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Sustainability of a school wide literacy reform

University of Florida Institutional Repository

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SUSTAINABILITY OF A SCHOOL WIDE LITERACY REFORM By MARIA NOBILE LEFAVE A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2005

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Copyright 2005 by Maria Nobile LeFave

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This work is dedicated to all of the teacher s who never stop searchi ng for better ways to meet the needs of students.

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iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Above all, I give thanks to the Lord wit hout whose constant presence in my life I could do nothing. I would also like to thank my family, particularly my loving, patient husband, who helped me believe I could fi nish. Finally, I would like to thank my committee chair, Dr. Linda Behar-Horenstein, who has been a faithful mentor and model scholar.

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v TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES.............................................................................................................ix ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... xi CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 Statement of the Problem..............................................................................................4 Definition of Terms......................................................................................................5 Significance of the Study..............................................................................................6 Limitations of the Study...............................................................................................7 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE.......................................................................................8 School Wide Literacy Reform Efforts..........................................................................8 The Progression of Compre hensive School Reform.............................................8 Characteristics of Successful Compre hensive School Reform Programs.............9 High Performing Schools, Learning Co mmunities, and Literacy Reform..........12 Current School Wide Literacy Reform Efforts...................................................14 Factors Affecting Literacy Reform Success........................................................18 Staff Development......................................................................................................19 Influences on Teachers’ Instructional Practices.........................................................23 External Influences..............................................................................................24 Internal Influences...............................................................................................27 3 METHOD...................................................................................................................30 Researcher Subjectivity..............................................................................................30 Theoretical Perspective...............................................................................................32 Participant Selecti on and Description.........................................................................34 Obtaining Access.................................................................................................34 Selection of Participants......................................................................................35 Description of Participants..................................................................................35 Setting........................................................................................................................ .36

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vi Data Collection...........................................................................................................37 Procedures for Participant Observations.............................................................37 Interview Procedures...........................................................................................38 Archival Collection Procedures...........................................................................39 Data Analysis..............................................................................................................39 Observation Analysis Procedures........................................................................40 Interview Analysis Procedures............................................................................43 Archival Analysis Procedures.............................................................................44 Analysis of Interactively Established Power Relations.......................................45 Analysis Procedures for Systems Relationships..................................................46 Validity....................................................................................................................... 47 4 INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICE S AND HOW THEY CHANGED.........................49 Mrs. Baker’s First Grade Class...................................................................................49 Classroom Structure............................................................................................49 Analysis of Instructional Practice........................................................................52 Comprehension.............................................................................................52 Vocabulary...................................................................................................53 Decoding and spelling..................................................................................54 Content area instruction...............................................................................55 Discussion............................................................................................................56 Mrs. Peters’ First Grade Class....................................................................................57 Classroom Structure............................................................................................57 Analysis of Instructional Practices......................................................................60 Comprehension.............................................................................................60 Vocabulary...................................................................................................61 Decoding, spelling and writing....................................................................62 Content area instruction...............................................................................64 Discussion............................................................................................................65 Mrs. McDonald’s Fourth Grade Classroom...............................................................65 Classroom Structure............................................................................................65 Analysis of Instructional Practice........................................................................67 Comprehension and fluency.........................................................................67 Vocabulary...................................................................................................71 Decoding, spelling, and writing...................................................................72 Content area instruction...............................................................................74 Discussion............................................................................................................75 Mrs. Dickerson’s Fourth Grade Classroom................................................................76 Classroom Structure............................................................................................76 Analysis of Instructional Practices......................................................................78 Comprehension and fluency.........................................................................78 Vocabulary...................................................................................................81 Decoding and spelling..................................................................................82 Content area instruction...............................................................................83 Discussion............................................................................................................84

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vii Changes in Teachers’ Instructional Practices.............................................................85 Impact of Becoming and SRI Trainer.................................................................85 Teachers’ Beliefs, Prior Knowledge, and Change in Instructional Practice.......86 Initial Instructional Changes of Other Teachers..................................................90 An Emergent Learning Community....................................................................91 Summary of Findings..........................................................................................94 5 LEADERSHIP PRACTICES AN D HOW THEY CHANGED.................................95 Leadership Practices...................................................................................................95 The Reading Coach’s Inst ructional Leadership..................................................95 The Principal.......................................................................................................97 Principal’s management...............................................................................98 Principal’s instructional leadership..............................................................99 Synergistic Instructional Leadership.................................................................101 Changes in Leadership Practices..............................................................................102 Leadership Growth............................................................................................102 An Emergent Learning Community..................................................................104 Educational Leadership Practices......................................................................105 6 HOW THE SCHOOL CULTURE INFLUENCED INSTRUCTIONAL CHANGE..................................................................................................................109 Factors That Impeded Instructional Change.............................................................111 Hindrances to the Maintenance and Growth of the Learning Community.......111 Teacher Self-Efficacy and Time Impediments to Instructional Change...........125 Factors Beyond the School Culture that Facilitated or Impeded Change.................129 Facilitating Factors Bey ond the School Culture................................................129 Impeding Factors Beyond the School Culture...................................................134 Implications of the Study..........................................................................................138 Resistance to Change.........................................................................................139 Professional Pride and Jealousy........................................................................140 Implications for Professional Development......................................................140 Recommendations for Further Study........................................................................141 APPENDIX A DOMAIN ANALYSIS.............................................................................................143 B COMPONENTIAL PARADIGMS..........................................................................158 C INTERVIEW THEMES...........................................................................................188 D TRIANGULATION CHART...................................................................................236 E EVIDENCE OF INTERACTIVE POWER..............................................................239 F INTERVIEW QUESTIONS.....................................................................................268

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viii LIST OF REFERENCES.................................................................................................271 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................285

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ix LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1 Domain List..............................................................................................................42 3-2 Domain analysis example.........................................................................................43 A-1 Domain Analysis: Comp rehension Instruction......................................................144 A-2 Domain Analysis: Vo cabulary Instruction.............................................................146 A-3 Domain Analysis: Decoding and Spelling.............................................................147 A-4 Domain Analysis: Writing Instruction...................................................................148 A-5 Domain Analysis: C ontent Area Instruction..........................................................149 A-6 Domain Analysis: Provide Feedback.....................................................................150 A-7 Domain Analysis: In structional Approaches..........................................................151 A-8 Domain Analysis: Classroom Structures................................................................152 A-9 Domain Analysis: Student Assessment..................................................................153 A-10 Domain Analysis: Educator Behaviors..................................................................154 A-11 Domain Analysis: In structional Leadership...........................................................155 A-12 Domain Analysis: Management.............................................................................157 B-1 Componential Paradigm Comprehension...........................................................159 B-2 Componential Paradigm – Concepts in Content Areas..........................................162 B-3 Componential Analysis Decoding......................................................................163 B-4 Componential Feedback......................................................................................166 B-5 Componential Paradigm – Independent Practice..................................................169 B-6 Componential Paradigm Vocabulary..................................................................172

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x B-7 Componential Paradigm – High Stakes Testing....................................................174 B-8 Componential Paradigm – Professional Pride........................................................175 B-9 Componential Para digm Management.................................................................176 B-10 Componential Paradigm – Instructional Leadership..............................................183 C-1 Thematic Analysis Worksheet...............................................................................188 D-1 Triangulation Chart................................................................................................236 E-1 Evidence of Interactive Power...............................................................................240

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xi Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy SUSTAINABILITY OF A SCHOOL WIDE LITERACY REFORM By Maria Nobile LeFave May, 2005 Chair: Linda Behar-Horenstein Major Department: Educational Leadership, Policy and Foundations Little is known about the impact of job-embedded teacher training on actual practice. Researchers have attempted to co rrelate teacher training effectiveness with changes in student achievement. Some small, positive correlations have been noted, but student outcome measures alone are not adequa te to measure the exte nt of instructional change or complexity of impact. This study examined the instructional pr actices of 4 teachers within a school culture in the third year of school wide literacy reform. Fi eld observations, interviews with the teachers, reading coach and principal, and archival data such as meeting minutes, lesson plans, and the school improvement pl an were collected and analyzed from a critical ethnographic theo retical perspective. Factors that facilitated a nd impeded instructional change were identified. Findings showed that an emergent learning community fostered many of the instructional changes that had begun as a result of school wide professional development in research-based reading instructional practices and ongoing training in leader ship for the principal and

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xii reading coach. Factors that impeded instructional improvement were resistance to change, conflicts in cultural norms, the development of fac tions within the school, low teacher self-efficacy, and time constraints.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION No one approach or set of reading materi als can fulfill the literacy needs of all students. The most promising means for increa sing students’ literacy acquisition is to encourage a widespread change in instru ctional practices ac ross the curriculum. Meaningful instructional changes that inte grate varied teaching methods and use of materials appropriate to stude nts’ learning needs are more likely to produce increased student achievement than any other approach (Cohen, Raudenbush, & Ball, 2003; Darling-Hammond & McLaughlin, 1995; Duffy & Hoffman, 1999). Researchers have correlated several sp ecific teaching practices with improved student learning (Allington, 2001; Cunningham & Allington, 1994; Metsala WhartonMcDonald, Rankin, Mistretta, Yokoi, & Ette nberger, 1997; National Reading Panel, 2000; Pressley, Yokoi, Rankin, Wharton-Mc Donald, & Mistretta 1997; Simmons & Kuykendall, 2000; Stronge, 2002). For exampl e, educators now know that students benefit from having some choice in selecti ng tasks (Dice, Vallerand, & Pelletier, 1991). Researchers have found that tasks must be engaging, meaningful, and allow students to see progress (Blumenfeld & Meece, 1988; Mars hall, 1992). Moderately difficult, openended tasks enhance confidence and interest. Minimally challenging, closed tasks such as worksheets perpetuate low expectations a nd attention on extrinsic rewards (Miller, Adkins, & Hooper, 1993; Turner, 1995; Wein er, 1992). Texts that engage students’ interests result in longer, sustained student engagement in literacy tasks than less engaging texts (Csikszentmihalyi & Ra thunde, 1993; Schieffle, 1991). Though the

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2 engagement level of texts is a significant fact or in student engageme nt, researchers have also found that texts and other materials mu st be at a student’s instructional or independent reading level in order to main tain his/her engagement (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998). Finally, explicit, systematic skill instruction combined with implicit, authentic literacy experiences, varied instru ctional arrangements, promoting higher order thinking skills in lessons, accommodations for diverse learners, student accountability, as well as the combination of writing and read ing across the curriculum enhance student achievement in reading and other subject s (Allington, 2001; Allington, 2000; Cantrell, 1999; Duffy, 2001; Ivey, Bowman, & Jarrad, 20 00; Metsala et al., 1997; Poindexter & Oliver, 1998; Pressley et al., 1997; Pressley & Wharton-McDonald, 1998; Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998; Taylor, Pr essley, & Pearson, 2000). Despite agreement regarding the nature of effective teaching in reading, researchers have claimed that relatively few teachers ut ilize these practices (Simmons & Kuykendall, 2000). Educational leaders continue to rely upon staff developers to provide training that will impact teachers’ practic es (Darling-Hammond, 1998). However, modes of teacher training typified by workshops or conferen ces have not resulted in widespread implementation of effective teaching pract ices (Darling-Hammond & McLaughlin, 1995; Lieberman, 1995). Workshops unconnected to school wide improvement result in ineffective outcomes (Moats, 2001). Typically, professional development activi ties focus on discrete skill development and knowledge that is de-contextualized from the realities of classroom application (Lieberman, 1995). Instead, teachers need act ive involvement and the opportunity to discuss what they have learned (Lieberma n, 1995). They need opportunities to integrate

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3 theory with classroom practice through reflection and reading (Darling-Hammond & McLaughlin, 1995). A lack of follow-up further li mits teachers’ ability to implement the knowledge gained from their training e xperiences (Moscovitch, 2001). According to Darling-Hammond (1998), research “that describes in substantive detail how schools and schools of education are reshaping teacher s’ learning opportunities and evaluating whether and how much changes benefit teac hing and learning” is needed (p. 12). Much is now known about how to improve reading and about effective staff development. However, relatively little is known about efforts that result in successful literacy reform. The impact of offering staff development that is decontextualized from the realities of the classroom suggests that successful literacy instruction reform will require more than simply importing informa tion about how to teach reading. Changes in teachers’ instructional practice within the entire context of the school culture (Simmons & Kuykendall, 2000) is necessary. Educational leaders have proposed that placing a reading coach in a school will provide the additional support needed for t eachers to implement various programs or practices (Nowak, 2003; Poglinco, Bach, Hovde, Rosenblum, Saunders, and Supovitz 2003). The underlying assumption is that reading coaches will facilitate the development of reading expertise among teachers, thus improving the quality of reading instruction and ultimately impact student achievement (International Reading Association, 2004). There are numerous descriptions of various reading coach program s in the literature (Bean, 2004; Lapp, Fisher, Flodd, & Frey, 2003; Morgan, Saylor-Crowder, Stephens, Donnelly, Deford, & Hamel, 2003; Southern California Comprehensive Assistance Center, 2002; Sturtevant, 2003; Vogt & Sh earer, 2003). Demonstration teaching for

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4 teachers, observation, and feedback are common elements to the reading coach model programs described in the lite rature. While many descriptio ns exist, little research evidence related to the efficacy of readi ng coaches can be found in the literature (International Readi ng Association, 2004). In the school year 2001-2002, a school wide literacy reform m odel, which will be referred to as the Southern Reading Initiativ e (SRI), was launched in a southeastern educational consortium’s rural school di stricts. Based upon the Alabama Reading Initiative, the SRI literacy reform effort invo lves training an entire faculty, including the principal and reading coach, in researched-bas ed literacy instructi onal practices. Monthly leadership cadre meetings designed to provi de inservice to the principal and reading coach followed the initial training. The read ing coach and principal provided follow-up activities with the teachers such as book st udies, demonstration lessons, and opportunities for observations throughout the year. This litera cy reform model is intended to transform school culture in a way that encourages th e widespread implementation of the most effective scientifically based reading rese arch practices through job-embedded staff development. Statement of the Problem The purpose of this study is to determine to what extent a school wide literacy reform has been sustained within a school culture. The study will employ critical ethnographic methods to answer the following questions: 1. How do the participants promote literacy th rough their teaching practices across the curriculum? 2. How do the participants describe the change s in their instructional practice since the Southern Reading Initiative wa s implemented in their school? 3. How do the principal and/or reading co ach lead and/or manage the school?

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5 4. How do the participants describe changes in the principal’s or reading coach’s leadership and/or management practices since the implementation of the Southern Reading Initiative? 5. How has the present school cultur e influenced instructional change? Definition of Terms Critical ethnography refers to qualitative resear ch methods rooted in the theoretical perspective of criti cal social research that fo cuses on the study of culture. Critical social researchers are concerned with social inequa lities and direct their work toward positive social change (Carspecken, 1996). Dialogical data refers to data collected through the interview process (Carspecken, 1996). Graphophonemic refers to the relations hip between letters and sounds. Interactive power relations occur when actors in a social site are differentiated in accordance with who has the greatest infl uence in determining the course of an interaction (Carspecken, 1996). Interactively established contracts occur when the subordinate acts in order to gain favor or rewards from the s uperordinate (Carspecken, 1996). Intersubjectivity refers to the act of position-taking or taking the subjective position from a variety of perspec tives on an act (Carspecken, 1996). Literacy reform refers to changes in reading an d writing instruction applied across the curriculum school wide. Monological data refers to the information in which the researcher speaks alone when writing the primary record (Carspecken, 1996). Morphology refers to the study of the fo rm and structure of words.

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6 Peer-debriefer refers to a colleague who reads th e researcher’s primary record as well as analyses to provide him/her with feedback on unintended bias, overemphasis or under emphasis on specific features. Primary record refers to the collection of deta iled field notes, journalistic field notes, audiotapes, and/or videot apes taken during observations and interviews in the site of focus (Carspecken, 1996). Reconstructive strip analysis refers to analysis complete d on specific sections of transcript that reconstructs cultural and s ubjective factors that ar e largely tacit into explicit discourse (Carspecken, 1996). Strip analysis refers to the process of checking identified cultural themes with the primary record to see if they are consistent with the reconstructed cultural themes. (Carspecken, 1996) School culture refers to patterns of mean ing that include the commonly understood myths, values, beliefs, norms, r ituals, ceremonies, and traditions held by members of the school community, which are historically transmitted (Stolp & Smith 1994). Transactional leadership refers to that style of le adership characterized by the exchange of reward or favor such as pa y, performance ratings, recognition, or praise (Burns, 1978). Transformational leadership refers to that style of leadership characterized by the engagement of followers’ commitment and motivation through trust, concern and facilitation rather than direct control (Burns, 1978). Significance of the Study Little is known about the impact of job-embedded teacher training on actual practice. Researchers have attempted to co rrelate teacher training effectiveness with

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7 changes in student achievement. Some small, positive correlations have been noted, but student outcome measures alone are not adequa te to measure the exte nt of instructional change or complexity of impact (Hamilton, McCaffrey, Stecher, Klein, Robyn, & Bugliari, 2003). According to Hamilton et al. (2003), research is needed to determine what leads teachers to implement reforms. This study explored the extent to which a school wide literacy reform effort was sustained within a school culture and to what extent that reform effort actually impacted instructional practices. By observing the instru ctional practices of selected primary and intermediate teachers over an extended peri od of time and at various times of the day unannounced, the researcher ascer tained the general routine and methods of instruction commonly practiced in these classrooms. Obse rvations of meetings conducted at the school site as well as interviews with the se lected teachers, reading coach and principal provided a window through which the school cu lture could be examined from various perspectives. The findings of this study reveal ed the cultural factors that facilitated and impeded instructional change since the inception of the SRI in their school. Limitations of the Study The findings of this study will be lim ited to the context where the study was conducted. The interpretation of observed practi ce will represent the re searcher’s point of view and thus may be open to alternate expl anations. The participants in this study have been selected from one site and thus may not be representative of a ll teachers within the school district.

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8 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE The purpose of this study was to determin e to what extent a school wide literacy reform has been sustained within a school cult ure and to what extent this reform effort actually impacted instructional practice. An overview of resear ch relevant to this study includes school wide literacy reform efforts, staff development, and influences on teachers’ instructional practices. School Wide Literacy Reform Efforts Literacy reform efforts were implemented as a result of the comprehensive school reform (CSR) movement that began in 1991. Th is section will describe the progression of comprehensive school reform as it relates to literacy; the charact eristics of a CSR; learning communities, high performing schools a nd literacy reform efforts; and current school wide literacy reform programs. The Progression of Comprehensive School Reform Comprehensive school reform was implemented in 1991, following the creation of a private-sector organization called New Amer ican Schools (NAS). The formation of this organization resulted from the realization th at the program efforts aimed at serving the learning needs of at-risk student s were ineffective and disjoi nted. Individuals who served the needs of students at-risk suggested that, in order to assist lowachieving students in high poverty schools, changes across the schoo l instructional program would be needed. Those changes would need to focus on the entire school culture including types of leadership as well as the instructional program. The mission of NAS was to solicit

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9 marketplace proposals for innovative approaches to schooling that would rely on business models and be governed externally (B orman, Hewes, Overman, & Brown, 2003). As a result of the externally devel oped NAS disseminated programs, the U.S. Congress initiated the Comprehensive School Reform Program (CSRP). This program, begun in 1998, encouraged schools to develop sc ientifically based school wide reforms in collaboration with the assistance of external groups such as universities (Borman et al., 2003). Characteristics of Successful Comp rehensive School Reform Programs The current research base indicates that whole school reforms appeared to have greater positive effects on stude nt achievement than traditiona l Title I pull out programs or locally created reforms (Borman et al ., 2003). Title I pull out programs delivered piecemeal services that decontextualized skill development, which exacerbated the learning difficulties of at-risk students. Further, previous top-down efforts of school reform resulted from legislative mandates that relied on the discretion of local educators for implementation. While CSRPs required top-do wn direction as well, that direction is infused into the individual school cult ure through professional development and leadership training with accessi ble support from the external CSRP provider (Borman et al., 2003). Several factors affect successful school wi de reforms (Borman et al., 2003). First, the degree of fidelity in reform implementation bears a strong relationship to positive effects (Borman & Stringfield, 2000; Stringfie ld, Millsap, Yoder, Schaffer, Nesselrodt, Gamse, et al.,1997). Second, more clearly defined instructional practices and organizational procedures result in greater implementation fidelity, and, therefore, result in stronger student achievement. (Bodilly, 1998; Nunnery, 1998). Third, sound

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10 professional development training followed by c onsistent technical assistance to teachers as they attempt to implement changes in th eir classrooms have been associated with greater implementation of reforms (M uncey & McQuillan, 1996; Nunnery, 1998). Finally, teacher and administra tor support and even “co-constru ction” of the reform are necessary for school change to occur (Borma n et al., 2000; Datnow & Stringfield, 2000). In addition to these factors, the U.S. Department of Education (2002) identified components that when implemented coheren tly define a “scientifically based” and “comprehensive” school reform effort. A comprehensive school reform program, summarized below, includes the following: 1. Employs proven strategies and proven me thods for student l earning, teaching, and school management that are based on scie ntifically based research and effective practices and have been repli cated successfully in schools; 2. Integrates a comprehensive design for effective school functioning, including instruction, assessment, classroom ma nagement, professional development, parental involvement, and school manageme nt that aligns the school’s curriculum, technology, and professional de velopment into a comprehe nsive school reform plan for school wide change designed to enable all students to meet challenging State content and student academic achieve ment standards and addresses needs identified through a school needs assessment; 3. Provides high quality and continuous teacher and staff professional development; 4. Includes measurable goals for student ach ievement and benchmarks for meeting such goals; 5. Is supported by teachers, principals, admi nistrators, school personnel staff, and other professional staff; 6. Provides support for teachers, principals, administrators, and other school staff; 7. Provides for the meaningful involvement of parents and the local community in planning, implementing, and evaluating school improvement activities consistent with section 1118; 8. Uses high quality external technical suppor t and assistance from an entity that has experience and expertise in school wide reform and improvement, which may include an institution of higher education.

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11 9. Includes a plan for the annual evaluation of the implementation of school reforms and the student results achieved; 10. Identifies other resources, including Federal, State, local, and pr ivate resources, that shall be used to coordinate services that will support and sust ain the comprehensive school reform effort; and 11. Strong evidence exists that the program will significantly improve the academic achievement of students participating in su ch program as compared to students in schools who have not participated in such program; or strong evidence exists that such a program will significantly improve academic achievement of participating children. Borman (2003) conducted a meta-analy sis of 29 CSR programs designed to determine their efficacy in meeting the lear ning needs of at-risk students. Three CSR models met the criteria to be classified as ha ving the strongest evidence of effectiveness. To be considered as part of this category, th e model had to be studied in at least 10 or more schools across the United States, demonstrat e a statistically signi ficant effect size, be replicable across contexts, and generali zable to the population of U.S. schools most likely to adopt the CSRP. Direct Instruction, The School Development Program, and Success for All demonstrated the highest efficacy (Borman et al.; Borman & Hewes, 2003). Three additional models met the criteria for being cl assified as demonstrating highly promising evidence of effectivene ss. These models showed positive and statistically significant results from third part y or comparison studies but did not have the broad research base demonstrated by the prev iously cited models. Models included in this category were Expeditionary Learning Outward B ound, Modern Red Schoolhouse, and Roots & Wings. Other promising models that had 2 or more studies and at least 1 thirdparty comparison-group study and showed stat istically significant positive effects were Accelerated Schools, America’s Choice, A tlas Communities, Montessori, Paideia, and The Learning Network.

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12 High Performing Schools, Learning Communities, and Literacy Reform Research on high performing schools has in formed school reform efforts. When applied to literacy reform efforts this in formation can further define characteristics important to literacy reform su ccess (Wohsletter & Malloy, 2001). First, high performing schools focus their vision on teaching and learning that is focused on state standards (Newmann & We hlage, 1995; Odden & Busch, 1998; Sebring, Bryk & Eaton, 1995). In a like manner, school s that are most effective in producing gains in reading achievement focus on a comm itment to reading (Taylor, Pearson, Clark, & Walpole, (1999). Second, school level decision-making aut hority as well as a broad base of the distribution of power and l eadership is linked to high performing schools (Bryk, Thum, Easton, & Luppescu, 1998; Smylie, Lazarus, & Brownlee-Conyers, 1996; Sebring et al., 1995). As applied to literacy reform, contro l of the amount and organizational structure of instructional time spent on reading and the establishment of literacy councils or committees that address various reading i ssues, such as assessment or continuous improvement issues, contribute to effective literacy reforms (Wohlst etter,& Briggs, 2001; Taylor et al., 1999). Third, high performing schools continuously engage in professional development activities that focus on stude nt needs and the goals of the school (Au & Kawakami, 1994). With respect to literacy instruction, focused prof essional development for administrators, teachers, and paraprofessi onals in basic components of reading and effective instructional practices in reading is critical to improving reading achievement (Curran, 2001; Wohlstetter & Malloy, 2001;).

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13 Fourth, high performing sc hools gather and communicate information related to school operations, school performance, and student performance among internal and external stakeholders (Taylor et al., 1 999; Wohlstetter & Mohrman, 1993). Similarly, literacy reform success involves high-lev el communication regarding the reading program goals as well as a caref ul study of student achievement data to inform instruction and measure program effectivene ss (Wohlstetter & Malloy, 2001). Effective schools research has revealed ch aracteristics that are similar to those characteristics that educational leaders ha ve identified as pr esent in a learning community. A learning community is a organiza tion in which students and teachers learn together in a collaborative culture (Cibul ka & Nakayama, 2000). The professional staff directs efforts toward improved student achie vement and shares bot h a collective purpose or vision and responsibility (Hord, 1 997; Newmann & Wehlage, 1995). Sharing responsibility requires buildi ng leadership capacity among professional staff members and developing communication-networking systems (Lambert, 2000; Moffett, 2000). In addition to a learning community within the school, a supportive infrastructure at the district level that include s outside facilitation must also be in place to assure the success and longevity of school reform (Moffett, 2000). Just as is true at the school level, communication networking and a shared vision ar e critical between th e district and the school. The district must also have in pl ace an effective human resource development process, the ability to adap t innovations to local needs, as well as mechanisms for capturing and analyzing information gained from implementation efforts (Ucelli, 1999). Finally, the use of rewards and resources is critical to sustain long-term implementation of reforms (Odden & Busch, 1998; Newmann & Wehlage, 1995;

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14 Wohlstetter & Mohrman, 1993). Rewards shoul d link to professional development in literacy, and schools should focus the ac quisition of outside resources on the development of the reading program (Wohlstetter & Malloy, 2001). Comprehensive school reform models de monstrated their greatest effects on student achievement after the fifth year of implementation (Borman et al., 2003). To impact student achievement significantly, ther efore, the reform must be sustained over time through the development of a professi onal learning community within the school and support from district level leadership (Moffett, 2000; Newmann & Wehlage,1995). Current School Wide Literacy Reform Efforts Several school wide literacy reform efforts have emerged since the Congress enacted the Comprehensive School Reform Prog ram in 1998. In this section 6 of these initiatives will be described. The School wide Reading Improvement Model (SRIM) was formed as a partnership among university faculty in spec ial education, literac y, school psychology, school-based administrators and practitioners This model provided a long-term, schoolbased program guided by scientifically based re ading researched instructional practice for beginning readers. Among the practices centr al to SRIM are continuous assessment of student performance using the critical indicat ors of beginning read ing and a centralized data-management system for use in decision-making (Kame’enui, Simmons & Cogne, 2000; Simmons & Kuykendall, 2000). The Dallas Reading Plan, a 5-year systemic literacy reform initiative, was implemented in 144 elementary schools in Dall as, Texas. The training components of the Dallas Reading Plan focused on teaching ki ndergarten through gr ade 3 teachers and administrators the principles of balanced literacy including phonemic awareness and

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15 phonics as well as guiding reading, data anal ysis, and small group instruction. The Dallas Plan did not train entire facu lties together, but rather tr ained teachers from several schools by grade level (Shaple y, Cooter & Cooter, 1999). The Texas Reading Initiative, a stat e initiative begun in 1996, focused on delivering professional development to teach ers and administrators of kindergarten through grade three. While the training organi zation was similar to the Dallas Plan, the training components were developed using sc ientifically based reading research and focused on oral language development, phonemic awareness, phonics, comprehension strategies, fluency, writing, and spelling. Th e Texas Initiative provi ded additional support in the area of diagnostic assessment and progr ess monitoring and leadership training for administrators. The Literacy Collaborative, in operation for more than a decade, has involved approximately 500 schools in collaboration w ith Ohio State University. The Literacy Collaborative provides systemic support and long-term professional development in reading, writing, and language developmen t. Professional development, such as individual coaching for teachers and workshops are provided at each school site. Each school employs a literacy coordinator w ho trains new teachers, supervises ongoing professional development, and teaches student s. Extensive leveled books are available on each campus. The program offers one-to-one tutoring for struggling readers and a parent outreach program (Williams, Sharer, & Pinnell, 2000). Another school wide, locally initiated literacy effort was initiated during the late 1990s in a high school in California. Over a tw o year period, this hi gh school realized a 12% overall increase in read ing achievement on the statew ide test. The researcher

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16 attributed the increase to se veral factors. First, prof essional development provided teachers with training on how to use strategy instruction to increase reading comprehension. Second, by using an extended lu nch period, students participated in 20 minutes of uninterrupted sustained silent reading on a daily basis. During this period, teachers held reading conferences with students. Third, implementing school-adopted block scheduling allowed teachers to utilize mo re effective, time consuming instructional practices and models. These reforms were guide d by a literacy plan that was formulated and agreed upon through shared decisi on-making (Fisher, 2001). Many of the components included in this California high schoo l’s literacy reform e ffort are present in the Alabama Reading Initiative. The Alabama Reading Initiative (ARI), a state initiative, focused on improving reading achievement among kindergarten thr ough twelfth grade st udents. Schools are chosen to become demonstration sites from a po ol of applicants who ag ree to set a goal of 100% literacy; acquire at least 85% facu lty commitment; attend a resident 10-day summer academy and contribute to a $50 per day stipend for each teacher; are led by the principal; adjust their teaching practices; m odel research-based reading instruction for other schools; and are evaluated by an outside evaluator. Selected higher education faculty members participate in the summer acad emy and serve as mentors to the Literacy Demonstration site during the subsequent school year (A+ Educa tion Foundation, 2002). The summer academy focuses on three elemen ts of effective reading instruction. Beginning reading provides teac her training in the use of in structional practices that stress the five basic components of readi ng as identified by the National Reading Panel (2000), which are phonemic awareness, phonics fluency, vocabulary and comprehension.

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17 Expanded reading, designed for grade levels 2-12, provides research based strategies designed to teach children to use reading to learn. An example of such a strategy would be teaching students how to make connections with their experiences, with the world around them and with other texts as they rea d. The final component is designed to teach teachers how to implement effective interven tion strategies for increasing the pace of learning for struggling readers (A+ Education Foundation, 2002). The Southeastern Reading Initiative (SRI), the reform effort pertinent to this study, was modeled after the Alabama Reading In itiative. The devel opment of the SRI components emerged from the content include d in the ARI training. Each faculty must employ a reading coach who provides interventi on for struggling readers and serves as a coach for teachers in learning how to apply scientifically reading researched instructional practices. Reading specialists were also employed in the ARI. Both initiatives collaborate with faculties in higher education. The ARI works w ith faculty among several universities while the SRI works with f aculty employed at only one university. Features of the SRI are similar to those of the ARI. For example, the process for choosing the involvement of schools requires that faculties demonstr ate a consensus of 85% in favor of participation and commitmen t to attendance at the summer academy. Teachers and administrators of participating schools atte nd a two-week summer reading academy in which they learn grade-a ppropriate strategies in phonemic awareness/phonics, comprehension, vo cabulary/language development, the reading/writing connection, assessment, interven tion strategies for st ruggling readers, and the use of small group instruction. During the c ourse of the two weeks, principals conduct faculty meetings with their staff to discu ss ways and means for implementing what they

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18 have learned at their school site. Monthly coach and prin cipal support meetings provide continuous professional development designed to strengthen the schools’ leadership. Factors Affecting Literacy Reform Success The literacy reform efforts described prev iously demonstrated varying degrees of success. The Dallas Plan, for example, showed that first graders made expected gains, but second and third graders were 3 to 4 months below the expected average of 10 months. Further, 70% of the third grad ers read below grade-level expe ctations (Shapley, Cooter & Cooter, 1999). The Literacy Co llaborative demonstrated a co nsiderable rise in scores over a seven-year period as compared to othe r schools within the sc hool district and the state of Ohio during that period (Williams Sharer, & Pinnell, 2000). The Texas Reading Initiative resulted in 86% pass rate among thir d graders in the read ing portion of their state assessment test (Texas Education Agency, 2002). Two separate evaluators examined AR I’s progress toward their goal of 100% literacy. Small but positive differences in eff ect sizes were demonstrated in favor of ARI schools over non-ARI schools (O’Neal & Spor, 2 002). Instead of relying on Stanford 9 measures which are highly correlated w ith socioeconomic status, one researcher examined the performance of individual studen ts from one year to the next and compared schools based on how much progress their stude nts had made. Using this as a measure, schools that participated in the ARI solid ly outperformed schools that did not (Moscovitch, 2001). However, in the third year of the implemen tation of ARI, the ev aluators noted a dip in student achievement. Variation in im plementation was cited as a cause for the regression toward the goal of 100% lit eracy. A state cutback in funding and a simultaneous rise in the number of schools participating in the ARI resulted in less

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19 follow-up by ARI staff members as they attempted to meet the increased demands of supervision coupled with a loss of reading sp ecialists in some of the schools. However, the trend of student improvement showed th at over a 3-year period, a student who began the program at the 50th percen tile could expect to be at th e 62nd percentile by the twelfth grade (Moscovitch, 2001). Variation in implementation influenced student achievement outcomes across schools that participated in li teracy reform efforts (O’Neal & Spor, 2002; Turnbull, 2002; Moscovitch, 2001;Williams, Scharer, & Pinnell 2000; Shapley, Cooter & Cooter, 1999). Factors that influenced implementation include d teacher turnover, efficacy of the reading coach, and principal’s interest, commitment, and knowledge level (O’Neal & Spor, 2002; Turnbull, 2002; Mizell, 1999; Moscovitc h, 2001;Williams, Scharer, & Pinnell, 2000; Shapley, Cooter & Cooter, 1999). Staff Development Leaders in education now recognize how important teacher training is to the improvement of student achievement (Allin gton, 2001; Duffy & Hoffman, 1999; DarlingHammond, 1995; 1998; Sparks & Hirsh, 2000; St enhouse, 1975). As a result, staff developers have been motivated to consider their effectiveness a nd to determine what changes must occur to improve professional development effectiveness. Several studies have indicated that the typical “workshop” is efficient in presenting new information but ineffective in producing significant change in teachers’ practices. Swafford (2001), Showers and Joyce (1983), and Gallimore and Tharp (as cited in Swafford, 2001) claimed that workshops typically do not im pact instructional practice because the practices taught may differ significantly from teachers’ current practice; they provide

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20 little support to implement the new practices; an d/or teachers may be isolated from their peers, which impacts their abi lity to implement new practices. The American Institutes fo r Research (AIR), under c ontract with the U.S. Department of Education’s Planning and Evaluation Service, conducted a three-year study of the Eisenhower Profe ssional Development Program. Th is Title II program was primarily designed to support professional development for teachers in science and mathematics. Their report revealed that professional developmen t focused on specific, higher-order teaching strategies increased the teachers’ use of those strategies in the classroom, particularly if th e initial training promoted th e use of study groups or action research rather than a workshop or conferen ce; provided opportunitie s for active learning; was consistent with the teachers’ goals; and involved participants who taught the same subject, grade or school. However, in their report the researchers also claimed that the quality of in-service from year to year varied. Teachers from the same schools often experienced different staff development ac tivities. From the year 1996 to 1999, very little overall change occurred in instructional practic e among the teacher s trained through this program. Individual teachers, however, did demonstrate change in their practices from year to year. The researchers conclude d that positive findings on the effects of staff development would increase if districts and sc hools provided a more coherent, systematic program of high-quality professional devel opment (Porter, Garet, Desimone, Yoon, & Birman, 2000). To address the weaknesses delineated above, the National Staff Development Council proposed a national plan for improving staff development (Sparks & Hirsh, 1997). The standards they recommended are as follows:

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21 1. Set clear and high standards for the learni ng of all students and then focus on the changes in practice required to achieve student learning… 2. Hold superintendents and principals, as well as teachers, accountable for student achievement… 3. Invest in teacher learning… 4. Review school improvement plans to ascerta in that they focus on student learning 5. Involve all teachers in the continuous, inte llectually rigorous study of the content they teach and the ways they teach it... 6. Embed opportunities for professional learni ng and collaborating with colleagues… 7. Provide teachers with classroom assessm ent and other action research skills… 8. Recognize the importance of skillful leaders in schools and at the district level… (Sparks & Hirsh, 1997, p.5-6). In order for the National Staff Developm ent Council’s recommendations to reach fruition, numerous paradigm shifts were need ed to improve professional development. Professional development would need to refo cus from the individua l teacher to both teacher and organizational development. Inst ead of fragmented piecemeal efforts, staff development would need to be driven by clear, coherent strategic plans for districts, each school, and departments that serve schools (Spa rks &. Hirsh, 1997). The state of Florida, for example, now requires that all teacher professional development is tied to the Individual Professional Devel opment Plan (IPDP) and the go als included in the school’s improvement plan. Both the IPDP and the sc hool improvement plan must be linked to student achievement. In additi on, principals must document how they have monitored the implementation of any skills their teach ers’ have acquired through professional development activities (Florida Professiona l Development System Evaluation Protocol, 2004). An examination of professional de velopment within the context of the

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22 organization of the school provides a powerful tool for influencing the performance of individual teachers within that organization (Sparks & Hirsh, 1997). School-based staff development must become the focus rather than district wide staff development. Attention to adult learni ng theory and changes in on-the-job behavior must guide in-service delivery. Training must occur more frequently within the context of the job and utilize multiple forms of learning in which teachers study the teachinglearning process rather than simply recei ve knowledge from experts (Darling-Hammond & McLaughlin, 1995; Lieberman, 1995; Putnam & Borko, 2001; Sparks & Hirsh, 1997). For example, teachers are encouraged to us e action research action to determine the efficacy of a particular strategy with their st udents. Using this approach, teachers have an opportunity to improve their practice and le arn how to analyze the teaching-learning process. If teachers are expected to imp lement new practices, multiple contexts for learning such as book studies or videos, must be available. Ongoing support that includes demonstration teaching, peer collaboration, discussion, and reflection must also occur (Darling-Hammond & McLaughlin, 1995; K illian & Hirsh, 2001; Lieberman, 1995; Putnam& Borko, 2001). Teacher training must therefore, include not only the transmission of information but the co-constr uction of meaning that relates theory to practice through teacher modeling and feedback to teachers as they attempt to implement new practices (Sparks & Hirsh, 1997; Willows, 2002; Putnam & Borko, 2001). The nature of trainings and the role of staff developers must also change. The focus of training must shift from teaching of skills to a combination of skill development and specific content instruction. Additionally, staff developers who currently function as teacher trainers must also serve as consultant s to plan and facilitate the teacher learning

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23 process. Further, staff development must be seen as the responsibility of all school administrators and teacher le aders rather than as the re sponsibility of only certain departments. Finally, staff development must be viewed as continuous improvement for all staff members who affect student l earning (Darling-Hammond, 1998; Sparks & Hirsh, 1997). Influences on Teachers’ Instructional Practices Research has shown that teachers’ beliefs and value systems guide their enactment of instructional practices (Braithwaite, 1999; Olson, 1994; Grossman & Shulman, 1994; Calderhead, 1996; Fullan, 1991). The setting in which one teaches and the philosophy through which one views the world results in a belief system that then contributes to decision-making in an interactive manne r (Braithwaite, 1999; Gr ossman & Shulman, 1994; Calderhead, 1996). Further, research ha s shown that teachers’ belief systems are generally, but not always, consistent with instructional practice (Olson, 1994; Maxson, 1996; Calderhead, 1996; Miller, Adkins, & Hooper, 1993; and Wegmann, 2001). Cornett (1990) showed that teachers sometimes hold conflicti ng beliefs that are used to justify contradictory decisions. Though some incongruities between beliefs and practice may exist, the research that has been reported in this area demonstrates that beliefs exert a strong influence over how teachers plan for inst ruction, select texts, organize curricula, and interact with students in the classroom (Grossman & Shulman, 1994). In her study of the influence of teachers’ beliefs on the literacy development for atrisk first grade students, Maxson (1996) desc ribed the role of teachers’ beliefs on their decision-making. According to this author, the teachers’ belief system, defined as “those propositions teachers hold to be true as a result of various external and internal

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24 influences,” (p. 16) is the nexus through whic h external and internal influences affect planning as well as the implementation of classroom desi gn and instruction. External Influences Three categories of external influences ha ve been identified in the literature as determinants of teachers’ practic e. First, institutional constraints affect teacher decisionmaking. Second, materials and resources teacher s use in their classrooms influence their practice. Finally, teachers are influenced by formal and informal sources of assistance upon which they lean. (Cobb, McClain, de Silva, & Dean, 2003). Principals exert a powerful influence over teacher’s beliefs and decisions (Calderhead, 1996). In a qualitative study conc erning teacher perspectives on the politics of principals, Spaulding (1997) found seven major categories of ineffective principal behavior that affected teach ers’ thinking and behavior. Th e categories included lack of participatory decision-making or pseudo partic ipation; lack of personal or professional support; favoritism; unclear or unreasonable expectations; demons trations of power; micromanaging; and contradictory body language. Principals also have the power to influe nce teachers’ practices positively. West (2001) found that principals who were traine d in developmentally appropriate practices for grades K through 8 influenced the practices of their teachers in di rect relationship to their own behavior and comm itment to those practices. High-stakes testing exerts both direct a nd indirect pressure on teachers. Not only do students’ achievement scores affect teachers’ decisions, but principals’ responses to school wide student achievement also result in pressure on teachers. Miller, Adkins and Hooper (1993) found that, while principals a dvocated instructional change for greater skill acquisition and opportunities for more complex learning, they also wanted

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25 conformity. To accomplish this, they often s earch for the perfect program or method to solve literacy problems (Willows, 2002). The accountability movement has pressure d school districts to produce higher achievement scores. Districts, in turn, have pressured school administrators to enforce the use of particular teacher-proof progr ams deemed to guarantee greater student achievement (Duffy, 2001). Research has shown that the goal of the one perfect, teacher-proof program for literacy instruction is unatta inable (Allington, 2001; Chall, 1987; Duffy & Hoffman, 1999). Even if one program could account for ev ery permutation of student learning style existing in classrooms across the country, no ac counting could exist for the variability of program implementation. In a qualitative st udy on the use of fourth -grade materials, Sosniak and Stodolsky (1993) found that one f ourth-grade teacher re lied on the reading textbook series 98% of the time, while anothe r teacher in the same school relied on the text only 2% of the time for reading instruc tion. In a national survey of International Reading Association (IRA) members’ use of basal reading programs, Bauman and Heubach (1996) found that these educators view ed the basal as only one tool and refused to relinquish control of their literacy programs to a ny program or presumed power. Admittedly, the self-efficacy of reading teach ers who were members of the IRA would presumably be higher than the general popula tion of teachers, which would affect the independence of decision-making revealed in this study (Olsen & Kirtman, 2002). However, this study, as well as others, point s to the futility of dictating programs to teachers due to the variability of th eir implementation (Hampton, 1994).

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26 Even though the use of dictated basal r eading programs varies, textbooks mandated by the district still exert an influence on t eachers’ instructional practices (Calderhead, 1996). Sosniak and Stodolsky (1993) found that textbooks provide teachers with content expertise, organization, economy of planni ng time and security, a finding supported by other researchers such as Cuban and Eisner (as cited in Sosniak & Stodolsky, 1993). In their study of fourth-grade material s use, Sosniak and Stodolsky (1993) also found that teachers were far less concerned with materials than with other influences on their work such as mandates from the principa l, testing issues, or inconsistent district policies. During the interview component of one school’s curricul um evaluation study (Miller, Adkins, & Hooper 1993), researchers found that teachers viewed the accountability pressures to improve test scores as the dominant cha nge in their careers. Student achievement issues were constantly on their minds and drove their choices to focus on drill and review instead of engaging students in lengthier literacy tasks. During interviews with four classroom teachers, Wegmann (2001), reported similar findings. She studied the differences that teachers exhibited between their professed literacy instruction beliefs and th eir actual literacy instruction. In all except one case, she found significant discrepancies between practice and espoused belief, a fact that she was able to link to testing pressure s through her analysis of the interviews. Other researchers have shown how current testing pressures resu lt in teachers and principals clinging to the traditional remedy of drill rather than relying on research-supported balanced literacy practices to improve student achievement scores (Buckner, 2002; Galton, Simon & Croll 1980; Miller, Adkins, & Hooper, 1993).

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27 Internal Influences Several internal factors influence teachers’ belief systems. First, is the knowledge teachers bring to the classroom regarding thei r respective subject ar eas and expertise in classroom management (Olsen & Kirt man, 2002; Allington, 2001; Johnson, 2001; Taylor, Pressley, & Pearson, 2000; Dar ling-Hammond, 1998; Knapp, 1995; Sosniak & Stodolsky, 1993). Second, teachers’ knowledge interactively affects their educational philosophy, which in turn affects planning, in structional implementation and classroom climate (Calderhead, 1996; Grossman & Shulman, 1994; Hampton, 1994). Third, teachers’ personal constructs of teaching as experienced during their childhood affect their beliefs (Olsen & Kirtman, 2002; Li nek, Nelson, & Sampsom, 1999; Calderhead, 1996; Tatto, 1998; Hampton, 1994). In addi tion to childhood notions of teaching, teachers’ beliefs are shaped by their preservice educational e xperiences (Olsen & Kirtman, 2002; Linek, Nelson, & Sampson, 1999; Tatto, 1998; Sturtevant, 1996). Personal, practical experience gained th rough “case” knowledge also guides practice (Olsen & Kirtman, 2002; Calderhead, 1996). Teachers’ case knowledge rebuilds and reshapes their guiding beliefs for instruct ion (Olsen & Kirtman, 2002; Ayers & Shubert, 1994). Further, teachers’ assumptions about l earning and students’ le arning style affects implementation of instructional practices (Olsen & Kirtman, 2002). Finally, personality issues such as the individual’s predisposition toward risk-taking or desire to change affect teachers’ choices to change pr actices (Olsen & Kirtman, 2002). No one approach or method works for all students. According to Willows (2002), “…training teachers to implement instruc tional materials when they truly don’t understand the underlying rationale is futile” (p. 30). Training that fails to include this rationale deskills teachers causing inflexibility and inability to respond to new research

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28 (Willows, 2002; Kline, 1995). Student success depends upon the teacher’s skill to accomplish the techniques, approaches and sk ills identified above (Duffy & Hoffman, 1999; Allington, 2001). For the last thirty year s, educational leaders have increasingly recognized that teachers are at the center of any attempt to improve the quality of schools (Stenhouse,1975). Since teachers’ belief systems are so cl osely intertwined w ith their classroom decision-making, teacher training must focu s on teaching and learning for understanding (Darling-Hammond & McLaughlin, 1995). Be liefs can change if teachers are encouraged to articulate them, examine them and reflect on them (Hampton, 1994; Calderhead, 1996). Guskey (1986) found that staff development activities were most effective in changing teachers’ beliefs when newly learned practices resulted in success for their students. As a result, Guskey concl uded that changes in belief follow rather than precede changes in practice. By contrast Richardson (as cited by Calderhead, 1996) found a constant interaction between beliefs and practice. Either may be the antecedent to the other. Because the interaction between belief and pr actice is so vital to altering teachers’ decision-making processes, e ffective staff development is critical (Sparks & Hirsh, 1997). Through the use of self-re port surveys as correlated w ith student achievement, researchers have attempted to determine to what extent teachers’ decisions to implement teaching practices acquired through staff de velopment activities affects students’ achievement. Small positive correlations betw een self-reported leve ls of implementation and student achievement have been demons trated, but student achievement has not proven to be an adequate measure of the im pact that staff development has on teachers’

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29 decisions to implement new practices. More information is needed about what leads teachers to utilize particular practices (Hamilton et al., 2003).

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30 CHAPTER 3 METHOD This chapter describes the manner in which the study was conducted. This section will provide a description of the researche r’s subjectivity, theoretical perspective, participant selection, sett ing, data collection, data analysis, and validity. Researcher Subjectivity The issue of researcher bias has been a l ongstanding battle that centers on the effect of the researcher’s values on the manner in which data are collected and interpreted. This debate has resulted in the development of a myriad of theoretical perspectives and methodologies that range in approach from an attempt at total objectivity through the use of quantitative methods to surrendering fully to subjectivism in which “the ideology of the researcher, including her va lues, is supposed to enter intr insically and inseparably into the methods, interpretations, and epistemol ogy of critical research ” (Carspecken, 1996, p. 5). Therefore, it is important for the reader to know “up front” the subjectivity of the researcher and the perspectiv e through which a study is c onducted. Critic al ethnography is the theoretical perspective of choice for th is study and will be discussed further in this chapter. My subjectivity w ill be the focus of the firs t section of this study. I taught for 27 years in public schools. Mo st of those years were spent in the regular elementary classroom with forays in itially in high school and middle school as a special education teacher. In my early years of teaching, I experience d the excitement of participating in the opening of a new school under the leadership of a principal that understood and practiced shared decision-maki ng. Never since that time have I worked

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31 with such a committed and professional facu lty dedicated to students and to continued learning. This initial teaching experience colored my idea of how teaching should be. As I moved on through the years, always striving to find better ways of touching the hearts and minds of students, I often found myself is olated in my quest to better my teaching practices and relied on the stimulation provi ded by supervising stude nt teachers to push my teaching skills to the next level. I learne d that the best way to enjoy my students and my profession was to close the classroom door tightly behind me. I learned that teaching was not as it should be. After teaching a number of years in the cocoon that I created, I read about the concept of the learning community. I was so en amored with the concept that I decided to create that type of atmosphere in my cl assroom. That was the atmosphere I longed to have on my faculty as well. It was that at mosphere that I had experienced long ago. It was an atmosphere of continuous learning, of facilitative teachi ng and facilitative leadership. Unfortunately, it was not the reality of my faculty. Spurred by the discontinuity between my dream and my reality and the recognition that the fate of the learning community in a school rests in the hands of the principal, I decided to seek a degree in Educational Leadership. I had the desire to understand how learning communities could be created and sustained to move education to a new level for students and the teachers that serve th em. Studying the sustainability of the SRI literacy reform has provided the opportunity to better understand the reading reform movement and the learning community that embraces it.

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32 Theoretical Perspective Research has uncovered the secrets of teaching reading. The question that now remains is how to steer those methods into the instructional pract ices of teachers. Understanding the reticence of educators to chan ge their instructional practices requires a theoretical perspective that provides the rese archer with tools to examine culture, power, and human agency. Traditional ethnography of the early 1970s (Cusick, 1973; Henry, 1963, Jackson, 1968; Ogbu, 1974, Rist, 1973; Smith & Goeffr ey, 1968; Smith & Keith, 1971; and Wolcott, 1973) provided edu cational researchers with a methodology acceptable to the traditional research community (Anderson, 1989) The development of systematic data analysis procedures (Goetz & LeCompte, 1981; Green & Wallet, 1981; Spradley, 1980) lent legitimacy to qualitative research by providing a supposed methodological rigor. The notion that qualitative analyses were a product of rigor rather than researcher interpretation was an attempt to place this methodology into a posit ivistic theoretical perspective (Anderson, 1989). This perspec tive promotes the notion that knowledge claims must be justified by experience. Observational da ta are key and provide the singular basis for conclusions (Phillips & Bu rbules, 2000). Traditi onal ethnographers see their roles as neutral and invisible (Koro-Ljungberg, 2004). Historically, even as ethnography was gain ing attention as a viable educational research alternative to quantitative resear ch, sociologists and an thropologists raised questions about the nature of culture and be gan to view truth claims as a function of values acquired through the culture (Geertz, 198 3). Further objections to truth claims based upon observations and experience aros e in Husserl’s philosophical phenomenology (1962; 1970). His work was based on the c oncept that when an object is observed, one

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33 sees that object from only 1 perspective at a time. Changing the angle of observation can change the way the object looks. This pr oposition opened the door to the notion of multiple realities and multiple interpretations, the cornerstone of poststructuralism and postmodernism. The ultimate effects of such a view resulted, for some postmodernists, in a complete lack of standards for determin ing any singular interpretation (Carspecken, 1996). Neo-Marxists and feminist social theori sts, concerned with matters of oppression, added their voices to the idea of multiple views, interpretations, and realities. However, their underlying mission to eradicate oppression and promote social change bounded their view of multiple realitie s (Althusser, 1971; Bernstein, 1971; Freire, 1971; and Horkheimer, 1972). Their mission to criticize oppr essive social structur es led to critical social theory (Anderson, 1989). The criticalist notion of reality is info rmed by Herbert Meade’s idea that selfconsciousness results from intern alizing expectations of typi cal social interaction as a result of cultural influenc e (as cited in Carspecken, 1996). Critical ethnography is dependent upon holistic forms of experience and how those experiences are related to structures of communication. While critical theorists differ in many ways, they also share some fundamental characteristics (Apple, 1993; Lather, 1991). Firs t, critical research supports cultural and social criticism designed to create change. S econd, criticalists hold that in all societies certain groups are privileged over others. Thir d, oppression is most frequently reproduced in a society where subordinates accept th eir position. Fourth, oppression takes many

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34 forms, and finally, traditional research practices often contribute to oppression (Carspecken, 1996). The criticalist’s approach to et hnography, while embracing many traditional methods, emphasizes the critical act of interp retation in addition to the practical act of promoting change. An assumption underlying th e work of critical et hnographers is that communities and institutions are comprise d of both empowered and disempowered groups of people (Koro-Ljungberg, 2004). Even though critical theorist s share these characteristics they have not shared a methodological theory until recently. Critical ethnography as employed by Carspecken (1996), provides stiff validity requirements at ev ery stage of analysis and a clear internal link to meaning. Carspecken also promotes th e notion that hi s critically grounded form of ethnography is a useful qualitative resear ch methodology irrespective of theoretical perspective (1996). Critical ethnography is a theoretical pers pective well suited for addressing the issues of concern in this st udy, which were to identify the factors in the school culture that facilitate or impede instructional change The notion that any fact ors existed at all to exert pressure on teachers to make instructiona l changes speaks to matters of influence or power, which are fundamental concerns of cr iticalists. Carspecken ’s (1996) critical methodology provides an effective guide for ex amining and articula ting explicitly the tacit human and social factors that af fect teacher’s instructional choices. Participant Selection and Description Obtaining Access The researcher received approval to c onduct this study from the university’s Institutional Review Board and the school district prior to commencing the study. The

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35 choice of school was based upon the recommenda tion of Felicia Van Camp, a member of the Southern Reading Initiative lead team. Her recomme ndation of the school site, Lake Baxter Elementary, resulted form her associ ation with the school ’s principal and her familiarity with the changes that had occurred in the school since thei r participation in the SRI Summer Reading Academy. The research er gained unrestric ted access to school meetings, classrooms, and school data due to the relationship between Van Camp and the school principal, Lyla Johnson. The researcher was treated as part of the school faculty throughout the study. Selection of Participants The principal and reading coach, also part icipants in this study, recommended the four teacher participants. The principal and reading coach consulted with each other to make recommendations prior to an intervie w with the researcher. The principal was interviewed to determine the basis upon which their choices were made. Allowing the principal and reading coach to decide whic h teachers would participate in this study provided the researcher with an understanding of the pr edominant cultural norm through which the principal and reading coach viewed teachers. The interview with the principal indicated that she chose teachers for this study that she considered as continuous learners. Description of Participants All teachers, the reading coach, and the pr incipal were trained during the first SRI Summer Reading Academy. Both of the first grade teachers then became SRI Summer Reading Academy trainers. One of the first grade teachers had been teaching for over 10 years, while the other had been teaching for less than 10 years. Of the two fourth-grade teachers, one had been teaching for 3 years a nd the other has been teaching for 20 years.

