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The Importance of Community Leadership to Successful Rural Communities in Florida


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THE IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNITY LEADERSHIP TO SUCCESSFUL RURAL COMMUNITIES IN FLORIDA By KRISTINA GRAGE RICKETTS A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2005

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Copyright 2005 By Kristina Grage Ricketts

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This manuscript is dedicated to the love of my life and best friend, Paul Ricketts.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Often, life is all about the destination where one ends up. However, so much of where one ends up depends upon what was experienced along the way. In the journey to receiving a Ph.D., there were many little victories. These victories were not of my own accord they were due to many individuals who dedicated time and effort to help achieve this goal, inevitably giving a little piece of themselves in the process. This list is dedicated to those people. First and foremost, I would like to thank my family for all the love and support they have provided. The encouragement and love provided through elementary and high school was unquestionably where my love affair with academia all began. Nonetheless, if not for the numerous late-night phone calls, frequent trips home, and abundant gift packages, Florida would have certainly been a very short stay. Specifically, I would like to thank Dr. Howard Ladewig for his love of knowledge, and for passing this on through the numerous meetings and discussions allowed for throughout this process. Fascination is generally seen of in the eye of the beholder. To one of the smartest men I know, thank you for keeping it fascinating. I would like to thank Dr. Nick Place, for all the emotional and spiritual support provided over the years. It became a classic moment when dissertation discussions turned from the academic to personal matters. To one of the greatest men I have ever known, who truly is in Gods presence, thank you for all of the friendship and prayers. It is amazing the spiritual relevance to real life. iv

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In addition, I would like to thank everyone on my committee, for the time and effort they put into this manuscript. It was they who helped make this process possible. I would like to thank friends and family. Without a good support mechanism, I would have never made it through the tough stuff. Thanks also go out to the other graduate students in the Department of Agricultural Education and Communication. It certainly is something to take notice of when you assemble a large group of remarkable individuals into one office. In a different situation, at another date and time, it might be considered chaos. For us, it was synergy. I would also like to thank my husband, Paul Ricketts. Sometimes school takes precedence over just about everything else it gets in the way of life. Many thanks to the person who held on and saw it to the end. As a final note, I would like to thank God. It was His spiritual guidance that led me to Florida in the first place. He provided support in the hard times. And He never let me forget that it was His plan for my life I was fulfilling, not mine. For all of this I am especially thankful. Sometimes one just needs a little help from above: For I know the plans I have for you, declares the Lord, plans to prosper you and not to harm you, plans to give you a hope and a future. Then you will call upon me and come and pray to me, and I will listen to you. You will seek me and find me when you seek me with all your heart. Jeremiah 29:11-13 (NIV) v

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vi TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES.............................................................................................................ix LIST OF FIGURES..........................................................................................................xii ABSTRACT.....................................................................................................................xi ii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY...............................................1 Introduction................................................................................................................... 1 Background and Significance of the Problem..............................................................4 Definition of Terms......................................................................................................8 Purpose of the Study.....................................................................................................9 Research Objectives....................................................................................................10 Importance of the Study..............................................................................................11 Limitations of the Study.............................................................................................14 Summary.....................................................................................................................16 2 CONCEPTUAL AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK.........................................18 Conceptual Framework...............................................................................................19 Rural Community................................................................................................19 Community Structure..........................................................................................21 Community Model...............................................................................................24 The Community Field An Interactive Approach..............................................28 Social Capital.......................................................................................................29 Psychological Sense of Community....................................................................32 Leadership: Organizational versus Community..................................................36 Organizational leadership.............................................................................36 Community leadership.................................................................................43 Leader action................................................................................................46 Generalized/specific leadership within communities...................................47 Theoretical Framework...............................................................................................48 The Community Field An Interactional Approach...........................................48 Social Capital Theory..........................................................................................50 Servant Leadership Theory/Community Leadership...........................................53

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vii Psychological Sense of Community Theory.......................................................56 Summary.....................................................................................................................59 3 METHODOLOGY.....................................................................................................63 Introduction.................................................................................................................63 Research Design.........................................................................................................64 Interview Process Background............................................................................65 Study Variables...................................................................................................67 Research Objectives............................................................................................67 Community Selection Parameters.......................................................................68 Data Collection Procedures........................................................................................74 The Interview Process.........................................................................................75 Participants/Sampling..........................................................................................79 Instrumentation and Measures.............................................................................82 Interview Stages..................................................................................................84 Data Analysis..............................................................................................................86 Factor Analysis....................................................................................................86 Path Analysis.......................................................................................................88 Qualitative Analysis............................................................................................89 Summary.....................................................................................................................90 4 RESULTS...................................................................................................................92 Profile of Participants (Demographics)......................................................................92 Factor Analysis...........................................................................................................94 Factor Selection...................................................................................................94 Factor Rotation....................................................................................................96 Psychological Sense of Community Factor Analysis..........................................97 Unrotated factor matrix................................................................................99 Rotated factor matrices...............................................................................102 Pattern matrix versus structure matrix.......................................................104 Factor labeling............................................................................................105 Community Leadership Factor Analysis...........................................................106 Unrotated factor matrix..............................................................................117 Rotated factor matrices...............................................................................120 Factor labeling............................................................................................120 Social Capital Factor Analysis..........................................................................127 Social capital Trust factor analysis..........................................................127 Unrotated factor matrix..............................................................................130 Social capital Community i nvolvement factor analysis..........................131 Unrotated factor matrix..............................................................................134 Rotated factor matrices...............................................................................134 Factor labeling............................................................................................135 Factor scores...............................................................................................138 Social Capital Organizational Involvement....................................................138 Regression and Path Analysis...................................................................................143

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viii Direct Effects on Social Capital........................................................................146 Direct effects on soci al capital Trust.......................................................147 Direct effects on social capita l Organizational involvement...................148 Direct effects on social capital Community involvement (community action)...................................................................................................149 Direct Effects on Openness to Change/Community Vision..............................151 Direct effects of social ca pital variables on openness to change/community vision.....................................................................151 Direct effects of independe nt variables on openness to change/community vision.....................................................................152 Summary of Direct Effects................................................................................154 Qualitative Analysis..................................................................................................157 Psychological Sense of Community..................................................................157 Community Leadership.....................................................................................160 Social Capital.....................................................................................................165 Conclusions...............................................................................................................171 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS.........................................172 Summary...................................................................................................................172 Linking it all Together..............................................................................................174 Objective Summaries.........................................................................................174 General Summaries...........................................................................................177 Conclusions...............................................................................................................186 Implications..............................................................................................................188 Implications for Research.........................................................................................192 APPENDIX A FIVE TRADITIONS OF QUALITATIVE INQUIRY.............................................195 B INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD (IRB) APPROVAL....................................196 C PRELIMINARY LETTER.......................................................................................197 D INTERVIEW GUIDE...............................................................................................198 E FOLLOW-UP LETTER...........................................................................................209 F FIVE STEPS FOR CARRYING OUT AN EVALUATIVE INTERVIEW............210 LIST OF REFERENCES.................................................................................................212 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................219

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ix LIST OF TABLES Table page 1-1. Definition of Terms....................................................................................................8 2-1. Leadership Styles, Definiti ons and Characteristics..................................................37 3-1. Viability Score Breakdown and Overall Rank of 30 Florida Communities.............76 4-1. Demographic Characteristics of Community Leaders.............................................93 4-2. Unrotated Factor Matrix of Psychologi cal Sense of Community (Independent Variable)...................................................................................................................98 4-3. Promax Rotated Factor Pattern Matrix of Psychological Sense of Community (Independent Variable).............................................................................................99 4-4. Unrotated Limited Factor Matrix of Psychological Sense of Community (Independent Variable)...........................................................................................101 4-5. Promax Rotated Limited Factor Pattern Matrix of Psychological Sense of Community (Independent Variable).......................................................................103 4-6. Promax Rotated Limited Factor Struct ure Matrix of Psychological Sense of Community (Independent Variable).......................................................................105 4-7. Unrotated Factor Matrix of Community Leadership (Independent Variable).......108 4-8. Promax Rotated Factor Pattern Matrix of Community Leadership (Independent Variable).................................................................................................................113 4-9. Unrotated Limited Factor Matrix of Community Leadership (Independent Variable).................................................................................................................118 4-10. Promax Rotated Limited Factor Pattern Matrix of Community Leadership (Independent Variable)...........................................................................................121 4-11. Promax Rotated Limited Factor Struct ure Matrix of Community Leadership (Independent Variable)...........................................................................................124 4-12. Unrotated Factor Matrix of Social Ca pital Trust (Interv ening Variable)............128

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x 4-13. Promax Rotated Factor Pattern Matrix of Social Capital Trust (Intervening Variable).................................................................................................................128 4-14. Promax Rotated Factor Structure Matrix of Social Capital Trust (Intervening Variable).................................................................................................................130 4-15. Unrotated Limited Factor Matrix of Social Capital Trust (Intervening Variable).................................................................................................................131 4-16. Unrotated Factor Matrix of Social Capital Community Involvement (Intervening Variable)............................................................................................132 4-17. Promax Rotated Factor Pattern Matrix of Social Capital Community Involvement (Intervening Variable).......................................................................132 4-18. Unrotated Limited Factor Matrix of So cial Capital Community Involvement (Intervening Variable)............................................................................................135 4-19. Promax Rotated Limited Factor Pattern Matrix of Social Capital Community Involvement (Intervening Variable).......................................................................136 4-20. Promax Rotated Limited Factor Stru cture Matrix of Social Capital Community Involvement (Intervening Variable)...................................................137 4-21. Organizational Involvement of Co mmunity Leaders (By Community)................139 4-22. Organizational Involvement of Community Leaders (Total).................................142 4-23. Product-Moment Correlation Coefficien ts for Path Model Variables...................146 4-24. Tests of Significance and Path Coeffici ents for Regression of Psychological Sense of Community and Community L eadership Variables on Trust (Social Capital)...................................................................................................................148 4-25. Tests of Significance and Path Coeffici ents for Regression of Psychological Sense of Community and Community L eadership Variables on Organizational Involvement (Social Capital).................................................................................149 4-26. Tests of Significance and Path Coeffici ents for Regression of Psychological Sense of Community and Community Leadership Variables on Community Involvement Community Ac tion (Social Capital)..............................................151 4-27. Tests of Significance and Path Coefficien ts for Regression of Social Capital Variables on Openness to Change/Community Vision..........................................152 4-28. Tests of Significance and Path Coeffici ents for Regression of Independent Variables on Openness to Change/Community Vision..........................................153

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xi 4-29. Tests of Significance and Path Coeffici ents for Regression of Significant Variables on Openness to Change/Com munity Vision within the Simplified Model.....................................................................................................................156 5-1. Qualitative Community Leader Characteristics.....................................................187

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xii LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1. Path Model Depicting Proposed Rela tionships among Sense of Community, Community Leadership, Social Cap ital, and Openness to Change..........................12 2-1. Community Model...................................................................................................27 2-2. Path Model Depicting Proposed Rela tionships among Sense of Community, Community Leadership, Social Capital, and Openness to Change (Review)..........62 3-1. Florida State Map by County Location Parameter................................................69 3-2. Florida State Map by County Selected Study Communities.................................74 4-1. Scree Plot of Psychological Sense of Community (Indepe ndent Variable).............95 4-2. Scree Plot of Community Leader ship (Independent Variable)..............................112 4-3. Scree Plot of Social Capital Trust (Intervening Variable)..................................129 4-4. Scree Plot of Social Capital Commun ity Involvement (Intervening Variable)..133 4-5. Effects of Selected Variables on Ope nness to Change/Community Vision...........145 4-6. Effects of Selected Variables on Op enness to Change/Community Vision (Modified Version).................................................................................................147 4-7. Path Model Containing Si gnificant Coefficients...................................................154 4-8. Effects of Independent and Intervening Variables on Openness to Change/Community Vision A Simplified Model................................................155

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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THE IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNITY LEADERSHIP TO SUCCESSFUL RURAL COMMUNITIES IN FLORIDA By Kristina Grage Ricketts May 2005 Chair: Howard W. Ladewig Cochair: Nick T. Place Major Department: Agricultural Education and Communication Rural communities have unique ideals and values, as well as a culture and life of their own. Unfortunately, many of todays rural areas are in trouble. Issues facing rural communities are vast and numerous; more specifically, rural communities in Florida are dealing with a unique problem the considerable influx of new people. Still, many argue that leadership may be the catalyst through which positive changes occur. Local leaders are concluding that if economic and community development is to occur, it is their responsibility to make it happen. Fortunately, some of todays rural communities are doing exceptionally well. But what makes these communities different? And what community aspects figure into this equation? Finally, could the presence of effective community leadership be the key to leading fading communities to a brighter tomorrow? This comparative case study was undertaken to investigate how psychological sense of community leaders, community leadership, and social capital work together xiii

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towards change within a viable community. The theoretical framework involved Wilkinsons Theory of Interaction, McMillan and Chavis Psychological Sense of Community Theory, Servant Leadership Theory by Greenleaf, and Webers illustration of social capital. Study communities were chosen through calculating a Community Viability Score, and selecting the two most viable rural communities in Florida for participation. Community leaders within each community were determined through an expert panel, and participation continued through the snowball technique. These leaders were interviewed on-site using a researcher-designed instrument. Data analysis included factor analysis, path analysis and qualitative techniques. Results indicated the community viability score was an inappropriate measure of future community success. Furthermore, only two variables were found to have a direct effect on a communitys openness to change community empowerment and building social capital through trust. Factor analysis indicated fewer essential factors than theoretically provided for in nearly all instances. Regarding leadership, practically every community leader felt a strong sense of community across their county most actually identified their community not as their town, but according to their county. In addition, it was clearly illustrated that todays community leadership structure has changed; where there used to be a plethora of generalized community leaders, now are leaders who are less general, more dedicated to serving their community within specific social groups. Overall, these rural communities relied strongly on relationships (social capital) as the backbone to the community particularly those between schools and churches. Community leaders showed a very strong sense of service to their community, most often with no recognition desired. xiv

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Conclusions confirmed that an overall measure for community success still needs to be developed. In addition, leadership proved to be important at the community level. Effective community leaders were important in developing important relationships, establishing communication and providing the community with direction thereby providing the needed link between variables. Further research should to be done in all aspects of rural communities, with emphasis placed on leadership, change and development. xv

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Introduction Rural communities are an important aspect of the fabric of American society. It is from these beginnings that even the largest cities originated and, until the middle of the 20th century, where the majo rity of the American population called home. Rural communities have unique ideals and values, as well as a culture and life of their own. The value behind rural areas and all they provi de is an inherent one; something which is actively recognized by those exposed on a daily basis, or those who share history with a rural place. This shared value is illustrate d through a vaguely arti culated but passionately held belief that community is a good th ing something which should be promoted, defended and restored in social life (Wilkinson, 1986). Unfortunately, many of todays rural areas are in trouble. Issues facing rural communities range from decline (the loss of family farms and small farming communities resulting in ever-dwindling populations that may not be able to actively support a community) to rapid growth (and how to pr otect the surrounding environment and small town culture). Furthermore, demographic sh ifts and economic restructuring threaten to dramatically alter the lives of rural pe ople and their communities (Brown, Swanson, & Barton, 2003). Todays rural communities, on av erage, differ more from each other than urban areas (Flora & Flora, 2004). Ther efore, addressing these problems will be particularly complex; a one size fits all approach will not be effective.

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2 Within many rural communities today, lo cal leaders are concluding that if economic and community development is to occu r, it is their responsibility to make it happen (Bell & Evert, 1997). In areas su ch as public education and job training, technology, networking with stat e and regional agencies, health care, leadership and strategic planning, communities are learning that community development is not the responsibility of any one group, but a community-wide effort. Furthermore, many argue that leadership may be the catalyst through which these changes occur. Communities that are creative, entrepreneurial, and committed to building a shared vision and consensus are found to be better prepared to address community needs (Bell & Evert, 1997). For rural communities to remain, there is a call for local leadership to take ch arge and guide the way into th e future. A new generation of leaders is needed to build local partnershi ps for managing change in todays diverse communities (Tabb & Montesi, 2000). Leadership itself has played a fundamental role in nearly every aspect of society, and is particularly important in rura l communities. In 1908, President Theodore Roosevelt initiated the Country Life Co mmission and charged it to study the major aspects and issues in rural areas. A prim ary finding of that study was the overriding lack of quality leadership within rural areas. Yet, reflecting on leadership by itself is inappropriate leadership (as defined later within this chapter) is the accomplishment of group purpose, which is furthered not only by e ffective leaders, but several other factors including innovators and entrep reneurs, available resources and social capital, or contributing to the common good (Gardner, 19 90). Therefore, leadership must be considered within a context, regarding a specific purpose. The context and purpose

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3 behind this study are rural communities and how l eadership relates, interacts, and affects individuals, social capit al, and change within the community situation. As Gardner (1990) asserts, todays problems and issues within society are not nearly as frightening as the question they raise concerning society s ability to gather forces and act. As society becomes more complex, an ever-increasing number of these issues are linked between urban and rural area s. This makes issues more complex and results in the need for more complex so lutions. Furthermore, because todays communities and social fields are larger and mo re intricately organized, individuals in all segments and at all levels must be prepared to act as leaders. Thus, leadership is dispersed not only throughout all segmen ts of society government, business, communities, etc. it is also dispersed th rough the many levels of social functioning (Gardner, 1990). The bottom line is a great num ber of individuals within society need to know how to solve complex problems in a variety of situations in essence to be leaders. Even more importantly for the future of todays rural communities is the presence and action of leaders who can fit it all togeth er. Positioning a community for a viable future does not just mean being able to so lve complex problems and move the community towards successful social action,1 which leads to planned change, but also means motivating community members to develop so cial capital, increase individual well-being, sustain the communitys unique culture and a vari ety of other responsibil ities. This is the complex side of community leadersh ip and the focus of this study. 1 For further reference, see Definition of Terms on p. 7.

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4 Background and Significance of the Problem Rural communities have experienced remark able change and uncertainty within the last several decades. Prior to the 20th centu ry, rural policy was mostly directed toward agricultural land distribution (Congressional Research Serv ice, 2003). The Homestead Act of 1862 and the Morrill Act of 1862 were bot h active illustrations of this. In the early 20th century, a rural reform m ovement resulting from the County Life Commissions conclusions emphasized ru ral development policy aimed towards technology and modernization. Today and in the future, rural policy will need to cover a much broader array of issues, as the ru ral environment becomes more complex. According to the Congressional Research Service (2003), rural communities are witnessing lower wages than their urban count erparts, as well as population declines within many agriculture-depende nt counties and little or no job growth in the 1990s. Additionally, rural communities are so diverse that addressing rural issues with a onesize-fits-all rural policy is nearly impossible to achieve. Due to this diversity, future rural leadership will have to deal with a wider array of policy issues including the following: New sources of economic growth and development; The increasing concentration of agri cultural production and implications; Developing rural entrepreneurial capacity; Rebuilding an aging rural physical infrastructure; Public service delivery innovations in sparse population areas; The fate of low-wage, declining rural areas, many of which are in agriculturedependent counties; Increasing suburbanization and the conflicts between agriculture and suburban and exurban development;

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5 Human capital shortages; Dealing with the Digital Divide, or the lack of equitable and meaningful access to technology in rural areas; and Increasing environmental pressures on agriculture, forestry, and fisheries. (Congressional Research Service, 2003) While many of the rural co mmunities found in the Great Plains, western Corn Belt and Mississippi Delta are f acing ever-diminishing populations, many communities in the Mountain West, rural Northeast and Southeast (particularly Fl orida) are dealing with a more unique problem. The great migration of individuals to more southern climes as well as those moving into rural areas, away from the more highly populated cities, is a situation that has been facing rural Floridia n communities for a number of years (Flora & Flora, 2004). Within Florida, much of the rural migration is occurring out of metropolitan centers and into adjacent areas (suburbs) and rural communities. This large influx of people creates unique challenges for both community members and leaders. According to Flora and Flora (2004) For rural communities that have coped with declining populations and resources for years, managing an influx of people and businesses represents a serious challenge many are not fully prepared to deal with . . If growth is to be managed in such areas, local governments need the staff, tr aining, legal framework, and resources to produce and enforce plans that allow grow th, but protect the environment, public access, open space, and farmland. (pp.29-30) Local leadership needs to step up and recogni ze the special needs a ssociated with rural growth when developing apposite local public policy. In order for this to work most effectively, local leaders from rural commun ities, governments and organizations should be considered viable partners in the policy-making process. When looking specifically at rural commun ities from the leadership perspective, much less is known. According to Wilkin son (1986), continuing education and rural

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6 leadership development programs need to take larger structural sources of problems into account, and these programs then could be combined with efforts to attack community structural problems directly. Furthermore, it is particularly impor tant to recognize the essential roles local leaders and associations must play in the process of community development. By ignoring local leaders and actors, we disregard those who make decisions, provide leadership, and instigate community action, thereby missing the mark of community development itself. Important leadership development activities within communities have often been undertaken by the Cooperative Extension Servic e (CES). According to Ahern, Yee, and Bottum (2003), extension activities focusi ng on community resource development are important within communities both with a nd without primarily agricultural production economies. Ironically, this is not reflected in the allocation of faculty within this area. Over the period from 1977 to 1992, community resource development had a decrease of 488 FTEs (full-time equivalents), or a 2% overa ll percentage decrea se (across CES) in personnel assigned to this program area (Ahe rn et al., 2003). Simply stated, within extension there has been a noticeable decr ease in focus on community resource and leadership development activities over th e last few decades. Unfortunately, fewer resources and extension educators focuse d in community development means fewer programs freely available for leadership deve lopment to the detriment of many rural communities. Effective leadership within the community field is necessary in order to assert successful community action, encourage so cial well-being, and improve community viability. But how does one define effectiv e leadership within a rural community?

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7 Moreover, does the effectiveness of leadersh ip within rural communities directly affect the success or decline of the co mmunity itself? Finally, if leadership does indeed impact community viability, what impli cations does this have for ru ral leadership development? While many questions have been manifest within this section, the aggregate problem incorporates each of these and asks us to look at the bigger picture. Rural communities have unique characteristics and conditions. According to Wilkinson (1986) the four main aspects to be considered when studying todays rural communities are The community is alive in the sense th at it influences social well-being; Small towns and rural areas present special advantages (as well as challenges) for community development; A strategy of rural community development must come to grips with sources of rural problems as they relate to a larger society; and The well-being of those in rural areas can be improved through specifying and measuring the essential parameters of rural community development. Communities, being a specific type of terrestrial or social environment, are not singular unto themselves. They are a comple x combination of numerous (and sometimes diverse) social groups and variables that interact to form one large system. The overarching problem studied involved investig ating factors that affect how a community becomes viable. In order to address this larg er issue, smaller segments were studied, like how variables such as power, networks and communication work together in communities, how these variables are connected to social capital w ithin the community, how servant leadership2 performs within the community and eventually how all of these aspects affect social action. Through mo re in-depth knowledge of viable rural communities and their components, rural policy can be designed to more accurately and 2 To be a servant first, then conscious choice brings one to aspire to lead.

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8 thoroughly address all components of current community issues. Ideally it is rural policy, as well as community member morale, that this knowledge is to impress upon. For as Flora and Flora (2004) articulate, Economic and policy choices made at the state and federal level and individual choices made by communities themselves mean that, even for the poor, remote rural communities, trend is not destiny (p. 18). Definition of Terms Within this study, there are several terms utilized that have numerous definitions within the human language. In order to clear up any ambiguities, major terms are defined below as they are operationalized within this study: Table 1-1. Definition of Terms. Terms Operational Definition Community A specific type of terrestrial or social environment. Three primary elements define community: (a ) a local ecology, (b) sufficient structures to meet the needs and common interests of the people, and (c) a field of community actions (Kaufman, 1959; Wilkinson, 1986). Community Field An interaction process where actio ns are coordinated locally, and social interaction is the key i ngredient (Kaufman, 1959; Luloff & Wilkinson, 1979; Wilkinson, 1991). Community Leadership To influence people toward a sh ared goal for action (Northouse, 2001). Community Viability How active and effective a community is at succe ssfully reaching communal goals (Brown, 1991). Empowerment Granting power between indivi duals or entities the delegation of authority (Conger & Kanungo, 1988). Human Capital The improvement or change in individuals skills and capabilities that allow them to act in new ways (Coleman, 1988). Individual WellBeing A natural state one realizes wh en his/her basic needs are met (Maslow, 1959).

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9 Table 1-1. Continued. Terms Operational Definition Planned (Sustainable) Change Change within an ongoing social system (in our case, a community), that adds to or improves it, rath er than replacing any of its key elements (Gerlach & Hines, as cited in Zaltman & Duncan, 1977). Power A social process describing th e act of individu als moving other individuals to ac tion (Hunter, 1970). Social Action (Community Action) The process by community members that leads to planned change (Zaltman & Duncan, 1977). Social Capital The relationships and netw orks within a social structure where individuals contribute to the common good (Flora, 1998). Social System (Social Field) Groups within a community based u pon social activities that allow individuals the daily access necessa ry for day-to-day living (Warren, 1972). Purpose of the Study This study focused on the process of activ ity and social change within a rural community setting. More spec ifically, the presence and asso ciations of leadership and other variables within the community of ten have a strong impact upon the planned change toward the greater good of the co mmunity, leading to improved community viability. Generally, this occurs as a pr oduct of the interactions and relationships developed between community members; ideally, positive interactions will help encourage increased social capital and allo w for the community members and leaders to work together towards actions for the greater go od of the community. Using qualitative inquiry methods, it was the resear chers goal to systematically describe the influence of leadership, sense of community and social capital on community viability within two select rural communities. As Patton (2002) imparts, qualitative research may be aimed to

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10 garner insight about a phenomenon of intere st. Therefore, the purpose behind this study was to accurately illustrate and describe the current environment (including the interactions among leadership, power, and othe r independent variables) within two rural Florida communities, with particular interest in describing the influence leadership and sense of community have upon the development of social capital leading to a more viable community. Figure 1-1 visibly illustrates the path model developed for this study. Research Objectives The research was used to illustrate and describe how leadership and other factors interact within rural communitie s. Explicitly, the purpose of this study was to investigate how psychological sense of community, community leadership, and social capital influenced openness to change within a viable community. The specific objectives addressed within this study were as follows 1. To measure a communitys viability, indi vidual psychological sense of community, social capital commitment and community leadership within select viable rural communities; 2. To determine the relationships between a. Sense of community and community leadership, b. Sense of community and social capital, c. Community leadership and social capital, and d. Sense of community and community lead ership (independent variables) with openness to change (dependent variable see section Study Variables for a complete list of variables); 3. To determine the effects of sense of co mmunity and community leadership, as well as their interactions with openness to change; 4. To compare/contrast the environment with in the two most viable rural communities in Florida; 5. To qualitatively compare each viable co mmunity according to the variables of psychological sense of community, commun ity leadership and social capital.

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11 These objectives were addressed within each of the two communities selected. Once the data were transcribed and analyzed, they were then compared between the two communities. Importance of the Study The association among rural community, l eadership and community action is one that helps in linking theory and policy, as well as collectiv ely serving as the basis for rural development policy in the United States over the past several decades. In fact, proponents of rural development at both the stat e and federal levels argue that community action and community leadership must be at the forefront of effective programs to address rural problems (Wilkinson, 1991, p. ix). A large number of individuals still in habit rural communities today. Rural communities continue to make up an important pa rt of the fabric of the American society and are still valued as something that should be promoted, defended a nd restored in social life (Wilkinson, 1986). As Flora and Flora (200 4) point out, rural areas contribute many things to the nation, including (1) food secu rity, (2) a sense of land stewardship that protects natural resources, (3) a value sy stem connected to both the land and human relationship, and (4) protection of diversity ( p. 15). Therefore, it is important to rural people, and as an aspect of society itself, for rural communities to continue to fight and become viable and successful entities.

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12 Figure 1-1. Path Model Depicting Proposed Relationships among Sense of Community, Community Leadership, Social Capital, and Openness to Change. Dependent Variable Openness to Change (Community Vision) Intervening Variable Social Capital Independent Variable Community Leadership Independent Variable Sense of Community 1. Belonging 2. Fulfillment of Needs 3. Influence 4. Shared Emotional Connection

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13 So how do we discern viable, successful co mmunities? Within this study, a viable community demonstrated success in several ar eas across the community (see Table 3-1). Still, regardless if a community is successful in todays world what will this community look like after change? Many of Floridas rural areas have the unique problem of dealing with large influxes of people, rather than the outward migration with which many rural communities in the Midwest and other areas ar e concerned. This fits exceptionally well into the context of this study, as changes in a communitys composition affect not only the social structure of the group, but u ltimately the social capital and community leadership, as well. As Wilkinson (1991) shar es, community leaders have a direct impact on the life and well-being of their community. Furthermore, these leaders fill salient roles in community actions, many worki ng to develop the common good of their community. Wilkinson cons iders this community development a component of community change. Therefore viable communiti es may not only have effective, efficient leaders, but it is these same leaders who also work towards a purpose that is positive for community members that the purpose expresse s what the actors believe to be a way of improving their lives (Wilkinson, 1991, p. 87). Bu t how is the leadership structure of a community affected by new individuals? And how is the social capital of a community affected through constant change? What about viability? Sure, some rural communities are particularly viable at one point in time, but how about after significant change? Finally, if the social capital transforms as th e number of new individuals rises, how do we identify new, effective leaders influential entities to lead us back to community success?

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14 It has been suggested that a key compone nt leading toward successful community function is the presence of active and effective community leadership. Through investigation and exploration of the different factors that shape successful communities, the linkages between social capital and co mmunity activity (and ultimately, community change), and how the overall process is aff ected through efficient community leadership, ideally a clearer picture can be drawn regard ing the functioning of viable communities. These aspects will allow more specific and e ffectual state and national policies to be designed, which in turn will contribute furt her to the success of rural communities. Additionally, curriculum stressi ng the successful processes and roles found within viable communities could be developed for use in other, less flourishing communities. Flora and Flora (2004) sum it up well: the rural experience is the sum of group responses to both political constraints and individual choice. People can make a difference, either by influencing the broader policy agenda that constrains them or by maki ng choices within the policy framework. We are not just victims of society or pa ssive consumers of broader national change. The choices rural people make affect the direction change takes in their communities. (pp. 16-17) People can make a difference. Whether thes e people are community members, leaders or extraneous individuals who occasionally interact in rural communities, it is necessary that more be understood about rural communities. If not, the future for rural communities may be dramatically shortened and th ere may be no rural communities to study tomorrow. Limitations of the Study As with any type of primarily qual itative research, the purpose is not generalizability over a large popul ation, but to obtain rich and detailed data to describe a

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15 situation. As such, the generalizability of th is study is limited to the populations studied. Still, the following fact ors should be considered: While qualitative research provides data w ith significant breadth and depth, it may lack the preciseness of quantitative data. Qualitative research, by definition, is used to produce a wealth of information about a small number of cases (Patton, 2002). This increases the depth of understanding within the cases studied the driving force behind this study. Research through on-site interviews was undertaken for the depth and breadth of information. Steps identified by Patton (2002) and Lincoln and Guba (1985) were taken to minimize researcher bias within data collection, interp retation and analysis including Subjective or sampling bias of the re ported findings may affect research generalizability. Social pressure may cause the halo effect from participants who want to provide go od data. Additionally, there may be subjective bias from the researcher re garding how the data were interpreted, which in turn may influence the results. As the researcher, being aware and sensitive to this situation can help alleviate this problem. Each step of the research process was documented through using an audit trail.1 This also allowed for re plication of the research. The investigator relied on the regula r help and advice of outside sources throughout the process in order to valid ate the steps taken and conclusions drawn. Individuals who provided advice we re graduate assistants and faculty members of the University of Florida s Department of Agricultural Education and Communication. As this study was qualitative in nature results and conclusions are meant to be suggestive rather than definitive in nature. Qualitative research is meant to provide rich, in-depth data as opposed to the numerically based, more precise data available th rough quantitative measures. Participants were selected according to the reputational, behavioral and snowball approaches. While these approaches were determined to be the most effective for the purposes of this study, th ere are issues linked to these approaches. The need for the researcher to identify a monolithic pow er structure, potential inaccuracies in respondent perceptions, and disagreement on individual interpre tation contribute to the problems behind this a pproach (Bonjean, 1963). Stil l, the leaders action and position often have a direct link to his/he r reputation and succ ess as a leader. Furthermore, the behavioral approach allo ws those experts within the community to 1 Audit trail : a step-by-step record by which da ta can be traced to its source.

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16 identify individuals whom they know to be actors and leaders within the community information difficult to get a nother way. As affirmed by Preston and Guseman (1979), within smaller, rela tively independent and homogeneous communities, using any of the three meas ures mentioned (action, reputation or position) to designate community leader s will serve to converge upon the same grouping. Summary Rural communities make up an important aspect of American society. For many individuals, communities provide a unique culture, as well as opportunities for employment, social interaction, and leadersh ip possibilities a wa y of life. More holistically, rural areas provide food, natura l resources, and a unique value system, as well as numerous other things, to the Ameri can (and world) population (Flora & Flora, 2004). However, change is on the horizon for rural communities. How communities deal with and work through change continues to play an important role in the future of rural communities. Through this study a clearer pi cture should be discerned of how rural communities operate, interact and succeed. The various factors that shape successful rural communities, linkages between social capital and community activity, and how the overall community process is affected by lead ership will all be explored with an end result of a more complete illustration of two of todays viab le rural communities. Ideally, this information will allow for more specific and effectual state and national policies to be designed, which could contribute further to the success of rural places. Additionally, curriculum stressing the successful proc esses and roles found within viable communities could be deve loped for use in other, less thriving communities. Through combining what is currently known about communities, leadership and social action with the information found in the study, a variety of training courses or seminars on various topics could be developed ev erything from leadership to

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17 community development to network building. With the help of C ooperative Extension, these curricula and programs integrating leadership and co mmunity development can be efficiently introduced into rural communities. As society continues to advance, more and more communities need leaders who are able to fit it all together. How to effec tively do this within rural communities is a challenge for both the community members and leaders. Through the detailed data garnered from action-oriented communities who are successfully meeting many of their challenges, the researcher argues other communities could use this information as an important community development com ponent for a more viable future.

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18 CHAPTER 2 CONCEPTUAL AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK The association among rural community, l eadership and community action is one that has served as the basis for rural devel opment policy in the United States over the past several decades. Proponents of rural development at both the state and federal levels argue that community action and community le adership must be at the forefront of effective programs to address rural problem s (Wilkinson, 1991, p. ix). Within todays communities, it is particularly important to r ecognize the essential roles local leaders and associations must play in th e process of community developm ent. Effective leadership within todays rural communities is needed not only to address complex problems, but also to assert successful community acti on, encourage social well-being, and improve community viability. But how do you define effective leadersh ip within a rural community? Moreover, does the effectivene ss of leadership within rural communities directly affect the success or d ecline of the community itself? Finally, if leadership does indeed impact community viability, what impli cations does this have for rural leadership development? And how are all of these vari ables affected by change? These questions are not necessarily easy to anal yze or comprehend, but need to be addressed nonetheless. As society changes, so must communities. The more we know about the leadership processes, interactions and roles that o ccur within todays viable communities, the brighter the future will be for tomorrows ru ral communities. To begin illustrating the ties among rural, community, leadership and thei r respective integration, we first need to focus on what other theorists and scientists have offered.

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19 Conceptual Framework Rural Community The rural community and its connection to country life ha s historically been the foundation from which this country has grown. Until recently, the majority of the United States population inhabited rura l areas, and as such, rural life developed into its own culture and way of life. A primary founda tional study regarding rural communities and country life within the United States was President Theodor e Roosevelts Country Life Commission, (1908-1911). This commission was initiated to examine the conditions of farming life in the country and the major proble ms associated with this area of society. The major findings included not only natural re source issues such as soil depletion and monopolization of rivers and forests, but also su ch leadership issues as a lack of training for country life within the schools and an overa ll lack of good rural lead ership. As far as the researchers were concerned, the solutions to rural problems were seen as educational matters (Wunderlich, 2002). The heir to this commission was the Amer ican Country Life Association (ACLA), which was formed by Kenyon Butterfield in 191 9. The ACLA was educator created and led, and even though education itself was take n in a different direction due to the increasing industrialization and urbanization of the country, th e concerns and ideals of the ACLA can be seen as a part of environm ental, sustainable agriculture and rural life organizations today. Important to this st udy and a continuing theme of the ACLA was using community as a way of adding a soci al dimension to the economic policies and development within agricu lture (Wunderlich, 2002). The definition of community can be a co mplex and elusive one. Throughout the research literature, there have been hundred s of published definitions, with some of the

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20 earliest beginning in the 1920s. Pioneeri ng definitions within community include Gillettes (as cited in Hillery, 1955) illustration of the community as it coincides with society, city village and neighborhood and McClenahans (1925) classification of community into six categories: 1) a social unit in a local territory, 2) an ecological unit, 3) a legal, administrative or politic al unit, 4) equal to society, 5) an ideal or mental unity, and 6) a process. However, problems with each of these designations include vagueness and a lack of mutual exclusivity. Hillery took a slightly different approach and delineated community definitions into two groups, generic community and ru ral community. Definitions were further categorized according to sub-classificatio ns of self-sufficiency, common life, consciousness of kind, possession of common ends, and locality group (Hillery, 1955). MacIver and Page (1949) offer a somewhat less categorical, but more descriptive definition: Wherever the member of any group, regardless of size, live together in such a way that they share the basi c conditions of a common lif e, this should be called a community. In addition, the community is an area of common living common living with an awareness of shar ing a way of life as well as common land. Nelson (1948) includes sense of belonging within his defini tion of community, or a group of people who live within a certain area who have a sense of belonging as well as organized relationships through which common interests are pursued. All of these definitions illustrate that while the term community appe ars to be well-defined, as Hillery (1955) asserts, those within a discipline cannot always agree on the nature of the phenomena they investigate.

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21 Wilkinson (1986; 1991) defines community mo re generally, as a specific type of terrestrial or social environment. For the pur poses of this study, th ere are three elements that define and provide the basis with which to measure the presence of community within a populace: (a) a local ecology, (b) sufficient structures to meet the needs and common interests of the people, and (c) a field of community actions (Kaufman, 1959; Wilkinson, 1986). The first of these is the ex istence of a local eco logy, or a collective organization where people can meet their daily needs. Secondly, a community must have sufficient structures like facili ties, organizations, and agencies to meet daily needs as well as convey the common interests of individuals. This illustrates th e community within a more holistic arrangement than a neighbor hood or area where some common social institutions may be absent. The final elem ent is that a community should include a domain of community actions or colle ctive efforts to solve local problems and collective expressions of local identity and solidarity (Wilkinson, 1986, p. 3). All of these elements come together to form th e phenomena of community as defined within this study. Community not only serves as the smallest and most comprehensive social unit one can experience, but also creates a social bond among individuals. Furthermore, studies have indicated community contributes to the level of achieveme nt of common goals among individuals, as well as influencing so cial well-being (Wilkinson, 1986). All of these aspects illustrate the importance for defining community and encouraging community development. Community Structure The term American community conjures up strikingly romantic notions for many individuals. Mental pictures of Main Street with cobbles tone walkways, rolling farmland

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22 and brick red barns, and white clapboard houses with picket fences are all likely depictions of the American community in de finition. However, tryi ng to devise a rigid definition for the same term is not as elem entary. Functionally speaking, one may think of communities as clusters of people living in close proxim ity, in a specific area where local stores and services are provided for the sustenance of the people. Warren (1972) defines the American community according to various criteria with which they are characterized: a specific population, living within a specific ge ographic area, amongst whom there are present shared institutions a nd values and significant social interaction (p. 2). In a study that focused on the speci fic areas within a co mmunity, Sanderson (as cited in Warren, 1972) discovered that when he delineated different service areas (i.e. grocery, church, high school, etc.) the lines enclosing them nearly coincided. It demonstrated that what was ones community for one purpose remained ones community for another. This illustration led to Sandersons (as cited in Warren, 1972) applied definition of community as an asso ciation maintained between the people, and between their institutions, in a local area in wh ich they live on dispersed farmsteads and in a village which is the center of their common activities (p. 4). This definition is hardly what commun ity is customarily defined as today. Throughout the years, changes and advancem ents in society have redefined how individuals within a community relate with each other and with those from outside the community. A major change has occurred in th e increase of specialization of labor, both within and between communities. Similarl y, a development of differential interests among local people has moved individuals to associate more on the basis of these specialized interests, than with those with whom they reside (Warren, 1972). Change has

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23 also occurred within comm unity governance and decision-making. As Coleman (1988) notes, the change in American society within the structure of interaction from personal and local to impersonal and national also affected the communitys structure of responsibility, moving it from local to national. Therefore, while these changes indicate an increase and strengthening in external tie s, it also means the local community operates under less and less autonomy. Even though the American community has undergone considerable change since many of its inaugural definitions, there are still aspects that ho ld true for todays definition. The designation of community still implies something psychological shared interests, characteristics and associ ations, and geographical a specific area in which people are clustered (Warren, 1972). So ciologically, it combines both of these facets into something that is still viable, as well as serving an important role within society today. Indeed, with all the challenges in clea rly defining community itself, it seems useless to try and define it with in this study. However, the fact remains that regardless of the difficulty of transferring it to paper, commun ity as an entity is still alive and well. As Warren (1972) shares, people are significantly affected by those around them, and living together in close physical proxi mity requires social structures and functions that sustain life and provide needed satisfa ction. Community individuals share a common interest in local institutions, schools, stores, sources of employment and other services. The intertwining of peoples lives is an important social re ality, and one which plays an integral role within this study.

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24 Community Model There are several aspects which, when inte grated, define community as a social entity. One of these aspects is characterized by the daily activities that go on within and between communities. Specifically, within a community individual social activities are organized into broader activities in order to allow individuals the daily access necessary for day-to-day living. Warren (197 2) labels these social activ ities as functions within the community, which can then be pa ralleled to the social fields in which they are applied. These functions are Production-distribution-consumption is the local participation of those involved in the process of producing, distributing, and consuming goods and services needed within the immediate locality. Entreprene urs, CEOs, head managers and other high-ranking business officials make up th e leaders within the social field of economics. (Economics) Socialization is the process by which society transmits knowledge, values and behavior patterns from one generation to the ne xt. School boards, superintendents, principals, and teachers play a large role in the leadership within the educational social field. (Education) Social control is how an entity influences its peop le toward conformity with its norms. This is embodied within the social field of government, and leaders within this area include county/city commission boards, c ounty administrator, mayor, police chief and other elected and appoint ed officials. (Government) Social participation identifies how a community provides access to social participation. Religion is most often equated with th is field within society, but voluntary organizations are also included within this distinction. Leadership within this field is provided by the respective c hurch ministers, priests, a nd lay officials, as well as the leaders within local organizations such as the Rotary clubs, Kiwanis clubs, the Grange, etc. (Religion) Mutual support illustrates how a comm unity provides care in a time of sickness, the exchange of labor, or helping out families in economic distress outlines this community function. Traditionally, this aspect of community was taken on by family or kin; however, speci alization of this function has allowed those not close to family to take advantage of this function within the community. Local doctors, insurance agents, local welfare heads, and ot hers within the social field of health and family provide leadership w ithin this area. (Health/Family)

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25 More recently, SHEEEP factors have been introduced as a similar collection of factors that illustrate the pr imary social fields within a community (Seevers, Graham, Gamon, & Conklin, 1997). Used primarily by extension programmers and educators, SHEEEP is an acronym for of si x factors, each of which repr esents a different aspect of the community. These factors are Social includes demographic characteristics, and how people interact within a community. Community and cultural characte ristics, as well as trends within society are included in th is factor. (Religion) Historical includes previously conducted Extens ion programs, the results of these programs, and how people have interacted in the past. This factor is clearly illustrated from the viewpoint of Extensi on, however community history does play a key role in where the community is at today. (no parallel) Economic includes economic factors that can aff ect the communitys profitability, as well as their viability for the future. Aspects such as average household income, the economic base, how local income compares nationally, and the major agricultural and service produc ts created all play into the economic base within a community. (Economics) Educational includes sharing applicab le knowledge and valuable technical instruction wherever it is needed. From this viewpoi nt, important aspects include the overall educational attainment within the population, educational institutions which exist in the area, programming and support provide d and the value placed upon furthering education by the community. (Education) Emotional includes the emotional and mental we ll-being of the population, as well as their families. Emotional factors include the needs of the community, from mental to physical health, community welfare, and healthy and successful interpersonal interaction. (Family/Health) Political includes the structures and leadership provided in order for people to solve problems, address issues, and overall live in a semblance of societal order. Political influences may come from lo cal city and county commissioners, police chiefs or area legislators, or may come from the stat e or even national sector. (Government) The final function that characterizes comm unities today regards the environment. Defining the environment as a so cial field within the community is relatively new, and therefore not included in either of the aforem entioned typologies. A result of the rapid

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26 innovation of technology and soci etal progress, the preserva tion of land and the natural environment within and surrounding various co mmunities has become very important to preserving their way of life. As a result, t hose who are interested in preserving land and the natural environment around them have re cently become very strong within some community structures. In more and more in stances, it is becoming the responsibility of the community to guide local businesses, or ganizations and indivi duals toward specific actions in order to preserve nature an d the environment surrounding them. This environmental social field is primarily lead by local conservationi sts, forest rangers, agronomists and others who focus on pres erving the environment; however in some communities local environmenta l activists also share lead ership responsibilities. By outlining the specific functions and l eaders found in social fields within a community, it is the researche rs intention to illustrate the diverse body of leadership available and present within any community. It is effective leadership within these diverse fields that assists in making a community more ac tive and viable. Although each of these functions have locality relevance, this does not mean that the community exercises complete control over any single func tion. On the contrary, it is necessary for locally based businesses, schools, and voluntar y organizations to have strong ties outside of the community in order to successfully perform these functions effectively at the community level (Warren, 1972). Still, it is these functions that characterize community on a locality basis. For the purposes of this study, samples will be taken from each of the following fields: economics, education, government, religion, health/family and environment (see Figure 2-1). Ideally, by ta king a stratified sample involving each of

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27 these social fields, leaders from their respectiv e social fields will mo re clearly illustrate the community as a whole. Social Fields Economics Defined by economic factors that can affect the communitys profitability, as well as their viab ility for the future. Examples include average household income, the economic base, how local income compares nationally, and other major agricultural and service products created, which contribute to the communitys economic base. Education Defined by sharing applicable knowledge and valuable technical instruction wherever it is neede d. Examples include the overall educational attainment within the population, educational institutions that exist in th e area (high schools, community colleges), programming and support provided and the value placed upon furthering education by the community. Government Defined by the structures and l eadership provided in order for people to solve problems, address issues, and generally live in a semblance of societal order. Examples include political influences from local city and county commissioners, police chiefs or area legislators, or political suggestions or decisions from the state or national sector. Religion/Social Participation Defined by how a community pr ovides access to social participation. Religion is most of ten equated with this field within society, but voluntary or ganizations are also included within this distinction. Examples include lead ers such as ministers, priests, and Rotary or Kiwanis club officer s. Also included are other voluntary organizations within the community, interaction undertaken for the social good and social action. Health/Family Defined by the emotional and mental well-being of the population, as well as their families. Emotional factors include the needs of the community, from mental to physic al health, community welfare, and healthy and successful interpersonal interaction. (Figure 2.1 continues.) Figure 2-1. Community Model.

