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MBTI Temperaments: The Relationship between MBTI Temperaments and Advertising Careers

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MBTI TEMPERAMENTS: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MBTI TEMPERAMENTS AND ADVERTISING CAREERS By ALAINA M. RODRIGUEZ A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ADVERTISING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2005

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Copyright 2005 by Alaina M. Rodriguez

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This document is dedicated to the Lord God Almighty. My faith in him gave me the strength to accomplish this. Be strong and courageous, and do the work. Do not be afraid or discouraged, for the Lord God, my God is with you. He will not fail or forsake you. ~1 Chronicles 28:20 iii

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to give special thanks to Dr. John Sutherland for being an excellent mentor, professor, advisor, and thesis committee chair. I appreciate all the time and knowledge he put into helping me with my thesis, and challenging me to learn more. I also want to thank my thesis committee members, Dr. Jorge Villegas and Dr. Marilyn Roberts, for their insights, patience and support. In addition, I would like to thank those people at the University of Florida and the Center for Applications of Psychological Type (CAPT) who have helped throughout the process. I thank Cher Phillips, Dr. Mickey Schafer, Dr. Robin Lauriault, Jody Hedge, Jim Albury, Patrick Reakes, and Jamie Johnson (CAPT). I thank my family and friends, who have always supported my goals. I also thank my classmates Jennifer Huckeba and Julia Thomas, who became my good friends and confidants. I thank my best friends Donna Irons and Joel Bidderman for their encouragement and confidence in me. I thank my grandparents for giving me advice and listening to me. Most importantly, I thank my parents, for supporting, challenging and encouraging me. And for instilling their values in me, especially those of a strong work ethic, determination, and achievement. iv

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES............................................................................................................vii ABSTRACT.....................................................................................................................viii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE.......................................................................................3 Background...................................................................................................................3 Personality.............................................................................................................3 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator................................................................................5 MBTIDebate/Controversy/ Discussion...............................................................8 Temperaments.....................................................................................................11 Advertising Careers....................................................................................................12 Account Service...................................................................................................13 Creative Department............................................................................................13 Media...................................................................................................................13 Production and Studio.........................................................................................13 Research..............................................................................................................14 Comparison Studies....................................................................................................15 The Myers-Briggs Personality Type and its Relationship to Computer Programming....................................................................................................15 Relationships of Personality Traits in the Engineering and Architectural Professions.......................................................................................................17 Australian Advertising Agency...........................................................................20 The Gap......................................................................................................................23 3 METHODOLOGY.....................................................................................................24 Research Design.........................................................................................................24 Subject Selection........................................................................................................24 4 FINDINGS..................................................................................................................26 v

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Characteristics of Respondents...................................................................................26 Research Question 1: There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Industry in Which the Respondents Work?...........................................................29 Research Question 2: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Respondents Job Titles?...................................................................................30 Research Question 3: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Respondents Current Duties?...........................................................................31 Research Question 4: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Respondents Satisfaction Toward Their Present Job?.....................................32 Research Question 5: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Respondents Commitment to the Advertising Profession?..............................33 5 CONCLUSIONS........................................................................................................34 APPENDIX INFORMED CONSENT FORM AND QUESTIONAIRE.......................38 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................43 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................46 vi

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1 MBTI Descriptions of Types......................................................................................7 2-2 Temperaments..........................................................................................................12 4-1 All Survey Respondents Compared to the MBTI sample........................................26 4-2 94-98 MBTI Types Compared to the 1982 MBTI Types........................................28 4-3 MBTI Temperaments and Industry..........................................................................29 4-4 MBTI Temperaments and Job Titles........................................................................30 4-5 MBTI Temperaments and Current Duties................................................................32 4-6 MBTI Temperaments and Satisfaction....................................................................32 4-7 MBTI Temperaments and Commitment..................................................................33 vii

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising MBTI TEMPERAMENTS: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MBTI TEMPERAMENTS AND ADVERTISING CAREERS By Alaina M. Rodriguez May 2005 Chair: John Sutherland Major Department: Journalism and Communications Studies have revealed that the Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicator (MBTI) is a roadmap for individuals to use in determining what profession or job their preferred personality best fits. One area that has been neglected in personality research is the advertising profession. This study explores whether there is a relationship between personality types and the advertising profession. Using a survey given to alumni, conducted in 2003 by a large Southeastern University, five factors were analyzed: (1) the industry in which they work, (2) their current job titles, (3) their current duties, (4) satisfaction toward their present job, and (5) commitment toward the advertising profession. These variables were then analyzed to determine which had the largest contribution to the respondents MBTI temperaments. Although there was no significance found among the variables, results proved to be consistent with theories and other research studies. viii

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Research has revealed that the Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicator (MBTI) is a roadmap for individuals to use in determining what profession or job their preferred personality best fits (Wood, 2002). A study done by Robert Harvey, William Murry, and Steven Markham showed that in 1991 an estimated 2 million workers had completed the MBTI. This proved that it is a widely used personality assessment, helping workers identify suitable occupations for exploration (Harvey, Murry, & Markham, 1995; Healy, & Woodward, 1998). One area that has been neglected in personality research is the advertising profession. Only one study was found on MBTI types working in advertising agencies. The study was conducted with a 30-member Australian agency which focused on the relationship of psychological types to the different jobs within an agency-style structure. Research explaining if a correlation exists between personality type and the advertising profession is still unavailable. A secondary research analysis is presented that attempts to determine answers to the following five questions: 1. Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Industry in Which the Respondents Work? 2. Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Respondents Job Titles? 3. Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Respondents Current Duties? 1

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2 4. Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Respondents Satisfaction Toward Their Present Job? 5. Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Respondents Commitment to the Advertising Profession? Respondents MBTI Temperaments will be compared to the five variables to determine if a significant relationship existed. Answers to these questions may provide evidence showing that type has an effect on the careers people choose in the advertising profession. Results may also be helpful to those considering jobs in the advertising field to see if their preferred type skews toward a certain career.

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CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Background Personality Personality encompasses all aspects of our lives. It gives us character and makes us different from all other species. Personality consists of the characteristics (behavioral and emotional) individuals have that distinguishes them from a group. Defined in the framework of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) explains how people interact with the world, are energized, notice the world around them, make decisions, and organize their lives (Tieger & Barron-Tieger, 10). Though no one definition of personality has been universally accepted within the field of psychology, personality has been separated into two main categories. The first focuses on the consistent differences that exist between people. This Category of personality focuses on categorizing the stable characteristics of human nature, to find the ones that cause the most differences. The second focuses on the qualities that make all people alike, but separates us from other species. This category looks mainly for factors that influence the course of our lives, and help define man by our likeness. The duality of the personality definition explains the two directions taken in personality studies: one showing how we are alike and trying to organize those traits, and the other trying to find how our differences relate to each other and other living things (Personality, n.d.). Personality has been placed into many different frameworks to make research and organization of knowledge easier. One of the main frameworks which continues to grow 3

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4 in acceptance is the Big Five Taxonomy. The Big Five or the Five Factor Model (FFM) summarizes validities within predictor constructs, allowing knowledge to be cumulated into meaningful ways. The evolution of the FFM started when Borgatta was credited with obtaining five stable factors across five methods of gathering data, then again when Norman labeled the factors. The labels for the Big Five are: Extraversion, Emotional Stability, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Culture. This model has continued to evolve in the views of many personality psychologists (Barrick & Mount, 1991). The first dimension is called Extraversion. The traits most often associated with this level include gregarious, talkative, active, assertive, and being sociable. This level consists of two components ambition and sociability. The second dimension called Emotional Stability is associated with anxiousness, depression, anger, worry, and insecurities. The third dimension Agreeableness or likeability has traits such as courteous, flexible, trusting, good-natured, cooperative, and tolerant. The fourth dimension most commonly called Conscientiousness or Conscience is a reflection of dependability. It incorporates other variables like hardworking, persevering, organized, and responsible. The fifth dimension which has been the most difficult to define is Intellect which includes imaginative, original, cultured, artistically sensitive, and intelligence (Barrick & Mount, 1991). The FFM is important in the study of personality psychology by providing a framework of five independent dimensions which help explain individual differences. It has shown to be a positive predictor of relationships between personality constructs and job-related criteria. The FFM is currently a dominant taxonomy in personality research

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5 (Ones, Mount, Barrick, & Hunter, 1994; Barrick & Mount, 1991; Trippe & Harvey, 2003). Another measurement of personality traits is the Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicator (MBTI). This instrument of personality was developed from the Jungian Typology Theory. The Jungian typology theory states that people have different fundamental preferences and similar internal instincts. The MBTI was developed from Jungs ideas while the FFM was developed over a large period of time, with extensive research. Though the studies have different origins some authors have noted that strong similarity exists (Harvey, Murry, & Markham, 1995). A main similarity is between the four MBTIs scales (discussed in the next section) and four of the Big Five dimensions. One difference is that the MBTI is used primarily for personality assessment while the FFM is used to explain personality differences. According to some perspectives the MBTI is the most widely used personality assessment in corporate America. It has been used to test job performance, career paths, employee turnover, organizational development and much more. A study done by Harvey, Murry, and Markham showed that in 1991 an estimated 2 million workers had completed the MBTI to help identify suitable occupations for exploration (Harvey, Murry, & Markham, 1995; Healy & Woodward, 1998). Myers-Briggs Type Indicator The Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jungs book Psychological Types describes the systematic ways in which people differ. He created four categories: sensing, intuitive, thinking, and feeling, that all conscience mental activities could be placed in. With this he created a model to show different ways people perceive information and make judgments (Bishop-Clark & Wheeler, 1994).

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6 Jungs type theory has been the basis for many instruments; the most popular is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) (Edwards, Lanning, & Hooker, 2002). The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator was created in the 1950s by a mother daughter team, Katherine Cook Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers, to expand Jungs theory and to relate it to everyday life. The MBTI is currently the most widely used inventory of psychological types in the world (Bishop-Clark & Wheeler, 360). The MBTI is made up of four bipolar scales that measure Extraversion and Introversion (E & I), Sensing and Intuition (S & N), Thinking and Feeling (T & F), and Judging and Perceiving (S & P). Extraversion and introversion (E & I). These terms describe a persons outward or inward focus to their environment. Es are enthusiastic, enjoy the spotlight, engaged in interaction, but can talk to much, could be unprepared, and are impatient. Is are prepared, good at presenting ideas and concepts, but dont like surprises, interruptions, and can appear aloof. Sensing and intuition (S & N). These terms describe where people gather information. Ss tend to focus on the present, they know their facts, and are good listeners, but they can be to detailed, and do not like what if questions. Ns like discussing new ideas and trends for the future, and like concepts and relationships but fly by the seat of their pants, and are unconscious of audience reactions. Thinking and feeling (T & F) These terms describe the system people use to make decisions. Ts are very logical and concise but they are also critical and insensitive. Fs are personable and friendly but can be overly sensitive and avoid negative circumstances.

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7 Judging and perceiving (J & P). These terms describe the type of life people lead. Js tend to plan and organize every aspect of their lifes, they are structured and orderly, but can be resistant to change. Ps are spontaneous and flexible with their lives but can be disorganized and late (Healy & Woodward, 1998; Harrington & Loffredo, 2001; Bishop-Clark & Wheeler, 1994). These four bipolar scales combine into 16 different personality types faces. Type faces explain the dominate process that overshadows the other process (Myers & Myers 1980). There is a unique combination associated with each type. Each of the 16 types have two primary type faces (derived from the fact that each of us responds to both E and I energy sources): a more public outer-energized face and a more private inner-energized one (Reinhold, n.d.). This explains why people can have two different personalities based on different situations. The 16 type combinations classify people based on their preference. The descriptions are listed in Table 2-1. Table 2-1. MBTI Descriptions of Types MRTI TYPE LABEL DESCRIPTION ISTJ Introverted Sensing Thinking Judging Well prepared, good at presenting ideas and concepts and very thorough. ISTP Introverted Sensing Thinking Perceiving Good mechanical skills with an interest in how things work. ISFJ Introverted Sensing Feeling Judging Dependable and practical while valuing security and traditions. ISFP Introverted Sensing Feeling Perceiving Flexible and faithful but avoid conflict. INFJ Introverted Intuitive Feeling Judging Strong value systems and original style. INFP Introverted Intuitive Feeling Perceiving Secluded and reserved with the ability to see the larger picture. INTJ Introverted Intuitive Thinking Judging Analytical and determined to turn theories and visions into firm plans of action.

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8 Table 2-1. Continued MRTI TYPE LABEL DESCRIPTION INTP Introverted Intuitive Thinking Perceiving Logical, original, and creative thinkers that become excited about knowledge and ideas. ESTP Extraverted Sensing Thinking Perceiving Focused on results they are friendly and action-oriented. ESTJ Extraverted Sensing Thinking Judging Value security and peaceful living with clear understandings of the way things should be. ESFP Extraverted Sensing Feeling Perceiving Practical and common sense driven they are usually the center of attention. ESFJ Extraverted Sensing Feeling Judging Warm-hearted they put others needs in front of their own. ENFP Extraverted Intuitive Feeling Perceiving Creative and enthusiastic with good people skills while living in harmony with their inner values. ENFJ Extraverted Intuitive Feeling Judging Great people skills especially at managing group discussions and issues. ENTP Extraverted Intuitive Thinking Perceiving Creative and resourceful in applying logic to find solutions and understanding concepts. ENTJ Extraverted Intuitive Thinking Judging Organized and outspoken they are motivated to success. (High-Level Description of the Sixteen Personality Types, 1998). MBTIDebate/Controversy/ Discussion The MBTI has had mixed reviews despite its widespread use. One of the main critiques is based on the reliability and validity of the MBTI (Healy & Woodward, 1998). Reliability refers to the consistency of responses to a questionnaire. To maintain a high reliability, test-retests need to be done to examine the assessment over long periods of time. A few studies have found that when the test-retest interval is short (a few weeks) almost 50% of the people will be classified into a different type, after the retest. Research for long test-retest intervals could not be found leading us to believe, that this line of research has not been completed or found to be significant (Pittenger, 1992; Johnson, 1992).

