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MBTI TEMPERAMENTS: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MBTI
TEMPERAMENTS AND ADVERTISING CAREERS
ALAINA M. RODRIGUEZ
A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ADVERTISING
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Alaina M. Rodriguez
This document is dedicated to the Lord God Almighty. My faith in him gave me the
strength to accomplish this. "Be strong and courageous, and do the work. Do not be
afraid or discouraged, for the Lord God, my God is with you. He will not fail or forsake
you." -1 Chronicles 28:20
I would like to give special thanks to Dr. John Sutherland for being an excellent
mentor, professor, advisor, and thesis committee chair. I appreciate all the time and
knowledge he put into helping me with my thesis, and challenging me to learn more. I
also want to thank my thesis committee members, Dr. Jorge Villegas and Dr. Marilyn
Roberts, for their insights, patience and support.
In addition, I would like to thank those people at the University of Florida and the
Center for Applications of Psychological Type (CAPT) who have helped throughout the
process. I thank Cher Phillips, Dr. Mickey Schafer, Dr. Robin Lauriault, Jody Hedge, Jim
Albury, Patrick Reakes, and Jamie Johnson (CAPT).
I thank my family and friends, who have always supported my goals. I also thank
my classmates Jennifer Huckeba and Julia Thomas, who became my good friends and
confidants. I thank my best friends Donna Irons and Joel Bidderman for their
encouragement and confidence in me. I thank my grandparents for giving me advice and
listening to me.
Most importantly, I thank my parents, for supporting, challenging and encouraging
me. And for instilling their values in me, especially those of a strong work ethic,
determination, and achievement.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv
LIST OF TA BLE S ....................................................... .. ........... ............ .. vii
A B STR A C T ..................... ................................... ........... ... .............. viii
1 IN TRODU CTION ................................................. ...... .................
2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE ......................................................... .............. 3
B ack g rou n d .................................................................................................. .3
Personality ............................................ ......... 3
M yers-B riggs Type Indicator ...................................................... ..... .......... 5
M BTI- Debate/Controversy/ Discussion............... ..............................................8
T em peram ents ............. ..... .... ......... ......... ................ .............. 11
A advertising Careers ......................... ........................ ..... .... 12
A c c o u n t S erv ic e ............................................................................................. 13
C reativ e D ep artm ent............................................. ......................................... 13
M edia .....................................................................................................13
Production and Studio ....................... .................... .. .. ...... .......... 13
R research ................................................................... 14
C om prison Studies ....... ....................................... ...... ........ .... .... ..... .. ........ .... 15
The Myers-Briggs Personality Type and its Relationship to Computer
P rog ram m in g ...................... ...... ..... .. ...... ..... ................................15
Relationships of Personality Traits in the Engineering and Architectural
Professions ................. ........ ................ ......... 17
A ustralian A advertising A agency ........................................ ....................... 20
T h e G ap ..............................................................................2 3
3 M E T H O D O L O G Y ............................................................................ ................... 24
R e se arch D e sig n ................................................................................................... 2 4
Subject Selection ................................................................24
4 FINDINGS ......... ......... ................................26
C characteristics of R espondents........................... .............. .... .....................26
Research Question 1: There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the
Industry in W which the Respondents W ork? ................................. ............. ......29
Research Question 2: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and
the R respondents Job Titles? ............................................. ................ .......30
Research Question 3: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and
the R respondents Current D uties? ...................................................... ..................31
Research Question 4: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and
the Respondents Satisfaction Toward Their Present Job? ...................................32
Research Question 5: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and
the Respondents Commitment to the Advertising Profession?.............................33
5 CON CLU SION S ........................................ ... ......... .. .............34
APPENDIX INFORMED CONSENT FORM AND QUESTIONAIRE................ 38
L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S ........................................................................ .....................43
BIO GRAPH ICAL SK ETCH ................................................. ................................ 46
LIST OF TABLES
2-1 M B TI D descriptions of Types....................... ........ ........................ ............... 7
2-2 Tem peram ents .......................... ...................... ... ............. ........ 12
4-1 All Survey Respondents Compared to the MBTI sample.......................................26
4-2 94-98 MBTI Types Compared to the 1982 MBTI Types .....................................28
4-3 M BTI Tem peram ents and Industry .................................. ..................................... 29
4-4 M BTI Temperam ents and Job Titles.................................. ......................... 30
4-5 MBTI Temperaments and Current Duties..................................... ...............32
4-6 M B TI Tem peram ents and Satisfaction ........................................ .....................32
4-7 MBTI Temperaments and Commitment ...................................... ............... 33
Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising
MBTI TEMPERAMENTS: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MBTI
TEMPERAMENTS AND ADVERTISING CAREERS
Alaina M. Rodriguez
Chair: John Sutherland
Major Department: Journalism and Communications
Studies have revealed that the Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicator (MBTI) is
a roadmap for individuals to use in determining what profession orjob their preferred
personality best fits. One area that has been neglected in personality research is the
advertising profession. This study explores whether there is a relationship between
personality types and the advertising profession.
Using a survey given to alumni, conducted in 2003 by a large Southeastern
University, five factors were analyzed: (1) the industry in which they work, (2) their
current job titles, (3) their current duties, (4) satisfaction toward their present job, and (5)
commitment toward the advertising profession. These variables were then analyzed to
determine which had the largest contribution to the respondents' MBTI temperaments.
Although there was no significance found among the variables, results proved to be
consistent with theories and other research studies.