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36 According to the school principal, these te achers were chosen fo r participation in this study because they were c ontinuous learners. Of the four teachers, three were trainers of one or more components of the Southern Reading Initiative. Mrs. Baker was a trainer of the Phonemic Awareness/Phonics Com ponent, the Comprehension Component, and the Reading/Writing Connection Component. Mr s. Peters was also a trainer of the aforementioned components. Mrs. McDonald was a trainer of the Comprehension Component and the Reading/Writing Connectio n Component. Mrs. Dickerson was not a trainer of any SRI component, but regularly participated in th e school’s Instructional Best Practices Support Group as did the other three study participants. Setting The study occurred in Lake Baxter Elem entary School located in a small-sized town in North Central Florida. Lake Baxter is the only elementary school located within this rural school district and is one of the largest the consortium serves. Fifty-six instructional sta ff members are employed at th is school. The staff includes a principal, an assistant principal, a r eading coach, a media specialist, two guidance counselors, 9 kindergarten, 8 first grade, 8 s econd grade, 8 third grade, 7 fourth grade teachers, and 9 special area teachers, four of which serve as intervention teachers. One intervention teacher is assigned to each grade level to assist with struggling readers. The reading coach also serves as a kindergarten intervention teacher. This study focused on the instructional practices of two first-grad e and two fourth-grade teachers, who were observed during classroom instruction, and th e management/leadership practices of the reading coach and principal. First and fourth-grade teache rs were chosen for this study because they represent the primary and intermediate phases of elementary educat ion. In the primary grades,

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37 kindergarten through second grade, the reading instructional focus is on teaching children how to read. In the intermediate grades, th ird grade through fifth grade, the reading instructional focus is on teaching students how to use reading to learn. Because of the differences in reading instructional focus from primary to intermediate, an examination of instructional practices at both instructional phases was thought to be important. The student population at this school is representative of small, rural North Central Florida communities. Eighteen percent of the elementary school population is African American, 2% are categorized as other and the remaining 80% are white. Approximately 50% of the population receive s free and reduced lunch. Data Collection Data were collected using 3 methods for the purposes of triangulation. The first method involved observing the instructional pr actices of teachers. Second, interviews designed to elicit participants’ descriptions of their beliefs, their instructional practices, and factors that influence th eir instructional practice were conducted. Third, documents including teachers’ plans, selected exampl es of required assignments, minutes of meetings, school surveys, and others as deemed necessary to reveal characteristics of the school culture or in structional practice were collected. Procedures for Participant Observations The researcher recorded field notes dur ing participant observations in each teacher’s class during the first semester of the 2003-2004 school year. Each teacher was observed during rotating 90-minute time blocks so that she could be observed teaching lessons repeatedly across the curriculum. Each teacher was observed a minimum of 8 times.

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38 Multiple observations allowed the observer’s presence to become routine. The researcher did not participate in any classroom activities and, therefore, assumed a strictly observer status during the course of the study. Variation in numbers of observations was due to cl assroom scheduling and the researcher’s need to observe more frequently in some classes where the consistency of instructional practice was in question. Teachers were unaware of their scheduled observation time except for those days during which they were interviewed. The initial observation was intended to examine the entire classroom environment including displayed printed material, cl assroom management, cultural climate, procedures, and routines. Succeeding observa tions focused specifically on recording teaching procedures, tasks required of students, and students’ level of engagement during instruction and the comple tion of assigned tasks. Interview Procedures Preliminary interviews with the principa l occurred prior to the initial teacher observations. Preliminary interviews with te achers began after each teacher had been observed during each of the th ree 90-minute time blocks (or rotations). A predetermined question protocol and additional questions formul ated as a result of the observations were used to guide the interviews, which were r ecorded and transcribed for analysis. These interviews occurred during stage one. Once the stage two reconstr uctive analyses were complete, additional interviews were used to develop additional dialogic data and thus confirm and refine the themes revealed through stage two. The interview process was also used to provide member checks as r econstructive analysis occurred during stage three. See Appendix F for interview protocols.

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39 Archival Collection Procedures The researcher collected copies of the teacher’s lesson and/or unit plans that covered weeks at the beginning, mid-point, and end of the observation period from September to February. Examples of student s assignments completed during this period were also collected. The researcher comp ared these plans and assignments with the observations to identify discrepancies betw een the planned curriculum and the enacted curriculum. Data collected through this mech anism helped to focus future observations and interviews to be conducted in the third st age. Additional artifacts collected during the study included minutes of support group mee ting; agendas and minutes of SRI Lead Team meetings; school improvement documen ts; school climate su rveys; literacy intervention plan; and Dickerson’s es say for National Board application. Data Analysis Two procedures were used to analyze th e observation, interview and archival data collected. Domain analysis was used to examine the observation data collected and strip/thematic analysis was used to examine the interview and archival data (Spradley, 1980; Carspecken, 1996). The criticalist perspe ctive informed the us e of both of these analytical procedures, which are common to ethnography. After initial analyses revealed domains a nd themes, the transcripts and field notes were examined to determine indications of interactive power at play. The selected passages in the field notes and interview transc ripts were then subjected to further strip analysis to determine interactively esta blished power relationships and system relationships as outline d by Carspecken (1996). This analytical protocol produced a fou r-stage process. The first stage involved building the primary record from the observation s and interviews with language kept at a

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40 low level in order to gain wide consent to th e acceptability of the de scriptions included. During the second stage of anal ysis, initial meaning recons truction was kept at a low level of inference. As additional data was collected and additional meaning reconstruction completed, an interpretive proces s using strip analysis was applied to those segments of the interview transcript and field notes that indicated the need to move from a holistic impression of meaning to articulations that developed from those impressions at higher levels of inference. This process is characterized by intersubjectivity, which entails position taking. Cultural typifications a nd generalities enable the researcher to employ position taking if s/he is familiar with the culture of the participants. The third stage generated addi tional dialogical data that provided participants the opportunity to examine the inferences, them es and domains. This stage, involved normative reflection in which the researcher s ubjects the contrived meanings of acts to reflections regarding why s/he attributed those meanings to the acts, or the norm the researcher has applied to the situation. Once the norm has been identified, the researcher can then determine if that is the norm employed by the actor. Once the norm is identified and then compared to the normative realms employed by the actors, those norms can be modified as necessary, resulting in a view th at is closer to the insider’s view. This interpretive process involved the differentiati on of the culturally general or normative and the individually particular or personality affects on mode s of action, thus providing the foundation for the examination of interactivel y established power relations and systems relations analysis that occurs in stage four (Carspecken, 1996). Observation Analysis Procedures A combination of methods recommended by Carspecken (1996) and Spradley (1980) were used to analyze the observation fi eld notes taken in the four classrooms, in

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41 meetings, and throughout the school. The field notes were studied to determine cultural domains. Possible categories of meaning (domai ns) were listed and then checked against the transcript to determine the best cover terms for the domains identified. Table 3-1 shows the list of the identified domains and their cover terms for the teachers’ instructional practices. The field notes were analyzed once again to determine additional analytic terms (terms assigned by the research er) and folk terms (terms used frequently by the participants) to include under the identified domains. Once cover terms and included terms were identified, the field notes were examined again with the cover terms in mind. Cover terms and included terms were then assigned to transcript segments as reconstructions in the field notes. These reconstructions were then submitted to a peer debriefer to validate the choice of cover terms and included te rms as they related to the primary record. Once this was completed, th e reconstructions were organized into semantic relationships in a domain analys is worksheet as recommended by Spradley (1980). An example of this analyt ical process is shown in Tabl e 3-2 and in its entirety in Appendix A. From this, a componential analys is was completed to create a componential paradigm. The componential paradigm Appe ndix B provided a framework to refine the analysis of the instructional practices th at typically occurred in the classrooms observed. Findings from the domain analysis are located in Chapters 4 through 6. Findings that applied to the instructional prac tices of the teachers are located in Chapter 4. Findings that applied to l eadership behaviors are located in Chapter 5, and findings that related to factors that impeded and facilitated instructional change are located in Chapter 6.

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42 Table 3-1 Domain List Domains Categorized with Cover Term Classroom Structure Print rich environment Schedules Routines Comprehension Instruction Develop comprehension through recall, repetition, isolated skills FCAT workbooks as reading lessons Develop comprehension through higher levels of thinking; connections to self, world or text; across reading components, disciplines, or skills/strategies Background knowledge Vocabulary instruction Develop vocabulary through higher levels of thinking; connections to self, world or text; across reading components, disciplines or skills/strategies components, disciplines, or skills/strategies Develop Oral language Develop vocabulary through rote Decoding, Spelling Decoding skills by rote and repetition Focusing on writing to prompts Develop decoding skills through higher levels of thinking; connections to self, world or text; across reading Writing Instruction Develop writing skills authentically Engage in group story writing Develop de-contextualized, ondemand writing skills Content Area Instruction Concepts through lecture & rote Develop concepts through higher levels of thinking; connections to self, world or text; across reading components, disciplines, or skills/strategies Experiential learning Student Engagement Strategies Desist inappropriate behavior Develop social responsibility Statement used to reinforce behavior Encourage desirable behavior Promote attention toward the teacher Encourage students Student disengagement Instructional Approaches Teacher modeling-think aloud Gradual release of responsibility-new structures, modeling, guided practice Maximize student engagement Cultivate higher levels of thinking Differentiate Instruction-intervention, leveled text, centers Alternate model of instruction-partner reading, mnemonics, group work, jigsaw Student assessment Text driven; teacher’s Professional Behaviors Staff development activity Teacher disengagement Collaboration Professional pride Professional commitment Instructional leadership Pedagogical error Feedback Strategies Feedback to students’ correctness Provided scaffolding Teach students to support assertions

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43 Table 3-2. Domain analysis example. Domain Examples of Included Terms Semantic Relationship Example of Semantic Relationship Teacher & Times Observed Decoding and Spelling, Instruction Using Higher Levels of Thinking Modeling phonemic and phonic analysis through “Text Talk” Student practicing analysis of multisyllabic words Students analyzing patterns in words Means-End Is a way to increase decoding and spelling skills Reading Coach Baker Dickerson 2 Connection of Decoding to Text Practicing decoding in decodable text Practicing decoding in writing Connecting decoding to spelling Baker 3 Baker Baker Rote Learning Completing Worksheets Writing words 3X each McDonald 3 Dickerson Dickerson Interview Analysis Procedures Meaning reconstruction was used during th e first examination of the interview transcripts. Low-level inference coding wa s employed during this phase, keeping the restatements of acts close to the more immediate features of those acts. When reconstructions were completed in this fa shion, the researcher reread all of the reconstructions with the research questions in mind to determine common themes. A

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44 chart of emergent themes (Appendix C) wa s created, which included the theme and the supporting reconstructions from across all transcripts. The researcher then reread the transcripts and reconstructions again with the themes in mind to identify sections suitable for strip analysis on the basis of relevancy to the research questions. This entailed assigning words to actions in a way that explained verbally the entire communicat ive act that typically occurr ed with nonverbal behaviors. This process required higher levels of inference in reconstruction. When strip analysis was done, all of the re searcher’s high -infer ence interpretations were recorded next to the rele vant transcript section in th e primary record. All of these reconstructions and the theme chart were then submitted to a peer debriefer to verify and/or add interpretations and to verify suppor t or lack thereof for each emergent theme. This provided the framework for further inte rviews and the member check focus group to determine consistency of the themes identi fied as well as the framework through which field notes collected during obs ervations of secondary social sites such as team and faculty meetings were analyzed. Findings of the interview anal ysis can be found in Chapters 4 through 6. Archival Analysis Procedures The artifacts were arranged in chronologi cal order in a Microsoft Excel file along the y-axis of the chart, while the themes and componential paradigms were arranged across the x-axis of the chart. Each artifact was then analyz ed to determine its relevancy to the themes and domains identified in the interviews and observations. Brief descriptions of the nature of the releva ncy were entered in the spaces underneath the theme and domain. By examining the artifact s across time, the researcher was able to

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45 discern changes in culture a nd instructional practices at primary and secondary social sites. Findings of the archival analysis can be found in Chapters 4 through 6. A summary of artifacts can be found in a triangulation chart in D. Analysis of Interactively Established Power Relations To gain an understanding of the factors that influenced teachers to change instructional practices or leaders to change their leadership practices, issues of power must be examined. According to Giddens (1979) all actions are related to the concept of power since actors have the power to choose one course of action over another. Even in cases of extreme sanction, an individual can choose to act against orders and accept the consequences for that choice. An action is determined to be more or less powerful depending on how successfully the action fulf ills its motivating drive and how free of influence and coercion are the conditions of the action. A study of interactive power examines the manner and degree to which act ors are differentiated in terms of their ability to influence a course of act ion or interaction (Carspecken, 1996). To analyze interactively established power relations, the researcher examined the primary record for sections that indicated power relations accor ding to Carspecken’s (1996, p. 130) typology as follows: Normative power: subordinate consents to higher social position of superordinate because of cultural norms Coercive power: subordinate acts to avoid sa nction imposed by superordinate Interactively established contracts: subordinate acts for return of favors or rewards from superordinate Charm: subordinate acts out of loyalty to th e superordinate because of the latter’s personality

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46 When transcript segments indicated intera ctive power at play, those strips were analyzed with respect to the form of inte ractive power at the site, the truth claims evidenced, roles that superordinates played, and the cultural milieu of the act. A chart entitled “Interactive Power Evidenced in Field Observations and Interviews” is included as D. The findings of this anal ysis are located in Chapter 6. Analysis Procedures for Systems Relationships Stage four of critical ethnographic re search involves the identification of relationships between specific soci al sites, or secondary sites, and the primary social site under investigation. To accomplish this, the researcher examined all reconstructions, themes and componential paradigms formulat ed during stages one through three while posing the question of the origin of those them es. When the origin of a theme appeared to be at a secondary site, additional field notes were collected in a journalistic fashion at those sites or archival data originating from those sites were collected and analyzed. Three secondary social site s were identified and either observed or investigated for relevant artifacts. The Southern Reading Initiative Lead Team, the School Board of Pinkerton County and the st ate’s department of education were identified as origins of themes outside of th e primary social site. Jo urnalistic field notes were collected during SRI Lead Team meetings and minutes of lead team meetings were examined. Testimony from key informants re garding the roles played by the Pinkerton County School Board and state’s department of education were embedded within the existing interview text and other artifacts alr eady collected. Reconstructive analysis was conducted on the journalistic field notes and compared with previous reconstructions to determine the similarity of form between the sets of reconstructions. The findings for the analysis of system relationshi ps are located in Chapter 6.

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47 Validity In qualitative studies, issues of credibility and dependa bility are of concern to researchers. In this study, the researcher tr iangulated the data gath ered from observations, interviews and artifacts to enhance credibility and dependability, using the procedures of critical ethnography as recomm ended by Carspecken (1996). At each of the four stages of the investig ation, the researcher t ook specific steps to address issues of trustworth iness and collected artifacts to check consistency of interpretations. Appendices include a log of all peer debriefings, charts of the componential analyses and cultural themes as well as a triangulati on chart that provided support for cultural themes across the ar chival, interview and observation data. In stage one, the primary record was compiled by collecting monological data. The researcher used a flexible observation schedul e to observe teachers at varying times of the day. Classroom observations occurred ove r a prolonged period of approximately six months to minimize the potential of personal bias and to assure that observed classroom instructional practices were representative of actual day-to-day in struction. The primary written record was comprised mainly of a low-inference vocabulary. A peer debriefer checked the primary record for high-inference vocabulary and inequaliti es of attention to the participants. Preliminary reconstructive analysis comp rised stage two (explained in the “Data Analysis” section). In order to minimize pers onal bias, the researcher used Spradley’s (1980) method of analyzing observation fiel d notes, which consisted of identifying semantic units, categorizing those units, cr eating a componential paradigm and then examining the constructs within the concept of pragmatic horizons in order to be consistent with critical ethnography met hodology. The researcher conducted member

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48 checks on the componential paradigms as part of the interviews during stage three, which also served to equalize the pow er relations between the researcher and the participants. The peer debriefer checked for biases or ‘holes’ in the componential analyses. During stage three, dialogical data wa s generated and analyzed. Repeated interviews with the same subjects produced grea ter self-disclosure and a larger data set to examine interviewee consistency and vera city. A peer debriefer examined the reconstructions and themes that emerged from the analysis to add interpretations in cases where high-inference reconstructions occurred and to affirm or dispute support for interpretations and themes identified. A fo cus group consisting of 3 of the 4 teachers provided feedback on the resear chers reconstructions, interp retations and themes that emerged from the interview study. The partic ipants were encour aged to read the transcripts of their interviews and cross out any interpretations with which they disagreed and indicate the interpretations with which they most agreed. They were also encouraged to write in any other thoughts that they had regarding the in terpretations. This allowed the participants to affirm or disagree with high-inference interpretations made during the reconstruction of the interviews and to clarif y their thoughts and feelings further. Finally, during stage four of the study, the researcher matched the comparative analysis conducted of the various social sites within the social system to the participants’ commentary to check for consistency between the researcher’s ideas on system relationships and the partic ipants’ actual expe riences. The focus group member check provided feedback regarding c onsistency (Carspecken, 1996).

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49 CHAPTER 4 INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICE S AND HOW THEY CHANGED This chapter describes the instructiona l practices of the four teachers who participated in this study, the changes in instructional practices that participants identified, and the changes that school clim ate survey artifacts indicated have occurred since the implementation of the SRI. Domain analyses revealed reading related instructional practices in comprehension, vocabulary, decoding, spelling, wr iting and content area instruction. Domains regarding the manner of feedback to students, instru ctional approaches, a nd classroom structure were also identified. Classroom structure will be addressed in its own section while discussions of the other ancillary domains w ill be addressed within the context of the reading instruction within each of the sections that address those domains. Each teacher’s instructional practices will be described in terms of classroom stru cture including a brief description of the physical environment and a daily schedule of instruction. An analysis of each teacher’s instru ctional practice compared to scien tifically based reading research will also be provided. Thematic analyses of interviews and sc hool climate survey artifacts revealed 3 themes that relate to instructional changes. Mrs. Baker’s First Grade Class Classroom Structure Baker’s first grade classroom presente d an inviting, colorful, and print-rich environment. While no interactive word wall was observed, the walls were covered with

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50 posters, pictures, and words that labeled co mmon classroom items. Some of the words illustrated social values of respect, cooperati on, and hard work while others provided the students with cues for learning. Basket s contained books for students to read independently. A knick-knack sh elf housing a figurine collection of bees, pictures of her family as well as students, and a rocking chai r in the story corner created a comfortable, welcoming environment. Baker’s daily teaching schedule was organized around reading, writing and arithmetic instruction. She be gan her instructional day at 7:50 with brief announcements and directions for students to complete inde pendent seatwork. As students worked on the independent seatwork, she took attendance, re sponded to the various needs of individual students, and supervised a se lected student’s composition of the morning message. The independent work inscribed on the blackboard in front of the grouped desks consisted of a journal starter, two incorrectly written sent ences that the students were instructed to correct, and a math problem. During this inde pendent work time, one of the resource teachers joined the class and worked individua lly with students who needed extra practice on targeted skills. After tutoring and housekeeping details were completed, Baker reviewed the tasks on the board and provided feedback to the students regarding their answers. Next, students were called to a central pa rt of the room to review the studentcomposed morning message. Once the message wa s corrected, the students were asked to move to the story corner where Baker conduc ted an explicit phonics lesson that included connections to text.

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51 Once this lesson was completed, the student s reported to the school’s computer lab from 8:43 to 9:03 to receive computer-based math and reading pr actice. Upon completion of the thirty-minute computer time, the student s returned to class to receive instructions for their learning center activitie s. As students settled into th eir learning center activities, she called students to her kidney-shaped ta ble to conduct lessons in small groups. She then completed two or three rotations through centers and me t with two or three small groups. When the rotations were complete, she called the group together to work on a guided reading lesson in the story corner. Th is lesson followed the basal reading program plan. She often utilized partner reading dur ing this time to build fluency and provide peer-assisted scaffolding for comprehension. Next, Baker called the students to their de sks to work on spelling and word work. This practice session involved the “unblending” of words and focused on word structure. She attended to phonemic awareness in comb ination with phonics as she had students practice encoding words that follow the pa tterns introduced in the reading lesson. After the 10:46 to 11:30 lunch and recess pe riod, Baker gathered students together in the story corner to read a story, after which she had the stud ents return to their seats for their mathematics lesson. The lesson in mathem atics followed the protocol outlined in the mathematics series used in the district. From 12:30 until their enrichment class (m usic, art, physical education, or drama class), Baker focused on handwriting instruct ion and finished morning work. The first activity after the math lesson was instruction in letter formation. During this time, Baker rotated around the room to make sure that st udents were forming thei r letters properly. As

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52 the students finished practicing letter forma tions, they were encour aged to finish up any unfinished work from the morning. Students who were finished were then invited back to the story corner for more opportunities to listen to Mrs. Baker read or to choose additional time in a self-sel ected learning center. At 12:40, students were asked to line up with their papers in hand and place them in their cubbies as they were going to one of their aforementioned enrichment classes. From 12:45 to 1:30 Baker had common planning time with teammates. During this ti me she held parent conferences, and/or prepared for instruction. Once the students returned from their enrichment time, Baker offered an opportunity to read silently during what is called D.E.A.R. time, an acronym for “Drop Everything and Read.” This i ndependent opportunity for self -selected reading continued until dismissal time, from 1:50 until 2:05 through 2:15, when students were dismissed from class in stages, beginning with those who walk home and ending with bus riders. Analysis of Instructional Practice During the 8 classroom observations, the author was able to observe 4 comprehension lessons, 1 vocabulary lesson, 5 lessons in decoding/spelling, 0 expressive writing process lessons, 3 math lessons, and no science or social st udies lessons. Baker addressed fluency through partner reading as a regular activity that occurred just before guided reading lessons. Systematic science and social studies instru ction was not evident in the daily schedule or seen duri ng any observations. Comprehension All of the observed compre hension lessons demonstrated research-based features. Activities used to prepare for reading text involved theorizing a nd predicting based upon pictures and front-end book matter. These ac tivities extended and activated background

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53 knowledge, involved the transformation of information and required students to synthesize information (Pearson, 2002). Infe rential questioning, c ontinuous predicting, and confirmation of predictions were used to develop comprehension as students worked through the reading selection (Pearson, 2002). Methods used af ter reading the selection included graphic organizers (Pearson, 2002). In one particular lesson, Baker guided the class in completing a content frame that was devised to compare three different versions of The Gingerbread Man In all of the observations, one or more key comprehension features (activating b ackground knowledge, assisting in metacognition, and transformation of information) were eviden t in her approach. All lessons stimulated thinking at the analysis or synthesis levels. Vocabulary Only one explicit vocabulary lesson wa s observed and was conducted by the reading coach. The reading coach modele d a “Text Talk” lesson (Beck & McKeown, 2001). First, the reading coach re ad a story and then revisited 2 or 3 pre-selected words. She modeled how to use the context of the st ory to determine the meaning of the words. She asked students a series of questions a bout the words that prompted students to analyze examples and non-examples as we ll as make connections to their personal experiences. This activity contextualized new vocabulary and enc ouraged students to connect this vocabulary to pe rsonal experience as well. The reading coach extended the “Text Talk” activity described above into an exercise in decoding by modeling a graphophonem ic analysis of each of the targeted vocabulary words for the students. She dem onstrated the struct ural and phonological features of the word and related those feat ures to the word’s mo rphology, thus relating the skill of decoding both to the ne w vocabulary and to connected text.

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54 Though the reading coach modeled the “T ext Talk” activity and the decoding extensions for Baker, those principles were regularly present in Baker’s decoding lessons as well. Of the 5 observed decoding lessons, 3 involved the applicati on of a newly taught decoding skill to decodable text and 1 involved reference to or modeling of the skill with text. During the course of the observation peri ods, Baker did not utilize the Text-Talk strategy. Baker was efficient in extending vo cabulary knowledge incide ntally, but did not capture those incidental word encounters for further study. Baker consistently preselected words from the basal that were not targeted vocabulary words but were words that might present obstacles for students ’ comprehension. Though this is a desirable practice, isolating those word s for further study through the us e of word walls or graphic organizers would increase students’ ownership of the words (Stahl & Kapinus, 2001). Decoding and spelling During the course of instruction in a ne w spelling pattern, Baker had students imitate specific hand movements associated with specific types of sounds such as consonants or vowels. This practice helped to build associat ions across learning modalities and kept the students highly engaged as they learned the sk ill initially in a decontextualized manner. If students stumbled on vowel sounds, she referred them to a visual mnemonic device she displayed on the blackboard. This practice provided scaffolding for students to use during group work and individually as they attempted to decode words independently. After practicing the new pattern, Mrs. Baker then practiced the pattern in one-syllable words and followed that with practice in two-syllable or even three syllable words to challenge and stretch their application of the pattern.

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55 During the spelling lesson, Baker focused on the pattern intro duced during reading in order to relate it to the writing proce ss. She had students pract ice “un-blending” or segmenting words to build phonemic awareness prior to encoding the new pattern within words (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998). Content area instruction Baker’s instruction in mathematics was, fo r the most part, constrained by the math series. Two of the three math lessons follo wed the teaching protocol from the math program. One lesson focused on the morning math board, which consists of recitation of even numbers, days of the week, counting in various patterns and so forth. Another observed lesson focused on word problems in addition. The Saxon math program refers to these problems as “some and some mor e” problems. Baker guided the students through the worksheet designed to present students w ith practice in the new concept and review of previous concepts. She used a large, poste r-sized, laminated copy of the worksheet that the students completed at th eir desks in concert with he r presentation. The third math lesson focused on building the concept of 100. This activity consisted of a booklet that related the concept of 100 to ma ny aspects of the students’ dail y lives. It directed them to count various objects and asked questions that required them to analyze the concept. This lesson was not part of the math series, a nd demonstrated the ac tivation/linking of the concept to background knowle dge as well as the transformation of knowledge through hands-on activities (Gambr ell, 1999; Block & Pressle y, 2002; RAND, 2002; Pearson, 2002). The absence of any systematic instruction in science and social studies inhibits the development of background knowledge in thes e content areas and will likely affect reading achievement in later years (RAND Report, 2002). The systematic study of the

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56 environment, its uses over time and in various cultures, provides fertile ground for the further development of oral language and reading vocabulary (Gambrell, 1999). Handson investigations can spring from or be a precu rsor to the study of informational texts too frequently ignored in the primary grades as demonstrated in this classroom. During observations in this classroom, no informationa l text was used during the instruction of reading. An examination of a selection of lesson plans from the months of October, November and January revealed only one ba sal selection title that might have been informational text. Discussion Across all curriculum components observe d during the 8 visits to Baker’s classroom and with considerati on of the four participants st udied, Baker demonstrated the most complete implementation of key resear ch-based practices. All observed language arts lessons and one of the th ree observed math lessons involv ed at least one or more of the three keys to learning activatin g/linking to background knowledge, developing metacognition, and transforming information. In language arts and when contriving her own math lesson, she continuously challenged the students’ thinking at the analysis and synthesis levels. When providing feedback to students duri ng the course of te acher questioning, she consistently requested that they support their answers. When students responded to teacher questions inaccurately, she scaffo lded their knowledge through questioning to arrive at successful responses as much as is realistically possible. Though the direct instruction model was predominant in her teaching, she often utilized other models to support students ’ learning (Joyce & Weil, 1996). She often provided opportunities for partne r reading, an approach that uses the early, dyad stage of

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57 cooperative learning (Joyce & Weil, 1996). She al so utilized Mnemonics as a tool to support the mastery of vowel a nd number patterns. Though the us e of alternate models of teaching has not been well established in Bake r’s class, the limited use of two models in combination with direct instruction does provi de an attempt to meet the varying needs of learners, a vital component of effective instruction (Joyce & Weil, 1996; Lasley & Matczynski, 1997). Lesson plans supported the observation an alysis. Although Baker’s lessons plans demonstrated adherence to the basal’s readi ng plan, her notations often reflected the use of additional research-supported strategies su ch as partner reading or additional graphic organizers. Mrs. Peters’ First Grade Class Classroom Structure Peter’s first grade classroom also presen ted an inviting, colorful, and print-rich environment. No interactive word wall was observed. Most of the wall space was covered with children’s work. The rest of the wall space was decorated with apples that were labeled with words used in the Johnny A ppleseed story, which they had studied. A classroom library was available for student use during independent reading time. A knick-knack shelf housed a collect ion of assorted pictures of students, family, and class pictures of Peters with students from previ ous years. Like. Baker, Peters created a story corner complete with a rocking chair providi ng a comfortable, welcoming environment. Reading, writing, and arithmetic instruc tion comprised Peter’s daily teaching schedule. Her instructional day began at 7: 50 with a brief time for announcements and the morning message, which usually consisted of a greeting from the teacher and the day’s agenda. She then gave directions fo r completing the independent seatwork, which

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58 consisted of math problems, Daily Oral La nguage (two sentences written with various grammar and punctuation errors for the stude nts to correct), and handwriting practice. The students then completed the independent seatwork. Once students finished these tasks, Peters corrected the math board probl ems and the Daily Oral Language with the students. From 8:05 until 8:35, the physical education (P.E.) coach was scheduled to come into her room to work with the class on a worksheet-based program entitled Drops in the Bucket which was designed to provide a brief review of first-grad e language arts and math skills. He was also expected to review and practice a previously introduced word family. This arrangement allowed Peters, the best trained professional, to work with individual students who need more intensiv e intervention. Of the three observations during this time period of the day, the P.E. co ach arrived only one time. When he did not come to her class, she reviewed the Drops in the Bucket worksheet with the students and was unable to work more intensivel y with the targeted students. From 8:05 until 8:35, Peters set aside time to work with individual students or small groups of students using decodabl e books to reinforce the phonics pattern introduced during the reading lesson. She also us ed this time to complete running records with individual students as well. During th is time, other students worked in the center section of the room as indicated on the center assignment board. One student worked with sight words on a Language Master mach ine, a few students worked with reading tasks on a computer, a few children sat at th e long table reading books, and two children engaged in partner reading on the floor. One child completed an activity called “writing

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59 around the room” in which he wrote words on a clipboard, which he found written in various posters or bulleti n boards around the room. From 8:35 until 8:50, Peters instructed th e students in writing. She modeled the writing structure for various genres, from teach ing her students how to write a letter to how to construct an essay. Each writing less on focused on an authentic purpose such as writing a letter to Santa Claus or writing an essay about a bo ok read in the class such as Johnny Appleseed. From 8:50 to 9:05, Peters called students to the story center where she flashed sight words to the group. During this time she in structed students to practice letter sounds when they read the flash cards. The 9:10 through 9:55 period the studen ts engaged in whole group reading. Instruction explicitly followed the plan outlined in the basal reader. From 10:00 to 11:00, students worked in centers. At the listening center students listened to books on tape. At another table, students worked on math activities. A station with computers and the teacher’s table provided other work centers. During this time, Peters worked with individual students or sm all groups. She listened to them while they read aloud and she kept running records on their performance. From 11:00 to 12:15 students ate lunch a nd engaged in several activities. Lunch period was followed by a game of 20 Questi ons, designed to deve lop students’ oral language. Following this game students attende d their scheduled computer lab time and worked on computer-based math and reading activities.

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60 Upon return to the classroom, Peters ta ught mathematics using the lesson protocol from the mathematics basal text, from 12:15 to 12:45. From 12:45 until dismissal at 2:15 students had art, music, drama, or P.E. time, recess, and independent reading time. Analysis of Instructional Practices During the 8 classroom observations, 4 co mprehension lessons and a reading test were observed. There were no vocabulary lesso ns, 3 lessons in decoding, 1 mathematics test, and 3 writing lessons in cluding one social studies to pic and 2 other lessons in content areas. Books on tape in the learni ng centers were used to enhance students’ fluency in reading. During the course of the observations Pete rs was forced to change her teaching schedule. One observation was interrupted with a fire drill. Another was atypical due to the sudden cancellation of a field trip to the local fire station. The firefighters, having responded to a fire in the middle of the night before, had to attend to their equipment on the day of the trip. As a result, the observed lesson was design ed to cover the content that would have been covered on the trip, but was not in keeping with he r daily schedule. Two observations happened to coincide with read ing and mathematics tests. Therefore, no mathematics or spelling lessons were obs erved although these subjects were taught. Comprehension During three of the four comprehension le ssons, research-based reading strategies were seen. During one activity, the teacher developed the concept of genre (Beck, Omanson, McKeown, 1982; Paris, Wasik & Turner, 1991). Peters taught the text structure associated with the genre of the reading selection and assisted students in understanding how that type of text should be read. One method she used to develop student comprehension duri ng guided reading included “t ext-to-self” connections

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61 (Tovani, 2000). After reading the selection, she asked st udents to explore graphic organizers and to recall simple facts from th e text. In one particular lesson, like Mrs. Baxter, Mrs. Peters used a content frame to compare th ree different versions of The Gingerbread Man In all but one case of instru ction, activating background knowledge and transformation of information, were demons trated in her instructional approach. Of the four comprehension lessons, two stretched students’ thinking to the analysis level, one lesson reached the applic ation level and one lesson was focused on the knowledge level. Vocabulary No explicit vocabulary development lesso ns were observed. However, Peters’ classroom was rich in dialogue between the teacher and the class and among classmates (Strickland, Snow, Griffin, Burns, & McNa mara, 2002). Peters used the “teachable moment” when she used words in her conve rsation that were pot entially unfamiliar. However, she failed to captur e that vocabulary for further study. Use of an interactive word wall, a strategy that allows for the collect ion of words to be displayed and then used in various types of practice activities to provide the fre quent encounters necessary for mastery, would have contribu ted to the expansion of st udents’ vocabularies (Nagy, Herman, & Anderson, 1987; Stahl & Kapinus 2001). Failing to provide explicit vocabulary instruction in early grades suppor ts the findings of other researchers who found that vocabulary instructi on is generally missing in sc hools (Biemiller, 2001; Watts, 1995). Not teaching vocabulary explicitly in the early grades undermines the reading gains made in early years when students en counter more complex reading tasks during the intermediate elementary years (Baker, Simmons, & Kameenui, 1995).

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62 Decoding, spelling and writing Four decoding lessons were observed. The P.E. coach conducted one during the early morning tutoring period. One lesson consis ted of drill and prac tice. The third lesson consisted of practice following a lesson from the basal reader. The fourth lesson was from a phonics program. The P.E. coach worked on a selected wo rd family (spelling pattern) and asked students, who were seated in teams to br ainstorm words that contained the spelling pattern. First, he modeled the process for th e students using a consonant-vowel-consonant plus e spelling pattern that contained the vowel a He then provided the consonant-vowelconsonant plus ‘e’ spelling pattern containing the vowel i for the students to brainstorm as a team. When the time limit arrived, they shared the words and the coach recorded them on the board. The teams that brainstorm ed the most actual words earned a cookie for each member. He repeated this proce ss with other common vow el patterns until the end of the period. During this activity st udents had an opportunity to synthesize the spelling patterns they had learned using an al ternate, collaborative instructional model. Of the other three decoding lessons conducted by Peters one involved the drilling of consonant sounds using flash cards. Th e second lesson involved the independent practice phase of a direct inst ruction lesson from the basal. The last decoding lesson was the final lesson segment from a Saxon Phonics lesson plan. The flash card drill allowed students to practice what they had lear ned until learning was automatic. During the practice phase of the basal’s di rect instruction dec oding lesson, Peters instructed students to work together in groups. She required that they reach a consensus on their answers before recording them on the worksheets. In this instance, she demonstrated the use of an alternate, cooperative learning model to enhan ce the direct instructi on lesson as presented

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63 in the basal (Pearson, 2002). In the last decoding phase of the Saxon Phonics lesson, students had to encode words containing cons onant digraphs and then code them. The coding process employed in the Saxon Phonics program is intended to draw the students’ attention to the critical differentiating featur es of letter patterns in words. This lesson linked the decoding pr ocess to writing. Though Peter’s lesson plans indicated that she would have a reading period in which she used decodable books to connect decoding instruction to text, there was no explicit instruction in which she showed the connections between decoding and constructing meaning. During learning center ti mes, Peters used decodable books with individuals as a way to complete running r ecords. Whether explic it lessons connecting decoding and meaning construc tion occurred outside of th e observations is unknown. The author observed 3 expressive wr iting lessons. The first lesson focused on the story of Johnny Appleseed. In this less on, she activated the students’ background knowledge by reviewing the story they had r ead earlier and create d a concept map to depict the components of the story. Next, sh e modeled how to use the concept map to construct a summary of the story while the students copied the text (Pearson, 2002). As she wrote, she thought aloud about various text features, pointing out transition, vocabulary, decoding and punctuatio n features. She instructed st udents to copy the text as she modeled it for them. The second writing lesson focused on writi ng a letter to Santa Claus. Peters reviewed the parts of a letter that they had learned about the previous day when writing a letter to the assistant principal. Then she asked the students to brainstorm items they desired for Christmas and provided them with a starting phrase.

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64 The third writing lesson was a culminating activity for an interdisciplinary lesson that focused on President’s Day. Peters introduced George Washington and Abraham Lincoln to the students through pi ctures on coins and related th is to their recent work on coin identification in math. She then related this topic to a previous lesson about Martin Luther King. She continued to activate and build background knowledge by discussing other aspects of each of the presidents. Next, students read from an information sheet that described each of the president’s accomp lishments. After the r eading, she created a comparison chart on the bulletin board and ha d the students compare the two presidents. She then gave them a previously prepared Venn diagram so that they could see the differences and similarities in the two type s of graphic organizers. Following this, she assisted the students in writi ng about the presidents by usi ng the graphic organizer that they had developed together. She provided the topic sentence as a scaffold for their writing. Once their paragraph was completed th ey were allowed to create a colorful picture that would frame th eir writing when displayed. Content area instruction The author observed two content less ons. One lesson focused on a comparison between bats and owls using a Venn diagram. This culminating activity related to a text that was read during Halloween. The second le sson focused on a work packet about fire safety during fire safety week. Once students finished their fire engine pictures, she called them together. Peters asked them to work on their fire safety books as she described various features of the fire truc ks. She emphasized the importance of color choice for the truck and fire su its. She told a story about how the fire chief, her husband, rescued an elderly lady and how that was similar to how she had each of them help four other students to complete the fire engine project. During this le sson she developed the

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65 meanings of unfamiliar but important vo cabulary words and placed them on the blackboard. Following this discussion, Pete rs gave them a coloring sheet on fire prevention to complete. Peters’ writing and content lessons contai ned research-supported components. She used instructional conversations to provide a scaffold for st udents. For example, she used a personal anecdote to illustrate both the wo rk of a fireman and the responsibility of people to help others (Tharp & Yamauchi, 1994). Peters’ use of writing helped students make links across the curriculum and to their existing knowledge (Nagy, 1988) and provided authentic opportunities to practice skills. Further, her use of cooperative learning structures provided social interac tion that increases academic engagement (Dowhower, 1999; Pearson 2002; Guthri e & Wigfield & VonSecker, 2000). Discussion Peters provided many opportunities for students to make cross-curricular connections in writing activitie s. Her lesson plans, while cons istently referring to page numbers in the reading and math basals, contai ned notations of the “big ideas” from their reading unit that were then connected to t opics across the curriculum during that week. For example, one basal story focused on cat egorization. She connected that focus in reading to mathematics activities completed during the week and to a social studies lesson that focused on different types of homes. Mrs. McDonald’s Fourth Grade Classroom Classroom Structure McDonald’s fourth grade cl assroom was orderly. On the walls were a few posters that were designed to assist students with scheduling, hous ekeeping information as well as a few mathematics and language arts word s. A few plants lined the tops of the

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66 bookshelves that contained a classroom library of trade books. No newspapers or other types of printed material were observed and no interactive word wall was observed. McDonald began her instructional day at 8:00 with lessons covering spelling, English grammar and punctuation and expressive writing. Spelling instruction included a pretest over the word list included in the spelling book; various exercises from the spelling book during the week; a nd a spelling test on Friday. E nglish instruction consisted of three days of assigned worksheet page s from the English book and two days of worksheets that focused on expres sive writing skills or expres sive writing in response to a writing prompt. From 8:45 to 9:20, students worked in li teracy centers while McDonald met with small groups to provide a guided reading less on. One center consisted of reading games, exercises on the computer, or an activity in re sponse to a selected text. Two other centers focused on handwriting, spelling or expre ssive writing. Sometimes students were expected to complete worksheets together in small groups or write a book review for a selection previously read by the class. From 9:20 to 10:00, McDonald taught a le sson from the basal reading program. The routine during the week c onsisted of a vocabulary lesson that introduced the targeted words in the basal reader, the reading of a selection over a two-day period, a lesson covering a targeted reading skil l, practice in the vocabulary and a quiz at the end of the week. From 10:00 to 10:20, instruction consisted of an independent reading time called D.I.R.T. (Daily Independent Reading Time). During this time, students read self-chosen literature from the classroom or school lib rary. McDonald rotated around the room to

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67 assist students in choosing their books or she li stened to students r ead a passage of their choice and then asked them to retell what th ey read. If she noted any difficulties, she provided additional instruction. After meeti ng with each student, she updated anecdotal records in a notebook that stored informa tion on student progress. A ten-minute snack break followed D.I.R.T. time and preceded the enrichment time during which students attended P.E, music, drama, or music class. Mathematics instruction followed from 11:20 to 12:35. McDonald presented the concepts solely from the mathematics basal. Lunch was held from 12:38 to 1:03. After the lunch period, McDonald read aloud from a novel. Then the students had recess on the playground for fifteen minutes. During the final instructional period, 1:30 to 2:10, McDonald taught science or state history topics. She used the science and social studies texts to teach these content areas. Students were dismissed at 2:15. Analysis of Instructional Practice During the 8 classroom observations, the author observed 1 fluency lesson, 3 comprehension lessons, 3 vocabulary lessons 1 lesson in decodi ng/spelling, 1 writing lesson, 1 math test, 1 science and no social studies lessons. Scien ce was taught during the first semester, the time period of concern in this study, and stat e history was taught during the second semester. Comprehension and fluency The only observed fluency lesson occurred approximately one month prior to the scheduled state assessment test. The student s were meeting with McDonald in small groups to review the state assessment practic e workbooks for the science test. She met in small groups with students who had made s ubstantial errors in their workbooks and

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68 requested that these students highlight text that supported th e correct answer while other groups in the class worked in literacy centers. Once this task was completed, she directed students to take out their basal readers and tu rn to a specified page. She told them that they would be “doing another round” of fluenc y timings. Then she explained that if they built their reading speed, they would be able to finish the state test and, therefore, perform better. She then asked them to pair up, find a place on the floor, and decide who would read first. They were di rected to listen to their partner read and record errors in pencil lightly in their books during a one-mi nute timing. She set the timer for one minute and then had the students count the number of correct words. The partners exchanged roles and repeated the procedure. The use of dyads for repeated readings of text at instructional level is a sound research-based practice (Kuhn & Stahl, 2000). The rationale she provided for engaging them in fluency practice was fallacious. Fluency practice should be designed to increase rate an d prosody for the purposes of increasing comprehension, not solely to pass a state assessment test. One comprehension lesson surveyed student s’ comprehension of a selection read with an accompanying tape recording the prev ious day during which they were asked to make 6 predictions. She asked them to sh are and confirm their predictions. Mrs. McDonald asked 5 factual questions and 2 inferential questions. One youngster asked if he could make a “self-to-text connection,” Th is strategy had been ta ught to the point of mastery for this student. She continued to play the tape of the remainder of the story as the students read along. Having students read along as they listen to taped oral r eadings can be a useful tool for building fluency when used in a listeni ng station according to the protocol of the

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69 “Reading-While-Listening” or “Read-Along Ce nter” strategies (Van Bon, Boksebeld, Font Freid, & Van der Hurk, 1991). However, during interviews with the teacher, she stated that the purpose of listening to the stor y via teacher or tape was to support readers whose instructional level were below that of the basal selection (C :1.3k). As indicated earlier, fluency is developed when students ha ve sustained encounters with text at their instructional level. This lesson was the stude nts’ initial interacti on with the selection. During this stage of guided read ing, comprehension of the text is the focus of the lesson yet no “during reading” strategies were obs erved (Ogle, 1986). However, transformation of information and/or the construction of meaning through writing, discussion in small groups or dyads, and graphic organi zers were observed (Pearson, 2002). The second comprehension lesson involved the oral reading of text to the students. This lesson was comprised of a pre-readi ng and during reading stage. During the prereading stage, McDonald introduced the au thor of the book and the genre of the book. She called students’ attention to the time period of the book. She questioned the students to help them realize that the time period of a book could affect the language that was used and, therefore, might affect their comprehe nsion. She then began reading the book aloud as the students listened. She encouraged the st udents to make text-to-text, text-to-self, and text-to-world connections or observations as she read (Tovani, 2000). Some of the students related the text to other stories Mrs. McDonald had read by the same author. Others connected the text to their persona l experiences. After she finished reading, students took out their reading practice workbooks to check work they had done previously.

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70 During this observation, McDonald used so me of the research-based strategies proposed during the Southern Reading Initiative training. She focused the students’ attention to the genre, poin ted out pertinent narrative features, and the language differences of the time period in which the narrative was composed. However, McDonald did not identify examples of the language feat ures in the text. The focus of the lesson was listening rather than actual engagement with the text. No book was provided. So, students were unable to follow along. No instructiona l strategies such as think-aloud, were observed. Students had no opportunity to transform information or otherwise become actively engaged with the information. Benefits from this read aloud were impeded because students were allowed to finish ot her assignments as McD onald read to them. Some were inattentive and read other books, pl ayed with scissors, or socialized with peers. During the third observation of a comp rehension lesson, McDonald’s lesson focused on the pre-reading phase. After introducing vocabulary, she asked students questions in order to develop their understanding of the genr e. She asked the students to identify the genre, which was a folktale. Th en McDonald asked the students how fables and folktales differed and what characteristics typified folktales. Finally, she assigned the reading of the selection for homework. Teaching students about genre is a resear ch-based comprehension practice that supports students’ understanding of text struct ure, which in turn affects how students approach the reading task (Beck, Omans on, & McKeown, 1982; Paris, Wasik, & Turner, 1991). McDonald prompted students to think about text structure by asking them to identify the characteristics of folktales. He r questions progressed from the more difficult

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71 task of comparing the fable and the folktale to an easier question a bout the characteristics of the folktale. She did not use a graphic organizer to illustrate comparisons. She provided no transformational ac tivity or strategy prior to assigning the reading of the story for homework. The implications of this approach were that: (a) students might be unable to experience any actual engagement with the text; (b ) students had no scaffolding to assist them in constructing meaning from the text. Vocabulary During the first and second lessons, McD onald introduced the basal vocabulary words. The words were introduced in contex t during whole-class in struction. One of the students read aloud the short passage on the overhead while the others followed along. When the reader approached each underlined word, McDonald stopped the student and asked the other students to identify the m eaning of the word. Whenever, a reader stumbled on words, the teacher quickly provided the word unless it was one of the underlined words. After th is activity, students begin their D.I.R.T. time. Many of the instructional a pproaches McDonald used are supported by research. For example, the introduction of potentially unknown words be fore reading is a strategy that increases comprehension during reading (Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002). Introducing words in the context of paragra phs was designed to make their meanings transparent to the student (Beck, McKeown & Kucan, 2002; Blachowicz, Fisher, & Gipe, 1978-79; Blachowicz & Fisher, 2000; Nagy & Herman, 1987). McDonald also had students justify their explanation by pointing out context clues in the paragraph (Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002). However, when students stumbled on words, Mrs. McDonald provided the word immediately in stead of helping them draw upon their phonics knowledge (Kuhn & Stahl, 2000).

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72 The third vocabulary lesson consisted of id entifying word meanings directly from the basal selection they were preparing to read. McDonald asked a student to read a paragraph and provide a definition of the teacher-chosen word based on the context of the paragraph. Next the student was asked to provide a student-friendly definition, which she wrote on the board. She repeated this proce ss until all of the chosen words had been explored. Once this process was complete McDonald used questioning to activate background knowledge in preparation for readin g the basal selection. She then assigned the reading selection for homework. At the e nd of the lesson, she directed students to use the new vocabulary words at least 7 times in their conversations at school and at home. Three aspects of this lesson are support ed by research: the introduction of new vocabulary in context; the creation of st udent-friendly definiti ons (Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002); and using new vocabulary in c onversations (Strickland & Snow, 2002). However, several important features of ef fective vocabulary instruction were missing from the instructional process. First, though McDonald required the students to use their new vocabulary words in their conversation fo r the rest of the da y, she provided them with no mechanism for documenting that they had done so. Similarly, no other type of strategy or transformative activity for use of newly acquired vocabulary was observed and no interactive word wall wa s available to suppor t the incidental learning of words encountered across the curriculum. Decoding, spelling, and writing No complete explicit instruction in d ecoding or spelling was observed. During one observation, students exchanged decoding pr actice workbooks and checked each practice item. Mc Donald discussed the target sounds, consonant digraphs such as ch or sh. When students were given the word chi McDonald acknowledged that they might not be

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73 familiar with it, but did not define the word to the students. When they finished checking the workbook page, they checked the next page and then returned the workbooks to their owners. She then asked students to take out their spelling papers, which covered abbreviations. She offered the option of excha nging papers in order to check them. Once the checking was finished, she handed out another worksheet from their spelling workbooks and instructed them to work independently. Explicit, systematic phonics instruction is critical to the deve lopment of fluent reading and adequate comprehension (Beck & Juel, 1995; National Reading Panel, 2000). Most phonics instruction should be complete d in the early grades, by grade 2 (Adams, 1990). Phonics instruction in the intermed iate grades, therefore, should focus on strategies that will assist students to dec ode multisyllabic words (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998). The targeted consonant digraph phoneme of ch a skill that most students would have mastered by the end of the first grade, was not explicitly taught perhaps because it was a review. Some students might still need skill instruction at this level and would benefit from instruction in a small, flexible group on such an elementary decoding skill. The focus of whole-class instruction at th e fourth grade level, however, should be on decoding multisyllabic words. Moreover, though McDonald alluded to students’ possible lack of familiarity with one of the words, sh e did not assist them in developing the word’s meaning. Best practice would have emphasi zed the decoding/vocabulary connection (Juel, 2002). McDonald made no connection between th e decoding task and the spelling task that followed. The spelling skill was entirely unrelated to the focus of the phonics task.

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74 McDonald made no connections between the decoding activity, read ing sustained text, writing, or vocabulary instruction, although this is an important component of effective literacy instruction (Chomsky, 1971; Hiebert, 1994; Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998). One expressive writing lesson was observed during the language arts period. At the beginning of the lesson, she put a “writing pr ompt” on the board, “Fall is a fun time of year. Think about why fall is fun. Now explain why fall is a fun time of year.” She asked the students to brainstorm some ideas that they might write about this topic. After brainstorming and recording id eas on the board, she instruct ed the students to begin writing. As the students wrote, McDonald calle d them up to her teaching table to confer with them about their drafts. No writing process lesson was observed. McDonald did activate background knowledge by using a brainstorming strategy, but she did not model any writing process for students. Moreover, the topic was decont extualized from any other instructional activity. The opportunity to transform info rmation, to connect reading and writing (Cunningham & Allington, 1999; Snow, Burns & Griffin, 1998), or to truly engage students in the writing process through the us e of self-selected topics was missing from the activity (Graves, 1994; Vygotsky, 1978). Content area instruction One mathematics lesson was observed. The fo cus of this lesson was a review and demonstration of decimal placement and equi valents prior to admi nistering a textbook math test which was taken during the obs ervation period. McDonald modeled a few problems that they were to encounter on the te st and left those examples on the board for their reference as she made preparations for the test. From this single observation, it is difficult to see how McDonald might have appr oached the development of high levels of

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75 thinking, background knowledge, real-world/pers onal connections or th e applications of reading strategies to problem solving. One science lesson was observed. Usi ng the textbook material, Mc Donald reviewed the concept of ecosystem by aski ng students the meaning of the word. She reviewed several types of ecosystems, wr ote some terms on the board, and asked the students to determine the commonalities am ong the words. She then discussed the suffixes and the meaning of the suffixes that were common to all of the words. Next, she discussed the upcoming terrariu m construction project, and then asked students to read the next section of th e science book silently. Mc Donald’s approach to this lesson was dominated by the use of the science textbook. Using a research-based reading strate gy, she successfully connected the text to a discussion of morphemes in the words, their commonalities, and meaning (Bear, 1996). She tied the information in the science text to a real experience through the terrarium project. However, she provided no opportuni ties for the transformation of information through collaborative pro cesses or through writing. Discussion In each area of instruction, McDonald de monstrated partial implementation of research-based practices. Complete implement ation was impeded by a lack of activities that allowed students to transform informati on and by a lack of explicit instruction and modeling. None of the lessons used the Direct Inst ruction model of teac hing or any alternate model (Joyce & Weil, 1996). McDona ld tended to talk rather than use a particular model of teaching. She used some aspects of a collabor ative model, but those attempts lacked an emphasis in social skills, a component cr itical to its success (Johnson & Johnson, 1999a).

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76 As the year progressed, McDonald began the use of learning centers and small, flexible grouping. Using this classroom stru cture allowed for greater differentiation of instruction (Tomlinson, 2001). However, differe ntiation of tasks was not observed as was evidenced by the common use of worksheets similar to those used as a whole-class seatwork assignment. Students often failed to work collaboratively on the tasks, which often resulted in social interactions that strayed away from the tasks completely. During instruction, McDonald provided two ways to provide feedback. For example, during comprehension instruction, McDonald asked the students to support their answers from the text. However, when students read orally, she often supplied unknown words rather than provide scaffoldi ng that would enable students to decode words independently (Kuhn & Stahl, 2000). McD onald relied heavily on students grading other students’ papers, a time-consuming activ ity that did not support higher levels of thinking or the extension of knowledge. McDonald’s lesson plans were consistent with the observed instruction. They cited pages in texts and workbooks, as well as wo rksheet pages across the curriculum. She did not use alternate teaching models. Mrs. Dickerson’s Fourth Grade Classroom Classroom Structure Dickerson’s fourth grade classroom presen ted an orderly environment, similar to that of McDonald’s room. A few poster s were used to provide schedule and housekeeping information. A few charts provi ded mathematics and la nguage arts terms. A couple of plants dotted the room along with a collection of Raggedy Ann and Andy dolls that lined the tops of the cabinets over the sink area. A classroom library was available for student use, but no in teractive word wall was observed.

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77 Dickerson began the instructional day at 7:50. Students were given independent seatwork that included spelling assignment s and silent reading. Students completed activities such as Accelerated Reader tests (a computer-based accountability system for independent reading) and writing spelling words 4 times each. As the year progressed this period was also used to complete worksheets designed to practice fo r the state assessment test. Dickerson used this time to take atte ndance and check in students’ homework. The period concluded at 8:30 a.m. From 8:30 to 9:45, Dickerson taught readi ng. She followed the general instructional plan described in the basal reading series which included introduc ing vocabulary from the reader stressing a comprehension sk ill, and completing workbook exercises. Periodically, practice for the state assessment practice was included in this time period. Mathematics instruction using the exercise s from the basal was provided from 9:45 to 10:30. Next, from 10:30 until 11:20, students had snack time and attended drama, music, art, or P.E. class. From 11:25 until 12:20, Dickerson provided science or social studies instruction. During the first semester, students had scienc e lessons. In the second semester, social studies with a focus on state history was provided. Lessons were based upon the science or social studies textbooks as described in her lesson plan book. Students ate lunch from 12: 26 until 12:51 and then returned to writing and language instruction from 1:00 to 1:30. During this period, they worked in the language textbook and completed expressive or process wr iting tasks in response to teacher-created writing prompts.