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28 Environment Defined by groups or processes concerned with helping the community to guide local businesse s, organizations and individuals toward specific actions in order to preserve nature and the environment surrounding them. Examples include local conservationists, forest rangers agronomists, activists and preservation efforts undertaken by other various organizations. Figure 2-1. Continued. The Community Field An Interactive Approach Several researchers (Kaufman, 1959; Luloff & Wilkinson, 1979; Wilkinson, 1991) have approached the community as an inter action field an aspect of society where emphasis is placed upon interaction occurri ng within the community, and the normative structures are considered part of the background (Luloff & Wi lkinson, 1979). Within this definition, the community field is an inter action process where actions are coordinated locally, and social interaction is the key ingredient. According to Wilkinson (1991), social interaction describes a territory as co mmunity locale, provides specific associations that comprise local society, gives structur e and direction to processes of community action, and is a prime source of community id entity. Simply stated, the substance of community can be defined by social interaction. Another aspect of the community as an interaction field is the emergent properties defined through the process. Th e structure of the relationships among the actors in a community action process is seen as having properties which emerge from community interactions rather than just to be given normative expectations. As individuals develop relationshi ps with one another among speci fic interactions, they also develop relationships with others in general (Wilkinson, 1991, p. 14). These

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29 relationships give rise to an individuals self awareness in lig ht of recognition of the role an individual plays within the interaction. Knowledge and improvement in ones self -awareness often cont ributes to improved individual well-being, as well as social and ecological well-being. Each of these three concepts signifies similar events and processes at different levels of analysis. Individual well-being is necessary for social well-being, and is affected by private experiences in intimate relations (Wilkinson, 1991). Social we ll-being is generally defined outside the scope of these experiences, even though it is operationalized thr ough individuals, social well-being can be improved through activities such as economic development, service development or other forms of social planning. Social Capital Social capital plays a vital role within any community. As Wilkinson (1991) asserts, communities are created through social interaction. Social relationships within the community provide the link between i ndividuals and the mo re diffused social structure, which in turn helps community members access scarce resources (Hofferth & Iceland, 1998). Every individua l constructs the personal networks in which we live; some of these networks are developed th roughout childhood and are lost or maintained into adulthood, while other networks develop ov er time, as the result of an association through work, school, or church. Regardless of the various networks one develops and maintains, individuals build their stock in social capital by investing in interpersonal relationships (Hofferth & Iceland, 1998, p. 576). The concept of social capital has been ve ry popular recently, in lay circles as well as in academia. There are several different pe rspectives regarding social capital, with one

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30 of the first contemporary analyses of social capital provided by Pie rre Bourdieu (1986), who described it as . the aggregate of the actual and po tential resources wh ich are linked to possession of a durable network of more or less institutionalized relationships of mutual acquaintance and recognition or in other words, to membership in a group which provides each of its members with the backing of the collectivity-owned capital. (pp. 248-249) He went as far as to say that fundamentall y, social capital could be broken down into two elements: the social relationship that allo ws access to the scarce resources, and the amount and quality of the resources. Thr ough social capital, access can be gained to various economic and cultural resources, including embodied a nd institutionalized cultural capital (Portes, 1998). Coleman (1988) takes a very similar appro ach to the concept, by defining social capital from a rationalchoices perspective: If we begin with a theory of rational action, in which each actor has control over certain resources and interests in certain resources and events, then social capital constitutes a particular kind of resource avai lable to an actor. . .Unlike the other forms of capital, social capital inheres in the structure of relations between actors and among actors. (p. S98) Coleman claims social capital is a variety of individuals that have two elements in common they all make up some aspect of a social structure, and they facilitate individual actions of people within the st ructure (Portes, 1998). While Colemans definition of social capital was vague and in some cases contradictor y, he did succeed in introducing and bringing the con cept visibility particularly to American sociologists. After Bordieu (1986) and Coleman (1988), other researchers have analyzed and shared their definitions of social capital. W.E. Baker described it as a resource derived from social structures used to pursue individual interests. In 1992, Schiff expanded the definition to include elements within a social structure that affect s relations among people

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31 and are inputs of the producti on or utility function. More directly, Burt (as cited in Portes, 1998) illustrates social capital as colleagues and more ge neral contacts through whom you have opportunities to use your financial and human capital. Perhaps one of the most simplistic defi nitions of social capital comes from Cartwright and Gallagher (2002) who classify it as pertaining to human networks, whether that be one or many. Often these re lationships are charac terized by customs or institutions, and are typically based upon trust or expectatio ns of reciprocity. This definition aligns with excha nge theorists such as Blau (1964) or Homans (1950), where reciprocity transacti ons are expected implicitly as part of the social relationship. Flora (1998) believes that social capital can be divided into two perspectives rational choice and embeddedness. The rational choice perspective views social capital as social networks rooted in obligations be tween individuals based on self-interest. A direct function of this persp ective includes reciprocity tran sactions or th e expectation that each action of giving will be reciprocat ed. In the rural sociologist tradition, the embeddedness perspective focuses on social beha vior, or more specifically that social capital is embedded within soci al structure (Flora, 1998). Imp licit in this perspective is the belief that community members are e xpected to contribute to the group while receiving benefits. Ironically, unlike the so cial exchange theory of Blau (1964) and Homans (1950), norms of indivi dual reciprocity are encouraged by such interactions of contributing to the common good and therefor e, reciprocity tr ansactions are not required or expected (Flora, 1998). Simply st ated, social capital is the relationships and networks within a social structure where individuals contribute to the common good. This will be the definition used for the purposes of this study.

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32 The importance of social capital lies with in the structure an individuals networks and relationships, not in bank accounts (ec onomic capital) or individual knowledge (human capital). To actually possess social capital, one must develop and sustain interpersonal relationships w ith others and therein lies the actual source of his advantage. By aligning oneself with varied and diverse relations hips, the individual opens himself up to a wider variety of networ ks, thereby strengthening community social capital. As Woolcock (1998) suggests, for social capital to be useful in micro situations (at the community level), it must include tw o different dimensions integration and linkage. Woolcock goes on to outline integrat ion as intracommunity ties, while linkage is those networks outside of the community. For social capital to operate effectively within community situations, it is important th at each of these facets be present. Psychological Sense of Community An important and often overlooked as pect within todays communities, psychological sense of community is a term st rongly tied to the definition of community itself. As we have already outlined within this essay, Wilkinsons (1991) definition of community thoroughly outlines the geographical and terrestrial notion of community. However, as Gusfield (1975) notes, community can be defined in another manner from a relational aspect that is concerned with the quality of character of human relationship without reference to locality. While these terminologies need not be mutually exclusive, Durkheim (1964) notes that often, modern society develops community around mutual interest s and skills rather than loca lity. This illustrates the need to address the relational aspect of community as an im portant factor within the study of rural communities as psychological sense of community.

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33 Historically, sense of community has had a rural association, linked with community activities such as barn raisi ngs, quilting bees, and where merchant and consumer (as well as everyone else in the co mmunity) were on a first name basis (Glynn, 1981). This sentiment existed within towns a nd villages as a necessary part of life, and led to other common rural community asp ects such as shared responsibilities, interdependence and face-to-face relationships. Originally, while some theorists ascribed to the thought that true psychological sense of community was not consciously maintained within these communities (Goode, 1957; Nisbet, 1967), others like Tonnies (1957) and Kitto (1951) felt sense of community had been present from the earliest Greek communities, and was maintained through loya lty, commitment and primary interactions among people. It was here where Tonnies (1957) extended these qualities by linking them directly with gemeinschaft and gesellschaft Other theorists and researchers have studi ed aspects relating to changing sense of community, as well. Tonnies (1957) began by remarking on the evolution of the rural communities based on gemeinschaft principles moving into those based more upon gesellschaft philosophies. Several years later, Durkheim (1964) noticed growing changes in the nature of community relationships from being based upon shared interests to relationships being based upon functional intere sts and impersonalization. These studies, along with several others, led to the c onjecture in the early 1970s that many communities were moving toward a declining sense of community, particularly with studies illustrating aspects such as loneliness, alienation and not belonging. It seemed as if declining sense of community had beco me a trend in modern society (Glynn, 1981).

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34 While the theory of declining sense of co mmunity is still of concern to todays sociologists and researchers, other aspects re garding this variable have taken center stage its relationship within todays rural comm unities, its presence within communities of varied definitions, and clarification of the basic constructs involved. Prezza and Costantini (1998) explored the relationships between sense of community and life satisfaction, self-esteem, perceived social support and satisfact ion with community services in communities of different sizes. Th eir results confirmed not only that sense of community and life satisfacti on was higher in smaller comm unities, but it was only in these same small communities where life satisf action showed a relationship with sense of community. There was no significant relati onship found within the urban communities. Obst, Smith, and Zinkiewcz (2002) also f ound an association between sense of community in rural and urban areas; rural participants displa yed higher sense of community than their urban counterparts, and were more likely to be involved in their community. Small, rural communities are not the only environments where sense of community has been considered. Studied communities include both geographic communities as well as social communities of interest, and range from local neighborhoods (Riger & Lavrakas, 1981) to international communities of shared interest (Obst, Zinkiewcz, & Smith, 2002), to rural Israeli villages (Glynn, 1981). Through all of these studies, it has been determined that psychological sense of community does exist and plays a notable role within communities, regardless of the size or defined sense of community. Todays fundamental research arguably be gins with Glynn (1981) who provided us with one of the most essential efforts on psychological sense of community, based upon

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35 work done by Hillery (1955) several decades earlier. Glynn (1981) delved into three different communities, and hypothesized th at residents of th e Israeli kibbutz1 would show greater sense of community than the residents of the other two Maryland communities. Results confirmed these predictions, with highe r real levels of se nse of community found in the kibbutz than in the American co mmunities. Glynn identified the strongest predictors of psychological sense of commun ity as, 1) expected length of community residency, 2) satisfaction with the commun ity, and 3) the number of neighbors an individual could name by first name. Furt hermore, he also found a positive relationship linking sense of community with an individuals ability to function competently in the community. McMillan and Chavis (1986) further built on Glynns (1981) research through developing a working definition and constructs used to characterize psychological sense of community. The definition of sense of community as we use it today was developed by McMillan (1986) and states, Sense of comm unity is a feeling that members have of belonging, a feeling that members matter to one another and to the group, and a shared faith that members needs will be met through their commitment to be together (p. 9). Furthermore, this term breaks down into four defining constructs membership, influence, integration and fulfillment of needs, and shared emotional connection. Specifically, membership is the sense of a sh ared personal relatedne ss, or a feeling of belonging. Influence involves a sense of mattering, of feeling like you can make a difference within a group, and of the group making a difference to its members. The 1 Kibbutz : a nearly self-sufficient village in Israel with its own internal governing structure. Most work at tasks requiring cooperative effort, including producing goods and food, and reclaiming arable land. Culture is highly centralized, with meals taken in a main dining hall, numerous group activities and many opportunities for informal interaction.

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36 third construct is integration and fulfillment of needs, or more simply, reinforcement. This construct is defined by the feeling th at members needs ma y be met through the resources available through group membersh ip. Shared emotional connection was identified as the fourth and final construc t outlining sense of community. This is a construct based on the belief that members have shared and will share common history, experiences and time together. An illustration of this is what you see on someones face as they talk about their to wn, rural community, or particularly sentimental place (McMillan & Chavis, 1986). Each of these elem ents assist in evalua ting an individuals sense of community, and are explained more thoroughly within the theoretical framework. Leadership: Organizational versus Community Organizational leadership Leadership is a relatively new field in a world where other disciplines have been around for hundreds, sometimes thousands of year s. Historically, leadership has been important in leading groups to war, conquering and developing dynasties and founding new countries. Due to the competitiveness and limited resources within todays society, leadership continues to be a highly valued co mmodity. This applies to both organizations and communities alike. To provide a clear definition of leadership can be a challenge. Several approaches have been identified and addressed within Table 2-1.

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37 Table 2-1. Leadership Styles, Definitions and Characteristics. Leadership Style Definitions/Co mponents Key Characteristics Trait leadership Specific personality characteristics make certain people great leaders; Great man theories; individuals are born with these traits; clearly differentiated leaders from followers. Charismatic Organized Motivator Effective communicator Intelligent Self-confident, etc. Style leadership Focuses exclusively on what leaders do and how they act; based on Ohio State and Michigan studies, and Stogdills work; Blake and Mouton were also highly representative of this approach. Task behaviors : facilitate goal accomplishment Relationship behaviors : help followers feel comfortable with themselves Situational leadership Focuses on leadership as it applies within different situations stresses that leadership is comprised of a directive and supportive dimension, as well as a subordinate development level; developed by Hershey & Blanchard (1969); has been used extensively in organizational training and development. Four leadership styles: Directing (S1): high directive-low supportive style Coaching (S2): high directive-high supportive style Supporting (S3): high supportive-low directive style Delegating (S4): low supportive-low directive style Transactional leadership Leadership based on exchanges that occur between leaders and their followers; similar to exchange theory within sociology. Transaction driven leadership Flexibility Adaptability Relationships are dominated by costbenefits (Table 2.1 continues.)

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38 Table 2-1. Continued. Transformational leadership A process where an individual (leader) engages with others and creates a connection that raises the level of motivation and morality in both the leader and follower; encompasses both visionary and charismatic leadership; ideally the follower develops to their fullest potential. Bass & Avolio (1994): Idealized influence Inspirational motivation Intellectual stimulation Individualized consideration Kouzes & Posner (1995): Model the way Inspire a shared vision Challenge the process Enable others to act Encourage the heart. Servant leadership To be a servant first, then conscious choice brings one to aspire to lead. In the end, the servant leader will help followers to grow into their role as a servant leader. Ability for withdrawal & action Good listener Ability to persuade Practical goal setting Intuitive prescience Develop a vision SOURCES: Northouse, P. G. (2001). Leadership: Theory and Practice (Second ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership New York, NY: Harper & Row;.Greenleaf, R. K. (1996). On Becoming a Servant Leader D. M. Frick & L. C. Spears (Eds.). San Francisco, CA: JosseyBass Publications. Traditionally, within psychology, leadership has been defined as a specific trait, competency, or ability that an individual can possess. Still, even though this broad definition has been allowed and leadership co ntinues to be a strong area of development and research, the dimensions and definition of the concept remains unclear (Pfeffer, 1977). Furthermore, it is often difficult to se parate leadership from other processes of social influence (Bass, 1990; Pfeffer, 1977). Still, similarities among these definitions allow us to provide a rough scheme of cl assification (Bass, 1990, p. 11). Generally, leadership may be defined by the specific theory studied or under which the leader operates. According to Hersey, Blanchard a nd Johnson (2001), leader ship is the art of influencing an individual or gr oup, regardless of the rationale. Kouzes and Posner (1995)

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39 define leadership as the ability to mob ilize people towards a sh ared vision, while encouraging individual development in the pr ocess. Gardner (1990) cites leadership as the process of persuasion used by an indivi dual (leader) to encour age an individual or group to pursue objectives held by the leader. Basss (1990) definition is the one of the most comprehensive, and states Leadership has been conceived as the fo cus of group processe s, as a matter of personality, as a matter of inducing complian ce, as the exercise of influence, as particular behaviors, as a form of persua sion, as a power relation, as an instrument to achieve goals, as an effect of interac tion, as a differentiated role, as initiation of structure, and as many combinati ons of these definitions. (p. 11) Leadership has seen many paradigm shifts within its lifetime. One of the first approaches to leadership theory within the 20th century was trait leadership. An offshoot of early studies that focused on the qualities and characteris tics possessed by great social, political, and military leaders, these theories were often referred to as the great man theories. It was believed certain individua ls were born with specific traits that differentiated them from others, making them great leaders (Northouse, 2001). These theories have been questioned within the last several years due to th e lack of a universal list of leadership traits. As early as 1948, Stogdill could find no set of consistent traits that identified leaders, and therefore recon ceptualized leadership into an association between people in a social si tuation. Within recent years, there has been a reappearance of trait leadership to explain how traits influence leadership (Northouse, 2001). Due in part to the greater focus with in leadership on social influence and relationships, style leadership was introduced in the 1960s. Some of the salient studies within this area were the Ohio State studi es, the Michigan studies, and work done by Blake and Mouton (1964). Specifically, afte r trait leadership was dismissed as an unsatisfactory leadership theory base, research ers at the Ohio State University began to

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40 analyze how followers felt about their leader s (Bass, 1990). Results indicated two types of leadership behaviors to be most influe ntial on the leader-follower relationship: initiating structures and consid eration. Essentially, these factors translated into what these subordinates thought their leader s hould do successfully provide structure for constituents, and encourage them (Bass, 1990). At the same time, researchers at the University of Michigan took a slightly different approach when exploring leadership behavi or. In the Michigan studies, researchers focused on the impact of leader behavior on the performance of small groups (Bass, 1990). Results from these studies identifie d two different leadership behaviors employee orientation and production orientation. In close alignment with the Ohio State studies, employee orientation is similar to consideration (relationship-oriented leadership), while production orientation more closely parallels init iating structure (taskoriented leadership). Blake and Moutons Managerial (Leadership ) Grid (1964) is perhaps one of the best known results of the style leadership re search happening at this time. Blake and Mouton took their own research, and integrat ed it with the Ohio State and Michigan studies, to create this leadership theory. The Leadership Grid was intended to explain how leaders encourage their constituents to reach goals through two factors concern for production and concern for people. Concer n for production indicates how tasks are achieved, while concern for people illustrates how the leader develops and encourages the subordinate relations hip (Blake & Mouton, 1964). Unfortunately, each of these preceding theories make the argument there is one best style of leadership. In other words, there is one id eal style of leadership that

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41 maximizes production and profit, success and de velopment in all situations. Conversely, research subsequent to these studies have supported the idea there is no one best leadership style (Bass, 1990; Hersey et al., 2001; Kouzes & Posner, 1995; Northouse, 2001). Situational leadership was developed to characterize this very concept. The leadership style that is appropr iate with different individuals or groups is a function of the level of follower readiness a nd the leadership situation. Hersey and Blanchard designed a model with these parameters in mind, and intr oduced the Situational Leadership Model in 1969. The model links a leaders task and relati onship behavior with follower readiness. With the development of the Situational Lead ership Model, leadership theory finally began to recognize leader-followe r interaction as an important aspect of leadership theory (Hersey et al., 2001). The 1960s saw a shift in the focus of leader ship theory from trait leadership to something more dynamic. This shift into situational leadership and beyond placed the emphasis on the transaction or exchange between the leader and his constituents. Burns (1978) helped to define this new paradigm by comparing the exchanges of transactional and transformational leaders. Individually, tr ansactional leadership is defined through tangible compensation for a job well done. Conversely, transformational leadership relies on an individual tran scending their own self-interes t for the good of the group. As Burns (1978) states, transformational leadersh ip is more complex, but is also more potent. In order to operate successfully under transformational leadership, the leader must recognize an existing need or motive of a potential follower. This leads to the mutual development and stimulati on of both parties (Burns, 1978).

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42 Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the leadership paradigm again shifted to include transformational leadership. Kouzes and Po sner (1995) studied num erous examples of successful leaders, and noted that while e ach situation was unique, there were some common patterns of action. The researchers in ferred that leadership was not just about personality, but also include d practice. These common practices of action were integrated and developed into a model of lead ership, or the Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership. These practices are Model the Way Inspire a Shared Vision Challenge the Process Enable Other to Act Encourage the Heart Transformational leadership stresses that le adership is a relatio nship. According to Kouzes and Posner (1995), Leadership is a relationship between those who aspire to lead and those who choose to follow (p. 20). Today, leadership theory continues to divers ify as research takes the disciplines in many directions. Within organizational le adership situations, both situational and transformational leadership ar e still the preferred paradigm Tichy and Devanna (1986) state in todays industrial orga nization, transformational leader s are needed to take on the responsibility for revitalizing an organi zation through recognizing a need for revitalization, creating a new vision, and institutionalizing ch ange. Organizations need recurring change because continued success within the market requires keeping up with changing market conditions. Situational leader ship encourages many of the same aspects as transformational leadershi p, including effective communica tion, leader flexibility, and developing constituent commitment.

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43 Within the last decade, leaderships focu s has again shifted into a new direction. Steven Coveys notion of principle-centered leadership, Max DuPrees idea of artful practice, and Robert Greenleafs theory of s ervant leadership have all moved leadership into focusing on a leaders internal sources of inspiration or leading from within (Mirvis, 1997, p. 198). This paradigm shift, in essence, took transformational leadership one step further. As Gardner asserts, it is the particular burden of the leader to help individuals determine their pe rsonal, social, and moral identities (as cited in Mirvis, 1997, p. 198). Above all, servant le adership can do just that. Community leadership While leadership across any domain shares a few similarities, community leadership is distinctive, because leadersh ip within the community domain operates under a different structure or purpos e than organizations or specif ic individuals. What makes community leadership distinc tive is that community leader s cannot rely solely on power and formal authority to get things done. Instead, as Pigg (1999) conveys, community leaders must rely on networks and influence, and specifically the re lationships developed through extensive interacti ons within the community. This is classified by sociologists as the interactional approach, and specifically fo cuses on the relationships of individuals or groups involved in a sequence of action, often wi thin a particular context (Fanelli, 1956). The context of interest for this study is community, and there have been several sociological definitions outlined within this context. Wilkinson (1986) defines leadership as an action enacted by indivi duals who make specific and di stinctive contributions to community action. Bonjean (1963) equated reputation with leadership and defined leaders as the most powerful and influentia l members of the community. Angell (1951) illustrated leadership structure by identifying six different components of the interaction

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44 within community leadership: characteristics of leaders at the time of induction into leadership, representation of groups in th e population, degree to which the leadership group is in-grown, rela tion to the general population, re lations among leaders, and the technique of leadership. One of the most current definitions of community leadership comes from Goeppinger (2002) who views it as an interactive process between individuals within a common locale. In order to define leadership for relevan ce to this study, it is not important to look at the term from either a psychologist or soci ologist viewpoint, but as a function of both. Community leadership is not so much a situatio n or style of leadership, as it is a context under which leadership operates. Consequentl y, this context does not lend itself to just one leadership tradition. As Gibb (1948) rema rks, any personality traits prevalent in leaders may exist within indivi duals who never achieve leadersh ip status, due in part to a lack of interactional situa tion. By combining both the aforementioned psychological and sociological definitions of leadership, a more holistic definition of leadership can be devised. This combination approach is not a new arrangement. As far back at the late 1940s, Cecil Gibb at the University of Sydne y viewed leadership as a function of both the leaders traits and abilities, as well as the leadership structures within a specific situation. According to Gibb (1948), the three most important principles in defining leadership are 1. Relativity to the situ ation that there is a common problem and goal of the group; 2. Inclusive of working toward some objective goal; and 3. Being a process of mutual stimulatio n an interactive phenomenon where the attitudes, ideals, and aspirations of th e followers play an important role in determining the leader.

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45 To illustrate this more simply, Gibb (1948) asserts leadership is not only a function of the social situation and personality, but also these two interactions. Brown and Nylander (1998) agree with Gibb by clarifying that leadership is generally situational, and unfortunately, always more complex than monolithic appeal to personal attributes (p. 72). They go on to explain that a lthough leaders persona l attributes and competencies may influence the result of specific community projects, and situational theories may rationalize the context of inte ractions within community leadership, that effective and sustained rural community l eadership also depends on the perpetual organization of the community and its leadership structure (p.73). Rost (as cited in Pigg, 1999) exemplifies l eadership as a relati onship; an influence relationship among leaders and collaborators w ho intend real changes that reflect their mutual purposes (p. 199). The leadership de finition used for the purposes of this study is a simplified version of Rosts, introdu ced to us by Northouse (2001), and that is to influence people toward a s hared goal for action. It is important to understand the differences between this definition and other (o rganizational) leadership definitions. To begin with, leadership is not something to be associated with having control over others leadership is not what is done to followers. Furthermore, because this is an influence relationship that goes both ways, it is not a st atus assumed by one person, or the leader. What distinguishes leaders from followers is the power resources that are possessed by the leaders, which allows for the exercise of more influence than can be exercised by the followers (Pigg, 1999). These power resources include reputation, prestige, personality, purpose, status, content of the message, inte rpersonal and group sk ills, give-and-take

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46 behaviors, authority or lack of it, symbolic interaction, perception, motivation, gender, race, and religion, to name a few (Pigg, 1999). The ability of community leaders (and follo wers) to see one another as allies and collaborators with a mutual purpose is impor tant to effective community leadership. Moreover, the behaviors that dire ct credibility to this attit ude and establish trust in the relationship are just as impor tant in developing strong comm unity ties (Pigg, 1999). By developing credibility and trust, creati ng a common purpose or vision within the community will be accomplished much more smoothly. Similar to theories by Burns (1978) and Kouzes and Posner (1995), Pigg (19 99) contends that having a shared purpose or vision allows the followers to become more involved in reaching shared goals. For the leadership experience to be satisfying to followers and attract them to the relationship, there must be some value (motivation) in it for them. A shared purpose essentially the intersection of purposes between the leader and followers provides affirmation in the importance of individual purposes and beliefs. Finally, as additional diverse purposes are incorporated into the shared vision, the co mmunity itself grows and develops its own diversity. In order to reach shared goals for acti on, effective leaders need to initiate and sustain action within the community field. Within this study we will argue that an effective leader is one who takes action within a community, making the community more viable and as a result a more successful aspect of society. However, leader action and community action are both incredibly complex issues. Leader action The extent to which community exists in a specific locality is inferred from the actions taking place within the local setting, al ong with the leaders and groups associated

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47 with these actions. As Israel and Beaulieu (1990) phrase it, Actor s, associations, and actions the three elements of the intera ctional perspective provide the basis for assessing the degree to which community leader ship roles are being performed within the local arena and the relationships that might exist among the actions (p. 186). Within the community field, leaders activi ties and associations are less oriented toward the pursuit of individual interests, and aimed more towa rd the general needs and concerns of the community. Local activities with local reside nts as principal leader s or beneficiaries, where goals are those of the local residents, a nd with interests that ar e public in nature are the hallmark of community acti on (Israel & Beaulieu, 1990). Generalized/specific leadership within communities When assessing leadership within commun ities, roles are judged according to how they contribute to the building of the commun ity field. According to Israel and Beaulieu (1990), three elements comprise the leadership behavior of community actors. These are the degree to which the individual is i nvolved in various phases of a local action, the span of the persons participation in lo cal actions that addre ss distinct areas of interest, and the extent to which the individual is invol ved in actions that include a common set of actors who have a broad perspectiv e on the concerns of the community. These factors offer a basis for identifying a hi erarchy of leadership roles performed by individuals as part of comm unity actions. At one end of the continuum, individuals execute very specialized leadership roles in only a single phase of the action. These leaders are considered speciali zed community leaders and tend to carry out task-oriented leadership functions. In the opposite di rection, individuals are found who provide coordination and continuity to the community field thr ough extensive involvement in many phases of activities found in different soci al fields. These generalized leaders often

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48 perform structure-oriented leadership roles th at inevitability contribute to the emergence of the community field (Israel & Beaulieu, 1990). Both generalized and specialized leaders are necessary within communities in order to maintain community structure and perform collective action. Theoretical Framework The Community Field An Interactional Approach As the overarching theoretical compone nt which ties ever ything together, Wilkinsons (1991) community field theory focuses on social interaction as the fundamental component to community. Social interaction itself had its beginnings in Mead (1934) who defined it as mutual mindi ng. This process bu ilds a social bond of shared meaning, and subsequently affects soci al behaviors in signi ficant ways. One of the most significant ways is by affecting th e will of the individual. According to Toennies (1957) there are two type s of will the natural will ( Wesenwille ) and the rational will (Kurville). Each of these types of will occur in instances of social interaction, which is turn will a ffect society structure. The natural will is impulsive it pushes the individual to act without any de liberation. Gemeinschaft refers to those associations where Wesenwille is predominant. Conversely, the rational will is a result of deliberation and calculations. Gesellschaft applies to those associations where Kurville reigns predominant. It should be noted th at these are not disc rete groups within a community; these terms refer to specific asso ciations that may occur within all social interactions. Nonetheless, Gemeinschaft -like relationships (those characterized by mutual aid and helpfulness, such as the fam ily) are more likely to be developed within neighborhoods, villages and towns, while Gesellschaft -like relationships (those

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49 relationships undertaken solely for the potential benefit of th e individual) are more likely to occur within cities, the metropolis and the national cap ital (Poplin, 1972). Another aspect of community stressed within the community field theory is territory or place. Hiller (1941) asserts that community has all of the elements to be defined as a social group, but is differentiated from other gr oups by also being defined as a specific locality or area. This illustrates th e oft held approach of defining community as place (Kaufman, 1959; Wilkinson, 1970). Spec ifically, key inter actions within a community are those that express localityorientation (Wilkinson, 1991). This view, however, has had its share of opponents. Possi bly the most broadly endorsed argument is that interactions with people outside the comm unity have become routine. This has been caused by rapid innovation in communications, tr ansportation and other mechanisms that have allowed people to interact within a more globally based society. Nevertheless, even today most people still live and move and have most of their everyday life in local settlements (Wilkinson, 1991). This is true, regardless of the number of contacts made externally to the community. Thus, territory remains an important component in defining community, because as Wilkinson notes, a terrestrial community is still defined according to social interaction, not the opposite. Within the theory of the community field, Wilkinson also concentrates on the local society. Specifically, this is the organization of social institutions and associations that are the life of the population. Above all, ideal communities as local societies are completely integrated units a collection of activi ties and social structures through which a common life is organized. This aspect is usually examined from the local setting where people experience it as a part of their daily lives (Wilkinson, 1991). It should be noted

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50 that local society is not a wa y to hold inhabitants in and k eep others out; instead, it should be considered an open society, and have extensive ties to other communities, as well as society as a whole. Overall, Wilkinson (1991) views the community field from an interactional perspective. With the field concept, atte ntion is directed more toward the dynamic processes that affect community structure, rather than how community structure affects social processes. This translates into communities being defined as a dynamic field, instead of a system. In addition, the theory is more holistic than ju st the term community itself it includes terrestrial, local society, and soci al interaction components. Each of these aspects interact and un ite to form a holistic stru cture among interacting units (Wilkinson, 1991, p. 35). Players in the commun ity field include actors, associations, and activities directed towards specific intere sts, which can provide stimuli or motivation for social action. The difference lies in the fact that the community field cuts across specialized groups and interests; in this fiel d the interests tend to be generalized and intrinsic, due to the integrat ion and linkages between different social fields. Often, the generalized locality-oriented bond created as a community field is celebrated by the members as communion, and occurs where peop le live together and interact on local matters (Wilkinson, 1991). Social Capital Theory Social capital theory aligns well with the community field, because unlike other social fields, the community field focuses upon the general community interest, not one specific interest. One of the most simplistic de finitions of social capital is interacting in processes for the greater good. Within th e community field, for the greater good

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51 should be undertaken with the general commun ity interest in mind. Actions within this field serve to coordinate other action fields, a nd as a result organize th em all into a whole. To provide a foundation for this study, soci al capital will be illustrated and defined according to Weber. Termed enforceable trust by Portes and Sensenbrenner (1993), Webers classic distinction be tween formal and substantive rationality are the basis for his model of social capital. Formal rationali ty is defined through tr ansactions based upon collective norms and open exchange. C onversely, substantive rationality involves specific obligations within a monopoly that benefit a particular group. Simply stated, substantive rationality involve s collectively-defined goals fo r a specific group (within this study, this is the community) while formal ratio nality is more indi vidualistica lly bottomline oriented (Flora, 1998). Webers defin ition of social capital uses substantive rationality to illustrate the decision-making process when operating under social capital. It is important to point out that substantive rationality does not apply across all areas. This is not an indisputable truth. It applie s to social capital within the specific group involved, and may differ within other groups acco rding to other variables such as culture or communication networks. Social capital itself not only involves how decisions are made within a group, but more importantly the relationships developed wi thin the group. Social capitals value is inherently found within the strength and depth of relationships within the community. In the Weberian tradition, Portes and Sensenbrenner (1993) go on to say Social capital is generated by individua l members disciplined compliance with group expectations. However, the motivati ng force in this case is not value with good standing in a particular collectivit y. As with reciprocity exchanges, the predominant orientation is utilitarian, ex cept that the actors behavior is not oriented to a particular other but to th e web of social netw orks of the entire community. (p. 1325)

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52 By definition, social capital is found within th e relationships and soci al networks between leaders and individuals within the commun ity. How individuals interact and make decisions can affect the strength of social capital within the community. This is why it is important to realize the purpose behind commun ity-made actions and decisions. If these choices are not made with the common good in mind, relationships can break down and social capital within the community is lost. In order to operationally de fine social capital within this study, the term itself should to be broken down into measurable components. According to Kim and Schweitzer (1996) social capital is best summarized by Putnam, who defines social capital by the existence of a groups networks, norms and so cial trust that works toward coordination for mutual benefit. For them indicators of social capital include civil engagement and social connectedness. To measure this, the authors have broken down social capital into three factors norms, connection and trust. Specifically, norms include questions regarding sense of community, belonging and shared values; connection concerns the feeling of relating to people (or on the contrary, isolated); and trust relates to how much faith and trust indi viduals have in commun ity relationships. The Saguaro Seminar: Civic Engagement in America shared similar opinions as to the theoretical underpinnings of social cap ital, taking it a few steps further. The dimensions according to this group, who orig inated in the John F. Kennedy School of Government and devised the Social Capital Benchmark Survey, were similar to those previously mentioned, although more comprehensiv e. These dimensions are social trust, inter-racial trust, diversity of friendships conventional politics participation, protest politics participation, civic lead ership, associationa l involvement, informal socializing,

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53 giving and volunteering, faith-based engageme nt, and equality of civic engagement across the community (the Saguaro Seminar: Ci vic Engagement in Am erica). Several of these dimensions are irrelevant to the study at hand due to their racial and political perspective. However, several other dimensions such as the different aspects of trust and socialization (similar to the aforementioned connection) are reiterations of facets already discussed that help to create social capital w ithin communities. Therefore, the researcher identified three of the dimensions of social capital most appropriate to measure this variable in relationship to the study. These dimensions are trust, organizational involvement and community involvement. Servant Leadership Theory/Community Leadership Within the field of leadership, it is so metimes difficult to distinguish among approaches, concepts, theories and behaviors. This is due in part, to the great ambiguity that occurs when trying to pr ovide a clear, concise definiti on for leadership. As such, what is used within this study as basis for leadership theory really is a cross between an approach introduced by a noted leader and a theo ry used frequently today within different groups and organizations. Eith er way, Robert Greenleafs servant leadership most closely embodies how leadership often transpir es within the community field. It provides a human element towards leadership interact ion that is sometimes lost within other definitions. According to Robert Greenleaf (1996), servant leadership begins with an individual who wishes to serve. Specifically The servant-leader is servant first . . It begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve, to serve first Then conscious choice br ings one to aspire to leadThe difference manifests itself in the care taken by the servant first to make sure that other peoples highest-priority n eeds are being served. The best test, and the most difficult to administer is Do those served grow as persons? Do they, while being served, become healthier, wiser, freer more autonomous, more likely themselves to become servants? And, what is the effect on the least privileged in

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54 society, will they benefit or, at least, not be further depriv ed? (Greenleaf, 1996, pp. 1-2) Though Robert Greenleaf was really the fi rst to develop and coin the phrase servant leadership, James Alan Laub (2000) took this th eory a step further and applied it within organizations. More specifically, Laub consulted both the literature and a panel of experts in order to determine the major th eoretical underpinnings of servant leadership, eventually to develop an instrument that eff ectively tests for each of these components. Through this study, a new more operational de scription of servant leadership was developed: A new leadership is needed: leadership that is not trendy a nd transient, but a leadership that is rooted in our most ethical and mora l teaching; leadership that works because it is based upon how people n eed to be treated, motivated and led. (p. 4) When examining the comprehensive collection of literature regarding servant leadership principles, several famous lead ership theorists emerge Greenleaf, (Max) DuPree, Kouzes & Posner, (Stephen) Covey and others. This illustrates that in several aspects, servant leadership shares nume rous commonalities with other leadership theories, such as transformational leadership a nd charismatic leadershi p. In continuing to search through the numerous works regard ing servant leadership, several common characteristics are brought to light. Laub and his expert panel (through a Delphi study) clustered these common characteristics into si x components of servant leadership: values people, develops people, builds community, displays authenticity, provides leadership, and finally, shares leadershi p. Each of these identified components is comprised of groups of items placed into categories through shared commonalities. Beginning with the component of valuing pe ople, the three categories that comprise this component are believing in people, putti ng others first (before oneself) and being a

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55 receptive listener. Developing people is also comprised of three categories, including providing for the learning and growth of individuals, (develop ing individuals) by modeling appropriate behavior, and encouraging individuals. In addressing the building of community, the three categories are (bui lding community) by enhancing relationships, working collaboratively (through teamwork) and valuing the differences of others. The fourth component is displaying authenticity, and a servant leader should exemplify this through being open to being known (or transparent), bei ng an active learner, and maintaining personal integrity. A fifth com ponent of servant leadership is providing leadership; a servant leader can accomplis h this by envisioning the future, taking initiative, and clarifying goals for the group. The final component defined within servant leadership is sharing leadership. This is exemplified within only two categories: by sharing power (with community members or individuals) and by sh aring status (i.e., position, honor, and self promotion). Each of the components identified through this theory provide a foundation in order to opera tionally define and effectively test for servant leadership. As mentioned earlier, servant leadership by definition includes aspects of several types of leadership, includi ng transformational leadership (Kouzes & Posner, 1995). This occurs such that Greenleaf (1991) seeks to an swer the question if t hose served grow as persons, are they in the end more likely themse lves to serve. To lead with integrity, servant leaders need skills for withdrawal and action, liste ning and persuasion, practical goal setting and intuitive presence. It links th e for the greater good thesis of social capital, with the synergy of the community field.

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56 Within this study, the servant leadership components introduced to us by Laub (2000) have been moved out of the area of organizations, and into area of communities, therefore leading to community leadership. Many of the compone nts identified with servant leadership apply suitably to leadersh ip within the context of community. As aforementioned within the conceptual framew ork, community leadership is dependent not only on acts of leadership themselves, but on networks and influence, relationships, and other extensive interactions within the comm unity. It all comes back to the original precept of servant leadership service first, then leadership. W ithin communities it is important to serve the community first, and then you will be considered a leader by the same community in which you served. It is und er this context that the basic tenets of servant leadership will serve as comm unity leadership within this study. Psychological Sense of Community Theory The theory of Psychological Sense of Co mmunity begins with the focus on the relational aspect of community. This orig inates with Gusfield s (1975) distinction between the geographical and social classifi cations of community. The first and more traditional definition of community involves a terrestrial location (also mentioned in Wilkinsons definition of community), such as a neighborhood, town, or a city. The second definition concerns the more social, relational aspect of community and defines group associations according to mutual interest s, without reference to location (McMillan & Chavis, 1986). It is this definition th at forms the backbone of the theory of Psychological Sense of Community, formally defined by McMillan (Chavis, Hogge, & McMillan, 1986): Sense of community is a feeling that members have of belonging and being important to each other, and a shared faith that members needs will be met by their commitment to be together. (p.25)

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57 Specifically, there are four constructs n ecessary to this theory membership, influence, integration and fulfillment of needs, and shared emotional connection. Beginning with membership, this is the basic feeling of belong ing. It is a sense that one has the right to belong to a group because he/she has invested a part of themselves in the group. There are four attributes to this c onstruct, including boundari es, emotional safety, sense of belonging and personal investment. Boundaries provide the guidelines for membership in the group; within a comm unity, this may be operationalized through language, dress or ritual, and is illustrated by those who feel they belong and those who do not. Emotional safety can be paralleled to security, and can also be linked to physical and economic security. Sense of belonging is demonstrated through the feeling that one has a place in the group, a feeling of acceptan ce, and even a willingness to sacrifice for the group. Finally, personal investment is an important aspect of group membership; when individuals give something of themselv es, working toward this will contribute to the overall feeling one has earned a place with in the group. Consequently, membership within the group will be more meaningful and significant (McMillan & Chavis, 1986). The second construct, influence, is a r eciprocal concept. On one hand, for an individual to be attracted to a group, he/she must have some power or influence over the actions of the group. However, a cohesive group will also have some influence over its members. Influence also has four characte ristics important in defining the construct: (a) that members are most attracted to a community in which they feel they have power; (b) that a communitys in fluence on its members to conform is significantly related to the members sens e of community; (c) that the pressure toward conformity and uniformity comes from the need of individuals and the community for consensual validation, by which members achieve closeness; and (d) that a members influence on the community and the communitys influences on the member operate concurrently. (p.25) All of these characteristics wo rk together to determine who is a member and who is not.

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58 The third construct is integration and fulfillment of needs, or more simply, reinforcement. This construct is defined as a personal motivator, and can be illustrated by making the obvious connection that for any group to remain positive and cohesive, the individuals involved must be getting so mething out of the association the individual/group association must be rewarding for its members. Some effective reinforcers within communities are memb ership status, community success, or competence of other members. A particul arly strong and stable community has the ability to tie people together to meet othe rs needs while meeting their own (McMillan & Chavis, 1986). Shared emotional connection was identifie d as the fourth and final construct outlining sense of community. This is in some measure based on knowledge of a shared history and has the power to facilitate or hinder the strength of the community. This construct is defined as an affective com ponent of community because it is communities themselves that can offer members th e opportunities for positive interaction, opportunities for personal investment, and even the potential to sh are a strong spiritual bond with members. Important aspects of this construct are contact hypothesis, quality of interaction, closure to events shared valent event hypothe sis, effect of honor and humiliation, and spiritual bond (McMillan & Chavis, 1986). Each of these aspects contributes to the shared emotional connec tion community members feel, regardless of whether or not that community is confined to a terrestrial location. The interest in sense of community has elicited a diverse number of evaluation instruments, which is turn has been used to study a wide variety of communities. Groups such as religious communities, immigran t groups, residential neighborhoods, and

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59 students in collegiate communities have all b een addressed according to their sense of community (Long & Perkins, 2003). One of the most widely used, and one of the measures for this study, is the Sense of Community Index (SCI), developed in 1984 by David Chavis with the help of several othe rs (Long & Perkins, 2003). This index is an evaluation tool comprised of 12 Likert-type ite ms, and is used to assess the members psychological sense of community with regard to the four constructs aforementioned membership, influence, integration and fulfillment of needs, and shared emotional connection. The summative number expresse s the strength of the individuals psychological sense of community, from nominal to great. Summary Acknowledging the theoretical and conceptual underpinnings of this study provide the context under which the study was begun. Within any study of community, care must be taken to determine the most salient variable s to address the issue at hand. Within this study, the problem of interest is how does co mmunity leadership work together with sense of community to encourage social cap ital, and ultimately how do all of these variables work through change? To piece e ach of these variables together into a complete picture, strong theoretical framewor ks were introduced and described in detail. Community was defined as Wilkinson (1991) shares it with us, divided into three elements a locality, a local society, and a pr ocess of locality orient ed collective actions. The relational variable of psychological sense of community was introduced as illustrated by McMillan and Chavis (1986), who provided fo r us the social side of community one that classifies a community socially, accordi ng to associations of mutual interest, not location. The variable of community leader ship was developed from a compilation of

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60 servant leadership as introduced by Greenleaf (1990) and organizati onal leadership, as introduced by Laub (2000); and by finally placi ng the result into a community context. True community leadership has many importa nt components, not the least of which is developing relationships within the community. These relationships serve to add meaning to social capital the interveni ng variable of study. Social capital, as theoretically char acterized in the preceding paragra phs, is based upon Webers definition, working towards community action for the greater good. Within the community field, for the greater good should be undertaken with the general community interest in mind. Finally, taking this interest in mind is Wilkinsons Community Interaction Theory. Providing foundational support to the study, se veral researchers (Kaufman, 1959; Luloff & Wilkinson, 1979; Wilkinson, 1991) have appr oached the community as an interaction field an aspect of society where emphasi s is placed upon interaction occurring within the community, and the normative structures are considered part of the background (Luloff & Wilkinson, 1979). Thus community is looked upon not only as a shared locale among individuals, but a place where the inte raction process among community members takes center stage where social interaction is the key ingredient. Simply stated, the essence of community can be defined by social interaction. (The path model illustrating variable interaction can be found in Figure 2-2.) Each of the aforementioned concepts and theo ries work together to create a whole. While individual communities may be differen tiated by size, rural communities are often microcosms of their larger counterparts, suburbs and cities. Nonetheless, rural communities have their own problems and issues, unique to their size and structure. On a positive note, many rural communities also have relationships, trust and a sense of

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61 camaraderie that escapes many other individuals. It is of interest to this researcher to make the connections across the gamut; to ma p out similarities across the communities, as well as differences; to connect leadership and sense of community to social capital; to connect social capital to change; and ultimately to link it all together. For it is not the components by themselves that make this study important it is how they work and play together.

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62 Figure 2-2. Path Model Depicting Proposed Relationships among Sense of Community, Community Leadership, Social Capital, and Openness to Change (Review). Dependent Variable Openness to Change (Community Vision) Intervening Variable Social Capital Independent Variable Community Leadership Independent Variable Sense of Community 1. Belonging 2. Fulfillment of Needs 3. Influence 4. Shared Emotional Connection

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63 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Introduction This study was conducted to determine the influence of leadership and psychological sense of community upon social capital, and ultimately their effect on community change within viable communities. It is likely that effective community leadership provides the needed guidance to successfully develop and achieve communal goals and visions. While Luloff (as cited in Brown, 1991) concludes that a primary reason communities maintain viability is because they are more democratic, Marwell (as cited in Brown, 1991) claims a viable acting community is one with a highly centralized network of leader s. Community viability, as it is described by Brown (1991) and used within this study, is the suc cess a community has developing and achieving specific goals or actions. As a consequence, the community itself is more active and has a greater ability to remain viable into th e future. Community leadership can also undertake many definitions for success; for the purposes of this study, leadership success will be defined as the improvement of so cial capital through community action. The effect is cyclical; effective community action can improve social capi tal that, in turn can contribute to greater social ac tion. This chapter provides an overview of the research purpose and objectives; the units of analysis; and an in-depth analysis regarding aspects of the case study interviews including partic ipants/sampling, instrumentation, procedures and statistical analysis of the data; and criteria for interpretation of the results.

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64 This study focused on the process of success and viability within a rural community setting. As the focus of this study, select independent community variables were studied to determine their effects on social capital, resulting in action for the greater good of the community. The independent variables studie d were psychological sense of community and community leadership. The intervening variable of social capital was considered according to its link with the independent variable s, and eventually in relation to its effect on openness to change (the dependent variab le). All of these were studied through a comparative case study design. Research Design The primary design of this study was a comp arative case study of two select rural communities in the state of Florida. Speci fically, it was the researchers goal to systematically describe the influence of lead ership, sense of commun ity and social capital upon collective action working towards the community good within two rural communities with the greatest viability (a s determined within specific community selection parameters). A qualitative design was utilized involving structured, in-depth interviews within each of the communities se lected. Purposeful sampling was used as the primary design strategy, because as Patton (2002) notes, individual cases for study are selected because they are information rich and illuminative, or they offer useful illustrations regarding the phenomenon of interest. It was decided early on in the study de sign to focus partic ipant selection upon social groups within the communities (those acc ording to the six areas listed within the community model in Figure 2-1) and not upon specific community actions. While focusing upon specific community actions can eff ectively illustrate th e most active areas within the community field, this design expos es a few problems. To begin with, the

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65 replication of this study within future communities would be limited as different communities have distinct cultures and community structures, and as a result advance different activities. Therefore, many of the key elements and questions would be inapplicable in other community situa tions. A second problem with focusing upon specific community actions rather than social groups is the potential for unaddressed areas. Over specific periods, a community co uld be particularly active within several areas, or perhaps just one area. Without standardizing the areas from which key informants are selected for an even distri bution across the communit y, there is a potential to have all selected participants from one or a few areas, as opposed to the community holistically. This will not allow for the t horough examination of the community variables as they come from different social groups w ithin the community, leading to a biased final account. Interview Process Background The interviews were done in several stag es; first, an expert panel of visible1 leaders from the community was identified and interviewed to get a general feel for the community and key leaders. Within the in terview process, 12 experts from each community were interviewed to identify gene ral community issues and dynamics, and to suggest names of the second level of in terviewees. The second stage involved interviewing the key leaders identified from the expert panel interviews, in order to identify actions for subsequent study a nd to suggest names for a third round of participants. Key leaders were considered those individuals pa rticipating in the interviews within this study. In order for i ndividuals to be interviewed in any of the 1 Visible leaders : those individuals who are publicly known as leaders within their communities due to their position or history in the community.

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66 stages subsequent to the expert panel, they must have been cited by at least two people as one of the most effective leaders in the community someone who knows what is going on and can get things accomplished. Members of the expert panel were local leaders chosen according to their thorough knowledge of the community (see Footnote 1 above). These community members were identified loosely following Wilkinsons (as noted by Israel & Beau lieu, 1990) approach of selecting key informants according to tw o specific criteria 1) knowledgeable about the community and 2) broadly representative of local interest groups, factions and social status levels. In the next step, key leaders were id entified through recommendations through the interview process with members of the expert panel. This type of participant identification is termed as a modified snowba ll approach, and allowe d the researcher to identify individuals who were considered to be effective community leaders by peers within their community. Data analysis proceeded systematically using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies; data from the interviews were transcribed as soon as possible after the interviews, both to keep the data fresh in the mind of the researcher, and in order to keep up with the amount of data incurred. Th e data from the expert panel (and each subsequent level of interview participants) served to identify key leaders and provided a foundational basis for future qualitative themes to be determined through the analyzation process. Creswell (1998) delineates the five qualita tive traditions of inquiry as biography, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography and case study (Appendix A). As noted by Patton (2002) case studies are a means for gathering systematic, comprehensive, and

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67 in-depth information of a phenomenon of interest s. This allowed the researcher to search for common themes and patterns within se ttings or in this case, across cases. Study Variables The three types of variables a ddressed within this study were Independent Variables Psychological Sense of Community Community Leadership Intervening Variable Social Capital Dependent Variable Openness to Change (Community Vision) Research Objectives The research was used to illustrate and describe how leadership and other factors interact within rural communitie s. Explicitly, the purpose of this study was to investigate how sense of community, community leadersh ip, and social capital influenced openness to change within a viable community. The sp ecific objectives addressed within this study were 1. To measure a communitys viability, indi vidual psychological sense of community, social capital commitment and community leadership within select viable rural communities; 2. To determine the relationships between a. Sense of community and community leadership, b. Sense of community and social capital, c. Community leadership and social capital, and d. Sense of community and community lead ership (independent variables) with openness to change (dependent variable see section Study Variables for a complete list of variables);

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68 3. To determine the effects of sense of co mmunity and community leadership, as well as their interactions with openness to change; 4. To compare/contrast the environment with in the two most viable rural communities in Florida. 5. To qualitatively compare each viable co mmunity according to the variables of psychological sense of community, commun ity leadership and social capital. These objectives were addressed within each of the two communities selected. Once the data were transcribed and analyzed, they were then compared between the two communities. Community Selection Parameters In order to effectively an alyze rural community action and leadership, choosing an appropriate sample is important. For this study, two communities were identified for comparative study according to specific parameters designed to typify rural communities within Florida. The first parameter to be defined involves community location. According to Wilkinson (1991), an important aspect of community is the variable of location. Location brings indivi duals together in order to ach ieve similar social goals and to create society. As such, communities within rural areas behave differently than those with exposure to urban settings (Flora & Flora, 2004; Wilkinson, 1991, 1995). As rural community action and leadership is the pr imary focus of this study, rural community location selection was limited to the northern ha lf of Florida, or any rural area north of Ocala, Florida. The counties that meet the location requirements (top half of Florida) of the study are illustrated within Figure 3-1. As aforementioned, exposure to urban areas can also affect individual communities in a variety of ways. For th is reason, an added considera tion when choosing the research sample is the communitys proximity to metropolitan areas. Communities in close

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69 proximity to areas of increased population ar e included with in metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). Because these communities ha ve different interactions within the Figure 3-1. Florida State Map by County Location Parameter. surrounding environment, such as a large pe rcentage of commuting workers, increased economic activity, and other advantages of bei ng in close proximity of industrial centers, they exhibit characteristics different from those of traditional rural communities. This does not align with the sample desired for the purpose of this research; therefore the rural communities selected were not included with in any Florida MSAs (Bureau of Economic and Business Research & Warrington Colle ge of Business Administration, 2002).