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9 Validity refers to a judgment that indicated how well a question measures what it is suppose to measure. The validity of the assessment has been tested numerous times, with conflicting results. Some tests show there is no convergent validity while others proved it very high. One of the main problems with testing validity is the tendency to emphasize one scale in the research, instead of looking at all four (Carlson, 1989). Consequently this creates conflicting results. A factor analysis was conducted to find out the validity of the MBTI testing. A factor analysis is a statistical procedure that tests the correlations among the questions in the test. If the MBTI theory is correct and valid the following should be true. 1. The results should show four clusters. 2. Each factor should be independent of the other factors. 3. The factors should account for the majority of differences among individuals. The results were not convincing with little to no significance. These results were inconsistent with the MBTI theory, showing more than four clusters, and no clear distinctions for the majority of differences among individuals (Pittenger, 1992). Another debate is on gender and the relationship between the MBTI Type and occupation. A few critics feel that the assessment is biased toward gender dominated professions. Looking at management and nursing as examples they are both gender dominated professions. In comparing the two it would appear that there are different pattern types, which would be spread out evenly. This concludes that certain personality types are more likely to be nurses while others become managers. The problem is that both examples are gender dominated. Nursing is dominated by women and management is dominated by males, causing the MBTI types to be skewed. If the MBTI were correct

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10 then the proportion of types within the occupations would correspond to a random sample of the population (Pittenger, 1992). The statistical structure has also been questioned, if there are four bipolar scales then the tests results should show eight difference curves. Each bipolar scale measuring Extraversion and Introversion (E & I), Sensing and Intuition (S & N), Thinking and Feeling (T & F), and Judging and Perceiving (S & P) should result in eight normal bell shaped curves, with little to no overlap (Pittenger, 1992). What is found is that most people score between the extremes, causing four (one for each pair) different curves. Resulting in individuals tests being similar even if one scored as an E and the other as an I. Scoring is based on a middle bar (or cutoff points) where individuals fall on either side. The differences between the two-letter categories are not as sharp and clear cut as it would appear, because the MBTI uses an absolute classification scheme for people, it is possible for people with relatively similar scores to be labeled with much different personalities (Pittenger, 4). Some critics feel that the MBTI is an absolute personality indicator, which tries to fit all of humanity into 16 boxes of exact personality types. By placing people into one of sixteen types it reduces the individuality of each persons qualities or potential (Pittenger, 1992). Even though the MBTI has been criticized the majority of reviews and researchers have concluded that the MBTI is a valid and reliable assessment (Bishop-Clark & Wheeler, 1994). The relationship between the MBTI Type and occupation has been tested more than any other factor. Many people have examined the relation between type and occupation by examining the proportions of type within each profession (Pittenger, 5). A problem with this is that some researches state that a certain type is dominate in a

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11 certain occupation, what they do not do is find the correlation of that type to the general population. If there is no difference between occupation and general population there is no significance in the results. Because of this, some researchers believe there is not a positive correlation between MBTI type and success in an occupation (Pittenger, 1992; Dash & Logan, 1990). What needs to be remembered about typing is that the MBTI is not an absolute classification but a preference indicator with everyone encompassing traits of both, but preferring one side over the other. Peoples traits can change based on the situation again explaining why we sometimes see people with two personalities. The MBTI does not lock people into a certain type instead it shows individuals their preferred type or face. A Type Face is the face an individual uses the majority of the time, it is the preferred scale. While our Myers-Briggs Type is a lifelong constant, the Type Faces are the building blocks of a maturing and developing personality (Reinhold, n.d.). Today, the MBTI is one of the most widely accepted and researched assessment of cognitive style and personality, and at predicting positive fits for a career. Studies show that in 1991 an estimated 2 million people had completed the MBTI (Healy & Woodward, 1998; Bishop-Clark & Wheeler, 1994; Edwards, Lanning, & Hooker, 2002; Harvey, Murry, & Markham, 1995). Temperaments Another way to look at personality types is through temperaments or type functions. The middle two letters of a persons personality type is referred to as the type function. Some people who have studied and used Type for many years consider the function approach best because this combination identifies the way a person prefers to perceive (through either Sensing or Intuition) with they way he or she likes to judge

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12 (through either Thinking or Feeling) in other words, what the person naturally notices about the world and how he or she usually makes decisions (Tieger & Barron-Tieger, 25). Keirsey and Bates discovered that the four temperaments, which have been described throughout history with the Greek philosophers, the Middle Ages and Paracelsus, in American Indian medicine, and in Hindu wisdom (Keirsy & Bates, 1978). Temperaments refer to the preferred function or nature that operates together to effect behavior. The temperaments have four categories in which all people seem to fit. The 16 MBTI types fall into one of the temperaments allowing data to be collapsed (Tieger & Barron-Tieger, 2000; McBride, Cline, & Miller, 1987). Descriptions of the temperaments and the percent of the population that falls into each temperament can be seen in Table 2-2. Table 2-2. Temperaments % OF POP NAME MRTI LABEL DESCRIPTION Approx 38% Traditionalists SJ Sensing Judgers Motivated by duty and responsibility Approx 38% Experiencers SP Sensing Perceivers Motivated by action and freedom Approx 12% Idealists NF Intuitive Feelers Motivated by spirit and unity Approx 12% Conceptualizes NT Intuitive Thinkers Motivated by power and knowledge (McBride, Cline, & Miller, 1987; Tieger & Barron-Tieger, 2000). Advertising Careers Advertising is a paid, mediated form of communication form an identifiable source, designed to persuade the reliever to take some action, now or in the future (Richards & Curran, 74). By being paid it makes Advertising different from Public

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13 Relations. Mediated refers to the mass medium from a person such as a commercial or radio ad. Identifiable makes the advertisements capable of being known. Advertising persuades change of mind, attitude, and action. And last it creates an action by identifying brands, recognizing, or having an attitude toward the brand. Most advertising careers are organized into five distinct functions of account service, creative department, media, production and studio, and research. Account Service The liaisons between the clients (the actual advertisers) and the agencies. Account service people work with the clients to develop advertising strategies and plans. They do not create the advertisements, but are responsible for informing the rest of the agency what to do. Creative Department Develops the concepts or for the clients ads. Copywriters are responsible for the words and art directors take care of the pictures portion. Media Media people buy advertising space from television stations, newspapers, and magazines. They also make sure the ads are run during the correct spots, where they will influence the largest target market. Production and Studio Transforms the ideas from the creative department into actual ads. They produce the computer graphics and digital files, and are responsible for getting the ads printed or to the media people.

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14 Research Is in charge of gathering relevant information on the clients consumer behaviors. They understand the wants, requests, feelings, concerns, motivating forces, and ideals of the consumer (Strachan, 1999). For the purpose of this study the definitions of jobs in advertising agencies are listed and defined below. Advertising account executive: manages the account services department, devises and coordinates advertising campaigns for their clients. Advertising account manager: acts as the liaison between the client, and the agency. This person has to be able to get the best work for the agency at the best price possible. Advertising creative director: develops the ideas, images, and words that make up commercials and ads. Also, oversees the copy chief, art director, and associated staff. Art Director: develops the visual concepts and designs for ads which may include: preparing past-ups, rough lettering, and layouts for print ads and television storyboards. Communications director: responsible for the planning and development of the organization's activities as they relate to fundraising and communications. Copy writer/ publicity writer: generates ideas for product or company names and writes dialogue for TV commercials and scripts for radio ads. Also develops merchandising and sales promotion materials. Designer: creates the layout, and helps visualize the overall concept of a product. Editor: reads and corrects written material for publication, decides on the editorial policy and the content of publications or news items, and/or manage the production of publications and the staff involved. Freelance media planer: needs to be able to place advertisements in the right place at the right time, where it will reach the right people. This requires the ability to find and analyze data. This person does not work for an agency fulltime. Informational-graphics designer: creates everything from packaging designs, websites, company and brand logos, and possibly stationary.

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15 International sales and marketing: an international understanding of what the buyers want, and the values associated with what is being sold, and how that product or service is marketed in a particular place. Media planner/buyer: needs to be able to place advertisements in the right place at the right time, where it will reach the right people. This requires the ability to find and analyze data. New market or product conceptualizer: evaluate market and corporate needs to establish conceptual opportunities on a consulting basis. Leads Company in conceptual brainstorming and research activities. Photographer: mostly done through freelancing, the photographer takes pictures for the advertisements. Research and development specialist: needs to understand the wants, requests, feelings, concerns, motivating forces, and ideals of the consumer. This person should be a specialist on consumer behavior. Research assistant: assists the research specialist in understanding the needs of the consumers. Strategic planner: identifies key strategic opportunities, and interfaces advertising agencies and clients in the representation and development of strategic programs. (The Job Guide, 2004; Advertising Association, 2004; Advertising Educational Foundation, 2004; Avery, 2000). Comparison Studies The Myers-Briggs Personality Type and its Relationship to Computer Programming This study investigates whether recent college graduates with certain personality types (as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) performed better in certain areas of advertising than those students with different personality types. A similar study was done comparing personality types to success in writing computer programs, focusing on the Thinking and Feeling (T & F) dimension, because students who are more logical thinking tend to be better at writing computer programs than those that are feeling oriented (Bishop-Clark & Wheeler, 1994).

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16 Literature relating to problem solving and the MBTI laid the foundation for this study. The scale having the strongest impact on problem solving is the Sensing and Intuition scale. Sensors are good at facts, and move from general to specific, and Intuitives are good at seeing the big picture, and viewing things different ways. While jobs in the advertising industry are a good mix of both, computer programming relies more on sensing (Bishop-Clark & Wheeler, 1994). To test the relationship between the MBTI and computer programmers, an experiment was done. First there was a pilot study done on 34 students in an introductory programming class. Twenty-five of the students completed the class, the MBTI was administered in the first week of class, and all assignments, quizzes, and tests were collected and analyzed. The exploratory experiment provided the base for the hypotheses that would be used in the real study. The researchers created four hypotheses which looked at which dimension would have a higher program average; Introverts or Extraverts, Sensors or Intuitives, Judgers or Perceptives, and Thinkers or Feelers (Bishop-Clark & Wheeler, 1994). The primary study consisted of 114 students, in four different sections of the same introductory class the pilot study took. The professor was the same for all four sections but was unaware of the hypotheses, so there was no biased on his part. Ninety-three of the students completed the class, the MBTI was administered in the first week of class, and all assignments, quizzes, and tests were collected and analyzed. The main difference from the pilot study was the students worked in pairs to complete the assignments. All pairs were instructor assigned and changed with every assignment. Individual grades

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17 were given despite the working in pairs, so this did not affect the end results of the experiment (Bishop-Clark & Wheeler, 1994). The results showed which dimensions had a higher program average. Introverts and Extraverts, Judgers and Perceptives, Thinkers and Feelers were all found to be insignificant, showing no major difference in the scores. Sensors and Intuitives were found to be significant with Sensors having a higher program average than Intuitives, because computer programming relies more on sensing. The two dominate personalities found were sensing and judging (SJ) which seemed to fair better then their partners, intuitives and thinking, respectively (NT). The study found that overall personality has little to do with how well students succeeded in the computer programming class. The researchers do believe that personality was a factor in how well students preformed different tasks associated with the class, such as programming assignments (Bishop-Clark & Wheeler, 1994). Relationships of Personality Traits in the Engineering and Architectural Professions Another trend in business organizations today is the relationships between personality traits and performance. A study was done investigating relationships of personality traits with successful behaviors in the engineering and architectural (E/A) professions project design services. The categories for the five project services are: planning, conceptual design, contract documents, construction administration, and firm management duties. The MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) was used to measure the individual personalities (Carr, Garza, & Vorster, 2002). The main focus was to examine the degree to which preferences of ones personality are predictive of job performance. Organizations must learn to look beyond the obvious performance indicators and look towards personality as a major factor. By

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18 understanding how personality plays a roll it will enable these organizations to improve the design and construction process (Carr, Garza, & Vorster, 2002). To understand how personality works within design services an experiment was developed into three parts. The first part was to select an instrument to measure personality and conduct a pilot study. The second step was to create a Critical Project Success Factors (CPSF) questionnaire which will be used to measure the validity and reliability from the pilot study. The third step was to administer the MBTI and CPSF to a sample of E/A service providers (Carr, Garza, & Vorster, 2002). The Independent variable the MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) was selected to measure individual personalities for both the pilot and main study. The Variables are made up from the MBTI four bipolar scales that measure Extraversion and Introversion (E & I), Sensing and Intuition (S & N), Thinking and Feeling (T & F), and Judging and Perceiving (S & P) (Healy & Woodward, 1998). The dependent variables were the Critical Project Success Factors (CPSF) questionnaire which categorizes the performance measures of the design-related activities. The categories for the five design-related activities project services are: planning, conceptual design, contract documents, construction administration, and firm management duties. These five services were condensed into 3 phases for use in the study: Planning Phase (Study and Report; Conceptual or Preliminary Design), Design Phase and Detailed Preparation or Contract Documents, and Construction Administration Phase (Carr, Garza, & Vorster, 2002). The Planning Phase (Study and Report; Conceptual or Preliminary Design) includes the task of project planning. The individual with the best qualifications for this phase should be a MBTI intuitive (N). Ns like discussing new ideas and trends for the

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19 future, and like concepts and relationships but fly by the seat of their pants, and are unconscious of audience reactions. The Design Phase and Detailed Preparation or Contract Documents includes having to work within the measures of project success on time and on budget. Design work is detailed oriented and requires a great deal of discipline. The person should be an MBTI judging (J). Js tend to plan and organize every aspect of their lifes, they are structured and orderly, but can be resistant to change. The Construction Administration Phase requires a professional who is a problem solver with creative solutions an MBTI intuitive (N) (see above description) or thinker (T). Ts are very logic and concise but they are also critical and insensitive (Healy & Woodward, 1998; Harrington & Loffredo, 2001; Bishop-Clark & Wheeler, 1994; Carr, Garza, & Vorster, 2002). The researchers created a general hypothesis which looked at which personality attributes will influence performance of the design services. Exploratory hypotheses were created for each phase of the study to see if there were mean performance differences in the four bipolar scales measured for the planning, design, construction administration, and general firm management duties performed (Carr, Garza, & Vorster, 2002). The sample consisted of 85 subjects in the Engineering and Architectural fields, with jobs at the project manager level and above. The selection process was based on assignments within their organizations and their group duties. A random selection was picked and invited to participate by the target firms management (Carr, Garza, & Vorster, 2002). The research did find that certain personality attributes will influence performance of the design services. This finding was found in both this study and other research. A

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20 few mean performance differences were found based on personality, phase and duties preformed. It was also found that Individuals with high Intuitive (MBTI, N) and Perceiving (MBTI, P) preferences did better than those with preferences for Sensing (MBTI, S) and Judging (MBTI, J). These results held true for both the planning and construction phase. Individuals with high Judging (MBTI, J) and Perceiving (MBTI, P) preferences did better with the duties associated in the design phase. Individuals with high Intuitive (MBTI, N) and Perceiving (MBTI, P) preferences were successful in the construction phase. The Thinking/Feeling (MBTI, T/F) preferences did not influence performance in any of the phases (Carr, Garza, & Vorster, 2002). Overall the research shows that it is important to place the correct personality trait within the correct career assignment. This is because individual personality characteristics influence job performance. Organizations should learn to look beyond the obvious performance indicators such as education, experience and cognitive abilities and look towards personality as a major factor. By understanding how personalities play a roll in job performance it will enable organizations to improve their overall effectiveness (Carr, Garza, & Vorster, 2002). Australian Advertising Agency It has been revealed that the MBTI is a roadmap for individuals to use in determining what profession or job that their personality best fits. But, the advertising profession has been neglected in this area of study as only one study was found on types working in advertising agencies. The study was conducted with a 30-member Australian agency which used the pseudonym, Word & Pictures (W&P) to protect the agencys identity. Conducted by Judy Strachan, an MBTI certified practitioner and advertising veteran. The study focused on

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21 the relationship of psychological types to the different jobs within an agency-style structure. Her theory was that ad agencies are predominantly ENTP/ENFP organizations. The theory was supported with prior agency work and summaries from researcher William Bridges: The ENTP organisation is an upbeat, can-do organisation that is at its best designing or inventing an answer to a difficult problem. ENFP organisations tend to fall into two categories: the creative organisation that develops new ideas or products for people, and the idealistic organisation that focusses on developing, serving or enlightening people (Strachan, 33). Strachan believed that by combining Bridges two descriptions together, you have a very good picture of a typical advertising agencycreative, inventive and trying to enlighten (Wood, 2002). The advertising agency was divided into typical departments/ job functions consisting of account service, creative department, production and studio, and media (administration and finance). Then to find type preferences relevant to advertising agencies Strachan used the career listings found at the back of the MBTI Manual: A Guide to the Development of Use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator by Isabel Myers and Mary McCaulley. The following lists details the rankings of occupations relevant to advertising agencies. 74.70% E Marketing personnel 66.29% E Public relations workers & publicity writers 86.06% N Writers, artists, entertainers & agents 75.58% N Writers and journalists 79.52% T Managers: sales, not specified 72.78% T Service workers 61.54% F Journalists 58.65% F Writers, artists, entertainers & agents 61.54% F Journalists 58.65% F Writers, artists, entertainers & agents

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22 61.54% P Journalists 61.06% p Writers, artists, entertainers & agents The lists for occupations attractive to the various types show: 21.15% ENFP Journalists 19.23% ENFP Writers, artists, entertainers & agents 16.95% ENTP Photographers 13.25% ENTP Marketing personnel 8.99% ENTP Public relations workers & publicity writers (Strachan, 1999) The type breakdown for W&P confirmed the theory of ENTP/ ENFP. The breakdown was: E 17 I 13 Group Type: (determined by largest count in each preference) S 10 N 20 ENT/FP T 15 F 15 Modal type: (determined by predominate type) J 14 P 16 ENFP Type was then broken down for each departments/ job function. Account serviceGroup Type and Modal Type was ENTJ Creative department (Even split between Copywriters and Art directors) Group Type ENFP and Modal Type was ENT/FP Production and studioGroup Type ESFP and Modal Type was ISFP Media (admin and finance) Media INTJ/ ENFP, Accounting ISTJ, Receptionist INFP Strachan found that Words and Pictures fit the MBTI concept with the agency being predominantly an ENTP/ENFP organization. The most interesting observation found was the S/N difference found between the Creative and Production departments. Further research would help determine the reasons for the type differences (Strachan, 1999).

