading and writing in a vocational context (Kakela, 1993, p. 390). Still, literacy is a key to developing the transferable ski lls that are needed for vocatio ns in the future (Kakela, p. 390), including those in agriscience. Rural students typically enroll in agriscie nce courses and may be at a disadvantage in terms of overall educati onal opportunities. Investigati ng the educational experiences and academic achievement of rural students compared to suburban and urban students, McDermott (1998) concluded that a higher pr oportion of rural stud ents enroll in CTE courses than urban or suburba n students. Rural students also struggle with reading comprehension, math, and science compared to other students.

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15 Thus, this study holds significance for agricu ltural education for several reasons. Initially, the study proposes to investigate the efficacy of teaching the reading strategies in the agriscience context, which is unique from other secondary education contexts. Secondly, implementing a package of strategies tailored to the th ree micro-periods of reading has not been tested in agriscience. Thirdly, the length of the study, over two months, is longer than most other studies re lated to implementing r eading strategies, yet researchers suggest that longer durations ar e necessary for successful strategy adoption. Fourthly, this set of reading strategies repr esents a flow of cognitive strategy use that makes senseincorporating prior knowledge activation, making the reading processes visible through read-alouds, organizing text information with graphic organizers, and summarizing passages into usable chunks of knowledge. Among the myriad of content area reading stra tegies available to teachers, this set of reading strategies simplifies reading comprehension instruction for secondary agriscience teachers, providing a usable set of strategies for students. Finally, this study provides evidence for strategy instruction and helpful research in boosting the comprehension and motivation to read of s econdary students who struggle with reading expository passages. Definition of Terms Gender Gender was operationally defined as being male or female. Ethnicity Ethnicity was operationally defined as Wh ite or minority, which includes American Indian or Alaskan native, Black or Afri can American, Hispanic or Latino, Asian, Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, or other ethnic background.

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16 Socioeconomic Status (SES) Socioeconomic status (SES) was operationall y defined as the level of school lunch subsidy provided a student. High SES in cludes students for whom no lunch financial subsidy was provided. Low SES includes st udents on free and reduced lunch programs. Grade Level Grade level was operationally defined as the students current grade level classification, most likely ninth grade, tenth grade, eleventh grade, or twelfth grade. Grade Point Average (GPA) Grade point average (GPA) was operationa lly defined as the cumulative earned grade average based upon a four-point scale. Treatment Group The treatment group was defined as thos e students taught using a prescribed curricula with content area read ing strategies (CARS) embedded. Comparison Group The comparison group was defined as those students taught with the teachers normal routine of instruction. Reading Reading was operationally defined as an in teractive constructive process in which the reader independently or socially draws on strategies prior knowledge, and future goals to construct meaning from text (B arton et al., 2002; McKenna & Robinson, 2002; Ryder & Graves, 1994). Reading is a r ecursive process that requires active engagement (DArcangelo, 2002, p. 14). It is likened to a conversation between two parties (Durkin, 1993; Harris & Hodges, 1995; NRP, 2000; Ryder & Graves; Smith, 1982; Vacca & Vacca, 2002), the reader a nd the text within a specific context

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17 (International Reading Associ ation (IRA), 1988; Kintch, 1998) where the readers mind is alive with questionscognitive questions (Vacca & Vacca, p. 18). Content Area Reading Content area reading was operationally define d as reading that u tilizes a set of prereading, during reading, and post-reading st rategies to enhance comprehension of agricultural concepts. It is the cons truction of flexible and usable knowledge (Chapman, 2003, p. 4) within a content area. Comprehension Comprehension was operationally defined as the percentage of correct answers on the agriculture preand post-tests. It has b een more commonly define d as the process of simultaneously extracting and constructing m eaning through interaction and involvement with written language (Snow, 2002, p. 11, see Figure 1). It entails three elements: the reader, text, and activity. Comprehension i nvolves prior knowledge knowledge of text structures, and an active sear ch of information for given purposes, such as solving problems. (Devine, 1986; Gillet & Temp le, 2000; Pearson & Johnson, 1978; Ryder & Graves, 1994; Schoenbach, Greenleaf, Cziko, & Hurwitz, 1999). It often involves the construction of new knowledge (Hager & Gabel, 1993; Harris & Hodges, 1995; IRA, 1988; NRP, 2000; Park & Osborne, 2004; Rumelhart, 1977)

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18 Figure 1-1. A Heuristic fo r Thinking About Reading Comprehension (Snow, 2002). Microperiod Comprehension occurs in three microperi ods of reading (IRA, 1988; Snider, 1989; Snow, 2002). A microperiod was defined as one of the three consecutive episodes of reading: pre-reading, duri ng reading, and post-reading. Motivation to Read Motivation to read was operat ionally defined as the scor es obtained on the Adapted Motivations for Reading (Wigfield & Guthrie, 2004) preand post-te sts. Motivation has been defined by other researchers as those feel ings that cause a reader to approach or avoid a reading situation (R eadence et al., 1989, p. 102). Motivation to read depends upon the expectation of successful performa nce when trying reasonably hard and the value available rewards for success (Good & Brophy, 1991). In this study, motivation to read was operationally defined as the student s score on a 14-item Likert-type instrument where 1 equal very different from me and 4 equals a lot like me Sociocultural Context Teache r Text Reader Activity

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19 Comprehension Portion of the Agriculture Post-Test The comprehension portion of the agriculture post-test was operationally defined as those comprehension assessment activities invo lving students reading a selected passage of related content text and then either constructing a c oncept map or writing a summary. FCAT Reading Levels The reading abilities of stude nts in Florida are assessed using a standardized test, called the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT). For reading, students are assigned to one of five readi ng levels. The definition of the FCAT reading levels are 1. Reading level 5 was the level that indicat es that the student has success with the most challenging content of the Sunshi ne State Standards (FDOE, 2004f, p. 4). 2. Reading level 4 was the level that indicat es that the student has success with the challenging content of the Sunshine State Standards (FDOE, 2004f, p. 4). This is the first level of read ing above grade level. 3. Reading level 3 was the level that indicates that the student has partial success with the challenging content of the Sunshine State Standards, but performance is not consistent (FDOE, 2004f, p. 4). This is generally considered reading at grade level. 4. Reading level 2 was the level that indicates th at the student has limited success with the challenging content of the Sunshine State Standards (FDOE, 2004f, p. 4). This is generally considered reading below grade level. 5. Reading level 1 was indicates that the student has little success with the challenging content of the Sunshine State Standards (FDOE, 2004f, p. 4). Engaged Readers Engaged readers were readers who are intrinsically motivated to read for knowledge, enjoyment, or other purposes (G uthrie, 2001, 1996). These readers are often motivated to use reading st rategies (Guthrie, 1996). Struggling Readers Struggling readers were operationally de fined as readers for whom learning and comprehending from text is especially challenging (Readence et al., 1989).

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20 Limitations of the Study Like scholarly studies of similar comple xity, limitations of this study exist and impact the generalizability of this particular study. First, because this study employed a quasi-experimental design using intact cla sses of students in a nonequivalent control group design, results are not generalizable to the larger population of all students, or those enrolled in secondary ag riscience courses. Results of this study are limited only to those students participating in this study. Pure randomiza tion and sample selection was neither possible, nor appropriate, due to the nature of agriscience courses, teachers willingness to implement strategies, experi mentation with human subjects, and the inability to rearrange the student s enrolled in intact classes. Second, because reading comprehension is a contextualized creation of meaning, and strategies are also contextualized, this package of reading comp rehension strategies may be best suited to investigations and t eaching practice in agrisc ience. The set of reading strategies targets co mprehension from expository text, where the main goal is learning agriscience concepts. These same st rategies may not be appropriate for other disciplines or other genres of reading. Thus, generalizations of findings related to this set of reading strategy instructi on to improve agriscience students comprehension may not be appropriate. Another limitation of the study is the dur ation of the study. While a longer term study, perhaps a year or more, would have b een preferable, the time constraints on this study were prohibitive. Further, with regard to timing, this study was limited in part to some of the participating schools experienci ng school cancellations and delays due to Hurricanes Charlie Frances and Ivan

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21 While the researcher attempted to control for all extraneous variables related to comprehension of agriscience concepts and motivation to read, measuring changes in students comprehension and motivation to r ead were enormously complex undertakings. For example, the teachers attitude toward reading strategy instru ction and his or her personal values toward reading may have a ffected reading strategy instruction. The teachers ability to instruct also factored into students comprehension and motivation to read. While attempting to normalize instruct ion through purposive selection of teachers and design of the curriculum, controlling for these complex variables is beyond the scope of this study. Additionally, ot her demographic variables may have influenced results of this study related to reading comp rehension and motivation to read. Summary This chapter provided the background for research involving content area reading strategies to determine thei r effect on comprehension of agriscience concepts and motivation to read in secondary agriscien ce courses. Significance for the study and hypotheses were outlined. This study dete rmined the effect of reading strategy instruction on students comprehension of agri cultural concepts and motivation to read. The objectives of this study included: 1. Describe the grade level, gender, et hnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading achievement levels of students participating in this study. 2. Describe the variance in agriculture po st-test score explained by the linear combination of treatment group, grade leve l, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading achievement levels of students. 3. Describe the variance in motivation to r ead post-test score explained by the linear combination of treatment group, grade leve l, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading achievement levels of students.

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22 4. Describe the variance in agricultural co mprehension score explained by the linear combination of treatment group, grade leve l, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading achievement levels of students. For this study, research hypotheses included: Ha 1: Comprehension of agricu ltural concepts will be significantly greater for secondary agriscience students using readi ng strategies versus those students using the teachers traditional routine in agriscience classes. Ha 2: Motivation to read will be significan tly greater for secondary agriscience students using reading strategies versus those students using the teachers traditional routine in agriscience classes. Questions leading the qualitative inquiry include: 1. How do agriculture teachers perceive their role in assisting students in developing reading comprehension skills in agriscience? 2. What are teachers reactions to implementi ng the content area reading strategies in agriscience? How effective are these efforts? 3. How do agriscience teachers model good literacy? 4. What strategies are effective in assist ing agriscience teachers in implementing content area reading strategies? 5. What are the barriers to readi ng instruction in agriscience? The chapter also included operational definitions of terms related to reading, comprehension, and motivation to read. Fina lly, limitations of the study were discussed. Chapter 2 will introduce and explain theore tical and conceptual frameworks for comprehension and motivation to read wh ich guided this research. Additionally, empirical research related to comprehension, content area reading strategy instruction, and motivation to read will be addressed.

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23 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Introduction The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effect of implementing a set of reading strategies on students comprehension of agriscience concepts and motivation to read. Specifically, severa l hypotheses related to comprehension of agricultural concepts and mo tivation to read were investigated during this study. This chapter presents a review of literature related to reading in content areas with a focus on comprehension and motivation to read The focus is on literature describing theories of reading and empirical resear ch related to readi ng comprehension and motivation to read. Research related to conten t area reading comprehension instruction, reading strategy use, and influences on the motiv ation to read are included in this chapter. The independent variable in this st udy was reading st rategy instruction, specifically, reading strategy instruction focu sing on the three micro-periods of reading. Outlining the status of reading comprehensi on instruction, Pressley (2001) supposed that if different types of instruction improve comp rehension, it just might be sensible to do all of them ( 1), thus justification for this set of reading strategies. Dependent variables for this study were comprehension of agrisc ience concepts and motivation to read. The antecedent variables were gender, ethnicity, so cioeconomic status, grade level, GPA, and FCAT reading level. This chapter reviews literature related to reading in content areas with the outcomes of comprehension and motivation to read. This chapter is divided into the following

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24 major sections: philosophical theories of read ing, an explanation of variables involved in this study, and the influence of reading stra tegy instruction on reading comprehension and motivation to read. The chapter focuses on literature describing theories of reading, and empirical research related to the so ciocultural context of reading, teacher characteristics, reader attributes, content ar ea reading strategy instru ction, the activity of reading, reading comprehension and motivation to read. Research rela ted to content area reading comprehension instruction, reading strategy use, factors associated with comprehension, and influences on the motivati on to read is included in this chapter. Philosophical Theories of Reading Schema Theory Schemata, or prior knowledge, are chunks of knowledge that exist in our minds and represent all that a person knows about a given concept (McK enna & Robinson, 2002, Rumelhart, 1980; Ryder & Graves, 1994; V acca, 2002). They are the central guidance system in comprehension representing univers al concepts and gene ralizations (Readence et al., 1989). The body of knowledge represen ted by schemata may include experiences, conceptual understanding, attit udes, values, and skills that a reader brings to a text situation (Vacca, p. 191). Schemata allow a person to construct act ions or thoughts, to determine goals, and direct the flow of information to the mi nd (Ryder & Graves, 1994, p. 140). The extent to which new information fits into existing schemata determines comprehension (Aubusbel, 1962; Ivie, 1998; Readence et al., 1989), thus prior knowledge and schemata must be activated prior to new reading (V acca, 2002). Schemata are not stored as individual concepts, bu t are interconnected via many intri cate networks of associations (McKenna & Robinson, 2002, p. 22).

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25 Schemata change over time (Ryder & Gr aves, 1994). Modification of existing schema is the essence of learning and may require a student to jettison misconceptions and restructure faulty schemata in light of new, sometimes discordant concepts (Readence et al., p. 23). Schemata are altered in three main ways: new schemata may be formed, existing schemata may be altere d, or existing schemata may be expanded (McKenna & Robinson, 2002). For agriscie nce teachers, especially those teaching students who come from non-agricultural b ackgrounds, activating prio r knowledge of an agricultural subject is necessary to improve student comprehension. Reader-Response Theory Rosenblatt (1982, 1993) asserted that reading is a transaction, a two-way process, involving a reader and a text at a particular time under a particular context (p. 268, 1993). Reader response theory suggested that thought and feelings are portions of literacy. Readers interact with texts with emotion and intelligence (DArcangelo, 2002; Durkin, 1993; Harris & Hodges, 1995; NRP, 2000; Ryder & Graves, 1994; Smith, 1982; Vacca & Vacca, 2002). Different readers respond differently to different texts (Bryant et al., 1999; Guthrie, 1988; NRP; Rosenblatt). Re ading text requires a dynamic intellectual response from the reader (Daisey, 1994; NRP; Rosenblatt; Vacca & Vacca). Reader-response theory suggests that meani ng does not reside in text, as is typical with an authoritarian view of text, but is c onstructed through the intera ctions of the reader with the text (Alvermann, 1989). Thus, reader s are a primary portion in the creation of meaning (Alvermann; Daisey, 1994; Valenc ia, Pearson, Peters, & Wixon, 1989). In analyzing statewide reading assessment s, Valencia et al (1989) stated, readers build meaning by bringing togeth er knowledge they already possess and information gained from the text ble nd[ing] thoroughly the purposes they bring

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26 to the task. The process is fluid; it varies from one read ing situation to another [in terms of] motivation, interest, cultur e, task, setting, and text (p. 58). That is, text-based plans focused on a teacher-directed, discrete skills lesson; readerbased plans emphasized a student-centered, w hole language lesson a nd interactive plans emphasized a teacher-directed lesson based on individual student differences (p. 221). Sociocultural Theory of Reading Comprehension is more than just individual students and their reading; it is socially constructed through reading, writing, and speaking. C ontextualized within the individuals social networks and their learning communities (Moje, 1996), reading is a social activity among students as they co llectively construct content and learning procedures (Rex, 2001). Reading occurs so cially as students d iscuss their personal relationships to reading in the discipline, the cognitive strategies they use to solve comprehension problems, the structure and langua ge of particular type s of texts, and the kinds of knowledge required to make sense of reading material (Schoenbach, Braunger, Greenleaf, & Litman, 2003, p. 136). Reading occurs within personal, sociocultu ral, and political c ontexts (Mann, 2000). Students are social beings with aspirations th at contextualize and ma ke particular pieces of information significant while reading. Social patterns in the classroom shape the volume and breadth of student reading (Guthrie et al., 1995). Reading activities are highly associated with social interactions among friends and family, strategies for comprehension and learning, classroom instruction, and teachers emphasis on reading (Guthrie et al.). Moje (1996) posited th at teachers and students construct meaning through interactions with each other and text and these interactions are based on past experiences, current situations and future implications.

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27 Theoretical Framework for Comprehension In 1978, Delores Durkin initiated the convers ation about quality reading instruction in school classrooms. After observing clas srooms in grades three through six, Durkin determined that almost no comprehension in struction was found (p. 481), and time was spent assessing comprehension and in non-instru ction situations. Content area teachers did not take advantage of opportunities to reinforce or teach reading comprehension strategies to their students. This landmark study alerted the reading community to the lack of reading comprehension inst ruction in content area classrooms. More recently the RAND Reading Study Gr oup (Snow, 2002) developed a research agenda for comprehension research, whic h provides the theoretical framework for thinking about and researching comprehensi on for this study. The group defined reading comprehension as, the process of simulta neously extracting and constructing meaning through interaction and involvement with written language (p. x iii). It is composed of three elements: reader, text, and activity or purpose for reading, which occur in a larger sociocultural context (see Figure 2). Figure 2-1. A Heuristic fo r Thinking About Reading Comprehension (Snow, 2002). Sociocultural Context Teache r Text Reader Activity

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28 The reader brings his or her cognitiv e capabilities, motivation, knowledge, and experiences to the reading processes (Snow, 2002). These characteristics vary from reader to reader and significantly impact the understanding of written material. The text includes the representa tion of information, including the surface code, text base, and mental models. Each different text varies in readability, voca bulary, structure, and content, thus impacting comprehension. Th e activity for reading involves the purposes, operations of reading, and outcomes of the r eading comprehension processes. Outcomes can consist of solving problems, incr easing knowledge, or engaging the reader. The context of reading comprehension is comprised of the larger sociocultural environment in which the student encounter s and navigates reading (Snow, 2002). This sociocultural context include s the teacher, but also ex tends beyond the classroom to encompass the community and world of the student. It involves social aspects of constructing meaning and the develo pment of power within society. Key Variables in This Study Key factors in this study include the read ers, the activity of reading including a package of reading strategies, and the teachers. The following sections of Chapter 2 will focus on research behind the variables rela ted to this study, including teaching reading strategies, strategy use, motivation to read, and content area comprehension. Sociocultural Context Reading occurs in the context of a larger sociocultural context that shapes and is shaped by the reader (Snow, 2002). Included in the sociocultural context are economic resources, class membership, ethnicity, ne ighborhood, technology, and the school culture. The encompassing sociocultural context in cludes communityand school-wide factors, classroom culture, specific curriculum a nd instructional strate gies, and classroom

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29 interactions between students and between the students and teacher (Snow). For this study, the primary sociocultural f actor is the teacher, his or her preparation in reading strategies, attitude toward reading, and pe rsonal reading. Guthrie (2001) proposed Classroom contexts can promote engaged reading. Teachers create contexts for engagement when they provide prominen t knowledge goals, real-world connections to reading, meaningful choices about what when, and how to read, and interesting texts that are familiar, vivid, important and relevant. Teachers can further engagement by teaching reading strategies A coherent classroom fuses these qualities ( I). Strategy instruction should be adapted to the unique subject matter and educational context where literacy is c onstructed within each cont ent area (Bean, 2001; DiCecco & Gleason, 2002; Kang, 2002; OBrien, Stewart, & Moje, 1995). Teachers must realize that teaching content area reading strategies goes beyond the contentit teaches students strategies with which to navigate inform ation, in essence, how to learn. Bean contextualized the implementation of reading strategies in recomm ending that they be tailored according to how they best fit within specific, local learning contexts ( 25). The specific, local learning context includes getting to know students and their interests and incorporating them into lessons. Guth rie and Alao (1997) proposed that motivation to read is also contextual, where students ma y be motivated to read some texts in some situations, but not in others. In an ethnographic study over the course of two years, Moje (1996) concluded that students did not transfer readi ng strategies from chemistry to other high school courses. Moje also concluded that the strategies s hould be taught in each content area not only because the knowledge is domain specific, but because domains are imbued with social practices and purposes that sh ape the knowledge constructed in them (p. 190). Mojes (1996) findings supported the noti on that teachers should explici tly teach the transfer of

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30 strategies from one domain to another, becau se of the students socially constructed assumptions about the nature of knowledge and the purpose of literacy in different content areas (p. 190). Moje recommende d that further research be conducted developing deep understandings and building th eory about the influence of contexts and purposes (p. 191) on reading practices. Teacher Strategic reading requires strategic te aching, which puts teachers in positions where their minds are the most valued educational resource (Duffy, 1993, p. 245). Expert teachers possess a deep knowledge of the reading process and comprehension and possess skills and knowledge to implement resear ch-based instructiona l strategies into teaching (Snow, 2002). The teachers personal reading habits, attit ude toward reading, and expectations for reading affect stude nt performance (Readence et al., 1989). Teachers encourage thinking processes that are essential for successful learning (Readence et al., 1989, p. 8). Further, teachers influence strategy use (Moje, 1996; Sanchez, 2003). Students are seldom willing to expend the time and effort necessary to implement comprehension strategies, and many students initiate reading strategies only when directed by the teacher (Cuevas, 2003). Yet, assessing the current practices of reading instruction, Rieckhoff (1997) determined that little change had occurred in the amount of reading instruction provided students in intermediate grad es since the Durkin study in 1978. Teachers often assessed comprehe nsion, but did little to instruct students how to comprehend written materials. Teachers paid little attention to teaching students how to comprehend, instead believed that st udents should already possess skills at applying comprehension strategies.

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31 Attitude Many teachers feel that reading is essentia l to learning in the content areas (Digisi, 1993; Morawski & Brunhuber, 1995). A surv ey of 213 secondary teachers found that they agreed with the importan ce of implementing practices to help struggling adolescent readers and would be receptive to training and information about content area reading strategies (Catone, 2001). Morawki a nd Brunhuber found that 63% of 214 teachers harbored positive feelings toward content area reading. Surveying 215 British Columbia science teachers, Yore (1991) concluded that science teachers valued reading as an impor tant learning strategy, and they generally accepted responsibility for teaching reading st rategies. Studying 215 biology teachers, Digisi (1993) found that teachers viewed reading as essential to learning biology, especially for discussion in a dvanced courses and to reinfor ce concepts in basic biology courses. Reading was especially vital to l earning scientific concepts. Examining content area reading instruction in five central Fl orida middle schools, D illon (2003) found that the majority of teachers held positive attitudes toward inclus ion of content area reading and engaged in content area reading instructi on during some portion of their classes. Teachers demonstrate their personal value on reading th rough modeling strategies and interactions with students (Bintz, 1997; Stephens, 2002). Teachers who model good reading skills and comprehension encourag e their students (Forget & Bottoms, 2000; Ivey, 2002; NRP, 2000; Rhoder, 2002). Mora wski (1995) recommended that teachers examine their own beliefs, feelings, and beha viors related to the re ading processes (p. 342) as part of encouraging content area r eading. Teachers are placing more value on the notion that an interest in reading is ultimately an interest in learning (Bintz, p. 18).

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32 Investigating beliefs about reading, pr eparation for conten t area reading, and attitudes toward content ar ea reading held by 130 Penns ylvania teachers, Jorgensen (2001) found a positive relationshi p between teachers beliefs about reading and practice (r=.33), between important reading strategies and teacher practice (r=.61), and between beliefs about reading and the need for training in content area reading strategies (r=.45). Teachers realize the importance of content area reading, yet f eel unprepared to teach and reinforce content area reading with students. Teachers often cite reasons for failing to teach or reinforce reading such as, the strong need to teach content area material, th e addition to curriculum, lack of obligation to teach content area reading, little or no training in cont ent area reading strategies (Cresson, 1999; Digisi, 1993), and an attitude that content area reading is not my job (Bintz, 1997; McAloon, 1993-94; Simonson, 1995). Other teachers often reject content area reading because of their beliefs about secondary schools, misconceptions about reading as additional teaching material, and assumptions about teaching and learning (OBrien & Stewart, 1990). In a qualitative investigation with 25 Midwestern preservice content area teachers, OBrien and Stewart f ound that teachers rejected the notion that they are teachers of reading. The teachers di d not see the relevance of reading to their particular discipline or how reading strategi es could be implemented in their courses, suggesting that other courses were more appropriate for reinforcing reading. The most resistant preservice teachers were those in agricultural education with 85% of them rejecting conten t area reading (OBrien & St ewart, 1990). Agricultural education teachers viewed themselves as already reinforcing content area reading. Because of the perception as a hands-on discipline, they ignored reading as a teaching

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33 tool. Science disciplines reje cted prereading instruction and learning from text, as they believed that when reading was necessa ry, students could en gage in reading independently. OBrien and Stewart concluded that the merits of content reading were diluted by another institutionalized misconceptionthat a dichotomy of academic track versus vocational track curricula represents a clear, logical de marcation between book learning and handson, non-text approaches to acquiring content (p. 119). In a qualitative study of middle and s econdary school teachers, Bintz (1997) concluded Teachers often feel unable or unwilli ng to teach reading in the content areas (p. 12). Teachers try to avoi d involving students in reading by assigning as little reading as possible, instead teaching around the te xtbook to ensure students understand key concepts. Secondary teachers continue to see themselves as purveyors of knowledge, not teachers of reading. Compounding the problem individuals who know the least about reading are being asked to teach reading to students who need it the most (p. 17). Teachers used different words to desc ribe the same reading nightmares: math teachers state that students cant re ad and understand math problems; science teachers state that students cant read te xts to conduct laboratory experiments; home economics teachers state that student s dont understand and therefore cant follow instructions; industrial arts and vocational education teachers state that students cant read and don t follow procedures and thus often put themselves in physical danger when operating certain machinery and equipment; English teachers state that students cant read and don t comprehend poems, short stories, and novels (Bintz, 1997, p. 16). In essence, increasing numb ers of middle and secondary sc hool students do not perceive reading as meaningful, and thus do not va lue the act or the process (p. 16). Teacher preparation and kn owledge of strategies Teacher preparation plays a significant ro le in reading in th e content areas and leads to improved student reading perfor mance (Alexander & Kulikowich, 1991; Jackson & Cunningham, 1994-95; King, 1998; Meltzer, 2001; Snow, 2002; Williams, 2002).

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34 Teachers who are prepared in the use of readi ng strategies are better able to teach about strategies, explain their impor tance, and demonstrate how to use them (Duffy, Roehler, Meloth, & Vavrus, 1986; Duffy et al., 1987) in order to assist st ruggling readers. However, the use of reading strategies ofte n requires substantial and intensive teacher preparation (Williams, p. 255) and as many as 30 instances of practice before a new routine is implemented (Carrie do & Alonso-Tapia, 1995; Snow). For some teachers, tensions exist between teachers beliefs and practices in content area reading (Bean, 2001). Mosenthal and Kirs ch (1991) ascertained that teachers have yet to place the acquisition of new knowledge and the integration of prior knowledge firmly at the core of content area reading instruction (p. 61). Surveying 442 Texas teachers about the use of textbooks and conten t area reading strategies with students, Cresson (1999) found that social studies and English teachers were most likely to assign reading, while math and science teachers were least likely. Surveying 21 experienced teachers, 15 beginning teachers, and 25 pres ervice teachers, Menke and Davey (1994) found that experienced teachers provided more class time for reading than less experienced teachers, but used text less of ten to supplement instruction. Experienced teachers were more likely to teach stude nts to use textbooks and employ cooperative learning techniques. Reader Readers possess several charac teristics, including all of the capacities, abilities, knowledge, and experience that a person brings to reading (Snow, 2002). Capacities and abilities include cognitive cap acities (e.g., attention, memory, critical analytic ability, inferencing, visualization ability), motivation (purpose for reading, interest in the content being read, self-efficacy as a reader), and various type s of knowledge (vocabulary,

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35 domain, and topic knowledge, linguistic and discourse knowledge, knowledge of specific comprehension strategies) (Snow, p. 13). As a reader begins, engages in, and completes a reading task, some or all of th ese abilities may change (NRP, 2000). Proficient readers define their purpose(s) for reading, monitor the achievement of those purposes, and activate fix-up strategies if the purposes are not being met (Ryder & Graves, 1994). They possess knowledge of mu ltiple strategies to help them retain, organize, and evaluate information that th ey read (Snow, 2002). They understand how to use strategies, employ them, and have enough background knowledge and cognitive capacity to profit from strategy use (Collins, 1994; Forget & Bottoms, 2000; Pressley, Snyder, & Carigula-Bull, 1987). Successful adolescent readers increase their reading fluency and adjust their reading speed accordi ng to their reasons for reading (Moore et al., 1999, p. 3). Thus, proficient reading involves a constant, ongoing adaptation of many cognitive processes (NRP, 2000, p. 4-7), wh ere readers continually adapt, adjust, modify, and test until they c onstruct meaning and the proble m is solved (NRP, p. 4-47). Researchers know that good readers: Are active readers. Have clear goals in mind for their readi ng from the outset. They constantly evaluate whether the text, and their r eading of it, is meeting their goals. Look over the text before they read, noting st ructure and text sections that might be most relevant to their reading goals. Frequently make predictions as th ey read about what is to come. Read selectively, continually maki ng decisions about their reading. Construct, revise, and question the meaning they make as they read. Try to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words and concepts in the text. Draw from, compare, and integrate prior knowledge with text material.

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36 Monitor their understanding, making adjustments as necessary. Evaluate text quality and value, and in tellectually and emotionally react to it. Read different kinds of texts differently. Attend closely to the setting and characters when reading narrative. Construct and revise summarie s of what they have read. Use multiple strategies constantly (Duke & Pearson, 2002). Gender Gender plays a role in reading comprehens ion, where female students tend to excel (Donahue et al., 1999; NCES, 2000, 2001; Pompl un & Sundbye, 1999; Wirt et al., 2004). The NCES (2001) reported that the reading sc ale score was higher for females (269) than for males (258). In Florida males scored 251, while females scored 263, 12 points higher on reading achievement or 4.8% better (NCES, 2003). In Florida, 39% of eighth grade males, compared to 26% of females, scored below the basic level of reading achievement, indicating that students did not demonstrate mastery of prer equisite knowledge and skills necessary for grade-level work (NCES, 2003). Further, academic resilience, the ability to improve a downward spiral of academic achievement through the course of schooli ng, is related to gender. Cappella and Weinstein (2001) studied 1,362 at-risk st udents in the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 to determine predicti ve factors associated with high school students academic resilience. They found that being Caucasian and female, possessing an internal locus of control, coming from a family with a high socioeconomic status (SES), and enrolling in academic cu rriculum predicted academic resilience.

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37 Age / Grade Level Metacognitive ability and strategic le arning are related to age and reading experience (Stewart & Tei, 1983). Learning is cyclical: the more a student knows, the more he or she can learn (McKenna & R obinson, 2002). Thus, th e students age and volume of experiences related to the reading co ntent affect the students ability to make connections and develop rela tionships between existing and new knowledge. Reading ability typically increases w ith age and accumulation of life experiences from which to draw upon in activating prior knowledge (McKenna & Robinson; Vacca, 2002). Studying 268 college students about know ledge domains using the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, Stanovich and Cunningham (1993) concluded that differences in exposure to information are significant contri butors to differences in knowledge. Ethnicity Ethnicity plays a role in reading ach ievement among American high school students (Desimone, 1999). Pungello, Kupers midt, Burchinal, and Patterson (1996) found that multiplicative and cumulative risk fa ctor models suggest that both low family income and minority ethnic status are impor tant predictors of childrens academic achievement (p. 762). Maruyama (2003) suggest ed that at all leve ls, achievements and attainments of . students of color are substantially lower than levels of their peers (p. 654). Craig, Connor, and Wash ington (2003) posited that A frican American students are at high risk for reading failure (p. 31) According to the National Assessment of Educational Progress, fourth grade African American and Hispanic students were more likely to read below the basic level than white students, 63% and 58% versus 27%, respectively (Donahue, Finnegan, Lutkus, Alle n, & Campbell, 2001). Further, research

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38 indicates that the gap in achievement be tween black and white students widens as students progress through school (P hillips, Crouse, & Ralph, 1998). Regarding overall educational achieveme nt, Demack, Drew, and Grimsley (2000) found that ethnicity differences produced larger difference than did ge nder. According to Taylor, Casten, Flickinger, Roberts, and Fulmore (1994), when 164 African American students in the Northeast felt discrimina tion, they tended to place less importance on academic achievement and engage less in their schoolwork. Socioeconomic Status Because students learn liter acy and reading at home as well as in school (Duke & Purcell-Gates, 2003), SES of students plays a role in reading achievement (Desimone, 1999). Maruyama (2003) suggested that at a ll levels, achievements and attainments of poor students . are substantially lower than levels of their peer s (p. 654). In a longitudinal study of 80,000 youth in England, De mack et al. (2000) found that SES had a more profound effect on overall educationa l achievement than either ethnicity or gender. Following students from seven months of age to 10 years, Walker, Greenwood, Hart, and Carta (1994) found that children from lowSES homes scored lower on standardized reading tests because they were exposed less often than higher-SES children to diverse vocabular y through their parents a ttention and talking (p.606). Regarding reading, Denton and West (2002) found that half as many first grade students from poor families were proficient in understanding word s in context than students from more affluent families. The 1998 National Assessment of Educational Progress (Donahue et al., 1999) found that ove r twice as many eighth and twelfth grade students qualifying for free or reduced lunc hes performed below the basic level than students without lunch subsidie s (eighth grade, 44% versus 19%; twelfth grade, 43%

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39 versus 20%). Pungello, Kupersmidt, Burc hinal, and Patterson (1996) found that multiplicative and cumulative risk factor m odels suggest that both low family income and minority ethnic status are important pred ictors of childrens academic achievement (p. 762). They found that students fro m lower-SES homes experienced lower standardized reading scores than students from higher-SES homes. Reading Ability Constructing meaning from texts requir es reading ability and an intellectual response from students (Vacca & Vacca, 2002). St udents with deficiencies in the basic reading abilities (i.e., phonics and fluency) may experience difficulty with more advanced outcomes of reading, such as comprehe nsion. Word-by-word reading hinders comprehension, thus poor reader s toil with lessons about words, sounds, and letters, while good readers engage in lessons emphasizing meaning-ma king from text (Allington, 1983). Poor readers have difficulty comprehending, organizing, developing relationships, and remembering what they re ad (Beach, 1996), especially from different kinds of text. Poor readers often lack enough background knowledge in both the content and reading strategy use to appl y appropriate reading strategi es. Struggling readers lack not only the cognitive confidence they need to succeed, they lack the emotional confidence to believe they can be successful and the social confidence to join a community of readers (Beers, 2003, p. 4). Students effort and ability to navigate texts while reading must be analyzed in order to better understand their reading capab ilities (Duke & Pears on, 2002). A students reading ability is difficult to ascertain and measure (McKenna & Robinson, 2002) and may vary depending upon the type of text the student is reading. At best, many reading ability scales are general, progressive, and relative to a students grade level.

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40 Brozo (1990) ascertained that many str uggling secondary readers bring to the classroom a long history of failure and, lik ely, a repertoire of strategies to avoid reading (p. 327). Observations of high school classrooms and interviews with struggling readers suggest that poor readers develop copi ng strategies for hiding from reading, such as avoiding eye contact with the teacher, b ecoming disruptive, developing listening skills to offset reading deficiencies, relying on classm ates for help, forgettin g to bring texts to class, and using manipulative techniques fo r gaining favor with teachers (Brozo). Interest Students with natural curiosity and desire to learn may be more inclined to become actively engaged in texts as a source of satisfying their intellectual curiosity (DArcangelo, 2002; Hurst, 2001; Snow, 2002). Students who are cu rious ask questions and make judgments about the text, inferri ng about the authors motives, ideas, and expected outcomes from the text. Se lf-initiated questioning improves reading comprehension (Duke & Pearson, 2002). Researchers have indicated a positive relationship between reader interest and comprehension (Asher, 1980; Baldwin, PelegBruckner, & McClintock, 1985; Wigfield & Asher, 1984; Wilhelm, 2001), whereby students comprehend material bett er if it concerns topics that they like to read about. Baldwin et al. found student interest, especia lly among males, was a significant factor in reading comprehension, even when pr ior knowledge of the topic was low. Prior Knowledge Before a student can think about new content, they must consider what they already know in order to organize new information and make connections between the new and old knowledge (Collins, 1994; DArcangelo, 2002; Forget & Bottoms, 2000; Friend, 2001; Rhoder, 2002; Snow, 2002). Prior knowle dge depends on the re aders background,

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41 experience, and word knowledge from a variet y of reading sources (Bryant et al., 1999; Cibrowski, 1995; Snow). Readers use bac kground experiences and prior knowledge to construct meaning from text (Alvermann, 1989, p. 142). In a study of 211 sixth graders enrolled in science, 75 high school biology students, and 35 elementary education undergraduates in Texas, Alexander and Kulikowich (1991) found that a readers background knowledge, bot h of the content and strategies, and reasoning ability affected reading comprehens ion. Discussing the problems associated with teaching counter-intuitive scientific concepts, Hynd (1991) submitted that students have difficulty overcoming preconceived noti ons of experienced science concepts. Basically, students seem to have a difficult time giving up their intuitive ideas even after instruction (p. 597). Prior Reading Experiences Prior reading experiences play a role in reading performance (Snow, 2002). Students self-concept is im pacted by past reading perf ormances (Stanovich, 1986) and forged by peers value of reading (Readence et al., 1989). Students with successful prior reading experiences know, even subconscious ly, how to rectify reading failures and employ these strategies on a regular basis (Snow). Students wit hout these successful reading experiences lack an understanding of how to remedy failures in phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Reading skills may be affected by the amount of reading practi ce and the type of learning to read instruction that a student has experienced (Snow, 2002). Practiced readers in many different forms of text a nd for many different reading purposes may be better able to comprehend technical and content area texts. The type of learning to read instruction plays a role in a students readi ng abilities. Secondary students who enter the

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42 classroom with the basic stra tegies in phonics and fluency can be taught vocabulary and comprehension in the subject area. Activity Fundamental to any reading is the derivation of meaning from text (Collins, 1994). The content of meaning is influenced by th e text and by the readers prior knowledge and experience that are brought to bear on it (NRP, 2000, p. 4-5). The knowledge gained from reading enables the reader to make meanings of the text, to form memory representations of these mean ings, and to use them to communicate information with others about what was read (NRP, p. 4-5). In order to read critically, readers should draw inferences, analyze lin es of reasoning, apply logic, weigh evidence, evaluate language, and relate different readings to each other (Moore, 2003). Considerable practice is necessary for a st udent to acquire fluency and comprehension (Snow, 2002). Readers read for knowledge, application, and engagement (Snow, 2002). Reading assignments should be challenging, but not frustrating (Readence et al., 1989, p. 26). Classrooms should be print-rich and teacher s should support student reading (McKenna & Robinson, 2002). In order to be suppor tive of reading, Duke and Pearson (2002) proposed that students be afforded quality time for reading, read real texts with real purposes, read a variety of texts, discuss wo rds and their concepts and meanings, write texts for other audiences, and engage in qua lity discussion about written materials. Reading in the three microperiods Reading involves the interplay of thr ee micro-periodspre-reading, reading, and post-readingthat constitute microdevelopm ental processes (Snow, 2002). During each of these periods, the reader develops and is developed by his or her application of previous knowledge, reading skills, and comprehension. Reading also has a

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43 macrodevelopmental aspect (Snow). A reader s purpose, questions, and engagement in reading may change throughout the entire proces s as they learn from the text, derive benefit from reading, and experi ence more challenging text. Three points occur where students can initia te reading strategies : before reading, during reading, and after reading (see Figure 2, Ryder & Graves, 1994). Prior to reading, students can circumvent habits that inhi bit comprehension, and teachers can provide scaffolding to assist learning with text, such as establishing purpose for reading, activating prior knowledge, and developing gui ding questions for the reading. Strategic learning during reading involves monitoring r eading and making sense of the passages. During reading, readers should question the auth ors meaning of the passage, his or her intent, and challenge the authors point of view. After reading, students can extend and elaborate on the autho rs ideas. Here students share thei r ideas about the reading through discussion, writing, or other means of expression. Before Reading During Reading Following Reading Figure 2-2. Strategies of Proficie nt Readers (Ryder & Graves, 1994, p. 175). Set purposes for reading Activate relevant background knowledge Identify probable text structure Select strategies to use while reading Ask questions Reread Check context Summarize Check and modify predictions Confirm or alter predictions Identify important information Evaluate comprehension in terms of purposes for reading

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44 Reading Strategies Instruction of individual read ing strategies has been show n to have a positive effect on reading comprehension and motivation to read (Autrey, 1999; Black, 1995; Carriedo & Alosno-Tapia, 1995; Cooper, 1998; Druitt, 2002; Ferguson, 2001; Guthrie et al., 1995; Jackson & Cunningham, 1994-95; Kuehl, 2002; Laflamme, 1998; Leinhart, Zigmond, & Cooley, 1981; Little, 1999; Lynch, 2002; Mast ropieri, Scruggs, & Graetz, 2003; Meyer & Poon, 2001; Moody, 1993; Rush, 2000; Sh imizu, 1996; Simmonds, 1992; WardWashington, 2002). Because meaning does not ex ist in text, but rather must be actively constructed, instruction in how to employ strategies is necessary to improve comprehension (Snow, 2002, p. 32). Teaching r eading strategies should be incorporated with content area instructi on so students can understand th e importance and application of strategies to learning (P ressley, Symons, McGoldrick, & Snyder, 1995; Rhoder, 2002). Teaching reading strategies improves awaren ess and use of strategies, as well as motivation to read (NRP, 2000). Reading Strategy Instruction Comprehension strategies are procedures th at guide students as they attempt to read and write (NRP, 2000, p. 4-40). They are procedural, purposeful, effortful, willful, essential, and facil itative in nature (Jetton & Al exander, 2001, 17). Strategy instruction is not blind, but informed by theory and research (Vacca, 2002, p. 194). Highlighting a set of instructional strategies called Reading Apprentice Schoenbach et al. (2003) suggested that effec tive strategies focus on how we read and why we read in the ways we do (p. 134). Students who are not explicitly taught r eading strategies are unlikely to learn, develop, and employ strategies spontaneously (NRP, 2000). Reading strategy instruction

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45 requires a shift from didactic instruction to one that is more student-centered (Sinatra, 2000). The explicitness of stra tegy instruction has an eff ect on student comprehension, especially for low-achieving students (Snow 2002). Explicit instruction provides a clear explanation of the criterion task, enc ourages students to pay attention, activates prior knowledge, breaks the task into small st eps, provides sufficien t practice at every step, and incorporates teacher feedback (p. 33). Researchers (Bryant et al., 1999; Duke & Pearson, 2002; NRP, 2000) have proposed several models of strategy instructi on. Bryant et al. outlined considerations to effective strategy instruction: provide explicit instruction to promot e the acquisition and mastery of reading strategies; provide advance organizers in outline form, so students can examine the structure of the lessons content; model how to comprehend text and figure out the meaning of new words; prompt students to use reading strategies; provide daily and sustained instruction; require strategy ma stery; help students learn when, where, and how to apply reading strategies to content-area text; have students practice strategies with a variety of materials; and recognize that strategy instruction is part of the total school curriculum and is app licable across content-area classes (p. 296). In a meta-analysis of reading compre hension strategies, the NRP (2000) found eight strategies to be research-based. Th ese comprehension strategies improve student recall, question answering and generation, and summarization of texts. They also show general gains on standardized comprehensi on tests. The eight strategies are: Comprehension monitoring in which the reader learns how to be aware or conscious of his or her understanding duri ng reading and learns procedures to deal with problems in understanding as they arise. Cooperative learning in which readers work together to learn strategies in the context of reading. Graphic and semantic organizers that a llow the reader to represent graphically (write or draw) the meanings and relations hips of the ideas that underlie the words in the text.

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46 Story structure from which th e reader learns to ask a nd answer who, what, where, when, and why questions about the plot and, in some cases, maps out the timeline, characters, and events in stories. Question answering in which the reader an swers questions posed by the teacher and is given feedback on the correctness. Question generation in which the readers ask what, when, where, why, what will happen, how, and who questions. Summarization in which the reader attempts to identify and write the main or most important ideas that integrate or unite the ot her ideas or meanings of the text into a coherent whole. Multiple-strategy teaching in which the read er uses several of the procedures in interaction with the teacher over the text. Multiple -strategy teaching is effective when the procedures are used flexibly and appropriately by the reader or the teacher in naturalistic contexts (p. 4-6). Ramos (1996) with 15 thirdand fifthgrade students, Wolters (1997) with 379 junior high school students, Hess (1997) with 106 college students, Yu (1997) with 86 middle and high school students, Lenhart (1994) with 22 third grade students and 38 sixth grade students, and Ward-Washington (2002) with 81 eleventh-grade social studies students determined that reading strategy know ledge was the best pr edictor of reading achievement. Studying the effectiveness of me tacognitive strategy in struction with 152 white and Hispanic, lower-middle-class Arizona sixth-grad e students using a nonequivalent pretest-postte st control group design, Tregaskes and Daines (1989) concluded that students instructed with comp rehension strategies in creased their reading comprehension over the control. Walkovic ( 2004) studied eighth graders and found that student reported use of read ing strategies accounted fo r 45% of the variance on the eighth-grade Pennsylvania System of School Assessment reading test. Reading strategy instruction provides si gnificant gains (Mothus, 2004; Simmonds, 1992), even for higher reading level stude nts (Ferguson, 2001). Evaluating strategy

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47 intervention to increase 98 eighth grade st udents comprehension, Mothus found that students participating in the intervention in creased comprehension achievement scores more than one grade level, significantly mo re than the control. Further, significant predictors of school failure included read ing comprehension. Studying 24 New York resource room teachers and th eir use of reading strategies Simmonds determined that reading strategy instruction improved comprehe nsion by nearly two standard deviations among 240 resource room students in grades one through nine. In determining the effect of metacognitive strategy instruction on 20 si xth-grade social studies students content area reading comprehension, Ferguson found si gnificant differences in the effectiveness of metacognitive strategy instruction on comprehension for high-level readers, as well as lowand average-level readers. Investigating the effectiveness of teachi ng different strategies for identifying important concepts in content area reading through two different studies, Carriedo and Alonso-Tapia (1995) explored strategy use w ith thirty-one 11and 12-year-olds and one hundred-four 11through 14-year-olds. Carri edo and Alonso-Tapia concluded that the measures for which training was directed garnered significant improvement, including knowledge of the topic and main idea characteris tics, graphical representation of relations among text ideas, knowledge of text structur es, and summarizing. In the second study with 11through 14-year-olds, under direct instruction stude nts perceived the main idea and topic of passages better than students without instruction. Additionally, directly instructed students were more aware of cogn itive processes, more ably represent text structure, and developed highe r metacognitive knowledge th an students without direct instruction in reading strategies.

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48 Attitude, confidence, and self-efficacy affect content area reading strategy use (Black, 1995; Kuehl, 2002). Examining strategies employed to accommodate for comprehension, Moran (1998) determined that motivators included self-efficacy, interest, commitment to the task, and overall conf idence. Evaluating the effects of the C*A*C*T*U*S instructional model with pos t-secondary students, Simpson (1998) found that students utilized the strategy and began to increase their positive feelings toward their ability to succeed. Goals of Reading Strategy Instruction The goal of strategy instructi on should be to enable stud ents to select appropriate strategies, adapt them to particular text s, employ them to solve reading problems (Pressley, Johnson, Symons, McGoldrick, & Kurita, 1989; Wilhelm, 2001), and have them independently initiated by the stude nt (Ellis, 1994; NRP, 2000; Snow, 2002). Factors concerning explicit comprehension st rategy instruction and student use include developing purposes for read ing, previewing texts, making predictions, activating background knowledge, thinking aloud, using text structure, creating visual representations, determining the important ideas, summarizing, generating questions, monitoring comprehension, modeling strategi es, using multiple strategies, developing motivation to read, and guided and independent practicing of strategies (Duke & Pearson, 2002). The type of strategy used for a partic ular text depends upon the purpose for reading, the characteristics of the reader, a nd the characteristics of the text (Ryder & Graves, 1994, p. 177). Students should have a choice of many reading strategies that are best suited for the specific text, appli cations, and student preference (Snow, 2002). Teachers should individualize reading strate gies to match the specific needs of the

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49 purpose for reading, the text, the learner, and the products of readi ng. Strategies should be selected upon the following three criteria: ease of instruction, flexibility, and comprehension monitoring (Palinscar, 1986). Studying 324 Texas college students about reading goals and comprehension strategy use, Taraban, Rynearson, and Kerr ( 2000) concluded that reading goals and strategy use reliably discriminated between higher and lower grade-point averages (GPA), as well as ACT scores. The most fr equently used strategies were looking for important information ( = 3.40), changing strategies ( = 3.19), determining the meaning of unknown words ( = 3.14), increas ing attention ( = 3.09), and drawing on prior knowledge ( = 3.05). The higher GPA students used significantly more goals ( = 2.86) than lower GPA students ( = 2.46), and they used signif icantly more strategies ( = 2.52 versus 2.09, respectively). Students desire reading st rategy instruction. Studying 743 middle school and 1,043 high school students views of instructi onal practices using the Student Textbook Adaptation Evaluation Instrument, Schumm, Vaughn, and Saumell (1992) concluded that students appreciated teacher re ad-alouds, needed aid in sett ing purposes for reading and activating background knowledge, and used summaries. They concluded that students were not getting the instruc tional support for reading comp rehension that they needed from teacher, especially high school teacher s (also, Self, 1998). Further, even high achieving students desired textbook adaptati ons and reading st rategy instruction. Multiple Strategy Instruction Effective reading does not rely upon a single strategy, but incorporates the coordination of several strategies (Baer & Nourie, 1993; Bean, 1997; Bos & Anders, 1992; Bulgren & Scanlon, 1997-98; Meltzer, 2001; Snow, 2002; Pressley & Wharton-

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50 McDonald, 1997; Schoenbach, et al., 2003; Taraban et al., 2000; Vaughn, 2001) and involves the constant, ongoing adaptation of many cognitive processes (Williams, 2002, p. 244). Teaching a variety of reading strate gies leads to increased learning of the strategies, to specific transf er of learning, to increased retention and understanding of new passages, and, in some cases, to general improvements in comprehension (NRP, 2000, p. 4-6). With Virginia high school students, Mo rgan and Hosay (1991) determined that teaching a package of reading strategies (including prior knowledge activation, discussion, group learning, prediction, and summary) improved comprehension, led students to read more, bolstered critical read ing, increased the variet y of texts read, and improved standardized test scores. Similarl y, in an ex post facto study of ninth grade students reading comprehension levels, W eedman (2003) determined a trend toward higher comprehension scores was generated wh en teaching students to use a package of four reciprocal teaching strategies. Activating Prior Knowledge Because prior knowledge and experiences vary from reader to reader, the meaning constructed from texts also varies among readers (Sammons & Davey, 1993-94). Teachers can accommodate for differences in prior reading experiences by appraising students existing knowledge of a subject and bringing all students up to a similar level (Pressley et al., 1995; Readence et al., 1989). Comprehension improves when prior knowledge is activated through pre-reading instruction (Cooper, 2000; Gaultney, 1995; Michiels-Bongaerts & Schmidt, 1995; Pate, 1995; Stevens, 1996; Zhu, 1996). Researchers have posited that many read ers do not automatically relate [new] information to their prior knowledge, even if they have a wealth of knowledge that could

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51 be related (Pressley, 2001, 17; Paris & Lindauer, 1976). Ac tivation of prior knowledge is especially recommended for poor readers who may not spontaneously relate their previous experien ce or knowledge to reading pa ssages (Pressley et al., 1995), yet, teachers are often reluctant to t each pre-reading stra tegies (McAloon, 1994). Prior knowledge must be activated in orde r for a student to effectively read in content areas or the teacher must provide accurate background knowledge of the specific topic (Boyle & Maloney, 1991; Duke & Pearson, 2002; Gould, 1987; Jacobs, 2002; Knudsen, 2002; NRP, 2000; Pr essley et al., 1995; Snid er, 1989; Wilson & Anderson, 1986). Activating prior knowledge gives students a head star t on learning by challenging them to (a) think about what they alrea dy know about a subject, (b) acquire a general understanding of how the big id eas will fit together, and (c) increase their confidence and motivation to read more (Cibrowski, 1995, p. 94). The goals of activating prior knowledge include facilitating learning, defining goals and objectives, directing attention, arousing curiosity, activati ng and extending prior knowle dge, drawing on students existing knowledge, filling in gaps in st udents knowledge, clarifying misconceptions, identifying and presenting essential con cepts and information, previewing vocabulary, and engaging critical thi nking (Ryder & Graves). McKeown, Beck, Sinatra, and Loxterman (1992) studied 48 fifth grade students and found that background knowledge was useful especially when texts are coherent enough to allow the reader to see the conn ections between the text information and previous knowledge so that the knowledge can be combined with the text information to create a meaningful represen tation (p. 91). Akagawa (1996) determined that students

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52 whose prior background knowledge was activated scored significantly better on recall, comprehension, and vocabulary tasks than students in control conditions. Sometimes activating background know ledge is counterproductive to comprehension, especially when prior knowle dge contradicts the text (Stevens, 1996). Studying 52 sixth grade students activa tion of background knowledge, Alvermann, Smith, and Readence (1985) determined that in some instances prior knowledge may interfere with reading compre hension instead of augmenting it, such as when students allowed their prior experi ences and background knowledge to override conflicting information derived from text. Stud ying 62 undergraduate non-science majors, Alvermann and Hynd (1989) determined th at activating background knowledge about unfamiliar topics was not beneficial to di spelling inaccurate information, because students inaccurate background knowledge ove rrode accurate text information. The researchers concluded that teachers shoul d model comprehension of new concepts, especially those that conf lict with the read ers prior experi ences or knowledge. Investigating the use of the K-W-L and r eciprocal teaching, Sisco (1992) found that students benefited from using the K-W-L and reciprocal teaching in their ability to execute strategies, in reading comprehensi on, and in their positive attitude toward reading. Implementing the K-W-L reading st rategy in a college course, Fritz (2002) found that the strategy increased the quality and quant ity of interactions between students, instructor, and subject matter. Setting Purpose Readers need a personally relevant a nd socially significant purpose (Wilhelm, 2001, p. 34) when they read. This purpose helps students comprehe nd textual material (DArcangelo, 2002; Snow, 2002). Purpose is influenced by prior knowledge and

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53 interest in the readi ng subject (Snow). In a qualitati ve study of eleven under-prepared college freshmen, Verbeck (2003) determined that strategic readers were driven by purposes and goals for reading and possessed a stronger sense of self-efficacy. In order for a student to read critically and become actively engaged in the text, he or she must ask the question, why (Moore, 2003). Wilhelm (2001) concluded, When students are actively taught to more competently read for important realworld purposes, they will be more motivate d, they will become more competent, they will willingly converse with authors and ot hers about he knowledge made available through texts, and they will be able to unde rtake the important kinds of democratic workintellectual, moral, and physicalthat reading, at its very best, can help us to do (p. 34). Reading and Thinking Aloud Reading or thinking aloud allows students to see the comprehension processes that engaged readers activate in orde r to understand text (Ivey & Broaddus, 2001; Schoenbach, Braunger, Greenleaf, & Litman, 2003). Modeling reading comprehension, a teacher can verbalize his or her thinking pro cesses that are needed to overcome difficult words, monitor comprehension, and apply fix-up strategies. Think along is an oral or written representation of a readers process of constructing meaning from, or in reaction to, text (Ehlinger & Pr itchard, 1994, p. 188). Surveying 1,765 sixth-grade students in th e mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States, Ivey and Broaddus (2001) determined that students valued teacher read-alouds (62% of students). Ivey and Broaddus concluded, high-engagement readingwould include time to read, time to listen to teach ers read, and access to personally interesting materials (p. 370). Studying the cultural reading and motivations to read among 626

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54 undergraduate students, Pavonetti (1997) conc luded teachers who read aloud were the most positive motivational force in encouragi ng a student to read. In describing a lesson for ninth-grade science students, Richards on and Smith (1996-97) provided anecdotal evidence that students enjoyed read-alouds, ev en in an advanced science class. Investigating the effect of think aloud statements on recall and comprehension scores of 72 fifth grade students, Younger ( 1995) found that poor r eaders benefited from read alouds more than good readers. Studying the effects of context and reading aloud on seventh grade students reading comprehe nsion of expository text, Kucan (1998) concluded no differences on recall and questi ons answered, but transcripts of students talk indicated context-related processing differences. Specifi cally, individuals engaged in more paraphrasing, restati ng, and summarizing, while group members participated in more questioning, inferring, and exploring pos sibilities. Studying high school English language learners, Vega (2001) found that think-alouds allowed students to become active participants in monitoring reading co mprehension, make learning more relevant, and help students take risks. Organizing Information Graphic organizers provide students with a meaningful and visual framework for taking notes, understanding rela tionships between concepts, and organizing ideas (Black, 1995; DiCecco & Gleason, 2002; Fisher, 2001; Ives, 2003; Kim, Vaughn, Wanzek, & Wei, 2004; Moore & Readence, 1984). They include semantic maps, semantic feature analysis, cognitive maps, story maps, framed outlines, and Venn diagrams. The foundation of graphic organizers is that the visual and verbal organizational structure of the diagram consolidates information into a meaningful whole so st udents do not have the

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55 impression that they are being taught a series of unrelated terms, facts, or concepts (Horton, Lovitt, & Bergerud, 1990, p. 13). Reading guides enhance a students comp rehension (Alvermann & Swafford, 1989; Davis, Franks, & Franks, 2001; McKenna & Davis, 2002; Miller & George, 1992; VidalAbarca & Gilabert, 1995; Wood, Lapp, & Flood, 1992) They help students focus their attention on the specific purpos e for reading (McKenna & R obinson, 2002). Guides also make the reading process active rather than passive. Students translate information gleaned from reading into their own langua ge. Reading guides integrate reading and writing and provide a useful t ool for review and aid for cl assroom discussion. Reading guides could include hierarchical guides, clus ter guides, nonhierarchi cal guides, selective guides, point-of-view guides and anticipation guides. In a synthesis of research on graphi c organizers, Moore and Readence (1984) determined an average effect size of 0.22, with a standard deviation of 0.58. Thus, learners treated with graphi c organizers outperformed cont rol groups by about two-tenths of a standard deviation. Moore and Readence concluded that graphi c organizers produce little added learning, but the resu lts may vary widely. Howeve r, graphic post organizers, those organizers presented after text seem to produce the most learning benefit, with a medium average effect size of 0.57 ( SE = 0.17). Further, graphic organizers produced larger effect sizes when concerne d with vocabulary as the outcome ( = 0.68, SE = 0.19) and a smaller effect size when comprehension was concerned ( = 0.29, SE = 0.06). Graphic organizers in secondary cl asses produced small effect sizes ( = 0.14, SE = 0.05) and larger effect sizes for college students ( = 0.66, SE = 0.16). Additionally, in the qualitative portion of the review, Moore and Readence found that teachers felt more

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56 confident and better organized when presenting lessons using graphic organizers. They also noted that students felt th at graphic organizers were not part of the flow of lessons, but rather an additional exercise ; thus, in order to increase effectiveness, teachers should explain the reasoning behind graphic organizers and model their use. Reviewing research related to the use of graphic organizers when comprehending and recalling expository text information, Griffin and Tulbert (1995) concluded that graphic organizers are most effective when used with expository text, as a postreading activity, and when used with vocabulary. Graphic post organizers are most effective when used with summarization, when modele d by the teacher, and students are provided guided practice and feedb ack on their organizers. Conducting two experiments with gra phic organizers and 153 undergraduate educational psychology students, Robinson and Kiewra (1995) concluded that students learned more hierarchical and coordinate rela tions, thus were more successful in applying knowledge and writing essays than if using outlines or text alone. In the first experiment with 111 students, the research ers found that students study ing only text learned more nonrepresented facts ( = 8.27) than students usi ng graphic organizers ( = 6.92), but the main effect for represented facts was not si gnificant. Students usi ng graphic organizers did learn significantly more ( F (1, 105) = 4.93) relational information ( = 3.35) than students studying text only ( = 1.65). Thus, students usin g graphic organizers learned more relational knowledge than students studying text only. In the second experiment with 42 students, they determined that stude nts did not differ on nonrepresented facts, but did differ on represented facts ( F (2, 39) = 7.44, MSE = 6.51). Students using graphic organizers learned more represented info rmation than students studying text alone.

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57 Investigating the effect of graphic organizers on 427 ni nth-grade students social studies achievement, Herbst (1996) found that using SQ3R with graphic organizers was the most effective learning st rategy. Reviewing l iterature on graphic organizers, Monroe (1997) determined that using graphic or ganizers helped develop conceptual understanding through student engagement, he lped make connections among concepts and words, and served as retr ieval cues for existing schema. Investigating the effects of organizers with complete, partial, and skeletal information with 117 undergraduate students, Katayama (1998) found no significant differences between graphic organizers and traditional outlines on factual tests; however, students using graphic organizers performed significantly better on transfer test s than students using outlines. Sampling 38 second-grade students, Millet (2000) found that student co mprehension improved when using graphic organizers. Studying 26 Oregon middle school students w ith learning disabilities, DiCecco and Gleason (2002) found that students using grap hic organizers provide d significantly more relational statements and gained more rela tional knowledge from expository texts than students who did not use graphic organizers, with the positive effect of graphic organizers being nearly universal (p. 317) Further, students benefite d from longer treatment with more intensive and more explicitly aligned ( p. 317) instruction than in previous studies. DiCecco and Gleason concluded that teachers mu st model the use of graphic organizers with text relevant to the content area and provide guided prac tice for students. Additionally, instruction in su mmary writing may assist student s in gaining relational and factual knowledge about concepts. DiCecco and Gleason suggested further research dealing with graphic organize rs and domain knowledge, treatm ent periods of longer than

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58 20 days, and ensure proper measurement of th e kinds of knowledge (i.e. relational) which graphic organizers can provide. In a meta-analysis of graphic organizer use among students with learning disabilities, Kang (2002) determined large eff ect sizes (.76) for graphic organizers when learning concepts from text. Results clearly indicated (a) graphic organizers used before an d after reading facilitated initial and subsequent learning of students with lear ning disabilities in content areas, (b) graphic organizer interventions produced ve ry large effects (weighted mean effect size = 1.39) when used as substitutes fo r text materials, and (c) the use of experimenter-constructed gra phic organizers for students with learning disabilities was effective in enhancing their le arning in content areas (abstract). However, students did not appear to transfer graphic organizers to other content areas. In a synthesis of research on graphic organizers, Kim et al. (2004) posited that expository texts are especially challengi ng because of being information driven, containing unfamiliar vocabulary, and containing poor organization. They concluded that learning disabled students w ho used graphic organizers d emonstrated significantly higher scores on researcher-developed compre hension measures (p. 112) than students without graphic organizers. Overall, the student-generate d graphic organizers improved student comprehension more than expert-gener ated organizers. Still, regardless of whether the organizers were stude nt-, teacher-, or expert-generated, the overall effect size was large; however, student-ge nerated organizers garnered th e largest effect sizes. Thus, the researchers concluded overall beneficial effects from th e use of graphic organizers. Other researchers (DiCe cco & Gleason, 2002; Schorzman, 2001; Twyman, 2004; White, 2000) have found no significant differenc e when using graphic organizers. In determining the effect of using graphic or ganizers on reading comp rehension of college business students, White found that gra phic organizers did not improve reading

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59 comprehension as measured by the Nelson-Denny Reading Test. Examining the effectiveness of the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity, th e PReP strategy, and graphic organizers for reading comprehension with 103 sixth grade students, Schorzman found a significant difference between experimental and control groups in informal evaluations of comprehension but found no significant diffe rence on formal evaluations. DiCecco & Gleason determined graphic organizers did not seem to assist student s in recalling factual information. Concerning seventh grade stude nts use of graphic organizers, Twyman (2004) revealed no statistical difference between groups on content vocabulary and content acquisition. However, when solving problems, students usi ng graphic organizers performed statistically better than students without graphic organizers. Summarizing Summarization of text content is an effective means of improving students comprehension (Black, 1995; Friend, 1995; Gu thrie et al., 1995; Hare & Borchardt, 1984). Investigating summarization with co llege students, Friend determined that students instructed in summarization strategies performed significantl y better at including relevant, important ideas in the summary. Several factors, including background knowledge, feedback, and the types of questions driving the summary, affect the qual ity of a students summary. Working with college students and the relationship be tween prior knowledge and summary writing, Kiewit (1997) concluded background knowledge and comprehension were significant predictors of summarization skill. With undergraduates proficiency at summarization, Schreiner (2002) concluded that feedback was necessary for improving performance on student summaries. Kaspar (1998) determin ed that generating and answering why

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60 questions may facilitate the integration of novel informati on into summaries and aid in activation of prior knowledge. Outcome Variables Comprehension Understanding text material is an outc ome of reading in content areas. Comprehension instruction promotes the abili ty to learn from text (Snow, 2002, p. 29) and involves the ability to act ivate ones prior knowledge ab out a topic, self-question, identify main ideas and supporting details, paraphrase, and summarize (Bryant et al., 1999, p. 296). Reading comprehension can be improved by teaching students to use specific cognitive strategies or to reason thr ough barriers to comprehension when reading (NRP, 2000). Comprehension is built upon thr ee principles: 1) the students prior knowledge; 2) the level of understanding to be achieved; and 3) the organization of information to aid long-term retentio n (Readence et al., 1989, p. 123). Improving content area reading with vital, relevant subject matter and strategy instruction translates into improvement in co ntent area learning (Jone s, 2001). Students abilities to read and learn vary greatly, thus teachers w ho employ and instruct students on appropriate reading strategies enable students to be more successful in their reading experiences (Fieldi ng & Pearson, 1994). Motivation Instructing students how to use reading strategies to solve comprehension problems also affects their motivation to read (C hoochom, 1995; Guthrie, 2001; Guthrie & Alao, 1997; Hurst, 2004; Knoll, 2000). In an ove rview of engagement and motivation for reading, Guthrie proposed that:

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61 Engaged reading is a merger of motiva tion and thoughtfulness. Engaged readers seek to understand; they enj oy learning and they believe in their reading abilities. They are mastery oriented, intrinsically motivated, and have self-efficacy ( 1). As a student becomes more engaged in r eading, then he or she may take more ownership of reading, thus improving mo tivation (Snow, 2002). Factors affecting motivation include expectancy (certainty, time, and desirability) and incentives (material, symbolic, and psychological). Because read ing is an ongoing process rather than a discrete act, the initial decision to read b ecomes a decision to continue reading once the process begins (McKenna, Kear & Ellsworth, 1995, p. 938). Guthrie and Alao (1997) proposed that a challenge to secondary educators is motivating students to read, because motivation to read for pleasure declines with age in some students. The researchers determined that students spend little free time reading on a daily basis, as little five minutes pe r day, and few students (about 10%) read for 30 minutes or more per day. However, Guth rie and Alao posited that less successful students lose their motivation to read because of unsuccessful reading episodes and lack of confidence. In a national survey of 18,185 firstth rough sixth-grade st udents about their attitudes toward readin g, McKenna et al. (1995) made two propositions: attitude affects reading ability, especially enga gement and practice, and poor attitudes lead to aliteracy, or the choice not to read when given th e opportunity. The res earchers found that in general, attitude toward r eading both as a pastime and as a school-related undertaking was observed to grow increasi ngly negative as students passed from first to sixth grade (p. 945). Also, this increasingly negative attit ude is clearly related to ability, and the trend is most rapid for least able readers. The attitudinal gap among ability levels widens

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62 with age (p. 952). Girls possessed signifi cantly more positive attitudes toward recreational and academic reading than boys. Concerning adolescents attitudes toward reading, Bean (2001) cited two themes: 1) a steady decline in positive attitude towa rd reading by the middle grades, and 2) the strongest declines among less able readers ( 14). He at tributed this dec line in attitude toward reading to dull text books, a view of reading as wo rk, and tracking (Bean, 14), while discussions, journaling, book clubs, and field trips related to content improve motivation to read in the content area. Motivations Impact on Strategy Use and Comprehension The students motivation level impacts whether and how a student will use comprehension strategies (Choochom, 1995; Do le, Brown, & Trathen, 1996; Guthrie et al., 1996; Knoll, 2000; Pressl ey et al., 1995). Explori ng the relationship between motivation and reading comprehension in 55 tenth grade students, Knoll found a correlation (0.73) between motivation and read ing comprehension to indicate a strong relationship between the two. Examining th e effect of motivational orientation and strategy use with 90 students in the seventh-, eighth-, and ninth-grades, Choochom concluded that intrinsically motivated st udents employed more st rategies, exhibited greater frequency of self -regulation, and comprehended more from text. High interest in the particul ar reading topic leads to hi gh motivation, which leads to high comprehension (Hurst, 2004; Snow, 2002). In a qualitative study of three at-risk ninth grade students, Hurst dete rmined that motivation to read informational text depends on interesting materials, connections to the students life, and stude nt self-selection of texts. Using qualitative interviews of 14 college students, Van Zile-Tamsen (1996) found that interest in the content motivated student s to engage in self-re gulation and strategy

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63 use. Attitudes toward reading may be situatio nal, yet it is safe to assume . that individuals also possess a globa l attitude toward reading (McKenna et al., 1995, p. 934). Qualitatively studying six middle school at-ri sk readers attitudes and perceptions of their own reading abilities, Cuevas (2003) concluded that attitude had little influence on reading engagement, though students with more positive attitudes earned higher grades in school. However, reading perfor mance and attitude varied depending on the type and purpose of material being read. Stil l, all five students e xpressed a desire to improve their reading skills. Motivation to read may be assessed thr ough a variety of instruments including the Index of Engagement in Reading (Guthrie & Davis, 2004), the Motivations for Reading Questionnaire (Wigfield & Guthrie, 1997, 2004), Motivation to Read Profile (Gambrell, 1996), and the Estes Attitude Scale (E stes, 1971; Miller, 2002), among others. Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) and Standardized Testing In 2004, for the first time in the states hist ory, more than half of Floridas grades three through 10 students who took the FCAT were reading at or above grade level (FDOE, 2001, 2004a). Florida students showed imp rovement at every grade level, except grades eight and 10, where the number of st udents reading below grade level increased from 62% in 2001 to 66% in 2004, the highest level in four years (FDOE, 2004b, 2004c). Summary The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effects of implementing reading strategies on students reading comp rehension and motivation to read. This chapter reviewed literature related to readi ng in content areas w ith the outcomes of comprehension and motivation to read. Th is chapter was divided into the following major sections: philosophical theories of read ing, an explanation of variables involved in

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64 this study, and the influence of reading stra tegy instruction on reading comprehension and motivation to read. The chapter focused on literature describing theories of reading, and empirical research related to the so ciocultural context of reading, teacher characteristics, reader attributes, content ar ea reading strategy instru ction, the activity of reading, reading comprehension and motivation to read. Research rela ted to content area reading comprehension instruction, reading strategy use, factors associated with comprehension, and influences on the motivation to read was included in this chapter. The independent variables in this stu dy were reading strategy instruction, specifically strategy use in the three microperi ods of reading versus the teachers normal routine of instruction; total content area r eading strategies employe d; and instructional time. The dependent variables in this st udy were motivation to read and agricultural concept knowledge. The antecedent variable s were gender, grade level, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. GPA, FCAT reading levels, agricult ural comprehension pre-test scores, and motivation to read pre-test scores were treated as covariates. The following chapter describes the specific methodology employed in the study.