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70 Culture is another aspect that plays a large part in the identity of the community. It is a primary way a community identifies it self according to Flora and Flora (2004), culture can be illustrated as the filter through which peopl e live their liv es, the daily rituals they observe, in short, the way they regard the world around them. This process serves to transmit values between generations as well as allowing fo r society to develop from a cluster of individuals (Moffitt, 1999). A communitys culture is important in defining how relationships and ties are developed by individuals within the community. This plays an important role in defining social fields and groups with in the community and the actio n that takes place there a major focus in this study. As culture can be affected by outside variables such as geography, proximity of urban areas, technol ogical development within the area, economic drive all of these changing the co mmunity structure itself. The community culture desired within this study is rural, somewhat agriculturally based, long-term residency communities with a lot of history. South Florida county cultures are traditionally more dynamic and diverse; indivi dually, there are more MSAs within the region to affect county culture and economics, there is a prevalen t transitory population, and culture within the region has become more heterogeneous due to the large number of immigrants, particularly from a variety of Hispanic cultures. Comparatively, North Florida county cultures tend to be less diverse, more st able and based on traditional agriculture values. Conseque ntly, the northern half of Florida, outside of MSAs, provided the most opportunity for selecting communities with the desired culture. After addressing community location and culture, the third parameter involved community population. It is important to de fine community parameters according to

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71 population size, as rural comm unities are fundamentally defi ned according to population. According to Loomis and Beegle (1950), co mmunities or centers who have less than 1,000 in population cannot offer enough of the usual services in order to remain viable. They went on to say that communities w ith populations higher than 5,000 individuals were also unsatisfactory, because residents had a value orientation that differed from residents of the smaller communities. This is not necessarily true today, particularly in Florida, where a large influx of formerly urban residents is moving into rural communities. According to OBrien, Ha ssinger, Brown and Pinkerton (1991), places with populations between 1,000 and 2,500 indivi duals have significant resources and traditionally have been the nuclei of ru ral trade center communities (p. 701). Therefore, based upon both of these philosoph ies, communities chosen within the sample had populations between 1,000 and 5,000 people. In practice, retaining these population para meters proved impossible, as there were only seven communities in North Florida that met all three parameters, including the strict population constraints. Therefore, the population consid erations were increased to communities of 1,000 to 20,000 residents, in or der to come up with a more workable group for which to figure viability scores. As a result of the new population parameters, 30 rural communities in North Florida met all three initial community selection parameters. Care was taken to compare vi ability scores among extremes very small communities to very large communities and many small communities appeared to be as much or more viable then some of their larger counterparts. The final consideration used to choose an appropriate sample was community viability. It is important to consider co mmunity viability as a selection parameter

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72 because a major purpose of the study was to compare interactions and relationships within the two most viable, or successful rural communities in the northern half of Florida. This will allow the researchers to provide examples, suggestions and ideas for other communities who wish to become more viable. Comparing two viable communities, as opposed to one viable and one deteriorating, was undertaken in order to illustrate there is more than one way for a community to thrive. Ralph Brown (1991) equated community viab ility with success as service-trade centers, or the ability to s upport community members basic needs and interests locally. Through studying literature, Brown and associ ates determined that for communities to maintain viability, they needed to have representation across five identified areas (minimum must-haves): population stability, retail activity, schools, retail business and health care facilities (O'Brien et al., 1991) Thus, they devised five indicators that when combined, provided individual communities with a viability rating. These indicators are Percent population change, Per capita sales tax revenue, Percent change in high school enrollment (grades 9-12), Retail business score based on presence/ab sence of eight selected businesses,2 and Medical service score based on presence/absence of seven selected medical services.3 Within the context of this study, this ra ting scale was used in order to assign a viability score to the comm unities within the sample popul ation. Through arranging 2 Eight specific businesses (i.e. bank, bakery, newspaper, etc.) were identified and then one point was given for each occurrence of the ei ght within each community. 3 Similar to the business score, seven medical servi ces were identified and then one point was given for each occurrence of the se ven within each community.

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73 these scores into a rank order, the top three can be identified as the specific communities to be examined. The first three indicators (affected by time) were judged positively according to an increase over a 10-year period, from 1990-2000. The retail business score and medical service score were both judged positively on currently (as of 2004) existing businesses available and medical se rvices provided within the community. To review, there were four indicators identi fied within the study that assisted the researchers in choosing appropriate comm unities for study. These indicators were community location (including proximity to MSAs), culture, population size, and community viability score. All of these in dicators came together to identify communities with characteristics that made them appropr iate for this study. Those counties that contain the top three communitie s (according to viability score) are shaded in black and noted below (Figure 3-2). These are the comm unities that were used for the pilot study and comparative case studies. A purposeful sample according to the indica tors that were previously outlined was undertaken because of its alignment to th e purposes of the study. Once individual counties were considered appropriate for th e sample population, viability scores were complied and the three most viable communitie s were selected for study (refer to Table 3-1). The third most viable community wa s used as the pilot community; the top two were used as actual case study communities within the study. This allowed the researcher to explore and describe similar a nd varying characteristics within the two most viable communities within the state of Florida.

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74 Figure 3-2. Florida State Map by C ounty Selected Study Communities. Data Collection Procedures Two primary research steps were conducted in order to collect th is descriptive data; in each case, interviews were used to garn er the information desired. The first step consisted of identifying and interviewing an expert panel within each community. With names and information provided from the firs t step, the second consisted of interviewing key leaders to provide information and name s of key leaders for the third step. The second step was replicated until repetiti on was apparent within the names provided,

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75 ideally culminating in 25 to 30 interviews per community. Within each step, in-depth interview guides were used to garner the information desired. The Interview Process On-site interviews were used to collect comprehensive and in-depth data regarding the influence of leadershi p, sense of community and so cial capital upon community viability within select rural communities. Interviewing is a qualitative inquiry method that allows us to enter into anothers pers pective. Lincoln and Guba (1985) define an interview as a conversation with a purpose. As both Glesne ( 1999) and Patton (2002) note, a special strength of interviewing in qualitative inquiry is finding out things we cannot directly observe and exploring altern ative explanations of what you can see. When addressing community leaders, the researcher used th e standardized openended interview approach. When using this approach, an interview guide is prepared with carefully worded questions or issues to be explored within the interview. This approach is less open-ended than other inte rview approaches, but makes the interview process much more systematic and timel y, which is important when interviewing a number of different people (Patton, 2002). In-depth interviews were important to th is study, as they provided data with the breadth and depth needed in order to thoroughl y examine the rural co mmunities selected. Qualitative research, by definition, is used to produce a wealth of information about a small number of cases (Patton, 2002). This increases the depth of understanding within the cases studied the driving force behind this study.

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76Table 3-1. Viability Score Breakdown and Overall Rank of 30 Florida Communities. Community Population 1990 2000 % Change1 (Rank) Per Capita Income 1989 2000 % Change1 (Rank) School Enrollment 1990/91 2000/01 % Change1, 2 (Rank) Retail Business Score3 Medical Service Score4 Average Rank5 Viability Rank Summative Score6 Community Viability Score7 Bonifay +54.36% (2) +14.77% (29) +28.54% (3) 1 5 8 40 1 Macclenny +11.07% (7) +67.05% (6) -6.41% (25) 1 5 8.8 44 2 Live Oak +3.57% (12) +53.79% (15) +6.21% (17) 1 1 9.2 46 3 Trenton +20.28% (5) +56.11% (13) +26.54% (6) 1 5 9.4 47 4 Lake City -.54% (18) +45.72% (20) +20.11% (8) 1 1 9.6 48 5 De Funiak Springs +.625% (16) +34.96% (25) +10.82% (14) 1 5 9.6 61 6 Malone +158.30% (1) -32.81% (30) +27.61% (5) 28 27 10.2 91 7 Monticello +1.24% (15) +65.34% (9) -5.49% (24) 1 5 10.8 54 8 Chiefland +4.12% (11) +46.53% (19) +14.53% (9) 1 17 11.4 57 9 Williston +5.74% (10) +52.86% (17) +25.13% (7) 18 5 11.4 57 10

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77Table 3-1. Continued. Starke +1.91% (13) +39.74% (23) +6.76% (16) 1 5 11.6 58 11 Interlachen +28.36% (4) +64.17% (10) +48.43% (1) 23 24 12.4 62 12 Palatka +.059% (17) +42.08% (22) +6.18% (18) 1 5 12.6 63 13 Marianna -4.77% (23) +63.61% (11) -2.79% (23) 1 5 12.6 63 14 Freeport +46.50% (3) +75.53% (3) +37.50% (2) 30 27 13 65 15 Madison -1.76% (20) +22.81% (28) +13.56% (12) 1 5 13.2 66 16 Perry -2.31% (22) +31.62% (26) +2.90% (19) 1 1 13.8 69 17 Inglis +20.15% (6) +66.14% (7) +27.62% (4) 23 30 14 70 18 Blountstown +1.71% (14) +28.30% (27) -28.98% (30) 1 1 14.6 73 19 Chipley -9.42% (28) +51.53% (18) -1.79% (21) 1 5 14.6 73 20 Graceville -9.12% (26) +73.59% (4) -15.38% (28) 1 17 15.2 76 21 Jasper -18.77% (30) +56.25% (12) -20.34% (29) 1 5 15.4 118 22 Carrabelle +6.10% (9) +78.14% (2) -1.89% (22) 18 27 15.6 78 23

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78Table 3-1. Continued. Port St. Joe -8.38% (24) +53.04% (16) +2.86% (20) 1 22 16.6 83 24 Sneads +10.94% (8) +55.76% (14) +11.26% (13) 28 24 17.4 87 25 Wewahitchka -2.19% (21) +65.75% (8) +13.73% (11) 23 24 17.4 87 26 Lake Butler -9.12% (25) +89.67% (1) -9.89% (26) 18 22 18.4 92 27 Crescent City -1.61% (19) +37.49% (24) +14.08% (10) 23 17 18.6 93 28 Apalachicola -9.34% (27) +68.02% (5) -13.01% (27) 18 17 18.8 94 29 Cross City -9.90% (29) +45.50% (21) +7.88% (15) 23 17 21 105 30 1 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census (2004). 2 School enrollment number includes those students enrolled in school from kindergarten to grade 12. 3 Based on the presence of 8 selected busin esses. Sources Florida Bu siness-to-Business Sales & Marketing Directory (2002); Telephone directories for each of the thirty communities. 4 Based on the presence of 7 selected servic es. Sources Florida Business-to-Business Sales & Marketing Dire ctory (2002); Teleph one directories for each of the thirty communities. 5 Sum of the ranks divided by five. 6 Summative rankings of the five variables c onsidered in overall viability score. Due to the purpose behind ranking items, the lower the score the better. 7 Overall rankings for the thirty communities.

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79 Participants/Sampling There have been several methods used to identify community leaders within various studies. Ignoring the use of partic ipant observation, specifi cally there are three variations of the method that uses the judgm ent of others: 1) th e snowball technique, where randomly selected individuals are asked to identify leaders within the community, and then these leaders are interviewed and asked for additional names; 2) the panel of experts method, where a small group of inform ed citizens identify leaders or rate a prepared list of leaders w ithin the community; and 3) the community sampling method, where randomly chosen individuals within th e community are asked to identify leaders, and this list is then rank-ordered by the num ber of mentions that a person received (Fanelli, 1956). Guba and Lincoln (1981) clearly suggest spec ial selection of inte rview participants to address specific research goals. The se lection should be base d upon expert knowledge or familiarity with the project, access to constr uctive criticism or information, or if they have a meaningful status or perspective. The procedure used w ithin this study was a mixture of the first and second methods outlin ed above, something termed the behavioral approach. Within this approach, the snow ball technique (reputat ional approach), and the expert panel method are both employed to identify leaders according to those areas in which they are active. For this study, the approach was modified slightly. Traditionally, in studies using the snowball method of particip ant identification, an individu al is not requested for an interview until he/she is mentioned by at leas t three different people. Due to the small population and limited number of leaders w ithin these rural communities, it proved difficult to get three mentions for future interview participants. This also may be due to a

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80 mirroring of the diversification in the leader ship structure (within communities) seen in today's organizational leadership. Simply stated, community leaders may not be as centralized as they once were they may be more specialized, according to their area of expertise. This would contri bute to certain leaders bei ng mentioned by others within their shared community group; or to the la ck of a cohort of leaders being mentioned across the community field. Whatever the r eason, the number of mentions required to request an interview was lowered to two a nd the interviews proceeded accordingly. For use within this study, several in dividuals in the community who were considered visible leaders and community experts were asked to identify people who were noted to be especially active or prominent figures w ithin any of six categories economic, religion, education, environmental, political and health/family. In each community, 12 individuals were contacted to se rve as part of this study's expert panel: County Extension Director Mayor Chamber of Commerce Director Prominent Church Minister School Superintendent School Board President Farm Bureau Chairman County Sheriff County Hospital CEO Local Legal Representative County Commissioner Local Bank President Once these key leaders were identified, each wa s interviewed and subsequently asked to name prominent leaders within their community. Individual s on the expert panel were identified from a breadth of fields, as it was assumed by the researcher the leaders identified (by the expert panel) would be na med from the interviewee's respective field of expertise.

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81 The next step involved interviewing key l eaders (as identified by the expert panel), and concluding the interview by asking them to list who they feel are key leaders in the community. Further leaders were interviewed as a third and fourth step of the interview process, after being noted by at least two individuals. As pa rt of the interview process, each leader could list as ma ny individuals as he/she felt necessary; however, leaders mentioned were not interviewed until mentioned by two or more participants. While the behavioral technique was determ ined by the researcher to be the most effective way to carry out th e study, historically it has b een brought into question for several reasons, not the least being there are more dimensi ons to leadership than simply influence or power. The need for the research er to identify a monolithic power structure, potential inaccuracies in respondent pe rceptions, and disagreement on individual interpretation contribute to the problems be hind this approach (Bonjean, 1963). Polsby (1959) is also a critic of the reputational approach because often researchers assume leaders, as members of the power structure w ithin a community, maintain the stability of the community by acting and making decisions w ith a concerned few. Clearly a leaders job involves much more than that, and by employing these limited assumptions, the researcher is directed into a study of reput ations rather than le adership behavior. Nonetheless, the behavioral approach allo ws those experts within the community to identify individuals whom they know to be actors and leaders within the community information difficult to get another way. By requesting the participants to focus on those who are particularly active within the commun ity, ideally individuals would be garnered based upon their activeness and concern fo r the community, as opposed to merely reputation.

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82 Within this study, leadership is defined according to the definition behind servant leadership, or first to serve, then be a lead er. Therefore, key l eaders were individuals identified by the initial e xpert panel as individuals known for their activeness and leadership in serving their community, and in working with people in the community towards planned action for the common good. During the first round of interviews invol ving the expert panel, there were 12 leaders contacted to participate in the study, with varying success. From these interviews, there were two subsequent rounds (Bonifay) and three subsequent rounds (Macclenny) in the interviewing process. Key leader interviews continued until names began to recur within each community, this took from three to four total interview rounds. Specific to the community, there were 23 interviews completed in Bonifay and 26 interviews in Macclenny, for a total of 49 interviews carried out in the study. Instrumentation and Measures As mentioned within the community sele ction parameters, two communities were selected according to the highest scores on th e combined criteria for community viability. A third community was identified for pilot study purposes. The study (design and instruments) was submitted for review and approval from the University of Floridas Institutional Review Board (APPENDIX B IRB approval). Once approval was obtained, a pilot study was u ndertaken as a preliminary study to assay and polish both the instrumentation as well as the interview process. For each site, initial contact was made with potential participants through preliminary letters that were sent to the 12 leaders identified as the expert panel, prior to conduc ting the on-site interviews (APPENDIX C Preliminary letter). These le tters were used to provide notice and describe the study as well as encouraging co mplete participation (G uba & Lincoln, 1981).

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83 Approximately 10 days later, phone calls were made to each potenti al participant, to further describe the study, answer any questi ons, and set-up an inte rview time. Within each interview, consent forms were signed and re turned at the beginning of the interview. Actual interviews were conducte d in October and November 2004. According to Guba and Lincoln (1981) a structured interview is used to find answers within the bounds of the investigators own presuppositions, hypotheses, and hunches. Patton (2002) more specifically break s down the structured interview into two types: the interview guide and the standardized open-ended interview. Both are designed to use researcher questions de veloped prior to the interview. However, the standardized open-ended interview (the type used within this study), requires ca refully wording each question completely before the interview. Th is type of interview works best within the context of this study, because with detaile d, thorough wording the interviewer can make sure the interview was standardized, or co mparable for each participant involved. The questions are identical this process also should provide the same stimuli for each individual interviewed. Additionally, this type of interview allows the questions to be viewed fully before the interview takes place, allowing for additional control over the situation (Patton, 2002). A researcher-developed interview guide (APPENDIX D Interview guide) was used to gather in-depth quan titative and qualitative information from key leaders within the community. Fundamentally, the intervie w guide was based upon other questionnaires measuring similar variables, made more sp ecific through the cont ext of community. Essential issues and actions addressed with in the interview guid e were based upon the independent, intervening and dependent vari ables, with special emphasis on potential

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84 effects or relationships invol ved. The structured intervie w guide allowed for structure and provided a congruity to assure consiste ncy of data among sites and individuals interviewed. Within this st udy, the questions were pulled from three different sources: the Sense of Community Index (McMill an & Chavis, 1986), the Organizational Leadership Assessment (Laub, 2000), and th e Social Capital Co mmunity Benchmark Survey (the Saguaro Seminar Civic Engageme nt in America), and were modified by the researcher in order to more effec tively test toward the study objectives. While conducting interviews within th e standardized, open-ended approach provides structure and documentable informa tion, there are a few disadvantages. Patton (2002) notes the weakness behind the standardized interview a pproach is that it does not permit the interviewer to address topics or issues not anticipated when the guide was developed. Furthermore, the structure also impedes the extent to which individual differences can be examined or does not a llow the interviewer any flexibility within the interview process. Interview Stages As mentioned previously, participants for each of the interview stages were identified by the researcher or key leaders according to the leaders behavior (action), reputation or position within the community. Within any community, the effectiveness of an action program largely depends upon how effectively leaders mobilize community resources in support of the program. Theref ore, the leaders action and position often have a direct link to his reputation and succe ss as a leader. As affirmed by Preston and Guseman (1979), within smaller, relatively independent and homogeneous communities, using any of the three measures mentioned ( action, reputation or pos ition) to designate community leaders, will serve to converge upon the same grouping.

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85 Initial contact was made with potential pa rticipants through a le tter. As suggested by Guba and Lincoln (1981), personal contac t through phone calls was next, to establish an interview schedule and stimulate ra pport and cooperation with each interview participant. The next contact was made through the on-site interview. Lincoln and Guba (1985) suggest five steps for carrying out an evaluative interview. These procedures were follo wed throughout each step of the research process1: 1. Choosing individuals who could provide th e most applicable and informational data to interview. 2. Preparing for the interview, through pilot interviews, c hoosing the appropriate role for the interviewer, deciding upon appropria te dress and level of formality, and obtaining verbal and written c onfirmation of the interview. 3. Laying out the nature and purpose of the in terview with each participant during the interview process. This included steps su ch as obtaining a signed informed consent form, asking basic demographic questions in the beginning to allow the participant to relax, and considering each interview fr om the participants perspective. 4. Pacing the interview and keeping it pr oductive, through the use of presupposing questions and prompts. 5. Terminating the interview at the end of the interview guide and gaining closure by summarizing the final point made by the participant. Finally, the participants were thanked orally and follow-up letters were mailed to each participant (APPENDIX E Follow-up letter). Interviews were transcribed following each interview by the interviewer. Transcriptions were compared to intervie wer notes and observations made during each interview to check for completeness and accu racy. Data was also compared between communities directly comparing the particip ants (within their respective stages and areas) within each community. 1 For a more thorough description of the steps followed, refer to Appendix F.

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86 Data Analysis There were two types of quant itative data analyses done as part of this study factor analysis and path analysis. Factor an alysis was initially done to thoroughly test the conceptual underpinnings of the variables co mprising the framework of this study. Once the factors were tested and id entified, the theoretical relatio nships and effects between the variables were tested using re gression models within path analysis. Both of these quantitative analyses allowed for the obj ectives of this study to be reached. Factor Analysis The term factor analysis, as laid out by Nunnally (1978), stands for a group of approaches used to conceptualize groups or clusters of variables and an even larger grouping of mathematical procedures for de termining which variables belong to what groups. Operationally, a resear cher hypothesizes factors rela ted to each variable, and these hypotheses are ei ther borne out or disproven by th e mathematical procedures of factor analysis. Statistically, factor an alysis takes the variance defined by the intercorrelations among a set of measures a nd attempts to allocate it in terms of few underlying hypothetical variables (Willia ms & Monge, 2001, p. 165). These final hypothetical variables are identified as fact ors; there are generally several factors identified within each variable. An important aspect of how factor anal ysis describes the relationships among variables is in the explanation of constructs. In order to e ffectively explain constructs, it must be determined to what extent the hypothesized measure is measuring the same thing, or different things according to the cl usters of variables. This requires the statistical structure to be studi ed between measurable items within a construct as well as between sets of items that measure different constructs (Nunnally, 1978). The clustering

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87 of items done through factor anal ysis is important in construc t validation. This method is particularly useful as a measure of indi vidual differences, including perceptions or attitudes toward community leadership, for example. Another aspect of factor analyses par ticularly important to this study is in determining the underlying grouping s of variables. This allo ws for various tests (groups of measurable items) to be devised that meas ure the same constructs. So if a researcher could accurately identify a test for a general construct (through factor analysis) then this test should correlate substantially with other tests purportedly measuring the same construct. Therefore, a resear cher interested in testing fo r something specific can choose from a variety of measures. Factor analysis, as it was employed w ithin the methodology of this study, was used to provide information regarding a co mbination of the two aforementioned areas in describing the relationships among vari ables and determining the underlying groupings of each variable. For each variable within this study, the researcher began with a group of theoretical factors that se rved to describe or measure the construct. Because the majority of measures were based upon theo retical factors and not empirically supported with statistics, the need was felt to provide statistical ba cking for the underlying factors and relationships devising the study. The fact ors identified through factor analysis and their respective factor scores were the numerical measures used as the basis of comparison and testing for this study. Due to the use of factor analysis within th is study, factor loadi ngs not sample size were used as the primary determinant fo r study endurance. As indicated by Guadagnoli and Velicer (1988) as well as Stevens (2002) one of the most important aspects in

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88 determining the usefulness of factor analysis within a st udy is component saturation, or the absolute magnitude of the loadings. According to their recommendations for the applied researcher: Components with four or more loadings above .60 in ab solute value are reliable, regardless of sample size . . An additional reasonable conclusion to draw from their study is that any component with at least three loadings above .80 will be reliable. (Stevens, 2002, p. 395) Therefore, owing to the high factor loadings presented throughout Chapter Four, factor analysis was determined to be an appropriate data analysis instrument of choice for the size and scope of this study. Path Analysis Path analysis takes factor analysis one st ep further by using the factors identified in regression models to test theories of causal relationshi ps among a set of variables (Agresti & Finlay, 1999, p. 624). Viewing path analysis from a sta tistical standpoint, a series of regression models are used to suggest a line of causes and effects. Operationally speaking, path analysis' main advantage is it can illustrate causal relationships and associations between variables, contributi ng to more logical theories of variable relationships. Within this study, the researcher suggeste d a conceptual framework illustrating the model of cause-effect relationships theoreti cally contributing to community viability. According to this model, the independent and intervening va riables also have relationships among themselves; all of these th eoretical relationships comprise the path model devised for this study. Using path anal ysis, each purported relationship (or path) was tested using a regression model of the va riables involved in th at path. Bivariate correlations (to study the correlations among vari ables) were first analyzed to look for

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89 significant relationships among the variable s involved; once significant relationships were established, regression analysis models were run for each path. Within the significant models, the standard ized regression coefficients were examined, and those that were found significant were transferred to a path mode l as a path coefficient. Finally, the various path coe fficients found significant throug h the path analysis were used to describe the type of relationship (i.e. positive or nega tive) and its strength, as well as the amount of change in standard deviat ion of the causal variab le, according to the number. This helped the researcher to pai nt a picture of the variable relationships within the communities studied. Qualitative Analysis The data were analyzed and reported usi ng a five-step procedure as recommended by Creswell (1998), and used by Kelsey and Mariger (2002): 1. Organization of data Facts about the case were arranged in a logical order. 2. Categorization of data Categories (major themes) were identified, and the data were clustered into meaningful groups via cutting and pasting. 3. Interpretation of codes Specific statements that fe ll into like clusters (groups) were examined for specific meanings in relationship to the pu rpose and objectives of the study. Example statements were id entified that helped with interpretation. Data were examined within and among groups for similarities and differences. 4. Identification of patterns The data and their interpre tations were scrutinized for underlying themes and patterns that ch aracterized the st udy and allowed the researchers to draw conclusions. 5. Synthesis An overall portrait of the study wa s constructed where conclusions and recommendations were drawn based on the data presented. Throughout the entire research process, incl uding data analysis, it is important to recognize the possibility of research bias. In order to overcome potential sources of bias

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90 resulting from qualitative research, the researcher employed steps identified by Patton (2002) and Lincoln and Guba (1985): Subjective or sampling bias of the re ported findings may affect research generalizability. Social pressure may cause the halo effect from participants who want to provide good data. Additionall y, there may be subjective bias from the researcher regarding how the data were in terpreted, which in turn may influence the results. As the researcher, being aware a nd sensitive helped al leviate this problem. Each step of the research process was documented through using an audit trail. This also allowed for rep lication of the research. Interview triangulation was conducted with data from other participants and through interviewer observations to s ubstantiate findings and conclusions. The investigator relied on the regular he lp and advice of outside sources throughout the process in order to validate the steps taken and conclusions drawn. Individuals who provided advice were graduate assi stants and faculty members of the University of Floridas Department of Agricultural Educatio n and Communication. As the study design was primarily qualitat ive in nature, many of the results and conclusions are meant to be suggestive rather than definitive in nature. Particular to this study, the qualitative data was meant to augment the quantitative data to provide rich, in-depth data that would e nhance the numerically based, more precise data available through quantitative measures. Summary This chapter provided an overview of th e research methods used to study the influence of leadership, sense of community and social capital on community viability. Qualitative inquiry in the form of standard ized open-ended interviews was conducted onsite within the selected rural communities. The chapter outlined the process and steps utilized for the design, interp retation and analysis of the results. Research through the on-site interviews was undertaken for the de pth and breadth of information acquired. Steps taken to minimize researcher bias within data collection, inte rpretation and analysis were also cited.

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91 Data analysis was done through both quant itative and qualitative lenses. While qualitative research provides data with si gnificant breadth and depth, it may lack the precision of quantitative data. Using a combination of both allowed the researcher to provide precise numerical analysis while sti ll maintaining the depth and breadth desired through the results. Factor analysis, path analysis, and qualitative analysis were done according to the information garnered through interviews. Once data was input into SPSS, interview transcriptions were then organized and categorized according to common themes found within the data. Based upon the data, conclusions and recommendations were made. Results, co nclusions, and recommendations are noted within future chapters.

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92 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS The objective of this study is to establish key compone nts of the factors that contribute to community change, and to dete rmine causal relationships between the same variables sense of community, community leadership, social capital, and finally openness to change. The method of analysis us ed to validate this objective is factor analysis. To illustrate the relationships of these components, a number of path analyses and multiple regression analyses are employed. However, first the environment in which these variables are sited must be described. Therefore, this will begin, respectively, with the demographic characteristics. Profile of Participants (Demographics) There were 49 leaders interviewed with in the two communities studied. As reported in Table 4-1, 81.6% of the identifi ed leadership were males and 18.4% were females. Married participants were the ma jority, with 93.9% being married. Only 30.6% of these individuals had children currentl y living in their household. Within both communities, leaders tended to be well educat ed with 69.3% having at least a bachelors degree, and 57.1% of those ha ving a graduate degree. Th ere were only 4% who had a high school diploma or less. There appeared to be a noticeable connec tion between the next two demographics. A vast majority (91.8%) of participants ow ned their home, with only 2.0% renting their current place of residence. Also, when asked the question How many years have you lived in your community? 75.5 % answered more than 20 years or all my life.

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93 While there were a wide variety of ages re presented, a large majority of the leaders interviewed were over the age of 40. The highest proportion was 52 to 61 years old, with 34.7% falling into this age range. As the numbers suggest, it appears that those thought of as leaders within these communities are olde r with extensive life experience within the community itself. Demographics within each community were studied, with no significant differences being revealed. Table 4-1. Demographic Character istics of Community Leaders. Characteristic Frequency Percent Gender Female Male 9 40 49 18.4 81.6 100.0 Marital Status Married Divorced 46 3 49 93.9 6.1 100.0 Number of Children in H ousehold (# of households) None One Two Three 34 6 5 4 49 69.4 12.2 10.2 8.2 100.0 Highest Educational Level Less than a HS diploma High school diploma/GED Some college Associates degree/Specialized technical training Bachelors degree Some graduate training Graduate/Professional degree 1 1 8 5 5 1 28 49 2.0 2.0 16.3 10.2 10.2 2.0 57.1 100.0 Age of Participant 22-31 32-41 42-51 52-61 62-71 72 and above 3 2 16 17 7 4 49 6.1 4.1 32.7 34.7 14.3 8.2 100.0 Ownership of Home Own Rent Other (i.e. parsonage, etc.) 45 1 3 49 91.8 2.0 6.1 100.0

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94 Table 4-1. Continued. Years of Community Residence 1 to 5 years 6 to 10 years 11 to 20 years More than 20 years All my life N = 49 3 4 5 19 18 49 6.1 8.2 10.2 38.8 36.7 100.0 Factor Analysis Common factor analysis, as la id out in Chapter Three, is a measurement technique that is used to determine if items develope d to measure a theoretical construct can be combined into more basic (most often, fewer) underlying variables. Statistically, factor analysis takes the variance defined by the in tercorrelations among a set of measures and attempts to allocate it in terms of fe w underlying hypothetical variables (Williams & Monge, 2001, p. 165). These final hypothetical vari ables are identified as factors. For this study, factor analysis will be implemented via SPSS (Agresti & Finlay, 1999). Factor Selection More specifically, factor analysis begins by developing a correlation matrix that illustrates the correlations between all of th e items (measures) included within the study. A main purpose of factor analysis is to redu ce this correlation matrix into a new set of variables, or factors, that are based upon the interrelations hips among the items within the data. Identifying the new number of factors that exemplify the variable is dependent upon several different criteria that guide the process. The first step as identified by Ary, Jacobs and Razavieh (2002) is an inspection factor analysis, where the researcher examines the factor loadings to identify the lowest number of factors with the hi ghest factor loadings. Where a natural break occurs is the new number of factors utilized to describe the variable. This is often used as the initial estimate of the appropriate number of factors.

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95 A second guide to use when determining the most useful number of factors is the scree test, where the number of factors is plotted against th e Eigenvalue, or the amount of variation described by each a dditional factor. As you continue along the curve of the scree plot, the difference in variance between each subsequent factor will continue to decrease until you reach factors that explain an insignificant amount of the variance, or where the curve levels off. This can be il lustrated in Figure 4-1, where after the second factor the curve begins to level off. 123456789101112Component Number 0 1 2 3 4 5Eigenvalue Scree Plot Figure 4-1. Scree Plot of Psychological Sense of Commun ity (Independent Variable).

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96 A final parameter used when determining the most effective number of factors to describe a variable involves the size of the factor loadings. When examining the factor matrices, after a certain point the factor lo adings may have particularly low or even negative values. Combined, these loadings would contribute minimally to the overall description of the variance, and therefore, would be considered insignificant. It should be noted that each of these sta ndards are used collectively to illustrate an overall picture of the variable and contributing factors. Th ere are no specific numbers or limits where an absolute answer is discernible. It is up to the researcher to interpret each of these guides to develop the mo st appropriate model possible. Factor Rotation While the first step of common factor analysis involves th e reduction of the correlation matrix, resulting in a smaller number of factors describing each variable, the second step involves factor rota tion, or applying the original f actor loadings into a three dimensional environment. Graphically stated, factor loadings that originally could be placed in one quadrant of a graph are rota ted 90 degrees into another quadrant, or orthogonally rotated. The vari ance explained by both the unro tated and rotated matrices is the same; rotation itself is used to more easily interpret the factor loadings. According to Nunnally (1978) the initial step of fact or analysis serves to condense the common variance, while the second step (rotation) serves its purpose in slicing up that common variance in a manner that is more easily interpreted (Nunnally, 1978, p. 371). To be more easily interpreted, the criteri on for rotation is simple it should be performed so that each item loads on one and only one factor. This procedure will usually increase the differentiation between f actor loadings, as well. This does not

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97 indicate there needs to be an equal number of pure items1 for each factor (i.e. in reference to a variable with 12 measuring items, 4 pure items for Factor 1, 4 pure items for Factor 2, and so forth), only that there needs to be some pure items for each factor (Nunnally, 1978). It is on these grounds that a Promax rotation technique was utilized on each of the identified factor matrices. Within this study, factor analysis was used to analyze each independent variable sense of community and community leadership, and applicable aspects of the intervening variable (social capital) tr ust and community involvement The third component of social capital organizationa l involvement was a count va riable, and therefore cannot be subject to factor analysis. These anal yses were employed in order to verify the theoretical factors outlined to describe each variable; or to determine new factors. For each variable, there are five tables presented: Unrotated Factor Matrix, Promax Rotated Pattern Factor Matrix, Unrotated Limited Fact or Matrix, Promax Rotated Limited Factor Pattern Matrix, and Promax Rotated Limited Factor Structure Matrix along with a Scree Plot, for factor illustration. Psychological Sense of Co mmunity Factor Analysis The first independent variable examined through factor analysis was psychological sense of community. Through the initial consid eration of the factor loadings for this variable, it became apparent there were not strong positive factor loadings for each item; there were several positive loadings for each item, with only a slight deviation between them. For example, in Table 4-2, the item I have no influence over what this community is like has two factor loadings se veral thousandths apart, with another factor 1 Pure item : when an item shows a substantial positive loadin g upon one factor, and zero loadings upon all other factors.

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98 loading strongly in a different quadrant. This illustrates there is not much differentiation between factor loadings, and th erefore a pure item cannot be identified. Therefore, the matrix was rotated using the Promax procedure (See Table 4-3.). Table 4-2. Unrotated Factor Matrix of Ps ychological Sense of Co mmunity (Independent Variable). Item Factor Loadings* Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 I think my community is a good place for me to live. .670 .127 .308 -.456 People in this community do not share the same values (Recode). .518 -.420 .078 .227 My neighbors and I want the same things from this community. .534 -.344 .302 -.089 I can recognize most of the people who live in my community. .373 .627 .411 .367 I feel at home in this community. .760 -.095 .053 -.239 Very few of my neighbors know me (Recode). .765 -.217 .002 .146 I care about what my neighbors think of my actions. .679 -.339 -.216 -.367 I have no influence over what this community is like (Recode). .481 -.216 -.496 .495 If there is a problem in this community, people who live here can get it solved. .624 .196 -.385 .017 It is very important to me to live in this particular community. .608 .441 -.478 -.027 People in this community generally do not get along with each other (Recode). .621 -.157 .459 .382 I expect to live in this community for a long time. N = 49 .632 .572 .042 -.082 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. *Those in bold are the highest factor loadings for that item.

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99 Table 4-3. Promax Rotated Factor Pattern Matrix of Psychological Sense of Community (Independent Variable). Item Factor Loadings* Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 I think my community is a good place for me to live. .012 -.022 .845 .120 People in this community do not share the same values (Recode). .697 -.040 .068 -.048 My neighbors and I want the same things from this community. .518 -.248 .460 -.043 I can recognize most of the people who live in my community. .153 .107 -.077 .913 I feel at home in this community. .256 .176 .594 -.039 Very few of my neighbors know me (Recode). .587 .215 .213 .054 I care about what my neighbors think of my actions. .195 .263 .597 -.432 I have no influence over what this community is like (Recode). .517 .616 -.439 -.067 If there is a problem in this community, people who live here can get it solved. .016 .704 .101 .052 It is very important to me to live in this particular community. -.220 .896 .084 .152 People in this community generally do not get along with each other (Recode). .815 -.212 .090 .434 I expect to live in this community for a long time. N = 49 -.142 .473 .336 .489 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Promax with Kaiser Normalization. Rotation converged in 9 iterations. *Those in bold are the highest factor loadings for that item. Unrotated factor matrix Through using the guidelines aforementioned in the Factor Selection section, it was decided this correlation matrix could be e ffectively described through two factors. Therefore, the principle axes were recalcula ted using two factors. This produced the

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100 Unrotated Limited Factor Matrix in Table 44. The unrotated factor matrix by definition outlines the pattern of variance in the data. Factor loadings tell us what item is involved with which factor, and to what extent. More specifically, they are the correlation coefficients between items and factors. The correlation of an item with a factor has the same interpretation that any corr elations coefficient does, in as much that the square of any factor loading conveys th e proportion of variance explai ned in a particular item by a factor (Nunnally, 1978). Simply stated, the square of a factor loading multiplied by 100 gives the percentage variation an item has in common with a specific factor. The sum of the squared loadings in any row designates th e variance of an item accounted for by all of the factors in the matrix. This number is identified by h2. Conversely, by looking at the sum of squares (Eigenvalue) in any colum n, the total amount of variance explained by that factor for the items as a group (or in this case, an index) is see n. Finally, the average squared loadings in a column is the propor tion of variance of the items, as a group or index, explained by that factor (Nunnally, 1978). In reviewing the factor matrix (Table 44), the first 2 factor s account for just (slightly) over 50 per cent (50.4%) of the tota l variance in the correlation matrix, with Factor 1 contributing 37.8% and Factor 2 c ontributing 12.6% to the data variation in Table 4-4. The common variance totals at the bottom of each column in Table 4-2 indicate how much of overall variance is described through each factor. By this measure, Factor 1 accounts for three-qua rters of the overall variance, with Factor 2 accounting for the remaining 25%.

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101 Table 4-4. Unrotated Limited Factor Matr ix of Psychological Sense of Community (Independent Variable). Item Factor Loadings* Factor 1 Factor 2 h2 I think my community is a good place for me to live. .670 .127 .465 People in this community do not share the same values (Recode). .518 -.420 .445 My neighbors and I want the same things from this community. .534 -.344 .403 I can recognize most of the people who live in my community. .373 .627 .532 I feel at home in this community. .760 -.095 .587 Very few of my neighbors know me (Recode). .765 -.217 .632 I care about what my neighbors think of my actions. .679 -.339 .576 I have no influence over what this community is like (Recode). .481 -.216 .278 If there is a problem in this community, people who live here can get it solved. .624 .196 .428 It is very important to me to live in this particular community. .608 .441 .564 People in this community generally do not get along with each other (Recode). .621 -.157 .410 I expect to live in this community for a long time. N = 49 .632 .572 .727 Sum of squared loadings 4.541 1.506 Total Variance (%) 37.8 12.6 50.4 (Total) Common Variance (%) 75.0 25.0 100.0 (Total) Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Two components extracted. *Those in bold are the highest factor loadings for that item However, it must be noted, that because th e original factor so lution selects factors in order of importance, it is not surprisi ng that Factor 1 is th e factor that loads significantly on most ite ms. This makes interpretation of the loadings on the other

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102 factors much more difficult, as the numb ers involved are ofte n much smaller and insignificant. Therefore, due to the fact th e underlying data can be described in several different ways, the original factor matrix wa s rotated into a simpler structure using the Promax procedure (Table 4-5). Rotated factor matrices Rotating factors allows for a more interpretable set of factor loadings as well as facilitating estimations of the scores of pe ople on factors. This is accomplished through rotating a factor matrix into a simple structure. As illustrated by Rummel (as cited in Ladewig, 1977) simple structure works to ma ximize the number of high loadings on each factor, while at the same time minimizing the number of factors with high loadings for each item. Nunnally (1978) claims defining a simple structure is too subjective, and instead opts to discuss a simpl er structure which he define s as a rotation where there are some relatively pure items for each factor. In either case, this usually allows for each factor to describe a unique group of related items. Within this study, each factor matrix was ro tated for two reasons: 1) to help discern the number of factors necessary for adequate de scription of the correlation matrix (Table 4-3), and 2) to increase the inte rpretability of factor loadings after the appropriate number of factors were selected (Table 4-5). The data was submitted to a Promax rotation, which initially rotates the f actor matrix orthogonally (or at a 90 degree angle) then it relaxes the orthogonality for a better fit of the factors into a simpler st ructure (Ladewig, 1977). As previously cited, where in the unrotated fact or matrix items tend to load upon the first factor that leads to factors being ordered as to how much variability they accounted for, there is no such order in a rotated factor matrix.

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103 Table 4-5. Promax Rotated Limited Factor Pattern Matrix of Psychological Sense of Community (Independent Variable). Item Factor Loadings* Membership and Belonginga Community Satisfactionb I think my community is a good place for me to live. .368 .424 People in this community do not share the same values (Recode). .743 -.218 My neighbors and I want the same things from this community. .688 -.130 I can recognize most of the people who live in my community. -.288 .822 I feel at home in this community. .629 .230 Very few of my neighbors know me (Recode). .741 .103 I care about what my neighbors think of my actions. 787 -.063 I have no influence over what this community is like (Recode). 536 -.019 If there is a problem in this community, people who live here can get it solved. .273 .477 It is very important to me to live in this particular community. .045 .729 People in this community generally do not get along with each other (Recode). .584 .104 I expect to live in this community for a long time. N = 49 -.054 .877 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Promax with Kaiser Normalization. Rotation converged in 3 iterations. *Those in bold are the highest factor loadings for that item. a: Membership and Belonging was originally identified as Factor 1. b: Community Satisfaction was originally identified as Factor 2. Through examination of the Promax rotation pa ttern matrix (Table 4-3), it is clear the rotation has allowed for much stronger fact or loadings for each factor. Furthermore, it is apparent through examination of the sc ree plot and Table 4-3 that the correlation

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104 matrix for this variable could be adequately represented through two f actors. It is these factors that will supply the basis for the analysis of comparison levels. Pattern matrix versus structure matrix When utilizing the Promax rotation procedure, a pattern matrix and structure matrix are produced. The pattern matrix (presented in Table 4-5) really is not a matrix of factor loadings, but a matrix of weights (Nunnall y, 1978). More specifi cally, these pattern loadings describe the specific contribution each factor makes to the variance of the items. This is a measurement of an items dependen ce upon the distinct f actors, and therefore can be considered regression coefficients of the items on the factors (Ladewig, 1977). A structure matrix (See Table 4-6) on the other hand, contains the ..productmoment correlations of the variables with the oblique factors (Ladewig, 1977, p. 63). Succinctly stated, this is the am ount of variation in an item explained by a specific factor. Pattern matrices are most appropriately used within this study due to one distinction while pattern loadings (Table 4-5) best illu strate the item involvement in clusters (or factors), structure loadings (T able 4-6) more appropriately measure the correlations of items with the factors. This allows pattern structures to more effectively illustrate the correlation between clusters, in the proce ss showing the degree to which the data calculate orthogonal f actors (Ladewig, 1977). In comparing Tables 4-4 and 4-5, it is a pparent that the Rotated Factor Pattern Matrix (Table 4-5) is the best illustration of a simpler structure. This is illustrated through the greater deviations am ong the factor loadings (patte rn loadings in Table 4-5), as well as the better maximization of high loadings on each factor, while keeping the number of factors to a minimum (in this case, two). Therefore, it will be this matrix that

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105 will be used in future comparisons and for calcu lation of the factor scores (to be utilized in linear regressions) within this study. Table 4-6. Promax Rotated Limited Factor Structure Matrix of Psychological Sense of Community (Independent Variable). Item Factor Loadings* Membership and Belonginga Community Satisfactionb I think my community is a good place for me to live. .571 .601 People in this community do not share the same values (Recode). .639 .138 My neighbors and I want the same things from this community. .625 .199 I can recognize most of the people who live in my community. .107 .685 I feel at home in this community. .739 .531 Very few of my neighbors know me (Recode). .790 .458 I care about what my neighbors think of my actions. 757 .315 I have no influence over what this community is like (Recode). .527 .238 If there is a problem in this community, people who live here can get it solved. .502 .608 It is very important to me to live in this particular community. .394 .750 People in this community generally do not get along with each other (Recode). .634 .384 I expect to live in this community for a long time. N = 49 .366 .851 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Promax with Kaiser Normalization. *Those in bold are the highest factor loadings for that item. a: Membership and Belonging was originally identified as Factor 1. b: Community Satisfaction was originally identified as Factor 2. Factor labeling As discussed earlier, when using rotation to move the factor matrix into a simpler structure, this usually allows for each factor to describe a unique cluster, or group of

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106 items. Therefore, once the clustering of items with each factor is completed, the pattern matrix (Table 4-5) can be used to guide the definition and labeling of each factor. This is a descriptive approach where the researcher considers the pattern loadings on each factor, from highest to lowest. From this an alysis, the factors we re described through similarities found in the factor loading items and Factor 1 was renamed membership and belonging, with Factor 2 be ing labeled the community satisfaction factor. During analysis, Factor 1 appeared to be composed of items describing what community members feel when they are a me mber, or belong to a group. This included shared values, developing a good reputation, identifying with a group, and a feeling of community solidarity. Thus, membership and be longing seemed to be an appropriate title in describing Factor 1. Equally, Factor 2 had a theme emerge from its cluster of items, this being a feeling of community satisfac tion. Identifying with this cluster of items, community members indicated strong community affecti on, expectations of community longevity, and high-quality life experiences. This led to the title of this f actor as community satisfaction. Both membership and belongi ng and community satisfaction contribute to the independent variable of ps ychological sense of community. It should be noted that these labels (as well as future factor classifi cations) are merely best fit classifications of the items within the factors and imply nothi ng beyond the item loadings and renaming of the factors. Community Leadership Factor Analysis The second independent variable examined through factor analysis was community leadership. Again, as with the first independent variable, due to the high factor loadings of items on the first factor and a difficulty of interpreting the other factors, it was decided

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107 to rotate the factor matrix using the Promax rotation procedure. Table 4-7 is presented as the Unrotated Factor Matrix of Community Leadership, while Table 4-8 is the Promax Rotated Pattern Matrix of Community Leadership. Through analysis of each of these tables, as we ll as the scree test (Figure 4-2), it is evident the correlation matrix for this variab le could be satisfact orily described using three factors. Reviewing the scree plot, the curve starts to level out around Factor 3. Furthermore, when looking at the Promax Rotated Pattern Matrix of Community Leadership (Table 4-8), it appears that th e minimum amount of factors with the highest loadings is the first three factors. While there seems to be a number of high factor loadings beyond the third factor within these situa tions, often there is another moderate loading within the first three factors that can be utilized in aligning w ith Factor 1, 2 or 3. Again, it should be noted that a prime motive be hind factor rotation is to have the highest factor loadings upon a minimum nu mber of factors (data reductio n). Therefore, it is these three factors that will be the foundation for th e analysis of compar ison levels for this variable.

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108Table 4-7. Unrotated Factor Matrix of Co mmunity Leadership (Independent Variable). Item Factor Loadings* Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 Factor 5 Factor 6 Factor 7 Factor 8 Factor 9 In general, people within my community...Trust each other. .506 .380 .142 .083 .431 -.466 -.073 -.031 .129 ...Are clear on the goals of this community. .739 .082 .305 .106 -.015 -.148 -.041 .122 -.254 ...Are non-judgmental they keep an open mind. .587 -.175 .326 -.379 .142 -.239 .108 -.178 -.060 ...Respect each other. .662 .359 .117 .099 .199 .291 -.011 .187 -.256 ...Know where this community is headed in the future. .724 -.189 .123 .081 -.042 -.077 -.122 -.120 -.313 ...Maintain high ethical standards. .600 .339 .366 .068 .036 .072 -.141 -.264 -.261 ...Work well together. .636 .543 .118 -.030 .032 .141 -.037 .070 .046 ...Are caring and compassionate towards each other. .528 .609 -.023 .094 -.216 .119 .146 -.011 .194 ...Demonstrate high integrity and honesty. .659 .241 .229 -.099 -.074 -.297 .397 -.077 .021 ...Are trustworthy. .648 .478 .077 -.003 .036 -.005 .017 .067 -.083 ...Relate well to each other. .667 .447 .091 -.154 .203 -.166 -.048 .146 -.015 ...Attempt to work with others more than working on their own. .727 .446 .068 .009 .063 -.048 .162 -.097 -.029

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109Table 4-7. Continued. ...Are aware of the needs of others. .457 -.049 .029 .697 .007 .044 .062 -.193 .254 ...Allow for individuality of style and expression. .443 -.367 525 .289 .135 .082 .188 .080 .206 ...Are encouraged by leaders to share in making important decisions. .449 -.226 .041 .249 .366 .470 .189 .254 -.184 ...Accept people as they are. 695 -.228 .442 -.108 -.051 -.063 .115 .120 .015 ...View conflict as an opportunity to learn and grow. .449 -.352 .510 -.237 -.244 .211 .148 .179 -.056 Does the top leadership within this community...Communicate a clear vision of the future of this community? .801 -.375 .033 .006 .097 -.110 -.060 -.140 -.165 ...Open to learning from subordinate members within the community. .834 -.245 -.019 .070 .210 -.030 .008 -.214 .058 ...Allow community members to help determine where the community is headed. .734 -.025 -.278 .193 .004 -.122 .355 -.032 -.050 ...Work alongside community members instead of separate from them. .756 -.016 -.280 .037 .016 .080 .030 -.257 -.177 ...Use persuasion to influence others instead of coercion or force. .567 -.064 -.549 -.112 .140 -.088 .369 .022 -.092 ...Choose to provide the leadership that is needed. .804 -.069 -.062 .055 -.356 -.175 .149 .025 .050 ...Promote open communication and sharing of information. .782 -.211 -.223 .014 -.130 .112 .038 -.188 -.011 ...Give community members the power to make important decisions. .812 -.060 .126 .037 .184 -.004 .115 -.098 .113

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110Table 4-7. Continued. ...Provide the support and resources needed to help community members meet their goals. .744 .148 .118 .169 -.201 .098 -.163 -.214 -.068 ...Create an environment that encourages learning. .737 -.123 .085 .360 -.123 .065 -.224 .155 -.006 ...Open to receiving criticism and challenge from others. .707 -.385 .040 -.252 .079 .092 -.019 -.237 .143 ...Say what they mean, and mean what they say. .855 -.087 .060 -.018 .098 .058 -.077 -.128 -.089 ...Encourage each person to exercise leadership. .822 -.110 .069 -.009 .112 .072 -.149 .062 .275 ...Admit personal limitations and mistakes. .641 -.031 -.060 -.303 .163 .025 -.441 .000 .073 ...Encourage people to take risks even though they may fail. .555 -.269 .064 -.039 -.067 -.374 -.072 .235 .179 ...Practice the same be havior they expect from others. .887 .066 -.134 -.099 .043 .233 .033 .020 .127 ...Facilitate the building of community. .820 .222 -.063 -.045 -.132 .026 -.028 .188 .153 ...Not demand special recognition for being leaders. .702 .087 .077 -.235 -.299 .167 -.108 .051 .031 ...Lead by example by modeling appropriate behavior. .860 .081 -.007 -.151 -.071 .108 .216 .083 .184 ...Seek to influence others from a positive relationship rather than from authority or power. .729 -.057 -.193 -.078 .147 .243 .072 -.148 .152 ...Provide opportunities for everyone to develop to their full potential. .676 -.072 -.274 .349 .065 -.236 -.301 .140 -.006

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111Table 4-7. Continued. ...Honestly evaluate themselves before seeking to evaluate others. .826 -.212 -.103 -.016 .086 .010 -.089 .137 .161 ...Use their power and authority to benefit the community members. .532 -.032 -.525 -.113 .158 .027 .112 .291 -.172 ...Take appropriate action when it is needed. .764 -.013 -.024 .058 -.399 -.049 .017 .177 -.144 ...Build community members up through encouragement and affirmation. .805 .066 -.300 -.001 -.259 -.122 -.024 -.182 -.001 ...Humble they do not promote themselves. .750 .171 -.115 -.241 .058 .254 -.184 -.060 .237 ...Communicate clear plans and goals for this community. .870 -.279 -.061 -.065 .074 -.093 .050 .140 -.115 ...Accountable and res ponsible to others. .839 -.085 -.147 -.062 .114 -.144 -.173 .167 -.080 ...Receptive listeners. .820 -.087 -.119 .115 -.290 -.103 -.127 .109 .065 ...Put the needs of the community ahead of their own. N = 49 .792 -.071 -.079 -.087 -.183 .098 -.068 -.143 -.178 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. *Those in bold are the highest factor loadings for that item.