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78 From 1:30 to 1:45, the students had recess time. Following this period, the students returned to class to pack up and clean up prior to dismissal. Once students were ready to leave, Dickerson read aloud as students we re dismissed beginning with walkers and ending with bus riders. Analysis of Instructional Practices During the 8 classroom observations, the author was able to observe 0 fluency lessons, 3 comprehension lessons, 2 vocabulary lessons, 3 lessons in decoding/spelling, 0 writing lessons, and 6 mathematics lessons. No science or social studies lessons were observed. Often when scheduled times were arranged to observe specific subjects something else was taught instead. Mathema tics most frequently replaced other subjects that appeared in Dickerson’s schedule. D ecoding and language were also taught during the science/social studies pe riod. Because mathematics was so frequently taught during times when reading was scheduled, observations were rescheduled so that reading could be observed. As a result, the afternoon process-writing period was not observed. Comprehension and fluency The focus of the first comprehension lesson was the state assessment practice workbook. The class had just viewed a third gr ade play about the same topic that was covered in the workbook article. The stude nts had read the article and answered worksheet questions. Dickerson explained that they could discuss what they discovered with their third grade peers. Next, she then explained that she would read the article orally so that they would better understand the errors they made on their papers. She referred to an activity that ha d preceded reading this article and reassured them that they already had good background knowledge for read ing this selection. After reading the article, she gave the correct answers and asked the students to highlight text that

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79 supported the correct answer. Next, she discussed the text structure and how that structure related to the genre. She collected students’ papers and asked them to take out their reading worksheets. She corrected these papers in a way similar to her approach with the state assessment practice materials. Once she had corrected and collected these papers, she began her math lesson fortyfive minutes earlier than scheduled. This lesson occurred during the “after reading” phase of instruction. Mrs. Dickerson attempted to make a connection be tween the state assessment practice exercise and the students’ shared experience, a prac tice that increases comprehension (Tovani, 2000). She also instructed student s to identify text that s upported the correct answers, another effective practice. Dickerson’s disc ussion about the text structure and her assumption that the students already had su fficient background knowledge to read and understand the text were ineffective pr actices. The development of background knowledge requires active part icipation from the student rather than simply a conversation and assumption that bac kground knowledge has been activated. The discussion of text structure also should occur before the student interacts with the text. However, it is important to acknowledge that the pre-reading stage of instruction was not observed, and it is possible that Dickerson might have addressed thes e concepts earlier. All three stages of reading instru ction were observed during the second comprehension lesson. Dickerson passed out a graphic organizer about a previously read basal selection. She also handed out supplemen tary reading texts. Dickerson instructed the students to read these materials within their small groups and depict what they had read in the graphic organizer. To activa te background knowledge, she called students’ attention to the title and pictures on the front and asked the students to analyze how this

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80 story might be related to a story they had r ead the week before. As students worked in small groups, Dickerson stationed herself with one group whom she guided by asking probing, open-ended and inferential questions as they read aloud. She assisted them in the completion of their graphic organizers and pr ovided scaffolding when students had to decode un-mastered words. After all of the groups finished their reading, she asked the entire class to compare and contrast this st ory with the story they had previously read using their graphic organi zers to guide the discussion. When students answered incorrectly, she asked them to reread and identify the erro rs in thinking. Next, she let students share their favorite passage in the story. Dickerson’s approach to this readi ng lesson was based on research-supported practices. She activated background knowle dge (Gambrell & Mazzoni, 1999; Block & Pressley, 2002; RAND, 2002), reinforced te xt-to-text connections (Tovani, 2000), provided opportunities for tran sformation of information (Pearson, 2002), and provided scaffolding for students when they encounter ed reading obstacles (Mathes, Fuchs, & Fuchs 1997; McKeown & Beck, 1999). Because this lesson was a reinforcement of the skills introduced through a ba sal selection previously st udied, vocabulary had already been introduced and reviewed in the current selection. During the third comprehension lesson the pre-reading phase of instruction was observed. After introducing vocabulary relate d to the reading selection, Dickerson instructed the students to c opy the sentence from the glos sary that exemplified the vocabulary words. Next, the students read the story and answered the “Think and Respond” questions at the end of the story. Dickerson returned to her desk to conference with students who had not turned in an ear lier assignment. After approximately fifteen

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81 minutes, she got up from her desk and explained to the class that they needed to go back and think about the background, that it was im portant for them to prepare their minds before they read. (By this time, some student s had read significant portions of the text.) She tried to build students’ background knowledge by identifyi ng the genre and setting of the story. She used the pictures as an aid. Promoting comprehension appeared to be an after thought sin ce Dickerson did not build background knowledge. Her effort to do so after students were reading made the attempt ineffective. Use of the questions at the end of the chapter may have provided some accountability. However, it did not provi de a sufficient opportunity for students to transform the information in ways that would develop higher levels of thinking or assist students in making connections with other te xt, their own experien ces, or the world in which they live. Vocabulary The two vocabulary lessons observed were conducted in a similar manner. She asked students to pronounce the words and to use their phonics knowledg e to assist them. When words were unfamiliar, she provided multiple examples of their use in sentences. She also instructed students to identify the pa rt of speech. Next, she directed the students to look the words up in the glossary a nd copy the example sentences provided. Two poorly developed research-based practi ces were observed. First, she tried to link the decoding/spelling lesson with the in troduction of the voca bulary (Juel, 2002). However, the spelling patterns in the spelli ng list were not in the vocabulary words embedded in the reading selection. Second, as she introduced each word through multiple examples in sentences, she had students create student friendly defi nitions orally (Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002). However, efforts to introduce vocabulary in context were

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82 not observed (Beck, McKeown & Kucan, 2002; Blachowicz, Fisher, & Gipe, 1978-79; Blachowicz & Fisher, 2000; Nagy & Herma n, 1987). Also, having the students copy dictionary or glossary defin itions and use vocabulary in sent ences has been shown to be ineffective (Nagy & Scott, 2000). This practi ce was evident when sh e asked students to copy the sentence from the glossary. Rewriti ng printed material does not require the transformation of informati on (Strickland & Snow, 2002). Decoding and spelling The decoding lesson focused on consonant bl ends. She instructed the students to tear out pages 13 and 14 from the workbook and asked the students to raise their hands to respond. From time to time, she reviewed wo rd meanings. Next, she instructed the students to complete the rest of the pages independently. Although Dickerson provided some modeling and teacher direction during this lesson, the focus on such a primary level skill for the entire fourth grade class was an ineffective practice. At the fourth grade le vel, whole-class inst ruction should target multisyllabic words (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998). While some students may have needed that type of instruction, phonics remediat ion of that nature s hould occur in small, flexible groups in response to diagnostic information (Carreker, 1999; Fountas & Pinnell, 1996). Moreover, Dickerson provided no connect ions to text or vocabulary during the lesson. Two lessons in spelling were observed. In the first lesson, Dickerson directed the students to examine their spelling lists for patterns. Next, she id entified the spelling pattern as the ei pattern and discussed th e various sounds this pattern can make in words. She then explained the meanings of the words that were unfamiliar. During the second observation, Dickerson told st udents to write each spelling wo rd 3 times. After returning

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83 from an errand, she asked the students to l ook at their spelling lis ts while she provided the word meanings. Following this activity, sh e provided time for the students to finish writing the words. The type of spelling instruction Dickerson provided was repetitive for students on grade level and too difficult for struggling l earners whose reading skills were below grade level. Moreover, the spelling instruc tion was decontextualized from students’ writing or phonics instruction, an ineffective practice (Adams, 1990; Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998). Therefore, just as decoding should be taught according to ability level in small group instruction, so should spelli ng instruction (Bear & Templeton, 1998; Carreker, 1999; National Reading Panel, 2000). Content area instruction Mathematics instruction was observed 6 times. Dickerson followed the basal mathematics instructional manual. Of the 6 mathematics lessons, 2 involved “hands-on” activities. All of the lessons contained practice in something beyond the four basic operations. In 1 mathematics lesson, students were introduced to the word translation Dickerson discussed the meaning of the term by relating it to conceptually similar words. Using the prefix trans, she asked the students to think of other words that contained that prefix and discussed their meaning. Through th is process, she helped the students to derive the correct mathematical meaning. She introduced two other math terms in a similar way and then asked students to apply what they learned th rough an activity that required them to demonstrate each term. During a review of their so lutions, she required them to use the newly acquired vocabular y as they explained their solutions.

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84 By having the students reflect on the term s used in grade 3 and by having them think about other words they knew that have the trans prefix, Dickerson integrated new words/concepts with existing knowledge. Since all knowledge is structured as sets of relationships rather than lists of independent facts, this pract ice allowed students to relate the new information to what they already knew, thus employing scaffolding, a powerful, research-based strategy (Nagy, 1988). Discussion In each area of instruction, Dickerson de monstrated partial implementation of research-based practices. Like McDonald, complete implementation was impeded by a lack of activities that allowed students to transform information and by the overuse of instructional materials in place of direct instruction as in the case of decoding. Dickerson’s instructional practices we re typified by two tendencies. She overemphasized the use of commercial mate rials in preparing students for the state assessment test rather than questioning students and making them accountable for demonstrating higher levels of thinking across the curriculum This practice typified her tendency to retain so much control over th e instructional process that moving students toward the independence phase of instruction was rarely r ealized. Thus, students had few opportunities to construct meaning for themse lves or apply strategies independently. In most lessons, discussing and correc ting responses to items on commercial materials became the lesson rather than following any particular instructional model. Teacher modeling and actual instruction occurre d most frequently during math lessons. In reading, only one lesson used research-based instructional practi ces. During this lesson, Dickerson met with a small group and employe d a graphic organizer to assist students

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85 with comprehension. Notably, this lesson took place on the only day that Dickerson knew that she would be observe d during the reading lesson. Dickerson’s lesson plans were consistent with the classroom observations. The lesson plans reflected 4 lessons per week devot ed to science in the first semester and social studies in the second semester. In all subject areas, lesson plans consisted of listing textbook and workbook pages. The teacher provided no notations indicating that she planned to use additional strategies or alternate teaching models. Changes in Teachers’ Instructional Practices The interview data indicated that the four teachers involved in this study as well as other teachers had enlarged their repertoire in structional practices as a result of the SRI Summer Reading Academy. Although full implemen tation of all of the strategies was not observed in any of the four classrooms each of the teachers did employ several strategies, even if only partially. Impact of Becoming and SRI Trainer The findings showed that the teachers and others have continued to make changes to their instructional practices. Of the four teacher participants, for example, three became trainers of two or more SRI Summ er Reading Academy Components and have trained teachers from other schools during the succeeding summer academies. Baker and Peters were trained in the Phonemi c Awareness/Phonics, Comprehension, and Reading/Writing components. McDonald b ecame a trainer of the Reading/Writing components. All three teachers reported that the greatest im pact upon their instructional practices occurred as a result of becoming tr ainers for the SRI (Appendix C: 2). Baker and Peters demonstrated the gr eatest influence of the SRI training on their instructional practices, which is likely due to having tr ained other teachers more frequently and

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86 broadly than McDonald. While McDonald’s in structional practices did not demonstrate a reliance on writing to transform information across the curriculum, findings from her interview indicated a strong belief in the importance of the read ing/writing connection, the component in which she had trained to become a trainer of other teachers. Teachers’ Beliefs, Prior Knowledge, a nd Change in Instructional Practice Research has shown that teacher belief sy stems are a strong influence on the actual practices of teachers. However, teachers often evidence contradiction between their beliefs, espoused curriculum, and actual in structional practice (Olson, 1994; Maxson, 1996; Calderhead, 1996; Miller, Adkins, & Hooper, 1993; and We gmann, 2001). Mrs. Baker and Peters demonstrated congruency between their beliefs and instructional practices. Their espoused beliefs were reflecte d in conversations about their practices and in observations of their pr actices. McDonald also dem onstrated great congruency between her beliefs and practices except in the use of writing to transform information. During the interview, Mrs. Dickerson had diffi culty articulating her beliefs. She appeared to rely on her knowledge base of effective teacher research. In all four cases, however, the teachers expressed and act ualized a belief that read ing, writing, and arithmetic instruction was indispensable and should be ta ught daily. All of the teachers considered science and social studies instructio n to be secondary and dispensable. Baker, who always had aspirations to be a teacher, discovered that teaching was not as she had imagined. In her first two year s she found that children’s affective and academic needs were vastly different. To meet her students’ varying needs, she read and attended professional development opportuni ties. Her belief in the importance of research-based practices was solidified as she applied newly acquired knowledge to her classroom instruction.

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87 Like Baker, Peters wanted to be a te acher since childhood. However, her beliefs were shaped by her son’s difficult school expe riences. She believed that to be successful, one must accommodate students’ individual aca demic levels and learning styles. She gave individualized attention in the way she assisted students in making connections across the curriculum. These practices were consistent with her beliefs. McDonald’s beliefs, espoused practices a nd enacted practices were less congruent than Baker and Peters. She expressed the desire to take students as they are, to capitalize upon their interests, and to provide them with a positive classroom experience. She believed that once students reached third and fourth grades, they needed less explicit reading instruction and more opportunities to re ad books of their choice in the classroom. If pressed for time, McDonald stated that she would cancel reading instruction and replace it with sustained s ilent reading. She also stat ed that she would include mathematics instruction daily. Her instructional beliefs were demonstrated in her teaching, which was characterized by a lack of explicit instruction in reading and a rather high incidence of non-academic use of allocat ed time as compared to the other three teachers (Behar-Horenstein, & Seabert, 2002). However, during the interview, McDonald spoke about the importance of using writing to solidify comprehension, and that she “very much includes” writing when teaching sc ience, social studies and literature. Her beliefs were not supported by he r instructional practices. Dickerson’s beliefs, espoused curric ulum, and enacted curriculum were incongruent. Horizontal and vert ical validity reconstructions of the interview transcript (Carspecken, 1996) indicated that her stated beliefs were based less on experience or on personal conviction than on what might be e xpected of her teaching performance. She

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88 talked about holding high expectations fo r students, the need to provide engaging, effective activities, and the importance of professional growth. Her belief about the importance of professional development was supported by her participation in a school study group on best practices. Give n time restrictions, she repo rted that she would cover the basic skills tested on the state assessmen t. This statement was consistent with her lesson plans and observed instru ctional practices. Although she held high expectations of her students with respect to their attentiveness and respons ibility for completing tasks, neither high expectations, nor high engageme nt were evident in the nature of the language arts tasks she assigned. A lack of high expectations and high engagement was apparent in her failure to release students gradually to accept the responsibility for constructing their own meaning from text Though she partially implemented some research-based practices, most of her instruction was domina ted by recitation rather that the full implementation of the Direct Instruct ion model. Moreover, no alternate models of teaching were written into the lesson plans co llected. Interviews with her, observations, and artifacts, suggested that she had a ta cit belief that effec tive activities were characterized by modeling th e kind of thinking students needed to do on the state assessment test, and that students should have repeated opportunities to demonstrate that thinking on state assessment-like practice quest ions (Appendix B: 7; C: 11 & D). This finding is consistent with studies that have shown that the in congruity of teachers’ beliefs and practice may be linked to pressures a ssociated with accountability for student improvement (Buckner, 2002; Galton, Simon & Croll 1980; Miller, Adkins, & Hooper, 1993; Wegmann, 2001).

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89 The teachers’ beliefs were also reflected in the degree to which they reportedly benefited from the SRI Summer Reading Academ y content. The interv iews revealed that each teacher’s prior professional training in fluenced what and how much of the SRI training’s content would be di scounted or rejected as opposed to new information they believed was beneficial and worthy of implementation (Appendix C: 1). For example, Baker, who was prompted by her need to discover other ways to meet the individual needs of students, extracted a nd applied as much as possible from the SRI Summer Reading Academy. She ha d just finished her third year of teaching when she attended the academy. Up to this point she had not received a significant amount of professional development. Before taking SRI training, most of Baker’s teaching practices were modeled after the trad itional approaches she had observed. The Summer Academy helped her to change th is traditional paradigm. Peters, who had received training in Creating Independence through StudentOwned Strategies (Santa, Havens, Maycumber, 1996) and had experienced another training similar to the SRI training as we ll, was already familiar with many of the concepts offered during SRI. Duri ng the interview, Mrs. Peters reported that most of what she experienced during the training she wa s already practicing in her classroom. However, she stated that the SRI Summer Reading Academy reminded her of important strategies she had forgotten. McDonald reported that the SRI did not pr esent any new information to her, but rather reinforced the notion that following the basal did not allow her to tailor instruction to the interests of her students, a concept that seemed to be firmly established during her previous training. Though the SRI Summer R eading Academy presented considerably

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90 greater information regarding assessment a nd explicit instruction across the components of reading, McDonald implemented those SRI practices that were most closely aligned with those beliefs and practices ingrained in professional developm ent experiences that occurred prior to the SRI training. Dickerson had completed her first year of teaching when she participated in the SRI Summer Reading Academy. She reported that he r practices have not changed to any great extent. She explained that she specialized in reading during her master’s program and that the essential features of the SRI traini ng, diagnosing and providing intervention for struggling readers, was the focus of her trai ning. She believed that intervention teachers provide this service. Therefore, she did not utilize her knowledge in diagnosis and remediation to differentiate in struction within he r classroom at the times of observation. Her exclusive use of a w hole group instruction was c ongruent with her belief. Initial Instructional Changes of Other Teachers Initial changes attributable to the SR I Summer Reading Academy were traced through the archival data. Jane Houston, the reading coach, administered an open-ended school survey a few months after the SRI training and again at the end of the first year of implementation to see how the SRI training ha d affected instructional practice. Twentyone of the 27 returned surveys indicated that te achers included a vari ety of print in their classrooms; 15 reported the use of paired reading and other types of collaborative grouping; and 21 reported that they used more small group instruction. At the end of the first year, another survey reported that 23 out of 27 teachers knew how to diagnose students’ reading difficultie s; 25 reported that they continuously used informal assessment to guide their instruction; 15 c onferred with their students daily and used running records; 26 taught process wr iting; 25 activated background knowledge

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91 consistently through writing; 24 used mini -lessons and conferencing during process writing; 17 used writer’s workshop; 18 used j ournal-writing; 23 displayed student work; 27 knew who their struggling readers were; 25 knew their students’ reading problems; and 24 listened to their students read weekly. Survey results suggested that many teachers across the school were implementing SRI strategi es after the first ye ar of implementation. An Emergent Learning Community Interview and archival data indicated that the Southern Reading Initiative impacted the culture of learning at Lake Baxter Elemen tary in three ways. SRI has shaped the use of assessments to drive instruction; pr ovided a common language about reading; and influenced the development of a learning community. The most frequently mentioned impact of the SRI Summer Reading Academy on the entire faculty’s practices was the use of assessment data. Interviews with Dickerson, the reading coach, and the principal indicate d that the use of assessment to inform instruction precipitated the most significant chan ge in the entire Lake Baxter Elementary “way of work.” This conclusion was supported by 3 sets of survey data that spanned from a few months after the traini ng to the middle of the following year (Appendix D: 4, 5, 10, 36). The assessment component of SRI Summer Reading Academy involved a discussion of the four basic types of assessm ent, which are screening, diagnosis, progress monitoring, and student outcome. Once these co ncepts were explained and exemplified, each school met as a faculty to discuss thei r assessment data from the previous school year. On the last day of the academy, the faculty used the data to create an intervention plan. This process helped to refocus the enti re faculty’s attention away from the notion that education is complete when the teacher has delivered the curriculum to the notion

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92 that education is complete when the student has learned the curriculum. The Lake Baxter faculty began to think about whether or not how they teach actually facilitates student learning. In addition to focusing on assessment, the SRI training provided a common language of reading instructi on. Teachers began to consider how an understanding of the 5 basic components of reading (compr ehension, vocabulary, phonemic awareness, phonics, and fluency), and effective strategi es could be employed to teach struggling readers. Previously, the common reading in struction language was based on a negative conceptual framework that focused on factors that interfered with reading rather than a developmental model that focused on appropria te initial reading in struction. Because the original conceptual framework was a remedi al model, teachers tended to rely on the intervention teachers to provide immediate in tensive intervention rather than providing differentiated instruction in their classroom s. Since Dickerson had previously been educated in a remedial model characteristic of the reading specializ ation in her Master’s program, she may have considered the SRI traini ng as irrelevant to he r role as a regular classroom teacher. Therefore, the SRI may ha ve impacted her practices less. Regardless of the reading model used, the entire faculty created a comm on vision of reading and set a goal of attaining 100% literacy. Faculty wide planning combined with a common language regarding reading instruction provided fertile ground for the development of a learning community. A learning community is typified by shared leadership, vision, values, collective responsibility for student improvement, a nd educators who are continuous learners working collaboratively to improve student achievement through continuous inquiry

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93 (Cibulka & Nukayama, 2000; Hord, 1997; Ne wman & Wehlage, 1995). All three data sets (interview, observa tion and archival data) indicated that Lake Baxter Elementary was becoming an emerging learning community. Interviews with each participant indicated that the culture of continued learning established at the onset of the reading initiati ve affected their inst ructional practices (C: 3). Baker reported that the SRI Summer Academy provoked he r thinking and that the reading coach urged her to read Four Blocks by Patricia Cunningham (1999). The structure presented in that book helped her to better utilize th e strategies she had learned during the SRI academy. Her inquiry eventua lly evolved into the establishment of a support group of teachers and the reading coach through which they examined best practices and solutions to instructional proble ms. During the first two years of existence, Baker and Peters, participated in this gr oup, along with approximately 10 to 20 other teachers who attended at various times. McDona ld participated during the first year but then transferred to a middle school for a year She returned to th e support group when she transferred back to Lake Baxter Elementary. Dickerson participated during the third year of the support group’s existence. During the co urse of the interviews, all of the teachers shared specific examples of how the st udy group influenced their teaching practices (C:3). Archival data were consistent with the participants’ beliefs about how their study group supported their efforts toward improve d instructional practices. Five artifacts related to the support groups including minutes and agendas were available for examination. During the first semester of the school year 2003-2004 the group focused on

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94 how to form small, flexible groups. They investigated learning centers, the use of technology, and cooperative lear ning (Appendix D: 23 25). Classroom observations also supported th e assertion that the emerging learning community influenced the teachers’ practices. For example, Baker and Peters used a similar approach to observed comprehension le ssons. Both of their lessons demonstrated the best implementation of reading research-b ased practices. From the initial to the final observation McDonald changed her predomin ant classroom instructional design from whole group instruction to the use of lear ning centers during langua ge arts instruction. According to interview findings, she made thes e changes as a result of the professional conversations that occurred during the suppor t groups. Dickerson did not demonstrate the use of small groups or learning centers alt hough she reported this as one of her goals during the interviews. Summary of Findings The Southern Reading Initiative (SRI) has a ffected the instructional practices of the participants and other teachers at Lake Baxter Elementary in various ways and to varying degrees. The SRI Summer Reading Academy precipitated the formation of a learning community, a common language of reading instru ction, and the application of assessment to inform instruction. Through the formation of a support group that addressed problems implementing principles of literacy instruction taught in the SRI and designed to further explore best practices, the participants’ prac tices have changed sl owly but steadily.

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95 CHAPTER 5 LEADERSHIP PRACTICES AND HOW THEY CHANGED This chapter describes the leadership/management practices of the reading coach and the principal as well as how their practices changed si nce the implementation of the Southern Reading Initiative. The leadership / management practices of both the reading coach and principal were reve aled through interviews, jour nalistic field notes, and artifacts such as meeting minutes, survey s, and school improvement plans. Two domains, management and instructional leader ship, were identified in the journalistic field notes of meetings and ac tivities of the front office. These two domains, informed by the leadership theme from stri p/thematic analysis on the interviews and archival data, served as the organizing fr amework for the discussion of the findings. A discussion about the findings as they relate to research in effective school l eadership concludes the chapter. Leadership Practices The Reading Coach’s Instructional Leadership The reading coach, Jane Houston, provided le adership in all aspects of assessment; collaborated with the principal to target literacy reform; provided professional development; leadership to intervention t eachers; and focused intervention at the kindergarten level. Houston identified and monitored the progr ess of students who were at risk of reading failure. At the beginning of the year during team meetings, Houston asked teachers to identify struggling readers who needed immediate, intensive intervention. The

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96 teachers identified those students who scored at the 39th percentile and above on a standardized test, those that scor ed at the 25th percentile and 38th percentile, and those who scored below the 25the percentile. Us ing the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy and other data to confirm student levels, target groups were established. Those scoring between the 25th to 38th percentile received immediate, intensive intervention in small, flexible groups taught by the t eacher. Those who scored below the 25th percentile received immediate, intensive instruction fr om the intervention teacher assigned to their grade level. In addition to the initial id entification of students using standardized assessments, Houston similarly coordina ted and utilized pr ogressmonitoring assessments to assist teachers in adjusting reading instru ction throughout the year. Houston collaborated with the principal on all matters of literacy instruction regularly. She provided the analysis of the data to the principal and together they identified instructional areas to target. For example, survey findings and state assessment results indicated that vocabulary was a concer n school wide (D: 47). As a result of input from the teachers, the results and informal the leaderships’ observations, vocabulary became a target for professional developm ent during the year of this study. Houston provided professional development to this faculty. She modeled effective reading instructional practice for teachers in their classrooms. To heighten teacher interest she asked one of the teachers with whom she had the best relationship to allow her to try out a new strategy or method of inst ruction with that teacher’s class. She also provided professional development by co-teach ing with teachers over a period of time. Houston also provided professional deve lopment through the empowerment of the intervention teachers who also delivered direct instruction to students. Each grade had an

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97 intervention teacher who was assigned to provi de immediate, intensive intervention in reading for targeted students who scored below the 25th percentile on the standardized assessment. Reading intervention typically occurred outside of the reading period. Instruction was data-driven a nd focused on alternate instructional practices that were designed to accelerate learning by focusing on th e students’ specific reading needs. In addition to working directly with specific st udents, the intervention teachers often worked with an entire class to model effective instructional practices. In addition to coordinating the interven tion teachers, Houston also provided intervention services to the ki ndergarten classes. During the course of this study, she cotaught with a new kindergarte n teacher who had been experiencing some difficulties. Houston’s interviews revealed that she was reflective about he r practices and the direction of the school. She was concerned about the scheduling of intervention groups during the time that students were to be in their music, art, or P.E. classes. She continually sought better ways to provide in tensive intervention with in the classroom. Of greatest importance was how she encouraged teachers to continue broadening their repertoire of effective instru ctional practices, especially fo r those on the faculty who had not implemented much of what they learne d during the SRI Summer Reading Academy. This was a recurring concer n throughout the course of interviews and casual conversations during the course of the study as well as the topic of many conversations between Houston and the principal (Appendix C: 7.5d). The Principal Observations and interviews revealed th at the principal, Lyla Johnson, had two primary roles. Her managerial roles encomp assed functions of or ganizational culture, work efficiency, and personnel management. As an instructional le ader, she focused on

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98 student achievement, continuous student and adult learning, and th e development of a learning community. Principal’s management The organizational culture of the school was characterized by an atmosphere of hospitality, safety, and community. Front desk secretaries greeted parents, adults and children with a smile. The principal was often seen at the beginning of the day and at the end of the day greeting parents and engaging in quick “hallway” meetings. Teachers and the reading coach, who were responsible for su pervising parent/stude nt drop off, opened car doors for children to exit and engaged in friendly greetings. This morning ritual promoted positive public relations and student safety. In addition to the safety concern reflected in the morning “drop off” ritual, the sense of community was reflected in the morning closed circuit television presentation of the Pledge of Allegiance and national anthem as well as the student-produced sc hool news and weather report. During the Pledge of Allegiance, hallway movement stoppe d as adults and child ren joined together to honor their country. Managing of work efficiency was demons trated through the principal’s internal communication processes and anticipatory planning. Johnson arranged the school schedule so each grade level atte nded their special classes, such as P.E. or music, at the same time each day. This also allowed teams to meet with her and to work collaboratively. Johnson met with each grade level team once a week, coordinated calendars for upcoming events, shared or ganizational processes and anticipated challenges for upcoming events, shared district and state policy changes that might affect what teachers do, received input from teach ers, and discussed instructional issues. Whenever, a team meeting was not possibl e, Johnson communicated organizational

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99 information through memos or early mo rning announcements over the intercom. Planning alternate means of communication wh en the teams could not meet was typical of Johnson’s anticipatory style of planning. Ca reful planning was also evident in how she allocated time, materials and resources to pr ofessional development efforts, planned for substitutes, and organized school improvement planning. Principal’s instructional leadership Johnson’s personnel management revealed underlying beliefs. First, personnel should be placed to provide their greatest c ontribution. Second, teacher leadership should be encouraged. Third, teachers must choose how they will address the state standards for which they will be held accountable. Teach ers should be evaluated based upon multiple observations of their teaching on multiple, unannounced occasions. While many other principals placed extra personnel to provide reading and math instruction, Johnson continued to ensure that she had adequate personnel to provide drama, art, music, and P.E. classes. To maxi mize their contribution to the school’s goal of 100% literacy, she assigned each special area teacher to a grade level. This teacher provided tutoring to individual, targeted students during 1 period of the day. To maximize personnel contributions to the school, she assigned the assistant principal, who is not a strong instructio nal leader, to oversee faci lities and discipline. Johnson also distributed leadership across the faculty as evidenced by her use of teacher-led committees that developed the sc hool improvement plan. She also formed a literacy council comprised of teacher leaders who assisted the reading coach in analyzing school data and setting direc tions for literacy improvement for the school improvement plan. She also assigned teachers who attended me etings or trainings outside of the school to present that information to the rest of the faculty.

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100 To accurately determine the instructiona l skill ability of her faculty, Johnson engaged in classroom “walkthroughs.” She walked through classrooms at varying times during the day, recorded observa tions in a notebook to docum ent effective instructional practices or concerns that she had observed. Subsequently, she sent a note to the teacher or spoke with him/her informally. During the in terviews, several teachers stated that this routine was a positive manage ment practice (Appendix C:7). Johnson also allowed teachers the freedom to teach the state standards using the methods and materials of their choice while encouraging them to rely on the most effective instructional practi ces as learned during the SRI Summer Reading Academy. To encourage implementation of the SRI stra tegies, she used prai se statements and questioning strategies to shape the teaching a nd collaborative behavior she wished to see rather than confronting the teachers about the negative aspects of their performance. Johnson was observed in her role as an instructional lead er 5 times during meetings, 3 fourth grade team meetings, 1 literacy council meeting and 1faculty meeting. During these meetings, the central issues were assessment and instruction. The faculty meeting focused on the school improvement process and an announcement that the teachers would have an extra day after thei r summer SRI update training to learn how to apply their training. During the literacy council meeting, Johns on outlined the role of the literacy council. She also explained the im pact that Reading First, a grant provided through the No Child Left Behind Act, was ha ving on them even though they were not a Reading First school. All of the team meetings while serving to coordinate the activities of the school, focused on assessment, instru ction or discussions of how to accomplish state standards.

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101 Synergistic Instructional Leadership Instructional leadership at Lake Baxter Elementary was synergistic in nature. The reading coach and the principal sh ared mutual values and similar beliefs about developing instructional expertise among the f aculty. They worked as a team to nurture the development of a learning community. The coach and principal’s leadership wa s characterized by a strong belief in the importance of continuous adult learning. Wh en asked upon what basis she chose the teachers who would participate in the study, Jo hnson stated that she selected teachers who were continuous learners (C:7.6). Sim ilarly, during an interview focused on an ancillary topic, Houston remarked that she pursues relationships only with people from whom she can learn (Appendix C:7.5e). Both the principal and the reading co ach relied more on encouragement than authority to promote instructi onal improvement. Each of the f our teachers participating in this study utilized the words “encouraging” and “supportive” when describing their interactions with both the reading coach a nd the principal. One teacher referred to Houston as a “cheerleading figure” and leader of professional development who assisted teachers by marshalling resources and remaining a presence in the classrooms. Similarly, the teachers’ characterizati on of Johnson’s leadership as encouraging was often associated with her practice of perfor ming “classroom walkthroughs.” The word encouragement was also used in associat ion with how Johnson regularly prompted teachers to attempt new, effective instructiona l practices. Teachers also reported that she regularly provided them with numerous oppor tunities to receive additional training. Johnson and Houston assumed specific roles as co-leaders of the emerging learning community. Houston assisted the learning co mmunity in determining the instructional

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102 targets needing improvement and investigati on as well as direct impact on teacher’s practices by demonstrating various models of instruction. Johnson provided time, materials, motivation, and data analysis to inform instruction, which encouraged the learning community to develop (Appendix C: 7). Weekly, Houston and Johnson met to discuss instructional matters and often refl ected on why some teachers continued to progress in their learning and mastery of t eaching and others appeared not to (Appendix C: 7.5d). Changes in Leadership Practices Changes in the leadership practices of both the principal and reading coach were demonstrated by the teacher, principal, and co ach interviews, and the archival data. Those changes were fostered by the development of a learning community that had evolved during the three years since the initial SRI Summer Reading Academy professional development. Leadership Growth The principal’s practices changed in severa l ways from the onset of the SRI to the time of this study. First, he r knowledge of effective readi ng practices increased, which also increased her understanding of which instructional practi ces she should reinforce and encourage among her teachers. Second, her understanding of assessment increased and became the focal point of instructional d ecision-making across the faculty. Johnson reported that until the SRI training, data fr om state assessments was largely ignored. Third, she learned the value of increasing her presence in cl assrooms, and, subsequently began classroom “walk throughs” as a way to gather information for teacher evaluations and to gather information about the quality of classroom instruction. Fourth, she grew to understand the power of study groups as a m echanism to encourage the implementation

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103 of new, effective practices. Finally, the valu e of developing teacher leadership capacity was affirmed. Houston became the reading coach as a resu lt of the school’s participation in the Southern Reading Initiative. Pr ior to that time, ve ry little was known about the role or effectiveness of the reading coach. Her growth involved defining her role both for herself and for the faculty. During the first two years, Houston served as the leader of the intervention teachers, and she assumed a significant respon sibility for providing intervention at the kindergarten level. She also spearheaded prof essional development, but did so principally through the support group as she became a co -investigator of how to implement the strategies they had learned in the SRI Su mmer Reading Academy. As the role of the reading coach became more defined by the st ate, she spent more time in providing professional development to the faculty and withdr ew from her role as an interventionist. Her understanding of reading had grown as a result of the academy, but also as a result of participating in the revision of the SRI training components. She became a participant of the wider SRI learning co mmunity of fellow coaches who were also involved with the SRI component when they investigated the most current research (National Reading Panel, 2001). Over the three years, Houston realized that she did not have to know all the answers. As she gained confid ence in herself and the teacher ’s gained confidence in her judgment, her leadership as a professional developer moved from providing teachers with materials and methods to providing more direction and modeling strategies.

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104 An Emergent Learning Community The birth of the learning community o ccurred through two means. The focus on assessment provided the need for change, and the reading academy encouraged the most eager teachers to question how they could implement what they had learned. The first day of the SRI Summer Academy focused on the four different kinds of assessment and the importance of using asse ssment to guide instruction. During the second half of the day, the faculty met to discuss their data and to determine which students were in need of intervention. On th e last day, the faculty met at the school to devise an intervention plan, a plan that w ould address the needs of the students whose standardized scores fell below the 39th percentile. All faculty members had input and responsibility for improving the students’ r eading scores. This intervention-planning meeting provided the foundation for the learning community. In addition to the incentive provided by focusing on data driven instruction, the learning community was sharpened by severa l teachers’ eagerness to implement the strategies they had learned during the acad emy. As the first year of implementation began, Baker struggled with how to organize her class in order to implement what she had learned during the academy. She approach ed Houston about what to do. Houston recommended that Baker read a book to assist her. Subsequently, a study group comprised of several teachers, the coach, and the principal developed. As a result teachers began to collaborate with one anot her and also observed each other’s teaching. Individuals who were previously competitive began to collaborate.

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105 Educational Leadership Practices According to the National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP, 1997), the principal must be an effective admi nistrative manager and instructional leader as well. Johnson demonstrated proficiency in both of these arenas. Interview and observations indicated that Johnson was proficient in political management. She was informed about the st ate’s changing policie s and shared with teachers those policy changes that would ha ve direct bearing on their instructional practices. She maintained close community ties with the community and the parents (Appendix C: 11.6.a). She advocated for her sch ool with the school boa rd for the removal of the teacher request system. This system a llowed parents to specify their child’s teacher each school year. When this practice prove d to have adverse effects on student achievement, she convinced the school advi sory council that the practice should be discontinued even though this action was po litically detrimental to her (Appendix C: 11.6g). Johnson was proficient in procedural ma nagement as evidenced by her attention to details in planning for school events as communicated to her teachers in her team meetings (Appendix B: 9.l-p). Observations regarding her management of personnel were limited to the teaching faculty. She relied heavily on creating a learning organization (Senge, 1993) by managing the implementation of effective instructional strategies through an inquiry-driven orientation (Cibul ka & Narayama, 2000). A reliance on other organizational management frameworks to en courage change in instructional practices was not evident. Johnson could have utilized other frameworks to gui de the faculty as but it is important for an effective organizational manager to be facile in her approach to management (Sergiovanni, 1988).

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106 Research has shown that effective principa ls are directly involved with decisions regarding curriculum and in struction (Heck, Larson, & Marcoulides, 1990). While Johnson alone demonstrated most of the prof iciencies involved in this role of the principal, she utilized the reading coach to extend her instructional leadership and to accomplish leadership tasks that principals rare ly have the time to address. The reading coach, therefore, was an instructional co-leader. Instructional leadership is comprise d of overseeing teaching (Krug, 1993), the promotion of professional development (Beh ar-Horenstein, 1995), the ability to model effective instructional stra tegies (Behar-Horenstein, 1994) and knowledge of various instructional models (Sergi ovanni, 1987). Johnson maintained oversight of teaching through the use of “classroom walkthroughs,” wh ich allowed her to ha ve a realistic view of her teachers’ progress and demonstrated to teachers that she was interested, aware and supportive (Appendix C:7; Appendix B:10.a). The use of classroom “walkthroughs” has received increased attention during the la st decade as a valuable mechanism for improving student achievement (Deal & Peterson, 1990; Krug, 1993). Also, Johnson strongly supported professional developmen t, as indicated by both observation and interview data (Appendix B: 10.c, f, j, l; A ppendix C: 3.6d ). While no evidence existed to support the notion that Johnson modeled e ffective instructional strategies for her teachers or was particularly knowledgeable of various models of instruction, Houston, her coach and instructional co-leader, regularly modeled effective instructional practices and alternate teaching models for classroom teachers. Effective instructional leadership use their knowledge of th e curriculum (BeharHorenstein & Ornstein, 1999); use of assessmen t to guide instruction (Behar-Horenstein,

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107 1995) and transformative curriculum l eadership (Henderson & Kesson, 1999). Observations showed that Johnson demonstr ated an understanding of cross-curriculum links and encouraged teachers to integrat e curriculum (Appendix B: 10.e). Teacher interview data indicated that she provided motivation through the use of assessment results, which created a need for change. Cr eating motivation in this way rather than through dictates is indicativ e of transformative curriculu m leadership (Henderson & Kesson, 1999). Further, the use of assessment to guide instruction is also an indicator of proficiency as an instructi onal leader (Behar-Horenstein, 1995). Johnson both encouraged the staff to use assessment data to guide instruction, and she modeled the use of datadriven decision-making by using findings from su rveys to adjust her le adership decisions. (Appendix D: 36). Johnson demonstrated proficiency as a communicator. As a former guidance counselor, she listened actively and used an inquiry-driven appro ach to facilitating improvement in teachers’ instructional practi ces. Further, Johnson modeled the behavior she expected from her teachers with respec t to her value of continuous learning as demonstrated by her participation in the book study that eventually evolved into the support group (National Associ ation of Elementary School Principals [NAESP], 1997; Behar-Horenstein & Amatea, 1996). Another important component of effective principal leadership is the ability to promote and sustain a learning community. Th is process is typifi ed by a culture of collaboration, a focus on results in raisi ng student achievement (DuFour, 2004), and a commitment to adult and student learning th at is directed towa rd better student achievement (Cibulka & Narayama, 2000; Hord, 1997). For over 2 years following the

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108 Southern Reading Initiative, Lake Baxter Elementary began an emergent learning community. In order for a learning community to form, instructional leader(s) must consciously seek to build leadership ca pacity within the school (Beh ar-Horenstein & Amatea, 1996; Lambert, 2002). Therefore, the effective in structional leader in tentionally provides leadership experiences to promising teach ers and other professional staff members. Research has shown that distributive leadersh ip or shared decision making are present in schools where learning communities are thri ving (Copland, 2003; Kotter, 1996; Kouzes & Posner, 1987). Leading effectively, in a shared decision-making or distributive leadership environment means refraining fr om imposing solutions, but rather posing questions to stimulate inquiry-based change (Copland, 2003; Dufour, 1999; Louis, 1996). Finally, a learning community requires providi ng time and proximity to develop (Louis & Kruse,1995). Teachers on teams need to have classrooms in reasonable proximity to one another and time to exchange ideas. This was provided at Lake Baxter Elementary School. Effective principals also understand and effectively manage change processes (NAESP, 1997). Principals need to understand the sources of resistance to change (Harvey, 1996) and have a strategy for mana ging that change (Bennis, Benne, & Chin, 1985). During interviews, both the reading coac h and the principal expressed a concern for how to motivate teachers who have not implemented SRI strategies (Appendix C:7.5d; 9.6). No observations, interviews or artifacts reflected c onsideration of the change process or the use of research supported change strate gies. However, it cannot be concluded that change st rategies were never considered or employed.

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109 CHAPTER 6 HOW THE SCHOOL CULTURE INFLUENCED INSTRUCTIONAL CHANGE Interview and archival strip/thematic analysis, interactive power analysis, and system relationship analysis identified factors that affected instruc tional change at Lake Baxter Elementary School. This chapter wi ll address factors in the school culture and beyond the school site that tend ed to facilitate or impede instructional change. This chapter will also discuss the implications of this study. Factors That Facilitated Instructional Change The development of the learning commun ity within the school was a primary determinant of instructional change. The emergent learning community was stimulated by the combined instructional leadership behaviors of the reading coach and the principal. As the principal and reading coach empowered others, the cultural norms shifted from a transactional style of leadersh ip to a transformational style of leadership (Henderson & Hawthorne, 2000). Together, the principal and reading coach demonstrated most of the instructional leadership behaviors that are essential to the developing a lear ning community. (See Chapter 5.) Johnson demonstrated an understa nding of the broadened ownership of the leadership process and knew the difference between serving as a manager and an instructional leader (NAESP, 1997). She gained an understanding of literacy curriculum and instruction through the SRI and applied th at to her decisions as an administrative manager and instructional leader (Heck, Larsen, & Marcoulides, 1990). She provided time for her faculty to engage in collaboration, and the pr oximity necessary for that

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110 collaboration to occur. She focused her own instructional decision-making on data collected and, in combination with the reading coach, focused her faculty’s instructional decision-making on assessment data. She made ove rseeing of instructi on a priority in her day (Krug, 1993). She promoted professiona l development (Behar-Horenstein, 1995) by using her reading coach as the profes sional development point person. Through Houston’s skills, Johnson ensured that teacher s were able to see various instructional models enacted (Sergiovanni 1997) and effective instruct ional strategies (BeharHorenstein, 1994). Her management and leader ship behavior (Kantor, 1983; Kotter, 1996) focused the faculty’s attention on learning t ogether to direct all their efforts toward improved student achievement (Hord, 1997) by building leadership capacity among teachers (Lambert, 2002). As she redirected the faculty’s focu s on student achievement and developing learning community new cultural norms began to emerge within the school culture. These new cultural norms were modeled and reinfo rced by the principal, reading coach and among those teacher leaders who were active in the support group. The emergent culture was characterized by a strong value of conti nuous learning for students and teachers in a collaborative environment (Cibulka & Narayama, 2000). Johnson and Houston consciously managed the learning processes through an inquiry-driven approach among the members of the learning community. (See Chapters 4 and 5.) Reconstructive strip analysis of interactive power (Car specken, 1996) revealed that members of the teacher leadership and the learning community operated under interactively established c ontracts (Carspecken, 1996), wh ich were the typical power relations between the principal, the reading coach and the rest of the learning community

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111 members (Appendix E:1,5,7, & 19). There was a tacit agreement w ithin the learning community that if one is a continuous lear ner, focused on improving student achievement through improving one’s skill as a teacher, so cial prominence within the school would result. Teachers who accepted the norms of continuous learning focused on student achievement and who were, therefore, part of the learning community, willingly participated in this tacit agreement, which resulted in improved inst ructional changes for teachers who participated in the learning community. Factors That Impeded Instructional Change Two categories of factors that were present in the school culture impeded instructional change. The first category include d issues of resistance to change, conflicts in cultural norms, and the development of factions within the school that hindered the maintenance and growth of the learning co mmunity. The second category included selfefficacy issues and time constraints. Hindrances to the Maintenance and Gr owth of the Learning Community Leadership proficiencies ci ted by the National Association of Elementary School Principals (1997) include th e understanding of group processe s and the change process. Triangulated data indicated th at Johnson demonstrated stre ngth as a learning community builder. However, there was no evidence to i ndicate that Johnson utilized knowledge of change processes to sustain or facilitate fu rther instructional deve lopment. Further, by disbanding the study group, which was the heart of the learning community, Johnson demonstrated an unawareness of the critical role that the learning community played in facilitating instructional change. Several interview questions addressed the to pic of change in bo th instructional and leadership practices. Questions about change were as follows:

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112 How do you see that teaching practices ha ve changed since the Southern Reading Initiative? How do you think your management and l eadership practices have changed? How have the principal cadre meetings im pacted your leadership or management practices? What do you feel are the main influences that have brought about the changes that have occurred? What do you see as being the positive and negative impacts of the accountability movement? During the member check, the themes and issues related to change were also presented for further clarification. (Appendix C). Both the principal and the reading coach’s responses were framed by the view that teacher s are at varying levels for varying reasons such as personal issues or degrees of expe rience rather than any change theory or paradigm (Appendix B: 4.6d, 6.6a, 7.6i, 7.5d). While an understanding and recognition of the levels of teaching expertise is an important factor for consideration, without examining that information in conjunction with research and theories regarding resistan ce to, levels of, and factors that motivate change, a principal is left with few strategi es to promote change, other than coercion. An understanding of resistance to change provides a helpful tool for deve loping a strategy of change (Bennis, 1985; Harvey, 1996). Using tools to evaluate the change process such as the Concerns-Based Adoption Model (Hall & Hord, 1987) can also provide valuable information to guide a leader’s course of action. Although change processes were not mentioned during the interviews, one cannot c onclude that Johnson failed to give any consideration to the aforemen tioned tools for analyzing change. However, the fact that change processes never arose during the interviews may indicate that this was one of Johnson’s weaknesses.

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113 The conflict of cultural norms also presented another hindrance to the development of the learning community along two dimensions. First, the cultural norms that define the term “learning community” collided with the norms of the traditional hierarchical structure of schools. Second, the norms of sharing and co llaboration conflicted with a tradition of isolation that is common to the teaching profession. Though the cultural norms that de fine the nature of a learning community were beginning to emerge in the school culture, a tendency to revert to more traditional, hierarchical norms or role paradigms was evident even among members of the established learning community. Interview data indicated that 2 of the 4 teacher participants, all of whom were participants in the learning community, maintained the image of the principal as higher authority. Peters’ interv iew segments revealed a taci t belief that Johnson should do more to insist that faculty members live up to their commitments and change their instructional practices. In response to th e question regarding changes in Johnson’s leadership since SRI, Peters stated the following: She’s always been very supportive of anything we’ve done. I mean we’re very fortunate to have her…WE had early releas e days. It’s fine for us to have those things because when we work from 8 to 3 we don’t have time unless you go beyond to meet with these parents. Uh… we just wish that she would fight harder for those days and from what I understand, the reason they were taken away is because people would leave early. There’s no mandate. If you say something, you need to follow through and exp ect it out of everyone. You know, if you’re supposed to be here from 8 to 3:30, be here. If you’re not doing that, then don’t punish the whole faculty. Call those in and say –hey, you need to be here. We’re going to lose our days if you do that. So…Probably the lead ership in fighting for us has changed a little bit (Peters Interview 3/ 17/04 Lines 320-334). In this passage, Peters’ reference to no ex isting mandate may have meant no principal mandate. Other interview strip analyses produc ed similar tacit messages. For example, during a focus group that was designed to serve as a member check, a discussion regarding an effective phonics program revealed a similar noti on that the principal should

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114 exercise her authority thr ough a more directive approach to change instructional practices. The following passage demonstrates this bias: But results are there, but when our admi nistration says ya’ll can pick and choose whatever you want…They’re wanting to ta ke the easy road and we’re just butting our heads against the wall. When we ha ve a new teacher coming on, we’re like… “We got to get to her so we can make a decision before the others influence her [said as she drums on the table as with great urgency] (Focus Group Member Check Lines 274-278). McDonald also expressed a traditional vi ew of the principal’s higher authority. When asked what practices have been presente d to her that she would refuse to embrace, she responded as follows: I try not to refuse anythi ng, especially if it comes from the higher authorities But I really I guess in everything our principa l has made you know…we’re all held to the same standards. You know…Sunshine State Standards…Um … I’m not a teacher that starts on page one and goes to page…you know…in sequence necessarily and Um…she’s given us a lot of la titude in order to make su re that we are meeting the standards but not all necessa rily doing it all in the same way. But I can’t say…I really can’t say that there’s something that I absolutely must do that I have …it’s not that I won’t do it… (McDonald Interview 11/20/04 Lines 57-64). In fact, the response of teachers to a more directive approach to leadership appeared to be appreciated by teachers who felt more comforta ble in a more hierarchical organization. The following interview segment of the read ing coach explaining how her comfort level changed over the 3 years after the SR I Summer Academy demonstrated this interpretation: … I’m starting now to figure out how to ge t into the classrooms more and um kind of work with teachers more in a way that’s a little bit more assertive than it was at the beginning before I kind of took the um lets be friends kind of way but I think that I have learned um that even last w eek I had some the third grade teachers I pulled some materials together for them last week and brought them in and I thought, okay, I could either go in and say you know you could do it this way or you could do it that way, or I could say th is is what you need to do with this and this is how you need to do it and these are the materials you can do it with if you do this, this may be your result. This could be the result, this could be what could happen instead of saying here are some ideas go with it. And um I did that, I did

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115 that I was a little bit more assertive, I was a little bit more not assertive in a negative way but in a way which I guess s howed a little bit more um…(long pause) leadership, authority, leadership maybe, l eadership maybe. Where before I wasn’t really there and um and it work ed okay, you know it worked okay. They almost left with WOW, Great, Okay now I know, you know it was like a relief for them instead of leaving with more informati on that they couldn’t sort through (Houston Interview 12/8/03 Lines 72-95) In addition to the conflict of norms that de fined the role of the principal, there was conflict about the norm of sharing. Those teachers who actively participated in the learning community felt strong ly that teachers should coll aborate and sh are with one another while others who did not participate in the learning community did not share their ideas, nor would they collaborate in efforts to incorporate new, more effective best practices. Following are excerpts from the focu s group transcript. The participants were responding to the finding that the learning community played a significant role in assisting them to improve their instructiona l practices. After sharing what an important role the support groups had played in assi sting them in their changes, the following observations were made: P: I think the way I understand your question, is there are certai n ones that always attend these groups and there are some that will never attend them. So, some buy in to that support and some feel like they’re doing you know…O .K. on their own. B: They feel they don’t need the suppor t. That what they ’re doing is just fine…(Focus Group Member Check 6/1/04 Lines 117-135). During the course of the interview study, 3 of the 4 teacher participants commented on how some teachers would not share thei r ideas or the workload involved in collaboration. After discussing how four of the first grade teachers regularly plan and collaborate with each other, Baker answered the next questions as follows: L: Well, now you say there are four of you, but how many first grade teachers are there totally? B: We have eight.

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116 L: So, what are the others doing? Do they plan with each other or do they just sort of…? B: No. At the beginning of the year, because we had three new first grade teachers, we all would sit down together and that lasted about thre e weeks. ‘Cause three of the teachers have a complete diffe rent teaching styles than we do. Ms L, Ms P, and Ms D. So now, um… Jackie is one of the new ones. Bethany –Ms C is another one. All four of us will plan together.[unintel ligible] So, it was really different teaching styles – the way that we w ould plan didn’t really mesh with what they would do. So…(Baker Interview 3/17/04 Lines 100-114). When asked to rate on how well the faculty worked together, Pe ters responded as follows: L: When you look at your staff your enti re faculty – do you feel… that they’re working together? P: No. L: So what is your view of that whole idea of collegial collaboration? P: It should be happening, but it’s no t. It should be happening. Um…And I don’t see on any grade level that that is happ ening. There’s two or three in each group maybe that are trying to work together, but not a group as a whole. I think that is the main problem. We’re spending all of our time – not our free time, but our learning time trying to come up with stu ff on our own when we really should be doing the language and talking with each other – you knowgetting that out because we’re all teaching basi cally the same thing. It’s just how you approach it. It’s your own…your own ideas, but we’ve…we ’ve even thought of sitting and planning together and tried th at at the beginning of the y ear – thought it would give us a new boost ‘cause we have new teachers on our staff… But it lasted about a month – two sessions and after that, it was like – because some were coming willing to share and the ones who were not willing to share would come to get our ideas but would not bring what they had to share and it really caused a lot of hard feelings. You knowwhy should I share if you’re not? I know it’s a tit for tat thing, but it was kind of hard to do th at. But then someone come in and grade papers while they’re listening to us, bu t would not contribute to the meeting. And so… you’ve got to be willing to be open and work together. If you’re not…it’s just gonna – you knowcause turmoil amongst your team (Peters Interview 3/17/04 Lines 56-78). When asked a question regarding distri butive leadership, McDonald stated: I think they probably do a re ally good job in their cl assrooms and they probably have some neat ideas, but th eir willingness to step up and share with the rest of us or their willingness to even meet in small groups and just share or take a leadership

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117 role in presenting a lesson for us or you know… or here’s something really neat that I’ve found. I just don’ t see that happening the way I would like to see it maybe. You know and…I also see – maybe it’s becaus e of personalitiesbut I see the same the same two or three on different grade le vels are the same two or three that are always …they’re the ones volunteering to do this or to do that or they’re the ones that are kind of the ones to go to…( Mc Donald Interview 3/17/04 Lines 95-104). Other responses to interview questions yi elded similar comments, which supported the notion that two distinct norms we re operating in the school culture. Identifying the norms in operation at a rese arch site is a significant feature of critical ethnography, one that must be determin ed in order to study matters of interactive power relations at the site (Carspecken, 1996) One interview theme indicated that the principal’s perceptions of the emotional ma turity of her faculty members shaped her methods of communication and management procedures. Several interview segments, which supported this theme provided an impor tant insight into the norms upon which the principal operated and importa nt interactive power relations hips between the principal and faculty members. During a member check, when asked to res pond to the finding that time constraints affect teachers’ instructional changes Johnson reported that: The best of teachers, that’s clearly true of. The teachers who are on their own path of growth and understanding and are really k eenly interested in this whole issue of reading and how kids learn to read. That’s really true of. But the majority of teachers given more time would do menial things like change their bulletin boards and I don’t mean that negative, you know, it’s an observation. Because….and maybe it’s just because they’re not at that level yet…of …um…growth personally…but the best of teachers need….i t’s incredibly important to give them time to interact with each other to grow and understand… think back about what they’ve done and how that really has im pacted and…and… to analyze and discuss new ways to do things…that’s categorically true. But that’s not most teachers (Johnson Interview 6/24/04 Lines 11-19) Strip analysis of this interview segment reveals three tacit nor mative-evaluative truth claims. First, spending time on beautifying ones classroom is not as important as

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118 spending time in collaboration with colleague s. Second, teachers who hold to the truth claim that beautifying ones classroom is more important than spending time in collaboration with colleagues are considered to be functioning at a lower level of personal growth than those who hold to the norm s of the principal. Finally, most teachers are not functioning at a high level of personal growth. In order to determine how such truth claims might affect her policies and procedures, Johnson was asked how the precedin g perspective affected how she planned the use of time. She responded as follows: …You could not book up their whole five da ys with intensive long term planning or doing some vertical teaming and di scussing… They would absolutely ...you know… be hysterical. You balance that. You sa y to them we have these things that we have to do. They’re critically importa nt to be sure we’r e moving in the right direction, and we’re having communication that’s important. Now, what I’ve found is…that they step into those meetings disg runtled and frustrated and they come out with a better attitude…. “Yeah…yeah …that was good. We needed to… But we still do a lot of planning and a lot of meeting and a lot of discussing, and I find that most of the time, that it’s the lower level folks who just don’t have a vision and that sort of thing. They come in disgruntled, but when it’s all over, they say … “Well, that was good. We needed to do that. S o… You have to do that. You have to do that. You’re never going to build capacity for those middle range folks and those lower folks if you don’t do that (Johnson Interview 6/24/04 Lines 42-44; 46-49; 6165; 72-74). Two additional normative truth claims emerge in this passage. First, the principal knows what is best for the faculty and for th e growth of the “lower level” teachers. Second, Johnson’s assertion that this applie s to the majority of teachers betrays a backgrounded truth claim that teachers need to be forced to do what is best. This normative truth claim reflects an underlying in fluence of the Theory X rather than the Theory Y style of management (McGregor, 196 0). The Theory X style of management maintains that most people prefer to be directed and are motivated by rewards and punishment. The Theory Y style of management, by contrast, does not assume that

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119 people are irresponsible or l azy, but, instead, can be motiv ated toward self-directed, creative work. Another example of the Theo ry X paradigm in action was revealed in Johnson’s response to a question regarding the time constraints that prevent teachers from experimenting with new strategies. The following segment reveals this belief: I think that comes from this whole issue of test scores…and I have to get my kids here, and I don’t have any la titude to piddle around in this experimental kind of thing because, if it doesn’t work I have wasted time, and I’ve still got to get my kids where every other teacher is getti ng them. You know what I’m saying? I think that’s the intrinsic pressure that they put on themselves. And maybe it is this accountability issue with pr ofessional development pl ans…and maybe it is an accountability issue with test scores related to [the state assessment] or whatever that…that…because I say to them, “You are responsible. You have…if you don’t have some measure of holding their feet to the fire, and you verbalize that to them, then they are lackadaisical. They don’t ev en look at those test scores (Johnson Interview 6/24/04 Lines 363-373). When presented with another theme th at emerged regarding the issue of professional pride, Johnson again revealed the perception that teachers, in the main, are emotionally immature, requiring a certain “h andling.” The following interview segment demonstrates this notion: I don’t make decisions based on the fact that this is going to hurt….but you have to be cognizant of it and it tempers not so much what I say but how I say it a lot. You have to walk on eggshells around those i ssues. It doesn’t mean you make all of your decisions driven by what you know a bout those things, but it colors how you communicate with folks… well….because wh en they criticize you to their peers that’s usually an advantage in that those folks know that the person I picked is the best person to do the job. So, if somebody goes back and says, “Well, I don’t know why she picked them,” They’re thinking, “Yeah, I know why she picked them. You know…they do it better than you.”… I’ve come to believe more and more doing this job …is that those egos and those pers onality clashes can either make or break something. They can make or break your training, your program, your …honestly…they can be the death knell to a team’s work if you don’t bring those people and bring them along. So, I take several people and I just have discussions…I do a lot of positive feedback. I say to them as teachers …it may not be categorically the truth…I say, “ you did a really good job with this,”….stoke them up…encourage them…and then I’ll say to some other teacher who does ten times better than they do, “I was saying to Ms so and so what a good job you did with that she might come over and watch how you do that. Well, then, it makes her feel like I think she’s just as good as that person when sh e’s never felt that way and

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120 the other gal is ten times as good as the other one is, but it opens some communication between the two of them because she will end up telling her Ms Johnson complimented me on this she said….and the other teacher and I may have had a discussion on how can we bring he r along …how can we do that? Then the minute that person…and this happens all the time…the minute that person comes and says to her …yes your right and she suggested I come and see you. Do you mind if I come? Now sometimes that will backfire on you …you know what I’m saying? It does…but I’m forever doing that…(Johnson Interview 6/24/04 Lines 281-301). When asked to comment on the apparent tendency on the part of teachers toward servile attitudes and behaviors, Johnson responded as follows: But see I’m not an authoritarian type of leader… I think it’s the culture of an elementary school because they adopt thos e emotional levels of their children (Johnson Interview 6/24/04 Lines 331-336). Throughout this interview, Johnson refers to teachers as belonging to three levels – high middle range and low. The findings i ndicated that Johnson views this group of teachers more through the lens of the Theo ry Y management style and, based upon the last line of the preceding interview segment, views herself more as a Theory Y manager. (See the first interview segment on page 9.) The high level teachers exemplify quality continuous learning, participate in the suppor t group, and were viewed as the teacher leaders in this school. The Literacy Council, a committee on the faculty formed to share decision-making on matters of school wide lite racy instruction, was comprised of these high-level teacher leaders. Johnson views thes e teachers as models for the middle range and lower range teachers. The following interview segment from an earlier interview depicts this. You’re going to really enjoy meeting these gals. You’ll be impressed. Um…with their interest and their ability. Now, the two youngest…the two first grade teams are trainers. McDonald… I think Mc Donald is a trainer in one or two components. Ms. Dickerson is the only one who is not a trainer with FRI. Um…but they have a lot…I learn a lot from them. I’m always impressed with what they’re implementing in those classrooms. And I also use them as models for the other teachers. For example, every Monday, we meet this afternoon from 3:00 to 4:00. Every Monday,

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121 we have a different teacher who’s modeli ng some strategy and we all meet in a different teacher’s classroo m and it gives her a chance to kinda let the others see because they don’t have the luxury I have of just popping into classrooms, you know… and they need to be able to see wh at their peers are doing, so we try to do that every Monday. And Ms Baker and Ms Pete rs are probably two of the best at showing at showing the others. Uh… they ’re easy going by nature and they’re positive and, you know, the others are quick to look at what they’re doing and show interest. So, that does help (Johns on Interview 9/22/03 Lines 118-132). Strip analyses of observation field notes demonstrated a distinction between the types of interactive power used with the high-level teachers a nd the rest of the faculty. Of the four meetings observed in which power relations were evident, two were team meetings, one was a faculty meeting and one wa s a meeting of the literacy council. In the two-team meetings, which were comprised of teachers at all “levels,” Johnson’s demeanor and style of interaction was one of “the boss.” Normative interactive power was at play, underscoring the normative-evaluati ve truth claim that teachers should obey their principal, a traditional hierarchical notion typical of schoo ling in the American culture. The full faculty meeting during wh ich a discussion ensued regarding the restoration of early release days (days when students were sent home early) exemplified this notion. With great clarity and authority, Johnson stated that if the school board restored early release days, those days would be dedicate d to professional development and teachers would not be allowed to use those afternoons as compensation for nights designated as parent conference times. While Johnson used an inte ractively established contract to gain compliance in this in stance, the interaction was tainted with backgrounded coercion of having early rele ase days revoked once again if teachers refused to live up to their end of the barg ain. Therefore, since the entire faculty experienced this tacit coercion, even the teach ers in the power position of the “high level” teachers, emerged as powerless.