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65 CHAPTER 3 METHODS Introduction Chapter 1 described the need for research in agriscience on the effect of reading strategies on students compre hension of agricultural concep ts and motivation to read. Chapter 1 also provided background about seco ndary reading, content area reading, and agriscience. Definitions of key terms rela ted to reading in ag riscience and reading strategy instruction were provi ded. Chapter 1 also identifi ed the purposes and explained the significance of the study. The primary pur pose of this study was to determine the effects of implementing a package of content area reading strategies that focuses on the three micro-periods of reading on students knowledge of agricultural concepts and motivation to read. Chapter 2 presented a discussion of theori es of reading and research related to reading comprehension, motivation to read, st rategy instruction, and variables influencing student reading. Variables di scussed included the reading strategy instru ction, reading ability, prior reading ex periences, and gender. Chapter 3 explains the methods employed to accomplish the objectives and test the hypotheses of this study. The obj ectives of this study included 1. Describe the grade level, gender, et hnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading achievement levels of students participating in this study. 2. Describe the variance in agriculture po st-test score explained by the linear combination of treatment group, grade leve l, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading achievement levels of students.

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66 3. Describe the variance in motivation to r ead post-test score explained by the linear combination of treatment group, grade leve l, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading achievement levels of students. 4. Describe the variance in agricultural comp rehension scores explained by the linear combination of treatment group, grade leve l, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading achievement levels of students. For this study, research hypotheses included: Ha 1: Comprehension of agricu ltural concepts will be significantly greater for secondary agriscience students using readi ng strategies versus those students using the teachers traditional routine in agriscience classes. Ha 2: Motivation to read will be significan tly greater for secondary agriscience students using reading strategies versus those students using the teachers traditional routine in agriscience classes. Questions leading the qual itative inquiry included: 1. How do agriculture teachers perceive their role in assisting students in developing reading comprehension skills in agriscience? 2. What are teachers reactions to implementi ng the content area reading strategies in agriscience? How effective are these efforts? 3. How do agriscience teachers model good literacy? 4. What strategies are effective in assist ing agriscience teachers in implementing content area reading strategies? 5. What are the barriers to readi ng instruction in agriscience? Chapter 3 specifically targets the rese arch design, population, student sample, instrumentation, treatment, data collection proc edures, and statistical analyses used in analyzing the data. The independent vari ables in this study we re reading strategy instruction, specifically strate gy use in the three microperi ods of reading versus the teachers normal routine of instruction. Ou tlining the status of reading comprehension instruction, Pressley (2001) supposed that if different types of instruction improve comprehension, it just might be sensible to do all of them ( 1). The dependent variables in this study were motivation to read and agricultural concept knowledge. The

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67 antecedent variables were gender, grade level, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. GPA, FCAT reading levels, agricultural pre-test scor es, and motivation to read pre-test scores were treated as covariates. Research Design Pressley (2003) proposed, t here are many reading instru ctional interventions that enjoy some support in true experiments (p. 66 ). Unfortunately, beca use of the nature of this study, a true experiment was not possible. Thus, this study utilized a quasiexperimental design, specifically a variati on of the nonequivalent control group design (Campbell & Stanley, 1963) with a pretest and a posttest. True random sampling of students and assignment to treatment and cont rol groups was not possi ble. Therefore, using intact groups, or classes, of students follows other researchers work (Ary, Jacobs, & Razavieh, 2002; Campbell & Stanley; Gall Gall, & Borg, 2003) recommendations for quasi-experimental research. Gall et al. (2003) asserted that nonequiv alent control group designs might involve groups that all receive a trea tment. Thus, the treatmen ts included reading strategy instruction (X1) and the teachers normal routine of instruction (X2). The essential features of this type of de sign were nonrandom assignment of research participants to groups and administration of a pretest and pos ttest to all groups, (p. 403) and random assignment of the treatment to intact groups (classes). The variation of the nonequivalent control group design fo llowed this model: Treatment O1 X1 O2 Comparison O1 X2 O2 The first observation (O1) consisted of the Adapted Motivations for Reading Questionnaire (Wigfield & Guthrie, 1997, 2004) and an agricultural content knowledge

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68 pretest. These assessments were conducted during the week prior to initiation of the reading strategy instruction while teachi ng lessons from the Florida Agriscience Foundations Lesson Plan Library (FDOE, 2003). Upon selection of school sites, the re searcher requested eighth-grade FCAT (FDOE, 2001) reading scores, middle school gr ade point averages, ge nder, ethnicity, free and reduced lunch data, and documented read ing disabilities for pa rticipating students enrolled in Agriscience Foundati ons. Typically, the majority of students enrolled in this course is freshmen. Researchers maintained student confidentiality by asking teachers to provide an identifying code number to co rrespond to each student regarding FCAT scores, grade point averages, pretest scores posttest scores, and all other data. All records provided to the researcher were t hus coded with numbers and no student names were provided to the researcher. One of two treatments was uti lized with each group: 1) reading strategy instruction or 2) the teachers normal ro utine of instructi on of instruction. The reading strategy instruction served as the experimental treatment (X1), while the teachers normal routine of instruction served as the comparison treatment (X2) (Wilkinson & Task Force on Statistical Inference, 1999). Additionally, t eachers taught the lessons in their traditional routine. The second observation (O2) occurred at the e nd of the study, or approximately 20 class days later. It consisted of the Ad apted Motivations for Reading Questionnaire (Wigfield & Guthrie, 1997, 2004) and agricu lture quizzes for each of the individual lessons. These observations concluded the study.

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69 Threats to internal validity identifi ed by Campbell and Stanley (1963) included history, maturation, testing, instrumentation, re gression, selection of subjects, mortality, and the interactions between selection and maturation. Nonequivalent control group designs control for all of the threats except re gression and interactions Regression refers to concerns in determining the effect of treatment on dependent variables when independent variables are known (Vogt, 1999). Regression is a concern when subjects self-select the group to which they participate, especially via extreme scores or a preference for the treatment. In this study, regression was not an issue, because intact classrooms were randomly assigned to the treatment and comparison groups. The interaction between selection and matura tion refers to differences in age and experience between subjects at the time of the experiment. To control for selectionmaturation interactions, all students were studi ed at the same time during the school year with the same curriculum at the same grade le vel. Additional steps were taken to control for this interaction, including teachers inst ructing both an experimental and a comparison group and using multiple classroom settings. Gall et al. (2003) stated that the main threat to internal validity is the possibility of group differences on posttests are due to preexist ing differences in the groups, rather than the effects of the treatment. In order to c ontrol for this threat, they recommend analyzing covariance. In this study FCAT scores and middle school grade point averages were gathered and analyzed as covariates through ANCOVA and M ANCOVA procedures. For a quasi-experimental design, other fact ors could influence the outcome of the study and must be controlled. One such factor is the pedagogical prowess of the teacher. To control for teaching ability, all six coope rating teachers were approved as cooperating

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70 teachers for University of Florida student interns and deemed expert teachers by the faculty in the Agricultural Education and Communication Department at the University of Florida. Each teacher ta ught two classes of Agriscience Foundations students. Course content was developed by the FDOE for freshm en classes and, therefore, was appropriate for students of this grade level. Cooperati ng teachers in the treat ment group participated in professional development on reading strategy instruction, and all teachers participated in data collection procedures to ensure pr oper collection of data and study design (Boone, 1988; Myers, 2004). The unit of instruction was selected from the Agriscience Foundations curriculum (FDOE, 2001). Each treatment was randomly assigned to teachers. Procedures Researchers (DiCecco & Gleason, 2002; Guth rie, 2001; Pressley, 2001; Pressley & Allington, 1999; Taraban et al., 2000) proposed that reading strategy instruction should be investigated, especially within specific contexts. Pressley and Allington suggested that there is not yet definitive literature on how to promote development of reading competence through instruction (p. 17). Tara ban et al. suggested that more study is needed to explore the effects of strategy use in specific contexts. These contexts present specific challenges to the researcher, namely ensuring proper delivery of the experimental and comparison treatments. Procedures were taken to ensure conformity of teaching approaches with regard to reading strategy instruction and the teachers normal routine of inst ruction (Dyer, 1995; Myers, 2004). All teachers participated in professional development about reading strategy instruction and data co llection procedures to ensure proper collection of data and study design. Additionally, treatment group te achers received lesson plans outlining how

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71 to implement reading strategy in struction. Lesson plans included all necessary materials for proper implementation of the readi ng strategies including the lesson plan, transparency masters, assessments, and handouts. Researchers have suggested that comprehe nsion strategy instruc tion take place over the long-term, not a matter of weeks (D iCecco & Gleason, 2002; Friend, 1995; Guthrie, 2001; Pressley & Wharton-McDonald, 1997). St rategy instruction shou ld include teacher modeling and explanation of the strategies, scaffolding of st udent learning the strategies, and providing students with information about transferring strategies to new situations (Pressley, 2003; Pressley & Wharton-McDonald). The NRP (2000) proposed that instruction of cognitive strategies employed during reading consists of th ree macro-processes: 1. The development of an awareness and understanding of the readers own cognitive processes that are amenable to instruction and learning. 2. A teacher guiding the reader or modeling fo r the reader the actions that the reader can take to enhance the comprehens ion processes used during reading. 3. The reader practicing those strategies w ith the teacher assisting until the reader achieves a gradual internalization and inde pendent mastery of those processes. Duke and Pearson (2002) proposed a m odel of comprehension instruction: 1. An explicit description of the strategy and when and how it should be used. 2. Teacher and/or student modeli ng of the strategy in action. 3. Collaborative use of th e strategy in action. 4. Guided practice using the strategy with gradual release of responsibility. 5. Independent use of the strategy. Approximately one week prior to initia ting experimentation, students completed the Adapted Motivations for Reading Ques tionnaire (Wigfield & Guthrie, 1997, 2004) and an agricultural content knowledge pretes t. The agricultura l content knowledge

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72 pretest determined students in itial levels of agricultural co ntent knowledge. The pretest was created by selecting ques tions from individual lesson assessments. The reading motivation assessment determined students pr edisposition to read, reading habits, and amounts and kinds of reading. The researcher determined a priori that a student must have attended 80% of the regularly scheduled classes while treatments we re being delivered in order to remain in the study. Students failing to attend 80% of th e classes were dropped from the study. At the conclusion of the study term, student s completed the Adapted Motivations for Reading Questionnaire (Wigfield & Guthri e, 1997, 2004) and individual lessons quizzes to serve as posttests. Population Pressley (2001) suggested that one of the emerging issues with comprehension instruction is fine-tuning existing strategi es for existing content areas. Further, comprehension instruction should prepare studen ts to tackle real-world tasks, meaning the application of comprehension strategies for real purposes. Res earch (Pressley, 2003) suggests that experiments should include the st udents for whom instru ction is targeted. Thus, the context for this experiment is within existing Florid a high schools teaching secondary agriscience. Subject Selection: Agriscience Foundations Students The population of this study was all Florid a high school students enrolled in Agriscience Foundations. Agriscience Foundations is a course offered primarily to ninth grade students in Floridas s econdary agricultu ral education programs. Students enrolled in this course are typica lly in the ninth-grade.

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73 However, random selection of subjects was impossible due to existing course schedules. Thus, the precepts for quasi-experi mental designs were enacted with intact groups of students and teachers and randomizat ion of treatment to the classes. The investigator obtained student enrollm ent numbers in Agriscience Foundations for the fall semester of 2004 from the cooperating teachers. Subject Selection: Agriscience Teachers Agriscience teachers implemented the read ing strategy instruction treatment with Agriscience Foundations courses during th e 2004 fall semester. Schools and teachers were selected for the purpose of securing t eachers who would ensure proper teaching of the treatments and provide accurate data in a timely fashion. All teachers used in this study were student teaching intern cooperati ng teachers and were deemed acceptable by the faculty in the Agricultural Educati on and Communication Department at the University of Florida. Teachers were purposively selected from the FAAE Teacher Directory 2003-2004 (Myers & Dyer, 2003). Once teachers were identified, the researcher contacted individual teachers and solicited their partic ipation in the study. Correspondence with teachers participati ng in the study is found in Appendix A. Sample Size Gall et al. (2003) suggested determining a sample size where the researcher can discover differences and effects, and also av oid finding significance because of inflated sample sizes (Kelley & Maxw ell, 2003). According to Olejnik (1984) four factors determine sample size: significance level, statistical power, analysis procedure, and effect size. Thus, Hays (1973) recommende d the following calculation for sample size: n = 2 [ z(1 /2) z]2 / 2

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74 where z(1 /2) equals the z -score for the desired alpha level (0.05), z equals the z -score for the desired power (0.80), and equals the effect size in standard deviation units. is computed using the formula = 2 ( w2) / (1 w2) where w2 is the amount of variance of the de pendent variable accounted for by the independent variable. The calculations for this study were = 2 (0.10 ) / (1 0.10) = 0.67 n = 2 [1.96 (-1.28)]2 / .672 = 46.8 The 47 subjects in the study fell within th e recommended range proposed by Olejnik (1984) for multivariate analyses. The researcher determined that a minimum of 47 subjects was needed in each treatment to ensure adequate significance level, statistical power, analysis procedure, and effect size. However, other research ers (Boone, 1988; Dyer, 1995; Flowers, 1987; Myers, 2004) in similar studies determined that this type of study frequently experiences mortality rates as high as 50%. Thus, the sa mple size for each treatment was doubled to account for mortality. Instrumentation and Data Collection Instruments used to collect data for th e dependent variables included the Florida Agriscience Foundations Less on Plan Library (FDOE, 2003), the Adapted Motivations for Reading Questionnaire (Wigfield & Guthrie, 1997, 2004); and FCAT and GPA measures. Lesson plans were adapted from the Florida Agriscience Foundations Lesson Plan Library (FDOE, 2003) by the research er. Each schools guidance department reported students FCAT scores, grade point averages, ethnicity, and gender.

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75 Data were collected from teachers at two di fferent points in the study: after initial testing and at the end of the treatments. Teachers provided data in the form of report matrices (Appendix B) given to the researcher upon visits to the school site or emailed to the researcher, depending on the preference of the teacher and the researcher. Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test The Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (F CAT) is part of Floridas initiative on educational accountab ility and raising overall educati onal achievement. Scores on the FCAT are reported for each student showing achievement levels, scale scores, and developmental scale scoresas well as perf ormance on specific content strands; each student s norm-referenced scores indicate the students ranking against national norms (FDOE, 2004e, p. 8). Students must pass the reading and writing portions of the test before they graduate. The reading portion of the FCAT is presente d at the reading level of the grade and determines students ach ievement in reading comprehension (FDOE, 2001). The eighth-grade FCAT reading test consists of 40% narrative text and 60% informational, or expository, text. The eight h-grade FCAT reading assessment contains multiple-choice, short-respons e, and extended-response questions. The ninth-grade FCAT reading assessment contains multiple -choice questions only. Questions on the reading portion of the test are drawn from social studies, science, math, reading, health/physical education, the arts, and the workplace (FDOE, 2004e, p. 10). The FCAT reporting scale is set to a mean of 300 with a standard deviation of 50, which spreads student scores along a scale from 100 to 500. FCAT scoring is built upon item respons e theory (IRT) (FDOE, 2002, p. 4). IRT assumes that a respondents performance, high or low, is predicated on the individuals true ability, characteristic, or construct, as measured by the in strument (Gall et al., 2003).

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76 The statistic deemed most a ppropriate for providing summa ry-level information about student-level testing is student classification accuracy. Student classification is projected on five achievement levels, which are base d on percentile rankings of achievement. Point-biserial correlations were used to adjust for dichotomous responses. For the eighth-grade FCAT reading assessment, the minimum biserial correlation for the 21 informational items was 0.26 and the maximu m was 0.67, meeting acceptable criteria for biserial correlations (FDOE, 2002). The Q1 statistic is used as an index for how well theoretical item curves that match observe d item responses can be found (Yen, 1981, as cited in FDOE, 2002). The Q1 statistic is a ratio involving expected and observed item performance and is interpretable as a chi-square statistic. Z transformations for the eighth grade FCAT reading assessment ranged from .33 to 8.81. For the eighth grade FCAT reading assessment, no poorly fit ting items were found according to Q1 statistics. Because the FCAT development used IRT, measurement error is not assumed to be constant, but varies to a greater extent at the tails of the distribution. However, multilog provides an estimate of margina l reliability, which is comparable to standard reliability statistics such as Cronbachs alpha ( ) (FDOE, 2002). The IRT marginal reliability for eighth grade FCAT reading assessment is 0.91, with the Cronbachs for informational text equaling 0.82 and the overall Cronbachs equal to 0.89 (FDOE). The five student achievement levels use accuracy, the extent to which the actual classifications of the test takersagree with those that would be made on the basis of their true score, if their true scores c ould somehow be known, and consistency, the agreement between classifications based on two non-overlapping, equally difficult forms of the test (Livingston & Lewis, 1995, p. 180) to measure the erro r associated with

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77 classification. For the eighth-grade FC AT reading assessment, accuracy was 0.73, consistency was 0.63, and Cohens kappa ( ) was 0.51, a measure of decision consistency. Textbook The textbook used by all classes was Agriscience: Fundamentals & Applications by Cooper and Burton (2002), published by Delmar Publishers. The researcher ascertained text readability using the Fry Graph method (Fry, 1977) (see Table 3-1). The average number of sentences over three pa ssages was 6.2 with 169.3 words; thus, the readability of the text was grade level 13, according to the Fry Readability Graph. Table 3-1. Fry Readability Page Number of Sentences Number of Syllables 158 7.0 182 435 4.2 151 654 7.4 175 Average 6.2 169.3 Chapters were selected to coincide w ith the individual lessons. Students were assigned the same readings, regardless of treatment or comparison group designation. All assigned readings were conducted at the same point in the lesson and completed in the same manner by students (in-class reading or re ading assignments to take home) in order to account for differences in engagement. Chapters were selected to coincide w ith the individual lessons. Students were assigned the same readings, however student s in the comparison treatment only read, answered questions at the end of the chapter, and discussed th e passages briefly in class. All assigned readings were conducted at the same point in the lesson and completed in

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78 the same manner by students (in-class reading or reading assignment s to take home) in order to account for differences in engagement. Lesson Plans and Agriscience Comprehension Assessments Florida Agriscience Foundations Lesson Plan Library (FDOE, 2003) (Appendix C for comparison group teachers and Appendix D for treatment group teachers) provided the content and lesson structure for the Foundations of Agriscience course. The researcher adapted the treatment group less ons by inserting CARS for systematic, planned, and thoughtful implementa tion of CARS. For example, strategies were used to activate background knowledge near the in troduction of the lesson, and organizing strategies were used to develop relati onships among key concepts in the lesson. Comparison group teachers used their norma l routine of instruction to teach the lessons. Additionally, the researcher devel oped identical handouts, transparencies, and student activities to reinforce both sets of le ssons, with the exception of additional CARS materials for the treatment group teache rs. The following lessons were taught: Animal Science Lesson 06.07: Determining the Anatomy and Physiology of Animals Lesson 06.06: Meeting the Nu tritional Needs of Animals Lesson 06.08: Understanding Animal Reproduction The researcher selected lessons to be ta ught during the seven weeks of instruction from Monday, September 20, 2004 through Friday, December 17, 2004. The content of all lessons was consistent, unaltered from the original set of lessons, and in concordance with FDOE Student Performance Standards for the Agriscience Foundations I course (FDOE, 2004d). All students were taught all le ssons in accordance with the lesson plans; however, the two treatments differed in their delivery methodswith and without

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79 systematic, planned, and thoughtful implement ation of CARS. Classes were randomly assigned to each of the two treatments. Florida Agriscience Foundations Lesson Pl an Library (FDOE, 2003) also provided assessments of student learning for each less on plan used in the study. This corresponds to other research conducted on comprehensi on strategies where the researchers used researcher-derived instruments (Kim et al., 2004). The pre-test, post-test, and individual unit quizzes used a multiple-choice format. In order to control for pr eexisting agricultura l content knowledge, the researcher adapted an agricultural content knowledge pret est from existing assessments found in the Florida Agriscience Foundations Lesson Plan Library (FDOE, 2003). This test also served as the posttest at the conclusion of the treatment pe riod. A panel of experts, consisting of teachers, faculty, and graduate students in agricultural education, evaluated the pretest and posttest to ensure face and c ontent validity (see Appendix E for a list of the panel of experts). Motivation to Read Assessment Motivation to read was assessed with the Adapted Motivations for Reading Questionnaire (Wigfield & Guthrie, 1997, 2004). The Motivations for Reading Questionnaire was developed by John Guthrie, an expert in reading motivation, and adapted through pilot testing in this study. The instrument consists of 37 items to which students respond on a four-point, Li kert-type scale, ranging from (1) very different from me, to (4) a lot like me Validity was established with a panel of experts. No reliability statistics were provided on the Adapted Motivations for Reading Questionnaire, thus this rese archer established reliability through pilot te sting of the instrument prior to initiating the dissertati on study. Pilot testing was accomplished with

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80 36 students enrolled in an agriscience course in a Florida high school not included in the study. The students represented the population in the study as those students enrolled in Agriscience Foundations in the state of Florida. The pilo t test consisted of 37 items compiled from the Motivations for Reading Questionnaire (Wigfield & Guthrie, 1997, 2004). The researcher analyzed the pilot test of the motivation instrument using canonical discriminant cluster analysis via the SPSS WindowsTM statistical package, version 12.0. Using discriminant and K -means cluster analyses, th e 37 items condensed into three clusters. Fourteen questions described most of the variance and discriminated the clusters. Reliability was assessed on the final 14 items using the Cronbachs and yielded = 0.90. In the first part of the analysis, all 37 items were included in the K -means cluster analysis to determine groupings of students. The 37 items clustered students into three groups. Among the 37 items, canonical discrimina nt cluster analyses determined that nine items discriminated the clusters. These items were analyzed against the remaining items to find high correlations, which yielded an additional five items that highly correlated with one or more of the discri minating items. These 14 items were then analyzed to determine the number of f actors underlying the discrimination and the canonical coefficients for each item. Using factor analysis, a rota ted portion matrix explained three latent factors, or three dimensions, underlying the 14 questions (see Table 3-2). Those dimensions roughly represented extrinsic motivation, intrin sic motivation, and effort toward reading tasks. Through canonical discriminant analysis, each item was determined to load

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81 differentially on each of the three factors as indicated by the canonical coefficients in Table 3-2. Table 3-2. Canonical discriminant coefficients for the Adapted Motivations for Reading Questionnaire ( n = 37). Portion Item 1 2 3 Extrinsic Factors I learn more from reading than most students in the class. 0.15 -0.01 0.03 I like being the best at reading. 0.14 -0.01 0.08 I read to improve my grades. 0.30 -0.10 -0.29 I talk to my friends about what I am reading. 0.09 0.05 0.02 If the teacher discusses something interesting I might read more about it. 0.17 -0.10 0.12 My friends sometimes tell me I am a good reader. 0.30 -0.17 -0.12 Intrinsic Factors I am a good reader. -0.07 0.29 0.07 I am happy when someone recogniz es my reading ability. 0.05 0.29 -0.32 I am willing to work hard to read better than my friends. 0.05 0.15 0.00 I like it when the questions or topics in books make me think. -0.03 0.24 0.01 If a book is interesting, I dont care how hard it is to read. -0.26 0.50 0.02 Effort I do as little schoolwork as possible where reading is concerned. -0.13 -0.05 0.57 I try to find time each day to read something for pleasure. -0.00 -0.00 0.34 I usually learn difficult th ings by reading. 0.15 -0.09 0.17

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82 Reliability on each dimension was analyzed via Cronbachs The Cronbachs were as follows: extrinsic motivation component = 0.76, intrinsic component = 0.63, and effort = 0.46. Because of the low reliabilit y on the effort scale, the researcher made the decision to treat the 14 items as one scale and represen t the results with a summated score. Treatment Delivery Accountability In order to ensure that treatment was delivered appropriately and accurately, the researcher prepared prescriptive lesson plans for teachers in both the experimental and contrasting treatments. The researcher provided teachers with lesson plans, handouts, overheads, and student activities to ensure uniformity across treatments. At the conclusion of the study, each teacher reported th e number and type of CARS used during the treatment period. Follow-up interviews al so provided a measure of understanding the treatment and comparison group characteristics. Student attendance records for the duration of the treatment period were gathered to ensure 80% attendance on days of treatment. These were reported on the reporting sheet provided by the cooperati ng teacher (Appendix B). Analysis of Data Data collected in this study were analyzed using SPSS for WindowsTM statistical package. Data pertaining to objectives de scribing the sample were analyzed using descriptive statistics, such as measures of central tendency and meas ures of variability (Gall et al, 2003). Bivariate correlation analysis was performed on the major variables in the study. The researcher determined a prio ri that statistical significance would be indicated for < 0.05.

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83 Variance in the sample was described using backward stepwise regression (Agresti & Finlay, 1997). This procedure begins by pl acing all predictors unde r consideration into the model and removes predictors until the remaining predictors make significant partial contribution to the overall model. While not ev ery individual variable may be significant in and of itself, through the effects of multic ollinearity, it may cont ribute to the overall significance and explanator y power of the model. The data analysis plan for the expe rimental hypotheses included using a multivariate analysis of covariance (M ANCOVA) procedure followed by univariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to de termine the source of variance, where appropriate. Agresti and Finlay (1997) recommended analysis of covariance for analyzing response variables (reading co mprehension and agricultural content knowledge), while simultaneously controlling for other vari ables (FCAT scores, GPA, treatment group, gender). These other variable s should be known to correlate with the dependent variable (Ary et al ., 2002). Gall et al. (2003) noted that often pretest scores differ in quasi-experimental studi es, because of the inability to randomly select subjects (Isaac & Michael, 1995); thus, ANCOVA should be used to control and adjust for initial differences in means. Using ANCOVA a nd MANCOVA, the researcher limits the likelihood of Type II error (Ary et al.). Additional analysis on the experimental hypotheses associated with agricultural post-tests scores and motivation to read we re analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) procedures. ANC OVA is appropriate for determining the difference on mean scores (motivation to read) between tw o groups (reading strate gies, gender, etc.) on one or more variables or factors while cont rolling for other fact ors (Agresti & Finlay,

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84 1997; Gall et al., 2003; Vogt, 1999). However, due to the lack of co rrelation between the dependent variable, treatment with CARS, a nd the outcome variables, agriculture posttest scores and motivation to read scores, MANCOVA a nd ANCOVA were not conducted. Additional descrip tive statistics, such as means, standard deviations, correlations, frequencies, and percentages were used to describe the results. Long Interviews Long interviews following McCrackens (1988) four-step de sign were conducted with teachers participating in the stu dy upon conclusion of the study. This section provides a detailed description of the met hods used to conduct the interviews. This research methodology was chosen to gather in formation about teache rs construction of reality regarding the use of content area reading strategies in secondary agriscience courses. As such, these interviews were re spondent interviews (Lindlof & Taylor, 1998). The interviews were conducted in order to gain deeper unde rstanding into the motivations of teachers particip ating in the study, as well as to explain their use or nonuse of content area reading st rategies in secondary agriscie nce. The interviews provided a rhetorical construction of th e teachers experiences with content area reading strategies (Lindlof & Taylor, 1998). Inte rviews are often used to verify, validate, or comment on information obtained from other sources (Lindlof & Taylor, 1998, p. 175). They are often used to validate test hypotheses in the field. The four-step interview process involves the 1. Review of analytic catego ries and interview design 2. Review of cultural categories and interview design 3. Interview procedure and the di scovery of cultural categories

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85 4. Interview analysis and the discovery of analytical categories (McCracken, 1988, p. 29) Reviewing analytic categories encompasses the literature review (McCracken, 1988). During the review of cultural categorie s, the researcher examines self as the measurement instrument and begins to assi milate ideas for constructing the interview questions. The third step i nvolves constructing the intervie w questions, while the final step involves the analysis of the interview tr anscriptions and discovery of themes within the interviewees communicated ideas. Interview questions were generated from two sources: a review of the literature on content area reading and data gathered from the first part of this study. Thus the interviews were explanatory in nature. Interviews were not triangulated with actual classroom observations or student interviews. All interviews were conducted in the clas sroom setting at the teachers convenience upon completion of the study. They were condu cted by the researcher The interviews were audio taped and those tapes transcribe d for further analysis (Creswell, 1998). Analysis of the transcriptions involved re viewing them for themes and explanatory purposes for the quantitative data. Summary This chapter outlined the methods by which the null and research hypotheses were tested. Topics included the research de sign, procedures for conducting research, the population, subject selection for teachers and students, sample size, instrumentation and data collection procedures (FCAT, textbook, lesson plans, agricultural content knowledge assessments, and motivation to read assessments), treatment delivery accountability, and the analysis of data.

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86 The independent variables in this stu dy were reading strategy instruction, specifically strategy use in the three microperi ods of reading versus the teachers normal routine of instruction. The dependent variable s in this study were motivation to read and agricultural concept knowledge. The antecede nt variables were gender, grade level, ethnicity, and SES. In order to control for preexisting student conditions, eighth-grade FCAT reading levels, grade point averages, a nd pretest scores on motivation to read and agriculture knowledge were treated as covariates. This study employed a quasi-experimenta l research design, specifically the nonequivalent control group design (Campbell & Stanley, 1963). The chapter discussed and accounted for threats to validity with this design. Data collected within this design included eighth-grade FCAT reading leve ls, middle school grade point averages, agriculture pretest and posttest scores, and the Adapted Motivations for Reading Questionnaire (Wigfield & Guthrie, 1997, 2004) pretest and posttest scores. Additionally, the researcher analyzed data on students gender, grade level, GPA, ethnicity, SES, and attendance records. The chapter discussed methods for data analysis, including analysis of variance, analysis of covariance, multivariate analysis of covariance, and descriptive statistics. Fina lly, the chapter outlined the procedures for conducting teacher interviews after concluding the study.

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87 CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS Introduction Chapter 1 described the need for research in agriscience about the effect of reading strategies on students compre hension of agricultural concep ts and motivation to read. Chapter 1 also provided background about seco ndary reading, content area reading, and agriscience. Definitions of key terms rela ted to reading in ag riscience and reading strategy instruction were provi ded. Chapter 1 also identifi ed the purposes and explained the significance of the study. The primary pur pose of this study was to determine the effects of implementing a package of content area reading strategies that focuses on the three micro-periods of reading on students knowledge of agricultural concepts and motivation to read. Chapter 2 presented a discussion of theori es of reading and research related to reading comprehension, motivation to read, st rategy instruction, and variables influencing student reading. Variables di scussed included the reading strategy instru ction, reading ability, prior reading ex periences, and gender. Chapter 3 explains the methods employed to accomplish the objectives and test the hypotheses of this study. The objectiv es of this study were to include 1. Describe the grade level, gender, et hnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading achievement levels of students participating in this study. 2. Describe the variance in agriculture po st-test score explained by the linear combination of treatment group, grade leve l, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading achievement levels of students.

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88 3. Describe the variance in motivation to read score explained by the linear combination of treatment group, grade leve l, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading achievement levels of students. 4. Describe the variance in the comprehens ion portion of the agriculture post-test score explained by the linear combination of treatment group, grade level, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT readi ng achievement levels of students. For this study, research hypotheses included: Ha 1: Comprehension of agricu ltural concepts will be significantly greater for secondary agriscience students using readi ng strategies versus those students using the teachers traditional routine in agriscience classes. Ha 2: Motivation to read will be significan tly greater for secondary agriscience students using reading strategies versus those students using the teachers traditional routine in agriscience classes. Questions leading the qual itative inquiry included: 1. How do agriculture teachers perceive their role in assisting students in developing reading comprehension skills in agriscience? 2. What are teachers reactions to implementi ng the content area reading strategies in agriscience? How effective are these efforts? 3. How do agriscience teachers model good literacy? 4. What strategies are effective in assist ing agriscience teachers in implementing content area reading strategies? 5. What are the barriers to readi ng instruction in agriscience? Chapter 3 specifically targets the rese arch design, population, student sample, instrumentation, treatment, data collection proc edures, and statistical analyses used in analyzing the data. The independent vari ables in this study we re reading strategy instruction, specifically strate gy use in the three microperi ods of reading versus the teachers normal routine of instruction; to tal content area reading strategies employed; and instructional time. Outlining the stat us of reading comprehension instruction, Pressley (2001) supposed that if different types of instruc tion improve comprehension, it just might be sensible to do all of them ( 1). The dependent variables in this study were

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89 motivation to read and agricultural concept knowledge. The antecedent variables were gender, grade level, ethnicity, and SES. GPA, FCAT reading levels, agriculture pre-test scores, and motivation to read pre-test scores were treated as covariates. Chapter 3 also addresses qualitative me thods to answer the following questions about teachers instru ction in content area reading strategies. 1. How do agriculture teachers perceive their role in assisting students in developing reading comprehension skills in agriscience? 2. What are teachers reactions to implementi ng the content area reading strategies in agriscience? How effective are these efforts? 3. How do agriscience teachers model good literacy? 4. What strategies are effective in assist ing agriscience teachers in implementing content area reading strategies? 5. What are the barriers to readi ng instruction in agriscience? Objective 1: Description of Participants This study employed a purposive sample of students enrolled in Agriscience Foundations in Florida. Initially, six teachers e ach with two classes of Agriscience Foundations were selected to participate in the study. This selection was based upon the teachers projected ability to deliver the treat ment effectively and provide usable data. The Florida hurricanes of 2005 caused one teacher to withdraw from the study, and another teacher provided limited usable data ( n = 3). Thus, classes taught by those two teachers were dropped from the study. Therefor e, four teachers, two randomly selected for the treatment and two for the compar ison group, completed the study and provided usable data (see Table 4-1). Both teachers in the comparison group were female, while one of the teachers in the treatment group was female, and the other was male. Of the 95

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90 students included in the study, 47 were assi gned to the treatment group, while 48 were assigned to the comparison group (see Table 4-1). Table 4-1. Schools participating in the study. Group Treatment Comparison Total Schools (number) 2 2 4 Students (number) 47 48 95 The study was initiated on October 4, 2004, when the researchers sent the packets of lessons and instructional materials to each teacher. The study concluded on January 20, 2005, when each teacher had returned all of the necessary data and all interviews were completed. Data were collected at tw o primary points in the study: demographic and pre-test data were collected within the first week if initiating the study, while posttest data were collected upon completion of th e study. Teachers, often with the aid of the schools guidance counselor, filled out the Demographic Reporting Sheet (see Appendix B) with student demographic data and data pertaining to the covariates. Each teacher administered the agriculture pre-test, the Adapted Motivations for Reading pretest, individual lesson quizzes, and the Adap ted Motivations for Reading post-test. One teacher in each the treatment and co mparison group taught classes on a block schedule with 90 minutes of instruction on a lternating days. The other teacher in each group taught on a traditional 50minute schedule. Each teach er was provided identical lessons, with the exception of embedded r eading strategies for the treatment group. Teachers taught the set of lessons for an overa ll average of 1,340 minutes (see Table 4-2). The treatment teachers taught their lessons for an average of 1,570 minutes, while the comparison group teachers taught their le ssons for an average of 1,110 minutes.

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91 Table 4-2. Instructional time on Agriscience Foundations lessons. Treatment Comparison Lesson days minutes days minutes 06.07: Determining the Anatomy and Physiology of Animals 7.0 490 5.5 375 06.06: Meeting the Nutritional Needs of Animals 8.0 520 6.0 360 06.08: Understanding Animal Reproduction 8.0 560 5.5 375 Total 23.0 1570 17.0 1110 Teachers in the study used a different numbe r of total reading strategies depending upon their random group assignment. Treatment group teachers were instructed where to use strategies within their lessons, so that CARS were implemented in a systematic, planned, and thoughtful manner. In most cases they were instructed to choose between two complementary strategies when instruct ing students with reading. The comparison group teachers implemented CARS based upon their knowledge of the strategy and preference for using it. Treatment group teachers were provided a choice of two or three systematic, planned, and intentional strate gies for most objectives in the lesson. Teachers in the treatment group used an average of 16.5 conten t area reading strategies over the treatment period, which were embedded in the lessons according to the purpose of each strategy (see Table 4-3). The comparison group teachers used an average of 29.5 content area reading strategies. The study included 95 students who agreed to participate and provided complete and usable data. These students met the addi tional criteria of complete data and school attendance for at least 80% of the days during the study. In a few instances where

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92 individuals did not respond to individual questions, the missing data were completed by substituting the mean score of the part icipants remaining items (DeVaus, 1990). Table 4-3. Number of strategies employed. Lesson Treatment Comparison 06.07: Determining the Anatomy and Physiology of Animals 5.0 9.0 06.06: Meeting the Nutritional Needs of Animals 5.0 9.0 06.08: Understanding Animal Reproduction 6.5 11.5 Total 16.5 29.5 Gender Of the 95 students in the study, 58 (61.1%) were male, and 37 (38.9%) were female (see Table 4-4). The treatment group had a hi gher percentage of male students (70.2%) than the comparison group (52.1%), and a corresponding lower proportion of female students (29.8% in the treatment gr oup and 47.9% in the comparison group). Table 4-4. Student gender distribution. Treatment Comparison Total Gender n % n % n % Male 33 70.2 25 52.1 58 61.1 Female 14 29.8 23 47.9 37 38.9 Total 47 100.0 48 100.0 95 100.0 Grade level Fifty-five students (57.9%) we re ninth graders, 27 (28.4%) were tenth graders, seven (7.4%) were eleventh graders, and six (6.3%) were twelfth grad ers (see table 4-5). Agriscience Foundations is traditionally an introduc tory course for many of the agriscience courses of study in Florida secondary schools. Generally, ninth graders are

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93 the predominant grade level classification of st udents enrolled in this course. In the treatment group, 70.2% of the students were ninth graders, while only 45.8% of the students in the comparison group were ninth graders. The combined proportion of underclassmen (ninth and tenth graders) wa s 91.5% in the treatment group and 81.2% in the comparison group. Table 4-5. Student gr ade level distribution. Treatment Comparison Total Grade Level n % n % n % 9 33 70.2 22 45.8 55 57.9 10 10 21.3 17 35.4 27 28.4 11 1 2.1 6 12.5 7 7.4 12 3 6.4 3 6.3 6 6.3 Total 47 100.0 48 100.0 95 100.0 Ethnicity The study used the conventions for ethni city according to the University of Floridas (2005) admissions form. Sixty-ni ne students (72.6%) were white, 14 (14.7%) were black, 11 (11.6%) were Hispanic, and one student was Asian (see Table 4-6). Most of the students (83.0%) in th e treatment group were white. The treatment group also contained six Hispanic students (12.8%) and one each of Asian and Black (2.1% each). The comparison group contained 62.5% white students with five Hispanic students (10.4%) and 13 Black students (27.1%). There were no Asian students in the comparison group.

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94 Table 4-6. Student et hnicity distribution. Treatment Comparison Total Ethnicity n % n % n % Asian 1 2.1 0 --1 1.1 Black 1 2.1 13 27.1 14 14.7 Hispanic 6 12.8 5 10.4 11 11.6 White 39 83.0 30 62.5 69 72.6 Total 47 100.0 48 100.0 95 100.0 SES SES was determined using the free and reduced lunch counts for the student sample. Sixty students (63.8%) did not quali fy for free or reduced lunches, while 28 (29.8%) qualified for free lunches and six ( 6.4%) qualified for reduced lunch pricing (see Table 4-7). In the treatment group, 32 st udents (68.1%) did not qualify for free or reduced lunches, while three students (6.4%) qualified for reduced lunch pricing and 12 students (25.5%) qualified for free lunche s. In the comparison group, 60 students (59.6%) did not qualify for free or reduced l unches, while three students (6.4%) qualified for reduced lunch pricing and 16 studen ts (34.0%) qualified for free lunches. Table 4-7. Student SES dist ribution as determined by fr ee and reduced lunch counts. Treatment Comparison Total Lunch program n % n % n % Free 12 25.5 16 34.0 28 29.8 Reduced 3 6.4 3 6.4 6 6.4 Full 32 68.1 28 59.6 60 63.8 Total 47 100.0 47 100.0 94 100.0

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95 GPA The mean GPA for the overall study was 2.62 out four-points (see table 4-8). Students were grouped by grade point av erages into corres ponding letter grade categories. The A range was from 4.00 to 3.50, the B range was from 3.49 to 2.50, the C range was from 2.49 to 1.50, the D range was from 1.49 to 0.50, and the F range was from .49 to 0.00. Table 4-8. Student lett er grade distribution. Treatment Comparison Total Letter Grade n % n % n % A 5 10.6 6 12.5 11 11.6 B 20 42.6 27 56.3 47 49.5 C 13 27.7 12 25.0 25 26.3 D 8 17.0 3 6.3 11 11.6 F 1 2.1 0 --1 1.1 Total 47 100.0 48 100.0 95 100.0 Overall, 11 students (11.6%) earned an A , 47 students (49.5%) earned a B, 25 students (26.3%) earned a C, 11 students (11.6%) earned a D, and one student (1.1%) earned an F. Five students (10.6%) in the treatment group earned an A, while 20 students (42.6%) earned a B , 13 students (27.7%) earned a C, eight students (17.0%) earned a D, and one student (2.1%) earned an F. Six students (12.5%) in the comparison group earned an A, while 27 st udents (56.3%) earned between a B, 12 students (25.0%) earned a C, and three students (6.3%) earned a D.

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96 FCAT reading level The mean Sunshine State Standard reading score was 1773.5 and the mean corresponding FCAT Achievement Level was 2. Forty students (46.0%) read at the lowest FCAT reading level 1, 20 students (23.0%) read at level 2, 16 students (18.4%) read at level 3, nine students (10.3%) read at level 4, and two st udents (2.3%) read at level 5, the highest FCAT reading level (s ee Table 4-9). In the treatment group, 20 students (50.0%) read at the lowest FCAT reading level 1, eight students (20.0%) read at level 2, seven students(17.5%) re ad at level 3, five students (12.5%) read at level 4, and two students (2.1%) read at level 5, the highest FCAT reading level. In the comparison group, 20 students (42.6%) read at the lowest FCAT reading level 1, 12 students (25.5%) read at level 2, nine students (19.1%) read at level 3, four st udents (8.5%) read at level 4, and two students (4.3%) read at leve l 5, the highest FCAT reading level. Table 4-9. Student FCAT reading level distribution. Treatment Comparison Total Reading Level n % n % n % 5 0 --2 4.3 2 2.3 4 5 12.5 4 8.5 9 10.3 3 7 17.5 9 19.1 16 18.4 2 8 20.0 12 25.5 20 23.0 1 20 50.0 20 42.6 40 46.0 Total 40 100.0 47 100.0 87 100.0 Motivation to read Motivation to read was asse ssed through pre-test and post-test assessments adapted from the Adapted Motivations for Readi ng Questionnaire (Wigfi eld & Guthrie, 1997,

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97 2004). As noted in Table 4-10, the mean canoni cal discriminant score for the 14 items on the Adapted Motivations for Reading questi onnaire (Wigfield & Guthrie, 1997, 2004) for the combined sample of students on the motivation pre-test was 5.93, and the mean canonical discriminant score on the post-test was 6.12. The difference between the pretest and the post-test was significant at = 0.05 ( p < 0.05). Overall canonical discriminant scores for student motivation to read on the pre-test ranged from 2.60 to 9.40 with a mean of 5.93. For the treatment group, student motivation had an overall mean canonical discriminant score of 5.89 on the pre-test. For the comparison group, student motivation had an overall mean canoni cal discriminant score of 5.98 on the pretest. Table 4-10. Motivation to r ead assessment scores ( n = 95). Treatmenta Comparisonb Total Score M SD M SD M SD Pre-test 5.89 1.61 5.98 1.38 5.93 1.49 Post-test 6.03 1.50 6.21 1.28 6.12 1.39 an = 47. bn = 48. Overall student motivation to read canonica l discriminant scores on the post-test ranged from 2.60 to 9.00 with a mean of 6.12. For the treatment group, student motivation had an overall mean canonical disc riminant score of 6.03 on the post-test. For the comparison group, student motivation had an overall mean canonical discriminant score of 6.21 on the post-test. Agriculture comprehension The reliability of the agriculture pre-te st was assessed using Kuder-Richardson 20, which yielded = 0.87. Overall, students answered 37.6% of the pre-test questions

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98 correctly and 60.4% of th e post-test questions correctly (see Table 4-11). Students in the treatment group answered 37.9% of the questions correctly on the pre-test and 59.2% of the questions correctly on the post-test. Students in the comparison group answered 37.3% of the questions correctly on the pre-te st and 61.5% of the que stions correctly on the post-test. Table 4-11. Students agricultu re preand post-test perf ormance (percent correct). Treatment Comparison Total Assessment n % n % n % Pre-test 47 37.9 48 37.3 95 37.6 06.07: Determining the Anatomy and Physiology of Animals 47 67.0 48 67.3 95 67.1 06.06: Meeting the Nutritional Needs of Animals 47 51.2 48 55.9 95 53.6 06.08: Understanding Animal Reproduction 47 58.8 48 61.3 94 60.0 Post-test total 47 59.2 47 61.5 94 60.4 Reading habits of students On the pre-test, 29 students (31.5%) indica ted that they were currently reading a book, while 27 students (30.7%) indicated they were reading a book at the end of the study. In the treatment group, 12 students ( 26.7%) indicated they were reading a book during the pre-test period, while 16 student s (36.4%) were read ing a book during the post-test phase. In the comparison group, 17 st udents (36.2%) indica ted that they were reading a book at the beginning of the study co mpared to 11 (25.0%) at the end of the study.

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99 The motivation to read pre-test and post -test asked participan ts to report the number of books that they had read in the past month, the nu mber of hours of reading per week for school and the number of hours of reading per week for pleasure (see Table 412). Overall, students read 1.74 books in the month prior to the study and read 3.44 hours per week for school and 1.94 hours per week for pleasure. Students in the treatment group read 1.40 books in the month prior to the study and read 3.42 hours per week for school and 1.33 hours per week for pl easure. Students in the comparison group read 2.07 books in the month prior to the study and read 3.45 hours per week for school and 2.52 hours per week for pleasure. Table 4-12. Reading habits of students. Treatment Comparison Total Habit n M SD n M SD n M SD Pre-Test Books per month 46 1.40 1.71 47 2.07 4.17 93 1.74 3.20 Weekly reading for school (hrs.) 43 3.42 4.17 47 3.45 5.49 90 3.44 4.88 Weekly reading for pleasure (hrs.) 44 1.33 2.47 47 2.52 5.61 91 1.94 4.40 Post-Test Books per month 44 1.80 2.13 45 1.76 3.02 89 1.78 2.60 Weekly reading for school (hrs.) 43 3.74* 5.58 45 1.71* 2.42 88 2.70 4.37 Weekly reading for pleasure (hrs.) 44 2.57 5.05 47 1.47 3.23 91 2.01 4.23 *Difference in hours reading for school betw een the treatment and comparison groups is significant at < 0.05.

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100 On the post-test, students read 1.78 books in the month prior to the study and read 2.70 hours per week for school and 2.01 hours per week for pleasure. Students in the treatment group read 1.80 books in the month prior to the study and read 3.74 hours per week for school and 2.57 hours per week for pl easure. Students in the comparison group read 1.76 books in the month prior to the study and read 1.71 hours per week for school and 1.47 hours per week for pleasure. Looking at the change in reading habits of students, students in the treatment group significantly increased the time per week that they read for pleasure significantly more than the comparison group ( p < 0.05). The treatment group in creased the hours per week reading for pleasure by 1.35 hours, while the comparison group decreased the time per week reading for pleasure by 1.14 hours (see Table 4-13). Table 4-13. Change in read ing habits of students. Treatment Comparison Habits n M SD n M SD t p Confidence Interval Books per month 43 0.56 1.69 44 -0.223.25 1.39 0.17 (-0.33, 1.88) Weekly reading for school (hrs.) 40 0.60 6.87 44 -1.925.83 1.81 0.07 (-0.25, 5.27) Weekly reading for pleasure (hrs.) 41 1.35 5.03 44 -1.144.67 2.36 0.02 (0.39, 4.57)* *Difference is significant at < 0.05. Relationships between variables Before analysis of any of the variables through inferential methods, the researcher examined the variables for possible corre lations (Miller, 1998). The conventions proposed by Davis (1971) were used to i ndicate the magnitude of the correlations. Correlations between 0.01 and 0.09 are negligible correlations between 0.10 and 0.29 are

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101 low correlations between 0.30 and 0.49 are moderate correlations between 050 and 0.69 are substantial and correlations between 0.70 and 0.99 are very high For interpretation of the correlation table, comparison gr oup, females, minorities, and students on free/reduced lunch programs we re coded higher than the treatment group, males, whites, and high-SES. Thus, positive correlations would be indicated if the participant was in the comparison group, female, minor ity, and/or lower-SES. As expected, a very high correlation wa s discovered between treatment group and total number of CARS ( r = 0.99) and a very high negativ e correlation was observed between treatment group and instructional time ( r = -0.75) (see Table 4-14 and 4-15). A very high negative correlation was discove red between instructional time and total number of CARS ( r = -0.79). Further, a very high correlation ( r = 0.89) was discovered between the agriculture post-test and the co mprehension assessment portion of the test. Substantial correlations were discovered between the FCAT r eading level and the agriculture pre-test ( r = 0.61), the agricu lture post-test ( r = 0.66), and the comprehension assessment portions of the post-tests ( r = 0.53). Substantial co rrelations also existed between the agriculture pre-test and the agriculture post-test ( r = 0.66) and the comprehension portion of the post-test ( r = 0.50). Moderate correlations were discovered be tween GPA and the agriculture post-test score ( r = 0.49), the comprehension portion of the post-test ( r = 0.44), FCAT reading levels ( r = 0.42), and the agri culture pre-test ( r = 038). A moderate correlation was observed between gender and th e agriculture post-test ( r = 0.33), GPA ( r = 0.33), and the comprehension portion of the post-test ( r = 0.34). Moderate correlations were also observed between grade level and ethnicity ( r = 0.29).

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102Table 4-14. Correlations betw een continuous variables. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1. Total CARS ---0.79* 0.13 0.23* 0.08 -0.01 0.09 0.03 0.04 -0.04 2. Instructional time --0.08 -0.21* -0.11 -0.03 -0.02 0.11 -0.04 -0.13 3. Grade level --0.18 -0.07 0.03 0.04 0.00 0.05 -0.06 4. GPA --.42* 0.38* 0.4* 0.44* 0.11 0.11 5. FCAT reading level --0.61* 0.66* 0.53* 0.16 0.04 6. Agriculture pre-test --0.66* 0.50* 0.14 0.07 7. Agriculture post-test --0.89* 0.13 0.06 8. Comprehension Score --0.09 0.02 9. Motivation to read pre-test --0.17 10. Motivation to read post-test --*p < 0.05.

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103 Table 4-15. Point biserial correlatio ns between categorical variables. Treatment Group Gender Ethnicity SES 1. Total CARS 0.99* 0.20* 0.19 0.11 2. Instructional time -0.75* -0.20* -0.09 -0.16 3. Grade level 0.20 -0.02 0.29* -0.14 4. GPA 0.23* 0.33* -0.08 -0.14 5. FCAT reading level 0.06 0.23* -0.02 -0.04 6. Agriculture pre-test -0.02 0.09 -0.09 -0.20 7. Agriculture post-test 0.06 0.33* -0.26* -0.14 8. Comprehension Score -0.00 0.34* -0.24* -0.05 9. Motivation to read pre-test 0.03 0.17 0.09 0.13 10. Motivation to read post-test -0.05 0.13 0.03 0.01 *p < 0.05. Low positive correlations were discovered between the treatment group and GPA ( r = 0.23) and ethnicity ( r = 0.23). They were also observe d between ethnicity and SES ( r = 0.25), between total CARS used and GPA ( r = 0.24), and between gender and FCAT reading ( r = 0.23). A low negative correlation wa s observed between ethnicity and the agriculture post-test ( r = -0.26), between instructional time and GPA ( r = -0.21), between ethnicity and the comprehensi on portion of the post-test ( r = -0.23), and between instructional time and gender ( r = -0.20). Objective 2: Variance in Ag ricultural Post-Test Scores Objective 2 described the variance in agri cultural post-test scor es explained by the linear combination of treatment group, grade level, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading achievement levels of students. Backward stepwise regression was used to select the most appropriate model for pr edicting agricultural c ontent knowledge based

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104 upon treatment group, grade level, gender, et hnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading achievement levels of students (Agresti & Finlay, 1997). Backward regression was used because of its power to cons truct a model using only those factors that contribute significance to predicting th e dependent variable (Gall et al, 2003; Licht, 2004). Variables initially included in the backwa rd-stepwise regression were treatment group, gender, grade level, ethnicity, SES, GPA, FC AT reading level, and the agriculture pretest score. Variables needed a si gnificance level of = 0.05 to enter the regression equation, while variables with > 0.10 were removed. Categorical variables were dummy-coded: Treatment group: 0 = treatment, 1 = comparison Gender: 0 = male, 1 = female Ethnicity: 0 = White, 1 = minority SES: 0 = unsubsidized lunch program, 1 = free or reduced lunch The regression analysis produ ced a model consisting of th e linear combination of agriculture pre-test, grade level, GPA, ge nder, ethnicity, and FCAT reading level to predict the overall agriculture post-test score, F(85) = 27.26, p < 0.05. R2 for the model was 0.67, and the adjusted R2 was 0.65. Table 4-16 shows th e variables and regression coefficients for this model. The agriculture pre-test score ( t = 3.41, p < 0.05), FCAT reading levels ( t = 4.12, p < 0.05), ethnicity ( t = -2.84, p < 0.05), gender ( t = 2.16, p = 0.05), GPA ( t = 2.99, p < 0.05), and grade level ( t = 2.41, p = 0.05) contributed significantly ( < .05) to predicting agricu lture post-test scores. The linear combination of these variable s explained 65.0% of the variance in agriculture post-test scores. Forward st epwise regression was used to determine R2 change, or additional variance explained by each factor in the model. FCAT reading

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105 level explained the most variance (44.0%). GPA explained 12.1% of the variance, the agriculture pre-test explai ned 4.9%, grade level explaine d 2.4%, ethnicity explained 2.1%, and gender explained 1.9%. Table 4-16. Backward regressi on analysis to predict agri culture comprehension scorea. B SE t R2 change (Constant) -0.09 0.13 ---.66 --FCAT reading level* 0.06 0.01 0.36 4.12 0.440 GPA* 0.05 0.02 0.24 2.99 0.121 Agriculture pre-test* 0.36 0.11 0.29 3.41 0.049 Grade level* 0.04 0.01 0.17 2.41 0.024 Ethnicity* -0.08 0.03 -0.19 -2.84 0.021 Gender* 0.06 0.03 0.15 2.16 0.019 aAdjusted R2 = 0.65, p < 0.05. *p < 0.05. Objective 3: Variance in the Motivation to Read Post-Test Objective 3 attempted to describe the vari ance in the motivation to read post-test explained by the linear combination of treat ment group, grade level, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading achievement leve ls of students. As none of the variables was significantly correlated with the motivati on to read post-test, this analysis was not conducted. Objective 4: Variance in Comprehension Scores of the Agriculture Post-Test Objective 4 described the variance in comp rehension scores of the agriculture posttest explained by the linear combination of treatment group, grade level, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading achie vement levels of students. Backward stepwise regression was used to select th e most appropriate model for predicting the

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106 comprehension portion of the agriculture post-test based upon grade level, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading achie vement levels of st udents. Variables initially included in the b ackward-stepwise regression we re treatment group, gender, grade level, ethnicity, SES, GPA, FCAT readi ng level, and the agricu lture pre-test score, coded in the same manner as in Objective 2. Variables needed a significance level of = 0.05 to enter the regression e quation, while those with > 0.10 were removed. The regression analysis produ ced a model consisting of th e linear combination of agriculture pre-test, instructional time, GPA, gender, ethnicity, a nd FCAT reading level to predict the comprehension score, F(86) = 19.67, p < 0.05. R2 for the model was 0.42, and the adjusted R2 was 0.39. Table 4-17 shows the variab les and regression coefficients for this model. GPA ( t = 3.88, p < 0.05) and FCAT reading level ( t = 4.08, p < 0.05) contributed significantly ( = 0.05) to predicting the compre hension scores. Ethnicity ( t = -1.78, p < 0.08) contributed to the mode l, but was not significant at < 0.05. Table 4-17. Backward regression analysis to predict comprehension portion of the agriculture post-testa. B SE t R2 change (Constant) 0.25 0.09 --2.61 --GPA* 0.11 0.03 0.36 3.89 0.260 FCAT reading level* 0.08 0.02 0.38 4.08 0.115 Ethnicity -0.08 0.05 -0.15 -1.78 --aAdjusted R2 = 0.39, p < 0.05. *p < 0.05. The linear combination of these variables explained 39.4% of the variance in the comprehension scores. Forward stepwise regression was used to determine R2 change, or additional variance explained by each factor in the model. GPA explained the most

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107 variance (26.0%), FCAT reading level expl ained 11.5%of the vari ance, and ethnicity explained the remainder of the variance. Hypothesis Tests The dependent variables in this study were the agriculture post-test, the motivation to read post-test score, and the comprehensi on portion of the individual post-tests. All three of these variables were measured as inte rval data. The indepe ndent variables in the study were the treatment versus the comp arison group, number of content area reading strategies, and instruct ional time. Group assignment was a categorical variable, while the remainder of the variables contained interval data. Constant variab les were gender, grade level, ethnicity, and SES. The constant va riables were categorical in nature. The covariates were GPA, FCAT reading level, the agriculture pre-test score, and the motivation to read pre-test score. Al l covariates were interval in nature. No significant correlations were found be tween treatment group and the dependent variables, the score on the agriculture post-te st and the Adapted Motivations for Reading post-test. Further, treatment group was not a significant factor in explaining the variance for either the agriculture posttest score or the Adapted Moti vations for Reading post-test. Thus, no further analyses were c onducted on the quantitative data. Teacher Interviews Upon completion of the treatment, the researcher interviewed the teachers participating in the study to ascertain thei r attitudes toward using content area reading strategies. The researcher also desired to determine what worked well, what strategies were less effective, and w hy both of these phenomena occurred in the agriscience classrooms. Teachers were asked a series of questions pertaining to their use of reading strategies during the st udy, their perceptions of students implementation of the reading

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108 strategies, and the personal value that th ey placed on reading in agriscience. Upon analysis of the interview transc ripts, several themes surfaced. All names have been changed to protect the identity of the teachers and their schools. Charlie and Helen represented te achers in the treatmen t group, and Elizabeth and Norma represented teachers in the comparison group. Attributes of Agriscience Teac hers and Agriscience Students Agriscience teachers indicated an interest in helping students learn One of the first interview questions sought to ascertain why these teachers volunteered or agreed to particip ate in this reading study. The agriscience teachers in this study portrayed an interest in helping stude nts learn as part of their motivation to participate in the study. Teachers possessed a ge nuine desire to help students learn about agriculture and improve their overall academic achievement. The teachers mentioned their desire to learn about new content area reading stra tegies and methods of active engagement with students. These teachers also understood that some of their students failed to comprehend reading material. Teachers cited personal examples of incidents when students failed to comprehend reading: Ive noticed throughout when Ive been teaching one of the things that they have a really difficult time with is summarizing a nd I think that goes back to the fact that when they read, theyre not getting the main points. Theyre not comprehending the main points (Norma, comparison group). Further, the teachers indicated a desire to de monstrate to their administrators that they were incorporating reading in agriscience and attempting to improve students overall academic achievement.

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109 Agriscience teachers stated that content area reading was important Part of agriscience teachers motivation to participate in this study stemmed from their beliefs about reading s importance to lifelong learning. Teachers viewed agriscience as a content area where the teacher and students could blend reading into a practical context. Several of the teachers indicated that they understood and embraced the importance of content ar ea reading in agriscience. Norma, a comparison group teacher, stated, I think its important . I feel like you need to be literate. She continued later in the interview, Obviously I do feel like I ha ve a role [in developing st udents reading skills], because Im trying to learn different strategi es, because I do see it is a problem with students. I do feel like Im part of the team. I dont think that because theyre in ag, they shouldnt be doing English and math and history and soci al studies and all that kind of stuff, because really agriculture is a blend of all that . And I feel like Im really part of the team and even though sometimes the academic teachers dont feel like ag is important, I understand how important e ducation is and Ive got a little bit of all of that in agri culture, . (Norma, comparison) Teachers understood the relationship be tween reading and lifelong learning, especially in careers. Charlie, a treatment group teacher, asserted his perceptions of the importance of content area reading; I think it s important because wh en they get out in a job, it really doesnt matter wh at they already know as much as what can they find out on their own when they need it. Helen, a treatment group teacher, summarized her feelings about the importance of content area reading and teaching students content. She felt that the use of content area reading strategies was a more efficient met hod of teaching both from a time and learning standpoint. In fact, the job of the teacher is To teach them and make them understand [content], and so if you can find a way that is 1) more efficient and 2) better for them to understand, then you need to do that. And, thats what I found. I feel lik e that [reading strate gy instruction] was probably the most efficient wa y that I had ever taught th e reproduction part of those

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110 lessons, using those reading strategies. I really did . And, I think they understood it better, I really do. I think my students understood [the content] better in that fashion, than the standard here-i t-is-let-me-regurgitate-this-information-toyou-and-you-write-it-down (H elen, treatment group). All of the teachers mentioned their persona l role in helping st udents become better readers. They viewed themselves as part of a team to help students learn and excel. Helen, a treatment group teacher, related the im portance of content area reading to the role of the teacher in ensuring th at students can read and comprehend. Number one, reading is importantyou have to be able to read. You have to be able to understand the concepts, and you have to vary how those concepts are taught, so that you make sure that every child understands, and not just those geniuses that are sitting ther e. But that every child needs to be able to understand and I guess thats . why its important to have all of those varying [reading strategies], so that you are touching on each students ability to absorb that material, cause thats what youre suppos ed to be doing (Helen, treatment group). Agriscience teachers incorporated content area reading strategies Agriscience teachers desired to become better teachers by incorporating content area reading strategies. Teacher s in this study were purposivel y selected for their ability to deliver the CARS, gather data, and teach With these qualifications, the teachers acted as professional educators and viewed the study as an opportunity to learn new methods and become better teachers. Thus, teacher s in this study were motivated by the opportunity to learn about new methods of engaging students with text and enhancing their comprehension. Charlie, a treatmen t group teacher, indicated his motivation to participate, Anything that helps us as ag teachers beco me more aware of reading strategies and how we can help kids become better readers, were expected to do that anyway. So anything we can do to make ourselves better is an important thing and thats why I chose to do it. Treatment group teachers incorporated CARS as part of the normal course of teaching. They smoothly blended CARS in delivering content to students. Helens

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111 students appeared to enjoy using the reading strategies. They even perceived them as part of the normal routine of instruction. She related an incident in one of her classes that epitomized her perceptions w ith content area instruction. You know, the kids at first were real con cerned, when you gave them [the informed consent] and they found out they were going to be participating in that study. And we were probably half if not three-quar ters of the way thr ough the lesson, and one of the kids raised their hand and asked, Miss [Helen], remember that study thing you said we were going to be doing? When are we startin that? And I thought that was really funny that here we are, three-quarters of the way through it right now, and oh, OK. The paper really threw th em off; they didnt really understand what they were going to do. You know, what type of guinea pigs they were going to be. It was really funny, I mean, if kids perceived what they were doing as everyday learning, then it must have be right. So, you know, it must have been good stuff (Helen, treatment group). Teachers desired to participate in this study, because they wanted to learn additional instructional tools with which to teach students. Norma, a comparison group teacher, defined her motivation to participate in the study: And thats why I wanted to do this [the study], so I could have a few more tools in my bag, so I could try to get em to do what theyre supposed to be doing. Charlie, a treatment group teacher, appreciat ed being part of the study to learn about new content area and activ e learning strategies to help his students and help with the study. He stated, I appreciate being a part of the study and getting the opportunity to do that. I hope I was able to help in some way. I hope that something I was able to do made a difference. I know its made a differen ce in me, because Ive implemented more science than ever before and now Im goi ng to implement more reading than ever before in my curriculum. And, I was glad to be a part of it, because it showed me how to implement some of these things [C AR strategies]. It was something Id already learned from the school, but neve r learned how to implement them, and I think this has been a good study for that thi ng. At least it helped me, and from this I think well be able to get some in-service to help teachers if nothing else (Charlie, treatment group).

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112 Agriscience teachers were not avid readers themselves and/or were poor readers Agriscience teachers were not avid readers and/or were poor readers in high school. While these teachers were motivated to particip ate in this study, they were not especially strong or motivated readers. Teachers involve d in this study demonstrated an inclination to avoid reading in their agrisc ience courses prior to initiation of the study. The teachers indicated that they took little personal time to read, and s uggested that th eir obligations with teaching agriscience and coordinating FFA activities precluded the time allocated to reading. Norma, a comparison group teacher, noted that she was a reader, but not like an avid reader . a slow reader. A trea tment group teacher Charlie stated that he hated reading in school, yet he understood that reading is a skill, that the lack of reading ability will only be corrected through pr actice, and that poor reader s struggle with reading, but will not engage in reading to improve. Agriscience courses were populated with students possessing a wide range of reading abilities During the interviews, teachers noted that their students possessed a wide range of reading abilities, ranging from students who r ead far below grade level to those with no apparent difficulty in comprehe nding text. Charlies students included everything from nonreaders to honors students who read at a ve ry high level. Hele ns classes were no different. She summarized the r eading levels of her students: That class is the basic, basic SED student, this is the only time they are out [in regular classes] the entire day, to th e academic honors student, who could probably be already in college, except they want to be in FFA so they havent left high school yet. So, there are so many differen t varying levels of academic ability in that class (Helen, treatment group). This typified the range of students reading abilities in these agriscience courses.

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113 Still, teachers felt that students should ha ve had stronger reading skills prior to entering the secondary classroom. They realized that the range of r eading levels in their agriscience courses presented a barrier to learning for ma ny students. However, knowing that these skills were lacking in some student s, teachers attempted to use the study and its strategies to improve their st udents reading abilities. A comparison group teacher, Helen state, We have so many different reading levels, that if I could be a better teacher through teaching them a better st rategy, then I always want to be a better teacher. Approaches to Instruction in Agriscience Teachers used lecture-discussion, teac her-centered approaches to instruction Even though the teachers in this stud y professed their understanding of and appreciation for the use of content area readi ng strategies, they indicated a preference for lecture-discussion and teacher-centered a pproaches to instruction. Elizabeth, a comparison group teacher, felt that students gr ew frustrated with attempts at active engagement in their learning; sometimes they get to the point, where its like, Just teach me, OK? Just teach me. Tell me a story that I can relate to this. Teachers felt that they could make learning more real for their students through teacher-centered approaches to learning. With the treatment group students, Char lie provided an indication about his approach to teaching. He outlined his instruct ion, If I read the material ahead and pick out whats important to them and try to inst ruct them on whats important, then when you do some reading, it kind of supports that and th ey can see that information. In doing so, he took the lead in ascertaining the important points in the readings. Yet, one of the treatment group teachers Helen, felt that the use of reading strategies offered additional learning benefits to her stude nts. She felt that as she

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114 transitioned to a more student-centered a pproach to learning, th e students took more ownership in their learning and thus benefited educationally. She attr ibuted their learning gains to their active engagement and owners hip in the lessons when using the content area reading strategies. I felt like my students comprehended [cont ent], and maybe its cause they took a little bit more ownership through [reading st rategy instruction]. Um, because they were a little bit more active in laying [content] out . I think that they used a lot of different ways to learn the same materi al, as opposed to me regurgitating the information to them. And, I think you always learn more when youre more active in that learning (Helen, treatment group). Though these teachers used activ ities in their classes, mu ch of their instruction remained teacher-centered and teacher-contr olled. Two of the agriscience teachers indicated that even though th ey had not consciously impl emented content area reading strategies in their courses pr ior to initiation of this st udy, they had been instructing students using activities all along (Elizab eth, comparison group). Their instruction attempted to involve lower ability students in their in-class and out -of-class activities, such as FFA. The teachers used a combination of teacher-centered approaches to storytelling and novel activities to pique students interest in the agriscience topics. They believed that this benefited students as well as the school and community. Norma, one of the comparison group teachers, noted that students could pass her agriscience course with out reading much content, or even passing the tests. In her view, the hands-on aspects of her courses offset the aspects including reading, writing, and testing. She appreciated effort in part icipating, while not necessarily demanding accuracy in reading and writing, or even de monstration of knowledge gain through an assessment.