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112 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47Component Number 0 5 10 15 20 25Eigenvalue Scree Plot Figure 4-2. Scree Plot of Community Leadership (Independent Variable).

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113Table 4-8. Promax Rotated Factor Pattern Matrix of Community L eadership (Independent Variable). Item Factor Loadings* Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 Factor 5 Factor 6 Factor 7 Factor 8 Factor 9 In general, people within my community...Trust each other. .427 .053 -.047 .142 -.138 .002 .135 .830 -.162 ...Are clear on the goals of this community. .292 -.295 -.082 .350 .327 .400 -.044 .148 .113 ...Are non-judgmental they keep an open mind. -.054 .244 .060 -.236 .611 .265 -.252 .243 -.172 ...Respect each other. .660 -.045 .066 -.041 -.005 .267 -.067 .006 .500 ...Know where this community is headed in the future. -.113 -.049 .023 .261 .165 .640 -.019 -.020 .042 ...Maintain high ethical standards. .528 .017 -.365 -.180 .042 .744 .035 .119 .029 ...Work well together. .843 .182 -.134 -.040 -.047 .040 -.016 .133 .081 ...Are caring and compassionate towards each other. .907 .005 .029 -.039 -.145 -.134 .201 .009 -.085 ...Demonstrate high integrity and honesty. .494 -.291 .329 -.132 .460 .034 .010 .254 -.183 ...Are trustworthy. .721 -.043 .056 .038 -.042 .148 -.062 .183 .065 ...Relate well to each other. .651 .115 .046 .100 .015 .003 -.203 .414 -.004 ...Attempt to work with others more than working on their own. .696 -.024 .214 -.150 -.003 .176 .057 .229 -.002 ...Are aware of the needs of others. .058 -.072 -.091 .249 -.181 .062 .889 .109 .089

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114Table 4-8. Continued. ...Are encouraged by leaders to share in making important decisions. .020 -.022 .356 -.133 .229 .018 .158 -.203 .850 ...Accept people as they are. .057 .025 -.137 .147 .806 .057 -.036 .020 .061 ...View conflict as an opportunity to learn and grow. -.028 .029 -.243 -.010 1.019 .051 -.193 -.383 .176 Does the top leadership within this community...Communicate a clear vision of the future of this community? -.318 .202 .196 .203 .227 .442 .020 .058 .036 ...Open to learning from subordinate members within the community. -.139 .417 .212 .023 .095 .235 .233 .162 .042 ...Allow community members to help determine where the community is headed. .108 -.241 .813 .116 -.026 .017 .217 .046 .101 ...Work alongside community members instead of separate from them. .052 .215 483 -.049 -.243 .441 .054 -.083 .046 ...Use persuasion to influence others instead of coercion or force. -.029 -.010 1.153 -.068 -.166 -.147 -.124 .015 .130 ...Choose to provide the leadership that is needed. .119 -.125 .294 .440 .250 .024 .106 -.092 -.200 ...Promote open communication and sharing of information. -.098 .330 .358 .094 -.010 .237 .119 -.212 -.017 ...Give community members the power to make important decisions. .163 .291 .140 -.052 .263 .071 .207 .189 .086 ...Provide the support and resources needed to help community members meet their goals. .328 .151 -.254 .172 -.050 .510 .208 -.077 -.082 ...Create an environment that encourages learning. .052 .024 -.244 .669 .059 .186 .299 -.061 .156

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115Table 4-8. Continued. ...Open to receiving criticism and challenge from others. -.265 .740 .061 -.151 .342 .131 .002 -.052 -.077 ...Say what they mean, and mean what they say. .081 .339 .066 .053 .126 .374 .031 .044 .083 ...Encourage each person to exercise leadership. .109 .622 -.166 .269 .185 -.135 .166 .129 .033 ...Admit personal limitations and mistakes. .018 .849 -.261 .234 -.097 .124 -.261 .158 -.111 ...Encourage people to take risks even though they may fail. -.203 .070 -.007 .673 .368 -.248 -.007 .235 -.208 ...Practice the same be havior they expect from others. .339 .530 .245 -.001 .045 -.064 .026 -.075 .139 ...Facilitate the building of community. 495 .240 .071 .355 .064 -.176 -.006 .025 -.028 ...Not demand special recognition for being leaders. .346 .364 -.162 .170 .254 .098 -.192 -.244 -.099 ...Lead by example by modeling appropriate behavior. .415 .304 .294 -.005 .330 -.220 .006 -.053 .046 ...Seek to influence others from a positive relationship rather than from authority or power. .122 .624 .325 -.205 -.040 -.018 .122 -.055 .125 ...Provide opportunities for everyone to develop to their full potential. -.106 .045 .109 .844 -.397 .099 .231 .256 -.003 ...Honestly evaluate themselves before seeking to evaluate others. -.048 .462 .144 .387 .135 -.143 .066 .065 .078 ...Use their power and authority to benefit the community members. .018 .043 .886 .230 -.226 -.177 -.288 -.047 .301 ...Take appropriate action when it is needed. .195 -.238 .166 .561 .224 .167 -.062 -.232 -.030

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116Table 4-8. Continued. ...Build community members up through encouragement and affirmation. .140 .177 .346 .297 -.216 .235 .052 -.045 -.286 ...Humble they do not promote themselves. .389 .874 -.087 -.057 -.102 -.072 -.058 -.007 -.039 ...Communicate clear plans and goals for this community. -.128 .108 414 .333 .302 .098 -.110 .030 .148 ...Accountable and res ponsible to others. .007 .246 .233 .494 -.008 .096 -.152 .173 .049 ...Receptive listeners. .056 .096 .053 .680 .041 .043 .109 -.072 -.142 ...Put the needs of the community ahead of their own. N = 49 .069 .231 .166 .120 .054 445 -.096 -.216 -.031 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Promax with Kaiser Normalization Rotation converged in 14 iterations. *Those in bold are the highest factor loadings for that item.

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117 Unrotated factor matrix As it was determined the correlation matrix for community leadership could be adequately described using three factors, the principle axes were r ecalculated using three factors (Table 4-9). This tabl e outlines the pattern of variance in the data for the variable of community leadership. The square of any factor loading still e xpresses the proportion of variance explained in a particular item by a factor. Furthermore, h2 delineates the variance of an item accounted for by all the factor s within the matrix. Using Item 1 as an example, which states In general, people within my community. Trust each other the proportion of variance explained in this item by Factor 1 is 0.256, with the h2 for the item itself being 0.421. When looking at all factors, the amount of total variance explained by each factor is Factor 1 = 50.81% Factor 2 = 6.31%, and Factor 3 = 4.99%. All the three factors contribute to explaini ng a total of 62.1% of the data variation within community leadership. The common variance totals at the bottom of each column delineate how much of the overall variance is described th rough each factor, and this indicates Factor 1 explains over 80 percent (81.81%) of the vari ance, with Factors 2 and 3 representing 10.16 % and 8.04%, respectively. Again, due to high alignment of items upon the first factor, interpretation is difficult throughout the other two f actors. Therefore, the origin al factor matrix is rotated using the Promax procedure, to more easily an alyze and define all th ree factors associated with community leadership (Table 4-10).

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118 Table 4-9. Unrotated Limited Factor Matr ix of Community Leadership (Independent Variable). Item Factor Loadings* Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 h2 In general, people within my community...Trust each other. .506 .380 .142 .421 ...Are clear on the goals of this community. .739 .082 .305 .646 ...Are non-judgmental they keep an open mind. .587 -.175 .326 .478 ...Respect each other. .662 .359 .117 .581 ...Know where this community is headed in the future. .724 -.189 .123 .575 ...Maintain high ethical standards. .600 .339 .366 .609 ...Work well together. .636 .543 .118 .713 ...Are caring and compassionate towards each other. .528 .609 -.023 .650 ...Demonstrate high integrity and honesty. .659 .241 .229 .545 ...Are trustworthy. .648 .478 .077 .654 ...Relate well to each other. .667 .447 .091 .653 ...Attempt to work with others more than working on their own. .727 .446 .068 .732 ...Are aware of the needs of others. .457 -.049 .029 .212 ...Allow for individuality of style and expression. .443 -.367 .525 .473 ...Are encouraged by leaders to share in making important decisions. .449 -.226 .041 .254 ...Accept people as they are. .695 -.228 .442 .730 ...View conflict as an oppo rtunity to learn and grow. .449 -.352 .510 .586 Does the top leadership within this community...Communicate a clear vision of the future of this community? .801 -.375 .033 .783 ...Open to learning from subordinate members within the community. .834 -.245 -.019 .756 ...Allow community members to help determine where the community is headed. .734 -.025 -.278 .617 ...Work alongside community members instead of separate from them. .756 -.016 -.280 .650 ...Use persuasion to influenc e others instead of coercion or force. .567 -.064 -.549 .627

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119 Table 4-9. Continued. ...Choose to provide the lead ership that is needed. .804 -.069 -.062 .655 ...Promote open communication and sharing of information. .782 -.211 -.223 .706 ...Give community members the power to make important decisions. .812 -.060 .126 .679 ...Provide the support and re sources needed to help community members meet their goals. .744 .148 .118 .589 ...Create an environment that encourages learning. .737 -.123 .085 .567 ...Open to receiving criticism and challenge from others. .707 -.385 .040 .650 ...Say what they mean, and mean what they say. .855 -.087 .060 .742 ...Encourage each person to exercise leadership. .822 -.110 .069 .693 ...Admit personal limitations and mistakes. .641 -.031 -.060 .415 ...Encourage people to take risks even though they may fail. .555 -.269 .064 .312 ...Practice the same behavior they expect from others. .887 .066 -.134 .809 ...Facilitate the building of community. .820 .222 -.063 .726 ...Not demand special recognition for being leaders. .702 .087 .077 .506 ...Lead by example by mode ling appropriate behavior. .860 .081 -.007 .746 ...Seek to influence others from a positive relationship rather than from authority or power. .729 -.057 -.193 .572 ...Provide opportunities for everyone to develop to their full potential. .676 -.072 -.274 .537 ...Honestly evaluate themselves before seeking to evaluate others. .826 -.212 -.103 .738 ...Use their power and authority to benefit the community members. .532 -.032 -.525 .560 ...Take appropriate action when it is needed. .764 -.013 -.024 .584 ...Build community members up through encouragement and affirmation. .805 .066 -.300 .742 ...Humble they do not promote themselves. .750 .171 -.115 .605 ...Communicate clear plans and goals for this community. .870 -.279 -.061 .838 ...Accountable and res ponsible to others. .839 -.085 -.147 .733 ...Receptive listeners. .820 -.087 -.119 .694

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120 Table 4-9. Continued. ...Put the needs of the community ahead of their own. N = 49 .792 -.071 -.079 .639 Sum of squared loadings 23.880 2.967 2.344 Total Variance (%) 50.81 6.31 4.99 62.1 (Total) Common Variance (%) 81.82 10.16 8.04 100.0 (Total) Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Three components extracted. *Those in bold are the highest factor loadings for that item. Rotated factor matrices Moving the community leadership factor matr ix into a simpler structure, results in the following pattern (Table 4-10) and structur e (Table 4-11) matrices. As can be seen, the result is a number of very strong pattern loadings on each of the three factors, allowing for easier factor labeling in the future Through looking at th e greater variations among pattern loadings within each item and the more even ly distributed high factor loadings, it is clear this is the best illustrati on of a simpler structure for this variable. The number of factors involved ha ve been kept to a minimum (three, in this case) while extracting high pattern loadings. Therefore, the Promax Rotated Limited Factor Pattern Matrix of Community Leadership (Table 4-10) will be used for future factor scores and comparisons. Factor labeling In order to effectively illust rate a factor that describes each unique cluster of items, once the items have clustered, or aligned with a factor, the pattern matrix (Table 4-10) can be used to guide the labe ling and definition of the specific factors. Throughout this descriptive approach, the resear cher considers the items with the highest loadings on each factor, and develops a classifica tion using descriptors getting at the essence of the factor.

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121 From this analysis, Factor 1 was rena med community empowerment, Factor 2 was labeled shared community values, and Factor 3 was described as openness to change/community vision. Table 4-10. Promax Rotated Limited Factor Pattern Matrix of Community Leadership (Independent Variable). Item Factor Loadings Community EmpowermentaShared Community Valuesb Openness to Change/ Community Visionc In general, people within my community...Trust each other. -.099 .714 -.003 ...Are clear on the goals of this community. -.080 .470 .496 ...Are non-judgmental they keep an open mind. -.079 .098 .687 ...Respect each other. .029 .724 .029 ...Know where this community is headed in the future. .291 .031 .502 ...Maintain high ethical standards. -.353 .790 .317 ...Work well together. -.066 .955 -.127 ...Are caring and compassionate towards each other. .051 .945 -.375 ...Demonstrate high integrity and honesty. -.082 .619 .255 ...Are trustworthy. .027 .857 -.118 ...Relate well to each other. .031 .828 -.071 ...Attempt to work with others more than working on their own. .096 .836 -.080 ...Are aware of the needs of others. .222 .089 .204 ...Allow for individuality of style and expression. -.358 -.108 1.034 ...Are encouraged by leaders to share in making important decisions. .279 -.139 .360 ...Accept people as they are. -.167 .115 .896 ...View conflict as an oppo rtunity to learn and grow. -.340 -.093 1.006 Does the top leadership within this community...Communicate a clear vision of the future of this community? .541 -.227 .573

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122 Table 4-10. Continued. ...Open to learning from subordinate members within the community. .577 -.071 .415 ...Allow community members to help determine where the community is headed. .801 .069 -.094 ...Work alongside community members instead of separate from them. .811 .086 -.096 ...Use persuasion to infl uence others instead of coercion or force. 1.117 -.154 -.423 ...Choose to provide the lead ership that is needed. .547 .130 .212 ...Promote open communication and sharing of information. .828 -.134 .136 ...Give community members the power to make important decisions. .277 .228 .425 ...Provide the support and re sources needed to help community members meet their goals. .162 .475 .227 ...Create an environment that encourages learning. .323 .104 .408 ...Open to receiving criticism and challenge from others. .486 -.267 .562 ...Say what they mean, and mean what they say. .406 .177 .383 ...Encourage each person to exercise leadership. .386 .141 .403 ...Admit personal limitations and mistakes. .441 .130 .138 ...Encourage people to take risks even though they may fail. .320 -.151 .452 ...Practice the same behavior they expect from others. .636 .299 .043 ...Facilitate the building of community. .430 .514 -.022 ...Not demand special recognition for being leaders. .225 .364 .217 ...Lead by example by mode ling appropriate behavior. .433 .366 .170 ...Seek to influence others from a positive relationship rather than from authority or power. .690 .063 .029 ...Provide opportunities for everyone to develop to their full potential. .785 -.008 -.067 ...Honestly evaluate themselves before seeking to evaluate others. .680 -.068 .288 ...Use their power and authority to benefit the community members. 1.051 -.113 -.432 ...Take appropriate action when it is needed. .447 .207 .200

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123 Table 4-10. Continued. ...Build community members up through encouragement and affirmation. .830 .200 -.174 ...Humble they do not promote themselves. .490 .403 -.061 ...Communicate clear plans and goals for this community. .671 -.123 .405 ...Accountable and res ponsible to others. .695 .081 .136 ...Receptive listeners. .645 .085 .166 ...Put the needs of the community ahead of their own. N = 49 .565 .116 .191 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Promax with Kaiser Normalization. Rotation converged in 7 iterations. *Those in bold are the highest factor loadings for that item. a: Community Empowerment was origin ally identified as Factor 1. b: Shared Community Values was originally identified as Factor 2. c: Openness to Change/Community Vision wa s originally identified as Factor 3. When considering Factor 1, it seemed to be comprised of items that strongly correlated with sharing lead ership and power within th e community, better termed community empowerment. This included the use of persuasion, power and authority to benefit others, building up community members, open communication and sharing accountability and responsibility with those in the community. All of these attitudes and behaviors align strongly with the concept of community empowerment. Therefore, community empowerment seemed a fitting title for Factor 1. When considering Factor 2, the theme behi nd the items seemed to describe shared community values. Items discussing teamwork, being caring and compassionate towards each other, being trustworthy, and having high ethical standards, trust and respect for each other clearly defined when the community defined as their shared values. As a result, Factor 2 was renamed shared community values.

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124 Table 4-11. Promax Rotated Limited Factor Structure Matrix of Community Leadership (Independent Variable). Item Factor Loadings Community EmpowermentaShared Community Valuesb Openness to Change/ Community Visionc In general, people within my community...Trust each other. .389 .644 .356 ...Are clear on the goals of this community. .592 .713 .722 ...Are non-judgmental they keep an open mind. .472 .456 .690 ...Respect each other. .546 .762 .484 ...Know where this community is headed in the future. .666 .532 .726 ...Maintain high ethical standards. .413 .738 .542 ...Work well together. .501 .834 .400 ...Are caring and compassionate towards each other. .435 .755 .228 ...Demonstrate high integrity and honesty. .522 .716 .569 ...Are trustworthy. .531 .804 .415 ...Relate well to each other. .549 .807 .448 ...Attempt to work with others more than working on their own. .613 .853 .489 ...Are aware of the needs of others. .427 .364 .414 ...Allow for individuality of style and expression. .296 .267 .717 ...Are encouraged by leaders to share in making important decisions. .437 .269 .473 ...Accept people as they are. .543 .538 .847 ...View conflict as an oppo rtunity to learn and grow. .305 .277 .711 Does the top leadership within this community...Communicate a clear vision of the future of this community? .789 .488 .818 ...Open to learning from subordinate members within the community. .821 .574 .779 ...Allow community members to help determine where the community is headed. .782 .562 .512 ...Work alongside community members instead of separate from them. .802 .585 .527

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125 Table 4-11. Continued. ...Use persuasion to infl uence others instead of coercion or force. .714 .359 .272 ...Choose to provide the lead ership that is needed. .785 .632 .675 ...Promote open communication and sharing of information. .832 .515 .639 ...Give community members the power to make important decisions. .733 .673 .757 ...Provide the support and re sources needed to help community members meet their goals. .647 .722 .626 ...Create an environment that encourages learning. .683 .571 .699 ...Open to receiving criticism and challenge from others. .699 .404 .744 ...Say what they mean, and mean what they say. .798 .686 .776 ...Encourage each person to exercise leadership. .767 .648 .760 ...Admit personal limitations and mistakes. .627 .515 .527 ...Encourage people to take risks even though they may fail. .534 .339 .586 ...Practice the same behavior they expect from others. .871 .760 .670 ...Facilitate the building of community. .767 .795 .589 ...Not demand special recognition for being leaders. .628 .649 .594 ...Lead by example by mode ling appropriate behavior. .804 .765 .695 ...Seek to influence others from a positive relationship rather than from authority or power. .754 .554 .553 ...Provide opportunities for everyone to develop to their full potential. .732 .490 .481 ...Honestly evaluate themselves before seeking to evaluate others. .836 .571 .726 ...Use their power and authority to benefit the community members. .670 .349 .241 ...Take appropriate action when it is needed. .730 .633 .639 ...Build community members up through encouragement and affirmation. .845 .665 .531 ...Humble they do not promote themselves. .723 .702 .526 ...Communicate clear plans and goals for this community. .871 .580 .803 ...Accountable and res ponsible to others. .847 .640 .675

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126 Table 4-11. Continued. ...Receptive listeners. .821 .628 .672 ...Put the needs of the community ahead of their own. N = 49 .780 .619 .659 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Promax with Kaiser Normalization. *Those in bold are the highest factor loadings for that item. a: Community Empowerment was origin ally identified as Factor 1. b: Shared Community Values was originally identified as Factor 2. c: Openness to Change/Community Vision wa s originally identified as Factor 3. Finally, during analysis of Factor 3, it became apparent there were two relatively similar, yet different aspects sharing this fact or. Overall, the items seemed to have a lot in common, the difference being from what pe rspective the question was answered. This factor appeared to be desc ribing both an openness to cha nge shared with community members, and a community vision possessed by community leaders. These included valuing personal individuality and being non-ju dgmental, as well as valuing conflict from the community members angle, to having and communicating a cl ear vision, developing goals and being open to challenge from the l eadership perspective. Each of these contribute extensively to this factor, which is why Factor 3 was labeled as openness to change/community vision to encompass bot h viewpoints about a similar matter. When considering all three factors, it was realized that the first two contributed to explaining more than 90% of the variance, while the third factor explained only about 10%. Furthermore, when considered in rela tion to all the other study variables, it was discovered the variable of openness to ch ange/community vision had much larger implications. From the beginning, this study was designed to explore the general question What makes a community successf ul?. By design, community success was operationalized through a communitys viabil ity score a ranking determined through economic, social and population measures. Sta tistically this did not work. However, it

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127 was found to be successfully operationaliz ed through the variable of openness to change/community vision. Moreover, this ne w variable was directly tied to all of the other variables in the study, and was ultimately uncovered as the most salient and true dependent variable. Therefore, the independe nt variable of comm unity leadership is explained through two variables within this study, with the vari able of openness to change/community vision as the dependent variable. Social Capital Factor Analysis The only intervening variable examined thr ough factor analysis was social capital. As illustrated in the theoretical framework re garding social capital, there were three aspects particularly applicable to social capita l within the situation outlined by this study. These components are trust, community i nvolvement and organizational involvement. Factor analyses were done on trust and community involvement. Concerning organizational involvement, this was a count variable; therefore, summated involvement experiences were used to identify this variab le numerically. Nonetheless, the first factor analysis of social capital will involve trust. Social capital Trust factor analysis As with the two previous variables, the analysis process began by producing a general unrotated factor matr ix, which was studied and for solely exploratory purposes a Promax rotation was performed. Due to th e small number of items within the trust variable, it was assumed the correlation matr ix involved was best described through only one variable. However, as two were extr acted through the original factor analysis process, it was decided to explore the variab le more thoroughly, and see if the rotated matrix could provide a simpler model. Table 4-12 is presented as the Unrotated Factor Matrix of Social Capital Trust, while Table 4-13 is the Promax Rotated Pattern Matrix

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128 of Social Capital Trust. A structure matrix regarding the same vari able is presented in Table 4-14 for thoroughness of data presentation. Table 4-12. Unrotated Factor Matrix of Soci al Capital Trust (Intervening Variable). Item Factor Loadings* Factor 1 Factor 2 How much do you trust...People in your community. .797 .276 ...People you work with. .681 -.485 ...People at your church or place of worship. .319 .864 ...People who work at th e stores where you shop. .837 .007 ...The local news media. .750 .012 ...The police in your town. N = 49 .663 -.270 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. *Those in bold are the highest factor loadings for that item. Table 4-13. Promax Rotated Factor Pattern Ma trix of Social Capital Trust (Intervening Variable). Item Factor Loadings* Factor 1 Factor 2 How much do you trust...People in your community. .584 .455 ...People you work with. .873 -.352 ...People at your church or place of worship. -.157 .956 ...People who work at th e stores where you shop. .760 .188 ...The local news media. .678 .174 ...The police in your town. N = 49 .746 -.134 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Promax with Kaiser Normalization. Rotation converged in 3 iterations. *Those in bold are the highest factor loadings for that item.

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129 123456Component Number 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0Eigenvalue Scree Plot Figure 4-3. Scree Plot of Social Ca pital Trust (Intervening Variable). Through analysis of each of these tables, as well as the scree test (Figure 4-3), the assumption made by the researcher proved to be correct one fact or does satisfactorily describe the correlation matrix for trust. The scree plot does illustrate the curve begins to flatten out around Figure 2; however, when looki ng at the Unrotated Factor Matrix and the Rotated Factor Pattern Ma trix, all of the items (save one) highly load onto the first factor. This brings about two concerns. Firs t of all, the different iation between loadings in the pattern matrix (Table 413) appears not to be any bett er than it was in the initial factor matrix (Table 4-12). Secondly, regard less whether the rotated matrix appeared to be more applicable or not, when working w ith one factor you cannot rotate the solution.

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130 Therefore, the Unrotated Limited Factor Matr ix of Social Capital Trust (Table 4-15) will be used for future factor scores and comparisons. Table 4-14. Promax Rotated Factor Struct ure Matrix of Social Capital Trust (Intervening Variable). Item Factor Loadings* Factor 1 Factor 2 How much do you trust...People in your community. .723 .633 ...People you work with. .766 -.085 ...People at your church or place of worship. .135 .908 ...People who work at th e stores where you shop. .818 .420 ...The local news media. .731 .381 ...The police in your town. N = 49 .705 .093 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Promax with Kaiser Normalization. *Those in bold are the highest factor loadings for that item. Unrotated factor matrix Through the previous discussion, it has been illustrated that this correlation matrix could be effectively described through using only one factor. Therefore, the principal axes were recalculated using one factor (Table 4-15). This table outlines the pattern of variance in the data for the variable of social capital trust. Within this unique case, the proportion of the variance explained in a sp ecific item is the same as the variance accounted for by all factors with in the matrix. For example, within item 2 How much do you trust thepeople you work with, the pr oportion of variance in this item is 0.464, the same as h2 for the same row/item. When looki ng at the total variance, Factor 1 explains 48.39% of the variance within the data.

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131 Table 4-15. Unrotated Limited Factor Matrix of Social Capital Trust (Intervening Variable). Item Factor Loadings* Factor 1 h2 How much do you trust...People in your community. .797 .635 ...People you work with. .681 .464 ...People at your church or place of worship. .319 .102 ...People who work at th e stores where you shop. .837 .701 ...The local news media. .750 .563 ...The police in your town. N = 49 .663 .440 Sum of squared loadings 2.903 Total Variance (%) 48.39 48.39 (Total) Common Variance (%) 100.0 100.0 (Total) Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. One component extracted. *Those in bold are the highest factor loadings for that item. Social capital Community involvement factor analysis The second aspect of the intervening vari able social capital that was examined through factor analysis is community involve ment. Factor loadings in the unrotated factor matrix (Table 4-16) of this variable were considered and in order to increase the differentiation between factor lo adings and to make the other factors more interpretable, the factor matrix was rotated using the Promax procedure (Table 4-17).

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132 Table 4-16. Unrotated Factor Matrix of Social Capital Community Involvement (Intervening Variable). Item Factor Loadings* Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 About how many times in the past 12 months have you...Attended a celebration or pa rade, or a local sports or art event in your community? .665 .149 .213 ...Taken part in artistic activities with others such as singing, dancing, or acting with a group? .190 .419 .808 ...Attended a club meeting? .781 -.126 .054 ...Had friends over to your home? .158 .720 -.352 ...Socialized with co-wor kers outside of work? .327 .603 -.419 ...Played a team sport? .418 -.022 .199 ...Attended any public meeting in which there was a discussion of town or school affairs? .622 -.559 -.168 ...Volunteered? .801 .125 .063 ...Worked on a community project? N = 49 .715 -.187 -.243 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. *Those in bold are the highest factor loadings for that item. Table 4-17. Promax Rotated Factor Pattern Matrix of Social Capital Community Involvement (Interv ening Variable). Item Factor Loadings* Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 About how many times in the past 12 months have you...Attended a celebration or pa rade, or a local sports or art event in your community? .590 .092 .330 ...Taken part in artistic activities with others such as singing, dancing, or acting with a group? .056 -.120 .947 ...Attended a club meeting? .788 -.020 .085 ...Had friends over to your home? -.081 .831 -.039 ...Socialized with co-wor kers outside of work? .117 .801 -.130 ...Played a team sport? .409 -.078 .225 ...Attended any public meeting in which there was a discussion of town or school affairs? .771 -.265 -.309

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133 Table 4-17. Continued. ...Volunteered? .727 .184 .193 ...Worked on a community project? N = 49 .741 .101 -.227 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Promax with Kaiser Normalization. Rotation converged in 5 iterations. *Those in bold are the highest factor loadings for that item. 123456789Component Number 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0Eigenvalue Scree Plot Figure 4-4. Scree Plot of Social Cap ital Community Involvement (Intervening Variable). Through examination of the pattern matrix (T able 4-17) it is a pparent the rotation has allowed for much stronger loadings on each factor. In addition, through analysis of the scree plot (Figure 4-4) and Table 4-17, it is clear the correlation matrix for this

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134 variable can be adequately described with tw o factors. These two factors will provide the basis for the study between comparison levels. Unrotated factor matrix As aforementioned, the correlation matrix a ssociated with this variable could be accurately described through two factors. Theref ore, the principle axes were recalculated using two factors, with the resulting table pr esented as Table 4-18. This table outlines the variance found in the data, and describes the di fferent variations each number represents. The variance of an item accounted for by all of the factors in the ma trix is delineated by h2. For item 9, About how many times in the last 12 months have youworked on a community project the amount of variation this item has in common with Factor 1 is 0.511, with the h2 for that row (the variation according to all the factors for that specific item) being 0.546. In reviewing the entire matrix (Table 418), the first two factors account for nearly 50 percent (48.82%) of the total variance in the correlations matrix, with Factor 1 contributing 32.61% and Factor 2 contributing a little over 16 percen t (16.21%). Looking at the common variance totals at the bottom of each column reveals that Factor 1 accounts for two-thirds (66.8%) of the overall va riance, with Factor 2 accounting for the remaining third (33.2%). Rotated factor matrices Factor loadings in the unrotated factor ma trix (Table 4-18) of this variable were considered and due to the high loadings on the first factor, a simplified matrix was sought through a Promax rotation. From this ro tation, a pattern matrix (Table 4-19) and structure matrix (Table 4-20) were create d. In studying the pattern matrix, it is discovered there are a number of very str ong pattern loadings on each factor, yet the

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135 factors involved is kept to a minimum of two. Therefore, this matrix will be used for future factor scores and comparisons. Table 4-18. Unrotated Limited Factor Ma trix of Social Capital Community Involvement (Interv ening Variable). Item Factor Loadings* Factor 1 Factor 2 h2 About how many times in the past 12 months have you...Attended a celebration or pa rade, or a local sports or art event in your community? 665 .149 .464 ...Taken part in artistic activities with others such as singing, dancing, or acting with a group? .190 .419 .212 ...Attended a club meeting? .781 -.126 .626 ...Had friends over to your home? .158 .720 .543 ...Socialized with co-wor kers outside of work? .327 .603 .471 ...Played a team sport? .418 -.022 .175 ...Attended any public meeting in which there was a discussion of town or school affairs? .622 -.559 .699 ...Volunteered? .801 .125 .657 ...Worked on a community project? N = 49 .715 -.187 .546 Sum of squared loadings 2.935 1.459 Total Variance (%) 32.61 16.21 48.82 (Total) Common Variance (%) 66.800 33.204 100.0 (Total) Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Two components extracted. *Those in bold are the highest factor loadings for that item. Factor labeling After rotating the fact or matrix of social capital community involvement into a simpler structure, this commonly allows for each factor to describe a unique cluster of items. Thus, once we had rotated the matrix and the grouping of items was complete, the

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136 pattern matrix (Table 4-19) can be used to gui de the researcher in providing each factor with a more appropriate label. From this de scriptive analysis, the factors were portrayed through similarities found between the items. Th e pattern loadings for each factor were considered from highest to lowest, and commonalities within the highest loadings were used to describe each factor. Within th e intervening variable of social capital community involvement, Factor 1 was rename d community action, with Factor 2 being labeled the socialization factor. Table 4-19. Promax Rotated Limited Fact or Pattern Matrix of Social Capital Community Involvement (In tervening Variable). Item Factor Loadings* Community ActionaSocializationb About how many times in the past 12 months have you...Attended a celebration or parade, or a local sports or art event in your community? .594 .274 ...Taken part in artistic activ ities with others such as singing, dancing, or acting with a group? .057 .450 ...Attended a club meeting? .788 .024 ...Had friends over to your home? -.064 .741 ...Socialized with co-wor kers outside of work? .133 .658 ...Played a team sport? .408 .058 ...Attended any public meeting in which there was a discussion of town or school affairs? .765 -.434 ...Volunteered? .732 .276 ...Worked on a community project? N = 49 .743 -.049 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Promax with Kaiser Normalization. Rotation converged in 3 iterations. *Those in bold are the highest factor loadings for that item. a: Community Action was originally identified as Factor 1. b: Socialization was original ly identified as Factor 2.

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137 During analysis, Factor 1 appeared to be composed of how often community members perceived they engaged in social actions within the co mmunity. Matters like attending club meetings, engaging in comm unity projects, volunteering, and attending local parades and celebrations all figured in to this factor. Thus, community action seemed to be an approp riate title for Factor 1. Table 4-20. Promax Rotated Limited Factor Structure Matrix of Social Capital Community Involvement (In tervening Variable). Item Factor Loadings* Community ActionaSocializationb About how many times in the past 12 months have you...Attended a celebration or parade, or a local sports or art event in your community? .624 .340 ...Taken part in artistic activ ities with others such as singing, dancing, or acting with a group? .107 .456 ...Attended a club meeting? .791 .112 ...Had friends over to your home? .019 .734 ...Socialized with co-wor kers outside of work? .206 .673 ...Played a team sport? .414 .103 ...Attended any public meeting in which there was a discussion of town or school affairs? .717 -.348 ...Volunteered? .763 .358 ...Worked on a community project? N = 49 .738 .034 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Promax with Kaiser Normalization. *Those in bold are the highest factor loadings for that item. a: Community Action was originally identified as Factor 1. b: Socialization was original ly identified as Factor 2. In reviewing Factor 2, the ma jor descriptive theme of these items directed toward socializing with friends and community memb ers. This included having friends over, socializing with coworkers outsi de of work, and participating in activities like singing in the church choir. Each of these activities directed the researcher toward renaming this

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138 factor socialization. Both community ac tion and socializatio n contribute to the independent variable of social capital community involvement. Factor scores Factor scores were developed for each aspect of each variable, to be used as the indicators of comparison levels. To devel op a factor score for th e variables involved, a weight for each item was produced according to its involvement within the factor. These weights were then combined to give each variab le its overall factor score. Factor scores were figured for the independent variables: sense of community, (1) membership and belonging and (2) community satisfaction; and community leadership, (1) community empowerment, and (2) shared community values Factor scores were also developed for the aspects of the intervening variable so cial capital of (1) trust, (2) community involvement community action, and (3) comm unity involvement socialization. Due to the nature of the third as pect of social capital orga nizational involvement there could be no factor score fi gures (instead, a summative sc ore was used for regression analysis). Finally, a factor score was also determined for the dependent variable of openness to change/community vision. Each of these scores was used for comparison within the regression and path analyses. Social Capital Organizational Involvement The final aspect used to describe social capital within this study is organizational involvement. This variable describes social capital in a slightly different manner, because it is a summation of all the organi zations and activities in which community leaders are currently involved. Leaders community involvement was measured on a modified weighted scale. If they were i nvolved in an organization and had recently held a leadership position, they received three point s (one for organizati onal involvement plus

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139 two for officer status). Involvement within an organization with no officer responsibilities received one poi nt; and if the leader was not involved in the organization, they received no points. This summative score was used as the basis for this variable within the regression analysis. Due to the nature of the aspect of organizational involvement within the intervening variable of social capital, no reliabi lity or factor analysis is needed. Both of these analyses are used upon at titudinal data, while organiza tional involvement is a count variable. Therefore, to more clearly illustra te the leaders involvement within community organizations, we have listed frequencies and percentages (of those involved) to describe this variable (Refer to Tables 4-21 & 4-22.). Table 4-21. Organizational Involvement of Community Leaders (By Community). Organization Type Macclenny Bonifay Frequency Percent Frequency PercentAn adult sports club or league? Yes, officera Yes, not officerb No 3 8 15 26 11.5 30.8 57.7 100.0 1 10 12 23 4.3 43.5 52.2 100.0 A youth organization, like 4-H, FFA, boys and girls clubs, scouts, etc.? Yes, officer Yes, not officer No 4 7 15 26 15.4 26.9 57.7 100.0 0 11 12 23 0.0 47.8 52.2 100.0 A parents association, like the PTA or PTO? Yes, officer Yes, not officer No 7 5 14 26 26.9 19.3 53.8 100.0 2 10 11 23 8.7 43.5 47.8 100.0 A veterans group? Yes, officer Yes, not officer No 0 3 23 26 0.0 11.5 88.5 100.0 0 1 22 23 0.0 4.3 95.7 100.0

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140 Table 4-21. Continued. A neighborhood association, like a crime watch or homeowners group? Yes, officer Yes, not officer No 2 4 20 26 7.7 15.4 76.9 100.0 0 4 19 23 0.0 17.4 82.6 100.0 A professional trade, farm or business association? Yes, officer Yes, not officer No 12 7 7 26 46.2 26.9 26.9 100.0 4 16 3 23 17.4 69.6 13.0 100.0 A service club or fraternal organization, like the Kiwanis, Rotary or Womens Club? Yes, officer Yes, not officer No 3 9 14 26 11.5 34.7 53.8 100.0 8 10 5 23 34.8 43.5 21.7 100.0 A political or public interest group? Yes, officer Yes, not officer No 6 2 18 26 23.1 7.7 69.2 100.0 1 3 19 23 4.3 13.1 82.6 100.0 A group within the church deacon, usher, Sunday school teacher, church choir, etc.? Yes, officer Yes, not officer No 14 1 11 26 53.8 3.9 42.3 100.0 13 8 2 23 56.5 34.8 8.7 100.0 Other groups not mentioned? Yes, officer Yes, not officer No N = 49 9 3 14 26 34.6 11.6 53.8 100.0 7 10 6 23 30.4 43.5 26.1 100.0 a: Yes, officer = yes the individual has been involved in the organization and has held an office in the past year. b: Yes, not officer = yes the i ndividual has been involved in the organization in the past five years, but has not held an office recently. In analyzing this table and comparing l eaders organizational involvement between communities, several similarities and differences stand out. Within the first several organizations sports clubs, youth organizations, parents as sociations, veterans groups, and neighborhood associations th e numbers are very similar, as far general participation goes. Overall, Macclenny leaders appear to be more involved as officers in youth organizations and parents associations, but according to general participation, both

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141 communities are very similar. Regarding the professional trade and subsequent organizations, variation becomes more apparent It appears that wh ile Bonifay leaders put a great deal of emphasis in being a member of one of these organizations (16 leaders, 69.6%), joining the leadership as an officer is not as im portant (4 leaders, 17.4%). Leaders in Macclenny seem to feel otherwise, with onl y 7 leaders (26.9%) claiming general membership, and 12 lead ers (46.2%) joining the organi zations leadership as an officer. In regard to service organizati ons, Bonifay leaders place more emphasis in serving the community through being active in these type of organizations, with over 78% (18 leaders) of them participating in service organizations; but Macclenny leaders place somewhat less emphasis upon participating in service organizations, with only 12 leaders, or 46.2% of their l eadership contributing to these groups. Another interesting point of diversity between the communities was within church group participation. While both groups gave the impression of st rong community values that often centered around the church, participation within leadership capacities a nd just general membership within church groups received much more em phasis from Bonifay leaders than those in Macclenny. Specifically, both communities had over half of their lead ers participating in leadership of church groups (Macclenny 14 leaders, 53.8%; Bonifay 13 leaders, 56.5%). However overall, Bonifay had many more leaders participating in the church in both leadership and membership capaciti es (21 leaders, 91.3%) then Macclenny (15 leaders, 57.7%). While there were several differences between the communities regarding their leaders community involvement, overall the leaders were very active within whatever their organizational interest turned out to be. The total illustration of community leaders

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142 organizational involvement follows in Table 422. Interestingly, th e top three types of organizations that seem to be of greatest interest to community leaders (in officer capacities and membership combined) in Ma cclenny and Bonifay are professional trade or business associations, church groups, and service clubs or associ ations. Within both communities, veterans groups, homeowners associ ations and political or public interest groups seemed to be of least consequence to local leaders (It should be noted, through qualitative information, that homeowners associations may be of little importance due to the lack of existing organizations of th is type in the rural areas studied.). Table 4-22. Organizational Involvemen t of Community Leaders (Total). Organization Type Frequency Percent An adult sports club or league? Yes, officera Yes, not officerb No 4 18 27 49 8.2 36.7 55.1 100.0 A youth organization, like 4-H, FFA, boys and girls clubs, scouts, etc.? Yes, officer Yes, not officer No 5 17 27 49 10.2 34.7 55.1 100.0 A parents association, like the PTA or PTO? Yes, officer Yes, not officer No 9 15 25 49 18.4 30.6 51.0 100.0 A veterans group? Yes, officer Yes, not officer No 0 4 45 49 0.0 8.2 91.8 100.0 A neighborhood association, like a crime watch or homeowners group? Yes, officer Yes, not officer No 1 9 39 49 2.0 18.4 79.6 100.0

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143 Table 4-22. Continued. A professional trade, farm or business association? Yes, officer Yes, not officer No 16 23 10 49 32.7 46.9 20.4 100.0 A service club or fraternal organization, like the Kiwanis, Rotary or Womens Club? Yes, officer Yes, not officer No 11 19 19 49 22.4 38.8 38.8 100.0 A political or public interest group? Yes, officer Yes, not officer No 7 5 37 49 14.3 10.2 75.5 100.0 A group within the church deacon, usher, Sunday school teacher, church choir, etc.? Yes, officer Yes, not officer No 27 9 13 49 55.1 18.4 26.5 100.0 Other groups not mentioned? Yes, officer Yes, not officer No N = 49 16 13 20 49 32.7 26.5 40.8 100.0 a: Yes, officer = yes the individual has been involved in the organization and has held an office in the past year. b: Yes, not officer = yes the i ndividual has been involved in the organization in the past five years, but has not held an office recently. Regression and Path Analysis The second objective of this study was to determine causal relationships among sense of community, community leadership, and social capital on the communities openness to change. To illustrate the cause and effects behind the relationships of these components, a number of path analyses and multiple regression analyses have been utilized. Path analysis, itself, looks at the direct and indirect effects of selected variables upon the dependent variable in this case, openness to change. Operationally, path analysis uses regression models to test theories of causa l relationships among a set of variables (Agresti & Finlay, 1999, p. 624). Even though path anal ysis is simply a series

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144 of regression analyses performed within a pa th analytic framework, there are particular advantages in performing the regression anal yses in this order. When using a path analytic framework, the researcher must explicitly identify the presumed causal relationships among the variables. Once this is accomplished, logically clear theories can be developed for the variable relationships. Therefore, path analysis not only seeks out associations among the variables, but can al so within causal relationships (Agresti & Finlay, 1999). A causal model portraying the arrangemen t of these sources of influence on openness to change is offered in Figure 4-5. In looking at the figur e more closely, there are three groups of effects or outcomes that can be determined: (1) independent variables (sense of community & community leadership) on the intervening variable (social capital; (2) the intervening variable (social capital) on the dependent variable (openness to change/community vision); and (3) independent variables on openness to change/community vision. All effects with in the model will be considered to depend upon prior outcomes within the model; conseque ntly, six separate regression models must be calculated to determine the variables direct and indirect effects upon openness to change. A product-moment correlation was calculated fo r the variables to discern the size of their associations (refer to Table 4-23). Through analyzing the corr elation coefficients between all of the variables, there appeared to be several high, significant correlations among variables. After careful examination, it wa s determined that in each case this was due to strong parallels between the attitudes behind the variables, not to multicollinearity within the variables. An excellent example of this is the 0.705 significant correlation

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145 between the independent variables of community empowerment and openness to change/community vision. Within this situation, the high correlation found between these variables can be explained through a similar attitude behind both variables. NOTE: Curved lines indicate correlations between exogenous variab les. Dashed and colored lines are used only for ease in distinguishing paths among variables. Figure 4-5. Effects of Selected Variable s on Openness to Change /Community Vision. If community members are sharing in the leadership process and feeling empowered within the community, then they al so may be more open to change, and have a strong vision for their community. Because these two attitudes often work hand in hand, a strong correlation does not seem unusua l in these circumstances. Yet, each variable is measuring something differe nt; community empowerment focuses on the sharing of power and leadership wi thin the community, while openness to Trust Organizational Involvement Community Involvement Community Action Social Capital Membership & Belonging Sense of Community Community Satisfaction Community Leadership Community Empowerment Shared Community Values Openness to Change/Community Vision Community Involvement Socialization

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146 change/community vision focuses on allowing people to be themselves and having future goals for the community. Table 4-23. Product-Moment Correlation Coe fficients for Path Model Variables. Variable 1 1 2 .479* 2 3 .311* .345* 3 4 .589* .611* .686* 4 5 .468* .325* .705* .600* 5 6 .403* .357* .361* .533* .519* 6 7 -.454* -.428* -.352* -.338* -.402* -.294 7 8 -.251 -.244 -.132 -.220 -.085 -.071 .111 8 9 .390* .312* .184 .393* 308* .237 -.554* -.009 9 N = 49 Significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). Factor 1 Membership & Belonging (SOC)a 2 Community Satisfaction (SOC) 3 Community Empowerment (CL)b 4 Shared Community Values (CL) 5 Openness to Change/Community Vision (CL) 6 Trust (SC)c 7 Community Involvement Community Action (SC) 8 Community Involvement Socialization (SC) 9 Organizational Involvement (SC) a: SOC = Sense of Community. These factors contribut e to the independent variable of sense of community. b: CL = Community Leadership. These factors contribute to the independent variable of community leadership. c: SC = Social Capital. These factors contribute to the intervening variable of social capital. Through examination, something else remarkable was noticed. When examining the correlations between the selected variab les and the dependent variable of openness to change/community vision, it appears to shar e a relationship with every variable but community involvement socialization (social capital). Therefore, this variable was removed from the overall path model and a new model is offered in Figure 4-6. Direct Effects on Social Capital The first three models to be considered through path analysis involve the outcome of regression of each factor of the independent variable s sense of community and

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147 community leadership on all three interveni ng variables describing social capital. A regression model was calculated for each of the three factors of social capital trust, organizational involvement, and comm unity involvement community action. NOTE: Curved lines indicate correlations between exogenous variab les. Dashed and colored lines are used only for ease in distinguishing paths among variables. Figure 4-6. Effects of Selected Variable s on Openness to Change /Community Vision (Modified Version). Direct effects on social capital Trust The first path model analyzed involves the direct effect s of sense of community and community leadership variables on the variable of social capital trust. The statistical significance of path coef ficients as well as th e path model are illustr ated in Table 4-24. In analyzing the regression model, it can be concluded that an Fvalue of 4.271 indicates the respondents being analyzed were pulled from a population in which the multiple correlation was not equal to zero and that any apparent multiple corre lation is not due to sampling fluctuation. Trust Organizational Involvement Community Involvement Community Action Social Capital Membership & Belonging Sense of Community Community Satisfaction Community Leadership Community Empowerment Shared Community Values Openness to Change/Community Vision

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148 In analyzing t values for each of the path coefficients in Table 4-24, it was found that while the model itself proves to be st atistically significant, none of the path coefficients themselves are noteworthy. Stil l, together the variables in this model explained about 22% of the varia tion in the intervening variable of social capital trust. Table 4-24. Tests of Significance and Pa th Coefficients for Regression of Psychological Sense of Community a nd Community Leadership Variables on Trust (Social Capital). Source Path Coefficient t-value Membership & Belonging (SOC)a .087 .476 Community Satisfaction (SOC) .028 .165 Community Empowerment (CL)b .015 .085 Shared Community Values (CL) .447 1.856 Regression Model F = 4.271* N = 49 Adjusted R2 = .221 Significant at the 0.05 level. a: SOC = Sense of Community. These factors contribute to the independent variable of sense of community. b: CL = Community Leadership. These factors contribute to the independent variable of community leadership. Direct effects on social capita l Organizational involvement The next path model analyzed looks at the direct effects of sense of community and community leadership variable s on the organizational involv ement variable of social capital. Table 4-25 lays out th e statistical significance and path coefficients for the path model with organizational invo lvement as the dependent va riable. In analyzing the regression model, it can be deduced that an F-value of 2.664 indicates the respondents being analyzed were pulled from a populati on in which the multiple correlation was not equal to zero and that any apparent multip le correlation is not due to sampling fluctuation.