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122 All of the meetings in which all teachers were present revealed a distinctively different tone than that of the literacy council meeting, which only the “high level” teacher leaders attended. In this meeting Johnson outlined her purposes for the formation of the literacy council. She shared her inte ntion that the teachers on this council would serve as role models for other grade level members. Her intent for the council was to collaboratively build a vision fo r the council’s role in guidi ng literacy instruction in the school. An interactively established contract promised teachers the reward of prestige and participation in decision-making in exchange for their leadership. Johnson took the role of partner or collegial peer leader in this meeting. The principal’s subtly di stinctive treatment of the two groups, the learning community comprised of the “high level” teachers and the “other” teachers, who refrained from participating in the lear ning community, may have exacerbated the growing division between thes e two groups. In fact, interv iew data revealed that professional pride and jealousy stunted thre e aspects of the learning community the learning community growth, the implementa tion of new instruc tional practices, and teacher leadership capacity. The growth of the learning community was hindered by professional pride and jealousy. In fact, the support group sessions, so vital in the emerge nce of the learning community, were stopped in the middle of the school year as a resu lt of professional pride. Baker, having stated that the s upport groups were not meeting any longer, attributed the cessation to being “bogged dow n.” When asked about how other teachers’ instructional practices influen ced her or other types of pressures such as professional pride or jealousy influenced he r, Baker stated the following:

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123 L: …No…just talking about the influence of us – our practices on one another – attitudes. Do you ever feel …um… other t ypes of pressures out there…jealousy or professional pride…Talk to me abou t what you observe …um…in terms of professional pride, for example among the colleagues and how that effects you. B: Okay…Since you brought it up…that’s what squelched us sharing. It was that. Um… jealousy and people feeling that we were trying to showcase and I would go and…I mean… Jane and I would talk about it –you know it’s not that at all. It’s just that if this is working for me, I want to share it with other people. I’m not trying to be hoity-hoity or toot my horn (Bak er’s Interview 3/17/04 Lines 377-381). Similar feelings were echoed in Peters’ interview (Peters Interview 3/17/04 Lines 375-394). She felt that some teachers were pa rticularly jealous a bout the money-earning potential of the teacher leaders who were SR I trainers. When asked to conjecture about why many teachers refrained from sharing, McDonald surmised that perhaps they felt they would be judged in some way and that some teachers were possessive about their ideas (McDonald Interview 3/17/04 Lines 117126). The notion of possessiveness was echoed in an interview with Dickerson who shared the observation that some teachers kept things secret (Dickerson Interview 3/17/04 Line 591-596). Not only did professional pride and jeal ousy hinder the shar ing of effective instructional practices, it also hindered teacher leadership fo r both the teacher leaders and also for those whom Johnson and Houston attemp ted to cultivate as teacher leaders. Both Baker and Peters expressed a pprehension about doing a presenta tion for their faculty that was scheduled during post planning. They bot h expressed concern th at they would be viewed as “know-it-alls.” (Focus Group Memb er Check Interview 6/1/04 Lines 601-631) When asked what her thoughts were regardi ng the affects of professional pride and jealousy on the staff, Houston recounted th at one of the teachers who was asked to become a trainer refused to assist in presenti ng to the faculty because she did not want to be perceived as a “know-it-all” (Houston In terview 4/23/04 Lines 16 – 25). This was a

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124 teacher whom Houston and Johnson felt was read y to take on a greater role as a teacher leader but was now unwilling to do so as a result of the potential ostracism from her peers. The current teacher leaders reacted to growing jealousy in various ways. When asked how an awareness of the professional pride and jealousy on th e staff has affected her behavior Baker related the following: B: Sharing. And letting them know that like if I were to go like to another school and do a workshop, I don’t tell anybody that. L: Keep the candle hidden under a bush. B: Yes. Yes. And that’s not a good thing. L: Why do you think it’s not a good thing? B: Because I think that you should be pr oud of your colleagues. I mean you should be …you should know…like I know that I ca n’t handle cooking on Friday. I just know I can’t do that. But it’s cool that Ca rolyn can do it. And when I find stuff, I give it to her. I can’t do it ‘cause my ne rves can’t handle it plus I’ve got to keep in my clothes…But I mean I just you know what I’m saying… I just … we should be able to say, “Now look, this isn’t my styl e, but I mean it’s wonderful that you’re doing it. You know I come along this – this might help you.” (Baker Interview3/17/04 Lines 386-402) Peters, despite being criticized, continue d to accept leadersh ip opportunities, but observed that other teacher lead ers lost their enthusiasm as a result of criticism (Peters Interview 3/17/04 Lines 407 – 410). McDonald al so stated that she would continue to share her instructional practices because she be lieved that people choose what is of value to them (McDonald Interview 3/17/04 Lines 117 –124). Several interview segments pointed to the normative power of the peer group’s influence on the teacher leaders who formed the learning community. In response to the question of how her colleagues influenced he r instructional practi ces, Baker stated the following:

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125 L: Um…does the team as a whole affect your instructional pract ices…the rest of those four teachers that you say don’t teach in the same style that you do? Do they affect your practices? B: Um… no – because I feel pretty sound in what I’m doing and my reasoning behind it. I know that it works, but no w attitudes do. And ther e’s a lot of times where you just kind of shut yourself in your room because you don’t want to be a part of it. It’s like I don’t have a dog in that race. I can’t get…you know what I’m saying? I can’t get drawn up ‘cause I‘ve got …(Baker Interview 3/17/04 Lines 414418). This response must be examined with cons ideration of the two previous questions and responses quoted earlier (pages 15-17 a bove) in which Baker explained the reason for the cessation of the support groups in res ponse the question about professional pride. Strip analysis on this entire interview segmen t reveals a normative ev aluative truth claim on the part of the “other” teachers that says acting like a “know-it-all” is bad. Further, when one is singled out to model effective in structional practices a nd accepts that role, one appears to be a “know-itall.” Baker’s statement that the aforementioned attitudes just make her want to shut herself in her r oom reveal that she st ruggles to reject the validity of that normative truth claim. Similar feelings were echoed in both Peters (Peters Interview 3/17/04 Lines 375-398) and Mc Dona ld’s interviews (M cDonald Interview 3/17/04 Lines 108-161). The “other” teachers a ssumed the role of policemen keeping colleagues’ practices within the limits of mediocrity by sanctioning peer rejection for accomplishing and demonstrating expe rtise to their colleagues. Teacher Self-Efficacy and Time Impe diments to Instructional Change The tendency for “other” teachers to sanction rejection for the exemplary instructional practices of their peers may have be en related in part to issues of teacher self -efficacy. Evidence suggested that self-efficacy issues played a role in teachers’

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126 participation in the learning community and in the degree to which new strategies were implemented. The findings revealed that teacher self -efficacy affected participation in the learning community. In response to the que stion of how well the teachers worked together, Peters conjectured that teachers may not feel their performance was as good as others, thus causing reluctance to share what they do. When McDonald was asked about the challenges she encountered when she attemp ted to change her instructional practices, she stated that she often wondered if she wa s executing the strategy correctly, especially when students did not respond as predicte d (McDonald Interview 11/20/03 Lines 98109). When asked what might have been he lpful in this dilemma she stated that: Probably a person to go to that might have had some experience within whatever it is that I was trying to implement. Maybe …um… I know one of the things that the literacy council is talking a bout is trying to have the ki nd of like experts on our own campus that might have some expe rtise in a specific area whether its in reading and writing connection or vocabulary strategies or what ever and maybe having that person available that I c ould go during my planning or some time during the day or even if it’s just through written communication …you know listen I’m having …I’m really struggling with whatever this is and if that person or those people had been identif ied as maybe the people that may have some expertise I think having them available for me to go to and talk with… if we can work out some kind of way of identifying people that would be willing to share. I think a lot of our faculty has expertise but may be not as forthcoming to share it…maybe because they doubt whether they’re that ex pert or not… I don’t know. I think Jane is one of those that’s in so many classroom s as is our principal that… I think maybe they’re the people that can identify some of those that may have those areas of expertise…when we may not see it in ourselves (McDonald Interview 11/20/03 Lines 111-130). McDonald’s observation, in th e last 6 lines of the above interview segment, attests to the possibility that many teachers may gene rally lack confidence in their abilities to provide leadership. In a s ubsequent interview with McDonald, she echoed that observation in the following interview segment:

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127 L: How widely distributed is leadersh ip and as you see it and how much are teachers encouraged to a ccept leadership roles? M: The encouragement is there. Starting w ith Ms J and starting with Jane... And in fact especially, in talking this year-in ta lking about working with Alcott Elementary that we’re goingthat we are partnered w ith to work with this summer and different things like that. We are very much encour aged to share whatever it is that we’re doing. Uh…but …I find that it’s …it tends to be intimidating for some of the teachers to think that they know very much about anything. They…even though I’m sure that they do fantastic jobs, a lo t of times they don’t think that they’re doing a fantastic job and even if they t hought they were doing a really good job how they can …uh… lead anothe r teacher to understand what they’re doing or be willing – open to share and …um… that kind of thing …um…(McDonald Interview 11/20/04 Lines 127-129). Houston, the reading coach and Johns on, the principal, expressed similar observations during their interviews. During th e member check with the reading coach on the theme that emerged regarding the greater degree of implementation for those teachers who were also trainers, Houston stated that: But, you know it was like…it wasn’t about us knowing anything and teachers will say I don’t know enough to get in front of a group to tell others about it. Well, if you do know enough to get in front of a group to tell others about it than you’re definitely going to be better at what you’re doing with your classroom. And once they figured that out, you had a lot of them wanting to come on board, simply because they knew it would make them do better with their kids (Houston Interview 7/13/04 Lines 201-209). The second line reflects Hous ton’s belief about the role that teacher self-efficacy plays in preventing some teachers from assu ming leadership positions that entail the demonstration of instructional mastery. Si milarly, Johnson expressed the belief during her member check that, of among changes in th e profession that woul d have the greatest affect on student achievement, teachers’ self -regard as professionals would rank among the top 3 (Johnson Interv iew 6/24/04 Lines 173-174). Research on teacher self-efficacy has s hown that teacher’s confidence in their ability to teach greatly affects their ef fectiveness (Ashton & Webb, 1986). Even among

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128 the four “high level” teachers who participat ed in this study, self-efficacy proved to be a significant factor in impeding the implementation of new stra tegies. Baker complained of feeling that the vision of a st rategy’s effectiveness and the actual implementation often do not match. As a result, she desired to just “si mmer” for a while to perfect the instructional strategies that she has already acquired sin ce the SRI Summer Acad emy rather than add anything new to her repertoire (Baker Interview 3/17/04 Line 117-124). McDonald expressed similar feelings in the following interview segment when she explained the challenges she faced in making change s to her instructional practices: A lot of times it’s just doubting myse lf as to whether I’m doing it exactly right…because you go to a conference and there’s so much going on, and you have this really good idea in this forty-five minute session, and then it may be a lapse of two, three, or four days before you’re actually able to implement it… and then you’re like …now did they say for… well… you know…and kind of doubting myself about if that was the way it was really supposed to be done. And have I done it or presented it in the right way. And then noticing the feedback from my kids …‘cause if you get those blank st ares, it’s like …um… I probably missed something there along the way you know…W ell that didn’t quite go over like it was supposed to …um…I think sometimes just doubting whether or not I’m doing it the right way, and is this exactly what they were expecting. You know… they being whoever put it together (McDonald Interview11/20/03 Lines 98-109). In one interview, Dickerson reported that she learns well but confessed that she has difficulty applying what she learns to the classroom (Dickerson Interview 3/17/04 Lines 627-628). The issue of self-efficacy seemed to be related to concerns regarding time constraints. Interview data revealed three ways in which time affected the degree to which teachers changed practices. First, time constraints affected reflection time, a necessary ingredient for perfecting ones’ sk ills. Second, the fear of wasting or losing academic time when implementing a new practice discouraged teachers from

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129 experimenting with unfamiliar strategies. Finally, often teachers do not have enough student contact time to deepen their students’ understandi ng (Appendix C: 4). The reading coach observed that the teachers tend to layer newly acquired instructional practices on top of existing routines rather th an integrating or replacing ineffective practices, often failing to align th eir time priorities to the goal of student achievement. These observations were not we ll supported by data co llected during this study. However, this topic warra nts further investigation. Factors Beyond the School Culture th at Facilitated or Impeded Change The means through which cultu ral themes and their norma tive-evaluative weight affect a social site and its actors occurs throughout the soci al system (Carspecken, 1996). Action coordinated between soci al sites that are separated by time and space is termed system integration (Giddens, 1974). System integration can be identified through the observance of actions in operation at each si te from three possible categories, which are the distribution of cultural milieu, economic re lations, and political relations. The degree to which certain cultural themes are replic ated within a specific cultural group will impede or facilitate the so cial action of its members (C arspecken, 1996). Therefore, an examination of actions occurring at social si tes other than the prim ary social site can inform research concerning the volition of actors at the site of concer n. In this section a discussion about those factors beyond the sc hool culture that faci litated or impeded instructional change at Lake Baxter will be presented. Facilitating Factors Beyond the School Culture Data indicated that two “conditions of acti ons” at other social sites impacted the cultural milieu of Lake Baxter Elementary. First, the wider learni ng organization of the Southern Reading Initiative lead team was a distributor of the cultural milieu at Lake

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130 Baxter. Second, political relati ons at the state and nationa l level affected the norms operating in the school culture. Both archival and observation data indicat ed that the Southern Reading Initiative Lead Team functioned as a learning organizati on. This lead team consisted of key leaders of the Southern Educational Consortium and th e reading coaches as well as the principal of the Southern University Laboratory School The lab school’s principal, Felicia Van Camp, and her elementary school’s reading co ach, Lee Haines, played a strong leadership role using the evolution of literacy reform in their lab school to inform the SRI Lead Team’s considerations. A review of the SRI Lead Team minu tes collected from July of 2001 through January of 2004 demonstrated that there was a gradual shift from l earning how to tend to the mechanics of the initiative, such as acquiring decodable books for schools, to developing a comprehensive 6-year plan that addressed professional development foci for each year. The minutes revealed that lead team decisions were based on data that focused on the needs of the participating schools. The recent minutes addressed how the lead team might develop capacity in school dist ricts in order to gradually release the responsibility of supporti ng the learning community growth in schools from SRI to school districts (Appendix D: 46). An observation of an SRI lead team meeti ng, during the spring of the third year of implementation, verified the evol utionary thinking of the l ead team members. At this point of the initiative’s development, the firs t cohort of schools showed a need for revival and greater focus on the school cu lture to sustain the reading initiative. The schools’ need motivated the lead team to discover ways of providing a review for schools as they

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131 approached the end of year three of imp lementation. This spring meeting focused on determining professional development options that would concentrat e on school culture to sustain the schools’ progress. The particip ants discussed how the districts’ curriculum directors would be included in this process and how to build leadership capacity among the reading coaches a nd the principals. The cultural milieu of continuous learning a nd data driven decision-making evident at the secondary social site of the SRI R eading Lead Team was observed at the primary social site of concern, Lake Baxter Elemen tary School. During year 1 Felicia and Lisa modeled the attitudes, norms and behaviors fo r cohort principals and reading coaches that resulted in the superimposition of thos e cultural norms at Lake Baxter. Interview data from the reading coach a nd the principal supported the perception that the actions at the secondary social site of the SRI L ead Team distributed that cultural milieu to the primary social site. When asked how the principal cadre meetings had affected her practices, Johnson responded that: Oh, my gosh I…I think that’s been more instrumental to my own professional growth than – even than the Reading Initiative and what I learned in the two weeks. I gleaned so much from the opportunity to communicate with those folks who share the same challenges that I share. Um…act ually, it does two things to you. It makes you grateful for the problems that you don’ t have, and it gives you an opportunity to find some solutions to the common problems that we all share. Uh… because you get so bogged down, you can’t see the fo rest for the trees sometimes… But having this group of colleagues that we’re able to share with and communicate with and learn together in the leadership capacity has been…oh….tremendously helpful for me. Um…Felicia does a great job of kind of guidi ng us and I have tremendous regard for her knowledge. And that makes it …it keeps it vital for me. It keeps it interesting. Because…um…we’ve all learne d from each other. I kind of feel like I’m in the same boat with the othe r principals…. and we share and we communicate. And to have someone who, I think has more expertise than we do who can be a guide for us in this path…has been…has been very…very, very instrumental to our…our continued grow th …(Johnson Interview 12/04/03 Lines 104-111). During the member check interview, Houston stated the following:

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132 L: The culture of continued learning has aff ected the instructional practices of those teachers who participated in the emergi ng learning community, but has minimally impacted those who chose not to participate. H: Well, let me tell you. I think this is a good example. A teacher came up to me…a third grade teacher came up to me af ter we did reciprocal teaching and she said, “Jane, why didn’t they just do th is 3 years ago. Why did we have to go through 2 weeks of blahdy-blah…w hy couldn’t you have just said [unintelligible]?” She said, “I’ve got thi ngs I can do. It makes sense to me now. I know what I’m supposed to be doing. Why di d we have to waste 3 years?” I said, “Well, now think about that for a minute. Would you have been able to know and learn as much as you learned with this r eciprocal teaching, if you didn’t have that foundation?”…and you know what… I didn’t argue with her because you know what? She’s got it now. I mean she’s got the handle that she was looking for and that’s great and now I thi nk she’ll become part of th at culture of learning. L: Do you think also…again I’m looking at the learning of th e entire system… meaning from Lee Haines all the way through the whole system…has learned. H: Absolutely. Absolutely. L: You could almost have answered that question with “Well…we probably would have taught you that if we had been there th en, but we’ve all learned. And so this is where we are now.” H: Uh-hmmm. And I think that evolving is very powerful. That’s what excites me about education right now is because of that evolving. If Lee had been O.K. with…” O.K., all we have to do is make sure this training outline is fits everything else (which is what the re-writing the components was all about)…Let’s just get these trainer outlines so everybody’s doing th e same thing because we knew that was important – right?You know any time you’re trying to get information out to a mass group of people they all have got to all be saying the same thing you know…and see we didn’t have that from th e Alabama people because they didn’t have that kind of thing. So, um.. if Lee had said that’s all I’m going to do, I think it would have turned out very differently, but when she started delving into it, and talking to these higher leve l thinker people out there …the researchers that are doing this research, she was qu ite aware that this was a bigger task than what she thought. But, you know… she kept at it, a nd I think that’s very good. I was right there on her coat tails. And I think it ’s still evolving (Houston Member Check Interview 7/13/04 Lines 211-281). Both interview segments demonstrated the transmission of the cultural norms modeled by the leadership of the Sout hern Reading Initiative.

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133 According to Houston, that cultural milieu was transmitted even to the district level staff. Because all the schools in this distri ct participated in the Southern Reading Initiative, the reading coaches and principals developed a similar language regarding literacy reform. This affected the superint endent’s communication regarding matters of literacy in the district as well (Appendix C:10.5b). State and national level political conditions also affected actions at the primary social site of concern. The national account ability movement, which mandated the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) resulted in the proliferation of Reading First Grants available to states, affected even those schools that were not qualified to receive funds. The Reading First grant in the consortium’s region affected both the lab school and Lake Baxter’s way of work even though neither school received the grant. As a result, even the training components of the Southern Reading In itiative were refined to reflect the results of the National Read ing Panel (2000). The affects of the NCLB’s “research based” and assessment driven emphases were evidenced in the inte rview, archival, and observation studies. Both the lab school and Lake Baxter adopted the use of the state’ s progress monitoring assessments in their elementary schools and quickly integrated th e state’s language of assessment. (Appendix C: 0.5 d & 0.6a). The NCLB’s Annual Yearly Progress ratings stimulated concern for how students in special education were being served (Appendix C: 10.k). Policies emanating from the NCLB or from the state’ s standards assessment were frequently a point of reference during in terviews (Appendix C: 0 & 11), in artifacts (Appendix D: 17 & 20), in observations of meetings (Appendi x B: 9 & 10), and in classroom observations (Chapter 4).

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134 Although the NCLB requirements and the state’s approach to grading schools imposes a coercive, top down, impetus for cha nge, it provided a pressure for change that the 85% consensus to participate in the SRI alone failed to provide. In two predominant theories of change, disequilibrium or pressure is cited a necessary requisite for change to occur (Lewin, 1947; Snyder, Acker-Houvar, Snyder, 2000). Johnson reported that compliance with NCLB and state standard s was the greatest influence on changing practices. In synchrony, the SRI and the accounta bility movement have worked with the state to ensure that struggli ng students received strategi c instructional attention. The Southern Reading Initiative provided the appropriate to ols (Appendix C: 11, 11.6b, d). The conditions of actions – cultural milieu and political relations – at the secondary social sites have combined to provide pressu re for change in two directions. The cultural milieu that has been superimposed upon the pr eexisting school culture has affected the development of the learning community and ch ange in instructional practice while the political relations has provided a tool for imposing change where resistance exists (Appendix C: 11.6b). In an ear lier interview, Johnson de monstrated this point: And maybe it is this accountability i ssue with professional development plans…and maybe it is an accountability issue with test scores related to [the state assessment] or whatever that…that…becau se I say to them, “You are responsible. You have…if you don’t have some measure of holding their feet to the fire, and you verbalize that to them, then they ar e lackadaisical. They don’t even look at those test scores (Johnson Interview 6/24/04 Lines 363-373). Impeding Factors Beyond the School Culture Two conditions of actions beyond the school culture impeded inst ructional change. The accountability movement and the culture of the small community in which the school resides, will be disc ussed in this section.

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135 While the accountability movement ha d a positive impact in promoting instructional change, it has also had deleterious affects as we ll. Interviews with teachers indicated that teachers are experiencing an al most paralyzing effect on their practices as represented by the following interview segment: L: And Um… along that same lines…W hat do you see as being the positive impacts of this accountability a nd also the negative impacts? P: Well the negative would have to be th e stress and the pressure. Um… teachers have a lot of stress. And I feel like becau se of AIPs and legislation, we given them a lot on their plate that deals with …uh…paperwork. And everything has to be documented. I mean everything When you’re talking about student behavior and conduct. When you’re talking about comm unication with parents – everything has to be documented. Clearly those are…those are the negatives – the pressure things (Johnson Interview 12/04/03 Lines 166-173). Teacher interviews revealed considerable preoccupation with the state assessment test (Appendix C: 11). Classroom observati ons supported the notion that there was a preoccupation with SCAT prac tice during instruction in th e fourth grade classrooms (Chapter 4). The teachers’ preoccupation was linked directly to the acquisition of new practices and manifested in the teachers’ concern regarding possi ble time lost when attempting a new strategy (Appendix C: 4) The following interview segment from a member check interview with Johnson demonstrates this point: …they get antsyespecially if what they want to try may take a little while. You know… that’s when they start getting…becau se if by chance their creative idea or their …what they wanted to try doesn’t work, then they’re in a panic about how that may affect their test scores and what I’m going to say about …that everybody else’s scores are up here and yours are here That…that makes them reluctant to try those kind of things (Johnson Intervie w Member Check 6/24/04 Lines 402-408). Artifact data, which included teachers le sson plans, also reflected the SCAT preoccupation as multiple instances of citing st andards in lesson plans to practice for the SCAT test were apparent (Appendix D).

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136 The socio-political community issues also provided impediment s to instructional change. The community’s preference to sust ain traditional cultura l norms inhibited the impact of the superimposed cultural values implied in continuous learning. Also, the culture of the faculty and the community produced the teacher request system, which had a deleterious affect on the learning comm unity and actual inst ructional practices. Pinkerton County is a small, very stable rural community. Ma ny of the faculty members were raised together. Often, faculty issues were colored by relationships outside of the school interactions. The following inte rview segment demonstrates this notion: And in a school like this, a community school and a lot of folks at this school have grown up together. They live together. They have community relationships together …you’ve got church. You’ve got family relationships among the staff…you can’t ignore that. I don’t kowtow to that. I don’t make decisions based on the fact that this is going to hurt….but you have to be cognizant of it and it tempers not so much what I say but how I say it a lot. You have to walk on eggshells around those issues. It doesn’t mean you make all of your decisions driven by what you know about those things, but it colors how you communicate with folks (Johnston Interview Member Check 6/24/04 Lines 261-269). An underlying atmosphere of entrenchment of teaching practices challenged the success of implementing SRI strategies. In an inte rview segment with the reading coach, she expressed similar beliefs about the challe nges that impeded teachers’ efforts to implement instructional changes: So those guys that were at the training and um did not immediately apply what they knew, ah learned, then um, RE-SRI training I think is going to pick some of those guys up and I think we are going to have anot her wave of those th at get it and want to move on, and so forth, but Um, some of them you know they are hard to change. They live here in Pinkerton County, th ey you know aren’t going anywhere, they’re gonna raise their grandkids here, and…um… they figure they are going to work here until they retire. So, some of th em don’t figure that they need to change right now… (Houston Interv iew 12/8/03 Lines 83-91). The most deleterious affect of the cultural milieu and political relations was perhaps a school board policy that allowed pa rents to request thei r child’s teacher each

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137 year. This policy, although very unpopular with the entire school faculty, affected many aspects of schooling for students. During th eir interviews, teachers discussed several negative factors. Highly involved parents requ ested some teachers frequently. In turn, those teachers tended to tailor their curriculum to suit parents’ suggest ions to the level of enrichment that could be provided by incr eased volunteerism. Other teachers were overloaded with behavior problems or lowe r functioning students. Perhaps the worst problem was the creation of an elite student status (Appendix C: 11). Johnson’s comments confirmed the teachers’ belief and the associated challenges of dealing with elitism. …they flat out will say to you… I’m getting my first choice…I don’t have to give you two other [choices of teachers] because th at class didn’t close. It becomes very, very demanding. And of course…every pare nt who has lived in Pinkerton County forever knows me, and they don’t want to talk to anybody but me. They will say to me… “You will put them in there, Lyla won’t you?” You know… “Remember so and so…remember this…?” It is outr ageous. Nobody knows. The teachers don’t know what I go through with it. They don’t have a clue. All they know is when they see those rosters there’ s two classes out of the 7 or 8 that are the clique…the uppercrust…white very involved parents – good students all locked into two classes. And the other classes get the leftovers (Johnson Interview Member Check 6/24/04 Lines 444-465). In this particular case, the normative power of the community joined with the political power of the school board membership to override instructional best practices. The following interview segment demonstrates this point: They know I think it’s detrimental and it doesn’t have anything to do with best practice professionally for a ssigning students to class. The accountability issue is a major issue and they don’t ca re. And they want parents to be happy and they want …I have for 12 years…everybody has been relatively happy. And they think it’s a perk… “By God this is Pinkert on County …this is Pinkerton County…and we will be able to…” They have no clue …no clue how backwards thinking that is…how unfair it is for children and for teachers and how inappropriate. But you’re talking about elected officials who are lay pe ople…don’t have a clue…most of…a couple of them are grandparents. They honestly don’t have a clue about curriculum or learning or classrooms or…any of that. It’s all about pleasing their constituents. And that’s the bottom line and two of them will say that publicly on the board. “I

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138 heard everything you said, Lyla, bottom line is this is Pinker ton County and we’re going to let our Mommas pick where they want their babies.” (Johnson Interview Member Check 6/24/04 Lines 469 –482) Addressing the issue of the teacher request policy on instructional practice, Johnson contributed the following observation: And in one first grade class I’ve got 12 pa rents. But…[unintelligible] no question. Can’t add another kid to it. Can’t add an African American child, can’t add an ESE student, a retained child… so you see what different kind of class that creates (Johnson Interview Member Check 6/24/04 Lines 498-501). As of the conclusion of this study, Johnson had successfully convinced her School Advisory Committee to challenge this policy with the new school board. The issue of the teacher re quest system exemplifies the cultural currency of the upper class that so readily distributes particular forms of culture that tend to maintain the dominance of that class (Car specken, 1996). In this case, though such effects may be unintended, the teacher request system clearly gives greater opportunity to one group over others. Implications of the Study The Southern Reading Initiative Summer Reading Academy introduced research based instructional practices in reading to schools, to foster school wide literacy reform. As a result, several key teachers at Lake Baxter implemented what they had learned immediately, but it was the support group, the newly formed learning community, that stimulated the greatest change for the eager teachers and those who were more reluctant as well. The support group enjoye d the participation and intere st of the reading coach and the principal, both of w hom modeled the value of continuous learning. The role of the learning community was paramount in changing the instructional practices within the school. However, evid ence indicated that resistance to change,

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139 professional pride, and jealousy hindered the existence and growth of the learning community. Resistance to Change Providing explicit instructi on to the faculty and staff about the change process would provide a common language, just as the reading academy provided a common language about literacy instru ction. An 85 % faculty consensus for participation in the SRI is no guarantee that those who consent to participate actually understand the degree of change that will be necessary to align classroom practices to research. A discussion about change should focus on the changing norms associated with “good” teaching and the change process itself Faculties need to understand that in today’s accountability driven educational sy stem, the “good” teacher is no longer the teacher who has a beautiful, well-organized classroom and a caring, loving heart for children. The “good” teacher in the current cu ltural milieu must not only be caring, but must be able to demonstrate effectiveness in impacting student achievement. Further, faculties that understand the s ources of resistance to change and are informed of ways to evaluate their progress w ith respect to change will be better armed to deal with the change-related difficulties that arise. Also, school leaders need to apply the pr inciples of change theory (Lewin, 1974; Snyder, Acker-Houvar, Snyder, 2000). Inst ead of protecting teachers from state policies, school leaders can use the backgrounded coercive po wer of the state policies to provide the necessary pressure for change. In this way, th e principal can assume the natural role of ensuring adhe rence to governmental policy and can disassociate herself from the policies and their sanctions. The tacit claim to authority in this case rests on the notion that the policies are comprehensive to all and beyond debate (Carspecken, 1996).

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140 The effective use of assessment data to inform instruction provides this type of foregrounded normative power and backgrounded co ercion. Thus, the pressure needed to precipitate change can be applied without b ecoming dictatorial, which is ineffective in leading schools (Kanto r, 1983; Kotter, 1996). Professional Pride and Jealousy Because a professional learning community relies on collaboration and the ability to learn form one another, professional prid e and jealousy can be the death knell of the community. While these human vices can never be totally eliminated, school principals can minimize actions that exacerbate them. In this particular school culture, Johnson succumbed to the notion that the only t eachers who should or could assume school leadership, become a trainer, or share a part icular new strategy we re those individuals upon whom she had relied since the initial implementation. This approach to developing leadership capacity actually created an elit e group that became the target of those who could not see a way of becoming member s of the recognized group. These leaders subsequently lost their impact on other teachers and were di scouraged by their disenfranchised peers from sharing the knowledge they had gained. This led to disbanding the support group, which was centr al to the learning community. The disbanding of the support group occurred by the e nd of the first semester during the year of this study, the third ye ar of SRI implementation. Implications for Professional Development Findings reinforced the professional de velopment research that professional development, in order to exact instructiona l change, must be contextualized and jobembedded (Darling-Hammond, 1998). The eff ect of the Summer Reading Academy offered by the SRI was minimal in its affect on the instructional practices of the teachers.

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141 It served primarily to get faculties “on the same page.” The greater impact of the SRI was in providing ongoing opportunities for school le aders to learn how to structure jobembedded professional development at the sc hool site. In order for ongoing leadership professional development opportunities to be e ffective in guiding the reading coach’s and the principal’s leadership be haviors, specific focus on cha nge management and how to build/ sustain a learning community should be the focus of study. The findings indicate that the sustainability of the school wide literacy reform effort hinges upon the sustainability of the local school’s learning community. Recommendations for Further Study School leaders, aware of the impact of tacit factors operating among their faculties, can inform their teacher leaders about th e impediments to the learning community presented by resistance to change as well as professional pride and jealousy. Additional studies that focus on the dynamics of the le arning community may reveal other factors that tend to encourage or discourage lear ning community growth and/ or change in instructional practices. This type of study woul d be particularly info rmative if it occurred among a variety of implementers, teachers identified as high implementers and those identified as low implementers, and within schools identified as having strong learning communities. The notion that teachers tend to layer ne w instructional practices rather than integrate them with already existing, proven strategies they have mastered was not supported through the triangulation of data in this study. However, this idea raises interesting questions for professional devel opers and researchers who might want to investigate whether or not th is phenomenon is idiosyncrati c to the school culture.

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142 Finally, the theoretical perspective of cr itical ethnography was useful for exploring changing instructional practices within the context of the scho ol culture. This framework would be well suited to studying the tacit theme of teacher servility and principal paternalism. Additional studies, similar in natu re to this one, conducted at multiple school sites could provide educational leaders and researchers with a d eeper understanding of factors that tend to facilitate and impede instructional improvement in their school cultures and could lead to an instrument designed to assess the health of learning communities.

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APPENDIX A DOMAIN ANALYSIS

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144 Table A-1 Domain Analysis: Comprehension Instruction Domain Examples of Included Terms Semantic Relationship Example of Semantic Relationship Teacher & Times Observed Comprehension Instruction Employing higher levels of thinking Use of content frame for analysis Making comparisons in discussions Making/confirm predictions Use of Venn Diagram Inferential questions Means-End Is a way to increase reading comprehension Baker, Peters McDonald, Dickerson Baker, McDonald Peters Baker Making Text Connections To personal experience Student sharing of personal observations during read aloud Peters McDonald Summarization Use of Concept Map Peters, Dickerson Text Structure Conversation with student during DIRT Discussing usefulness of text features McDonald McDonald Activating Background Knowledge In genre Peters

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145 Table A-1 Continued Domain Examples of Included Terms Semantic Relationship Example of Semantic Relationship Teacher & Times Observed Employing Recall Story facts Low level questions Low level AR test FCAT workbook practice Peters McDonald Dickerson Dickerson, McDonald

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146 Table A-2 Domain Analysis : Vocabulary Instruction Domain Examples of Included Terms Semantic Relationship Example of Semantic Relationship Teacher & Times Observed Vocabulary Instruction Connections to Text or Content New words in context Morphemes to familiar words to derive meaning “Text Talk” through read aloud New words in connection with hands on activity Means-End Is a way to increase student vocabulary McDonald 2, Dickerson McDonald, Dickerson Reading Coach Dickerson Connections to Self Creating Student friendly definitions McDonald 2 Oral Language Requiring complete sentences Requiring new vocabulary muse in oral language Reading Coach McDonald Rote Learning Copying example sentence from dictionary Dickerson

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147 Table A-3 Domain Analysis: Decoding and Spelling Domain Examples of Included Terms Semantic Relationship Example of Semantic Relationship Teacher & Times Observed Decoding and Spelling, Instruction Using Higher Levels of Thinking Modeling phonemic and phonic analysis through “Text Talk” Student practicing analysis of multisyllabic words Students analyzing patterns in words Means-End Is a way to increase decoding and spelling skills Reading Coach Baker Dickerson 2 Connection of Decoding to Text Practicing decoding in decodable text Practicing decoding in writing Connecting decoding to spelling Baker 3 Baker Baker Rote Learning Completing Worksheets Writing words 3X each McDonald 3 Dickerson Dickerson

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148 Table A-4 Domain Analysis: Writing Instruction Domain Examples of Included Terms Semantic Relationship Example of Semantic Relationship Teacher & Times Observed Writing Instruction Modeling Writing Group story writing Modeling letter writing Means-End Is a way to increase writing skills Baker 5 Peters 5 Peters Engaging in Writing Conferences Individualizing language instruction McDonald Writing to Prompts Practicing on demand writing McDonald

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149 Table A-5 Domain Analysis: Content Area Instruction Domain Examples of Included Terms Semantic Relationship Example of Semantic Relationship Teacher & Times Observed Content Area Instruction Textbook Use Teaching math concept from workbook Means-End Is a way to provide Content Area Instruction Dickerson Lecture Telling students about concepts in science book McDonald Making Connections Across the Curriculum Teaching number concepts across the curriculum Writing in response to social studies instruction Writing in response to science instruction Baker Peters Peters 3 Peters Experiential Learning Making a terrarium McDonald

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150 Table A-6 Domain Analysis: Provide Feedback Domain Examples of Included Terms Semantic Relationship Example of Semantic Relationship Teacher & Times Observed Provide Feedback Requests for Support Asking students how they knew the answer Asking why __is important Asking what clues told them so Means-End Is a way to provide feedback to students Baker McDonald McDonald Scaffolding Giving clues to the answer Helping students differentiate between fact and opinion Questioning student to answer Using wait time and answer choices Helping student focus on word parts Working on worksheet as a class Dickerson McDonald Baker Dickerson Baker Peters Peters Verification of Correctness Students checking own paper Working math problem to give correct solution Request for conjecture on word meaning; telling right/wrong only Providing missed words immediately during oral reading McDonald Dickerson 4 Dickerson Dickerson Dickerson McDonald 4

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151 Table A-7 Domain Analysis: Instructional Approaches Domain Examples of Included Terms Semantic Relationship Example of Semantic Relationship Teacher & Times Observed Instructional Approaches Differentiated Instruction Delivering intensive intervention Providing text at appropriate reading levels Learning centers Strict Inclusion Is a kind of instructional approach Peters Peters Baker, Peters, McDonald Gradual Release of Responsibility Introduction of new classroom structures gradually Modeling, guided practice, independent practice Baker Baker Varying Teaching Models Partner reading Mnemonics Working in groups Jigsawing Think alouds Baker 2 Baker 2 Peters, McDonald McDonald Peters

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152 Table A-8 Domain Analysis : Classroom Structures Domain Examples of Included Terms Semantic Relationship Example of Semantic Relationship Teacher & Times Observed Classroom Structure A Print-Rich Environment Posters giving directions Print-rich dcor according to theme studied Language arts and math words on chart tablet Means-End Is a way to structure the classroom to increase learning Baker, McDonald, Dickerson Peters Dickerson A Schedule Routine schedules followed for subject areas Scheduling students to learning centers in advance Baker, Peters, McDonald Baker 2, Peters A Set Routine Using rhythm or song to gain student attention Rhymes & games to quiet students down Practicing skills with flash cards while waiting Using a buzzer, alarm, hand signals or countdown to gain student attention Reviewing the day’s agenda Baker 3 Peters 2 Peters Peters, McDonald Peters

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153 Table A-9 Domain Analysis: Student Assessment Domain Examples of Included Terms Semantic Relationship Example of Semantic Relationship Educator & Times Observed Student Assessment From Textbook Series Math unit tests Unit Reading tests Spelling test Strict Inclusion Is a kind of assessment of student progress Baker Baker Dickerson Teacher Made Running records Fluency timings Listening to students read and making anecdotal records Baker, Peters Baker, McDonald McDonald

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154 Table A-10 Domain Analys is: Educator Behaviors Domain Examples of Included Terms Semantic Relationship Example of Semantic Relationship Educator & Times Observed Educator Behaviors Staff Development Action research Reading Coach lesson demo Collaboration Strict Inclusion Is a kind of educator behavior Baker Coach Baker, Peters Professional Commitment Expressing a love for teaching Desire to learn Accommodating parents needs Putting students’ first Baker 2 Baker Peters Peters Professional Pride Wanting observers to see model lessons Baker, Dickerson Principal Leadership Classroom walkthrough Johnson, Assistant principal Pedagogical Error Explained word meanings of spelling words after students practiced writing them Focused on suffix only to determine part of speech No wait time or scaffolding provided Did not activate background knowledge prior to reading Dickerson Dickerson Dickerson, McDonald Dickerson Teacher Disengagement Working on teacher tasks during instructional time Dickerson

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155 Table A-11 Domain Analysis: Instructional Leadership Domain Examples of Included Terms Semantic Relationship Example of Semantic Relationship Educator & Times Observed Instructional Leadership Centered on Student and Adult Learning Instructional conversations during team meeting Discussion of state regulations on assessment at meeting Updating literacy council on impact of state reading requirements on way of work Discussion at team meeting on differentiating instruction need professional development Spatial Is a part of Instructional leadership Principal, Reading Coach Principal, Reading Coach Reading Coach Principal Vision-Building Collaboratively defining vision and purpose of literacy council with the teacher leaders Principal Teacher Leadership Capacity-Building Formation of literacy council Assigning leadership duties to teachers Involving teachers in planning school wide professional development Teacher committees formulate school improvement plan Principal Principal Principal, Reading Coach Principal

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156 Table A-11 Continued Domain Examples of Included Terms Semantic Relationship Example of Semantic Relationship Educator & Times Observed Instructional Leadership Supports Learning Community Common planning time Close location of classrooms Provides time and resources for collaboration Spatial Is a part of instructional leadership Principal

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157 Table A-12 Domain An alysis: Management Domain Examples of Included Terms Semantic Relationship Example of Semantic Relationship Educator & Times Observed Management Public Image Hospitable staff in front office Promoting safety Spatial Is a part of managing a school Staff Principal School Wide Rituals Opening exercises over closed circuit TV Organization Organization and procedures for events Organization of professional development activities Planning ahead for shortage of subs Principal Accountability Holding teachers accountable for attending professional development if early release days are reinstituted Communication Calendar coordination at meetings Providing alternate means for communication when meetings not possible

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APPENDIX B COMPONENTIAL PARADIGMS

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159Table B-1 Componential Paradigm Comprehension Dimensions of Contrast Cultural Domain 1. Develop comprehension through higher levels of thinking … 1. Relates to background knowledge 2. Assists metacognition 3.Transformation of information Level of Bloom’s Taxonomy High student engagement SRI strategy Teachers who employed activity/action Using a content frame to compare several versions of a fairytale All Analysis yes yes Baker Peters Theorizing and predicting based upon a picture 1, 3 Synthesis yes Yes Baker Making and confirming predictions 3 Synthesis Yes Yes McDonald Baker Employing use of concept map to summarize passage 3 Analysis Yes Yes Peters Dickerson Building background knowledge of genre 1 Application Yes Yes Peters Relating important concepts to other related concepts in students’ lives 1, 3 Analysis Yes Yes Peters Using Venn Diagram to compare 3 Analysis Yes Yes Peters

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160Table B-1. Continued. Cultural Domain Dimensions of Contrast Conjecturing about the usefulness of various book features 1 Analysis Yes Yes McDonald Having students share their observations of the story as the teacher reads aloud 2, 3 Comprehension Analysis Yes Yes – Like “Think along” McDonald Asking inferential questions from text 3 Analysis Yes Yes Baker Comparing texts 3 Analysis Yes Yes Dickerson

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161Table B-1. Continued. Dimensions of Contrast Cultural Domain 1. Develop comprehension through recall 1. Relates to background knowledge 2. Assists metacognition 3.Transformation of information Level of Bloom’s Taxonomy High student engagement SRI strategy Teachers who employed activity/action Reviewed facts of a previously read story None Knowledge yes No – not used in conjunction with teaching summarization Peters Asking fact questions such as what, when, where None Knowledge Not observed No – not setting authentic purposes for reading McDonald Use of AR tests that focus on facts None Knowledge Yes Dickerson

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162Table B-2 Componential Paradigm – Concepts in Content Areas Dimensions of Contrast Cultural Domain 2. Developing concepts in content areas 1.Relates to/ develops background knowledge 2.Assists metacognition 3Transformation of information Level of Bloom’s Taxonomy Student engagement level FRI strategy Teachers who employed activity/action Explaining to the students about math properties by teaching from the workbook or textbook page None Knowledge On task No Dickerson Telling kids about topics in science None Knowledge ? No McDonald Teaching number concepts across contexts 1, 2, 3 Application ? Yes Allen, 1999 p. 107 Peters Using hands-on activities 1, 2 Application Yes Yes Duke & Pearson, 2002 pp. 207-208 Dickerson

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163 Table B-3 Componential Analysis Decoding Dimensions of Contrast Cultural Domain 3. Develop decoding skills Relates decoding skills to connected text &/or introduction of new vocabulary Level of Bloom’s Taxonomy Relates decoding skills to writing Level of Student Engagement FRI Strategy Teachers who employed activity/action # of times observed=/ Using “Text Talk” activity (Introducing words by modeling analysis from phonemics through morphology of word; its meaning and student connections to experience) Connected text Vocabulary Analysis No High Yes Reading Coach

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164Table B-3 Continued. Cultural Domain Dimensions of Contrast Providing students with opportunities to analyze multisyllabic words that when broken into syllables contain patterns being practiced No Analysis No High Yes Baker Providing practice of acquired decoding skills in context & in authentic reading reading situations B, B, B Connected to text Application No High Yes Baker ///

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165Table B-3 Continued. Cultural Domain Dimensions of Contrast Asking students to determine patterns within spellings – D, D No Analysis No ? Yes Dickerson // 3. Develop decoding skills Relates decoding skills to connected text &/or introduction of new vocabulary Level of Bloom’s Taxonomy Relates decoding skills to writing Level of Student Engagement FRI Strategy Teachers who employed activity/action # of times observed=/ Making skill to text references -B Connected to Text Application No ? Yes Baker Teaching from & Completing worksheets – M, M, M No ComprehensionNo ? No McDonald ///

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166Table B-3. Continued. Cultural Domain Dimensions of Contrast Using hand movements & symbols while decoding words Multisensory Knowledge Yes High No Baker Table B-4 Componential Feedback Dimensions of Contrast Cultural Domain 4. Providing Feedback to students Extends thinking or knowldege Requires students to support assertions, answers, & opinions Provides scaffolding Teachers who employ action/ strategy # of times observed = / Pointing out clues to help determine the answer Yes No Yes Dickerson Checking for correct responses and errors on own or peers work when completed in class No No No McDonald Dickerson ////

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167Table B-4. Continued. Cultural Domain Dimensions of Contrast Having students complete a math problem as a group and then working it out to give them the correct the solution No No Yes Dickerson Asking student to conjecture about the meaning of a word and then telling them only that they are right or wrong No No No Dickerson Provided answer and solution without scaffolding No No No Dickerson Correcting words immediately during oral reading with out scaffolding – D, M, M, M, M No No No Dickerson McDonald //// Asking students how they knew the answer – B Yes Yes Yes Baxter Asking why ___is important – M Yes Yes No McDonald

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168Table B-4. Continued. Cultural Domain Dimensions of Contrast Asking what clues told them so – M Yes Yes Yes McDonald Helping students determine when they have expressed a fact or opinion – M Yes No No McDonald 4. Providing Feedback to students Extends thinking or knowldege Requires students to support assertions, answers, & opinions Provides scaffolding Teachers who employ action/ strategy # of times observed = / Questioning students as a way of guiding their thi nking to the answer – B, D Yes Yes Yes Baker Dickerson Providing wait time & then providing a choice of possible answers to be identified by the student –P No No Yes Peters Helping students focus on specific word parts when decoding Yes No Yes Peters Correcting “Drops in a Bucket” worksheets No No Yes Peters Correcting math worksheet as a class Yes Yes ? Peters

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169Table B-5 Componential Para digm – Independent Practice Dimensions of Contrast Cultural Domain 5. Independent practice Preceded by guided practice/ scaffolding Level of Bloom’s Taxonomy Student engagement level Contextualized &/or crosscurricular Teacher employing action / Strategy # observed = / Timing the completion of math facts Yes Knowledge On task No Baker Writing spelling words 3 x each – No Knowledge On task No Dickerson // Completing multiplication facts worksheets No Knowledge On task No Dickerson Completing worksheets No Knowledge On task No Dickerson Highly teacher centered activities

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170Table B-5. Continued. Cultural Domain Dimensions of Contrast Using learning centers Yes Knowledge/ Comprehension – McDonald ? – Baker McDonald 1st obs. – On task 2nd – Off task Baker – On task all Peters – 1st obs. – Off task 2nd obs. ? McDonald – No Baker – Yes Peters – Yes McDonald Baker Peters Writing to summarize after reading or studying a topic Yes Comprehension ? Yes Peters // Use of cooperative learning, paired reading, etc. no comprehension moderate no McDonald Writing letters on topics of import Yes Synthesis ? Yes Peters

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171Table B-5. Continued. Cultural Domain Dimensions of Contrast Writing to a prompt unrelated to any other topic being studied across the curriculum No Synthesis ? No McDonald // Working on project leading to a product ? ? ? Yes Peters Reading a decodable text that practices a word family just taught Yes Application ? Yes Baker Using activities that relate to high interest area Yes Application High Yes Peters Copying sentences from a dictionary that exemplifies a word’s definition No Knowledge On task No Dickerson Beginning the morning with self-selected reading No Comprehension High Yes Peters

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172Table B-6 Componential Paradigm Vocabulary Dimensions of Contrast Cultural Domain 6. Develops language & vocabulary Contextua-lized In text In experience Drives new vocabulary words into Oral language Level on Bloom’s Taxonomy Student engagement level FRI Strategy Teachers employing action or strategy Using “Text Talk” activity Yes No Analysis Yes Yes Reading Coach Using the context to introduce new vocabulary Yes No Analysis ? Yes McDonald // Dickerson Relating morphemes of unfamiliar words to familiar words to derive meaning Yes No Analysis ? Yes McDonald Dickerson Creating student friendly definitions Yes Yes Comprehension Yes Yes McDonald Dickerson Connecting vocabulary to handson activity Yes Yes Application Yes Yes Dickerson

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173Table B-6. Continued. Cultural Domain Dimensions of Contrast 6. Develops language & vocabulary Contextualized In text In experience Drives new vocabulary words into Oral language Level on Bloom’s Taxonomy Student engagement level FRI Strategy Teachers employing action or strategy Requiring that students use new vocabulary in oral language Yes Yes Application ? Yes Stahl & Kapinus, 2001 McDonald Requiring that students speak in complete sentences Yes Yes Application ? No but does line up with recommendations of experts (Ramirez, Yuen, & Ramey 1991, p. 8; Mehan, 1979) Reading Coach Copying sentences from dictionary – D No No Knowledge ? No Dickerson

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174 Table B-7 Componential Paradi gm – High Stakes Testing Dimensions of Contrast Cultural Domain 7. Practice designed to increase scores on SCAT 1.Relates to/ develops background knowledge 2.Assists metacognition 3Transformation of information Level of Bloom’s Taxonomy Student engagement level FRI strategy Teachers who employed activity/action De-contextualized, ondemand writing in the form of prompts None Application Low None McDonald Practice in SCAT workbooks as reading lesson None Comprehension Low Moderate None McDonald Dickerson

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175Table B-8 Componential Para digm – Professional Pride Dimensions of Contrast Cultural Domain 8. Professional Pride Attempt to Prove worth Attempt to Demonstrate Technique Teachers who employed activity/action Wanting researcher to see planned lesson yes No Dickerson Request for me to stay came in observation following an interview in which I commented that I hadn’t seen a language arts lesson during language arts time. All I had seen was math instruction. Wanting principal to see new model lesson No Yes Baker

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176 Table B-9 Componential Paradigm Management Dimensions of Contrast Cultural Domain 9. Management Strategies Focus on public relations Organizes for maximum communicat ion Attends to details to create a positive school culture Organizes for safety Effectively manages and supervises personnel Distri-butes Leader-ship Effectively –man-ages school’s finances Effectively Manages facilities a. The reading coach voiced concern for using any of the fourth grade teachers in the study because she perceived them as not having implemented the SRI strategies fully as compared to others on the faculty. yes

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177Table B-9. Continued. Cultural Domain Dimensions of Contrast b. Intermediate teachers originally approached to participate in the study were unwilling. yes c. Principal characterized her first grade teachers with great enthusiasm and her fourth grade teachers with less enthusiasm, but very positively yes d. Staff is hospitable and friendly to visitors. yes

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178Table B-9. Continued. Cultural Domain Dimensions of Contrast e. Staff is welcoming, warm and friendly to parents yes Yes yes f. Secretaries observant and eager to assist visitors in the office yes yes g. Assigning the task to a teacher of reporting to key stakeholders the results of attending a meeting – p yes yes yes

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179Table B-9. Continued. Cultural Domain Dimensions of Contrast h. Involving the teachers in the planning of their professional develop for the Re-SRI summer Academy – c & p yes yes yes yes i. All teachers participate on committees to study issues in preparation for the school improvement plan. p yes yes yes yes j. Opening exercises over closed circuit television Yes yes yes

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180Table B-9. Continued. Cultural Domain Dimensions of Contrast k. Scheduling school so that teams can have common planning time. Yes Yes yes l. Coordinating the calendar at team meetings to make sure everyone knows what will be happening during special events. / yes yes yes yes m. Communicating to the staff the organization mechanisms for special events yes yes yes yes

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181Table B-9. Continued. Cultural Domain Dimensions of Contrast n. Organizing inservices for staff yes yes 9. Management Strategies Focus on public relations Organizes for maximum communication Attends to details to create a positive school culture Organizes for safety Effectively manages and supervises personnel Distri-butes Leader-ship Effectively manages school’s finances Effectivel y manages facilities o. Anticipating and communicating to staff possible problem areas such as lack of subs on certain days. yes yes yes yes p. Managing school to promote safety yes yes yes yes

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182Table B-9. Continued. Cultural Domain Dimensions of Contrast q. Holding teachers accountable for reporting to work if early release days are restored to the school. yes yes yes r. Makes arrangements to communicate organizational information in alternate ways when meetings are not possible. yes yes yes s. Cares for facilities. Assistant Principal

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183 Table B-10 Componential Paradigm – Instructional Leadership Dimensions of Contrast Cultural Domain 10. Instructional Leadership Instructional Leader Create culture of continuou s learning for adults tied to student learning etc. Increased visibility in Classrooms Demand content instruction that ensures student achievement of academic standards High expectations for academic & social development of adults & students Actively engage community to create shared responsibility for student and school success Student & adult learning at the center Uses multiple sources of data as diagnostic tools to assess, identify and apply instruction -al improvement. a. Principal Walk Through with note-taking Lyla Yes yes yes yes N/a Yes yes b. Assistant principal walk through Assistant Principal No Yes No – no note-taking or conferencin g No – no note taking N/a No no note-taking No notetaking

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184Table B-10. Continued. Cultural Domain Dimensions of Contrast c. Involving the teachers in the planning of their professional develop for the Re-SRI summer Academy Coach Princi-pal yes no N/a yes yes yes yes d. Leading an instructional conversation regarding results of outcome assessments to guide instruction as recorded on AIPs for the coming year. Lyla Yes N/a Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

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185Table B-10. Continued. Cultural Domain Dimensions of Contrast e. Leading a discussion on new DOE regs for cut scores for the upcoming state assessment and encouraging teachers to integrate curriculum more. Lyla Yes N/a Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes f. Providing necessary materials and time for teachers to engage in collaborative planning Lyla Yes N/a N/a Yes Yes Yes N/a

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186Table B-10. Continued. Cultural Domain Dimensions of Contrast g. Informing the literacy council regarding change state requirements in reading instruction as manifested in the Reading First grant. Jane Lyla Yes N/a Yes Yes Yes Yes N/a h. Building a common vision and purpose for the literacy council and developing leadership capacity Lyla Yes N/A N/a Yes Yes Yes N/a

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187Table B-10. Continued. Cultural Domain Dimensions of Contrast i. Focusing team meetings on instructional issues of assessment Jane Yes N/a Yes Yes Yes Yes yes j. Leading discussions about needs for professional development in differentiating instruction Lyla Yes N/a Yes Yes Yes Yes N/a k. Generating questions to lead decisions based on data Questions about need for inclusion Jane N/a N/a Yes Yes N/a Yes yes l. Providing time after training for processing and planning Lyla Yes N/a Yes Yes Yes Yes N/a

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188 APPENDIX C INTERVIEW THEMES Table C-1 Thematic Analysis Worksheet Reconstructions Central Themes Ms Baker Grade 1 0.1a L95 11/5/03 Her approach to instruction completely changed. – Ms B wrote: Yes to this interpretation 0. The Southern Reading Initiative has impacted the culture of learning at Lake Baxter Elementary in the following 3 ways: It has shaped the use of assessment to drive instruction. It has been the conveyor of a common language about reading instruction. 3. It has been instrumental increating a learningcommunity. Peters XXXX McDonald Grade 4 XXXX Dickerson 0.4a. L25 & 34 3/17/04 The sees the influence of SRI being more gradual with the greatest immediate impact being the use of assessment to inform instruction.