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115 Reading was minimized in agriscience co urses prior to initiating the study Reading was minimized in agriscience course s prior to initiating the study. It was even a secondary or tertiary learning tool in agriscience courses. All four teachers indicated that prior to the studys initiation, th ey did not, at least consciously, implement reading or reading strategies in their agriscience courses. As a treatment group teacher, Charlies response typified those of the other teachers, Prior to th is year, [reading has] been a very minimal part, of his agriscience courses. Later in the interview when asked if he regularly employed CARS in his agrisc ience courses, he added, Never; only when they tried to force me to [use CARS and r eading]. I thought I woul d never do it. When asked if she regularly employed CARS in her agriscience courses, Elizabeth, a comparison group teacher, answered, Probably not as consciously as I did with that, the study. Thus, participation in this study a ppeared to have an impact on teachers implementation of CARS in their agriscience courses. For the agriscience teachers in this study, reading was clearly a secondary or even a tertiary learning activity. Teachers viewed reading as an activity for a substitute, an approach to providing baseline information, or a supplement to their lectures and discussions. Working with the treatment group, Helen sugge sted that reading was a supplement or one of the tools for presenti ng the information. When asked about the importance of content area reading in agri science, in the comp arison group, Elizabeth stated, Were able to provide real li fe examples having lived agriculture and been a part of agriculture, so there are some readings w ith certain lessons that are much, much more effective than others. And, with th ings like reproduction and those types of things, you know, I can give them examples or even show them examples rather than have them read it. Because, agai n, theyre going to retain that knowledge a whole lot better if they see it, if they see the reproductive tr act of a chicken, or whatever. Or even me telling them about it, theyre going to retain that information

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116 a lot better. So, even though I have readings for them or reading that relates to the content, I may or may not use it. Just b ecause I can provide a different example or hands-on example of [the lesson]. Now, sometimes Ill use [reading] as a unit introduction or something like that, or a pa rt of lecture notes that I may give, but overall, you know, I dont know that I do a w hole lot of readings as far as my lessons go, and I probably should (Elizabeth, comparison group). When reading was used, teachers indicated th at the typical structure of the reading assignment included assigning a chapter to read in the text and questions to answer at the end of the chapter. Students may or may not have taken the book and questions home to complete, and the written answers were usua lly followed with a class discussion of the assignment on the following day. Charlie, a treatment group teacher, described his lessons, From time to time well find a unit in the textbook that kind of follows what were doing and Ill assign them the reading and th eyll answer the questions at the back of the chapter or Ill fix a worksheet that goes along with that unit and theyll have to find the information in the reading of th e paragraphs or whatever. But typically I instruct by discussion or by lecture and them asking questions and response and worksheets following that to make sure they understood what we went over (Charlie, treatment group). Teachers cited use of reading only or pr edominantly for when a substitute was covering a teachers absence. While teachers felt that they could not trust a substitute to instruct students about a ha nds-on activity outside of th e classroom, they did feel comfortable with leaving a reading assignment with the substitute to keep the students quiet and behaved. Norma, a comparison group teacher, delineated her approach to substitute lessons, I know when Im out, I always rely on my textbooks, almost always, because Ive got a class of 25 kids, theres very few th ings I can do with 25 kids outside doing the same thing and keep and eye on em (Norma, comparison group). She engaged in this teaching practice even though she understood its inherent ill effects on students motivation to read.

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117 So I rely on using the textbook, and of course, a substitute is not going to get up there, and theyre not going to lecture, th eyre just going to say, Read this, and give out a worksheet and do it. And I thi nk thats a problem, because then, I think the kids get the attitude that the read ings not important. The readings not important, because this is just a busy-wor k assignment, and I think thats a problem (Norma, comparison group). Thus reading appeared to be a substitute fo r the instruction provi ded by the agriscience teacher. Agriscience Teachers and Their Use of Content Area Reading in Agriscience Agriscience teachers had limited u nderstanding about implementing CARS Teachers in this study possessed a fundament al knowledge of content area reading strategies. Collectively, they named 24 di fferent CARS or activ e learning strategies, including boss-secretary, bubbl e charts, cell diagrams, concept maps, CRIS strategies, discussion, GIST, inside-out circles, Kagan Cooperative Learning structures, KWL, newspaper strategies, outlines, prediction guides, Question Answer Relationships, readthink-write, reading aloud, soap stones, summaries, sustai ned silent reading, textbook safari, think-aloud, think-pair-share, word walls, and Venn diagrams. This number of strategies equates to approxima tely six per teacher. While mentioning these strategies by name, teachers exhibited varying degrees of knowledge about how to use the strategies. They also possessed limited confiden ce in the implementation of CARS. Through their answers, although not us ing accurate vocabulary, the teachers indicated limited general knowledge about how to use reading and CARS in agriscience. Several indicated stimulating interest in the reading, activatin g background knowledge, identifying main points, and summarizing info rmation as key portions to helping students better comprehend what they read. Norma, a comparison group teacher, proposed that she was attempting to generate interest activate background knowledge, and break

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118 reading into chunks in order to facilitate students comprehension. In the treatment group, Charlie understood how he could help st udents comprehend: I think thats the worst part of students ability is being able to apply what they learne d in the past to what they are reading at that mome nt that will help them to unde rstand what they are reading. Further, teachers indicated th at they knew that some l earning situations were better suited to using reading as a le arning tool than others. Char lies comments typified some of the teachers understanding of which learni ng situations and content supported content area reading. He stated, It depends . the lesson will lend itself to certain . reading strategieslike a concept map lends itself well to lists of stuff. You know collapsing those lists into organized charts so you can organize your thoughts on that, so you can understand where [learning] comes from. Think al ouds work best if youve got some application questions and youre reading in formation thats going to answer those application questions. Then you can th ink aloud through the process (Charlie, treatment group). Agriscience teachers used a varie ty of other reading materials Teachers in the study used a variety of reading material s other than the course textbooks as a means of instructing students. Students read trade magazines, other textbooks, and trade books to supplement instruction. These materials included A Child Called It (Pelzer, 1993), Across the Table Ag Research magazine, Bleachers (Grisham, 2003), Farm Facts (American Farm Bureau Federation, 2004), Farm Press The Foxfire Book (Wigginton, 1972), Lets Roll (Beamer & Abraham, 2003), Progressive Farmer and The Science of Agriculture (Herren, 2002). Some teachers used reading for a broader coverage of curriculu m materials. For example, in the comparison group, Elizabeth inst ructed her students to read five articles from different locations each nine-week grading period. From these readings, the students summarized and related them to each other.

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119 Teachers Participate in Professional Deve lopment Related to Content Area Reading Agriscience teachers need assist ance with implementing CARS While teachers could name CARS and explain the gist of using them, they lacked a basic knowledge and confidence in using specific reading stra tegies in thei r agriscience courses. For example in the comparison gr oup, Norma noted, Im not real comfortable with all of [the reading strategies] yet, becau se I just started using some of these. She was not sure if she had been using the cont ent area reading strategies in the correct manner, because she had not received fee dback on her teaching w ith the strategies. In the treatment group, Charlie indicate d his deficiencies in using CARS: I didnt understand how to do the summaries to tell you the truth. And I think thats part of what made it unbearable fo r them, cause I didnt know exactly how to do it, and I tried to follow the rubric a nd kind of get an idea of what was wanted and help the kids understand that, but it was difficult for them to do that (Charlie, treatment group). Since this was the first time that many of these teachers had used CARS, their lack of knowledge and confidence may have been natural. Part of the lack of confidence and know ledge in use of CARS may stem from a lack of preparation and in-ser vice training in the use of CARS Agriscience teachers may not be getting the help that they need to instruct student s about content area reading strategies and how to improve their reading co mprehension skills. Charlie also hinted at this problem: You know, were academic up until the point that you expect them to help you just as much as they do somebody else, but th en youre not. Youre reading teachers right up until the poin t that theyre going to be required to help you, and then youre not anymore. Youre important until then, then youre not important anymore. But as an ag teacher, you get used to that (Charlie, treatment group).

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120 Teachers in the study even defined what th ey desired in the way of professional development with content area reading strategies. The comparison group teacher Norma stated, I would like to go to some kind of traini ng where I actually get to sit down and I want them to use my subject matter and s how me this is the strategy, here it is. This is what you do. This is how you do it (Norma, comparison group). In the treatment group, Charlie continued, What Ive found from the workshops Ive be en to is that they throw a lot of information at you and dont show you how to put it to use. And, any workshop that has to do with reading strategies needs to be about developing lessons so that you could see how it [CAR strategies] works. And so have people develop a lesson and teach it. Cause if the teachers have to go through the process that these kids have to go through, I think theyd find out why the kids have trouble with it and why they dont like it (Charlie, treatment group). Nearly all of the teachers in this study ha d participated in intensive content area reading and/or active learning strategy work shops over the previous summer. Workshops included the Florida Reading Initiative training, Kagan Cooperative Learning structures, USA Today workshops, and workshops presented by other teachers with in the school. Schools in this study were involved with several reading initiatives, such as the FCAT Connection Florida Reading Initiative or Literacy First The teachers implemented some of the principles and practices from wo rkshops in their classrooms. Helen indicated that part of her motivation to participate in the study stem med from her schools current emphasis on reading and the preparation she had received through workshops. Helen, a treatment group teacher, suggested that the stra tegies in the study seemed to be some of the things we were trying to do with our students anyhow. Pressures to Teach Reading Strong pressure from admi nistrators and the state department of education motivated teachers to teach to accountabi lity standards and prove that they are

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121 contributing to students overall achievement Each of the teachers in the study noted that part of their motivation to participate in the study stemmed from the pressure from administrators and the FDOE to incorpor ate reading into all courses, including agriscience. As Helen, one of the treatment group teachers stated, FCAT drives this cart here and drives everyones cart. Each of the four schools was undergoing intensive professional development and implementati on of reading across the curriculum. Teachers in this study participated on school -wide committees to investigate appropriate means of incorporating reading in struction into content areas. The pressure to use content area readi ng in agriscience courses was prevalent throughout the four interviews. Elizab eth, a comparison group teacher, stated, [administrators] are putting the pressure on us to read as well as to implement strategies to help students read in our classroom as well as every academic classroom. Norma continued this vein of thought: in our count y, reading is a big deal right now, because we did have low test scores. Charlie s school was committed to reading and even monitored the number of CARS that teachers used each week. We have a committee at school that puts t ogether reading assessm ents to assess the students throughout the year to make sure theyre learning their reading strategies and every teacher is teaching a certain amount of reading strategies . [E]very teacher in our school is expected to focus on that strategy that particular week. One week, its a certain benchmark and then at the end of each week we assess that particular benchmark in the text, the read ing text. In addition to that, you supposed to implement that particular benchmark into your everyday cu rriculum. I find it very difficult to do that and get anythi ng done . Basically, their comment is, Every teacher is a reading t eacher (Charlie, treatment group). Students Motivation to Read Student motivation to read was lacking Teachers in the study indicated experienci ng difficulty in motivating students to read and use content area reading strate gies. In the comparison gropu, Norma noted,

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122 Ive tried different things throughout the ye ars, and um, it is like pulling teeth to get these kids to read these textbooks. She continued, Oh, its like pulling teeth a nd usually if I follow it up w ith a written assignment, whether its a worksheet, sometimes well do a worksheet, sometimes Ill do a cooperative activity, but if its written work afterwards like answer the questions at the end of the unit, or if were going to disc uss em, they just wont read. They just start immediately from the back. Theyl l start answering the questions. They wont have read it (Norma, comparison group). With regard to the treatment group, Charli e noted that students appeared to enjoy reading strategies that involved little effort. He stated, I think kids enjoy doing if they dont have to do a pile of writing . I think a change from time to time and doing that is good. I think doing [reading] ev ery day is ineffective. The teachers stated that their students we re inundated with strategies, thus students preferred using strategi es that were easy to use and understand. As such, the teachers felt that students did not like usi ng reading strategies and were overwhelmed with their use in so many courses throughout the school day. One of the treatment teachers, Helen, also noted the variety of st rategies in the treatment and the effects on students; The fact that you alternated the ty pes of reading strategi es that you used hit a larger amount of the students in the class . I think they en joyed them all. I didnt have hardly anybody complain about any of them. Helen also provided anecdotal evidence of the impact of content area reading strategies on student achieveme nt in agriscience. She felt that the reading strategies improved the performance of her lowe r ability students. She stated, And, really and truthfully, I think that when you look at t hose test scores and those levels of those kids and the scores that they achieved, I think it helped them. I mean, yeah, some of our scores werent necessarily high, but for that particular child, that was a pretty high test score. And I think it was because of those strategies, if that makes sens e. I think it helped them gr asp the material instead of

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123 saying, Heres the textbook, read it. Here [are] some notes. OK, now Im going to test you on it (Helen, treatment group). When teachers were interested in the reading and comfortable with using CARS, they were more effective with motivating students to read and use CARS Teachers noted that when they were personally interested in reading and understood and adopted a particular content ar ea reading strategy themselves, then their students tended to read and use CARS to a gr eater extent. The opposit e was true as well. When the teacher was disinclined to use readi ng or reading strategies as learning tools, then their students were difficult to motivate to read or use strategies. In a comparison group, Elizabeth noted, I dont enjoy a KWL ch art a whole lot, and I dont think [the students] do either . If I like it, then they like it. If I dont like it, its goin to bleed over into them. Helen also expressed a similar line of thought with the treatment group, In situations where the te achers just give [the students] something so the administration doesnt yell at them . the kids hate it. She attended workshops to glean new ideas for learning strategies, such as content area read ing, and attempted to return to her classroom to implement those strategies. She knew her enthusiasm would carry over to students. The reas on that she attended workshops was So I take advantage of those things I go to, and Im excited about em, and I bring it back and make sure that I show my en thusiasm to my kids, and hopefully theyll be excited about it. Thats what I hope for (Helen, treatment group). Nearly all of the teachers indicated that for curriculum to be effective in their classrooms, they would need to spend time with a standardized curriculum to adapt it to their own particular style of teaching and preferences for instruction. They also suggested that adopting content area reading strategies followed a similar vein: they would need to adapt content area reading strategi es to fit their profile for instruction. For agriscience teachers to adopt c ontent area reading strategies, these teachers suggested that

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124 those reading strategies may have to be renamed to reflect something new to the agriscience teacher community. Elizabeth, a comparison group t eacher, stated, I think if you adopt [a content area reading strategy] that you have to adapt it to you. Teachers indicated that they would cont inue to implement CARS in agriscience courses All of the teachers indicated that they woul d continue to use some form of CARS in their agriscience courses following the conclusi on of the study. Elizabeth, a comparison group teacher, indicated that sh e would adapt the strategies, but continue to use them with her instruction. Norma, another compar ison group teacher, concluded, Yeah, Im definitely going to continue to use some of em, cause I do think it helps. In the treatment group, Charlie understood that he was in a commonplace routine, or rut, with some of his teaching, but learned the value of reading strategies by participating in the study. You know, I tend to overuse lecture and discussion, because Ive got it all organized and its easy for me to do, but I ha ve to step out of my comfort zone and work on reading strategies now, and thats what I plan to do (Charlie, treatment group). Summary Chapter 4 reported the quantitative and qualitative findings of the study. The findings followed the organizational pattern of the studys objectives, hypotheses, and interview questions. The object ives were (1) to describe the grade level, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading achieve ment levels of students participating in this study, (2) to describe the variance in agriculture post-test scores explained by the linear combination of treatment group, grade level, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading achievement levels of students, (3) to describe the variance in motivation to read post-test score ex plained by the linear combina tion of treatment group, grade

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125 level, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading achie vement levels of students, and (4) to describe the variance in agricu ltural comprehension sc ores explained by the linear combination of treatment group, grade level, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading achievement levels of students. For this study, research hypotheses included (1) Ha 1: comprehension of agricultural concepts will be significantly greater for secondary agriscience students using reading strategies versus those students using the te achers traditional routine in agriscience classes, and (2) Ha 2: motivation to read will be si gnificantly greater for secondary agriscience students using read ing strategies versus those students using the teachers traditional routine in agriscience classes. The interview questions included (1) How do agriculture teachers perceive their role in assisting students in developing reading comprehension skills in agriscience?, (2) Wh at are teachers reactions to implementing the content area reading strategies in agrisc ience?, (3) How do agri science teachers model good literacy?, (4) What strategi es are effective in assis ting agriscience teachers in implementing content area reading strategies?, and (5) What are the barriers to reading instruction in agriscience? The findings presented in this chapter will be discussed in further detail in the next chapter. Additional conclusions, implications, and recommendations will also be presented in Chapter 5.

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126 CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS Introduction Chapter 1 described the need for research in agriscience about the effect of reading strategies on students compre hension of agricultural concep ts and motivation to read. Chapter 1 also provided background about seco ndary reading, content area reading, and agriscience. Definitions of key terms rela ted to reading in ag riscience and reading strategy instruction were provi ded. Chapter 1 also identified the purposes and explained the significance of the study. The primary pur pose of this study was to determine the effects of implementing a package of CARS that focuses on the three micro-periods of reading on students knowledge of agricu ltural concepts and motivation to read. Chapter 2 presented a discussion of theori es of reading and research related to reading comprehension, motivation to read, st rategy instruction, and variables influencing student reading. Variables di scussed included the reading strategy instru ction, reading ability, prior reading ex periences, and gender. Chapter 3 explains the methods employed to accomplish the objectives and test the hypotheses of this study. The obj ectives of this study included: 1. Describe the grade level, gender, et hnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading achievement levels of students participating in this study. 2. Describe the variance in agriculture scor e explained by the linear combination of treatment group, grade level, gender, et hnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading achievement levels of students.

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127 3. Describe the variance in motivation to r ead post-test score explained by the linear combination of treatment group, grade leve l, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading achievement levels of students. 4. Describe the variance in agricultural comp rehension scores explained by the linear combination of treatment group, grade leve l, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading achievement levels of students. For this study, resear ch hypotheses included, Ha 1: Comprehension of agricu ltural concepts will be significantly greater for secondary agriscience students using readi ng strategies versus those students using the teachers traditional routine in agriscience classes. Ha 2: Motivation to read will be significan tly greater for secondary agriscience students using reading strategies versus those students using the teachers traditional routine in agriscience classes. Questions leading the qual itative inquiry include 1. How do agriculture teachers perceive their role in assisting students in developing reading comprehension skills in agriscience? 2. What are teachers reactions to implem enting the CARS in agriscience? How effective are these efforts? 3. How do agriscience teachers model good literacy? 4. What strategies are effective in assist ing agriscience teachers in implementing CARS? 5. What are the barriers to readi ng instruction in agriscience? Chapter 3 specifically targets the rese arch design, population, student sample, instrumentation, treatment, data collection proc edures, and statistical analyses used in analyzing the data. The independent vari ables in this study we re reading strategy instruction, specifically strate gy use in the three microperi ods of reading versus the teachers normal routine of instruction. The dependent variables in this study were motivation to read and agricultural concept knowledge. The antecedent variables were gender, grade level, ethnicity, and SES. GPA, FCAT reading levels, agriculture pre-test scores, and motivation to read pre-test scores were treated as covariates.

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128 Chapter 4 presented the quantitative a nd qualitative findings obtained in this mixed-methods study. The results addressed th e hypotheses in determining the effect of reading strategy instruction on secondary agriscience students comprehension of agricultural concepts and motivation to read. The results also pertained to answering the research questions about how and why sec ondary agriscience teach ers implement CARS in their classrooms. Methods This study employed a mixed-methods approa ch to answering research questions. A variation of the nonequivalent contro l group design (Campbell & Stanley, 1963) was used with the quasi-experimental portion of th e study. The independent variables in this study were reading strategy inst ruction, specifically strategy use in the three microperiods of reading versus the teachers normal routine of instruction. The dependent variables in this study were motivation to read and ag ricultural concept knowledge. The antecedent variables were gender, grade level, ethnicity, and SES. GPA, FCAT reading levels, agriculture pre-test scores, and motivation to read pre-test scores were treated as covariates. All students enrolled in Agriscience Foundati ons served as the ta rget population for the study, while the study used a purposively sel ected sample of students in four Florida high schools as the sample. Teachers were pur posively selected fo r their ability to deliver the treatment, gather data, and teach ag riscience content. Teachers, and thus their classes, were randomly assigned to either the treatment or the comparison group. The treatment taught a prescribed set of reading strategies within each of the three microperiods of reading, w ile the comparison group taught their normal routine of instruction.

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129 Students were taught three lessons from the Florida Agriscience Foundations Lesson Plan Library (FDOE, 2003). The less ons pertained to animal science and included Lesson 06.07: Determining the Anat omy and Physiology of Animals, Lesson 06.06: Meeting the Nutritional Needs of Animals, and Lesson 06.08: Understanding Animal Reproduction. The text used during the lessons was Agriscience: Fundamentals & Application (Cooper & Burton, 2002) published by Delmar Publishers. Measures of motivation to read and agricu lture comprehension were gathered with pre-tests and post-tests of each. Data regarding motivation to read were gathered using the Adapted Motivations for Reading Ques tionnaire (Wigfield & Guthrie, 1997, 2004). The instrument consisted of 14 items and measured motivation along three constructs representing extrinsic motiv ation, intrinsic motivation, a nd effort toward reading. Reliability was assessed on the pi lot test using the Cronbachs and yielded = 0.90. Comprehension of agricultural concepts was measured using a pre-test and individual unit quizzes developed for the Fl orida Agriscience Foundations Lesson Plan Library (FDOE, 2003). Post hoc reliability was assessed using th e Kuder-Richardson 20 formula. Post-hoc reliability was = 0.87. Data were analyzed with the SPSS for WindowsTM statistical package, version 12.0. Analysis of the first objective involve d the use of descrip tive and correlational statistics, including frequencies, means, standard deviations, and Pearsons r For objectives 2, 3, and 4, the rese archer used backward stepwise regression to address the variance in the dependent variable attributed to the independent variables. Since analysis of correlations and variance procedures fail ed to yield significan ce regarding the test variable, no further analyses were conducted.

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130 Summary of Findings The findings of this stud y are delineated using the objectives, hypotheses, and research questions outlined in Chapter 1. A discussi on of the findings follows. Teachers in the treatment group used an average of 16.5 CARS and taught the three lessons for an average total of 1570 minutes. Teaches in the comparison group used an average of 29.5 CARS and taught the three lessons for an av erage total of 1110 minutes. The study used 95 students in total with 47 in the treatment group and 48 in the comparison group. Research Objectives Objective 1: Description of Stude nts Participating in This Study The first objective sought to describe dem ographic factors related to the students participating in this study. The majority of the students were current ninth grade students (57.9%). An additional 28.4% of the students were enrolled in the tenth grade, and juniors and seniors comprised the remainder of the student sample. Overall, 61.1% of the students were male, while the remainder, 38.9% was female. The vast majority of the students was white (72.6%), with a substant ial portion of Black and Hispanic students and a few Asian student s. Most of the st udent (63.8%) did not qualify for free or reduced lunch programs, while 36.2% of the students did qualify for some form of meal support. Th is indicates that over one-third of the students were in a lower socioeconomic group. The overall GPA for the 95 students was a 2.62 out of a possible four grade points, which falls into the B- range of grades. Eleven of the students would be considered A students, while an additional 47 students would be considered B students. One student in the test samp le earned a failing GPA.

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131 Over 42% of the students in this study r ead at the lowest FCAT reading level, Level 1, which is similar to the 43.3% of stude nts who read at this level in the general school population of the schools tested (see Table 5-1). An additional 21% of the students in the study read at Level 2. Howe ver, this is much lower than the 29.6% of students reading at level 2 in the general population of those schools in the study. This means that less than 37% of the students in the study read at or above Level 3, compared to just over 27% in the gene ral school population. As Level 3 represents the ability to read at grade level, a higher proportion of students enrolled in agriscience courses were reading above grade level than in the gene ral population of those schools in the study. Table 5-1. School district le vel FCAT reading levels ( n = 1778)a. Treatment ( n = 1119) Comparison ( n = 659) Total Reading Level % % % 5 4.6 3.0 4.0 4 6.0 6.3 6.1 3 18.0 15.3 17.0 2 30.4 28.2 29.6 1 41.0 47.1 43.3 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 aData from 2002-2003 academic school year. Motivation to read was asse ssed using a canonical discrimi nant coefficient loadings score from a questionnaire invo lving 14 Likert-type items (1 = not like me 4 = a lot like me ). Motivation to read canoni cal discriminant summated sc ores could have ranged from 2.30 to 10.51. Overall student motivation to r ead on the pre-test ranged from 2.60 to 9.40 with a mean of 5.93. Overall student motivation to read on the post-test ranged from 2.60

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132 to 9.00 with a mean of 6.12. This indicates th at the motivation to read scores slightly improved over the treatment period. On the pr e-test, 29 students ( 31.5%) indicated that they were currently reading a book, while 27 students (30.7%) indicated they were reading a book at th e end of the study. Researchers analyzed the reliability of the agriculture pre-test using KuderRichardson-20, which yielded r = 0.87. Overall, students answ ered 37.6% of the pre-test questions correctly. The three individual le sson quizzes served as the post-tests for agricultural comprehension. Students answ ered 60.4% of the post-test questions correctly, for a gain of 22.8 percentage points. A very high correlation was discovered be tween treatment group and total number of CARS ( r = 0.99) and a very high negative correl ation was observed between treatment group and instructional time ( r = -0.75). A second very high negative correlation was also discovered between instruct ional time and number of CARS ( r = -0.79). These two high negative correlations indi cate that teachers using more CARS took much less time to teach the lessons. Further, a very high correlation ( r = 0.89) was discovered be tween the agriculture post-tests and the comprehension assessment por tions of those tests. Thus, the overall score on the agriculture post-t est was highly correlated with the comprehension portion of the post-test. The comprehension portion of the post-test measured overall achievement nearly as accurately as the overall post-tests. Substantial correlations were discovered between the FCAT r eading level and the agriculture pre-test ( r = 0.61), the agricu lture post-test ( r = 0.66), and the comprehension assessment portions of the post-test ( r = 0.53). Students reading on a higher FCAT

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133 reading level tended to score hi gher on the agriculture pre-te st, the agriculture post-test, and the comprehension portion of the post-test Substantial correlations also existed between the agriculture pre-test and the agriculture post-test ( r = 0.66) and the comprehension portion of the post-test ( r = 0.50). As would be expected, these correlations indicate that stude nts scoring higher on the agri culture pre-test tended to score higher on the agriculture post-test a nd the comprehension portion of the post-test. Students with higher grade point averages demonstrated a moderate tendency to score higher on the agriculture pre-test, the agriculture post-test, and the comprehension portion of the post-test. Thos e students also tended to re ad at higher FCAT reading levels. Moderate correlations were di scovered between GPA and the post-test ( r = 0.49), the comprehension portion of the post-test ( r = 0.44), FCAT reading levels ( r = 0.42), and the agriculture pre-test ( r = 0.38). Females showed a moderate tendency to score higher on the agriculture post-test and the comprehension portion of the post-test They also tended to have higher grade point averages. A moderate correlation was observed betwee n gender and the agriculture post-test ( r = 0.33), GPA ( r = 0.33), and the comprehensio n portion of the post-test ( r = 0.34). Moderate correlations were also obs erved between grade level and ethnicity ( r = 0.29). Students in the comparison group tended to have higher grade point averages and were more likely to be a minority. Low pos itive correlations were discovered between the treatment group and GPA ( r = 0.23) and ethnicity ( r = 0.23). Further, students of minority status also tended to be of lower SES. Low positive correlations were also observed between ethnicity and SES ( r = 0.25).

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134 Low positive correlations were also observed between total number of CARS used and GPA ( r = 0.24). This simply means that teachers who used more CARS, the comparison group teachers, tended to teach students with higher grade point averages. However, a low negative correlation was obs erved between instructional time and GPA ( r = -0.21). This means that teachers who taught for longer pe riods of time, the treatment group teachers, tended to work with students of lower grade point averages. Further, a low negative correlation was observed be tween instructional time and gender ( r = -0.20). Or, treatment group teachers tended to have mo re males in their agri science courses than the comparison group teachers. Low positive correlations were also obser ved between gender and FCAT reading ( r = 0.23). In other words, females tended to read at higher FCAT reading levels. A low negative correlation was observed between et hnicity and the agriculture post-tests ( r = 0.26) and the comprehension portion of the post-test ( r = -0.24). Students of minority descent tended to score lower on the agri culture post-tests and the comprehension portions of the test. Objective 2: Description of the Vari ance in Agriculture Post-Test Scores Objective 2 sought to describe the variance in agricultur e post-test score explained by the linear combination of treatment group, grade level, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading achievement levels of st udents. The regression analysis produced a model consisting of the linear combina tion of agriculture pre-test score ( t = 3.41, p < 0.05), grade level ( t = 2.41, p < 0.05), GPA ( t = 2.99, p < 0.05), gender ( t = 2.16, p = 0.05), ethnicity ( t = -2.84, p < 0.05), and FCAT reading level ( t = 4.12, p < 0.05) to predict the overall agriculture post-test score, ( F(85) = 27.26, p < 0.05), significant at the < 0.05 level. R2 for the model was 0.67, and the adjusted R2 was 0.65. The linear

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135 combination of these variables explained fo r 65.0% of the variance in agriculture posttest score. Sixty-five percent of the variance in the agriculture post-test score was explained by a combination of the students FCAT readi ng level, GPA, agriculture pre-test score, grade level, ethnicity, and ge nder. Comparatively, the stud ents FCAT reading level and GPA produced the greatest R2 change, 44.0% and 12.1%, resp ectively. The agriculture pre-test provided an additional 5.9% R2 change, while the remaining factors provided near 2% each. Thus, by knowing a students FC AT reading level, GPA, and agriculture pre-test score, one could expl ain over 60% of the variance in the agriculture post-test score. Objective 3: Description of the Vari ance in the Motivation to Read Score Objective 3 sought to descri be the variance in the motivation to read score explained by the linear combination of treat ment group, grade level, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading levels of st udents. As none of the variables were significantly correlated with the motivation to read post-test, this analysis was not conducted. Objective 4: Description of the Variance in the Agricultural Comprehension Scores Objective 4 sought to descri be the variance in the co mprehension score explained by the linear combination of treatment group, grade level, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading levels of students. Backwa rd stepwise regression was used to select the most appropriate model for explaining th e comprehension portion of the agriculture post-test. GPA ( t = 3.89, p < 0.05) and FCAT reading level ( t = 4.08, p < 0.05) contributed significantly ( < 0.05) to explaining the co mprehension portion of the agriculture post-test ( F(86) = 19.67, p < .05). R2 for the model was 0.42, and the adjusted

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136 R2 was 0.39. The linear combination of these va riables explained 39.4% of the variance in the comprehension portion of the agriculture post-test. Thirty-nine percent of the variance in th e comprehension portion of the agriculture post-test score was explained by a combina tion of the students GPA, FCAT reading level, and ethnicity. Comparatively, th e students GPA and FCAT reading level produced the greatest R2 change, 26.0% and 12.5%, respec tively. Ethnicity contributed to the model, but was not significant by its elf. Thus, by knowing a students GPA and FCAT reading level, one could explain ove r 38% of the variance in comprehension portion of the agricultu re post-test score. Research Hypotheses No significant correlations were found be tween treatment group and the dependent variables, the score on the agriculture post-te st and the Adapted Motivations for Reading post-test. Further, treatment group was not a significant factor in explaining the variance for either the agriculture posttest score or the Adapted Moti vations for Reading post-test. Thus, no further analyses were c onducted on the quantitative data. Research Questions Upon completion of the treatment, the researcher interviewed the teachers participating in the study to ascertain their attitudes toward using CARS. The researcher also desired to determine what worked well, what strategies were less effective, and why both of these phenomena occurred in the agriscience classrooms. Teachers were asked a series of questions pertaining to their use of reading strategies during the study, their perceptions of students impl ementation of the reading strategies, and the personal value that they placed on reading in agriscience.

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137 Question 1: How do agriculture teachers p erceive their role in developing students reading comprehension skills? Teachers expressed their commitment to improve students reading achievement, but lacked demonstration of use of CARS in their agriscience courses prior to initiation of the study. During the study, teachers employe d many CARS in both the treatment and comparison groups. Teachers attributed this increase in use of CARS to pressures from their school administration, pressures from sta ndardized testing and the state department of education, and knowledge of their particip ation in a reading study. In essence, they responded as normal agriscience teachers woul d when pressured to implement a form of teaching for the betterment of student learning. While these teachers valued reading, th ey also suggested that they possessed limited knowledge and confidence in the use of CARS in their agriscience courses. These teachers had not practiced teaching by using CARS, and t hus were a bit tentative in their use during the study period. However, upon reflection of the efficacy of the CARS in their courses, all teachers st ated that they would continue to use CARS in the future. Question 2: What are teachers reacti ons to implementing CARS in agriscience? Treatment group teachers employed an average of 16.5 CARS and used 1570 minutes of instructional time to teach the three animal science lessons. Comparison group teachers employed an average of 29.5 CARS and used 1110 minutes of instructional time to teach the three animal science lessons. The treatment group teachers appreciated that the CARS were embedded in the lessons, but still felt that they would need to adapt the use of CA RS with their lessons in the future. Comparison group teachers felt the need to adapt CARS prio r to implementing them in these lessons.

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138 Reactions to the use of CARS by these agriscience teachers were mixed. Treatment group teachers generally felt more positive about the use of the CARS, but felt that perhaps too many were employed during the study. Comparison group teachers attempted many CARS, but developed preference s for those which were easiest to teach and easiest for students to use. Again, teachers possessed limited knowledge and confidence in the use of CARS with their agriscience in struction. Still, they attempted to use the CARS as prescribed for the treatment group and adapt known CARS to instruction with the comparison group. Upon reflection on their use of CARS with st udent reading, teachers emphasized ways in which to better utilize and adap t CARS with future instruction. Question 3: How do agriscience teachers model good literacy? Teachers in this study professed being limited in their reading abil ities and in their time available for reading. They were poor read ers and/or did not read on a regular basis. Teachers indicated that they had not regularly used reading as a learning tool in their agriscience courses prior to initiation of the study. Still, they di d utilize reading from various sources outside of the textbook in thei r agriscience courses. Due to the lack of observations of actual instruction, how t eachers modeled good literacy is difficult to ascertain from this study. Question 4: What strategi es are effective in assist ing agriscience teachers in implementing CARS? Teachers in this study possessed limited know ledge of how, when, where, and why to use CARS with their instruction in agrisc ience. All of the teachers noted a need for further professional development in content area reading and CARS. They specifically focused on how to effectively implement CARS into their classes. Teachers wanted to

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139 know where, how, and why to use CARS with th eir agriscience courses. Further, these teaches had previously engaged in prof essional development about active learning strategies involving content area reading. All of the teachers also participated in schoolwide initiatives to integrate reading across the content areas. Question 5: What are the barriers to reading instruction in agriscience? The main barriers to integration of read ing instruction in agriscience are the teachers limited knowledge and confidence in th e use of CARS. Teachers indicated that professional development and time for adap ting current curriculum to include CARS would be necessary for their commitment to us ing them with their agriscience courses. Further, teachers in this study cited few re sources outside of the traditional textbook as alternative references for cu rrent agricultural reading. Conclusions The sample of students used in this st udy was not randomly drawn from the total population of Agriscience Foundations students in Florida. With this limitation in mind, the following conclusions were drawn from the multiple perspectives and data sources in this study. 1. Students enrolled in these Agriscience Foundations classes are generally ninth grade students who are White, male, and not of lower SES. 2. Students enrolled in the Agriscience F oundations course generally read below grade level. 3. At the conclusion of the study, students us ing CARS read significantly more hours per week for pleasure than students in the comparison group. Students using CARS increase the time per week of read ing for pleasure, while students in the comparison group decrease thei r time for pleasure reading. 4. Students in both experimental groups are generally lacking in motivation to read.

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140 5. White, female, upper grade level students who earn higher grade point averages, FCAT reading levels, and agriculture pre-test scor es also score higher on agriculture post-tests. 6. Student characteristics do not significantly impact scores on the motivation to read post-test. 7. White students earning higher grade point av erages and FCAT reading levels score higher on the comprehension portion of the agriculture post-test. 8. Prior to initiating the study, the agriscien ce teachers in this study implemented few or no CARS in their agriscience courses. 9. Agriscience teachers in this study possess limited knowledge of and confidence in using CARS with their agriscience courses. 10. Teachers in the comparison group implement twice as many strategies as teachers in the treatment group and th eir students arrive at n early the same level of agricultural comprehension and motivation to read as students in the treatment group. 11. Teachers are under pressure to implement CARS in their agriscience courses. 12. Teachers in the comparison group are motivat ed to implement a large number of strategies because of their knowle dge of and participation in a reading study and the pressures applied by the state and th eir administration to improve students FCAT reading levels. Discussion and Implications Objective 1: Description of the St udents Participating in This Study Conclusion 1A: students in Agriscience Foundations are generally ninth graders, White, male, and higher SES Other researchers (Myers, 2004) have noted the prevalence of non-freshman students enrolled in course specifically design ed as an introductory agriscience course, these students could be enrolled in this ag riscience course for a variety of reasons. Perhaps these non-freshman students could not fit Agriscience Foundations into their course schedules due to core requirements as freshmen. Or, perhaps the upperclassmen found themselves in need of elective coursework and Agriscience Foundations appeared the best alternative for learning potential. Upper grade level students may have enrolled

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141 in agriscience courses to ear n science credit. In any respect, the prevalence of nonfreshmen enrolled in Agriscience Foundations while intriguing, is beyond the scope of this study. However, the difference in proportions of underclass students, those in the ninth and tenth grades, between the treatment a nd comparison group is notable. Reading achievement is related to prior reading experiences as well as maturity of life experience. Thus older students should have more advan ced reading abilities than younger students. As a secondary agriscience teacher who us es reading as a method of instructing students, the prevalence of older students in an introductory level course causes problems with instruction. These students have more y ears of experience read ing a variety of text, and thus may be able to comprehend more advanced texts (McKenna & Robinson, 2002). Further, these students may have more agri culture knowledge, making them better able to learn from text (Stanovich & Cunningham, 1993) Teachers need to be aware of these differences so that they can help their stude nts read and comprehend text in agriscience. Conclusion 1B: Students read below grade level Notable in this study is the low FCAT read ing levels of many students participating in the study. Over 60% of the students in th is study read at the lowest two FCAT reading levels, while only 11.6% read at the highest two reading levels This indicates that many students had limited or little success w ith Sunshine State Standards in reading (FDOE, 2004b). Further, while students read below grade level, their earned grade point averages suggest that poor reading ability may not hinder earning high grades in high school courses. This may suggest that teachers do not regularly use reading in their content area courses or they do not assess students with tests that require reading. This finding

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142 suggests that teachers are enabling students to learn without requiri ng them to read, and in doing so, fail to contribute to advancing their reading abilities. Agriscience courses appear to disproportio nately attract stude nts who read below grade level, thus agriscience teachers mu st make modifications and use CARS when instructing students to read text When instructed to read a chapter in an agriscience text, some students may be able to comprehend what they read, but many others (69% in this study) will most likely lack complete understa nding of the text, even after reading it. While this study did not delve into partic ular reading comprehension deficiencies, possible problems for students could aris e from a lack of relevant background knowledge, unfamiliar agriscience vocabulary, and the diversity of reading materials in agriscience. By implementing CARS, agriscience teachers may be able to help students activate relevant background knowledge, set pu rposes for reading, organize information, and summarize content in order to apply know ledge to problem solv ing in agriscience. The combination of the large proportion of agriscience students reading below grade level and the grade level at which agri science texts are written may challenge many readers. While the results of this stud y are not generalizable beyond the population of student in this research, th e study indicates that students enrolled in Agriscience Foundations demonstrate low reading abilities. Th is is particularly interesting because of the diversity and complexity of reading material that studen ts in agriscience encounter. For instance, the text selected for use in this study, Agriscience: Fundamentals & Applications (Cooper & Burton, 2002), had a readability of grade level 13 according to the Fry Readability Graph. This poses inherent challenges to teaching with this text and

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143 could explain some of the frustrations that students and teachers feel when attempting to read, comprehend, and learn from the text. Conclusion 1C: treatment group students read significantly more hours per week for pleasure and increased time per week of pleasure reading At the conclusion of the study, students in the treatment group were reading significantly more hours per w eek for pleasure than students in the comparison group. Students in the treatment group increased th e time per week of reading for pleasure, while the comparison group students decrease d in reading for pleasure. Research (Morgan & Hosay, 1991) has indicated that wh en students are taught to use CARS, they tend to engage in reading and read a wider variety of texts. Students in this study appeared to reinforce these findings. Stude nts in the treatment group, where CARS were implemented under circumstances that were logical from an instructional standpoint (Ryder & Graves, 1994), allocated more time for school reading and increased the time that they allocated for reading for pleasure. Agriscience teachers should consider the im pact that their actions have on students motivation to read. Throwing a large numbe r of strategies at students may have a negative impact on students motiv ation to read and their actu al reading behaviors. One possible explanation for the si gnificantly more time readi ng for school in the treatment group could have been the more intensiv e focus on reading among treatment group teachers. They may have been implementing strategies more correctly than comparison group teachers, thus students were engaging with text for longer periods of time. Further the strategic implementation of CA RS versus attempting a large number of CARS may have had an impact on students motivation to read for pleasure. Students in the treatment group increased the amount of tim e reading for pleasure more than students

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144 in the comparison group. Teachers in the comparison group may have inadvertently diminished students motivation to read by using too many CARS and/or implementing them inappropriately. As an agriscience teacher, one must c onsider how students respond to learning from text. By modeling an appreciation for reading and appropriate use of CARS, teachers influence students in their approach to reading and use of strategies (Bintz, 1997; Moje, 1996; NRP, 2000; Readence et al., 1989; Sanchez, 2003; Stephens, 2002). Agriscience teachers are significan t factors in the lives of their students, thus when they demonstrate that reading and use of CARS ar e important to learni ng, their students may adopt similar approaches to text. Conclusion 1D: students are generally lack ing in motivation to read Students in both groups were lacking in motivation to read as assessed by the Adapted Motivations for Read ing Questionnaire. With a potential range of 2.30 to 10.51 on the Adapted Motivations for Reading Ques tionnaire, students ove rall motivation to read score on the post-test averaged 6.12. Th is indicates a low motiv ation to read where the average student would have suggested that most of the motivation to read statements were a little different from me, or slightly unmotivated to read. However, students in the treatment group were reading more books and more hours per week for school and pleasure than the treatment group students. This study also showed no significant corr elation between FCAT reading level and motivation to read, between GPA and motiva tion to read, or between grade level and motivation to read. Even though a student coul d read at higher leve ls or earned higher grade point averages, he or she did not n ecessarily enjoy reading more than students reading at lower levels or earning lower gr ades. The lack of a correlation between

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145 motivation and other measures (FCAT reading le vel, GPA, and grade level) is interesting and conflicts with other re search (Choochom, 1995; Guth rie, 2001; Guthrie & Alao, 1997; Hurst, 2004; Knoll, 2000). Further, instruction and implementation of CARS appeared to have no impact on students motivation to read. Again, this contradicts other research (Choochom; Guthrie; Guthrie & Alao ; Hurst; Knoll), but may be attributed to the duration of the study, the contamination of the comparison group, and/or the teachers ability to deliver the treatment. Agriscience teachers should be aware that students are generally unmotivated to read. This may pose problems when teachers attempt to incorporate reading in their teaching routines. Teachers should be aware th at when assigning students to read, they must have a relevant purpose, interest in th e content, and appropriate applications for reading in order to attempt to motivate them to read. The lack of motivation to read contribut es to students downward spiral of poor reading comprehension episodes (Bean, 2001; Guthrie & Alao, 1997; McKenna et al., 1995). Research (Bean, 2001; Cibrowski, 1995; Readence et al., 1989) has indicated that students begin to struggle with reading and ulti mately lose interest in reading as they progress through school. This study demonstr ated no significant correlation between grade level and motivation to read, suggesting that these st udents were uniform in their motivation to read. Perhaps students motivation to read had al ready declined through earlier grades or the duration of this study prohi bited an accurate analysis of students motivation to read. Perhaps the hands-on nature of agriscie nce courses attracted students who were

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146 struggling readers. These students may be seeking an escape from reading-intensive courses. Research (Choochom, 1995; Guthrie, 2001; Guthrie & Alao, 1997; Hurst, 2004; Knoll, 2000) has indicated that using reading strategies helps student s develop confidence and efficacy in reading, thus impacting motiva tion to engage in reading. This study did not reinforce this conclusion; however students in the tr eatment group reported reading more hours for school and increased the amount of time that they a llocated reading for pleasure more than students in the comparis on group. This indicates that the practices associated with reading may have been aff ected by the treatment of strategic use of CARS in agriscience. When agriscience teachers help students ove rcome the barriers to reading and help motivate them to engage with text, they ma y be contributing to a reversal of reading fortunes for students. Because agriscience is an elective, agriscience teachers may be able to provide motivation to prompt students to read texts other than the textbook. They may also be able to motivate students to read in order to find specific information to solve problems in agriscience. Ty ing realistic outcomes to reading episodes may enhance students motivation to read in agriscience. Objective 2: Description of the Variance in Agriculture Post-Test Conclusion 2: demographic factors explain variance in agriculture post-test score Consistent with previous research in reading, White, female (Donahue et al., 1999; NCES, 2000, 2001; Pomplun & Sundbye, 1999; Wirt et al., 2004), upper grade level (McKenna & Robinson, 2002; Stanovich & Cunningham, 1993; Stewart & Tei, 1983) students who earned higher grade point averag es, higher FCAT reading levels, and higher agriculture pre-test scores (Alexande r & Kulikowich, 1991) score higher on the

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147 agriculture post-test. The treatment was not a significant factor in explaining variance. Agriscience teachers should realize that wh en using text as a teaching tool, White, female, upper grade level students with hi gher grade point averages, FCAT reading levels, and agriculture pre-test scores will score higher on assessments of agriculture content comprehension. Agriscience students tend to be a dive rse population of students, both in their demographic composition and in their academic abilities. Agriscie nce teachers must be aware of this and use appropriate teaching me thods to encourage learning with students who are not academically high-achievers. All students can benefit from CARS (Meltzer, 2001; Moore et al., 1999) and can learn from reading text. Objective 3: Description of the Va riance in Motivation to Read Score Conclusion 3: student charac teristics do not significantl y impact motivation to read While other research (Choochom, 1995; Guthrie, 2001; Guthrie & Alao, 1997; Hurst, 2004; Knoll, 2000; Morgan & Hosay, 1991) indicates that motivation could be impacted by knowledge and implementation of CARS, the findings of this study fail to generate this conclusion. Perhaps the dur ation of this study, less than 25 days of instruction in both the treatment and compar ison groups, did not allow for a significant impact on students motivation to read. Mo tivation is not easily changed over a short duration, thus perhaps a longer treatment would have had an impact on students motivation to read. Agriscience teachers must also know that changing students motivation to read will not change quickl y, but teachers may have an impact on that motivation if they work to demonstrate the importance of reading and use of CARS to students over a longer period of time.

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148 Objective 4: Description of the Varian ce in Agricultural Comprehension Scores Conclusion 4: white students earning hi gher GPA and FCAT reading levels score higher on comprehension Students who earned higher grade point av erages and higher FCAT reading levels tended to score higher on the comprehension portion of the agricu lture post-test. Research (Alexander & Kulikowic h, 1991) indicates that studen ts with higher grade point averages and higher pre-test scores will score higher on post-test assessments of comprehension. Further, scores on the co mprehension portion in this study were moderately correlated with GPA and substantia lly correlated with FC AT reading levels. The treatment was not a significant factor in explaining variance. Because much of learning in the scho ol setting involves reading, one would logically conclude that stude nts with higher grade point averages and higher FCAT reading levels would generate higher scores of comprehension on content area tests. These students are able to discern impor tant information in text, comprehend relationships among key concepts, and summa rize information, thus leading them to excel with comprehension tasks involving gr aphic organizers and summaries of reading. What is telling from the desc ription of variance is that gender, grade level, and the agriculture pre-test, or bac kground knowledge, did not signifi cantly explain the variance in the comprehension portion scores of the post-test. The post-test was comprised of matching, multiple choice, and short answer questions, plus the comprehension portion. The comprehension portion involved reading a passage and then constructing a concept map or writing a summary. While the scores on the post-test were highly correlated with the scores on the comprehension portion ( r = .891), scores on the comprehension portion were more equal across gender, grade level, and background knowledge. This means that

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149 assessing student comprehension using more au thentic means, such as concept maps or summaries, may provide a more level playi ng field for students to demonstrate their comprehension of agriculture concepts. For agriscience teachers this means that they may be able to use more authentic forms of assessment to evaluate student learning. Using the matching, multiple choice, and short answer tests included in many curr iculum packages may inadvertently bias grading with regard to gende r, grade level, and background knowledge. Assessments of learning that incorporate concept maps and summaries may be relatively easy to create and grade when teachers or curriculum writers provide appropriate grading rubrics. They may also more accurately relate what stude nts know about a given concept or topic. Conclusions Regarding the Hypotheses Ha 1: Comprehension of Agricultural Concepts Several confounding factors aros e during the study with rega rd to the treatment and comparison groups, leading to findings of no significant difference between the groups concerning the treatment. Based upon prior re search about reading in agriscience (Park & Osborne, 2005), the researcher assumed th at the agriscience teachers in the study would not be inclined to impl ement CARS when not specific ally asked to do so in the lesson. Further, the research indicated that agriscience teachers had little knowledge, confidence, or even exposure to CARS, thus those teaches in the control (comparison) group should not have implemented a signi ficant number of CARS during the study. Because of the pressure to improve student reading from the state department of education, school administrators, and others these teachers, incl uding those in the comparison group, implemented a large number of CARS during the study. Even while all teachers cited not using reading or CARS prior to the study, the comparison group

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150 teachers implemented nearly twice as ma ny CARS during the study as the treatment group teachers for whom the number of CA RS was prescribed. For the comparison group teachers, when motivated to implement CARS they did so at a high rate. In light of the miscalculation of the number of CA RS that comparison group teachers would implement, the finding of no significant difference between the groups with regard to the treatment, still posed interesting conclusions. Compared to students in the comparison group, students in the treatment group did not score significantly differe nt on measures of agricultu ral concept comprehension. Reading is a skill that develops over time with much effort, thus perhaps the treatment period for this study was too short in durati on to warrant a signifi cant difference. Or perhaps, with the comparison group teachers implementing twice as many reading strategies as the treatment group teachers, they offset their lack of knowledge and confidence in using CARS with sheer numbers Additional research is necessary to determine the impact of CA RS instruction over a longer duration and compared to instruction that does not implement CARS. What is interesting is that teachers in the comparison group reported using twice as many CARS as teachers in the treatment group, yet their students performed equally. In essence, the comparison group teaches attemp ted twice as many strategies and worked twice as hard to accomplish the same learning levels as teachers using a more strategic implementation of CARS. This raises questions about the efficacy of strategy instruction by the comparison group teachers. How were strategies taught to students? How long did teachers attempt to use CARS with each incidence of introduction of the strategy?

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151 Did teachers model appropriate strategy us e and provide students with adequate instruction in how and why to use the strategy? The simple implementation of many CARS in the hopes that one or two help students learn appears to be no more valuable to student learning th an using fewer CARS to accomplish the same end. During the interv iews, teachers cited the considerable time and effort needed to incorporate CARS into th eir curriculum. If this is so, agriscience teachers would spend their time, and their students time, more wisely if they implemented fewer CARS, but more strategi cally. Classroom teach ers should appraise how, where, and why they use CARS with th eir instruction to ensure that time and resources are well spent for learning. Ha 2: Motivation to Read Again, compared to students in the comparison group, those students in the treatment group reported similar levels of mo tivation on the Adapted Motivations to Read Questionnaire at the end of the study. For r easons associated with the duration of the study and the effectiveness of CARS instruction by comparison group teachers, motivation to read was not significantly im pacted by CARS instruction. What is interesting to note is that st udents in the treatment group were reading significantly more hours per week for school and had increased their pleasure reading significantly more than students in the comparison group. T hus, while students reported little change in motivation to read, they did e xhibit trends toward reading more for school and pleasure. This indicates that the impact of strategi c use of CARS may have had an impact on reading behaviors. This study attempted to ascertain the eff ects of CARS on students comprehension of agricultural concepts and their motivation to read. Th e use of a quasi-experimental

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152 design necessitated the use of a treatment a nd a control group. While nothing suggested that the control (comparison) group teachers w ould have used twice as many strategies as the treatment group teachers, the short dura tion of this study would have warranted asking control (comparison) group teachers to wi thhold reading instruct ion from students. Ethical issues certainly arise, which preempted the use of a strict cont rol in this study, but would have provided a more accurate assessmen t of CARS instructi on in agriscience. Secondly, the short duration of this study limite d its ability to obser ve the effects of strategic CARS instruction. Reading is a ski ll that requires time and experience with different kinds of texts for di fferent purposes to develop. Ce rtainly additional time, even a year or more, would have enhanced out comes and the contributions of this study. Thirdly, while the researcher conducted a pilot study to analyze and develop quantifiable measure for motivation to rea d, the instrumentation may have been a limitation regarding its ability to accurately measure student motivation to read. The researcher obtained the instrument from a noted expert on readi ng motivation, but that expert could provide no evidence of reliability or validity for the instrument. After an exhaustive search of the liter ature on motivation to read, the researcher concluded that no other acceptable instruments were availabl e. Thus, the researcher conducted the canonical discriminant analys is on the pilot test data. Interviews In hindsight, interviews with teachers pr ior to initiation of the study would have provided clues about their use of CARS during the study. Furt her, interviews would have allowed the researchers to attempt to tria ngulate why and how teachers used CARS with their instruction. Observations of actual in cidents where teachers taught using CARS and focus groups of students who had used CA RS would have aided this triangulation

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153 process. The following are the conclusi ons based upon the interviews that were conducted in conjunction with this study. Conclusion 6A: agriscience teachers had implemented few or no CARS While the teachers involved in this study valued cont ent area reading, they had implemented little reading and few or no CARS in their agriscience courses prior to initiation of this study. Research (Ba rry, 2002; Bean, 1997; Durkin, 1978; Irvin & Connors, 1989; Ivey, 2002; Menke & Da vey, 1994; Morawski & Brunhuber, 1995) supports the notion that conten t area teachers generally avoi d reinforcing reading as a means and an ends of instruction in their co urses. Teachers in this study may have felt inadequate to help students with reading or in their knowledge of CARS, or they may have felt that content area reading infri nged upon their instructi onal time (Barry; Bean; Cresson, 1999; Digisi, 1993; Durkin; M oore et al., 1999; Rhoder, 2002; Snow, 2002; Stewart & OBrien, 1989). However, these teach ers did not cite a lack of importance as one of the reasons that they fa iled to use reading strategies in their courses. In fact, all teachers in this study attested to the importa nce of reading for learning agriscience as well as lifelong learning. The lack of implementation of reading in agriscience courses by these agriscience teachers follows other research regarding th e use of reading in agriscience (Park & Osborne, 2005; Stewart & OBrien, 1989). Teac hers in this study instructed students from a teacher-centered approach, which inhi bits the active engagement of students in their reading. Teachers also felt that their st ories, activities, and ab ility to make learning about agriculture real cont ributed more to student le arning than a students own engagement in reading.

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154 Another possible explanation fo r the lack of reading in agriscience classes surfaced during the teacher interviews. Most of these teachers in dicated that they were poor readers and/or did not take time to read. This may mean that, while teachers did report they felt that reading was important, in real ity agriscience teacher s do not value reading as from a personal or professional standpoint enough to actually read or demonstrate reading to their students. Agriscience teachers who only profess the importance of reading do not impact their students motivati on to read or comprehe nsion of reading. Reading is a skill that must be modeled in order for students to learn how to comprehend from text and value reading as a method of learning. Thus, the lack of reading habits could well manifest itself in the classroom with teachers lack of reading in approaches to instruction and failure to use reading as a learning tool. Perhaps these teachers realized the wide range of reading abilities in their classrooms, and rather than fight difficult ci rcumstances arising from the diversity of reading abilities, they chose ot her methods of instruction asid e from reading. With such a range of reading abilities from the highest sk ill level to the lowest, teachers could feel more efficient methods of instruction were appropriate for their students than reading. Further research is needed into what teachers believe about the foundations of learning. How do agriscience teachers approach learning? What are their notions about students active engagement with content? How do teachers make decisions about the methodology used to instruct students in agri science? Why do they avoid reading? Conclusion 6B: limited knowledge of and confidence in using CARS Agriscience teachers in this study possess limited knowledge of and confidence in using CARS with their agriscience course s. While teachers named several reading strategies, they expressed only vague notions about how to e ffectively instruct students

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155 about how to use those strategies. Instead, teachers in this study noted their lack of understanding of how, when, where, and w hy to use CARS with their agriscience courses. The lack of knowledge and confidence in using CARS, even when presented in a prescribed and detailed manner in less on plans, posed another possible confounding factor for this study. Teachers in the treatment group may not have been properly prepared to teach students to use and impl ement CARS so that they augmented learning and motivation. Teachers cited the notion that their hesitancy to use CARS affected their students reactions to the CARS. If this were the real ity, then their lack of knowledge and confidence in teaching and implementi ng CARS may have had a confounding effect on the treatment. The professed lack of knowledge of and c onfidence in use of CARS is consistent with other research regarding agriscien ce teachers use of CA RS (Park & Osborne, 2005). It is also logical since teachers in th is study reported using few or no readings and CARS in their agriscience courses prior to this study. The inte rviews support this conclusion, as teachers often re flected about ways to improve their instruction and use of CARS in the future. The lack of practi ce with teaching and using CARS could help explain their hesitation with using them during this study This lack of knowledge and confidence in use of CARS may help explain why agriscience teachers tend to avoid reading and using CARS in their courses (Stewart & OBrien, 1989). Agriscience teachers use instru ctional strategies and methods that they are comfortable with and shy away from those with which they are less proficient. Thus, for teachers to incorporate additional CARS a nd use reading to a larger extent, teachers

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156 must become more knowledgeable and confiden t in their use of CARS and reading as a learning tool. In order to become more knowledgeable and confid ent in the use of CARS, curriculum should include CARS as l earning tools for teac hers and students. Completion of college reading courses may help explain the lack of confidence and knowledge of CARS. Teachers involved with this study may have lacked preparation in content area reading through a c ontent area reading course in college. At least one teacher did not complete a content area readi ng course because she was not an education major, but had attained altern ative certification through processes othe r than traditional teacher certification. The remainder of th e teachers may not have completed a college reading course. They may not have valued the reading course while enrolled in it. Further, content area reading may have b een neglected in their teacher education preparatory coursework. The teachers in this study participated in part because of their interest in learning more about implementing CARS in their agriscie nce courses. This may be indicative of a need among agriscience teaches for professional development in using CARS. In fact, several of the teachers noted this need during their interviews. Agriscience teachers must learn how to implement reading effectively a nd use CARS with student s in order to help them learn from text. Teacher educators and other education professionals may help fill this need by offering workshops and in-servi ce about content area re ading, especially with state and national focus on read ing improvement in our students. Conclusion 6C: comparison group teachers implement many strategies One of the initial findings of this stu dy was that teachers in the comparison group implemented twice as many strategies as teachers in the treatment group, and their students arrived at nearly the same level of agricultural comprehension and motivation to

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157 read as students in the treatment group. Pe rhaps their own ideals of enhancing student achievement by implementing learning strate gies, their participa tion in training and workshops about content area r eading, their school administrations pressure to focus on reading, and/or their participation in this study motivated these teaches to implement more CARS than the teaches in the treat ment group. Regardless of the motivation, comparison group teachers may represent the re ality of how agriscie nce teachers would behave when motivated to implement strategies to improve student le arning, that being to implement more strategies than may be necessary in a shotgun approach. Of interest is why these teachers felt co mpelled to approach reading enhancement by implementing twice the number of CARS of their own volition compared to the treatment group teaches. What does this say about agriscience teachers beliefs about learning? Does quantity of in struction necessarily correlate with quality of instruction? Conclusion 6D: pressure to implement reading and CARS in agriscience With the status of standardized testing across the country, one readily realizes the pressures that content area te achers, including agriscience teachers, feel to implement content area reading into their courses. Schools and teachers are being held accountable and must demonstrate their contribution to a students overall academic achievement. The agriscience teachers in this study noted the pressures that they feel to implement content area reading and teach CARS in their agri science courses. They had been asked by their schools to serve on school -wide initiatives to teach reading. Some were required to demonstrate in their daily lessons which CARS were being used and with what frequency. These standards of accountability reinforced the importance of reading, but also created addi tional pressures for agriscie nce teachers. How does an

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158 agriscience teacher teach so that state sta ndards in core academic areas are met while teaching their approved curriculum? As one notes these additional pressures to teach subjects other than the teachers own content, one also wonders about the im pact that these demands could have on the teachers longevity in the profession. How do teachers handle these added pressures? What are they doing to reinforce core academic areas within agriscience? What impact does the context of agriscience have on learning key math, science, and reading competencies? Further research is needed into these and other related questions. In practice, agriscie nce teachers should also reali ze their dual teaching roles of teaching content as well as reinforcing reading concepts and skills. The axiom, all teachers are teachers of reading really holds true for these agriscience teachers. If a teacher does not adopt this approach to instruct ion, then he or she may be in jeopardy of becoming inadequate in his or her teaching role. Further, to ensure the teachers viability, he or she may be required to r ead materials about teaching method, research effective content area reading strategies for their particular classes, and attend professional development about effective us e of reading and CARS in agriscience. Conclusion 6E: motivation to implement CARS Comparison group teachers were motivat ed to implement a large number of strategies because of their participation in a reading st udy and the pressures applied by the state and their administration to improve st udents FCAT reading le vels. They stated that part of their motivation to implement so many strategies, more strategies than the treatment group, stemmed from their knowledge of participation in a reading study. They were trying to be helpful and good teachers. On e question that arises is if this behavior represents the natural reaction that these teach ers would have if thei r administration asked

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159 them to implement CARS to boost student achievement scores. Based upon the interviews, teachers cited thei r participation in the study plus the added pressures from their administrators and the state as reasons why they implemented CARS in their agriscience courses. Evidently these teachers were not averse to implementing CARS in agriscience. Given the power to attempt implementation on their own, the comparison group teachers implemented nearly twice as many CARS as the treatment group teachers with the prescribed curriculum. This gives an indica tion that with proper motivation, agriscience teachers may be willing to al ter their preferred teaching me thods and adopt new CARS. As a teacher, though the effort may be great, one must adapt teaching methods to attempt to fulfill the learning needs of students. Recommendations for Practitioners Based upon the findings of this study, the researcher recommends the following suggestions for practitioners in s econdary agriscience education: 1. Because agriscience courses are populated with students possessing a wide range of reading abilities, agriscience teachers must be aware of and address this wide array of reading abilities in their classes by im plementing CARS to benefit all students. When using texts, teachers should implemen t appropriate CARS to assist students in comprehending the information found in the text and applying it to solve problems in agriscience. If agriscience teachers use reading as part of their instruction, they should adapt their approach to instruction to help all students, especially those who read below grade le vel, to learn from text. Agriscience teachers must adopt the perspective th at when they use text, they are teachers of reading. 2. As the study found that implementi ng a large number of CARS had no significant effect on agriculture post-tests or motivation to read, teachers should take time to implement CARS in a systematic, thoughtful, and planned manner. Further, throwing a large number of strategies at students may have negative effects on students motivation to read, thus, teacher s would be well-served to think about how and when they implement CARS in ag riscience. CARS s hould be appropriate and pertinent to the reading situations that students encounter.

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160 3. Because agriscience teachers appear to possess limited knowledge and confidence in implementing CARS, they must lear n about and model CARS through their college preparation, teacher in-services, and professional development. Further, due to the pressures from the state depa rtment of educati on and local school administrators to teach reading to all student s, agriscience teachers must realize that implementing CARS in agriscience may mean attending professional development and/or working with other teachers or r eading coaches in th e school to develop approaches that effectively incorporat e reading and CARS in agriscience. Based upon the findings of this study, th e following recommendations were made for consideration of post-secondary teacher educators in agricultural education: 1. Because the current agriscience teac her population has limited knowledge and confidence in reading and the use of CA RS, teacher educators in agricultural education must realize and reinforce the importance of reading and implementation of CARS in methods courses and other pr eparatory courses for pre-service teachers in order to circumvent the problem. 2. Additionally, teacher educators must work to reeducate current agriscience teachers and equip them with the CARS necessary to assist students in reading. Teacher educators should assess what professional development is currently being utilized by teachers with regard to content area reading. Teacher educators should develop in-service and other professional developm ent that introduces agriscience teachers to three to five CARS on a yearly basis. 3. Professional development should include opportunities for te achers to use the CARS and develop ways to incorporate them into their curricula and instructional repertoires in order to build thei r confidence in the use of CARS. 4. Teacher educators should explore what a nd how they model reading behaviors and use of CARS to their students. Beca use many college courses rely heavily upon reading as a means of learning, college f aculty could model appropriate uses of CARS and how to use text for learning in order to expose students to CARS, building their knowledge of how to use CARS. 5. Because CARS that are implemented in a systematic, planned, and thoughtful manner may save teachers time and produce the same effect as implementing a large number of CARS, agri science curricula should in clude CARS. Curricula should be developed that incorporates CARS directly into lesson plans and student activities so that teachers are required to spend less time adapting strategies to the content and their own teaching styles. 6. To further assist with the implementati on of CARS in a systematic, planned, and thoughtful manner, those teacher educator s who author text should incorporate structure and other CARS w ithin the text that help struggling readers comprehend that text.

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161 Recommendations for Further Research While this study provides conclusions re garding its objectives, hypotheses, and research questions, the study also triggers recommendations for further research, including: 1. How do agriscience teachers model and use reading and CARS in their agriscience courses? 2. What do agriscience teachers believe about content area reading in agriscience? How do those beliefs and attitudes mani fest themselves in the secondary agriscience classroom? 3. In agriscience courses, what is the eff ect of systematic, planned, and thoughtful implementation of CARS on comprehens ion and motivation to read when compared to a defined control group? 4. What is the effect of CARS instructi on on comprehension and motivation to read when students are exposed to the treatm ent over a longer duration, perhaps a year or more? 5. How does professional development in CARS impact changes in teachers knowledge of CARS, confidence in their us e, and actual teaching methods in the classroom? 6. How effectively do agriscience teacher s implement CARS and reading in agriscience before and afte r professional development? 7. What is the impact of the pressure to implement reading, math, and science in agriscience courses on teacher retention?