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149 Through examination of each of the path coefficients in Table 4-25, a similar situation was found as was found in the prev ious regression model. The regression model appeared to be statistically significant, yet none of the path coefficients were found to be statistically remarkable. Finally, colle ctively the variables in this model explained only about 12% of the variation in the interv ening variable of community action within social capital. Table 4-25. Tests of Significance and Pa th Coefficients for Regression of Psychological Sense of Community a nd Community Leadership Variables on Organizational Involvement (Social Capital). Source Path Coefficient t-value Membership & Belonging (SOC)a .198 1.139 Community Satisfaction (SOC) .068 .384 Community Empowerment (CL)b -.117 -.611 Shared Community Values (CL) .315 1.278 Regression Model F = 2.664* N = 49 Adjusted R2 = .124 Significant at the 0.05 level. a: SOC = Sense of Community. These factors contribute to the independent variable of sense of community. b: CL = Community Leadership. These factors contribute to the independent variable of community leadership. Direct effects on social capital Comm unity involvement (community action) The final path model analyzed involv ed sense of community and community leadership variables being regr essed on the social capital f actor of community action. The statistical significance of the path model and coefficients are illustrated in Table 426. In analyzing the regression model, it can be assumed that an F-value of 4.935 indicates the respondents bei ng analyzed were pulled from a population in which the multiple correlation was not equal to zero a nd that any apparent multiple correlation is not due to sampling fluctuation.

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150 In analyzing t-values for each of the pa th coefficients in Table 4-26, it was discovered only the path coefficient of memb ership and belonging (sense of community) proved to be significant. Simply st ated, only membership and belonging was significantly related to community action, wh en controlling for all other variables. Therefore, a one-unit change in the standa rd deviation of membership and belonging would produce a -0.384 change in community action. Operationally speaking, those community leaders who had a stronger sense of membership within the community may have been less involved in community activities. This can be explained a coupl e of different ways. On one hand, those leaders with a strong and extended membership within the community may have so many leadership responsibilities, thei r community activeness has suffered. On the other hand, community leaders who have a long-standing membership in the community may have passed off leadership responsibilities and activities to younger leaders, practici ng a retirement of sorts. Or long-standing community members may just like the community as it is, and therefore are not interested in encouraging various types of community action. Whatever the explanation, according to this regression model, thos e individuals within the community with a strong sense of membersh ip and belonging tended to be less involved in community action. No other variables in the model proved to have a signi ficant relationship with the dependent variable. Collectively speaking, the variables in this model explained almost 26% of the variation in openness to change/community vision.

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151 Table 4-26. Tests of Significance and Pa th Coefficients for Regression of Psychological Sense of Community a nd Community Leadership Variables on Community Involvement Community Action (Social Capital). Source Path Coefficient t-value Membership and Belonging (SOC)a -.384 -2.341* Community Satisfaction (SOC) .139 -1.980 Community Empowerment (CL)b -.344 -1.913 Shared Community Values (CL) .331 1.410 Regression Model F = 4.935* N = 49 Adjusted R2 = .259 Significant at the 0.05 level. a: SOC = Sense of Community. These factors contribute to the independent variable of sense of community. b: CL = Community Leadership. These factors contribute to the independent variable of community leadership. Direct Effects on Openness to Change/Community Vision The final outcome of intere st in path analysis was openness to change/community vision. In order to reveal the direct eff ects on this dependent va riable, two regression models needed to be calcul ated; one for social capital direct effects, and another regarding the direct effects of sense of community and commun ity leadership variables. Direct effects of social capital variables on openness to change/community vision The first path model analyzed involved social capital variables being regressed on the dependent variable of openness to ch ange/community vision. The statistical significance of the path model a nd coefficients are illustrated in Table 4-27. In analyzing the regression model, it can be conclude d that an F-value of 6.164 indicates the respondents being analyzed were pulled from a population in which the multiple correlation was not equal to zero and that any apparent multiple corre lation is not due to sampling fluctuation.

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152 In analyzing t-values for each of the pa th coefficients in Table 4-27, it was discovered the path coefficient for trust show ed a significant rela tionship with openness to change/community vision, when controlling for all other variab les. To illustrate this, a one-unit change in the standard deviation of trust would produce a 0.457 change in the dependent variable. In direct application, those community leaders who shared a great deal with other individuals within the comm unity were much more likely to be open to change as well as have a strong community vision. No other va riables in the model illustrated a significant relationship with openness to change/community vision. Collectively speaking, the variables in this model accounted for more than a quarter, or 26% of the variation in the dependent variable. Table 4-27. Tests of Significance and Path Coefficients for Regression of Social Capital Variables on Openness to Change/Community Vision. Source Path Coefficient t-value Trust (SC)a .457 3.351* Organizational Involvement (SC) .060 .388 Community Involvement Community Action (SC) -.169 -1.086 Regression Model F = 6.164* N = 49 Adjusted R2 = .260 Significant at the 0.05 level. a: SC = Social Capital. These factors contribute to the intervening variable of social capital. Direct effects of independent variables on openness to change/community vision The final regression model to be calculated involves openness to change/community vision being regresse d on sense of community and community leadership variables. This model is illustra ted, along with the path coefficients and path model significances, in Table 4-28. In an alyzing the regression model, it can be determined that an F-value of 14.085 indica tes the respondents being analyzed were

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153 pulled from a population in which the multiple correlation was not equal to zero and that any apparent multiple correlation is not due to sampling fluctuation. Table 4-28. Tests of Significance and Path Co efficients for Regression of Independent Variables on Openness to Change/Community Vision. Source Path Coefficient t-value Membership & Belonging (SOC)a .269 2.111* Community Satisfaction (SOC) -.048 -.371 Community Empowerment (CL)b .594 4.229* Shared Community Values (CL) .064 .351 Regression Model F = 14.085* N = 49 Adjusted R2 = .527 Significant at the 0.05 level. a: SOC = Sense of Community. These factors contribute to the independent variable of sense of community. b: CL = Community Leadership. These factors contribute to the independent variable of community leadership. c: SC = Social Capital. These factors contribute to the intervening variable of social capital. In the examination of Table 4-28, there we re two path coefficients found to have significance. Both membership and bel onging (sense of community) and community empowerment (community leadership) proved to share a significant relationship with openness to change/community vision. Statis tically speaking, a one-unit change in the standard deviation of membership and belonging would produce a 0.269 change in the standard deviation of the de pendent variable, while a one-u nit change in the standard deviation of community empowerment woul d contribute to a 0.594 change in the standard deviation of the same variable. To make meaning of this, the more comfortable a leader is in being a member of his commun ity, the more tuned in he may be to popular community attitudes, leading to a strong community vision, or openness to change. Along similar lines, the more empowered lead ers and community members feel as a part of their community, the more likely it is th ey will support a commun ity vision, or be open

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154 to change within the community. Together the variables in this model explained a considerable 53% of the variance in openness to change/community vision. Summary of Direct Effects Theoretical explanations of cause-effect re lationships usually assume a system of relationships in which certain variables, unde rstood to be caused by others, may in turn have effects on yet other vari ables (Agresti & Finlay, 1999). This being said, a path model is constructed under the assumption that variables between paths have statistically significant relationships. Wit hout two variables being stat istically related, one cannot assume a change in one variable will affect a subsequent variable. All path coefficients showing statistical significance within this study are illustrated in Figure 4-7. Eliminating the insignificant path relationships makes the overall figure much less complex than that which was illustrated in Figure 4-6. NOTE: Colored lines are used only for ease in distinguishing paths among variables. Figure 4-7. Path Model Contai ning Significant Coefficients. Trust Community Involvement Community Action Membership & Belonging Community Leadership Community Empowerment Openness to Change/Community Vision (-.384) (.269) (.457) (.594) Sense of Community Social Capital

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155 A closer study of the variables demonstrat es that the model can be simplified even further, as there is one si gnificant path that does not have an affect on the overall outcome of interest, openness to change/comm unity vision. Because this path is between an independent variable and intervening vari able, it does not have a relationship with the dependent variable of the study. For these r easons, the path model can be made into a more simplified model, which is presented in Figure 4-8. Figure 4-8. Effects of Independent a nd Intervening Variables on Openness to Change/Community Vision A Simplified Model. Figure 4-8 illustrates the most simplified ve rsion of the effects of specific variables on openness to change/community vision. Thro ugh the examination process, it is noted there are no indirect effects that contribute to the overall dependent variable; only direct effects. Therefore, this model illustra tes that openness to change and having a community vision is dependent upon having co mmunity leaders that share a high amount of trust with community members, as we ll as who encourage developing empowerment within the community. Community Empowerment Community Leadership Social Capital Trust Openness to Change/ Community Vision (.295) (.622)

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156 Illustrating the direct effects of significant variables on openness to change/community vision is Table 4-29. Af ter simplifying the model, elimination of different paths had a noticeable effect on both model design and statistics. Both Table 4-29. Tests of Significance and Path Co efficients for Regression of Significant Variables on Openness to Change /Community Vision within the Simplified Model. Source Path Coefficient t Value Membership and Belonging (SOC)a -.002 -.015 Community Empowerment (CL)b .622 5.898* Trust (SC)c .295 2.727* Regression Model F = 22.020* N = 49 Adjusted R2 = .578 Significant at the 0.05 level. a: SOC = Sense of Community. These factors contribute to the independent variable of sense of community. b: CL = Community Leadership. These factors contribute to the independent variable of community leadership. c: SC = Social Capital. These factors contribute to the intervening variable of social capital. community empowerment and trust continued to share significant relationships with openness to change/community vision. However, when considering the variables in this simplified model, something interesting o ccurs. The variable of membership and belonging, while being a signifi cant variable in the previous reduced models, when placed with other significant variables in this mo del, proved to be insignificant. Only one explanation seems appropriate in this situation. Due to th e high correlation between the other variables of trust and community empow erment, while they were designed to and appeared to be measuring different aspect s within the study, there was enough overlap to make one of the variables insignificant in th e overall model. Therefore, while it is appropriate to point out that community empowerment is the strongest determinate of openness to change/community vision with a pa th coefficient of 0.662, and that trust also has a strong positive effect on the dependent va riable with a path coefficient of 0.295, it

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157 appears membership and belonging is not useful in the final model. Overall, this model explains about 58% of the variation in openness to change/community vision. Qualitative Analysis An overall objective of this study was to describe the study communities more comprehensively. The quantitative analyses ha ve served each to il lustrate and describe the appropriate variables need ed to represent each variable involved in the study, as well as to clarify the direct an d indirect relationships among sense of community, community leadership, social capital and community openness to change. To provide a richer, more in-depth account of the envir onment within each rural co mmunity, qualitative analysis was undertaken. Psychological Sense of Community Psychological sense of community is one of two independent vari ables within this study. Based on the more social, relational aspe ct of community, this variable has been formally defined by McMillan as the feeli ng of belonging and importance that members have about their community. Theoretically, McMillan and Chavis (1986) determined four components that effectively describe sense of community membership, influence, integration and fulfillment of needs, and sh ared emotional connection. Each of these should explain a slightly different facet of this variable, that when combined illustrate the overall picture. However, with in the context of this study, fact or analysis determined that only two factors were needed to effectively de scribe sense of community factors termed membership and belonging and community satisfaction. Taking this further, path analysis showed that actually only one of these factors proved to have a significant relationship with the dependent variable of openness to change/community vision. This factor was membership and belonging, which shared a moderate positive relationship

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158 with the dependent variable. Therefore, the more community leaders feel a sense of membership and belonging within their community, the more likely they are to have a community vision, and be open to change within their community. Applying this within the community setting, each community proved to operationalize sense of community slightly differently. Within Bonifay, schools and churches proved to be very strong, apparently in order to provide support and leadership for the community. This also provides the link as to why the community shared strong biblically based morals and values. Within this small town, there are several strong civic clubs, particularly the Kiwanis club. These cl ubs, as well as community churches place a strong emphasis on helping troubled people w ithin their community; those individuals who are poor, have drug problems, or have re cently experienced a personal tragedy. For example, Case Coalition is a countywide anti -substance abuse effort that was initiated to further unite the community in its war on dr ugs. Within these situations, community leaders expressed the amazing ability of comm unity members to band together to help those in need. According to one leader (B3), You know, something really stood out its so simple . . when you asked earlier D o people really care if theres a disaster? Ive never seen people come together like th ese people in my life. Everyone wants to give you the clothes off their back, and their house, and want nothing in return. People truly care. Furthermore, for many in the community, Bonifay itsel f does not define the boundaries of their community. They consider their community to include all of Holmes County, and as such, everyone is willing to give a helping hand to anyone across the county in need. This proved to be particular ly true in this county, one of the poorest in Florida. However, money does not define a community's spirit, as shared by one leader

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159 (B8), Im quite fond of this community. We may be poor, but were good folks. The sense of community within this area is str ong. One leader (B5) termed it as psychic income, explaining why he would rather st ay here to work and raise his family, regardless of numerous financia l opportunities in a larger city. As one participant stated (B12), . . our people is our greatest asset. Sense of community in Macclenny is similar, yet different in some aspects. As within Bonifay, churches and schools play an im portant role in the community, as well as sharing a particularly strong bond. This also contributes to the st rong Christian values that are strongly integrated into the co mmunity. Once a week, at Baker County High School, pastors and leaders in th e area come in and pray for the school. According to one participant (M19), I live here because the morals, the culture, the community values, the collective consciousness of this community, is pretty well representative of the morals I personally hold to, and the ethics I try to demonstrate toward others. However, individuals appear to be more independent in Baker County; b ecause there are more opportunities for involvement, organizational pa rticipation is much more segmented. Often, community members receive their sens e of community from organizations and interactions in their areas of interest, not necessarily commu nity-wide. This contributes to much weaker civic clubs and organizations. Nonetheless, there is still a strong desire to help people within the community. From one leader (M11), I ju st think its rewarding to live here. Because you do feel loved a nd that what you're accomplishing means a lot to other people. You're not out there doi ng it for you, but you're doing it to bring some happiness to enough people that make it wort hwhile. Also, similarly to Bonifay, Macclenny community members often identify Baker County as their community, as

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160 opposed to just identifying themselves with Macclenny. Finally, family ties within Baker County account for a lot more of the sense of community than just shared relationships with community members, as illustrated by one participant (M25), . . were a close-knit community. We have large family ties in our community, and strong families. Our community has grown immensely in the last co uple years . . I dont see a great change in it (our community). Were not losing the hometown that were used to having by the increase. As illustrated through the aforementioned qualitative illustrations, leaders within both communities have a strong sense of co mmunity. In each case, community schools and churches play a large role as to how th e community operates, and in how its members interact. Within each situation, both towns identified themselves as part of a larger community, one that spans the county. Perhaps this is the case due to the advantages to having larger (area) communities: more reso urces available, both human and natural, more opportunities available cooperatively than in specific small towns, and for other reasons. Within each community, it was very apparent those in leadership positions felt their community was still close-knit, and cared very deeply for its members. Perhaps this is one aspect that continues to hold many ru ral communities together, regardless of the circumstances. Community Leadership Community leadership served as the second independent variable for this study. As was introduced in Chapter Two, servant leadership most closely embodies how leadership often plays out in the context of community. This leadership theory provides for a human element of community interaction th at is often lost with in other definitions. According to Robert Greenleaf's (1996) defi nition, a leader operating under servant

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161 leadership begins with the feeling or desire to serve first, followed by the conscious choice to lead. This is illustrated by t hose leaders dedicated to the community and improving it for future community members, not for leadership notoriety. Within this theoretical framework, Laub (2000) identifies si x factors that clearl y describe a servant leader. A servant leader is one who values people, develops people, builds community, displays authenticity, provides leadership, and sh ares leadership. As part of this study, however, factor analysis dete rmined that only two factor s were needed to account for community leadership community empowe rment and shared community values. Through path analysis, it was found that only community empowerment shared a significant (strong positive) relationship w ith openness to change/community vision. Thus, the more community leaders share power with community members, leading them to feel empowered, the more likely these same leaders have a strong vision and are open to community change in the future. Within both communities, leaders expresse d the attitude that everyone can get involved in the community if they have the de sire to. Many of the Bonifay leaders took this further, by expressing that for an yone who wants to become involved in the community, it is important and easy to get involv ed. One leader (B5) strongly agrees that he can make a difference in the community, A ll you have to do is get involved. I also pastor a church, and one of the things I tell people is it doesnt matter what your talents are, what your educational level is, what your abilities are, what your income is . . all that matters is your being willing to get involved. For the leaders interviewed, many see them selves as making an impact; however, not necessarily as a community leader. Something that proved even more important to

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162 them was the ability to be a good role model for the community; to serve the community. As illustrated by one leader (B11), Were a small enough community that I think people know your lifestyle; not just know of you, they know you. I think over a period of time, your life that they see from day to day make s an impression. For another individual who recognizes himself/herself as a good lead er (B10), a difference is made, Because I have to set the example. I mean Im a leader in my commun ity and if I set a good example for my people then theyll, hopefully theyll follow. It is important for these individuals who care about thei r community to be a good role model and get involved. For these people, they willingly take on the responsibility of leadership within the community, particularly when it comes to serving the community and its members. On improving the community (B12), . . I th ink everybody has a part to pay in it. A chain is only as strong as its weakest link, and that certainly . . To encourage everybody in the community to be their best, and to be the strength that they can be is an ongoing challenge for all community leaders to do that. It certai nly is a necessity through, if were going to come together and advance as a community, weve got to have that strength and weve got to pull together. So I believe everybody can make a difference if they try. People trust in the f act that their leaders will pull the community through the hard times, and into a better future. Life within Macclenny is very similar is some aspects, albeit showing less solidarity in their answers. Leaders within Macclenny also stressed the importance of getting involved within their community; a nd unlike Bonifay, many of those interviewed do see themselves as leaders. As shared by one leader (M22), Well, I think any type of (leader), being a public school teacher, coac h, community leader I think you have the

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163 responsibility to set an example and understa nd that being a leader, that you have the power of influence. And certainly my goal . . being a community leader is to influence younger people, and also my coworker s to, you know, have good values. Fortunately, many of these leaders also see themselves as servants of the community, a theme that was very powerful through the interviews. Another leader stated (M12), I think people like me need to stand up because we need to lead by serving that's the bottom line, which is a sentiment that is shared by several of the communitys leaders. A different leader i llustrates (M25), You have to be willing to serve. You dont get up there (i n leadership positions) because of money, and people that serve on commissions like this and like the chamber of commerce . . you know they're earnest and wanting to serve a nd its not for myself, or gain. They truly care about the community. And the caring within this commun ity is strong. As stated by one leader (M13), . . I do care about the community. I think that if people do care about the place they live . . you know, if you care about your property, youre going to take care of it. If you live in this Baker County area and you car e, this is our property, really, and we're going to take care of it. A second leader (M 26) agrees he/she can make a difference in the community because, . . I think we give and do with our he art. It's nothing at all . . were a very strong volunteer community, very strong. Regardless of the strong serving and car ing ability within the community of Macclenny, there still seemed to be two extr emes within the lead ers interviewed. Many leaders are motivated to serv e the community they love. But the good ol boy system is still very much at play. While some of those interviewe d had acquired their leadership position through legitimate channels, sometimes whom you know still plays a larger role

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164 in local community politics than what you know. This community was no exception. Nonetheless, the strengths of an attitude of servant leadership, trul y caring about those in your community, and actually getting invol ved proved to more closely define the majority of leaders within this community. One leader says it best (M26), I think my one thing about being a public servant . . if I had worked as hard in business as I had in education, Id be a multi, multi-millionaire. But thats not where its at. I want to leave Macclenny and Baker County a better place. I want to know along the way I helped put stepping stones there to see it grow. From these qualitative illustrations, it can be garnered that community leadership within both communities is moving in a good dir ection. Using leadership responsibilities within the community in order to improve your community for the future, or simply to serve the community itself are both noble aspirations and each something that is being done within both communities. While Bonifay leaders had particularly strong attitudes regarding the importance of getting involved and being a good role model in the community, Macclenny leaders really stressed the importance of serving your community and its members to the best of your ability. Within both situations, community leadership as it is described above seems to be winning the battle over what some might term the good ol boy system. As a valuable side note, each community contained individuals who, while they may have been in positions of leadership within the community, were not considered community leaders. This occurred each time when dealing with two individuals who held similar CEO positions within each community. While each administrator was clearly in a role of authority with an important aspect of the community in his/her hands,

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165 neither felt a part of the community, had a strong sense of commun ity, or was mentioned by their peers as a notable leader within the community. This is a clear illustration that while a position may entitle an individual to ce rtain rights and respects as a community leader, within these smaller communities, that respect is not appointed it must be earned. Social Capital Designed to be the intervening variable w ithin the study, social capital was seen by the researchers to be the li nk between the independent vari ables of sense of community and community leadership, and the dependent variable of openness to change/community vision. Fundamentally, social capital places a value on the relationshi ps and interactions found within a group, and may be defined as inte racting in processes for the greater good. Within the community field, for the great er good is undertaken with the general community interest in mind, not one specific interest. Social capital itself not only involves how decisions are made within a group, but more importantly, the significance of developing effective relationships within the group. That being said, the components outlined to de scribe social capital as a variable were components pulled from the theoretical underp innings of the Social Capital Benchmark Survey, researched and designed by the J ohn F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University (the Saguaro Seminar: Civic Engagement in America). The components found most appropriate in outlining so cial capital for this study were trust, organizational involvement, and community involvement. Factor analysis was used to determine th e appropriate number of factors needed to effectively describe social capital. Trus t was effectively described through only one factor, while community involvement was accounted for through two factors

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166 community action and socialization (Note: The factor community involvement socialization was removed from the path model after it was found through the bivariate correlation not to have a signi ficant correlation with any vari able in the study.) Factor analysis could not be used on organizational involvement, as it was a count variable. Therefore, the three factors us ed to measure social capital within the study were trust, organizational involvement, and comm unity involvement community action. Social capital was the one variable within this study where factor analysis did not provide a significantly different description of the f actors involved when compared to the theoretical framework components. Using path analysis, again only one factor showed a significant relationship with openness to cha nge/community vision, and this was trust, which shared a moderately strong positive re lationship with the dependent variable. Therefore, the more trust that community lead ers share with its members, the more likely the community leaders will share an effective vision and move toward change within the community. Looking at social capital within each community, both proved to have a strong group of networks and relations hips at their backbone. Begi nning with Bonifay, strong schools and churches formed the backbone from which much of the shared values and trust originated. Trust proved to be an important component in supporting these structures, particularly in de veloping the relationships needed for maintenance. From interactions with the chamber of comm erce, development commission and elected officials to the police, school board and emergency medical services, strong, trusting relationships were very apparent in all aspe cts of the community. A relationship of trust of particular interest was shared by one l eader (B3), I trust my sister communities

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167 (surrounding rural communities). We interchange . . because when I walk away, I feel like every community has honestly contributed and shared. I mean, you don't find that a whole lot. This trust also l eads into the strong a ccountability shared by a majority of the community leaders. As expressed by severa l of these leaders, frequently in small communities, due to the small population a nd closeness of its members, community members come into intimate contact with their leaders on a more regular basis (than members of larger communities). This tr anslates into freer communication, including added criticism and suggestions, particular ly when community members are not happy with the results of a leader's decisions. Still, the trust was strong between comm unity leaders and members within Bonifay, and this was expressed through the amount of tr ust, and the lack of distrust within the community. Other than select local news media (see following note of interest), each leader expressed it was difficult to list or na me specific groups or individuals they felt distrust towards. As stated by one leader (B19), Theres no one that I have complete distrust for. I think thats what happens to a lot of people, and I think that s why theyre looking for places like this (Bonifay). A nd I think thats why we're growing and increasing, and why our potential is so good, b ecause people are looki ng for that. I think that thats showing more and more. I think thats not happening (jus t) here; I think its happening all over. People are looking for places to raise their families in communities where they can trust their leadership and f eel safe something of which Bonifay has no shortage. As another note of interest, within both of the communities studied, there were issues when discussing trust and local news media. Within each community there was a

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168 newspaper editor (and consequently, the newspa per itself) that was considered by a large part of the community to be dishonest repo rting biased news and information. In both situations, the communities took a stand against these in dividuals and either began another, rival newspaper or fire d the editor completely. All this goes to show is what can result when strong morals, values and relati onships are pitted agai nst an opposing (and distrusted) party. Continuing to illustrate social capital w ithin Bonifay, in regard to community action, service groups as well as church action appeared to be very strong. The major service group in Holmes County was the Kiwanis Club that puts on two major fundraising events every year the Northwest Florida Rode o and the All-night Gospel Sing. Nearly every Bonifay leader interv iewed was a member of the Kiwanis Club. Church clubs were also very active in this area. A not able situation involved the community recreation center and a major area c hurch. Both the county and the city could not afford to efficiently run the local recr eation center. A local leader takes over the story. Our church . . t ook over the rec. center. County threw it down, the city threw it down, and the church took it over and has run it for five years now; so were very active from the standpoint of youth, shared one lead er (B13). Community leaders involved in these activities, as well as other activities throughout the community, admit there is a lot of time involved. In fact, this was cited as the single greatest reason of why they may not be as involved as they would like to be. Even so, almost a quarter of those interviewed said they felt there were no obstacles that you could be as active as you wanted to be. This still supports the strong feeling within Bonifay that anyone can be as involved in the community as they wish. The Kiwani s Club, and other community and church

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169 organizations in the area, are very focused at giving back to the community, as well as providing assistance to those w ho are in need. Again, the st rength of the Christian-based values and the dedication to service is evident. Social capital within Macclenny was operationa lized in a slightly different fashion. Specifically, while trust played a large role in the community, it was particularly strong in the relationships between school s and churches. As aforesaid, once a week community ministers and leaders come into Baker Count y's schools and pray for the community. As expressed by one leader (M19), The local mi nisterial alliance, which is very powerful here . . They are spiritual minute men. They will come to the aid of any cause, any community effort. Student disputes are also often handled in a c ooperative effort among the parents, ministers and school officials. This helps to create a strong backbone of community support. As in Bonifay, trust wa s also important in relationships among the chamber of commerce, development commissi on, churches, local government officials, and the local civic groups, to name a few. Trust in Baker County was felt very strongly by a majority of the community leaders, even across racial lines. This translated to no one group or organization garn ering a large amount of di strust (except for a local newspaper editor as noted earlier). Most leaders chalk up any distrust within the community to a few bad apples, of which every community has one or two. Regarding Community Involvement Co mmunity Action, civic groups in Baker County were one aspect where Macclenny differed strongly from Bonifay. While Bonifay had several strong civic groups, the strongest of which being the Kiwanis Club, Macclenny had no strong civic groups to sp eak of. One reason for this may be the plethora of available clubs and organizations in which to participate. Compared to

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170 Bonifay, Macclenny has many more organizatio ns to which one could belong. Another potential reason for the lack of strong civic groups may be due to the strong family bonds within the county. Se veral leaders who were intervie wed shared their strong family bonds, with such a strong devotion potentially le ading to a lack of time to devote to much else. A majority of leaders said time and j ob responsibilities were th e largest obstacles to being involved in their community; yet, over one-third of th e Macclenny leaders interviewed stated there were no obstacles to becoming involved you could be as involved as you wished. Ironica lly, while a larger number of Macclenny leaders claimed there were no obstacles to individuals b ecoming involved within their community, fewer were aware of or involved in community activities, when compared to Bonifay. Within each community, the relationships de veloped and maintained through social capital proved to be an im portant aspect of community. Interactions among community members at civic, church and school activities proved to be th e most important arenas in which to develop trust. Di strust was really not felt toward any specific group or organization within the community; however within each situation, specific mediarelated individuals did garner a significan t amount of distrust, particularly when community members felt they were attacking their community. Furthermore, while leaders within each community repeatedly expressed the importance of becoming involved and giving back to the community, Ma cclenny leaders appeared to have a much more limited grasp on what was going on in th eir community. Nonetheless, it seems the relationships that give value to social capital remained one of the main reasons community leaders valued their place of reside nce. As one leader shares (M5), We do care about (each other), I have a sense . . because Ive lived here my whole life and

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171 Ive raised my children here, most of my gra ndchildren are here, and I want them to be raised in a place like Macclenny. Conclusions This study has effectively illustrated th e effects of psychological sense of community and community leadership on soci al capital, in regard to openness to change/community vision. Both factor anal yses and path analyses have served to determine the influence and re lationships of these selected variables with openness to change. Initially, factor analys es served to determine different factors than were provided in the theoretical framework to define th e independent and intervening variables. Additionally, while factor analyses began w ith illustrating several determinants of openness to change/community vision, only two surfaced at the end community empowerment (as a part of community leadership ) and trust (as a part of social capital). Classifying social capital as an intervening variable among sense of community, community leadership and a communitys openness to change proved to be of no consequence. Whereas theoretically, social capital may appear to serve as a link between the independent variables and openness to change/community vision, this has no statistical backing. A more thorough discussi on of these variables and effects will be provided in Chapter Five.

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172 CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS One leader says it best I think my one thing about being a public se rvant . . if I had worked as hard in business as I had in education, I'd be a mult i, multi-millionaire. But that's not where it's at. I want to leave Macclenny and Bake r County a better place. I want to know along the way I helped put steppi ng stones there to see it grow. Summary This study was used to investigate the e ffects and relationships between specific community variables, with particular interest being shown in the leadership perspective Explicitly, the purpose of this study was to investigate how sense of community, community leadership, and social capital work together to influence openness to change within a viable community. The communities studied were selected using several parameters, the initial three being community location (including proximity to MSAs), culture, and population size. Once the 30 commu nities who fit these parameters were identified, a community viability score was calculated for each. The top two communities according to their viability score ranking were used as the communities for this comparative case study. The sample partic ipants were purposefully selected from each community's most effective leaders; fi rst through an expert panel selected by the researcher, and then as chosen by their peer s, using a modified snowball technique. The final sample size for the study was 49 partic ipants; 23 interviews were completed with leaders from Bonifay, and 26 interviews were completed with Macclenny leaders.

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173 The first major objective of this study was to determine theoretical factor appropriateness. Within the theoretical framework of the study, each variable is illustrated through a collection of descriptiv e components (or factors). This objective sought to identify if the vari able components described with in the theoretical framework matched the actual variable components discovered through factor analysis, and ultimately to provide factor scores to be used as measures within the regression models of path analysis. Furthermore, the actual vari able factors discovered through the factor analysis were used to develop a more concise path model for the overall study. If community viability could be used as a collective success measure for rural communities, a second major objective was to identify factors im pacting community viability. This was determined through the ma gnitudes of the direct and indirect effects found through path analysis of the independe nt and intervening variables, all in relationship to the dependent variable of co mmunity viability. Throughout the process of the path analysis, it was discovered that im perative relationships needed between the study variables did not exist thus eliminating the possibility of con tinuing with the path analysis. Therefore, the second major objective was found to be irrelevant to the study; since none of the variables showed correlati ons among themselves or with the dependent variable, no relationships exist. So it is apparent that wh ile community viability may be an effective measure of community success for one point or a snapshot in time, it does not appear to be related to ongoing meas ures of sense of community, community leadership or social capital. A lack of correlation among the variables led to the researcher reexamining the study variables and their factor s and developing a new, more appropriate path model for

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174 the overall study. Consequently, the second objective was changed to determining the relationships and affects of sense of commun ity, community leadership and social capital on openness to change/community vision. Th is objective was still determined through the magnitudes of the direct and indirect effects found through path analysis of the independent variables of sense of comm unity and community leadership and the intervening variable of social capital, all in relationship to the dependent variable of openness to change/community vision. The dimensionality of all of the inde pendent and intervening variables were ascertained through common factor analysis. Two factors were found to adequately describe the variable of psychological sens e of community membership and belonging, and community satisfaction. Similarly, the two factors found to comprise community leadership were community empowerment, and shared community values. Social capital was found to be accounted for through three factors truth, organizational involvement, and community involvement community actio n. Factor scores were determined for each of these factors and used in the regression analyses. Linking it all Together Objective Summaries In order to link it all together, the quantita tive and qualitative data must be aligned with the conclusions presented in Chapter Five. To review, the specific objectives addressed within this study were 1. To measure a communitys viability, indi vidual psychological sense of community, social capital commitment and community leadership within select viable rural communities; 2. To determine the relationships between a. Sense of community and community leadership,

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175 b. Sense of community and social capital, c. Community leadership and social capital, and d. Sense of community and community lead ership (independent variables) with openness to change (dependent variable see section Study Variables for a complete list of variables); 3. To determine the effects of sense of co mmunity and community leadership, as well as their interactions with openness to change; 4. To compare/contrast the environment with in the two most viable rural communities in Florida. 5. To qualitatively compare each viable co mmunity according to the variables of psychological sense of community, commun ity leadership and social capital. Regarding the first objective, factor anal yses were run on each of the independent and intervening variables, to prove/disprove the appropriate factors needed to describe each variable. As part of this process, factor scores were calculated for each factor, and used within the regression models to help determine variable rela tionships. A bivariate correlation matrix was also r un to establish the relationshi ps among study variables (See Table 4-23.). In addition, qualitative data secured through the interv iew process was used to more thoroughly describe each of the inde pendent and intervening variables. (For a more in-depth discussion of these vari ables, see the opening of Chapter Five.) While both quantitative and qualitative data were used to illustrate the first objective, a path model of openness to ch ange/community vision was designed to describe the direct and indirect effect s, as well as the relationships among the independent/intervening variable s upon the dependent variable. It was proposed that a leaders sense of community and community lead ership affect social capital, or how one develops relationships within the communit y, which in turn affects their openness to change/community vision. A causal model was used to determine the strength and

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176 significance of the direct a nd indirect effect on the de pendent variable. Through analyzing the data, it wa s found that social capital does not play an intervening role it is simply just another independent variable. Furthermore, it was found there were only two factors (one within community leadership a nd one within social capital) that shared significant relationships directly with the dependent variable These were trust (social capital) and community empowerm ent (community leadership). Each of these proved to have a positive, direct effect on openness to change/community vision. Operationally speaking, when a community and its lead ers feel strong tr ust and community empowerment, the communitys leaders more likely to be attuned to the change and vision the community has for itself and theref ore be more willing to work towards those goals. The final two objectives were mainly illustrated through the qualitative data reported in Chapter Four. This data was provided to more thoroughly illustrate each community with a breadth and depth not provi ded for through quantit ative data. Each community was selected for an express purpose to find out why they appeared to be a strong, successful rural community when so many others are failing. To effectively illustrate this, you not only need to find out the components or variables in each community that is affecting the community a nd its leadership, but you also need to delve deeper into what makes up the community. This is where the value of qualitative research shines. The qualitative data provi des a richness and fullness that builds upon, strengthens and helps one to fully interpret the findings. As the reader of this manuscript, it is not necessary to take a trip to each community to describe the environment for yourself; we have alr eady taken you there.

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177 General Summaries Community, as it has been defined over th e years, is traditionally an evasive concept. There are hundreds of definitions; yet, within this study, community has been defined according to Wilkinsons (1986) defi nition (refer to Table 1-1). While this proved to be a useful starting point, change within community structure, interaction and leadership proved to be more apparent thr oughout the course of the study. Confirming Warrens (1972) viewpoint, members within todays rural communities are beginning to associate more with those individuals who shar e particular interests, rather than with those with whom they reside. Within both communities, schools and churches often cooperated for different fundraising and athletic events. In addition, while a handful of annual community-wide activities were noted within each community, many community activities occurred as si ngular events sponsored by serv ice organizations, churches and special interest groups. All of this activity assists in cont ributing to the strength of the community, because as Hofferth and Iceland (1 998) declare it is the social relationships of a community that allows its members access to scarce resources. Today, many rural communities are less and less autonomous; they not only operate under more regional a nd national governance, but there is also greater interaction among individuals across communities (externa l relationships). This was apparent through the various cooperative efforts indi cated by leaders between different groups, counties and other organizations. Particular to Bonifay (in Holmes county), several different activities were being generated between the Holmes county and Washington county chambers of commerce. The director of Baker Countys (Macclenny) Chamber of Commerce actually has a seat on the Jacksonville Regiona l Chamber of Commerce, which has lead to several shared activities between the two entities. These examples

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178 merely support Warrens (1972) assertion that communities must develop and maintain strong ties outside of the community in orde r to effectively acco mplish these functions within the community. Within both situations, both internal as well as external relationships have proved to be a stronghold for the community. Attesting to the value of strong relationships, each communitys service groups, churches, and special interest groups were very strong. It was the interactions among community groups, schools and churches that pr ovided much of leadership and backbone for the community. Both communities defined themselves not in relation to their town, respectively, but as part of the larger co mmunity outlined by their county. Leadership was found to come from all of these arenas, which allowed fo r effective leadership in a variety of social groups across the communit y. Community members clearly cared very strongly for their community as well as other community members; however they associated less with general community members as a whole. All of these points attest to the strong social capital found in both communitie s; it also illustrates that the interaction field as it was described by Wilkinson ( 1991) is still alive a nd well within these successful rural communities. The interac tions helped to define both Macclenny and Bonifay as a community and allowed commun ity members an outlet in which to work, play and live. According to Wilkinson (1991) it is these interactions that help to provide community identity, gives structure to comm unity action, and helps to define specific associations that help to comp rise the local society. This f ound to be true in both cases and in the situations where community vision was particularly focuse d, the social capital was just as evident.

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179 It is the inherent value f ound through community interacti on that is of particular importance when describing these successf ul communities. Communities without interaction are just a group of individuals livi ng in a shared locale. Without relationships, interaction and activit y, many communities are beginning to see just how hard it is to remain viable. In the unique situations of Bonifay and Macclenny, both chosen for their success and viability by various measures, it is simple to see why both measured as successful communities. Regardless that both communities have their problems, each also has a strength of ch aracter about them that is very apparent when one is looking. Strong relationships, people who want to give back to the community, and leaders working for the common good of the community are just a few of the features that help these communities to stand out. It is an active illustration that social capital as described by Putnam does exist in these rural communities; that having group networks, norms and trust working together toward a common good is something these sets these rural areas apart (Kim & Schweitzer, 1996). Successful social capital development play s a vital role within any community, and it was found to be no different within these ru ral communities. A majority of the leaders within both communities had str ong ties within their groups of influence. As Woolcock (1998) expresses, for social cap ital to be useful within th e community situation, it must include integration (intracommunity) and linkages (extracommunity). Community leaders and members alike both invested str ongly in their communitys social capital by developing strong interpersonal relationships. This was reite rated over and over again by the activities and expressions of caring done fo r needy individuals within the community. Within both situations, regardless of the n eed, there were always community members at

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180 the ready to give of their effort, time and money. Another aspect that exemplified the strong relationships within each community was the openness of communication and respect felt for many of the leaders. C oncurring with Pigg (1 999) the ability of community members and leaders to see each ot her as allies and collaborators working toward a mutual purpose not only helps to build trust, but also encourages strong community ties and assists in making community leadership more effective. Characteristic of social capital, it is th e relationships that provided the community backbone. Interactions and relationships developed among community members through church, school, and other commun ity activities helped to provide the glue that helps each community work together. Trust, or ganizational involvement, and community involvement community action were all aspect s that came out within the interviews. Strong trust was important to developing relati onships in both communities; therefore, it was not surprising that both communities al so had a notable lack of distrust among community members and leaders. It appear ed that leaders from the more isolated Bonifay had a better grasp on community activities and what was going on in their community then Macclenny leader s. Still, leaders within both communities placed a high value on the strong relationshi ps in their respective comm unity many times defining it according to these relationships. As one lead er noted (B12), Our leaders realize thats one of our greatest points here. Obviously we dont have a beach, we dont have a large industry, but we have each other. And we have our community. Our leaders realize thats what our strength isBecause that is our greatest asset in th is community, is our people and what we have, the camarader ie we have as Holmes Countians.

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181 Once upon a time, psychological sense of community had a strong rural association; one that linked the feeling of community with barn raisings, quilting bees and a tip of the hat (Glynn, 1981). This is the basis from which many of the common rural aspects of shared responsibilities, trust and sincerity come. These rural communities appeared to be no different; sense of community proved to be very strong for nearly all of the leaders interviewed; with in both situations, this feeling of community carried over and resulted in many activities and a strong relationship among community schools, churches, and civic organizations. The sense of community felt by community members still allowed for a close-knit, very caring community that belies the loss of the traditional rural community; it seems that wh ile todays rural communities have their problems, those leaders interviewed continue to have a strong desire to live and raise their families within these communities. Still, throughout the study, the researcher determined sense of community could be taken one step further. The definition behi nd this aspect of community need not be limited to a rural or community connotati on. As defined by McMillan and Chavis (1986), Sense of community is a feeling that members have of belonging, a feeling that members matter to one another and to the group, and a shared faith that members needs will be met through their commitment to be together (p. 9). This was indicated throughout the community; not necessarily as a whole, but within many different groups that worked together. Sense of comm unity itself can be felt by many different individuals in various situati ons. An individual could have a strong feeling of community within their church, book club or even among family. Sense of community was strong for nearly all leaders interviewed with in both communities; however, how they

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182 operationalized it was different. Many leader s within Macclenny had a strong sense of community within their family, more so then they felt with other community members. On the contrary, Bonifay leaders felt very strong community within their churches and the Kiwanis club. Within both of these situ ations, sense of comm unity is providing the necessary motivation for community activity. Re gardless of whether it is to improve the community for future generations, or simply to give back to something that is such an integral part of life, sense of community w ithin todays rural areas has changed slightly then when Glynn (1981) addressed it 20 years ago. No longer only rural, psychological sense of community is important to pr ovide meaning to any community, group or association. The rural communities of today certainly have changed from those 100 years ago. Still, one aspect that has remained impor tant is the leadership found within the community. While servant leadership within the context of community was the theoretical basis and proved to be the most appropriate leadership style for this study, individual aspects of other leadership styles were also unearthed, along with a shift in leadership structure. Leadership, in and of itself, is very important within a va riety of situations. Within communities, it is particularly important no t only to provide direction and a vision, but also to develop the trust and support needed within a community se tting. It supplies the human element towards leadership that is so metimes lacking among other definitions. In this study, community leadership was c onceptually provided for through servant leadership theory. Using Greenleafs (1991) Theory of Servant Leadership, community leadership was described as individuals who wa nt to serve first to give something back

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183 to their community. It is in due to this desi re that one invariably takes a leadership role within the community. Leadership with both of the study communities very strongly aligned with our designation of leadership. Many even expressed how it was a part of their job to serve the commun ity has given them so much; other wanted to leave it a better place than it was when they were th ere. In each situation, it was demonstrated more and more why Laub (2000) provided this definition of servant leadership: A new leadership is needed: leadership that is not trendy a nd transient, but a leadership that is rooted in our most ethical and mora l teaching; leadership that works because it is based upon how people n eed to be treated, motivated and led. (p. 4) For both communities, the leadership that was expressed was not trendy or transient, but something that had been and continues to de velop as the community changes and grows. Many of the leaders interviewed had seen the ri se and fall of other l eaders and initiatives that had not been in the best interest of the community. So me of these same individuals had also seen the opposite leaders who were truly dedicated to their community and its members rise in the ranks of leadership, as well as in the respect of their constituents. It is due to the nature of communities that co mmunity leaders are somewhat different from influential individuals within other fields Communities are places where people live, work, and interact on a daily basis. It is their lives Their community is not something they go to for eight hours a day, and escape from when they leave at night. It is a place where they will go to church, raise their children, and have dinner with friends. Regardless of the changes that have occurred within todays rural communities attributed to advancing technology, transportation and ot her modernizations, community is still a place where people want to live their lives. It is the magnitude of this realization that

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184 holds community leaders to a higher standa rd, one that necessitates community leaders and their training to be different. As such, community leadership within both communities, while still needing some training and development, is moving in a good direction. Leaders in both communities expressed repeatedly their desire to serv e their community and improve it for future generations. This can help to strengthen the community and provide the support needed in tough times. Neither community is one wher e individuals work to get rich financially nor are most other rural communities today. Therefore the need for a more noble leadership aspiration one of community vision and improvement is important for future community development. This is one of the aspects of tran sformational leadership, as outlined by Kouzes and Posner (1995). Transformational leaderships role within these rural communities involves not only having an appropriate vision for the community, but oftentimes also how to rev italize the community in times of need similar to what Tichy and Devanna call fo r within declining organizations (1986). Operationally, community leaders within Boni fay strongly valued being involved as well as being a good role model, while Macclenny leaders placed their importance on serving the community. Regardless of the situa tion, the good ol boy system still had noticeable ties within each co mmunity, albeit ties that seems to be losing power as time progresses. Leadership structure within both communities proved to be one of the surprises of the study. As designed, the snowball techni que of sampling was based on the basic principle of generalized lead ership. As Israel and Beau lieu (1990) impart, roles of community leaders are determined according to how they contri bute to the building of the

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185 community field. Specialized leaders only execu te specific leadership roles in a certain area or action. More generalized leaders sh are extensive involvement in many areas or phases of various activities. Based upon th e more generalized model, the researcher determined the more effective and respected community leaders would be generalized across the community and well know to their peer s. On the contrary, many of the leaders within Bonifay and Macclenny were known only to other leaders w ithin their area of influence. The traditional model of commun ity leadership structure exemplified through a large group of community-wide leaders turned out to be the exception rather than the rule within these rural communities. This offers several implications for community leaders, not the least of which being th e need for strong intracommunity ties and knowledge of effective communication strategies. Overall, the association provided to link each of these variables together appeared to be the leadership perspective from which each interviewee approached their community. Each of the variables proved to be operationally (i f not statistically) important when illustrating life within both rural communities. Psychological sense of community provided the attachment to co mmunity and a strong motivation behind the desire to lead; community lead ership provided the desire to serve, leading to an overall obligation to lead the community into a be tter place than it was; and social capital provided the interactions and relationships with which to support the community leadership and activity. Each of these variables provided va luable answers in describing their connection to the studys dependent va riable openness to change/community vision.

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186 However, while the leadership perspec tive provides the link between each of the aforementioned variables outlined within the study, it seems im portant to the researcher to describe what quantified the leadership potential behind those individuals who ended up actually participating in the study. Methodol ogically, an expert panel (provided by the researcher) and the snowball method provided the names from which the participating leaders were chosen. Then again, once these leaders were involved within the interview process, several similarities became apparent to the researcher, both from the interview and the leaders personality. Therefore, the liberty was taken to say it was these similarities that made these individuals different from othe r community members; it was these similarities that helped define th em as community leaders (see Table 5-1). Unfortunately, as in most situations, thr ough this study there were also detrimental characteristics found inhibiting many of the community leaders inte rviewed. While the largest issue was the lack of vision & plan ning among current community leaders within each community, other noted ineffective leadership characteristics were also presented in Table 5-1. Conclusions Within this study, it was originally proposed that community viability was useful as an indicator of rural community success. Unfortunately, it was discovered that while the Community Viability Score was perhaps useful in determining community success at one point in time, this was not a useful indicator of community success over time. However, using openness to change/community vision did prove to be usef ul as a dependent variable one that shared si gnificant relationships with two variables: social capital trust and community leadersh ip community empowerment. As such, knowledge of these factors affecting openness to cha nge/community vision should allow those

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187 interested in rural community development to help formulate policies to address this in the future. Also benefiting from these fi ndings are community leadership programs and training, which could ultimately have a strong effect upon the improvement of tomorrows rural communities. Table 5-1. Qualitative Community Leader Characteristics. Effective Characteristicsa Caring (both about community members & community) Strong Christian values Good character Responsible Servant attitude Visionary Effective communicator Hard-working Goal-oriented Committed Love for their job/wanting to make a difference Ineffective Characteristicsa Lack of vision & planning Good ol boy network Limited leadership/management training Indifference Archaic viewpoints (withi n specific situations) Lack of exposure to the outside world Unawareness of the community field/lack of perspective beyond their community area of interest a: These characteristics are as noted by the re searcher, and are not in any particular order. According to the data presented from this study, an accurate indicator of community success (or viability) has still not been developed. Still, the knowledge that social capital, community leadership, and openness to change/community vision share significant relationships within rural comm unities is an important concept. These variables working together effectively illust rate the interaction that Wilkinson (1991)

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188 introduced within his community field theory. When community leadership shares trust and community empowerment with community members, that community is more likely to see effective change linked to its community vision. In context of Wilkinsons theory, effective community action results from eff ectual interaction between social groups within a community. All of th ese elements are important, pa rticularly with the future issues many rural communities will have to face. Implications As with any community study, the overall im portance of the results and findings of this research is based on a more thorough understanding of rural communities themselves. Because this was a comparative ca se study, specific to this research is the need to understand these commun ities and their situations, not to generalize the findings across all rural communities today. Nonetheles s, many of the issues uncovered through this research can assist individuals in not only expa nding appropriate community development programs and literature, but can al so help to create and improve community leadership training for the same rural communities. One major implication of this research i nvolves the type of leadership occurring within todays rural communities. From all positions, it appears that servant leadership placed into a community context (termed comm unity leadership in this study) is the primary type of leadership occurring in th ese two rural communities This is good news; the strength behind community leadership from this angle is the support the communities receive from those who care about them most. If you have individuals in leadership positions that care about and want to serve th eir community, then most often aspects such as social capital and community empowe rment can be effectively developed. Furthermore, as was iterated within the interviews, if the leadership of a community cares

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189 about it and its members, it is these pe ople who will most often make the most appropriate decisions for the good of the community. Discovering that community leadership focuses on serving the community and its members brings up another important impli cation leadership training. With the knowledge that many within leadership capacitie s in smaller, rural communities primarily become leaders to serve their communities, th is leads a major question What type of training does the individual have for this lead ership position? The answer may be more than enough. More often than not, it is none worth mentioning. As leadership educators, it is important to understand the context under which these rural leaders are operating. Often, there are not enough trained, effective leaders to go around. In addition, due to the small populace of the ar ea, often these leaders are overworked and stressed out. Public policy should focus on providing effective leadership training available to all community leaders, regardless of community size. A particularly efficient way to do this could involve community lead ership development educators within the extension offices in the county/district. By providing effective lead ership training using community leadership as a f oundation, with cases specific to the problems and issues unique to that area, rural community leaders can more effectively learn how to lead and more effectively serve their community. A good way to market appropriate community leadership training is to appeal to those alr eady in leadership positions; particularly those with especially public roles or younger leaders looking to take over responsibilities. By appealing to some of these influential individuals with in the community, effectual leadership training may become the st andard rather than the exception.