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189 Table C-1. Continued Reconstructions Central Themes Ms. Houston Reading Coach 0.5a.L54 7/13/04 Jane also came away from the reading academy in the first year unsure of her role in increasing teachers’ skills. She went about getting teachers to focus on what they were doing to use assessment and their current knowledge to change instruction. 0.5 b. L116 7/13/04 The first academy may have served to build background knowledge, but did refocus the use of data from collecting and sending off to the use of data to drive instruction. 0.5 c.L132 7/13/04 Even though the first academy focused on the interferences rather than the five basic components of instruction, it did open the conversation in a common language even though that language focused on a negative view of the reading process that did not emphasize high quality initial instruction. However, that thinking is beginning to change. Information gleaned from the academy hadn’t been… 0.5d. L40 4/23/04 The greatest impact was in the use of assessment to inform instruction. 0. The Southern Reading Initiative has impacted the culture of learning at Lake Baxter Elementary in the following 3 ways: It has shaped the use of assessment to drive instruction. 2.It has been the conveyor of a common language about reading instruction. 3. It has been instrumental in creating a learning community Ms. Johnson Principal 0.6 a.L7 12/4/03 The use of assessments to inform instruction is the biggest change. In the past, no progress monitoring really existed. The curriculum was taught and if kids didn’t get it – they just didn’t get it. This is a bigger impact than the instructional pr actices in the classroom.

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190 Table C-1. Continued Reconstructions Central Themes Ms Baker Grade 1 1.1a L12 11/5/03 The disconnect between what she dreamed teaching would be and the reality that she needed to be able to meet a wide range of individual student needs pr epared her to receive and retain much of what she learned in the SRI academy. 1.1b. L130 11/5/03 Adapted center management to needs of the class 1.1c. L147 11/5/03She always looks beyond the sight vocabulary suggested in the basal, to identify words that her students are not lik ely to have in their oral vocabularies and that would not be developed in their background knowledge. 1. The teachers’ background knowledge and deeply held values of teaching affected the content from the SRI Summer Reading Academy that the teachers retained and applied to their instructional practices. Theme confirmed in focus group Ms Peters 1.2a L22 11/5/03 Meeting i ndividual student needs impacts her instructional decisions. 1.2f. L7 3/17/04 She is CRISS trained and she sees much of that in FRI. FRI served as a reminder to the older staff of the CRISS strategies they had forgotten.*

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191 Table C-1. Continued. Reconstructions Central Themes Ms. Mc Donald 1.3a L8 10/29/03 Her guiding value is that she needs to take each child right where th ey are and provide them with a positive experience that builds on their strengths and interests. 1.3b L19 10/29/03 Regardless of pressure, she will not give up independent reading time. 1.3c. L29 10/29/03 Her focus in reading is less on explicit instruction and more on student choice in reading to produce life-long learners. 1.3d. L74 10/29/03 She uses the basal as a guide but uses other literature – things that she feels students will enjoy – to teach reading. 1.3e.L146 10/29/03 She attributes most of her practice to participation in the Go als 2000 training and research conducted by professors from the reading department at UF. 1.3f. L176 10/29/03 When FRI came in the picture, she saw it as more of the same thing. 1.3g. L233 10/29/03 Giving students a chance to be involved in discussions about l iterature with their peers – to have an opinion, defend that opinion. 1.3h. L40 11/2/03 Conference atte ndance has also spurred her to change especially in the area of writing as in the SRI training. 1.3i. L138 11/2/03 Her vision fo r herself is to become a better writer and teacher of writing, and to help students and other colleagues realize th e importance of connecting the reading and writing of text to their lives in general and to all that they are being asked to learn. 1.3j. L173 11/2/03 Goals 2000 and SRI have had the biggest impact on her teaching practices… 1.3k L111 10/29/03 When reading literature outside the basal she accommodates the differences in the reading levels of students by reading the story aloud or playing a tape of the story and then pointing out whatever literary feature that is the focus of study. 1. The teachers’ background knowledge and deeply held values of teaching affected the content from the SRI Summer Reading Academy that the teachers retained and applied to their instructional practices. Theme confirmed in focus group

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192 Table C-1 Continued Reconstructions Central Theme Ms Dickerson 1.4a L14 11/5/03 Deeply held, guiding beliefs involve having high expectations a nd providing enjoyable, yet effective learning activities for students 1.4b. L112 11/5/03 Her teaching practices haven’t changed since the FRI because as part of the pro-teach program at UF she was exposed to most of what she learned at FRI. The reading coaches do what she was trained to do in determining the specific r eading needs of a student. She doesn’t really get to do th at kind of deep individualized instruction. 1.4c. L284 11/5/03She uses text to self, text-text, and text to world connections because she finds that the students enjoy this strategy. 1.4d. L40 3/17/04 She reflected further on how SRI relates to the teaching she received in college –the use of texts in addition to the basal, all of which is the big goal toward which they are gradually progressing, but the FCAT is more immediate. 1. The teachers’ background knowledge and deeply held values of teaching affected the content from the SRI Summer Reading Academy that the teachers retained and applied to their instructional practices. Theme confirmed in focus group Ms. Houston 1.5a L23 7/13/04 Because the first SRI academy was based on the deficit model of the 6 interferences, teachers may have regarded the work of re mediation as a task for the interventionist rather that their work Ms. Johnson 1.6a. L132 6/24/04 Lyla views background knowledge in terms of years of experience – the novice who brings little or no experience to the classroom or the professional development; the middle of the road (10-15 year veterans eager to learn more about best practices); and veterans of 20-30 years entrenched in the atti tude that they have seen it all so why change. Table C-1 Continued

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193 Table C-1 Continued Reconstructions Central Themes Ms Baker Grade 1 2.1a. Baker is a trainer on the phonemic awareness/phonics component, the comprehension component and the reading/writing connection component. 2.1b. L151 11/5/03She also learned how to link the encoding and decoding processes for children for the teachi ng of spelling [through the reading/writing connection**]. 2.1c L377 6/1/04 As Ms B and Ms P shared how much their practices changed and how much more the really understood after they became trainers, 2.1 d. L 99 11/5/03 -Focus of instruction changed to real books instead of worksheets. She follows the objectives of the basal but not necessarily the lockstep sequence of the lessons in the basal. 2.1e. L 151 11/05/03 She also learned how to link the encoding and decoding processes for children for the teaching of spelling [through the reading/writing connection**]. 2.1f. L176 3/17/04 -Being a presenter has had the greatest impact on her teaching practices 2. The teachers who became trainers for the SRI demonstrated a greater implementation of the SRI strategies in their rooms, especially those related to their trainer components. Theme confirmed in focus group

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194 Table C-1 Continued Reconstructions Central Theme Ms. Peters 2.2a. L398 6/1/04 Peters is a trainer on the phonemic awareness/phonics component, the comprehension component and the reading/writing connection component. 2.2b. L192 11/5/03 She needed to hear her students read and speak to better understand and develop their language. 2.2c. L211 11/5/03 The key specific strategy that she has most ingraine d in her repertoire is her attention to bu ilding and activating background knowledge. 2.2d. L287 3/17/04 The Southern Reading Initiative has been th e type of inservice activity that has had the greatest impact, but not because of her attendance but rather because she became a trainer. Having to teach the material clarified the underlying principles of the components. e L377 6/1/04 As Ms B and Ms P shared how much their practices changed and how much more they really understood after they became trainers… 2. The teachers who became trainers for the SRI demonstrated a greater implementation of the SRI strategies in their rooms, especially those related to their trainer components. Theme confirmed in focus group

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195 Table C-1 Continued Reconstructions Central Theme Mc Donald 2.3a. Ms McDonald is a trainer for the reading/writing component. 2.3b. L202 10/29/03 The use of writing to support reading is one strategy from the SRI that has become part of her repe rtoire. Giving students a chance to be involved in discussions about literature with their peers – to have an opinion, defend that opinion, and to interact actively with text is another aspect of her repertoire. 2.3c. L175 11/20/03 The most impact that SRI had was when she became a trainer for the Reading/Writing connection component. 2.3d. L363 3/17/04 When prompted, she was able to identify her use of th e RAFT strategy during the course of teaching literature. 2.3e. L122 10/29/03. She also uses small flexible grouping to work with kids in off-level texts. 2.3f. L242 10/29/03 and to interact actively with text is another aspect of her repertoire. 2. The teachers who became trainers for the SRI demonstrated a greater implementation of the SRI strategies in their rooms, especially those related to their trainer components. Ms Dickerson 2.4a. L406 6/1/04 Ms Dickerson is not a trainer for any of the SRI components. 2.4b. L217 11/5/03 Many of the SRI strategies are built into the extra activities of the basals now. 2.4c. L406 6/1/04 Ms D confirms her interest in becoming a trainer. Theme confirmed in focus group

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196 Table C-1 Continued Reconstructions Central Themes Ms. Houston 2.5a.L204 7/13/04 but if you get to where you feel that you do (know enough to train teachers), then you’ll get better in the classroom. She feels that when teachers understood what she was saying, a lot more wanted to get on board to become trainers. 2. The teachers who became trainers for the SRI demonstrated a greater implementation of the SRI strategies in their rooms, especially those related to their trainer components. Theme confirmed during member check. Ms. Johnson XXXXXXXX

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197 Table C-1 Continued Reconstructions Central theme Ms Baker Grade 1 3.1a. L 85 11/5/03 -SRI began the thinking process about how she needed to change her instruction, but she was unsure how to do it. She asked the reading coach how she would accomplish this in her room. The coach told her to read the Four Blocks (Cunningham), which provided her with a framework for what she had learned in FRI 3.1b. L122 3/17/04 Four Blocks and Mosaic of Thought were big influences on her teaching practices subsequent to the SRI. The books came from SRI and were introduced in a book study group Jane formed. 3.1c. L69 3/17/04 They plan together and choose similar instructional approaches with their own individual twists. 3.1d. L89 3/17/04 She has developed a system through trial and error for recording anecdotal records of her students that started with random sticky notes and resulted in a form. This was a result of collaboration. ** 3.1e.L108 3/17/04 The entire first grade began the year planning together but stopped because the way that they would plan, their teaching styles, were too different. 3.1f. L170 3/17/04 She has considered Readers’ Theatre and talked it over with her collaborators, but needs time to get it organized, maybe during the summer. 3.1g. L272 3/17/04 The year after SRI, teachers were attending teacher-led inservice and visiting classrooms that were implementing SRI strategies. They started that this year but it was discontinued. 3.1h. L364 She sometimes c onsults teacher friends who have gone to a higher grade to get a sense of what she needs to do to help prepare her students for the following year. 3.1i. L133 &137 6/1/04 A big issue, to the point of frustration, with Ms P and Ms B is the lack of participation of some of the other teachers who never seem to want to change.* 3.1j. L 54 other teachers have influenced Ms B’s instructional practice through collaboration, mutual support, and trial and error. 3. The culture of continued learning has affected the instructional practices of those teachers who participate in the emerging learning community and has affected the instructional practices of the rest of the faculty to varying degrees. Theme confirmed in focus group.

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198 Table C-1 Continued Reconstruction Central Theme Ms. Peters 3.2a. L30 3/17/04 Collaboration with other teachers has played a primary role in changing her instructional practices. Co llaboration is beneficial, but not all of the teachers participate for various reasons such as an unwillingness to change, or risk others “taking their ideas.” Sharing is important, though. 3.2b.L57 3/17/04 She feels like generally teachers are not working together though they should to increase efficiency. There are a few on each team who do collaborate. But others don’t even after trying to plan together as an entire team. 3.2c. L 70,74 3/17/04 The whole grade planning together fell apart after a month or two because of a few people being unwilling to contribute. The unwilling participants would use what they had heard about, but gave nothing in return. 3.2d. L454 3/17/04 She and Ms B collaborate. They have pulled another teache r in, but other teachers are intimidated by what they do. 3.2e. L96 & 110 3/17/04 “It’ s not materials that teach. It’s teachers that t each.” Teachers learn from teaches. 3.2i. L133 &137 6/1/04 A big issue, to the point of frustration, with Ms P and Ms B is the lack of participation of some of the other teachers who never seem to want to change.* 3. The culture of continued learning has affected the instructional practices of those teachers who participate in the emerging learning community and has affected the instructional practices of the rest of the faculty to varying degrees. Theme confirmed in focus group.

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199 Table C-1 Continued Reconstructions Central Themes Ms Mc Donald 3.3a.L 29 11/20/03 She is influenced by successes of coworkers as they share them with her, her librarian and administration. She will try out what they have been successful with. 3.3b. L116 11/20/03 Having a colleague to share those difficulties with a strategy would be helpful to sustain the change process. The Literacy Council had even thought of creating like an on campus expert group who could assist other teachers in this way. 3.3c. L53 3/17/04 Jane often refers teachers to other teachers who have worked out a problem that they are currently having. 3.3d. L95 3/17/04 Some teachers are just not willing to share even in small groups or to take any leadership role. The same 2 or 3 teachers on a team always volunteer and are the “go to” folks. She isn’t sure why, but feels that teachers have a lot to offer each other and if each would just share a li ttle everyone would benefit. 3.3e. L174 3/17/04 She met with the support group that was exploring grouping for instruction issues and became inspired to set up centers in her room.. 3.3f. L220 3/17/04 She doesn’ t really have anyone on the 4th grade team that she has that sharing relationship and has felt like the odd person, but not in a negative way. She has had 2 teammates ask to see her doing her centers because they are now thinking about making some changes. She has heard them state that if someone would just show them how to do it, they would. She just needed the idea and was able to organize it to suit her. 3. The culture of continued learning has affected the instructional practices of those teachers who participate in the emerging learning community and has affected the instructional practices of the rest of the faculty to varying degrees.

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200 Table C-1 Continued Reconstruction Central Theme Ms Dickerson 3.4a. .L141 11/5/03 She then recal led that since SRI, they have done more grouping to meet student need through explicit instruction. This has been a topic of the support group. Small, flexible grouping is a goal for her.* 3.4b. L49 3/17/04 She discusse d the support group that met on Mondays to share best pract ices and various ways of using various strategies for organizing for instruction so that they could do more small group instruction. 3.4c. L64 3/17/04 This group has influenced her practices. Especially cially the teachers who are at grade levels the closest to hers. 3.4d.L287 3/17/04 She feels that the staff needs to be reminded constantly about the strategies and how to us them. The staff actuall y had thought of having a strategy of the week that everyone would try. She became increasingly convinced about how choosing a strategy of the week would be beneficial in improving the practices of those who would participate as she orally processed how it might work. ** 3.4e. L290 3/17/04 She became increasingly convinced about how choosing a strategy of the week would be beneficial in improving the pr actices of those who would participate as she orally processed how it might work. ** 3.4f. L560 3/17/04 She feels like each team has one strong teacher. 3.4g. L163 6/1/04 Ms D feels like the reticence of some faculty members to change can affect others because the more folks that don’t attempt to improve practice means fewer people available to assist in supporting the efforts of the colleagues that do want to improve their practices.* 3. The culture of continued learning has affected the instructional practices of those teachers who participate in the emerging learning community and has affected the instructional practices of the rest of the faculty to varying degrees. Theme confirmed in focus group.

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201 Table C-1. Continued. Ms. Houston Reconstructions 3.5a L66 12/8/03 After the SRI academy, some teachers’ practices changed drastically rather immediately. Others were still unsure about how to go about making chang es and others had no intentions of making changes because they felt that this fad would also pass. In the beginning, most of her suppor t went to the teachers who were most eager to make those changes. The second group has been helped greatly by the support groups held this year, and she believes the “ReSRI” will also invigorate the process. The third group is hard to change because their roots in the community provide them with so much security that there is no pressure to change.* She and the principal are unsure about After the SRI academy, some teachers’ practices changed drastically rather immediately. Others were still unsure about how to go about making changes and others had no intentions of making changes because they felt that this fad would also pass. In the beginning, most of her support went to the teachers who were most eag er to make those changes. The second group has been helped greatly by the support groups held this year, and she believes the “ReSRI” will also invigorate the process. The third group is hard to change because their roots in the community provide them with so much security that there is no pressure to change.* 3.5b. l82 4/23/04 She feels that the reciprocal teaching training that she has planned for the Re-SRI training will solidify thinking on the staff. She also thought that ma ybe she would spend some time in her room or pair her up with another 4th grade teacher who has similar desires. Or – to go in and do some coteaching to start some reciprocal teaching with some of her groups. 3.5c. L102 9/22/04 Because the interventionists have a common planning time with the teachers whose students they serve, they are able to communicate regularly regarding their mutual questions and discoveries regard ing individual student progress – it’s a continuous conversation 3.5d. L224 4/23/04 Although some teachers did not participate in the learning community throughout the year of data collection, as the year ended, and re-SRI occurred, greater interest has become evident. The tangible, explicit model of reciprocal teaching seems to have provided some of that impetus.* 3.5e. L79 4/23/04 She collaborated in the first year with Ms Baker so that they could learn together how to implement what they had learned in the academy. 3.5f. Jane has seen Ms B and Ms P, who used to be competitive begin working together and sharing their expertise, which has affected their entire team. A similar situation occurred in grade three. Central Theme 3. The culture of continued learning has affected the instructional practices of those teachers who participate in the emerging learning community and has affected the instructional practices of the rest of the faculty to varying degrees. Theme confirmed in member check.

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202 Table C-1 Continued Reconstructions Central Themes Ms. Johnson 3.6a. L41 9/22/03 She selected two primary and two intermediate teachers at my re quest. The two primary teachers are both Southern Reading Initiati ve trainers and the principal regards them as excellent primarily because they both are continuous learners. 3.6b. L52 9/22/03 She values the pr ofessional collaboration of these two teachers.* 3.6c. L137 9/22/03 She has teache rs share best practices on Monday afternoons from 3:00-4: 00. Not all the teachers come every Monday. She often has Ms B and Ms P model for the other teachers. She feels that the others are interested in what they model. Not all faculty members attend. 3.6d. L159 9/22/03 The Monday gro up got started when Jane, Patsy and a few other teachers read The Four Blocks. Lyla read the books too and enjoyed listening to how each was applying the concepts in their cl asses rather than her receiving inservice and then mandating that everyone do it that way. She feels that mandates don’t work. Teachers need to have the heart to learn. 3.6f. L55 12/4/03 She felt that she was on the same path with the teachers in understanding be tter the important components of teacher reading 3.6g. L195 6/24/04 She sees change s that have occurred in teachers’ practices that have resulted from the support group. 3. The culture of continued learning has affected the instructional practices of those teachers who participate in the emerging learning community and has affected the instructional practices of the rest of the faculty to varying degrees. Theme confirmed in member check.

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203 Table C-1 Continued Reconstructions Central Themes Ms Baker Grade 1 4.1a. L59 11/5/03 Pressured by making sure kids get skills covere d in preparation for assessments. 4.1bL27 6/1/04….time to reflect on practices in order to perfect enactment and to assess effectiveness. 4.1c.L326 6/1/04 Being concerned about losing time when one chooses a new strategy to perfect seems to be linked to the inadequate amount of time to prepare. 4. Lack of time affects the degree to which teachers change instructional practices in 3 ways as follows: lack of time to reflect on practices in order to perfect them; fear of wasting or losing academic time when implementing a new practice; lack of class time to deepen students’ understandings. Theme confirmed in focus group. Ms. Peters 4.2a L35 6/1/04 …. time to go deeper with kids and to make sure they have mastered important skills/concepts. 4.2b. L191 11/5/03 A lot of teachers still focus on worksheets for student practice, but Ms P came to feel that they were time wasters. Theme confirmed in member check.

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204 Table C-1 Continued Reconstructions Central Theme Ms McDonald xxxxxxxxxxx 4. Lack of time affects the degree to which teachers change instructional practices in 3 ways as follows: lack of time to reflect on practices in order to perfect them; fear of wasting or losing academic time when implementing a new practice; lack of class time to deepen students’ understandings. Ms Dickerson Grade 4 4.4a.L101 11/5/03 Time is the greatest pressure and then doing things that are effective in getting kids to learn enjoyable –but primarily effective and then deciding what is the most important information to teach based upon what they need and can benefit from. 4.4b.L99 3/17/04 The biggest challenge for her is what happens when she tries something new and it failskids misbehave or the students’ products are inferior. She feels that she has wasted time. Then she feels like she could have gotten more done by retreating to more traditional, closely guided practices. 4.4c. L403 3/17/04 She feels that the biggest hindrance in making thes e changes is just the time to sit down and plan it. 4.4d.L410 3/17/04 She then stated that some teachers get high FCAT scores and they don’t do any of the strategy te aching. And others that do the strategy instruct ion have students who don’t do as well – so that makes these approaches look ineffective. So, it’s hard for her to know how to invest her time. Theme confirmed in focus group.

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205 Table C-1 Continued Reconstructions Central Themes Ms. Houston Reading Coach 4.5a. L116 12/8/04 Jane felt that one of the challenges to change was the teachers’ drive to cover the curriculum and being afraid to try something new or stop to think for fear of not getting everything taught before the year’s end 4.5b L139 12/8/04 Routine is very important to children and teachers. They are reluctant to eliminate things from the routine even though they are not necessari ly effective and don’t even know why they do them. So, instead of ending some aspects of a routine, teachers continue to add things. And then complain about not having enough time. The question is what is worth having in the routine? 4.5c L176 12/08/04 She would like the teachers to be free from frustration due to time pressures in order to embrace change and innovation or to teach reflectively. 4. Lack of time affects the degree to which teachers change instructional practices in 3 ways as follows: lack of time to reflect on practices in order to perfect them; fear of wasting or losing academic time when implementing a new practice; lack of class time to deepen students’ understandings.

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206 Table C-1 Continued Reconstruction Central Theme Ms. Johnson Principal 4.6a. L199 &207 9/22/03 She sometimes feels overwhelmed with the many needs and demands as the principal in such a large school. She makes a priority of getting into classrooms, but with so many teachers – especially the aides who are very needy – it’s hard to meet the needs. 4.6b. L15 6/24/04 She feels that given additional time – unstructured – most teachers would fail to focus on deep reflection regarding best practices. For the best of teachers the reflection time is critical. 4.6c. She balances the time she allows for the teachers to work to get their personal work done with structured time to focus on envisioning and whole school planning. 4.6d. L155 6/24/04 She feels that the teachers who are continuously le arning do not have the opportunities to discuss best practices as professionals do and that education would be better if teachers were on a 12 month contract during which they explored best practices.. 4.6e. L355 6/24/04 Lyla feels that the pressure of the test scores is a factor in this hesitancy to try new things. 4.6f. L402 6/24/04 Teachers’ anxieties are increased if the innovation is more long term because of the greater ultimate impact on test scores if the implementation fails or the innovation fails. 4. Lack of time a ffects the degree to which teachers change instructional practices in 3 ways as follows: lack of time to reflect on practices in order to perfect them; fear of wasting or losing academic time when implementing a new practice; lack of class time to deepen students’ understandings.

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207 Table C-1 Continued Reconstructions Central Themes s Baker Grade 1 5.1a. L289 3/17/04 It (teach er-led inservice) was discontinued because everyone was “bogged down.” 1. reluctant to share details of “bogged down.”** 2. not enough time* 3. school climate issues lowered motivation** Ms B circled # 3 on Member check. 5.1b. L307 &328 3/17/04 Ms B was careful in how she promoted Saxon Phonics to her peers because of previous opposition to it and because she wouldn’t want anyone to tell her what to do. 5.1c.L338 3/17/04 She felt very pressured by the teacher request system to put on a show for parents. 5.1d. L373 3/17/04Professional pride and jealousy was what put an end to the sharing. 5.1e She is not as quick to share as she once was and is very careful not to let people know when she has been invited to do a workshop for another school etc. 5.1f. L414 3/17/04Other teacher who have similar philosophies can affect her choice of instructional practices, but those who don’t share that philosophy, have very little influence.* This promotes isolation.** 5.1g. L564 6/1/04 Ms B & P felt very apprehensive about training their own faculty in their upcoming summer training even though they’ve presented to many other faculties without concern.* 5.1h. L601 6/1/04 Ms P & Ms B concerned with being perceived as “know-it-alls” even though they always make clear when they present that they are providing a framework that will need to be tailored by each teacher. 5. Professional pride and jealousy inhibit the growth of the learning community, the implementation of new practices, and discourage emerging teacher leadership. Theme confirmed during member check

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208 Table C-1 Continued Ms. Peters 5.2a. L375 3/17/04 The same group of teachers is always asked to do things. Some are intimidated when asked to present to the faculty because they feel that others perceive them as trying to elevate themselves in some way. 5.2b. L388 3/17/04 She really does believe it is jealousy, but to admit that would be an admission that she could legitimately be an object of jealousy and thereby appear that she thinks highly of herself. She really does believe it is jealousy, but to admit that would be an admission that she could legitimately be an object of jealousy and thereby appear that she thinks highly of herself, which might go against her values. **Ms P crossed through the brown words. She really doesn’t have any idea why. 5.2c. L394 3/17/04 She feels that other teachers are concerned with some teachers getting more attention, advantages or money than them.** Ms P wrote: …as in being paid for teaching conferences, workshops, etc…. 5.2d L407 3/17/04 Despite the feel ing of being criticized, she continues to accept leadership opportunities. She points more to her personality and life experiences as a factor for why she persists in leadership and others may choose not to. She wants to achieve and do well because she has always felt a need to prove herself and to get things done. 5.2e. L564 6/01/04 Ms B & P felt very apprehensive about training their own faculty in their upcoming summer training even though they’ve presented to many other faculties without concern.* 5.2.f. L601 6/01/04 Ms P & Ms B concerned with being perceived as “know-it-alls” even though they always make clear when they present that they are providing a framework that will need to be tailored by each teacher. 5.2g. L631 6/1/04 Ms P feels that it would be the same toward anyone else that stepped up to leadership in any school, making teacher leadership attainment difficult.. 5. Professional pride and jealousy inhibit the growth of the learning community, the implementation of new practices, and discourage emerging teacher leadership. Theme confirmed in focus group.

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209 Table C-1 Continued Reconstructions Central Themes Ms McDonald Grade 4 5.3a. L314 3/17/04 The request system contributes to prof essional jealousy.* 5.3b L323 3/17/04 It create s an elite class of people. (teachers & students).** 5.3c L117 &124 3/17/04 Sh e feels that perhaps people don’t share because they feel they’re being judged in a negative way. Some teachers are also possessive… 5. Professional pride and jealousy inhibit the growth of the learning community, the implementation of new practices, and discourage emerging teacher leadership. Ms Dickerson Grade 4 5.4a. L583-588 3/17/04 She didn’t really feel negativity from other teachers toward teacher leaders. Some teachers, like herself seek after the teacher leaders to learn from them. 5.4b. L591 3/17/04 Some stealing of ideas occurs, and some teams do not do well together and are very competitive, but she feels that the 4th grade team has friendly relationships. Teachers on some teams keep things secret so that they will have more teacher requests. 5.4c. L623 6/1/04 She feels that anyone who would accuse Ms B of trying to be a “know-itall” simply has a personal problem. Ms P feels that it would be the same toward anyone else that stepped up to leadership. 5.4d. L642 6/1/04 It takes courage to become a teacher leader. Theme confirmed in focus group.

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210 Table C-1 Continued Ms. Houston Reading Coach 5.5a. L16 4/23/04 She related the after affects of a train the trainer that one of the second grade teachers had attended. When confronted with the idea that she would be presenting to her peers, she stated that she didn’t really think she could do that. Jane said that when she made the offer to help get it together, the teacher shared that it wasn’t that she couldn ’t present, but rather that she didn’t want to look like a “know-it-all” with her peers. The teacher didn’t mind being taped, but she didn’t feel comfortable presenting. 5.5b. L30 4/23/04 Jane related how at one point Ms McDonald expressed her exasperation with the 4th grade team not gelling and coming together to accomplish a task they had been given. Jane felt that Ms M was discontented because she had worked the year before she went to the middle school with the 3rd grade where they worked together to figu re things out and where they honored each other’s expertise. So, Jane felt that Ms M Jane related how at one poi nt Ms McDonald expressed her exasperation with the 4th grade team not gelling and coming together to accomplish a task they had been given. Jane felt that Ms M was discontented because she had worked the year before she went to the middle school with the 3rd grade where they worked together to figure things out and where they honored each other’s expertise. So, Jane felt that Ms M Ms M said no that she would “hang in there” – that they needed somebody like her on their team to stretch their thinking. She is seeing a few tiny steps forward, but … It’s not an ego thing or for the teachers. It’s that the kids needed someone with a different teaching style available at that grade level. Ms M may have felt embarrassed about making the statement about the fourth grade needing her. 5.5c. L348. Being the classroom leader – the one in charge sets teachers up for difficulties in seeing themselves as part of a community of learners. 5.5 d. L345-361 7/13/04 Ms B and Ms P, who used to be competitive begin working together. 5.5e. L361 7/13/04 She feels that teachers are figuring out ways of becoming models without becoming intimidating to others. 5.5f.L 381 7/13/04 The small size of the community in which the school is located has also affected the professional competitiveness. When professionals have such familiarity among their fa milies, it makes it hard to feel that they can actually learn from each other. 5. Professional pride and jealousy inhibit the growth of the learning community, the implementation of new practices, and discourage emerging teacher leadership.

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211 Table C-1 Continued Reconstructions Central Themes Ms. Johnson Principal 5.6a. L172 9/22/03 She finds it hard to facilitate the communication necessary to build the learning community because of strong personalities. 1. Personalities may mean highly independent.* 2 Lack cooperative skills and emotional maturity* 3.Could refer to professional jealousy and pride issues 5.6b L233 6/24/04 Lyla agreed with the notion that we do not capitalize on the use of training teachers as trainers as a method for increasing implementation and then began to discuss the professional pride and jealousy issues as reasons why. 5.6c. L247 6/24/04 Professional pride and jealousy is a significant influence in Lyla’s approach in dealing with her teachers. While her decisions are not driven by this vari able, her communication is. 5.6d. L281 6/24/04 Personality clashes and egos can either make or break any school wide initiative. 5.6e. L376 & 394 6/24/04 She then identified the pressure from some members of the teams to impose conformity on the rest of the team. Consistency in following the SSS is necessary, but teachers need to have freedom to meet the SSS in their own fashion. The imposition of conformity to counter perceived “one upsmanship” is a factor as well among the teachers.* 5. Professional pride and jealousy inhibit the growth of the learning community, the implementation of new practices, and discourage emerging teacher leadership.

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212 Table C-1 Continued Reconstructions Central Themes Ms Baker Grade 1 6.1a. L119 3/17/04 Her vision and implementation level don’t match. She implements but not … with a sense of mastery* with a deep enough understanding* Her preliminary unders tanding of the strategy is shallow due to training & this prevents her from the deeper understanding 6.1b. L465 3/17/04 As a novice teacher, Ms B did whatever the other teachers did even when she felt it wasn’t the best for her kids. 6.1c. L172 6/1/04 Doing what other teachers do when one is a new teacher is a matter of survival.* Some people are satisfied with remaining at the survival level while others aren’t. 6. Teacher self-efficacy affects the implementation of new instructional practices, teachers’ participation in the learning community, and the emergence of teacher leadership. Ma. Peters 6.2a. L89 3/17/04 She conjectured that they might be afraid that they’re teaching performance would not be as good as others. 6.2b. L 122 3/17/04 As a new teacher, she tried to do things the way the other teachers did. 6.2c. L158 3/17/04 Teaching the way she does now would be more difficult for a novice teacher. 6.2d.L172 6/1/04 Doing what other teachers do when one is a new teacher is a matter of survival.* Some people are satisfied with remaining at the survival level while others aren’t.

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213 Table C-1 Continued Reconstructions Central Themes Ms McDonald Grade 4 6.3a. L99 11/20/03 Self-doubt can also be a challenge to her changing pr actices – especially if a new strategy fails to produce in the students what she expected. 6.3b. L127 11/20/03 The difficulty is in folks being forthcoming in identifying themselves as experts either because they don’t see themselves that way or for some other reason unknown to her. She feels that Jane or Ms J woul d be able to identify expertise when the teachers don’t see it in themselves. 6.3c. L81 3/17/04 The staff has been encouraged to share what they are doing with other elementary schools in the consortium’s region. Some teachers, though, are intimidated by thinking that they know very much about anything. Many lack confidence in their practices and/or in their ability to lead other teachers. 6.3d. L118 3/17/04…or lack confidence due to lack of experience, or just personality. 6.3e. L154 3/17/04 She feels like she is very open to having visitors come in to her classroom, but others choose not to which is a concern to her. She conjectures that perhaps they feel like they’re not teaching to their potential or that they have to change their practices for visitors. 6.3f. L180 3/17/04 After listening to what they said she had the confidence that she could do that. She has had such success that she would never go back to singularly whole group instruction and she never would have tried it if she hadn’t had a chance to hear how others were doing it. 6.3.g. L317 3/17/04 Teachers who don’t get a satisfactory number of re quests may feel like they aren’t doing as good a job as someone else. 6. Teacher self-efficacy affects the implementation of new instructional practices, teachers’ participation in the learning community, and the emergence of teacher leadership.

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214 Table C-1 Continued Reconstructions Central Theme Ms Dickerson Grade 4 6.4a.L18-41 11/5/03 She wants to meet my needs and please me as interviewer. She feels tentative about her abilit y to express herself in these matters.* She related the following points as though recalling from a textbook the principles of learning that she wa s expected to know: high engagement, equity in learning opportunities, her own professional growth. 6.4b. L 134 11/5/03 She feels that experience is teaching her how to move from following the basal explicitly to moving into literature circles and group learning. 6.4c. L477-494 3/17/04 Furthe r, trainings that allow the participant to actually do the activities helped her implement. The ones she did in the training would be the ones she would do with her class. She could also see how to manage the activity. 6.4d. L550 3/17/04 She felt that she (Ms Dickerson) didn’t exemplif y the strategies that she learned in SRI. 6.4e.L632 3/17/04 She suggested that she learns well, she just has diffi culty applying what she learns sometimes. 6.4f. L745 3/17/04 A lot of the benefit from applying has been in the teacher reflection she has had to do. 6.g.L172 6/1/04 Doing what other teachers do when one is a new teacher is a matter of survival.* Some people are satisfied with remaining at the survival level while others aren’t. 6.4h.L267 6/1/04. Ms D feels uncertain about her practices.* 6. Teacher self-efficacy affects the implementation of new instructional practices, teachers’ participation in the learning community, and the emergence of teacher leadership.

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215 Table C-1 Continued Ms. Houston Reading Coach 6.5a. L49 4/23/04 So, Jane asked her if she wanted to do that (return to the 3rd grade learning community). Ms M said no that she would “hang in there” – that they needed somebody like her on their team to stretch their thinking. She is seeing a few tiny steps forward, but … 1. It’s not an ego thing or for the teachers. It’s that the kids needed someone with a different teaching style. Ms. H writes: Yes. Ms M may have felt embarrassed about making the statement about the fourth grade needing her. ** Ms H writes: Yes! 6.5b. L202 4/23/04 Jane has perceived a general attitude over the years that a lot of teachers feel like they don’t know enough to b ecome trainers, but that her stance has been – but if you get to where you feel that 6.5c. L418 7/13/04 From a survey she conducted to prepare for the school improvement plan, Jane found that teachers don’t feel that they need any more workshops or consultants. They need to be able to see the strategies in action – either by visitation or by having a trusted someone, not a peer, to come in and model for them in order to have the confidence to let go of current practices. 6.5d.L454 7/13/04 Some teachers have difficulty taking new instructional pr actices and applying them to their classrooms because the presentation of those practices has been decontex tualized from the entire classroom management system. She gives the example of how one of the presenters modeled with kids at the Literacy Thro ugh Leadership conference. At first, she thought that it was taking way too much time, but realized that sh e had gotten so much more out of it because the strategy had been contextualized by the peripheral issues of classroom and behavior management. Further, a checklist was provided for the participants, which helped them focus on important points of the lesson in a more active manner. 6.5e L203 4/23/04 Teachers often express that they don’t know enough to be trainers. 6. Teacher self-efficacy affects the implementation of new instructional practices, teachers’ participation in the learning community, and the emergence of teacher leadership.

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216 Table C-1 Continued Ms. Johnson Principal 6.6a. L173 6/24/04 She delineated 3 changes that she feels would effect student outcomes: self-regard as professional.

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217 Table C-1 Continued Reconstructions Central Themes Ms Baker Grade 1 7.1a.L 211 3/17/04 Prior to SRI, Ms J would encourage the teachers to use the workbooks by providing them automatically. Now she(the principal) is aware of ot her instructional practices. 7.1b. L225 3/17/04, Ms J often comes back from principals cadre meetings and shares how proud she is of her teachers. Ms B fi nds that is encouraging when she is tempted to shift to old practices 7.1c. L244 3/17/04 Jane’s personality is such that she has always been one to dive in and help with problems as an ESE teacher and now as a coach. 7.1d. L445 3/17/04The principal and the coach are big encouragers and will do whatever is necessary to assist a teacher who is seeking information to improve practices. 7.1e. L530 &540 6/1/04 A deeper involvement on the part of the support staff from the principal to the intervention teachers (T itle I resource teachers) exists with the classroom. This gives more than one professional observing both the practices of teachers and also the behavior of students 7. The coach and principal’s leadership is characterized by a strong belief in the importance of encouragement, continuous learning and a greater presence in the classrooms.

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218 Table C-1 Continued Reconstructions Central Themes Ms. Peters 7.2a. L 322 3/17/04 Ms J has always been supportive, but this year, expectations have risen some. The required parent conferences, for example, are much more burdensome to her now that they are required rather than something she chose to do as in the past. 7.2b. L345 3/17/04 Jane has been supportive. She feels like last year when she didn’t have many needy kids that she should have gotten some services based upon teacher judgment rather than just test score criteria. This year she feels that she is getting a lot of service from the interventionist. 7.2c. L530 &540 3/17/04 A deeper involvement on the part of the support staff from the principal to the intervention teachers (Title I resource teachers) exists with the classroom. This gives more than one professional observing both the practices of teachers and also the behavior of students 7. The coach and principal’s leadership is characterized by a strong belief in the importance of encouragement, continuous learning and a greater presence in the classrooms McDonald 7.3a L60 11/2/03 She is reluctant to follow in lockstep fashion any program, but because Ms J provides a lot of latitude, she has been able to teach the standards with great freedom. 7.3b.L4 3/17/04 Lyla encourages the staff to try new things and set the stage for change. 7.3c.L16 3/17/04 Since SRI Ms J has eliminated the formal observation and now does “walk throughs” on a regular basis, which allows her to see a variety of classroom activities. 7.3d. L37 3/17/04 The coach is very much a cheerleading figure and leader of professional development efforts such as the support group, a literature group and is always pointing the faculty to other valuable informati on such as reciprocal teaching. She also spends a great deal of time in the classrooms. 7.3e. L49 & 59 3/17/04 She’ll also spend a lot of time in the classrooms of novice teachers helping them plan and teach. 7. The coach and principal’s leadership is characterized by a strong belief in the importance of encouragement, continuous learning and a greater presence in the classrooms.

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219 Table C-1 Continued Reconstructions Theme Ms Dickerson Grade 4 7.4a. L501 3/17/04 The princi pal is very in tune with FRI and her leadership has allowed Jane to begin the support groups 7.4b.L511 3/17/04 She always encourages the staff to participate in studies and projects. 7.4c. L528 3/17/04 She sees the coach and the principal as working together to provide the instructional leadership. 7.4d. L530 &540 6/1/04 A deeper involvement on the part of the support staff from the principal to the intervention teachers (T itle I resource teachers) exists with the classroom. This gives more than one professional observing both the practices of teachers and also the behavior of students. 7. The coach and principal’s leadership is characterized by a strong belief in the importance of encouragement, continuous learning and a greater presence in the classrooms

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220 Table C-1 Continued Reconstructions Central Themes Ms. Houston Reading Coach 7.5a L212 12/8/04 Lyla’s knowledge of reading and what should be going on in classrooms has grown. She also learned the usefulness of doing “walk-throughs” rather th an formal observations where teachers can put on a show. Jane feels that this practice has alte red Lyla’s view of some teachers that he originally thought were very good. She also is trying to build leadership capacity among the teachers. 7.5b. L 161 7/13/04 In the beginning, she was involved in classrooms of teachers who were already solid in their practices, but she has become more aggressive about getting into others’ classes. Even th e more solid teachers are beginning to see their gaps now and are confident in what to do to change those practices. Teachers who became trainers became members of the literacy council and thus the foundation of literacy improvement in the school. 7.5c. L186 4/23/04 Lyla was supportive in allowing and encouraging teachers to become trainers when other principals were reluctant to release their teachers. 7.5d. L252 4/23/04 Jane and Lyla frequently discuss the harder questions of why some teachers implement and others don’t. 7.5e L284 4/23/04 Jane’s personal relationships are based on whether or not she can learn from people with whom she has a relationship. 7. A strong belief in the importance of encouragement, continuous learning, the building of leadership capacity, and a greater involvement with teachers as well as a greater presence within classrooms characterize the coach and principal’s leadership.

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221 Table C-1 Continued Reconstructions Central Themes Ms. Johnson Principal 7.6a. L142 9/22/03 She selected two primary and two intermediate teachers at my request. The two primary teachers are both Southern Reading Initiative trainers and the principal regards them as excellent primarily because they both are continuous learners. 7.6b L59 9/22/03 Lyla speaks of Ms Mc Donald as experienced… one who likes to improve her practices and likes variety. 7.6c.L573 713/04 Lyla values the attitude of openness to learning and growing. This is the common factor she identified in all of the teachers she chose 7.6d. L94 9/13/03 grade level teams; common planning time daily. Lyla’ s system of communication is based on face-to-face team meetings, which are more like mini-faculty meetings. She is very systematic in this process.* 7.6e.247 9/22/03 She feels that it’s hard to build a sense of community when teachers don’t get to associate with one another in smaller team groups. 7.6f. L90 12/4/03 Others need to be pushed into a new grade because they have stopped learning. 7.6.gL397 6/24/04 Lyla encourages innovation, but expects them to be able to show evidence regarding the impact of their innovation on student learning. 7.6h. L24 6/24/04It is important for most teachers to structure a time of planning so that they will communicate with their team and build a long term vision for the school. 7.6i. L180 6/24/04 She models continuous growth by being open to changes for ways in which she directs the faculty. 7. A strong belief in the importance of encouragement, continuous learning, the building of leadership capacity, and a greater involvement with teachers as well as a greater presence within classrooms characterize the coach and principal’s leadership.

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222 Table C-1 Continued Reconstructions Central Theme Ms Baker Grade 1 8.1a L87 11/5/03 Four Blocks (Cunningham), which provided her with a framework for what she had learned. It may have provided her with a framework for scheduling her day 8. The tendency of teachers to layer newly acquired instructional practices on top of existing routines rather than integrating or replacing practices and a failure to align their time priorities to the goal of student achievement create a time pressure that makes teachers resistant to new practices. Ms Peters XXXX Reconstructions Central Themes Ms McDonald Grade 4 XXXXXX 8. The tendency of teachers to layer newly acquired instructional practices on top of existing routines rather than integrating or replacing practices and a failure to align their time priorities to the goal of student achievement create a time pressure that makes teachers resistant to new practices. Ms Dickerson

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223 Table C-1 Continued Reconstructions Central Themes Ms. Houston Reading Coach 8.5a. L143 12/8/04 Routine is very important to children and teachers. They are reluctant to eliminate things from the routine even though they are not necessarily effective and don’t even know why they do them. So, instead of ending some aspects of a routine, teachers continue to add things. And then complain about not having enough time. The question is what is worth having in the routine? 8.5b. L298 7/13/04 Teachers typically respond to new information as though that information is intended to supplant practic es rather than to be integrated or to fine tune current practices.* 8.5 c. L89 4/23/04 When the faculty discovered that they would be undergoing Re-SRI in the summer, Jane felt that many of the teachers perceived this as the next new fad or layer of activities that they w ould be expected to do. 8.5d..312-324. 7/13/04 Jane feels that teachers waste a lot of time, and to investigate the use of time would be a touchy subject. Jane feels that prio rity setting makes the difference. If one’s eye is on the student outcome, then one’s options for how to get there open up. 8. The tendency of teachers to layer newly acquired instructional practices on top of existing routines rather than integrating or replacing practices and a failure to align their time priorities to the goal of student achievement create a time pressure that makes teachers resistant to new practices. Johnson 8.6a. L11 6/24/04 She feels that given additional time – unstructured – most teachers would fail to focus on deep reflection re garding best practices.

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224 Table C-1 Continued Reconstructions Central Themes Ms Baker Grade 1 9.1a.L241 3/17/04 Ms J often comes back from principals cadre meeti ngs and shares how proud she is of her teachers. Ms B finds that is encouraging when she is tempted to shift to old practices 9. The principal’s perceptions of the emotional maturity of her faculty members shape her methods of communication and procedures. Ms. Peters 9.2a L96 11/5/03 She chooses to be the one to work with the child because she is better trained and more familiar with the child’s needs. So, when the coach doesn’t show up, it disrupts her plans more than for other teachers who stay with their class and let the enrichment teacher pull individual students. She was frustrated because her colleague’s inconsistency meant inconsistency in meeting her students’ needs. 1. The lack of responsibility to follow through with duties could be construed to be an emotional maturity issue.*** 9.2b. L71 3/17/04 The whole grade planning together fell apart after a month or two because of a few people being unwilling to contribute. The unwilling participants would use what they had heard about, but ga ve nothing in return. 9.2c. L327 3/17/04 She feels that the faculty was punished for the actions of a few when the early release days were taken away as a result of abuse. Ms J could have fought harder to preserve this. 9.2c L395 3/17/04 …concerned with some teachers getting more attention, advantages or money than them.** Ms P wrote: …as in being paid for teaching conferences, workshops, etc …. 9. The principal’s perceptions of the emotional maturity of her faculty members shape her methods of communication and procedures.

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225 Table C-1 Continued Reconstructions Central Themes Ms McDonald 9.3a. L108 3/17/04 She isn’t sure why they don’t share, but feels that teachers have a lot to offer each other and if each would just share a little everyone would be nefit. She feels that perhaps people don’t share because they feel they’re being judged in a negative way. Some teachers are also possessive… 9. The principal’s perceptions of the emotional maturity of her faculty members shape her methods of communication and procedures. Ms Dickerson 9.4a.L623 6/1/04 Ms D feels that anyone who would accuse Ms B of trying to be a “know-it-all” simply has a personal problem. Ms. Houston 9.5a.l142 4/23/04 According to Jane, Lyla feels that the less than desirable implementation of the teachers is more a function of personal goals and home life rather than lack of knowledge. 9.5b.L515 7/13/04 Lyla filters out much of the external factors so that they can focus on the children.

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226 Table C-1 Continued Reconstructions Central Themes Ms. Johnson Principal 9.6 b. L14 6/24/04 She conjectures as to whether this difference is due to personality or the level of personal growth development of the teacher. 9.6 a.L61 6/24/04 She refers to the lower “level teachers” in much the sa me way as teachers refer to their lower level students. 9.6j. L61,64,73 &77 6/24/04 She provides structure for the teachers to reflect on their teaching. She feels that w ithout that structure, she could not build capacit y. She feels that if she doesn’t provide them with their individual work time, the teachers would consider her actions as inconsiderate of their prof essional needs. At the same time, while teachers don’t want to engage in group planning and envisioning, they appreciate having done it when she requires that they do. 9.6 c. L284 6/24/04 She speaks of the need to bring them along… molly coddle them* or; manipulate them** 3. guide them toward greater emotional maturity. 9.6 d. L289 6/24/04 She recounts an example of how she uses praise of one teacher to another to set up communication betw een the two teachers. 9.6 e.L326 6/24/04 She depicts the typical teacher as functioning at a low level of maturity.* 9.6f. L341 6/24/04 She depicts the teacher as servile and afraid of the authority of the principalship.* 9 g. L406 6/24/04 Teachers’ anxieties are increased if the innovation is more long term because of the greater ultimate impact on test scores and how the principal will react to those scores. 9. The principal’s perceptions of the emotional maturity of her faculty members shape her methods of communication and procedures.

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227 Table C-1 Continued Reconstructions Central Themes Ms Baker Grade 1 10.1a. L218 3/17/04 Ms J often comes back from principals cadre meetings and shares how proud she is of her teachers. Ms B finds that is encouraging when she is tempted to shift to old practices. 10. The wider, ever evolving learning organization of the Southern Reading Initiative has influenced the reading coach’s and principal’s reading knowledge base and approach to their leadership roles, which has, in turn, affected the direction of Lake Baxter Elem. School’s learning community and other schools in the region as well. Ma. Peters XXXX Ms McDonald XXXXX Ms Dickerson XXXXX

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228 Table C-1 Continued Reconstructions Central Themes Ms. Houston Reading Coach 10.5a. L245 12/8/03 Jane feels that the reading coaches cadre meetings as well as the research and writing she did on the SRI component revisions have empowered her as a coach to provide more assertive direction for teachers who seek her assistance. Th e teachers see her as a greater resource to them now. 10.5 b. L294 12/8/03 All three schools in the district are speaking the same language. The superintendent hears the language and is more conscious of asking questions and finding out what is going on at the schools. 10.5c.L69 4/23/04 Her being a Reading First trainer, serving on the rewriting committee for the new components, and her study of the National Reading Panel’s results changed her focus to the five basic components of reading. 10.5 d. L95 4/23/04 The other factor was that, in the first year of implementation, principals didn’t really know what they were looking for either. Now, after the Re-SRI at the end of the 3rd year, a collective consolidation of learning has occurred. 10.5 e. L225 4/23/04 Although some teachers did not participate in the learning community throughout the year of data collection, as the year ended, and re-SRI occurred, greater interest has become evident. The tangible, explicit model of reciprocal teaching seems to have provided some of that impetus.* 10.f. L256-260 4/23/04 The SRI is an evolving system – an example of a learning organization. 10.5g. L262-272 4/23/04 The leadership of L.H. as a continuous learner set the mark for the entire organization. 10. The wider, ever evolving learning organization of the Southern Reading Initiative has influenced the reading coach’s and principal’s reading knowledge base and approach to their leadership roles, which has, in turn, affected the direction of Lake Baxter Elem. School’s learning community and other schools in the region as well.

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229 Table C-1 Continued Central Themes Reconstructions Ms. Johnson Principal 10.6a. L43 12/4/03 Her leader ship is a matter of her personality, but the R eading Initiative gave her a hook for the understanding she had gained since becoming a principal of an elementary school after being a high school English teacher 10.6 b.L68 12/4/03 She feels that she learned as much about reading as the teachers if not more because her learning is contextualized by her interactions with curr iculum across the grade levels while the teachers tend to have a tighter focus. 10.6c. L104 12/4/03 She feels that what she has learned from the principa l’s cadre meetings (led by Dr. Felicia VanCamp, a professor of educational leadership in a local University) has been more instrumental in changing her practices than the summer academy. Being led by someone with more expertise (Felicia) and sharing with other principals has enabled her to examine the broader view, the vision that gets crowde d out otherwise by the continuous crisis atmosphere that exists in the role of the principal.* 10. The wider, ever evolving learning organization of the Southern Reading Initiative has influenced the reading coach’s and principal’s reading knowledge base and approach to their leadership roles, which has, in turn, affected the direction of Lake Baxter Elem. School’s learning community and other schools in the region as well.

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230 Table C-1 Continued Reconstructions Central Themes Ms Baker Grade 1 11.1 a. L338 3/17/04This year she had a lot of parent requests, but last year felt very pressured by the teacher request sy stem to put on a show for parents. She feels this is a common feeling on the faculty. Over involved parents can even derail instructional plans. 11.1b. L479 6/1/04 The general richness of the curriculum changes because of lack of parental support in classes that ha ve been comprised of students whose parents ha ve not requested the teacher. Confirmed in lines 490 –492 & 500503 for both ends of the student spectrum 11. External pressures from the state, district and community affect instructional and leadership practices through the following mechanisms: The Pinkerton School District Teacher Request Policy The nation wide accountability movement 3. The nation wide emphasis on databased decision making. 4. NCLB & Reading First Ma. Peters 11.2 a. L181 3/17/04 The teacher request system also is a challenge because of having so many personal ties with the parents in such a small community, but sh e sets clear boundaries between her role as friend and her role as teacher. 11.2 b.L201 3/17/04 She doesn ’t feel affected personally by the teacher request system because of her community ties, but for other teachers, it is detrimental 11.2 c. L241 3/17/04 The teachers that don’t get requests basically don’t care. They’re just punching the clock. Ms P wrote: …Or the new teachers are dumped on by having behavior problem children. When you get a class full of behavior problems – not much learning is going on! Not much teaching either! 11.2 d. L244 3/17/04 Her husband is on the school board and has fought to change the policy, but she feels it will be done the same way anyway because of politics.