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162 APPENDIX A CORRESPONDENCE WITH TEACHERS Letter to Treatment Group Teach ers Outlining Responsibilities October 1, 2004 Dear [Treatment Group Agriscience Teacher], Thank you for volunteering to assist with my di ssertation on reading in agriscience. Your professionalism and concern for bettering instruction for your students is simply tremendous. Agriscience teachers continually amaze me with their willingness to help, grow, and improve themselves on behalf of th eir students. Thank you for all that you do. Enclosed you will find what I believe to be all of the necessary documents and/or information to complete your part of this study. After meeting with my doctoral committee, the dissertation experienced a fe w changes. Secondly, Frances, Ivan, and Jeanne played their part in delaying this proc ess. I apologize for any inconveniences that these delays may have caused you. With this mailing you will find the following: Copies of the letters sent to your administrators, Institutional Review Board (IRB) inform ed consent to be completed by each students parent/guardian, Student assent language to be read to all students participating in the study, Descriptions of how to assign student identity codes, Demographic Reporting Sheet, Individual Lesson Quiz Score Reporting Sheet, Teaching calendar / timeline, 3 Foundations of Agriscience animal scie nce lessons with curriculum, overheads, handouts, examples, and assessments, Agriculture knowledge pre-test, Examples of all reading strategies, Motivation for Reading questionnaire to be completed prior to starting the lessons and again after the lessons are concluded, and Strategy Use Recording Sheet As the first item of busine ss, it is vitally important th at you collect the signed IRB informed consent forms from all students part icipating in the study. Ideally, this should be done prior to pre-testing students. Further, prior to testing student s, you must read the assent script and obtain all students verbal willingness to cooperate with the study. Students and their parents ar e really consenting and asse nting to our usage of the students datayou would not actually exclud e them from instruction while teaching

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163 these lessons. All students will participate in the assessments and quizzes, while you will withhold the data from students not will ing to participate in the actual study. Please send me the informed consent forms once you have collected all of them. Further, you can fax or mail me the Demographic Re porting Sheet. The office fax is (352) 3929585. If you would like, you can also email the Demographic Reporting Sheet, as I will be emailing these documents to you as well. Also, please send the Scantron sheets from the Motivations for Reading pre-assessment and the animal science pre-assessment once students have completed them. Make sure that students fill in the appropriate student ID code corresponding to the names and codes that you have assigned to them. I have enclosed copies of the informed c onsent forms and the Motivations for Reading assessment. For the individual unit quizzes and other handouts, I have provided copy masters within the lessons. When teaching these three lessons, you shoul d select one or more of the reading strategies provided within the lessons to teach to students. If, in your normal routine of teaching, you conduct labs, demonstrations, or other teaching methods to help students learn about animal science, please continue to implemen t those methods while working with this study. I will ask you to document what additional strategies you added to each lesson at the end of the study. As a matter of fact, you may want to mark which reading strategies you use right on the lesson as well as track what additional teaching strategies you used. Please record each students individual quiz sc ores from the three individual lessons, as broken down on the Individual Lesson Quiz Sc ore Reporting Sheet. I will collect these sheets at the end of the study. The Motivations for Reading assessment must be completed prior to starting the lessons and again at the end of teaching the final le sson. I will compare each individual students scores from the beginning and the end of the study to dete rmine how their motivation to read changed. We will try to complete all three lessons by Friday, November 18. If you need additional time, please let me know and we will make a rrangements. At the end of the study, I will collect the Individual Lesson Quiz Score Reporting Sheet. You will probably have seen some, if not all of these reading strategies, and know how to implement them. If you have any questions, please feel free to call me at school, (352) 392-0502, extension 223; home, (352) 375-3253 ; or on my cell phone, (352) 514-3582. You may also email me at tpark@ufl.edu Thank you once again for your help. Sincerely, Travis Park CALS Alumni Doctoral Fellow

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164 Letter to Comparison group Teach ers Outlining Responsibilities October 1, 2004 Dear [Comparison group Agriscience Teacher], Thank you for volunteering to assist with my di ssertation on reading in agriscience. Your professionalism and concern for bettering instruction for your students is simply tremendous. Agriscience teachers continually amaze me with their willingness to help, grow, and improve themselves on behalf of th eir students. Thank you for all that you do. Enclosed you will find what I believe to be all of the necessary documents and/or information to complete your part of this study. After meeting with my doctoral committee, the dissertation experienced a fe w changes. Secondly, Frances, Ivan, and Jeanne played their part in delaying this proc ess. I apologize for any inconveniences that these delays may have caused you. With this mailing you will find the following: Copies of the letters sent to your administrators, Institutional Review Board (IRB) inform ed consent to be completed by each students parent/guardian, Student assent language to be read to all students participating in the study, Descriptions of how to assign student identity codes, Demographic Reporting Sheet, Individual Lesson Quiz Score Reporting Sheet, Teaching calendar / timeline, 3 Foundations of Agriscience animal scie nce lessons with curriculum, overheads, handouts, and assessments, Agriscience content pre-test, and Motivation for Reading questionnaire to be completed prior to starting the lessons and again after the lessons are concluded As the first item of busine ss, it is vitally important th at you collect the signed IRB informed consent forms from all students part icipating in the study. Ideally, this should be done prior to pre-testing students. Further, prior to testing student s, you must read the assent script and obtain all students verbal willingness to cooperate with the study. Students and their parents ar e really consenting and asse nting to our usage of the students datayou would not actually exclud e them from instruction while teaching these lessons. All students will participate in the assessments and quizzes, while you will withhold the data from students not willi ng to participate in the actual study. Please send me the informed consent forms once you have collected all of them. Further, you can fax or mail me the Demographic Repor ting Sheet. The office fax is (352) 3929585. If you would like, you can also email the Demographic Reporting Sheet, as I will be emailing these documents to you as well. Also, please send the Scantron sheets from the Motivations for Reading pre-assessment and the animal science pre-assessment once students have completed them. Make sure

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165 that students fill in the appropriate student ID code corresponding to the names and codes that you have assigned to them. I have enclosed copies of the informed c onsent forms and the Motivations for Reading assessment. For the individual unit quizzes and other handouts, I have provided copy masters within the lessons. Part of the dissertation that changed a bit was the desire to determine what reading strategies our Florida agriscience teachers traditionally implement in their instruction without prompting. Please teach the enclos ed lessons as you would normally teach them. If, in your normal routine of teaching, you conduct labs, demonstrations, or other teaching methods to help students learn a bout animal science, please continue to implement those methods while working with this study. I will ask you to document what additional strategies you added to each lesson at the end of the study. Please record each students individual quiz sc ores from the three individual lessons, as broken down on the Individual Lesson Quiz Sc ore Reporting Sheet. I will collect these sheets at the end of the study. The Motivations for Reading assessment must be completed prior to starting the lessons and again at the end of teaching the final le sson. I will compare each individual students scores from the beginning and the end of the study to dete rmine how their motivation to read changed. We will try to complete all three lessons by Friday, November 18. If you need additional time, please let me know and we will make a rrangements. At the end of the study, I will collect the Individual Lesson Quiz Score Reporting Sheet. If you have any questions, please feel free to call me at school, (352) 392-0502, extension 223; home, (352) 375-3253; or on my cell phone, (352) 514-3582. You may also email me at tpark@ufl.edu Thank you once again for your help. Sincerely, Travis Park CALS Alumni Doctoral Fellow

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166 Letter to School Administrators October 1, 2004 Travis Park University of Florida P.O. Box 110540, 310 Rolfs Hall Gainesville, FL 32611-0540 [First Name] [Last Name] [Title], [School Name] [Address] [Address] [City], [State] [Zip Code] Dear [First Name] [Last Name]: As you know, your agriscience department is one of the best in Flor ida and the nation. Your students are fortunate to learn from t eachers who care about students, who seek out better methods of teaching, and who engage in professional development opportunities to enhance the learning of all students. Conse quently, [Agriscience T eacher Name] at [High School] has volunteered to assist with my di ssertation study in the Agricultural Education and Communication Department at the Univer sity of Florida dealing with reading in secondary agriscience. The dissertation focuses on implementing cont ent area reading stra tegies to improve student reading achievement in secondary agri science. [Agriscience Teacher Name] will be using reading strategies to enhance learni ng from text in agriscience classes. With feedback from students and teachers, we will be better equipped to prepare teachers with reading strategies that most effectiv ely enhance learning in agriscience. If you have any questions regarding this st udy, please feel free to contact me at the University of Florida. I can be reached by telephone at (352) 392-0502, extension 223, or by email at tpark@ufl.edu Thank you for your support of agricultural education. Sincerely, Travis Park Doctoral Candidate

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167 Letter of Informed Consent October 1, 2004 Dear Parent / Student, The purpose of this study is to assess the e ffectiveness of content area reading strategies in secondary agriscience courses in improving student reading comprehension, motivation to read, and agricultural conten t knowledge. Your students motivation to read and agricultural content knowledge will be assessed at the beginning and the end of the study. These tests will provide you and your student with information about his/her strengths in reading and learning, but will not affect their grade or placement in any classes. We estimate that the assessments will take approximately two class periods to complete. Your students participation is voluntary, howev er we sincerely hope that he/she will help us with this project. Your student does not have to answer any ques tions that he/she does not wish to answer, and he/she will not be pe nalized in any way for not participating in the study. We believe that there are no risks to your student from participating in this study, nor a monetary incentive. Possible bene fits of participati on in the study include improved content area reading skills and subject matter comprehension. If you have questions about your rights c oncerning this study, please cont act the UFIRB office, P.O. Box 112250, University of Florid a, Gainesville, FL, 32611-2250. Please be assured that all individual responses will be kept strictly confidential to the extent provided by law, and we will not release information that could identify individuals who partic ipate in the study. You and your child have the right to withdraw consent for your chil d's participation at any time without consequence. If you have a ny questions about this research study or the survey, please contact Travis Park by telephone (352) 392-0502, email ( tpark@ufl.edu ), or Dr. Ed Osborne by email ( ewo@ufl.edu ). Thank you for your help in this educational endeavor. If you agree to participate in the study, please sign and return this document to your students agriscience teacher. Also, please keep a copy of this document for your records. Sincerely, Travis Park Dr. Ed Osborne Doctoral Fellow Professor & Department Chair

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168 I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily give my c onsent for my child, ___________________________, to participate in this st udy of reading comprehension, motivation to read, and agricultural content knowledge. I have received a copy of this description. ____________________________ ___________ Parent / Guardian Date ____________________________ ___________ 2nd Parent / Witness Date Student Assent Effective Reading Strategies for Secondary Agriscience Good morning, I am agriscience teacher. We would like to assess your motivation to read and agricultural content knowledge. This assessment will not affect your agriscienc e grade in any way, nor will it affect any other class grades. We would like for you to take a test, so that we can measure your performance in these areas. You can stop at any time and do not have to answer any questions that you do not want to. Whether yo u choose to participate in this activity will not affect your grade in any way. Do you want to participate?

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169 Informed Consent for Agriscience Teacher Interviews Dear Agriscience Teacher, The purpose of the study is to determin e your attitudes towa rd reading strategy interventions in secondary agriscience. We estimate that the interview will take approximately one hour to complete. Your participation is voluntary, however we sincerely hope that you will help us with this project. You do not have to answer any que stions that you do not wish to answer, and you will not be penalized in any way for not pa rticipating in the study. We believe that there are no risks or benefits to you from participating in this study, nor a monetary incentive. If you have questions about your rights concerning this study, please contact the UFIRB office, P.O. Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611-2250. Please be assured that all individual responses will be kept strictly confidential to the extent provided by law, and we will not release information that could identify individuals who partic ipate in the study. You have the right to withdraw consent fo r your participation at any time without consequence. If you have any questions about this research study, pl ease contact Travis Park by telephone (352) 392-0502, email ( tpark@ufl.edu ), or Dr. Ed Osborne by email ( ewo@ufl.edu ). Thank you for your help in this e ducational endeavor. If you agree to participate in the study, please sign and return this document. Also, please keep a copy of this document for your records. Sincerely, Travis Park Dr. Ed Osborne Doctoral Fellow Chair, Professor I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily consent to participate in this study of influences on the decision to teach s econdary agriscience. I have received a copy of this description. ____________________________ ___________ Participant Date

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170 Procedures for Collecting Data Effect of Reading Strategy Instruction on Achievement in Secondary Agriscience Travis Park Agricultural Educati on and Communication P.O. Box 110540 Room 310 Rolfs Hall Gainesville, FL 32611 352.392.0502 x223 tpark@ufl.edu October 1, 2004 Adolescents entering the adult world in the 21st century will read and write more than any other time in human history. (Moor e, Bean, Birdyshaw, & Rycik, p. 3, 1999) The responsibility for teaching reading is a sh ared one, belonging to all teachers in all subjects (Vacca, p. 187, 2002) and includes promoting active, mindful reading and teaching students to use strategies. (Rhoder, p. 498, 2002) Whats in it for you, th e agriscience teacher? Assist students with FC AT reading performance Model implementation of reading strategies for your school Develop accountability for te aching reading strategies Demonstrate leadership among ag riscience teachers in Florida Help your students learn reading comprehension a lifelong success skill Cooperating Teacher Responsibilities Assign student identity codes. Collect and submit all data (dat a submission sheet provided). IRB informed consent letters. 8th grade, or previous ye ar, FCAT reading levels. Middle school, or current high school, grade point averages. Demographic information (gender, ethnicity, etc.). Agriscience Foundations lesson quiz scores. Motivation for Reading pre-as sessment and post-assessment. Teach Agriscience Foundations lessons. Return the Individual Lesson Quiz Scor e Reporting Sheet and the demographic information sheet.

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171 Coding Students: Cubs High School Agriscience Foundations Student Code Alou, M. A-1 Barrett, M. A-2 Garciaparra, N. A-3 Grudzielanek, M. A-4 Lee, D. A-5 Maddux, G. A-6 Patterson, C. A-7 Prior, M. A-8 Ramirez, A. A-9 Sosa, S. A-10 Walker, T. A-11 Zambrano, C. A-12 Agriscience teacher sees the names and code numbers. Travis Park only sees the code numbers. All data submitted with code numbers only, no names

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172 Lesson Plan Calendar Date Activity Materials 10/1 Letter to administration documenting voluntary participating in reading study Letter from Travis Park 10/4 Secure informed consent paperwork Collect background data Assign student identity codes Pre-testing Send scantrons to Travis at UF (Motivations for Reading & Agriculture knowledge pre-test) IRB informed consent documentation Grade level, GPA, gender, ethnicity, 8th Grade FCAT reading levels, socioeconomic status, documented reading disability Motivations for Reading preassessment Agricultural knowledge pre-test 10/5 Begin teaching Agriscience Foundations curriculum Record lesson quiz scores with student codes assigned on the Individual Lesson Quiz Score Reporting Sheet Teach Lesson 06.07: Determining the Anatomy and Physiology of Animals Individual Lesson Quiz Score Reporting Sheet Lesson 06.07: Determining the Anatomy and Physiology of Animals Lesson quiz 10/18 Teach Lesson 06.06: Meeting the Nutritional Needs of Animals Record lesson quiz scores with student codes assigned on the Individual Lesson Quiz Score Reporting Sheet Individual Lesson Quiz Score Reporting Sheet Lesson 06.06: Meeting the Nutritional Needs of Animals Lesson quiz 11/1 Teach Lesson 06.08: Understanding Animal Reproduction Record lesson quiz scores with student codes assigned on the Individual Lesson Quiz Score Reporting Sheet Individual Lesson Quiz Score Reporting Sheet Lesson 06.06: Understanding Animal Reproduction Lesson quiz 11/19 Post-testing Motivations for Reading postassessment 11/22-24 Travis will pick up final data All IRB consent forms Individual Lesson Quiz Score Reporting Sheet Motivations for Reading postassessment Instruction can and should include methods other than entirely text-based approaches to learning. ** You may teach for a shorter period of tim e, but please teach all three lessons by November 19, 2004. Thank you.

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173 APPENDIX B DATA REPORTING FORMS Demographic Reporting Sheet READING IN AGRISCIENCE DISSERTATI ON: Demographic Reporting Sheet FCAT Reading School:_________________________ Sunshine State Standard Norm Referenced Test Student ID Grade Level: (9 12) GPA Gender: 1=male, 2=female Ethnicity 1=American Indian/Alaska Native, 2=Black/African American, 3=Hispanic/Latino, 4=Asian, 5=Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, 6=White, 7=Other Scale score: (0 3500) Reading achievement level: (1-5 or low-high) Scale score (424 863) Median national percentile rank SES: 1=Free, 2=Reduced, 3=Full-Priced Lunch Reading disability: (please indicate) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

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174 Individual Lesson Quiz Score Reporting Sheet School: _____________________________________________________ Instructions: Please write then number of points earned by each student under the appropriate column. Lesson 06.07: Determining the Anatomy and Physiology of Animals Lesson 06.06: Meeting the Nutritional Needs of Animals Lesson 06.08: Understanding Animal Reproduction Student ID Matching Completion Short answer Multiple choice Comprehension Matching Completion Short answer Multiple choice Comprehension. Matching Completion Short answer Multiple choice Comprehension. Poss. 10 5 10 15 25 10 5 5 11 28 10 5 10 15 25 Days Absent 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

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175Strategy Use Recording Sheet Name: ______________________________ School: _____________________________ _______ Instructions: Please indicate strategies used during each lesson by placing a check ma rk in the appropriate box under each col umn. Lesson 06.07: Determining the Anatomy and Physiology of Animals Lesson 06.06: Meeting the Nutritional Needs of Animals Lesson 06.08: Understanding Animal Reproduction Strategies Interest Approach Objective 1 Objective 2 Objective 3 Objective 4 Objective 5 Post-Reading Interest Approach Objective 1 Objective 2 Objective 3 Post-Reading Interest Approach Objective 1 Objective 2 Objective 3 Objective 4 Objective 5 Post-Reading K-W-L Making Predictions A-Z Anticipation Guide Think-Aloud Graphic Organizers Bubble Cluster / Concept Map Classification Map Concept of Definition Map Frayer Model

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176Sequence Map Matrices Summary Discussion Web Cube It!

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177 APPENDIX C LESSON PLANS: COMPARISON GROUP Lesson 06.07 Determining the Anatomy and Physiology of Animals Intended Outcome: 06.0: Describe the principles of plant a nd/or animal nutrient growth and reproduction. SPS: 06.07: Identify and describe the anatomical systems of animals and the functions of each including major portions. Sunshine State Standard(s): LAA 1.4, 2.4; LAB 1.4, 2.4; LAC 1.4, 2.4, 3.4; LAD 1.4, 2.4; LAE 1.4, 2.4; SCA 1.4, 2.4; SCB 1.4, 2.4; SCF 1.4, 2.4 Student Learning Objectives. Instruction in th is lesson should result in students achieving the following objectives: 1. Explain the meaning of anatomy and physiology. 2. Explain the role of cell sp ecialization in organisms. 3. Describe the importance of anatom y and physiology in animal production. 4. List the organ systems of mammals and de scribe the functions, major parts, and locations of each. 5. Identify the external part s of selected animals. List of Resources. The following resources may be useful in teaching this lesson: Recommended Resources. One of the follo wing resources should be selected to accompany the lesson: Cooper, E. L., & Burton, L. D. (2004). Agriscience fundamentals & applications. Boston: Delmar Publishers. Herren, R. V. (1997). The science of agri culture: A biologica l approach. Boston: Delmar Publishers. Lee, J. S., Hutter, J., Rudd, R., Westrom, L., Patrick, A. R., & Bull, A. M. (2004). Introduction to Livestock and Companion An imals, 3rd Edition. Danville, Illinois: Interstate Publishers, Inc. (Chapter 3) Lee, J. S., & Turner, D. L. AgriScien ce, 3rd Edition. Danville, IL: Interstate Publishers, Inc., 2003. (Textbook, Chapter 12) Other Resources. The following resources wi ll be useful to students and teachers: Baker, M., & Mikesell, R. E. Animal Science Biology and Technology. Danville, IL: Interstate Publishers, Inc., 1996. Gillespie, J. R. Animal Science. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers, 1998. Morgan, E. M., et al. AgriScience Ex plorations, Second Edition. Danville, IL: Interstate Publishers, Inc., 2000.

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178 Taylor, R. E. Scientific Farm Animal Production, 5th Edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1995. List of Equipment, Tools, Supplies, and Facilities Textbook for student use Writing surface Overhead projector Transparencies from attached masters Copies of student lab sheets Terms. The following terms are presented in this lesson (shown in bold italics): Anatomy Animal well-being Cell Cell specialization Circulatory system Digestion Digestive system Excretion Excretory system Gross anatomy Integumentary system Lymph Lymphatic system Mammal Mammary system Microscopic anatomy Muscular system Nervous system Organ Organ system Physiology Respiratory system Reproductive system Skeletal system Tissue Interest Approach. Use an interest approach that will prepare the students for the lesson. Teachers often develop approaches for thei r unique class and student situations. A possible approach is included here: Ask students to describe what functions an animal organism must perform to carry out life processes. List these on the writing surface. Examples include respiration, digestion, and elimination. Next, ask students how organi sms are able to carry out these functions they have body parts or organ systems that ma ke it possible for these functions to occur. Have students name and discuss specific ex amples, such as the mammary system of a dairy cow secretes milk used as food for he r calf as well as for human food. Move from this interest approach into the lesson. Have students read appropriate sections or chapters in the textbooks as homework or during supervis ed study. Students will also need to refer to the figures with line drawi ngs of anatomical features. Summary of Content and Teaching Strategies Objective 1: Explain the mean ing of anatomy and physiology. Anticipated Problem: What is the m eaning of anatomy and physiology? Reading: Agriscience 294 Agriscience fundamentals & applications 505-511 Introduction to livestock and companion animals 36-39

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179 I. Animals are complex organisms with systems and processes that allow them to carry out activities to remain in the living condition. A. Anatomy is the study of the form, shape, and appearance of an animal. Since mammals are among the most common animals, most of the information on anatomy will focus on these animals. 1. Gross anatomy deals with the features th at can be seen with the unaided eye. Examples include feet, horn s, tails, tongues, and teeth. 2. Microscopic anatomy deals with the f eatures that can only be seen with magnification. Examples include cells and sperm. B. Physiology is the study of the functions of the cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems of the living organism. 1. Physiology includes relationships among f unctions by different systems of an organism, such as secretion to digestion. 2. Diseases can cause the systems to fail to work properly. Have students read sections in the text book related to this objective. Organize information on the writing surface using st udent input. Have students keep notes on important issues covered in class. Use TM: 06.07.A or the writing surface to present a definition of the key terms. Have students gi ve examples of anatomy and physiology in animals that they have as companions or for production. Objective 2: Explain th e role of cell specialization in organisms. Anticipated Problem: What is cell sp ecialization? Why is it important? Reading: Introduction to livestock and companion animals 33-35 The science of agriculture: A biological approach 56-68 II. Cells are the building blocks of organisms. A cell is the basic structure of life. Cells have important structures that allow them to function. Protoplasm within a cell carries out important chemical activities. Multi-c ellular organisms have many cells. These cells form specialized systems to carry out life processes. A. Cell specialization is different in each cell in order to perform unique activities for an organism. Organisms could not exist if all cells were alike. 1. A tissue is a group of cells th at is alike in activity a nd structure. The functions tend to be specialized such as those in muscles or bones. 2. An organ is a group of tissues that work together to perform specific functions. Each tissues job varies, but by working together the organ carries out its function. Examples of organs include the heart, lungs, and liver. 3. An organ system is a collection of se veral organs that work together to perform an activity. Two examples are the respiratory system and digestive system. B. Cell specialization is important because it makes multi-cellular organisms possible. Without specialization, all cells would be alike. Tissues, organs, and organ systems would not exist. Life pr ocesses in multi-cellular organisms would not occur.

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180 Have students read the appropriate sections in the textbook. Use stude nt input to outline the major content on the writing surface or use TM: 06.07.B. Ask students to name examples of tissues, organs, and organ systems. Objective 3: Describe the importance of anatomy and phys iology in anim al production. Anticipated Problem: What is the importanc e of anatomy and physiology in animal production? Reading: Agriscience fundamentals & applications 505-511 III. People who care for animals need to unde rstand the fundamentals of anatomy and physiology. A. Practicing the correct nature of anatomy and physiology of an organism promotes animal well-being. Animal well-being is car ing for animals so that their needs are met and they do not suffer. Conditions fo r raising and keepin g animals must be considered for their well-being. 1. Species have different environmenta l requirements. Animal producers are more effective in meeting these requirements when they know the unique anatomy and physiology of a species. For example, some breeds of cattle are more resistant to extreme temperatures than others. Producing a breed outside its preferred temperature range means that steps need to be taken to provide shade to protect from the heat or housing to protect from the cold. 2. The design of facilities can accommoda te the unique anatomy needs of organisms. The size, shape, and form influences facility arrangement and design. For example, keeping dairy cat tle housing clean re quires a way to handle animal wastes, incl uding feces and urine. Facility design can help collect and remove wastes from the area. 3. Young animals require different care than older animals. Feed for young animals should be appropriate to its di gestive system and nutrient needs. For example, young animals typically require feed with a higher percentage of protein than older animals. B. Animal productivity is based on animal capacity. 1. Meat animals are required to have muscli ng in areas that are used to make the higher-priced cuts. Examples incl ude the loin and hams of hogs. 2. Dairy animals need to have the capacity for high milk production. For example, a dairy cow needs a well-developed mammary system. 3. Animals used for other products are requi red to have the capacity to produce those products, including egg-laying capaci ty of chickens and wool quality of sheep. 4. Knowing how animals reproduce helps a producer provide conditions that promote reproduction. Ask students to indicate why they feel knowledge of anatomy and physiology is important to animal producers. Have stude nts tell the importance for the production of

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181 farm animals as well as the keeping of companion animals in the home. Have students relate animal well-being to having a knowledge of the needs of an animal. Students can name examples in the local area where animal well-being is practiced properly and where it is ignored so that the anim als are not in a good situation. Outline the major areas on the writing surface or use TM: 06.07.C. Objective 4: List the organ sy stems of mammals and describe the functions, major parts, and locations of each. Anticipated Problem: What are the organ sy stems of mammals? What are the functions, major parts, and locations of each? Reading: Agriscience 297-312 Agriscience fundamentals & applications 505-511 Introduction to livestock and companion animals 185-216 The science of agriculture: A biological approach 40-54 IV. A mammal is a vertebrate animal that is us ually covered with ha ir. The females give birth to live young and secrete milk as food for their babies. Cattle, hogs, sheep, horses, dogs, cats, and many other comm on animals are mammals. Each mammal species has unique organ systems that pr omote the life processes of the species. A. Mammal species are said to have eleven organ systems. Some variation may exist, with the greatest being the presen ce of mammary glands on females. 1. The skeletal system is the framew ork that gives shape to the body. The skeleton is comprised of bones and cartila ge. The skeletal system protects the delicate internal organs and makes locomotion possible. 2. The muscular system is the system that makes movement and locomotion possible. Muscles form nearly half the weight of many animals such as hogs and cattle. Without muscles, other orga n systems would not function such as the respiratory and circulatory system s. Locomotion would not be possible. 3. The nervous system is the system that coordinates body activity. It receives and responds to stimuli. It controls activity, learning, and memory. 4. The circulatory system is the system that moves blood, digested food, oxygen, wastes, and other materials around the body of an organism. It includes the organs that move the blood. The h eart moves the blood throughout the body. It goes by the lungs to gain oxygen a nd give off carbon dioxide acquired from cell respiration. 5. The respiratory system is the system that moves gases to and from the circulatory system. The purpose is to provide the blood with oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from the blood. 6. The excretory system is the system that rids the body of wastes from cell activity (known as metabo lic wastes). The process of ridding the body of these wastes is known as excretion. Though associated with the elimination of undigested food, the excretory system is not the digestive system. The major products excreted are carbon dioxide water, and nitrogen compounds.

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182 7. The digestive system is the system that prepares food for use by the body. Digestion is the process of breaking dow n food materials into molecules that the body can absorb. The system varies depending on the species of organism. Some organisms, such as cattle, ha ve digestive systems that will handle considerable roughage. Other organisms have simple stomachs that require food with higher percentages of pr otein and digestible materials. 8. The lymphatic system is the system that produces and circulates lymph throughout the body. Lymph is a clear fluid that aids in circ ulation, excretion, and other body functions. It also he lps protect the body from disease. 9. The integumentary system is the skin and outer covering of the body of an organism. It protects the in ternal organs, helps regula te temperature, and gives shape to the body. The integumentary sy stem keeps disease pathogens away from the internal organs. 10. The reproductive system is the system that produces offspring and continues the existence of a species. The system varies by gendermale and female. 11. The mammary system is the system in female mammals that secretes milk as food for their babies. Male mammals have undeveloped mammary systems. B. Most animals tend to have the same or gan systems except that mammals have mammary systems that are not found in non-mammals. The reproductive system varies by the gender of the animal. 1. The parts of the organ systems have b een identified and studied by scientists in anatomy and physiology. 2. Drawings have been made that show the location and structure of the major parts of organ systems. These were pr epared by scientists who have studied the anatomy of animals in great detail. Have students read appropriate sections in the textbooks. Use their input to develop a list of the organ systems, their functions, and a summary of the major parts of each organ system on the writing surface. Refer students to information in the textbook as this objective is developed in class. Use TM: 06.07.D to list the major organ systems and their functions. TM: 06.07.E provides a listing of the major parts for each system. Refer students to line drawings of animals that show the layout and correctly name the different parts of systems. Indicate that the systems tend to be similar from one species to the other. Use sketches on writing surface, line drawings in the textbook, and transparencies to show various anatomical features. TM: 06.07.F is an example that shows the circulatory system of a horse. Objective 5: Identify the major ex ternal parts of selected animals Anticipated Problem: What are the ma jor external parts of animals? V. Animal producers must be able to desc ribe animals and use the information in selecting, examining, and providing health care. The descriptions are based on the external parts of the animals. A. The presence of various qualities in the ex ternal parts indicate s the value, health, and condition of an animal. This means that animal producers not only know the

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183 names of the parts but they also know the qualities that should be evident upon visual examination of the parts. Animal scientists have prepared line drawings that show the location an d name of the external parts of common animals. Samples are included in TM: 06.07.G and LS: 06.07.A. B. Qualities vary with the species and the way the species is used. For example, cattle raised for beef have qualities th at vary from those raised for dairy production. Considerable study is needed to learn the qualities that indicate the desired characteristics of animals. Have students read appropriate sections in the textbook a nd study the figures with line drawings that show the locations and names of the major external parts. Sketches on the writing surface or transparencies may be used to illustrate the external parts (an example is TM: 06.07.G). Practice locati ng and naming the parts is essential for student mastery. Having students observe animal specimens and name the parts is an important strategy in assuring student mastery of the objectives. (N ote: More in-depth instruction will be provided when the various species are studied from a production perspective.) Review/Summary. The review and summary should be organized around the objectives for the lesson. Students should be called upon to orally demonstrate their mastery of the objectives. Review will also be a part of future instruction in the production and care of various species. Questions at the end of the chapter in the textbook will also serve a useful role in the review process. Use obser vations of student performance as a basis for reteaching areas where students appear not to have achieved satisfactorily. Application. Application will be achieved throughout the class and other classes as students study animal producti on. The content of this less on is fundamental in those classes. Use LS: 06.07.A to provide students with practice in iden tifying the external parts of an animal. Students will need a textbook or reference that lists the major external parts of a pig for this activity. Evaluation. Evaluation should be based on student achievement of the objectives. Observe student performance during the instruction as well as later in application opportunities. Review of each students note book will also be useful in evaluation. A written test may be given. A sample test is attached. Answers to Assessment: Part One: Matching 1=i, 2=e, 3=a, 4=f, 5=c, 6=d, 7=b, 8=h, 9=j, 10=g Part Two: Completion 1=integumentary, 2= muscular, 3=skelet al, 4=digestive, and 5=circulatory Part Three: Short Answer 1. The answer should address the ability of a pr oducer to provide for the well-being of the animal. The answer should also include animal selection for a particular use.

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184 2. The sketch should be compared to that in a textbook or reference and depends upon the species or breed that is drawn. (Students may be instructed to sketch a pig, bovine, horse, or sheep since those sketches are provided in the textbook.) Part Four: Multiple Choice 1 = d, 2 = b, 3 = a, 4 = c, 5 = b, 6 = b, 7 = d, 8 = a, 9 = d, 10 = b, 11 = b, 12 = a, 13 = b, 14 = c, 15 = d Part Five: Comprehension Grading rubric. Criteria 5 pts. 3 pts. 0 pts. Topic sentence Clear, concise topic sentence. Topic sentences, but does not describe summary. No topic sentence. Organization Organized. States relationships among cells, tissues, organs, & organ systems. Some organization. Does not relate all four key concepts. Little or no organization. No mention of relationships among ideas. Collapsed lists and paragraphs Collapsed information into concise sentences. No mention of examples. Lack of concise sentences. One or two examples provided. Failed to collapse information. Three or more examples provided. Eliminated unnecessary detail Unnecessary detail eliminated. Some unnecessary detail remaining. Excess unnecessary detail remaining. Key points Key points (cells, tissues, organs, organ systems) clearly delineated. Mentions key points, but does not delineate. No key points identified. Total Points 25

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185 Assessment Name_____________________________________ Lesson 06.07: Determining the Anatomy and Physiology of Animals Part One: Matching Instructions. Match the term with the correct response. Write the letter of the term by the definition. (1 point/question). a. animal well-being f. organ system b. anatomy g. excretion c. physiology h. digestion d. tissue i. lymph e. organ j. mammal _______ 1. A clear fluid that aids circulat ion, excretion, and other body functions. _______ 2. A group of tissues that work toge ther to perform specific functions. _______ 3. Caring for animals so that their needs are met and they do not suffer. _______ 4. A collection of organs that work together to perform a function for an organism. _______ 5. The study of the functions of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems of a living organism. _______ 6. A group of cells that is al ike in activity and structure. _______ 7. The study of the form, shape, and appearance of an animal. _______ 8. Breaking down food into molecules that the body can absorb. _______ 9. A group of animals that are covered w ith hair, and in which the females give birth to live young and secrete m ilk as food for their babies. _______ 10. The process of the body ridding itself of wastes. Part Two: Completion Instructions. Provide the word(s) to complete the following statements. (1 point/question). 1. The __________________ system consists of skin and other body covering. 2. The __________________ system makes body movement possible. 3. The __________________ system provides a framework to give the body shape. 4. The __________________ system prepares food for use by the body. 5. The __________________ system moves blood and other materials throughout the body of an animal. Part Three: Short Answer Instructions. Provide information to answer the following questions. (5 points/question). 1. Why is knowledge of anatomy and physiology important to animal producers? 2. Sketch the external features of an animal and label the major parts.

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186 Part Four: Multiple Choice Instructions. Select the best answer for the following questions. (1 point/question). 1. What is the difference between anatomy and physiology? a. Anatomy refers to the functions of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems, while physiology refers to the study of form, shape, and appearance of an animal. b. Anatomy is the same as physiology. c. Physiology refers to an animals physic al health, while anatomy refers to the animals anatomical features. d. Physiology refers to the functions of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems, while anatomy refers to the study of form, shape, and appearance of an animal. 2. Producers who raise livestock for meat attempt to maximize which organ system? a. Circulatory. b. Muscular. c. Respiratory. d. None of the above. 3. Which two organ systems would work toge ther in producing a fast racehorse? a. Skeletal and muscular. b. Circulatory and reproductive. c. Nervous and muscular. d. Skeletal and circulatory. 4. When an animal is breathing, which or gan systems are primarily involved? a. Circulatory. b. Skeletal. c. Respiratory. d. Lymphatic. 5. A barrow that goes lame during transpor tation to market experiences damage to which organ systems? a. Lymphatic and/or muscular. b. Muscular and/or skeletal. c. Nervous and/or reproductive. d. Skeletal and/or excretory. 6. A large volume of blood is necessary for high milk production in dairy cows. Which organ system provides this blood to the udder? a. Reproductive. b. Circulatory. c. Muscular. d. Excretory.

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187 7. Ruminants and nonruminants differ in primarily which organ system? a. Integumentary. b. Reproductive. c. Circulatory. d. Digestive. 8. Ruminants can digest what kind of feedst uffs because of the specialized organ system from question 7? a. Roughages. b. Supplements. c. Concentrates. d. None of the above. 9. In meat livestock, muscle definition is a characteristic of which organ system? a. Skeletal. b. Digestive. c. Integumentary. d. Muscular. 10. Body conformation is essential for locomo tion and enabling an animal to feed and reproduce. Which two organ systems does conformation primarily refer? a. Lymphatic and/or muscular. b. Muscular and/or skeletal. c. Nervous and/or reproductive. d. Skeletal and/or excretory. 11. Animals in confined feeding that live on concrete flooring may have difficulty with which two organ systems due to the stress of the concrete? a. Lymphatic and/or muscular. b. Muscular and/or skeletal. c. Nervous and/or reproductive. d. Skeletal and/or excretory. 12. Which of the following represents a tissue? a. Muscle. b. Heart. c. Circulatory. d. Blood. 13. Which of the following represents an organ? a. Muscle. b. Heart. c. Circulatory. d. Blood.

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188 14. Which of the following represents an organ system? a. Muscle. b. Heart. c. Circulatory. d. Blood. 15. Which of the following represents a cell? a. Muscle. b. Heart. c. Circulatory. d. Blood. Part Five: Comprehension Instructions. Read the following passage a bout animal nutrition. After reading the passage, create a summary for the passage. (25 points possible). You may use the back of this page for writing your summary. ANIMAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS Knowing body structures and functions he lps in raising animals. Whether the animal is large or small, similar conditions are needed. All need a good environment for living. All animals have similarities. The structure begins with cellsthe smallest building blocks in an animal. Groups of similar cells form tissues. Tissues form organs. Organs with similar functions form organ system s. The organ systems form the organism. CELLS The cell is the basic building block of life. All living things ar e made up of cells. Plant cells have walls; animal cells have only membranes. The cell provides information and uses energy. Probably the most important part of the cel l is the nucleus. Within the nucleus are genes that contain complete instructions fo r the organism. These genes are important in reproduction and in biotechnology uses. TISSUES

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189 Animals have four kinds of tissue. The four tissues are protective, connective, muscular, and nervous. Tissue is a group of ce lls that do a specific job. Tissues may be protective, like skin. They may be connectiv e, joining various body parts. Another tissue is muscular and aids in m ovement. The nervous tissue resp onds to outside factors and transmits information. ORGANS Organs are groups of similar tissues that wo rk together to form a specific function. Animals have many organs, which typically do not work alone, Examples of organs are the heart, liver, and kidney. Organs form organ systems. The organs wo rk together as a system to do certain activities. Most animals have ten organ syst ems. Without the systems, the animal could not survive. For example, the circulatory system consists of a heart, veins, arteries, and capillaries. Another example is the digestive system. It c onsists of the mouth, stomach, intestines, and other parts.

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190 TM: 06.07.A Anatomy and Physiology of Animals Anatomystudy of the form, shape, and appearance of animals Gross anatomystudy of the anatomy features that can be seen with the unaided eye Microscopic anatomystudy of the anatom y features that require magnification Physiologystudy of the functions of cells, ti ssues, organs, and organ systems of a living organism

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191 TM: 06.07.B Building Blocks Cellbasic structure of a liv ing organism; contains pr otoplasm which carries out important chemical activities Cell specializationdifferences in cells so that they can perform unique activities Tissuea group of cells that are alike in structure and activity Organa group of tissues that work t ogether to perform a specific function Organ systema collection of organs that wo rk together to perfor m a function essential for the living condition

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192 TM: 06.07.C Why Know Anatomy and Physiology? promotes animal well-being Animal well-beingcaring for animals so that their needs are met; animals do not suffer consider environmental needs of animals provide facilities to meet needs provide care based on age and condition consider animal production capacity in selection

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193 TM: 06.07.D Organ Systems and Functions skeletalframework for body muscularmakes movement and locomotion possible nervouscoordinates body activi ties and respond to stimuli circulatorymoves blood a nd its contents in body respiratorymoves gases to and from the circulatory system excretoryrids body of metabolic wastes digestiveprepares food for digestion and eliminates undigested food materials lymphaticproduces and circulates lymph integumentaryprotects and shapes the body exterior reproductiveproduces offspring; varies by gender mammarypresent in female mammals; secretes milk

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194 TM: 06.07.E Major Organ System Parts skeletalbones and cartilage muscularmuscles and connective tissues nervousbrain, spinal cord, and nerves circulatoryheart, arteries, and veins respiratorylungs excretorykidneys, bladder, urethra, and skin digestivemouth, stomach, and intestines lymphaticlymph nodes and lymph vessels integumentaryskin, hooves, claw s, and other exterior parts reproductivevaries by gendertestes in males; ovaries in females mammarymilk glands and udder

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195 TM: 06.07.F Circulatory System of a Horse

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196 TM: 06.07.G Major External Parts of a Bovine (Beef Animal) Artwork supplied with permission of Interstate Publishers, Inc.

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197 LS: 06.07.A Name_____________________________________ Lab Sheet External Parts of a Pig Purpose: The purpose of this activity is to help students master th e external anatomy of a pig. Supplies/Equipment: You will need a textbook or reference book that identifies the major external parts of a pig. Safety: No safety hazards should be involved with this activity. Procedure: Correctly label the twelve num bered external parts of the pig shown below. Write the common name of the part in the space provi ded that matches the number of the part. 1. ___________________ 2. ____________________ 3. ____________________ 4. ___________________ 5. ____________________ 6. ____________________ 7. ___________________ 8. ____________________ 9. ____________________ 10. ___________________ 11. ____________________ 12. ____________________

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198 Lesson 06.06 Meeting the Nutritional Needs of Animals Intended Outcome: 06.0: Describe the principles of plant a nd/or animal nutrient growth and reproduction. SPS: 06.06: Identify the nutrients required fo r animal growth and development and role of each. Sunshine State Standard(s): LAA 1.4, 2.4; LAB 1.4, 2.4; LAC 1.4, 2.4, 3.4; LAD 1.4, 2.4; LAE 1.4, 2.4; SCA 1.4, 2.4; SCB 1.4, 2.4; SCF 1.4, 2.4 Student Learning Objectives. Instruction in th is lesson should result in students achieving the following objectives: 1. Explain the functions of feed. 2. Identify the various feed type s and their characteristics. 3. Explain how animals are fed. List of Resources. The following resources may be useful in teaching this lesson: Recommended Resources. One of the follo wing resources should be selected to accompany the lesson: Cooper, E. L., & Burton, L. D. (2004). Agriscience fundamentals & applications. Boston: Delmar Publishers. Herren, R. V. (1997). The science of agri culture: A biologica l approach. Boston: Delmar Publishers. Lee, J. S., Hutter, J., Rudd, R., Westrom, L., Patrick, A. R., & Bull, A. M. (2004). Introduction to Livestock and Companion An imals, 3rd Edition. Danville, Illinois: Interstate Publishers, Inc. (Chapter 3) Lee, J. S., & Turner, D. L.. AgriScience, 3rd Edition. Danville, Illinois: Interstate Publishers, Inc., 2003. (Textbook, Chapter 13). Other Resources. The following resources wi ll be useful to students and teachers: Baker, M., & Mikesell, R.E. Animal Science Biology & Technology. Danville, Illinois: Interstate Publishers, Inc. 1996. (Chapter 4) Ensminger, M. E. Animal Science, Danville Illinois: Interstate Publishers, Inc. 1991. (Chapter 4) Gillespie, James R. Modern Livestock & Poultry Production, 6th Edition. Albany, New York: Delmar, 2002. (Unit 8) List of Equipment, Tools, Supplies, and Facilities Writing surface Overhead projector Transparencies from attached masters Copies of student lab sheets Terms. The following terms are presented in this lesson (shown in bold italics): Animal proteins Free access Nodules

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199 Basal maintenance requirement Concentrates Feed Feedstuff Fetus Forages Gestation Growth High-energy concentrates High-protein concentrates Lactation Legume Maintenance Nonlegume roughages Palatability Roughages Scheduled feeding Supplement Tankage Vegetable proteins Interest Approach. Use an interest approach that will prepare the students for the lesson. Teachers often develop approaches for thei r unique class and student situations. A possible approach is included here. Have samples of corn, soybean meal, and ha y placed in front of the class. Ask the students to make a list of the similarities and differences between the three types of feed. Make a class list of similariti es and differences on the board Tell the students to keep their lists and to refer back to it as the lesson progresses. Summary of Content and Teaching Strategies Objective 1: Explain th e functions of feed. Anticipated Problem: What are the functions of feed? Reading: Agriscience 317-320 Agriscience fundamentals & applications 511-518 Introduction to livestock and companion animals 57-58, 68-70 The science of agriculture: A biological approach 243-245 I. The nutritional needs of animals change throughout the animals life. The amount and type of feed depends on the stage of life and use of the animal. The feed consumed by the animal is used for various purposes. These uses or functions can be categorized into the following groups. A. MaintenanceMaintenance is keeping the body at a constant state. There is no loss or gain of weight. Every second an animal is alive it requires energy. The amount of energy needed by an animal for maintenance is known as the basal maintenance requ irement. A maintenance diet is usually high in carbohydrates and fats. It should contain a small amount of protein, minerals, and vitamins. On average, about 50 percent of an animals diet is used for maintenance. B. GrowthGrowth is defined as the incr ease in size of the muscles, bones, internal organs, and other parts of the body. Animal growth requires mostly energy and smaller amounts of ot her nutrients. Very high levels of carbohydrates and fats in the animal s diet provide this energy. C. ReproductionProper nutrition is the key to successful and efficient reproduction in animals. Most repr oductive failures are caused by poor nutrition in the female. A proper re production ration typically includes

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200 higher levels of protein, minerals, and vitamins. This is especially needed in the last three months of gestation (pregnancy) because this is when the fetus or unborn offspring experiences the most growth. Poor nutrition also affects males. A lack of proper nut rients can lower sperm production and fertility rates. D. LactationLactation is the production of milk. The nutrient requirements for moderate to heavy milk producti on are greater that the requirements during gestation. A lactati on ration requires even hi gher levels of protein, calcium, and phosphorus. E. WorkA work ration is needed by animals that are expected to conduct all types of work and activity for the operation. Examples could include draft animals, racehorses, and hunting dogs. These animals require increased carbohydrates and fats. There are many techniques that can be used to assist students in mastering this material. Students need text material to aid in unders tanding the functions of feed. Chapter 3 in Introduction to Livestock and Companion An imals is recommended. Use TM: 06.06.A to aid in discussion. Objective 2: Identify the various fe ed types and their characteristics. Anticipated Problem: What ar e the various feed types? Reading: Agriscience 321-339 Agriscience fundamentals and applications -518 Introduction to livestock and companion animals 70-72 II. A feedstuff is an ingredient used in making the feed for animals. Feed is what animals eat to get nutrients. Feedstuffs can be added to feed to provide flavor, color, or texture to increase palatabil ity. Palatability is how well an animal likes a feed. A feed high in nutrients is of no benefit if the animal refuses to eat it. Feeds can be placed into three basic categories. They are: A. RoughagesLivestock feeds that contain more than 18 percent crude fiber when dry are called roughages. The type of feed is mostly leaves and tender stems of plants. These plants are also known as forages. Forages can be grouped into two genera l classes: legume roughages and nonlegume roughages. 1. A legume is a plant that can take nitrogen from the air. These plants specialized root parts call ed nodules, contain bacteria that aid in this process. All of th e clovers, as well as alfalfa, soybeans, trefoil, lespedeza, peas, and beans are legumes. 2. Nonlegume roughages cannot use th e nitrogen from the air. They are usually lower in protein th an the legume roughages. Some examples of this type of rougha ge are: corn silage, fodders, bluegrass, timothy, redtop, bromeg rass, orchard grass, fescue, and prairie grasses.

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201 B. ConcentratesLivestock feeds that contain less than 18 percent crude fiber when dry are called concentrates. This type of feedstuff is high in energy. Concentrates have more energy per pound than roughages. Higher producing animals need more nutrients from concentrates. 1. High-energy concentrates are f eeds that contain less than 20 percent crude protein. Some common sources of high-energy concentrates are corn, wheat, so rghum, barley, rye, and oats. 2. High-protein concentrates are f eeds that contain 20 percent or more protein. Examples of high-protein concentrates are soybean meal, cottonseed meal, and sunflower meal. C. SupplementsA supplement is a feed ma terial high in a specific nutrient. Supplements are often added to feeds to increase protein content. Protein supplements can be divided into two groups based on the source of the protein. 1. Protein supplements that come from animals or animal byproducts are called animal protei ns. Common animal proteins are tankage, meat scraps, meat and bone meal, fish meal, and blood meal. Tankage is animal tissues and bones from animal slaughterhouses and rendering pl ants that are cooked, dried, and ground. Most animal proteins contai n more that 47 percent crude protein. Animal proteins contain a more balanced amount of the essential amino acids than do the other type of protein supplements. 2. Protein supplements that come fr om plants are called vegetable proteins. Common vegetable prot eins are soybean oil meal, peanut oil meal, and corn gluten feed. Most vegetable proteins contain less than 47 pe rcent crude protein. There are many techniques that can be used to assist students in mastering this material. Students need text material to aid in unders tanding the various feed types. Chapter 3 in Introduction to Livestock and Co mpanion Animals is recommended. Objective 3: Explain how animals are fed. Anticipated Problem: What are some ways to feed animals? Reading: Agriscience 342-343 Introduction to livestock and companion animals 74-75 III. How and when animals are fed is an important portion of animal production. This affects the growth and developm ent of the animal. Animals need to consume the correct amount of the rati on without overeating, which can cause health problems as well. There are two basic methods in which feed can be provided to animals: free access and scheduled feeding. A. Free access or free choice is allowing animals to eat feed when they want feed. The feed is available to the an imal at all times. This method is good

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202 for some species and with some feed stuffs but not others. For example, swine can be fed concentrates free ac cess because they will not overeat. However, cattle should not be fed co ncentrates free access because they will overeat and could possibly founder and die. B. Scheduled feeding is providing feed at certain times of the day. Feeding times and regularity should be based on the needs of the animal or management practices. There are many techniques that can be used to assist students in mastering this material. Students need text material to aid in unde rstanding how animals are fed. Chapter 3 in Introduction to Livestock and Co mpanion Animals is recommended. Review/Summary. Use the student learning objectives to summarize the lesson. Have students explain the content associated with each objective. Student responses can be used in determining which objectives need to be reviewed or ta ught from a different angle. Questions at end of chapters in the textbook may also be used in the review/summary. Evaluation. Focus the evaluation of student achievement on mastery of the objectives stated in the lesson. Measure student performance on classr oom participation, laboratory assignments, and written tests or quizzes. Answers to Assessment: Part One: Matching 1 = e, 2 = a, 3 = b, 4 = f, 5 = g, 6 = j, 7 = h, 8 = i, 9 = d, 10 = c Part Two: Completion 1. 47 percent 2. greater 3. energy 4. source 5. overeat Part Three: Short Answer See Objective 2 in lesson for scoring. Part Four: Multiple Choice 1 = a, 2 = c, 3 = c, 4 = b, 5 = d, 6 = d, 7 = c, 8 = a, 9 = b, 10 = a, 11 = b

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203 Part Five: Comprehension Grading rubric. Total points possible = 28 points. For any missing element (title or bulleted information), subtract 1 point. Nutrients Substance required for life Needs vary based on type and size of animal, life span Minerals Required by skeletal system Largest amounts = calcium & phosphorus Fats or lipids Provide energy Carry vitamins Form chemicals in the body Water Obtained from drinking or feed Helps transport other nutrients Carbohydrates Simple or complex Provide energy 75% of diet Fiber Vitamins Very small amounts for specific functions 16 vitamins are required Vitamin A, D, E, K, & Bcomplex vitamins Ruminants produce some vitamins in the rumen Protein Building material Growth of muscles, tissues, bones Repair damage to cells Weight gain, growth & preproduction

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204 Assessment Name_____________________________________ Lesson 06.06: Meeting the Nutritional Need of Animals Part One: Matching Instructions. Match the term with the correct response. Write the letter of the term by the definition. (1 point/question). a. Basal maintenance requirement f. Roughages b. Feedstuff g. Tankage c. Growth h. Free access d. Palatability i. Feed e. High-energy concentrates j. Maintenance _______ 1. Feeds that contain less th an 20 percent crude protein. _______ 2. The amount of energy needed by an animal for maintenance. _______ 3. An ingredient used in making the feed for animals. _______ 4. Livestock feeds that contain more than 18 percent crude fiber when dry. _______ 5. Animal tissues and bones from animal slaughterhouses and rendering plants that are cooked, dried, and ground. _______ 6. Keeping the body at a constant state. _______ 7. Allowing animals to eat feed when they want. _______ 8. What animals eat to get nutrients. _______ 9. How well an animal likes a feed. _______ 10. The increase in size of the muscles, bones, internal organs, and other parts of the body. Part Two: Completion Instructions. Provide the word(s) to complete the following statements. (1 point/question). 1. Most vegetable proteins cont ain less than ________________ crude protein. 2. The nutrient requirements for mode rate to heavy milk production are ___________________ than the requirements during gestation. 3. Animal growth requires mostly _____________________ and smaller amounts of other nutrients. 4. Protein supplements can be divide d into two groups based on the ________________ of the protein. 5. Swine can be fed concentrates free access because they will not _________________.

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205 Part Three: Short Answer Instructions. Provide information to answer the following question. (5 points/question). 1. Compare and contrast roughages and concentrates. Part Four: Multiple Choice Instructions. Select the best answer for the following questions. (1 point/question). 1. If a producer were feeding steers for weight gain, which of the following functions would the feed perform? a. Maintenance and growth. b. Growth and work. c. Reproduction. d. None of the above. 2. If a different producer were feeding repl acement gilts that were soon to be bred, which of the following function(s) would the feed perform? a. Reproduction. b. Growth and reproduction. c. Growth and lactation. d. All of the above. 3. How is a feedstuff selected for maintenance the same as a feedstuff for growth? Both contain high amounts of __________________. a. Carbohydrates. b. Fats. c. Carbohydrates and fats. d. Calcium and phosphorus. 4. How is a feedstuff selected for work different from a feedstuff for lactation? a. A feedstuff for work is high in carboh ydrates and fats, while a feedstuff for lactation is high in fats only. b. A feedstuff for work is high in carboh ydrates and fats, while a feedstuff for lactation is high in pr otein, calcium, and phosphorus. c. A feedstuff for work contains a lo t of energy, while a feedstuff for lactation contains a lot of carbohydrates. d. There is no difference. 5. Why would a high-protein concen trate be fed to livestock? a. Maintenance. b. Growth. c. Work. d. Lactation.

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206 6. Which of the following animals would a producer feed high-energy concentrates? a. Milking cows. b. Replacement heifers. c. Laying hens. d. Feeder pigs. 7. In the above question, why would the produc er feed the high-energy concentrate? a. Lactation. b. Work. c. Growth. d. Reproduction. 8. For a riding mare (female horse) that is in gestation, which of the following would be an appropriate mix of feedstuffs? a. Roughages, protein concentrate, vitamin supplements, and energy concentrate. b. Roughages only. c. Concentrates only. d. Roughages, vitamin supplements, and fiber. 9. Which of the following feedstuffs woul d contain the highest energy content? a. Nonlegume roughages. b. Concentrates. c. Supplements. 10. Why would a producer feed dairy co ws a ration containing roughages, concentrates, and supplements? a. Roughages for fiber, concentrates for lactation, and supplements for calcium and phosphorus. b. Roughages for nitrogen, concentrates for work, and supplements for protein. c. Roughages for energy, concentrates for protein, and supplements for nitrogen. d. Roughages for lactation, concentrat es for reproduction, and protein supplements. 11. Which of the following types of lives tock should be feed free-choice? a. Draft horses. b. Feeder steers. c. Over-weight heifers. d. None of the above. Part Five: Comprehension Instructions. Read the following passage a bout animal nutrition. After reading the passage, create a concept map. (28 points possible). Use a piece of notebook paper upon which to construct your concept map.

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207 NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS A nutrient is any substance re quired for life. Animals n eed six types of nutrients: water, protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals. Some scientists include a seventhair. Nutrient needs vary based on the ty pe and size of animal, as well as the life stage they are in. For example, a lacta ting cow (producing milk to feed her young) requires more feed. Water may be obtained from drinking and from the feed given animals. Water is the major portion in cells and he lps transport other nutrients. Protein is the building material It is needed for the growth of muscles, tissues, and bones, Protein also helps repair damage or inju ry to cells. Protein is important for weight gain, growth, and reproduction. Carbohydrates may be simple or complex. They provide energy for all animals. Carbohydrates should make up about 75 percent of an animals diet. Carbohydrates also provide fiber, which helps the digestive syst em run more smoothly. Ruminants can digest this fiber; nonruminants cannot. Fats, also called lipids, ar e part of animal cells. They provide energy and carry some vitamins. They also help form certain chemicals used in body functions. Vitamins are nutrients required in ve ry small amounts for specific functions. Sixteen known vitamins are required. These include vitamins A, D, E, K and the Bcomplex. Ruminants can produce some vitamins within the rumen. Minerals are chemical elements required by the skeletal system. Other systems also require minerals. The minerals needed in the largest amounts are calcium and phosphorus.

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208 TM: 06.06.A Functions of Feed Lactation Work Reproduction Growth Maintenance

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209 Lesson 06.08 Understanding Animal Reproduction Intended Outcome: 06.0: Describe the principles of plant a nd/or animal nutrient growth and reproduction. SPS: 06.08: Describe the proce ss of animal reproduction. Sunshine State Standard(s): LAA 1.4, 2.4; LAB 1.4, 2.4; LAC 1.4, 2.4, 3.4; LAD 1.4, 2.4; LAE 1.4, 2.4; MAA 1.4, 2.4, 3.4, 4.4; MAB 1.4; MAE 1.4, 2.4, 3.4; SCF 1.4, 2.4; SCH 1.4, 3.4 Student Learning Objectives. Instruction in th is lesson should result in students achieving the following objectives: 1. Describe the importance and pr ocess of animal reproduction. 2. List the sexual classification of animals for major species. 3. List the parts and explain the functions of female and male reproductive systems. 4. List and describe the phas es of the estrous cycle. 5. Explain the reproductive development of animals. List of Resources. The following resources may be useful in teaching this lesson: Recommended Resources. One of the follo wing resources should be selected to accompany the lesson: Cooper, E. L., & Burton, L. D. (2004). Agriscience fundamentals & applications. Boston: Delmar Publishers. Herren, R. V. (1997). The science of agri culture: A biologica l approach. Boston: Delmar Publishers. Lee, J. S., Hutter, J., Rudd, R., Westrom, L., Patrick, A. R., & Bull, A. M. (2004). Introduction to Livestock and Companion An imals, 3rd Edition. Danville, Illinois: Interstate Publishers, Inc. (Chapter 3) Lee, J. S., & Turner, D. L. AgriScien ce, 3rd Edition. Danville, IL: Interstate Publishers, Inc., 2003. (Chapter 14) Other Resources. The following resources wi ll be useful to students and teachers: Baker, M., & Mikesell, R. E. Animal Science Biology and Technology. Danville, IL: Interstate Publishers, Inc., 1996. Gillespie, J. R. Animal Science. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers, 1998. Taylor, R. E. Scientific Farm Animal Production, 5th Edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1995. List of Equipment, Tools, Supplies, and Facilities Textbook for each student Writing surface Overhead projector Transparencies from attached masters

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210 Terms. The following terms are presented in this lesson (shown in bold italics): Anestrus Artificial insemination Castration Cervix Copulation Diestrus Egg Ejaculation Estrous cycle Estrus Fertilization Gestation Heat Insemination Lactation Libido Metestrus Natural insemination Neutering Ovary Oviduct Parturition Penis Proestrus Prostate gland Puberty Reproduction Scrotum Semen Seminal glands Seminal vesicles Sexual classification Sexual reproduction Sperm Sperm ducts Steer Testicles Uterus Urethra Vagina Vulva Interest Approach. Use an interest approach that will prepare the students for the lesson. Teachers often develop approaches for thei r unique class and student situations. A possible approach is included here. Ask students to explain how a cattle producer increases the si ze of the herd. Students may name methods such as buying cattle from some one else or breeding the cattle that are owned. Have students assess which alternative would be used if m oney was not available to buy animals. Ask students to relate exam ples of animal reproduction on farms, with companion animals, or with laboratory or exotic species. Move from the interest approach into the objectives of the lesson and its content. Summary of Content and Teaching Strategies Objective 1: Describe the importance and process of animal reproduction. Anticipated Problem: Why is re production important? What is the process of animal reproduction? Reading: Agriscience 368-371 Agriscience fundamentals & applications 539-540, 547-550 Introduction to livestock and companion animals 113-117 The science of agriculture: A biological approach 219-222 I. Reproduction is the process by which animals produce offspring. A. Offspring are the same species and have traits of their parents. a. Parents are selected and mated to ach ieve certain goals with offspring. Examples of goals include produc ing offspring with high milk productivity or meaty carcasses. b. Reproduction results in new animals that are raised for the products they produce. Examples of products include meat, eggs, milk, and wool.

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211 B. Most animals are produced with sexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction is the union of a sperm and an e gg. Two parents are required. 1. Sperm is the sex cell of male animal s. They are produced in the testes. 2. The egg or ovum is the sex cell of fema le animals. They are produced in the ovaries. C. Fertilization is the process by which the uni on of a sperm and an egg occurs. It is also known as conception. 1. The union of the sperm with the egg occurs in the reproductive tract of the female. The process of placing sperm in reproductive tract of the female is known as insemination. 2. Natural insemination occurs when a male of a species mates with a female of the same species. Sperm are placed in the female reproductive tract by the male during copulation. Copulation is th e mating process in which sperm are ejaculated from the penis of the male in the vagina of the female. Females must be receptive to males at a tim e in the estrus cycle known as heat. 3. Artificial insemination is used in some situations, such as with dairy cows. Artificial insemination is placing semen collected from a male in the female reproductive tract using equipment de signed for the purpose. Artificial insemination must be done when the cow is in heat. D. Once an egg has been fertilized, it becomes an embryo that attaches itself to the uterus for nourishment. The female is pregnant. The embryo goes through a time of development and becomes a fetus. The fetus develops to a stage where it is born and can live outs ide the uterus. Have students read appropriate sections in textbooks as homework or during supervised study in class. Use student input to outline the content of the objective on the writing surface or use TM: 06.08.A. Have students keep notes on the major terms and concepts covered in class. Ask students to provide examples of animals that have recently given birth and the number of offspring produced. Objective 2: List the sexual classi fication of animals for major species. Anticipated Problem: What sexual cla ssifications are used for animals? Reading: Agriscience 364 II. Sexual classification is the condition of an animal based on its age and sexual condition. It includes animals that are capab le of reproduction as well as those that are not capable of reproduction. A. An animal can be made incapable of reproduction by removing the ovaries or testes or altering the condition of the reproductive organs so that they are no longer fertile. The animals ar e not capable of conception. 1. Castration is the process of removi ng the testes from a male. It is a management practice used on young male animals. Castration eliminates unwanted breeding. It also promotes growth and development of young animals in more desirable ways with food animal produc tion. Castration may

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212 be done surgically or with other met hods. (Note: Castration is also known as emasculation and gelding.) 2. Neutering is the process of making a female incapa ble of reproduction. It is also known as spaying. The ovaries of the female are removed or other procedures are used to render the fe male incapable of conception. (Note: Neutering can also refer to the castration of males but often refers specifically to females.) B. A number of terms are used to describe th e sexual classification of animals. These terms vary by species, age, and gender. For example, a steer is a male bovine castrated at a young age and before sexua l maturity was reached. Textbooks and references usually have lists of terms for the sexual classification of common species. Have students read appropriate sections in the textbook. Use their input to outline the content of the objective on the writing surface or use TM: 06.08.B. Students can be referred to tables that list sexual classification in textbooks and TM: 06.08.C can be used to list a few examples of sexual classificati on. Have students name examples of animals that are in the different sexual classifications. Objective 3: List the parts and explain the functions of female and male reproductive systems. Anticipated Problem: What are the major parts of female and male reproductive systems? What are the functions of the parts? Reading: Agriscience fundamentals & applications 544-545 Introduction to livestock and companion animals 117-123 The science of agriculture: A biological approach 522-527 III. The reproductive system is the only or gan system that varies among males and females of the same species. A. The reproductive system of the female is designed to produce eggs, make conception possible, and promote devel opment of embryo and fetus until birth. The major parts of the system are: 1. The vulva is the external part of the female reproductive tract. 2. The vagina is the mating organ of the female. It receives semen (sperm cells) from the male and serves as the ca nal through which the fetus moves during birth. 3. The cervix is the entrance to the uterus. 4. The uterus is the organ in wh ich the embryo and fetus develop. 5. The oviduct (also known fallopian tube) is a tube from the ovaries to the uterus. Fertilization usuall y takes place near the u pper end of oviduct. There are two oviductsone for each ovary. 6. The ovary is the organ that produces th e eggs or ova. Eggs pass from the ovary into the oviduct.

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213 B. The reproductive system of the male is designed to produce and store sperm, and to deposit them in the reproductive tract of the female of th e species. The major parts are: 1. The penis is the male reproductive organ that deposits semen in the reproductive tract of the female. Semen is a fluid containing sperm secreted by the seminal and prostate glands. Se men is expelled by a process known as ejaculation. Sexual stimulat ion during the mating process is needed for ejaculation to occur. 2. The urethra is the tube that extends through the penis from the urinary bladder. 3. The seminal glands produce fluids th at promote the production of viable sperm. 4. The seminal vesicles are organs attach ed to the urethra and produce a fluid that nourishes sperm. 5. The prostate gland is an organ loca ted around a section of the urethra and produces a fluid that becomes part of the semen. 6. The sperm ducts are tubes that connect the urethra with th e testicles. They carry sperm from the testicles and mix with fluids to form semen. 7. The testicles are the male organs that produce sperm. They are outside the body cavity and carried in the scrotum. 8. The scrotum is a pouch-like skin structur e that holds the te sticles outside the body. The temperature in the scrotum is sl ightly lower than that of the body. This promotes sperm production. C. The female and male reproductive syst ems are designed to assure efficient reproduction processes. This is needed in animal production systems where animals are produced and used for specific purposes. Have students read appropria te sections in the textbook as homework or during supervised study. Involve students in deve loping a summary of the content for the objective on the writing surface. Another approach is to sketch and label the parts of the female and male reproductive systems on th e writing surface or use TM: 06.08.D and TM: 06.08.E. In some cases, reproductive tr acts may be obtained from slaughter houses for student examination. Caution: Be sure to follow all safety rules with any animal tissues used in the classroom. Objective 4: List and describe th e phases of the estrous cycle. Anticipated Problem: What are the phases of the estrous cycle? How are these related to reproduction? Reading: Agriscience 370-372 Agriscience fundamentals & applications 544-545 Introduction to livestock and companion animals 124-125 IV. The estrous cycle is the phases in the repr oductive cycle between periods of estrus. These are the phases of reproduc tive readiness in the repr oductive system of a mature

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214 female. The cycle does not occur during pregnancy nor when a female is in anestrus. Anestrus is the absence of cycling. It may occur due to disease, not being of reproductive age, or other conditions. A. The estrous cycle is comprised of four phases. The phases occur in a definite sequence unless the female is pregnant. (T he sequence listed here is the sequence of occurrence.) 1. Estrus is the phase when a female is in heat. The animal is receptive to mating and will stand for copulation with a male. Females exhibit signs of heat. An enlarged vulva and a discharge from it are signs. Some females exhibit behaviors indicating readiness for mati ng such as when a cow mounts another cow in the mating position. 2. Metestrus is the phase following heat. Ovulation occurs during metestrus as do other processes that help maintain a pregnancy should conception occur. 3. Diestrus is the phase in the estrou s cycle when the reproductive system assumes that conception has occurred, ev en if it has not. Diestrus is several days long depending on the species of animal. 4. Proestrus is the period following diestrus in which preparation is being made by the reproductive system for the next heat period and ovulation. If conception has occurred, the estrous cycle ceases until it is renewed after gestation and parturition. B. Animal producers can be more efficien t in animal reproductive management if they know the phases of estrous. Carefu l observation by a trained producer and records on reproductive cycles will promot e breeding to assure the production of young animals at the best time. For exampl e, cattle producers often breed cows to assure calving in the spring when past ure grasses are beginning to grow. This allows a cow to produce maximum milk fo r the nutrition and gr owth of the calf. Have students read appropriate sections in the textbook. Develop the information on the writing surface using student input. TM: 06.08.F can be used to present a summary of the information. If appropriate, have students observe a female hog (or other species that exhibits visible signs) that is in heat and compare the signs w ith those of a female that is not in heat. Have an artificial insemination t echnician serve as a resource person in class and describe the signs used to know the time to artificially inseminate a female. Objective 5: Explain the reproduc tive development of animals. Anticipated Problem: What are the phases in the reproductive development of animals? Reading: Agriscience 372-373 Agriscience fundamentals & applications 544-545 Introduction to livestock and companion animals 125-128 V. Animals of a species begin lif e as either a male or female. Their development as a member of their species includes repr oductive development for their gender. A. Reproductive development follows fairly definite stages and processes.

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215 1. Prepuberty is the stage of life of a young animal before it is capable of reproduction. Sufficient development has not been reached for an animal to reproduce. 2. Puberty is the stage when an animal reaches a level of sexual development where it is capable of reproduction. Pubert y occurs in both males and females. With females, the estrous cycle results in the release of mature eggs that can support the mating, conception, and gesta tion processes. With males, the animal is capable of producing viable sperm. Age of puberty varies with animal species and other conditions su ch as nutrition and health condition. Examples of when puberty is reached are: cattle 8 months, sheep 5 months, swine 4 months, and horses 12 months. 3. Gestation is the period when a female is pregnant. The length of gestation varies with species though it tends to be consistent among members of the same species. For example, the gesta tion period is 114 days for sows and 337 days for a mare. The animal gives birth at the end of gestation. 4. Parturition is the process of giving bi rth. Hormones are produced to support the birth process and prepare for lactation. 5. Lactation is the secretion of milk by th e mammary glands of a female. It is initiated by hormone activity. Lactati on lasts for several months following parturition. B. Mating behavior is a part of reproductiv e development. Both males and females of a species exhibit mating behavior. With males, this includes libido (desire to mate) and social status within a herd. W ith females, receptivity to mating occurs during heat. Have students read appropria te sections in the text book. Follow reading by having students participate in summa rizing the content on the writing surface. TM: 06.08.G can be used to present a summary of the information. Review/Summary. Use the objectives for the lesson as the structure for reviewing and summarizing the content of the lesson. Ha ve students orally explain the content associated with each objective. Assess ad equacy of their resp onses and reteach the content of any objective as needed. Activi ties that may support summary and review include making a field trip to observe the ar tificial insemination of an animal, observing the birth of an animal, and assessing the qual ity of semen used in artificial insemination. Application. Application can occur as st udents produce animals in their supervised experience or later in their ca reers. In some cases, school laboratories may have animals where students can apply information on animal reproduction. Evaluation. Evaluation should be based on mastery of the objectives by the students. This can occur during instruction, re view, or later as students ap ply the information. A written test can also be used. A sample written test is attached to the lesson plan.

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216 Answers to Assessment: Part One: Matching 1=i, 2=f, 3=a, 4=b, 5=d, 6=c, 7=e, 8=j, 9=h, 10=g Part Two: Completion 1=Gestation, 2=Lactation, 3= Estrus, 4=steer, 5=Semen Part Three: Short Answer 1. The paragraph should include mating and the process of fertilization. The major organs of males and females that produce sex cells can be included. The pregnancy, gestation, and parturition should be included. 2. Efficient reproduction is important because animal producers want more animals. Part Four: Multiple Choice 1 = c, 2 = a, 3 = b, 4 = b, 5 = d, 6 = a, 7 = b, 8 = c, 9 = c, 10 = d, 11 = b, 12 = a, 13 = d, 14 = b, 15 = b Part Five: Comprehension Grading rubric. Criteria 5 pts. 3 pts. 0 pts. Topic sentence Clear, concise topic sentence. Topic sentences, but does not describe summary. No topic sentence. Organization Organized. Encompasses key concepts (breeding, artificial insemination, purebred, hybrid) Some organization. Does not relate all four key concepts. Little or no organization. No mention of key concepts. Collapsed lists and paragraphs Collapsed information into concise sentences. No mention of examples. Lack of concise sentences. One or two examples provided. Failed to collapse information. Three or more examples provided. Eliminated unnecessary detail Unnecessary detail eliminated. Some unnecessary detail remaining. Excess unnecessary detail remaining. Key points Key points clearly delineated. Mentions key points, but does not delineate. No key points identified. Total Points 25

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217 Assessment Name_____________________________________ Lesson 06.08: Understanding Animal Reproduction Part One: Matching Instructions. Match the term with the correct response. Write the letter of the term by the definition. (1 point/question). a. sexual reproduction f. estrous cycle b. fertilization g. ovary c. sperm h. testicle d. egg i. puberty e. castrate j. parturition _______ 1. The stage at which an animal becomes capable of reproduction. _______ 2. The time between the periods of estrus. _______ 3. Reproduction that involves the union of an egg and sperm. _______ 4. The process by which union of an egg and sperm occurs. _______ 5. The female sex cell. _______ 6. The male sex cell. _______ 7. To remove the testicles from a male. _______ 8. The process of giving birth. _______ 9. The male organ that produces sperm. _______ 10. The female organ that produces eggs. Part Two: Completion Instructions. Provide the word or words to complete the following statements. (1 point/question). 1. _________________________ is the period when a female is pregnant. 2. _________________________ is the secretion of milk by the mammary glands of a female mammal. 3. _________________________ is the period when a female is in heat and receptive to breeding. 4. A _______________________ is a male bovine that ha s been castrated at a young age. 5. _________________________ is the fluid produced by males that contains sperm. Part Three: Short Answer Instructions. Provide information to answer the following questions. (5 points/question). 1. Write a paragraph that describes th e reproductive process in mammals. 2. Why is efficient reproduction important to animal producers?

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218 Part Four: Multiple Choice Instructions. Select the best answer for the following questions. (1 point/question). 1. What is the difference between reproduction and fertilization? a. Reproduction is the union of the sper m and egg, while fertilization refers to producing offspring. b. Reproduction is the process of a male mating with a female of the same species, while fertilization is the when a producer places the semen from the male in the female reproductive tract with specialized equipment. c. Fertilization is the union of the sp erm and egg, while reproduction refers to producing offspring. d. Fertilization is the process of a male mating with a female of the same species, while reproduction is the when a producer places the semen from the male in the female reproductive tract with specialized equipment. 2. For livestock, fertilization can be broke n down into which two different methods? a. Natural insemination and artificial insemination. b. Reproduction and breeding. c. Fertilization and circulation. d. Heat and copulation. 3. Both of the methods of livestock fert ilization mentioned in question #2 involve which of the following female characteristics? a. Circulation. b. Heat. c. Semen production. d. None of the above. 4. What happens once an egg has been fertilized? a. The egg moves through the oviduct wher e the embryo and fetus develop. b. The egg moves through the oviduct to the uterus where the embryo and fetus develop. c. The egg moves through the ovary where the embryo and fetus develop. d. None of the above. 5. Which of the following organs is part of the female reproductive system? a. Urethra. b. Seminal glands. c. Testicles. d. Cervix. 6. Which of the following organs is not part of the male reproductive system? a. Vulva. b. Prostrate gland. c. Sperm ducts. d. Seminal glands.