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190 More specifically, leadership training within communities should be different. As aforementioned, leaders within the community se tting are dealing with a slightly different situation than other influentials. Working within the sphere wher e people go to church, raise their children, and interact with other community members in a phrase live their lives, requires leaders to be held to a higher standard. In addition, there are key aspects of training that must be addr essed in order for individuals to effectively lead in this unique situation. Providing training that includes effec tive communicatio n strategies, how to build positive interpersonal relationships within the community (as well as outside of the community) and working within cooperativ e situations are just a few of the facets that should be addressed. Al so important would be inform ing new community leaders of expectations unique to the community environment. The ease of access many community members have to community lead ers, the pressure community members can place upon their leaders, and how to make decisi ons within leadership situations that hit close to home are all as pects that may be novel to new co mmunity leaders. All of these are characteristic within a co mmunity leaders experience; aspects that can be handled very effectively when provi ded with the right training. A further implication concerning leadership involves the leadership structure within todays rural communities. Similar to organizations in the past, historically rural communities have had a more traditional direct ive leadership core that made the major decisions a handful of indi viduals who community member s understood to have the power to effect any community decision. As with todays organizations, leadership within communities has become much more lateral, more spread out. Often, todays community leaders are important within th eir own domain, while being nearly unknown

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191 within the larger community. Therefore, communication among community leaders, as well as community members moves to the forefront. Leadership training for community leaders cannot simply focus on serving and addressing community-wide issues; it also must focus on training leaders to e ffectively communicate at all levels. A second aspect of leadership structure i nvolves the type of individuals succeeding current leaders. As illustrated within Chap ter Four, within these two rural communities, many of the individuals in leadership positions are over 50 years old. Some of these leaders are even in their 70s or 80s. This translates into a larg e changing of the guard in the next several years. However, who is there to take over these responsibilities? Some may argue todays younger community members are indifferent to making a difference in their community; others say it ta kes time to develop the notoriety and trust one needs within the community in order to effectively lead. Whatever the case, leadership training in the future will also need to focus on the younger, future leaders taking over community leadership positions in the next several years. Many say rural areas are losing their best and brightest to the larger, more opportunity-laden cities. This researcher contends some of the best l eaders are already residing in todays rural communities we just need to get them inte rested and involved within their community and ultimately draw them into effective leadership training. A final implication ascertained through this study involves the future of tomorrows rural communities. As technology and the worl d continues to change, society moves and changes with it. To those in the general public a rosy-hued picture of white picket fences and red barns, or a main street with ever yone walking by saying hello is often what comes to mind when thinking about rural comm unities. Indeed, there are several very

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192 salient characteristics (some clearly illustrated in this study) such as a sense of trust and caring among community members, or a feeli ng of camaraderie, that one does not get within many suburbs or cities. These are generally the characteristics one focuses on when arguing to save todays rural comm unities. However, in these same rural communities, there are often just as many de trimental characteristics that hold these communities back. Issues such as a lack of natural or human resources, archaic beliefs and poverty often drag many rural communities do wn so much they cannot deal with real life. The knowledge of the effects of community leader ship and social capital on openness to change is so valuable when illu strating the environment of these two rural communities today. Leaders within both comm unities, as well as those in communities with similar environments and issues, can draw upon the knowledge of how their communities work to devise more appropr iate problem-solving techniques, public policies, and community development program s. This would allow these communities, as well as those in similar situations to b ecome proactive within todays society, and not reactive. Implications for Research The diverse environments and issues found in todays rural communities is all the more reason to continue studying all types of communities. This diversity, as well as the ever-increasing complexity of the interaction of problems and issues in these situations, makes it imperative that toda ys leaders understand the motiv ations and workings that underlie todays rural communities. One ca nnot help something one does not understand. In order for researchers to understand how rural communities work and to help provide the background for leaders and politicians to de vise effective rural policies, it is important to continue studying todays ever-changing community.

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193 First of all, the variables within this study were found to share a relationship with each other in these specific communities at this point in time. However, rural Florida is much different than other rural areas across th e United States. Therefore, it is important similar studies addressing sense of commun ity, community leadership and social capital in other venues across the United States are undertaken, perhaps identifying them by region: North, East, Midwest, Southwest, and West. This would allow for more comparison to be done across different cultures in other rural areas. As community leadership is a relatively new concept, studies involving community leaderships effect on other community variab les are also an important area for future research. How community leaders affect decision-making, community action, power distribution and community development are all components that have a distinct effect on the future of tomorrows rural communities. Additional research is also needed studyi ng different aspects regarding how rural communities are dealing with major change. Examining how community leaders proactively deal with future change, reactivel y deal with unexpected change, and fare at the end after any type of change will help to determine what type of leadership training is needed regarding this topic. In addi tion, longitudinal studies of several rural communities successful at dealing with change would bring added important information to the community development arena. Finally, a community is so much more than the four aspects that were focused on as the elements of this study. Other aspect s such as decision-making, power, community culture, leader person ality, environment, urban influe nces, and many others have an effect upon how rural communities work and in teract. Thus, studies selecting any of

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194 these variables in order to illustrate the inner workings of todays rural communities would be essential in continui ng to describe the landscape that surrounds rural life at this time in history. Succinctly stated, George Washington Carver may have put it best, When you do the common things in life in an uncommon way, you will command the attention of the world.

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195 APPENDIX A FIVE TRADITIONS OF QUALITATIVE INQUIRY Tradition Description Biography The idea of a story, or personal narrative. Specifically makes the researchers story become part of the inquiry into a cultural phenomenon of interest. Often serves as a window into cultural and social meanings. Phenomenology Identified by a focus on exploring how human beings make sense of experience and transform experi ence into consciousness (Patton, 2002, p. 104). Specifically, this requ ires thoroughly describing how people experience some phenomenon through feelings, attitudes, judgments, and perceptions. Often studied through acquiring lived experience as opposed to secondhand experience. Grounded Theory Focuses on the process of generating theory rather than operating within a particular theoretical conten t. It places emphasis in the steps and procedures needed for induction and deduction through the constant comparative method. Ethnography The earliest distinct traditi on of qualitative inquiry. Ethnos is Greek for people; thus, ethnography focu ses on describing the ways of life of humankind, or a social scientific description of a people and the cultural basis behind th eir peoplehood. The main guiding assumption is that any human group of people in teracting together for a period of time will eventually evolve into a culture. Case Study The study of particularities and comp lexities within a single case, and as a result coming to understand its activity with in important circumstances. A method of i nquiry expected to catch the complexity of a single case (Stake as cited in Patton, 2002, p. 297). Creswell, J. W. (1998). Qu alitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

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196 APPENDIX B INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD (IRB) APPROVAL

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197 APPENDIX C PRELIMINARY LETTER September 22, 2004 Mr. C. Richard Parker Baker County Public Defender 339 East Macclenny Avenue Macclenny, FL 32063 Dear Mr. Parker, In our study of rural communities, we find that some are faring much better than others. Macclenny is one that has some particularly pos itive and interesting aspects. To find out more about how that is happening, we are settin g-up personal interviews with leaders in your community, and you have been nomi nated as a potential participant. Kristina Ricketts, my research assistant, will be in contact with you within the next week to make an appointment so that we mi ght learn more about the development of Macclenny. The interview w ill take approximately 30-40 minutes and will focus on questions regarding your perceptio ns of leadership, sense of community and social capital within your community. We hope you will take this opportunity to help us learn more about your community through taking part in this interview. We look forward to working with you on this project. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact Kristina or me at (352) 392-0502. Thank you for your time and support. Sincerely, Howard Ladewig Professor

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198 APPENDIX D INTERVIEW GUIDE Community Leadership Study University of Florida Kr is Grage Ricketts 2004 Interview Schedule for Key Leaders Schedule #_________ Date & Time: ________________ Community: ________________________ Interviewee Name: ______________________________________ Address: __________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ E-mail Address: _____________________________ Phone #: _(____)_____________________________

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199 Community Leadership Study University of Florida Kr is Grage Ricketts 2004 Schedule #: _________ Sense of Community Index (SCI) The Sense of Community Index (SCI) measures an individuals psychological sense of community. The survey is comprised of 12 Likert-type items that measure four dimensions of the overall construct: membership, influence, reinforcement of ne eds, and shared emotional connection. Interviewer : I am going to read some statements that pe ople might make about their community. Each time I read one of these statements, please tell me (on a scale from 1-5) if you SD, D, N, A, or SA with the statement, with 5 being strongly agree. (Hand them the response code sh eet and refer to section A.) A) Sense of Community Index (SCI) 1. I think my community is a good place for me to live. 1 2 3 4 5 2. People in this community do not share the same values. 1 2 3 4 5 3. My neighbors and I want the same things from this community. 1 2 3 4 5 4. I can recognize most of the people who live in my community. 1 2 3 4 5 5. I feel at home in this community. 1 2 3 4 5 6. Very few of my neighbors know me. 1 2 3 4 5 7. I care about what my neighbors think of my actions. 1 2 3 4 5 8. I have no influence over what this community is like. 1 2 3 4 5 9. If there is a problem in this community, people who live here can get it solved. 1 2 3 4 5 10. It is very important to me to live in this particular community. 1 2 3 4 5 11. People in this community generally do not get along with each other. 1 2 3 4 5 12. I expect to live in this community for a long time. 1 2 3 4 5 Total Sense of Community Index = Total Q1 through Q12 = ____________________________ Developed by David M. Chavis, Ph.D. SDDNASA

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200 Community Leadership Assessment The Community Leadership Assessment measures ho w servant leadership-oriented leaders within a community are perceived, from different viewpoints within a community. The survey is comprised of 47 Likert-type items that measure six different dimensions within leadership (described according to leader action): values people, develops people, builds community, displays authenticity, provides leadership and shares leadership. Interviewer: The next group of questions is focused on your perception of leadership within your community. I am going to read some statements afte r each statement, please tell me (on a scale from 1-5) if you SD, D, N, A, or SA with the st atement, with 5 being strongly agree. (Refer to the response code sheet, section B.) B) Community Leadership Assessment 1. In general, people within my community: 1. Trust each other. 1 2 3 4 5 2. Are clear on the goals of this community. 1 2 3 4 5 3. Are non-judgmental they keep an open mind. 1 2 3 4 5 4. Respect each other. 1 2 3 4 5 5. Know where this community is headed in the future. 1 2 3 4 5 6. Maintain high ethical standards. 1 2 3 4 5 7. Work well together. 1 2 3 4 5 8. Are caring and compa ssionate towards each other. 1 2 3 4 5 9. Demonstrate high integrity and honesty. 1 2 3 4 5 10. Are trustworthy. 1 2 3 4 5 11. Relate well to each other. 1 2 3 4 5 12. Attempt to work with others more than workin g on their own. 1 2 3 4 5 13. Are aware of the needs of others. 1 2 3 4 5 14. Allow for individuality of style and expression. 1 2 3 4 5 15. Are encouraged by leaders to share in makin g important decisions. 1 2 3 4 5 SDDNASA

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201 16. Accept people as they are. 1 2 3 4 5 17. View conflict as an opportunity to learn and grow. 1 2 3 4 5 2. Now lets look at the top leadership within this community. Do/Are they: 18. Communicate a clear vision of the future of this community. 1 2 3 4 5 19. Open to learning from subordinate members within the community. 1 2 3 4 5 20. Allow community members to help determine where the community is headed. 1 2 3 4 5 21. Work alongside community members instead of separate from them. 1 2 3 4 5 22. Use persuasion to influence others instead of coercion or force. 1 2 3 4 5 23. Choose to provide leadership that is needed. 1 2 3 4 5 24. Promote open communication and sharing of information. 1 2 3 4 5 25. Give community members the power to make important decisions. 1 2 3 4 5 26. Provide the support and resources needed to help community members meet their goals. 1 2 3 4 5 27. Create an environment that encourages learning. 1 2 3 4 5 28. Open to receiving criticism and challenge from others. 1 2 3 4 5 29. Say what they mean, and mean what they say. 1 2 3 4 5 30. Encourage each person to exercise leadership. 1 2 3 4 5 31. Admit personal limitations and mistakes. 1 2 3 4 5 32. Encourage people to take risks even though they may fail. 1 2 3 4 5 33. Practice the same behavior they expect from others. 1 2 3 4 5 34. Facilitate the building of community. 1 2 3 4 5 35. Not demand special recognition for being leaders. 1 2 3 4 5 36. Lead by example by modeling appropriate behavior. 1 2 3 4 5 37. Seek to influence others from a positive relationship rather than from authority or power. 1 2 3 4 5 38. Provide opportunities for everyone to develop to their full potential. 1 2 3 4 5

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202 39. Honestly evaluate th emselves before seeking to evaluate others. 1 2 3 4 5 40. Use their power and authority to benefit the community members. 1 2 3 4 5 41. Take appropriate action when it is needed. 1 2 3 4 5 42. Build community members up through encouragement and affirmation. 1 2 3 4 5 43. Humble they do not promote themselves. 1 2 3 4 5 44. Communicate clear plans and goals for this community. 1 2 3 4 5 45. Accountable and responsible to others. 1 2 3 4 5 46. Receptive listeners. 1 2 3 4 5 47. Put the needs of the community ahead of their own. 1 2 3 4 5 Modified from the Organizational Leadersh ip Assessment by James Alan Laub, 1998 The Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey The Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey m easures how connected co mmunity members are to each other, or the civic engagement within communitie s. Within this survey, the two major dimensions tested for are Trust and Associations. Within each of these, trust can be between individuals or groups/systems, and associations could be broken into informal, formal, and crosscutting ties. According to Harvard University, the survey is used to meas ure how connected individuals are to family, friends, neighbors and civic institutions. These connections are what hold society together. The survey itself will help community members to build stronger communities and strengthen community bonds. C) The Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey Interviewer: This section of the study is about how your community works together, so Id like to start by asking what gives you a feeling of belonging. Im going to read a lis t: For each item, say YES if it gives you a feeling of belonging, and NO if it does not. (Refer to response code sheet, section C questions 15.) 1. Your old or new friends. ___________________________ Probes : This can include all of your friends, regardless of where they now live. 2. The people in your community. _____________________ 3. Living in: ____________(Your community): __________ 4. Your place of worship. ____________________________ 5. The people you work or go to school with. ____________ Response Codes (1 5): 1. Yes does 2. Depends/No strong feelings 3. No does not 4. Does not apply 5. Dont know

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203 6. Are there other individuals, groups or organizations that give you a sense of community or a feeling of belonging? Please list and explain: __________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Interviewer: The next few questions will be about how much you trust different groups of people. First, think about a group I will identify. Generally speaking would you say that you can trust them a lot, some, only a little or not at all? (Refer to response code sheet, section C questions 7-12.) 7. People in your community. _____________________ 8. People you work with. ___________________________ 9. People at your church or place of worship. ___________ 10. People who work at the stores where you shop. _______ 11. The local news media. ___________________________ 12. The police in your town. _________________________ 13. Are there any other individuals, groups or organizations that you have a strong feeling of trust towards? Please list and explain: a) Trust them a lot (positive): _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ b) Trust them not at all (negative): __________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 14. In your day-to-day life, have you ever felt that peop le act as if they think you are dishonest (circle one)? Yes / No / Dont know a) How often (circle one)? Often / Sometimes / Rarely Interviewer : Now I would like to ask you a few general questions about your local community. Would you agree with the following statements (Please refer to response code sheet, section C questions 1518.) 15. All things considered, I am happy living in my community. _________________ 16. If officials asked everyone to conserve water or electricity because of some emergency, I feel that it is likely that people in my community would cooperate. ________________ 17. Overall, I would rate my community as a good place to live. _____________ a) Why do you feel that way? Please explain : __________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Response Codes (7 12): 1. Trust them a lot 2. Trust them some 3. Trust them only a little 4. Dont trust them at all 5. Does not apply 6. Dont know Response Codes (15 18): 1. Strongly disagree 2. Disagree 3. Neutral 4. Agree 5. Strongly agree 6. Dont know

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204 18. Overall, I believe that PEOPLE LIKE ME can make an impact in making our community a better place to live. ____________________ a) Why do you feel that way? Please explain : __________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 19. Do you subscribe to a local newspaper (circle one)? Yes / No / Dont know 20. Do you expect to be living in your community five years from now (circle one)? Yes / No / Dont know a) Why or why not? Please explain : _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 21. About how often do you talk to or visit with your neighbors almost everyday, several times a month, once a month, once a year or less, or never? (Refer to response code sheet, section C question 21.) 1. Almost everyday 2. Several times a month 3. Once a month 4. Once a year or less 5. Never 6. Dont know 22. How much of the time do you think you can trust your local government to do what it is right? Would you say almost always, most of the time some of the time, hardly ever or never? (Refer to response code sheet, section C question 22.) 1. Almost always 2. Most of the time 3. Some of the time 4. Hardly ever 5. Never 6. Dont know

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205 Interviewer: Lets change directions now and talk about the different groups and organizations you may be involved with. Im going to read a list of groups and organizations. Just answer Yes if you have been involved in and Yes if you have been an officer in the past 12 months with this kind of group. 23. Organization : Have you ever been involved in: Organization Type: Involved: Offi cer: Group/Officer/Committee Type: a. An adult sports club or league, or an outdoor activity club? Yes / No Yes / No Specify: ____________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ b. A youth org., like youth sports leagues, the scouts, 4-H, & Boys and Girls Clubs? Yes / No Yes / No Specify: ____________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ c. A parents assoc., like the PTA or PTO, or other school service group? Yes / No Yes / No Specify: ____________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ d. A veterans group? Yes / No Yes / No Specify: ____________________________________ ___________________________________________ ____________________________________________ e. A neighborhood association, like a homeowner or crime watch group? Yes / No Yes / No Specify: ____________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ f. A professional trade, farm or business association? Yes / No Yes / No Specify: ____________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ g. Service clubs or fraternal organizations such as the Lions, Kiwanis or a local womens club? Yes / No Yes / No Specify: ____________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ h. Political or public interest groups, political action groups, or party committees? Yes / No Yes / No Specify: ____________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ i. A group within the church, i.e. deacon, usher, church choir, etc. Yes / No Yes / No Specify: ____________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ j. Do you belong to any other kinds of organizations? Yes / No Yes / No Specify: ____________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________

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206 24. Have any of the groups that you are involved with taken any local action in the past 12 months (circle one)? Yes / No / Dont know Probes : For example, putting on a fundraiser, helping to support a community-wide initiative such as a school bond issue or new highway, clean a mile, etc. a. If yes, please explain : ___________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 25. Many obstacles keep people from becoming as involved with their community as they would like. Thinking about your own life, are there any obstacles or barriers that make it difficult for you to be as involved with your community as you would like, or not (circle one)? Yes / No / Dont know a. Please explain: ________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 26. Are you a member of a local chur ch, synagogue, or other religious or spiritual community (circle one)? Yes / No / Dont know 27. What is your religious preference? ______________________ 28. Not including weddings and funerals, how often do you attend religious services? 1. Every week 2. Almost every week 3. Once or twice a month 4. A few times per year 5. Once a year or less 6. Dont know Interviewer: Now Im going to ask you how many times you may have done certain things in the past 12 months. For all of these, I want you just to give me your best guess, and dont worry that you might be off a little. About how many times in the past 12 months have you.. (Refer to response code sheet, section C question 29.) 29. a. Attended a celebration, parade, or a local sports event in your community? ___________ b. Taken part in artistic activities with others such as singing, dancing, or acting with a group? ________________________ c. Attended a club meeting? ____________________________ d. Had friends over to your home? _______________________ e. Socialized with co-workers outside of work? _____________ f. Played a team sport? ______________________ g. Attended any public meeting in which there was a discussion of town or school affairs? ___________________ h. Volunteered? ___________________________ i. Worked on a community project? ______________________ Modified from the instrument developed at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard Response Codes (29a i): 1. Never 2. Once 3. 2 4 times 4. 5 9 times 5. 10 or more times 6. Dont know Response Codes (27): 1. Protestant 2. Catholic 3. Another type of Christian 4. Jewish 5. Other: _______________ 6. No religion 7. Dont know

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207 D) Demographic Information 1. Gender (circle one): Male / Female 2. Age: ________ (circle one): 1. 18 21 2. 22 31 3. 32 41 4. 42 51 5. 52 61 6. 62 71 7. 72 and above 3. Occupation:_____________________________ 4. Do you OWN / RENT your home (circle one)? Other : ________________ 5. Are you currently (circle one): Married Single Divorced Separated 6. How many years have you lived in your community? _______________ 1. Less than 1 year 2. 1 to 5 years 3. 6 to 10 years 4. 11 to 20 years 5. More than 20 years 6. All my life 7. Dont know 7. How many children (aged 17 and younger) are living in your household? ________ 8. What is the highest grade of school or year of college you have completed? 1. Less than a high school diploma 2. High school diploma/GED 3. Some college 4. Associates degree/ Speci alized technical training 5. Bachelors degree 6. Some graduate training 7. Graduate/ Professional degree 8. Dont know

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208 Community Leadership Study University of Florida Kr is Grage Ricketts 2004 Schedule #: _________ 9. Please name six individuals (as well as their roles within the community) who you see as leaders within this community. Th ese may include: individuals you have worked with, noted leaders within the community, people who have been actively involved in community activities any one you consider to play a leadership role within this community. i) ____________________________________________Role: ________________________ ii) ____________________________________________Role: ________________________ iii) ____________________________________________Role: ________________________ iv) ____________________________________________Role: ________________________ v) ____________________________________________Role: ________________________ vi) ____________________________________________Role: ________________________ 10. Before I go, is there anything you believe important that we have not discussed? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Thank you for your time and effort in th is interview. It is much appreciated.

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209 APPENDIX E FOLLOW-UP LETTER December 22, 2004 Mr. C. Richard Parker Baker County Public Defender 339 East Macclenny Avenue Macclenny, FL 32063 Dear Mr. Parker, Recently you have participated in a st udy as a community leader regarding your perceptions of several interesting aspects of community in Macclenny, Florida. First, we would like to start by saying th ank you for your time and par ticipation in this study. We realize that you have a busy schedule, and th ank you for taking time out of it to contribute in this manner. Enclosed with this letter is a copy of the results. We hope you find them as interesting and insightful as we did. If you have a ny questions or comments, please feel free to contact me at kgrage@mail.ifas.ufl.edu Again, thank you so much for your assistance in this project. It is only through people like you that we can continue to learn mo re about our communities, from those who know them best. Sincerely yours, Kristina G. Ricketts University of Florida Enclosure

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210 APPENDIX F FIVE STEPS FOR CARRYING OU T AN EVALUATIVE INTERVIEW 1. Choosing whom to interview. During th is phase, interview participants were chosen according to their ability to provide the most applicable and informational data. 2. Preparing for the interview. This phase involved preparing individually for each individual participant; practicing the in terview with appropriate substitutes; choosing the appropriate interview question sequence; deciding upon the interviewers role, dress and level of form ality appropriate to the situation; and finally, verbal and written c onfirmation of the interview. Guba and Lincoln (1981) stress first impressions are important and as such, it is important for the interviewer to be appropriately dressed and show up a few minutes early for the interview. Pilot interviews were conducted at every le vel with several individuals to become familiar with and clear up any ambigu ities regarding the instrument. 3. Initial operations. The natu re and purpose of the interv iew was reviewed with each participant as part of the informed cons ent procedure. Informed consent forms were then signed and returned. Basic demographic and general questions were addressed in the beginning in order to relax the participant and to learn how the participant communicates. Considering the interview from the respondents perspective allowed the inte rviewer to more closely understand the context and perspective in which he/she is operating. 4. Pacing the interview and keeping it pr oductive. As the interview progressed, questions became more specific as the interviewer began to uncover salient information. Several presupposing questions we re integrated into the interview, as Patton (2002) notes using thes e types of questions leads to more direct information. Within the interview itself, sometimes it was necessary to use probes to uncover additional information or avoid uncomfo rtable silence. Probes took several different forms, including: short bursts of silence (while waiting for further explanation), saying ummmm or uh-huh, asking for further information following specific questions, calling for exam ples, reactions to what was said or feelings involved, and questioning specifi cally to embellish, extend or reflect upon a point mentioned.

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211 5. Terminating the interview and gaining closur e. The interview was concluded at the end of the interview guide, or at the point in time when the interviewer was receiving limited additional salient inform ation. This was done by the interviewer summarizing the final point made by the par ticipant, which served as a way for the participant to add any final comments and also as a validity check for the respondent. Finally, the participants were thanked orally and follow-up letters were mailed to each participant (Appendix E). Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

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217 Prezza, M., & Costantini, S. (1998). Sens e of community and life satisfaction: Investigation in three diffe rent territorial contexts. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 8 181-194. Riger, S., & Lavrakas, P. J. (1981). Community ties: Patterns of attachment and social interaction in urban neighborhoods. American Journal of Community Psychology, 9 55-66. The Saguaro Seminar: Civic Enga gement in America. (N.A.). Social capital community benchmark survey executive summary Boston, MA: John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. Seevers, B., Graham, D., Gamon, J., & Conklin, N. (1997). Education through cooperative extension Albany, New York: Delmar Publishers. Stevens, J. (2002). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Tabb, M., & Montesi, C. R. (2000). A mode l for long-term leadership development among groups of diverse persons: Th e delta emerging leaders program. Journal of the Community Development Society, 31 (2), 331-347. Tichy, N. M., & Devanna, M. A. (1986). The transformational leader New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. Tonnies, F. (1957). The summing up. In community and society (pp. 237-259). New York, NY: Harper and Row. Warren, R. L. (1972). The community in America Chicago, IL: Rand McNally College Publishing Company. Wilkinson, K. P. (1970). The community as a social field. Social Forces, 48 (3), 311-322. Wilkinson, K. P. (1986). In search of the community in the changing countryside. Rural Sociology, 51 (1), 1-17. Wilkinson, K. P. (1991). The community in rural America New York, NY: Greenwood Press. Wilkinson, K. P. (1995). Social forces shaping th e future of rural areas. In L. J. Beaulieu & D. Mulkey (Eds.), Investing in People: The hu man capital needs of rural America (pp. 65-83). San Francisc o, CA: Westview Press. Williams, F., & Monge, P. (2001). Reasoning with statistics: How to read quantitative research (5th ed.). New York: Harcourt College Publishers. Woolcock, M. (1998). Social capital and economic developm ent: Toward a theoretical synthesis and policy framework. Theory and Society, 27 (2), 151-208.

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219 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Kristina Grage Ricketts was born in Li ncoln, Nebraska, on October 13, 1977. She was raised on a farm in rural Nebraska, along with cattle, sheep, horses and a pig named Wilbur. As is apparent, animals and agricu lture were a big part of her life from a young age. Around age nine she started showing sh eep in 4-H, and from then on was firmly ensconced in training and developing her le adership skills through 4-H activities. Showing animals, baking, crafts, raising vegeta bles and flowers, and sewing were just a few of the activities she picked up along the wa y. Partially due to this influence, she pursued and graduated with a degree in Agricultural Leadership, Education and Communication from the University of Nebr aska Lincoln. Determining that the academic discipline was where she wanted to be, she (shortly thereafter) picked up and moved everything to Gainesville, Florida where she pursued a nd acquired two more degrees a Master's in 2003 and a Ph.D. in 2005, both within the same field of agricultural leadership. Also obtained during this time was the degree of Mrs. Mrs. Ricketts, that is. This change in events led to the third Dr. Ricketts in the same academic field Dr. Clifton Ricketts, Dr John Ricketts, and Dr. Kristina Ricketts. She is currently pursuing a career in academia and lives on a farm in Mt. Juliet, Tennessee, with her husband Paul, dog Jill, and other assorted cr itters, including Co coa, Blackjack and Cornbread.


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Title: The Importance of Community Leadership to Successful Rural Communities in Florida
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Title: The Importance of Community Leadership to Successful Rural Communities in Florida
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

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Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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THE IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNITY LEADERSHIP TO SUCCESSFUL RURAL
COMMUNITIES IN FLORIDA

















By

KRISTINA GRAGE RICKETTS


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2005








































Copyright 2005

By

Kristina Grage Ricketts



























This manuscript is dedicated to the love of my life and best friend, Paul Ricketts.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Often, life is all about the destination where one ends up. However, so much of

where one ends up depends upon what was experienced along the way. In the journey to

receiving a Ph.D., there were many little victories. These victories were not of my own

accord they were due to many individuals who dedicated time and effort to help

achieve this goal, inevitably giving a little piece of themselves in the process. This list is

dedicated to those people.

First and foremost, I would like to thank my family for all the love and support they

have provided. The encouragement and love provided through elementary and high

school was unquestionably where my love affair with academia all began. Nonetheless,

if not for the numerous late-night phone calls, frequent trips home, and abundant gift

packages, Florida would have certainly been a very short stay.

Specifically, I would like to thank Dr. Howard Ladewig for his love of knowledge,

and for passing this on through the numerous meetings and discussions allowed for

throughout this process. Fascination is generally seen of in the eye of the beholder. To

one of the smartest men I know, thank you for keeping it fascinating.

I would like to thank Dr. Nick Place, for all the emotional and spiritual support

provided over the years. It became a classic moment when dissertation discussions

turned from the academic to personal matters. To one of the greatest men I have ever

known, who truly is in God's presence, thank you for all of the friendship and prayers. It

is amazing the spiritual relevance to real life.









In addition, I would like to thank everyone on my committee, for the time and

effort they put into this manuscript. It was they who helped make this process possible.

I would like to thank friends and family. Without a good support mechanism, I

would have never made it through the tough stuff.

Thanks also go out to the other graduate students in the Department of Agricultural

Education and Communication. It certainly is something to take notice of when you

assemble a large group of remarkable individuals into one office. In a different situation,

at another date and time, it might be considered chaos. For us, it was synergy.

I would also like to thank my husband, Paul Ricketts. Sometimes school takes

precedence over just about everything else it gets in the way of life. Many thanks to the

person who held on and saw it to the end.

As a final note, I would like to thank God. It was His spiritual guidance that led me

to Florida in the first place. He provided support in the hard times. And He never let me

forget that it was His plan for my life I was fulfilling, not mine. For all of this I am

especially thankful. Sometimes one just needs a little help from above:



For I know the plans I have for you, declares the Lord, plans to prosper you and
not to harm you, plans to give you a hope and a future. Then you will call upon me
and come and pray to me, and I will listen to you. You will seek me and find me when
you seek me with all your heart.
Jeremiah 29:11-13 (NIV)
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page
A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

LIST OF TABLES ..................................................... ix

LIST OF FIGURES ......................................... .................................... xii

A B S T R A C T .................................................................................................... ........ .. x iii

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY.........................................1...

In tro d u ctio n ....................... ...................................... ..................... 1
Background and Significance of the Problem ......................................... ...............4...
Definition of Terms ...................... .. ........... ...................................... ...8
Purpose of the Study .................... .. ........... ...................................... ...9
Research Objectives.............................. .......... ....................... 10
Im portance of the Study ...................................................................................... 11
L im stations of the Study .................................................................... ............... 14
S u m m ary .................................................................................................... ........ .. 16

2 CONCEPTUAL AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ..................................... 18

C on ceptu al F ram ew ork ............................................................................................... 19
R ural C om m unity ............. .. ............... ............................................... 19
C om m unity Structure .................. ............................................................. 21
C om m unity M odel ..................................................... .. .............. .... .. ............ 24
The Community Field An Interactive Approach.........................................28
S o cial C ap ital ............................................................. ............... ....... ... ............ 2 9
Psychological Sense of Com m unity ............................................... ................ 32
Leadership: Organizational versus Community ............................. ................ 36
O organizational leadership.................. .................................................. 36
Com m unity leadership ......................................................... 43
L ead er action .............. ... ... ..... .... ..................................... ...... 4 6
Generalized/specific leadership within communities...............................47
Theoretical Fram ew ork.......................................................... ......................... 48
The Community Field An Interactional Approach ................ ..................... 48
Social C capital Theory .................................................. .................. ................ .. 50
Servant Leadership Theory/Community Leadership.....................................53









Psychological Sense of Community Theory ..................................................56
S u m m a ry ..................................................................................................................... 5 9

3 M E T H O D O L O G Y ................................................... ............................................ 63

In tro d u ctio n ................................................................................................................ 6 3
R research D esig n .................. .................................................................................... 64
Interview Process B background ....................................................... ................ 65
Study Variables .................................. ......... ...... ...............67
Research Objectives ............................................... 67
Com m unity Selection Param eters .................................................. ................ 68
D ata Collection Procedures ................. ............................................................ 74
T he Interview P process ......................................... ........................ ................ 75
P articipants/Sam pling .......................................... ........................ ................ 79
Instrumentation and Measures.................................................................... 82
Interview Stages ............... ................ .............................................. 84
D ata A n aly sis .............................................................................................................. 8 6
F actor A naly sis ........................................................................................... 86
P ath A n aly sis ....................................................................................................... 8 8
Q ualitative A naly sis .............. ...... ............ ............................... ...............89
S u m m a ry .................................................................................................................. .. 9 0

4 R E S U L T S ................................................................................................................. .. 9 2

Profile of Participants (Demographics) .................................................................92
F acto r A n aly sis ........................................................................................................... 9 4
F actor Selection .......................................................................................... 94
F acto r R otatio n .................................................................. .. .............. ... ............ 9 6
Psychological Sense of Community Factor Analysis.....................................97
U nrotated factor m atrix ........................................................... ................ 99
R otated factor m atrices .......................................................... ............... 102
Pattern matrix versus structure matrix ....... ...................................... 104
Factor labeling .... ................... ............................................ 105
Community Leadership Factor Analysis...... .... ................................... 106
Unrotated factor matrix ............................. ..................... 117
Rotated factor matrices...... ........... .......... ..................... 120
F actor lab eling ........................................................ ............... ............ 12 0
Social Capital Factor Analysis ....... ......... ........ ......................127
Social capital Trust factor analysis...... .... .................................... 127
U nrotated factor m atrix ......................................................... ............... 130
Social capital Community involvement factor analysis ........................131
Unrotated factor matrix ............................. ..................... 134
Rotated factor matrices...... ......................... ..................... 134
F actor lab elin g ........................................................ ............... . ........... 13 5
Factor scores ...... ............... .. ... ...................... .................... 138
Social Capital Organizational Involvement...... ................... ...................138
R egression and Path A nalysis........................................................ ............... 143









Direct Effects on Social Capital ....... ... .... ...................... 146
D irect effects on social capital Trust.................................. ................ 147
Direct effects on social capital Organizational involvement................ 148
Direct effects on social capital Community involvement (community
action) .............. ...... .. .. .. .............................. 149
Direct Effects on Openness to Change/Community Vision ............................151
Direct effects of social capital variables on openness to
change/community vision............... ........................... 151
Direct effects of independent variables on openness to
change/community vision...... .... ........................ 152
Sum m ary of D irect Effects ...... .......... .......... ..................... 154
Q ualitative A nalysis............................................................................... ............. ..157
Psychological Sense of Com m unity ...... ........... ........................................ 157
Com m unity Leadership ................. ........................................................ 160
S o cial C ap ital ..................................................................................................... 16 5
C o n c lu sio n s.............................................................................................................. 17 1

5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS ..................................... 172

S u m m a ry ................................................................................................................... 1 7 2
Linking it all Together ................................................................................. 174
O objective Sum m aries...................................... ........................ ............... 174
G general Sum m aries ................. .............................................................. 177
C o n c lu sio n s.............................................................................................................. 1 8 6
Im p lic atio n s .............................................................................................................. 1 8 8
Im plications for R research ...................................... ........................ ............... 192

APPENDIX

A FIVE TRADITIONS OF QUALITATIVE INQUIRY.................. ...................195

B INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD (IRB) APPROVAL................ 196

C PR E L IM IN A R Y L E T TE R .......................................................................................197

D IN TERV IEW GU ID E ... ................................................................. ............... 198

E F O L L O W -U P L E T T E R ...........................................................................................209

F FIVE STEPS FOR CARRYING OUT AN EVALUATIVE INTERVIEW ..........210

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S ................................................................................................. 2 12

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ..................................................... 219















LIST OF TABLES


Table page

1-1. D definition of Term s ........... ................................... ......................................... 8

2-1. Leadership Styles, Definitions and Characteristics............................. ................ 37

3-1. Viability Score Breakdown and Overall Rank of 30 Florida Communities ..........76

4-1. Demographic Characteristics of Community Leaders ........................................93

4-2. Unrotated Factor Matrix of Psychological Sense of Community (Independent
V a ria b le ) ............................................................................................................... ... 9 8

4-3. Promax Rotated Factor Pattern Matrix of Psychological Sense of Community
(Independent V ariable) ........................................................................ ................ 99

4-4. Unrotated Limited Factor Matrix of Psychological Sense of Community
(Independent V ariable) ...................................... ......................... ............... 101

4-5. Promax Rotated Limited Factor Pattern Matrix of Psychological Sense of
Community (Independent Variable)...........................................103

4-6. Promax Rotated Limited Factor Structure Matrix of Psychological Sense of
Community (Independent Variable).......................................... 105

4-7. Unrotated Factor Matrix of Community Leadership (Independent Variable). ...... 108

4-8. Promax Rotated Factor Pattern Matrix of Community Leadership (Independent
V a riab le )............................................................................................................ .. 1 1 3

4-9. Unrotated Limited Factor Matrix of Community Leadership (Independent
V a riab le )............................................................................................................ .. 1 1 8

4-10. Promax Rotated Limited Factor Pattern Matrix of Community Leadership
(Independent V ariable) ...................................... ......................... ............... 12 1

4-11. Promax Rotated Limited Factor Structure Matrix of Community Leadership
(Independent V ariable) ...................................... ......................... ............... 124

4-12. Unrotated Factor Matrix of Social Capital Trust (Intervening Variable)..........128









4-13. Promax Rotated Factor Pattern Matrix of Social Capital Trust (Intervening
V a riab le )............................................................................................................ .. 12 8

4-14. Promax Rotated Factor Structure Matrix of Social Capital Trust (Intervening
V a riab le )............................................................................................................ .. 1 3 0

4-15. Unrotated Limited Factor Matrix of Social Capital Trust (Intervening
V a riab le )............................................................................................................ .. 1 3 1

4-16. Unrotated Factor Matrix of Social Capital Community Involvement
(Intervening V ariable) ......................... ...................... .................................... 132

4-17. Promax Rotated Factor Pattern Matrix of Social Capital Community
Involvement (Intervening Variable) ...... ........................... 132

4-18. Unrotated Limited Factor Matrix of Social Capital Community Involvement
(Intervening V ariable) ......................... ...................... .................................... 135

4-19. Promax Rotated Limited Factor Pattern Matrix of Social Capital Community
Involvement (Intervening Variable) ......................................... 136

4-20. Promax Rotated Limited Factor Structure Matrix of Social Capital -
Community Involvement (Intervening Variable)........................ .................. 137

4-21. Organizational Involvement of Community Leaders (By Community). ..............139

4-22. Organizational Involvement of Community Leaders (Total)...............................142

4-23. Product-Moment Correlation Coefficients for Path Model Variables .................146

4-24. Tests of Significance and Path Coefficients for Regression of Psychological
Sense of Community and Community Leadership Variables on Trust (Social
C a p ita l) ............................................................................................................... ... 1 4 8

4-25. Tests of Significance and Path Coefficients for Regression of Psychological
Sense of Community and Community Leadership Variables on Organizational
Involvem ent (Social Capital). ...... ............. .............. ...................... 149

4-26. Tests of Significance and Path Coefficients for Regression of Psychological
Sense of Community and Community Leadership Variables on Community
Involvement Community Action (Social Capital). .................. ...... .............151

4-27. Tests of Significance and Path Coefficients for Regression of Social Capital
Variables on Openness to Change/Community Vision................ ...................152

4-28. Tests of Significance and Path Coefficients for Regression of Independent
Variables on Openness to Change/Community Vision................ ...................153









4-29. Tests of Significance and Path Coefficients for Regression of Significant
Variables on Openness to Change/Community Vision within the Simplified
M o d e l ................................................................................................................ ... 1 5 6

5-1. Qualitative Community Leader Characteristics. ....................... ...................187















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

1-1. Path Model Depicting Proposed Relationships among Sense of Community,
Community Leadership, Social Capital, and Openness to Change....................... 12

2-1. Community Model. ... ............................ ........ .... ............... 27

2-2. Path Model Depicting Proposed Relationships among Sense of Community,
Community Leadership, Social Capital, and Openness to Change (Review). .........62

3-1. Florida State M ap by County Location Parameter........................... ................ 69

3-2. Florida State Map by County Selected Study Communities...............................74

4-1. Scree Plot of Psychological Sense of Community (Independent Variable).............95

4-2. Scree Plot of Community Leadership (Independent Variable). ............................112

4-3. Scree Plot of Social Capital Trust (Intervening Variable). ................................ 129

4-4. Scree Plot of Social Capital Community Involvement (Intervening Variable). .133

4-5. Effects of Selected Variables on Openness to Change/Community Vision.........145

4-6. Effects of Selected Variables on Openness to Change/Community Vision
(M modified V version) ... ................................................................... .............. 147

4-7. Path Model Containing Significant Coefficients. ................................. 154

4-8. Effects of Independent and Intervening Variables on Openness to
Change/Community Vision A Simplified Model..................... ................... 155














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

THE IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNITY LEADERSHIP TO SUCCESSFUL RURAL
COMMUNITIES IN FLORIDA


By

Kristina Grage Ricketts

May 2005

Chair: Howard W. Ladewig
Cochair: Nick T. Place
Major Department: Agricultural Education and Communication

Rural communities have unique ideals and values, as well as a culture and life of

their own. Unfortunately, many of today's rural areas are in trouble. Issues facing rural

communities are vast and numerous; more specifically, rural communities in Florida are

dealing with a unique problem the considerable influx of new people. Still, many argue

that leadership may be the catalyst through which positive changes occur. Local leaders

are concluding that if economic and community development is to occur, it is their

responsibility to make it happen. Fortunately, some of today's rural communities are

doing exceptionally well. But what makes these communities different? And what

community aspects figure into this equation? Finally, could the presence of effective

community leadership be the key to leading fading communities to a brighter tomorrow?

This comparative case study was undertaken to investigate how psychological

sense of community leaders, community leadership, and social capital work together









towards change within a viable community. The theoretical framework involved

Wilkinson's Theory of Interaction, McMillan and Chavis' Psychological Sense of

Community Theory, Servant Leadership Theory by Greenleaf, and Weber's illustration of

social capital. Study communities were chosen through calculating a "Community

Viability Score," and selecting the two most viable rural communities in Florida for

participation. Community leaders within each community were determined through an

expert panel, and participation continued through the snowball technique. These leaders

were interviewed on-site using a researcher-designed instrument. Data analysis included

factor analysis, path analysis and qualitative techniques.

Results indicated the community viability score was an inappropriate measure of

future community success. Furthermore, only two variables were found to have a direct

effect on a community's openness to change community empowerment and building

social capital through trust. Factor analysis indicated fewer essential factors than

theoretically provided for in nearly all instances. Regarding leadership, practically every

community leader felt a strong sense of community across their county most actually

identified their community not as their town, but according to their county. In addition, it

was clearly illustrated that today's community leadership structure has changed; where

there used to be a plethora of generalized community leaders, now are leaders who are

less general, more dedicated to serving their community within specific social groups.

Overall, these rural communities relied strongly on relationships (social capital) as the

backbone to the community particularly those between schools and churches.

Community leaders showed a very strong sense of service to their community, most often

with no recognition desired.









Conclusions confirmed that an overall measure for community success still needs

to be developed. In addition, leadership proved to be important at the community level.

Effective community leaders were important in developing important relationships,

establishing communication and providing the community with direction thereby

providing the needed link between variables. Further research should to be done in all

aspects of rural communities, with emphasis placed on leadership, change and

development.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

Introduction

Rural communities are an important aspect of the fabric of American society. It is

from these beginnings that even the largest cities originated and, until the middle of the

20th century, where the majority of the American population called home. Rural

communities have unique ideals and values, as well as a culture and life of their own.

The value behind rural areas and all they provide is an inherent one; something which is

actively recognized by those exposed on a daily basis, or those who share history with a

rural place. This shared value is illustrated through a vaguely articulated but passionately

held belief that community is a good thing something which should be promoted,

defended and restored in social life (Wilkinson, 1986).

Unfortunately, many of today's rural areas are in trouble. Issues facing rural

communities range from decline (the loss of family farms and small farming communities

resulting in ever-dwindling populations that may not be able to actively support a

community) to rapid growth (and how to protect the surrounding environment and small

-town culture). Furthermore, demographic shifts and economic restructuring threaten to

dramatically alter the lives of rural people and their communities (Brown, Swanson, &

Barton, 2003). Today's rural communities, on average, differ more from each other than

urban areas (Flora & Flora, 2004). Therefore, addressing these problems will be

particularly complex; a "one size fits all" approach will not be effective.









Within many rural communities today, local leaders are concluding that if

economic and community development is to occur, it is their responsibility to make it

happen (Bell & Evert, 1997). In areas such as public education and job training,

technology, networking with state and regional agencies, health care, leadership and

strategic planning, communities are learning that community development is not the

responsibility of any one group, but a community-wide effort.

Furthermore, many argue that leadership may be the catalyst through which these

changes occur. Communities that are creative, entrepreneurial, and committed to

building a shared vision and consensus are found to be better prepared to address

community needs (Bell & Evert, 1997). For rural communities to remain, there is a call

for local leadership to take charge and guide the way into the future. A new generation of

leaders is needed to build local partnerships for managing change in today's diverse

communities (Tabb & Montesi, 2000).

Leadership itself has played a fundamental role in nearly every aspect of society,

and is particularly important in rural communities. In 1908, President Theodore

Roosevelt initiated the Country Life Commission and charged it to study the major

aspects and issues in rural areas. A primary finding of that study was the overriding lack

of quality leadership within rural areas. Yet, reflecting on leadership by itself is

inappropriate leadership (as defined later within this chapter) is the accomplishment of

group purpose, which is furthered not only by effective leaders, but several other factors

including innovators and entrepreneurs, available resources, and social capital, or

contributing to the common good (Gardner, 1990). Therefore, leadership must be

considered within a context, regarding a specific purpose. The context and purpose









behind this study are rural communities and how leadership relates, interacts, and affects

individuals, social capital, and change within the community situation.

As Gardner (1990) asserts, today's problems and issues within society are not

nearly as frightening as the question they raise concerning society's ability to gather

forces and act. As society becomes more complex, an ever-increasing number of these

issues are linked between urban and rural areas. This makes issues more complex and

results in the need for more complex solutions. Furthermore, because today's

communities and social fields are larger and more intricately organized, individuals in all

segments and at all levels must be prepared to act as leaders. Thus, leadership is

dispersed not only throughout all segments of society government, business,

communities, etc. it is also dispersed through the many levels of social functioning

(Gardner, 1990). The bottom line is a great number of individuals within society need to

know how to solve complex problems in a variety of situations in essence to be leaders.

Even more importantly for the future of today's rural communities is the presence

and action of leaders who can "fit it all together." Positioning a community for a viable

future does not just mean being able to solve complex problems and move the community

towards successful social action,1 which leads to planned change, but also means

motivating community members to develop social capital, increase individual well-being,

sustain the community's unique culture and a variety of other responsibilities. This is the

complex side of community leadership and the focus of this study.


1 For further reference, see Definition of Terms on p. 7.









Background and Significance of the Problem

Rural communities have experienced remarkable change and uncertainty within the

last several decades. Prior to the 20th century, rural policy was mostly directed toward

agricultural land distribution (Congressional Research Service, 2003). The Homestead

Act of 1862 and the Morrill Act of 1862 were both active illustrations of this. In the

early 20th century, a rural reform movement resulting from the County Life

Commission's conclusions emphasized rural development policy aimed towards

technology and modernization. Today and in the future, rural policy will need to cover a

much broader array of issues, as the rural environment becomes more complex.

According to the Congressional Research Service (2003), rural communities are

witnessing lower wages than their urban counterparts, as well as population declines

within many agriculture-dependent counties and little or no job growth in the 1990's.

Additionally, rural communities are so diverse that addressing rural issues with a "one-

size-fits-all" rural policy is nearly impossible to achieve. Due to this diversity, future

rural leadership will have to deal with a wider array of policy issues including the

following:

* New sources of economic growth and development;

* The increasing concentration of agricultural production and implications;

* Developing rural entrepreneurial capacity;

* Rebuilding an aging rural physical infrastructure;

* Public service delivery innovations in sparse population areas;

* The fate of low-wage, declining rural areas, many of which are in agriculture-
dependent counties;

* Increasing suburbanization and the conflicts between agriculture and suburban and
exurban development;









* Human capital shortages;

* Dealing with the "Digital Divide," or the lack of equitable and meaningful access to
technology in rural areas; and

* Increasing environmental pressures on agriculture, forestry, and fisheries.

(Congressional Research Service, 2003)

While many of the rural communities found in the Great Plains, western Corn Belt

and Mississippi Delta are facing ever-diminishing populations, many communities in the

Mountain West, rural Northeast and Southeast (particularly Florida) are dealing with a

more unique problem. The great migration of individuals to more southern climes as

well as those moving into rural areas, away from the more highly populated cities, is a

situation that has been facing rural Floridian communities for a number of years (Flora &

Flora, 2004). Within Florida, much of the rural migration is occurring out of

metropolitan centers and into adjacent areas (suburbs) and rural communities. This large

influx of people creates unique challenges for both community members and leaders.