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23 The Gap Because MBTI personality types cannot be used to categorize or group individuals, temperaments are often used. So, do certain temperaments determine what advertising career is chosen? Here are the following five Research Questions. RQ1: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Industry in Which the Respondents Work? RQ2: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Respondents Job Titles? RQ3: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Respondents Current Duties? RQ4: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Respondents Satisfaction Toward Their Present Job? RQ5: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Respondents Commitment to the Advertising Profession?

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CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGY This chapter will describe the methods and procedures of the study as it relates to (1) research design and (2) subject selection. Research Design Data was taken from a questionnaire that was sent to advertising graduates from a large Southeastern University in 2003. (See Appendix for sample of survey.) The purpose of the questionnaire was to gather information from alumni of the advertising program. It was not done to determine the answers to the aforementioned research questions. The secondary research questionnaire consisted of three parts. The first part was comprised of questions concerning involvement and evaluation of the subjects education. The second part questioned the subject about their professional experiences and history. The third asked demographic questions, relating to gender, ethnic background, and citizenship. Once collected the surveys were coded and analysis was done to test the relationships between variables. Graduates from 1994 to 1998 were administered the MBTI while still attending the university. MBTI scored were collected from a professor in advertising as part of the course content for the core communications classes. The recorded MBTI scores were used to test relationships between survey questions and personality types. Subject Selection A listing bought and generated from a large Southeastern Universitys alumni association enabled six thousand surveys to be sent out to graduates from the department 24

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25 of advertising. Of those six thousand surveys 804 were returned, a response rate of 13.4%. The participation of the survey was strictly voluntary; the subjects did not have to answer any questions they did not wish to answer. There was no penalty for not participating, no compensation provided for their participation, and all surveys were kept confidential. Of the 804 surveys returned responses from the years 1994 to 1998 were sorted down to 110, because MBTI scores existed for that time period. Out of the 110 surveys 52 could be matched to MBTI scores.

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CHAPTER 3 FINDINGS Major findings of this study are presented and data analysis results are reported in this chapter. The first section presented will be the characteristics of the respondents. This will be followed by the results of the respondents temperaments in the advertising profession. Other variables found within the advertising profession will be correlated to the respondents temperaments. These include: (Research Question 1) the industry in which they work, (Research Question 2) their current job titles, (Research Question 3) their current duties, (Research Question 4) satisfaction toward their present job, and (Research Question 5) commitment toward the advertising profession. Characteristics of Respondents The MBTI sample of respondents graduated between 1994 and 1998. A large majority (78.8%) are female, while 80.8% are White, not Hispanic. Statistics of MBTI respondents compared to all survey respondents are found in table 4-1. Table 4-1. All survey respondents compared to the MBTI sample. All Respondents MBTI Respondents n % n % Began their academic career at the University 499 62.1 37 71.2 Transferred from an in-state community college 199 24.8 10 19.2 Did not work during the pursuit of their degree 295 36.7 21 40.4 First position after graduating was found after two months 513 63.8 39 75.0 Have been employed by up to four companies 451 56.1 34 65.4 Are employed full time 601 74.8 44 84.6 26

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27 Table 4-1. Continued All Respondents MBTI Respondents n % n % Work either within the advertising or media industry 186 23.1 24 46.2 Are moderately satisfied with their current job 470 58.4 34 65.4 See their current position as a career instead of a job 526 65.4 32 61.5 Wish they had prepared for a major other than advertising 506 62.9 20 38.4 The CAPT Study and Distribution of MBTI Types A comparable study done by the Center for Applications of Psychological Type (CAPT), was a Ten Year Follow-Up to The University of Florida Freshman Study. The entire freshman class of 1972 was given the MBTI as part of an academic advisement improvement study. A follow up study was done ten years later in 1982, to find out what majors they graduated from, and how the overall group compared to the initial one from 1972. We dont know respondents original scores just the majors they graduated from. Table 4-2 shows the distribution of the 1994-1998 MTBI Types and Temperaments compared to CAPTs (1982) MBTI types and Temperaments from the Advertising major. There were 52 respondents for both studies (94-98 and 1982). The data shows (Table 4-2) that MBTI Type and Temperaments are consistent across time. Showing that both samples had 9 (17.3%) NTs (iNtuitive Thinkers). The distribution of the 94-98 MBTI types shows that 15 out of the 16 types are present. There were no respondent with the type INTJ (Introvert iNtuitive Thinking Judger). The most respondents (13.46%, 7 respondents) were ESFJs (Extravert Sensing Feeling Judgers). Three types had 1 respondent (1.92%), ISTP (Introvert Sensing Thinking Perceiver), ENTJ (Extravert iNtuitive Thinking Judger), and INFP (Introvert iNtuitive Feeling Perceiver).

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28 Table 4-2. 94-98 MBTI Types Compared to the 1982 MBTI Types 94-98 MBTI 1982 MBTI 94-98 Temper 1982 Temper MBTI Type n % n % Temperament n % n % ISTP 1 19.2 2 3.9 ISFP 4 7.7 2 3.9 ESTP 4 7.7 0 0.0 ESFP 4 7.7 5 9.6 SP 13 25.0 9 17.3 ISTJ 4 7.7 4 7.7 ISFJ 3 5.8 3 5.8 ESTJ 4 7.7 5 9.6 ESFJ 7 13.5 3 5.8 SJ 18 34.6 15 28.9 INTJ 2 3.9 0 0.0 INTP 2 3.9 2 3.9 ENTP 4 7.7 3 5.8 ENTJ 1 1.9 4 7.7 NT 9 17.3 9 17.3 INFJ 0 0.0 1 1.9 INFP 1 1.9 3 5.8 ENFP 6 11.3 11 21.2 ENFJ 5 9.6 4 7.7 NF 12 23.1 19 36.5 Chi Square 2.58; df 3; n.s. Temperaments Due to the small incidence of specific types, MBTI types were collapsed into four different temperaments to avoid analysis of small groups. Temperaments refer to the preferred function or nature that operates together to effect behavior. The temperaments have four categories in which all people seem to fit. The 16 MBTI types fall into one of the temperaments allowing data to be collapsed (Tieger, & Barron-Tieger, 2000; McBride, Cline, & Miller, 1987). All 52 Respondents were re categorized into Temperaments. The analyses were run using these categories. Sensing JudgersSJ (34.6%, 18 respondents) Sensing PerceiversSP (25%, 13 respondents) Intuitive FeelersNF (23%, 12 respondents) Intuitive ThinkersNT (17.3%, 9 respondents)

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29 Research Question 1: There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Industry in Which the Respondents Work? Survey respondents were asked, to best describe the industry in which they currently work (See Appendix, survey question 26). Out of the total number of respondents 47 answered the question. Industries collapsed into Media were: graphic arts, internet and new media, media-broadcast, media-print, and telecommunications. Industries collapsed into Other were: arts and entertainment, automotive, beverage, education, food, healthcare, legal services, non-profit and social services, real estate, retail/wholesale, travel and tourism, and other. The responses were collapsed into three groups for analysis (Table 4-3): (1) Advertising Agencies (23.4%), (2) Media (27.7%), (3) Other industries (48.9%). Table 4-3. MBTI Temperaments and Industry SJ SP NF NT Total Industry n % n % n % n % n % Ad Agency 6 33.3 0 0.0 2 20.0 3 33.3 11 23.4 Media 3 16.7 6 60.0 1 10.0 3 33.3 13 27.7 Other 9 50.0 4 40.0 7 70.0 3 33.3 23 48.9 Total 18 100.0 10 100.0 10 100.0 9 100.0 47 100.0 Chi-Square 10.85; df 6; p=.093 The Advertising agency had the majority of respondents 6 (33.3%) being classified as Sensing Judgers (SJ). Media had the majority of 6 (60.0%) respondents being classified as Sensing Perceivers (SP), while there was no Sensing Perceivers (SP) in advertising agencies. Intuitive Feelers (NF) skewed slightly too advertising agencies (20.0%, 2 respondents) over media (10.0%, 1 respondents). While Intuitive Thinkers (NT) with 3 respondents each (33.3%), didnt skew to either advertising agencies or media. Though there were some common factors with theories, the relationship between Industry and MBTI Temperaments was not significant.

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30 Research Question 2: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Respondents Job Titles? Survey respondents were asked, in an open-ended question, What is your current job title? (See Appendix, survey question 27). Out of the total number of respondents 52 answered the question. Respondents were organized into 7 categories by job title (Table 4-4): (1) Account Services (19.2%), (2) Media (15.4%), (3) Creative (21.2%), (4) Research (1.9%), (5) Marketing management (19.2%), (6) Education (5.8%), (7) Other (17.3%). Table 4-4. MBTI Temperaments and Job Titles MBTI Temperaments SJ SP NF NT Total Industry n % n % n % n % n % Account Service 4 22.2 2 15.4 3 25.0 1 11.1 10 19.2 Media 1 5.6 3 23.1 3 25.0 1 11.1 8 15.4 Creative 5 27.8 3 23.1 0 0.0 3 33.3 11 21.2 Research 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 11.1 1 1.9 Marketing Mgmt 2 11.1 3 23.1 3 25.0 2 22.2 10 19.2 Education 2 11.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 11.1 3 5.8 Other 4 22.2 2 15.4 3 25.0 0 0.0 9 17.3 Total 18 100.0 13 100.0 12 100.0 9 100.0 52 100.0 Chi-Square 17.49; df 18; p=.489 Job titles in the creative industry had the majority of 5 respondents (27.8%) being classified as Sensing Judgers (SJ) and the majority of Intuitive Thinkers (NT) with 3 respondents (33.3%). Though, creative had the most Intuitive Thinkers (NT), marketing management was close with 2 respondents (22.2%). Sensing Perceivers (SP) was fairly evenly split with 3 respondents (23.1%) between job titles in media, creative, and marketing management, and 2 respondents (15.4%) for account services. Intuitive Feelers (NF) were also evenly split with 3 respondents (25%) between job titles in account

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31 services, media, and marketing management. The relationship between Job Titles and MBTI Temperaments is not significant (p=.489). Research Question 3: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Respondents Current Duties? Survey respondents were asked, in a mark all that apply question (See Appendix, survey question 28), What are your current duties? Respondents were grouped by examining all duties respondents indicated that they currently had. To place the respondents more accurately job titles of the respondents (See Appendix, survey question 27) and the industry in which they work (See Appendix, survey question 26) were also examined. Duties collapsed into Account Service were: account manager, account planner, brand manager, campaigning, and marketing management. Duties collapsed into Media were: media planning, media buying, media sales and interactive media. Duties collapsed into Creative were: art director, copywriting, creative director, graphic design, and print production. And Duties collapsed into Other were: research, traffic, and other duties. These other factors helped collapse the 18 possible responses of duties, into four groups (Table 4-5): (1) Account (32.7%, 17 respondents), (2) Media (19.2%, 10 respondents), (3) Creative (13.5%, 7 respondents), (4) Other Duties (34.6%, 18 respondents). Current duties in account services had the most respondents for Sensing Judgers (SJ) (8 respondents, 44.4%), Intuitive Feelers (NF) (4 respondents, 33.3%), and Intuitive Thinkers (NT) (4 respondents, 44.4%), they also had the least Sensing Perceivers (SP) (1 respondent, 7.7%). Sensing Perceivers (SP) were evenly split with 3 respondents (23.1%) between duties in media and creative. Creative had the least respondents with 1

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32 (5.6%) Sensing Judgers (SJ) and no Intuitive Feelers (NF). The least respondents in Intuitive Thinkers (NT) were media with 1 (11.1%). The relationship between Temperament and Current Duties is not significant (p=.156). Table 4-5. MBTI Temperaments and Current Duties MBTI Temperaments SJ SP NF NT Total Duties n % n % n % n % n % Account Service 8 44.4 1 7.7 4 33.3 4 44.4 17 32.7 Media 4 22.2 3 23.1 2 16.7 1 11.1 10 19.2 Creative 1 5.6 3 23.1 0 0.0 3 33.3 7 13.5 Other Duties 5 27.8 6 46.2 6 50.0 1 11.1 18 34.6 Total 18 100.0 13 100.0 12 100.0 9 100.0 52 100.0 Chi-Square 13.14; df 9; p=.156 Research Question 4: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Respondents Satisfaction Toward Their Present Job? Respondents were asked, All things considered, how satisfied are you with your present job? (See Appendix, survey question 33.) Over half of respondents 34 (65.4%) are over moderately satisfied with their current job. The average level of satisfaction, as it related to satisfaction with the profession, had a mean of 7.3 with a range of one to ten, and a standard deviation of 2.0. The median was 7.5 and mode was 7.0. Satisfaction with current job has no affect by type (Table 4-6), because over time types will find where they are happy. There is no significant relationship between respondents MBTI Temperaments and satisfaction with their current job (p=.777). Table 4-6. MBTI Temperaments and Satisfaction Means SJ SP NF NT Total Satisfaction 7.3 7.4 7.9 6.6 7.3 n 46; df 3; F .667; p=.577

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33 Research Question 5: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Respondents Commitment to the Advertising Profession? Respondents were asked to evaluate their commitment to the advertising profession on an interval scale where one was the lowest value and 10 was the highest. (See Appendix, survey question 35.) The average level of commitment was 6.1 with a range of one to ten and a standard deviation of 3.2. The median was 7.0 and the mode was one. Commitment to the advertising profession has no affect by type (Table 4-7). The relationship between respondents MBTI Temperaments and Commitment to the advertising profession is not significant (p=.768). Table 4-7. MBTI Temperaments and Commitment Means SJ SP NF NT Total Commitment 5.6 6.5 5.7 6.9 6.1 n 50; df 3; F .380; p=.768

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CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSIONS There were not significant relationships between the factors but the results do support some preferences in results of theories, and consistency with other research. Theory suggests that advertising agencies and account services would skew towards Sensing Judgers (SJ) because they are motivated by duty and responsibility. These respondents are people who are down to earth and decisive. They are hardworking, organized and reliable (Tieger & Barron-Tieger, 2000). Results and theories both show that sensing perceivers (SP) are motivated by action and freedom. Media (graphic arts, internet, and new media) and creative people love to live in the moment and be free to respond to whatever new opportunities may arise. They focus on what they can accomplish here and now, and enjoy moving from one challenge to another (Tieger & Barron-Tieger, 2000). Intuitive Feelers (NF) were spread all over the board with no one group dominating. NFs are motivated by spirit and unity. They enjoy jobs that are personally meaningful, by helping others become fulfilled (Tieger & Barron-Tieger, 2000). Intuitive Thinkers (NT) were found in creative and account services. NTs are motivated by power and knowledge. They are good at seeing the big-picture, enjoy strategizing, and knowledge (Tieger & Barron-Tieger, 2000). Satisfaction and commitment are not affected by type. This deals with the theory that overtime types will find a place they are comfortable and happy. So this sample must have already found that place. 34

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35 Overall, the data was consistent with other research such as, The Australian Advertising Agency, the 1982 CAPT study and personality theories (temperaments). The study done by the Center for Applications of Psychological Type (CAPT), on a Ten Year Follow-Up to The University of Florida Freshman Study (in 1982) shows that MBTI Type and Temperaments are fairly consistent. In the 1982 CAPT study and the above research for 1994-98 there were 52 respondents for both studies. The data showed that both samples had 9 (17.3%) Intuitive Thinkers (NT). The 1994-98 study had 18 (32.6%) Sensing Judgers (SJ) while the 1982 CAPT study had 15 (28.9%) Sensing Judgers (SJ). The 1982 CAPT study had more Intuitive Feelers (NF) with 19 respondents (36.5%), while the 1994-98 study had 12 respondents (23.1%). The 1994-98 study did have more Sensing Perceivers (SP) with 13 (25.0%), while the 1982 CAPT study only had 9 respondents (17.3%). Limitations and Future Research This study has several limitations, which may account for the lack of significant results required to support the research questions. Future research should address the limitations of this study. The nature of the sample used for this study mainly limited the research findings. The small sample size (52) should not be generalized to the general population. The majority of the respondents were women (78.8%) while only 21.1% were men. The majority were also classified as Sensing Judgers (SJ). This is due to the fact studies have shown that women and Sensing Judgers (SJ) are more likely to fill out and return a mailed questionnaire. Sensing Judgers (SJ) are very organized and responsible people causing a biased. The majority of the women responding were White, not Hispanic

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36 (80.8%) which shows there was not a lot of diversity in the advertising department at the large Southeastern University. The small sample size is why the above things are a problem. A larger sample size would allow researchers to see if there is significance in larger samples. It might also be able to avoid the above biases found in small sample sizes. A larger sample could examine more areas of personality types such as MBTI type, Temperament, or Dominance type. A larger sample size could also examine specific groups in the advertising industry such as art directors and media planners. The research was taken from a secondary analysis and respondents MBTI Types were taken while they were still in school at the university, and matched to their survey data. These circumstances may also skew the results and lead to flawed conclusions. The secondary analysis was an informational gathering survey not a research survey. Because it was not created for research purposes the questions did not probe for deeper answers. Probing questions should focus on current personality type habits, and more about the advertising profession. A future research study would allow researchers to probe for more pertinent information, such as current personality tendencies, and details about their careers in the advertising industry. It would show the progress of jobs to see if there were any correlations between job progression and personality type. Future research might also include a random sample of individuals in other professions, to see different proportions. Time was also a limitation. If this could be tested over a period of time it would allow researchers to see if type has more of an affect on profession later in their careers. Future Research with a larger sample size and a research based questionnaire would

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37 allow respondents to be tested over a period of time. This would track types as they become satisfied and committed to jobs, and their satisfaction compared to temperaments compared to jobs. Some important questions to keep in mind when researching the advertising industry and personality types include: How is the advertising industry defined? How are subheads such as media and creative classified and defined? How personality type is classified (MBTI type, Temperament, or Dominance)? Is one type classification more affective than the others? By answering these questions, future research will be more useful to those interested in the concept of personality as it relates to the advertising industry.