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219 7. When a producer uses artificial inseminati on to breed livestock, where does he or she insert the sperm? a. Oviduct. b. Vagina. c. Fallopian tubes. d. None of the above. 8. After fertilization, an em bryo develops in the _______________. a. Vulva. b. Cervix. c. Uterus. d. Oviduct. 9. The vulva, vagina, and uterus are all parts of the _________________. a. Circulatory system. b. Male reproductive system. c. Female reproductive system. d. None of the above. 10. Why are the testicles held outside of the body cavity? a. There is not enough room in the body cavity. b. Sperm have less distance to travel to the penis. c. To ease castration. d. To lower the temperature of the testicles. 11. For which of the following animal w ould the reproductive system be made irrelevant? a. Heifers. b. Barrows. c. Roosters. d. Mares. 12. An unbred heifer is in which reproductive period in her life? a. Puberty. b. Gestation. c. Parturition. d. Lactation. 13. A dairy cow that is being milked daily is in what reproductive period of her life? a. Puberty. b. Gestation. c. Parturition. d. Lactation.

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220 14. A pregnant sow is in what re productive period of her life? a. Puberty. b. Gestation. c. Parturition. d. Lactation. 15. Which of the following reproductive periods have a definite length of time, depending upon the species? a. Puberty. b. Gestation. c. Parturition. d. Lactation. Part Five: Comprehension Instructions. Read the following passage a bout animal nutrition. After reading the passage, develop a summary of the following information. (25 points possible). You may use the back of this pa ge to write your summary. BREEDING Breeding is helping animals reproduce. Anim al scientists do this by controlling male and female animals. They may be kept in separate pens or pastures. Hormones are sometimes used to enhance fertility. Animal producers may use artificial inse mination. This is using implements to place sperms in the female mechanically. In this case, the sperms are collected from the male beforehand as semen. The semen may be fr ozen if it is to be kept for an extended period. One advantage to artifici al insemination is that an animal can be bred to a highquality mate from anywhere in the world w ithout moving the animals. In addition, more offspring may be obtained from each male. Over time, animal species have been bred for specific qualities. This has led to breeds, which are groups of an imals with consistent and di stinctive traits. Breed names often come from the region of the wo rld where the breed was developed.

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221 A purebred animal has two parents with the same set of distinctive characteristics. The animal has a documented pedigree, which is a certificate proving its parentage. The pedigree is obtained from a registering agency for a fee. A hybrid animal has parents with differen t characteristics. In some cases, this results in hybrid vigor. This means that offs pring have the best qualities of both parents.

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222 TM: 06.08.A Animal Reproduction Reproductionthe process by wh ich offspring are produced Sexual reproductionthe union of a sperm and egg Spermmale sex cell Eggfemale sex cell (also know as ovum) Fertilizationprocess by whic h sexual reproduction occurs Natural inseminationmale of species depos its semen in the reproductive tract of a female

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223 TM: 06.08.B Animal Sexual Classification Sexual classificationcondition of an animal based on its age and sexual condition Castrateremove testes (testicles) from a male Neuterremove ovaries from a female

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224 TM: 06.08.C Sexual Classification of Selected Animals Mature Species Young Animal1 Female Male Castrated Male Cattle Calf Cow Bull Steer Hog Pig Sow Boar Barrow Sheep Lamb Ewe Ram Wether Goat Kid Doe Buck Wether Chicken Chick Hen Rooster Capon Horse Male Female Foal Colt Filly Mare Stallion Gelding 1Young animal of either sex, except horses as indicated.

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225 TM: 06.08.D Reproductive System of a Cow Artwork supplied with permission of Interstate Publishers, Inc.

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226 TM: 06.08.E Reproductive System of a Bull Artwork supplied with permission of Interstate Publishers, Inc.

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227 TM: 06.08.F The Estrous Cycle Estrous cyclethe phases in the reproductive cycle from one estrus period (heat) to the next Estrusthe phase when a female is receptive to matingheat Metestrusthe phase following heat wh en ovulation occurs and uterus is prepared for a pregnancy should conception occur Diestrusestrous cycle phase be tween metestrus and proestrus Proestrusphase following diestrus in whic h reproductive system is prepared for next estrus

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228 TM: 06.08.G Reproductive Development of Animals Prepubertystage of life of a young animal before it is capable of reproduction Pubertystage when an animal is capable of reproduction Gestationperiod when a female is pregnant Parturitionprocess of giving birth Lactationsecretion of milk by mammary glands

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229 APPENDIX D LESSON PLANS: TREATMENT GROUP Lesson 06.07 Determining the Anatomy and Physiology of Animals Intended Outcome: 06.0: Describe the principles of plant a nd/or animal nutrient growth and reproduction. SPS: 06.07: Identify and describe the anatomical systems of animals and the functions of each including major portions. Sunshine State Standard(s): LAA 1.4, 2.4; LAB 1.4, 2.4; LAC 1.4, 2.4, 3.4; LAD 1.4, 2.4; LAE 1.4, 2.4; SCA 1.4, 2.4; SCB 1.4, 2.4; SCF 1.4, 2.4 Student Learning Objectives. Instruction in th is lesson should result in students achieving the following objectives: 1. Explain the meaning of anatomy and physiology. 2. Explain the role of cell sp ecialization in organisms. 3. Describe the importance of anatom y and physiology in animal production. 4. List the organ systems of mammals and de scribe the functions, major parts, and locations of each. 5. Identify the external part s of selected animals. List of Resources. The following resources may be useful in teaching this lesson: Recommended Resources. One of the follo wing resources should be selected to accompany the lesson: Cooper, E. L., & Burton, L. D. (2004). Agriscience fundamentals & applications. Boston: Delmar Publishers. Herren, R. V. (1997). The science of agri culture: A biologica l approach. Boston: Delmar Publishers. Lee, J. S., Hutter, J., Rudd, R., Westrom, L., Patrick, A. R., & Bull, A. M. (2004). Introduction to Livestock and Companion An imals, 3rd Edition. Danville, Illinois: Interstate Publishers, Inc. (Chapter 3) Lee, J. S., & Turner, D. L. AgriScien ce, 3rd Edition. Danville, IL: Interstate Publishers, Inc., 2003. (Textbook, Chapter 12) Other Resources. The following resources wi ll be useful to students and teachers: Baker, M., & Mikesell, R. E. Animal Science Biology and Technology. Danville, IL: Interstate Publishers, Inc., 1996. Gillespie, J. R. Animal Science. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers, 1998. Morgan, E. M., et al. AgriScience Ex plorations, Second Edition. Danville, IL: Interstate Publishers, Inc., 2000.

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230 Taylor, R. E. Scientific Farm Animal Production, 5th Edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1995. List of Equipment, Tools, Supplies, and Facilities Textbook for student use Writing surface Overhead projector Transparencies from attached masters Copies of student lab sheets Terms. The following terms are presented in this lesson (shown in bold italics): Anatomy Animal well-being Cell Cell specialization Circulatory system Digestion Digestive system Excretion Excretory system Gross anatomy Integumentary system Lymph Lymphatic system Mammal Mammary system Microscopic anatomy Muscular system Nervous system Organ Organ system Physiology Respiratory system Reproductive system Skeletal system Tissue Interest Approach. Use an interest approach that will prepare the students for the lesson. Teachers often develop approaches for thei r unique class and student situations. A possible approach is included here: Ask students to describe what functions an animal organism must perform to carry out life processes. List these on the writing surface. Examples include respiration, digestion, and elimination. Next, ask students how organi sms are able to carry out these functions they have body parts or organ systems that ma ke it possible for these functions to occur. Have students name and discuss specific ex amples, such as the mammary system of a dairy cow secretes milk used as food for he r calf as well as for human food. Move from this interest approach into the lesson. Have students read appropriate sections or chapters in the textbooks as homework or during supervis ed study. Students will also need to refer to the figures with line drawi ngs of anatomical features. Pre-Reading Strategies Please select one of the following Pre-Readi ng strategies to use to activate student background knowledge prior to reading. K-W-L Procedure: 1. Create three columns on the chalkboard, la beling the columns with what we know, what we want to know, and what we learne d, or utilize an overhead with the K-WL chart. a. Students should individually fill out a K-W-L chart on their own. b. Use RS: 06.07.A for the handout.

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231 2. Ask/Brainstorm with students about what they know related to animal anatomy and physiology or the text that you are about to study. You may need to prompt students with pictures questions, or ideas. 3. Ask students what they want to know about animal anatomy and physiology. Again, students may need prompting. For example, you may want to phrase questions in a problem-solving approach. 4. Instruct students to read the assigned text. a. As students read the text, they shoul d fill in the third column, what we learned. b. Students can add questions to the what we want to learn column as they read. c. A further development of K-W-L would be to assign and name categories for the information that students generated in the what we learned column. From the categories, students can create a concept map of animal anatomy and physiology. 5. As a summary, you can conduct a class disc ussion to generate consensus about what was learned. a. Students can also categorize the informa tion that they learned into a graphic organizer to further their engageme nt with the material and learning. b. Students could create a summary of the passage. Making Predictions A-Z Procedure: 1. The teacher selects the text passage and 3-7 letters for which students will make word predictions. a. Letters chosen should be th e first letters of key wo rds that will likely be found in the text b. Recommended letter choices for this lesson are D-E-F, M-N-O, and P-Q-R. c. Use RS: 06.07.B for the handout. 2. The teacher should read aloud th e title of the passage and/ or relevant sub-headings and conduct a brief discussion about the content of the passage. 3. Pass out the Making Predictions A-Z worksheet. a. Write the pre-selected letters for pred ictions on the chalkboard. (These are the letters for which students will generate words related to the topic and make predictions about the reading). 4. Students list words beginning with the preselected letters and form predictions about what they will encounter in the text passage. a. Students may be paired with a partne r to share their predicted words. b. After sharing the words, student pairs should generate pred ictions about the text. 5. From the words and predictions, conduct a whole-class discussi on about the topic. 6. Instruct the students to read the text. a. While reading students should continue to add relevant words to their Making Predictions A-Z worksheet. b. These words may be used to create a graphic organizer a nd/or summary of what they learned.

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232 Summary of Content and Teaching Strategies Objective 1: Explain the mean ing of anatomy and physiology. Anticipated Problem: What is the m eaning of anatomy and physiology? Reading: Agriscience 294 Agriscience fundamentals & applications 505-511 Introduction to livestock and companion animals 36-39 I. Animals are complex organisms with systems and processes that allow them to carry out activities to remain in the living condition. A. Anatomy is the study of the form, shape, and appearance of an animal. Since mammals are among the most common animals, most of the information on anatomy will focus on these animals. 1. Gross anatomy deals with the features that can be seen with the unaided eye. Examples include feet, hor ns, tails, tongues, and teeth. 2. Microscopic anatomy deals with the f eatures that can only be seen with magnification. Examples include cells and sperm. B. Physiology is the study of the functions of the cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems of the living organism. 1. Physiology includes relationships among functions by different systems of an organism, such as secretion to digestion. 2. Diseases can cause the systems to fail to work properly. Have students read sections in the text book related to this objective. Organize information on the writing surface using st udent input. Have students keep notes on important issues covered in class. Use TM: 06.07.A or the writing surface to present a definition of the key terms. Have students gi ve examples of anatomy and physiology in animals that they have as companions or for production. Objective 2: Explain th e role of cell specialization in organisms. Anticipated Problem: What is cell sp ecialization? Why is it important? Reading: Introduction to livestock and companion animals 33-35 The science of agriculture: A biological approach 56-68 During Reading Strategies Classification Map Procedure: 1. Introduce the concept of cell sp ecialization to students. 2. Ask students to brainstorm words related to cell specialization. Record the words on the chalkboard. a. Use RS: 06.07.C for the handout.

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233 b. Extend the discussion around words that suggest larger re lated categories. c. Allow students a few minutes to cate gorize the words under more general headings. 3. Instruct students to survey the passage, looking for textual hints in the headings and titles that suggest key concepts. 4. Instruct students to read the assigned passage. a. As students read they sh ould refine their categori es by adding information and strengthening concept lines. b. Students may use their maps during cl assroom discussion or for creating a summary of information. II. Cells are the building blocks of organisms. A cell is the basic structure of life. Cells have important structures that allow them to function. Protoplasm within a cell carries out important chemical activities. Multi-c ellular organisms have many cells. These cells form specialized systems to carry out life processes. A. Cell specialization is different in each cell in order to perform unique activities for an organism. Organisms could not exist if all cells were alike. 1. A tissue is a group of cells th at is alike in activity a nd structure. The functions tend to be specialized such as those in muscles or bones. 2. An organ is a group of tissues that work together to perform specific functions. Each tissues job varies, but by working together the organ carries out its function. Examples of organs include the heart, lungs, and liver. 3. An organ system is a collection of se veral organs that work together to perform an activity. Two examples are the respiratory system and digestive system. B. Cell specialization is important because it makes multi-cellular organisms possible. Without specialization, all cells would be alike. Tissues, organs, and organ systems would not exist. Life pr ocesses in multi-cellular organisms would not occur. Have students read the appropriate sections in the textbook. Use stude nt input to outline the major content on the writing surface or use TM: 06.07.B. Ask students to name examples of tissues, organs, and organ systems. Objective 3: Describe the importance of anatomy and phys iology in anim al production. Anticipated Problem: What is the importanc e of anatomy and physiology in animal production? Reading: Agriscience fundamentals & applications 505-511 During Reading Strategies Think-Aloud Procedure: 1. Select a passage that contains points of difficulty, ambiguities, or unknown words.

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234 2. Preview the passage and imagine that you are reading it for the first time as a good reader would. a. Make notes and comments of your thoughts for the students. b. Use RS: 06.07.D for a guide. 3. Read the passage aloud, telling students to follow along silently and listen to how you construct meaning and think through trouble spots. a. Develop hypotheses. b. Make predictions. c. Describe any pictures forming in your head. d. Link new information with prior knowledge. e. Share an analogy. f. Verbalize confusing points. g. Demonstrate fix-up strategies (reread ing, thinking about a word, etc.). 4. Select a logical stopping poi nt and have students use your model to continue reading. 5. Have students practice thi nking aloud with partners. III. People who care for animals need to unde rstand the fundamentals of anatomy and physiology. A. Practicing the correct nature of anatomy and physiology of an organism promotes animal well-being. Animal well-being is car ing for animals so that their needs are met and they do not suffer. Conditions fo r raising and keepin g animals must be considered for their well-being. 1. Species have different environmenta l requirements. Animal producers are more effective in meeting these requirements when they know the unique anatomy and physiology of a species. For example, some breeds of cattle are more resistant to extreme temperatures than others. Producing a breed outside its preferred temperature range means that steps need to be taken to provide shade to protect from the heat or housing to protect from the cold. 2. The design of facilities can accommoda te the unique anatomy needs of organisms. The size, shape, and form influences facility arrangement and design. For example, keeping dairy cat tle housing clean re quires a way to handle animal wastes, incl uding feces and urine. Facility design can help collect and remove wastes from the area. 3. Young animals require different care than older animals. Feed for young animals should be appropriate to its di gestive system and nutrient needs. For example, young animals typically require feed with a higher percentage of protein than older animals. B. Animal productivity is based on animal capacity. 1. Meat animals are required to have muscli ng in areas that are used to make the higher-priced cuts. Examples incl ude the loin and hams of hogs. 2. Dairy animals need to have the capacity for high milk production. For example, a dairy cow needs a well-developed mammary system. 3. Animals used for other products are requi red to have the capacity to produce those products, including egg-laying capaci ty of chickens and wool quality of sheep.

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235 4. Knowing how animals reproduce helps a producer provide conditions that promote reproduction. Ask students to indicate why they feel knowledge of anatomy and physiology is important to animal producers. Have stude nts tell the importance for the production of farm animals as well as the keeping of companion animals in the home. Have students relate animal well-being to having a knowledge of the needs of an animal. Students can name examples in the local area where animal well-being is practiced properly and where it is ignored so that the anim als are not in a good situation. Outline the major areas on the writing surface or use TM: 06.07.C. Objective 4: List the organ sy stems of mammals and describe the functions, major parts, and locations of each. Anticipated Problem: What are the organ sy stems of mammals? What are the functions, major parts, and locations of each? Reading: Agriscience 297-312 Agriscience fundamentals & applications 505-511 Introduction to livestock and companion animals 185-216 The science of agriculture: A biological approach 40-54 During Reading Strategies Please select one of the following During Readin g strategies to use with this objective. Concept Map Procedure: 1. Display a blank concept/definition map on the overhead or PowerPoint (use RS: 06.07.E). a. Point out the questions that complete a definition of the conc ept: what is it like?, what are some examples/nonexamples?, what are characteristics?, and what is it?. b. Model the strategy by using a concept for which students are familiar, for example, you may use cheese. 2. Present a key term or concept (organ systems) from the text. 3. Student may work individually or in pa irs to complete the concept/definition map for the new concept. a. When students have finished their map, they should develop their own definition of the concept using their maps. b. The definition may include several se ntences to encompass the scope of the concept. 4. You may want to develop a class defi nition of the concept for assessment purposes.

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236 Matrices Procedure: 1. Examine text to determine categories for the left-hand column and variables for the top row. 2. Fill in some cells as a model for students as you read aloud. a. Use RS: 06.07.F for the handout. b. Find evidence in the text or c ourse to support your entries. 3. Instruct students to finish the matrix on their own or in pairs. 4. Ask students to analyze their matrix to de termine trends, patterns, or conclusions. a. This may generate discussion among the class. b. Instruct students to write a conc ise conclusion based on their matrix. III. A mammal is a vertebrate animal that is us ually covered with ha ir. The females give birth to live young and secrete milk as food for their babies. Cattle, hogs, sheep, horses, dogs, cats, and many other comm on animals are mammals. Each mammal species has unique organ systems that pr omote the life processes of the species. A. Mammal species are said to have eleven organ systems. Some variation may exist, with the greatest being the presen ce of mammary glands on females. 1. The skeletal system is the framew ork that gives shape to the body. The skeleton is comprised of bones and cartila ge. The skeletal system protects the delicate internal organs and makes locomotion possible. 2. The muscular system is the system that makes movement and locomotion possible. Muscles form nearly half the weight of many animals such as hogs and cattle. Without muscles, other orga n systems would not function such as the respiratory and circulatory system s. Locomotion would not be possible. 3. The nervous system is the system that coordinates body activity. It receives and responds to stimuli. It controls activity, learning, and memory. 4. The circulatory system is the system that moves blood, digested food, oxygen, wastes, and other materials around the body of an organism. It includes the organs that move the blood. The h eart moves the blood throughout the body. It goes by the lungs to gain oxygen a nd give off carbon dioxide acquired from cell respiration. 5. The respiratory system is the system that moves gases to and from the circulatory system. The purpose is to provide the blood with oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from the blood. 6. The excretory system is the system that rids the body of wastes from cell activity (known as metabo lic wastes). The process of ridding the body of these wastes is known as excretion. Though associated with the elimination of undigested food, the excretory system is not the digestive system. The major products excreted are carbon dioxide water, and nitrogen compounds. 7. The digestive system is the system that prepares food for use by the body. Digestion is the process of breaking dow n food materials into molecules that the body can absorb. The system varies depending on the species of organism. Some organisms, such as cattle, ha ve digestive systems that will handle considerable roughage. Other organisms have simple stomachs that require food with higher percentages of pr otein and digestible materials.

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237 8. The lymphatic system is the system that produces and circulates lymph throughout the body. Lymph is a clear fluid that aids in circ ulation, excretion, and other body functions. It also he lps protect the body from disease. 9. The integumentary system is the skin and outer covering of the body of an organism. It protects the in ternal organs, helps regula te temperature, and gives shape to the body. The integumentary sy stem keeps disease pathogens away from the internal organs. 10. The reproductive system is the system that produces offspring and continues the existence of a species. The system varies by gendermale and female. 11. The mammary system is the system in female mammals that secretes milk as food for their babies. Male mammals have undeveloped mammary systems. B. Most animals tend to have the same or gan systems except that mammals have mammary systems that are not found in non-mammals. The reproductive system varies by the gender of the animal. 1. The parts of the organ systems have b een identified and studied by scientists in anatomy and physiology. 2. Drawings have been made that show the location and structure of the major parts of organ systems. These were pr epared by scientists who have studied the anatomy of animals in great detail. Have students read appropriate sections in the textbooks. Use their input to develop a list of the organ systems, their functions, and a summary of the major parts of each organ system on the writing surface. Refer students to information in the textbook as this objective is developed in class. Use TM: 06.07.D to list the major organ systems and their functions. TM: 06.07.E provides a listing of the major parts for each system. Refer students to line drawings of animals that show the layout and correctly name the different parts of systems. Indicate that the systems tend to be similar from one species to the other. Use sketches on writing surface, line drawings in the textbook, and transparencies to show various anatomical features. TM: 06.07.F is an example that shows the circulatory system of a horse. Objective 5: Identify the major ex ternal parts of selected animals Anticipated Problem: What are the ma jor external parts of animals? IV. Animal producers must be able to desc ribe animals and use the information in selecting, examining, and providing health care. The descriptions are based on the external parts of the animals. A. The presence of various qualities in the ex ternal parts indicate s the value, health, and condition of an animal. This means that animal producers not only know the names of the parts but they also know the qualities that should be evident upon visual examination of the parts. Animal scientists have prepared line drawings that show the location an d name of the external parts of common animals. Samples are included in TM: 06.07.G and LS: 06.07.A. B. Qualities vary with the species and the way the species is used. For example, cattle raised for beef have qualities th at vary from those raised for dairy

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238 production. Considerable study is needed to learn the qualities that indicate the desired characteristics of animals. Have students read appropriate sections in the textbook a nd study the figures with line drawings that show the locations and names of the major external parts. Sketches on the writing surface or transparencies may be used to illustrate the external parts (an example is TM: 06.07.G). Practice locati ng and naming the parts is essential for student mastery. Having students observe animal specimens and name the parts is an important strategy in assuring student mastery of the objectives. (N ote: More in-depth instruction will be provided when the various species are studied from a production perspective.) Post-Reading Strategies Please select one of the follo wing Post-Reading strategies to use as a conclusion to the lesson. Cube It! Procedure: 1. The teacher should select the text passage to be read. a. Divide the students into teams of no more than 6 students. b. You will need a die with the six questions (describe it, compare it, associate it, analyze it, apply it, and argue for or against it) listed on the sides. 2. Students should number a sheet of no tebook paper 1-6, skipping 6-8 lines in between each number. a. By each number, students should write a team members name (some team members might have their name liste d twice, depending on the size of the teams). 3. The person whose name is written after number 1 will roll the die first (use RS: 06.07.G as the dice pattern). a. Whatever question it lands on, that person must answer it on notebook paper. b. Be sure to write the die question by your number (example 1. Travis Describe it the answer). 4. Each member will roll the die until all of the six questions have been answered. Remember: each member is responsible fo r one side of the die, and the answer must be in his/her own words and writing. Die Questions and How to Answer: Describe it: What is animal anat omy and physiology about? What is the importance, color, size, shape, etc.? Compare it: What is animal anatomy and physiology similar to or different from? Associate it: What does animal anatomy and physiology make you think of? Analyze it: Tell how animal anatomy a nd physiology is made or what it is composed of. Apply it: What can you do with it? How is it used? Argue for or against it: Take a stand and list reasons supporting its importance.

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239 Summary Use RS: 06.07.H as a guide for writing summaries. Four General Steps to Help with the Four+ Specific Rules for Writing a Summary 1. Make sure you understand the text. Ask your self, What was this text about? What did the writer say? Try to say the general theme to yourself. 2. Look back. Reread the text to make sure you got the theme right. Also read to make sure that you really understand what the important parts of the text are. Star the important points. Now Use the Four Rules for Writing a Summary 3. Rethink. Reread a paragraph of the text. Tr y to say the theme of that paragraph to yourself. Is the theme a topic sentence? Have you underlined it? Or is the topic sentence missing: If it is missing, have you written one in the margin? 4. Check and double-check. Did you leave in any lists? Make sure you dont list things out in your summary. Did you repe at yourself? Make sure you didnt. Did you skip anything? Is all the im portant information in the summary? Four Rules for Writing a Summary 5. Collapse lists. If you see a lis t of things, try to think of a word or phrase name for the whole list. For example, if you saw a list like eyes, ears, neck, arms, and legs, you could say body parts. Or, if you sa w a list like ice skating, skiing, or sledding, you could say winter sports. 6. Use topic sentences. Often authors write a sentence that summarizes a whole paragraph. It is called a topic sentence If the author gives you one, you can use it in your summary. Unfortuna tely, not all paragraphs c ontain topic sentences. That means you may have to make up one for yourself. If you dont see a topic sentence, make up one of your own. 7. Get rid of unnecessary detail. Some te xt information can be repeated in a passage. In other words, the same thi ng can be said in a number of different ways, all in one passage. Ot her text information can be unimportant, or trivial. Since summaries are meant to be short, get rid of repetitive or trivial information. 8. Collapse paragraphs. Paragraphs are often related to one another. Some paragraphs explain one or more other pa ragraphs. Some paragraphs just expand on the information presented in other pa ragraphs. Some paragraphs are more necessary than other paragraphs. Decide which paragraphs should be kept or gotten rid of, and which might be joined together. A Final Suggestion 9. Polish the summary. When a lot of info rmation is reduced from an original passage, the resulting concen trated information often sounds very unnatural. Fix this problem and create a more natu ral-sounding summary. Adjustments may include but are not limited to: paraphra sing, the insertion of connecting words like and or because, and the insertion of introductory or closing statements. Paraphrasing is especially useful here, for two reasons: one, because it improves your ability to remember the material, and two, it avoids using the authors words, otherwise known as plagiarism. (Hare & Borchardt, p. 66, 1984)

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240 Review/Summary. The review and summary should be organized around the objectives for the lesson. Students should be called upon to orally demonstrate their mastery of the objectives. Review will also be a part of future instruction in the production and care of various species. Questions at the end of the chapter in the textbook will also serve a useful role in the review process. Use obser vations of student performance as a basis for reteaching areas where students appear not to have achieved satisfactorily. Application. Application will be achieved throughout the class and other classes as students study animal producti on. The content of this less on is fundamental in those classes. Use LS: 06.07.A to provide students with practice in iden tifying the external parts of an animal. Students will need a textbook or reference that lists the major external parts of a pig for this activity. Evaluation. Evaluation should be based on student achievement of the objectives. Observe student performance during the instruction as well as later in application opportunities. Review of each students note book will also be useful in evaluation. A written test may be given. A sample test is attached. Answers to Assessment: Part One: Matching 1=i, 2=e, 3=a, 4=f, 5=c, 6=d, 7=b, 8=h, 9=j, 10=g Part Two: Completion 1=integumentary, 2= muscular, 3=skelet al, 4=digestive, and 5=circulatory Part Three: Short Answer 1. The answer should address the ability of a pr oducer to provide for the well-being of the animal. The answer should also include animal selection for a particular use. 2. The sketch should be compared to that in a textbook or reference and depends upon the species or breed that is drawn. (Students may be instructed to sketch a pig, bovine, horse, or sheep since those sketches are provided in the textbook.) Part Four: Multiple Choice 1 = d, 2 = b, 3 = a, 4 = c, 5 = b, 6 = b, 7 = d, 8 = a, 9 = d, 10 = b, 11 = b, 12 = a, 13 = b, 14 = c, 15 = d

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241 Part Five: Comprehension Grading rubric. Criteria 5 pts. 3 pts. 0 pts. Topic sentence Clear, concise topic sentence. Topic sentences, but does not describe summary. No topic sentence. Organization Organized. States relationships among cells, tissues, organs, & organ systems. Some organization. Does not relate all four key concepts. Little or no organization. No mention of relationships among ideas. Collapsed lists and paragraphs Collapsed information into concise sentences. No mention of examples. Lack of concise sentences. One or two examples provided. Failed to collapse information. Three or more examples provided. Eliminated unnecessary detail Unnecessary detail eliminated. Some unnecessary detail remaining. Excess unnecessary detail remaining. Key points Key points (cells, tissues, organs, organ systems) clearly delineated. Mentions key points, but does not delineate. No key points identified. Total Points 25

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242 Assessment Name_____________________________________ Lesson 06.07: Determining the Anatomy and Physiology of Animals Part One: Matching Instructions. Match the term with the correct response. Write the letter of the term by the definition. (1 point/question). a. animal well-being f. organ system b. anatomy g. excretion c. physiology h. digestion d. tissue i. lymph e. organ j. mammal _______ 1. A clear fluid that aids circulat ion, excretion, and other body functions. _______ 2. A group of tissues that work toge ther to perform specific functions. _______ 3. Caring for animals so that their needs are met and they do not suffer. _______ 4. A collection of organs that work together to perform a function for an organism. _______ 5. The study of the functions of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems of a living organism. _______ 6. A group of cells that is al ike in activity and structure. _______ 7. The study of the form, shape, and appearance of an animal. _______ 8. Breaking down food into molecules that the body can absorb. _______ 9. A group of animals that are covered w ith hair, and in which the females give birth to live young and secrete m ilk as food for their babies. _______ 10. The process of the body ridding itself of wastes. Part Two: Completion Instructions. Provide the word(s) to complete the following statements. (1 point/question). 1. The __________________ system consists of skin and other body covering. 2. The __________________ system makes body movement possible. 3. The __________________ system provides a framework to give the body shape. 4. The __________________ system prepares food for use by the body. 5. The __________________ system moves blood and other materials throughout the body of an animal. Part Three: Short Answer Instructions. Provide information to answer the following questions. (5 points/question). 1. Why is knowledge of anatomy and physiology important to animal producers? 2. Sketch the external features of an animal and label the major parts.

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243 Part Four: Multiple Choice Instructions. Select the best answer for the following questions. (1 point/question). 1. What is the difference between anatomy and physiology? a. Anatomy refers to the functions of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems, while physiology refers to the study of form, shape, and appearance of an animal. b. Anatomy is the same as physiology. c. Physiology refers to an animals physic al health, while anatomy refers to the animals anatomical features. d. Physiology refers to the functions of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems, while anatomy refers to the study of form, shape, and appearance of an animal. 2. Producers who raise livestock for meat at tempt to maximize which organ system? a. Circulatory. b. Muscular. c. Respiratory. d. None of the above. 3. Which two organ systems would work toge ther in producing a fast racehorse? a. Skeletal and muscular. b. Circulatory and reproductive. c. Nervous and muscular. d. Skeletal and circulatory. 4. When an animal is breathing, which or gan systems are primarily involved? a. Circulatory. b. Skeletal. c. Respiratory. d. Lymphatic. 5. A barrow that goes lame during transporta tion to market experiences damage to which organ systems? a. Lymphatic and/or muscular. b. Muscular and/or skeletal. c. Nervous and/or reproductive. d. Skeletal and/or excretory. 6. A large volume of blood is necessary for high milk production in dairy cows. Which organ system provides this blood to the udder? a. Reproductive. b. Circulatory. c. Muscular. d. Excretory.

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244 7. Ruminants and nonruminants differ in primarily which organ system? a. Integumentary. b. Reproductive. c. Circulatory. d. Digestive. 8. Ruminants can digest what kind of feedst uffs because of the specialized organ system from question 7? a. Roughages. b. Supplements. c. Concentrates. d. None of the above. 9. In meat livestock, muscle definition is a characteristic of which organ system? a. Skeletal. b. Digestive. c. Integumentary. d. Muscular. 10. Body conformation is essential for locomoti on and enabling an animal to feed and reproduce. Which two organ systems doe s conformation primarily refer to? a. Lymphatic and/or muscular. b. Muscular and/or skeletal. c. Nervous and/or reproductive. d. Skeletal and/or excretory. 11. Animals in confined feeding that live on concrete flooring may have difficulty with which two organ systems due to the stress of the concrete? a. Lymphatic and/or muscular. b. Muscular and/or skeletal. c. Nervous and/or reproductive. d. Skeletal and/or excretory. 12. Which of the following represents a tissue? a. Muscle. b. Heart. c. Circulatory. d. Blood. 13. Which of the following represents an organ? a. Muscle. b. Heart. c. Circulatory. d. Blood.

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245 14. Which of the following represents an organ system? a. Muscle. b. Heart. c. Circulatory. d. Blood. 15. Which of the following represents a cell? a. Muscle. b. Heart. c. Circulatory. d. Blood. Part Five: Comprehension Instructions. Read the following passage a bout animal nutrition. After reading the passage, create a summary for the passage. (25 points possible). You may use the back of this page for writing your summary. ANIMAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS Knowing body structures and functions he lps in raising animals. Whether the animal is large or small, similar conditions are needed. All need a good environment for living. All animals have similarities. The structure begins with cellsthe smallest building blocks in an animal. Groups of similar cells form tissues. Tissues form organs. Organs with similar functions form organ system s. The organ systems form the organism. CELLS The cell is the basic building block of life. All living things ar e made up of cells. Plant cells have walls; animal cells have only membranes. The cell provides information and uses energy. Probably the most important part of the cel l is the nucleus. Within the nucleus are genes that contain complete instructions fo r the organism. These genes are important in reproduction and in biotechnology uses. TISSUES

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246 Animals have four kinds of tissue. The four tissues are protective, connective, muscular, and nervous. Tissue is a group of ce lls that do a specific job. Tissues may be protective, like skin. They may be connectiv e, joining various body parts. Another tissue is muscular and aids in m ovement. The nervous tissue resp onds to outside factors and transmits information. ORGANS Organs are groups of similar tissues that wo rk together to form a specific function. Animals have many organs, which typically do not work alone, Examples of organs are the heart, liver, and kidney. Organs form organ systems. The organs wo rk together as a system to do certain activities. Most animals have ten organ syst ems. Without the systems, the animal could not survive. For example, the circulatory system consists of a heart, veins, arteries, and capillaries. Another example is the digestive system. It c onsists of the mouth, stomach, intestines, and other parts.

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247 TM: 06.07.A Anatomy and Physiology of Animals Anatomystudy of the form, shape, and appearance of animals Gross anatomystudy of the anatomy features that can be seen with the unaided eye Microscopic anatomystudy of the anatom y features that require magnification Physiologystudy of the functions of cells, ti ssues, organs, and organ systems of a living organism

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248 TM: 06.07.B Building Blocks Cellbasic structure of a liv ing organism; contains pr otoplasm which carries out important chemical activities Cell specializationdifferences in cells so that they can perform unique activities Tissuea group of cells that are alike in structure and activity Organa group of tissues that work t ogether to perform a specific function Organ systema collection of organs that wo rk together to perfor m a function essential for the living condition

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249 TM: 06.07.C Why Know Anatomy and Physiology? promotes animal well-being Animal well-beingcaring for animals so that their needs are met; animals do not suffer consider environmental needs of animals provide facilities to meet needs provide care based on age and condition consider animal production capacity in selection

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250 TM: 06.07.D Organ Systems and Functions skeletalframework for body muscularmakes movement and locomotion possible nervouscoordinates body activi ties and respond to stimuli circulatorymoves blood a nd its contents in body respiratorymoves gases to and from the circulatory system excretoryrids body of metabolic wastes digestiveprepares food for digestion and eliminates undigested food materials lymphaticproduces and circulates lymph integumentaryprotects and shapes the body exterior reproductiveproduces offspring; varies by gender mammarypresent in female mammals; secretes milk

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251 TM: 06.07.E Major Organ System Parts skeletalbones and cartilage muscularmuscles and connective tissues nervousbrain, spinal cord, and nerves circulatoryheart, arteries, and veins respiratorylungs excretorykidneys, bladder, urethra, and skin digestivemouth, stomach, and intestines lymphaticlymph nodes and lymph vessels integumentaryskin, hooves, claw s, and other exterior parts reproductivevaries by gendertestes in males; ovaries in females mammarymilk glands and udder

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252 TM: 06.07.F Circulatory System of a Horse

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253 TM: 06.07.G Major External Parts of a Bovine (Beef Animal) Artwork supplied with permission of Interstate Publishers, Inc.

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254 LS: 06.07.A Name_____________________________________ Lab Sheet External Parts of a Pig Purpose: The purpose of this activity is to help students master th e external anatomy of a pig. Supplies/Equipment: You will need a textbook or reference book that identifies the major external parts of a pig. Safety: No safety hazards should be involved with this activity. Procedure: Correctly label the twelve num bered external parts of the pig shown below. Write the common name of the part in the space provi ded that matches the number of the part. 1. ___________________ 2. ____________________ 3. ____________________ 4. ___________________ 5. ____________________ 6. ____________________ 7. ___________________ 8. ____________________ 9. ____________________ 10. ___________________ 11. ____________________ 12. ____________________

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255 RS: 06.07.A Name_____________________________________ Animal Physiology K-W-L Know Want to know Learned

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256 RS: 06.07.B Name_____________________________________ Making Predictions A-Z: Animal Physiology A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z I predict that

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257 RS: 06.07.B key Name_____________________________________ Making Predictions A-Z: Animal Physiology A B C Anatomy Animal well-being Cell Cell specialization Circulatory system D E F Digestion Digestive system Excretion Excretory system G H I Gross anatomy Integumentary system J K L Lymph Lymphatic system M N O Mammal Mammary system Microscopic anatomy Muscular system Nervous system Organ Organ system P Q R Physiology Respiratory system Reproductive system S T U Skeletal system Tissue V W X Y Z I predict that

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258 RS: 06.07.C Name_____________________________________ Cell Specialization Classification Map Cell Specialization

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259 RS: 06.07.C key Name_____________________________________ Cell Specialization Classification Map Cell Specialization Cell basic structure of life Tissue group of cells that is alike in activity and structure Muscle Bone Nervous Organ System collection of several organs that work together to perform an activity Circulatory system Skeletal system Nervous system Di g estive s y ste m Organ group of tissues that work together to perform specific functions Heart Lungs Brain Liver

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260 RS: 06.07.D Importance of Anatomy & Physiology Think-Aloud From Agriscience Fundamentals & Applications, pg. 504. The relationship between proper nutrition a nd health has long been recognized. Early sailors stocked th eir sailing vessels with limes when going to sea for long periods. This was to prevent the dreaded disease, scur vy. Scurvy is a disease of the gums and skin caused by a deficiency of vitamin C in the di et. Even today, the effects of poor nutrition are seen in the human problems of anorexia a nd obesity. In simple terms, anorexia is a result of too little nu trition, and obesity the result of too much or improper types of foods being eaten. In animals, proper nutrition is just as important as it is in humans. Feed efficiency, rate of gain, and da ys to market weight are all up permost in the minds of those people who raise livestock for meat. Proper nutrition is just as important for animals What is this relationship ? How long has this been recognized? What is scurvy ? Where do we get vitamin C in our diets? What are some of the effects of p oor nutrition? Ive heard of these terms. Why? What? What? What? How does nutrition affect milk and wool? Id guess anorexia and obesity or something similar in animals, could cost p roducers a lot of mone y .

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261 being grown for milk, wool, or fur producti on. Slow growth, poor reproduction, lowered production, and poor health are ge nerally the result of less-tha n-adequate animal rations. The amount and content of food eaten by an an imal in one day is referred to as the animals ration. When the amount of feed consumed by an animal in 24 hours contains all of the needed nutrients in the proper propor tions and amounts, the ration is referred to as a balanced ration. Numerous diseases may result from im proper amounts or balances of vitamins and minerals. Such diseases are called de ficiency diseases. Vitamins are complex chemicals and minerals are elements esse ntial for normal body functioning of humans and animals alike. Not all types of animals require the same vitamins and minerals to maintain good health. Whats a ration? Do all animals need the same nutrients? What are some of these diseases? Do animals g et scurv y ? What happens when an animal g ets a deficienc y disease? We eat vitamins and minerals dont we? Animals producing milk and wool probably require more and different vitamins and minerals. Rations sound pretty im p ortant.

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262 RS: 06.07.E Name_____________________________________ Organ Systems Concept Map

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263 RS: 06.08.E key Organ Systems Concept Map Organ Systems Muscular System Makes movement Nearly weight of hogs & cattle Skeletal System Framework, gives shape to the body Bones & cartilage Protects internal organs Locomotion Respiratory System Moves gases to & from the circulatory system Provides blood w/ oxygen & removes carbon dioxide Lymphatic System Produces & circulates lymph Protects body from disease Excretory System Rids the body of waste from cell activity Excretes carbon dioxide, water, nitrogen Digestive System Prepares food for use by body Varies by species Compound and simple stomachs Nervous System Coordinates body activity Receives & responds to stimuli Controls activity Circulatory System Moves blood, digested food, oxygen, wastes, & other materials Heart, arteries, veins Integumentary System Skin & outer covering of the body Protects internal organs, regulates temperature, & gives body shape Keeps disease away from internal organs Reproductive System Produces offspring Varies by gender Mammary System Produces offspring Varies by gender

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264 RS: 06.07.F Name_____________________________________ Organ Systems Matrix Categories Variables Organ Systems Function(s) Organs Included

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265 RS: 06.07.F key Name_____________________________________ Organ Systems Matrix Categories Variables Organ Systems Function(s) Organs Included Skeletal system Framework that give s shape to the body Protects delicate internal organs Makes locomotion possible Bones Cartilage Muscular system Makes movement and locomotion possible Nearly weight of hogs & cattle Muscles Nervous system Coordinates body activity Controls learning & memory Brain Spinal cord Nerve cells Circulatory system Moves blood, digested food, oxygen, waste, and other materials in the body Heart Arteries Veins Respiratory system Moves gases to and from the circulatory system Provides blood w/ oxygen and removes carbon dioxide Lungs Excretory system Rids body of wastes from cell activity Excretes carbon dioxide, water, & nitrogen compounds Digestive system Prepares food for use by the body Monogastric and ruminant sytems Stomach Intestines Liver Pancreas Lymphatic system Produces & circulates lymph Protects the body from disease Lymph glands Integumentary system Protects internal organs Helps regulate temperature Gives shape to the body Keeps disease pathogens away from internal organs Skin Mucous tissues Reproductive system Produces offspring Varies by gender Ovaries Testes Mammary system In females only Secretes milk as food for young Teats Udder

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266 RS: 06.07.G Cube It! Dice Pattern Describe it Analyze it Compare it Associate it Apply it Argue for/against it

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267 RS: 06.07.H Summary Rules 1. Make sure you understand the text. What was this text about? What did the writer say? Try to say th e general theme to yourself. 2. Look back. Reread the text to make sure you got the theme right. 3. Rethink. Reread a paragraph of the text. Try to say the theme of that paragraph to yourself. Is the theme a topic sentence? Have you underlined it? Or is the topic sentence missing: If it is missi ng, have you written one in the margin? 4. Check and double-check. Did you leave in any lists? Make sure you dont list things out in your summary. Did you repe at yourself? Make sure you didnt. Did you skip anything? Is all the im portant information in the summary? 5. Collapse lists. If you see a lis t of things, try to think of a word or phrase name for the whole list. 6. Use topic sentences. Often authors write a sentence that summarizes a whole paragraph. It is called a topic sentence If the author gives you one, you can use it in your summary. If you dont see a t opic sentence, make up one of your own. 7. Get rid of unnecessary detail. Some te xt information can be repeated in a passage. Since summaries are meant to be short, get rid of repetitive or trivial information. 8. Collapse paragraphs. Paragraphs are often related to one another. Some paragraphs explain one or more other pa ragraphs. Some paragraphs just expand on the information presented in other pa ragraphs. Some paragraphs are more necessary than other paragraphs. Decide which paragraphs should be kept or gotten rid of, and which might be joined together. 9. Polish the summary. When a lot of info rmation is reduced from an original passage, the resulting concen trated information often sounds very unnatural. Fix this problem and create a more natu ral-sounding summary. Adjustments may include but are not limited to: paraphra sing, the insertion of connecting words like and or because, and the insertion of introductory or closing statements. Paraphrasing is especially useful here, for two reasons: one, because it improves your ability to remember the material, and two, it avoids using the authors words, otherwise known as plagiarism. (Hare & Borchardt, p. 66, 1984)

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268 Lesson 06.06 Meeting the Nutritional Needs of Animals Intended Outcome: 06.0: Describe the principles of plant a nd/or animal nutrient growth and reproduction. SPS: 06.06: Identify the nutrients required fo r animal growth and development and role of each. Sunshine State Standard(s): LAA 1.4, 2.4; LAB 1.4, 2.4; LAC 1.4, 2.4, 3.4; LAD 1.4, 2.4; LAE 1.4, 2.4; SCA 1.4, 2.4; SCB 1.4, 2.4; SCF 1.4, 2.4 Student Learning Objectives. Instruction in th is lesson should result in students achieving the following objectives: 1. Explain the functions of feed. 2. Identify the various feed t ypes and their characteristics. 3. Explain how animals are fed. List of Resources. The following resources may be useful in teaching this lesson: Recommended Resources. One of the follo wing resources should be selected to accompany the lesson: Cooper, E. L., & Burton, L. D. (2004). Agriscience fundamentals & applications. Boston: Delmar Publishers. Herren, R. V. (1997). The science of agri culture: A biologica l approach. Boston: Delmar Publishers. Lee, J. S., Hutter, J., Rudd, R., Westrom, L., Patrick, A. R., & Bull, A. M. (2004). Introduction to Livestock and Companion An imals, 3rd Edition. Danville, Illinois: Interstate Publishers, Inc. (Chapter 3) Lee, J. S., & Turner, D. L.. AgriScience, 3rd Edition. Danville, Illinois: Interstate Publishers, Inc., 2003. (Chapter 13). Other Resources. The following resources wi ll be useful to students and teachers: Baker, M., & Mikesell, R.E. Animal Science Biology & Technology. Danville, Illinois: Interstate Publishers, Inc. 1996. (Chapter 4) Ensminger, M. E. Animal Science, Danville Illinois: Interstate Publishers, Inc. 1991. (Chapter 4) Gillespie, James R. Modern Livestock & Poultry Production, 6th Edition. Albany, New York: Delmar, 2002. (Unit 8) List of Equipment, Tools, Supplies, and Facilities Writing surface Overhead projector Transparencies from attached masters Copies of student lab sheets Terms. The following terms are presented in this lesson (shown in bold italics): Animal proteins Free access Nodules

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269 Basal maintenance requirement Concentrates Feed Feedstuff Fetus Forages Gestation Growth High-energy concentrates High-protein concentrates Lactation Legume Maintenance Nonlegume roughages Palatability Roughages Scheduled feeding Supplement Tankage Vegetable proteins Interest Approach. Use an interest approach that will prepare the students for the lesson. Teachers often develop approaches for thei r unique class and student situations. A possible approach is included here. Have samples of corn, soybean meal, and ha y placed in front of the class. Ask the students to make a list of the similarities and differences between the three types of feed. Make a class list of similariti es and differences on the board Tell the students to keep their lists and to refer back to it as the lesson progresses. Pre-Reading Strategies Please select one of the following Pre-Readi ng strategies to use to activate student background knowledge prior to reading. K-W-L Procedure: 1. Create three columns on the chalkboard, labeling the columns with what we know, what we want to know, and what we learned, or utilize an overhead with the K-W-L chart. a. Students should individually fill out a K-W-L chart on their own. Use RS: 06.06.A as a handout to guide students. 2. Ask/Brainstorm with students about what they know related to animal nutrition. You may need to prompt students w ith pictures, questions, or ideas. a. Ask students what they want to know about animal nutrition. Again, students may need prompting. For example, you may want to phrase questions in a problem-solving approach. 3. Instruct students to read the assigned text. a. As students read the text, they shoul d fill in the third column, what we learned. b. Students can add questions to the what we want to learn column as they read. c. A further development of K-W-L woul d be to assign and name categories for the information that students genera ted in the what we learned column. From the categories, students can cr eate a concept map of the general topic. 4. As a summary, you can conduct a class disc ussion to generate consensus about what was learned about animal nutrition.

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270 a. Students can also categorize the info rmation that they learned into a graphic organizer to further their engagement with the material and learning. b. Students could create a summary of the passage. Anticipation Guide Procedure: 1. Identify major concepts in the lesson. 2. Create statements that question notions, be liefs, or opinions that challenge what students already know about animal nutrition. a. In creating the statements, you may develop them in such a way as to challenge students to think d eeply about animal nutrition. b. Statements should help identify th e major concepts in the lesson. c. Statements should also be ge neral rather than specific. 3. Hand out the guide prior to read ing and instruction (RS: 06.06.B). a. Students should mark their responses of agreement/true ( ) or disagreement/false ( ) in the Before Reading column. b. Students should provide their reasons for agreeing/disagreeing in the Why? area. 4. Instruct students to read the text. Duri ng reading, students ca n refer to the guide and make notes. 5. After reading, students should mark the After Reading column. a. Conduct a discussion comparing be foreand after-reading results. b. Discussion should refer to evidence in the text. Summary of Content and Teaching Strategies Objective 1: Explain th e functions of feed. Anticipated Problem: What are the functions of feed? Reading: Agriscience 317-320 Agriscience fundamentals & applications 511-518 Introduction to livestock and companion animals 57-58, 68-70 The science of agriculture: A biological approach 243-245 During Reading Strategies Please select one of the following During Readin g strategies to use with this objective. Bubble Cluster Procedure: 1. Introduce the general topic, t ypes of feeds, to students. Ask students to think of words associated with feeds. 2. Students list words associated with feed s, cluster the words according to some characteristics, and draw a bubble ar ound each cluster (see RS: 06.06.C and RS: 06.06.C key for examples).

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271 Think-Aloud Procedure: 1. Select a passage that contains points of difficulty, ambiguities, or unknown words. a. Preview the passage and imagine that you are reading it for the first time as a good reader would. b. Make notes and comments of your t houghts for the students. You may use RS: 06.06.D as a guide to the think-aloud. 2. Read the passage aloud, telling students to follow along silently and listen to how you construct meaning and think through trouble spots. a. Develop hypotheses. b. Make predictions. c. Describe any pictures forming in your head. d. Link new information with prior knowledge. e. Share an analogy. f. Verbalize confusing points. g. Demonstrate fix-up strategies (reread ing, thinking about a word, etc.). 3. Select a logical stopping poi nt and have students use your model to continue reading. 4. Have students practice thi nking aloud with partners. I. The nutritional needs of animals change th roughout the animals life. The amount and type of feed depends on the stage of life and use of the animal. The feed consumed by the animal is used for various purposes. These uses or functions can be categorized into the following groups. A. MaintenanceMaintenance is keeping the body at a constant state. There is no loss or gain of weight. Every second an animal is alive it requires energy. The amount of energy needed by an animal for maintenance is known as the basal maintenance requirement. A maintenance diet is usually high in carbohydrates and fats. It should contain a small amount of protein, minerals, and vitamins. On average, about 50 % of an animals diet is used for maintenance. B. GrowthGrowth is defined as the increase in size of th e muscles, bones, internal organs, and other parts of the body. Anim al growth requires mostly energy and smaller amounts of other nutrients. Very high levels of carbohydr ates and fats in the animals diet pr ovide this energy. C. ReproductionProper nutrition is the key to successful and efficient reproduction in animals. Most reproductive failures are caused by poor nutrition in the female. A proper reproduction ration typically include s higher levels of protein, minerals, and vitamins. This is especially needed in the last three months of gestation (pregnancy) because this is when the fe tus or unborn offspring experiences the most growth. Poor nutrition also affects males. A lack of proper nutrients can lower sperm production and fertility rates. D. LactationLactation is th e production of milk. The nutrient requirements for moderate to heavy milk production are greater that the requirements during gestation. A lactation ration requires even higher levels of protein, calcium, and phosphorus.

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272 E. WorkA work ration is needed by animals that are expected to conduct all types of work and activity for the operation. Examples could include draft animals, racehorses, and hunting dogs. These animal s require increased carbohydrates and fats. There are many techniques that can be used to assist students in mastering this material. Students need text material to aid in unders tanding the functions of feed. Chapter 3 in Introduction to Livestock and Companion An imals is recommended. Use TM: 06.06.A to aid in discussion. Objective 2: Identify the various fe ed types and their characteristics. Anticipated Problem: What ar e the various feed types? Reading: Agriscience 321-339 Agriscience fundamentals & applications 516-518 Introduction to livestock and companion animals 70-72 During Reading Strategies Please select one of the following During Readin g strategies to use with this objective. Concept Map Procedure: 1. Display a blank concept/definition map on the overhead or PowerPoint. a. Point out the questions that complete a definition of the conc ept: what is it like?, what are some examples/nonexamples?, what are characteristics?, and what is it?. b. Model the strategy by using a concept for which students are familiar, for example, you may use cheese. c. You may use RS: 06.06.E and RS: 06.06.E key as a guide to the concept map. 2. Present a key term or concept from the text. 3. Student may work individually or in pair s to complete the concept/definition map for the new concept. a. When students have finished their map, they should develop their own definition of the concept using their maps. b. The definition may include several se ntences to encompass the scope of the concept. 4. You may want to develop a class defi nition of the concept for assessment purposes. Matrices Procedure: 1. Examine text to determine categories for the left-hand column and variables for the top row. a. Use RS: 06.06.F for the handout and RS: 06.06.F key as the guide.

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273 b. Fill in some cells as a model for students as you read aloud. c. Find evidence in the text or c ourse to support your entries. 2. Instruct students to finish the matrix on their own or in pairs. 3. Ask students to analyze their matrix to de termine trends, patterns, or conclusions. This may generate discussion among the class. 4. Instruct students to write a conc ise conclusion based on their matrix. II. A feedstuff is an ingredient used in making the feed for animals. Feed is what animals eat to get nutrients. Feedstuffs can be added to feed to provide flavor, color, or texture to increase palatability. Palatability is how well an animal likes a feed. A feed high in nutrients is of no benefit if th e animal refuses to eat it. F eeds can be placed into three basic categories. They are: A. RoughagesLivestock feeds that contain mo re than 18 percent crude fiber when dry are called roughages. The type of feed is mostly leaves and tender stems of plants. These plants are also known as fo rages. Forages can be grouped into two general classes: legume rougha ges and nonlegume roughages. 1. A legume is a plant that can take ni trogen from the air. These plants specialized root parts called nodules, contai n bacteria that aid in this process. All of the clovers, as well as alfalfa, soybeans, tref oil, lespedeza, peas, and beans are legumes. 2. Nonlegume roughages cannot use the nitr ogen from the air. They are usually lower in protein than the legume roughage s. Some examples of this type of roughage are: corn silage, fodders, bl uegrass, timothy, redtop, bromegrass, orchard grass, fescue, and prairie grasses. B. ConcentratesLivestock feeds that contai n less than 18 percent crude fiber when dry are called concentrates. Th is type of feedstuff is high in energy. Concentrates have more energy per pound than rougha ges. Higher producing animals need more nutrients from concentrates. 1. High-energy concentrates are feeds th at contain less than 20 percent crude protein. Some common sources of high-en ergy concentrates are corn, wheat, sorghum, barley, rye, and oats. 2. High-protein concentrates are feeds that contain 20 percent or more protein. Examples of high-protein concentrates are soybean meal, cottonseed meal, and sunflower meal. C. SupplementsA supplement is a feed ma terial high in a specific nutrient. Supplements are often added to feeds to increase protein content. Protein supplements can be divided into two gr oups based on the source of the protein. 1. Protein supplements that come from an imals or animal by-products are called animal proteins. Common animal proteins are tankage, meat scraps, meat and bone meal, fish meal, and blood meal. Tankage is animal tissues and bones from animal slaughterhouses and render ing plants that are cooked, dried, and ground. Most animal proteins contain mo re than 47 percent crude protein. Animal proteins contain a more balan ced amount of the essential amino acids than do the other type of protein supplements. 2. Protein supplements that come from pl ants are called ve getable proteins. Common vegetable proteins are soybean oil meal, peanut oil meal, and corn

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274 gluten feed. Most vegetable proteins contain less than 47 percent crude protein. During Reading Strategies Frayer Model Procedure: 1. Review categories of feedstuffs and cr eate a list of esse ntial and nonessential characteristics, as well as examples and nonexamples. 2. Display a blank Frayer model on the ove rhead or PowerPoint (use RS: 06.06.G1, RS: 06.06.G2, and RS: 06.06.G3). a. Point out the categories of information that complete the Frayer model: essential characteristics, nonessentia l characteristics, examples, and nonexamples. b. Model the strategy by using a concept for which students are familiar, for example, you may use vegetable (see example). 3. Distribute blank Frayer models (use RS: 06.06.G1, RS: 06.06.G2, and RS: 06.06.G3) to students and instru ct them to read the sele cted passage, filling out the Frayer model as they read. 4. Once students have read the passage a nd completed their own Frayer model, generate one composite mode l with the entire class. There are many techniques that can be used to assist students in mastering this material. Students need text material to aid in unders tanding the various feed types. Chapter 3 in Introduction to Livestock and Co mpanion Animals is recommended. Objective 3: Explain how animals are fed. Anticipated Problem: What are some ways to feed animals? Reading: Agriscience 342-343 Introduction to livestock and companion animals 74-75 III. How and when animals are fed is an impor tant portion of animal production. This affects the growth and development of the animal. Animals need to consume the correct amount of the ration without overeating, which can cause health problems as well. There are two basic methods in which feed can be provided to animals: free access and scheduled feeding. A. Free access or free choice is allowing anim als to eat feed when they want feed. The feed is available to the animal at all times. This method is good for some species and with some feedstuffs but not others. For example, swine can be fed concentrates free access because they will not overeat. However, cattle should not be fed concentrates free access because they will overeat and could possibly founder and die. B. Scheduled feeding is providing feed at ce rtain times of the day. Feeding times and regularity should be based on the needs of the animal or management practices.

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275 There are many techniques that can be used to assist students in mastering this material. Students need text material to aid in unde rstanding how animals are fed. Chapter 3 in Introduction to Livestock and Co mpanion Animals is recommended. Post-Reading Strategies Please select one of the follo wing Post-Reading strategies to use as a conclusion to the lesson. Cube It! Procedure: 1. The teacher should select the text passage to be read. a. Divide the students into teams of no more than 6 students. b. You will need a die with the six questions (describe it, compare it, associate it, analyze it, apply it, and argue for or against it) listed on the sides. 2. Students should number a sheet of no tebook paper 1-6, skipping 6-8 lines in between each number. a. By each number, students should write a team members name (some team members might have their name liste d twice, depending on the size of the teams). 3. The person whose name is written after num ber 1 will roll the die first. Whatever question it lands on, that person mu st answer it on notebook paper. a. Use RS: 06.06.H for the dice pattern. b. Be sure to write the die question by your number (example 1. Travis Describe it the answer). 4. Each member will roll the die until all of the six questions have been answered. Remember: each member is responsible fo r one side of the die, and the answer must be in his/her own words and writing. Die Questions and How to Answer: Describe it: What is animal nutrition about ? What is the importance, color, size, shape, etc.? Compare it: What is animal nutrition similar to or different from? Associate it: What does animal nutrition make you think of? Analyze it: Tell how is a balanced rati on made or what it is composed of. Apply it: What can you do with animal nutrition? How is it used? Argue for or against it: Take a stand and list reasons supporting its importance. Summary Use RS: 06.06.I as a guide for writing summaries. Four General Steps to Help with the Four+ Specific Rules for Writing a Summary 1. Make sure you understand the text. Ask your self, What was this text about? What did the writer say? Try to say the general theme to yourself. 2. Look back. Reread the text to make sure you got the theme right. Also read to make sure that you really understand what the important parts of the text are. Star the important points. Now Use the Four Rules for Writing a Summary

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276 3. Rethink. Reread a paragraph of the text. Tr y to say the theme of that paragraph to yourself. Is the theme a topic sentence? Have you underlined it? Or is the topic sentence missing: If it is missing, have you written one in the margin? 4. Check and double-check. Did you leave in any lists? Make sure you dont list things out in your summary. Did you repe at yourself? Make sure you didnt. Did you skip anything? Is all the im portant information in the summary? Four Rules for Writing a Summary 5. Collapse lists. If you see a lis t of things, try to think of a word or phrase name for the whole list. For example, if you saw a list like eyes, ears, neck, arms, and legs, you could say body parts. Or, if you sa w a list like ice skating, skiing, or sledding, you could say winter sports. 6. Use topic sentences. Often authors write a sentence that summarizes a whole paragraph. It is called a topic sentence If the author gives you one, you can use it in your summary. Unfortuna tely, not all paragraphs c ontain topic sentences. That means you may have to make up one for yourself. If you dont see a topic sentence, make up one of your own. 7. Get rid of unnecessary detail. Some te xt information can be repeated in a passage. In other words, the same thi ng can be said in a number of different ways, all in one passage. Ot her text information can be unimportant, or trivial. Since summaries are meant to be short, get rid of repetitive or trivial information. 8. Collapse paragraphs. Paragraphs are often related to one another. Some paragraphs explain one or more other pa ragraphs. Some paragraphs just expand on the information presented in other pa ragraphs. Some paragraphs are more necessary than other paragraphs. Decide which paragraphs should be kept or gotten rid of, and which might be joined together. A Final Suggestion 9. Polish the summary. When a lot of info rmation is reduced from an original passage, the resulting concen trated information often sounds very unnatural. Fix this problem and create a more natu ral-sounding summary. Adjustments may include but are not limited to: paraphra sing, the insertion of connecting words like and or because, and the insertion of introductory or closing statements. Paraphrasing is especially useful here, for two reasons: one, because it improves your ability to remember the material, and two, it avoids using the authors words, otherwise known as plagiarism. (Hare & Borchardt, p. 66, 1984) Review/Summary. Use the student learning objectives to summarize the lesson. Have students explain the content associated with each objective. Student responses can be used in determining which objectives need to be reviewed or ta ught from a different angle. Questions at end of chapters in the textbook may also be used in the review/summary. Evaluation. Focus the evaluation of student achievement on mastery of the objectives stated in the lesson. Measure student performance on classr oom participation, laboratory assignments, and written tests or quizzes.

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277 Answers to Assessment: Part One: Matching 1 = e, 2 = a, 3 = b, 4 = f, 5 = g, 6 = j, 7 = h ,8 = i ,9 = d, 10 = c Part Two: Completion 1. 47 percent 2. greater 3. energy 4. source 5. overeat Part Three: Short Answer See Objective 2 in lesson for scoring. Part Four: Multiple Choice 1 = a, 2 = c, 3 = c, 4 = b, 5 = d, 6 = d, 7 = c, 8 = a, 9 = b, 10 = a, 11 = b Part Five: Comprehension Grading rubric. Total points possible = 28 points. For any missing element (title or bulleted information), subtract 1 point. Nutrients Substance required for life Needs vary based on type and size of animal, life span Minerals Required by skeletal system Largest amounts = calcium & phosphorus Fats or lipids Provide energy Carry vitamins Form chemicals in the body Water Obtained from drinking or feed Helps transport other nutrients Carbohydrates Simple or complex Provide energy 75% of diet Fiber Vitamins Very small amounts for specific functions 16 vitamins are required Vitamin A, D, E, K, & Bcomplex vitamins Ruminants produce some vitamins in the rumen Protein Building material Growth of muscles, tissues, bones Repair damage to cells Weight gain, growth & preproduction

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278 Assessment Name_____________________________________ Lesson 06.06: Meeting the Nutritional Need of Animals Part One: Matching Instructions. Match the term with the correct response. Write the letter of the term by the definition. (1 point/question). a. Basal maintenance requirement f. Roughages b. Feedstuff g. Tankage c. Growth h. Free access d. Palatability i. Feed e. High-energy concentrates j. Maintenance _______ 1. Feeds that contain less th an 20 percent crude protein. _______ 2. The amount of energy needed by an animal for maintenance. _______ 3. An ingredient used in making the feed for animals. _______ 4. Livestock feeds that contain more than 18 percent crude fiber when dry. _______ 5. Animal tissues and bones from animal slaughterhouses and rendering plants that are cooked, dried, and ground. _______ 6. Keeping the body at a constant state. _______ 7. Allowing animals to eat feed when they want. _______ 8. What animals eat to get nutrients. _______ 9. How well an animal likes a feed. _______ 10. The increase in size of the muscles, bones, internal organs, and other parts of the body. Part Two: Completion Instructions. Provide the word(s) to complete the following statements. (1 point/question). 1. Most vegetable proteins cont ain less than ________________ crude protein. 2. The nutrient requirements for mode rate to heavy milk production are ___________________ than the requirements during gestation. 3. Animal growth requires mostly _____________________ and smaller amounts of other nutrients. 4. Protein supplements can be divide d into two groups based on the ________________ of the protein. 5. Swine can be fed concentrates free access because they will not _________________. Part Three: Short Answer Instructions. Provide information to answer the following question. (5 points/question). 1. Compare and contrast roughages and concentrates.

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279 Part Four: Multiple Choice Instructions. Select the best answer for the following questions. (1 point/question). 1. If a producer were feeding steers for weight gain, which of the following functions would the feed perform? a. Maintenance and growth. b. Growth and work. c. Reproduction. d. None of the above. 2. If a different producer were feeding repl acement gilts that were soon to be bred, which of the following function(s) would the feed perform? a. Reproduction. b. Growth and reproduction. c. Growth and lactation. d. All of the above. 3. How is a feedstuff selected for maintenance the same as a feedstuff for growth? Both contain high amounts of __________________. a. Carbohydrates. b. Fats. c. Carbohydrates and fats. d. Calcium and phosphorus. 4. How is a feedstuff selected for work different from a feedstuff for lactation? a. A feedstuff for work is high in carboh ydrates and fats, while a feedstuff for lactation is high in fats only. b. A feedstuff for work is high in carboh ydrates and fats, while a feedstuff for lactation is high in pr otein, calcium, and phosphorus. c. A feedstuff for work contains a lo t of energy, while a feedstuff for lactation contains a lot of carbohydrates. d. There is no difference. 5. Why would a high-protein concen trate be fed to livestock? a. Maintenance. b. Growth. c. Work. d. Lactation. 6. Which of the following animals would a producer feed high-energy concentrates? a. Milking cows. b. Replacement heifers. c. Laying hens. d. Feeder pigs.

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280 7. In the above question, why would the produc er feed the high-energy concentrate? a. Lactation. b. Work. c. Growth. d. Reproduction. 8. For a riding mare (female horse) that is in gestation, which of the following would be an appropriate mix of feedstuffs? a. Roughages, protein concentrate, vitamin supplements, and energy concentrate. b. Roughages only. c. Concentrates only. d. Roughages, vitamin supplements, and fiber. 9. Which of the following feedstuffs woul d contain the highest energy content? a. Nonlegume roughages. b. Concentrates. c. Supplements. 10. Why would a producer feed dairy co ws a ration containing roughages, concentrates, and supplements? a. Roughages for fiber, concentrates for lactation, and supplements for calcium and phosphorus. b. Roughages for nitrogen, concentrates for work, and supplements for protein. c. Roughages for energy, concentrates for protein, and supplements for nitrogen. d. Roughages for lactation, concentrat es for reproduction, and protein supplements. 11. Which of the following types of lives tock should be feed free-choice? a. Draft horses. b. Feeder steers. c. Over-weight heifers. d. None of the above. Part Five: Comprehension Instructions. Read the following passage a bout animal nutrition. After reading the passage, create a concept map. (28 points possible). Use a piece of notebook paper upon which to construct your concept map. NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS A nutrient is any substance re quired for life. Animals n eed six types of nutrients: water, protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals. Some scientists include a

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281 seventhair. Nutrient needs vary based on the ty pe and size of animal, as well as the life stage they are in. For example, a lacta ting cow (producing milk to feed her young) requires more feed. Water may be obtained from drinking and from the feed given animals. Water is the major portion in cells and he lps transport other nutrients. Protein is the building material It is needed for the growth of muscles, tissues, and bones, Protein also helps repair damage or inju ry to cells. Protein is important for weight gain, growth, and reproduction. Carbohydrates may be simple or complex. They provide energy for all animals. Carbohydrates should make up about 75 percent of an animals diet. Carbohydrates also provide fiber, which helps the digestive syst em run more smoothly. Ruminants can digest this fiber; nonruminants cannot. Fats, also called lipids, ar e part of animal cells. They provide energy and carry some vitamins. They also help form certain chemicals used in body functions. Vitamins are nutrients required in ve ry small amounts for specific functions. Sixteen known vitamins are required. These include vitamins A, D, E, K and the Bcomplex. Ruminants can produce some vitamins within the rumen. Minerals are chemical elements required by the skeletal system. Other systems also require minerals. The minerals needed in the largest amounts are calcium and phosphorus.

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282 TM: 06.06.A Functions of Feed Lactation Work Reproduction Growth Maintenance

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283 RS: 06.06.A Name_____________________________________ Animal Nutrition K-W-L Know Want to know Learned

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284 RS: 06.06.B Name_____________________________________ Animal Nutrition Anticipation Guide Before Reading: Yes/No Statement After Reading: Yes/No Evidence/Support Nutritional needs remain relatively the same throughout an animals life. Why? ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ Female and male livestock require different feed rations. Why? ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ Livestock need a balanced ration, including roughages, protein, concentrates, vitamins, and minerals in order to lead productive lives. Why? ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ Proteins are the most important nutrient for livestock. Why? ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ Water is an important, but often overlooked nutrient necessary for high productivity in livestock. Why? ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________

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285 RS: 06.06.C Name_____________________________________ Animal Nutrition Bubble Cluster

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286 RS: 06.06.C key Name_____________________________________ Animal Nutrition Bubble Cluster Functions of Feed(s) Growth increase in size Requires energy High levels of fats and carbohydrates Reproduction most reproductive failures result from poor nutrition Higher levels of protein, minerals, & vitamins Last 3 months of gestation Lactation production of milk Greater nutrient requirements than during lactation Higher protein, calcium, & phosphorus Maintenance keeps the body at a constant state Carbohydrates & fats 50% of diet Work Draft horses, race horses, hunting dogs Increased fats and carboh y drates

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287 RS: 06.06.D Functions of Feed Think Aloud From Agriscience, pg. 317. Animals must have the right f eed to live, grow rapidly, and be productive. Animals that do not get what they need may be stunted, get sick, or die. Feed needs vary with the kind of anim al. An animals body structure and organ systems are important. Ruminants can eat la rge amounts of roughage because they have stomachs that convert low-quality feedstuffs into higher-quality nutrients. They are fed differently than other animals. Nonrum inants usually have stomachs with one compartment and this affects what they are fed. Of course, poultr y are different from hogs, horses, sheep, cattle, and fish. Animals have preferences about feed just as people have their favorite foods. These need to be considered. Cattle will eat about anything if it has molasses added to it! This must cost producers a lot of money What kinds of animals need different kinds of feed? We studied this...organ systems are g rou p s of or g ans workin g to g ether. What is a ruminant ? What is a roughage ? Their stomachs must b e diffe r ent than ours. What are low-quality f eedstu ff s ? What is a nonruminant ? How so? They eat basically the same things, dont the y ? Ma y be worms have somethin g to do with it. If they have favorite foods, wh y do the y eat so much corn? Is this the same kind of molasses that we eat?