According to Flora and Flora (2004)

For rural communities that have coped with declining populations and resources for
years, managing an influx of people and businesses represents a serious challenge
many are not fully prepared to deal with .... If growth is to be managed in such
areas, local governments need the staff, training, legal framework, and resources to
produce and enforce plans that allow growth, but protect the environment, public
access, open space, and farmland. (pp.29-30)

Local leadership needs to step up and recognize the special needs associated with rural

growth when developing apposite local public policy. In order for this to work most

effectively, local leaders from rural communities, governments and organizations should

be considered viable partners in the policy-making process.

When looking specifically at rural communities from the leadership perspective,

much less is known. According to Wilkinson (1986), continuing education and rural









leadership development programs need to take larger structural sources of problems into

account, and these programs then could be combined with efforts to attack community

structural problems directly. Furthermore, it is particularly important to recognize the

essential roles local leaders and associations must play in the process of community

development. By ignoring local leaders and actors, we disregard those who make

decisions, provide leadership, and instigate community action, thereby missing the mark

of community development itself.

Important leadership development activities within communities have often been

undertaken by the Cooperative Extension Service (CES). According to Ahern, Yee, and

Bottum (2003), extension activities focusing on community resource development are

important within communities both with and without primarily agricultural production

economies. Ironically, this is not reflected in the allocation of faculty within this area.

Over the period from 1977 to 1992, community resource development had a decrease of

488 FTEs (full-time equivalents), or a 2% overall percentage decrease (across CES) in

personnel assigned to this program area (Ahem et al., 2003). Simply stated, within

extension there has been a noticeable decrease in focus on community resource and

leadership development activities over the last few decades. Unfortunately, fewer

resources and extension educators focused in community development means fewer

programs freely available for leadership development to the detriment of many rural

communities.

Effective leadership within the community field is necessary in order to assert

successful community action, encourage social well-being, and improve community

viability. But how does one define effective leadership within a rural community?









Moreover, does the effectiveness of leadership within rural communities directly affect

the success or decline of the community itself? Finally, if leadership does indeed impact

community viability, what implications does this have for rural leadership development?

While many questions have been manifest within this section, the aggregate

problem incorporates each of these and asks us to look at the bigger picture. Rural

communities have unique characteristics and conditions. According to Wilkinson (1986)

the four main aspects to be considered when studying today's rural communities are

* The community is alive in the sense that it influences social well-being;

* Small towns and rural areas present special advantages (as well as challenges) for
community development;

* A strategy of rural community development must come to grips with sources of
rural problems as they relate to a larger society; and

* The well-being of those in rural areas can be improved through specifying and
measuring the essential parameters of rural community development.

Communities, being a specific type of terrestrial or social environment, are not

singular unto themselves. They are a complex combination of numerous (and sometimes

diverse) social groups and variables that interact to form one large system. The

overarching problem studied involved investigating factors that affect how a community

becomes viable. In order to address this larger issue, smaller segments were studied, like

how variables such as power, networks and communication work together in

communities, how these variables are connected to social capital within the community,

how servant leadership2 performs within the community and eventually how all of these

aspects affect social action. Through more in-depth knowledge of viable rural

communities and their components, rural policy can be designed to more accurately and


2 To be a servant first, then conscious choice brings one to aspire to lead.









thoroughly address all components of current community issues. Ideally it is rural policy,

as well as community member morale, that this knowledge is to impress upon. For as

Flora and Flora (2004) articulate, "Economic and policy choices made at the state and

federal level and individual choices made by communities themselves mean that, even for

the poor, remote rural communities, trend is not destiny" (p. 18).

Definition of Terms

Within this study, there are several terms utilized that have numerous definitions

within the human language. In order to clear up any ambiguities, major terms are defined

below as they are operationalized within this study:

Table 1-1. Definition of Terms.
Terms Operational Definition
Community A specific type of terrestrial or social environment. Three primary


Community
Field


Community
Leadership

Community
Viability

Empowerment


Human Capital


Individual Well-
Being


elements define community: (a) a local ecology, (b) sufficient
structures to meet the needs and common interests of the people, and
(c) a field of community actions (Kaufman, 1959; Wilkinson, 1986).

An interaction process where actions are coordinated locally, and
social interaction is the key ingredient (Kaufman, 1959; Luloff &
Wilkinson, 1979; Wilkinson, 1991).

To influence people toward a shared goal for action (Northouse,
2001).

How active and effective a community is at successfully reaching
communal goals (Brown, 1991).

Granting power between individuals or entities the delegation of
authority (Conger & Kanungo, 1988).

The improvement or change in individuals' skills and capabilities that
allow them to act in new ways (Coleman, 1988).

A natural state one realizes when his/her basic needs are met
(Maslow, 1959).










Table 1-1.
Terms
Planned
(Sustainable)
Change

Power


Social Action
(Community
Action)

Social Capital


Social System
(Social Field)


Continued.
Operational Definition
Change within an ongoing social system (in our case, a community),
that adds to or improves it, rather than replacing any of its key
elements (Gerlach & Hines, as cited in Zaltman & Duncan, 1977).

A social process describing the act of individuals moving other
individuals to action (Hunter, 1970).

The process by community members that leads to planned change
(Zaltman & Duncan, 1977).


The relationships and networks within a social structure where
individuals contribute to the common good (Flora, 1998).

Groups within a community based upon social activities that allow
individuals the daily access necessary for day-to-day living (Warren,
1972).


Purpose of the Study

This study focused on the process of activity and social change within a rural

community setting. More specifically, the presence and associations of leadership and

other variables within the community often have a strong impact upon the planned

change toward the greater good of the community, leading to improved community

viability. Generally, this occurs as a product of the interactions and relationships

developed between community members; ideally, positive interactions will help

encourage increased social capital and allow for the community members and leaders to

work together towards actions for the greater good of the community. Using qualitative

inquiry methods, it was the researcher's goal to systematically describe the influence of

leadership, sense of community and social capital on community viability within two

select rural communities. As Patton (2002) imparts, qualitative research may be aimed to









garner insight about a phenomenon of interest. Therefore, the purpose behind this study

was to accurately illustrate and describe the current environment (including the

interactions among leadership, power, and other independent variables) within two rural

Florida communities, with particular interest in describing the influence leadership and

sense of community have upon the development of social capital leading to a more viable

community. Figure 1-1 visibly illustrates the path model developed for this study.

Research Objectives

The research was used to illustrate and describe how leadership and other factors

interact within rural communities. Explicitly, the purpose of this study was to investigate

how psychological sense of community, community leadership, and social capital

influenced openness to change within a viable community. The specific objectives

addressed within this study were as follows

1. To measure a community's viability, individual psychological sense of community,
social capital commitment and community leadership within select viable rural
communities;

2. To determine the relationships between

a. Sense of community and community leadership,

b. Sense of community and social capital,

c. Community leadership and social capital, and

d. Sense of community and community leadership (independent variables) with
openness to change (dependent variable see section "Study Variables" for a
complete list of variables);

3. To determine the effects of sense of community and community leadership, as well
as their interactions with openness to change;

4. To compare/contrast the environment within the two most viable rural communities
in Florida;

5. To qualitatively compare each viable community according to the variables of
psychological sense of community, community leadership and social capital.









These objectives were addressed within each of the two communities selected.

Once the data were transcribed and analyzed, they were then compared between the two

communities.


Importance of the Study

The association among rural community, leadership and community action is one

that helps in linking theory and policy, as well as collectively serving as the basis for

rural development policy in the United States over the past several decades. In fact,

proponents of rural development at both the state and federal levels argue that community

action and community leadership "must be at the forefront of effective programs to

address rural problems" (Wilkinson, 1991, p. ix).

A large number of individuals still inhabit rural communities today. Rural

communities continue to make up an important part of the fabric of the American society

and are still valued as something that should be promoted, defended and restored in social

life (Wilkinson, 1986). As Flora and Flora (2004) point out, rural areas contribute many

things to the nation, including "... (1) food security, (2) a sense of land stewardship that

protects natural resources, (3) a value system connected to both the land and human

relationship, and (4) protection of diversity" (p. 15). Therefore, it is important to rural

people, and as an aspect of society itself, for rural communities to continue to fight and

become viable and successful entities.









































Figure 1-1.Path Model Depicting Proposed Relationships among Sense of Community, Community Leadership, Social Capital, and
Openness to Change.


Independent Variable
Sense of Community

C^ 1. Belonging
2. Fulfillment ofNee
3. Influences
4. 4. Shared Emotional
Connection 0


Intervening Variable
Social Capital









So how do we discern viable, successful communities? Within this study, a viable

community demonstrated success in several areas across the community (see Table 3-1).

Still, regardless if a community is successful in today's world what will this community

look like after change? Many of Florida's rural areas have the unique problem of dealing

with large influxes of people, rather than the outward migration with which many rural

communities in the Midwest and other areas are concerned. This fits exceptionally well

into the context of this study, as changes in a community's composition affect not only

the social structure of the group, but ultimately the social capital and community

leadership, as well. As Wilkinson (1991) shares, community leaders have a direct impact

on the life and well-being of their community. Furthermore, these leaders fill salient

roles in community actions, many working to develop the "common good" of their

community. Wilkinson considers this community development a component of

community change. Therefore viable communities may not only have effective, efficient

leaders, but it is these same leaders who also work towards a purpose that is positive for

community members that the "purpose expresses what the actors believe to be a way of

improving their lives" (Wilkinson, 1991, p. 87). But how is the leadership structure of a

community affected by new individuals? And how is the social capital of a community

affected through constant change? What about viability? Sure, some rural communities

are particularly "viable" at one point in time, but how about after significant change?

Finally, if the social capital transforms as the number of new individuals rises, how do we

identify new, effective leaders influential entities to lead us back to community

success?









It has been suggested that a key component leading toward successful community

function is the presence of active and effective community leadership. Through

investigation and exploration of the different factors that shape successful communities,

the linkages between social capital and community activity (and ultimately, community

change), and how the overall process is affected through efficient community leadership,

ideally a clearer picture can be drawn regarding the functioning of viable communities.

These aspects will allow more specific and effectual state and national policies to be

designed, which in turn will contribute further to the success of rural communities.

Additionally, curriculum stressing the successful processes and roles found within viable

communities could be developed for use in other, less flourishing communities. Flora

and Flora (2004) sum it up well:

... the rural experience is the sum of group responses to both political constraints
and individual choice. People can make a difference, either by influencing the
broader policy agenda that constrains them or by making choices within the policy
framework. We are not just victims of society or passive consumers of broader
national change. The choices rural people make affect the direction change takes in
their communities. (pp. 16-17)

People can make a difference. Whether these people are community members, leaders or

extraneous individuals who occasionally interact in rural communities, it is necessary that

more be understood about rural communities. If not, the future for rural communities

may be dramatically shortened and there may be no rural communities to study

tomorrow.

Limitations of the Study

As with any type of primarily qualitative research, the purpose is not

generalizability over a large population, but to obtain rich and detailed data to describe a









situation. As such, the generalizability of this study is limited to the populations studied.

Still, the following factors should be considered:

* While qualitative research provides data with significant breadth and depth, it may
lack the preciseness of quantitative data. Qualitative research, by definition, is used
to produce a wealth of information about a small number of cases (Patton, 2002).
This increases the depth of understanding within the cases studied the driving
force behind this study.

* Research through on-site interviews was undertaken for the depth and breadth of
information. Steps identified by Patton (2002) and Lincoln and Guba (1985) were
taken to minimize researcher bias within data collection, interpretation and analysis
including

Subjective or sampling bias of the reported findings may affect research
generalizability. Social pressure may cause the "halo effect" from
participants who want to provide "good" data. Additionally, there may be
subjective bias from the researcher regarding how the data were interpreted,
which in turn may influence the results. As the researcher, being aware and
sensitive to this situation can help alleviate this problem.

Each step of the research process was documented through using an audit
trail.1 This also allowed for replication of the research.

The investigator relied on the regular help and advice of outside sources
throughout the process in order to validate the steps taken and conclusions
drawn. Individuals who provided advice were graduate assistants and faculty
members of the University of Florida's Department of Agricultural Education
and Communication.

As this study was qualitative in nature, results and conclusions are meant to
be suggestive rather than definitive in nature. Qualitative research is meant
to provide rich, in-depth data as opposed to the numerically based, more
precise data available through quantitative measures.

* Participants were selected according to the reputational, behavioral and snowball
approaches. While these approaches were determined to be the most effective for
the purposes of this study, there are issues linked to these approaches. The need for
the researcher to identify a monolithic power structure, potential inaccuracies in
respondent perceptions, and disagreement on individual interpretation contribute to
the problems behind this approach (Bonjean, 1963). Still, the leader's action and
position often have a direct link to his/her reputation and success as a leader.
Furthermore, the behavioral approach allows those experts within the community to


1 Audit trail: a step-by-step record by which data can be traced to its source.









identify individuals whom they know to be actors and leaders within the
community information difficult to get another way. As affirmed by Preston and
Guseman (1979), within smaller, relatively independent and homogeneous
communities, using any of the three measures mentioned (action, reputation or
position) to designate community leaders will serve to converge upon the same
grouping.

Summary

Rural communities make up an important aspect of American society. For many

individuals, communities provide a unique culture, as well as opportunities for

employment, social interaction, and leadership possibilities a way of life. More

holistically, rural areas provide food, natural resources, and a unique value system, as

well as numerous other things, to the American (and world) population (Flora & Flora,

2004). However, change is on the horizon for rural communities. How communities deal

with and work through change continues to play an important role in the future of rural

communities. Through this study a clearer picture should be discerned of how rural

communities operate, interact and succeed. The various factors that shape successful

rural communities, linkages between social capital and community activity, and how the

overall community process is affected by leadership will all be explored with an end

result of a more complete illustration of two of today's viable rural communities.

Ideally, this information will allow for more specific and effectual state and

national policies to be designed, which could contribute further to the success of rural

places. Additionally, curriculum stressing the successful processes and roles found

within viable communities could be developed for use in other, less thriving

communities. Through combining what is currently known about communities,

leadership and social action with the information found in the study, a variety of training

courses or seminars on various topics could be developed everything from leadership to









community development to network building. With the help of Cooperative Extension,

these curricula and programs integrating leadership and community development can be

efficiently introduced into rural communities.

As society continues to advance, more and more communities need leaders who are

able to "fit it all together." How to effectively do this within rural communities is a

challenge for both the community members and leaders. Through the detailed data

garnered from action-oriented communities who are successfully meeting many of their

challenges, the researcher argues other communities could use this information as an

important community development component for a more viable future.














CHAPTER 2
CONCEPTUAL AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

The association among rural community, leadership and community action is one

that has served as the basis for rural development policy in the United States over the past

several decades. Proponents of rural development at both the state and federal levels

argue that community action and community leadership "must be at the forefront of

effective programs to address rural problems" (Wilkinson, 1991, p. ix). Within today's

communities, it is particularly important to recognize the essential roles local leaders and

associations must play in the process of community development. Effective leadership

within today's rural communities is needed not only to address complex problems, but

also to assert successful community action, encourage social well-being, and improve

community viability. But how do you define effective leadership within a rural

community? Moreover, does the effectiveness of leadership within rural communities

directly affect the success or decline of the community itself? Finally, if leadership does

indeed impact community viability, what implications does this have for rural leadership

development? And how are all of these variables affected by change? These questions

are not necessarily easy to analyze or comprehend, but need to be addressed nonetheless.

As society changes, so must communities. The more we know about the leadership

processes, interactions and roles that occur within today's viable communities, the

brighter the future will be for tomorrow's rural communities. To begin illustrating the

ties among rural, community, leadership and their respective integration, we first need to

focus on what other theorists and scientists have offered.









Conceptual Framework

Rural Community

The rural community and its connection to country life has historically been the

foundation from which this country has grown. Until recently, the majority of the United

States population inhabited rural areas, and as such, rural life developed into its own

culture and way of life. A primary foundational study regarding rural communities and

country life within the United States was President Theodore Roosevelt's Country Life

Commission, (1908-1911). This commission was initiated to examine the conditions of

farming life in the country and the major problems associated with this area of society.

The major findings included not only natural resource issues such as soil depletion and

monopolization of rivers and forests, but also such leadership issues as a lack of training

for country life within the schools and an overall lack of good rural leadership. As far as

the researchers were concerned, the solutions to rural problems were seen as educational

matters (Wunderlich, 2002).

The heir to this commission was the American Country Life Association (ACLA),

which was formed by Kenyon Butterfield in 1919. The ACLA was educator created and

led, and even though education itself was taken in a different direction due to the

increasing industrialization and urbanization of the country, the concerns and ideals of

the ACLA can be seen as a part of environmental, sustainable agriculture and rural life

organizations today. Important to this study and a continuing theme of the ACLA was

using community as a way of adding a social dimension to the economic policies and

development within agriculture (Wunderlich, 2002).

The definition of community can be a complex and elusive one. Throughout the

research literature, there have been hundreds of published definitions, with some of the









earliest beginning in the 1920's. Pioneering definitions within community include

Gillette's (as cited in Hillery, 1955) illustration of the community as it coincides with

society, city village and neighborhood and McClenahan's (1925) classification of

community into six categories: 1) a social unit in a local territory, 2) an ecological unit, 3)

a legal, administrative or political unit, 4) equal to society, 5) an ideal or mental unity,

and 6) a process. However, problems with each of these designations include vagueness

and a lack of mutual exclusivity.

Hillery took a slightly different approach and delineated community definitions

into two groups, generic community and rural community. Definitions were further

categorized according to sub-classifications of self-sufficiency, common life,

consciousness of kind, possession of common ends, and locality group (Hillery, 1955).

MacIver and Page (1949) offer a somewhat less categorical, but more descriptive

definition: Wherever the member of any group, regardless of size, live together in such a

way that they share the basic conditions of a common life, this should be called a

community. In addition, the community is an area of common living common living

with an awareness of sharing a way of life as well as common land. Nelson (1948)

includes sense of belonging within his definition of community, or a group of people who

live within a certain area who have a sense of belonging as well as organized

relationships through which common interests are pursued. All of these definitions

illustrate that while the term community appears to be well-defined, as Hillery (1955)

asserts, those within a discipline cannot always agree on the nature of the phenomena

they investigate.









Wilkinson (1986; 1991) defines community more generally, as a specific type of

terrestrial or social environment. For the purposes of this study, there are three elements

that define and provide the basis with which to measure the presence of community

within a populace: (a) a local ecology, (b) sufficient structures to meet the needs and

common interests of the people, and (c) a field of community actions (Kaufman, 1959;

Wilkinson, 1986). The first of these is the existence of a local ecology, or a collective

organization where people can meet their daily needs. Secondly, a community must have

sufficient structures like facilities, organizations, and agencies to meet daily needs as well

as convey the common interests of individuals. This illustrates the community within a

more holistic arrangement than a neighborhood or area where some common social

institutions may be absent. The final element is that a community should include a

domain of community actions or "collective efforts to solve local problems and

collective expressions of local identity and solidarity" (Wilkinson, 1986, p. 3). All of

these elements come together to form the phenomena of community as defined within

this study.

Community not only serves as the smallest and most comprehensive social unit one

can experience, but also creates a social bond among individuals. Furthermore, studies

have indicated community contributes to the level of achievement of common goals

among individuals, as well as influencing social well-being (Wilkinson, 1986). All of

these aspects illustrate the importance for defining community and encouraging

community development.

Community Structure

The term "American community" conjures up strikingly romantic notions for many

individuals. Mental pictures of Main Street with cobblestone walkways, rolling farmland









and brick red barns, and white clapboard houses with picket fences are all likely

depictions of the American community in definition. However, trying to devise a rigid

definition for the same term is not as elementary. Functionally speaking, one may think

of communities as clusters of people living in close proximity, in a specific area where

local stores and services are provided for the sustenance of the people. Warren (1972)

defines the American community according to various criteria with which they are

characterized: "a specific population, living within a specific geographic area, amongst

whom there are present shared institutions and values and significant social interaction"

(p. 2). In a study that focused on the specific areas within a community, Sanderson (as

cited in Warren, 1972) discovered that when he delineated different service areas (i.e.

grocery, church, high school, etc.) the lines enclosing them nearly coincided. It

demonstrated that what was one's community for one purpose remained one's

community for another. This illustration led to Sanderson's (as cited in Warren, 1972)

applied definition of community as an ".. .association maintained between the people, and

between their institutions, in a local area in which they live on dispersed farmsteads and

in a village which is the center of their common activities" (p. 4).

This definition is hardly what community is customarily defined as today.

Throughout the years, changes and advancements in society have redefined how

individuals within a community relate with each other and with those from outside the

community. A major change has occurred in the increase of specialization of labor, both

within and between communities. Similarly, a development of differential interests

among local people has moved individuals to associate more on the basis of these

specialized interests, than with those with whom they reside (Warren, 1972). Change has









also occurred within community governance and decision-making. As Coleman (1988)

notes, the change in American society within the structure of interaction from personal

and local to impersonal and national also affected the community's structure of

responsibility, moving it from local to national. Therefore, while these changes indicate

an increase and strengthening in external ties, it also means the local community operates

under less and less autonomy.

Even though the American community has undergone considerable change since

many of its inaugural definitions, there are still aspects that hold true for today's

definition. The designation of "community" still implies something psychological -

shared interests, characteristics and associations, and geographical a specific area in

which people are clustered (Warren, 1972). Sociologically, it combines both of these

facets into something that is still viable, as well as serving an important role within

society today.

Indeed, with all the challenges in clearly defining community itself, it seems

useless to try and define it within this study. However, the fact remains that regardless of

the difficulty of transferring it to paper, community as an entity is still alive and well. As

Warren (1972) shares, people are significantly affected by those around them, and living

together in close physical proximity requires social structures and functions that sustain

life and provide needed satisfaction. Community individuals share a common interest in

local institutions, schools, stores, sources of employment and other services. The

intertwining of people's lives is an important social reality, and one which plays an

integral role within this study.









Community Model

There are several aspects which, when integrated, define community as a social

entity. One of these aspects is characterized by the daily activities that go on within and

between communities. Specifically, within a community individual social activities are

organized into broader activities in order to allow individuals the daily access necessary

for day-to-day living. Warren (1972) labels these social activities as functions within the

community, which can then be paralleled to the social fields in which they are applied.

These functions are

Production-distribution-consumption is the local participation of those involved in the
process of producing, distributing, and consuming goods and services needed
within the immediate locality. Entrepreneurs, CEO's, head managers and other
high-ranking business officials make up the leaders within the social field of
economics. (Economics)

Socialization is the process by which society transmits knowledge, values and behavior
patterns from one generation to the next. School boards, superintendents,
principals, and teachers play a large role in the leadership within the educational
social field. (Education)

Social control is how an entity influences its people toward conformity with its norms.
This is embodied within the social field of government, and leaders within this area
include county/city commission boards, county administrator, mayor, police chief
and other elected and appointed officials. (Government)

Social participation identifies how a community provides access to social participation.
Religion is most often equated with this field within society, but voluntary
organizations are also included within this distinction. Leadership within this field
is provided by the respective church ministers, priests, and lay officials, as well as
the leaders within local organizations such as the Rotary clubs, Kiwanis clubs, the
Grange, etc. (Religion)

Mutual support illustrates how a community provides care in a time of sickness, the
exchange of labor, or helping out families in economic distress outlines this
community function. Traditionally, this aspect of community was taken on by
family or kin; however, specialization of this function has allowed those not close
to family to take advantage of this function within the community. Local doctors,
insurance agents, local welfare heads, and others within the social field of health
and family provide leadership within this area. (Health/Family)









More recently, "SHEEEP" factors have been introduced as a similar collection of

factors that illustrate the primary social fields within a community (Seevers, Graham,

Gamon, & Conklin, 1997). Used primarily by extension programmers and educators,

"SHEEEP" is an acronym for of six factors, each of which represents a different aspect of

the community. These factors are

Social includes demographic characteristics, and how people interact within a
community. Community and cultural characteristics, as well as trends within
society are included in this factor. (Religion)

Historical includes previously conducted Extension programs, the results of these
programs, and how people have interacted in the past. This factor is clearly
illustrated from the viewpoint of Extension, however community history does play
a key role in where the community is at today. (no parallel)

Economic includes economic factors that can affect the community's profitability, as
well as their viability for the future. Aspects such as average household income,
the economic base, how local income compares nationally, and the major
agricultural and service products created all play into the economic base within a
community. (Economics)

Educational includes sharing applicable knowledge and valuable technical instruction
wherever it is needed. From this viewpoint, important aspects include the overall
educational attainment within the population, educational institutions which exist in
the area, programming and support provided and the value placed upon furthering
education by the community. (Education)

Emotional includes the emotional and mental well-being of the population, as well as
their families. Emotional factors include the needs of the community, from mental
to physical health, community welfare, and healthy and successful interpersonal
interaction. (Family/Health)

Political includes the structures and leadership provided in order for people to solve
problems, address issues, and overall live in a semblance of societal order.
Political influences may come from local city and county commissioners, police
chiefs or area legislators, or may come from the state or even national sector.
(Government)

The final function that characterizes communities today regards the environment.

Defining the environment as a social field within the community is relatively new, and

therefore not included in either of the aforementioned typologies. A result of the rapid









innovation of technology and societal progress, the preservation of land and the natural

environment within and surrounding various communities has become very important to

preserving their way of life. As a result, those who are interested in preserving land and

the natural environment around them have recently become very strong within some

community structures. In more and more instances, it is becoming the responsibility of

the community to guide local businesses, organizations and individuals toward specific

actions in order to preserve nature and the environment surrounding them. This

environmental social field is primarily lead by local conservationists, forest rangers,

agronomists and others who focus on preserving the environment; however in some

communities local environmental activists also share leadership responsibilities.

By outlining the specific functions and leaders found in social fields within a

community, it is the researcher's intention to illustrate the diverse body of leadership

available and present within any community. It is effective leadership within these

diverse fields that assists in making a community more active and viable. Although each

of these functions have locality relevance, this does not mean that the community

exercises complete control over any single function. On the contrary, it is necessary for

locally based businesses, schools, and voluntary organizations to have strong ties outside

of the community in order to successfully perform these functions effectively at the

community level (Warren, 1972). Still, it is these functions that characterize community

on a locality basis. For the purposes of this study, samples will be taken from each of the

following fields: economics, education, government, religion, health/family and

environment (see Figure 2-1). Ideally, by taking a stratified sample involving each of









these social fields, leaders from their respective social fields will more clearly illustrate

the community as a whole.


Social Fields


Economics







Education






Government


Religion/Social
Participation







Health Family


Defined by economic factors that can affect the community's
profitability, as well as their viability for the future. Examples
include average household income, the economic base, how local
income compares nationally, and other major agricultural and
service products created, which contribute to the community's
economic base.

Defined by sharing applicable knowledge and valuable technical
instruction wherever it is needed. Examples include the overall
educational attainment within the population, educational
institutions that exist in the area (high schools, community
colleges), programming and support provided and the value placed
upon furthering education by the community.

Defined by the structures and leadership provided in order for
people to solve problems, address issues, and generally live in a
semblance of societal order. Examples include political influences
from local city and county commissioners, police chiefs or area
legislators, or political suggestions or decisions from the state or
national sector.

Defined by how a community provides access to social
participation. Religion is most often equated with this field within
society, but voluntary organizations are also included within this
distinction. Examples include leaders such as ministers, priests,
and Rotary or Kiwanis club officers. Also included are other
voluntary organizations within the community, interaction
undertaken for the "social good" and social action.

Defined by the emotional and mental well-being of the population,
as well as their families. Emotional factors include the needs of the
community, from mental to physical health, community welfare,
and healthy and successful interpersonal interaction.
(Figure 2.1 continues.)


Figure 2-1. Community Model.










Environment Defined by groups or processes concerned with helping the
community to guide local businesses, organizations and individuals
toward specific actions in order to preserve nature and the
environment surrounding them. Examples include local
conservationists, forest rangers, agronomists, activists and
preservation efforts undertaken by other various organizations.


Figure 2-1. Continued.

The Community Field An Interactive Approach

Several researchers (Kaufman, 1959; Luloff & Wilkinson, 1979; Wilkinson, 1991)

have approached the community as an "interaction field" an aspect of society where

emphasis is placed upon interaction occurring within the community, and the normative

structures are considered part of the background (Luloff & Wilkinson, 1979). Within this

definition, the community field is an interaction process where actions are coordinated

locally, and social interaction is the key ingredient. According to Wilkinson (1991),

social interaction describes a territory as community locale, provides specific associations

that comprise local society, gives structure and direction to processes of community

action, and is a prime source of community identity. Simply stated, the substance of

community can be defined by social interaction.

Another aspect of the community as an interaction field is the "emergent"

properties defined through the process. The structure of the relationships among the

actors in a community action process is seen as having properties, which emerge from

community interactions rather than just to be given normative expectations. As

individuals develop relationships with one another among specific interactions, they also

develop relationships with "others in general" (Wilkinson, 1991, p. 14). These









relationships give rise to an individual's self awareness in light of recognition of the role

an individual plays within the interaction.

Knowledge and improvement in one's self-awareness often contributes to improved

individual well-being, as well as social and ecological well-being. Each of these three

concepts signifies similar events and processes at different levels of analysis. Individual

well-being is necessary for social well-being, and is affected by private experiences in

intimate relations (Wilkinson, 1991). Social well-being is generally defined outside the

scope of these experiences, even though it is operationalized through individuals, social

well-being can be improved through activities such as economic development, service

development or other forms of social planning.

Social Capital

Social capital plays a vital role within any community. As Wilkinson (1991)

asserts, communities are created through social interaction. Social relationships within

the community provide the link between individuals and the more diffused social

structure, which in turn helps community members access scarce resources (Hofferth &

Iceland, 1998). Every individual constructs the personal networks in which we live;

some of these networks are developed throughout childhood and are lost or maintained

into adulthood, while other networks develop over time, as the result of an association

through work, school, or church. Regardless of the various networks one develops and

maintains, individuals "build their stock in social capital by 'investing' in interpersonal

relationships" (Hofferth & Iceland, 1998, p. 576).

The concept of social capital has been very popular recently, in lay circles as well

as in academia. There are several different perspectives regarding social capital, with one









of the first contemporary analyses of social capital provided by Pierre Bourdieu (1986),

who described it as

... the aggregate of the actual and potential resources which are linked to
possession of a durable network of more or less institutionalized relationships of
mutual acquaintance and recognition or in other words, to membership in a group
which provides each of its members with the backing of the collectivity-owned
capital. (pp. 248-249)

He went as far as to say that fundamentally, social capital could be broken down into two

elements: the social relationship that allows access to the scarce resources, and the

amount and quality of the resources. Through social capital, access can be gained to

various economic and cultural resources, including embodied and institutionalized

cultural capital (Portes, 1998).

Coleman (1988) takes a very similar approach to the concept, by defining social

capital from a rational-choices perspective:

If we begin with a theory of rational action, in which each actor has control over
certain resources and interests in certain resources and events, then social capital
constitutes a particular kind of resource available to an actor. Unlike the other
forms of capital, social capital inheres in the structure of relations between actors
and among actors. (p. S98)

Coleman claims social capital is a variety of individuals that have two elements in

common they all make up some aspect of a social structure, and they facilitate

individual actions of people within the structure (Portes, 1998). While Coleman's

definition of social capital was vague and in some cases contradictory, he did succeed in

introducing and bringing the concept visibility particularly to American sociologists.

After Bordieu (1986) and Coleman (1988), other researchers have analyzed and

shared their definitions of social capital. W.E. Baker described it as a resource derived

from social structures used to pursue individual interests. In 1992, Schiff expanded the

definition to include elements within a social structure that affects relations among people









and are inputs of the production or utility function. More directly, Burt (as cited in

Portes, 1998) illustrates social capital as colleagues and more general contacts through

whom you have opportunities to use your financial and human capital.

Perhaps one of the most simplistic definitions of social capital comes from

Cartwright and Gallagher (2002) who classify it as pertaining to human networks,

whether that be one or many. Often these relationships are characterized by customs or

institutions, and are typically based upon trust or expectations of reciprocity. This

definition aligns with exchange theorists such as Blau (1964) or Homans (1950), where

"reciprocity transactions" are expected implicitly as part of the social relationship.

Flora (1998) believes that social capital can be divided into two perspectives -

rational choice and embeddedness. The rational choice perspective views social capital

as social networks rooted in obligations between individuals based on self-interest. A

direct function of this perspective includes "reciprocity transactions" or the expectation

that each action of giving will be reciprocated. In the rural sociologist tradition, the

embeddedness perspective focuses on social behavior, or more specifically that social

capital is embedded within social structure (Flora, 1998). Implicit in this perspective is

the belief that community members are expected to contribute to the group while

receiving benefits. Ironically, unlike the social exchange theory of Blau (1964) and

Homans (1950), norms of individual reciprocity are encouraged by such interactions of

"contributing to the common good" and therefore, "reciprocity transactions" are not

required or expected (Flora, 1998). Simply stated, social capital is the relationships and

networks within a social structure where individuals contribute to the common good.

This will be the definition used for the purposes of this study.









The importance of social capital lies within the structure an individual's networks

and relationships, not in bank accounts (economic capital) or individual knowledge

(human capital). To actually possess social capital, one must develop and sustain

interpersonal relationships with others and therein lies the actual source of his

advantage. By aligning oneself with varied and diverse relationships, the individual

opens himself up to a wider variety of networks, thereby strengthening community social

capital. As Woolcock (1998) suggests, for social capital to be useful in micro situations

(at the community level), it must include two different dimensions integration and

linkage. Woolcock goes on to outline integration as intracommunity ties, while linkage is

those networks outside of the community. For social capital to operate effectively within

community situations, it is important that each of these facets be present.

Psychological Sense of Community

An important and often overlooked aspect within today's communities,

psychological sense of community is a term strongly tied to the definition of community

itself. As we have already outlined within this essay, Wilkinson's (1991) definition of

community thoroughly outlines the geographical and terrestrial notion of community.

However, as Gusfield (1975) notes, community can be defined in another manner from

a "relational" aspect that is concerned with the "quality of character of human

relationship without reference to locality." While these terminologies need not be

mutually exclusive, Durkheim (1964) notes that often, modern society develops

community around mutual interests and skills rather than locality. This illustrates the

need to address the relational aspect of community as an important factor within the study

of rural communities as psychological sense of community.









Historically, sense of community has had a rural association, linked with

community activities such as barn raising, quilting bees, and where merchant and

consumer (as well as everyone else in the community) were on a first name basis (Glynn,

1981). This sentiment existed within towns and villages as a necessary part of life, and

led to other common rural community aspects such as shared responsibilities,

interdependence and face-to-face relationships. Originally, while some theorists ascribed

to the thought that true psychological sense of community was not consciously

maintained within these communities (Goode, 1957; Nisbet, 1967), others like Tonnies

(1957) and Kitto (1951) felt sense of community had been present from the earliest Greek

communities, and was maintained through loyalty, commitment and primary interactions

among people. It was here where Tonnies (1957) extended these qualities by linking

them directly with gemeinschaft and gesellschaft.

Other theorists and researchers have studied aspects relating to changing sense of

community, as well. Tonnies (1957) began by remarking on the evolution of the rural

communities based on gemeinschaft principles moving into those based more upon

gesellschaft philosophies. Several years later, Durkheim (1964) noticed growing changes

in the nature of community relationships from being based upon shared interests to

relationships being based upon functional interests and impersonalization. These studies,

along with several others, led to the conjecture in the early 1970's that many

communities were moving toward a declining sense of community, particularly with

studies illustrating aspects such as loneliness, alienation and not belonging. It seemed as

if "declining sense of community" had become a trend in modern society (Glynn, 1981).









While the theory of declining sense of community is still of concern to today's

sociologists and researchers, other aspects regarding this variable have taken center stage

- its relationship within today's rural communities, its presence within communities of

varied definitions, and clarification of the basic constructs involved. Prezza and

Costantini (1998) explored the relationships between sense of community and life

satisfaction, self-esteem, perceived social support and satisfaction with community

services in communities of different sizes. Their results confirmed not only that sense of

community and life satisfaction was higher in smaller communities, but it was only in

these same small communities where life satisfaction showed a relationship with sense of

community. There was no significant relationship found within the urban communities.

Obst, Smith, and Zinkiewcz (2002) also found an association between sense of

community in rural and urban areas; rural participants displayed higher sense of

community than their urban counterparts, and were more likely to be involved in their

community.

Small, rural communities are not the only environments where sense of community

has been considered. Studied communities include both geographic communities as well

as social communities of interest, and range from local neighborhoods (Riger &

Lavrakas, 1981) to international communities of shared interest (Obst, Zinkiewcz, &

Smith, 2002), to rural Israeli villages (Glynn, 1981). Through all of these studies, it has

been determined that psychological sense of community does exist and plays a notable

role within communities, regardless of the size or defined sense of community.

Today's fundamental research arguably begins with Glynn (1981) who provided us

with one of the most essential efforts on psychological sense of community, based upon









work done by Hillery (1955) several decades earlier. Glynn (1981) delved into three

different communities, and hypothesized that residents of the Israeli kibbutz1 would show

greater sense of community than the residents of the other two Maryland communities.

Results confirmed these predictions, with higher real levels of sense of community found

in the kibbutz than in the American communities. Glynn identified the strongest

predictors of psychological sense of community as, 1) expected length of community

residency, 2) satisfaction with the community, and 3) the number of neighbors an

individual could name by first name. Furthermore, he also found a positive relationship

linking sense of community with an individual's ability to function competently in the

community.

McMillan and Chavis (1986) further built on Glynn's (1981) research through

developing a working definition and constructs used to characterize psychological sense

of community. The definition of sense of community as we use it today was developed

by McMillan (1986) and states, "Sense of community is a feeling that members have of

belonging, a feeling that members matter to one another and to the group, and a shared

faith that members' needs will be met through their commitment to be together" (p. 9).

Furthermore, this term breaks down into four defining constructs membership,

influence, integration and fulfillment of needs, and shared emotional connection.

Specifically, membership is the sense of a shared personal relatedness, or a feeling of

belonging. Influence involves a sense of mattering, of feeling like you can make a

difference within a group, and of the group making a difference to its members. The


1 Kibbutz: a nearly self-sufficient village in Israel with its own internal governing structure. Most work at
tasks requiring cooperative effort, including producing goods and food, and reclaiming arable land. Culture
is highly centralized, with meals taken in a main dining hall, numerous group activities and many
opportunities for informal interaction.









third construct is integration and fulfillment of needs, or more simply, reinforcement.

This construct is defined by the feeling that members' needs may be met through the

resources available through group membership. Shared emotional connection was

identified as the fourth and final construct outlining sense of community. This is a

construct based on the belief that members' have shared and will share common history,

experiences and time together. An illustration of this is what you see on someone's face

as they talk about their town, rural community, or particularly sentimental place

(McMillan & Chavis, 1986). Each of these elements assist in evaluating an individual's

sense of community, and are explained more thoroughly within the theoretical

framework.

Leadership: Organizational versus Community

Organizational leadership

Leadership is a relatively new field in a world where other disciplines have been

around for hundreds, sometimes thousands of years. Historically, leadership has been

important in leading groups to war, conquering and developing dynasties and founding

new countries. Due to the competitiveness and limited resources within today's society,

leadership continues to be a highly valued commodity. This applies to both organizations

and communities alike.

To provide a clear definition of leadership can be a challenge. Several approaches

have been identified and addressed within Table 2-1.









Table 2-1. Leadership Styles, Definitions and Characteristics.
Leadership Style Definitions/Components Key Characteristics
Trait leadership Specific personality + Charismatic
characteristics make certain + Organized
people "great" leaders; + Motivator
"Great man" theories; + Effective communicator
individuals are born with + Intelligent
these traits; clearly + Self-confident, etc.
differentiated leaders from
followers.
Style leadership Focuses exclusively on + Task behaviors:
what leaders do and how facilitate goal
they act; based on Ohio accomplishment
State and Michigan studies, + Relationship behaviors:
and Stogdill's work; Blake help followers feel
and Mouton were also comfortable with
highly representative of this themselves
approach.
Situational leadership Focuses on leadership as it Four leadership styles:
applies within different + Directing (Sl): high
situations stresses that directive-low
leadership is comprised of a supportive style
directive and supportive + Coaching (S2): high
dimension, as well as a directive-high
subordinate development supportive style
level; developed by + Supporting (S3): high
Hershey & Blanchard supportive-low
(1969); has been used directive style
extensively in + Delegating (S4): low
organizational training and supportive-low
development, directive style

Transactional leadership Leadership based on Transaction driven
exchanges that occur leadership
between leaders and their Flexibility
followers; similar to Adaptability
"exchange theory" within Relationships are
sociology, dominated by cost-
benefits
(Table 2.1 continues.)









Table 2-1. Continued.
Transformational A process where an Bass & Avolio (1994):
leadership individual (leader) engages Idealized influence
with others and creates a Inspirational motivation
connection that raises the Intellectual stimulation
level of motivation and Individualized
morality in both the leader consideration
and follower; encompasses Kouzes & Posner (1995):
both visionary and Model the way
charismatic leadership; Inspire a shared vision
ideally the follower Challenge the process
develops to their fullest Enable others to act
potential. Encourage the heart.

Servant leadership To be a servant first, then Ability for withdrawal
conscious choice brings one & action
to aspire to lead. In the end, Good listener
the servant leader will help Ability to persuade
followers to grow into their Practical goal setting
role as a servant leader. Intuitive prescience
Develop a vision

SOURCES: Northouse, P. G. (2001). Leadership: Theory and Practice (Second ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA:
Sage Publications; Bums, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York, NY: Harper & Row;.Greenleaf, R. K.
(1996). On Becoming a Servant Leader. D. M. Frick & L. C. Spears (Eds.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-
Bass Publications.

Traditionally, within psychology, leadership has been defined as a specific trait,

competency, or ability that an individual can possess. Still, even though this broad

definition has been allowed and leadership continues to be a strong area of development

and research, the dimensions and definition of the concept remains unclear (Pfeffer,

1977). Furthermore, it is often difficult to separate leadership from other processes of

social influence (Bass, 1990; Pfeffer, 1977). Still, similarities among these definitions

allow us to provide a "rough scheme of classification" (Bass, 1990, p. 11). Generally,

leadership may be defined by the specific theory studied or under which the leader

operates. According to Hersey, Blanchard and Johnson (2001), leadership is the art of

influencing an individual or group, regardless of the rationale. Kouzes and Posner (1995)









define leadership as the ability to mobilize people towards a shared vision, while

encouraging individual development in the process. Gardner (1990) cites leadership as

the process of persuasion used by an individual (leader) to encourage an individual or

group to pursue objectives held by the leader. Bass's (1990) definition is the one of the

most comprehensive, and states

Leadership has been conceived as the focus of group processes, as a matter of
personality, as a matter of inducing compliance, as the exercise of influence, as
particular behaviors, as a form of persuasion, as a power relation, as an instrument
to achieve goals, as an effect of interaction, as a differentiated role, as initiation of
structure, and as many combinations of these definitions. (p. 11)

Leadership has seen many paradigm shifts within its lifetime. One of the first

approaches to leadership theory within the 20th century was trait leadership. An offshoot

of early studies that focused on the qualities and characteristics possessed by great social,

political, and military leaders, these theories were often referred to as the "great man"

theories. It was believed certain individuals were born with specific traits that

differentiated them from others, making them great leaders (Northouse, 2001). These

theories have been questioned within the last several years due to the lack of a universal

list of leadership traits. As early as 1948, Stogdill could find no set of consistent traits

that identified leaders, and therefore reconceptualized leadership into an association

between people in a social situation. Within recent years, there has been a reappearance

of trait leadership to explain how traits influence leadership (Northouse, 2001).

Due in part to the greater focus within leadership on social influence and

relationships, style leadership was introduced in the 1960's. Some of the salient studies

within this area were the Ohio State studies, the Michigan studies, and work done by

Blake and Mouton (1964). Specifically, after trait leadership was dismissed as an

unsatisfactory leadership theory base, researchers at the Ohio State University began to









analyze how followers felt about their leaders (Bass, 1990). Results indicated two types

of leadership behaviors to be most influential on the leader-follower relationship:

initiating structures and consideration. Essentially, these factors translated into what

these subordinates thought their leader should do successfully provide structure for

constituents, and encourage them (Bass, 1990).

At the same time, researchers at the University of Michigan took a slightly different

approach when exploring leadership behavior. In the Michigan studies, researchers

focused on the impact of leader behavior on the performance of small groups (Bass,

1990). Results from these studies identified two different leadership behaviors -

employee orientation and production orientation. In close alignment with the Ohio State

studies, employee orientation is similar to consideration (relationship-oriented

leadership), while production orientation more closely parallels initiating structure (task-

oriented leadership).

Blake and Mouton's Managerial (Leadership) Grid (1964) is perhaps one of the

best known results of the style leadership research happening at this time. Blake and

Mouton took their own research, and integrated it with the Ohio State and Michigan

studies, to create this leadership theory. The Leadership Grid was intended to explain

how leaders encourage their constituents to reach goals through two factors concern for

production and concern for people. Concern for production indicates how tasks are

achieved, while concern for people illustrates how the leader develops and encourages

the subordinate relationship (Blake & Mouton, 1964).

Unfortunately, each of these preceding theories make the argument there is one

"best" style of leadership. In other words, there is one ideal style of leadership that









maximizes production and profit, success and development in all situations. Conversely,

research subsequent to these studies have supported the idea there is no one best

leadership style (Bass, 1990; Hersey et al., 2001; Kouzes & Posner, 1995; Northouse,

2001). Situational leadership was developed to characterize this very concept. The

leadership style that is appropriate with different individuals or groups is a function of the

level of follower readiness and the leadership situation. Hersey and Blanchard designed a

model with these parameters in mind, and introduced the Situational Leadership Model in

1969. The model links a leader's task and relationship behavior with follower readiness.

With the development of the Situational Leadership Model, leadership theory finally

began to recognize leader-follower interaction as an important aspect of leadership theory

(Hersey et al., 2001).

The 1960's saw a shift in the focus of leadership theory from trait leadership to

something more dynamic. This shift into situational leadership and beyond placed the

emphasis on the transaction or exchange between the leader and his constituents. Burns

(1978) helped to define this new paradigm by comparing the exchanges of transactional

and transformational leaders. Individually, transactional leadership is defined through

tangible compensation for a job well done. Conversely, transformational leadership

relies on an individual transcending their own self-interest for the good of the group. As

Burns (1978) states, transformational leadership is more complex, but is also more

potent. In order to operate successfully under transformational leadership, the leader

must recognize an existing need or motive of a potential follower. This leads to the

mutual development and stimulation of both parties (Bums, 1978).









Throughout the 1980's and 1990's, the leadership paradigm again shifted to include

transformational leadership. Kouzes and Posner (1995) studied numerous examples of

successful leaders, and noted that while each situation was unique, there were some

common patterns of action. The researchers inferred that leadership was not just about

personality, but also included practice. These common practices of action were

integrated and developed into a model of leadership, or the Five Practices of Exemplary

Leadership. These practices are

* Model the Way
* Inspire a Shared Vision
* Challenge the Process
* Enable Other to Act
* Encourage the Heart

Transformational leadership stresses that leadership is a relationship. According to

Kouzes and Posner (1995), "Leadership is a relationship between those who aspire to

lead and those who choose to follow" (p. 20).

Today, leadership theory continues to diversify as research takes the disciplines in

many directions. Within organizational leadership situations, both situational and

transformational leadership are still the preferred paradigm. Tichy and Devanna (1986)

state in today's industrial organization, transformational leaders are needed to take on the

responsibility for revitalizing an organization through recognizing a need for

revitalization, creating a new vision, and institutionalizing change. Organizations need

recurring change because continued success within the market requires keeping up with

changing market conditions. Situational leadership encourages many of the same aspects

as transformational leadership, including effective communication, leader flexibility, and

developing constituent commitment.









Within the last decade, leadership's focus has again shifted into a new direction.

Steven Covey's notion of "principle-centered" leadership, Max DuPree's idea of "artful"

practice, and Robert Greenleaf s theory of "servant leadership" have all moved leadership

into focusing on a leader's "internal sources of inspiration" or leading from within

(Mirvis, 1997, p. 198). This paradigm shift, in essence, took transformational leadership

one step further. As Gardner asserts, "it is the particular burden of the leader to help

individuals determine their personal, social, and moral identities" (as cited in Mirvis,

1997, p. 198). Above all, servant leadership can do just that.

Community leadership

While leadership across any domain shares a few similarities, community

leadership is distinctive, because leadership within the community domain operates under

a different structure or purpose than organizations or specific individuals. What makes

community leadership distinctive is that community leaders cannot rely solely on power

and formal authority to get things done. Instead, as Pigg (1999) conveys, community

leaders must rely on networks and influence, and specifically the relationships developed

through extensive interactions within the community. This is classified by sociologists as

the interactional approach, and specifically focuses on the relationships of individuals or

groups involved in a sequence of action, often within a particular context (Fanelli, 1956).

The context of interest for this study is community, and there have been several

sociological definitions outlined within this context. Wilkinson (1986) defines leadership

as an action enacted by individuals who make specific and distinctive contributions to

community action. Bonjean (1963) equated reputation with leadership and defined

leaders as the most powerful and influential members of the community. Angell (1951)

illustrated leadership structure by identifying six different components of the interaction









within community leadership: characteristics of leaders at the time of induction into

leadership, representation of groups in the population, degree to which the leadership

group is in-grown, relation to the general population, relations among leaders, and the

technique of leadership. One of the most current definitions of community leadership

comes from Goeppinger (2002) who views it as an interactive process between

individuals within a common locale.

In order to define leadership for relevance to this study, it is not important to look

at the term from either a psychologist or sociologist viewpoint, but as a function of both.