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APPENDIX A INFORMED CONSENT FORM AND QUESTIONAIRE

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Survey of Advertising Graduates Informed Consent Please read this consent document carefully before you decide to participate in this study. This study is being conducted by Dr. John Sutherland, professor and chair of the Department o f A dvertising at the University of Florida. Purpose of the research study: The purpose of this study is to develop a profile of the professional history and accomplishments of advertising graduates. What you will be asked to do in the study: To participate, you may complete the attached questionnaire. Time required: 10 15 minutes Risks and Benefits: There are no risks. Participants will be able to receive a summary report of the results. Compensation: No compensation will be provided for your participation. Confidentiality: Your responses will remain anonymous. Voluntary participation: Participation is strictly voluntary, and you will not have to answer any question you do not wish to answer. There is no penalty for not participating. Right to withdraw from the study: You have the right to withdraw from the study at anytime without consequence. Whom to contact if you have questions about the study: John Sutherland, Professor and Chair Department of Advertising College of Journalism and Communications University of Florida PO Box 118400 Gainesville, FL 32611-8400 j sutherland@jou.ufl.edu Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: UFIRB Office Box 112250 University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611-2250 (352) 392-0433 Date Signature 39

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40 Please fill in or mark your best answers. 1. When did you graduate from UF? Fall Spring Summer 7. What was your grade point average for advertising courses? 4.0 3.5 3.49 3.0 2.99 2.5 2.49 2.0 8. What was your grade point average overall? 4.0 3.5 3.49 -3.0 2.99 -2.5 2.49 -2.0 1a. What year? 2. Which of the following best describes your academic program? Started and completed my undergraduate program at UF Transferred to UF from a community college in Florida Transferred to UF from a community college outside of Florida Transferred to UF from a 4-year institution in Florida Transferred to UF from a 4-year institution outside of Florida 3. Which of the following best describes you? I knew the specific advertising area in which I wanted to focus and I stayed within that area. I developed my career interests while I was an advertising major I had an interest in advertising when I entered the advertising program, but after taking courses in advertising I decided that it was not the career choice for me. I never intended to pursue a career related to advertising I had a different career interest when I entered UF, but after taking advertising courses I decided that advertising was the career choice for me. 9. Did you graduate with honors? Yes, Honors Yes, High or Highest Honors No 10. Did you complete an internship? Yes. (Continue to 10a.) No. (Skip to question 11.) 10a. Did you intern in Gainesville? Yes No 10b. Where did you intern? Newspaper Radio station Television station Advertising agency Magazine Subscription newsletter Other: 4. In which of the following advertising areas were you most interested while you were in college? (Mark all that apply.) Account coordinator Newspaper sales Account management Outdoor sales Account planner Political campaigning Advertising manager Print production Art director Product/brand manager Broadcast production Promotion/lMC manager Copywriter Promotional productsEvent planning specialty advertising Graphic designer Public relations Internet sales Radio sales Magazine sales Research/consulting Manufacturer's company representative/sales Sales promotion Marketing manager Television/cable sales Media buyer Traffic Media planner Other: Media sales in general 10c. Did you receive academic credit? Yes No 10d. Did you get paid for your internship(s)? Yes No 10e. Did your internship lead to employment with the organization that offered the internship? Yes No 10f. Did your internship enhance your intent to pursue advertising as a career? Yes No 11. During your last year in school, how many hours per week (if any) were you working in a pa ying job? None 1 5 hours 6 10 hours 11 15 hours 16 20 hours 20 + hours 12. What metropolitan area, city or town, did you consider your hometown while you were a student at UF? 5. What was your minor or area of outside concentration? 6. Which did you complete? Foreign language requirement, or Quantitative option, or Neither applied to my program City/Town State Zip Code

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41 13. While you were an advertising major at UF, which of the following were you involved with? (Mark all that apply) Independent Florida Alligator Orange and Blue Magazine Ad Society Member Ad Society Leader Entered a student ADDY competition and placed Entered a student ADDY competition, but did not place Entered the One Show competition and placed Entered the One Show competition, but did not place Served on AAF National Student Advertising Competition Team Served on DMA ECHO Student Competition Team Served on IAA Interad Competition Team None 14. On a scale of 1 -10, with 1 being not completely prepared and 10 being completely prepared, how well would you say the advertising program prepared you? 21. In the time since you graduated, have y ou ever worked for at least a year in any of the following categories? (Mark all that apply AND place a 1 next to the category where you had your first job.) Advertising agency Aerospace and Defense Agriculture Architecture Arts and Entertainment Automotive Aviation and Airlines Banking/Financial Services Beverage Biotechnology Construction Consulting Services Education Energy and Utilities Engineering Environment Fire, Law Enforcement, and Security Fishing Food Forestry Government-Federal Government-Local Government-State Graphic Arts Healthcare Hotel, Gaming, and Leisure Insurance Internet and New Media Legal Services Library Services Media-Broadcast Media-Print Media-Outdoor Military Mining Non-Profit and Social Services Personal Care and Service Pharmaceuticals Public Relations Real Estate Restaurant and Food Services Retail/Wholesale Science and Research Sports and Recreation Tobacco Telecommunications Transportation and Warehousing Travel and Tourism Other: 16. What advertising course(s) would you say has been most helpful to your career development? 17. What advertising course(s) would you say has been least helpful to your career development? 18. At this point in your career, what advertising professo r would you say had the most influence... 1. On you personally as an advertising student 2. On your career development 22. Counting only the time you actively sought a position, how many months would you say it took you to get your first job after graduation? 0 2 9 -11 3 5 12 + 6 8 23. Did you use a placement service or university resource to find post-graduation work? (Mark all that apply) Yes, College of Journalism Advertising Department Office Yes, general university resource Yes, general placement agency Yes, general online resource No 15. What would you recommend to improve our program? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 19. After graduation, what did you do? Went to graduate school Went to the military Continued a job I held while in school Accepted a position held open for me while I was in school Accepted a position I found after graduation Did not go to work immediately Other 20. At the time of your graduation, how many job offers or solid job opportunities were available to you? (Specify number)

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42 24. Are you currently employed or self-employed? Yes, full-time Yes, part-time Yes, both full-time and part-time No, I am enrolled in school (go to 34) No, I am unemployed but looking for work (go to 34) No, I am unemployed and not looking for work (go to 34) Other (please specify) 25. When did you start to work at your current job? 30. What is your current income before taxes from your employer? $0 24,999 $125,000 149,999 $25,000 49,999 $150,000 174,999 $50,000 74,999 $175,000 199,999 $75,000 99,999 $200,000 224,999 $100,000 124,999 $225,000 + 26. Which of the following best describes the industry in which you currently work? Retired Advertising agency Aerospace and Defense Agriculture Architecture Arts and Entertainment Automotive Aviation and Airlines Banking/Financial Services Beverage Biotechnology Construction Consulting Services Education Energy and Utilities Engineering Environment Fire, Law Enforcement, and Security Fishing Food Forestry Government-Federal Government-Local Government-State Graphic Arts Healthcare (month) (year) 31. Please approximate the total number of people employed in the company for which you work and/or in your own company. (please make your best estimate) 28. What are your current duties? Art direction Interactive media Account management Marketing management Account planner Media buying Brand management Media planning Broadcast production Media sales Campaigning Print production Copywriting Research Creative director Traffic management Graphic design Other 39. Are you an American citizen? Yes No Thank you for your participation. Please use the envelope provided to return this questionnaire by April 15, 2003. 37. What is your gender? Male Female 38. Please mark your ethnic background: American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut Asian or Pacific Islander Black, not Hispanic Hispanic, of any race White, not Hispanic Other Hotel, Gaming, and Leisure Insurance Internet and New Media Legal Services Library Services Media-Broadcast Media-Print Media-Outdoor Military Mining Non-Profit and Social Services Personal Care and Service Pharmaceuticals Public Relations Real Estate Restaurant and Food Services Retail/Wholesale Science and Research Sports and Recreation Tobacco Telecommunications Transportation and Warehousing Travel and Tourism Other 32. In what metropolitan area, city or town, do you currentl y work? City/Town State Zip Code 33. On a scale of 1 -10, 1 being not very satisfied and 10 being very satisfied, all things considered (that is, thinking of the work, the opportunity for advancement, the salary, etc.), how satisfied are you with your present job? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 34. How many different employers, including your current employer, have you worked for since you graduated? (Please specify number. If you have ever been self-employed, please write a 1 next to "Self-employed".) Self-employed # of employers 35. On a scale of 1 10, 1 being not very committed and 10 being very committed, how committed do you feel to your advertising profession? 26. Do you think of the work you do as a "job" or do you think of it as a "career"? Job Career Don't know 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 36. Do you wish now that you had prepared for a major othe r than in advertising? Yes No 27. What is your current job title?

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LIST OF REFERENCES The Advertising Association. Getting into Adverting. (n.d.). http://www.adassoc.org.uk/gial/firstjob.html Retrieved October 18, 2004. Advertising Educational Foundation. (n.d.). http://www.aef.com/start.asp Retrieved October 18, 2004. Australian Government, Department of Education, Science and Training. The Job Guide. (2004). http://jobguide.dest.gov.au Retrieved October 18, 2004. Avery, J. (2000). Advertising Campaign Planning (3rd ed.). Chicago, IL: The Copy Workshop. Barrick, M. R., & Mount, M. K. (1991). The Big Five Personality Dimensions and Job Performance: A Meta-Analysis. Personnel Psychology, 44, 1-26. Bishop-Clark, C., & Wheeler, D. D. (1994). The Myers-Briggs Personality Type and its Relationship to Computer Programming. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 26, 358-370. BSM Consulting. High-Level Description of the Sixteen Personality Types. (1998). http://www.personalitypage.com/high-level.html Retrieved April 14, 2004. Carlson, J. G. (1989). Affirmative: In Support of Researching the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Journal of Counseling and Development, 67, 484-486. Carr, P. G., Garza, J. M., & Vorster, M. C. (2002). Relationship between Personality Traits and Performance for Engineering and Architectural Professionals Providing Deign Services. Journal of Management in Engineering, 18, 158-166. Dash, E. F., & Logan, G. (1990). Myers-Briggs Types Indicator DebatePro or Con? Journal of Counseling & Development, 68, 344. Edwards, J. A., Lanning, K., & Hooker, K. (2002). The MBTI and Social Information Processing: An Incremental Validity Study. Journal of Personality Assessment, 78, 432-450. Harrington, R., & Loffredo, D. A. (2001). The Relationship Between Life Satisfaction, Self-Consciousness, and the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory Dimensions. The Journal of Psychology, 135, 439-450. 43

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44 Harvey, R. J., Murry, W. D., & Markham, S. E. (1995). A 'Big Five' Scoring System for the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Unpublished Manuscript, Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University and State University of New York at Binghamton. Healy, C. C., & Woodward, G. A. (1998). The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Career Obstacles. Measurement & Evaluation in Counseling & Development, 32, 74-88. Johnson, D. A. (1992). Test-retest reliabilities of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Type Differentiation Indicator over a 30-month Period. Journal of Psychological Type, 24, 349-354. Keirsey, D., & Bates, M. (1978). Please Understand Me. Del Mar, California: Prometheus Nemesis. Macdaid, G. P. (1982). The University of Florida Freshman Study: Ten Year Follow-up., Southeast Region Conference of the Association for Psychological Type, Orlando, FL. (unpublished paper). Macdaid, G. P., McCaulley, M. H., & Kainz, R. I. (1986). Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Atlas of Type Tables. Gainesville, FL: Center for Applications of Psychological Type, Inc. McBride, M. H., Cline, C. G., & Miller, R. E. (1987). Toward a Theory of Psychological Type Congruence for Advertisers. Advertising Division AEJMC Convention, Austin, TX. Myers, I. B., & McCaulley, M. H. (1987). A Guide to the Development and Use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (3rd ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc. Myers, I. B., & Myers, P. B. (1980). Gifts Differing. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc. Ones, D. S., Mount, M. K., Barrick, M. R., & Hunter, J. E. (1994). Personality and Job Performance: A critique of the Tett, Jackson, and Rothstein Meta-Analysis. Personnel Psychology, 47, 147-156. Personality, Encyclopedia Britannica. (n.d.). http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=9108533 Retrieved September 27, 2004. Pittenger, D. J. (1992). Measuring the MBTI... And Coming Up Short. Journal of Career Planning & Placement, 1-7. Reinhold, R. The Faces of Personality Type Development. (n.d.). http://www.personalitypathways.com/faces.html Retrieved April 16, 2004.

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45 Richards, J. I., & Curran, C. M. (2002). Oracles on 'Advertising': Searching for a Definition. Journal of Advertising, 31, 63-77. Strachan, J. (1999). What Types Do You Find in Advertising Agencies? Australian Psychological Type Review, 1, 33-40. Thorne, A. (1995). Juxtaposed Scripts, Traits, and the Dynamics of Personality. Journal of Personality, 63, 593-616. Tieger, P. D., & Barron-Tieger, B. (1995). Do What you are Discover the Perfect Career for you Through the Secrets of Personality Type (2nd ed.). Boston, New York, Toronto, London: Little, Brown and Company. Tieger, P. D., & Barron-Tieger, B. (2000). Just Your Type Create the Relationship You've Always Wanted Using the Secret of Personality Type. Boston, New York, and London: Little, Brown & Company. Trippe, D. M., & Harvey, R. J. (2003). Item Response Theory Analysis of the IPIP Big-Five Scales. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1-21. Wood, M. (2002). The study of the Interaction of Personality Types and Group Dynamics within the 2000-2002 Texas Christian University National Student Advertising Competition Campaigns Teams Utilizing the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Doctoral dissertation, Texas Wesleyan College, 2002). Dissertation Abstracts, 1-162.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Alaina M. Rodriguez was born and raised in Orlando, Florida. As a child she was very creative with a large imagination. These traits would help determine her career path as she grew older. In 1999 she moved to Elon, North Carolina, to pursue her bachelors degree at Elon University near Greensboro. In May 2003 she received her Bachelor of Arts degree in corporate communications. A few months later, in August, she began the pursuit of a Master of Advertising degree in from the University of Florida. Upon completion of her graduate degree for University of Florida in December 2004, Alaina plans to move to Atlanta, Georgia, to explore the realm of corporate advertising. 46


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MBTI TEMPERAMENTS: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MBTI
TEMPERAMENTS AND ADVERTISING CAREERS













By

ALAINA M. RODRIGUEZ


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ADVERTISING

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2005

































Copyright 2005

by

Alaina M. Rodriguez


































This document is dedicated to the Lord God Almighty. My faith in him gave me the
strength to accomplish this. "Be strong and courageous, and do the work. Do not be
afraid or discouraged, for the Lord God, my God is with you. He will not fail or forsake
you." -1 Chronicles 28:20















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to give special thanks to Dr. John Sutherland for being an excellent

mentor, professor, advisor, and thesis committee chair. I appreciate all the time and

knowledge he put into helping me with my thesis, and challenging me to learn more. I

also want to thank my thesis committee members, Dr. Jorge Villegas and Dr. Marilyn

Roberts, for their insights, patience and support.