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288 RS: 06.06.E Name_____________________________________ Feed Types Concept Map ________________ _______________ ____________________ ____________________ ________________ _____________ ___________________ _______________ __________________ ________________

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289 RS: 06.06.E key Feed Types Concept Map Feedstuffs ingredient used in making the feed for animals Roughages feeds containing more than 18% crude fiber Legume plant that takes nitrogen from the air Contain nodules Clover, alfalfa, soybeans, trefoil, lespedeza, peas non-Legume plant that cannot use nitrogen from the air Lower in protein Corn silage, fodders, bluegrass, timothy, redtop, bromegrass, orchard grass, fescue Supplements feed high in a specific nutrient (protein) Concentrates feeds containing less than 18% crude fiber Animal protein come from animals Tankage, meat scraps, meat and bone meal, fish meal, blood meal > 47% crude protein Balanced amino acids High-protein feed containing 20% or more crude protein Soybean meal, cottonseed meal, sunflower meal High-energy feed containing less than 20% crude protein Corn, wheat, sorghum, barley, rye, oats Vegetable protein come from plants Soybean oil meal, peanut oil meal, corn gluten meal < 47% crude protein

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290 RS: 06.06.F Name_____________________________________ Types of Feeds Matrix Categories Variables Types of Feeds Definition Contents Uses/Functions Found in Roughages Roughages: Legumes Roughages: Nonlegumes Concentrates Concentrates: Energy Concentrates: Protein Supplements Supplements: Animal Protein Supplements: Vegetable Protein

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291 RS: 06.06.F key Types of Feeds Matrix Categories Variables Types Definition Contents Use/Functions Found in Roughages Leaves & tender stems of plants Forages Fiber Roughages: Legumes Plant that takes in nitrogen from the air Clover, Alfalfa, Soybeans, Trefoil, Beans, Lespedeza, Peas Roughages: Nonlegumes Plants that cannot use nitrogen from the air Corn silage, Fodders, Fescue, Bluegrass, Timothy, Redtop Bromegrass, Orchard grass, Prairie grasses Concentrates Feeds that contain less than 18% crude fiber Energy More energy than roughages Add muscle, fat Concentrates: Energy Feeds that contain less than 20% crude protein Corn, Wheat, Sorghum, Barley Rye, Oats Concentrates: Protein Feeds that contain 20% or more protein Soybean meal Cottonseed meal Sunflower meal Supplements Feed that is high in a specific nutrient Supplements: Animal Protein Protein supplements that come from animals or animal by-products Contain more than 47% crude protein More balanced amino acids Tankage Meat scraps Meat & bone meal Fish meal Blood meal Supplements: Vegetable Protein Protein supplements that come from plants Contains less than 47% crude protein Soybean oil meal Peanut oil meal Corn gluten meal

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292 RS: 06.06.G1 Name_____________________________________ Roughages Frayer Model Essential Characteristics: Non-Essential Characteristics: Examples: Non-Examples: Roughages

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293 RS: 06.06.G2 Name_____________________________________ Concentrates Frayer Model Essential Characteristics: Non-Essential Characteristics: Examples: Non-Examples: Concentrates

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294 RS: 06.06.G3 Name_____________________________________ Supplements Frayer Model Essential Characteristics: Non-Essential Characteristics: Examples: Non-Examples: Supplements

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295 RS: 06.06.H Cube It! Dice Pattern Describe it Analyze it Compare it Associate it Apply it Argue for/against it

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296 RS: 06.06.I Summary Rules 1. Make sure you understand the text. What was this text about? What did the writer say? Try to say th e general theme to yourself. 2. Look back. Reread the text to make sure you got the theme right. 3. Rethink. Reread a paragraph of the text. Try to say the theme of that paragraph to yourself. Is the theme a topic sentence? Have you underlined it? Or is the topic sentence missing: If it is missi ng, have you written one in the margin? 4. Check and double-check. Did you leave in any lists? Make sure you dont list things out in your summary. Did you repe at yourself? Make sure you didnt. Did you skip anything? Is all the im portant information in the summary? 5. Collapse lists. If you see a lis t of things, try to think of a word or phrase name for the whole list. 6. Use topic sentences. Often authors write a sentence that summarizes a whole paragraph. It is called a topic sentence If the author gives you one, you can use it in your summary. If you dont see a t opic sentence, make up one of your own. 7. Get rid of unnecessary detail. Some te xt information can be repeated in a passage. Since summaries are meant to be short, get rid of repetitive or trivial information. 8. Collapse paragraphs. Paragraphs are often related to one another. Some paragraphs explain one or more other pa ragraphs. Some paragraphs just expand on the information presented in other pa ragraphs. Some paragraphs are more necessary than other paragraphs. Decide which paragraphs should be kept or gotten rid of, and which might be joined together. 9. Polish the summary. When a lot of info rmation is reduced from an original passage, the resulting concen trated information often sounds very unnatural. Fix this problem and create a more natu ral-sounding summary. Adjustments may include but are not limited to: paraphra sing, the insertion of connecting words like and or because, and the insertion of introductory or closing statements. Paraphrasing is especially useful here, for two reasons: one, because it improves your ability to remember the material, and two, it avoids using the authors words, otherwise known as plagiarism. (Hare & Borchardt, p. 66, 1984)

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297 Lesson 06.08 Understanding Animal Reproduction Intended Outcome: 06.0: Describe the principles of plant a nd/or animal nutrient growth and reproduction. SPS: 06.08: Describe the proce ss of animal reproduction. Sunshine State Standard(s): LAA 1.4, 2.4; LAB 1.4, 2.4; LAC 1.4, 2.4, 3.4; LAD 1.4, 2.4; LAE 1.4, 2.4; MAA 1.4, 2.4, 3.4, 4.4; MAB 1.4; MAE 1.4, 2.4, 3.4; SCF 1.4, 2.4; SCH 1.4, 3.4 Student Learning Objectives. Instruction in th is lesson should result in students achieving the following objectives: 1. Describe the importance and process of animal reproduction. 2. List the sexual classification of animals for major species. 3. List the parts and explain the functions of female and male reproductive systems. 4. List and describe the phases of the estrous cycle. 5. Explain the reproductive development of animals. List of Resources. The following resources may be useful in teaching this lesson: Recommended Resources. One of the follo wing resources should be selected to accompany the lesson: Cooper, E. L., & Burton, L. D. (2004). Agriscience fundamentals & applications. Boston: Delmar Publishers. Herren, R. V. (1997). The science of agri culture: A biologica l approach. Boston: Delmar Publishers. Lee, J. S., Hutter, J., Rudd, R., Westrom, L., Patrick, A. R., & Bull, A. M. (2004). Introduction to Livestock and Companion An imals, 3rd Edition. Danville, Illinois: Interstate Publishers, Inc. (Chapter 3) Lee, J. S., & Turner, D. L. AgriScien ce, 3rd Edition. Danville, IL: Interstate Publishers, Inc., 2003. (Chapter 14) Other Resources. The following resources wi ll be useful to students and teachers: Baker, M., & Mikesell, R. E. Animal Science Biology and Technology. Danville, IL: Interstate Publishers, Inc., 1996. Gillespie, J. R. Animal Science. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers, 1998. Taylor, R. E. Scientific Farm Animal Production, 5th Edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1995. List of Equipment, Tools, Supplies, and Facilities Textbook for each student Writing surface Overhead projector Transparencies from attached masters

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298 Terms. The following terms are presented in this lesson (shown in bold italics): Anestrus Artificial insemination Castration Cervix Copulation Diestrus Egg Ejaculation Estrous cycle Estrus Fertilization Gestation Heat Insemination Lactation Libido Metestrus Natural insemination Neutering Ovary Oviduct Parturition Penis Proestrus Prostate gland Puberty Reproduction Scrotum Semen Seminal glands Seminal vesicles Sexual classification Sexual reproduction Sperm Sperm ducts Steer Testicles Uterus Urethra Vagina Vulva Interest Approach. Use an interest approach that will prepare the students for the lesson. Teachers often develop approaches for thei r unique class and student situations. A possible approach is included here. Ask students to explain how a cattle producer increases the si ze of the herd. Students may name methods such as buying cattle from some one else or breeding the cattle that are owned. Have students assess which alternative would be used if m oney was not available to buy animals. Ask students to relate exam ples of animal reproduction on farms, with companion animals, or with laboratory or exotic species. Move from the interest approach into the objectives of the lesson and its content. Pre-Reading Strategies Please select one of the following Pre-Readi ng strategies to use to activate student background knowledge prior to reading. K-W-L Procedure: 1. Create three columns on the chalkboard, labeling the columns with what we know, what we want to know, and what we learned, or utilize an overhead with the K-W-L chart. a. Students should individually fill out a K-W-L chart on their own. b. Use RS: 06.08.A for the K-W-L chart. 2. Ask questions or brainstorm with students about what they know related to animal reproduction. You may need to prompt st udents with pictures, questions, or ideas related to increasing herd size and qu ality, improving breeds, and genetics. 3. Ask students what they want to know a bout animal reproduction. Again, students may need prompting. For example, you may want to phrase questions in a problem-solving approach, such as how w ould you increase muscling in your beef herd? a. Instruct students to read the assigned text.

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299 b. As students read the text, they shoul d fill in the third column, what we learned. c. Students can add questions to the what we want to learn column as they read. d. A further development of K-W-L woul d be to assign and name categories for the information that students genera ted in the what we learned column. From the categories, students can cr eate a concept map of the general topic. 4. As a summary, you can conduct a class disc ussion to generate consensus about what was learned abou t animal reproduction. a. Students can also categorize the info rmation that they learned into a graphic organizer to further their engagement with the material and learning. b. Students could create a summary of the passage. Making Predictions A-Z Procedure: 1. The teacher selects the text passage and 3-7 letters for which students will make word predictions. a. Letters chosen should be th e first letters of key wo rds that will likely be found in the text b. Suggested letters for animal reproduc tion include A-B-C, P-Q-R, and S-TU. c. Use RS: 06.08.B for making predictions. 2. The teacher should read aloud the title of the passage and/or relevant subheadings and conduct a brief discussi on about the content of the passage. a. Pass out RS: 06.08.B Making Predictions A-Z worksheet. b. Write the pre-selected letters for pred ictions on the chalkboard. (These are the letters for which students will generate words related to the topic and make predictions about the reading). 3. Students list words beginning with the preselected letters and form predictions about what they will encounter in the text passage. a. Students may be paired with a partne r to share their predicted words. b. After sharing the words, student pair s should generate predictions about the text. c. Use RS: 06.08.B key as a guide to the vocabulary that will be encountered in this lesson. 4. From the words and predictions, conduct a whole-class discussi on about the topic. 5. Instruct the students to read the text. a. While reading students should continue to add relevant words to their Making Predictions A-Z worksheet. b. These words may be used to create a graphic organizer a nd/or summary of what they learned.

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300 Anticipation Guide Procedure: 1. Identify major concepts in the lesson. a. Create statements that question notions, beliefs, or opinions that challenge what students already know (see RS: 06.08.C). b. In creating the statements, you may develop them in such a way as to challenge students to thi nk deeply about the topic. c. Statements should help identify th e major concepts in the lesson. d. Statements should also be ge neral rather than specific. 2. Hand out the guide prior to reading and instruction. a. Students should mark their responses of agreement/true ( ) or disagreement/false ( ) in the Before Reading column. b. Students should provide their reasons for agreeing/disagreeing in the Why? area. 5. Instruct students to read the text. a. During reading, students can refer to the guide and make notes. b. After reading, students should mark the After Reading column. c. Conduct a discussion comparing be foreand after-reading results. d. Discussion should refer to evidence in the text. Summary of Content and Teaching Strategies Objective 1: Describe the importance and process of animal reproduction. Anticipated Problem: Why is re production important? What is the process of animal reproduction? Reading: Agriscience 368-371 Agriscience fundamentals & applications 539-540, 547-550 Introduction to livestock and companion animals 113-117 The science of agriculture: A biological approach 219-222 During Reading Strategies Please select one of the following During Readin g strategies to use with this objective. Concept Map Procedure: 1. Introduce the concept of animal reproduction to students. a. Ask students to brainstorm words rela ted to animal reproduction. Record the words on the chalkboard. Words could include sexual, sperm, egg, insemination, embryo transfer, a nd/or artificial insemination. b. Extend the discussion around words that suggest larger re lated categories. 2. Pass out RS: 06.08.D to help students classify the information. a. Use RS: 06.08D key as an example. b. Allow students a few minutes to cate gorize the words under more general headings.

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301 3. Instruct students to survey the passage, looking for textual hints in the headings and titles that suggest key concepts. 4. Instruct students to read the assigned passage. a. As students read they sh ould refine their categori es by adding information and strengthening concept lines. b. Students may use their maps during cl assroom discussion or for creating a summary of information. Concept of Definition Map Procedure: 1. Display a blank concept/definition map (RS: 06.08.E) on the overhead or PowerPoint. a. Point out the questions that complete a definition of animal reproduction: what is it like?, what are some examples/nonexamples?, what are characteristics?, and what is it?. b. Model the strategy by using a concept for which students are familiar, for example, you may use cheese. 2. Present the key term, animal reproduction 3. Students may work individually or in pa irs to complete the concept/definition map for animal reproduction. a. When students have finished their map, they should develop their own definition of animal reproduction using their maps. b. The definition may include several se ntences to encompass the scope of the concept. c. Use RS: 06.08.E key as a guide to what a concept of definition map may look like. 4. You may want to develop a class de finition of animal reproduction for assessment purposes. I. Reproduction is the process by which animals produce offspring. A. Offspring are the same species and have traits of their parents. 1. Parents are selected and mated to ach ieve certain goals with offspring. Examples of goals include producing offs pring with high milk productivity or meaty carcasses. 2. Reproduction results in new animals that are raised for the products they produce. Examples of products include meat, eggs, milk, and wool. B. Most animals are produced with sexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction is the union of a sperm and an e gg. Two parents are required. 1. Sperm is the sex cell of male animal s. They are produced in the testes. 2. The egg or ovum is the sex cell of fema le animals. They are produced in the ovaries. C. Fertilization is the process by which the uni on of a sperm and an egg occurs. It is also known as conception. 1. The union of the sperm with the egg occurs in the reproductive tract of the female. The process of placing sperm in reproductive tract of the female is known as insemination.

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302 2. Natural insemination occurs when a male of a species mates with a female of the same species. Sperm are placed in the female reproductive tract by the male during copulation. Copulation is th e mating process in which sperm are ejaculated from the penis of the male in the vagina of the female. Females must be receptive to males at a tim e in the estrus cycle known as heat. 3. Artificial insemination is used in some situations, such as with dairy cows. Artificial insemination is placing semen collected from a male in the female reproductive tract using equipment de signed for the purpose. Artificial insemination must be done when the cow is in heat. D. Once an egg has been fertilized, it becomes an embryo that attaches itself to the uterus for nourishment. The female is pregnant. The embryo goes through a time of development and becomes a fetus. The fetus develops to a stage where it is born and can live outs ide the uterus. Have students read appropriate sections in textbooks as homework or during supervised study in class. Use student input to outline the content of the objective on the writing surface or use TM: 06.08.A. Have students keep notes on the major terms and concepts covered in class. Ask students to provide examples of animals that have recently given birth and the number of offspring produced. Objective 2: List the sexual classi fication of animals for major species. Anticipated Problem: What sexual cla ssifications are used for animals? Reading: Agriscience 364 II. Sexual classification is the condition of an animal based on its age and sexual condition. It includes animals that are capab le of reproduction as well as those that are not capable of reproduction. A. An animal can be made incapable of reproduction by removing the ovaries or testes or altering the condition of the reproductive organs so that they are no longer fertile. The animals ar e not capable of conception. 1. Castration is the process of removi ng the testes from a male. It is a management practice used on young male animals. Castration eliminates unwanted breeding. It also promotes growth and development of young animals in more desirable ways with food animal produc tion. Castration may be done surgically or with other met hods. (Note: Castration is also known as emasculation and gelding.) 2. Neutering is the process of making a female incapa ble of reproduction. It is also known as spaying. The ovaries of the female are removed or other procedures are used to render the fe male incapable of conception. (Note: Neutering can also refer to the castration of males but often refers specifically to females.) B. A number of terms are used to describe th e sexual classification of animals. These terms vary by species, age, and gender. For example, a steer is a male bovine castrated at a young age and before sexua l maturity was reached. Textbooks and

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303 references usually have lists of terms for the sexual classification of common species. Have students read appropriate sections in the textbook. Use their input to outline the content of the objective on the writing surface or use TM: 06.08.B. Students can be referred to tables that list sexual classification in textbooks and TM: 06.08.C can be used to list a few examples of sexual classificati on. Have students name examples of animals that are in the different sexual classifications. Objective 3: List the parts and explain the functions of female and male reproductive systems. Anticipated Problem: What are the major parts of female and male reproductive systems? What are the functions of the parts? During Reading Strategies Matrices Procedure: 1. Examine text to determine categories for the left-hand column and variables for the top row. 2. Fill in some cells as a model for students as you read aloud. 3. Find evidence in the text or c ourse to support your entries. 4. Instruct students to finish the matr ix (RS: 06.08.F and RS: 06.08.F key) on their own or in pairs. 5. Ask students to analyze their matrix to de termine trends, patterns, or conclusions. a. This may generate discussion among the class. 6. Instruct students to write a conc ise conclusion based on their matrix. Reading: Agriscience fundamentals & applications 544-545 Introduction to livestock and companion animals 117-123 The science of agriculture: A biological approach 522-527 III. The reproductive system is the only or gan system that varies among males and females of the same species. A. The reproductive system of the female is designed to produce eggs, make conception possible, and promote devel opment of embryo and fetus until birth. The major parts of the system are: 1. The vulva is the external part of the female reproductive tract. 2. The vagina is the mating organ of the fe male. It receives semen (sperm cells) from the male and serves as the ca nal through which the fetus moves during birth. 3. The cervix is the entrance to the uterus. 4. The uterus is the organ in wh ich the embryo and fetus develop.

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304 5. The oviduct (also known fallopian tube) is a tube from the ovaries to the uterus. Fertilization usuall y takes place near the u pper end of oviduct. There are two oviductsone for each ovary. 6. The ovary is the organ that produces th e eggs or ova. Eggs pass from the ovary into the oviduct. B. The reproductive system of the male is designed to produce and store sperm, and to deposit them in the reproductive tract of the female of th e species. The major parts are: 1. The penis is the male reproductive organ that deposits semen in the reproductive tract of the female. Semen is a fluid containing sperm secreted by the seminal and prostate glands. Se men is expelled by a process known as ejaculation. Sexual stimulat ion during the mating process is needed for ejaculation to occur. 2. The urethra is the tube that extends through the penis from the urinary bladder. 3. The seminal glands produce fluids th at promote the production of viable sperm. 4. The seminal vesicles are organs attach ed to the urethra and produce a fluid that nourishes sperm. 5. The prostate gland is an organ loca ted around a section of the urethra and produces a fluid that becomes part of the semen. 6. The sperm ducts are tubes that connect the urethra with th e testicles. They carry sperm from the testicles and mix with fluids to form semen. 7. The testicles are the male organs that produce sperm. They are outside the body cavity and carried in the scrotum. 8. The scrotum is a pouch-like skin structur e that holds the te sticles outside the body. The temperature in the scrotum is sl ightly lower than that of the body. This promotes sperm production. C. The female and male reproductive syst ems are designed to assure efficient reproduction processes. This is needed in animal production systems where animals are produced and used for specific purposes. Have students read appropria te sections in the textbook as homework or during supervised study. Involve students in deve loping a summary of the content for the objective on the writing surface. Another approach is to sketch and label the parts of the female and male reproductive systems on th e writing surface or use TM: 06.08.D and TM: 06.08.E. In some cases, reproductive tr acts may be obtained from slaughter houses for student examination. Caution: Be sure to follow all safety rules with any animal tissues used in the classroom. Objective 4: List and describe th e phases of the estrous cycle. Anticipated Problem: What are the phases of the estrous cycle? How are these related to reproduction? Reading: Agriscience 370-372

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305 Agriscience fundamentals & applications 544-545 Introduction to livestock and companion animals 124-125 During Reading Strategies Sequence Map / Timeline Procedure: 1. Instruct students to survey the passage, looking for textual hints in the headings and titles that suggest key concepts. 2. Instruct students to read the assigned passage. 3. As students read the passage, they should fill in the appropriate information in the sequence map, timeline, or flow chart. 4. Use RS: 06.08.G for the handout and RS: 06.08.G key for a guide. 5. The cause and effect map, sequence map, timeline, or flow chart may be used to create a summary of the process or series. IV. The estrous cycle is the phases in the repr oductive cycle between periods of estrus. These are the phases of reproduc tive readiness in the repr oductive system of a mature female. The cycle does not occur during pregnancy nor when a female is in anestrus. Anestrus is the absence of cycling. It may occur due to disease, not being of reproductive age, or other conditions. A. The estrous cycle is comprised of four phases. The phases occur in a definite sequence unless the female is pregnant. (T he sequence listed here is the sequence of occurrence.) 1. Estrus is the phase when a female is in heat. The animal is receptive to mating and will stand for copulation with a male. Females exhibit signs of heat. An enlarged vulva and a discharge from it are signs. Some females exhibit behaviors indicating readiness for mati ng such as when a cow mounts another cow in the mating position. 2. Metestrus is the phase following heat. Ovulation occurs during metestrus as do other processes that help maintain a pregnancy should conception occur. 3. Diestrus is the phase in the estrou s cycle when the reproductive system assumes that conception has occurred, ev en if it has not. Diestrus is several days long depending on the species of animal. 4. Proestrus is the period following diestrus in which preparation is being made by the reproductive system for the next heat period and ovulation. If conception has occurred, the estrous cycle ceases until it is renewed after gestation and parturition. B. Animal producers can be more efficien t in animal reproductive management if they know the phases of estrous. Carefu l observation by a trained producer and records on reproductive cycles will promot e breeding to assure the production of young animals at the best time. For exampl e, cattle producers often breed cows to assure calving in the spring when past ure grasses are beginning to grow. This allows a cow to produce maximum milkfor the nutrition and grow th of the calf. Have students read appropriate sections in the textbook. Develop the information on the writing surface using student input. TM: 06.08.F can be used to present a summary of the

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306 information. If appropriate, have students observe a female hog (or other species that exhibits visible signs) that is in heat and compare the signs w ith those of a female that is not in heat. Have an artificial insemination t echnician serve as a resource person in class and describe the signs used to know the time to artificially inseminate a female. Objective 5: Explain the reproduc tive development of animals. Anticipated Problem: What are the phases in the reproductive development of animals? Reading: Agriscience 372-373 Agriscience fundamentals & applications 544-545 Introduction to livestock and companion animals 125-128 During Reading Strategies Sequence Map / Timeline Procedure: 1. Instruct students to survey the passage, looking for textual hints in the headings and titles that suggest key concepts. 2. Instruct students to read the assigned passage. 3. As students read the passage, they should fill in the appropriate information in the sequence map, timeline, or flow chart. 4. Use RS: 06.08.H for the handout and RS: 06.08.H key for a guide. 5. The cause and effect map, sequence map, timeline, or flow chart may be used to create a summary of the process or series. V. Animals of a species begin lif e as either a male or female. Their development as a member of their species includes repr oductive development for their gender. A. Reproductive development follows fairly definite stages and processes. 1. Prepuberty is the stage of life of a young animal before it is capable of reproduction. Sufficient development has not been reached for an animal to reproduce. 2. Puberty is the stage when an animal reaches a level of sexual development where it is capable of reproduction. Pubert y occurs in both males and females. With females, the estrous cycle results in the release of mature eggs that can support the mating, conception, and gesta tion processes. With males, the animal is capable of producing viable sperm. Age of puberty varies with animal species and other conditions su ch as nutrition and health condition. Examples of when puberty is reached are: cattle 8 months, sheep 5 months, swine 4 months, and horses 12 months. 3. Gestation is the period when a female is pregnant. The length of gestation varies with species though it tends to be consistent among members of the same species. For example, the gesta tion period is 114 days for sows and 337 days for a mare. The animal gives birth at the end of gestation. 4. Parturition is the process of giving bi rth. Hormones are produced to support the birth process and prepare for lactation.

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307 5. Lactation is the secretion of milk by th e mammary glands of a female. It is initiated by hormone activity. Lactati on lasts for several months following parturition. B. Mating behavior is a part of reproductiv e development. Both males and females of a species exhibit mating behavior. With males, this includes libido (desire to mate) and social status within a herd. W ith females, receptivity to mating occurs during heat. Have students read appropria te sections in the text book. Follow reading by having students participate in summa rizing the content on the writing surface. TM: 06.08.G can be used to present a summary of the information. Post-Reading Strategies Please select one of the follo wing Post-Reading strategies to use as a conclusion to the lesson. Cube It! Procedure: 1. The teacher should select the text passage to be read. a. Divide the students into teams of no more than 6 students. b. You will need a die with the six questions (describe it, compare it, associate it, analyze it, apply it, and argue for or against it) listed on the sides. 2. Students should number a sheet of no tebook paper 1-6, skipping 6-8 lines in between each number. a. By each number, students should write a team members name (some team members might have their name liste d twice, depending on the size of the teams). b. The person whose name is written afte r number 1 will roll the die first. Whatever question it lands on, that person must answer it on notebook paper. 3. Be sure to write the die question by your number (example 1. Travis Describe it the answer). a. Use RS: 06.08.I for the dice pattern. 4. Each member will roll the die until all of the six questions have been answered. Remember: each member is responsible fo r one side of the die, and the answer must be in his/her own words and writing. Die Questions and How to Answer: Describe it: What is animal reproducti on about? What is the importance of animal reproduction? Compare it: What is animal reproduc tion similar to or different from? Associate it: What does animal reproduction make you think of? Analyze it: Tell the step s of animal reproduction. Apply it: What can you do with animal reproduction? How is animal reproduction used to improve herd productivity?

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308 Argue for or against it:Take a sta nd and list reasons supporting animal reproductions importance. Summary (see RS: 06.08.J for condensed rules) Four General Steps to Help with the Four+ Specific Rules for Writing a Summary 1. Make sure you understand the text. Ask your self, What was this text about? What did the writer say? Try to say the general theme to yourself. 2. Look back. Reread the text to make sure you got the theme right. Also read to make sure that you really understand what the important parts of the text are. Star the important points. Now Use the Four Rules for Writing a Summary 3. Rethink. Reread a paragraph of the text. Tr y to say the theme of that paragraph to yourself. Is the theme a topic sentence? Have you underlined it? Or is the topic sentence missing: If it is missing, have you written one in the margin? 4. Check and double-check. Did you leave in any lists? Make sure you dont list things out in your summary. Did you repe at yourself? Make sure you didnt. Did you skip anything? Is all the im portant information in the summary? Four Rules for Writing a Summary 5. Collapse lists. If you see a lis t of things, try to think of a word or phrase name for the whole list. For example, if you saw a list like eyes, ears, neck, arms, and legs, you could say body parts. Or, if you sa w a list like ice skating, skiing, or sledding, you could say winter sports. 6. Use topic sentences. Often authors write a sentence that summarizes a whole paragraph. It is called a topic sentence If the author gives you one, you can use it in your summary. Unfortuna tely, not all paragraphs c ontain topic sentences. That means you may have to make up one for yourself. If you dont see a topic sentence, make up one of your own. 7. Get rid of unnecessary detail. Some te xt information can be repeated in a passage. In other words, the same thi ng can be said in a number of different ways, all in one passage. Ot her text information can be unimportant, or trivial. Since summaries are meant to be short, get rid of repetitive or trivial information. 8. Collapse paragraphs. Paragraphs are often related to one another. Some paragraphs explain one or more other pa ragraphs. Some paragraphs just expand on the information presented in other pa ragraphs. Some paragraphs are more necessary than other paragraphs. Decide which paragraphs should be kept or gotten rid of, and which might be joined together. A Final Suggestion 9. Polish the summary. When a lot of info rmation is reduced from an original passage, the resulting concen trated information often sounds very unnatural. Fix this problem and create a more natu ral-sounding summary. Adjustments may include but are not limited to: paraphra sing, the insertion of connecting words like and or because, and the insertion of introductory or closing statements. Paraphrasing is especially useful here, for two reasons: one, because it improves your ability to remember the material, and two, it avoids using the authors words, otherwise known as plagiarism. (Hare & Borchardt, p. 66, 1984)

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309 Discussion Web Procedure: 1. Select a passage of text for students to read that contains potentially opposing viewpoints about artificial insemi nation versus natural breeding. a. You may want to prepare student s by activating th eir background knowledge about artificial insemina tion and natural breeding through brainstorming. 2. Instruct students to r ead the assigned passage. 3. Introduce students to the discussion web (RS: 06.08.K) by asking a focusing question for discussion 4. Assign students into pairs to develop opposing sides of the question. As they work the students should flesh out the arguments on both sides of the blank discussion web. a. Emphasis should be on making the str ongest possible arguments for both sides of the question. b. Students should temporarily postpone th eir personal beliefs about the topic so that they can generate argumen ts for both sides of the issue. 5. Students should share their points of vi ew and capture them on the discussion web. a. You may combine pairs into larger groups to share ideas and develop consensus on the topic. b. The groups conclusion should be writte n at the bottom of the discussion web. 6. The larger groups should present their conclusions to the entire class. a. Groups should select a spokesperso n who will present the groups consensus to the entire class. b. Group presentations should be limite d to 2-3 minutes to eliminate the possibility of repeating information. c. Spokespersons should be encouraged to mention opposing views from within their group or strong arguments from the opposing position. 7. Students may be instructed to create a summary position resulting from their personal discussion web as well as the entire class discussion. Review/Summary. Use the objectives for the lesson as the structure for reviewing and summarizing the content of the lesson. Ha ve students orally explain the content associated with each objective. Assess ad equacy of their resp onses and reteach the content of any objective as needed. Activi ties that may support summary and review include making a field trip to observe the ar tificial insemination of an animal, observing the birth of an animal, and assessing the qual ity of semen used in artificial insemination. Application. Application can occur as st udents produce animals in their supervised experience or later in their ca reers. In some cases, school laboratories may have animals where students can apply information on animal reproduction.

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310 Evaluation. Evaluation should be based on mastery of the objectives by the students. This can occur during instruction, re view, or later as students ap ply the information. A written test can also be used. A sample written test is attached to the lesson plan. Answers to Assessment: Part One: Matching 1=i, 2=f, 3=a, 4=b, 5=d, 6=c, 7=e, 8=j, 9=h, 10=g Part Two: Completion 1=Gestation, 2=Lactation, 3= Estrus, 4=steer, 5=Semen Part Three: Short Answer 1. The paragraph should include mating and the process of fertilization. The major organs of males and females that produce sex cells can be included. The pregnancy, gestation, and parturition should be included. 2. Efficient reproduction is important because animal producers want more animals. Part Four: Multiple Choice 1 = c, 2 = a, 3 = b, 4 = b, 5 = d, 6 = a, 7 = b, 8 = c, 9 = c, 10 = d, 11 = b, 12 = a, 13 = d, 14 = b, 15 = b Part Five: Comprehension Grading rubric. Criteria 5 pts. 3 pts. 0 pts. Topic sentence Clear, concise topic sentence. Topic sentences, but does not describe summary. No topic sentence. Organization Organized. Encompasses key concepts (breeding, artificial insemination, purebred, hybrid) Some organization. Does not relate all four key concepts. Little or no organization. No mention of key concepts. Collapsed lists and paragraphs Collapsed information into concise sentences. No mention of examples. Lack of concise sentences. One or two examples provided. Failed to collapse information. Three or more examples provided. Eliminated unnecessary detail Unnecessary detail eliminated. Some unnecessary detail remaining. Excess unnecessary detail remaining. Key points Key points clearly delineated. Mentions key points, but does not delineate. No key points identified. Total Points 25

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311 Assessment Name_____________________________________ Lesson 06.08: Understanding Animal Reproduction Part One: Matching Instructions. Match the term with the correct response. Write the letter of the term by the definition. (1 point/question). a. sexual reproduction f. estrous cycle b. fertilization g. ovary c. sperm h. testicle d. egg i. puberty e. castrate j. parturition _______ 1. The stage at which an animal becomes capable of reproduction. _______ 2. The time between the periods of estrus. _______ 3. Reproduction that involves the union of an egg and sperm. _______ 4. The process by which union of an egg and sperm occurs. _______ 5. The female sex cell. _______ 6. The male sex cell. _______ 7. To remove the testicles from a male. _______ 8. The process of giving birth. _______ 9. The male organ that produces sperm. _______ 10. The female organ that produces eggs. Part Two: Completion Instructions. Provide the word or words to complete the following statements. (1 point/question). 1. _________________________ is the period when a female is pregnant. 2. _________________________ is the secretion of milk by the mammary glands of a female mammal. 3. _________________________ is the period when a female is in heat and receptive to breeding. 4. A _______________________ is a male bovine that ha s been castrated at a young age. 5. _________________________ is the fluid produced by males that contains sperm. Part Three: Short Answer Instructions. Provide information to answer the following questions. (5 points/question). 1. Write a paragraph that describes th e reproductive process in mammals. 2. Why is efficient reproduction important to animal producers?

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312 Part Four: Multiple Choice Instructions. Select the best answer for the following questions. (1 point/question). 1. What is the difference between reproduction and fertilization? a. Reproduction is the union of the sper m and egg, while fertilization refers to producing offspring. b. Reproduction is the process of a male mating with a female of the same species, while fertilization is the when a producer places the semen from the male in the female reproductive tract with specialized equipment. c. Fertilization is the union of the sp erm and egg, while reproduction refers to producing offspring. d. Fertilization is the process of a male mating with a female of the same species, while reproduction is the when a producer places the semen from the male in the female reproductive tract with specialized equipment. 2. For livestock, fertilization can be broke n down into which two different methods? c. Natural insemination and artificial insemination. d. Reproduction and breeding. e. Fertilization and circulation. f. Heat and copulation. 3. Both of the methods of livestock fert ilization mentioned in question #2 involve which of the following female characteristics? a. Circulation. b. Heat. c. Semen production. d. None of the above. 4. What happens once an egg has been fertilized? a. The egg moves through the oviduct wher e the embryo and fetus develop. b. The egg moves through the oviduct to the uterus where the embryo and fetus develop. c. The egg moves through the ovary where the embryo and fetus develop. d. None of the above. 5. Which of the following organs is part of the female reproductive system? a. Urethra. b. Seminal glands. c. Testicles. d. Cervix. 6. Which of the following organs is not part of the male reproductive system? a. Vulva. b. Prostrate gland. c. Sperm ducts. d. Seminal glands.

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313 7. When a producer uses artificial insemina tion, where does he or she insert the sperm? a. Oviduct. b. Vagina. c. Fallopian tubes. d. None of the above. 8. After fertilization, an em bryo develops in the _______________. a. Vulva. b. Cervix. c. Uterus. d. Oviduct. 9. The vulva, vagina, and uterus are all parts of the _________________. a. Circulatory system. b. Male reproductive system. c. Female reproductive system. d. None of the above. 10. Why are the testicles held outside of the body cavity? a. There is not enough room in the body cavity. b. Sperm have less distance to travel to the penis. c. To ease castration. d. To lower the temperature of the testicles. 11. For which of the following animals would the reproductive system be irrelevant? a. Heifers. b. Barrows. c. Roosters. d. Mares. 12. An unbred heifer is in which reproductive period in her life? a. Puberty. b. Gestation. c. Parturition. d. Lactation. 13. A dairy cow that is being milked daily is in what reproductive period of her life? a. Puberty. b. Gestation. c. Parturition. d. Lactation.

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314 14. A pregnant sow is in what re productive period of her life? a. Puberty. b. Gestation. c. Parturition. d. Lactation. 15. Which of the following reproductive periods have a definite length of time, depending upon the species? a. Puberty. b. Gestation. c. Parturition. d. Lactation. Part Five: Comprehension Instructions. Read the following passage a bout animal nutrition. After reading the passage, develop a summary of the following information. (25 points possible). You may use the back of this pa ge to write your summary. BREEDING Breeding is helping animals reproduce. Anim al scientists do this by controlling male and female animals. They may be kept in separate pens or pastures. Hormones are sometimes used to enhance fertility. Animal producers may use artificial inse mination. This is using implements to place sperms in the female mechanically. In this case, the sperms are collected from the male beforehand as semen. The semen may be fr ozen if it is to be kept for an extended period. One advantage to artifici al insemination is that an animal can be bred to a highquality mate from anywhere in the world w ithout moving the animals. In addition, more offspring may be obtained from each male. Over time, animal species have been bred for specific qualities. This has led to breeds, which are groups of an imals with consistent and di stinctive traits. Breed names often come from the region of the wo rld where the breed was developed.

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315 A purebred animal has two parents with the same set of distinctive characteristics. The animal has a documented pedigree, which is a certificate proving its parentage. The pedigree is obtained from a registering agency for a fee. A hybrid animal has parents with differen t characteristics. In some cases, this results in hybrid vigor. This means that offs pring have the best qualities of both parents.

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316 TM: 06.08.A Animal Reproduction Reproductionthe process by wh ich offspring are produced Sexual reproductionthe union of a sperm and egg Spermmale sex cell Eggfemale sex cell (also know as ovum) Fertilizationprocess by which sexual reproduction occurs Natural inseminationmale of species depos its semen in the reproductive tract of a female

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317 TM: 06.08.B Animal Sexual Classification Sexual classificationcondition of an an imal based on its age and sexual condition Castrateremove testes (testicles) from a male Neuterremove ovaries from a female

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318 TM: 06.08.C Sexual Classification of Selected Animals Mature Species Young Animal1 Female Male Castrated Male Cattle Calf Cow Bull Steer Hog Pig Sow Boar Barrow Sheep Lamb Ewe Ram Wether Goat Kid Doe Buck Wether Chicken Chick Hen Rooster Capon Horse Male Female Foal Colt Filly Mare Stallion Gelding 1Young animal of either sex, except horses as indicated.

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319 TM: 06.08.D Reproductive System of a Cow Artwork supplied with permission of Interstate Publishers, Inc.

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320 TM: 06.08.E Reproductive System of a Bull Artwork supplied with permission of Interstate Publishers, Inc.

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321 TM: 06.08.F The Estrous Cycle Estrous cyclethe phases in the reproductive cycle from one estrus period (heat) to the next Estrusthe phase when a female is receptive to matingheat Metestrusthe phase following heat when ovulat ion occurs and uterus is prepared for a pregnancy should conception occur Diestrusestrous cycle phase between metestrus and proestrus Proestrusphase following diestrus in whic h reproductive system is prepared for next estrus

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322 TM: 06.08.G Reproductive Development of Animals Prepubertystage of life of a young animal before it is capable of reproduction Pubertystage when an animal is capable of reproduction Gestationperiod when a female is pregnant Parturitionprocess of giving birth Lactationsecretion of milk by mammary glands

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323 RS: 06.08.A Name_____________________________________ Animal Reproduction K-W-L Know Want to know Learned

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324 RS: 06.06.B Name_____________________________________ Making Predictions A-Z: Animal Reproduction A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z I predict that

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325 RS: 06.06.B key Making Predictions A-Z: Animal Reproduction A B C Anestrus Artificial insemination Castration Cervix Copulation D E F Egg Ejaculation Estrous cycle Estrus Fertilization G H I Gestation Heat Insemination J K L Lactation M N O Metestrus Natural insemination Neutering Ovary Oviduct P Q R Parturition Penis Proestrus Prostate gland Puberty Reproduction S T U Scrotum Semen Seminal glands Seminal vesicles Sexual classification Sexual reproduction Sperm Sperm ducts Steer Testicles Urethra Uterus V W X Vagina Vulva Y Z I predict that

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326 RS: 06.08.C Name_____________________________________ Animal Reproduction Anticipation Guide Before Reading: Yes/No Statement After Reading: Yes/No Evidence/Support Livestock producers generally improve herd quality by purchasing muscular, lean, and soundly conformed animals. Why? ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ Livestock are sexually classified in order to improve productivity (i.e.: feeding heifers, steers, and cows differently) Why? ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ In order for high productivity, reproductive animals must possess sound reproductive organs. Why? ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ Estrus is a feeding cycle that is influenced by the moon. Why? ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ All livestock progress through reproductive stages. Why? ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________

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327 RS: 06.08.D Name_____________________________________ Reproduction Concept Map

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328 RS: 06.08.D key Reproduction Concept Map Sexual Reproduction Fertilization Sexual Reproduction Growth after Fertilization Natural insemination Artificial insemination Sperm Egg Copulation Heat Collect semen Primarily dairy cows Human aided Embryo Fetus

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329 RS: 06.08.E Name_____________________________________ Reproduction Concept of Definition Map Definition: What are examples? What are characteristics? Concept What is it like? What is the purpose? What are non-examples?

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330 RS: 06.08.E key Reproduction Concept of Definition Map Definition: Process by which animals produce offspring sexual reproduction union of sperm and egg What are examples? Breeding Natural insemination Artificial insemination Sexual reproduction Embryo transfer What are characteristics? Involves sperm & egg Involves copulation Females must be in heat Insemination Once fertilization occurs, embryo develops into fetus Concept Animal Reproduction What is it like? What is the purpose? To produce new offspring To improve the quality of the herd To improve milk production or meat quality It is like producing seeds in plants Insemination What are non-examples? Cuttings of plants Division in plants Cloning Castrated males (wethers, steers, barrows, geldings, etc.)

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331 RS: 06.08.F Name_____________________________________ Reproductive Systems Matrix Categories Variables Organs Location Male/FemaleFunction Vulva Vagina Cervix Uterus Oviduct (Fallopian tubes) Ovary Penis Urethra Seminal glands Seminal vesicles Prostrate gland Sperm ducts Testicles Scrotum

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332 RS: 06.06.F key Reproductive Systems Matrix Categories Variables Reproductive Organs Location Male / Female Function Vulva External part of female reproductive tract Female Keeps foreign material out of reproductive tract Vagina Mating organ of the female Female Receives semen from male & serves as the canal through which the fetus moves at birth Cervix Entrance to uterus Female Uterus Organ in which the embryo and fetus develop Female House the embryo and fetus Oviduct (Fallopian tubes) Tube from the ovaries to the uterus Female Fertilization takes place near upper end of oviduct Ovary Organ that produces the eggs or ova Female Produce eggs Penis Male reproductive organ Male Deposits semen in the reproductive tract of female Urethra Tube that extends through the penis from the urinary bladder Male Conducts urine and semen Seminal glands Glands that produce fluids that promote viable sperm Male Produce fluids that promote the production of viable sperm Seminal vesicles Organs attached to the urethra Male Produce a fluid that nourishes sperm Prostrate gland Organ located around a section of the urethra Male Produces a fluid that becomes part of semen Sperm ducts Tubs that connect the urethra with the testicles Male Carry sperm from the testicles and mix with fluids to form semen Testicles Male sex organs Male Produce sperm Scrotum Pouch-like skin structure Male Holds testicles outside the body

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333 RS: 06.08.G Name: _____________________________ Estrous Cycle Sequence Map ______________________ Estrous Cycle ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

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334 Estrous Cycle Sequence Map Estrus female is in heat Female is receptive to mating Enlarged vulva Discharge from vulva Females may mount other females Estrous Cycle phases of the reproductive cycle between periods of estrus Proestrus preparation is being made for next period of heat and ovulation If conception has occurred, estrous cycle ceases until it is renewed after gestation and parturition Diestrus reproductive system assumes conception has occurred Occurs even if conception has not occurred Several days long Metestrus phase following heat Ovulation occurs

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335 RS: 06.08.H Name: ____________________________ Phases of Reproductive Development Sequence Map Reproductive Development

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336 RS: 06.08.H key Phases of Reproductive Development Sequence Map Puberty animal is capable of reproduction Males & females Release of eggs in females Production of sperm in males Varies w/ species, nutrition, & health Cattle = 8-12 mos., sheep = 5-7 mos., swine = 47 mos., horses= 12-15 mos. Reproductive Development definite stages and processes Lactation secretion of milk by mammary glands of female Initiated by hormone activity Lasts for several months after parturition Parturition process of giving birth Hormones produced Body prepares for lactation Gestation period when female is pregnant Varies w/ species Cows = 11 months, ewes = 150 days, sows = 114 days, mares = 337 days,

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337 RS: 06.08.I Cube It! Dice Pattern Describe it Analyze it Compare it Associate it Apply it Argue for/against it

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338 RS: 06.08.J Summary Rules 1. Make sure you understand the text. What was this text about? What did the writer say? Try to say th e general theme to yourself. 2. Look back. Reread the text to make sure you got the theme right. 3. Rethink. Reread a paragraph of the text. Try to say the theme of that paragraph to yourself. Is the theme a topic sentence? Have you underlined it? Or is the topic sentence missing: If it is missi ng, have you written one in the margin? 4. Check and double-check. Did you leave in any lists? Make sure you dont list things out in your summary. Did you repe at yourself? Make sure you didnt. Did you skip anything? Is all the im portant information in the summary? 5. Collapse lists. If you see a lis t of things, try to think of a word or phrase name for the whole list. 6. Use topic sentences. Often authors write a sentence that summarizes a whole paragraph. It is called a topic sentence If the author gives you one, you can use it in your summary. If you dont see a t opic sentence, make up one of your own. 7. Get rid of unnecessary detail. Some te xt information can be repeated in a passage. Since summaries are meant to be short, get rid of repetitive or trivial information. 8. Collapse paragraphs. Paragraphs are often related to one another. Some paragraphs explain one or more other pa ragraphs. Some paragraphs just expand on the information presented in other pa ragraphs. Some paragraphs are more necessary than other paragraphs. Decide which paragraphs should be kept or gotten rid of, and which might be joined together. 9. Polish the summary. When a lot of info rmation is reduced from an original passage, the resulting concen trated information often sounds very unnatural. Fix this problem and create a more natu ral-sounding summary. Adjustments may include but are not limited to: paraphra sing, the insertion of connecting words like and or because, and the insertion of introductory or closing statements. Paraphrasing is especially useful here, for two reasons: one, because it improves your ability to remember the material, and two, it avoids using the authors words, otherwise known as plagiarism. (Hare & Borchardt, p. 66, 1984)

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339 RS: 06.08.K Name _____________________________________ Animal Reproduction Discussion Web Instructions: Think about the positive and negative aspects of artificial insemination. List these in the appropriate columns and develop a conclusion about artificial insemi nation versus natural breeding. Positive Impacts / Pros Negative Impacts / Cons Is artificial insemination the best method of improving beef herd productivity? Conclusion

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340 APPENDIX E PANEL OF EXPERTS The following are a list of panel of experts for this dissertation. Table E-1: Panel of Experts. Portion Faculty Graduate Students Agricultural comprehension pre-test Dyer, Jim Myers, Brian Osborne, Ed Rudd, Rick Washburn, Shannon Bellah, Kimberly Friedel, Curt Fuhrman, Nick Jones, David Kaufman, Eric Rocca, Steve Warner, Wendy

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341 APPENDIX F INSTRUMENTS Agriculture Pre-test Pre-Test Student ID# __________________ Part One: Matching Instructions. Match the term with the correct response. Write the letter of the term by the definition. (1 point/question). a. anatomy f. high-energy concentrates k. sperm b. digestion g. organ m. tissue c. egg h. parturition d. feedstuff i. puberty e. fertilization j. roughages _______ 1. Feeds that contain le ss than 20% crude protein. _______ 2. A group of tissues that work toge ther to perform specific functions. _______ 3. The stage at which an animal becomes capable of reproduction. _______ 4. An ingredient used in making the feed for animals. _______ 5. The study of the functions of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems of a living organism. _______ 6. A group of cells that is al ike in activity and structure. _______ 7. Livestock feeds that contain more than 18% crude fiber when dry. _______ 8. Breaking down food into molecules that the body can absorb. _______ 9. The process by which union of an egg and sperm occurs. _______ 10. The female sex cell. _______ 11. The male sex cell. _______ 12. The process of giving birth. Part Two: Completion Instructions. Provide the word(s) to complete the following statemen ts. (1 pt/question). 1. The __________________ system consists of skin and other body covering. 2. The __________________ system provides a framework to give the body shape. 3. The __________________ system moves blood a nd other materials throughout the body of an animal. 4. Most vegetable proteins cont ain less than ________________ crude protein. 5. Animal growth requires mostly _____________________ and smaller amounts of other nutrients. 6. _________________________ is the period when a female is pregnant.

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342 7. _________________________ is the period when a female is in heat and receptive to breeding. Part Four: Multiple Choice Instructions. Select the best answer for the following questions. (1 point/question). 1. What is the difference between anatomy and physiology? a. Anatomy refers to the functions of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems, while physiology refers to the study of form, shape, and appearance of an animal. b. Anatomy is the same as physiology. c. Physiology refers to an animals phys ical health, while anatomy refers to the animals anatomical features. d. Physiology refers to the functions of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems, while anatomy refers to the study of form, shape, and appearance of an animal. 2. Producers who raise livestock for meat attempt to maximize which organ system? a. Circulatory. b. Muscular. c. Respiratory. d. None of the above. 3. Which two organ systems would work toge ther in producing a fast racehorse? a. Skeletal and muscular. b. Circulatory and reproductive. c. Nervous and muscular. d. Skeletal and circulatory. 4. A barrow that goes lame during transpor tation to market experiences damage to which organ systems? a. Lymphatic and/or muscular. b. Muscular and/or skeletal. c. Nervous and/or reproductive. d. Skeletal and/or excretory. 5. A large volume is blood is necessary for high milk production in dairy cows. Which organ system provides this blood to the udder? a. Reproductive. b. Circulatory. c. Muscular. d. Excretory.

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343 6. Ruminants and nonruminants differ in primarily which organ system? a. Integumentary. b. Reproductive. c. Circulatory. d. Digestive. 7. Body conformation is essential for locomo tion and enabling an animal to feed and reproduce. Which two organ systems does conformation primarily refer to? a. Lymphatic and/or muscular. b. Muscular and/or skeletal. c. Nervous and/or reproductive. d. Skeletal and/or excretory. 8. Animals in confined feeding that live on concrete flooring may have difficulty with which two organ systems due to the stress of the concrete? a. Lymphatic and/or muscular. b. Muscular and/or skeletal. c. Nervous and/or reproductive. d. Skeletal and/or excretory. 9. Which of the following represents an organ? a. Muscle. b. Heart. c. Circulatory. d. Blood. 10. Which of the following represents an organ system? a. Muscle. b. Heart. c. Circulatory. d. Blood. 11. If a different producer were feeding re placement gilts that were soon to be bred, which of the following func tions would the feed perform? a. Reproduction. b. Growth and reproduction. c. Growth and lactation. d. All of the above. 12. How is a feedstuff selected for maintenance the same as a feedstuff for growth? Both contain high amounts of _______________________. a. Carbohydrates. b. Fats. c. Carbohydrates and fats. d. Calcium and phosphorus.

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344 13. Why would a high-protein concen trate be fed to livestock? a. Maintenance. b. Growth. c. Work. d. Lactation. 14. Which of the following animals w ould a producer feed high-energy concentrates? a. Milking cows. b. Replacement heifers. c. Laying hens. d. Feeder pigs. 15. In the above question, why would the producer feed the high-energy concentrate? a. Lactation. b. Work. c. Growth. d. Reproduction. 16. Which of the following feedstuffs woul d contain the highest energy content? a. Nonlegume roughages. b. Concentrates. c. Supplements. 17. Why would a producer feed dairy co ws a ration containing roughages, concentrates, and supplements? a. Roughages for fiber, concentrates for lactation, and supplements for calcium and phosphorus. b. Roughages for nitrogen, concentrates for work, and supplements for protein. c. Roughages for energy, concentrates for protein, and supplements for nitrogen. d. Roughages for lactation, concentrat es for reproduction, and protein supplements. 18. For livestock, fertilization can be broken down into which two different methods? a. Natural insemination and artificial insemination. b. Reproduction and breeding. c. Fertilization and circulation. d. Heat and copulation.

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345 19. What happens once an egg has been fertilized? a. The egg moves through the oviduct where the embryo and fetus develop. b. The egg moves through the oviduct to the uterus where the embryo and fetus develop. c. The egg moves through the ovary where the embryo and fetus develop. d. None of the above. 20. Which of the following organs is part of the female reproductive system? a. Urethra. b. Seminal glands. c. Testicles. d. Cervix. 21. Which of the following organs is not part of the male reproductive system? a. Vulva. b. Prostrate gland. c. Sperm ducts. d. Seminal glands. 22. After fertilization, an em bryo develops in the _______________. a. Vulva. b. Cervix. c. Uterus. d. Oviduct. 23. For which of the following animal w ould the reproductive system be made irrelevant? a. Heifers. b. Barrows. c. Roosters. d. Mares. 24. An unbred heifer is in which reproductive period in her life? a. Puberty. b. Gestation. c. Parturition. d. Lactation. 25. A pregnant sow is in what re productive period of her life? a. Puberty. b. Gestation. c. Parturition. d. Lactation.

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346 26. Which of the following reproductive periods have a definite length of time, depending upon the species? a. Puberty. b. Gestation. c. Parturition. d. Lactation. Agriculture Pre-Test Key Part One: Matching ___F___ 1. Feeds that contain less than 20% crude protein. ___G__ 2. A group of tissues that work t ogether to perform specific functions. ___I___ 3. The stage at which an anim al becomes capable of reproduction. ___D__ 4. An ingredient used in making the feed for animals. ___A__ 5. The study of the functions of cel ls, tissues, organs, and organ systems of a living organism. ___M__ 6. A group of cells that is a like in activity and structure. ___J___ 7. Livestock feeds that contain more than 18% crude fiber when dry. ___B___ 8. Breaking down food into molecules that the body can absorb. ___E___ 9. The process by which union of an egg and sperm occurs. ___C__ 10. The female sex cell. ___K__ 11. The male sex cell. ___H__ 12. The process of giving birth. Part Two: Completion 1. integumentary 2. skeletal 3. circulatory 4. 47% 5. energy 6. Gestation 7. Estrus Part Four: Multiple Choice 1. d. Physiology refers to the functions of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems, while anatomy refers to the study of form shape, and appearance of an animal. 2. b. Muscular. 3. a. Skeletal and muscular. 4. b. Muscular and/or skeletal. 5. b. Circulatory. 6. d. Digestive. 7. b. Muscular and/or skeletal. 8. b. Muscular and/or skeletal. 9. b. Heart. 10. c. Circulatory. 11. b. Growth and reproduction. 12. c. Carbohydrates and fats.

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347 13. d. Lactation. 14. d. Feeder pigs. 15. c. Growth. 16. b. Concentrates. 17. a. Roughages for fiber, concentrates fo r lactation, and supplements for calcium and phosphorus. 18. a. Natural insemination and artificial insemination. 19. b. The egg moves through the oviduct to the uterus where the embryo and fetus develop. 20. d. Cervix. 21. a. Vulva. 22. c. Uterus. 23. b. Barrows. 24. a. Puberty. 25. b. Gestation. 26. b. Gestation.

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348 Adapted Motivations for Reading Preand Post-Test Student ID code: ______________ School: ______________ Please fill in the circle that most accurately describe s your motivation a nd/or attitude toward reading. A lot like me. A little like me. A little different from me. Very different from me. 1 2 3 4 I like it when the questions or topics in books make me think. I am willing to work hard to read better than my friends. If a book is interesting, I dont care how hard it is to read. I try to find time each day to read something for pleasure. If the teacher discusses something interesting I might read more about it. I am a good reader. I like being the best at reading. I do as little schoolwork as po ssible where reading is concerned. I talk to my friends about what I am reading. I am happy when someone recognizes my reading ability. I usually learn diffi cult things by reading. I learn more from reading than most students in the class. I read to improve my grades. My friends sometimes tell me I am a good reader. Please answer the following questio ns to the best of your ability. Are you currently reading a book for pleasure? Yes No How many books did you read in the past month? ___________________ How many hours do you read ea ch week for school? ___________________ How many hours do you read ea ch week for pleasure? ___________________ Approximately how many books do you own? ___________________ How many magazines does your household subscribe to? ___________________

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349 LIST OF REFERENCES Agresti, A., & Finlay, B. (1997). Statistical methods for the social sciences. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Akagawa, Y. (1996). The effects of b ackground knowledge and careful attention on reading comprehension and vocabulary acquisition. Dissertation Abstracts International, 56 (09), 3517A. (UMI No. 9600002) Alexander, P. A., & Kulikowich, J. M. (1991). Domain knowledge and analogic reasoning ability as predictors of expository text comprehension. Journal of Reading Behavior, 23 (2), 165-191. Allen, R. (2000). Before its too late: Givi ng reading a last chance. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision a nd Curriculum Development. Allington, R. L. (1983). The reading instruct ion provided readers of differing reading abilities. The Elementary School Journal, 83 (5), 548-559. Allington, R. L. (2002). You cant le arn much from books you cant read. Educational Leadership, 60 (3), 16-19. Alvermann, D. E. (1989). Teacher-student mediation of content area texts. Theory Into Practice, 28 (2), 142-147. Alvermann, D. E., Smith, L. C., & Readence, J. E. (1985). Prior knowledge activation and the comprehension of compatible and incompatible text. Reading Research Quarterly, 20 (4), 420-436. Alvermann, D. E., & Swafford, J. (1989). Do content area strategies have a research base? Journal of Reading, 32 388-394. American Farm Bureau Federation. (2004). Farm facts Washington, D. C.: American Farm Bureau Federation. Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., & Razavieh, A. (2002). Introduction to research in education Stamford, CT: Thomson Learning, Wadsworth Group. Asher, S. R. (1980). Topic interest and childre ns reading comprehension. In R. J. Spiro, B. C. Bruce, & W. F. Brewer (Eds.). Theoretical issues in reading comprehension (pp. 525-534). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

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350 Ausubel, D. P. (1963). A subsumption theo ry of meaningful verbal learning and retention. Journal of General Psychology, 66 213-224. Autrey, J. H. (1999). Effects of direct inst ruction and precision teaching on achievement and persistence of adult learners. Dissertation Abstracts International, 60 (06), 1863A. (UMI No. 9932955) Baer, G. T., & Nourie, B. L. (1993). Strategies for teaching reading in the content areas. The Clearing House, 67 (2), 121-122. Baldwin, R. S., Peleg-Bruckner, Z., & McClinto ck, A. (1985). Effects of topic interest in childrens reading comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 10, 497-504. Barry, A. L. (2002). Reading strate gies teachers say they use. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 46 (2), 132-141. Barton, M. L., Heidema, C., & Jordan, D. (2002). Teaching reading in mathematics and science. Educational Leadership, 60 (3), 24-28. Beach, S. A. (1996). Improving reading comp rehension through st rategy instruction. Reading Psychology, 17 273-281. Beamer, L., & Abraham, K. (2003). Lets roll Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale House Publishers. Bean, T. W. (1997). Preservice teachers selection and us e of content area literacy strategies. The Journal of Educational Research, 90 (3), 154-169. Bean, T. W. (2000). Reading in the content areas: Social co nstructivist dimensions. In Kamil, M. L, Mosenthal, P. B., Pearson, P. D., & Barr, R. (Eds.), Handbook of reading research Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbau m Associates, Publishers. Bean, T. W. (2001). An update on reading in the content areas: Social constructionist dimensions. Reading Online, 5 (5). Retrieved May 6, 2004 from http://www.readingonline.org/ar ticles/handbook/bean/index.html Beers, K. (2003). Helping st udents learn to mind the gap. Voices from the Middle, 11 (1), 4-5. Belcher, G., McCaslin, N. L., & Headley, W. S. (1996). Implications of performance measures and standards for evaluation a nd assessment in ag ricultural education. Journal of Agricultural Education, 37 (4), 1-7. Bintz, W. P. (1997). Explor ing reading nightmares of middle and secondary school teachers. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 41 (1), 12-25.

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351 Black, D. J. (1995). An investigation into the knowing and regul ating comprehension behaviors of skilled and less sk illed seventh grade readers. Masters Abstracts International, 33 (03), 717. (UMI No. MM92150) Boone, H. N. (1988). Effects of approach to teaching on student ach ievement, retention, and attitude. Dissertation Abstracts International, 49 (10), 2900A. (UMI No. 8824463) Bos, C. S., & Anders, P. L. (1992). Using in teractive teaching and le arning strategies to promote text comprehension and conten t learning for students with learning disabilities. International Journal of Disability, Development, and Education, 39 (3), 225-238. Boyle, R. K., & Maloney, D. P. (1991). Effect of written text on usage of Newtons Third Law. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 28 (2), 123-139. Brozo, W. G. (1990). Hiding out in secondary content classrooms: C oping strategies of unsuccessful readers. Journal of Reading, 33 (5), 324-328. Bryant, D. P. (2003). Promoting effective in struction for struggling secondary students: Introduction to the special issue. Learning Disability Quarterly, 26 (2), 70-71. Bryant, D. P., Ugel, N., & Thompson, S. (1999) Instructional strate gies for content area reading instruction. Intervention in School and Clinic, 34 (5), 293-302. Bulgren, J., & Scanlon, D. (199798). Instructional ro utines and learning strategies that promote understanding of content area concepts. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 41 (4), 292-302. Campbell, D. T., & Stanley, J. C. (1963). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co. Cappella, E., & Weinstein, R. S. (2001). Turn ing around reading achie vement: Predictors of high school students academic resilience. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93 (4), 758-771. Carriedo, N., & Alonso-Tapia, J. (1995). Co mprehension strategy training in content areas. European Journal of Psyc hology of Education, 10 (4), 411-431. Catone, W. V. (2001). Teacher opinions a bout the nature and treatment of reading deficits in adolescents. Dissertation Abstracts International, 61 (10), 3940A. (UMI No. 9988100) Chapman, A. (1993). What is critical reading?. In A. Chapman (Ed.), Making sense: Teaching critical reading across the curriculum New York: The College Entrance Examination Board.

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352 Choochom, O. (1995). Text comprehension as a function of motivational orientation and reading strategy. Dissertation Abstracts International, 55 (07), 1874A. (UMI No. 9431605) Cibrowski, J. (1995). Using textbooks with students who cannot read them. Remedial and Special Education, 16 (2), 90-101. Collins, N. D. (1994). Metacognition a nd reading to learn. ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading, English, and Communication, Digest #96. Retrieved on July 21, 2004 from http://www.indiana.edu/~eri c_rec/ieo/digests/d96.html Conroy, C. A., & Walker, N. J. (2000). An examination of academic and vocational subject matter in the aquaculture classroom. Journal of Agricultural Education, 41 (2), 54-64. Cooper, E. L., & Burton, L. D. (2002). Agriscience: Fundame ntals and applications, third edition. Albany, NY: Delmar, Thompson Learning. Cooper, J. D. (2000). Literacy: Helping children construct meaning Wilmington, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Cooper, J. M. (1998). An exploratory study of the metacognition of verbally gifted/learning disabled learners with and without reading difficulties. Dissertation Abstracts International, 58 (12), 4559A. (UMI No. 98183223) Craig, H. K., Connor, C. M., & Washington, J. A. (2003). Early positive predictors of later reading comprehension for African American students: A preliminary investigation. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 34 31-43. Cresson, J. L. (1999). An analysis of content ar ea reading instructional strategies used in Texas public high schools. Dissertation Abstracts International, 59 (07), 2321A. (UMI No. 9838747) Creswell, J. W. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among the five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Cuevas, P. D. (2003). Voices from the middle: At-risk readers in an urban middle school. Dissertation Abstracts International, 64 (02), 443A. (UMI No. 3081288) Cziko, C. (1998). Reading happens in your mi nd, not in your mouth: Teaching & learning academic literacy in an urban hi gh school. Retrieved on April 4, 2004 from http://www.wested.org/stratli t/prodeveol/happens.shtml DArcangelo, M. (2002). The challenge of c ontent-area reading: A conversation with Donna Ogle. Educational Leadership, 60 (15), 12-15. Daisey, P. (1994). The value of trade books in secondary science and mathematics instruction: A rationale. School Science and Mathematics, 94 (3), 130-137.

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353 Davis, L. W., Franks, S., & Franks, G. (2001). GRITS: Guided Reading in Textual Settings. Paper presented at the meeting of the International Reading Association, New Orleans. Davis, J. A. (1971). Elementary survey analysis Englewood, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Demack, S., Drew, D., & Grimsley, M. ( 2000). Minding the gap: Ethnic, gender and social class differences in attainment at 16, 1988-95. Race, Ethnicity, and Education, 3 (2), 117-143. Denton, K., & West, J. (2002). Childrens r eading and mathematics achievement in kindergarten and first grade. Educational Statistics Quarterly Retrieved April 5, 2005 from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2002/2002125.pdf Desimone, L. (1999). Linking parent involveme nt with student achievement: Do race and income matter? The Journal of Educational Research, 93 (1), 11-30. DeVaus, D. A. (1990). Surveys in social research London Devine, T. G. (1986). Teaching reading comprehension. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc. DiCecco, V. M., & Gleason, M. M. (2002). Using graphic organizers to attain relational knowledge from expository text. Journal of Learning Disabilties, 35 (4), 306-320. Digisi, L. L. (1993). Textbook use in the biology classroom: What teachers report. Dissertation Abstracts International, 54 (05), 1742A. (UMI No. 9326306) Dillon, J. K. G. (2003). An examination of c ontent area reading in five central Florida middle schools. Dissertation Abstracts International, 63 (11), 3900A. (UMI No. 3069439) Dole, J. A., Brown, K. J., & Trathen, W. (1996) The effects of strategy instruction on the comprehension performance of at-risk students. Reading Research Quarterly, 31 62-88. Donahue, P. L., Finnegan, R. J., Lutkus, A. D ., Allen, N. L., & Campbell, J. R. (2001). The nations report card: Fourth-grade reading 2000 (NCES 2001-499). Washington, D.C.: National Center for Educational Statistics. Retrieved April 5, 2005 from http://nces.ed.gov/nations reportcard/pdf/main2000/2001499.pdf Donahue, P. L., Voelkl, K. E., Campbell, J. R., & Mazzeo, J. (1999). NAEP 1998 reading report card for the nation and states. Wa shington, D.C.: National Center for Educational Statistics. Re trieved June 6, 2003, from http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard//pubs/main1998/1999500.asp Dreher, M. J. (1992). Searching for information in textbooks. Journal of Reading, 35 (5), 364-371.

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354 Druitt, E. E. (2002). Investigating students achievement before and after a reading intervention program. Masters Abstracts International, 40 (06), 1341. (UMI No. 1409408) Duffy, G. G. (1993). Rethinking strategy inst ruction: Four teachers development and their low achievers understandings. Elementary School Journal, 93 (3), 231-247. Duffy, G. G., Roehler, L. R., Meloth, M. S., & Vavrus, L. G. (1986). Conceptualizing instructional explanation. Teaching and Teacher Education, 2 197-214. Duffy, G. G., Roehler, L. R., Meloth, M. S ., Polin, R., Rackliffe, G., & Tracy, A., et al. (1987). Developing and evaluating measures associated with strategic reading. Journal of Reading Behavior, 19 223-246. Duke, N. K., & Pearson, P. D. (2002). E ffective practices for developing reading comprehension. In A. E. Farstrup & S. J. Samuels (Eds.) What research has to say about reading instruction Newark, DE: Internati onal Reading Association. Duke, N. K., & Purcell-Gates, V. P. (2003). Genres at home and at school: Bridging the known to the new. The Reading Teacher, 57 (1), 30-37. Durkin, D. (1978). What classroom observat ions reveal about r eading comprehension instruction. Reading Research Quarterly, 14 481-533. Durkin, D. (1993). Teaching them to read Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Dyer, J. E. (1995). Effects of teaching appr oach on achievement, retention, and problem solving ability of Illinois agricultural education students with varying learning styles. Dissertation Abstracts International, 56 (09), 3419A. (UMI No. 9543575) Ehlinger, J., & Pritchard, R. (1994). Using think along strategies in secondary content areas. Research and Instruction, 33 (3), 187-206. Ellis, E. S. (1994). An instructional model fo r integrating content-area instruction with cognitive strategy instruction. Reading & Writin g Quarterly, 10 63-90. Estes, T. H. (1971). A scale to measure attitudes toward reading. Journal of Reading, 15 135-138. Ferguson, J. C. (2001). Effects of metacogni tive strategy instruction on sixth grade students content reading comprehension. Dissertation Abstra cts International, 62 (01), 115A. (UMI No. 3001494) Fielding, L. G., & Pearson, P. D. (1994). Synt hesis of research: Reading comprehension: What works. Educational Leadership, 51 (5), 62-67. Fisher, A. L. (2001). Implementing graphic or ganizer notebooks: The art and science of teaching content. The Reading Teacher, 55 (2), 116-120.