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231 Table C-1 Continued Reconstructions Central Themes Ms McDonald Grade 4 11.3 a.L58 10/29/03 The Southern Standards and the SCAT are the greatest pressure – to make sure that everything is covered for the test. 11.3 b. L245 3/17/04.Because she had been at the middle school the previous year, she missed the teacher request “season” and was so grateful not to be part of all of that. She feels like she doesn’t have to be something she isn’t or to cater to a part icular parent’s overdemanding wishes.* 11.3 c.L263 3/17/04 When Ms J is confronted on the issue of the Teacher request system, she has always said that if she felt that someone on the faculty wasn’t going to do their very best, she wouldn’t have th em on the faculty. Ms McDonald felt that Ms J and the rest of the administration would have the best information for student placement since they are in the classrooms so much and know all of the children so well, and that the teacher request system should be eliminated. 11.3d.L304 3/17/04 The teacher request system didn’t affect her teaching practices so much as the time that she had to put in to communicate more frequently with certain parents.* 11.3e.Other teachers have actually stated that test scores would naturally be better for those who had certain kids in their class, which is the attitude of greatest concer n to her because it … Creates expectations that other groups are not as good.* 2. That over-emphasizes the importance oftest scores in th e lives of children. ** 11. External pressures from the state, district and community affect instructional and leadership practices through the following mechanisms: 1. The Pinkerton School District Teacher Request Policy The nation wide accountability movement 3. The nation wide emphasis on data-based decision making. 4. NCLB & Reading First

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232 Table C-1 Continued Reconstructions Central Themes Ms Dickerson Grade 4 11.4 a. L11 3/17/04 The SCAT dominates the thinking. The use of SCAT practice drills is prevalent especially in Feb. and March. SRI provides a backdrop, but the focus is on SCAT. 11.4 b.L417 3/17/04 The teacher request system makes it hard to know if it’s because of the class composition or the wa y the class is taught. 11.4c. L505 6/1/04 Ms D feels that heterogeneity is often advantageous to higher students as well. 11. External pressures from the state, district and community affect instructional and leadership practices through the following mechanisms: 1. The Pinkerton School District Teacher Request Policy The nation wide accountability movement The nation wide emphasis on data-based decision making. NCLB & Reading First Ms. Houston Reading Coach 11.5 a. L291 7/13/04 The accountability movement is a factor in tying teachers to familiar practices. Jane feels that teachers have a strong, self-induced need to stay on track to get kids to that particular place for testing in March. 11.5b. L511 7/13/04 As a teacher, she had little understanding of the extern al forces that affect the classroom. As a reading coach, she has become privy to some more information. She has had to become familiar with some legislation. She feels that teachers just want to be left alone to do their jobs – that their focus is always the lives of the children. 11.5c. L528 7/13/04 However, she feels that the external pressures ar e necessary to cause teachers to change. 11.5d. L553 7/13/04 She wonders whether teachers need to be more aware of external factors that affect the decisions of the school. They have begun to present to the literacy council more of the policy changing issues as of late. The response was a new level of awareness for the teachers who can then disseminate it to their teammates. 11. External pressures from the state, district and community affect instructional and leadership practices through the following mechanisms: 1.The Pinkerton School District Teacher Request Policy 2.The nation wide accountability movement 3. The nation wide emphasis on data-based decision making. 4. NCLB & Reading First

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233 Table C-1 Continued Reconstructions Central Theme Ms. Johnson Principal 11.6a.L225 9/22/03 Communication with parents in this small community in which most people know each other makes the communication demands with parents rise. 11.6b.L22 12/4/03 The state has forced the progress monitoring of fluency a nd the reading initiative prepared the teachers for understanding why this is important. The state required the AIPs, but the Reading Initiative provided the tools to do them.* 11.6c. L140 12/4/03 The greatest pressure and influence in driving practice now is the accountability movement (FCAT, NCLB, & school grades). Prior to the accountability movement standardized testing had little impact on instructional practice. 11.6d. L166 12/4/03 Teachers and principals are held accountable for the progress of all students – even ESE. “Even ESE” can mean… 1…. That this group of stude nts once regarded as unable to reach grade leve l expectations are now being expected to. 2…..Lyla feels that this group is being pressured to achieve at unrealistic levels ( Ms J wrote… at times ) .* 3….She feels that some ESE students are not able to reach NCLB expectations.** With greater accountability in every facet of teaching from discipline to instruction comes an increase in documentation, which means more work with less and less funding or parental support. 11.6e. L191 12/4//03 However, the increased pressure has resulted in improved educational practices especially for students who have here-tofore slipped through the cracks. 11. External pressures from the state, district and community affect instructional and leadership practices through the following mechanisms: The Pinkerton School District Teacher Request Policy The nation wide accountability movement 3. The nation wide emphasis on databased decision making. 4. NCLB & Reading First

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234 Table C-1 Continued Reconstruction Central Theme Ms Johnson Cont’d. 11.6f. L201 12/4/03 School grades are still an issue because they don’t factor in other variables such as levels of parental support that exist in the school (Ms J wrote…) & other issues such as poverty, mobility, etc.. But I see that happening in a lot of schools in a lot of places and that’s not in the kids’ best interest and this whole issue of accountability has forced that to happen. Uh… money is always a big issue. Um… financially maintaining the staff that you have and you’ve got to allocate resources so that your letter grades and your FCAT scores are high so well meaning people are giving up positions in art and music and all those things to have more tutors for students who are struggling readers. And that’s not a good thing in my opinion, but I…I’m also aware that I work at the pleasure of the superintendent. 11.6g L463 6/24/04 She has finally persuaded the SAC to examine this practice, which resulted in the board members becoming disgruntled with the SAC for bringing it up during an election year. Many board members and the supe rintendent are running for office this year. Lyla is afraid of suffering some type of reprisal for inci ting the SAC to address the issue if they found out that she was responsible 11.6h. L214 12/4/03 The downside to the accountability movement with respect to curriculum is that the arts, P.E. and attention to the affective side of development are being increasingly ignored as funds are diverted from personnel who address these areas to personnel who can address the area of reading development. She has avoided doing this in her school, but refrains from mentioning that at principals’ meetings… 1….She is embarrassed that in some areas her resources are greater than those of her colleagues.* 2….She is hesitant to share her stand to refuse to give those things up when her peers are taking a different path.** She realizes that she works at the behest of the superintendent who is elected and works at the behest of the citizens who respond to school grades. 11. External pressures from the state, district and community affect instructional and leadership practices through the following mechanisms: The Pinkerton School District Teacher Request Policy The nation wide accountability movement 3. The nation wide emphasis on databased decision making. 4. NCLB & Reading First

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235 Table C-1 Continued Reconstruction Central Theme Baker 12.1a Individual student n eeds both affective and academic of utmost importance. 12.1b Self-imposed personal accountability drives her 12.1c Focus is on reading writing and arithmetic Dominant Beliefs Peters 12.2a Meeting individual academic needs (finding ways to help kid lear n) impacts her decisions 12.2bFocus on reading writing and arithmetic McDonald 12.3a Takes each child where they are and provides them with a positive experience that builds on their strengths and interests. 12.3b Focus on independent reading time and math instruction. Dickerson 12.4a High expectations 12.4b Activities should be fun/ engaging for kids, but also proven to be effective 12.4c Focus on reading and math

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236 APPENDIX D TRIANGULATION CHART Table D-1 Triangulation Chart Supports: Code # Document Type Date Description Theme Paradigm 2 3 4 5 Lead Team Minutes Intervention Plan SRI Survey Results SRI Survey Results 7/30/01 8/5/01 11/15/01 4/5/02 Agenda included discussions on…coaches needs for non-teaching time, decodable books, tech support, e-mail distribution, confidence, to see ARI in action, procedures, time for practice, NEFEC & peer support, role; Staff needs intervention follow up, teachers not at SRA, scheduling support, training for various stakeholders; Needs from principal priority students to serve, non-teaching time, technology, examples of intervention plans, student portfolio formats All staff focused on promoting 100% literacy; all assigned reading instructional duties based on Reading Recovery tutorials Survey queries 27 t eachers regarding the implementation of best practices taught at the Summer Academy after 3months of implementation during year 1 after the academy. Survey queries 27 t eachers regarding the implementation of best practices taught at the Summer Academy duri ng the 1st year of implementation. 10 0, 3 3, 7 3 5, 10 1, 3, 6

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237 Table D-1. Continued. Supports: Code # Document Type Date Description Theme Paradigm 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 SRI Lead Team Agenda SRI Lead Team Agenda SRI Lead Team Agenda Intervention Plan SRI School Survey Essay Lead Team Minutes 7/30/02 7/31/02 8/1/02 8/5/02 1/5/03 1/10/03 1/14/03 Agenda included discussions on…what is working well; needed improvements/changes; Presentation to January university conference; demonstration vs.participation sites;application to SRI; catch up training;internal/external communications; Agenda included discussions on the development of the principal and reading coaches cadre meetings; followup & train the trainer; expansion of SRI within the consortium's boundaries and beyond Agenda included discussions on the roles & responsibilities of the lead team; the development of a timeline & management plan 100% literacy goal; Each grade will have a Title I interventionist assigned Survey queries 45 teachers regarding the implementation of best practices at the end of year 2 of the SRI. Ms D's application to Nat'l Boardsaccomplishment 1 Minutes describe the decisions of the SRI Lead Team, charged with setting the direction of the SRI. These meetings occur at a retreat and set the direction of the project. Agenda included comparing ARI with SRI, Setting a statewide vision for expansion, Desired outcomes of retreat, SRI focus & future, & holdings from the ARI 10 10 0, 3, 10 0 0, 11 5, 10 5

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238 Table D-1 Continued Supports: Code # Document Type Date Description Theme Paradigm 13 14 15 16 17 18 SRI Lead Team Minutes SRI Lead Team Minutes Peters Lesson Plans Peters – Worksheets School Literacy Plan (Intervention) Support group agenda & notes 1/15/03 1/16/03 1/19/03 week 1/19/03 8/5/03 8/5/03 As above. Agenda included discussion on support for SRI from the foundation associated with the consortium, free pilot projects to acquire materials, choices of sessions for the summer leadership conference, applicants of schools who wish to join SRI, discussion of revisions of training components, plans for training trainers. As above. Agenda included discussion on training principals during academy, planning for coaches seminar, discussion on follow-up-District support model training & focus to be on use of assessment data, creating culture of reading, flexible grouping. Cites topics & basal planning sheet Reviews multiple concepts in L.A & math Outlines the use of small, flexible grouping, explicit instruction, the 90 minute reading block, and the delineation of the five basic components in reading Notes & agenda for support group meeting on topic "Grouping for instruction" 10 10 3 0, 3, 11 0, 3, 7, 10

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APPENDIX E EVIDENCE OF INTERACTIVE POWER

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240 Table E-1 Evidence of Interactive Power Strip Interactive Power Form of Interactive Power at Site Truth Claim Roles Leaders play Cultural Milieu 1. Jane: Interview 12/8/04 Lines 72-95 …the beginning I have worked with those that were right on it wanting to do it, and they are kind of just off on their own now they come to me occasionally but not very often I go to them more than anything. You know figure out how they did so and so. Those that are in the frustration level I think we’ve picked up a lot of those guys this year in our support group, …but a lot for those guys was their learning process was a little bit slower and giving them encouragement has been you know one of the main things to do… some of them you know they are hard to change...they figure they are going to work here until they retire so some of them don’t figure that they need to change right now When they have to, when it gets to the point of you have to do this or…and um you know our leadership style here …Lyla’s leadership styl e is not like that so we are trying to figure out how we can get them to that place…. Interactively established contract Tacit promise of support and attention from leaders if new strategies are attempted Normativeevaluative truth claim foregrounded: Compliance and cooperation are valued and rewarded Leader who needs expert opinion Helpful Friend Continuous learning is highly valued by those in leadership.

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241 Table E-1 Continued Strip Interactive Power Form of Interactive Power at Site Truth Claim Roles Leaders play Cultural Milieu 2. Jane: Interview 12/8/04 –Lines 261-279 I think teachers are starting to see me now … as a resource person now. Where I don’t know that they did that at the very beginning… And the other thing I think I is I’m starting now to figure out how to get into the classrooms more and um kind of work with teachers more in a way that’s a little bit more assertive than it was at the beginning before I kind of took the um lets be friends kind of way … I was a little bit more assertive, I was a little bit more not assertive in a negative way but in a way which I guess showed a little bit more um…(long pause) leadership, authority, leadership maybe, leadership maybe … They almost left with WOW, Great, Okay now I know, you know it was like a relief for them instead of leaving with more information that they couldn’t sort through. Normative Power Teachers acknowledge the reading coach’s expertise and leadership Normativeevaluative claim foregrounded: The reading coach is the professional developer and reading expert Wise confidant. As above

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242Table E-1 Continued Strip Interactive Power Form of Interactive Power at Site Truth Claim Roles Leaders play Cultural Milieu 3. Jane: Interview 4/23/04 Lines 12-18 …we were talking about how she was going to take this back and how she might, you know, start working with her grade level team … she said she didn’t really think that she was going to be able to do that. And I told her I would help her. … She seemed to be more concerned about looking like she was a know it all with her p eers. And she said she didn’t want them to think that she thought that she knew more than them… Peer power dominant Teacher values the opinion of peers more than the esteem of the reading coach Normativeevaluative truth claim foregrounded: 1. Acting like a know it all” is bad. 2. favoritism is bad. Helpful friend. Teachers who are chosen for leader-hip are seen by other teachers as being favorites of the leadership

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243 Table E-1 Continued Strip Interactive Power Form of Interactive Power at Site Truth Claim Roles Leaders play Cultural Milieu 4. Jane: Interview 4/ 23/04 Lines 93-109 And I guess maybe what I need to do is maybe spend some time in Ms McDonald’s room to see how to foster that even more and maybe partner her up with Ms Malory and do some co-teaching and cross teaching together because I think they both have… So, I guess the answer would be to try to go in there with her, maybe do a little co-teaching experience together…um…you know…maybe in her groups to start some of the reciprocal teaching process maybe with her middle group of kids, not her struggling readers, but her middle group to create some group leaders in her classr oom and expand a little that way. Interactively established contract Tacit promise of camaraderie and support when new strategy is attempted Normativeevaluative claim foreground-ed : “Two heads are Better than one” Helpful friend Guide on the side Continuous learning is highly valued by those in leadership and occurs through collaboration

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244 Table E-1 Continued Strip Interactive Power Form of Interactive Power at Site Truth Claim Roles Leaders play Cultural Milieu 5. Jane: Observation 10/29/04 Literacy Council Meeting Jane then discussed the protocols that they will be using soon. She explained their purpose. Jane turned the discussion over to the teachers to get their input. One teacher said it’s a job but a do-able job that sometimes people don’t implement because they don’t really know how and need to see things implemented for them. Jane said that she wanted them to be informed about assessment info and the intervention schedule. Interactively Established contracts Tacit promise of vested interest in exchange for leadership Normativeevaluative Truth Claim foreground-ed: “Knowledge is power” & Teacher empower-ment is desirable. Empowering leader Building leadership capacity among teachers who have made the greatest change in instructional practice is valued.

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245 Table E-1 Continued Strip Interactive Power Form of Interactive Power at Site Truth Claim Roles Leaders play Cultural Milieu 6. Jane: Observation 12/04/04 Team Meeting Jane, the coach talked about the DIBELS results. She focused on how important it is for the kids not to just read fast but to read with prosody. She had them indicate based on a recalculation of the rate cut offs for benchmark on their results page which students would be green, yellow, red etc. They talked about how the kids aren’t taking serious ly the DIBELS. The teachers were worried about their results. They were sighing [with relief] as they recalculated the cut offs and found they were doing better than they thought Normative Power foregrounded Coercive power backgrounded Teachers should obey leaders Sanction: Disapproval; fear of being labeled as poor teacher Normative Evaluative claim foregrounded: Teachers are responsible and to be held accountable for the performance of their students Coach giving correction Neutral dispenser of test results National accountabili ty movement in education

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246 Table E-1 Continued Strip Interactive Power Form of Interactive Power at Site Truth Claim Roles Leaders play Cultural Milieu 7. Lyla: Interview 9/22 /04 Lines 124-132 And I also use them as models for the other teachers…Every Monday, we have a different teacher who’s modeling some strategy and we all meet in a different teacher’s classroom and it gives her a chance to kinda let the others see … and they need to be able to see what their peers are doing, so we try to do that every Monday. And Ms Baker and Ms Peters are probably two of the best at showing the others. Uh… they’re easy going by nature and they’re positive and, you know, the others are quick to look at what they’re doing and show interest. So, that does help. Well – we don’t ….and it’s optional. …all 65 teachers don’t come every Monday. But we tell them what we’re doing and what we’re demonstrating and what we’re talking about, and then they come, particularly if they have a keen interest in that. Interactively established contract Implementation of effective instructional strategies will allow you time in the spotlight Normativeevaluative truth claim foregrounded: Compliance and cooperation are valued and rewarded Fellow collaborat or Belief in the field of educational leadership that collaboratio n among teachers will bring about change.

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247 Table E-1 Continued Strip Interactive Power Form of Interactive Power at Site Truth Claim Roles Leaders play Cultural Milieu 8. Lyla: Interview 9/22/04 Lines 208-211 There’s 115 people on staff. And there’s 25 teacher aides – I need to spend a lot of time with those people. They’re needy. You know…they need to be sure you’re touching base with them, that you’re supporting what they’re doing. They’re insecure in many ways. Um…but…I know… I do the best I can. Now...I have an…uh…uh an Interactively established contract Tacit promise of support in exchange for Cooperation and effort Normativeevaluative truth claim foregrounded: Needy people should be supported Mother figure Nurturer Caretaker Educational leadership theory: Situation-al Leader-ship

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248 Table E-1Continued Strip Interactive Power Form of Interactive Power at Site Truth Claim Roles Leaders play Cultural Milieu 9. Lyla: Interview 6/ 24/04 Lines 9-30 … majority of teachers given more time would do menial things … I don’t mean that negative, you know, it’s an observation… best of teachers need… time to interact with each other to grow and … think back about what they’ve …But that’s not most teachers… Most of them, given more time, would clean out a closet or their bulletin board… …during preplanning they want all the time… We have to have some meetings and discussions to talk about setting some plans out for the year. But if you gave them the whole five days, a lot of them would spend their time doing house keeping types of things instead of the quality work that needs to happen when they’re communicating with their teammates …doing some long term planning. Now, what I’ve found is…that they step into those meetings disgruntled and frustrated and they come out with a better attitude…. Normative It’s important for teachers to engage in collaborative interactions in order to create reflective-ness in practice even though they may not want to initially. Normativeevaluative truth claim foregrounded: “Father” knows best; I know what’s best for you. Normativeevaluative truth claim backgrounded: Employees need to be forced to do what’s best. The benevolent foreman Background ed theory X style of managemen t present in educational leadership at the district state and school level.

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249 Table E-1Continued Strip Interactive Power Form of Interactive Power at Site Truth Claim Roles Leaders play Cultural Milieu 10. Lyla: Interview 6.24.04 Lines 48-64 So, what I’ve learned is that there’s a balance, and you have to provide them with some time to do that. And I assure them that I’m cognizant…I do it verbally a lot…very, very cognizant of your concerns about taki ng care of certain things. So, that you’re more relaxed about meeting and discussing and planning… you have to verbalize the fact that you’re aware of th at or they get real frustrated. It’s almost as if…”She doesn’t care. She doesn’t…she doesn’t know what all we’ve got to do, and she doesn’t care… and I find that most of the time, that it’s the lower level folks who just don’t have a vision and that sort of thing. They come in disgruntled, but when it’s all over, they say … “Well, that was good. We needed to do that. So… You have to do that. You have to do that. You’re never going to build capacity for those middle range folks and those lower folks if you don’t do that. Interactively establish-ed contract Time to do bulletin boards will be given in exchange for cooperation in meeting on more important issues. Subjective truth claim foregrounded: People need to feel understood in order to cooperate. Normativeevaluative truth claim: Teachers can be grouped into high, medium & low. The guidance counselor Cultural milieu of tracking students into high medium and low categories is applied to teachers.

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250 Table E-1 Continued Strip Interactive Power Interactive Power at Site Truth Claim Roles Leaders play Cultural Milieu 11. L y la: Interview 6/24/04 Lines 239-275 There are issues that pop up related to personality and then there’s egos that get involved and there’s… it’s just like you have at home with your children… “Well you invited him to go to the beach and you didn’t invite me…and my best friend…and…” I have heard teachers make comments like “I don’t know why she asked her to be a trai ner or why she asked her to do this little session with the other teachers. I’ve been doing that for 10 years….” I don’t make decisions based on the fact that this is going to hurt….but you have to be cognizant of it … it tempers not so much what I say bu t how I say it a lot… those personality clashes … They can be the death knell to a team’s work if you don’t bring those people along… I say to them …it may not be categorically the truth…I say, “ you di d a really good job with this,”…. and then I’ll say to some other teacher, “I was saying to Ms what a good job you did with that she might come over and watch how you do that. Charm Using the power of peer interactions and positive comments to influence teacher behavior Subjective Truth claim backgrounded: Teachers need to feel successful in order to improve and avoid professional jealousy. Normativeevaluative truth claim foregrounded: Elementary school teachers adopt the emotional levels of students. Cheerleader Mediator; manipulator Small town culture; high familiarity among faculty members many of whom have known each other all of their lives.

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251 Table E-1 Continued Strip Interactive Power Form of Power at Site Truth Claim Roles Leaders play Cultural Milieu 12. Lyla: Interview 6/24/04 Lines 257-322 Well, then, it makes her feel like I think she’s just as good as that person when she’s never felt that way … but it opens some communication between the two of them because she will end up telling her Ms Johnson complimented me on this she said….and the other teacher and I may have had a discussion on how can we bring her along …how can we do that? Then the minute that person…and this happens all the time…the minute that person comes and says to her …yes you’re right and she suggested I come and see you. Do you mind if I come? Now sometimes that will backfire on you …you know what I’m saying? It does… seldom do I say… you aren’t worth a hoot at this. What I usually couch that in is… “You know I can see you’ve come a long way teaching this. Do you feel good about that? How do you feel about that? I’m so pleased and so impressed … You obviously know what you’re doing there…what do you suggest as an area of your own personal skills that you need to enhance?”…. I think it’s the culture of an elementary school because they adopt those emotional levels of their children. As above

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252 Table E-1 Continued Strip Interactive Power Form of Power at Site Truth Claim Roles Leaders play Cultural Milieu 13. Lyla: Interview 6/24/04 Lines 357-366 I think that comes from this whole issue of test scores…and I have to get my kids here, and I don’t have any latitude to piddle around in this experimental kind of thing because, if it doesn’t work I have wasted time, and I’ve still got to get my kids where every other teacher is getting them I think that’s the intrinsic pressure that they put on themselves. And maybe it is this accountability issue with professional development plans…and maybe it is an accountability issue with test scores related to FCAT or whatever that…that…because I say to them, “You are responsible. You have…if you don’t have some measure of holding their feet to the fire, and you verbalize that to them, then they are lackadaisical. They don’t even look at those test scores Normative power Foregrounded Coercive power backgrounded Assessment results are the tools that the superordinate uses to hold teachers accountable. Sanction: Disapproval; fear of being labeled as poor teacher Normativeevaluative Truth claim foregrounded: Teachers are responsible and to be held accountable for the performance of their students Normativeevaluative claim Background ed: Teachers are lazy. Neutral enforcer of rules Accountabil ity movement; cultural attitude toward teachers’ status.

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253 Table E-1 Continued Strip Interactive Power Form of Power at Site Truth Claim Roles Leaders play Cultural Milieu 14. Lyla: Interview 6/24/04 Lines 381-383 There’s also the pressu re to be consistent in the team. For example, there’s one first grade teacher who has been a team leader and is a trainer and is very actively involved but she’s one of those sort of anal people about …well, ya ’ll have to do the same thing…you know. We have two new teachers on our team… Lyla we just …we’ve got to sit down with them, and they’ve just got to know this is how we do things in first grade.”… There is a certain amount of consistency among the team and the curriculum that you have to expect because there’s 8 te achers in a team… we’re teaching basically in our curriculum, which is the Sunshine State Standards is consistent in every class… But …uh…those teachers feel a lot of pressure among themselves to consistently provide the same curriculum. There’s also that one up-man-ship… “She did so and so and so. We suggested we just do this, but she really made us all look bad because she did that.” Those petty things come up a lot too. Normative power Teacher vying for power over peers; Lyla establishing her authority to reinforce collaborative culture needed for a learning community Normativeevaluative truth claim of teacher foregrounde d: the principal should impose more conformity so people will implement. Foreground ed Claim of principal: academic freedom is desirable. Background ed claim: Being too good makes others look bad. Defender of freedom Conflicting cultural milieu at work: Value of learning community which encourages innovation, sharing and collaboratio n vs push for conformity within the group

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254 Table E-1 Continued Strip Interactive Power Form of Power at Site Truth Claim Roles Leaders play Cultural Milieu 15. Lyla: Interview 6/24/04 Lines 394-408 you have an idea let’s try it. Come share it with me. Let’s discuss it. What can I do to help you? And let’s see, but you have to have some way of assessing whether what you did made a difference or not. That’s the biggest part that I discuss with them. You tell me after you’ve done this how you’re going to know whether or not it’s been …you know impacted how they’ve learned. Um… they get antsyespecially if what they want to try may take a little while… because if by chance their creative idea or their …what th ey wanted to try doesn’t work, then they’re in a panic about how that may affect their test scores and what I’m going to say about …that everybody else’s scores are up here and yours are here. That…that makes them reluctant to try those kind of things. Normative power Foreground ed Coercive power backgrounded Assessment results are the tools that the superordinate uses to hold teachers accountable. Sanction: Disapproval; fear of being labeled as poor teacher Normativeevaluative Truth claim foregrounde d: Teachers are responsible and to be held accountable for the performance of their students Enforcer of rules Accountabil ity movement

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255 Table E-1 Continued Strip Interactive Power Form of Power at Site Truth Claim Roles Leaders play Cultural Milieu 16. Lyla: Interview 6/24/04 Lines 428-490 [Regarding the Teacher request system]… they may speak more frankly with you about the request system because it’s a political issue in this county than they do with me. The uh…it ha s been a big issue this year. We had the request on Monday. And it is the nightmare of my life… The teachers don’t know what I go through with it. They don’t have a clue. All they know is when they see those rosters there’s two classes out of the 7 or 8 that are the clique…the uppercrust…white very involved parents – good students all locked into two classes. And the other classes get the leftovers… think it’s detrimental and it doesn’t have anything to do with best practice professiona lly for assigning students to class. Normative Principal and teachers subject to authority of school board who is subject to the wish of the community, which protects the privileges of the affluent, white members of the community in favor of best instructional practice. Normativeevaluative truth claim foregrounde d: This is our school we should have things the way we want them. Defender of the rights of all children for a quality education Community leaders value the privileges of those leaders to get the best for their children.

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256 Table E-1 Continued Strip Interactive Power Form of Power at Site Truth Claim Roles Leaders play Cultural Milieu 17. Lyla – Observation 9/30/04 TEAM MEETING SUMMARY: Lyla spoke and controlled the conversation in the team meeting. Committees were formed to do work on the SIP. A short discussion ensued emanating from the teachers regarding those students who had been promoted for Good Cause and how they should have been retained. No comments from Lyla recorded. Normative Principal in leader/teacher position in authority over teachers Normativeevaluative truth claim: Teachers should obey the principal Boss Typical hierarchical culture of schooling 18. Lyla: Observation 10/28/04 TEAM MEETING SUUMARY: Lyla basically made announcements during this meeting regarding when DIBELS testing would be; that th ey needed to circle in their calendars when subs wouldn’t be available; bus issues; P.E. injuries and for teacher to take due caution; preparations for teacher planning Normative Principal in leader/teacher position in authority over teachers Normativeevaluative truth claim: Teachers should obey the principal Boss Typical hierarchical culture of schooling

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257 Table E-1 Continued Strip Interactive Power Form of Power at Site Truth Claim Roles Leaders play Cultural Milieu 19. Lyla: Observation 10/29/04 Literacy Council Meeting The principal outlined her purposes in the literacy council – that the teachers serving on this council can serve as role models for other members on the team. Lyla wants to build a vision for the direction to take for this council. Interactively established contract Tacit promise of leadership and showcasing in exchange for participating in the common vision for the literacy council Normativeevaluative truth claim foregrounde d: Building leadership capacity with the coalition of the willing is desirable. Leader of the collaboration Older, wiser guide of group Learning community

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258Table E-1. Continued. 20. Lyla: Observation 3/18/04 Faculty Meeting The issue arose on whether the faculty was interested in appealing to the board to reinstate early release time. They voted on the issue and it won handily. Ms J---made it clear that this time, if approved by the board would be devoted to teacher inservice. They would not be able to take comp time on early release days. Interactively established contract Foreground ed Coercion background ed Overt promise of support for early release days in exchange for cooperation in receiving inservice on those days without taking comp time on those days. Normativeevaluative truth claim foregrounde d: Teachers should live up to their end of the bargain. Benevolent leader acquiescing to requests of subordinates Original loss of early release day occurred in response to teachers taking early release days off and missing professional activities, causing overload on substitute demands.

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259Table E-1 Continued Strip Interactive Power Form of Power at Site Truth Claim Roles Leaders play Cultural Milieu 21. Baker Interview 3/17/04 Lines 197 -217 Ms J is real good at understanding that we are all individuals. And I mean .. I think that we’re all …that we’re so lucky that she’s not a dictator when it comes to that…. I was. Um…Yes… I would think that she has gotten better… as where before all of us would have to have workbooks …not necessarily that she would say you have to have them [because it’s mandatory] it’s just that she always thought you had to have them [to implement the program]. Since the Southern Reading Initi ative she sees how we can meet the same thing. So, she’s not going to say that I’m a much better teacher than someone that uses them because they are …we’re all getting to the same end. Interactively established contract Principal allows teachers to use methods they choose in exchange for faithfulness to the state standards and improved student achievement Normativeevaluative truth claim foregrounded: Principals should have respect for the professional judgment of teachers Leader respectful of the expertise of teachers. Learning Community

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260Table E-1 Continued Strip Interactive Power Form of Power at Site Truth Claim Roles Leaders play Cultural Milieu 22. Baker Interview 3/17/04 Lines 217 -245 So, we’re very lucky that way. And… I think that with the inservices that Ms J— has went to that go along with like the principals meetings and the reading coaches…like staying in contact with the other schools…um… I think that’s kind of …she’ll come back and she’ll tell us …um …how can I say this… She share’s what she learned… and she’s proud of us…she’s very proud of us that we’ve been able to take what all we had at Southern Reading Initiative and go as fa r with it as we have... M: So, she‘ll come back and compare ya’ll with everybody else and tell you all how much better you are [laughter]. I’ll strike that from the interview!… : But she does…and we need that. I mean we’re just like the kids. You know we’re doing all this extra stuff and it’s just on that day where you get to where like, “ Dad gum it – give me a workbook back! I’m tired of this!”… Then she’ll come in and she’ll say la-la,la,la,la “ and you say thank you now I can go on with this.” You can move on. Norma-tive Approval of principal as superordinate is reinforces the desired instructional practice of the subordinate. Norma-tiveevaluative truth claim foregrounded: Teachers should behave in a way that wins approval from authority figures such as the principal. Proud “father” Tradi-tional school culture

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261 Table E-1 Continued Strip Interactive Power Form of Power at Site Truth Claim Roles Leaders play Cultural Milieu 23. Baker Interview 3/17/04 Lines you had spoken with the kindergarten teachers about the Saxon Phonics, and you were very careful to tell me how you shared this with them as sort of an, “I find…” approach. Tell me why you approached this topic so gingerly with them… Because it is a thorn in so many people’s sides… not ju st kindergarten, but also my fellow first grade teachers – which is kind of where we’re at. I mean I brought that up the other day. Like I really want you all to look at this again. And they’re like “Whoa!” But I want you to look at this new program. So.. I, mean even with them, I did it very gingerly because…’cause I wouldn’t want somebody to come to me and say it… I mean… Baker as teacher leader: No power Attempt to influence teachers regarding an effective approach to phonics instruction Normative evaluative truth claim foregrounded: Teachers don’t tell other teachers what to do. Teacher as leader Teachers as individual entrepreneurs

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262Table E-1 Continued Strip Interactive Power Form of Power at Site Truth Claim Roles Leaders play Cultural Milieu 24. Baker Interview 3/17/04 Lines 330-352 What are your thoughts on the effect of the teacher request system on your instructional choices? B: Um…this year not as much. I’ve been lucky even though… I mean …I had a lot of requests. Now last year, I felt like I had to do more of a dog and pony show which is the reason why I had to have my gall bladder taken out because that wasn’t me. But I felt… It was kind of what the parents expected. [pause – long] but I think we all feel that way. Coercive power on the part of the community Teacher request puts pressure on teachers to do “dog and Pony show” in order to be regarded as good pick Sanction: community label of “poor teacher” if no dog and pony show evident. Normativeevaluative truth claim foregrounded: Good teachers put on a good show. Background -ed truth claim: If a teacher doesn’t have a lot of teacher requests, they must not be good. Judge and jury Small commun-ity belief that privilege has its rewards.

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263Table E-1 Continued Strip Interactive Power Form of Power at Site Truth Claim Roles Leaders play Cultural Milieu 25. Baker Interview 3/17/04 Lines 273-402 B: Okay…Since you brought it up…that’s what squelched us sharing... Um… jealousy and people feeling that we were trying to showcase … Jane and I would talk about it –you know it’ s not that at all. It’s just that if this is working for me, I want to share it with other people. I’m not trying to be hoity-ho ity … I think that you should be proud of your colleagues. I just … we should be able to say, “Now look, this isn’t my style, but I mean it’s wonderful that you’re doing it. You know I come along this – this might help you.” … does the team as a whole affect your instructional pract ices? … Um… no – because I feel pretty sound in what I’m doing and my reasoning behind it. I know that it works, but now attitudes do. And there’s a lot of times where you just kind of shut yourself in your room because you don’t want to be a part of it. It’s like I don’t have a dog in that race. I can’t get…you know what I’m saying? I can’t get drawn up ‘cause I‘ve got … Norma-tive power of peer group Support group stopped meeting due to teacher leaders feeling ostracized because they assumed that leadership Norma-tiveevaluative Truth claim foregrounded: 1. Acting like a “know it all” is bad. 2. Favoritism is bad. Teachers as cultural policeman keeping colleagues practices within acceptable boundaries of mediocrity Cultural milieu of education-al medio-crity; In order to be accepted by peers, one cannot afford to make them look bad by looking too good.

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264 Table E-1 Continued Strip Interactive Power Form of Power at Site Truth Claim Roles Leaders play Cultural Milieu 26. Peters Interview 11/203 Lines 91-154 What pressures me the most is people not following through on what they’re supposed to be doing …as far as administrative. Um…and I’ll be quite frank with you if that’s O.K…. he may not come for 3 weeks he may come for a whole week, but it’s not consistent and when we go to administration and say hey he’s not doing his job then nothing is done. But when my class is sitting here at 8:00 don’t know if he …I don’ t like not knowing what’s gonna happen and I think that hurts my kids. No power Administration not following through on seeing to it that the enrichment folks live up to their commitments as coaches to students Norma-tiveevaluative truth claim foregrounded: People should be made to live up to their professional obliga-tions Cultural milieu of hierarchical authority

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265 Table E-1 Continued Strip Interactive Power Form of Power at Site Truth Claim Roles Leaders play Cultural Milieu 27. Peters Interview Lines 375-398 There’s a group of teachers that are always asked to do things. And there are some that are more than willing to do …just like I volunteered to do this. It’s no problem. I enjoy doing it. Anything I can do to help – anything to help learn – whatever. But there’s some that are very intimidated by it like if L --would say that we’re gonna have meetings and for your own faculty to get up and present – it’s almost like you’re an outcast. Well – what are you doing to try to brown nose the principal? Well – what are you trying to do to out do and get?…And that is awfulawful… I mean there’s a handful of those that are willing to go the extra mile and there’s just so much – well how much are you getting paid? Or bla,bla, bla, bla, bla. It doesn’t matter. Whether you’re getting paid or not… that’s not… you’re purpose is not for ….everything is not about money. If I went into this profession for money, I was stupid to begin with. Norma-tive power of peers Teacher leaders criticized for assuming leadership roles Norma-tiveevaluative Truth claim foregrounded: Acting like a “know it all” is bad. Favorit-ism is bad. Teachers as cultural police-man keeping colleagues practices within acceptable boundaries of mediocrity Cultural milieu of education-al mediocrity; In order to be accepted by peers, one cannot afford to make them look bad by looking too good.

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266Table E-1 Continued Strip Interactive Power Form of Power at Site Truth Claim Roles Leaders play Cultural Milieu 28. McDonald Interview 11/20/04 Lines 57-71 I try not to refuse anything, especially if it comes from the higher authorities. But I really I guess in everything our principal has made you know…we’re all held to the same standards. You know…Sunshine State Standards…Um … I’m not a teacher that starts on page one and goes to page…you know…in sequence necessarily and Um… she’s given us a lot of latitude in order to make sure that we are meeting the standards but not all necessarily doing it all in the same way. Norma-tive power of principal Principal’s expectation that all teachers will teach to the state standards Norma-tiveevaluative Truth claim foregrounded: Obe-dience to higher authori-ties is important Benign ruler Tradi-tional hierarchical school structure

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267 Table E-1 Continued Strip Interactive Power Form of Power at Site Truth Claim Roles Leaders play Cultural Milieu 29. McDonald Interview 3/17/04 Lines 108-161 I think they probably do a really good job in their classrooms …but their willingness to step up and share with the rest of us or their willingness to even meet in small groups and just share or take a leadership role in presenting a lesson for us …I just don’t see that happening the way I would like to see it maybe …I also see – maybe it’s because of personalitiesbut I see the same two or three on different grade levels are the same two or three that are always … the ones volunteering to do this or to do that …I feel like there’s so much that we have to offer each other that if we would each just share one little thing, we wouldn’t have to spend so much of our non-teaching time searching for better ideas, and neat ways to present different topics… I think sometimes they feel they’re being judged perhaps if they’re sharing something. Maybe someone comments in a way that might that they may not feel is …uh.. a positive way perhaps… Norma-tive power of peers Teachers refrain from stepping up to assume leadership. Norma-tiveevaluative truth claim foregrounded: Teachers should be willing to share with each other. Backgrounded claim: Teachers are afraid of being judged Teachers as cultural policeman keeping colleagues practices within acceptable boundaries of mediocrity Cultural milieu of education-al medio-crity; In order to be accepted by peers, one cannot afford to make them look bad by looking too good

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268 APPENDIX F INTERVIEW QUESTIONS Principal’s Interview 1 1. Based upon your philosophy and knowledge of reading and writing instruction, what are some components that you feel teachers should include in their teaching practices? 2. With your above answer in mind, could you make recommendations for two primary teachers on the same team and two intermediate teachers on the same team that most closely demonstrate the practices you outlined in the preceding question. 3. Explain how the participants you have chosen demonstrate those practices? 4. How have teaching practices changed sin ce the Florida Reading Initiative was implemented in your school? 5. How have those changes come about? 6. What were some of the challenges that were overcome in making those changes? 7. What do you want education to look lik e in your school in the coming years? 8. How is that vision different than the reality you experience now? 9. What are the challenges that must be surmounted to attain your vision? 10. How have your practices as a principa l changed since the implementation of theFlorida Reading Initiative? 11. What have been the influences on your choices of change? 12. From your perspective, how has the Florida Reading Initiative affected change in the school district?

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269 Reading Coach’s 1. Based upon your philosophy and knowledge of reading and writing instruction, what are some components that you feel teachers should include in their teaching practices? 2. With your above answer in mind, could you make recommendations for two primary teachers on the same team and two intermediate teachers on the same team that most closely demonstrate the practices you outlined in the preceding question. 3. Explain how the participants you have chosen demonstrate those practices? 4. How have teaching practices changed sin ce the Florida Reading Initiative was implemented in your school? 5. How have those changes come about? 6. What were some of the challenges that were overcome in making those changes? 7. What do you want education to look lik e in your school in the coming years? 8. How is that vision different than the reality you experience now? 9. What are the challenges that must be surmounted to attain your vision? 10. How have your practices as a principal changed since the implementation of the Florida Reading Initiative? 11. What have been the influences on your choices of change? 12. From your perspective, how has the Florida Reading Initiative affected change in the school district? Potential Interview Questions to Ask Teacher Participants During the Study 1. Please share with me, if you would, the most deeply held values and principles of teaching that consistently impact decisions you make as a teacher. 2. When you are faced with a time crunch or some other external pressure, what are the practices or activities that you abso lutely refuse to eliminate? Why? 3. Tell me about some of the things that you feel pressure you when making teaching decisions. 4. How have your teaching pract ices changed since the Flor ida reading Initiative was implemented in your school?

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270 5. What has influenced you to make those changes? 6. What practices have you refused to change? Why? 7. What are some of the challenges you have faced in making changes in your teaching practices? 8. What is the vision you have for the grow th of your teaching practices? What do you want to perfect? 9. What types of inservice ac tivities have had the greate st impact on your teaching practices? 10. What do you envision as valu able teacher inservice? 11. How have the leadership practices of your principal changed since the implementation of the Flor ida Reading Initiative? 12. How have the leadership practices of your reading coach changed since the implementation of the Flor ida Reading Initiative? 13. Describe teacher leadership in your school?

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274 Cibulka, J.G., & Nakayama, M. (2000). Practitioner’s guide to learning communities. Washington, D.C.: National Partnership for Excellence and Accountability in Teaching: U.S. Department of Educa tion, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, Educational Resources Information Center. Cobb, P., McClain, K., Lamburg, T., & Dean, C. (2003). Situating teachers’ instructional practices in the inst itutional setting of the school and district. Educational Researcher, 32 (6), 13-24. Cohen, D.K., Raudenbush, S.W., & Ball, D. L (2003). Resources, instruction and research. Educational Evaluati on and Policy Analysis 25 (2), 119-142. Copland, M.A. (2003). Developing prospectiv e principals’ problem-framing skills. Journal of School Leadership, 13(5), 529-548. Cornett, J.W. (1990). Teacher thinking about cu rriculum and instructi on: A case study of a secondary social studies teacher. Theory and Research in Social Education, 18(3), 248-273. Cunningham, P.M. & Allington, R.L. (1999). Classrooms that work: They can all read and write. New York: Addison-Wesley Longman. Cunningham, P.M., Hall, D.P., & Sigmond, C.M. (1999). A teacher’s guide to the four blocks: A multimethod, multilevel framework for grades 1-3. Greensboro, NC: Carson-Dellosa Publishing Company. Csikszentmihalyi, M. & Rathunde, K. (1993). Th e measurement of flow in everyday life: Toward a theory of emergent motivation. In J.E. Jacobs (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation: Developmental perspect ives on motivation (Vol. 40, pp. 57-97). Cusick, P. (1973). Inside high school: The student’s world. New York: Holt, Rhinehart & Winston. Darling-Hammond, L. (1998). Teachers and te aching: Testing policy hypotheses from a national commission report. Educational Researcher 27 (1), 5-15. Darling-Hammond, L. & McLaugh lin, M. (1995). Policies that support professional development in an era of reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(8), 597-604. Datnow, A., & Stringfield, S. (2000). Work ing together for reliable school reform. Journal of Education for St udents Placed at Risk, 5, 183-204. Deal, T.E. & Peterson, K.D. (1990). The principal’s role in shaping school culture. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. Dice, E.L., Vallerand, R.J., Pelletier, L. G., & Ryan, R.M. (1991). Motivation and education: The self-determination perspective. Educational Psyc hologist, 26, 325346.

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285 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Maria LeFave graduated with her Bachelor of Arts in Education in 1973 from the University of Florida with a major in special education. She then r eceived her Master of Education in reading in 1977 from the University of Central Florida. Maria taught for 27 years in the public schools. She taught mentally handicapped, learning disabled, emotionally handicapped, gift ed and typical students at the elementary, middle and high school levels during the course of her teaching career. She is currently a reading program specialist for the North East Florida Educational Consortium.


Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0010057/00001

Material Information

Title: Sustainability of a school wide literacy reform
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: LeFave, Maria Nobile ( Dissertant )
Behar-Horenstein, Linda. ( Thesis advisor )
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2005
Copyright Date: 2005

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Educational Leadership, Policy and Foundations thesis, Ph.D   ( local )
Dissertations, Academic -- UF -- Educational Leadership, Policy and Foundations   ( local )

Notes

Abstract: Little is known about the impact of job-embedded teacher training on actual practice. Researchers have attempted to correlate teacher training effectiveness with changes in student achievement. Some small, positive correlations have been noted, but student outcome measures alone are not adequate to measure the extent of instructional change or complexity of impact. This study examined the instructional practices of 4 teachers within a school culture in the third year of school wide literacy reform. Field observations, interviews with the teachers, reading coach and principal, and archival data such as meeting minutes, lesson plans, and the school improvement plan were collected and analyzed from a critical ethnographic theoretical perspective. Factors that facilitated and impeded instructional change were identified. Findings showed that an emergent learning community fostered many of the instructional changes that had begun as a result of school wide professional development in research-based reading instructional practices and ongoing training in leadership for the principal and reading coach. Factors that impeded instructional improvement were resistance to change, conflicts in cultural norms, the development of factions within the school, low teacher self-efficacy, and time constraints.
Subject: coach, community, culture, leadership, learning, literacy, reading, reform, school, training
General Note: Title from title page of source document.
General Note: Document formatted into pages; contains 297 pages.
General Note: Includes vita.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2005.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0010057:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0010057/00001

Material Information

Title: Sustainability of a school wide literacy reform
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: LeFave, Maria Nobile ( Dissertant )
Behar-Horenstein, Linda. ( Thesis advisor )
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2005
Copyright Date: 2005

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Educational Leadership, Policy and Foundations thesis, Ph.D   ( local )
Dissertations, Academic -- UF -- Educational Leadership, Policy and Foundations   ( local )

Notes

Abstract: Little is known about the impact of job-embedded teacher training on actual practice. Researchers have attempted to correlate teacher training effectiveness with changes in student achievement. Some small, positive correlations have been noted, but student outcome measures alone are not adequate to measure the extent of instructional change or complexity of impact. This study examined the instructional practices of 4 teachers within a school culture in the third year of school wide literacy reform. Field observations, interviews with the teachers, reading coach and principal, and archival data such as meeting minutes, lesson plans, and the school improvement plan were collected and analyzed from a critical ethnographic theoretical perspective. Factors that facilitated and impeded instructional change were identified. Findings showed that an emergent learning community fostered many of the instructional changes that had begun as a result of school wide professional development in research-based reading instructional practices and ongoing training in leadership for the principal and reading coach. Factors that impeded instructional improvement were resistance to change, conflicts in cultural norms, the development of factions within the school, low teacher self-efficacy, and time constraints.
Subject: coach, community, culture, leadership, learning, literacy, reading, reform, school, training
General Note: Title from title page of source document.
General Note: Document formatted into pages; contains 297 pages.
General Note: Includes vita.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2005.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0010057:00001


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SUSTAINABILITY OF A SCHOOL WIDE LITERACY REFORM


By

MARIA NOBILE LEAVE


















A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2005

































Copyright 2005

by

Maria Nobile LeFave

































This work is dedicated to all of the teachers who never stop searching for better ways to
meet the needs of students.
















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Above all, I give thanks to the Lord without whose constant presence in my life I

could do nothing. I would also like to thank my family, particularly my loving, patient

husband, who helped me believe I could finish. Finally, I would like to thank my

committee chair, Dr. Linda Behar-Horenstein, who has been a faithful mentor and model

scholar.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

LIST OF TABLES ....... ....... .......... ........... ........ .. ..... ....... ............ .. ix

ABSTRACT .............. .......................................... xi

CHAPTER

1 IN TR OD U CTION ............................................... .. ......................... ..

State ent of the P problem ............................................................................. ........ 4
D definition of T erm s ................. .................................. ...... ........ .......... .......
Significance of the Study .............................................................................. ...... .6
L im stations of the Study ....................... .............................. .. ......... ............ .....

2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE ......................................................... .............. 8

School W ide Literacy Reform Efforts................................... .................................... 8
The Progression of Comprehensive School Reform ............................................8
Characteristics of Successful Comprehensive School Reform Programs ............9
High Performing Schools, Learning Communities, and Literacy Reform..........12
Current School Wide Literacy Reform Efforts ................................................14
Factors Affecting Literacy Reform Success............................................18
Staff D evelopm ent ............... .... ........ ........................................ .. .... ........ 19
Influences on Teachers' Instructional Practices ............................... ................23
External Influences .............. ...................... ......... ............ ......24
Internal Influences ....... ................................. .......... .. ............ ...... .... 27

3 M E T H O D .......................................................................... 3 0

R researcher Subjectivity .............................................. ............ ............... 30
Theoretical Perspective ............................................................. ....32
Participant Selection and D escription..................................... ......... ............... 34
O obtaining A access .................. ........................... .... .... ................. .. 34
Selection of Participants ........................................................ .............. 35
D description of Participants ....................................................... .............. ... 35
S e ttin g .................................................... ...................... ................ 3 6









D ata C collection ................... ......... .................. ..................... ......... 37
Procedures for Participant Observations .................................. ............... 37
Interview Procedures ......................................... ........ .. .. .. .. .......... .... 38
A rchival C collection Procedures....................................... ......... ............... 39
Data Analysis.............................................. 39
Observation Analysis Procedures............................................... ...............40
Interview A analysis Procedures .................. ............... ........... ...............43
Archival Analysis Procedures ....................................... ....................... 44
Analysis of Interactively Established Power Relations.................. ...... .....45
Analysis Procedures for Systems Relationships........................................46
V a lid ity ............................................................................ 4 7

4 INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES AND HOW THEY CHANGED ......................... 49

M rs. B aker's F irst G rade C lass ......................................................... .....................49
C classroom Structure ...................... .......................... .... ....... .... ..... ...... 49
A analysis of Instructional Practice.......... ................ .........................................52
C om prehension ....... ........................................................ ....... .....52
V o cab u lary .................................................. ................ 5 3
D ecoding and spelling .............................................. ............................. 54
C ontent area instruction ........................................ .......... ............... 55
D iscu ssio n ................... ..................................................... ...............5 6
M rs. P eters' F irst G rade C lass ........................................................................ .. .... 57
C classroom Structure ...................... .......................... .... ....... .... ..... ...... 57
Analysis of Instructional Practices ............................... ..... ...................... 60
C om prehension ....... ........................................................ ....... .....60
V ocabulary ................................................. ................. 6 1
D ecoding, spelling and w writing ....................................... ............... 62
C ontent area instruction ........................................ .......... ............... 64
D iscu ssio n ................... ......................................................................... ...............6 5
Mrs. McDonald's Fourth Grade Classroom .................................... ...............65
C classroom Structure ...................... .......................... .... ....... .... ..... ...... 65
Analysis of Instructional Practice............... ......... .................. ................67
Comprehension and fluency .................. .... .......... ...............67
V ocabulary ................................................. ................. 7 1
D ecoding, spelling, and w writing ....................................... ............... 72
C ontent area instruction ........................................ .......... ............... 74
D iscu ssio n ............................................................................................................7 5
Mrs. Dickerson's Fourth Grade Classroom......... .................................... 76
C classroom Structure ...................... .......................... .... ....... .... ..... ...... 76
Analysis of Instructional Practices ............................... ..... ...................... 78
Comprehension and fluency .................. .... .......... ...............78
V o cab u lary ................................................................. .. 8 1
D ecoding and spelling ................................... ............... ............... 82
C ontent area instruction ........................................ .......... ............... 83
D iscu ssio n ............................................................................................................8 4









Changes in Teachers' Instructional Practices .......................................................85
Im pact of Becom ing and SRI Trainer .......................... ........... ............... .... 85
Teachers' Beliefs, Prior Knowledge, and Change in Instructional Practice .......86
Initial Instructional Changes of Other Teachers..................... ............... 90
An Em ergent Learning Community ....................................... ............... 91
Sum m ary of Findings ................................................ .............................. 94

5 LEADERSHIP PRACTICES AND HOW THEY CHANGED.............................95

L leadership Practices .........9..... ..... .......... .................... 95
The Reading Coach's Instructional Leadership ...............................................95
T h e P rin cip al .................................................... ................ 9 7
Principal's m anagem ent .................................................... ... .................98
Principal's instructional leadership ................................... ............... ..99
Synergistic Instructional Leadership ..................................... ....... ........... 101
Changes in Leadership Practices ........................................ ......................... 102
Leadership G row th ............. ........................ ........................... 102
An Emergent Learning Community ...................................... ............... 104
Educational Leadership Practices.................................. ........................ 105

6 HOW THE SCHOOL CULTURE INFLUENCED INSTRUCTIONAL
CHANGE....................................................... .............. .......... 109

Factors That Impeded Instructional Change....................................................111
Hindrances to the Maintenance and Growth of the Learning Community .......111
Teacher Self-Efficacy and Time Impediments to Instructional Change ...........125
Factors Beyond the School Culture that Facilitated or Impeded Change............... 129
Facilitating Factors Beyond the School Culture ............................ ...............129
Impeding Factors Beyond the School Culture........................................134
Im plications of the Study .......................................................... ............... 138
Resistance to Change .................. .......................... .... .... .. ........ .... 139
Professional Pride and Jealousy ............................................. ............... 140
Implications for Professional Developm ent ................................... ................140
Recommendations for Further Study ........................................... ................... 141

APPENDIX

A D OM AIN AN ALY SIS ........................................................................... .. 143

B COMPONENTIAL PARADIGMS .............................................................. 158

C INTERVIEW THEM ES ........................................................................... 188

D TR IA N G U LA TION CH A R T ......................................................... .....................236

E EVIDENCE OF INTERACTIVE POWER................................... ...............239

F IN TE R V IE W Q U E STIO N S .....................................................................................268









L IST O F R E FE R E N C E S ........................................................................... ........ .......... 271

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H ........................................... ...........................................285
















LIST OF TABLES

Table pge

3 1 D o m a in L ist ........................................................................................................ 4 2

3-2 D om ain analysis exam ple............................................... .............................. 43

A-i Domain Analysis: Comprehension Instruction ...........................144

A-2 Domain Analysis: Vocabulary Instruction....................... ..................... 146

A-3 Domain Analysis: Decoding and Spelling .................................. ............... 147

A-4 Domain Analysis: W writing Instruction ........................................................ 148

A-5 Domain Analysis: Content Area Instruction .................................................149

A-6 Domain Analysis: Provide Feedback .......... ................................ ...............150

A-7 Domain Analysis: Instructional Approaches............................................. 151

A-8 Domain Analysis: Classroom Structures .............. ........................... .................152

A-9 Dom ain Analysis: Student Assessm ent............................................................... 153

A -10 D om ain A analysis: Educator B behaviors ........................................ .....................154

A-11 Domain Analysis: Instructional Leadership....... .... ......................................155

A-12 Domain Analysis: M management ................. .. ........................ ............... 157

B-1 Componential Paradigm Comprehension ................................. ............... 159

B-2 Componential Paradigm Concepts in Content Areas.........................................162

B-3 Componential Analysis Decoding ........................................... ............... 163

B -4 Com potential Feedback............................................. ............................. 166

B-5 Componential Paradigm Independent Practice ...............................................169

B-6 Componential Paradigm Vocabulary ............................................ .............172









B-7 Componential Paradigm High Stakes Testing ......................................... 174

B-8 Componential Paradigm -Professional Pride............................................175

B-9 Componential Paradigm Management....................................... 176

B-10 Componential Paradigm Instructional Leadership............................... ..............183

C-1 Them atic A analysis W orksheet ........................................ .......................... 188

D -1 T riangulation C hart ........................................................................ .................. 236

E-1 Evidence of Interactive Power ................ ............................... ... ........... .240















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

SUSTAINABILITY OF A SCHOOL WIDE LITERACY REFORM

By

Maria Nobile LeFave

May, 2005

Chair: Linda Behar-Horenstein
Major Department: Educational Leadership, Policy and Foundations

Little is known about the impact of job-embedded teacher training on actual

practice. Researchers have attempted to correlate teacher training effectiveness with

changes in student achievement. Some small, positive correlations have been noted, but

student outcome measures alone are not adequate to measure the extent of instructional

change or complexity of impact.

This study examined the instructional practices of 4 teachers within a school

culture in the third year of school wide literacy reform. Field observations, interviews

with the teachers, reading coach and principal, and archival data such as meeting minutes,

lesson plans, and the school improvement plan were collected and analyzed from a

critical ethnographic theoretical perspective.

Factors that facilitated and impeded instructional change were identified. Findings

showed that an emergent learning community fostered many of the instructional changes

that had begun as a result of school wide professional development in research-based

reading instructional practices and ongoing training in leadership for the principal and









reading coach. Factors that impeded instructional improvement were resistance to

change, conflicts in cultural norms, the development of factions within the school, low

teacher self-efficacy, and time constraints.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

No one approach or set of reading materials can fulfill the literacy needs of all

students. The most promising means for increasing students' literacy acquisition is to

encourage a widespread change in instructional practices across the curriculum.

Meaningful instructional changes that integrate varied teaching methods and use of

materials appropriate to students' learning needs are more likely to produce increased

student achievement than any other approach (Cohen, Raudenbush, & Ball, 2003;

Darling-Hammond & McLaughlin, 1995; Duffy & Hoffman, 1999).

Researchers have correlated several specific teaching practices with improved

student learning (Allington, 2001; Cunningham & Allington, 1994; Metsala, Wharton-

McDonald, Rankin, Mistretta, Yokoi, & Ettenberger, 1997; National Reading Panel,

2000; Pressley, Yokoi, Rankin, Wharton-McDonald, & Mistretta, 1997; Simmons &

Kuykendall, 2000; Stronge, 2002). For example, educators now know that students

benefit from having some choice in selecting tasks (Dice, Vallerand, & Pelletier, 1991).

Researchers have found that tasks must be engaging, meaningful, and allow students to

see progress (Blumenfeld & Meece, 1988; Marshall, 1992). Moderately difficult, open-

ended tasks enhance confidence and interest. Minimally challenging, closed tasks such as

worksheets perpetuate low expectations and attention on extrinsic rewards (Miller,

Adkins, & Hooper, 1993; Turner, 1995; Weiner, 1992). Texts that engage students'

interests result in longer, sustained student engagement in literacy tasks than less

engaging texts (Csikszentmihalyi & Rathunde, 1993; Schieffle, 1991). Though the









engagement level of texts is a significant factor in student engagement, researchers have

also found that texts and other materials must be at a student's instructional or

independent reading level in order to maintain his/her engagement (Snow, Bums, &

Griffin, 1998). Finally, explicit, systematic skill instruction combined with implicit,

authentic literacy experiences, varied instructional arrangements, promoting higher order

thinking skills in lessons, accommodations for diverse learners, student accountability, as

well as the combination of writing and reading across the curriculum enhance student

achievement in reading and other subjects (Allington, 2001; Allington, 2000; Cantrell,

1999; Duffy, 2001; Ivey, Bowman, & Jarrad, 2000; Metsala et al., 1997; Poindexter &

Oliver, 1998; Pressley et al., 1997; Pressley & Wharton-McDonald, 1998; Snow, Bums,

& Griffin, 1998; Taylor, Pressley, & Pearson, 2000).

Despite agreement regarding the nature of effective teaching in reading, researchers

have claimed that relatively few teachers utilize these practices (Simmons & Kuykendall,

2000). Educational leaders continue to rely upon staff developers to provide training that

will impact teachers' practices (Darling-Hammond, 1998). However, modes of teacher

training typified by workshops or conferences have not resulted in widespread

implementation of effective teaching practices (Darling-Hammond & McLaughlin, 1995;

Lieberman, 1995). Workshops unconnected to school wide improvement result in

ineffective outcomes (Moats, 2001).

Typically, professional development activities focus on discrete skill development

and knowledge that is de-contextualized from the realities of classroom application

(Lieberman, 1995). Instead, teachers need active involvement and the opportunity to

discuss what they have learned (Lieberman, 1995). They need opportunities to integrate









theory with classroom practice through reflection and reading (Darling-Hammond &

McLaughlin, 1995). A lack of follow-up further limits teachers' ability to implement the

knowledge gained from their training experiences (Moscovitch, 2001). According to

Darling-Hammond (1998), research "that describes in substantive detail how schools and

schools of education are reshaping teachers' learning opportunities and evaluating

whether and how much changes benefit teaching and learning" is needed (p. 12).