In addition, I would like to thank those people at the University of Florida and the

Center for Applications of Psychological Type (CAPT) who have helped throughout the

process. I thank Cher Phillips, Dr. Mickey Schafer, Dr. Robin Lauriault, Jody Hedge, Jim

Albury, Patrick Reakes, and Jamie Johnson (CAPT).

I thank my family and friends, who have always supported my goals. I also thank

my classmates Jennifer Huckeba and Julia Thomas, who became my good friends and

confidants. I thank my best friends Donna Irons and Joel Bidderman for their

encouragement and confidence in me. I thank my grandparents for giving me advice and

listening to me.

Most importantly, I thank my parents, for supporting, challenging and encouraging

me. And for instilling their values in me, especially those of a strong work ethic,

determination, and achievement.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

LIST OF TA BLE S ....................................................... .. ........... ............ .. vii

A B STR A C T ..................... ................................... ........... ... .............. viii

CHAPTER

1 IN TRODU CTION ................................................. ...... .................

2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE ......................................................... .............. 3

B ack g rou n d .................................................................................................. .3
Personality ............................................ ......... 3
M yers-B riggs Type Indicator ...................................................... ..... .......... 5
M BTI- Debate/Controversy/ Discussion............... ..............................................8
T em peram ents ............. ..... .... ......... ......... ................ .............. 11
A advertising Careers ......................... ........................ ..... .... 12
A c c o u n t S erv ic e ............................................................................................. 13
C reativ e D ep artm ent............................................. ......................................... 13
M edia .....................................................................................................13
Production and Studio ....................... .................... .. .. ...... .......... 13
R research ................................................................... 14
C om prison Studies ....... ....................................... ...... ........ .... .... ..... .. ........ .... 15
The Myers-Briggs Personality Type and its Relationship to Computer
P rog ram m in g ...................... ...... ..... .. ...... ..... ................................15
Relationships of Personality Traits in the Engineering and Architectural
Professions ................. ........ ................ ......... 17
A ustralian A advertising A agency ........................................ ....................... 20
T h e G ap ..............................................................................2 3

3 M E T H O D O L O G Y ............................................................................ ................... 24

R e se arch D e sig n ................................................................................................... 2 4
Subject Selection ................................................................24

4 FINDINGS ......... ......... ................................26



v









C characteristics of R espondents........................... .............. .... .....................26
Research Question 1: There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the
Industry in W which the Respondents W ork? ................................. ............. ......29
Research Question 2: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and
the R respondents Job Titles? ............................................. ................ .......30
Research Question 3: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and
the R respondents Current D uties? ...................................................... ..................31
Research Question 4: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and
the Respondents Satisfaction Toward Their Present Job? ...................................32
Research Question 5: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and
the Respondents Commitment to the Advertising Profession?.............................33

5 CON CLU SION S ........................................ ... ......... .. .............34

APPENDIX INFORMED CONSENT FORM AND QUESTIONAIRE................ 38

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S ........................................................................ .....................43

BIO GRAPH ICAL SK ETCH ................................................. ................................ 46
















LIST OF TABLES

Table pge

2-1 M B TI D descriptions of Types....................... ........ ........................ ............... 7

2-2 Tem peram ents .......................... ...................... ... ............. ........ 12

4-1 All Survey Respondents Compared to the MBTI sample.......................................26

4-2 94-98 MBTI Types Compared to the 1982 MBTI Types .....................................28

4-3 M BTI Tem peram ents and Industry .................................. ..................................... 29

4-4 M BTI Temperam ents and Job Titles.................................. ......................... 30

4-5 MBTI Temperaments and Current Duties..................................... ...............32

4-6 M B TI Tem peram ents and Satisfaction ........................................ .....................32

4-7 MBTI Temperaments and Commitment ...................................... ............... 33















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising

MBTI TEMPERAMENTS: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MBTI
TEMPERAMENTS AND ADVERTISING CAREERS

By

Alaina M. Rodriguez

May 2005

Chair: John Sutherland
Major Department: Journalism and Communications

Studies have revealed that the Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicator (MBTI) is

a roadmap for individuals to use in determining what profession orjob their preferred

personality best fits. One area that has been neglected in personality research is the

advertising profession. This study explores whether there is a relationship between

personality types and the advertising profession.

Using a survey given to alumni, conducted in 2003 by a large Southeastern

University, five factors were analyzed: (1) the industry in which they work, (2) their

current job titles, (3) their current duties, (4) satisfaction toward their present job, and (5)

commitment toward the advertising profession. These variables were then analyzed to

determine which had the largest contribution to the respondents' MBTI temperaments.

Although there was no significance found among the variables, results proved to be

consistent with theories and other research studies.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Research has revealed that the Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicator (MBTI) is

a roadmap for individuals to use in determining what profession orjob their preferred

personality best fits (Wood, 2002). A study done by Robert Harvey, William Murry, and

Steven Markham showed that in 1991 an estimated 2 million workers had completed the

MBTI. This proved that it is a widely used personality assessment, helping workers

identify suitable occupations for exploration (Harvey, Murry, & Markham, 1995; Healy,

& Woodward, 1998).

One area that has been neglected in personality research is the advertising

profession. Only one study was found on MBTI types working in advertising agencies.

The study was conducted with a 30-member Australian agency which focused on the

relationship of psychological types to the different jobs within an agency-style structure.

Research explaining if a correlation exists between personality type and the advertising

profession is still unavailable.

A secondary research analysis is presented that attempts to determine answers to

the following five questions:

1. Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Industry in Which
the Respondents Work?

2. Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Respondents Job
Titles?

3. Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Respondents Current
Duties?









4. Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Respondents
Satisfaction Toward Their Present Job?

5. Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Respondents
Commitment to the Advertising Profession?

Respondents MBTI Temperaments will be compared to the five variables to determine if

a significant relationship existed.

Answers to these questions may provide evidence showing that type has an effect

on the careers people choose in the advertising profession. Results may also be helpful to

those considering jobs in the advertising field to see if their preferred type skews toward

a certain career.














CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Background

Personality

Personality encompasses all aspects of our lives. It gives us character and makes us

different from all other species. Personality consists of the characteristics (behavioral and

emotional) individuals have that distinguishes them from a group. Defined in the

framework of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) explains "how people interact with

the world, are energized, notice the world around them, make decisions, and organize

their lives" (Tieger & Barron-Tieger, 10). Though no one definition of personality has

been universally accepted within the field of psychology, personality has been separated

into two main categories. The first focuses on the consistent differences that exist

between people. This Category of personality focuses on categorizing the stable

characteristics of human nature, to find the ones that cause the most differences. The

second focuses on the qualities that make all people alike, but separates us from other

species. This category looks mainly for factors that influence the course of our lives, and

help define man by our likeness. The duality of the personality definition explains the

two directions taken in personality studies: one showing how we are alike and trying to

organize those traits, and the other trying to find how our differences relate to each other

and other living things (Personality, n.d.).

Personality has been placed into many different frameworks to make research and

organization of knowledge easier. One of the main frameworks which continues to grow









in acceptance is the "Big Five" Taxonomy. The "Big Five" or the Five Factor Model

(FFM) summarizes validities within predictor constructs, allowing knowledge to be

cumulated into meaningful ways. The evolution of the FFM started when Borgatta was

credited with obtaining five stable factors across five methods of gathering data, then

again when Norman labeled the factors. The labels for the "Big Five" are: Extraversion,

Emotional Stability, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Culture. This model has

continued to evolve in the views of many personality psychologists (Barrick & Mount,

1991).

The first dimension is called Extraversion. The traits most often associated with

this level include gregarious, talkative, active, assertive, and being sociable. This level

consists of two components ambition and sociability. The second dimension called

Emotional Stability is associated with anxiousness, depression, anger, worry, and

insecurities. The third dimension Agreeableness or likeability has traits such as

courteous, flexible, trusting, good-natured, cooperative, and tolerant. The fourth

dimension most commonly called Conscientiousness or Conscience is a reflection of

dependability. It incorporates other variables like hardworking, persevering, organized,

and responsible. The fifth dimension which has been the most difficult to define is

Intellect which includes imaginative, original, cultured, artistically sensitive, and

intelligence (Barrick & Mount, 1991).

The FFM is important in the study of personality psychology by providing a

framework of five independent dimensions which help explain individual differences. It

has shown to be a positive predictor of relationships between personality constructs and

job-related criteria. The FFM is currently a dominant taxonomy in personality research









(Ones, Mount, Barrick, & Hunter, 1994; Barrick & Mount, 1991; Trippe & Harvey,

2003).

Another measurement of personality traits is the Myers-Briggs Personality Type

Indicator (MBTI). This instrument of personality was developed from the Jungian

Typology Theory. The Jungian typology theory states that people have different

fundamental preferences and similar internal instincts. The MBTI was developed from

Jung's ideas while the FFM was developed over a large period of time, with extensive

research. Though the studies have different origins some authors have noted that strong

similarity exists (Harvey, Murry, & Markham, 1995). A main similarity is between the

four MBTI's scales (discussed in the next section) and four of the 'Big Five' dimensions.

One difference is that the MBTI is used primarily for personality assessment while

the FFM is used to explain personality differences. According to some perspectives the

MBTI is the most widely used personality assessment in corporate America. It has been

used to test job performance, career paths, employee turnover, organizational

development and much more. A study done by Harvey, Murry, and Markham showed

that in 1991 an estimated 2 million workers had completed the MBTI to help identify

suitable occupations for exploration (Harvey, Murry, & Markham, 1995; Healy &

Woodward, 1998).

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

The Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung's book Psychological Types describes the

systematic ways in which people differ. He created four categories: sensing, intuitive,

thinking, and feeling, that all conscience mental activities could be placed in. With this he

created a model to show different ways people perceive information and make judgments

(Bishop-Clark & Wheeler, 1994).









Jung's type theory has been the basis for many instruments; the most popular is the

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) (Edwards, Lanning, & Hooker, 2002). The Myers-

Briggs Type Indicator was created in the 1950's by a mother daughter team, Katherine

Cook Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers, to expand Jung's theory and to relate it to

everyday life. "The MBTI is currently the most widely used inventory of psychological

types in the world" (Bishop-Clark & Wheeler, 360).

The MBTI is made up of four bipolar scales that measure Extraversion and

Introversion (E & I), Sensing and Intuition (S & N), Thinking and Feeling (T & F), and

Judging and Perceiving (S & P).

Extraversion and introversion (E & I). These terms describe a person's outward or

inward focus to their environment. E's are enthusiastic, enjoy the spotlight, engaged in

interaction, but can talk to much, could be unprepared, and are impatient. I's are

prepared, good at presenting ideas and concepts, but don't like surprises, interruptions,

and can appear aloof.

Sensing and intuition (S & N). These terms describe where people gather

information. S's tend to focus on the present, they know their facts, and are good

listeners, but they can be to detailed, and do not like 'what if questions. N's like

discussing new ideas and trends for the future, and like concepts and relationships but fly

by the seat of their pants, and are unconscious of audience reactions.

Thinking and feeling (T & F). These terms describe the system people use to make

decisions. T's are very logical and concise but they are also critical and insensitive. F's

are personable and friendly but can be overly sensitive and avoid negative circumstances.










Judging and perceiving (J & P). These terms describe the type of life people lead.

J's tend to plan and organize every aspect of their life's, they are structured and orderly,

but can be resistant to change. P's are spontaneous and flexible with their lives but can be

disorganized and late (Healy & Woodward, 1998; Harrington & Loffredo, 2001; Bishop-

Clark & Wheeler, 1994).

These four bipolar scales combine into 16 different personality types faces. Type

faces explain the dominate process that overshadows the other process (Myers & Myers

1980). "There is a unique combination associated with each type. Each of the 16 types

have two primary type faces (derived from the fact that each of us responds to both E and

I energy sources): a more public outer-energized face and a more private inner-energized

one" (Reinhold, n.d.). This explains why people can have two different personalities

based on different situations. The 16 type combinations classify people based on their

preference. The descriptions are listed in Table 2-1.

Table 2-1. MBTI Descriptions of Types
MRTI TYPE LABEL DESCRIPTION

ISTJ Introverted Sensing Thinking Well prepared, good at presenting ideas and concepts
Judging and very thorough.

ISTP Introverted Sensing Thinking Good mechanical skills with an interest in how things
Perceiving work.

ISFJ Introverted Sensing Feeling Dependable and practical while valuing security and
Judging traditions.

ISFP Introverted Sensing Feeling Flexible and faithful but avoid conflict.
Perceiving

Introverted Intuitive Feeling
INFJ Inroverted Intuitive Feeling Strong value systems and original style.
Judging

INFP Introverted Intuitive Feeling Secluded and reserved with the ability to see the larger
Perceiving picture.

Introverted Intuitive Thinking Analytical and determined to turn theories and visions
Judging into firm plans of action.










Table 2-1. Continued
MRTI TYPE LABEL DESCRIPTION

INTP Introverted Intuitive Thinking Logical, original, and creative thinkers that become
Perceiving excited about knowledge and ideas.

ESTP Extraverted Sensing Thinking Focused on results they are friendly and action-oriented.
Perceiving

ESTJ Extraverted Sensing Thinking Value security and peaceful living with clear
Judging understandings of the way things should be.

ESFP Extraverted Sensing Feeling Practical and common sense driven they are usually the
Perceiving center of attention.

ESFJ Extraverted Sensing Feeling Warm-hearted they put others needs in front of their
Judging own.

ENFP Extraverted Intuitive Feeling Creative and enthusiastic with good people skills while
Perceiving living in harmony with their inner values.

ENFJ Extraverted Intuitive Feeling Great people skills especially at managing group
Judging discussions and issues.

ExtravertedIntuitive Thinking Creative and resourceful in applying logic to find
Perceiving solutions and understanding concepts.

Extraverted Intuitive Thinking
ENTJ Exravertedntuitive Thinking Organized and outspoken they are motivated to success.
Judging
(High-Level Description of the Sixteen Personality Types, 1998).

MBTI- Debate/Controversy/ Discussion

The MBTI has had mixed reviews despite its widespread use. One of the main

critiques is based on the reliability and validity of the MBTI (Healy & Woodward, 1998).

Reliability refers to the consistency of responses to a questionnaire. To maintain a high

reliability, test-retests need to be done to examine the assessment over long periods of

time. A few studies have found that when the test-retest interval is short (a few weeks)

almost 50% of the people will be classified into a different type, after the retest. Research

for long test-retest intervals could not be found leading us to believe, that this line of

research has not been completed or found to be significant (Pittenger, 1992; Johnson,

1992).









Validity refers to a judgment that indicated how well a question measures what it is

suppose to measure. The validity of the assessment has been tested numerous times, with

conflicting results. Some tests show there is no convergent validity while others proved it

very high. One of the main problems with testing validity is the tendency to emphasize

one scale in the research, instead of looking at all four (Carlson, 1989). Consequently

this creates conflicting results.