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357 Guthrie, J. T. (1996). Educational co ntexts for engagement in literacy. The Reading Teacher, 49 432-445. Guthrie, J. T. (2001). Contexts for engagement and motivation in reading. Reading Online, 4 (8). Retrieved May 6, 2004 from http://www.readingonline.org/ar ticles/handbook/guthrie/index.html Guthrie, J. T., & Alao, S. (1997). Engagement in reading for young adolescents. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 40 (6), 438-446. Guthrie, J. T., & Davis, M. H. (2004). Index of Engagement in Reading. College Park, MD: University of Maryland. Guthrie, J. T., Schafer, W., Wang, Y. Y., & Afflerbach, P. (1995). Relationships of instruction to amount of reading: An exploration of social, cognitive, and instructional connections. Reading Research Quarterly, 30 (1), 8-25. Hager, J. M., & Gable, R. A. (1993). C ontent reading assessment: A rethinking of methodology. Clearing House, 66 (5), 269-272. Hare, V. C., & Borchardt, K. M. (1984). Di rect instruction of summarization skills. Reading Research Quarterly, 20 (1), 62-78. Harris, T., & Hodges, L. (Eds.). (1995). The literacy dictionary: The vocabulary of reading and writing Newark, DE: Internati onal Reading Association. Hays, W. L. (1973). Statistics for the social sciences. (2nd edition). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Herren, R. V. (2002). The science of agriculture Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Publishers. Hess, R. J. (1997). Study ha bits and metacomprehension. Dissertation Abstracts International, 57 (09), 3810A. (UMI No. 9701366) Horton, S. V., Lovitt, T. C., & Bergerud, D. (1990). The effectiveness of graphic organizers for three classifications of s econdary students in content area classes. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23 (1), 12-29. Hurst, B. (2001). ABCs of content area lesson planning: Atte ntion, basics, and comprehension. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 44 (8), 692-693. Hurst, J. L. (2004). Transacting with the wo rd: At-risk adolescen ts and informational texts. Dissertation Abstracts International, 64 (10), 3581A. (UMI No. 3108703) Hynd, C. R., Qian, G., Ridgeway, V., & Pickle M. (1991). Promoting conceptual change with science texts and discussion. Journal of Reading, 34 (8), 596-601.

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371 Younger, R. J. (1995). The effect of thi nk aloud protocols on responses to recall and reinspection questions when silently reading an informal reading inventory. Dissertation Abstracts International, 56 (05), 1721A. (UMI No. 9531018) Yu, S. L. (1997). Cognitive strategy use a nd motivation in underachieving students. Dissertation Abstracts International, 57 (11), 4652A. (UMI No. 9712133) Zhu, J. (1998). The effects of text-based vers us experience-based pre-reading activities on comprehension of and free response to narrative text. Dissertation Abstracts International, 58 (11), 4179A. (UMI No. 9816680) Zimmerman, J., & Brown, C. (2003). Let them eat more than phonics. Phi Delta Kappan, 85 603-605.

PAGE 388

372 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Travis Park earned his bachelors degree in agricultural education from Purdue University in 1996. While at Purdue, Trav is was an active member of FarmHouse International Fraternity, vice-president of Mo rtar Board, and an agriculture ambassador. Upon graduation he received the G. A. Ross Award recognizing the outstanding male senior for the university. Travis taught secondary ag riscience and business at Tri-County High School in Wolcott, Indiana. Travis helped the agri culture program grow from 75 students to 165, add a second teacher, build a greenhouse, and remodel the facility. Tri-County FFA was recognized as the top FFA chapter and severa l students served as state FFA officers. Travis earned his masters degree in agri cultural education from Purdue University in 2002. He completed the degree while teach ing at Tri-County, using the educational experiences in his graduate program to enha nce the learning of his high school students. In 2002, Travis and his wife Lacy made th e decision to pursue a doctoral degree in agricultural education and leadership at the University of Florida. While completing a doctoral degree, Travis has taught several courses, including AEE 3030: Effective Oral Communication, whic h draws 250 students each semester from across campus, and departmental courses that included mentoring student teachers in their field experiences. In June, Travis will take a faculty position at Cornell University in the Department of Education, teaching ag ricultural education. He is excited about continuing to make a difference and promot e agricultural education in New York.


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Title: Effect of Content Area Reading Strategy on Achievement in Secondary Agriscience
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EFFECT OF CONTENT AREA READING STRATEGY ON ACHIEVEMENT IN
SECONDARY AGRISCIENCE

















By

TRAVIS DALE PARK


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2005

































Copyright 2005

by

Travis Dale Park

































This document is dedicated to my wife, Lacy, and our dog, Beaux.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

First of all, I would like to thank the faculty and staff in the Agricultural Education

and Communication Department at the University of Florida. I have learned about

research, teaching, and extension from this fine group of people. They have also taught a

young person more about character, integrity, and professionalism than could have been

imagined. My gratitude is extended to Dr. Ed Osborne, my committee chair, for his

tireless efforts to guide this dissertation study, his continual challenge to my thinking

about agriscience research, and his example as a mentor. I would also like to thank Dr.

Rick Rudd, who lent an ear, a shoulder, and a kind word when I needed it most. I

appreciate Dr. Howard Ladewig's guidance and professionalism in methodology, as well

as his intellectual thought processes and questioning skills. I am also grateful to Dr.

Barbara Pace for our discussions about reading and her challenge of my research

perspectives and patience as I attempted to learn a new content area.

I also must recognize Dr. Nick Place for his example as a professor and for

providing opportunities to participate in extension activities while at UF. And, while he

is no pool shark, I appreciate the intricacies of Dr. Glenn Israel and the wonderful

opportunity to get to know him and study from him.

Secondly, I could never have gotten this far without the friendships and high-level

discussions that were generated in 310 Rolfs Hall and various annexes. I truly appreciate

and respect the example of all the doctoral graduates who have left Rolfs Hall to make

their mark on the world and agricultural education, communication, leadership, and









extension. Whether it was John's laughter, Grady's pranks, Lisa's friendship, Nicole's

honesty, Lori's crises, or Chris' highly philosophical friendship, I have taken something

from each of you. Their examples, laughter, and friendship have meant the world. They

made this an enjoyable ride.

The current group of 310 stall mates also deserves recognition. Kris and I have

been through a bit together and it will be fun to graduate with her and see her career

explode. I'll also remember fondly Nick's total enthusiasm, Wendy's complexity,

Steve's friendship, Eric's professionalism and love for his wife, Emily's common

interests in the Amish, and Curt's damned personality. Everyone should thank David for

bringing this group together with the parties at the Jones' pool. I must also thank

Amanda for her teaching example and work ethic. While the atmosphere has lightened, it

is no less professional or challenging. They are a wonderful group of people who will

continue to do great things and make a real difference in the lives of many students.

Someday I hope that my children are blessed to have them as teachers.

Of course I need to thank my parents and family. Without the secure foundation

from which to work, a person can accomplish but little. Fortunately, I have an extremely

strong support group who sends cards, makes phone calls, and visits, although Norma

spends way too much time down here. Joe and Bettye Lou Park are my inspirations in

education and whom I strive to be like in making a family and becoming involved in a

community. I would also like to thank my brothers Aaron and Jeremy and their families

for just being. Daniel and Anna Marie may never read this, but they should know how

much fun it is to play with them and anticipate seeing them. Last, but not least, I thank

Grandma for always believing in the best of all of us and being my biggest champion.









Randy and Norma also deserve credit, beginning with the financial assistance to

make the move to Florida as well as the visits and demanding that I drink a beer(s) on the

beach. I thank them so much for helping keep all of this in perspective. I also want to

thank Kipp and Jennifer for their encouragement and for providing an escape as we

talked CUBS baseball.

This whole endeavor would never have happened without my wife, Lacy, and our

dog, Beaux. Lacy provided so much encouragement, help, and consolation when things

did not go right. Lacy sacrificed so much as our lives became entwined with the AEC

Department. Many graduate students have Lacy to thank for helping bring them to UF

and helping them graduate as well. I love her. Lacy's heart of gold and determination to

make everyone feel welcome and important is something that we could all learn from.

We wanted to make a positive difference when we came to UF, and I think that we did it

mostly out of Lacy's efforts. She is my inspiration, my light, and the love of my life.

Beaux's pretty good, too, but not quite as cozy and a lot more slobbery.

The agriculture teachers in Indiana and the students and community in and around

Tri-County School Corporation deserve recognition, for were it not for their examples

and our collective experiences, I would have no foundation upon which to pose

questions, no stories to share with prospective teachers, and no grounding for the "Ivory

Tower." Leaving home was difficult, and I hope that I make them proud, and please

know that we are working to get back home. There are a couple of stops along the way;

keep a cold Coke handy.

Thanks to Ray, John, Van, Dave, Pat, and George.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iii

LIST O F TA BLE S .......................... ..... ...... ................. .. .. ..... ........ .... xi

LIST OF FIGURES .......................... ...... ...... ............ xiii

ABSTRACT ........ .............. ............. ...... ...................... xiv

CHAPTER

1 IN TR OD U CTION ............................................... .. ......................... ..

Introduction to the Study .................................................... .............................. 1
B background of the Study .................................................... ..............................
N eed for R leading ...................................................... .... .. ...... .. 2
Reading Failures .................................... .......................... .... ........2
Secondary R leading .................. ........................................ .. ........ ..
R ead er..................................................................................... .. ..... 5
T ext ..................................................................................................... ........ 6
A activity ................................................................. ............................... 7
Sociocultural context........... ...... .......................... ........ .......... .... ......... 7
T each er .................................................................. ............................ . 9
Problem Statem ent .................. ............................... ..... ................. 10
Purpose of the Study ....................................................... ................. 12
State ent of O objectives .............................................................................. .... ........12
H y p oth eses............................. ........................................................... ............... 12
Qualitative Inquiry ....................................................... .... ...............13
Significance of the Study ............................................................................ .... .......13
D definition of Term s ..... ...................... ....................... .... .... .. ............ 15
G e n d e r ........................................................................................................... 1 5
E th n ic ity .................................................................1 5
Socioeconom ic Status (SE S) ........................................ .......................... 16
Grade Level ............................ ....................16
G rade Point A average (G PA ).................................................................... ..... 16
T reatm ent G rou p ................................................. .... .. .... .. .... ........ 16
C om prison G roup ........................................ .. .. ......... .... ... ... 16
R e a d in g .................. ..................................................... ............... 1 6
C ontent A rea R leading ........................................... ........................................ 17









Comprehension........................................................17
Microperiod ................. .. ......... .................. 18
M motivation to R ead ......... .. ........ ........ ................. .................................. 18
Comprehension Portion of the Agriculture Post-Test .............. .................. 19
F C A T R leading L evels ......... .................................... ................. ............... 19
E engaged R leaders ................................................ ..... ... .. ............ 19
Struggling R leaders ............................ ............ ................... .... .. ... 19
L im station s of the Stu dy ..................................................................... ..................20
S u m m a ry ................................ ....................................................2 1

2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE ......................................................... ............... 23

In tro d u ctio n ......................................... .. ............................................2 3
Philosophical Theories of Reading ......................................................... ......... 24
Schem a T theory ............................................................................. ...............24
R eader-R response Theory.......................................................... ............... 25
Sociocultural Theory of R eading..................................... ......... ............... 26
Theoretical Framework for Comprehension.....................................27
Key Variables in This Study...................................... ........ ...... ............... 28
Sociocultural Context ............................................. ...... ................28
T each er ........................................................................... 3 0
A attitude ................... ..... ... .................................................... .... 3 1
Teacher preparation and knowledge of strategies .................................33
R leader ..................................................... ........... ... .... ......... 34
Gender ............................... .......................... .. ... ......... 36
A ge / Grade Level ............................................. ............ ............. 37
E th n ic ity ................................................................................................. 3 7
Socioeconom ic Status ............................................................................ 38
R leading A ability ....................... ...................... .. ........ .... ...........39
Interest................................................... 40
Prior K now ledge ................... ................ ................... ......... 40
Prior Reading Experiences ..................... ...........................41
A activity ........... ... ..... .. .. ........ ........ ..................... ............ 42
Reading in the three m icroperiods .................................... ............... 42
R leading Strategies ................... .... ...... .... .. .... ........ ........ .............. 44
Reading Strategy Instruction .................................... ......................................44
Goals of Reading Strategy Instruction ..................................... ............... ..48
Multiple Strategy Instruction.................... ....... ........................... 49
A ctivating Prior K now ledge............... ................... ......... ........ ......... 50
Setting Purpose ................. ............. .......................... ............52
R leading and Thinking A loud ........................................ ......................... 53
Organizing Information .......................... ........... .. ..... ............... 54
S u m m a riz in g .................................................................................................. 5 9
O u tco m e V ariab les ............................................................................................... 6 0
C om prehension............... ...... .......................... .. .... ......... .. ......60
M motivation ......................................... ........ ...... .. ................ 60
Motivation's Impact on Strategy Use and Comprehension..............................62









Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) and Standardized Testing ..........63
S u m m a ry ........................................... .. ................................................................ 6 3

3 M E T H O D S ........................................................................................................... 6 5

Introdu action ...................... ............... ....................................................... 6 5
R e se arch D e sig n ................................................................................................... 6 7
Procedures ......................... ....................... 70
Population ............... ............ ........................................72
Subject Selection: Agriscience Foundations Students ....................................72
Subject Selection: Agriscience Teachers................................ ......... ......73
Sample Size ................................................ ...............73
Instrumentation and Data Collection ......... ............................74
Florida Com prehensive A ssessm ent Test.................................... ............... 75
Textbook ....................... .... .. .. ....................77
Lesson Plans and Agriscience Comprehension Assessments ..........................78
Motivation to Read Assessment ................ .............. ......... 79
Treatment Delivery Accountability ................................ ............... 82
Analysis of Data .................. ......... .................. 82
Long Interviews ............... ......... .......................84
Summary ............... .....................................................85

4 FINDINGS ............... ............................... ...............87

Introduction ................................ ............... 87
Objective 1: Description of Participants....................... ............. 89
Gender ............... ......... .......................92
G ra d e lev e l ............................................................................................. 9 2
E th n ic ity ................................................................................................. 9 3
S E S ............................................................................................................... 9 4
GPA ............... ......... ................. 95
FCAT reading level ...................... ......................96
M otivation to read ......................................................... 96
Agriculture comprehension ....... .................... ............. 97
Reading habits of students ....... ...................... ......... 98
Relationships between variables ........................................ .....100
Objective 2: Variance in Agricultural Post-Test Scores................................103
Objective 3: Variance in the Motivation to Read Post-Test .............................105
Objective 4: Variance in Comprehension Scores of the Agriculture Post-Testl05
H hypothesis T ests ................................107.............................
Teacher Interviews .............. ......... ..... .................107
Attributes of Agriscience Teachers and Agriscience Students ..........................108
Agriscience teachers indicated an interest in helping students learn .........108
Agriscience teachers stated that content area reading was important........ 109
Agriscience teachers incorporated content area reading strategies ..........110
Agriscience teachers were not avid readers themselves and/or were poor
readers ............... ......... .................................. .......112


v111









Agriscience courses were populated with students possessing a wide
range of reading abilities ............................ ............. .... .. ............. 112
Approaches to Instruction in Agriscience ..................................... ............... 113
Teachers used lecture-discussion, teacher-centered approaches to
instruction ................ .... ............. .................................... 113
Reading was minimized in agriscience courses prior to initiating the
study ................................... ............. .... .. .................... 115
Agriscience Teachers and Their Use of Content Area Reading in Agriscience 117
Agriscience teachers had limited understanding about implementing
CAR S .......................... ... ......................... ...................... 117
Agriscience teachers used a variety of other reading materials ...............18
Teachers Participate in Professional Development Related to Content Area
R e ad in g .............. ...... ........................... ................................. 1 19
Agriscience teachers need assistance with implementing CARS ............119
Pressures to Teach R eading..................................... ............................ ........ 120
Students' M otivation to Read ..................................... ................................ 121
Student motivation to read was lacking .................................................. 121
When teachers were interested in the reading and comfortable with using
CARS, they were more effective with motivating students to read and
u se C A R S ..................................... .. ......... .. ...................... 12 3
Teachers indicated that they would continue to implement CARS in
agriscience courses ..................................................... ....................124
Sum m ary ............................................................... ..... ..... ......... 124

5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS .........................126

Introdu action ...................................... ................................................ 12 6
M e th o d s .......................................................................... 12 8
Sum m ary of Findings ......................... ........... ........ ............... 130
R research O bjectives............... .......... .... .. .... .. .................... .... ....... ..... ...... 130
Objective 1: Description of Students Participating in This Study....................130
Objective 2: Description of the Variance in Agriculture Post-Test Scores......134
Objective 3: Description of the Variance in the Motivation to Read Score..... 135
Objective 4: Description of the Variance in the Agricultural Comprehension
Scores ................................................................ ... .... .. ..... 135
Research H ypotheses .................. ............................... .... .. .. ......... .... 136
R research Q questions .......... .............. .... ........ .... ... .. ........ ................ 136
Question 1: How do agriculture teachers perceive their role in developing
students' reading comprehension skills? ............ ...................................137
Question 2: What are teacher's reactions to implementing CARS in
agriscience? ................................................................... ..........137
Question 3: How do agriscience teachers model good literacy? ......................138
Question 4: What strategies are effective in assisting agriscience teachers in
im plem enting C A R S? ............................... .. ........................ ... 138
Question 5: What are the barriers to reading instruction in agriscience? .........139
C o n clu sio n s.................................................... ................ 13 9









Discussion and Implications .......................................... ...... ... ................. 140
Objective 1: Description of the Students Participating in This Study............140
Conclusion 1A: students in Agriscience Foundations are generally ninth
graders, White, male, and higher SES ......................................... 140
Conclusion 1B: Students read below grade level................................ 141
Conclusion 1C: treatment group students read significantly more hours
per week for pleasure and increased time per week of pleasure reading 143
Conclusion 1D: students are generally lacking in motivation to read........144
Objective 2: Description of the Variance in Agriculture Post-Test.................. 146
Conclusion 2: demographic factors explain variance in agriculture post-
te st sc o re ............................... .......... ...... .... ............................ 14 6
Objective 3: Description of the Variance in Motivation to Read Score...........147
Conclusion 3: student characteristics do not significantly impact
m otivation to read ................... ............. .... .. .. ................ .... ... 147
Objective 4: Description of the Variance in Agricultural Comprehension
Scores ................................................................... ........ ... ..............14 8
Conclusion 4: white students earning higher GPA and FCAT reading
levels score higher on comprehension ................ .............................148
Conclusions Regarding the Hypotheses ....................................... ............... 149
Ha1: Comprehension of Agricultural Concepts............................ ...............149
H a2: M otivation to R ead .............................................................................151
Interviews ..................... ........ .... ....... ..... ........................ 152
Conclusion 6A: agriscience teachers had implemented few or no CARS .153
Conclusion 6B: limited knowledge of and confidence in using CARS .....154
Conclusion 6c: comparison group teachers implement many strategies...156
Conclusion 6D: pressure to implement reading and CARS in agriscience 157
Conclusion 6E: motivation to implement CARS................................... 158
Recommendations for Practitioners..... ....................................159
Recommendations for Further Research ...................................... ............... 161

APPENDIX

A CORRESPONDENCE WITH TEACHERS .................................... ...............162

B DATA REPORTING FORM S ...........................................................................173

C LESSON PLANS: COMPARISON GROUP............................... ...............177

D LESSON PLANS: TREATMENT GROUP................................. ...............229

E P A N E L O F E X PE R T S .................................................................. .....................340

F INSTRUM ENTS ................................... ... .. ........... .............. .. 341

L IST O F R EFER EN CE S ........................................................................... .............349

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H ........................................ ............................................372
















LIST OF TABLES


Table pge

3 -1. F ry R e a d ab ility ................................................................................................... 7 7

3-2. Canonical discriminant coefficients for the Adapted Motivations for Reading
Q u estion n aire (n = 3 7)............ ... .................................. ................ ...... ........ .. 1

4-1. Schools participating in the study. ........................................ ....................... 90

4-2. Instructional time on Agriscience Foundations lessons. ........................................91

4-3. N um ber of strategies em ployed........................................ ............................ 92

4-4. Student gender distribution. ............................................ ............................. 92

4-5. Student grade level distribution...................... ..... ............................. 93

4-6. Student ethnicity distribution. ............................................................................94

4-7. Student SES distribution as determined by free and reduced lunch counts ............94

4-8. Student letter grade distribution. ........................................ ......................... 95

4-9. Student FCAT reading level distribution. ..................................... ............... 96

4-10. Motivation to read assessment scores (n = 95) ....................................................... 97

4-11. Students' agriculture pre- and post-test performance (percent correct) ................98

4-12. Reading habits of students (n = 95)................................... ........................ ......... 99

4-13. Change in reading habits of students (n = 95)..................... ............................. 100

4-14. Correlations between continuous variables ....................................................102

4-15. Point biserial correlations between categorical variables............... .......... 103

4-16. Backward regression analysis to predict agriculture comprehension scorea..........105









4-17. Backward regression analysis to predict comprehension portion of the
agriculture post-testa .................. .............................. .... .. .. .. ........ .... 106

5-1. School district level FCAT reading levels (n = 1778)a. .....................................131
















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure pge

1-1. A Heuristic for Thinking About Reading Comprehension. ....................................18

2-1. A Heuristic for Thinking About Reading Comprehension. ....................................27

2-2. Strategies of Proficient R leaders. ................................ ..... ............... ....... ...........43















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

EFFECT OF CONTENT AREA READING STRATEGY ON ACHIEVEMENT IN
SECONDARY AGRISCIENCE

By

Travis Dale Park

May 2005

Chair: Ed Osborne
Major Department: Agricultural Education and Communication

This study addressed improving agriscience students' comprehension by

implementing content area reading strategies (CARS). Objectives included describing

grade level, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), grade point average (GPA),

and Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) reading levels of students, and

describing variance in agriculture comprehension and motivation to read explained by

these characteristics.

Hypotheses included students' (Ha1) comprehension of agricultural concepts and

(Ha2) motivation to read will be significantly greater using CARS versus those using

teacher's normal instruction. Questions leading qualitative inquiry included 1) how do

agriculture teachers develop students' reading comprehension skills, 2) how do teachers

implement CARS, and 3) what are the barriers to reading instruction?

Independent variables were CARS versus the teacher's normal instruction.

Dependent variables were motivation to read and agriculture comprehension. Antecedent









variables were gender, grade level, ethnicity, and SES. FCAT reading levels, GPA, and

agriculture and motivation pre-tests were covariates.

A quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group design determined the effect of

implementing CARS on agricultural comprehension and attitude toward reading of a

purposively selected sample (n = 95) of secondary agriscience students, enrolled in

Agriscience Foundations in Florida. The study compared CARS instruction with the

teacher's normal instruction.

Over 60% of students read at the lowest two FCAT reading levels, while 11.6%

read at the highest two levels. Students were generally lacking in motivation to read.

Agriculture pre-test score, grade level, GPA, gender, ethnicity, and FCAT reading level

predicted 65.0% of variance in agriculture post-test scores. Regression analysis did not

produce a model that was statistically significant for motivation to read. GPA and FCAT

reading level predicted 39.4% of variance in the comprehension portion post-test score.

Because the treatment effect produced no significant correlations and was not significant

in explaining the variance in any of the models, MANCOVA and ANCOVA procedures

were not conducted.

Prior to the study, agriscience teachers implemented few or no CARS. They

possessed limited knowledge and confidence in using CARS. Teachers in the

comparison group implemented twice as many strategies, yet their students arrived at

nearly the same level of agricultural comprehension and motivation as students in the

treatment group.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Introduction to the Study

This study used a quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group design to

determine the effect of implementing reading strategies on the agricultural content

knowledge and attitude toward reading of secondary agriscience students, specifically

students enrolled in the ninth-grade Agriscience Foundations course. The study utilized

intact classes of ninth-grade students in six Florida high schools. The study focused on

implementing reading strategies in each of the three micro-periods of reading: pre-

reading, during reading, and post-reading (Snow, 2002). The study compared the set of

reading strategies with the teacher's normal routine of instruction.

Background of the Study

With assessment and accountability permeating our educational system, all teachers

are being called upon to demonstrate their effectiveness in teaching and improving

students' achievement in math, science, and reading. Further, "adolescents entering the

adult world in the 21st century will read and write more than any other time in human

history" (Moore, Bean, Birdyshaw, & Rycik, 1999, p. 3). The world is teeming with text

and information; thus students must employ many comprehension skills to navigate this

complex of information. All high school graduates must possess skills necessary for

understanding, creating, and applying meaning from text (Snow, 2002; Whipple, 1925),

so reading must occur in all areas of learning (D'Arcangelo, 2002), including secondary

agriscience.









Need for Reading

Adolescents need to have strong reading skills so they can excel in academics,

create meaning in their environment, and productively function in society (Forget &

Bottoms, 2000; Meltzer, 2001). Students need reading skills in careers, households, in

citizenship, and in their personal lives (D'Arcangelo, 2002; Guthrie, 1988; Guthrie,

Schafer, Wang, & Afflerbach, 1995; Meltzer). The reading and literacy development of

adolescents prepares them for success and learning in school and throughout their lives

beyond school (National Reading Panel [NRP], 2000; Vacca, 2002a).

Students need reading skills to analyze and comprehend the plethora of knowledge

and facts available through the Internet and other media (Moore et al., 1999; Swafford &

Kallus, 2002; Vacca, 2002b). Good readers can internalize information, make critical

decisions, and form opinions (D'Arcangelo, 2002). Building students' literacy skills

empowers students to grow, improve, and develop; yet most secondary educational

systems are not adequately preparing students to develop the types and levels of reading

and literacy necessary for success.

Reading Failures

Reading is necessary for learning, yet students may not be obtaining the reading

help that they need to be successful. Students in the United States compare poorly with

their counterparts in other developed countries, especially where content knowledge and

literacy are central to the curriculum (Snow, 2002). This lack of reading and

comprehension ability in high school translates into failures later in life. Students are

unprepared for the academic language encountered in college (Wright, 1998). Little

advancement is being made in developing the reading skills of secondary students

(Snow).









The basic level of reading indicates that students can demonstrate partial mastery of

reading. They possess the prerequisite knowledge and skills necessary for performing at

grade level but cannot demonstrate mastery of reading. Nationally, 32% of eighth grade

boys and 19% of eighth grade girls cannot read at this basic level (National Center for

Educational Statistics [NCES], 2001). This means that these students cannot understand

texts, make interpretations, or relate to text concepts. At the twelfth grade, these figures

are only slightly better: 26% of all students failing to read at the basic level, including

30% of boys and 17% of girls (NCES; Wirt et al., 2004). Further, since 1971 the reading

ability of the nation's 17-year-olds has remained relatively consistent, neither improving

nor declining (NCES). Educators are making little advancement in teaching students

how to comprehend and apply text, especially for struggling readers (Cappella &

Weinstein, 2001).

One aspect of reading is the construction of meaning from text (Snow, 2002). Yet,

fewer than five percent of adolescents, students in grades eight through twelve, can

extend or elaborate the meanings of materials they read (Moore et al., 1999; NCES, 2001,

2003). This means that secondary students cannot combine information from their own

background knowledge or information in other texts with material that they are currently

reading in order to construct meaning and solve problems. They cannot generate new

knowledge from text. They cannot construct meaning from text and are at risk for

reading failure.

Failure to learn to read has contributed to students' alienation from education

(Vacca & Vacca, 2002). The children most at risk for reading failure are the poor and

otherwise estranged from school (Cappella & Weinstein, 2001; Wirt et al., 2004;









Zimmerman & Brown, 2003). While a portion of students lack the basic reading skills

and are alienated from school, almost all students need support in learning vocabulary,

managing reading styles, developing a positive attitude toward literacy, and learning and

applying reading strategies independently (Meltzer, 2001; Moore et al., 1999).

Secondary Reading

Reading in secondary schools and content areas is vital to students' development of

comprehension skills. Yet many students lack the requisite skills to understand and apply

meaning from texts. Therefore they disengage with reading in the content areas and for

pleasure. Further, content area texts often contain complex and difficult vocabulary,

structure, and concepts (Kim, Vaughn, Wanzek, & Wei, 2004). The reading activities are

also demanding and involve problem solving and critical thinking. Teachers are often

unprepared to teach reading strategies and do not employ reading on a regular basis

(Bintz, 1997; Cresson, 1999; Digisi, 1993; Menke & Davey, 1994). As the context of

reading in secondary schools shifts with each passing period, students are required to

shift knowledge, thinking skills, and contexts in order to comprehend coursework.

Additionally, students often fail to realize the connection between reading in content

areas and applications in their personal lives.

Readence, Bean, and Baldwin (1989) proposed assumptions and misconceptions

about reading in content areas that must be overcome for learning to take place. These

assumptions and misconceptions include:

1. Students have learned to read in elementary schools.

2. Students have sufficient prior knowledge to cope with important information in
content text.

3. The processes involved in efficiently reading and comprehending in content texts
are identical to those utilized in reading in elementary school.









4. Remedial reading classes will provide struggling readers with the necessary reading
skills for success in subject-matter reading.

5. Content reading means teaching skills not directly related to subject areas.

6. Subject matter specialists are information dispensers.

Reader

As students move from middle to high school, demands on literacy skills increase,

and students must become more adept at meeting the challenges of sophisticated content

area reading and information (Baer & Nourie, 1993; Jacobs, 2002; Meltzer, 2001;

Musthafa, 1996; Snow, 2002; Tomlinson, 1995). Whereas reading in elementary schools

focuses on learning to read, secondary and content area reading focuses on reading to

learn (Baer & Nourie; Moore et al., 1999). Although students have learned to read, they

begin to struggle with reading comprehension after the fourth grade (Allington, 2002).

After elementary school reading courses, students receive few opportunities for intensive

instruction in reading and comprehension in middle or secondary school (Durkin, 1978;

Forget & Bottoms, 2000; Meltzer; Snow). This lack of instruction contributes to the

widening gap of reading abilities among students and their subsequent alienation from

reading (Bryant, 2003; Baer & Nourie; Tovani & Keene, 2000).

These struggling, alienated readers develop a downward spiral of reading

experiences (Cibrowski, 1995; Readence et al., 1989). They expend more time and

energy in constructing meaning from text and exhibit a "labored and choppy reading style

that strains their attention and interest" (Cibrowski, p. 96). Struggling readers over-

attend to individual words and are unable to use context to predict meaning and develop

comprehension. In essence, their mired attempts at comprehending text elicit poor

performance and poor attitudes toward reading, resulting in less time spent reading. For









students who struggle with reading, "school becomes a period of life to endure, rather

than a pathway to success" (Bean, 2001, T 12).

Time spent reading is related to reading success and is associated with positive

attitudes toward additional reading, increased knowledge of the world, and provisions for

worthwhile life experiences. The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)

Reading Report Card reported that students who read more for school and pleasure had

higher average reading scores than students who did not read (Donahue, Voelkl,

Campbell, & Mazzeo, 1999). However, the amount of time students dedicate to reading

for pleasure declines through school (Guthrie, 2001; Moore et al., 1999, Readence, Bean,

& Baldwin, 1998). Encouraging students to read is vital for their success even outside of

school (Bean, 2001), yet content area teachers are rarely mentioned as positive role

models for reading in secondary schools (Readence et al.).

Text

The structure and syntax of text become more complex and demanding in content

areas (Allington, 2002). According to the Strategic Literacy Initiative (2001), "Reading

is a different task when we read literature, science texts, historical analyses, newspapers,

tax forms, [which is why] teaching students how to read texts in academic disciplines is a

key part of teaching them these disciplines" (p. 1). While textbooks are the predominant

form of reading material in classrooms, teachers also rely upon technical and trade books,

magazines, newspapers, the Internet, and other electronic texts (Vacca & Vacca, 2002).

Understanding the language of content areas is essential to student comprehension

and achievement. If students fail to grasp the language, then they fail to grasp the

concepts in the language (Meltzer, 2001). Students must be able to learn from the

language of expository texts, even when the topic is unfamiliar and the reading is









demanding (Alexander & Kulikowich, 1991; Barton, Heidema, & Jordan, 2002). Content

area texts are conceptually dense and organized for information, thus demanding special

reading skills for inference and critical thinking (Allington, 2002) and to discern the

worthwhile information (Bean, 2001). Less skilled readers may require adaptive

techniques to help in comprehending expository texts (Horton, Lovitt, & Bergerud,

1990). With the variety and difficulty of text materials found in secondary agriscience

courses, navigating these challenging texts may be nearly impossible for some students

without teacher assistance.

Activity

Students may realize they are poor readers but lack the knowledge of strategies to

improve their reading abilities (D'Arcangelo, 2002; Forget & Bottoms, 2000; Horton et

al., 1990). Many secondary students are at risk of reading failure and need reading

instruction to continue to build their reading skills. They do not know how to read for

comprehension and have not developed the skills necessary to learn effectively from text

(Bulgren & Scanlon, 1997-98; D'Arcangelo; Forget & Bottoms; Horton et al.). Many

older students do not receive the support needed to help them grow from fluent decoders

into strategic readers (Vacca, 2002). Teachers must "adopt strategic teaching practices

that will help students acquire both concepts critical to curricular content and learning

strategies they need to be independent learners and processors of information" (Bulgren

& Scanlon, p. 292).

Sociocultural context

The overarching goal of content area reading is to foster the development of active,

engaged, independent readers and learners (Forget & Bottoms, 2000). Content area

reading is difficult (Allington, 2002; Bryant, Ugel, & Thompson, 1999), especially as









students change classes, and they are required to shift the focus of their content

knowledge (D'Arcangelo, 2002). Within the context of diverse content areas, students

are expected to remember volumes of facts, figures, and information (Baer & Nourie,

1993). Content area reading emphasizes application, as well as reading to learn and

comprehension of content area material (Baer & Nourie). These factors compound to

make reading in the content area a challenge for many students. Thus, subject area

teachers may be in the best position to teach how to read for learning and application

(Readence et al., 1989).

The type of reading required for comprehension in different subject areas differs

across content areas. Vocabulary and concepts in content areas are more specialized and

technical in nature than reading for pleasure. New vocabulary words are introduced at a

rapid pace and are vital for comprehension of the subject matter (Allington, 2002; Baer &

Nourie, 1993). Beginning in the fourth grade, students encounter vocabulary that is less

conversational and familiar, while being more specialized, technical, and abstract

(Allington). "Content area reading ... frequently covers concepts that extend beyond the

knowledge of many children and adds to this difficulty by introducing [information] in

rapid-fire fashion" (Baer & Nourie, p. 1). Further, in order for students to fully

comprehend ideas and concepts in text, hands-on activities, field trips, discussions, and

other experiences are often necessary for full comprehension, vocabulary development,

and concept knowledge (Duke & Pearson, 2002).

Adolescents need well-developed reading instruction in content areas in order to

improve comprehension and learning (Meltzer, 2001; Moore et al., 1999). Students

should be able to question themselves about what they have read, synthesize information









from various sources, identify and understand vocabulary, recognize text structure and

learn from that structure, organize information in class notes, interpret symbol systems in

content areas, judge information for their own understanding, and evaluate authors' ideas

and perspectives (Snow, 2002; Vacca, 2002).

Teacher

In order to help students learn from textual information, teaching reading is every

teacher's responsibility. Good instruction is the most effective means of increasing

student comprehension and developing skilled readers (Snow, 2002; Tomlinson, 1995).

Because many content areas use text, the responsibility for teaching reading strategies

belongs to all teachers in all subjects (Alexander & Kulikowich, 1991; Florida

Department of Education [FDOE], 2004a; Vacca, 2002). Yet, few teachers employ

reading strategies in their classrooms (Barry, 2002; Bean, 1997; Durkin, 1978; Irvin &

Connors, 1989; Ivey, 2002; Menke & Davey, 1994; Morawski & Brunhuber, 1995).

Teachers have three primary reasons for failing to use reading strategies: 1)

teachers feel inadequate to handle reading problems in their classrooms, 2) teachers feel

that reading instruction infringes on content area time, and 3) many teachers deny the

importance of reading techniques (Barry, 2002; Bean, 1997; Cresson, 1999; Digisi, 1993;

Durkin, 1978; Moore et al., 1999; Rhoder, 2002; Snow, 2002; Stewart & O'Brien, 1989).

These provide the reasons why many content area teachers do not teach or reinforce

reading in their content area. Many teachers deny responsibility for teaching students to

read and write (D'Arcangelo, 2002; Forget & Bottoms, 2000; Jacobs, 2002; Moore et al.;

Vaughn, Klinger, & Bryant, 2001). Secondary teachers expect students to have the

reading abilities necessary to read in the content areas (Readence et al., 1989; Snow).

They perceive their primary function as preparing students in their subject area for high









school or college (D'Arcangelo; Forget & Bottoms; Jacobs; Moore et al.; Vacca, 2002).

Some teachers even strive to minimize the amount of reading and writing in their classes

(Allen, 2000; Cziko, 1998).

Content area teachers can make a difference in students' education by incorporating

reading strategies into mini-lessons as they teach their content area repertoire (Baer &

Nourie, 1993; Vacca, 2002). Reading instruction includes "promoting active, mindful

reading and teaching students to use strategies" (Rhoder, 2002, p. 498). Teachers can

teach strategies that help activate students' prior knowledge and clearly define the

purposes for reading (McKenna & Robinson, 2002). This instruction in the development

and use of reading strategies requires explanation, modeling, practice, and application

(Vacca). Teaching collections or packages of reading comprehension strategies improves

student comprehension of many kinds of texts (Duke & Pearson, 2002).

Problem Statement

Reading strategies are vitally important for all content areas, especially technical

science areas such as agriscience. Reading correlates to comprehension and learning in

the content area for many students; however, many high school students do not know

how to read for comprehension (Forget & Bottoms, 2000; Moore et al., 1999; NCES,

2001; Snow, 2002). Research has demonstrated that when teachers infuse reading

strategies into their content area lessons and develop structured reading assignments in

the classroom, student performance and learning also increase (Forget & Bottoms;

McKenna & Robinson, 2002; Meltzer, 2001; Moore et al.; Snow; Tomlinson, 1995;

Vacca, 2002).

The primary problem addressed in this study was the continuing subpar reading

performance of a large number of secondary students and the lack of research on









effective strategies for integrating content area reading in agriscience. Several reasons

for focusing on reading improvement in high schools exist:

* All high school graduates are facing an increased need for a high degree of literacy,
including the capacity to comprehend complex texts, yet comprehension outcomes
are not improving.

* At an increasing rate, students in the United States are falling behind in comparison
with students in other countries as they enter the later years of schooling when
discipline-specific content and subject-matter learning are central to the curriculum.

* Little direct attention has been devoted to helping teachers develop the skills they
need to promote reading comprehension and ensure content learning through
reading (Snow, 2002, p. xi).

Several questions arise regarding content area reading comprehension and students'

attitudes toward reading in secondary agriscience:

* How can high school agriscience teachers improve students' reading
comprehension?

* What strategies are effective for improving adolescents' comprehension of text in
agriscience?

* How does strategy instruction in agriscience affect motivation to read?

* What is the agriscience teacher's role in students' comprehension and motivation to
read.

* How do agriculture teachers perceive their role in assisting students in developing
reading comprehension skills in agriscience?

* What are teacher's reactions to implementing the content area reading strategies in
agriscience? How effective are these efforts?

* How do agriscience teachers model good literacy?

* What strategies are effective in assisting agriscience teachers in implementing
content area reading strategies?

* What are the barriers to reading instruction in agriscience?

The primary research question addressed in this study was, "How does

implementing content area reading strategies that focus on the three micro-periods of









reading affect agriscience students' knowledge of agricultural concepts and motivation to

read?"

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of content area reading strategy

instruction on agriculture comprehension and motivation to read. The study also

attempted to gain insights into a description of students enrolled in Agriscience

Foundations in Florida with regards to factors pertaining to reading achievement.

Finally, the study attempted to investigate reasons how and why agriscience teachers

implement or fail to implement content area reading strategies in their agriscience

courses.

Statement of Objectives

The objectives of this study were:

1. Describe the grade level, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading
achievement levels of students participating in this study.

2. Describe the variance in agriculture post-score explained by the linear combination
of treatment group, grade level, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading
achievement levels of students.

3. Describe the variance in motivation to read post-test score explained by the linear
combination of treatment group, grade level, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and
FCAT reading achievement levels of students.

4. Describe the variance in comprehension score explained by the linear combination
of treatment group, grade level, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading
achievement levels of students.

Hypotheses

For this study, research hypotheses included,

Ha1: Comprehension of agricultural concepts will be significantly greater for
secondary agriscience students using reading strategies versus those students using
the teacher's traditional routine in agriscience classes.









Ha2: Motivation to read will be significantly greater for secondary agriscience
students using reading strategies versus those students using the teacher's
traditional routine in agriscience classes.

Qualitative Inquiry

This study also attempted to answer questions regarding agriscience teachers'

method of and reasons for implementing content area reading strategies in their

Agriscience Foundations course. In order to accomplish this objective, the following

questions led the long interview process with teachers:

1. How do agriculture teachers perceive their role in assisting students in developing
reading comprehension skills in agriscience?

2. What are teachers' reactions to implementing the content area reading strategies in
agriscience? How effective are these efforts?

3. How do agriscience teachers model good literacy?

4. What strategies are effective in assisting agriscience teachers in implementing
content area reading strategies?

5. What are the barriers to reading instruction in agriscience?

Significance of the Study

What does it mean to be literate in agriculture? Literacy is "the ability of the

learner to perform reading and writing tasks" (National Institute of Health, 2002, p. 6).

Literacy is the ability to interact with current knowledge, then create new knowledge and

apply it to specific situations (B.G. Pace, personal communication, April 15, 2003).

Literacy in a specific field depends upon the processes and knowledge of that field.

Successful reading in agriculture necessitates students' experiences and abilities in the

food and fiber industry.

Since agriscience courses are offered as career and technical education (CTE)

electives in most high schools, students enrolling in these courses are often more

motivated to learn about the content area and may be more motivated to implement









reading strategies to gain the technical comprehension necessary for problem-solving in

agriculture. However, CTE programs, such as school-based agricultural education, are

less likely to employ communication skills, such as writing reports, reading texts, and

presenting speeches (Forget & Bottoms, 2000). To further exacerbate the problems of

comprehension, agriscience courses do not rely solely on textbooks, but integrate other

sources of information (Gartin, Varner-Friddle, Lawrence, Odell, & Rinehart, 1994),

challenging students to comprehend more complex and technical materials.

Agriscience programs have been striving to integrate math, reading, and science

into classroom curricula (Belcher, McCaslin, & Headley, 1996). There is great need for

improvement in integration of core academic subject matter in CTE courses, although

teachers often face difficulty with integration and assessment of core subjects (Conroy &

Walker, 2000; Gartin et al., 1994). The diversity of content domains and teacher

knowledge of literacy presents challenges to "incorporating education in reading and

writing in a vocational context" (Kakela, 1993, p. 390). Still, "literacy is a key to

developing the transferable skills that are needed for vocations in the future" (Kakela, p.

390), including those in agriscience.

Rural students typically enroll in agriscience courses and may be at a disadvantage

in terms of overall educational opportunities. Investigating the educational experiences

and academic achievement of rural students compared to suburban and urban students,

McDermott (1998) concluded that a higher proportion of rural students enroll in CTE

courses than urban or suburban students. Rural students also struggle with reading

comprehension, math, and science compared to other students.









Thus, this study holds significance for agricultural education for several reasons.

Initially, the study proposes to investigate the efficacy of teaching the reading strategies

in the agriscience context, which is unique from other secondary education contexts.

Secondly, implementing a package of strategies tailored to the three micro-periods of

reading has not been tested in agriscience. Thirdly, the length of the study, over two

months, is longer than most other studies related to implementing reading strategies, yet

researchers suggest that longer durations are necessary for successful strategy adoption.

Fourthly, this set of reading strategies represents a flow of cognitive strategy use that

makes sense-incorporating prior knowledge activation, making the reading processes

visible through read-alouds, organizing text information with graphic organizers, and

summarizing passages into usable chunks of knowledge.

Among the myriad of content area reading strategies available to teachers, this set

of reading strategies simplifies reading comprehension instruction for secondary

agriscience teachers, providing a usable set of strategies for students. Finally, this study

provides evidence for strategy instruction and helpful research in boosting the

comprehension and motivation to read of secondary students who struggle with reading

expository passages.

Definition of Terms

Gender

Gender was operationally defined as being male or female.

Ethnicity

Ethnicity was operationally defined as White or minority, which includes American

Indian or Alaskan native, Black or African American, Hispanic or Latino, Asian,

Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, or other ethnic background.









Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Socioeconomic status (SES) was operationally defined as the level of school lunch

subsidy provided a student. High SES includes students for whom no lunch financial

subsidy was provided. Low SES includes students on free and reduced lunch programs.

Grade Level

Grade level was operationally defined as the student's current grade level

classification, most likely ninth grade, tenth grade, eleventh grade, or twelfth grade.

Grade Point Average (GPA)

Grade point average (GPA) was operationally defined as the cumulative earned

grade average based upon a four-point scale.

Treatment Group

The treatment group was defined as those students taught using a prescribed

curricula with content area reading strategies (CARS) embedded.

Comparison Group

The comparison group was defined as those students taught with the teacher's

normal routine of instruction.

Reading

Reading was operationally defined as an interactive constructive process in which

the reader independently or socially draws on strategies, prior knowledge, and future

goals to construct meaning from text (Barton et al., 2002; McKenna & Robinson, 2002;

Ryder & Graves, 1994). Reading is a recursivee process that requires active

engagement" (D'Arcangelo, 2002, p. 14). It is likened to a conversation between two

parties (Durkin, 1993; Harris & Hodges, 1995; NRP, 2000; Ryder & Graves; Smith,

1982; Vacca & Vacca, 2002), the reader and the text within a specific context









(International Reading Association (IRA), 1988; Kintch, 1998), where "the reader's mind

is alive with questions-cognitive questions" (Vacca & Vacca, p. 18).

Content Area Reading

Content area reading was operationally defined as reading that utilizes a set of pre-

reading, during reading, and post-reading strategies to enhance comprehension of

agricultural concepts. It is "the construction of flexible and usable knowledge"

(Chapman, 2003, p. 4) within a content area.

Comprehension

Comprehension was operationally defined as the percentage of correct answers on

the agriculture pre- and post-tests. It has been more commonly defined as "the process of

simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning through interaction and involvement

with written language" (Snow, 2002, p. 11, see Figure 1). It entails three elements: the

reader, text, and activity. Comprehension involves prior knowledge, knowledge of text

structures, and an active search of information for given purposes, such as solving

problems. (Devine, 1986; Gillet & Temple, 2000; Pearson & Johnson, 1978; Ryder &

Graves, 1994; Schoenbach, Greenleaf, Cziko, & Hurwitz, 1999). It often involves the

construction of new knowledge (Hager & Gabel, 1993; Harris & Hodges, 1995; IRA,

1988; NRP, 2000; Park & Osborne, 2004; Rumelhart, 1977)

























Figure 1-1. A Heuristic for Thinking About Reading Comprehension (Snow, 2002).

Microperiod

Comprehension occurs in three microperiods of reading (IRA, 1988; Snider, 1989;

Snow, 2002). A microperiod was defined as one of the three consecutive episodes of

reading: pre-reading, during reading, and post-reading.

Motivation to Read

Motivation to read was operationally defined as the scores obtained on the Adapted

Motivations for Reading (Wigfield & Guthrie, 2004) pre- and post-tests. Motivation has

been defined by other researchers as "those feelings that cause a reader to approach or

avoid a reading situation" (Readence et al., 1989, p. 102). Motivation to read depends

upon the expectation of successful performance when trying reasonably hard and the

value available rewards for success (Good & Brophy, 1991). In this study, motivation to

read was operationally defined as the student's score on a 14-item Likert-type instrument

where 1 equal very different from me and 4 equals a lot like me.









Comprehension Portion of the Agriculture Post-Test

The comprehension portion of the agriculture post-test was operationally defined as

those comprehension assessment activities involving students reading a selected passage

of related content text and then either constructing a concept map or writing a summary.

FCAT Reading Levels

The reading abilities of students in Florida are assessed using a standardized test,

called the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT). For reading, students are

assigned to one of five reading levels. The definition of the FCAT reading levels are

1. Reading level 5 was the level that "indicates that the student has success with the
most challenging content of the Sunshine State Standards" (FDOE, 2004f, p. 4).

2. Reading level 4 was the level that "indicates that the student has success with the
challenging content of the Sunshine State Standards" (FDOE, 2004f, p. 4). This is
the first level of reading above grade level.

3. Reading level 3 was the level that "indicates that the student has partial success
with the challenging content of the Sunshine State Standards, but performance is
not consistent" (FDOE, 2004f, p. 4). This is generally considered reading at grade
level.

4. Reading level 2 was the level that "indicates that the student has limited success
with the challenging content of the Sunshine State Standards" (FDOE, 2004f, p. 4).
This is generally considered reading below grade level.

5. Reading level 1 was "indicates that the student has little success with the
challenging content of the Sunshine State Standards" (FDOE, 2004f, p. 4).

Engaged Readers

Engaged readers were readers who are intrinsically motivated to read for

knowledge, enjoyment, or other purposes (Guthrie, 2001, 1996). These readers are often

motivated to use reading strategies (Guthrie, 1996).

Struggling Readers

Struggling readers were operationally defined as readers for whom learning and

comprehending from text is especially challenging (Readence et al., 1989).









Limitations of the Study

Like scholarly studies of similar complexity, limitations of this study exist and

impact the generalizability of this particular study. First, because this study employed a

quasi-experimental design using intact classes of students in a nonequivalent control

group design, results are not generalizable to the larger population of all students, or

those enrolled in secondary agriscience courses. Results of this study are limited only to

those students participating in this study. Pure randomization and sample selection was

neither possible, nor appropriate, due to the nature of agriscience courses, teachers'

willingness to implement strategies, experimentation with human subjects, and the

inability to rearrange the students enrolled in intact classes.

Second, because reading comprehension is a contextualized creation of meaning,

and strategies are also contextualized, this package of reading comprehension strategies

may be best suited to investigations and teaching practice in agriscience. The set of

reading strategies targets comprehension from expository text, where the main goal is

learning agriscience concepts. These same strategies may not be appropriate for other

disciplines or other genres of reading. Thus, generalizations of findings related to this set

of reading strategy instruction to improve agriscience students' comprehension may not

be appropriate.

Another limitation of the study is the duration of the study. While a longer term

study, perhaps a year or more, would have been preferable, the time constraints on this

study were prohibitive. Further, with regard to timing, this study was limited in part to

some of the participating schools experiencing school cancellations and delays due to

Hurricanes Charlie, Frances, and Ivan.









While the researcher attempted to control for all extraneous variables related to

comprehension of agriscience concepts and motivation to read, measuring changes in

students' comprehension and motivation to read were enormously complex undertakings.

For example, the teacher's attitude toward reading strategy instruction and his or her

personal values toward reading may have affected reading strategy instruction. The

teacher's ability to instruct also factored into students' comprehension and motivation to

read. While attempting to normalize instruction through purposive selection of teachers

and design of the curriculum, controlling for these complex variables is beyond the scope

of this study. Additionally, other demographic variables may have influenced results of

this study related to reading comprehension and motivation to read.

Summary

This chapter provided the background for research involving content area reading

strategies to determine their effect on comprehension of agriscience concepts and

motivation to read in secondary agriscience courses. Significance for the study and

hypotheses were outlined. This study determined the effect of reading strategy

instruction on students' comprehension of agricultural concepts and motivation to read.

The objectives of this study included:

1. Describe the grade level, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading
achievement levels of students participating in this study.

2. Describe the variance in agriculture post-test score explained by the linear
combination of treatment group, grade level, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and
FCAT reading achievement levels of students.

3. Describe the variance in motivation to read post-test score explained by the linear
combination of treatment group, grade level, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and
FCAT reading achievement levels of students.









4. Describe the variance in agricultural comprehension score explained by the linear
combination of treatment group, grade level, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and
FCAT reading achievement levels of students.

For this study, research hypotheses included:

Ha1: Comprehension of agricultural concepts will be significantly greater for
secondary agriscience students using reading strategies versus those students using
the teacher's traditional routine in agriscience classes.

Ha2: Motivation to read will be significantly greater for secondary agriscience
students using reading strategies versus those students using the teacher's
traditional routine in agriscience classes.

Questions leading the qualitative inquiry include:

1. How do agriculture teachers perceive their role in assisting students in developing
reading comprehension skills in agriscience?

2. What are teacher's reactions to implementing the content area reading strategies in
agriscience? How effective are these efforts?

3. How do agriscience teachers model good literacy?

4. What strategies are effective in assisting agriscience teachers in implementing
content area reading strategies?

5. What are the barriers to reading instruction in agriscience?

The chapter also included operational definitions of terms related to reading,

comprehension, and motivation to read. Finally, limitations of the study were discussed.

Chapter 2 will introduce and explain theoretical and conceptual frameworks for

comprehension and motivation to read which guided this research. Additionally,

empirical research related to comprehension, content area reading strategy instruction,

and motivation to read will be addressed.














CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Introduction

The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effect of implementing a

set of reading strategies on students' comprehension of agriscience concepts and

motivation to read. Specifically, several hypotheses related to comprehension of

agricultural concepts and motivation to read were investigated during this study.

This chapter presents a review of literature related to reading in content areas with a

focus on comprehension and motivation to read. The focus is on literature describing

theories of reading and empirical research related to reading comprehension and

motivation to read. Research related to content area reading comprehension instruction,

reading strategy use, and influences on the motivation to read are included in this chapter.

The independent variable in this study was reading strategy instruction,

specifically, reading strategy instruction focusing on the three micro-periods of reading.

Outlining the status of reading comprehension instruction, Pressley (2001) supposed that

if different types of instruction improve comprehension, "it just might be sensible to do

all of them" (T 1), thus justification for this set of reading strategies. Dependent variables

for this study were comprehension of agriscience concepts and motivation to read. The

antecedent variables were gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, grade level, GPA, and

FCAT reading level.

This chapter reviews literature related to reading in content areas with the outcomes

of comprehension and motivation to read. This chapter is divided into the following









major sections: philosophical theories of reading, an explanation of variables involved in

this study, and the influence of reading strategy instruction on reading comprehension

and motivation to read. The chapter focuses on literature describing theories of reading,

and empirical research related to the sociocultural context of reading, teacher

characteristics, reader attributes, content area reading strategy instruction, the activity of

reading, reading comprehension and motivation to read. Research related to content area

reading comprehension instruction, reading strategy use, factors associated with

comprehension, and influences on the motivation to read is included in this chapter.

Philosophical Theories of Reading

Schema Theory

Schemata, or prior knowledge, are chunks of knowledge that exist in our minds and

represent all that a person knows about a given concept (McKenna & Robinson, 2002,

Rumelhart, 1980; Ryder & Graves, 1994; Vacca, 2002). They are the central guidance

system in comprehension representing universal concepts and generalizations (Readence

et al., 1989). The body of knowledge represented by schemata may include "experiences,

conceptual understanding, attitudes, values, and skills that a reader brings to a text

situation" (Vacca, p. 191).

Schemata allow a person "to construct actions or thoughts, to determine goals, and

direct the flow of information to the mind" (Ryder & Graves, 1994, p. 140). The extent

to which new information fits into existing schemata determines comprehension

(Aubusbel, 1962; Ivie, 1998; Readence et al., 1989), thus prior knowledge and schemata

must be activated prior to new reading (Vacca, 2002). Schemata are not stored as

individual concepts, but are interconnected via many "intricate networks of associations"

(McKenna & Robinson, 2002, p. 22).









Schemata change over time (Ryder & Graves, 1994). Modification of existing

schema is the essence of learning and may require a student to "jettison misconceptions

and restructure faulty schemata in light of new, sometimes discordant concepts"

(Readence et al., p. 23). Schemata are altered in three main ways: new schemata may be

formed, existing schemata may be altered, or existing schemata may be expanded

(McKenna & Robinson, 2002). For agriscience teachers, especially those teaching

students who come from non-agricultural backgrounds, activating prior knowledge of an

agricultural subject is necessary to improve student comprehension.

Reader-Response Theory

Rosenblatt (1982, 1993) asserted that "reading is a transaction, a two-way process,

involving a reader and a text at a particular time under a particular context" (p. 268,

1993). Reader response theory suggested that thought and feelings are portions of

literacy. Readers interact with texts with emotion and intelligence (D'Arcangelo, 2002;

Durkin, 1993; Harris & Hodges, 1995; NRP, 2000; Ryder & Graves, 1994; Smith, 1982;

Vacca & Vacca, 2002). Different readers respond differently to different texts (Bryant et

al., 1999; Guthrie, 1988; NRP; Rosenblatt). Reading text requires a dynamic intellectual

response from the reader (Daisey, 1994; NRP; Rosenblatt; Vacca & Vacca).

Reader-response theory suggests that meaning does not reside in text, as is typical

with an authoritarian view of text, but is constructed through the interactions of the reader

with the text (Alvermann, 1989). Thus, readers are a primary portion in the creation of

meaning (Alvermann; Daisey, 1994; Valencia, Pearson, Peters, & Wixon, 1989). In

analyzing statewide reading assessments, Valencia et al. (1989) stated,

... readers build meaning by bringing together knowledge they already possess and
information gained from the text ... blend[ing] thoroughly the purposes they bring









to the task. The process is fluid; it varies from one reading situation to another [in
terms of] motivation, interest, culture, task, setting, and text (p. 58).

That is, "text-based plans focused on a teacher-directed, discrete skills lesson; reader-

based plans emphasized a student-centered, whole language lesson' and interactive plans

emphasized a teacher-directed lesson based on individual student differences" (p. 221).

Sociocultural Theory of Reading

Comprehension is more than just individual students and their reading; it is socially

constructed through reading, writing, and speaking. Contextualized within the

individual's social networks and their learning communities (Moje, 1996), reading is a

social activity among students as they collectively construct content and learning

procedures (Rex, 2001). Reading occurs socially as students "discuss their personal

relationships to reading in the discipline, the cognitive strategies they use to solve

comprehension problems, the structure and language of particular types of texts, and the

kinds of knowledge required to make sense of reading material" (Schoenbach, Braunger,

Greenleaf, & Litman, 2003, p. 136).

Reading occurs within personal, sociocultural, and political contexts (Mann, 2000).

Students are social beings with aspirations that contextualize and make particular pieces

of information significant while reading. Social patterns in the classroom shape the

volume and breadth of student reading (Guthrie et al., 1995). Reading activities are

highly associated with social interactions among friends and family, strategies for

comprehension and learning, classroom instruction, and teachers' emphasis on reading

(Guthrie et al.). Moje (1996) posited that teachers and students construct meaning

through interactions with each other and text, and these interactions are based on past

experiences, current situations, and future implications.









Theoretical Framework for Comprehension

In 1978, Delores Durkin initiated the conversation about quality reading instruction

in school classrooms. After observing classrooms in grades three through six, Durkin

determined that "almost no comprehension instruction was found" (p. 481), and time was

spent assessing comprehension and in non-instruction situations. Content area teachers

did not take advantage of opportunities to reinforce or teach reading comprehension

strategies to their students. This landmark study alerted the reading community to the

lack of reading comprehension instruction in content area classrooms.

More recently the RAND Reading Study Group (Snow, 2002) developed a research

agenda for comprehension research, which provides the theoretical framework for

thinking about and researching comprehension for this study. The group defined reading

comprehension as, "the process of simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning

through interaction and involvement with written language" (p. xiii). It is composed of

three elements: reader, text, and activity or purpose for reading, which occur in a larger

sociocultural context (see Figure 2).


Figure 2-1. A Heuristic for Thinking About Reading Comprehension (Snow, 2002).









The reader brings his or her cognitive capabilities, motivation, knowledge, and

experiences to the reading processes (Snow, 2002). These characteristics vary from

reader to reader and significantly impact the understanding of written material. The text

includes the representation of information, including the surface code, text base, and

mental models. Each different text varies in readability, vocabulary, structure, and

content, thus impacting comprehension. The activity for reading involves the purposes,

operations of reading, and outcomes of the reading comprehension processes. Outcomes

can consist of solving problems, increasing knowledge, or engaging the reader.

The context of reading comprehension is comprised of the larger sociocultural

environment in which the student encounters and navigates reading (Snow, 2002). This

sociocultural context includes the teacher, but also extends beyond the classroom to

encompass the community and world of the student. It involves social aspects of

constructing meaning and the development of power within society.

Key Variables in This Study

Key factors in this study include the readers, the activity of reading including a

package of reading strategies, and the teachers. The following sections of Chapter 2 will

focus on research behind the variables related to this study, including teaching reading

strategies, strategy use, motivation to read, and content area comprehension.

Sociocultural Context

Reading occurs in the context of a larger sociocultural context that shapes and is

shaped by the reader (Snow, 2002). Included in the sociocultural context are economic

resources, class membership, ethnicity, neighborhood, technology, and the school culture.

The encompassing sociocultural context includes community- and school-wide factors,

classroom culture, specific curriculum and instructional strategies, and classroom









interactions between students and between the students and teacher (Snow). For this

study, the primary sociocultural factor is the teacher, his or her preparation in reading

strategies, attitude toward reading, and personal reading. Guthrie (2001) proposed

Classroom contexts can promote engaged reading. Teachers create contexts for
engagement when they provide prominent knowledge goals, real-world connections
to reading, meaningful choices about what, when, and how to read, and interesting
texts that are familiar, vivid, important, and relevant. Teachers can further
engagement by teaching reading strategies. A coherent classroom fuses these
qualities ( I).

Strategy instruction should be adapted to the unique subject matter and educational

context where literacy is constructed within each content area (Bean, 2001; DiCecco &

Gleason, 2002; Kang, 2002; O'Brien, Stewart, & Moje, 1995). Teachers must realize

that teaching content area reading strategies goes beyond the content-it teaches students

strategies with which to navigate information, in essence, how to learn. Bean

contextualized the implementation of reading strategies in recommending that they "be

tailored according to how they best fit within specific, local learning contexts" (T 25).

The "specific, local learning context" includes getting to know students and their interests

and incorporating them into lessons. Guthrie and Alao (1997) proposed that motivation

to read is also contextual, where students may be motivated to read some texts in some

situations, but not in others.

In an ethnographic study over the course of two years, Moje (1996) concluded that

students did not transfer reading strategies from chemistry to other high school courses.

Moje also concluded "that the strategies should be taught in each content area not only

because the knowledge is domain specific, but because domains are imbued with social

practices and purposes that shape the knowledge constructed in them" (p. 190). Moje's

(1996) findings supported the notion that teachers should explicitly teach the transfer of









strategies from one domain to another, because of the student's "socially constructed

assumptions about the nature of knowledge and the purpose of literacy in different

content areas" (p. 190). Moje recommended that further research be conducted

"developing deep understandings and building theory about the influence of contexts and

purposes" (p. 191) on reading practices.

Teacher

Strategic reading requires strategic teaching, which puts "teachers in positions

where their minds are the most valued educational resource" (Duffy, 1993, p. 245).

Expert teachers possess a deep knowledge of the reading process and comprehension and

possess skills and knowledge to implement research-based instructional strategies into

teaching (Snow, 2002). The teacher's personal reading habits, attitude toward reading,

and expectations for reading affect student performance (Readence et al., 1989).

Teachers "encourage thinking processes that are essential for successful learning"

(Readence et al., 1989, p. 8). Further, teachers influence strategy use (Moje, 1996;

Sanchez, 2003). Students are seldom willing to expend the time and effort necessary to

implement comprehension strategies, and many students initiate reading strategies only

when directed by the teacher (Cuevas, 2003). Yet, assessing the current practices of

reading instruction, Rieckhoff (1997) determined that little change had occurred in the

amount of reading instruction provided students in intermediate grades since the Durkin

study in 1978. Teachers often assessed comprehension, but did little to instruct students

how to comprehend written materials. Teachers paid little attention to teaching students

how to comprehend, instead believed that students should already possess skills at

applying comprehension strategies.









Attitude

Many teachers feel that reading is essential to learning in the content areas (Digisi,

1993; Morawski & Brunhuber, 1995). A survey of 213 secondary teachers found that

they agreed with the importance of implementing practices to help struggling adolescent

readers and would be receptive to training and information about content area reading

strategies (Catone, 2001). Morawki and Brunhuber found that 63% of 214 teachers

harbored positive feelings toward content area reading.

Surveying 215 British Columbia science teachers, Yore (1991) concluded that

science teachers valued reading as an important learning strategy, and they generally

accepted responsibility for teaching reading strategies. Studying 215 biology teachers,

Digisi (1993) found that teachers viewed reading as essential to learning biology,

especially for discussion in advanced courses and to reinforce concepts in basic biology

courses. Reading was especially vital to learning scientific concepts. Examining content

area reading instruction in five central Florida middle schools, Dillon (2003) found that

the majority of teachers held positive attitudes toward inclusion of content area reading

and engaged in content area reading instruction during some portion of their classes.

Teachers demonstrate their personal value on reading through modeling strategies

and interactions with students (Bintz, 1997; Stephens, 2002). Teachers who model good

reading skills and comprehension encourage their students (Forget & Bottoms, 2000;

Ivey, 2002; NRP, 2000; Rhoder, 2002). Morawski (1995) recommended that teachers

examine "their own beliefs, feelings, and behaviors related to the reading processes" (p.

342) as part of encouraging content area reading. "Teachers are placing more value on

the notion that an interest in reading is ultimately an interest in learning" (Bintz, p. 18).









Investigating beliefs about reading, preparation for content area reading, and

attitudes toward content area reading held by 130 Pennsylvania teachers, Jorgensen

(2001) found a positive relationship between teachers' beliefs about reading and practice

(r=.33), between important reading strategies and teacher practice (r=.61), and between

beliefs about reading and the need for training in content area reading strategies (r=.45).

Teachers realize the importance of content area reading, yet feel unprepared to teach and

reinforce content area reading with students.

Teachers often cite reasons for failing to teach or reinforce reading such as, the

strong need to teach content area material, the addition to curriculum, lack of obligation

to teach content area reading, little or no training in content area reading strategies

(Cresson, 1999; Digisi, 1993), and an attitude that content area reading is "not my job"

(Bintz, 1997; McAloon, 1993-94; Simonson, 1995). Other teachers often reject content

area reading because of their beliefs about secondary schools, misconceptions about

reading as additional teaching material, and assumptions about teaching and learning

(O'Brien & Stewart, 1990). In a qualitative investigation with 25 Midwestern preservice

content area teachers, O'Brien and Stewart found that teachers rejected the notion that

they are teachers of reading. The teachers did not see the relevance of reading to their

particular discipline or how reading strategies could be implemented in their courses,

suggesting that other courses were more appropriate for reinforcing reading.

The most resistant preservice teachers were those in agricultural education with

85% of them rejecting content area reading (O'Brien & Stewart, 1990). Agricultural

education teachers viewed themselves as already reinforcing content area reading.

Because of the perception as a hands-on discipline, they ignored reading as a teaching









tool. Science disciplines rejected prereading instruction and learning from text, as they

believed that when reading was necessary, students could engage in reading

independently. O'Brien and Stewart concluded that

the merits of content reading were diluted by another institutionalized
misconception-that a dichotomy of academic track versus vocational track
curricula represents a clear, logical demarcation between book learning and hands-
on, non-text approaches to acquiring content (p. 119).

In a qualitative study of middle and secondary school teachers, Bintz (1997)

concluded "Teachers often feel unable or unwilling to teach reading in the content areas"

(p. 12). Teachers try to avoid involving students in reading by assigning as little reading

as possible, instead teaching around the textbook to ensure students understand key

concepts. Secondary teachers continue to see themselves as purveyors of knowledge, not

teachers of reading. Compounding the problem, "individuals who know the least about

reading are being asked to teach reading to students who need it the most" (p. 17).

Teachers used different words to describe the same "reading nightmares":

math teachers state that students can't read and understand math problems; science
teachers state that students can't read texts to conduct laboratory experiments;
home economics teachers state that students don't understand and therefore can't
follow instructions; industrial arts and vocational education teachers state that
students can't read and don't follow procedures and thus often put themselves in
physical danger when operating certain machinery and equipment; English teachers
state that students can't read and don't comprehend poems, short stories, and
novels (Bintz, 1997, p. 16).

In essence, "increasing numbers of middle and secondary school students do not perceive

reading as meaningful, and thus do not value the act or the process" (p. 16).

Teacher preparation and knowledge of strategies

Teacher preparation plays a significant role in reading in the content areas and

leads to improved student reading performance (Alexander & Kulikowich, 1991; Jackson

& Cunningham, 1994-95; King, 1998; Meltzer, 2001; Snow, 2002; Williams, 2002).









Teachers who are prepared in the use of reading strategies are better able to teach about

strategies, explain their importance, and demonstrate how to use them (Duffy, Roehler,

Meloth, & Vavrus, 1986; Duffy et al., 1987) in order to assist struggling readers.

However, the use of reading strategies often requires "substantial and intensive teacher

preparation" (Williams, p. 255) and as many as 30 instances of practice before a new

routine is implemented (Carriedo & Alonso-Tapia, 1995; Snow).

For some teachers, tensions exist between teachers' beliefs and practices in content

area reading (Bean, 2001). Mosenthal and Kirsch (1991) ascertained that "teachers have

yet to place the acquisition of new knowledge and the integration of prior knowledge

firmly at the core of content area reading instruction" (p. 61). Surveying 442 Texas

teachers about the use of textbooks and content area reading strategies with students,

Cresson (1999) found that social studies and English teachers were most likely to assign

reading, while math and science teachers were least likely. Surveying 21 experienced

teachers, 15 beginning teachers, and 25 preservice teachers, Menke and Davey (1994)

found that experienced teachers provided more class time for reading than less

experienced teachers, but used text less often to supplement instruction. Experienced

teachers were more likely to teach students to use textbooks and employ cooperative

learning techniques.

Reader

Readers possess several characteristics, including all of the capacities, abilities,

knowledge, and experience that a person brings to reading (Snow, 2002). Capacities and

abilities include "cognitive capacities (e.g., attention, memory, critical analytic ability,

inferencing, visualization ability), motivation (purpose for reading, interest in the content

being read, self-efficacy as a reader), and various types of knowledge (vocabulary,









domain, and topic knowledge, linguistic and discourse knowledge, knowledge of specific

comprehension strategies)" (Snow, p. 13). As a reader begins, engages in, and completes

a reading task, some or all of these abilities may change (NRP, 2000).

Proficient readers define their purposes) for reading, monitor the achievement of

those purposes, and activate fix-up strategies if the purposes are not being met (Ryder &

Graves, 1994). They possess knowledge of multiple strategies to help them retain,

organize, and evaluate information that they read (Snow, 2002). They understand how to

use strategies, employ them, and have enough background knowledge and cognitive

capacity to profit from strategy use (Collins, 1994; Forget & Bottoms, 2000; Pressley,

Snyder, & Carigula-Bull, 1987). Successful adolescent readers "increase their reading

fluency and adjust their reading speed according to their reasons for reading" (Moore et

al., 1999, p. 3). Thus, proficient reading involves a "constant, ongoing adaptation of

many cognitive processes" (NRP, 2000, p. 4-7), where readers continually "adapt, adjust,

modify, and test until they construct meaning and the problem is solved" (NRP, p. 4-47).

Researchers know that good readers:

* Are active readers.

* Have clear goals in mind for their reading from the outset. They constantly
evaluate whether the text, and their reading of it, is meeting their goals.