Community leadership is not so much a situation or style of leadership, as it is a context

under which leadership operates. Consequently, this context does not lend itself to just

one leadership tradition. As Gibb (1948) remarks, any personality traits prevalent in

leaders may exist within individuals who never achieve leadership status, due in part to a

lack of interactional situation. By combining both the aforementioned psychological and

sociological definitions of leadership, a more holistic definition of leadership can be

devised. This combination approach is not a new arrangement. As far back at the late

1940's, Cecil Gibb at the University of Sydney viewed leadership as a function of both

the leader's traits and abilities, as well as the leadership structures within a specific

situation. According to Gibb (1948), the three most important principles in defining

leadership are

1. Relativity to the situation that there is a common problem and goal of the group;

2. Inclusive of working toward some objective goal; and

3. Being a process of mutual stimulation an interactive phenomenon where the
attitudes, ideals, and aspirations of the followers play an important role in
determining the leader.









To illustrate this more simply, Gibb (1948) asserts leadership is not only a function

of the social situation and personality, but also these two interactions. Brown and

Nylander (1998) agree with Gibb by clarifying that leadership is generally situational,

and unfortunately, "always more complex than monolithic appeal to personal attributes"

(p. 72). They go on to explain that although leaders' personal attributes and

competencies may influence the result of specific community projects, and situational

theories may rationalize the context of interactions within community leadership, that

"effective and sustained rural community leadership also depends on the perpetual

organization of the community and its leadership structure" (p.73).

Rost (as cited in Pigg, 1999) exemplifies leadership as a relationship; an "influence

relationship among leaders and collaborators who intend real changes that reflect their

mutual purposes" (p. 199). The leadership definition used for the purposes of this study

is a simplified version of Rost's, introduced to us by Northouse (2001), and that is to

influence people toward a shared goal for action. It is important to understand the

differences between this definition and other (organizational) leadership definitions. To

begin with, leadership is not something to be associated with having control over others -

leadership is not what is done to followers. Furthermore, because this is an influence

relationship that goes both ways, it is not a status assumed by one person, or the "leader."

What distinguishes leaders from followers is the power resources that are possessed by

the leaders, which allows for the exercise of more influence than can be exercised by the

followers (Pigg, 1999). These power resources include reputation, prestige, personality,

purpose, status, content of the message, interpersonal and group skills, give-and-take









behaviors, authority or lack of it, symbolic interaction, perception, motivation, gender,

race, and religion, to name a few (Pigg, 1999).

The ability of community leaders (and followers) to see one another as allies and

collaborators with a mutual purpose is important to effective community leadership.

Moreover, the behaviors that direct credibility to this attitude and establish trust in the

relationship are just as important in developing strong community ties (Pigg, 1999). By

developing credibility and trust, creating a common purpose or vision within the

community will be accomplished much more smoothly. Similar to theories by Burns

(1978) and Kouzes and Posner (1995), Pigg (1999) contends that having a shared purpose

or vision allows the followers to become more involved in reaching shared goals. For the

leadership experience to be satisfying to followers and attract them to the relationship,

there must be some value (motivation) in it for them. A shared purpose essentially the

intersection of purposes between the leader and followers provides affirmation in the

importance of individual purposes and beliefs. Finally, as additional diverse purposes are

incorporated into the shared vision, the community itself grows and develops its own

diversity.

In order to reach shared goals for action, effective leaders need to initiate and

sustain action within the community field. Within this study we will argue that an

effective leader is one who takes action within a community, making the community

more viable and as a result a more successful aspect of society. However, leader action

and community action are both incredibly complex issues.

Leader action

The extent to which community exists in a specific locality is inferred from the

actions taking place within the local setting, along with the leaders and groups associated









with these actions. As Israel and Beaulieu (1990) phrase it, "Actors, associations, and

actions the three elements of the interactional perspective provide the basis for

assessing the degree to which community leadership roles are being performed within the

local arena and the relationships that might exist among the actions" (p. 186). Within the

community field, leaders' activities and associations are less oriented toward the pursuit

of individual interests, and aimed more toward the general needs and concerns of the

community. Local activities with local residents as principal leaders or beneficiaries,

where goals are those of the local residents, and with interests that are public in nature are

the hallmark of community action (Israel & Beaulieu, 1990).

Generalized/specific leadership within communities

When assessing leadership within communities, roles are judged according to how

they contribute to the building of the community field. According to Israel and Beaulieu

(1990), three elements comprise the leadership behavior of community actors. These are

* the degree to which the individual is involved in various phases of a local action,

* the span of the person's participation in local actions that address distinct areas of
interest, and

* the extent to which the individual is involved in actions that include a common set
of actors who have a broad perspective on the concerns of the community.

These factors offer a basis for identifying a hierarchy of leadership roles performed by

individuals as part of community actions. At one end of the continuum, individuals

execute very specialized leadership roles in only a single phase of the action. These

leaders are considered specialized community leaders and tend to carry out task-oriented

leadership functions. In the opposite direction, individuals are found who provide

coordination and continuity to the community field through extensive involvement in

many phases of activities found in different social fields. These generalized leaders often









perform structure-oriented leadership roles that inevitability contribute to the emergence

of the community field (Israel & Beaulieu, 1990). Both generalized and specialized

leaders are necessary within communities in order to maintain community structure and

perform collective action.

Theoretical Framework

The Community Field An Interactional Approach

As the overarching theoretical component which ties everything together,

Wilkinson's (1991) community field theory focuses on social interaction as the

fundamental component to community. Social interaction itself had its beginnings in

Mead (1934) who defined it as "mutual minding." This process builds a social bond of

shared meaning, and subsequently affects social behaviors in significant ways. One of

the most significant ways is by affecting the will of the individual. According to

Toennies (1957) there are two types of will the natural will (Wesenwille) and the

rational will (Kurville). Each of these types of will occur in instances of social

interaction, which is turn will affect society structure. The natural will is impulsive it

pushes the individual to act without any deliberation. Gemeinschaft refers to those

associations where Wesenwille is predominant. Conversely, the rational will is a result of

deliberation and calculations. Gesellschaft applies to those associations where Kurville

reigns predominant. It should be noted that these are not discrete groups within a

community; these terms refer to specific associations that may occur within all social

interactions. Nonetheless, Gemeinschaft-like relationships (those characterized by

mutual aid and helpfulness, such as the family) are more likely to be developed within

neighborhoods, villages and towns, while Gesellschaft-like relationships (those









relationships undertaken solely for the potential benefit of the individual) are more likely

to occur within cities, the metropolis and the national capital (Poplin, 1972).

Another aspect of community stressed within the community field theory is

territory or place. Hiller (1941) asserts that community has all of the elements to be

defined as a social group, but is differentiated from other groups by also being defined as

a specific locality or area. This illustrates the oft held approach of defining community as

place (Kaufman, 1959; Wilkinson, 1970). Specifically, key interactions within a

community are those that express "locality-orientation" (Wilkinson, 1991). This view,

however, has had its share of opponents. Possibly the most broadly endorsed argument is

that interactions with people outside the community have become routine. This has been

caused by rapid innovation in communications, transportation and other mechanisms that

have allowed people to interact within a more globally based society. Nevertheless, even

today most people still live and move and have most of their everyday life in local

settlements (Wilkinson, 1991). This is true, regardless of the number of contacts made

externally to the community. Thus, territory remains an important component in defining

community, because as Wilkinson notes, a terrestrial community is still defined

according to social interaction, not the opposite.

Within the theory of the community field, Wilkinson also concentrates on the local

society. Specifically, this is the organization of social institutions and associations that

are the life of the population. Above all, ideal communities as local societies are

completely integrated units a collection of activities and social structures through which

a common life is organized. This aspect is usually examined from the local setting where

people experience it as a part of their daily lives (Wilkinson, 1991). It should be noted









that local society is not a way to hold inhabitants in and keep others out; instead, it should

be considered an open society, and have extensive ties to other communities, as well as

society as a whole.

Overall, Wilkinson (1991) views the community field from an interactional

perspective. With the field concept, attention is directed more toward the dynamic

processes that affect community structure, rather than how community structure affects

social processes. This translates into communities being defined as a dynamic field,

instead of a system. In addition, the theory is more holistic than just the term community

itself it includes terrestrial, local society, and social interaction components. Each of

these aspects interact and unite to form a "holistic structure among interacting units"

(Wilkinson, 1991, p. 35). Players in the community field include actors, associations,

and activities directed towards specific interests, which can provide stimuli or motivation

for social action. The difference lies in the fact that the community field cuts across

specialized groups and interests; in this field the interests tend to be generalized and

intrinsic, due to the integration and linkages between different social fields. Often, the

generalized locality-oriented bond created as a community field is celebrated by the

members as "communion," and occurs where people live together and interact on local

matters (Wilkinson, 1991).

Social Capital Theory

Social capital theory aligns well with the community field, because unlike other

social fields, the community field focuses upon the general community interest, not one

specific interest. One of the most simplistic definitions of social capital is interacting in

processes for the greater good. Within the community field, "for the greater good"









should be undertaken with the general community interest in mind. Actions within this

field serve to coordinate other action fields, and as a result organize them all into a whole.

To provide a foundation for this study, social capital will be illustrated and defined

according to Weber. Termed enforceable trust by Portes and Sensenbrenner (1993),

Weber's classic distinction between formal and substantive rationality are the basis for

his model of social capital. Formal rationality is defined through transactions based upon

collective norms and open exchange. Conversely, substantive rationality involves

specific obligations within a monopoly that benefit a particular group. Simply stated,

substantive rationality involves collectively-defined goals for a specific group (within this

study, this is the community) while formal rationality is more individualistically bottom-

line oriented (Flora, 1998). Weber's definition of social capital uses substantive

rationality to illustrate the decision-making process when operating under social capital.

It is important to point out that substantive rationality does not apply across all areas.

This is not an indisputable truth. It applies to social capital within the specific group

involved, and may differ within other groups according to other variables such as culture

or communication networks.

Social capital itself not only involves how decisions are made within a group, but

more importantly the relationships developed within the group. Social capital's value is

inherently found within the strength and depth of relationships within the community. In

the Weberian tradition, Portes and Sensenbrenner (1993) go on to say

Social capital is generated by individual members' disciplined compliance with
group expectations. However, the motivating force in this case is not value with
'good standing' in a particular collectivity. As with reciprocity exchanges, the
predominant orientation is utilitarian, except that the actor's behavior is not
oriented to a particular other but to the web of social networks of the entire
community. (p. 1325)









By definition, social capital is found within the relationships and social networks between

leaders and individuals within the community. How individuals interact and make

decisions can affect the strength of social capital within the community. This is why it is

important to realize the purpose behind community-made actions and decisions. If these

choices are not made with the common good in mind, relationships can break down and

social capital within the community is lost.

In order to operationally define social capital within this study, the term itself

should to be broken down into measurable components. According to Kim and

Schweitzer (1996) social capital is best summarized by Putnam, who defines social

capital by the existence of a group's networks, norms and social trust that works toward

coordination for mutual benefit. For them, indicators of social capital include civil

engagement and social connectedness. To measure this, the authors have broken down

social capital into three factors norms, connection and trust. Specifically, norms

include questions regarding sense of community, belonging and shared values;

connection concerns the feeling of relating to people (or on the contrary, isolated); and

trust relates to how much faith and trust individuals have in community relationships.

The Saguaro Seminar: Civic Engagement in America shared similar opinions as to

the theoretical underpinnings of social capital, taking it a few steps further. The

dimensions according to this group, who originated in the John F. Kennedy School of

Government and devised the Social Capital Benchmark Survey, were similar to those

previously mentioned, although more comprehensive. These dimensions are social trust,

inter-racial trust, diversity of friendships, conventional politics participation, protest

politics participation, civic leadership, associational involvement, informal socializing,









giving and volunteering, faith-based engagement, and equality of civic engagement

across the community (the Saguaro Seminar: Civic Engagement in America). Several of

these dimensions are irrelevant to the study at hand due to their racial and political

perspective. However, several other dimensions, such as the different aspects of trust and

socialization (similar to the aforementioned connection) are reiterations of facets already

discussed that help to create social capital within communities. Therefore, the researcher

identified three of the dimensions of social capital most appropriate to measure this

variable in relationship to the study. These dimensions are trust, organizational

involvement and community involvement.

Servant Leadership Theory/Community Leadership

Within the field of leadership, it is sometimes difficult to distinguish among

approaches, concepts, theories and behaviors. This is due in part, to the great ambiguity

that occurs when trying to provide a clear, concise definition for leadership. As such,

what is used within this study as basis for leadership theory really is a cross between an

approach introduced by a noted leader and a theory used frequently today within different

groups and organizations. Either way, Robert Greenleaf s servant leadership most

closely embodies how leadership often transpires within the community field. It provides

a human element towards leadership interaction that is sometimes lost within other

definitions. According to Robert Greenleaf (1996), servant leadership begins with an

individual who wishes to serve. Specifically

The servant-leader is servant first .... It begins with the natural feeling that one
wants to serve, to serve first. Then conscious choice brings one to aspire to
lead... The difference manifests itself in the care taken by the servant first to make
sure that other people's highest-priority needs are being served. The best test, and
the most difficult to administer is Do those served grow as persons? Do they,
while being served, become healthier, wiser, freer, more autonomous, more likely
themselves to become servants? And, what is the effect on the least privileged in









society, will they benefit or, at least, not be further deprived? (Greenleaf, 1996, pp.
1-2)

Though Robert Greenleaf was really the first to develop and coin the phrase

"servant leadership," James Alan Laub (2000) took this theory a step further and applied

it within organizations. More specifically, Laub consulted both the literature and a panel

of experts in order to determine the major theoretical underpinnings of servant leadership,

eventually to develop an instrument that effectively tests for each of these components.

Through this study, a new more operational description of servant leadership was

developed:

A new leadership is needed: leadership that is not trendy and transient, but a
leadership that is rooted in our most ethical and moral teaching; leadership that
works because it is based upon how people need to be treated, motivated and led.
(p. 4)

When examining the comprehensive collection of literature regarding servant

leadership principles, several famous leadership theorists emerge Greenleaf, (Max)

DuPree, Kouzes & Posner, (Stephen) Covey and others. This illustrates that in several

aspects, servant leadership shares numerous commonalities with other leadership

theories, such as transformational leadership and charismatic leadership. In continuing to

search through the numerous works regarding servant leadership, several common

characteristics are brought to light. Laub and his expert panel (through a Delphi study)

clustered these common characteristics into six components of servant leadership: values

people, develops people, builds community, displays authenticity, provides leadership,

and finally, shares leadership. Each of these identified components is comprised of

groups of items placed into categories through shared commonalities.

Beginning with the component of valuing people, the three categories that comprise

this component are believing in people, putting others first (before oneself) and being a









receptive listener. Developing people is also comprised of three categories, including

providing for the learning and growth of individuals, (developing individuals) by

modeling appropriate behavior, and encouraging individuals. In addressing the building

of community, the three categories are (building community) by enhancing relationships,

working collaboratively (through teamwork) and valuing the differences of others. The

fourth component is displaying authenticity, and a servant leader should exemplify this

through being open to being known (or transparent), being an active learner, and

maintaining personal integrity. A fifth component of servant leadership is providing

leadership; a servant leader can accomplish this by envisioning the future, taking

initiative, and clarifying goals for the group. The final component defined within servant

leadership is sharing leadership. This is exemplified within only two categories: by

sharing power (with community members or individuals) and by sharing status (i.e.,

position, honor, and self promotion). Each of the components identified through this

theory provide a foundation in order to operationally define and effectively test for

servant leadership.

As mentioned earlier, servant leadership by definition includes aspects of several

types of leadership, including transformational leadership (Kouzes & Posner, 1995). This

occurs such that Greenleaf (1991) seeks to answer the question if those served grow as

persons, are they in the end more likely themselves to serve. To lead with integrity,

servant leaders need skills for withdrawal and action, listening and persuasion, practical

goal setting and intuitive presence. It links the "for the greater good" thesis of social

capital, with the synergy of the community field.









Within this study, the servant leadership components introduced to us by Laub

(2000) have been moved out of the area of organizations, and into area of communities,

therefore leading to community leadership. Many of the components identified with

servant leadership apply suitably to leadership within the context of community. As

aforementioned within the conceptual framework, community leadership is dependent not

only on acts of leadership themselves, but on networks and influence, relationships, and

other extensive interactions within the community. It all comes back to the original

precept of servant leadership service first, then leadership. Within communities it is

important to serve the community first, and then you will be considered a leader by the

same community in which you served. It is under this context that the basic tenets of

servant leadership will serve as community leadership within this study.

Psychological Sense of Community Theory

The theory of Psychological Sense of Community begins with the focus on the

relational aspect of community. This originates with Gusfield's (1975) distinction

between the geographical and social classifications of community. The first and more

traditional definition of community involves a terrestrial location (also mentioned in

Wilkinson's definition of community), such as a neighborhood, town, or a city. The

second definition concerns the more social, relational aspect of community and defines

group associations according to mutual interests, without reference to location (McMillan

& Chavis, 1986). It is this definition that forms the backbone of the theory of

Psychological Sense of Community, formally defined by McMillan (Chavis, Hogge, &

McMillan, 1986):

Sense of community is a feeling that members have of belonging and being
important to each other, and a shared faith that members' needs will be met by their
commitment to be together. (p.25)









Specifically, there are four constructs necessary to this theory membership,

influence, integration and fulfillment of needs, and shared emotional connection.

Beginning with membership, this is the basic feeling of belonging. It is a sense that one

has the right to belong to a group because he/she has invested a part of themselves in the

group. There are four attributes to this construct, including boundaries, emotional safety,

sense of belonging and personal investment. Boundaries provide the guidelines for

membership in the group; within a community, this may be operationalized through

language, dress or ritual, and is illustrated by those who feel they belong and those who

do not. Emotional safety can be paralleled to security, and can also be linked to physical

and economic security. Sense of belonging is demonstrated through the feeling that one

has a place in the group, a feeling of acceptance, and even a willingness to sacrifice for

the group. Finally, personal investment is an important aspect of group membership;

when individuals give something of themselves, working toward this will contribute to

the overall feeling one has earned a place within the group. Consequently, membership

within the group will be more meaningful and significant (McMillan & Chavis, 1986).

The second construct, influence, is a reciprocal concept. On one hand, for an

individual to be attracted to a group, he/she must have some power or influence over the

actions of the group. However, a cohesive group will also have some influence over its

members. Influence also has four characteristics important in defining the construct:

... (a) that members are most attracted to a community in which they feel they
have power; (b) that a community's influence on its members to conform is
significantly related to the members' sense of community; (c) that the pressure
toward conformity and uniformity comes from the need of individuals and the
community for consensual validation, by which members achieve closeness; and
(d) that a member's influence on the community and the community's influences
on the member operate concurrently. (p.25)

All of these characteristics work together to determine who is a member and who is not.









The third construct is integration and fulfillment of needs, or more simply,

reinforcement. This construct is defined as a personal motivator, and can be illustrated

by making the obvious connection that for any group to remain positive and cohesive, the

individuals involved must be getting something out of the association the

individual/group association must be rewarding for its members. Some effective

reinforcers within communities are membership status, community success, or

competence of other members. A particularly strong and stable community has the

ability to tie people together to meet others' needs while meeting their own (McMillan &

Chavis, 1986).

Shared emotional connection was identified as the fourth and final construct

outlining sense of community. This is in some measure based on knowledge of a shared

history and has the power to facilitate or hinder the strength of the community. This

construct is defined as an affective component of community because it is communities

themselves that can offer members the opportunities for positive interaction,

opportunities for personal investment, and even the potential to share a strong spiritual

bond with members. Important aspects of this construct are contact hypothesis, quality of

interaction, closure to events, shared valent event hypothesis, effect of honor and

humiliation, and spiritual bond (McMillan & Chavis, 1986). Each of these aspects

contributes to the shared emotional connection community members feel, regardless of

whether or not that community is confined to a terrestrial location.

The interest in sense of community has elicited a diverse number of evaluation

instruments, which is turn has been used to study a wide variety of communities. Groups

such as religious communities, immigrant groups, residential neighborhoods, and









students in collegiate communities have all been addressed according to their sense of

community (Long & Perkins, 2003). One of the most widely used, and one of the

measures for this study, is the Sense of Community Index (SCI), developed in 1984 by

David Chavis with the help of several others (Long & Perkins, 2003). This index is an

evaluation tool comprised of 12 Likert-type items, and is used to assess the member's

psychological sense of community with regard to the four constructs aforementioned -

membership, influence, integration and fulfillment of needs, and shared emotional

connection. The summative number expresses the strength of the individual's

psychological sense of community, from nominal to great.

Summary

Acknowledging the theoretical and conceptual underpinnings of this study provide

the context under which the study was begun. Within any study of community, care must

be taken to determine the most salient variables to address the issue at hand. Within this

study, the problem of interest is how does community leadership work together with

sense of community to encourage social capital, and ultimately how do all of these

variables work through change? To piece each of these variables together into a

complete picture, strong theoretical frameworks were introduced and described in detail.

Community was defined as Wilkinson (1991) shares it with us, divided into three

elements a locality, a local society, and a process of locality oriented collective actions.

The relational variable of psychological sense of community was introduced as illustrated

by McMillan and Chavis (1986), who provided for us the social side of community one

that classifies a community socially, according to associations of mutual interest, not

location. The variable of community leadership was developed from a compilation of









servant leadership as introduced by Greenleaf (1990) and organizational leadership, as

introduced by Laub (2000); and by finally placing the result into a community context.

True community leadership has many important components, not the least of which

is developing relationships within the community. These relationships serve to add

meaning to social capital the intervening variable of study. Social capital, as

theoretically characterized in the preceding paragraphs, is based upon Weber's definition,

working towards community action "for the greater good." Within the community field,

"for the greater good" should be undertaken with the general community interest in mind.

Finally, taking this interest in mind is Wilkinson's Community Interaction Theory.

Providing foundational support to the study, several researchers (Kaufman, 1959; Luloff

& Wilkinson, 1979; Wilkinson, 1991) have approached the community as an "interaction

field" an aspect of society where emphasis is placed upon interaction occurring within

the community, and the normative structures are considered part of the background

(Luloff & Wilkinson, 1979). Thus community is looked upon not only as a shared locale

among individuals, but a place where the interaction process among community members

takes center stage where social interaction is the key ingredient. Simply stated, the

essence of community can be defined by social interaction. (The path model illustrating

variable interaction can be found in Figure 2-2.)

Each of the aforementioned concepts and theories work together to create a whole.

While individual communities may be differentiated by size, rural communities are often

microcosms of their larger counterparts, suburbs and cities. Nonetheless, rural

communities have their own problems and issues, unique to their size and structure. On a

positive note, many rural communities also have relationships, trust and a sense of






61


camaraderie that escapes many other individuals. It is of interest to this researcher to

make the connections across the gamut; to map out similarities across the communities,

as well as differences; to connect leadership and sense of community to social capital; to

connect social capital to change; and ultimately to link it all together. For it is not the

components by themselves that make this study important it is how they work and play

together.























Openness to
Intervening Variable / Change
Social Capital (Community
Vision)



Independent Variable

Community
Leadership


Figure 2-2.Path Model Depicting Proposed Relationships among Sense of Community, Community Leadership, Social Capital, and
Openness to Change (Review).














CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

Introduction

This study was conducted to determine the influence of leadership and

psychological sense of community upon social capital, and ultimately their effect on

community change within viable communities. It is likely that effective community

leadership provides the needed guidance to successfully develop and achieve communal

goals and visions. While Luloff (as cited in Brown, 1991) concludes that a primary

reason communities maintain viability is because they are more "democratic," Marwell

(as cited in Brown, 1991) claims a viable acting community is one with a highly

centralized network of leaders. Community viability, as it is described by Brown (1991)

and used within this study, is the success a community has developing and achieving

specific goals or actions. As a consequence, the community itself is more active and has

a greater ability to remain viable into the future. Community leadership can also

undertake many definitions for success; for the purposes of this study, leadership success

will be defined as the improvement of social capital through community action. The

effect is cyclical; effective community action can improve social capital that, in turn can

contribute to greater social action. This chapter provides an overview of the research

purpose and objectives; the units of analysis; and an in-depth analysis regarding aspects

of the case study interviews including participants/sampling, instrumentation, procedures

and statistical analysis of the data; and criteria for interpretation of the results.









This study focused on the process of success and viability within a rural community

setting. As the focus of this study, select independent community variables were studied

to determine their effects on social capital, resulting in action for the greater good of the

community. The independent variables studied were psychological sense of community

and community leadership. The intervening variable of social capital was considered

according to its link with the independent variables, and eventually in relation to its effect

on openness to change (the dependent variable). All of these were studied through a

comparative case study design.

Research Design

The primary design of this study was a comparative case study of two select rural

communities in the state of Florida. Specifically, it was the researcher's goal to

systematically describe the influence of leadership, sense of community and social capital

upon collective action working towards the community good within two rural

communities with the greatest viability (as determined within specific community

selection parameters). A qualitative design was utilized involving structured, in-depth

interviews within each of the communities selected. Purposeful sampling was used as the

primary design strategy, because as Patton (2002) notes, individual cases for study are

selected because they are "information rich" and illuminative, or they offer useful

illustrations regarding the phenomenon of interest.

It was decided early on in the study design to focus participant selection upon

social groups within the communities (those according to the six areas listed within the

community model in Figure 2-1) and not upon specific community actions. While

focusing upon specific community actions can effectively illustrate the most active areas

within the community field, this design exposes a few problems. To begin with, the









replication of this study within future communities would be limited as different

communities have distinct cultures and community structures, and as a result advance

different activities. Therefore, many of the key elements and questions would be

inapplicable in other community situations. A second problem with focusing upon

specific community actions rather than social groups is the potential for unaddressed

areas. Over specific periods, a community could be particularly active within several

areas, or perhaps just one area. Without standardizing the areas from which key

informants are selected for an even distribution across the community, there is a potential

to have all selected participants from one or a few areas, as opposed to the community

holistically. This will not allow for the thorough examination of the community variables

as they come from different social groups within the community, leading to a biased final

account.

Interview Process Background

The interviews were done in several stages; first, an expert panel of visiblee"

leaders from the community was identified and interviewed to get a general feel for the

community and key leaders. Within the interview process, 12 experts from each

community were interviewed to identify general community issues and dynamics, and to

suggest names of the second level of interviewees. The second stage involved

interviewing the key leaders identified from the expert panel interviews, in order to

identify actions for subsequent study and to suggest names for a third round of

participants. Key leaders were considered those individuals participating in the

interviews within this study. In order for individuals to be interviewed in any of the

1 Visible leaders: those individuals who are publicly known as leaders within their communities due to their
position or history in the community.









stages subsequent to the expert panel, they must have been cited by at least two people as

one of the most effective leaders in the community someone who knows what is going

on and can get things accomplished.

Members of the expert panel were local leaders chosen according to their thorough

knowledge of the community (see Footnote 1 above). These community members were

identified loosely following Wilkinson's (as noted by Israel & Beaulieu, 1990) approach

of selecting key informants according to two specific criteria 1) knowledgeable about

the community and 2) broadly representative of local interest groups, factions and social

status levels. In the next step, key leaders were identified through recommendations

through the interview process with members of the expert panel. This type of participant

identification is termed as a modified "snowball" approach, and allowed the researcher to

identify individuals who were considered to be effective community leaders by peers

within their community.

Data analysis proceeded systematically using both quantitative and qualitative

methodologies; data from the interviews were transcribed as soon as possible after the

interviews, both to keep the data fresh in the mind of the researcher, and in order to keep

up with the amount of data incurred. The data from the expert panel (and each

subsequent level of interview participants) served to identify key leaders and provided a

foundational basis for future qualitative themes to be determined through the analyzation

process.

Creswell (1998) delineates the five qualitative traditions of inquiry as biography,

phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography and case study (Appendix A). As noted

by Patton (2002) case studies are a means for gathering systematic, comprehensive, and









in-depth information of a phenomenon of interests. This allowed the researcher to search

for common themes and patterns within settings or in this case, across cases.

Study Variables

The three types of variables addressed within this study were

Independent Variables
Psychological Sense of Community
Community Leadership

Intervening Variable
Social Capital

Dependent Variable
+ Openness to Change (Community Vision)


Research Objectives

The research was used to illustrate and describe how leadership and other factors

interact within rural communities. Explicitly, the purpose of this study was to investigate

how sense of community, community leadership, and social capital influenced openness

to change within a viable community. The specific objectives addressed within this study

were

1. To measure a community's viability, individual psychological sense of community,
social capital commitment and community leadership within select viable rural
communities;

2. To determine the relationships between

a. Sense of community and community leadership,

b. Sense of community and social capital,

c. Community leadership and social capital, and

d. Sense of community and community leadership (independent variables) with
openness to change (dependent variable see section "Study Variables" for a
complete list of variables);









3. To determine the effects of sense of community and community leadership, as well
as their interactions with openness to change;

4. To compare/contrast the environment within the two most viable rural communities
in Florida.

5. To qualitatively compare each viable community according to the variables of
psychological sense of community, community leadership and social capital.

These objectives were addressed within each of the two communities selected. Once the

data were transcribed and analyzed, they were then compared between the two

communities.

Community Selection Parameters

In order to effectively analyze rural community action and leadership, choosing an

appropriate sample is important. For this study, two communities were identified for

comparative study according to specific parameters designed to typify rural communities

within Florida. The first parameter to be defined involves community location.

According to Wilkinson (1991), an important aspect of community is the variable of

location. Location brings individuals together in order to achieve similar social goals and

to create society. As such, communities within rural areas behave differently than those

with exposure to urban settings (Flora & Flora, 2004; Wilkinson, 1991, 1995). As rural

community action and leadership is the primary focus of this study, rural community

location selection was limited to the northern half of Florida, or any rural area north of

Ocala, Florida. The counties that meet the location requirements (top half of Florida) of

the study are illustrated within Figure 3-1.

As aforementioned, exposure to urban areas can also affect individual communities

in a variety of ways. For this reason, an added consideration when choosing the research

sample is the community's proximity to metropolitan areas. Communities in close









proximity to areas of increased population are included within metropolitan statistical

areas (MSAs). Because these communities have different interactions within the


FL 2.1

Figure 3-1.Florida State Map by County Location Parameter.

surrounding environment, such as a large percentage of commuting workers, increased

economic activity, and other advantages of being in close proximity of industrial centers,

they exhibit characteristics different from those of traditional rural communities. This

does not align with the sample desired for the purpose of this research; therefore the rural

communities selected were not included within any Florida MSAs (Bureau of Economic

and Business Research & Warrington College of Business Administration, 2002).









Culture is another aspect that plays a large part in the identity of the community. It

is a primary way a community identifies itself- according to Flora and Flora (2004),

culture can be illustrated as the filter through which people live their lives, the daily

rituals they observe, in short, the way they regard the world around them. This process

serves to transmit values between generations, as well as allowing for society to develop

from a cluster of individuals (Moffitt, 1999).

A community's culture is important in defining how relationships and ties are

developed by individuals within the community. This plays an important role in defining

social fields and groups within the community and the action that takes place there a

major focus in this study. As culture can be affected by outside variables such as

geography, proximity of urban areas, technological development within the area,

economic drive all of these changing the community structure itself. The community

culture desired within this study is rural, somewhat agriculturally based, long-term

residency communities with a lot of history. South Florida county cultures are

traditionally more dynamic and diverse; individually, there are more MSAs within the

region to affect county culture and economics, there is a prevalent transitory population,

and culture within the region has become more heterogeneous due to the large number of

immigrants, particularly from a variety of Hispanic cultures. Comparatively, North

Florida county cultures tend to be less diverse, more stable and based on traditional

agriculture values. Consequently, the northern half of Florida, outside of MSAs,

provided the most opportunity for selecting communities with the desired culture.

After addressing community location and culture, the third parameter involved

community population. It is important to define community parameters according to









population size, as rural communities are fundamentally defined according to population.

According to Loomis and Beegle (1950), communities or centers who have less than

1,000 in population cannot offer enough of the usual services in order to remain viable.

They went on to say that communities with populations higher than 5,000 individuals

were also unsatisfactory, because residents had a value orientation that differed from

residents of the smaller communities. This is not necessarily true today, particularly in

Florida, where a large influx of formerly urban residents is moving into rural

communities. According to O'Brien, Hassinger, Brown and Pinkerton (1991), places

with populations between 1,000 and 2,500 individuals have significant resources and

"traditionally have been the nuclei of rural trade center communities" (p. 701).

Therefore, based upon both of these philosophies, communities chosen within the sample

had populations between 1,000 and 5,000 people.

In practice, retaining these population parameters proved impossible, as there were

only seven communities in North Florida that met all three parameters, including the

strict population constraints. Therefore, the population considerations were increased to

communities of 1,000 to 20,000 residents, in order to come up with a more workable

group for which to figure viability scores. As a result of the new population parameters,

30 rural communities in North Florida met all three initial community selection

parameters. Care was taken to compare viability scores among extremes very small

communities to very large communities and many small communities appeared to be as

much or more viable then some of their larger counterparts.

The final consideration used to choose an appropriate sample was community

viability. It is important to consider community viability as a selection parameter









because a major purpose of the study was to compare interactions and relationships

within the two most viable, or successful rural communities in the northern half of

Florida. This will allow the researchers to provide examples, suggestions and ideas for

other communities who wish to become more viable. Comparing two viable

communities, as opposed to one viable and one deteriorating, was undertaken in order to

illustrate there is more than one way for a community to thrive.

Ralph Brown (1991) equated community viability with success as "service-trade

centers," or the ability to support community members' basic needs and interests locally.

Through studying literature, Brown and associates determined that for communities to

maintain viability, they needed to have representation across five identified areas

(minimum "must-haves"): population stability, retail activity, schools, retail business and

health care facilities (O'Brien et al., 1991). Thus, they devised five indicators that when

combined, provided individual communities with a viability rating. These indicators are

* Percent population change,

* Per capital sales tax revenue,

* Percent change in high school enrollment (grades 9-12),

* Retail business score based on presence/absence of eight selected businesses,2 and

* Medical service score based on presence/absence of seven selected medical
services.3

Within the context of this study, this rating scale was used in order to assign a

viability score to the communities within the sample population. Through arranging


2 Eight specific businesses (i.e. bank, bakery, newspaper, etc.) were identified and then one point was given
for each occurrence of the eight within each community.

3 Similar to the business score, seven medical services were identified and then one point was given for
each occurrence of the seven within each community.









these scores into a rank order, the top three can be identified as the specific communities

to be examined. The first three indicators (affected by time) were judged positively

according to an increase over a 10-year period, from 1990-2000. The retail business

score and medical service score were both judged positively on currently (as of 2004)

existing businesses available and medical services provided within the community.

To review, there were four indicators identified within the study that assisted the

researchers in choosing appropriate communities for study. These indicators were

community location (including proximity to MSAs), culture, population size, and

community viability score. All of these indicators came together to identify communities

with characteristics that made them appropriate for this study. Those counties that

contain the top three communities (according to viability score) are shaded in black and

noted below (Figure 3-2). These are the communities that were used for the pilot study

and comparative case studies.

A purposeful sample according to the indicators that were previously outlined was

undertaken because of its alignment to the purposes of the study. Once individual

counties were considered appropriate for the sample population, viability scores were

complied and the three "most viable" communities were selected for study (refer to Table

3-1). The third most viable community was used as the pilot community; the top two

were used as actual case study communities within the study. This allowed the

researcher to explore and describe similar and varying characteristics within the two most

viable communities within the state of Florida.











1 1- i4 0L mE. S


FL 20 .-
Figure 3-2.Florida State Map by County Selected Study Communities.


Data Collection Procedures

Two primary research steps were conducted in order to collect this descriptive data;

in each case, interviews were used to garner the information desired. The first step

consisted of identifying and interviewing an expert panel within each community. With

names and information provided from the first step, the second consisted of interviewing

key leaders to provide information and names of key leaders for the third step. The

second step was replicated until repetition was apparent within the names provided,


S u W A N tiE
(Pilo+-)









ideally culminating in 25 to 30 interviews per community. Within each step, in-depth

interview guides were used to garner the information desired.

The Interview Process

On-site interviews were used to collect comprehensive and in-depth data regarding

the influence of leadership, sense of community and social capital upon community

viability within select rural communities. Interviewing is a qualitative inquiry method

that allows us to enter into another's perspective. Lincoln and Guba (1985) define an

interview as a "conversation with a purpose." As both Glesne (1999) and Patton (2002)

note, a special strength of interviewing in qualitative inquiry is finding out things we

cannot directly observe and exploring alternative explanations of what you can see.

When addressing community leaders, the researcher used the standardized open-

ended interview approach. When using this approach, an interview guide is prepared

with carefully worded questions or issues to be explored within the interview. This

approach is less open-ended than other interview approaches, but makes the interview

process much more systematic and timely, which is important when interviewing a

number of different people (Patton, 2002).

In-depth interviews were important to this study, as they provided data with the

breadth and depth needed in order to thoroughly examine the rural communities selected.

Qualitative research, by definition, is used to produce a wealth of information about a

small number of cases (Patton, 2002). This increases the depth of understanding within

the cases studied the driving force behind this study.











Table 3-1. Viability Score Breakdown and Overall Rank of 30 Florida Communities.


Population Per Capita School Enrollment Viability
1990 2000 Income 1989 1990/91 2000/01 Retail Medical Rank Community
% Change1 2000 % Change' % Change', 2 Business Service Average Summative Viability
Community (Rank) (Rank) (Rank) Score3 Score4 Rank5 Score6 Score7
Bonifay +54.36% +14.77% (29) +28.54% (3) 1 5 8 40 1
(2)
Macclenny +11.07% +67.05% (6) -6.41% (25) 1 5 8.8 44 2
(7)
Live Oak +3.57% +53.79% (15) +6.21% (17) 1 1 9.2 46 3
(12)
Trenton +20.28% (5) +56.11% (13) +26.54% (6) 1 5 9.4 47 4
Lake City -.54% (18) +45.72% (20) +20.11% (8) 1 1 9.6 48 5
De Funiak +.625% (16) +34.96% (25) +10.82% (14) 1 5 9.6 61 6
Springs
Malone +158.30% -32.81% (30) +27.61% (5) 28 27 10.2 91 7
(1)
Monticello +1.24% (15) +65.34% (9) -5.49% (24) 1 5 10.8 54 8
Chiefland +4.12% (11) +46.53% (19) +14.53% (9) 1 17 11.4 57 9

Williston +5.74% (10) +52.86% (17) +25.13% (7) 18 5 11.4 57 10











Table 3-1. Continued.
Starke +1.91% (13) +39.74% (23) +6.76% (16) 1 5 11.6 58 11

Interlachen +28.36% (4) +64.17% (10) +48.43% (1) 23 24 12.4 62 12

Palatka +.059% (17) +42.08% (22) +6.18% (18) 1 5 12.6 63 13

Marianna -4.77% (23) +63.61% (11) -2.79% (23) 1 5 12.6 63 14

Freeport +46.50% (3) +75.53% (3) +37.50% (2) 30 27 13 65 15

Madison -1.76% (20) +22.81% (28) +13.56% (12) 1 5 13.2 66 16

Perry -2.31% (22) +31.62% (26) +2.90% (19) 1 1 13.8 69 17

Inglis +20.15% (6) +66.14% (7) +27.62% (4) 23 30 14 70 18

Blountstown +1.71% (14) +28.30% (27) -28.98% (30) 1 1 14.6 73 19

Chipley -9.42% (28) +51.53% (18) -1.79% (21) 1 5 14.6 73 20

Graceville -9.12% (26) +73.59% (4) -15.38% (28) 1 17 15.2 76 21
Jasper -18.77% +56.25% (12) -20.34% (29) 1 5 15.4 118 22
(30)
Carrabelle +6.10% (9) +78.14% (2) -1.89% (22) 18 27 15.6 78 23











Table 3-1. Continued.
Port St. Joe -8.38% (24) +53.04% (16) +2.86% (20) 1 22 16.6 83 24

Sneads +10.94% (8) +55.76% (14) +11.26% (13) 28 24 17.4 87 25

Wewahitchka -2.19% (21) +65.75% (8) +13.73% (11) 23 24 17.4 87 26

Lake Butler -9.12% (25) +89.67% (1) -9.89% (26) 18 22 18.4 92 27

Crescent City -1.61% (19) +37.49% (24) +14.08% (10) 23 17 18.6 93 28

Apalachicola -9.34% (27) +68.02% (5) -13.01% (27) 18 17 18.8 94 29

Cross City -9.90% (29) +45.50% (21) +7.88% (15) 23 17 21 105 30


1 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census (2004).
2 School enrollment number includes those students enrolled in school from kindergarten to grade 12.
3 Based on the presence of 8 selected businesses. Sources Florida Business-to-Business Sales & Marketing Directory (2002);
Telephone directories for each of the thirty communities.
4 Based on the presence of 7 selected services. Sources Florida Business-to-Business Sales & Marketing Directory (2002); Telephone
directories for each of the thirty communities.
5 Sum of the ranks divided by five.
6 Summative rankings of the five variables considered in overall viability score. Due to the purpose behind ranking items, the lower
the score the better.
7 Overall rankings for the thirty communities.









Participants/Sampling

There have been several methods used to identify community leaders within

various studies. Ignoring the use of participant observation, specifically there are three

variations of the method that uses the judgment of others: 1) the "snowball" technique,

where randomly selected individuals are asked to identify leaders within the community,

and then these leaders are interviewed and asked for additional names; 2) the panel of

experts method, where a small group of informed citizens identify leaders or rate a

prepared list of leaders within the community; and 3) the community sampling method,

where randomly chosen individuals within the community are asked to identify leaders,

and this list is then rank-ordered by the number of mentions that a person received

(Fanelli, 1956).

Guba and Lincoln (1981) clearly suggest special selection of interview participants

to address specific research goals. The selection should be based upon expert knowledge

or familiarity with the project, access to constructive criticism or information, or if they

have a meaningful status or perspective. The procedure used within this study was a

mixture of the first and second methods outlined above, something termed the behavioral

approach. Within this approach, the "snowball" technique reputationall approach), and

the expert panel method are both employed to identify leaders according to those areas in

which they are active.

For this study, the approach was modified slightly. Traditionally, in studies using

the "snowball" method of participant identification, an individual is not requested for an

interview until he/she is mentioned by at least three different people. Due to the small

population and limited number of leaders within these rural communities, it proved

difficult to get three mentions for future interview participants. This also may be due to a









mirroring of the diversification in the leadership structure (within communities) seen in

today's organizational leadership. Simply stated, community leaders may not be as

centralized as they once were they may be more specialized, according to their area of

expertise. This would contribute to certain leaders being mentioned by others within

their shared community group; or to the lack of a cohort of leaders being mentioned

across the community field. Whatever the reason, the number of mentions required to

request an interview was lowered to two and the interviews proceeded accordingly.

For use within this study, several individuals in the community who were

considered "visible" leaders and community experts were asked to identify people who

were noted to be especially active or prominent figures within any of six categories -

economic, religion, education, environmental, political and health/family. In each

community, 12 individuals were contacted to serve as part of this study's expert panel:

* County Extension Director
* Mayor
* Chamber of Commerce Director
* Prominent Church Minister
* School Superintendent
* School Board President
* Farm Bureau Chairman
* County Sheriff
* County Hospital CEO
* Local Legal Representative
* County Commissioner
* Local Bank President

Once these key leaders were identified, each was interviewed and subsequently asked to

name prominent leaders within their community. Individuals on the expert panel were

identified from a breadth of fields, as it was assumed by the researcher the leaders

identified (by the expert panel) would be named from the interviewee's respective field of

expertise.









The next step involved interviewing key leaders (as identified by the expert panel),

and concluding the interview by asking them to list who they feel are key leaders in the

community. Further leaders were interviewed as a third and fourth step of the interview

process, after being noted by at least two individuals. As part of the interview process,

each leader could list as many individuals as he/she felt necessary; however, leaders

mentioned were not interviewed until mentioned by two or more participants.

While the behavioral technique was determined by the researcher to be the most

effective way to carry out the study, historically it has been brought into question for

several reasons, not the least being there are more dimensions to leadership than simply

influence or power. The need for the researcher to identify a monolithic power structure,

potential inaccuracies in respondent perceptions, and disagreement on individual

interpretation contribute to the problems behind this approach (Bonjean, 1963). Polsby

(1959) is also a critic of the reputational approach because often researchers assume

leaders, as members of the power structure within a community, maintain the stability of

the community by acting and making decisions with a concerned few. Clearly a leader's

job involves much more than that, and by employing these limited assumptions, the

researcher is directed into a study of reputations rather than leadership behavior.

Nonetheless, the behavioral approach allows those experts within the community to

identify individuals whom they know to be actors and leaders within the community -

information difficult to get another way. By requesting the participants to focus on those

who are particularly active within the community, ideally individuals would be garnered

based upon their activeness and concern for the community, as opposed to merely

reputation.









Within this study, leadership is defined according to the definition behind servant

leadership, or "first to serve, then be a leader." Therefore, key leaders were individuals

identified by the initial expert panel as individuals known for their activeness and

leadership in serving their community, and in working with people in the community

towards planned action for the common good.

During the first round of interviews involving the expert panel, there were 12

leaders contacted to participate in the study, with varying success. From these

interviews, there were two subsequent rounds (Bonifay) and three subsequent rounds

(Macclenny) in the interviewing process. Key leader interviews continued until names

began to recur within each community, this took from three to four total interview

rounds. Specific to the community, there were 23 interviews completed in Bonifay and

26 interviews in Macclenny, for a total of 49 interviews carried out in the study.

Instrumentation and Measures

As mentioned within the community selection parameters, two communities were

selected according to the highest scores on the combined criteria for community viability.

A third community was identified for pilot study purposes.

The study (design and instruments) was submitted for review and approval from

the University of Florida's Institutional Review Board (APPENDIX B IRB approval).

Once approval was obtained, a pilot study was undertaken as a preliminary study to assay

and polish both the instrumentation as well as the interview process. For each site, initial

contact was made with potential participants through preliminary letters that were sent to

the 12 leaders identified as the expert panel, prior to conducting the on-site interviews

(APPENDIX C -Preliminary letter). These letters were used to provide notice and

describe the study as well as encouraging complete participation (Guba & Lincoln, 1981).









Approximately 10 days later, phone calls were made to each potential participant, to

further describe the study, answer any questions, and set-up an interview time. Within

each interview, consent forms were signed and returned at the beginning of the interview.

Actual interviews were conducted in October and November 2004.

According to Guba and Lincoln (1981) a structured interview is used to find

answers within the bounds of the investigator's own presuppositions, hypotheses, and

hunches. Patton (2002) more specifically breaks down the structured interview into two

types: the interview guide and the standardized open-ended interview. Both are designed

to use researcher questions developed prior to the interview. However, the standardized

open-ended interview (the type used within this study), requires carefully wording each

question completely before the interview. This type of interview works best within the

context of this study, because with detailed, thorough wording the interviewer can make

sure the interview was standardized, or comparable for each participant involved. The

questions are identical this process also should provide the same stimuli for each

individual interviewed. Additionally, this type of interview allows the questions to be

viewed fully before the interview takes place, allowing for additional control over the

situation (Patton, 2002).

A researcher-developed interview guide (APPENDIX D Interview guide) was

used to gather in-depth quantitative and qualitative information from key leaders within

the community. Fundamentally, the interview guide was based upon other questionnaires

measuring similar variables, made more specific through the context of community.

Essential issues and actions addressed within the interview guide were based upon the

independent, intervening and dependent variables, with special emphasis on potential









effects or relationships involved. The structured interview guide allowed for structure

and provided a congruity to assure consistency of data among sites and individuals

interviewed. Within this study, the questions were pulled from three different sources:

the Sense of Community Index (McMillan & Chavis, 1986), the Organizational

Leadership Assessment (Laub, 2000), and the Social Capital Community Benchmark

Survey (the Saguaro Seminar Civic Engagement in America), and were modified by the

researcher in order to more effectively test toward the study objectives.

While conducting interviews within the standardized, open-ended approach

provides structure and documentable information, there are a few disadvantages. Patton

(2002) notes the weakness behind the standardized interview approach is that it does not

permit the interviewer to address topics or issues not anticipated when the guide was

developed. Furthermore, the structure also impedes the extent to which individual

differences can be examined or does not allow the interviewer any flexibility within the

interview process.

Interview Stages

As mentioned previously, participants for each of the interview stages were

identified by the researcher or key leaders according to the leader's behavior (action),

reputation or position within the community. Within any community, the effectiveness of

an action program largely depends upon how effectively leaders mobilize community

resources in support of the program. Therefore, the leader's action and position often

have a direct link to his reputation and success as a leader. As affirmed by Preston and

Guseman (1979), within smaller, relatively independent and homogeneous communities,

using any of the three measures mentioned (action, reputation or position) to designate

community leaders, will serve to converge upon the same grouping.









Initial contact was made with potential participants through a letter. As suggested

by Guba and Lincoln (1981), personal contact through phone calls was next, to establish

an interview schedule and stimulate rapport and cooperation with each interview

participant. The next contact was made through the on-site interview.

Lincoln and Guba (1985) suggest five steps for carrying out an evaluative

interview. These procedures were followed throughout each step of the research

process1:

1. Choosing individuals who could provide the most applicable and informational
data to interview.

2. Preparing for the interview, through pilot interviews, choosing the appropriate role
for the interviewer, deciding upon appropriate dress and level of formality, and
obtaining verbal and written confirmation of the interview.

3. Laying out the nature and purpose of the interview with each participant during the
interview process. This included steps such as obtaining a signed informed consent
form, asking basic demographic questions in the beginning to allow the participant
to relax, and considering each interview from the participant's perspective.

4. Pacing the interview and keeping it productive, through the use of presupposing
questions and prompts.

5. Terminating the interview at the end of the interview guide and gaining closure by
summarizing the final point made by the participant. Finally, the participants were
thanked orally and follow-up letters were mailed to each participant (APPENDIX E
Follow-up letter).

Interviews were transcribed following each interview by the interviewer.

Transcriptions were compared to interviewer notes and observations made during each

interview to check for completeness and accuracy. Data was also compared between

communities directly comparing the participants (within their respective stages and

areas) within each community.


1 For a more thorough description of the steps followed, refer to Appendix F.