A factor analysis was conducted to find out the validity of the MBTI testing. A

factor analysis is a statistical procedure that tests the correlations among the questions in

the test. If the MBTI theory is correct and valid the following should be true.

1. The results should show four clusters.
2. Each factor should be independent of the other factors.
3. The factors should account for the majority of differences among individuals.

The results were not convincing with little to no significance. These results were

inconsistent with the MBTI theory, showing more than four clusters, and no clear

distinctions for the majority of differences among individuals (Pittenger, 1992).

Another debate is on gender and the relationship between the MBTI Type and

occupation. A few critics feel that the assessment is biased toward gender dominated

professions. Looking at management and nursing as examples they are both gender

dominated professions. In comparing the two it would appear that there are different

pattern types, which would be spread out evenly. This concludes that certain personality

types are more likely to be nurses while others become managers. The problem is that

both examples are gender dominated. Nursing is dominated by women and management

is dominated by males, causing the MBTI types to be skewed. If the MBTI were correct









then the proportion of types within the occupations would correspond to a random sample

of the population (Pittenger, 1992).

The statistical structure has also been questioned, if there are four bipolar scales

then the tests results should show eight difference curves. Each bipolar scale measuring

Extraversion and Introversion (E & I), Sensing and Intuition (S & N), Thinking and

Feeling (T & F), and Judging and Perceiving (S & P) should result in eight normal bell

shaped curves, with little to no overlap (Pittenger, 1992). What is found is that most

people score between the extremes, causing four (one for each pair) different curves.

Resulting in individual's tests being similar even if one scored as an E and the other as an

I. Scoring is based on a middle bar (or cutoff points) where individuals fall on either side.

"The differences between the two-letter categories are not as sharp and clear cut as it

would appear, because the MBTI uses an absolute classification scheme for people, it is

possible for people with relatively similar scores to be labeled with much different

personalities" (Pittenger, 4). Some critic's feel that the MBTI is an absolute personality

indicator, which tries to fit all of humanity into 16 boxes of exact personality types. By

placing people into one of sixteen types it reduces the individuality of each person's

qualities or potential (Pittenger, 1992).

Even though the MBTI has been criticized the majority of reviews and researchers

have concluded that the MBTI is a valid and reliable assessment (Bishop-Clark &

Wheeler, 1994). The relationship between the MBTI Type and occupation has been

tested more than any other factor. "Many people have examined the relation between type

and occupation by examining the proportions of type within each profession" (Pittenger,

5). A problem with this is that some researches state that a certain type is dominate in a









certain occupation, what they do not do is find the correlation of that type to the general

population. If there is no difference between occupation and general population there is

no significance in the results. Because of this, some researchers believe there is not a

positive correlation between MBTI type and success in an occupation (Pittenger, 1992;

Dash & Logan, 1990).

What needs to be remembered about typing is that the MBTI is not an absolute

classification but preference indicator with everyone encompassing traits of both, but

preferring one side over the other. Peoples traits can change based on the situation again

explaining why we sometimes see people with two personalities.

The MBTI does not lock people into a certain type instead it shows individuals

their preferred type or face. A Type Face is the face an individual uses the majority of the

time, it is the preferred scale. "While our Myers-Briggs Type is a lifelong constant, the

Type Faces are the building blocks of a maturing and developing personality" (Reinhold,

n.d.). Today, the MBTI is one of the most widely accepted and researched assessment of

cognitive style and personality, and at predicting positive 'fits' for a career. Studies show

that in 1991 an estimated 2 million people had completed the MBTI (Healy &

Woodward, 1998; Bishop-Clark & Wheeler, 1994; Edwards, Lanning, & Hooker, 2002;

Harvey, Murry, & Markham, 1995).

Temperaments

Another way to look at personality types is through temperaments or type

functions. The middle two letters of a persons personality type is referred to as the type

function. "Some people who have studied and used Type for many years consider the

function approach best because this combination identifies the way a person prefers to

perceive (through either Sensing or Intuition) with they way he or she likes to judge









(through either Thinking or Feeling) in other words, what the person naturally notices

about the world and how he or she usually makes decisions" (Tieger & Barron-Tieger,

25).

Keirsey and Bates discovered that the four temperaments, which have been

described throughout history with the Greek philosophers, the Middle Ages and

Paracelsus, in American Indian medicine, and in Hindu wisdom (Keirsy & Bates, 1978).

Temperaments refer to the preferred function or nature that operates together to effect

behavior. The temperaments have four categories in which all people seem to fit. The 16

MBTI types fall into one of the temperaments allowing data to be collapsed (Tieger &

Barron-Tieger, 2000; McBride, Cline, & Miller, 1987). Descriptions of the

temperaments and the percent of the population that falls into each temperament can be

seen in Table 2-2.

Table 2-2. Temperaments
% OF POP NAME MRTI LABEL DESCRIPTION
A 38 Traditionalists SJ Sensing Motivated by duty and
Judgers responsibility

ox 3 enc S Sensing Motivated by action and
Approx 38% Experiencers SP Perceivers freedom
Perceivers freedom

Intuitive Motivated by spirit and
Approx 12% Idealists NF
Feelers unity

S.Intuitive Motivated by power and
Approx 12% Conceptualizes NT
Thinkers knowledge
(McBride, Cline, & Miller, 1987; Tieger & Barron-Tieger, 2000).

Advertising Careers

"Advertising is a paid, mediated form of communication form an identifiable

source, designed to persuade the reliever to take some action, now or in the future"

(Richards & Curran, 74). By being paid it makes Advertising different from Public









Relations. Mediated refers to the mass medium from a person such as a commercial or

radio ad. Identifiable makes the advertisements capable of being known. Advertising

persuades change of mind, attitude, and action. And last it creates an action by

identifying brands, recognizing, or having an attitude toward the brand.

Most advertising careers are organized into five distinct functions of account

service, creative department, media, production and studio, and research.

Account Service

The liaisons between the clients (the actual advertisers) and the agencies. Account

service people work with the clients to develop advertising strategies and plans. They do

not create the advertisements, but are responsible for informing the rest of the agency

what to do.

Creative Department

Develops the concepts or for the client's ads. Copywriters are responsible for the

words and art directors take care of the pictures portion.

Media

Media people buy advertising space from television stations, newspapers, and

magazines. They also make sure the ads are run during the correct spots, where they will

influence the largest target market.

Production and Studio

Transforms the ideas from the creative department into actual ads. They produce

the computer graphics and digital files, and are responsible for getting the ads printed or

to the media people.









Research

Is in charge of gathering relevant information on the client's consumer behaviors.

They understand the wants, requests, feelings, concerns, motivating forces, and ideals of

the consumer (Strachan, 1999).

For the purpose of this study the definitions of jobs in advertising agencies are

listed and defined below.

* Advertising account executive: manages the account services department, devises
and coordinates advertising campaigns for their clients.

* Advertising account manager: acts as the liaison between the client, and the agency.
This person has to be able to get the best work for the agency at the best price
possible.

* Advertising creative director: develops the ideas, images, and words that make up
commercials and ads. Also, oversees the copy chief, art director, and associated
staff.

* Art Director: develops the visual concepts and designs for ads which may include:
preparing past-ups, rough lettering, and layouts for print ads and television
storyboards.

* Communications director: responsible for the planning and development of the
organization's activities as they relate to fundraising and communications.

* Copy writer/ publicity writer: generates ideas for product or company names and
writes dialogue for TV commercials and scripts for radio ads. Also develops
merchandising and sales promotion materials.

* Designer: creates the layout, and helps visualize the overall concept of a product.

* Editor: reads and corrects written material for publication, decides on the editorial
policy and the content of publications or news items, and/or manage the production
of publications and the staff involved.

* Freelance media planer: needs to be able to place advertisements in the right place
at the right time, where it will reach the right people. This requires the ability to
find and analyze data. This person does not work for an agency fulltime.

* Informational-graphics designer: creates everything from packaging designs,
websites, company and brand logos, and possibly stationary.









* International sales and marketing: an international understanding of what the
buyers want, and the values associated with what is being sold, and how that
product or service is marketed in a particular place.

* Media planner/buyer: needs to be able to place advertisements in the right place at
the right time, where it will reach the right people. This requires the ability to find
and analyze data.

* New market or product conceptualizer: evaluate market and corporate needs to
establish conceptual opportunities on a consulting basis. Leads Company in
conceptual brainstorming and research activities.

* Photographer: mostly done through freelancing, the photographer takes pictures for
the advertisements.

* Research and development specialist: needs to understand the wants, requests,
feelings, concerns, motivating forces, and ideals of the consumer. This person
should be a specialist on consumer behavior.

* Research assistant: assists the research specialist in understanding the needs of the
consumers.

* Strategic planner: identifies key strategic opportunities, and interfaces advertising
agencies and clients in the representation and development of strategic programs.

(The Job Guide, 2004; Advertising Association, 2004; Advertising Educational
Foundation, 2004; Avery, 2000).

Comparison Studies

The Myers-Briggs Personality Type and its Relationship to Computer Programming

This study investigates whether recent college graduates with certain personality

types (as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) performed better in certain areas

of advertising than those students with different personality types. A similar study was

done comparing personality types to success in writing computer programs, focusing on

the Thinking and Feeling (T & F) dimension, because students who are more logical

thinking tend to be better at writing computer programs than those that are feeling

oriented (Bishop-Clark & Wheeler, 1994).









Literature relating to problem solving and the MBTI laid the foundation for this

study. The scale having the strongest impact on problem solving is the Sensing and

Intuition scale. Sensors are good at facts, and move from general to specific, and

Intuitives are good at seeing the big picture, and viewing things different ways. While

jobs in the advertising industry are a good mix of both, computer programming relies

more on sensing (Bishop-Clark & Wheeler, 1994).

To test the relationship between the MBTI and computer programmers, an

experiment was done. First there was a pilot study done on 34 students in an introductory

programming class. Twenty-five of the students completed the class, the MBTI was

administered in the first week of class, and all assignments, quizzes, and tests were

collected and analyzed. The exploratory experiment provided the base for the hypotheses

that would be used in the real study.

The researchers created four hypotheses which looked at which dimension would

have a higher program average; Introverts or Extraverts, Sensors or Intuitives, Judgers or

Perceptives, and Thinkers or Feelers (Bishop-Clark & Wheeler, 1994).

The primary study consisted of 114 students, in four different sections of the same

introductory class the pilot study took. The professor was the same for all four sections

but was unaware of the hypotheses, so there was no biased on his part. Ninety-three of

the students completed the class, the MBTI was administered in the first week of class,

and all assignments, quizzes, and tests were collected and analyzed. The main difference

from the pilot study was the students worked in pairs to complete the assignments. All

pairs were instructor assigned and changed with every assignment. Individual grades









were given despite the working in pairs, so this did not affect the end results of the

experiment (Bishop-Clark & Wheeler, 1994).

The results showed which dimensions had a higher program average. Introverts and

Extraverts, Judgers and Perceptives, Thinkers and Feelers were all found to be

insignificant, showing no major difference in the scores. Sensors and Intuitives were

found to be significant with Sensors having a higher program average than Intuitives,

because computer programming relies more on sensing. The two dominate personalities

found were sensing and judging (SJ) which seemed to fair better then their partners,

intuitives and thinking, respectively (NT).

The study found that overall personality has little to do with how well students

succeeded in the computer programming class. The researchers do believe that

personality was a factor in how well students preformed different tasks associated with

the class, such as programming assignments (Bishop-Clark & Wheeler, 1994).

Relationships of Personality Traits in the Engineering and Architectural Professions

Another trend in business organizations today is the relationships between

personality traits and performance. A study was done investigating relationships of

personality traits with successful behaviors in the engineering and architectural (E/A)

professions' project design services. The categories for the five project service's are:

planning, conceptual design, contract documents, construction administration, and firm

management duties. The MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) was used to measure the

individual personalities (Carr, Garza, & Vorster, 2002).

The main focus was to examine the degree to which preferences of one's

personality are predictive of job performance. Organizations must learn to look beyond

the obvious performance indicators and look towards personality as a major factor. By









understanding how personality plays a roll it will enable these organizations to improve

the design and construction process (Carr, Garza, & Vorster, 2002).

To understand how personality works within design services an experiment was

developed into three parts. The first part was to select an instrument to measure

personality and conduct a pilot study. The second step was to create a Critical Project

Success Factors (CPSF) questionnaire which will be used to measure the validity and

reliability from the pilot study. The third step was to administer the MBTI and CPSF to a

sample of E/A service providers (Carr, Garza, & Vorster, 2002).

The Independent variable the MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) was selected to

measure individual personalities for both the pilot and main study. The Variables are

made up from the MBTI four bipolar scales that measure Extraversion and Introversion

(E & I), Sensing and Intuition (S & N), Thinking and Feeling (T & F), and Judging and

Perceiving (S & P) (Healy & Woodward, 1998). The dependent variables were the

Critical Project Success Factors (CPSF) questionnaire which categorizes the performance

measures of the design-related activities. The categories for the five design-related

activities project service's are: planning, conceptual design, contract documents,

construction administration, and firm management duties. These five services were

condensed into 3 phases for use in the study: Planning Phase (Study and Report;

Conceptual or Preliminary Design), Design Phase and Detailed Preparation or Contract

Documents, and Construction Administration Phase (Carr, Garza, & Vorster, 2002).

The Planning Phase (Study and Report; Conceptual or Preliminary Design)

includes the task of project planning. The individual with the best qualifications for this

phase should be a MBTI intuitive (N). N's like discussing new ideas and trends for the









future, and like concepts and relationships but fly by the seat of their pants, and are

unconscious of audience reactions. The Design Phase and Detailed Preparation or

Contract Documents includes having to work within the measures of project success "on

time and on budget". Design work is detailed oriented and requires a great deal of

discipline. The person should be an MBTI judging (J). J's tend to plan and organize every

aspect of their life's, they are structured and orderly, but can be resistant to change. The

Construction Administration Phase requires a professional who is a problem solver with

creative solutions an MBTI intuitive (N) (see above description) or thinker (T). T's are

very logic and concise but they are also critical and insensitive (Healy & Woodward,

1998; Harrington & Loffredo, 2001; Bishop-Clark & Wheeler, 1994; Carr, Garza, &

Vorster, 2002).

The researchers created a general hypothesis which looked at which personality

attributes will influence performance of the design services. Exploratory hypotheses were

created for each phase of the study to see if there were mean performance differences in

the four bipolar scales measured for the planning, design, construction administration,

and general firm management duties performed (Carr, Garza, & Vorster, 2002).

The sample consisted of 85 subjects in the Engineering and Architectural fields,

with jobs at the 'project manager' level and above. The selection process was based on

assignments within their organizations and their group duties. A random selection was

picked and invited to participate by the target firms' management (Carr, Garza, &

Vorster, 2002).

The research did find that certain personality attributes will influence performance

of the design services. This finding was found in both this study and other research. A









few mean performance differences were found based on personality, phase and duties

preformed. It was also found that Individuals with high Intuitive (MBTI, N) and

Perceiving (MBTI, P) preferences did better than those with preferences for Sensing

(MBTI, S) and Judging (MBTI, J). These results held true for both the planning and

construction phase. Individuals with high Judging (MBTI, J) and Perceiving (MBTI, P)

preferences did better with the duties associated in the design phase. Individuals with

high Intuitive (MBTI, N) and Perceiving (MBTI, P) preferences were successful in the

construction phase. The Thinking/Feeling (MBTI, T/F) preferences did not influence

performance in any of the phases (Carr, Garza, & Vorster, 2002).

Overall the research shows that it is important to place the correct personality trait

within the correct career assignment. This is because individual personality

characteristics influence job performance. Organizations should learn to look beyond the

obvious performance indicators such as education, experience and cognitive abilities and

look towards personality as a major factor. By understanding how personalities play a roll

in job performance it will enable organizations to improve their overall effectiveness

(Carr, Garza, & Vorster, 2002).

Australian Advertising Agency

It has been revealed that the MBTI is a roadmap for individuals to use in

determining what profession orjob that their personality best fits. But, the advertising

profession has been neglected in this area of study as only one study was found on types

working in advertising agencies.