Much is now known about how to improve reading and about effective staff

development. However, relatively little is known about efforts that result in successful

literacy reform. The impact of offering staff development that is decontextualized from

the realities of the classroom suggests that successful literacy instruction reform will

require more than simply importing information about how to teach reading. Changes in

teachers' instructional practice within the entire context of the school culture (Simmons

& Kuykendall, 2000) is necessary.

Educational leaders have proposed that placing a reading coach in a school will

provide the additional support needed for teachers to implement various programs or

practices (Nowak, 2003; Poglinco, Bach, Hovde, Rosenblum, Saunders, and Supovitz

2003). The underlying assumption is that reading coaches will facilitate the development

of reading expertise among teachers, thus improving the quality of reading instruction

and ultimately impact student achievement (International Reading Association, 2004).

There are numerous descriptions of various reading coach programs in the literature

(Bean, 2004; Lapp, Fisher, Flodd, & Frey, 2003; Morgan, Saylor-Crowder, Stephens,

Donnelly, Deford, & Hamel, 2003; Southern California Comprehensive Assistance

Center, 2002; Sturtevant, 2003; Vogt & Shearer, 2003). Demonstration teaching for









teachers, observation, and feedback are common elements to the reading coach model

programs described in the literature. While many descriptions exist, little research

evidence related to the efficacy of reading coaches can be found in the literature

(International Reading Association, 2004).

In the school year 2001-2002, a school wide literacy reform model, which will be

referred to as the Southern Reading Initiative (SRI), was launched in a southeastern

educational consortium's rural school districts. Based upon the Alabama Reading

Initiative, the SRI literacy reform effort involves training an entire faculty, including the

principal and reading coach, in researched-based literacy instructional practices. Monthly

leadership cadre meetings designed to provide inservice to the principal and reading

coach followed the initial training. The reading coach and principal provided follow-up

activities with the teachers such as book studies, demonstration lessons, and opportunities

for observations throughout the year. This literacy reform model is intended to transform

school culture in a way that encourages the widespread implementation of the most

effective scientifically based reading research practices through job-embedded staff

development.

Statement of the Problem

The purpose of this study is to determine to what extent a school wide literacy

reform has been sustained within a school culture. The study will employ critical

ethnographic methods to answer the following questions:

1. How do the participants promote literacy through their teaching practices across the
curriculum?

2. How do the participants describe the changes in their instructional practice since
the Southern Reading Initiative was implemented in their school?

3. How do the principal and/or reading coach lead and/or manage the school?









4. How do the participants describe changes in the principal's or reading coach's
leadership and/or management practices since the implementation of the Southern
Reading Initiative?

5. How has the present school culture influenced instructional change?

Definition of Terms

Critical ethnography refers to qualitative research methods rooted in the

theoretical perspective of critical social research that focuses on the study of culture.

Critical social researchers are concerned with social inequalities and direct their work

toward positive social change (Carspecken, 1996).

Dialogical data refers to data collected through the interview process (Carspecken,

1996).

Graphophonemic refers to the relationship between letters and

sounds. Interactive power relations occur when actors in a social site are differentiated

in accordance with who has the greatest influence in determining the course of an

interaction (Carspecken, 1996).

Interactively established contracts occur when the subordinate acts in order to

gain favor or rewards from the superordinate (Carspecken, 1996).

Intersubjectivity refers to the act of position-taking or taking the subjective

position from a variety of perspectives on an act (Carspecken, 1996).

Literacy reformrefers to changes in reading and writing instruction applied across

the curriculum school wide.

Monological data refers to the information in which the researcher speaks alone

when writing the primary record (Carspecken, 1996).

Morphology refers to the study of the form and structure of words.









Peer-debriefer refers to a colleague who reads the researcher's primary record as

well as analyses to provide him/her with feedback on unintended bias, overemphasis or

under emphasis on specific features.

Primary record refers to the collection of detailed field notes, journalistic field

notes, audiotapes, and/or videotapes taken during observations and interviews in the site

of focus (Carspecken, 1996).

Reconstructive strip analysis refers to analysis completed on specific sections of

transcript that reconstructs cultural and subjective factors that are largely tacit into

explicit discourse (Carspecken, 1996).

Strip analysis refers to the process of checking identified cultural themes with the

primary record to see if they are consistent with the reconstructed cultural themes.

(Carspecken, 1996)

School culture refers to patterns of meaning that include the commonly

understood myths, values, beliefs, norms, rituals, ceremonies, and traditions held by

members of the school community, which are historically transmitted (Stolp & Smith

1994). Transactional leadership refers to that style of leadership characterized by the

exchange of reward or favor such as pay, performance ratings, recognition, or praise

(Burns, 1978).

Transformational leadership refers to that style of leadership characterized by

the engagement of followers' commitment and motivation through trust, concern and

facilitation rather than direct control (Burns, 1978).

Significance of the Study

Little is known about the impact of job-embedded teacher training on actual

practice. Researchers have attempted to correlate teacher training effectiveness with









changes in student achievement. Some small, positive correlations have been noted, but

student outcome measures alone are not adequate to measure the extent of instructional

change or complexity of impact (Hamilton, McCaffrey, Stecher, Klein, Robyn, &

Bugliari, 2003). According to Hamilton et al. (2003), research is needed to determine

what leads teachers to implement reforms.

This study explored the extent to which a school wide literacy reform effort was

sustained within a school culture and to what extent that reform effort actually impacted

instructional practices. By observing the instructional practices of selected primary and

intermediate teachers over an extended period of time and at various times of the day

unannounced, the researcher ascertained the general routine and methods of instruction

commonly practiced in these classrooms. Observations of meetings conducted at the

school site as well as interviews with the selected teachers, reading coach and principal

provided a window through which the school culture could be examined from various

perspectives. The findings of this study revealed the cultural factors that facilitated and

impeded instructional change since the inception of the SRI in their school.

Limitations of the Study

The findings of this study will be limited to the context where the study was

conducted. The interpretation of observed practice will represent the researcher's point of

view and thus may be open to alternate explanations. The participants in this study have

been selected from one site and thus may not be representative of all teachers within the

school district.














CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent a school wide literacy

reform has been sustained within a school culture and to what extent this reform effort

actually impacted instructional practice. An overview of research relevant to this study

includes school wide literacy reform efforts, staff development, and influences on

teachers' instructional practices.

School Wide Literacy Reform Efforts

Literacy reform efforts were implemented as a result of the comprehensive school

reform (CSR) movement that began in 1991. This section will describe the progression of

comprehensive school reform as it relates to literacy; the characteristics of a CSR;

learning communities, high performing schools and literacy reform efforts; and current

school wide literacy reform programs.

The Progression of Comprehensive School Reform

Comprehensive school reform was implemented in 1991, following the creation of

a private-sector organization called New American Schools (NAS). The formation of this

organization resulted from the realization that the program efforts aimed at serving the

learning needs of at-risk students were ineffective and disjointed. Individuals who served

the needs of students at-risk suggested that, in order to assist low-achieving students in

high poverty schools, changes across the school instructional program would be needed.

Those changes would need to focus on the entire school culture including types of

leadership as well as the instructional program. The mission of NAS was to solicit









marketplace proposals for innovative approaches to schooling that would rely on business

models and be governed externally (Borman, Hewes, Overman, & Brown, 2003).

As a result of the externally developed NAS disseminated programs, the U.S.

Congress initiated the Comprehensive School Reform Program (CSRP). This program,

begun in 1998, encouraged schools to develop scientifically based school wide reforms in

collaboration with the assistance of external groups such as universities (Borman et al.,

2003).

Characteristics of Successful Comprehensive School Reform Programs

The current research base indicates that whole school reforms appeared to have

greater positive effects on student achievement than traditional Title I pull out programs

or locally created reforms (Borman et al., 2003). Title I pull out programs delivered

piecemeal services that decontextualized skill development, which exacerbated the

learning difficulties of at-risk students. Further, previous top-down efforts of school

reform resulted from legislative mandates that relied on the discretion of local educators

for implementation. While CSRPs required top-down direction as well, that direction is

infused into the individual school culture through professional development and

leadership training with accessible support from the external CSRP provider (Borman et

al., 2003).

Several factors affect successful school wide reforms (Borman et al., 2003). First,

the degree of fidelity in reform implementation bears a strong relationship to positive

effects (Borman & Stringfield, 2000; Stringfield, Millsap, Yoder, Schaffer, Nesselrodt,

Gamse, et al.,1997). Second, more clearly defined instructional practices and

organizational procedures result in greater implementation fidelity, and, therefore, result

in stronger student achievement. (Bodilly, 1998; Nunnery, 1998). Third, sound









professional development training followed by consistent technical assistance to teachers

as they attempt to implement changes in their classrooms have been associated with

greater implementation of reforms (Muncey & McQuillan, 1996; Nunnery, 1998).

Finally, teacher and administrator support and even "co-construction" of the reform are

necessary for school change to occur (Borman et al., 2000; Datnow & Stringfield, 2000).

In addition to these factors, the U.S. Department of Education (2002) identified

components that when implemented coherently define a "scientifically based" and

"comprehensive" school reform effort. A comprehensive school reform program,

summarized below, includes the following:

1. Employs proven strategies and proven methods for student learning, teaching, and
school management that are based on scientifically based research and effective
practices and have been replicated successfully in schools;

2. Integrates a comprehensive design for effective school functioning, including
instruction, assessment, classroom management, professional development,
parental involvement, and school management that aligns the school's curriculum,
technology, and professional development into a comprehensive school reform plan
for school wide change designed to enable all students to meet challenging State
content and student academic achievement standards and addresses needs
identified through a school needs assessment;

3. Provides high quality and continuous teacher and staff professional development;

4. Includes measurable goals for student achievement and benchmarks for meeting
such goals;

5. Is supported by teachers, principals, administrators, school personnel staff, and
other professional staff;

6. Provides support for teachers, principals, administrators, and other school staff;

7. Provides for the meaningful involvement of parents and the local community in
planning, implementing, and evaluating school improvement activities consistent
with section 1118;

8. Uses high quality external technical support and assistance from an entity that has
experience and expertise in school wide reform and improvement, which may
include an institution of higher education.









9. Includes a plan for the annual evaluation of the implementation of school reforms
and the student results achieved;

10. Identifies other resources, including Federal, State, local, and private resources, that
shall be used to coordinate services that will support and sustain the comprehensive
school reform effort; and

11. Strong evidence exists that the program will significantly improve the academic
achievement of students participating in such program as compared to students in
schools who have not participated in such program; or strong evidence exists that
such a program will significantly improve academic achievement of participating
children.

Borman (2003) conducted a meta-analysis of 29 CSR programs designed to

determine their efficacy in meeting the learning needs of at-risk students. Three CSR

models met the criteria to be classified as having the strongest evidence of effectiveness.

To be considered as part of this category, the model had to be studied in at least 10 or

more schools across the United States, demonstrate a statistically significant effect size,

be replicable across contexts, and generalizable to the population of U.S. schools most

likely to adopt the CSRP. Direct Instruction, The School Development Program, and

Success for All demonstrated the highest efficacy (Borman et al.; Borman & Hewes,

2003). Three additional models met the criteria for being classified as demonstrating

highly promising evidence of effectiveness. These models showed positive and

statistically significant results from third party or comparison studies but did not have the

broad research base demonstrated by the previously cited models. Models included in this

category were Expeditionary Learning Outward Bound, Modern Red Schoolhouse, and

Roots & Wings. Other promising models that had 2 or more studies and at least 1 third-

party comparison-group study and showed statistically significant positive effects were

Accelerated Schools, America's Choice, Atlas Communities, Montessori, Paideia, and

The Learning Network.









High Performing Schools, Learning Communities, and Literacy Reform

Research on high performing schools has informed school reform efforts. When

applied to literacy reform efforts this information can further define characteristics

important to literacy reform success (Wohsletter & Malloy, 2001).

First, high performing schools focus their vision on teaching and learning that is

focused on state standards (Newmann & Wehlage, 1995; Odden & Busch, 1998; Sebring,

Bryk & Eaton, 1995). In a like manner, schools that are most effective in producing

gains in reading achievement focus on a commitment to reading (Taylor, Pearson, Clark,

& Walpole, (1999).

Second, school level decision-making authority as well as a broad base of the

distribution of power and leadership is linked to high performing schools (Bryk, Thum,

Easton, & Luppescu, 1998; Smylie, Lazarus, & Brownlee-Conyers, 1996; Sebring et al.,

1995). As applied to literacy reform, control of the amount and organizational structure

of instructional time spent on reading and the establishment of literacy councils or

committees that address various reading issues, such as assessment or continuous

improvement issues, contribute to effective literacy reforms (Wohlstetter,& Briggs, 2001;

Taylor et al., 1999).

Third, high performing schools continuously engage in professional development

activities that focus on student needs and the goals of the school (Au & Kawakami,

1994). With respect to literacy instruction, focused professional development for

administrators, teachers, and paraprofessionals in basic components of reading and

effective instructional practices in reading is critical to improving reading achievement

(Curran, 2001; Wohlstetter & Malloy, 2001;).









Fourth, high performing schools gather and communicate information related to

school operations, school performance, and student performance among internal and

external stakeholders (Taylor et al., 1999; Wohlstetter & Mohrman, 1993). Similarly,

literacy reform success involves high-level communication regarding the reading

program goals as well as a careful study of student achievement data to inform instruction

and measure program effectiveness (Wohlstetter & Malloy, 2001).

Effective schools research has revealed characteristics that are similar to those

characteristics that educational leaders have identified as present in a learning

community. A learning community is a organization in which students and teachers learn

together in a collaborative culture (Cibulka & Nakayama, 2000). The professional staff

directs efforts toward improved student achievement and shares both a collective purpose

or vision and responsibility (Hord, 1997; Newmann & Wehlage, 1995). Sharing

responsibility requires building leadership capacity among professional staff members

and developing communication-networking systems (Lambert, 2000; Moffett, 2000).

In addition to a learning community within the school, a supportive infrastructure at

the district level that includes outside facilitation must also be in place to assure the

success and longevity of school reform (Moffett, 2000). Just as is true at the school level,

communication networking and a shared vision are critical between the district and the

school. The district must also have in place an effective human resource development

process, the ability to adapt innovations to local needs, as well as mechanisms for

capturing and analyzing information gained from implementation efforts (Ucelli, 1999).

Finally, the use of rewards and resources is critical to sustain long-term

implementation of reforms (Odden & Busch, 1998; Newmann & Wehlage, 1995;









Wohlstetter & Mohrman, 1993). Rewards should link to professional development in

literacy, and schools should focus the acquisition of outside resources on the

development of the reading program (Wohlstetter & Malloy, 2001).

Comprehensive school reform models demonstrated their greatest effects on

student achievement after the fifth year of implementation (Borman et al., 2003). To

impact student achievement significantly, therefore, the reform must be sustained over

time through the development of a professional learning community within the school

and support from district level leadership (Moffett, 2000; Newmann & Wehlage,1995).

Current School Wide Literacy Reform Efforts

Several school wide literacy reform efforts have emerged since the Congress

enacted the Comprehensive School Reform Program in 1998. In this section 6 of these

initiatives will be described.

The School wide Reading Improvement Model (SRIM) was formed as a

partnership among university faculty in special education, literacy, school psychology,

school-based administrators and practitioners. This model provided a long-term, school-

based program guided by scientifically based reading researched instructional practice for

beginning readers. Among the practices central to SRIM are continuous assessment of

student performance using the critical indicators of beginning reading and a centralized

data-management system for use in decision-making (Kame'enui, Simmons & Cogne,

2000; Simmons & Kuykendall, 2000).

The Dallas Reading Plan, a 5-year systemic literacy reform initiative, was

implemented in 144 elementary schools in Dallas, Texas. The training components of the

Dallas Reading Plan focused on teaching kindergarten through grade 3 teachers and

administrators the principles of balanced literacy including phonemic awareness and









phonics as well as guiding reading, data analysis, and small group instruction. The Dallas

Plan did not train entire faculties together, but rather trained teachers from several

schools by grade level (Shapley, Cooter & Cooter, 1999).

The Texas Reading Initiative, a state initiative begun in 1996, focused on

delivering professional development to teachers and administrators of kindergarten

through grade three. While the training organization was similar to the Dallas Plan, the

training components were developed using scientifically based reading research and

focused on oral language development, phonemic awareness, phonics, comprehension

strategies, fluency, writing, and spelling. The Texas Initiative provided additional support

in the area of diagnostic assessment and progress monitoring and leadership training for

administrators.

The Literacy Collaborative, in operation for more than a decade, has involved

approximately 500 schools in collaboration with Ohio State University. The Literacy

Collaborative provides systemic support and long-term professional development in

reading, writing, and language development. Professional development, such as

individual coaching for teachers and workshops, are provided at each school site. Each

school employs a literacy coordinator who trains new teachers, supervises ongoing

professional development, and teaches students. Extensive leveled books are available on

each campus. The program offers one-to-one tutoring for struggling readers and a parent

outreach program (Williams, Sharer, & Pinnell, 2000).

Another school wide, locally initiated literacy effort was initiated during the late

1990s in a high school in California. Over a two year period, this high school realized a

12% overall increase in reading achievement on the statewide test. The researcher









attributed the increase to several factors. First, professional development provided

teachers with training on how to use strategy instruction to increase reading

comprehension. Second, by using an extended lunch period, students participated in 20

minutes of uninterrupted sustained silent reading on a daily basis. During this period,

teachers held reading conferences with students. Third, implementing school-adopted

block scheduling allowed teachers to utilize more effective, time consuming instructional

practices and models. These reforms were guided by a literacy plan that was formulated

and agreed upon through shared decision-making (Fisher, 2001). Many of the

components included in this California high school's literacy reform effort are present in

the Alabama Reading Initiative.

The Alabama Reading Initiative (ARI), a state initiative, focused on improving

reading achievement among kindergarten through twelfth grade students. Schools are

chosen to become demonstration sites from a pool of applicants who agree to set a goal of

100% literacy; acquire at least 85% faculty commitment; attend a resident 10-day

summer academy and contribute to a $50 per day stipend for each teacher; are led by the

principal; adjust their teaching practices; model research-based reading instruction for

other schools; and are evaluated by an outside evaluator. Selected higher education

faculty members participate in the summer academy and serve as mentors to the Literacy

Demonstration site during the subsequent school year (A+ Education Foundation, 2002).

The summer academy focuses on three elements of effective reading instruction.

Beginning reading provides teacher training in the use of instructional practices that

stress the five basic components of reading as identified by the National Reading Panel

(2000), which are phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and comprehension.









Expanded reading, designed for grade levels 2-12, provides research based strategies

designed to teach children to use reading to learn. An example of such a strategy would

be teaching students how to make connections with their experiences, with the world

around them and with other texts as they read. The final component is designed to teach

teachers how to implement effective intervention strategies for increasing the pace of

learning for struggling readers (A+ Education Foundation, 2002).

The Southeastern Reading Initiative (SRI), the reform effort pertinent to this study,

was modeled after the Alabama Reading Initiative. The development of the SRI

components emerged from the content included in the ARI training. Each faculty must

employ a reading coach who provides intervention for struggling readers and serves as a

coach for teachers in learning how to apply scientifically reading researched instructional

practices. Reading specialists were also employed in the ARI. Both initiatives collaborate

with faculties in higher education. The ARI works with faculty among several

universities while the SRI works with faculty employed at only one university.

Features of the SRI are similar to those of the ARI. For example, the process for

choosing the involvement of schools requires that faculties demonstrate a consensus of

85% in favor of participation and commitment to attendance at the summer academy.

Teachers and administrators of participating schools attend a two-week summer reading

academy in which they learn grade-appropriate strategies in phonemic

awareness/phonics, comprehension, vocabulary/language development, the

reading/writing connection, assessment, intervention strategies for struggling readers, and

the use of small group instruction. During the course of the two weeks, principals conduct

faculty meetings with their staff to discuss ways and means for implementing what they









have learned at their school site. Monthly coach and principal support meetings provide

continuous professional development designed to strengthen the schools' leadership.

Factors Affecting Literacy Reform Success

The literacy reform efforts described previously demonstrated varying degrees of

success. The Dallas Plan, for example, showed that first graders made expected gains, but

second and third graders were 3 to 4 months below the expected average of 10 months.

Further, 70% of the third graders read below grade-level expectations (Shapley, Cooter &

Cooter, 1999). The Literacy Collaborative demonstrated a considerable rise in scores

over a seven-year period as compared to other schools within the school district and the

state of Ohio during that period (Williams, Sharer, & Pinnell, 2000). The Texas Reading

Initiative resulted in 86% pass rate among third graders in the reading portion of their

state assessment test (Texas Education Agency, 2002).

Two separate evaluators examined ARI's progress toward their goal of 100%

literacy. Small but positive differences in effect sizes were demonstrated in favor of ARI

schools over non-ARI schools (O'Neal & Spor, 2002). Instead of relying on Stanford 9

measures which are highly correlated with socioeconomic status, one researcher

examined the performance of individual students from one year to the next and compared

schools based on how much progress their students had made. Using this as a measure,

schools that participated in the ARI solidly outperformed schools that did not

(Moscovitch, 2001).

However, in the third year of the implementation of ARI, the evaluators noted a dip

in student achievement. Variation in implementation was cited as a cause for the

regression toward the goal of 100% literacy. A state cutback in funding and a

simultaneous rise in the number of schools participating in the ARI resulted in less









follow-up by ARI staff members as they attempted to meet the increased demands of

supervision coupled with a loss of reading specialists in some of the schools. However,

the trend of student improvement showed that over a 3-year period, a student who began

the program at the 50th percentile could expect to be at the 62nd percentile by the twelfth

grade (Moscovitch, 2001).

Variation in implementation influenced student achievement outcomes across

schools that participated in literacy reform efforts (O'Neal & Spor, 2002; Turnbull, 2002;

Moscovitch, 2001;Williams, Scharer, & Pinnell, 2000; Shapley, Cooter & Cooter, 1999).

Factors that influenced implementation included teacher turnover, efficacy of the reading

coach, and principal's interest, commitment, and knowledge level (O'Neal & Spor, 2002;

Tumbull, 2002; Mizell, 1999; Moscovitch, 2001;Williams, Scharer, & Pinnell, 2000;

Shapley, Cooter & Cooter, 1999).

Staff Development

Leaders in education now recognize how important teacher training is to the

improvement of student achievement (Allington, 2001; Duffy & Hoffman, 1999; Darling-

Hammond, 1995; 1998; Sparks & Hirsh, 2000; Stenhouse, 1975). As a result, staff

developers have been motivated to consider their effectiveness and to determine what

changes must occur to improve professional development effectiveness. Several studies

have indicated that the typical "workshop" is efficient in presenting new information but

ineffective in producing significant change in teachers' practices. Swafford (2001),

Showers and Joyce (1983), and Gallimore and Tharp (as cited in Swafford, 2001)

claimed that workshops typically do not impact instructional practice because the

practices taught may differ significantly from teachers' current practice; they provide









little support to implement the new practices; and/or teachers may be isolated from their

peers, which impacts their ability to implement new practices.

The American Institutes for Research (AIR), under contract with the U.S.

Department of Education's Planning and Evaluation Service, conducted a three-year

study of the Eisenhower Professional Development Program. This Title II program was

primarily designed to support professional development for teachers in science and

mathematics. Their report revealed that professional development focused on specific,

higher-order teaching strategies increased the teachers' use of those strategies in the

classroom, particularly if the initial training promoted the use of study groups or action

research rather than a workshop or conference; provided opportunities for active learning;

was consistent with the teachers' goals; and involved participants who taught the same

subject, grade or school. However, in their report the researchers also claimed that the

quality of in-service from year to year varied. Teachers from the same schools often

experienced different staff development activities. From the year 1996 to 1999, very

little overall change occurred in instructional practice among the teachers trained through

this program. Individual teachers, however, did demonstrate change in their practices

from year to year. The researchers concluded that positive findings on the effects of staff

development would increase if districts and schools provided a more coherent, systematic

program of high-quality professional development (Porter, Garet, Desimone, Yoon, &

Birman, 2000).

To address the weaknesses delineated above, the National Staff Development

Council proposed a national plan for improving staff development (Sparks & Hirsh,

1997). The standards they recommended are as follows:









1. Set clear and high standards for the learning of all students and then focus on the
changes in practice required to achieve student learning...

2. Hold superintendents and principals, as well as teachers, accountable for student
achievement...

3. Invest in teacher learning...

4. Review school improvement plans to ascertain that they focus on student learning

5. Involve all teachers in the continuous, intellectually rigorous study of the content
they teach and the ways they teach it...

6. Embed opportunities for professional learning and collaborating with colleagues...

7. Provide teachers with classroom assessment and other action research skills...

8. Recognize the importance of skillful leaders in schools and at the district level...
(Sparks & Hirsh, 1997, p.5-6).

In order for the National Staff Development Council's recommendations to reach

fruition, numerous paradigm shifts were needed to improve professional development.

Professional development would need to refocus from the individual teacher to both

teacher and organizational development. Instead of fragmented piecemeal efforts, staff

development would need to be driven by clear, coherent strategic plans for districts, each

school, and departments that serve schools (Sparks &. Hirsh, 1997). The state of Florida,

for example, now requires that all teacher professional development is tied to the

Individual Professional Development Plan (IPDP) and the goals included in the school's

improvement plan. Both the IPDP and the school improvement plan must be linked to

student achievement. In addition, principals must document how they have monitored the

implementation of any skills their teachers' have acquired through professional

development activities (Florida Professional Development System Evaluation Protocol,

2004). An examination of professional development within the context of the









organization of the school provides a powerful tool for influencing the performance of

individual teachers within that organization (Sparks & Hirsh, 1997).

School-based staff development must become the focus rather than district wide

staff development. Attention to adult learning theory and changes in on-the-job behavior

must guide in-service delivery. Training must occur more frequently within the context

of the job and utilize multiple forms of learning in which teachers study the teaching-

learning process rather than simply receive knowledge from experts (Darling-Hammond

& McLaughlin, 1995; Lieberman, 1995; Putnam & Borko, 2001; Sparks & Hirsh, 1997).

For example, teachers are encouraged to use action research action to determine the

efficacy of a particular strategy with their students. Using this approach, teachers have an

opportunity to improve their practice and learn how to analyze the teaching-learning

process. If teachers are expected to implement new practices, multiple contexts for

learning such as book studies or videos, must be available. Ongoing support that includes

demonstration teaching, peer collaboration, discussion, and reflection must also occur

(Darling-Hammond & McLaughlin, 1995; Killian & Hirsh, 2001; Lieberman, 1995;

Putnam& Borko, 2001). Teacher training must, therefore, include not only the

transmission of information but the co-construction of meaning that relates theory to

practice through teacher modeling and feedback to teachers as they attempt to implement

new practices (Sparks & Hirsh, 1997; Willows, 2002; Putnam & Borko, 2001).

The nature of training and the role of staff developers must also change. The

focus of training must shift from teaching of skills to a combination of skill development

and specific content instruction. Additionally, staff developers who currently function as

teacher trainers must also serve as consultants to plan and facilitate the teacher learning









process. Further, staff development must be seen as the responsibility of all school

administrators and teacher leaders rather than as the responsibility of only certain

departments. Finally, staff development must be viewed as continuous improvement for

all staff members who affect student learning (Darling-Hammond, 1998; Sparks & Hirsh,

1997).

Influences on Teachers' Instructional Practices

Research has shown that teachers' beliefs and value systems guide their enactment

of instructional practices (Braithwaite, 1999; Olson, 1994; Grossman & Shulman, 1994;

Calderhead, 1996; Fullan, 1991). The setting in which one teaches and the philosophy

through which one views the world results in a belief system that then contributes to

decision-making in an interactive manner (Braithwaite, 1999; Grossman & Shulman,

1994; Calderhead, 1996). Further, research has shown that teachers' belief systems are

generally, but not always, consistent with instructional practice (Olson, 1994; Maxson,

1996; Calderhead, 1996; Miller, Adkins, & Hooper, 1993; and Wegmann, 2001).

Cornett (1990) showed that teachers sometimes hold conflicting beliefs that are used to

justify contradictory decisions. Though some incongruities between beliefs and practice

may exist, the research that has been reported in this area demonstrates that beliefs exert a

strong influence over how teachers plan for instruction, select texts, organize curricula,

and interact with students in the classroom (Grossman & Shulman, 1994).

In her study of the influence of teachers' beliefs on the literacy development for at-

risk first grade students, Maxson (1996) described the role of teachers' beliefs on their

decision-making. According to this author, the teachers' belief system, defined as "those

propositions teachers hold to be true as a result of various external and internal









influences," (p. 16) is the nexus through which external and internal influences affect

planning as well as the implementation of classroom design and instruction.

External Influences

Three categories of external influences have been identified in the literature as

determinants of teachers' practice. First, institutional constraints affect teacher decision-

making. Second, materials and resources teachers use in their classrooms influence their

practice. Finally, teachers are influenced by formal and informal sources of assistance

upon which they lean. (Cobb, McClain, de Silva, & Dean, 2003).

Principals exert a powerful influence over teacher's beliefs and decisions

(Calderhead, 1996). In a qualitative study concerning teacher perspectives on the politics

of principals, Spaulding (1997) found seven major categories of ineffective principal

behavior that affected teachers' thinking and behavior. The categories included lack of

participatory decision-making or pseudo participation; lack of personal or professional

support; favoritism; unclear or unreasonable expectations; demonstrations of power;

micromanaging; and contradictory body language.

Principals also have the power to influence teachers' practices positively. West

(2001) found that principals who were trained in developmentally appropriate practices

for grades K through 8 influenced the practices of their teachers in direct relationship to

their own behavior and commitment to those practices.

High-stakes testing exerts both direct and indirect pressure on teachers. Not only

do students' achievement scores affect teachers' decisions, but principals' responses to

school wide student achievement also result in pressure on teachers. Miller, Adkins and

Hooper (1993) found that, while principals advocated instructional change for greater

skill acquisition and opportunities for more complex learning, they also wanted









conformity. To accomplish this, they often search for the perfect program or method to

solve literacy problems (Willows, 2002).

The accountability movement has pressured school districts to produce higher

achievement scores. Districts, in turn, have pressured school administrators to enforce

the use of particular teacher-proof programs deemed to guarantee greater student

achievement (Duffy, 2001).

Research has shown that the goal of the one perfect, teacher-proof program for

literacy instruction is unattainable (Allington, 2001; Chall, 1987; Duffy & Hoffman,

1999). Even if one program could account for every permutation of student learning style

existing in classrooms across the country, no accounting could exist for the variability of

program implementation. In a qualitative study on the use of fourth-grade materials,

Sosniak and Stodolsky (1993) found that one fourth-grade teacher relied on the reading

textbook series 98% of the time, while another teacher in the same school relied on the

text only 2% of the time for reading instruction. In a national survey of International

Reading Association (IRA) members' use of basal reading programs, Bauman and

Heubach (1996) found that these educators viewed the basal as only one tool and refused

to relinquish control of their literacy programs to any program or presumed power.

Admittedly, the self-efficacy of reading teachers who were members of the IRA would

presumably be higher than the general population of teachers, which would affect the

independence of decision-making revealed in this study (Olsen & Kirtman, 2002).

However, this study, as well as others, points to the futility of dictating programs to

teachers due to the variability of their implementation (Hampton, 1994).









Even though the use of dictated basal reading programs varies, textbooks mandated

by the district still exert an influence on teachers' instructional practices (Calderhead,

1996). Sosniak and Stodolsky (1993) found that textbooks provide teachers with content

expertise, organization, economy of planning time and security, a finding supported by

other researchers such as Cuban and Eisner (as cited in Sosniak & Stodolsky, 1993).

In their study of fourth-grade materials use, Sosniak and Stodolsky (1993) also

found that teachers were far less concerned with materials than with other influences on

their work such as mandates from the principal, testing issues, or inconsistent district

policies. During the interview component of one school's curriculum evaluation study

(Miller, Adkins, & Hooper, 1993), researchers found that teachers viewed the

accountability pressures to improve test scores as the dominant change in their careers.

Student achievement issues were constantly on their minds and drove their choices to

focus on drill and review instead of engaging students in lengthier literacy tasks.

During interviews with four classroom teachers, Wegmann (2001), reported similar

findings. She studied the differences that teachers exhibited between their professed

literacy instruction beliefs and their actual literacy instruction. In all except one case, she

found significant discrepancies between practice and espoused belief, a fact that she was

able to link to testing pressures through her analysis of the interviews. Other researchers

have shown how current testing pressures result in teachers and principals clinging to the

traditional remedy of drill rather than relying on research-supported balanced literacy

practices to improve student achievement scores (Buckner, 2002; Galton, Simon & Croll

1980; Miller, Adkins, & Hooper, 1993).









Internal Influences

Several internal factors influence teachers' belief systems. First, is the knowledge

teachers bring to the classroom regarding their respective subject areas and expertise in

classroom management (Olsen & Kirtman, 2002; Allington, 2001; Johnson, 2001;

Taylor, Pressley, & Pearson, 2000; Darling-Hammond, 1998; Knapp, 1995; Sosniak &

Stodolsky, 1993). Second, teachers' knowledge interactively affects their educational

philosophy, which in turn affects planning, instructional implementation and classroom

climate (Calderhead, 1996; Grossman & Shulman, 1994; Hampton, 1994). Third,

teachers' personal constructs of teaching as experienced during their childhood affect

their beliefs (Olsen & Kirtman, 2002; Linek, Nelson, & Sampsom, 1999; Calderhead,

1996; Tatto, 1998; Hampton, 1994). In addition to childhood notions of teaching,

teachers' beliefs are shaped by their pre-service educational experiences (Olsen &

Kirtman, 2002; Linek, Nelson, & Sampson, 1999; Tatto, 1998; Sturtevant, 1996).

Personal, practical experience gained through "case" knowledge also guides practice

(Olsen & Kirtman, 2002; Calderhead, 1996). Teachers' case knowledge rebuilds and

reshapes their guiding beliefs for instruction (Olsen & Kirtman, 2002; Ayers & Shubert,

1994). Further, teachers' assumptions about learning and students' learning style affects

implementation of instructional practices (Olsen & Kirtman, 2002). Finally, personality

issues such as the individual's predisposition toward risk-taking or desire to change affect

teachers' choices to change practices (Olsen & Kirtman, 2002).

No one approach or method works for all students. According to Willows (2002),

"...training teachers to implement instructional materials when they truly don't

understand the underlying rationale is futile" (p. 30). Training that fails to include this

rationale deskills teachers causing inflexibility and inability to respond to new research









(Willows, 2002; Kline, 1995). Student success depends upon the teacher's skill to

accomplish the techniques, approaches and skills identified above (Duffy & Hoffman,

1999; Allington, 2001). For the last thirty years, educational leaders have increasingly

recognized that teachers are at the center of any attempt to improve the quality of schools

(Stenhouse, 1975).

Since teachers' belief systems are so closely intertwined with their classroom

decision-making, teacher training must focus on teaching and learning for understanding

(Darling-Hammond & McLaughlin, 1995). Beliefs can change if teachers are

encouraged to articulate them, examine them and reflect on them (Hampton, 1994;

Calderhead, 1996). Guskey (1986) found that staff development activities were most

effective in changing teachers' beliefs when newly learned practices resulted in success

for their students. As a result, Guskey concluded that changes in belief follow rather than

precede changes in practice. By contrast, Richardson (as cited by Calderhead, 1996)

found a constant interaction between beliefs and practice. Either may be the antecedent to

the other.

Because the interaction between belief and practice is so vital to altering teachers'

decision-making processes, effective staff development is critical (Sparks & Hirsh,

1997). Through the use of self-report surveys as correlated with student achievement,

researchers have attempted to determine to what extent teachers' decisions to implement

teaching practices acquired through staff development activities affects students'

achievement. Small positive correlations between self-reported levels of implementation

and student achievement have been demonstrated, but student achievement has not

proven to be an adequate measure of the impact that staff development has on teachers'






29


decisions to implement new practices. More information is needed about what leads

teachers to utilize particular practices (Hamilton et al., 2003).














CHAPTER 3
METHOD

This chapter describes the manner in which the study was conducted. This section

will provide a description of the researcher's subjectivity, theoretical perspective,

participant selection, setting, data collection, data analysis, and validity.

Researcher Subjectivity

The issue of researcher bias has been a longstanding battle that centers on the effect

of the researcher's values on the manner in which data are collected and interpreted. This

debate has resulted in the development of a myriad of theoretical perspectives and

methodologies that range in approach from an attempt at total objectivity through the use

of quantitative methods to surrendering fully to subjectivism in which "the ideology of

the researcher, including her values, is supposed to enter intrinsically and inseparably into

the methods, interpretations, and epistemology of critical research" (Carspecken, 1996, p.

5). Therefore, it is important for the reader to know "up front" the subjectivity of the

researcher and the perspective through which a study is conducted. Critical ethnography

is the theoretical perspective of choice for this study and will be discussed further in this

chapter. My subjectivity will be the focus of the first section of this study.

I taught for 27 years in public schools. Most of those years were spent in the

regular elementary classroom with forays initially in high school and middle school as a

special education teacher. In my early years of teaching, I experienced the excitement of

participating in the opening of a new school under the leadership of a principal that

understood and practiced shared decision-making. Never since that time have I worked









with such a committed and professional faculty dedicated to students and to continued

learning.

This initial teaching experience colored my idea of how teaching should be. As I

moved on through the years, always striving to find better ways of touching the hearts

and minds of students, I often found myself isolated in my quest to better my teaching

practices and relied on the stimulation provided by supervising student teachers to push

my teaching skills to the next level. I learned that the best way to enjoy my students and

my profession was to close the classroom door tightly behind me. I learned that teaching

was not as it should be.

After teaching a number of years in the cocoon that I created, I read about the

concept of the learning community. I was so enamored with the concept that I decided to

create that type of atmosphere in my classroom. That was the atmosphere I longed to

have on my faculty as well. It was that atmosphere that I had experienced long ago. It

was an atmosphere of continuous learning, of facilitative teaching and facilitative

leadership. Unfortunately, it was not the reality of my faculty.

Spurred by the discontinuity between my dream and my reality and the recognition

that the fate of the learning community in a school rests in the hands of the principal, I

decided to seek a degree in Educational Leadership. I had the desire to understand how

learning communities could be created and sustained to move education to a new level

for students and the teachers that serve them. Studying the sustainability of the SRI

literacy reform has provided the opportunity to better understand the reading reform

movement and the learning community that embraces it.









Theoretical Perspective

Research has uncovered the secrets of teaching reading. The question that now

remains is how to steer those methods into the instructional practices of teachers.

Understanding the reticence of educators to change their instructional practices requires a

theoretical perspective that provides the researcher with tools to examine culture, power,

and human agency.

Traditional ethnography of the early 1970s (Cusick, 1973; Henry, 1963, Jackson,

1968; Ogbu, 1974, Rist, 1973; Smith & Goeffrey, 1968; Smith & Keith, 1971; and

Wolcott, 1973) provided educational researchers with a methodology acceptable to the

traditional research community (Anderson, 1989). The development of systematic data

analysis procedures (Goetz & LeCompte, 1981; Green & Wallet, 1981; Spradley, 1980)

lent legitimacy to qualitative research by providing a supposed methodological rigor. The

notion that qualitative analyses were a product of rigor rather than researcher

interpretation was an attempt to place this methodology into a positivistic theoretical

perspective (Anderson, 1989). This perspective promotes the notion that knowledge

claims must be justified by experience. Observational data are key and provide the

singular basis for conclusions (Phillips & Burbules, 2000). Traditional ethnographers see

their roles as neutral and invisible (Koro-Ljungberg, 2004).

Historically, even as ethnography was gaining attention as a viable educational

research alternative to quantitative research, sociologists and anthropologists raised

questions about the nature of culture and began to view truth claims as a function of

values acquired through the culture (Geertz, 1983). Further objections to truth claims

based upon observations and experience arose in Husserl's philosophical phenomenology

(1962; 1970). His work was based on the concept that when an object is observed, one









sees that object from only 1 perspective at a time. Changing the angle of observation can

change the way the object looks. This proposition opened the door to the notion of

multiple realities and multiple interpretations, the cornerstone of poststructuralism and

postmodernism. The ultimate effects of such a view resulted, for some postmodernists, in

a complete lack of standards for determining any singular interpretation (Carspecken,

1996).

Neo-Marxists and feminist social theorists, concerned with matters of oppression,

added their voices to the idea of multiple views, interpretations, and realities. However,

their underlying mission to eradicate oppression and promote social change bounded their

view of multiple realities (Althusser, 1971; Bernstein, 1971; Freire, 1971; and

Horkheimer, 1972). Their mission to criticize oppressive social structures led to critical

social theory (Anderson, 1989).

The criticalist notion of reality is informed by Herbert Meade's idea that self-

consciousness results from internalizing expectations of typical social interaction as a

result of cultural influence (as cited in Carspecken, 1996). Critical ethnography is

dependent upon holistic forms of experience and how those experiences are related to

structures of communication.

While critical theorists differ in many ways, they also share some fundamental

characteristics (Apple, 1993; Lather, 1991). First, critical research supports cultural and

social criticism designed to create change. Second, criticalists hold that in all societies

certain groups are privileged over others. Third, oppression is most frequently reproduced

in a society where subordinates accept their position. Fourth, oppression takes many









forms, and finally, traditional research practices often contribute to oppression

(Carspecken, 1996).

The criticalist's approach to ethnography, while embracing many traditional

methods, emphasizes the critical act of interpretation in addition to the practical act of

promoting change. An assumption underlying the work of critical ethnographers is that

communities and institutions are comprised of both empowered and disempowered

groups of people (Koro-Ljungberg, 2004).

Even though critical theorists share these characteristics, they have not shared a

methodological theory until recently. Critical ethnography as employed by Carspecken

(1996), provides stiff validity requirements at every stage of analysis and a clear internal

link to meaning. Carspecken also promotes the notion that his critically grounded form of

ethnography is a useful qualitative research methodology irrespective of theoretical

perspective (1996).

Critical ethnography is a theoretical perspective well suited for addressing the

issues of concern in this study, which were to identify the factors in the school culture

that facilitate or impede instructional change. The notion that any factors existed at all to

exert pressure on teachers to make instructional changes speaks to matters of influence or

power, which are fundamental concerns of criticalists. Carspecken's (1996) critical

methodology provides an effective guide for examining and articulating explicitly the

tacit human and social factors that affect teacher's instructional choices.

Participant Selection and Description

Obtaining Access

The researcher received approval to conduct this study from the university's

Institutional Review Board and the school district prior to commencing the study. The









choice of school was based upon the recommendation of Felicia Van Camp, a member of

the Southern Reading Initiative lead team. Her recommendation of the school site, Lake

Baxter Elementary, resulted form her association with the school's principal and her

familiarity with the changes that had occurred in the school since their participation in the

SRI Summer Reading Academy. The researcher gained unrestricted access to school

meetings, classrooms, and school data due to the relationship between Van Camp and the

school principal, Lyla Johnson. The researcher was treated as part of the school faculty

throughout the study.

Selection of Participants

The principal and reading coach, also participants in this study, recommended the

four teacher participants. The principal and reading coach consulted with each other to

make recommendations prior to an interview with the researcher. The principal was

interviewed to determine the basis upon which their choices were made. Allowing the

principal and reading coach to decide which teachers would participate in this study

provided the researcher with an understanding of the predominant cultural norm through

which the principal and reading coach viewed teachers. The interview with the principal

indicated that she chose teachers for this study that she considered as continuous learners.

Description of Participants

All teachers, the reading coach, and the principal were trained during the first SRI

Summer Reading Academy. Both of the first grade teachers then became SRI Summer

Reading Academy trainers. One of the first grade teachers had been teaching for over 10

years, while the other had been teaching for less than 10 years. Of the two fourth-grade

teachers, one had been teaching for 3 years and the other has been teaching for 20 years.









According to the school principal, these teachers were chosen for participation in

this study because they were continuous learners. Of the four teachers, three were trainers

of one or more components of the Southern Reading Initiative. Mrs. Baker was a trainer

of the Phonemic Awareness/Phonics Component, the Comprehension Component, and

the Reading/Writing Connection Component. Mrs. Peters was also a trainer of the

aforementioned components. Mrs. McDonald was a trainer of the Comprehension

Component and the Reading/Writing Connection Component. Mrs. Dickerson was not a

trainer of any SRI component, but regularly participated in the school's Instructional Best

Practices Support Group as did the other three study participants.

Setting

The study occurred in Lake Baxter Elementary School located in a small-sized

town in North Central Florida. Lake Baxter is the only elementary school located within

this rural school district and is one of the largest the consortium serves.

Fifty-six instructional staff members are employed at this school. The staff includes

a principal, an assistant principal, a reading coach, a media specialist, two guidance

counselors, 9 kindergarten, 8 first grade, 8 second grade, 8 third grade, 7 fourth grade

teachers, and 9 special area teachers, four of which serve as intervention teachers. One

intervention teacher is assigned to each grade level to assist with struggling readers. The

reading coach also serves as a kindergarten intervention teacher. This study focused on

the instructional practices of two first-grade and two fourth-grade teachers, who were

observed during classroom instruction, and the management/leadership practices of the

reading coach and principal.

First and fourth-grade teachers were chosen for this study because they represent

the primary and intermediate phases of elementary education. In the primary grades,









kindergarten through second grade, the reading instructional focus is on teaching children

how to read. In the intermediate grades, third grade through fifth grade, the reading

instructional focus is on teaching students how to use reading to learn. Because of the

differences in reading instructional focus from primary to intermediate, an examination of

instructional practices at both instructional phases was thought to be important.

The student population at this school is representative of small, rural North Central

Florida communities. Eighteen percent of the elementary school population is African

American, 2% are categorized as other and the remaining 80% are white. Approximately

50% of the population receives free and reduced lunch.

Data Collection

Data were collected using 3 methods for the purposes of triangulation. The first

method involved observing the instructional practices of teachers. Second, interviews

designed to elicit participants' descriptions of their beliefs, their instructional practices,

and factors that influence their instructional practice were conducted. Third, documents

including teachers' plans, selected examples of required assignments, minutes of

meetings, school surveys, and others as deemed necessary to reveal characteristics of the

school culture or instructional practice were collected.

Procedures for Participant Observations

The researcher recorded field notes during participant observations in each

teacher's class during the first semester of the 2003-2004 school year. Each teacher was

observed during rotating 90-minute time blocks so that she could be observed teaching

lessons repeatedly across the curriculum. Each teacher was observed a minimum of 8

times.









Multiple observations allowed the observer's presence to become routine. The

researcher did not participate in any classroom activities and, therefore, assumed a strictly

observer status during the course of the study.

Variation in numbers of observations was due to classroom scheduling and the

researcher's need to observe more frequently in some classes where the consistency of

instructional practice was in question. Teachers were unaware of their scheduled

observation time except for those days during which they were interviewed.

The initial observation was intended to examine the entire classroom environment

including displayed printed material, classroom management, cultural climate,

procedures, and routines. Succeeding observations focused specifically on recording

teaching procedures, tasks required of students, and students' level of engagement during

instruction and the completion of assigned tasks.

Interview Procedures

Preliminary interviews with the principal occurred prior to the initial teacher

observations. Preliminary interviews with teachers began after each teacher had been

observed during each of the three 90-minute time blocks (or rotations). A predetermined

question protocol and additional questions formulated as a result of the observations were

used to guide the interviews, which were recorded and transcribed for analysis. These

interviews occurred during stage one. Once the stage two reconstructive analyses were

complete, additional interviews were used to develop additional dialogic data and thus

confirm and refine the themes revealed through stage two. The interview process was

also used to provide member checks as reconstructive analysis occurred during stage

three. See Appendix F for interview protocols.









Archival Collection Procedures

The researcher collected copies of the teacher's lesson and/or unit plans that

covered weeks at the beginning, mid-point, and end of the observation period from

September to February. Examples of students assignments completed during this period

were also collected. The researcher compared these plans and assignments with the

observations to identify discrepancies between the planned curriculum and the enacted

curriculum. Data collected through this mechanism helped to focus future observations

and interviews to be conducted in the third stage. Additional artifacts collected during the

study included minutes of support group meeting; agendas and minutes of SRI Lead

Team meetings; school improvement documents; school climate surveys; literacy

intervention plan; and Dickerson's essay for National Board application.

Data Analysis

Two procedures were used to analyze the observation, interview and archival data

collected. Domain analysis was used to examine the observation data collected and

strip/thematic analysis was used to examine the interview and archival data (Spradley,

1980; Carspecken, 1996). The criticalist perspective informed the use of both of these

analytical procedures, which are common to ethnography.

After initial analyses revealed domains and themes, the transcripts and field notes

were examined to determine indications of interactive power at play. The selected

passages in the field notes and interview transcripts were then subjected to further strip

analysis to determine interactively established power relationships and system

relationships as outlined by Carspecken (1996).

This analytical protocol produced a four-stage process. The first stage involved

building the primary record from the observations and interviews with language kept at a









low level in order to gain wide consent to the acceptability of the descriptions included.

During the second stage of analysis, initial meaning reconstruction was kept at a low

level of inference. As additional data was collected and additional meaning

reconstruction completed, an interpretive process using strip analysis was applied to those

segments of the interview transcript and field notes that indicated the need to move from

a holistic impression of meaning to articulations that developed from those impressions at

higher levels of inference. This process is characterized by intersubjectivity, which

entails position taking. Cultural typifications and generalities enable the researcher to

employ position taking if s/he is familiar with the culture of the participants.

The third stage generated additional dialogical data that provided participants the

opportunity to examine the inferences, themes and domains. This stage, involved

normative reflection in which the researcher subjects the contrived meanings of acts to

reflections regarding why s/he attributed those meanings to the acts, or the norm the

researcher has applied to the situation. Once the norm has been identified, the researcher

can then determine if that is the norm employed by the actor. Once the norm is identified

and then compared to the normative realms employed by the actors, those norms can be

modified as necessary, resulting in a view that is closer to the insider's view. This

interpretive process involved the differentiation of the culturally general or normative and

the individually particular or personality affects on modes of action, thus providing the

foundation for the examination of interactively established power relations and systems

relations analysis that occurs in stage four (Carspecken, 1996).

Observation Analysis Procedures

A combination of methods recommended by Carspecken (1996) and Spradley

(1980) were used to analyze the observation field notes taken in the four classrooms, in









meetings, and throughout the school. The field notes were studied to determine cultural

domains. Possible categories of meaning (domains) were listed and then checked against

the transcript to determine the best cover terms for the domains identified. Table 3-1

shows the list of the identified domains and their cover terms for the teachers'

instructional practices. The field notes were analyzed once again to determine additional

analytic terms (terms assigned by the researcher) and folk terms (terms used frequently

by the participants) to include under the identified domains. Once cover terms and

included terms were identified, the field notes were examined again with the cover

terms in mind. Cover terms and included terms were then assigned to transcript segments

as reconstructions in the field notes. These reconstructions were then submitted to a peer

debriefer to validate the choice of cover terms and included terms as they related to the

primary record. Once this was completed, the reconstructions were organized into

semantic relationships in a domain analysis worksheet as recommended by Spradley

(1980). An example of this analytical process is shown in Table 3-2 and in its entirety in

Appendix A. From this, a componential analysis was completed to create a componential

paradigm. The componential paradigm Appendix B provided a framework to refine the

analysis of the instructional practices that typically occurred in the classrooms

observed. Findings from the domain analysis are located in Chapters 4 through 6.

Findings that applied to the instructional practices of the teachers are located in Chapter

4. Findings that applied to leadership behaviors are located in Chapter 5, and findings

that related to factors that impeded and facilitated instructional change are located in

Chapter 6.









Table 3-1 Domain List


Domains Categorized with Cover Term


Classroom Structure
* Print rich environment
* Schedules
* Routines
Comprehension Instruction
* Develop comprehension through recall,
repetition, isolated skills
* FCAT workbooks as reading lessons
* Develop comprehension through higher
levels of thinking; connections to self,
world or text; across reading
components, disciplines, or
skills/strategies
* Background knowledge
Vocabulary instruction
* Develop vocabulary through higher
levels of thinking; connections to self,
world or text; across reading
components, disciplines or
skills/strategies components,
disciplines, or skills/strategies
* Develop Oral language
* Develop vocabulary through rote
Decoding, Spelling
* Decoding skills by rote and repetition
* Focusing on writing to prompts
* Develop decoding skills through higher
levels of thinking; connections to self,
world or text; across reading
Writing Instruction
Develop writing skills authentically
Engage in group story writing
Develop de-contextualized, on- demand
writing skills
Content Area Instruction
* Concepts through lecture & rote
* Develop concepts through higher levels
of thinking; connections to self, world


* or text; across reading components,
disciplines, or skills/strategies
* Experiential learning
Student Engagement Strategies
* Desist inappropriate behavior
* Develop social responsibility
* Statement used to reinforce behavior
* Encourage desirable behavior
* Promote attention toward the teacher
* Encourage students
* Student disengagement
Instructional Approaches
* Teacher modeling-think aloud
* Gradual release of responsibility-new
structures, modeling, guided practice
* Maximize student engagement
* Cultivate higher levels of thinking
* Differentiate Instruction-intervention,
leveled text, centers
* Alternate model of instruction-partner
reading, mnemonics, group work,
jigsaw
Student assessment
Text driven; teacher's
Professional Behaviors
* Staff development activity
* Teacher disengagement
* Collaboration
* Professional pride
* Professional commitment
* Instructional leadership
* Pedagogical error
Feedback Strategies
* Feedback to students' correctness
* Provided scaffolding
* Teach students to support assertions










Table 3-2. Domain analysis example.
Examples of Included
Domain Terms



Decoding Using Higher Levels of
and Spelling, Thinking
Instruction

Modeling phonemic
and phonic analysis
through "Text Talk"
Student practicing
analysis of
multisyllabic words
Students analyzing
patterns in words
Connection of Decoding
to Text
Practicing decoding in
decodable text
Practicing decoding in
writing
Connecting decoding t
spelling


Semantic
Relationship


Means-End


Example of
Semantic
Relationship

Is a way to
increase
decoding and
spelling
skills


0
--------------







------------>



o----------


Rote Learning McDon
Completing 3
Worksheets Dickers

Writing words 3X each Dickers

Interview Analysis Procedures

Meaning reconstruction was used during the first examination of the interview

transcripts. Low-level inference coding was employed during this phase, keeping the

restatements of acts close to the more immediate features of those acts. When

reconstructions were completed in this fashion, the researcher reread all of the

reconstructions with the research questions in mind to determine common themes. A


aid

son

;on


Teacher &
Times
Observed






Reading
Coach

Baker

Dickerson
2



Baker 3


Baker

Baker









chart of emergent themes (Appendix C) was created, which included the theme and the

supporting reconstructions from across all transcripts.

The researcher then reread the transcripts and reconstructions again with the themes

in mind to identify sections suitable for strip analysis on the basis of relevancy to the

research questions. This entailed assigning words to actions in a way that explained

verbally the entire communicative act that typically occurred with nonverbal behaviors.

This process required higher levels of inference in reconstruction.

When strip analysis was done, all of the researcher's high -inference interpretations

were recorded next to the relevant transcript section in the primary record. All of these

reconstructions and the theme chart were then submitted to a peer debriefer to verify

and/or add interpretations and to verify support or lack thereof for each emergent theme.

This provided the framework for further interviews and the member check focus group to

determine consistency of the themes identified as well as the framework through which

field notes collected during observations of secondary social sites such as team and

faculty meetings were analyzed. Findings of the interview analysis can be found in

Chapters 4 through 6.

Archival Analysis Procedures

The artifacts were arranged in chronological order in a Microsoft Excel file along

the y-axis of the chart, while the themes and componential paradigms were arranged

across the x-axis of the chart. Each artifact was then analyzed to determine its relevancy

to the themes and domains identified in the interviews and observations. Brief

descriptions of the nature of the relevancy were entered in the spaces underneath the

theme and domain. By examining the artifacts across time, the researcher was able to









discern changes in culture and instructional practices at primary and secondary social

sites. Findings of the archival analysis can be found in Chapters 4 through 6. A summary

of artifacts can be found in a triangulation chart in D.

Analysis of Interactively Established Power Relations

To gain an understanding of the factors that influenced teachers to change

instructional practices or leaders to change their leadership practices, issues of power

must be examined. According to Giddens (1979), all actions are related to the concept of

power since actors have the power to choose one course of action over another. Even in

cases of extreme sanction, an individual can choose to act against orders and accept the

consequences for that choice. An action is determined to be more or less powerful

depending on how successfully the action fulfills its motivating drive and how free of

influence and coercion are the conditions of the action. A study of interactive power

examines the manner and degree to which actors are differentiated in terms of their

ability to influence a course of action or interaction (Carspecken, 1996).

To analyze interactively established power relations, the researcher examined the

primary record for sections that indicated power relations according to Carspecken's

(1996, p. 130) typology as follows:

* Normative power: subordinate consents to higher social position of superordinate
because of cultural norms

* Coercive power: subordinate acts to avoid sanction imposed by superordinate

* Interactively established contracts: subordinate acts for return of favors or rewards
from superordinate

* Charm: subordinate acts out of loyalty to the superordinate because of the latter's
personality









When transcript segments indicated interactive power at play, those strips were

analyzed with respect to the form of interactive power at the site, the truth claims

evidenced, roles that superordinates played, and the cultural milieu of the act. A chart

entitled "Interactive Power Evidenced in Field Observations and Interviews" is included

as D. The findings of this analysis are located in Chapter 6.