* Look over the text before they read, noting structure and text sections that might be
most relevant to their reading goals.

* Frequently make predictions as they read about what is to come.

* Read selectively, continually making decisions about their reading.

* Construct, revise, and question the meaning they make as they read.

* Try to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words and concepts in the text.

* Draw from, compare, and integrate prior knowledge with text material.









* Monitor their understanding, making adjustments as necessary.

* Evaluate text quality and value, and intellectually and emotionally react to it.

* Read different kinds of texts differently.

* Attend closely to the setting and characters when reading narrative.

* Construct and revise summaries of what they have read.

* Use multiple strategies constantly (Duke & Pearson, 2002).

Gender

Gender plays a role in reading comprehension, where female students tend to excel

(Donahue et al., 1999; NCES, 2000, 2001; Pomplun & Sundbye, 1999; Wirt et al., 2004).

The NCES (2001) reported that the reading scale score was higher for females (269) than

for males (258). In Florida males scored 251, while females scored 263, 12 points higher

on reading achievement or 4.8% better (NCES, 2003). In Florida, 39% of eighth grade

males, compared to 26% of females, scored below the basic level of reading achievement,

indicating that students did not demonstrate mastery of prerequisite knowledge and skills

necessary for grade-level work (NCES, 2003).

Further, academic resilience, the ability to improve a downward spiral of academic

achievement through the course of schooling, is related to gender. Cappella and

Weinstein (2001) studied 1,362 "at-risk" students in the National Educational

Longitudinal Study of 1988 to determine predictive factors associated with high school

students' academic resilience. They found that being Caucasian and female, possessing

an internal locus of control, coming from a family with a high socioeconomic status

(SES), and enrolling in academic curriculum predicted academic resilience.









Age / Grade Level

Metacognitive ability and strategic learning are related to age and reading

experience (Stewart & Tei, 1983). Learning is cyclical: the more a student knows, the

more he or she can learn (McKenna & Robinson, 2002). Thus, the student's age and

volume of experiences related to the reading content affect the student's ability to make

connections and develop relationships between existing and new knowledge. Reading

ability typically increases with age and accumulation of life experiences from which to

draw upon in activating prior knowledge (McKenna & Robinson; Vacca, 2002).

Studying 268 college students about knowledge domains using the Nelson-Denny

Reading Test, Stanovich and Cunningham (1993) concluded that differences in exposure

to information are significant contributors to differences in knowledge.

Ethnicity

Ethnicity plays a role in reading achievement among American high school

students (Desimone, 1999). Pungello, Kupersmidt, Burchinal, and Patterson (1996)

found that multiplicativee and cumulative risk factor models suggest that both low family

income and minority ethnic status are important predictors of children's academic

achievement" (p. 762). Maruyama (2003) suggested that "at all levels, achievements and

attainments of... students of color are substantially lower than levels of their peers" (p.

654). Craig, Connor, and Washington (2003) posited that "African American students

are at high risk for reading failure" (p. 31). According to the National Assessment of

Educational Progress, fourth grade African American and Hispanic students were more

likely to read below the basic level than white students, 63% and 58% versus 27%,

respectively (Donahue, Finnegan, Lutkus, Allen, & Campbell, 2001). Further, research









indicates that the gap in achievement between black and white students widens as

students progress through school (Phillips, Crouse, & Ralph, 1998).

Regarding overall educational achievement, Demack, Drew, and Grimsley (2000)

found that ethnicity differences produced larger difference than did gender. According to

Taylor, Casten, Flickinger, Roberts, and Fulmore (1994), when 164 African American

students in the Northeast felt discrimination, they tended to place less importance on

academic achievement and engage less in their schoolwork.

Socioeconomic Status

Because students learn literacy and reading at home as well as in school (Duke &

Purcell-Gates, 2003), SES of students plays a role in reading achievement (Desimone,

1999). Maruyama (2003) suggested that "at all levels, achievements and attainments of

poor students are substantially lower than levels of their peers" (p. 654). In a

longitudinal study of 80,000 youth in England, Demack et al. (2000) found that SES had

a more profound effect on overall educational achievement than either ethnicity or

gender. Following students from seven months of age to 10 years, Walker, Greenwood,

Hart, and Carta (1994) found that children from low-SES homes scored lower on

standardized reading tests because they "were exposed less often than higher-SES

children to diverse vocabulary through their parents' attention and talking" (p.606).

Regarding reading, Denton and West (2002) found that half as many first grade

students from poor families were proficient in understanding words in context than

students from more affluent families. The 1998 National Assessment of Educational

Progress (Donahue et al., 1999) found that over twice as many eighth and twelfth grade

students qualifying for free or reduced lunches performed below the basic level than

students without lunch subsidies (eighth grade, 44% versus 19%; twelfth grade, 43%









versus 20%). Pungello, Kupersmidt, Burchinal, and Patterson (1996) found that

multiplicativee and cumulative risk factor models suggest that both low family income

and minority ethnic status are important predictors of children's academic achievement"

(p. 762). They found that students from lower-SES homes experienced lower

standardized reading scores than students from higher-SES homes.

Reading Ability

Constructing meaning from texts requires reading ability and an intellectual

response from students (Vacca & Vacca, 2002). Students with deficiencies in the basic

reading abilities (i.e., phonics and fluency) may experience difficulty with more advanced

outcomes of reading, such as comprehension. Word-by-word reading hinders

comprehension, thus poor readers toil with lessons about words, sounds, and letters,

while good readers engage in lessons emphasizing meaning-making from text (Allington,

1983). Poor readers have difficulty comprehending, organizing, developing

relationships, and remembering what they read (Beach, 1996), especially from different

kinds of text. Poor readers often lack enough background knowledge in both the content

and reading strategy use to apply appropriate reading strategies. Struggling readers "lack

not only the cognitive confidence they need to succeed, they lack the emotional

confidence to believe they can be successful and the social confidence to join a

community of readers" (Beers, 2003, p. 4).

Students' effort and ability to navigate texts while reading must be analyzed in

order to better understand their reading capabilities (Duke & Pearson, 2002). A student's

reading ability is difficult to ascertain and measure (McKenna & Robinson, 2002) and

may vary depending upon the type of text the student is reading. At best, many reading

ability scales are general, progressive, and relative to a student's grade level.









Brozo (1990) ascertained that many struggling secondary readers bring to the

classroom "a long history of failure and, likely, a repertoire of strategies to avoid

reading" (p. 327). Observations of high school classrooms and interviews with struggling

readers suggest that poor readers develop coping strategies for hiding from reading, such

as avoiding eye contact with the teacher, becoming disruptive, developing listening skills

to offset reading deficiencies, relying on classmates for help, "forgetting" to bring texts to

class, and using manipulative techniques for gaining favor with teachers (Brozo).

Interest

Students with natural curiosity and desire to learn may be more inclined to become

actively engaged in texts as a source of satisfying their intellectual curiosity

(D'Arcangelo, 2002; Hurst, 2001; Snow, 2002). Students who are curious ask questions

and make judgments about the text, inferring about the author's motives, ideas, and

expected outcomes from the text. Self-initiated questioning improves reading

comprehension (Duke & Pearson, 2002). Researchers have indicated a positive

relationship between reader interest and comprehension (Asher, 1980; Baldwin, Peleg-

Bruckner, & McClintock, 1985; Wigfield & Asher, 1984; Wilhelm, 2001), whereby

students comprehend material better if it concerns topics that they like to read about.

Baldwin et al. found student interest, especially among males, was a significant factor in

reading comprehension, even when prior knowledge of the topic was low.

Prior Knowledge

Before a student can think about new content, they must consider what they already

know in order to organize new information and make connections between the new and

old knowledge (Collins, 1994; D'Arcangelo, 2002; Forget & Bottoms, 2000; Friend,

2001; Rhoder, 2002; Snow, 2002). Prior knowledge depends on the reader's background,









experience, and word knowledge from a variety of reading sources (Bryant et al., 1999;

Cibrowski, 1995; Snow). "Readers use background experiences and prior knowledge to

construct meaning from text" (Alvermann, 1989, p. 142).

In a study of 211 sixth graders enrolled in science, 75 high school biology students,

and 35 elementary education undergraduates in Texas, Alexander and Kulikowich (1991)

found that a reader's background knowledge, both of the content and strategies, and

reasoning ability affected reading comprehension. Discussing the problems associated

with teaching counter-intuitive scientific concepts, Hynd (1991) submitted that students

have difficulty overcoming preconceived notions of experienced science concepts.

Basically, "students seem to have a difficult time giving up their intuitive ideas even after

instruction" (p. 597).

Prior Reading Experiences

Prior reading experiences play a role in reading performance (Snow, 2002).

Students' self-concept is impacted by past reading performances (Stanovich, 1986) and

forged by peers' value of reading (Readence et al., 1989). Students with successful prior

reading experiences know, even subconsciously, how to rectify reading failures and

employ these strategies on a regular basis (Snow). Students without these successful

reading experiences lack an understanding of how to remedy failures in phonics, fluency,

vocabulary, and comprehension.

Reading skills may be affected by the amount of reading practice and the type of

learning to read instruction that a student has experienced (Snow, 2002). Practiced

readers in many different forms of text and for many different reading purposes may be

better able to comprehend technical and content area texts. The type of learning to read

instruction plays a role in a student's reading abilities. Secondary students who enter the









classroom with the basic strategies in phonics and fluency can be taught vocabulary and

comprehension in the subject area.

Activity

Fundamental to any reading is the derivation of meaning from text (Collins, 1994).

The content of meaning is "influenced by the text and by the reader's prior knowledge

and experience that are brought to bear on it" (NRP, 2000, p. 4-5). The knowledge

gained from reading enables the reader to "make meanings of the text, to form memory

representations of these meanings, and to use them to communicate information with

others about what was read" (NRP, p. 4-5). In order to read critically, readers should

draw inferences, analyze lines of reasoning, apply logic, weigh evidence, evaluate

language, and relate different readings to each other (Moore, 2003). Considerable

practice is necessary for a student to acquire fluency and comprehension (Snow, 2002).

Readers read for knowledge, application, and engagement (Snow, 2002). Reading

assignments should be "challenging, but not frustrating" (Readence et al., 1989, p. 26).

Classrooms should be print-rich and teachers should support student reading (McKenna

& Robinson, 2002). In order to be supportive of reading, Duke and Pearson (2002)

proposed that students be afforded quality time for reading, read real texts with real

purposes, read a variety of texts, discuss words and their concepts and meanings, write

texts for other audiences, and engage in quality discussion about written materials.

Reading in the three microperiods

Reading involves the interplay of three micro-periods-pre-reading, reading, and

post-reading-that constitute microdevelopmental processes (Snow, 2002). During each

of these periods, the reader develops and is developed by his or her application of

previous knowledge, reading skills, and comprehension. Reading also has a









macrodevelopmental aspect (Snow). A reader's purpose, questions, and engagement in

reading may change throughout the entire process as they learn from the text, derive

benefit from reading, and experience more challenging text.

Three points occur where students can initiate reading strategies: before reading,

during reading, and after reading (see Figure 2, Ryder & Graves, 1994). Prior to reading,

students can circumvent habits that inhibit comprehension, and teachers can provide

scaffolding to assist learning with text, such as establishing purpose for reading,

activating prior knowledge, and developing guiding questions for the reading. Strategic

learning during reading involves monitoring reading and making sense of the passages.

During reading, readers should question the author's meaning of the passage, his or her

intent, and challenge the author's point of view. After reading, students can extend and

elaborate on the author's ideas. Here students share their ideas about the reading through

discussion, writing, or other means of expression.


Before Reading During Reading Following Reading


Set purposes for reading Ask questions Confirm or alter
Activate relevant Reread predictions
background knowledge Check context Identify important
Identify probable text Summarize information
~\ structure Check and modify Evaluate comprehension
SSelect strategies to use predictions in terms of purposes
S while reading for reading


Figure 2-2. Strategies of Proficient Readers (Ryder & Graves, 1994, p. 175).









Reading Strategies

Instruction of individual reading strategies has been shown to have a positive effect

on reading comprehension and motivation to read (Autrey, 1999; Black, 1995; Carriedo

& Alosno-Tapia, 1995; Cooper, 1998; Druitt, 2002; Ferguson, 2001; Guthrie et al., 1995;

Jackson & Cunningham, 1994-95; Kuehl, 2002; Laflamme, 1998; Leinhart, Zigmond, &

Cooley, 1981; Little, 1999; Lynch, 2002; Mastropieri, Scruggs, & Graetz, 2003; Meyer &

Poon, 2001; Moody, 1993; Rush, 2000; Shimizu, 1996; Simmonds, 1992; Ward-

Washington, 2002). "Because meaning does not exist in text, but rather must be actively

constructed, instruction in how to employ strategies is necessary to improve

comprehension" (Snow, 2002, p. 32). Teaching reading strategies should be incorporated

with content area instruction so students can understand the importance and application

of strategies to learning (Pressley, Symons, McGoldrick, & Snyder, 1995; Rhoder, 2002).

Teaching reading strategies improves awareness and use of strategies, as well as

motivation to read (NRP, 2000).

Reading Strategy Instruction

Comprehension strategies are "procedures that guide students as they attempt to

read and write" (NRP, 2000, p. 4-40). They are "procedural, purposeful, effortful,

willful, essential, and facilitative in nature" (Jetton & Alexander, 2001, 17). "Strategy

instruction is not blind, but informed by theory and research" (Vacca, 2002, p. 194).

Highlighting a set of instructional strategies called Reading Apprentice, Schoenbach et al.

(2003) suggested that effective strategies focus on "how we read and why we read in the

ways we do" (p. 134).

Students who are not explicitly taught reading strategies are unlikely to learn,

develop, and employ strategies spontaneously (NRP, 2000). Reading strategy instruction









requires a shift from didactic instruction to one that is more student-centered (Sinatra,

2000). The explicitness of strategy instruction has an effect on student comprehension,

especially for low-achieving students (Snow, 2002). "Explicit instruction provides a

clear explanation of the criterion task, encourages students to pay attention, activates

prior knowledge, breaks the task into small steps, provides sufficient practice at every

step, and incorporates teacher feedback" (p. 33).

Researchers (Bryant et al., 1999; Duke & Pearson, 2002; NRP, 2000) have

proposed several models of strategy instruction. Bryant et al. outlined considerations to

effective strategy instruction:

provide explicit instruction to promote the acquisition and mastery of reading
strategies; provide advance organizers in outline form, so students can examine the
structure of the lesson's content; model how to comprehend text and figure out the
meaning of new words; prompt students to use reading strategies; provide daily and
sustained instruction; require strategy mastery; help students learn when, where,
and how to apply reading strategies to content-area text; have students practice
strategies with a variety of materials; and recognize that strategy instruction is part
of the total school curriculum and is applicable across content-area classes (p. 296).

In a meta-analysis of reading comprehension strategies, the NRP (2000) found

eight strategies to be research-based. These comprehension strategies improve student

recall, question answering and generation, and summarization of texts. They also show

general gains on standardized comprehension tests. The eight strategies are:

* Comprehension monitoring in which the reader learns how to be aware or
conscious of his or her understanding during reading and learns procedures to deal
with problems in understanding as they arise.

* Cooperative learning in which readers work together to learn strategies in the
context of reading.

* Graphic and semantic organizers that allow the reader to represent graphically
(write or draw) the meanings and relationships of the ideas that underlie the words
in the text.









* Story structure from which the reader learns to ask and answer who, what, where,
when, and why questions about the plot and, in some cases, maps out the timeline,
characters, and events in stories.

* Question answering in which the reader answers questions posed by the teacher and
is given feedback on the correctness.

* Question generation in which the readers ask what, when, where, why, what will
happen, how, and who questions.

* Summarization in which the reader attempts to identify and write the main or most
important ideas that integrate or unite the other ideas or meanings of the text into a
coherent whole.

* Multiple-strategy teaching in which the reader uses several of the procedures in
interaction with the teacher over the text. Multiple-strategy teaching is effective
when the procedures are used flexibly and appropriately by the reader or the
teacher in naturalistic contexts (p. 4-6).

Ramos (1996) with 15 third- and fifth-grade students, Wolters (1997) with 379

junior high school students, Hess (1997) with 106 college students, Yu (1997) with 86

middle and high school students, Lenhart (1994) with 22 third grade students and 38 sixth

grade students, and Ward-Washington (2002) with 81 eleventh-grade social studies

students determined that reading strategy knowledge was the best predictor of reading

achievement. Studying the effectiveness of metacognitive strategy instruction with 152

white and Hispanic, lower-middle-class Arizona sixth-grade students using a

nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design, Tregaskes and Daines (1989)

concluded that students instructed with comprehension strategies increased their reading

comprehension over the control. Walkovic (2004) studied eighth graders and found that

student reported use of reading strategies accounted for 45% of the variance on the

eighth-grade Pennsylvania System of School Assessment reading test.

Reading strategy instruction provides significant gains (Mothus, 2004; Simmonds,

1992), even for higher reading level students (Ferguson, 2001). Evaluating strategy









intervention to increase 98 eighth grade students' comprehension, Mothus found that

students participating in the intervention increased comprehension achievement scores

more than one grade level, significantly more than the control. Further, significant

predictors of school failure included reading comprehension. Studying 24 New York

resource room teachers and their use of reading strategies, Simmonds determined that

reading strategy instruction improved comprehension by nearly two standard deviations

among 240 resource room students in grades one through nine. In determining the effect

of metacognitive strategy instruction on 20 sixth-grade social studies students' content

area reading comprehension, Ferguson found significant differences in the effectiveness

of metacognitive strategy instruction on comprehension for high-level readers, as well as

low- and average-level readers.

Investigating the effectiveness of teaching different strategies for identifying

important concepts in content area reading through two different studies, Carriedo and

Alonso-Tapia (1995) explored strategy use with thirty-one 11- and 12-year-olds and one

hundred-four 11- through 14-year-olds. Carriedo and Alonso-Tapia concluded that the

measures for which training was directed garnered significant improvement, including

knowledge of the topic and main idea characteristics, graphical representation of relations

among text ideas, knowledge of text structures, and summarizing. In the second study

with 11- through 14-year-olds, under direct instruction students perceived the main idea

and topic of passages better than students without instruction. Additionally, directly

instructed students were more aware of cognitive processes, more ably represent text

structure, and developed higher metacognitive knowledge than students without direct

instruction in reading strategies.









Attitude, confidence, and self-efficacy affect content area reading strategy use

(Black, 1995; Kuehl, 2002). Examining strategies employed to accommodate for

comprehension, Moran (1998) determined that motivators included self-efficacy, interest,

commitment to the task, and overall confidence. Evaluating the effects of the

C*A*C*T*U*S instructional model with post-secondary students, Simpson (1998) found

that students utilized the strategy and began to increase their positive feelings toward

their ability to succeed.

Goals of Reading Strategy Instruction

The goal of strategy instruction should be to enable students to select appropriate

strategies, adapt them to particular texts, employ them to solve reading problems

(Pressley, Johnson, Symons, McGoldrick, & Kurita, 1989; Wilhelm, 2001), and have

them independently initiated by the student (Ellis, 1994; NRP, 2000; Snow, 2002).

Factors concerning explicit comprehension strategy instruction and student use include

developing purposes for reading, previewing texts, making predictions, activating

background knowledge, thinking aloud, using text structure, creating visual

representations, determining the important ideas, summarizing, generating questions,

monitoring comprehension, modeling strategies, using multiple strategies, developing

motivation to read, and guided and independent practicing of strategies (Duke & Pearson,

2002).

The type of strategy used for a particular text depends upon "the purpose for

reading, the characteristics of the reader, and the characteristics of the text" (Ryder &

Graves, 1994, p. 177). Students should have a choice of many reading strategies that are

best suited for the specific text, applications, and student preference (Snow, 2002).

Teachers should individualize reading strategies to match the specific needs of the









purpose for reading, the text, the learner, and the products of reading. Strategies should

be selected upon the following three criteria: ease of instruction, flexibility, and

comprehension monitoring (Palinscar, 1986).

Studying 324 Texas college students about reading goals and comprehension

strategy use, Taraban, Rynearson, and Kerr (2000) concluded that reading goals and

strategy use reliably discriminated between higher and lower grade-point averages

(GPA), as well as ACT scores. The most frequently used strategies were looking for

important information (u = 3.40), changing strategies (u = 3.19), determining the

meaning of unknown words (u = 3.14), increasing attention (u = 3.09), and drawing on

prior knowledge (u = 3.05). The higher GPA students used significantly more goals (u =

2.86) than lower GPA students (u = 2.46), and they used significantly more strategies (u

= 2.52 versus 2.09, respectively).

Students desire reading strategy instruction. Studying 743 middle school and 1,043

high school students' views of instructional practices using the Student Textbook

Adaptation Evaluation Instrument, Schumm, Vaughn, and Saumell (1992) concluded that

students appreciated teacher read-alouds, needed aid in setting purposes for reading and

activating background knowledge, and used summaries. They concluded that students

were not getting the instructional support for reading comprehension that they needed

from teacher, especially high school teachers (also, Self, 1998). Further, even high

achieving students desired textbook adaptations and reading strategy instruction.

Multiple Strategy Instruction

Effective reading does not rely upon a single strategy, but incorporates the

coordination of several strategies (Baer & Nourie, 1993; Bean, 1997; Bos & Anders,

1992; Bulgren & Scanlon, 1997-98; Meltzer, 2001; Snow, 2002; Pressley & Wharton-









McDonald, 1997; Schoenbach, et al., 2003; Taraban et al., 2000; Vaughn, 2001) and

involves the "constant, ongoing adaptation of many cognitive processes" (Williams,

2002, p. 244). Teaching a variety of reading strategies leads to "increased learning of the

strategies, to specific transfer of learning, to increased retention and understanding of

new passages, and, in some cases, to general improvements in comprehension" (NRP,

2000, p. 4-6).

With Virginia high school students, Morgan and Hosay (1991) determined that

teaching a package of reading strategies (including prior knowledge activation,

discussion, group learning, prediction, and summary) improved comprehension, led

students to read more, bolstered critical reading, increased the variety of texts read, and

improved standardized test scores. Similarly, in an ex post facto study of ninth grade

students' reading comprehension levels, Weedman (2003) determined a trend toward

higher comprehension scores was generated when teaching students to use a package of

four reciprocal teaching strategies.

Activating Prior Knowledge

Because prior knowledge and experiences vary from reader to reader, the meaning

constructed from texts also varies among readers (Sammons & Davey, 1993-94).

Teachers can accommodate for differences in prior reading experiences by appraising

student's existing knowledge of a subject and bringing all students up to a similar level

(Pressley et al., 1995; Readence et al., 1989). Comprehension improves when prior

knowledge is activated through pre-reading instruction (Cooper, 2000; Gaultney, 1995;

Michiels-Bongaerts & Schmidt, 1995; Pate, 1995; Stevens, 1996; Zhu, 1996).

Researchers have posited that many readers do not "automatically relate [new]

information to their prior knowledge, even if they have a wealth of knowledge that could









be related" (Pressley, 2001, 17; Paris & Lindauer, 1976). Activation of prior

knowledge is especially recommended for poor readers who may not spontaneously

relate their previous experience or knowledge to reading passages (Pressley et al., 1995),

yet, teachers are often reluctant to teach pre-reading strategies (McAloon, 1994).

Prior knowledge must be activated in order for a student to effectively read in

content areas or the teacher must provide accurate background knowledge of the specific

topic (Boyle & Maloney, 1991; Duke & Pearson, 2002; Gould, 1987; Jacobs, 2002;

Knudsen, 2002; NRP, 2000; Pressley et al., 1995; Snider, 1989; Wilson & Anderson,

1986). Activating prior knowledge gives students a head start on learning by challenging

them to "(a) think about what they already know about a subject, (b) acquire a general

understanding of how the big ideas will fit together, and (c) increase their confidence and

motivation to read more" (Cibrowski, 1995, p. 94). The goals of activating prior

knowledge include facilitating learning, defining goals and objectives, directing attention,

arousing curiosity, activating and extending prior knowledge, drawing on students'

existing knowledge, filling in gaps in students' knowledge, clarifying misconceptions,

identifying and presenting essential concepts and information, previewing vocabulary,

and engaging critical thinking (Ryder & Graves).

McKeown, Beck, Sinatra, and Loxterman (1992) studied 48 fifth grade students

and found that background knowledge was useful, especially when texts are coherent

enough to "allow the reader to see the connections between the text information and

previous knowledge so that the knowledge can be combined with the text information to

create a meaningful representation" (p. 91). Akagawa (1996) determined that students









whose prior background knowledge was activated scored significantly better on recall,

comprehension, and vocabulary tasks than students in control conditions.

Sometimes activating background knowledge is counterproductive to

comprehension, especially when prior knowledge contradicts the text (Stevens, 1996).

Studying 52 sixth grade students' activation of background knowledge, Alvermann,

Smith, and Readence (1985) determined that in some instances prior knowledge may

interfere with reading comprehension instead of augmenting it, such as when students

allowed their prior experiences and background knowledge to override conflicting

information derived from text. Studying 62 undergraduate non-science majors,

Alvermann and Hynd (1989) determined that activating background knowledge about

unfamiliar topics was not beneficial to dispelling inaccurate information, because

students' inaccurate background knowledge overrode accurate text information. The

researchers concluded that teachers should model comprehension of new concepts,

especially those that conflict with the reader's prior experiences or knowledge.

Investigating the use of the K-W-L and reciprocal teaching, Sisco (1992) found that

students benefited from using the K-W-L and reciprocal teaching in their ability to

execute strategies, in reading comprehension, and in their positive attitude toward

reading. Implementing the K-W-L reading strategy in a college course, Fritz (2002)

found that the strategy increased the quality and quantity of interactions between

students, instructor, and subject matter.

Setting Purpose

"Readers need a personally relevant and socially significant purpose" (Wilhelm,

2001, p. 34) when they read. This purpose helps students comprehend textual material

(D'Arcangelo, 2002; Snow, 2002). Purpose is influenced by prior knowledge and









interest in the reading subject (Snow). In a qualitative study of eleven under-prepared

college freshmen, Verbeck (2003) determined that strategic readers were driven by

purposes and goals for reading and possessed a stronger sense of self-efficacy. In order

for a student to read critically and become actively engaged in the text, he or she must ask

the question, "why" (Moore, 2003). Wilhelm (2001) concluded,

When students are actively taught to more competently read for important real-

world purposes, they will be more motivated, they will become more competent, they

will willingly converse with authors and others about he knowledge made available

through texts, and they will be able to undertake the important kinds of democratic

work-intellectual, moral, and physical-that reading, at its very best, can help us to do

(p. 34).

Reading and Thinking Aloud

Reading or thinking aloud allows students to "see" the comprehension processes

that engaged readers activate in order to understand text (Ivey & Broaddus, 2001;

Schoenbach, Braunger, Greenleaf, & Litman, 2003). Modeling reading comprehension, a

teacher can verbalize his or her thinking processes that are needed to overcome difficult

words, monitor comprehension, and apply fix-up strategies. Think along is "an oral or

written representation of a reader's process of constructing meaning from, or in reaction

to, text" (Ehlinger & Pritchard, 1994, p. 188).

Surveying 1,765 sixth-grade students in the mid-Atlantic and northeastern United

States, Ivey and Broaddus (2001) determined that students valued teacher read-alouds

(62% of students). Ivey and Broaddus concluded, "high-engagement reading...would

include time to read, time to listen to teachers read, and access to personally interesting

materials" (p. 370). Studying the cultural reading and motivations to read among 626









undergraduate students, Pavonetti (1997) concluded teachers who read aloud were the

most positive motivational force in encouraging a student to read. In describing a lesson

for ninth-grade science students, Richardson and Smith (1996-97) provided anecdotal

evidence that students enjoyed read-alouds, even in an advanced science class.

Investigating the effect of think aloud statements on recall and comprehension

scores of 72 fifth grade students, Younger (1995) found that poor readers benefited from

read alouds more than good readers. Studying the effects of context and reading aloud on

seventh grade students' reading comprehension of expository text, Kucan (1998)

concluded no differences on recall and questions answered, but transcripts of students'

talk indicated context-related processing differences. Specifically, individuals engaged in

more paraphrasing, restating, and summarizing, while group members participated in

more questioning, inferring, and exploring possibilities. Studying high school English

language learners, Vega (2001) found that think-alouds allowed students to become

active participants in monitoring reading comprehension, make learning more relevant,

and help students take risks.

Organizing Information

Graphic organizers provide students with a meaningful and visual framework for

taking notes, understanding relationships between concepts, and organizing ideas (Black,

1995; DiCecco & Gleason, 2002; Fisher, 2001; Ives, 2003; Kim, Vaughn, Wanzek, &

Wei, 2004; Moore & Readence, 1984). They include semantic maps, semantic feature

analysis, cognitive maps, story maps, framed outlines, and Venn diagrams. The

foundation of graphic organizers is that the "visual and verbal organizational structure of

the diagram consolidates information into a meaningful whole so students do not have the









impression that they are being taught a series of unrelated terms, facts, or concepts"

(Horton, Lovitt, & Bergerud, 1990, p. 13).

Reading guides enhance a student's comprehension (Alvermann & Swafford, 1989;

Davis, Franks, & Franks, 2001; McKenna & Davis, 2002; Miller & George, 1992; Vidal-

Abarca & Gilabert, 1995; Wood, Lapp, & Flood, 1992). They help students focus their

attention on the specific purpose for reading (McKenna & Robinson, 2002). Guides also

make the reading process active rather than passive. Students translate information

gleaned from reading into their own language. Reading guides integrate reading and

writing and provide a useful tool for review and aid for classroom discussion. Reading

guides could include hierarchical guides, cluster guides, nonhierarchical guides, selective

guides, point-of-view guides, and anticipation guides.

In a synthesis of research on graphic organizers, Moore and Readence (1984)

determined an average effect size of 0.22, with a standard deviation of 0.58. Thus,

learners treated with graphic organizers outperformed control groups by about two-tenths

of a standard deviation. Moore and Readence concluded that graphic organizers produce

little added learning, but the results may vary widely. However, graphic post organizers,

those organizers presented after text seem to produce the most learning benefit, with a

medium average effect size of 0.57 (SE= 0.17). Further, graphic organizers produced

larger effect sizes when concerned with vocabulary as the outcome (, = 0.68, SE = 0.19)

and a smaller effect size when comprehension was concerned (u = 0.29, SE = 0.06).

Graphic organizers in secondary classes produced small effect sizes (u = 0.14, SE = 0.05)

and larger effect sizes for college students (u = 0.66, SE = 0.16). Additionally, in the

qualitative portion of the review, Moore and Readence found that teachers felt more









confident and better organized when presenting lessons using graphic organizers. They

also noted that students felt that graphic organizers were not part of the flow of lessons,

but rather an additional exercise; thus, in order to increase effectiveness, teachers should

explain the reasoning behind graphic organizers and model their use.

Reviewing research related to the use of graphic organizers when comprehending

and recalling expository text information, Griffin and Tulbert (1995) concluded that

graphic organizers are most effective when used with expository text, as a postreading

activity, and when used with vocabulary. Graphic post organizers are most effective

when used with summarization, when modeled by the teacher, and students are provided

guided practice and feedback on their organizers.

Conducting two experiments with graphic organizers and 153 undergraduate

educational psychology students, Robinson and Kiewra (1995) concluded that students

learned more hierarchical and coordinate relations, thus were more successful in applying

knowledge and writing essays than if using outlines or text alone. In the first experiment

with 111 students, the researchers found that students studying only text learned more

nonrepresented facts (u = 8.27) than students using graphic organizers (u = 6.92), but the

main effect for represented facts was not significant. Students using graphic organizers

did learn significantly more (F(1, 105) = 4.93) relational information (u = 3.35) than

students studying text only (u = 1.65). Thus, students using graphic organizers learned

more relational knowledge than students studying text only. In the second experiment

with 42 students, they determined that students did not differ on nonrepresented facts, but

did differ on represented facts (F(2, 39) = 7.44, MSE= 6.51). Students using graphic

organizers learned more represented information than students studying text alone.









Investigating the effect of graphic organizers on 427 ninth-grade students' social

studies achievement, Herbst (1996) found that using SQ3R with graphic organizers was

the most effective learning strategy. Reviewing literature on graphic organizers, Monroe

(1997) determined that using graphic organizers helped develop conceptual

understanding through student engagement, helped make connections among concepts

and words, and served as retrieval cues for existing schema. Investigating the effects of

organizers with complete, partial, and skeletal information with 117 undergraduate

students, Katayama (1998) found no significant differences between graphic organizers

and traditional outlines on factual tests; however, students using graphic organizers

performed significantly better on transfer tests than students using outlines. Sampling 38

second-grade students, Millet (2000) found that student comprehension improved when

using graphic organizers.

Studying 26 Oregon middle school students with learning disabilities, DiCecco and

Gleason (2002) found that students using graphic organizers provided significantly more

relational statements and gained more relational knowledge from expository texts than

students who did not use graphic organizers, with the positive effect of graphic organizers

being "nearly universal" (p. 317). Further, students benefited from longer treatment with

"more intensive and more explicitly aligned" (p. 317) instruction than in previous studies.

DiCecco and Gleason concluded that teachers must model the use of graphic organizers

with text relevant to the content area and provide guided practice for students.

Additionally, instruction in summary writing may assist students in gaining relational and

factual knowledge about concepts. DiCecco and Gleason suggested further research

dealing with graphic organizers and domain knowledge, treatment periods of longer than









20 days, and ensure proper measurement of the kinds of knowledge (i.e. relational) which

graphic organizers can provide.

In a meta-analysis of graphic organizer use among students with learning

disabilities, Kang (2002) determined large effect sizes (.76) for graphic organizers when

learning concepts from text. Results clearly indicated

(a) graphic organizers used before and after reading facilitated initial and
subsequent learning of students with learning disabilities in content areas, (b)
graphic organizer interventions produced very large effects (weighted mean effect
size = 1.39) when used as substitutes for text materials, and (c) the use of
experimenter-constructed graphic organizers for students with learning disabilities
was effective in enhancing their learning in content areas (abstract).

However, students did not appear to transfer graphic organizers to other content areas.

In a synthesis of research on graphic organizers, Kim et al. (2004) posited that

expository texts are especially challenging because of being information driven,

containing unfamiliar vocabulary, and containing poor organization. They concluded that

learning disabled students who used graphic organizers "demonstrated significantly

higher scores on researcher-developed comprehension measures" (p. 112) than students

without graphic organizers. Overall, the student-generated graphic organizers improved

student comprehension more than expert-generated organizers. Still, regardless of

whether the organizers were student-, teacher-, or expert-generated, the overall effect size

was large; however, student-generated organizers garnered the largest effect sizes. Thus,

the researchers concluded overall beneficial effects from the use of graphic organizers.

Other researchers (DiCecco & Gleason, 2002; Schorzman, 2001; Twyman, 2004;

White, 2000) have found no significant difference when using graphic organizers. In

determining the effect of using graphic organizers on reading comprehension of college

business students, White found that graphic organizers did not improve reading









comprehension as measured by the Nelson-Denny Reading Test. Examining the

effectiveness of the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity, the PReP strategy, and graphic

organizers for reading comprehension with 103 sixth grade students, Schorzman found a

significant difference between experimental and control groups in informal evaluations of

comprehension but found no significant difference on formal evaluations. DiCecco &

Gleason determined graphic organizers did not seem to assist students in recalling factual

information. Concerning seventh grade students' use of graphic organizers, Twyman

(2004) revealed no statistical difference between groups on content vocabulary and

content acquisition. However, when solving problems, students using graphic organizers

performed statistically better than students without graphic organizers.

Summarizing

Summarization of text content is an effective means of improving students'

comprehension (Black, 1995; Friend, 1995; Guthrie et al., 1995; Hare & Borchardt,

1984). Investigating summarization with college students, Friend determined that

students instructed in summarization strategies performed significantly better at including

relevant, important ideas in the summary.

Several factors, including background knowledge, feedback, and the types of

questions driving the summary, affect the quality of a student's summary. Working with

college students and the relationship between prior knowledge and summary writing,

Kiewit (1997) concluded background knowledge and comprehension were significant

predictors of summarization skill. With undergraduates' proficiency at summarization,

Schreiner (2002) concluded that feedback was necessary for improving performance on

student summaries. Kaspar (1998) determined that generating and answering "why"









questions may facilitate the integration of novel information into summaries and aid in

activation of prior knowledge.

Outcome Variables

Comprehension

Understanding text material is an outcome of reading in content areas.

Comprehension instruction "promotes the ability to learn from text" (Snow, 2002, p. 29)

and involves the "ability to activate one's prior knowledge about a topic, self-question,

identify main ideas and supporting details, paraphrase, and summarize" (Bryant et al.,

1999, p. 296). Reading comprehension can be improved by teaching students to use

specific cognitive strategies or to reason through barriers to comprehension when reading

(NRP, 2000). Comprehension is built upon three principles: 1) the student's prior

knowledge; 2) the level of understanding to be achieved; and 3) the organization of

information to aid long-term retention" (Readence et al., 1989, p. 123).

Improving content area reading with vital, relevant subject matter and strategy

instruction translates into improvement in content area learning (Jones, 2001). Students'

abilities to read and learn vary greatly, thus teachers who employ and instruct students on

appropriate reading strategies enable students to be more successful in their reading

experiences (Fielding & Pearson, 1994).

Motivation

Instructing students how to use reading strategies to solve comprehension problems

also affects their motivation to read (Choochom, 1995; Guthrie, 2001; Guthrie & Alao,

1997; Hurst, 2004; Knoll, 2000). In an overview of engagement and motivation for

reading, Guthrie proposed that:









Engaged reading is a merger of motivation and thoughtfulness. Engaged readers
seek to understand; they enjoy learning and they believe in their reading abilities.
They are mastery oriented, intrinsically motivated, and have self-efficacy (T 1).

As a student becomes more engaged in reading, then he or she may take more

ownership of reading, thus improving motivation (Snow, 2002). Factors affecting

motivation include expectancy (certainty, time, and desirability) and incentives (material,

symbolic, and psychological). "Because reading is an ongoing process rather than a

discrete act, the initial decision to read becomes a decision to continue reading once the

process begins" (McKenna, Kear, & Ellsworth, 1995, p. 938).

Guthrie and Alao (1997) proposed that a challenge to secondary educators is

motivating students to read, because motivation to read for pleasure declines with age in

some students. The researchers determined that students spend little free time reading on

a daily basis, as little five minutes per day, and few students (about 10%) read for 30

minutes or more per day. However, Guthrie and Alao posited that less successful

students lose their motivation to read because of unsuccessful reading episodes and lack

of confidence.

In a national survey of 18,185 first- through sixth-grade students about their

attitudes toward reading, McKenna et al. (1995) made two propositions: attitude affects

reading ability, especially engagement and practice, and poor attitudes lead to literacy,

or the choice not to read when given the opportunity. The researchers found that in

general, "attitude toward reading both as a pastime and as a school-related undertaking

was observed to grow increasingly negative as students passed from first to sixth grade"

(p. 945). Also, this increasingly negative attitude is "clearly related to ability, and the

trend is most rapid for least able readers. The attitudinal gap among ability levels widens









with age" (p. 952). Girls possessed significantly more positive attitudes toward

recreational and academic reading than boys.

Concerning adolescents' attitudes toward reading, Bean (2001) cited two themes:

1) a "steady decline in positive attitude toward reading by the middle grades," and 2) the

"strongest declines among less able readers" (T 14). He attributed this decline in attitude

toward reading to "dull textbooks, a view of reading as work, and tracking" (Bean, T 14),

while discussions, journaling, book clubs, and field trips related to content improve

motivation to read in the content area.

Motivation's Impact on Strategy Use and Comprehension

The student's motivation level impacts whether and how a student will use

comprehension strategies (Choochom, 1995; Dole, Brown, & Trathen, 1996; Guthrie et

al., 1996; Knoll, 2000; Pressley et al., 1995). Exploring the relationship between

motivation and reading comprehension in 55 tenth grade students, Knoll found a

correlation (0.73) between motivation and reading comprehension to indicate a strong

relationship between the two. Examining the effect of motivational orientation and

strategy use with 90 students in the seventh-, eighth-, and ninth-grades, Choochom

concluded that intrinsically motivated students employed more strategies, exhibited

greater frequency of self-regulation, and comprehended more from text.

High interest in the particular reading topic leads to high motivation, which leads to

high comprehension (Hurst, 2004; Snow, 2002). In a qualitative study of three 'at-risk'

ninth grade students, Hurst determined that motivation to read informational text depends

on interesting materials, connections to the student's life, and student self-selection of

texts. Using qualitative interviews of 14 college students, Van Zile-Tamsen (1996) found

that interest in the content motivated students to engage in self-regulation and strategy









use. Attitudes toward reading may be situational, yet it is "safe to assume ... that

individuals also possess a global attitude toward reading (McKenna et al., 1995, p. 934).

Qualitatively studying six middle school at-risk readers' attitudes and perceptions

of their own reading abilities, Cuevas (2003) concluded that attitude had little influence

on reading engagement, though students with more positive attitudes earned higher

grades in school. However, reading performance and attitude varied depending on the

type and purpose of material being read. Still, all five students expressed a desire to

improve their reading skills.

Motivation to read may be assessed through a variety of instruments including the

Index of Engagement in Reading (Guthrie & Davis, 2004), the Motivations for Reading

Questionnaire (Wigfield & Guthrie, 1997, 2004), Motivation to Read Profile (Gambrell,

1996), and the Estes Attitude Scale (Estes, 1971; Miller, 2002), among others.

Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) and Standardized Testing

In 2004, for the first time in the state's history, more than half of Florida's grades

three through 10 students who took the FCAT were reading at or above grade level

(FDOE, 2001, 2004a). Florida students showed improvement at every grade level, except

grades eight and 10, where the number of students reading below grade level increased

from 62% in 2001 to 66% in 2004, the highest level in four years (FDOE, 2004b, 2004c).

Summary

The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effects of implementing

reading strategies on students' reading comprehension and motivation to read. This

chapter reviewed literature related to reading in content areas with the outcomes of

comprehension and motivation to read. This chapter was divided into the following

major sections: philosophical theories of reading, an explanation of variables involved in









this study, and the influence of reading strategy instruction on reading comprehension

and motivation to read. The chapter focused on literature describing theories of reading,

and empirical research related to the sociocultural context of reading, teacher

characteristics, reader attributes, content area reading strategy instruction, the activity of

reading, reading comprehension and motivation to read. Research related to content area

reading comprehension instruction, reading strategy use, factors associated with

comprehension, and influences on the motivation to read was included in this chapter.

The independent variables in this study were reading strategy instruction,

specifically strategy use in the three microperiods of reading versus the teacher's normal

routine of instruction; total content area reading strategies employed; and instructional

time. The dependent variables in this study were motivation to read and agricultural

concept knowledge. The antecedent variables were gender, grade level, ethnicity, and

socioeconomic status. GPA, FCAT reading levels, agricultural comprehension pre-test

scores, and motivation to read pre-test scores were treated as covariates. The following

chapter describes the specific methodology employed in the study.














CHAPTER 3
METHODS

Introduction

Chapter 1 described the need for research in agriscience on the effect of reading

strategies on students' comprehension of agricultural concepts and motivation to read.

Chapter 1 also provided background about secondary reading, content area reading, and

agriscience. Definitions of key terms related to reading in agriscience and reading

strategy instruction were provided. Chapter 1 also identified the purposes and explained

the significance of the study. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the

effects of implementing a package of content area reading strategies that focuses on the

three micro-periods of reading on students' knowledge of agricultural concepts and

motivation to read.

Chapter 2 presented a discussion of theories of reading and research related to

reading comprehension, motivation to read, strategy instruction, and variables influencing

student reading. Variables discussed included the reading strategy instruction, reading

ability, prior reading experiences, and gender.

Chapter 3 explains the methods employed to accomplish the objectives and test the

hypotheses of this study. The objectives of this study included

1. Describe the grade level, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and FCAT reading
achievement levels of students participating in this study.

2. Describe the variance in agriculture post-test score explained by the linear
combination of treatment group, grade level, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and
FCAT reading achievement levels of students.









3. Describe the variance in motivation to read post-test score explained by the linear
combination of treatment group, grade level, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and
FCAT reading achievement levels of students.

4. Describe the variance in agricultural comprehension scores explained by the linear
combination of treatment group, grade level, gender, ethnicity, SES, GPA, and
FCAT reading achievement levels of students.

For this study, research hypotheses included:

Ha1: Comprehension of agricultural concepts will be significantly greater for
secondary agriscience students using reading strategies versus those students using
the teacher's traditional routine in agriscience classes.

Ha2: Motivation to read will be significantly greater for secondary agriscience
students using reading strategies versus those students using the teacher's
traditional routine in agriscience classes.

Questions leading the qualitative inquiry included:

1. How do agriculture teachers perceive their role in assisting students in developing
reading comprehension skills in agriscience?

2. What are teacher's reactions to implementing the content area reading strategies in
agriscience? How effective are these efforts?

3. How do agriscience teachers model good literacy?

4. What strategies are effective in assisting agriscience teachers in implementing
content area reading strategies?

5. What are the barriers to reading instruction in agriscience?

Chapter 3 specifically targets the research design, population, student sample,

instrumentation, treatment, data collection procedures, and statistical analyses used in

analyzing the data. The independent variables in this study were reading strategy

instruction, specifically strategy use in the three microperiods of reading versus the

teacher's normal routine of instruction. Outlining the status of reading comprehension

instruction, Pressley (2001) supposed that if different types of instruction improve

comprehension, "it just might be sensible to do all of them" ( 1). The dependent

variables in this study were motivation to read and agricultural concept knowledge. The









antecedent variables were gender, grade level, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. GPA,

FCAT reading levels, agricultural pre-test scores, and motivation to read pre-test scores

were treated as covariates.

Research Design

Pressley (2003) proposed, "there are many reading instructional interventions that

enjoy some support in true experiments" (p. 66). Unfortunately, because of the nature of

this study, a true experiment was not possible. Thus, this study utilized a quasi-

experimental design, specifically a variation of the nonequivalent control group design

(Campbell & Stanley, 1963) with a pretest and a posttest. True random sampling of

students and assignment to treatment and control groups was not possible. Therefore,

using intact groups, or classes, of students follows other researchers' work (Ary, Jacobs,

& Razavieh, 2002; Campbell & Stanley; Gall, Gall, & Borg, 2003) recommendations for

quasi-experimental research.

Gall et al. (2003) asserted that nonequivalent control group designs might involve

groups that all receive a treatment. Thus, the treatments included reading strategy

instruction (Xi) and the teacher's normal routine of instruction (X2). The essential

features of this type of design were "nonrandom assignment of research participants to

groups and administration of a pretest and posttest to all groups," (p. 403) and random

assignment of the treatment to intact groups (classes). The variation of the nonequivalent

control group design followed this model:

Treatment 01 X1 02

Comparison 01 X2 02

The first observation (Oi) consisted of the Adapted Motivations for Reading

Questionnaire (Wigfield & Guthrie, 1997, 2004) and an agricultural content knowledge









pretest. These assessments were conducted during the week prior to initiation of the

reading strategy instruction while teaching lessons from the Florida Agriscience

Foundations Lesson Plan Library (FDOE, 2003).

Upon selection of school sites, the researcher requested eighth-grade FCAT

(FDOE, 2001) reading scores, middle school grade point averages, gender, ethnicity, free

and reduced lunch data, and documented reading disabilities for participating students

enrolled in Agriscience Foundations. Typically, the majority of students enrolled in this

course is freshmen. Researchers maintained student confidentiality by asking teachers to

provide an identifying code number to correspond to each student regarding FCAT

scores, grade point averages, pretest scores, posttest scores, and all other data. All

records provided to the researcher were thus coded with numbers, and no student names

were provided to the researcher.

One of two treatments was utilized with each group: 1) reading strategy instruction

or 2) the teacher's normal routine of instruction of instruction. The reading strategy

instruction served as the experimental treatment (Xi), while the teacher's normal routine

of instruction served as the "comparison" treatment (X2) (Wilkinson & Task Force on

Statistical Inference, 1999). Additionally, teachers taught the lessons in their traditional

routine.

The second observation (02) occurred at the end of the study, or approximately 20

class days later. It consisted of the Adapted Motivations for Reading Questionnaire

(Wigfield & Guthrie, 1997, 2004) and agriculture quizzes for each of the individual

lessons. These observations concluded the study.









Threats to internal validity identified by Campbell and Stanley (1963) included

history, maturation, testing, instrumentation, regression, selection of subjects, mortality,

and the interactions between selection and maturation. Nonequivalent control group

designs control for all of the threats except regression and interactions. Regression refers

to concerns in determining the effect of treatment on dependent variables when

independent variables are known (Vogt, 1999). Regression is a concern when subjects

self-select the group to which they participate, especially via extreme scores or a

preference for the treatment. In this study, regression was not an issue, because intact

classrooms were randomly assigned to the treatment and comparison groups.

The interaction between selection and maturation refers to differences in age and

experience between subjects at the time of the experiment. To control for selection-

maturation interactions, all students were studied at the same time during the school year

with the same curriculum at the same grade level. Additional steps were taken to control

for this interaction, including teachers instructing both an experimental and a comparison

group and using multiple classroom settings.

Gall et al. (2003) stated that the main threat to internal validity is the possibility of

group differences on posttests are due to preexisting differences in the groups, rather than

the effects of the treatment. In order to control for this threat, they recommend analyzing

covariance. In this study FCAT scores and middle school grade point averages were

gathered and analyzed as covariates through ANCOVA and MANCOVA procedures.

For a quasi-experimental design, other factors could influence the outcome of the

study and must be controlled. One such factor is the pedagogical prowess of the teacher.

To control for teaching ability, all six cooperating teachers were approved as cooperating









teachers for University of Florida student interns and deemed "expert" teachers by the

faculty in the Agricultural Education and Communication Department at the University

of Florida. Each teacher taught two classes of Agriscience Foundations students. Course

content was developed by the FDOE for freshmen classes and, therefore, was appropriate

for students of this grade level. Cooperating teachers in the treatment group participated

in professional development on reading strategy instruction, and all teachers participated

in data collection procedures to ensure proper collection of data and study design (Boone,

1988; Myers, 2004). The unit of instruction was selected from the Agriscience

Foundations curriculum (FDOE, 2001). Each treatment was randomly assigned to

teachers.

Procedures

Researchers (DiCecco & Gleason, 2002; Guthrie, 2001; Pressley, 2001; Pressley &

Allington, 1999; Taraban et al., 2000) proposed that reading strategy instruction should

be investigated, especially within specific contexts. Pressley and Allington suggested

that there is "not yet definitive literature on how to promote development of reading

competence through instruction" (p. 17). Taraban et al. suggested that more study is

needed to explore the effects of strategy use in specific contexts. These contexts present

specific challenges to the researcher, namely ensuring proper delivery of the experimental

and comparison treatments.

Procedures were taken to ensure conformity of teaching approaches with regard to

reading strategy instruction and the teacher's normal routine of instruction (Dyer, 1995;

Myers, 2004). All teachers participated in professional development about reading

strategy instruction and data collection procedures to ensure proper collection of data and

study design. Additionally, treatment group teachers received lesson plans outlining how









to implement reading strategy instruction. Lesson plans included all necessary materials

for proper implementation of the reading strategies including the lesson plan,

transparency masters, assessments, and handouts.

Researchers have suggested that comprehension strategy instruction take place over

the long-term, not a matter of weeks (DiCecco & Gleason, 2002; Friend, 1995; Guthrie,

2001; Pressley & Wharton-McDonald, 1997). Strategy instruction should include teacher

modeling and explanation of the strategies, scaffolding of student learning the strategies,

and providing students with information about transferring strategies to new situations

(Pressley, 2003; Pressley & Wharton-McDonald).

The NRP (2000) proposed that instruction of cognitive strategies employed during

reading consists of three macro-processes:

1. The development of an awareness and understanding of the reader's own cognitive
processes that are amenable to instruction and learning.

2. A teacher guiding the reader or modeling for the reader the actions that the reader
can take to enhance the comprehension processes used during reading.

3. The reader practicing those strategies with the teacher assisting until the reader
achieves a gradual internalization and independent mastery of those processes.

Duke and Pearson (2002) proposed a model of comprehension instruction:

1. An explicit description of the strategy and when and how it should be used.

2. Teacher and/or student modeling of the strategy in action.

3. Collaborative use of the strategy in action.

4. Guided practice using the strategy with gradual release of responsibility.

5. Independent use of the strategy.

Approximately one week prior to initiating experimentation, students completed

the Adapted Motivations for Reading Questionnaire (Wigfield & Guthrie, 1997, 2004)

and an agricultural content knowledge pretest. The agricultural content knowledge









pretest determined students' initial levels of agricultural content knowledge. The pretest

was created by selecting questions from individual lesson assessments. The reading

motivation assessment determined students' predisposition to read, reading habits, and

amounts and kinds of reading.

The researcher determined a priori that a student must have attended 80% of the

regularly scheduled classes while treatments were being delivered in order to remain in

the study. Students failing to attend 80% of the classes were dropped from the study. At

the conclusion of the study term, students completed the Adapted Motivations for

Reading Questionnaire (Wigfield & Guthrie, 1997, 2004) and individual lessons quizzes

to serve as posttests.

Population

Pressley (2001) suggested that one of the emerging issues with comprehension

instruction is fine-tuning existing strategies for existing content areas. Further,

comprehension instruction should prepare students to tackle real-world tasks, meaning

the application of comprehension strategies for real purposes. Research (Pressley, 2003)

suggests that experiments should include the students for whom instruction is targeted.

Thus, the context for this experiment is within existing Florida high schools teaching

secondary agriscience.

Subject Selection: Agriscience Foundations Students

The population of this study was all Florida high school students enrolled in

Agriscience Foundations. Agriscience Foundations is a course offered primarily to ninth

grade students in Florida's secondary agricultural education programs. Students enrolled

in this course are typically in the ninth-grade.









However, random selection of subjects was impossible due to existing course

schedules. Thus, the precepts for quasi-experimental designs were enacted with intact

groups of students and teachers and randomization of treatment to the classes. The

investigator obtained student enrollment numbers in Agriscience Foundations for the fall

semester of 2004 from the cooperating teachers.

Subject Selection: Agriscience Teachers

Agriscience teachers implemented the reading strategy instruction treatment with

Agriscience Foundations courses during the 2004 fall semester. Schools and teachers

were selected for the purpose of securing teachers who would ensure proper teaching of

the treatments and provide accurate data in a timely fashion. All teachers used in this

study were student teaching intern cooperating teachers and were deemed acceptable by

the faculty in the Agricultural Education and Communication Department at the

University of Florida. Teachers were purposively selected from the FAAE Teacher

Directory 2003-2004 (Myers & Dyer, 2003). Once teachers were identified, the

researcher contacted individual teachers and solicited their participation in the study.

Correspondence with teachers participating in the study is found in Appendix A.

Sample Size

Gall et al. (2003) suggested determining a sample size where the researcher can

discover differences and effects, and also avoid finding significance because of inflated

sample sizes (Kelley & Maxwell, 2003). According to Olejnik (1984) four factors

determine sample size: significance level, statistical power, analysis procedure, and

effect size. Thus, Hays (1973) recommended the following calculation for sample size:

n = 2 [Z(1 a2)- Zp]2 / 2









where Z(1 a/2) equals the z-score for the desired alpha level (0.05), zp equals the z-score

for the desired power (0.80), and A equals the effect size in standard deviation units. A is

computed using the formula

A = 2 /(W2) / (1 2)

where w2 is the amount of variance of the dependent variable accounted for by the

independent variable. The calculations for this study were

A = 2 (0.10)/ (1 0.10)= 0.67

n =2 [1.96 (-1.28)]2 / .672 = 46.8

The 47 subjects in the study fell within the recommended range proposed by Olejnik

(1984) for multivariate analyses.

The researcher determined that a minimum of 47 subjects was needed in each

treatment to ensure adequate significance level, statistical power, analysis procedure, and

effect size. However, other researchers (Boone, 1988; Dyer, 1995; Flowers, 1987;

Myers, 2004) in similar studies determined that this type of study frequently experiences

mortality rates as high as 50%. Thus, the sample size for each treatment was doubled to

account for mortality.

Instrumentation and Data Collection

Instruments used to collect data for the dependent variables included the Florida

Agriscience Foundations Lesson Plan Library (FDOE, 2003), the Adapted Motivations

for Reading Questionnaire (Wigfield & Guthrie, 1997, 2004); and FCAT and GPA

measures. Lesson plans were adapted from the Florida Agriscience Foundations Lesson

Plan Library (FDOE, 2003) by the researcher. Each school's guidance department

reported students' FCAT scores, grade point averages, ethnicity, and gender.









Data were collected from teachers at two different points in the study: after initial

testing and at the end of the treatments. Teachers provided data in the form of report

matrices (Appendix B) given to the researcher upon visits to the school site or emailed to

the researcher, depending on the preference of the teacher and the researcher.

Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test

The Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) is part of Florida's initiative

on educational accountability and raising overall educational achievement. Scores on the

FCAT are reported for each student showing "achievement levels, scale scores, and

developmental scale scores...as well as performance on specific content strands; each

student 's norm-referenced scores indicate the student's ranking against national norms"

(FDOE, 2004e, p. 8). Students must pass the reading and writing portions of the test

before they graduate. The reading portion of the FCAT is presented at the reading level

of the grade and determines students' achievement in reading comprehension (FDOE,

2001). The eighth-grade FCAT reading test consists of 40% narrative text and 60%

informational, or expository, text. The eighth-grade FCAT reading assessment contains

multiple-choice, short-response, and extended-response questions. The ninth-grade

FCAT reading assessment contains multiple-choice questions only. Questions on the

reading portion of the test are drawn from "social studies, science, math, reading,

health/physical education, the arts, and the workplace" (FDOE, 2004e, p. 10). The FCAT

reporting scale is set to a mean of 300 with a standard deviation of 50, which spreads

student scores along a scale from 100 to 500.

"FCAT scoring is built upon item response theory" (IRT) (FDOE, 2002, p. 4). IRT

assumes that a respondent's performance, high or low, is predicated on the individual's

true ability, characteristic, or construct, as measured by the instrument (Gall et al., 2003).









The statistic deemed most appropriate for providing summary-level information about

student-level testing is student classification accuracy. Student classification is projected

on five achievement levels, which are based on percentile rankings of achievement.

Point-biserial correlations were used to adjust for dichotomous responses. For the

eighth-grade FCAT reading assessment, the minimum biserial correlation for the 21

informational items was 0.26 and the maximum was 0.67, meeting acceptable criteria for

biserial correlations (FDOE, 2002). The Q1 statistic is used as an index for how well

theoretical item curves that match observed item responses can be found (Yen, 1981, as

cited in FDOE, 2002). The Q1 statistic is a ratio involving expected and observed item

performance and is interpretable as a chi-square statistic. Z transformations for the eighth

grade FCAT reading assessment ranged from -1.33 to 8.81. For the eighth grade FCAT

reading assessment, no poorly fitting items were found according to Q1 statistics.

Because the FCAT development used IRT, measurement error is not assumed to be

constant, but varies to a greater extent at the tails of the distribution. However, multilog

provides an estimate of "marginal" reliability, which is comparable to standard reliability

statistics such as Cronbach's alpha (a) (FDOE, 2002). The IRT marginal reliability for

eighth grade FCAT reading assessment is 0.91, with the Cronbach's a for informational

text equaling 0.82 and the overall Cronbach's a equal to 0.89 (FDOE).

The five student achievement levels use accuracy, "the extent to which the actual

classifications of the test takers... agree with those that would be made on the basis of

their true score, if their true scores could somehow be known," and consistency, "the

agreement between classifications based on two non-overlapping, equally difficult forms

of the test" (Livingston & Lewis, 1995, p. 180) to measure the error associated with









classification. For the eighth-grade FCAT reading assessment, accuracy was 0.73,

consistency was 0.63, and Cohen's kappa (K) was 0.51, a measure of decision

consistency.

Textbook

The textbook used by all classes was Agriscience: Fundamentals & Applications,

by Cooper and Burton (2002), published by Delmar Publishers. The researcher

ascertained text readability using the Fry Graph method (Fry, 1977) (see Table 3-1). The

average number of sentences over three passages was 6.2 with 169.3 words; thus, the

readability of the text was grade level 13, according to the Fry Readability Graph.

Table 3-1. Fry Readability

Page Number of Sentences Number of Syllables

158 7.0 182

435 4.2 151

654 7.4 175

Average 6.2 169.3

Chapters were selected to coincide with the individual lessons. Students were

assigned the same readings, regardless of treatment or comparison group designation. All

assigned readings were conducted at the same point in the lesson and completed in the

same manner by students (in-class reading or reading assignments to take home) in order

to account for differences in engagement.

Chapters were selected to coincide with the individual lessons. Students were

assigned the same readings, however students in the comparison treatment only read,

answered questions at the end of the chapter, and discussed the passages briefly in class.

All assigned readings were conducted at the same point in the lesson and completed in









the same manner by students (in-class reading or reading assignments to take home) in

order to account for differences in engagement.

Lesson Plans and Agriscience Comprehension Assessments

Florida Agriscience Foundations Lesson Plan Library (FDOE, 2003) (Appendix C

for comparison group teachers and Appendix D for treatment group teachers) provided

the content and lesson structure for the Foundations of Agriscience course. The

researcher adapted the treatment group lessons by inserting CARS for systematic,

planned, and thoughtful implementation of CARS. For example, strategies were used to

activate background knowledge near the introduction of the lesson, and organizing

strategies were used to develop relationships among key concepts in the lesson.

Comparison group teachers used their normal routine of instruction to teach the

lessons. Additionally, the researcher developed identical handouts, transparencies, and

student activities to reinforce both sets of lessons, with the exception of additional CARS

materials for the treatment group teachers. The following lessons were taught:

Animal Science

* Lesson 06.07: Determining the Anatomy and Physiology of Animals

* Lesson 06.06: Meeting the Nutritional Needs of Animals

* Lesson 06.08: Understanding Animal Reproduction

The researcher selected lessons to be taught during the seven weeks of instruction

from Monday, September 20, 2004 through Friday, December 17, 2004. The content of

all lessons was consistent, unaltered from the original set of lessons, and in concordance

with FDOE Student Performance Standards for the Agriscience Foundations I course

(FDOE, 2004d). All students were taught all lessons in accordance with the lesson plans;

however, the two treatments differed in their delivery methods-with and without









systematic, planned, and thoughtful implementation of CARS. Classes were randomly

assigned to each of the two treatments.

Florida Agriscience Foundations Lesson Plan Library (FDOE, 2003) also provided

assessments of student learning for each lesson plan used in the study. This corresponds

to other research conducted on comprehension strategies where the researchers used

researcher-derived instruments (Kim et al., 2004). The pre-test, post-test, and individual

unit quizzes used a multiple-choice format.

In order to control for preexisting agricultural content knowledge, the researcher

adapted an agricultural content knowledge pretest from existing assessments found in the

Florida Agriscience Foundations Lesson Plan Library (FDOE, 2003). This test also

served as the posttest at the conclusion of the treatment period. A panel of experts,

consisting of teachers, faculty, and graduate students in agricultural education, evaluated

the pretest and posttest to ensure face and content validity (see Appendix E for a list of

the panel of experts).

Motivation to Read Assessment

Motivation to read was assessed with the Adapted Motivations for Reading

Questionnaire (Wigfield & Guthrie, 1997, 2004). The Motivations for Reading

Questionnaire was developed by John Guthrie, an expert in reading motivation, and

adapted through pilot testing in this study. The instrument consists of 37 items to which

students respond on a four-point, Likert-type scale, ranging from (1) very different from

me, to (4) a lot like me. Validity was established with a panel of experts.

No reliability statistics were provided on the Adapted Motivations for Reading

Questionnaire, thus this researcher established reliability through pilot testing of the

instrument prior to initiating the dissertation study. Pilot testing was accomplished with









36 students enrolled in an agriscience course in a Florida high school not included in the

study. The students represented the population in the study as those students enrolled in

Agriscience Foundations in the state of Florida. The pilot test consisted of 37 items

compiled from the Motivations for Reading Questionnaire (Wigfield & Guthrie, 1997,

2004). The researcher analyzed the pilot test of the motivation instrument using

canonical discriminant cluster analysis via the SPSS WindowsTM statistical package,

version 12.0. Using discriminant and K-means cluster analyses, the 37 items condensed

into three clusters. Fourteen questions described most of the variance and discriminated

the clusters. Reliability was assessed on the final 14 items using the Cronbach's a and

yielded a = 0.90.

In the first part of the analysis, all 37 items were included in the K-means cluster

analysis to determine groupings of students. The 37 items clustered students into three

groups. Among the 37 items, canonical discriminant cluster analyses determined that

nine items discriminated the clusters. These items were analyzed against the remaining

items to find high correlations, which yielded an additional five items that highly

correlated with one or more of the discriminating items. These 14 items were then

analyzed to determine the number of factors underlying the discrimination and the

canonical coefficients for each item.

Using factor analysis, a rotated portion matrix explained three latent factors, or

three dimensions, underlying the 14 questions (see Table 3-2). Those dimensions

roughly represented extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation, and effort toward reading

tasks. Through canonical discriminant analysis, each item was determined to load









differentially on each of the three factors as indicated by the canonical coefficients in

Table 3-2.

Table 3-2. Canonical discriminant coefficients for the Adapted Motivations for Reading
Questionnaire (n = 37).


Portion

2


Item


Extrinsic Factors

I learn more from reading than most students in the class.

I like being the best at reading.

I read to improve my grades.

I talk to my friends about what I am reading.

If the teacher discusses something interesting I might read
more about it.

My friends sometimes tell me I am a good reader.

Intrinsic Factors


0.15

0.14

0.30

0.09

0.17


-0.01

-0.01

-0.10

0.05

-0.10


0.03

0.08

-0.29

0.02

0.12


0.30 -0.17 -0.12


I am a good reader.

I am happy when someone recognizes my reading ability.

I am willing to work hard to read better than my friends.

I like it when the questions or topics in books make me
think.

If a book is interesting, I don't care how hard it is to read.

Effort

I do as little schoolwork as possible where reading is
concerned.

I try to find time each day to read something for pleasure.

I usually learn difficult things by reading.


-0.07

0.05

0.05

-0.03


0.29

0.29

0.15

0.24


0.07

-0.32

0.00

0.01


-0.26 0.50 0.02


-0.13 -0.05


-0.00

0.15


-0.00

-0.09


0.57


0.34

0.17


Intrinsic Factors









Reliability on each dimension was analyzed via Cronbach's a. The Cronbach's a

were as follows: extrinsic motivation component a = 0.76, intrinsic component a = 0.63,

and effort a = 0.46. Because of the low reliability on the effort scale, the researcher

made the decision to treat the 14 items as one scale and represent the results with a

summated score.

Treatment Delivery Accountability

In order to ensure that treatment was delivered appropriately and accurately, the

researcher prepared prescriptive lesson plans for teachers in both the experimental and

contrasting treatments. The researcher provided teachers with lesson plans, handouts,

overheads, and student activities to ensure uniformity across treatments. At the

conclusion of the study, each teacher reported the number and type of CARS used during

the treatment period. Follow-up interviews also provided a measure of understanding the

treatment and comparison group characteristics.

Student attendance records for the duration of the treatment period were gathered to

ensure 80% attendance on days of treatment. These were reported on the reporting sheet

provided by the cooperating teacher (Appendix B).

Analysis of Data

Data collected in this study were analyzed using SPSSc for WindowsTM statistical

package. Data pertaining to objectives describing the sample were analyzed using

descriptive statistics, such as measures of central tendency and measures of variability

(Gall et al, 2003). Bivariate correlation analysis was performed on the major variables in

the study. The researcher determined a priori that statistical significance would be

indicated for a < 0.05.









Variance in the sample was described using backward stepwise regression (Agresti

& Finlay, 1997). This procedure begins by placing all predictors under consideration into

the model and removes predictors until the remaining predictors make significant partial

contribution to the overall model. While not every individual variable may be significant

in and of itself, through the effects of multicollinearity, it may contribute to the overall

significance and explanatory power of the model.

The data analysis plan for the experimental hypotheses included using a

multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) procedure followed by univariate

analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to determine the source of variance, where

appropriate. Agresti and Finlay (1997) recommended analysis of covariance for

analyzing response variables (reading comprehension and agricultural content

knowledge), while simultaneously controlling for other variables (FCAT scores, GPA,

treatment group, gender). These other variables should be known to correlate with the

dependent variable (Ary et al., 2002). Gall et al. (2003) noted that often pretest scores

differ in quasi-experimental studies, because of the inability to randomly select subjects

(Isaac & Michael, 1995); thus, ANCOVA should be used to control and adjust for initial

differences in means. Using ANCOVA and MANCOVA, the researcher limits the

likelihood of Type II error (Ary et al.).

Additional analysis on the experimental hypotheses associated with agricultural

post-tests scores and motivation to read were analyzed using analysis of covariance

(ANCOVA) procedures. ANCOVA is appropriate for determining the difference on

mean scores (motivation to read) between two groups (reading strategies, gender, etc.) on

one or more variables or factors while controlling for other factors (Agresti & Finlay,









1997; Gall et al., 2003; Vogt, 1999). However, due to the lack of correlation between the

dependent variable, treatment with CARS, and the outcome variables, agriculture post-

test scores and motivation to read scores, MANCOVA and ANCOVA were not

conducted. Additional descriptive statistics, such as means, standard deviations,

correlations, frequencies, and percentages were used to describe the results.

Long Interviews

Long interviews following McCracken's (1988) four-step design were conducted

with teachers participating in the study upon conclusion of the study. This section

provides a detailed description of the methods used to conduct the interviews. This

research methodology was chosen to gather information about teacher's construction of

reality regarding the use of content area reading strategies in secondary agriscience

courses. As such, these interviews were respondent interviews (Lindlof & Taylor, 1998).

The interviews were conducted in order to gain deeper understanding into the

motivations of teachers participating in the study, as well as to explain their use or non-

use of content area reading strategies in secondary agriscience. The interviews provided

a rhetorical construction of the teachers' experiences with content area reading strategies

(Lindlof& Taylor, 1998). Interviews are "often used to verify, validate, or comment on

information obtained from other sources" (Lindlof& Taylor, 1998, p. 175). They are

often used to validate test hypotheses in the field.

The four-step interview process involves the

1. Review of analytic categories and interview design

2. Review of cultural categories and interview design

3. Interview procedure and the discovery of cultural categories