The study was conducted with a 30-member Australian agency which used the

pseudonym, Word & Pictures (W&P) to protect the agency's identity. Conducted by Judy

Strachan, an MBTI certified practitioner and advertising veteran. The study focused on









the relationship of psychological types to the different jobs within an agency-style

structure. Her theory was that ad agencies are predominantly ENTP/ENFP organizations.

The theory was supported with prior agency work and summaries from researcher

William Bridges:

The ENTP organisation is an upbeat, can-do organisation that is at its best
designing or inventing an answer to a difficult problem.

ENFP organizations tend to fall into two categories: the creative organisation that
develops new ideas or products for people, and the idealistic organisation that
focuses on developing, serving or enlightening people (Strachan, 33).

Strachan believed that by combining Bridges two descriptions together, you have a very

good picture of a typical advertising agency- creative, inventive and trying to "enlighten"

(Wood, 2002).

The advertising agency was divided into typical departments/job functions

consisting of account service, creative department, production and studio, and media

(administration and finance). Then to find type preferences relevant to advertising

agencies Strachan used the career listings found at the back of the MBTIManual: A

Guide to the Development of Use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator by Isabel Myers

and Mary McCaulley. The following lists details the rankings of occupations relevant to

advertising agencies.

74.70% E Marketing personnel
66.29% E Public relations workers & publicity writers
86.06% N Writers, artists, entertainers & agents
75.58% N Writers and journalists
79.52% T Managers: sales, not specified
72.78% T Service workers
61.54% F Journalists
58.65% F Writers, artists, entertainers & agents
61.54% F Journalists
58.65% F Writers, artists, entertainers & agents









61.54% P Journalists
61.06% p Writers, artists, entertainers & agents

The lists for occupations attractive to the various types show:

21.15% ENFP Journalists
19.23% ENFP Writers, artists, entertainers & agents
16.95% ENTP Photographers
13.25% ENTP Marketing personnel
8.99% ENTP Public relations workers & publicity writers
(Strachan, 1999)


The type breakdown for W&P confirmed the theory of ENTP/ ENFP. The

breakdown was:

E 17 I 13 Group Type: (determined by largest count in each preference)
S 10 N 20 ENT/FP
T 15 F 15 Modal type: (determined by predominate type)
J 14 P 16 ENFP

Type was then broken down for each departments/job function.

* Account service- Group Type and Modal Type was ENTJ

* Creative department (Even split between Copywriters and Art directors) Group
Type ENFP and Modal Type was ENT/FP

* Production and studio- Group Type ESFP and Modal Type was ISFP

* Media (admin and finance) Media INTJ/ ENFP, Accounting ISTJ, Receptionist
INFP

Strachan found that Words and Pictures fit the MBTI concept with the agency

being predominantly an ENTP/ENFP organization. The most interesting observation

found was the S/N difference found between the Creative and Production departments.

Further research would help determine the reasons for the type differences (Strachan,

1999).






23


The Gap

Because MBTI personality types cannot be used to categorize or group individuals,

temperaments are often used. So, do certain temperaments determine what advertising

career is chosen? Here are the following five Research Questions.

* RQ1: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Industry in
Which the Respondents Work?

* RQ2: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Respondents
Job Titles?

* RQ3: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Respondents
Current Duties?

* RQ4: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Respondents
Satisfaction Toward Their Present Job?

* RQ5: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Respondents
Commitment to the Advertising Profession?














CHAPTER 2
METHODOLOGY

This chapter will describe the methods and procedures of the study as it relates to

(1) research design and (2) subject selection.

Research Design

Data was taken from a questionnaire that was sent to advertising graduates from a

large Southeastern University in 2003. (See Appendix for sample of survey.) The purpose

of the questionnaire was to gather information from alumni of the advertising program. It

was not done to determine the answers to the aforementioned research questions. The

secondary research questionnaire consisted of three parts. The first part was comprised

of questions concerning involvement and evaluation of the subject's education. The

second part questioned the subject about their professional experiences and history. The

third asked demographic questions, relating to gender, ethnic background, and

citizenship. Once collected the surveys were coded and analysis was done to test the

relationships between variables.

Graduates from 1994 to 1998 were administered the MBTI while still attending the

university. MBTI scored were collected from a professor in advertising as part of the

course content for the core communications classes. The recorded MBTI scores were

used to test relationships between survey questions and personality types.

Subject Selection

A listing bought and generated from a large Southeastern University's alumni

association enabled six thousand surveys to be sent out to graduates from the department









of advertising. Of those six thousand surveys 804 were returned, a response rate of

13.4%.

The participation of the survey was strictly voluntary; the subjects did not have to

answer any questions they did not wish to answer. There was no penalty for not

participating, no compensation provided for their participation, and all surveys were kept

confidential.

Of the 804 surveys returned responses from the years 1994 to 1998 were sorted

down to 110, because MBTI scores existed for that time period. Out of the 110 surveys

52 could be matched to MBTI scores.















CHAPTER 3
FINDINGS

Major findings of this study are presented and data analysis results are reported in

this chapter. The first section presented will be the characteristics of the respondents.

This will be followed by the results of the respondents' temperaments in the advertising

profession. Other variables found within the advertising profession will be correlated to

the respondents' temperaments. These include: (Research Question 1) the industry in

which they work, (Research Question 2) their current job titles, (Research Question 3)

their current duties, (Research Question 4) satisfaction toward their present job, and

(Research Question 5) commitment toward the advertising profession.

Characteristics of Respondents

The MBTI sample of respondents graduated between 1994 and 1998. A large

majority (78.8%) are female, while 80.8% are White, not Hispanic. Statistics of MBTI

respondent's compared to all survey respondents are found in table 4-1.

Table 4-1. All survey respondents compared to the MBTI sample.
All Respondents MBTI Respondents
n % n %
Began their academic career at the University 499 62.1 37 71.2
Transferred from an in-state community college 199 24.8 10 19.2
Did not work during the pursuit of their degree 295 36.7 21 40.4
First position after graduating was found after two
months 513 63.8 39 75.0
Have been employed by up to four companies 451 56.1 34 65.4
Are employed full time 601 74.8 44 84.6









Table 4-1. Continued
MBTI
All Respondents Respondents
n % n %
Work either within the advertising or media industry 186 23.1 24 46.2
Are moderately satisfied with their current job 470 58.4 34 65.4
See their current position as a career instead of a job 526 65.4 32 61.5
Wish they had prepared for a major other than
advertising 506 62.9 20 38.4

The CAPT Study and Distribution of MBTI Types

A comparable study done by the Center for Applications of Psychological Type

(CAPT), was a Ten Year Follow-Up to The University of Florida Freshman Study. The

entire freshman class of 1972 was given the MBTI as part of an academic advisement

improvement study. A follow up study was done ten years later in 1982, to find out what

majors they graduated from, and how the overall group compared to the initial one from

1972. We don't know respondent's original scores just the majors they graduated from.

Table 4-2 shows the distribution of the 1994-1998 MTBI Types and Temperaments

compared to CAPT's (1982) MBTI types and Temperaments from the Advertising major.

There were 52 respondents for both studies (94-98 and 1982).

The data shows (Table 4-2) that MBTI Type and Temperaments are consistent

across time. Showing that both samples had 9 (17.3%) NT's (iNtuitive Thinkers). The

distribution of the 94-98 MBTI types shows that 15 out of the 16 types are present. There

were no respondent with the type INTJ (Introvert iNtuitive Thinking Judger). The most

respondents (13.46%, 7 respondents) were ESFJ's (Extravert Sensing Feeling Judgers).

Three types had 1 respondent (1.92%), ISTP (Introvert Sensing Thinking Perceiver),

ENTJ (Extravert iNtuitive Thinking Judger), and INFP (Introvert iNtuitive Feeling

Perceiver).









Table 4-2. 94-98 MBTI Types Compared to the 1982 MBTI Types
94-98 MBTI 1982 MBTI 94-98 Temper 1982 Temper
MBTI
Type n % n % Temperament n % n %
ISTP 1 19.2 2 3.9
ISFP 4 7.7 2 3.9
ESTP 4 7.7 0 0.0
ESFP 4 7.7 5 9.6 SP 13 25.0 9 17.3
ISTJ 4 7.7 4 7.7
ISFJ 3 5.8 3 5.8
ESTJ 4 7.7 5 9.6
ESFJ 7 13.5 3 5.8 SJ 18 34.6 15 28.9
INTJ 2 3.9 0 0.0
INTP 2 3.9 2 3.9
ENTP 4 7.7 3 5.8
ENTJ 1 1.9 4 7.7 NT 9 17.3 9 17.3
INFJ 0 0.0 1 1.9
INFP 1 1.9 3 5.8
ENFP 6 11.3 11 21.2
ENFJ 5 9.6 4 7.7 NF 12 23.1 19 36.5
Chi Square 2.58; df 3; n.s.

Temperaments

Due to the small incidence of specific types, MBTI types were collapsed into four

different temperaments to avoid analysis of small groups. Temperaments refer to the

preferred function or nature that operates together to effect behavior. The temperaments

have four categories in which all people seem to fit. The 16 MBTI types fall into one of

the temperaments allowing data to be collapsed (Tieger, & Barron-Tieger, 2000;

McBride, Cline, & Miller, 1987). All 52 Respondents were re categorized into

Temperaments. The analyses were run using these categories.

* Sensing Judgers- SJ (34.6%, 18 respondents)
* Sensing Perceivers- SP (25%, 13 respondents)
* Intuitive Feelers- NF (23%, 12 respondents)
* Intuitive Thinkers- NT (17.3%, 9 respondents)









Research Question 1: There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the
Industry in Which the Respondents Work?

Survey respondents were asked, to "best describe the industry in which they

currently work" (See Appendix, survey question 26). Out of the total number of

respondents 47 answered the question. Industries collapsed into Media were: graphic arts,

internet and new media, media-broadcast, media-print, and telecommunications.

Industries collapsed into "Other" were: arts and entertainment, automotive, beverage,

education, food, healthcare, legal services, non-profit and social services, real estate,

retail/wholesale, travel and tourism, and other.

The responses were collapsed into three groups for analysis (Table 4-3):

(1) Advertising Agencies (23.4%), (2) Media (27.7%), (3) Other industries (48.9%).

Table 4-3. MBTI Temperaments and Industry
SJ SP NF NT Total
Industry n % n % n % n % n %
Ad Agency 6 33.3 0 0.0 2 20.0 3 33.3 11 23.4
Media 3 16.7 6 60.0 1 10.0 3 33.3 13 27.7
Other 9 50.0 4 40.0 7 70.0 3 33.3 23 48.9
Total 18 100.0 10 100.0 10 100.0 9 100.0 47 100.0
Chi-Square 10.85; df6; p=.093

The Advertising agency had the majority of respondents 6 (33.3%) being classified

as Sensing Judgers (SJ). Media had the majority of 6 (60.0%) respondents being

classified as Sensing Perceivers (SP), while there was no Sensing Perceivers (SP) in

advertising agencies. Intuitive Feelers (NF) skewed slightly too advertising agencies

(20.0%, 2 respondents) over media (10.0%, 1 respondents). While Intuitive Thinkers

(NT) with 3 respondents each (33.3%), didn't skew to either advertising agencies or

media. Though there were some common factors with theories, the relationship between

Industry and MBTI Temperaments was not significant.









Research Question 2: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the
Respondents Job Titles?

Survey respondents were asked, in an open-ended question, "What is your current

job title?" (See Appendix, survey question 27). Out of the total number of respondents

52 answered the question.

Respondents were organized into 7 categories by job title (Table 4-4): (1) Account

Services (19.2%), (2) Media (15.4%), (3) Creative (21.2%), (4) Research (1.9%), (5)

Marketing management (19.2%), (6) Education (5.8%), (7) Other (17.3%).

Table 4-4. MBTI Temperaments and Job Titles
MBTI Temperaments
SJ SP NF NT Total
Industry n % n % n % n % n %
Account Service 4 22.2 2 15.4 3 25.0 1 11.1 10 19.2
Media 1 5.6 3 23.1 3 25.0 1 11.1 8 15.4
Creative 5 27.8 3 23.1 0 0.0 3 33.3 11 21.2
Research 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 11.1 1 1.9
Marketing Mgmt 2 11.1 3 23.1 3 25.0 2 22.2 10 19.2
Education 2 11.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 11.1 3 5.8
Other 4 22.2 2 15.4 3 25.0 0 0.0 9 17.3
Total 18 100.0 13 100.0 12 100.0 9 100.0 52 100.0


Chi-Square 17.49; df 18; p=.489

Job titles in the creative industry had the majority of 5 respondents (27.8%) being

classified as Sensing Judgers (SJ) and the majority of Intuitive Thinkers (NT) with 3

respondents (33.3%). Though, creative had the most Intuitive Thinkers (NT), marketing

management was close with 2 respondents (22.2%). Sensing Perceivers (SP) was fairly

evenly split with 3 respondents (23.1%) between job titles in media, creative, and

marketing management, and 2 respondents (15.4%) for account services. Intuitive Feelers

(NF) were also evenly split with 3 respondents (25%) between job titles in account









services, media, and marketing management. The relationship between Job Titles and

MBTI Temperaments is not significant (p=.489).

Research Question 3: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the
Respondents Current Duties?

Survey respondents were asked, in a "mark all that apply question" (See Appendix,

survey question 28), "What are your current duties?" Respondents were grouped by

examining all duties respondents indicated that they currently had. To place the

respondents more accurately job titles of the respondents (See Appendix, survey question

27) and the industry in which they work (See Appendix, survey question 26) were also

examined.

Duties collapsed into Account Service were: account manager, account planner,

brand manager, campaigning, and marketing management. Duties collapsed into Media

were: media planning, media buying, media sales and interactive media. Duties

collapsed into Creative were: art director, copywriting, creative director, graphic design,

and print production. And Duties collapsed into Other were: research, traffic, and other

duties. These other factors helped collapse the 18 possible responses of duties, into four

groups (Table 4-5): (1) Account (32.7%, 17 respondents), (2) Media (19.2%, 10

respondents), (3) Creative (13.5%, 7 respondents), (4) Other Duties (34.6%, 18

respondents).

Current duties in account services had the most respondents for Sensing Judgers

(SJ) (8 respondents, 44.4%), Intuitive Feelers (NF) (4 respondents, 33.3%), and Intuitive

Thinkers (NT) (4 respondents, 44.4%), they also had the least Sensing Perceivers (SP)

(1 respondent, 7.7%). Sensing Perceivers (SP) were evenly split with 3 respondents

(23.1%) between duties in media and creative. Creative had the least respondents with 1









(5.6%) Sensing Judgers (SJ) and no Intuitive Feelers (NF). The least respondents in

Intuitive Thinkers (NT) were media with 1 (11.1%). The relationship between

Temperament and Current Duties is not significant (p=.156).

Table 4-5. MBTI Temperaments and Current Duties
MBTI Temperaments
SJ SP NF NT Total
Duties n % n % n % n % n %
Account Service 8 44.4 1 7.7 4 33.3 4 44.4 17 32.7
Media 4 22.2 3 23.1 2 16.7 1 11.1 10 19.2
Creative 1 5.6 3 23.1 0 0.0 3 33.3 7 13.5
Other Duties 5 27.8 6 46.2 6 50.0 1 11.1 18 34.6
Total 18 100.0 13 100.0 12 100.0 9 100.0 52 100.0
Chi-Square 13.14; df9; p=.156

Research Question 4: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the
Respondents Satisfaction Toward Their Present Job?

Respondents were asked, "All things considered, how satisfied are you with your

present job?" (See Appendix, survey question 33.) Over half of respondents 34 (65.4%)

are over moderately satisfied with their current job. The average level of satisfaction, as

it related to satisfaction with the profession, had a mean of 7.3 with a range of one to ten,

and a standard deviation of 2.0. The median was 7.5 and mode was 7.0.

Satisfaction with current job has no affect by type (Table 4-6), because over time

types will find where they are happy. There is no significant relationship between

respondents' MBTI Temperaments and satisfaction with their current job (p=.777).