Analysis Procedures for Systems Relationships

Stage four of critical ethnographic research involves the identification of

relationships between specific social sites, or secondary sites, and the primary social site

under investigation. To accomplish this, the researcher examined all reconstructions,

themes and componential paradigms formulated during stages one through three while

posing the question of the origin of those themes. When the origin of a theme appeared to

be at a secondary site, additional field notes were collected in journalistic fashion at

those sites or archival data originating from those sites were collected and

analyzed. Three secondary social sites were identified and either observed or

investigated for relevant artifacts. The Southern Reading Initiative Lead Team, the

School Board of Pinkerton County and the state's department of education were

identified as origins of themes outside of the primary social site. Journalistic field notes

were collected during SRI Lead Team meetings and minutes of lead team meetings were

examined. Testimony from key informants regarding the roles played by the Pinkerton

County School Board and state's department of education were embedded within the

existing interview text and other artifacts already collected. Reconstructive analysis was

conducted on the journalistic field notes and compared with previous reconstructions to

determine the similarity of form between the sets of reconstructions. The findings for the

analysis of system relationships are located in Chapter 6.









Validity

In qualitative studies, issues of credibility and dependability are of concern to

researchers. In this study, the researcher triangulated the data gathered from observations,

interviews and artifacts to enhance credibility and dependability, using the procedures of

critical ethnography as recommended by Carspecken (1996).

At each of the four stages of the investigation, the researcher took specific steps to

address issues of trustworthiness and collected artifacts to check consistency of

interpretations. Appendices include a log of all peer debriefings, charts of the

componential analyses and cultural themes as well as a triangulation chart that provided

support for cultural themes across the archival, interview and observation data.

In stage one, the primary record was compiled by collecting monological data. The

researcher used a flexible observation schedule to observe teachers at varying times of

the day. Classroom observations occurred over a prolonged period of approximately six

months to minimize the potential of personal bias and to assure that observed classroom

instructional practices were representative of actual day-to-day instruction. The primary

written record was comprised mainly of a low-inference vocabulary. A peer debriefer

checked the primary record for high-inference vocabulary and inequalities of attention to

the participants.

Preliminary reconstructive analysis comprised stage two (explained in the "Data

Analysis" section). In order to minimize personal bias, the researcher used Spradley's

(1980) method of analyzing observation field notes, which consisted of identifying

semantic units, categorizing those units, creating a componential paradigm and then

examining the constructs within the concept of pragmatic horizons in order to be

consistent with critical ethnography methodology. The researcher conducted member









checks on the componential paradigms as part of the interviews during stage three, which

also served to equalize the power relations between the researcher and the participants.

The peer debriefer checked for biases or 'holes' in the componential analyses.

During stage three, dialogical data was generated and analyzed. Repeated

interviews with the same subjects produced greater self-disclosure and a larger data set to

examine interviewee consistency and veracity. A peer debriefer examined the

reconstructions and themes that emerged from the analysis to add interpretations in cases

where high-inference reconstructions occurred and to affirm or dispute support for

interpretations and themes identified. A focus group consisting of 3 of the 4 teachers

provided feedback on the researchers reconstructions, interpretations and themes that

emerged from the interview study. The participants were encouraged to read the

transcripts of their interviews and cross out any interpretations with which they disagreed

and indicate the interpretations with which they most agreed. They were also encouraged

to write in any other thoughts that they had regarding the interpretations. This allowed the

participants to affirm or disagree with high-inference interpretations made during the

reconstruction of the interviews and to clarify their thoughts and feelings further.

Finally, during stage four of the study, the researcher matched the comparative

analysis conducted of the various social sites within the social system to the participants'

commentary to check for consistency between the researcher's ideas on system

relationships and the participants' actual experiences. The focus group member check

provided feedback regarding consistency (Carspecken, 1996).














CHAPTER 4
INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES AND HOW THEY CHANGED

This chapter describes the instructional practices of the four teachers who

participated in this study, the changes in instructional practices that participants

identified, and the changes that school climate survey artifacts indicated have occurred

since the implementation of the SRI.

Domain analyses revealed reading related instructional practices in comprehension,

vocabulary, decoding, spelling, writing and content area instruction. Domains regarding

the manner of feedback to students, instructional approaches, and classroom structure

were also identified. Classroom structure will be addressed in its own section while

discussions of the other ancillary domains will be addressed within the context of the

reading instruction within each of the sections that address those domains. Each teacher's

instructional practices will be described in terms of classroom structure including a brief

description of the physical environment and a daily schedule of instruction. An analysis

of each teacher's instructional practice compared to scientifically based reading research

will also be provided.

Thematic analyses of interviews and school climate survey artifacts revealed 3

themes that relate to instructional changes.

Mrs. Baker's First Grade Class

Classroom Structure

Baker's first grade classroom presented an inviting, colorful, and print-rich

environment. While no interactive word wall was observed, the walls were covered with









posters, pictures, and words that labeled common classroom items. Some of the words

illustrated social values of respect, cooperation, and hard work while others provided the

students with cues for learning. Baskets contained books for students to read

independently. A knick-knack shelf housing a figurine collection of bees, pictures of her

family as well as students, and a rocking chair in the story corner created a comfortable,

welcoming environment.

Baker's daily teaching schedule was organized around reading, writing and

arithmetic instruction. She began her instructional day at 7:50 with brief announcements

and directions for students to complete independent seatwork. As students worked on the

independent seatwork, she took attendance, responded to the various needs of individual

students, and supervised a selected student's composition of the morning message. The

independent work inscribed on the blackboard in front of the grouped desks consisted of

a journal starter, two incorrectly written sentences that the students were instructed to

correct, and a math problem. During this independent work time, one of the resource

teachers joined the class and worked individually with students who needed extra practice

on targeted skills. After tutoring and housekeeping details were completed, Baker

reviewed the tasks on the board and provided feedback to the students regarding their

answers.

Next, students were called to a central part of the room to review the student-

composed morning message. Once the message was corrected, the students were asked to

move to the story corner where Baker conducted an explicit phonics lesson that included

connections to text.









Once this lesson was completed, the students reported to the school's computer lab

from 8:43 to 9:03 to receive computer-based math and reading practice. Upon completion

of the thirty-minute computer time, the students returned to class to receive instructions

for their learning center activities. As students settled into their learning center activities,

she called students to her kidney-shaped table to conduct lessons in small groups. She

then completed two or three rotations through centers and met with two or three small

groups.

When the rotations were complete, she called the group together to work on a

guided reading lesson in the story corner. This lesson followed the basal reading program

plan. She often utilized partner reading during this time to build fluency and provide

peer-assisted scaffolding for comprehension.

Next, Baker called the students to their desks to work on spelling and word work.

This practice session involved the "unblending" of words and focused on word structure.

She attended to phonemic awareness in combination with phonics as she had students

practice encoding words that follow the patterns introduced in the reading lesson.

After the 10:46 to 11:30 lunch and recess period, Baker gathered students together

in the story comer to read a story, after which she had the students return to their seats for

their mathematics lesson. The lesson in mathematics followed the protocol outlined in the

mathematics series used in the district.

From 12:30 until their enrichment class (music, art, physical education, or drama

class), Baker focused on handwriting instruction and finished morning work. The first

activity after the math lesson was instruction in letter formation. During this time, Baker

rotated around the room to make sure that students were forming their letters properly. As









the students finished practicing letter formations, they were encouraged to finish up any

unfinished work from the morning. Students who were finished were then invited back to

the story corner for more opportunities to listen to Mrs. Baker read or to choose

additional time in a self-selected learning center. At 12:40, students were asked to line up

with their papers in hand and place them in their cubbies as they were going to one of

their aforementioned enrichment classes. From 12:45 to 1:30 Baker had common

planning time with teammates. During this time she held parent conferences, and/or

prepared for instruction.

Once the students returned from their enrichment time, Baker offered an

opportunity to read silently during what is called D.E.A.R. time, an acronym for "Drop

Everything and Read." This independent opportunity for self-selected reading continued

until dismissal time, from 1:50 until 2:05 through 2:15, when students were dismissed

from class in stages, beginning with those who walk home and ending with bus riders.

Analysis of Instructional Practice

During the 8 classroom observations, the author was able to observe 4

comprehension lessons, 1 vocabulary lesson, 5 lessons in decoding/spelling, 0 expressive

writing process lessons, 3 math lessons, and no science or social studies lessons. Baker

addressed fluency through partner reading as a regular activity that occurred just before

guided reading lessons. Systematic science and social studies instruction was not evident

in the daily schedule or seen during any observations.

Comprehension

All of the observed comprehension lessons demonstrated research-based features.

Activities used to prepare for reading text involved theorizing and predicting based upon

pictures and front-end book matter. These activities extended and activated background









knowledge, involved the transformation of information and required students to

synthesize information (Pearson, 2002). Inferential questioning, continuous predicting,

and confirmation of predictions were used to develop comprehension as students worked

through the reading selection (Pearson, 2002). Methods used after reading the selection

included graphic organizers (Pearson, 2002). In one particular lesson, Baker guided the

class in completing a content frame that was devised to compare three different versions

of The GingerbreadMan. In all of the observations, one or more key comprehension

features (activating background knowledge, assisting in metacognition, and

transformation of information) were evident in her approach. All lessons stimulated

thinking at the analysis or synthesis levels.

Vocabulary

Only one explicit vocabulary lesson was observed and was conducted by the

reading coach. The reading coach modeled a "Text Talk" lesson (Beck & McKeown,

2001). First, the reading coach read a story and then revisited 2 or 3 pre-selected words.

She modeled how to use the context of the story to determine the meaning of the words.

She asked students a series of questions about the words that prompted students to

analyze examples and non-examples as well as make connections to their personal

experiences. This activity contextualized new vocabulary and encouraged students to

connect this vocabulary to personal experience as well.

The reading coach extended the "Text Talk" activity described above into an

exercise in decoding by modeling a graphophonemic analysis of each of the targeted

vocabulary words for the students. She demonstrated the structural and phonological

features of the word and related those features to the word's morphology, thus relating

the skill of decoding both to the new vocabulary and to connected text.









Though the reading coach modeled the "Text Talk" activity and the decoding

extensions for Baker, those principles were regularly present in Baker's decoding lessons

as well. Of the 5 observed decoding lessons, 3 involved the application of a newly taught

decoding skill to decodable text and 1 involved reference to or modeling of the skill with

text.

During the course of the observation periods, Baker did not utilize the Text-Talk

strategy. Baker was efficient in extending vocabulary knowledge incidentally, but did not

capture those incidental word encounters for further study. Baker consistently pre-

selected words from the basal that were not targeted vocabulary words but were words

that might present obstacles for students' comprehension. Though this is a desirable

practice, isolating those words for further study through the use of word walls or graphic

organizers would increase students' ownership of the words (Stahl & Kapinus, 2001).

Decoding and spelling

During the course of instruction in a new spelling pattern, Baker had students

imitate specific hand movements associated with specific types of sounds such as

consonants or vowels. This practice helped to build associations across learning

modalities and kept the students highly engaged as they learned the skill initially in a de-

contextualized manner. If students stumbled on vowel sounds, she referred them to a

visual mnemonic device she displayed on the blackboard. This practice provided

scaffolding for students to use during group work and individually as they attempted to

decode words independently. After practicing the new pattern, Mrs. Baker then practiced

the pattern in one-syllable words and followed that with practice in two-syllable or even

three syllable words to challenge and stretch their application of the pattern.









During the spelling lesson, Baker focused on the pattern introduced during reading

in order to relate it to the writing process. She had students practice "un-blending" or

segmenting words to build phonemic awareness prior to encoding the new pattern within

words (Snow, Bums, & Griffin, 1998).

Content area instruction

Baker's instruction in mathematics was, for the most part, constrained by the math

series. Two of the three math lessons followed the teaching protocol from the math

program. One lesson focused on the morning math board, which consists of recitation of

even numbers, days of the week, counting in various patterns and so forth. Another

observed lesson focused on word problems in addition. The Saxon math program refers

to these problems as "some and some more" problems. Baker guided the students through

the worksheet designed to present students with practice in the new concept and review

of previous concepts. She used a large, poster-sized, laminated copy of the worksheet that

the students completed at their desks in concert with her presentation. The third math

lesson focused on building the concept of 100. This activity consisted of a booklet that

related the concept of 100 to many aspects of the students' daily lives. It directed them to

count various objects and asked questions that required them to analyze the concept. This

lesson was not part of the math series, and demonstrated the activation/linking of the

concept to background knowledge as well as the transformation of knowledge through

hands-on activities (Gambrell, 1999; Block & Pressley, 2002; RAND, 2002; Pearson,

2002).

The absence of any systematic instruction in science and social studies inhibits the

development of background knowledge in these content areas and will likely affect

reading achievement in later years (RAND Report, 2002). The systematic study of the









environment, its uses over time and in various cultures, provides fertile ground for the

further development of oral language and reading vocabulary (Gambrell, 1999). Hands-

on investigations can spring from or be a precursor to the study of informational texts too

frequently ignored in the primary grades as demonstrated in this classroom. During

observations in this classroom, no informational text was used during the instruction of

reading. An examination of a selection of lesson plans from the months of October,

November and January revealed only one basal selection title that might have been

informational text.

Discussion

Across all curriculum components observed during the 8 visits to Baker's

classroom and with consideration of the four participants studied, Baker demonstrated the

most complete implementation of key research-based practices. All observed language

arts lessons and one of the three observed math lessons involved at least one or more of

the three keys to learning activating/linking to background knowledge, developing

metacognition, and transforming information. In language arts and when contriving her

own math lesson, she continuously challenged the students' thinking at the analysis and

synthesis levels.

When providing feedback to students during the course of teacher questioning, she

consistently requested that they support their answers. When students responded to

teacher questions inaccurately, she scaffolded their knowledge through questioning to

arrive at successful responses as much as is realistically possible.

Though the direct instruction model was predominant in her teaching, she often

utilized other models to support students' learning (Joyce & Weil, 1996). She often

provided opportunities for partner reading, an approach that uses the early, dyad stage of









cooperative learning (Joyce & Weil, 1996). She also utilized Mnemonics as a tool to

support the mastery of vowel and number patterns. Though the use of alternate models of

teaching has not been well established in Baker's class, the limited use of two models in

combination with direct instruction does provide an attempt to meet the varying needs of

learners, a vital component of effective instruction (Joyce & Weil, 1996; Lasley &

Matczynski, 1997).

Lesson plans supported the observation analysis. Although Baker's lessons plans

demonstrated adherence to the basal's reading plan, her notations often reflected the use

of additional research-supported strategies such as partner reading or additional graphic

organizers.

Mrs. Peters' First Grade Class

Classroom Structure

Peter's first grade classroom also presented an inviting, colorful, and print-rich

environment. No interactive word wall was observed. Most of the wall space was covered

with children's work. The rest of the wall space was decorated with apples that were

labeled with words used in the Johnny Appleseed story, which they had studied. A

classroom library was available for student use during independent reading time. A

knick-knack shelf housed a collection of assorted pictures of students, family, and class

pictures of Peters with students from previous years. Like. Baker, Peters created a story

corner complete with a rocking chair providing a comfortable, welcoming environment.

Reading, writing, and arithmetic instruction comprised Peter's daily teaching

schedule. Her instructional day began at 7:50 with a brief time for announcements and

the morning message, which usually consisted of a greeting from the teacher and the

day's agenda. She then gave directions for completing the independent seatwork, which









consisted of math problems, Daily Oral Language (two sentences written with various

grammar and punctuation errors for the students to correct), and handwriting practice.

The students then completed the independent seatwork. Once students finished these

tasks, Peters corrected the math board problems and the Daily Oral Language with the

students.

From 8:05 until 8:35, the physical education (P.E.) coach was scheduled to come

into her room to work with the class on a worksheet-based program entitled Drops in the

Bucket, which was designed to provide a brief review of first-grade language arts and

math skills. He was also expected to review and practice a previously introduced word

family. This arrangement allowed Peters, the best trained professional, to work with

individual students who need more intensive intervention. Of the three observations

during this time period of the day, the P.E. coach arrived only one time. When he did not

come to her class, she reviewed the Drops in the Bucket worksheet with the students and

was unable to work more intensively with the targeted students.

From 8:05 until 8:35, Peters set aside time to work with individual students or

small groups of students using decodable books to reinforce the phonics pattern

introduced during the reading lesson. She also used this time to complete running records

with individual students as well. During this time, other students worked in the center

section of the room as indicated on the center assignment board. One student worked

with sight words on a Language Master machine, a few students worked with reading

tasks on a computer, a few children sat at the long table reading books, and two children

engaged in partner reading on the floor. One child completed an activity called "writing









around the room" in which he wrote words on a clipboard, which he found written in

various posters or bulletin boards around the room.

From 8:35 until 8:50, Peters instructed the students in writing. She modeled the

writing structure for various genres, from teaching her students how to write a letter to

how to construct an essay. Each writing lesson focused on an authentic purpose such as

writing a letter to Santa Claus or writing an essay about a book read in the class such as

Johnny Appleseed.

From 8:50 to 9:05, Peters called students to the story center where she flashed sight

words to the group. During this time she instructed students to practice letter sounds

when they read the flash cards.

The 9:10 through 9:55 period the students engaged in whole group reading.

Instruction explicitly followed the plan outlined in the basal reader.

From 10:00 to 11:00, students worked in centers. At the listening center students

listened to books on tape. At another table, students worked on math activities. A station

with computers and the teacher's table provided other work centers. During this time,

Peters worked with individual students or small groups. She listened to them while they

read aloud and she kept running records on their performance.

From 11:00 to 12:15 students ate lunch and engaged in several activities. Lunch

period was followed by a game of 20 Questions, designed to develop students' oral

language. Following this game students attended their scheduled computer lab time and

worked on computer-based math and reading activities.









Upon return to the classroom, Peters taught mathematics using the lesson protocol

from the mathematics basal text, from 12:15 to 12:45. From 12:45 until dismissal at 2:15

students had art, music, drama, or P.E. time, recess, and independent reading time.

Analysis of Instructional Practices

During the 8 classroom observations, 4 comprehension lessons and a reading test

were observed. There were no vocabulary lessons, 3 lessons in decoding, 1 mathematics

test, and 3 writing lessons including one social studies topic and 2 other lessons in

content areas. Books on tape in the learning centers were used to enhance students'

fluency in reading.

During the course of the observations Peters was forced to change her teaching

schedule. One observation was interrupted with a fire drill. Another was atypical due to

the sudden cancellation of a field trip to the local fire station. The firefighters, having

responded to a fire in the middle of the night before, had to attend to their equipment on

the day of the trip. As a result, the observed lesson was designed to cover the content that

would have been covered on the trip, but was not in keeping with her daily schedule. Two

observations happened to coincide with reading and mathematics tests. Therefore, no

mathematics or spelling lessons were observed although these subjects were taught.

Comprehension

During three of the four comprehension lessons, research-based reading strategies

were seen. During one activity, the teacher developed the concept of genre (Beck,

Omanson, McKeown, 1982; Paris, Wasik & Turner, 1991). Peters taught the text

structure associated with the genre of the reading selection and assisted students in

understanding how that type of text should be read. One method she used to develop

student comprehension during guided reading included "text-to-self' connections









(Tovani, 2000). After reading the selection, she asked students to explore graphic

organizers and to recall simple facts from the text. In one particular lesson, like Mrs.

Baxter, Mrs. Peters used a content frame to compare three different versions of The

GingerbreadMan. In all but one case of instruction, activating background knowledge

and transformation of information, were demonstrated in her instructional approach. Of

the four comprehension lessons, two stretched students' thinking to the analysis level,

one lesson reached the application level and one lesson was focused on the knowledge

level.

Vocabulary

No explicit vocabulary development lessons were observed. However, Peters'

classroom was rich in dialogue between the teacher and the class and among classmates

(Strickland, Snow, Griffin, Burns, & McNamara, 2002). Peters used the "teachable

moment" when she used words in her conversation that were potentially unfamiliar.

However, she failed to capture that vocabulary for further study. Use of an interactive

word wall, a strategy that allows for the collection of words to be displayed and then used

in various types of practice activities to provide the frequent encounters necessary for

mastery, would have contributed to the expansion of students' vocabularies (Nagy,

Herman, & Anderson, 1987; Stahl & Kapinus, 2001). Failing to provide explicit

vocabulary instruction in early grades supports the findings of other researchers who

found that vocabulary instruction is generally missing in schools (Biemiller, 2001; Watts,

1995). Not teaching vocabulary explicitly in the early grades undermines the reading

gains made in early years when students encounter more complex reading tasks during

the intermediate elementary years (Baker, Simmons, & Kameenui, 1995).









Decoding, spelling and writing

Four decoding lessons were observed. The P.E. coach conducted one during the

early morning tutoring period. One lesson consisted of drill and practice. The third lesson

consisted of practice following a lesson from the basal reader. The fourth lesson was

from a phonics program.

The P.E. coach worked on a selected word family (spelling pattern) and asked

students, who were seated in teams to brainstorm words that contained the spelling

pattern. First, he modeled the process for the students using a consonant-vowel-consonant

plus e spelling pattern that contained the vowel a. He then provided the consonant-vowel-

consonant plus 'e' spelling pattern containing the vowel i for the students to brainstorm

as a team. When the time limit arrived, they shared the words and the coach recorded

them on the board. The teams that brainstormed the most actual words earned a cookie

for each member. He repeated this process with other common vowel patterns until the

end of the period. During this activity students had an opportunity to synthesize the

spelling patterns they had learned using an alternate, collaborative instructional model.

Of the other three decoding lessons conducted by Peters, one involved the drilling

of consonant sounds using flash cards. The second lesson involved the independent

practice phase of a direct instruction lesson from the basal. The last decoding lesson was

the final lesson segment from a Saxon Phonics lesson plan. The flash card drill allowed

students to practice what they had learned until learning was automatic. During the

practice phase of the basal's direct instruction decoding lesson, Peters instructed students

to work together in groups. She required that they reach a consensus on their answers

before recording them on the worksheets. In this instance, she demonstrated the use of an

alternate, cooperative learning model to enhance the direct instruction lesson as presented









in the basal (Pearson, 2002). In the last decoding phase of the Saxon Phonics lesson,

students had to encode words containing consonant digraphs and then code them. The

coding process employed in the Saxon Phonics program is intended to draw the students'

attention to the critical differentiating features of letter patterns in words. This lesson

linked the decoding process to writing.

Though Peter's lesson plans indicated that she would have a reading period in

which she used decodable books to connect decoding instruction to text, there was no

explicit instruction in which she showed the connections between decoding and

constructing meaning. During learning center times, Peters used decodable books with

individuals as a way to complete running records. Whether explicit lessons connecting

decoding and meaning construction occurred outside of the observations is unknown.

The author observed 3 expressive writing lessons. The first lesson focused on the

story of Johnny Appleseed. In this lesson, she activated the students' background

knowledge by reviewing the story they had read earlier and created a concept map to

depict the components of the story. Next, she modeled how to use the concept map to

construct a summary of the story while the students copied the text (Pearson, 2002). As

she wrote, she thought aloud about various text features, pointing out transition,

vocabulary, decoding and punctuation features. She instructed students to copy the text as

she modeled it for them.

The second writing lesson focused on writing a letter to Santa Claus. Peters

reviewed the parts of a letter that they had learned about the previous day when writing a

letter to the assistant principal. Then she asked the students to brainstorm items they

desired for Christmas and provided them with a starting phrase.









The third writing lesson was a culminating activity for an interdisciplinary lesson

that focused on President's Day. Peters introduced George Washington and Abraham

Lincoln to the students through pictures on coins and related this to their recent work on

coin identification in math. She then related this topic to a previous lesson about Martin

Luther King. She continued to activate and build background knowledge by discussing

other aspects of each of the presidents. Next, students read from an information sheet that

described each of the president's accomplishments. After the reading, she created a

comparison chart on the bulletin board and had the students compare the two presidents.

She then gave them a previously prepared Venn diagram so that they could see the

differences and similarities in the two types of graphic organizers. Following this, she

assisted the students in writing about the presidents by using the graphic organizer that

they had developed together. She provided the topic sentence as a scaffold for their

writing. Once their paragraph was completed they were allowed to create a colorful

picture that would frame their writing when displayed.

Content area instruction

The author observed two content lessons. One lesson focused on a comparison

between bats and owls using a Venn diagram. This culminating activity related to a text

that was read during Halloween. The second lesson focused on a work packet about fire

safety during fire safety week. Once students finished their fire engine pictures, she

called them together. Peters asked them to work on their fire safety books as she

described various features of the fire trucks. She emphasized the importance of color

choice for the truck and fire suits. She told a story about how the fire chief, her husband,

rescued an elderly lady and how that was similar to how she had each of them help four

other students to complete the fire engine project. During this lesson she developed the









meanings of unfamiliar but important vocabulary words and placed them on the

blackboard. Following this discussion, Peters gave them a coloring sheet on fire

prevention to complete.

Peters' writing and content lessons contained research-supported components. She

used instructional conversations to provide a scaffold for students. For example, she used

a personal anecdote to illustrate both the work of a fireman and the responsibility of

people to help others (Tharp & Yamauchi, 1994). Peters' use of writing helped students

make links across the curriculum and to their existing knowledge (Nagy, 1988) and

provided authentic opportunities to practice skills. Further, her use of cooperative

learning structures provided social interaction that increases academic engagement

(Dowhower, 1999; Pearson 2002; Guthrie & Wigfield & VonSecker, 2000).

Discussion

Peters provided many opportunities for students to make cross-curricular

connections in writing activities. Her lesson plans, while consistently referring to page

numbers in the reading and math basals, contained notations of the "big ideas" from their

reading unit that were then connected to topics across the curriculum during that week.

For example, one basal story focused on categorization. She connected that focus in

reading to mathematics activities completed during the week and to a social studies

lesson that focused on different types of homes.

Mrs. McDonald's Fourth Grade Classroom

Classroom Structure

McDonald's fourth grade classroom was orderly. On the walls were a few posters

that were designed to assist students with scheduling, housekeeping information as well

as a few mathematics and language arts words. A few plants lined the tops of the









bookshelves that contained a classroom library of trade books. No newspapers or other

types of printed material were observed and no interactive word wall was observed.

McDonald began her instructional day at 8:00 with lessons covering spelling,

English grammar and punctuation and expressive writing. Spelling instruction included a

pretest over the word list included in the spelling book; various exercises from the

spelling book during the week; and a spelling test on Friday. English instruction consisted

of three days of assigned worksheet pages from the English book and two days of

worksheets that focused on expressive writing skills or expressive writing in response to

a writing prompt.

From 8:45 to 9:20, students worked in literacy centers while McDonald met with

small groups to provide a guided reading lesson. One center consisted of reading games,

exercises on the computer, or an activity in response to a selected text. Two other centers

focused on handwriting, spelling or expressive writing. Sometimes students were

expected to complete worksheets together in small groups or write a book review for a

selection previously read by the class.

From 9:20 to 10:00, McDonald taught a lesson from the basal reading program.

The routine during the week consisted of a vocabulary lesson that introduced the targeted

words in the basal reader, the reading of a selection over a two-day period, a lesson

covering a targeted reading skill, practice in the vocabulary and a quiz at the end of the

week.

From 10:00 to 10:20, instruction consisted of an independent reading time called

D.I.R.T. (Daily Independent Reading Time). During this time, students read self-chosen

literature from the classroom or school library. McDonald rotated around the room to









assist students in choosing their books or she listened to students read a passage of their

choice and then asked them to retell what they read. If she noted any difficulties, she

provided additional instruction. After meeting with each student, she updated anecdotal

records in a notebook that stored information on student progress. A ten-minute snack

break followed D.I.R.T. time and preceded the enrichment time during which students

attended P.E, music, drama, or music class.

Mathematics instruction followed from 11:20 to 12:35. McDonald presented the

concepts solely from the mathematics basal. Lunch was held from 12:38 to 1:03.

After the lunch period, McDonald read aloud from a novel. Then the students had

recess on the playground for fifteen minutes.

During the final instructional period, 1:30 to 2:10, McDonald taught science or

state history topics. She used the science and social studies texts to teach these content

areas. Students were dismissed at 2:15.

Analysis of Instructional Practice

During the 8 classroom observations, the author observed 1 fluency lesson, 3

comprehension lessons, 3 vocabulary lessons, 1 lesson in decoding/spelling, 1 writing

lesson, 1 math test, 1 science and no social studies lessons. Science was taught during the

first semester, the time period of concern in this study, and state history was taught

during the second semester.

Comprehension and fluency

The only observed fluency lesson occurred approximately one month prior to the

scheduled state assessment test. The students were meeting with McDonald in small

groups to review the state assessment practice workbooks for the science test. She met in

small groups with students who had made substantial errors in their workbooks and









requested that these students highlight text that supported the correct answer while other

groups in the class worked in literacy centers. Once this task was completed, she directed

students to take out their basal readers and turn to a specified page. She told them that

they would be "doing another round" of fluency timings. Then she explained that if they

built their reading speed, they would be able to finish the state test and, therefore,

perform better. She then asked them to pair up, find a place on the floor, and decide who

would read first. They were directed to listen to their partner read and record errors in

pencil lightly in their books during a one-minute timing. She set the timer for one minute

and then had the students count the number of correct words. The partners exchanged

roles and repeated the procedure. The use of dyads for repeated readings of text at

instructional level is a sound research-based practice (Kuhn & Stahl, 2000). The rationale

she provided for engaging them in fluency practice was fallacious. Fluency practice

should be designed to increase rate and prosody for the purposes of increasing

comprehension, not solely to pass a state assessment test.

One comprehension lesson surveyed students' comprehension of a selection read

with an accompanying tape recording the previous day during which they were asked to

make 6 predictions. She asked them to share and confirm their predictions. Mrs.

McDonald asked 5 factual questions and 2 inferential questions. One youngster asked if

he could make a "self-to-text connection," This strategy had been taught to the point of

mastery for this student. She continued to play the tape of the remainder of the story as

the students read along.

Having students read along as they listen to taped oral readings can be a useful tool

for building fluency when used in a listening station according to the protocol of the









"Reading-While-Listening" or "Read-Along Center" strategies (Van Bon, Boksebeld,

Font Freid, & Van der Hurk, 1991). However, during interviews with the teacher, she

stated that the purpose of listening to the story via teacher or tape was to support readers

whose instructional level were below that of the basal selection (C:1.3k). As indicated

earlier, fluency is developed when students have sustained encounters with text at their

instructional level. This lesson was the students' initial interaction with the selection.

During this stage of guided reading, comprehension of the text is the focus of the lesson

yet no "during reading" strategies were observed (Ogle, 1986). However, transformation

of information and/or the construction of meaning through writing, discussion in small

groups or dyads, and graphic organizers were observed (Pearson, 2002).

The second comprehension lesson involved the oral reading of text to the students.

This lesson was comprised of a pre-reading and during reading stage. During the pre-

reading stage, McDonald introduced the author of the book and the genre of the book.

She called students' attention to the time period of the book. She questioned the students

to help them realize that the time period of a book could affect the language that was used

and, therefore, might affect their comprehension. She then began reading the book aloud

as the students listened. She encouraged the students to make text-to-text, text-to-self,

and text-to-world connections or observations as she read (Tovani, 2000). Some of the

students related the text to other stories Mrs. McDonald had read by the same author.

Others connected the text to their personal experiences. After she finished reading,

students took out their reading practice workbooks to check work they had done

previously.









During this observation, McDonald used some of the research-based strategies

proposed during the Southern Reading Initiative training. She focused the students'

attention to the genre, pointed out pertinent narrative features, and the language

differences of the time period in which the narrative was composed. However, McDonald

did not identify examples of the language features in the text. The focus of the lesson was

listening rather than actual engagement with the text. No book was provided. So, students

were unable to follow along. No instructional strategies such as think-aloud, were

observed. Students had no opportunity to transform information or otherwise become

actively engaged with the information. Benefits from this read aloud were impeded

because students were allowed to finish other assignments as McDonald read to them.

Some were inattentive and read other books, played with scissors, or socialized with

peers.

During the third observation of a comprehension lesson, McDonald's lesson

focused on the pre-reading phase. After introducing vocabulary, she asked students

questions in order to develop their understanding of the genre. She asked the students to

identify the genre, which was a folktale. Then McDonald asked the students how fables

and folktales differed and what characteristics typified folktales. Finally, she assigned the

reading of the selection for homework.

Teaching students about genre is a research-based comprehension practice that

supports students' understanding of text structure, which in turn affects how students

approach the reading task (Beck, Omanson, & McKeown, 1982; Paris, Wasik, & Turner,

1991). McDonald prompted students to think about text structure by asking them to

identify the characteristics of folktales. Her questions progressed from the more difficult









task of comparing the fable and the folktale to an easier question about the characteristics

of the folktale. She did not use a graphic organizer to illustrate comparisons. She

provided no transformational activity or strategy prior to assigning the reading of the

story for homework. The implications of this approach were that: (a) students might be

unable to experience any actual engagement with the text; (b) students had no scaffolding

to assist them in constructing meaning from the text.

Vocabulary

During the first and second lessons, McDonald introduced the basal vocabulary

words. The words were introduced in context during whole-class instruction. One of the

students read aloud the short passage on the overhead while the others followed along.

When the reader approached each underlined word, McDonald stopped the student and

asked the other students to identify the meaning of the word. Whenever, a reader

stumbled on words, the teacher quickly provided the word unless it was one of the

underlined words. After this activity, students begin their D.I.R.T. time.

Many of the instructional approaches McDonald used are supported by research.

For example, the introduction of potentially unknown words before reading is a strategy

that increases comprehension during reading (Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002).

Introducing words in the context of paragraphs was designed to make their meanings

transparent to the student (Beck, McKeown & Kucan, 2002; Blachowicz, Fisher, & Gipe,

1978-79; Blachowicz & Fisher, 2000; Nagy & Herman, 1987). McDonald also had

students justify their explanation by pointing out context clues in the paragraph (Beck,

McKeown, & Kucan, 2002). However, when students stumbled on words, Mrs.

McDonald provided the word immediately instead of helping them draw upon their

phonics knowledge (Kuhn & Stahl, 2000).









The third vocabulary lesson consisted of identifying word meanings directly from

the basal selection they were preparing to read. McDonald asked a student to read a

paragraph and provide a definition of the teacher-chosen word based on the context of the

paragraph. Next the student was asked to provide a student-friendly definition, which she

wrote on the board. She repeated this process until all of the chosen words had been

explored. Once this process was complete, McDonald used questioning to activate

background knowledge in preparation for reading the basal selection. She then assigned

the reading selection for homework. At the end of the lesson, she directed students to use

the new vocabulary words at least 7 times in their conversations at school and at home.

Three aspects of this lesson are supported by research: the introduction of new

vocabulary in context; the creation of student-friendly definitions (Beck, McKeown, &

Kucan, 2002); and using new vocabulary in conversations (Strickland & Snow, 2002).

However, several important features of effective vocabulary instruction were missing

from the instructional process. First, though McDonald required the students to use their

new vocabulary words in their conversation for the rest of the day, she provided them

with no mechanism for documenting that they had done so. Similarly, no other type of

strategy or transformative activity for use of newly acquired vocabulary was observed

and no interactive word wall was available to support the incidental learning of words

encountered across the curriculum.

Decoding, spelling, and writing

No complete explicit instruction in decoding or spelling was observed. During one

observation, students exchanged decoding practice workbooks and checked each practice

item. Mc Donald discussed the target sounds, consonant digraphs such as ch or sh. When

students were given the word chi, McDonald acknowledged that they might not be









familiar with it, but did not define the word to the students. When they finished checking

the workbook page, they checked the next page and then returned the workbooks to their

owners. She then asked students to take out their spelling papers, which covered

abbreviations. She offered the option of exchanging papers in order to check them. Once

the checking was finished, she handed out another worksheet from their spelling

workbooks and instructed them to work independently.

Explicit, systematic phonics instruction is critical to the development of fluent

reading and adequate comprehension (Beck & Juel, 1995; National Reading Panel, 2000).

Most phonics instruction should be completed in the early grades, by grade 2 (Adams,

1990). Phonics instruction in the intermediate grades, therefore, should focus on

strategies that will assist students to decode multisyllabic words (Snow, Burns, & Griffin,

1998).

The targeted consonant digraph phoneme of ch, a skill that most students would

have mastered by the end of the first grade, was not explicitly taught perhaps because it

was a review. Some students might still need skill instruction at this level and would

benefit from instruction in a small, flexible group on such an elementary decoding skill.

The focus of whole-class instruction at the fourth grade level, however, should be on

decoding multisyllabic words. Moreover, though McDonald alluded to students' possible

lack of familiarity with one of the words, she did not assist them in developing the word's

meaning. Best practice would have emphasized the decoding/vocabulary connection

(Juel, 2002).

McDonald made no connection between the decoding task and the spelling task

that followed. The spelling skill was entirely unrelated to the focus of the phonics task.









McDonald made no connections between the decoding activity, reading sustained text,

writing, or vocabulary instruction, although this is an important component of effective

literacy instruction (Chomsky, 1971; Hiebert, 1994; Snow, Bums, & Griffin, 1998).

One expressive writing lesson was observed during the language arts period. At the

beginning of the lesson, she put a "writing prompt" on the board, "Fall is a fun time of

year. Think about why fall is fun. Now explain why fall is a fun time of year." She asked

the students to brainstorm some ideas that they might write about this topic. After

brainstorming and recording ideas on the board, she instructed the students to begin

writing. As the students wrote, McDonald called them up to her teaching table to confer

with them about their drafts.

No writing process lesson was observed. McDonald did activate background

knowledge by using a brainstorming strategy, but she did not model any writing process

for students. Moreover, the topic was decontextualized from any other instructional

activity. The opportunity to transform information, to connect reading and writing

(Cunningham & Allington, 1999; Snow, Burns & Griffin, 1998), or to truly engage

students in the writing process through the use of self-selected topics was missing from

the activity (Graves, 1994; Vygotsky, 1978).

Content area instruction

One mathematics lesson was observed. The focus of this lesson was a review and

demonstration of decimal placement and equivalents prior to administering a textbook

math test which was taken during the observation period. McDonald modeled a few

problems that they were to encounter on the test and left those examples on the board for

their reference as she made preparations for the test. From this single observation, it is

difficult to see how McDonald might have approached the development of high levels of









thinking, background knowledge, real-world/personal connections or the applications of

reading strategies to problem solving.

One science lesson was observed. Using the textbook material, Mc Donald

reviewed the concept of ecosystem by asking students the meaning of the word. She

reviewed several types of ecosystems, wrote some terms on the board, and asked the

students to determine the commonalities among the words. She then discussed the

suffixes and the meaning of the suffixes that were common to all of the words. Next, she

discussed the upcoming terrarium construction project, and then asked students to read

the next section of the science book silently.

Mc Donald's approach to this lesson was dominated by the use of the science

textbook. Using a research-based reading strategy, she successfully connected the text to

a discussion of morphemes in the words, their commonalities, and meaning (Bear, 1996).

She tied the information in the science text to a real experience through the terrarium

project. However, she provided no opportunities for the transformation of information

through collaborative processes or through writing.

Discussion

In each area of instruction, McDonald demonstrated partial implementation of

research-based practices. Complete implementation was impeded by a lack of activities

that allowed students to transform information and by a lack of explicit instruction and

modeling.

None of the lessons used the Direct Instruction model of teaching or any alternate

model (Joyce & Weil, 1996). McDonald tended to talk rather than use a particular model

of teaching. She used some aspects of a collaborative model, but those attempts lacked an

emphasis in social skills, a component critical to its success (Johnson & Johnson, 1999a).









As the year progressed, McDonald began the use of learning centers and small,

flexible grouping. Using this classroom structure allowed for greater differentiation of

instruction (Tomlinson, 2001). However, differentiation of tasks was not observed as was

evidenced by the common use of worksheets similar to those used as a whole-class

seatwork assignment. Students often failed to work collaboratively on the tasks, which

often resulted in social interactions that strayed away from the tasks completely.

During instruction, McDonald provided two ways to provide feedback. For

example, during comprehension instruction, McDonald asked the students to support

their answers from the text. However, when students read orally, she often supplied

unknown words rather than provide scaffolding that would enable students to decode

words independently (Kuhn & Stahl, 2000). McDonald relied heavily on students grading

other students' papers, a time-consuming activity that did not support higher levels of

thinking or the extension of knowledge.

McDonald's lesson plans were consistent with the observed instruction. They cited

pages in texts and workbooks, as well as worksheet pages across the curriculum. She did

not use alternate teaching models.

Mrs. Dickerson's Fourth Grade Classroom

Classroom Structure

Dickerson's fourth grade classroom presented an orderly environment, similar to

that of McDonald's room. A few posters were used to provide schedule and

housekeeping information. A few charts provided mathematics and language arts terms.

A couple of plants dotted the room along with a collection of Raggedy Ann and Andy

dolls that lined the tops of the cabinets over the sink area. A classroom library was

available for student use, but no interactive word wall was observed.









Dickerson began the instructional day at 7:50. Students were given independent

seatwork that included spelling assignments and silent reading. Students completed

activities such as Accelerated Reader tests (a computer-based accountability system for

independent reading) and writing spelling words 4 times each. As the year progressed this

period was also used to complete worksheets designed to practice for the state assessment

test. Dickerson used this time to take attendance and check in students' homework. The

period concluded at 8:30 a.m.

From 8:30 to 9:45, Dickerson taught reading. She followed the general instructional

plan described in the basal reading series, which included introducing vocabulary from

the reader stressing a comprehension skill, and completing workbook exercises.

Periodically, practice for the state assessment practice was included in this time period.

Mathematics instruction using the exercises from the basal was provided from 9:45

to 10:30. Next, from 10:30 until 11:20, students had snack time and attended drama,

music, art, or P.E. class.

From 11:25 until 12:20, Dickerson provided science or social studies instruction.

During the first semester, students had science lessons. In the second semester, social

studies with a focus on state history was provided. Lessons were based upon the science

or social studies textbooks as described in her lesson plan book.

Students ate lunch from 12:26 until 12:51 and then returned to writing and

language instruction from 1:00 to 1:30. During this period, they worked in the language

textbook and completed expressive or process writing tasks in response to teacher-created

writing prompts.









From 1:30 to 1:45, the students had recess time. Following this period, the students

returned to class to pack up and clean up prior to dismissal. Once students were ready to

leave, Dickerson read aloud as students were dismissed beginning with walkers and

ending with bus riders.

Analysis of Instructional Practices

During the 8 classroom observations, the author was able to observe 0 fluency

lessons, 3 comprehension lessons, 2 vocabulary lessons, 3 lessons in decoding/spelling, 0

writing lessons, and 6 mathematics lessons. No science or social studies lessons were

observed. Often when scheduled times were arranged to observe specific subjects

something else was taught instead. Mathematics most frequently replaced other subjects

that appeared in Dickerson's schedule. Decoding and language were also taught during

the science/social studies period. Because mathematics was so frequently taught during

times when reading was scheduled, observations were rescheduled so that reading could

be observed. As a result, the afternoon process-writing period was not observed.

Comprehension and fluency

The focus of the first comprehension lesson was the state assessment practice

workbook. The class had just viewed a third grade play about the same topic that was

covered in the workbook article. The students had read the article and answered

worksheet questions. Dickerson explained that they could discuss what they discovered

with their third grade peers. Next, she then explained that she would read the article

orally so that they would better understand the errors they made on their papers. She

referred to an activity that had preceded reading this article and reassured them that they

already had good background knowledge for reading this selection. After reading the

article, she gave the correct answers and asked the students to highlight text that









supported the correct answer. Next, she discussed the text structure and how that

structure related to the genre. She collected students' papers and asked them to take out

their reading worksheets. She corrected these papers in a way similar to her approach

with the state assessment practice materials. Once she had corrected and collected these

papers, she began her math lesson forty-five minutes earlier than scheduled.

This lesson occurred during the "after reading" phase of instruction. Mrs.

Dickerson attempted to make a connection between the state assessment practice exercise

and the students' shared experience, a practice that increases comprehension (Tovani,

2000). She also instructed students to identify text that supported the correct answers,

another effective practice. Dickerson's discussion about the text structure and her

assumption that the students already had sufficient background knowledge to read and

understand the text were ineffective practices. The development of background

knowledge requires active participation from the student rather than simply a

conversation and assumption that background knowledge has been activated. The

discussion of text structure also should occur before the student interacts with the text.

However, it is important to acknowledge that the pre-reading stage of instruction was not

observed, and it is possible that Dickerson might have addressed these concepts earlier.

All three stages of reading instruction were observed during the second

comprehension lesson. Dickerson passed out a graphic organizer about a previously read

basal selection. She also handed out supplementary reading texts. Dickerson instructed

the students to read these materials within their small groups and depict what they had

read in the graphic organizer. To activate background knowledge, she called students'

attention to the title and pictures on the front and asked the students to analyze how this









story might be related to a story they had read the week before. As students worked in

small groups, Dickerson stationed herself with one group whom she guided by asking

probing, open-ended and inferential questions as they read aloud. She assisted them in the

completion of their graphic organizers and provided scaffolding when students had to

decode un-mastered words. After all of the groups finished their reading, she asked the

entire class to compare and contrast this story with the story they had previously read

using their graphic organizers to guide the discussion. When students answered

incorrectly, she asked them to reread and identify the errors in thinking. Next, she let

students share their favorite passage in the story.

Dickerson's approach to this reading lesson was based on research-supported

practices. She activated background knowledge (Gambrell & Mazzoni, 1999; Block &

Pressley, 2002; RAND, 2002), reinforced text-to-text connections (Tovani, 2000),

provided opportunities for transformation of information (Pearson, 2002), and provided

scaffolding for students when they encountered reading obstacles (Mathes, Fuchs, &

Fuchs 1997; McKeown & Beck, 1999). Because this lesson was a reinforcement of the

skills introduced through a basal selection previously studied, vocabulary had already

been introduced and reviewed in the current selection.

During the third comprehension lesson the pre-reading phase of instruction was

observed. After introducing vocabulary related to the reading selection, Dickerson

instructed the students to copy the sentence from the glossary that exemplified the

vocabulary words. Next, the students read the story and answered the "Think and

Respond" questions at the end of the story. Dickerson returned to her desk to conference

with students who had not turned in an earlier assignment. After approximately fifteen









minutes, she got up from her desk and explained to the class that they needed to go back

and think about the background, that it was important for them to prepare their minds

before they read. (By this time, some students had read significant portions of the text.)

She tried to build students' background knowledge by identifying the genre and setting of

the story. She used the pictures as an aid.

Promoting comprehension appeared to be an after thought since Dickerson did not

build background knowledge. Her effort to do so after students were reading made the

attempt ineffective. Use of the questions at the end of the chapter may have provided

some accountability. However, it did not provide a sufficient opportunity for students to

transform the information in ways that would develop higher levels of thinking or assist

students in making connections with other text, their own experiences, or the world in

which they live.

Vocabulary

The two vocabulary lessons observed were conducted in a similar manner. She

asked students to pronounce the words and to use their phonics knowledge to assist them.

When words were unfamiliar, she provided multiple examples of their use in sentences.

She also instructed students to identify the part of speech. Next, she directed the students

to look the words up in the glossary and copy the example sentences provided.

Two poorly developed research-based practices were observed. First, she tried to

link the decoding/spelling lesson with the introduction of the vocabulary (Juel, 2002).

However, the spelling patterns in the spelling list were not in the vocabulary words

embedded in the reading selection. Second, as she introduced each word through multiple

examples in sentences, she had students create student friendly definitions orally (Beck,

McKeown, & Kucan, 2002). However, efforts to introduce vocabulary in context were









not observed (Beck, McKeown & Kucan, 2002; Blachowicz, Fisher, & Gipe, 1978-79;

Blachowicz & Fisher, 2000; Nagy & Herman, 1987). Also, having the students copy

dictionary or glossary definitions and use vocabulary in sentences has been shown to be

ineffective (Nagy & Scott, 2000). This practice was evident when she asked students to

copy the sentence from the glossary. Rewriting printed material does not require the

transformation of information (Strickland & Snow, 2002).

Decoding and spelling

The decoding lesson focused on consonant blends. She instructed the students to

tear out pages 13 and 14 from the workbook and asked the students to raise their hands to

respond. From time to time, she reviewed word meanings. Next, she instructed the

students to complete the rest of the pages independently.

Although Dickerson provided some modeling and teacher direction during this

lesson, the focus on such a primary level skill for the entire fourth grade class was an

ineffective practice. At the fourth grade level, whole-class instruction should target

multisyllabic words (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998). While some students may have

needed that type of instruction, phonics remediation of that nature should occur in small,

flexible groups in response to diagnostic information (Carreker, 1999; Fountas & Pinnell,

1996). Moreover, Dickerson provided no connections to text or vocabulary during the

lesson.

Two lessons in spelling were observed. In the first lesson, Dickerson directed the

students to examine their spelling lists for patterns. Next, she identified the spelling

pattern as the ei pattern and discussed the various sounds this pattern can make in words.

She then explained the meanings of the words that were unfamiliar. During the second

observation, Dickerson told students to write each spelling word 3 times. After returning









from an errand, she asked the students to look at their spelling lists while she provided

the word meanings. Following this activity, she provided time for the students to finish

writing the words.

The type of spelling instruction Dickerson provided was repetitive for students on

grade level and too difficult for struggling learners whose reading skills were below

grade level. Moreover, the spelling instruction was decontextualized from students'

writing or phonics instruction, an ineffective practice (Adams, 1990; Snow, Bums, &

Griffin, 1998). Therefore, just as decoding should be taught according to ability level in

small group instruction, so should spelling instruction (Bear & Templeton, 1998;

Carreker, 1999; National Reading Panel, 2000).

Content area instruction

Mathematics instruction was observed 6 times. Dickerson followed the basal

mathematics instructional manual. Of the 6 mathematics lessons, 2 involved "hands-on"

activities. All of the lessons contained practice in something beyond the four basic

operations.

In 1 mathematics lesson, students were introduced to the word translation.

Dickerson discussed the meaning of the term by relating it to conceptually similar words.

Using the prefix trans, she asked the students to think of other words that contained that

prefix and discussed their meaning. Through this process, she helped the students to

derive the correct mathematical meaning. She introduced two other math terms in a

similar way and then asked students to apply what they learned through an activity that

required them to demonstrate each term. During a review of their solutions, she required

them to use the newly acquired vocabulary as they explained their solutions.









By having the students reflect on the terms used in grade 3 and by having them

think about other words they knew that have the trans prefix, Dickerson integrated new

words/concepts with existing knowledge. Since all knowledge is structured as sets of

relationships rather than lists of independent facts, this practice allowed students to relate

the new information to what they already knew, thus employing scaffolding, a powerful,

research-based strategy (Nagy, 1988).

Discussion

In each area of instruction, Dickerson demonstrated partial implementation of

research-based practices. Like McDonald, complete implementation was impeded by a

lack of activities that allowed students to transform information and by the overuse of

instructional materials in place of direct instruction as in the case of decoding.

Dickerson's instructional practices were typified by two tendencies. She

overemphasized the use of commercial materials in preparing students for the state

assessment test rather than questioning students and making them accountable for

demonstrating higher levels of thinking across the curriculum. This practice typified her

tendency to retain so much control over the instructional process that moving students

toward the independence phase of instruction was rarely realized. Thus, students had few

opportunities to construct meaning for themselves or apply strategies independently.

In most lessons, discussing and correcting responses to items on commercial

materials became the lesson rather than following any particular instructional model.

Teacher modeling and actual instruction occurred most frequently during math lessons. In

reading, only one lesson used research-based instructional practices. During this lesson,

Dickerson met with a small group and employed a graphic organizer to assist students









with comprehension. Notably, this lesson took place on the only day that Dickerson knew

that she would be observed during the reading lesson.

Dickerson's lesson plans were consistent with the classroom observations. The

lesson plans reflected 4 lessons per week devoted to science in the first semester and

social studies in the second semester. In all subject areas, lesson plans consisted of listing

textbook and workbook pages. The teacher provided no notations indicating that she

planned to use additional strategies or alternate teaching models.

Changes in Teachers' Instructional Practices

The interview data indicated that the four teachers involved in this study as well as

other teachers had enlarged their repertoire instructional practices as a result of the SRI

Summer Reading Academy. Although full implementation of all of the strategies was not

observed in any of the four classrooms, each of the teachers did employ several

strategies, even if only partially.

Impact of Becoming and SRI Trainer

The findings showed that the teachers and others have continued to make changes

to their instructional practices. Of the four teacher participants, for example, three

became trainers of two or more SRI Summer Reading Academy Components and have

trained teachers from other schools during the succeeding summer academies. Baker and

Peters were trained in the Phonemic Awareness/Phonics, Comprehension, and

Reading/Writing components. McDonald became a trainer of the Reading/Writing

components. All three teachers reported that the greatest impact upon their instructional

practices occurred as a result of becoming trainers for the SRI (Appendix C: 2). Baker

and Peters demonstrated the greatest influence of the SRI training on their instructional

practices, which is likely due to having trained other teachers more frequently and









broadly than McDonald. While McDonald's instructional practices did not demonstrate a

reliance on writing to transform information across the curriculum, findings from her

interview indicated a strong belief in the importance of the reading/writing connection,

the component in which she had trained to become a trainer of other teachers.

Teachers' Beliefs, Prior Knowledge, and Change in Instructional Practice

Research has shown that teacher belief systems are a strong influence on the actual

practices of teachers. However, teachers often evidence contradiction between their

beliefs, espoused curriculum, and actual instructional practice (Olson, 1994; Maxson,

1996; Calderhead, 1996; Miller, Adkins, & Hooper, 1993; and Wegmann, 2001). Mrs.

Baker and Peters demonstrated congruency between their beliefs and instructional

practices. Their espoused beliefs were reflected in conversations about their practices and

in observations of their practices. McDonald also demonstrated great congruency

between her beliefs and practices except in the use of writing to transform information.

During the interview, Mrs. Dickerson had difficulty articulating her beliefs. She appeared

to rely on her knowledge base of effective teacher research. In all four cases, however,

the teachers expressed and actualized a belief that reading, writing, and arithmetic

instruction was indispensable and should be taught daily. All of the teachers considered

science and social studies instruction to be secondary and dispensable.

Baker, who always had aspirations to be a teacher, discovered that teaching was not

as she had imagined. In her first two years she found that children's affective and

academic needs were vastly different. To meet her students' varying needs, she read and

attended professional development opportunities. Her belief in the importance of

research-based practices was solidified as she applied newly acquired knowledge to her

classroom instruction.









Like Baker, Peters wanted to be a teacher since childhood. However, her beliefs

were shaped by her son's difficult school experiences. She believed that to be successful,

one must accommodate students' individual academic levels and learning styles. She

gave individualized attention in the way she assisted students in making connections

across the curriculum. These practices were consistent with her beliefs.

McDonald's beliefs, espoused practices and enacted practices were less congruent

than Baker and Peters. She expressed the desire to take students as they are, to capitalize

upon their interests, and to provide them with a positive classroom experience. She

believed that once students reached third and fourth grades, they needed less explicit

reading instruction and more opportunities to read books of their choice in the classroom.

If pressed for time, McDonald stated that she would cancel reading instruction and

replace it with sustained silent reading. She also stated that she would include

mathematics instruction daily. Her instructional beliefs were demonstrated in her

teaching, which was characterized by a lack of explicit instruction in reading and a rather

high incidence of non-academic use of allocated time as compared to the other three

teachers (Behar-Horenstein, & Seabert, 2002). However, during the interview, McDonald

spoke about the importance of using writing to solidify comprehension, and that she

"very much includes" writing when teaching science, social studies and literature. Her

beliefs were not supported by her instructional practices.

Dickerson's beliefs, espoused curriculum, and enacted curriculum were

incongruent. Horizontal and vertical validity reconstructions of the interview transcript

(Carspecken, 1996) indicated that her stated beliefs were based less on experience or on

personal conviction than on what might be expected of her teaching performance. She









talked about holding high expectations for students, the need to provide engaging,

effective activities, and the importance of professional growth. Her belief about the

importance of professional development was supported by her participation in a school

study group on best practices. Given time restrictions, she reported that she would cover

the basic skills tested on the state assessment. This statement was consistent with her

lesson plans and observed instructional practices. Although she held high expectations of

her students with respect to their attentiveness and responsibility for completing tasks,

neither high expectations, nor high engagement were evident in the nature of the

language arts tasks she assigned. A lack of high expectations and high engagement was

apparent in her failure to release students gradually to accept the responsibility for

constructing their own meaning from text. Though she partially implemented some

research-based practices, most of her instruction was dominated by recitation rather that

the full implementation of the Direct Instruction model. Moreover, no alternate models of

teaching were written into the lesson plans collected. Interviews with her, observations,

and artifacts, suggested that she had a tacit belief that effective activities were

characterized by modeling the kind of thinking students needed to do on the state

assessment test, and that students should have repeated opportunities to demonstrate that

thinking on state assessment-like practice questions (Appendix B: 7; C: 11 & D). This

finding is consistent with studies that have shown that the incongruity of teachers' beliefs

and practice may be linked to pressures associated with accountability for student

improvement (Buckner, 2002; Galton, Simon & Croll 1980; Miller, Adkins, & Hooper,

1993; Wegmann, 2001).