Table 4-6. MBTI Temperaments and Satisfaction
Means
SJ SP NF NT Total
Satisfaction 7.3 7.4 7.9 6.6 7.3
n46; df3; F .667; p=.577









Research Question 5: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the
Respondents Commitment to the Advertising Profession?

Respondents were asked to evaluate their commitment to the advertising profession

on an interval scale where one was the lowest value and 10 was the highest. (See

Appendix, survey question 35.) The average level of commitment was 6.1 with a range

of one to ten and a standard deviation of 3.2. The median was 7.0 and the mode was one.

Commitment to the advertising profession has no affect by type (Table 4-7). The

relationship between respondents' MBTI Temperaments and Commitment to the

advertising profession is not significant (p=.768).

Table 4-7. MBTI Temperaments and Commitment
Means
SJ SP NF NT Total
Commitment 5.6 6.5 5.7 6.9 6.1
n50; df3; F .380; p=.768














CHAPTER 4
CONCLUSIONS

There were not significant relationships between the factors but the results do

support some preferences in results of theories, and consistency with other research.

Theory suggests that advertising agencies and account services would skew

towards Sensing Judgers (SJ) because they are motivated by duty and responsibility.

These respondents are people who are down to earth and decisive. They are hardworking,

organized and reliable (Tieger & Barron-Tieger, 2000).

Results and theories both show that sensing perceivers (SP) are motivated by action

and freedom. Media (graphic arts, internet, and new media) and creative people love to

live in the moment and be free to respond to whatever new opportunities may arise. They

focus on what they can accomplish here and now, and enjoy moving from one challenge

to another (Tieger & Barron-Tieger, 2000).

Intuitive Feelers (NF) were spread all over the board with no one group

dominating. NF's are motivated by spirit and unity. They enjoy jobs that are personally

meaningful, by helping others become fulfilled (Tieger & Barron-Tieger, 2000).

Intuitive Thinkers (NT) were found in creative and account services. NT's are

motivated by power and knowledge. They are good at seeing the big-picture, enjoy

strategizing, and knowledge (Tieger & Barron-Tieger, 2000).

Satisfaction and commitment are not affected by type. This deals with the theory

that overtime types will find a place they are comfortable and happy. So this sample must

have already found that place.









Overall, the data was consistent with other research such as, The Australian

Advertising Agency, the 1982 CAPT study and personality theories (temperaments). The

study done by the Center for Applications of Psychological Type (CAPT), on a Ten Year

Follow-Up to The University of Florida Freshman Study (in 1982) shows that MBTI

Type and Temperaments are fairly consistent. In the 1982 CAPT study and the above

research for 1994-98 there were 52 respondents for both studies.

The data showed that both samples had 9 (17.3%) Intuitive Thinkers (NT). The

1994-98 study had 18 (32.6%) Sensing Judgers (SJ) while the 1982 CAPT study had 15

(28.9%) Sensing Judgers (SJ). The 1982 CAPT study had more Intuitive Feelers (NF)

with 19 respondents (36.5%), while the 1994-98 study had 12 respondents (23.1%). The

1994-98 study did have more Sensing Perceivers (SP) with 13 (25.0%), while the 1982

CAPT study only had 9 respondents (17.3%).

Limitations and Future Research

This study has several limitations, which may account for the lack of significant

results required to support the research questions. Future research should address the

limitations of this study.

The nature of the sample used for this study mainly limited the research findings.

The small sample size (52) should not be generalized to the general population. The

majority of the respondents were women (78.8%) while only 21.1% were men. The

majority were also classified as Sensing Judgers (SJ). This is due to the fact studies have

shown that women and Sensing Judgers (SJ) are more likely to fill out and return a

mailed questionnaire. Sensing Judgers (SJ) are very organized and responsible people

causing a biased. The majority of the women responding were White, not Hispanic









(80.8%) which shows there was not a lot of diversity in the advertising department at the

large Southeastern University. The small sample size is why the above things are a

problem.

A larger sample size would allow researchers to see if there is significance in larger

samples. It might also be able to avoid the above biases found in small sample sizes. A

larger sample could examine more areas of personality types such as MBTI type,

Temperament, or Dominance type. A larger sample size could also examine specific

groups in the advertising industry such as art directors and media planners.

The research was taken from a secondary analysis and respondents MBTI Types

were taken while they were still in school at the university, and matched to their survey

data. These circumstances may also skew the results and lead to flawed conclusions. The

secondary analysis was an informational gathering survey not a research survey. Because

it was not created for research purposes the questions did not probe for deeper answers.

Probing questions should focus on current personality type habits, and more about the

advertising profession.

A future research study would allow researchers to probe for more pertinent

information, such as current personality tendencies, and details about their careers in the

advertising industry. It would show the progress of jobs to see if there were any

correlations between job progression and personality type. Future research might also

include a random sample of individuals in other professions, to see different proportions.

Time was also a limitation. If this could be tested over a period of time it would

allow researchers to see if type has more of an affect on profession later in their careers.

Future Research with a larger sample size and a research based questionnaire would









allow respondents to be tested over a period of time. This would track types as they

become satisfied and committed to jobs, and their satisfaction compared to temperaments

compared to jobs.

Some important questions to keep in mind when researching the advertising

industry and personality types include: How is the advertising industry defined? How are

subheads such as media and creative classified and defined? How personality type is

classified (MBTI type, Temperament, or Dominance)? Is one type classification more

affective than the others? By answering these questions, future research will be more

useful to those interested in the concept of personality as it relates to the advertising

industry.















APPENDIX A
INFORMED CONSENT FORM AND QUESTIONNAIRE













Survey of Advertising Graduates


Informed Consent


Please read this consent document carefully before you decide to participate in this study.

This study is being conducted by Dr. John Sutherland, professor and chair of the Department of
Advertising at the University of Florida.


Purpose of the research study:
The purpose of this study is to develop a profile of the professional history and accomplishments of
advertising graduates.


What you will be asked to do in the study:
To participate, you may complete the attached questionnaire.


Time required:
10- 15 minutes

Risks and Benefits:
There are no risks. Participants will be able to receive a summary report of the results.

Compensation:
No compensation will be provided for your participation.

Confidentiality:
Your responses will remain anonymous.


Voluntary participation:
Participation is strictly voluntary, and you will not have to answer any question you do not wish to answer.
There is no penalty for not participating.

Right to withdraw from the study:
You have the right to withdraw from the study at anytime without consequence.


Whom to contact if you have questions about the study:
John Sutherland, Professor and Chair
Department of Advertising
College of Journalism and Communications
University of Florida
PO Box 118400
Gainesville, FL 32611-8400
jsutherland@jou.ufl.edu


Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study:
UFIRB Office
Box 112250
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611-2250
(352) 392-0433


Signature Date
















Please fill in or mark your best answers.


1. When did you graduate from UF?

0 Fall

0 Spring

0 Summer


la. What year?

2. Which of the following best describes your academic program?
0 Started and completed my undergraduate program at UF
0 Transferred to UF from a community college in Florida
D Transferred to UF from a community college outside of
Florida
0 Transferred to UF from a 4-year institution in Florida
D Transferred to UF from a 4-year institution outside of Florida

3. Which of the following best describes you?
0 I knew the specific advertising area in which I wanted to
focus and I stayed within that area
0 I developed my career interests while I was an advertising
major
0 I had an interest in advertising when I entered the
advertising program, but after taking courses in
advertising I decided that it was not the career choice for me
0 I never intended to pursue a career related to advertising
0 I had a different career interest when I entered UF, but after
taking advertising courses I decided that advertising was the
career choice for me

4. In which of the following advertising areas were you most interested
while you were in college? (Mark all that apply.)


] Account coordinator
] Account management
] Account planner
] Advertising manager
] Art director
] Broadcast production
] Copywriter
] Event planning
] Graphic designer
] Internet sales
] Magazine sales
] Manufacturer's

representative/sales
] Marketing manager
] Media buyer
] Media planner
] Media sales in general


0 Newspaper sales
0 Outdoor sales
D Political campaigning
0 Print production
0 Product/brand manager
0 Promotion/IMC manager
D Promotional products-
specialty advertising
D Public relations
0 Radio sales
D Research/consulting
company
0 Sales promotion
0 Television/cable sales
D Traffic
D Other


5. What was your minor or area of outside concentration?






6. Which did you complete?
D Foreign language requirement, or
D Quantitative option, or
0 Neither applied to my program


7. What was your grade point average for advertising courses?
040-35
0349-30
0299-25
S249-20

8. What was your grade point average overall?
[ 40-35
3 49 -30
2 99 -25
S2 49 -20

9. Did you graduate with honors?
D Yes, Honors
0 Yes, High or Highest Honors
0 No
10. Did you complete an internship?
0 Yes (Continue to 10a)
n No (Skip to question 11 )

10a. Did you intern in Gainesville?
SYes
SNo

10b. Where did you intern?

D Newspaper

0 Radio station

D Television station

0 Advertising agency

0 Magazine

0 Subscription newsletter

n Other

10c. Did you receive academic credit?
SYes
SNo
10d. Did you get paid for your internship(s)?
SYes
SNo


10e. Did your internship lead to employment with the
organization that offered the internship?
SYes
SNo
10f. Did your internship enhance your intent to pursue
advertising as a career?
SYes
SNo

11. During your last year in school, how many hours per week
(if any) were you working in a paying job?
n None
1 5 hours
S6 -10 hours
S11 -15 hours
S16 20 hours
n 20 + hours
12. What metropolitan area, city or town, did you consider your
hometown while you were a student at UF?


State Zip Code


CityfTown
















13. While you were an advertising major at UF, which of the
following were you involved with? (Mark all that apply)
D Independent Florida Alligator
0 Orange and Blue Magazine
0 Ad Society Member
D Ad Society Leader
0 Entered a student ADDY competition and placed
0 Entered a student ADDY competition, but did not place
D Entered the One Show competition and placed
0 Entered the One Show competition, but did not place
0 Served on AAF National Student Advertising Competition
Team
0 Served on DMA ECHO Student Competition Team
D Served on IAA Interad Competition Team
D None
14. On a scale of 1 -10, with 1 being not completely prepared
and 10 being completely prepared, how well would you
say the advertising program prepared you?

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


15. What would you recommend to improve our program?











16. What advertising courses) would you say has been most
helpful to your career development?











17. What advertising courses) would you say has been least

helpful to your career development?


19. After graduation, what did you do?
[ Went to graduate school
[ Went to the military
0 Continued a job I held while in school
D Accepted a position held open for me while I was in school
D Accepted a position I found after graduation
0 Did not go to work immediately
[ Other
20. At the time of your graduation, how many job offers or
solid job opportunities were available to you?
(Specify number)

21. In the time since you graduated, have you ever worked for
at least a year in any of the following categories?
(Mark all that apply AND place a 1 next to the category where
you had your first job.)
0 Advertising agency 0 Insurance
0 Aerospace and Defense 0 Internet and New Media
I Agriculture 0 Legal Services


Architecture
Arts and Entertainment
Automotive
Aviation and Airlines
Banking/Financial Services
Beverage
Biotechnology
Construction
Consulting Services
Education
Energy and Utilities
Engineering
Environment
Fire, Law Enforcement, and
Security
Fishing
Food
Forestry
Government-Federal
Government-Local
Government-State
Graphic Arts
Healthcare
Hotel, Gaming, and Leisure


] Library Services
] Media-Broadcast
] Media-Print
] Media-Outdoor
] Military
SMining
] Non-Profit and Social
Services
] Personal Care and Service
] Pharmaceuticals
] Public Relations
] Real Estate
I Restaurant and Food
Services
] RetailNVholesale
] Science and Research
] Sports and Recreation
] Tobacco
] Telecommunications
] Transportation and
Warehousing
] Travel and Tourism
] Other


18. At this point in your career, what advertising professor
would you say had the most influence...
1 On you personally as an advertising student




2 On your career development


22. Counting only the time you actively sought a position, how
many months would you say it took you to get yourfirst job
after graduation?
D0-2 09-11
03-5 012+
06-8

23. Did you use a placement service or university resource to
find post-graduation work? (Mark all that apply)
D Yes, College of Journalism Advertising Department Office
D Yes, general university resource
D Yes, general placement agency
D Yes, general online resource















24. Are you currently employed or self-employed?
I Yes, full-time
0 Yes, part-time
D Yes, both full-time and part-time
D No, I am enrolled in school (go to 34)
D No, I am unemployed but looking for work (go to 34)
D No, I am unemployed and not looking for work (go to 34)
0 Other (please specify)
25. When did you start to work at your current job?


(month)


(year)


26. Do you think of the work you do as a "job" or do you think
of it as a "career"?
SJob
0 Career
0 Don't know


30. What is your current income before taxes from your employer?


$0-24,999
$25,000- 49,999
$50,000- 74,999
$75,000- 99,999
$100,000-124,999


] $125,000- 149,999
] $150,000- 174,999
] $175,000- 199,999
] $200,000- 224,999
S$225,000 +


26. Which of the following best describes the industry in
which you currently work? [ Hotel, Gaming, and Leisure
O Retired I Insurance
[ Advertising agency I Internet and New Media
0 Aerospace and Defense [ Legal Services
[ Agriculture [ Library Services
0 Architecture 0 Media-Broadcast
D Arts and Entertainment [ Media-Print
0 Automotive 0 Media-Outdoor
n Aviation and Airlines Military
n Banking/Financial Services 0 Mining
D Beverage n Non-Profit and Social
n Biotechnology Services
0 Construction 0 Personal Care and Service
SConsulting Services 0 Pharmaceuticals
n Education 0 Public Relations
O Energy and Utilities R Real Estate
n Engineering I Restaurant and Food
0 Environment Services
n Fire, Law Enforcement, and I RetailNVholesale
Security 0 Science and Research
I Fishing [ Sports and Recreation
SFood n Tobacco
I Forestry [ Telecommunications
n Government-Federal [ Transportation and
n Government-Local Warehousing
n Government-State n T -,,l I T r.


D Graphic Arts
0 Healthcare

27. What is your current job title?





28. What are your current duties?
0 Art direction
0 Account management
D Account planner
D Brand management
0 Broadcast production
D Campaigning
0 Copywriting
D Creative director
0 Graphic design


rave an tourism
I Other


] Interactive media
] Marketing management
] Media buying
] Media planning
] Media sales
] Print production
] Research
] Traffic management
] Other


31. Please approximate the total number of people employed in
the company for which you work andlor in your own company.
(please make your best estimate)


32. In what metropolitan area, city or town, do you currently
work?


City/Town


State


Zip Code


33. On a scale of 1 -10, 1 being not very satisfied and 10 being
very satisfied, all things considered (that is, thinking of the
work, the opportunity for advancement, the salary, etc.), how
satisfied are you with your present job?

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

34. How many different employers, including your current employer,
have you worked for since you graduated?
(Please specify number. If you have ever been self-employed,
please write a 1 next to "Self-employed".)


-Self-employed


# of employers


35. On a scale of 1 10, 1 being not very committed and 10 being very
committed, how committed do you feel to your advertising profession?

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

36. Do you wish now that you had prepared for a major other
than in advertising?
SYes
SNo
37. What is your gender?
SMale
D Female


38. Please mark your ethnic background:
0 American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut
D Asian or Pacific Islander
n Black, not Hispanic
i Hispanic, of any race
0 White, not Hispanic
I Other

39. Are you an American citizen?
SYes
n No


Thank you for your participation. Please use the envelope provided
to return this questionnaire by April 15, 2003.

















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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Alaina M. Rodriguez was born and raised in Orlando, Florida. As a child she was

very creative with a large imagination. These traits would help determine her career path

as she grew older.

In 1999 she moved to Elon, North Carolina, to pursue her bachelor's degree at

Elon University near Greensboro. In May 2003 she received her Bachelor of Arts degree

in corporate communications. A few months later, in August, she began the pursuit of a

Master of Advertising degree in from the University of Florida.

Upon completion of her graduate degree for University of Florida in December

2004, Alaina plans to move to Atlanta, Georgia, to explore the realm of corporate

advertising.