Research has revealed that the Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicator (MBTI) is
a roadmap for individuals to use in determining what profession orjob their preferred
personality best fits (Wood, 2002). A study done by Robert Harvey, William Murry, and
Steven Markham showed that in 1991 an estimated 2 million workers had completed the
MBTI. This proved that it is a widely used personality assessment, helping workers
identify suitable occupations for exploration (Harvey, Murry, & Markham, 1995; Healy,
& Woodward, 1998).
One area that has been neglected in personality research is the advertising
profession. Only one study was found on MBTI types working in advertising agencies.
The study was conducted with a 30-member Australian agency which focused on the
relationship of psychological types to the different jobs within an agency-style structure.
Research explaining if a correlation exists between personality type and the advertising
profession is still unavailable.
A secondary research analysis is presented that attempts to determine answers to
the following five questions:
1. Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Industry in Which
the Respondents Work?
2. Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Respondents Job
3. Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Respondents Current
4. Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Respondents
Satisfaction Toward Their Present Job?
5. Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Respondents
Commitment to the Advertising Profession?
Respondents MBTI Temperaments will be compared to the five variables to determine if
a significant relationship existed.
Answers to these questions may provide evidence showing that type has an effect
on the careers people choose in the advertising profession. Results may also be helpful to
those considering jobs in the advertising field to see if their preferred type skews toward
a certain career.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Personality encompasses all aspects of our lives. It gives us character and makes us
different from all other species. Personality consists of the characteristics (behavioral and
emotional) individuals have that distinguishes them from a group. Defined in the
framework of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) explains "how people interact with
the world, are energized, notice the world around them, make decisions, and organize
their lives" (Tieger & Barron-Tieger, 10). Though no one definition of personality has
been universally accepted within the field of psychology, personality has been separated
into two main categories. The first focuses on the consistent differences that exist
between people. This Category of personality focuses on categorizing the stable
characteristics of human nature, to find the ones that cause the most differences. The
second focuses on the qualities that make all people alike, but separates us from other
species. This category looks mainly for factors that influence the course of our lives, and
help define man by our likeness. The duality of the personality definition explains the
two directions taken in personality studies: one showing how we are alike and trying to
organize those traits, and the other trying to find how our differences relate to each other
and other living things (Personality, n.d.).
Personality has been placed into many different frameworks to make research and
organization of knowledge easier. One of the main frameworks which continues to grow
in acceptance is the "Big Five" Taxonomy. The "Big Five" or the Five Factor Model
(FFM) summarizes validities within predictor constructs, allowing knowledge to be
cumulated into meaningful ways. The evolution of the FFM started when Borgatta was
credited with obtaining five stable factors across five methods of gathering data, then
again when Norman labeled the factors. The labels for the "Big Five" are: Extraversion,
Emotional Stability, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Culture. This model has
continued to evolve in the views of many personality psychologists (Barrick & Mount,
The first dimension is called Extraversion. The traits most often associated with
this level include gregarious, talkative, active, assertive, and being sociable. This level
consists of two components ambition and sociability. The second dimension called
Emotional Stability is associated with anxiousness, depression, anger, worry, and
insecurities. The third dimension Agreeableness or likeability has traits such as
courteous, flexible, trusting, good-natured, cooperative, and tolerant. The fourth
dimension most commonly called Conscientiousness or Conscience is a reflection of
dependability. It incorporates other variables like hardworking, persevering, organized,
and responsible. The fifth dimension which has been the most difficult to define is
Intellect which includes imaginative, original, cultured, artistically sensitive, and
intelligence (Barrick & Mount, 1991).
The FFM is important in the study of personality psychology by providing a
framework of five independent dimensions which help explain individual differences. It
has shown to be a positive predictor of relationships between personality constructs and
job-related criteria. The FFM is currently a dominant taxonomy in personality research
(Ones, Mount, Barrick, & Hunter, 1994; Barrick & Mount, 1991; Trippe & Harvey,
Another measurement of personality traits is the Myers-Briggs Personality Type
Indicator (MBTI). This instrument of personality was developed from the Jungian
Typology Theory. The Jungian typology theory states that people have different
fundamental preferences and similar internal instincts. The MBTI was developed from
Jung's ideas while the FFM was developed over a large period of time, with extensive
research. Though the studies have different origins some authors have noted that strong
similarity exists (Harvey, Murry, & Markham, 1995). A main similarity is between the
four MBTI's scales (discussed in the next section) and four of the 'Big Five' dimensions.
One difference is that the MBTI is used primarily for personality assessment while
the FFM is used to explain personality differences. According to some perspectives the
MBTI is the most widely used personality assessment in corporate America. It has been
used to test job performance, career paths, employee turnover, organizational
development and much more. A study done by Harvey, Murry, and Markham showed
that in 1991 an estimated 2 million workers had completed the MBTI to help identify
suitable occupations for exploration (Harvey, Murry, & Markham, 1995; Healy &
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
The Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung's book Psychological Types describes the
systematic ways in which people differ. He created four categories: sensing, intuitive,
thinking, and feeling, that all conscience mental activities could be placed in. With this he
created a model to show different ways people perceive information and make judgments
(Bishop-Clark & Wheeler, 1994).
Jung's type theory has been the basis for many instruments; the most popular is the
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) (Edwards, Lanning, & Hooker, 2002). The Myers-
Briggs Type Indicator was created in the 1950's by a mother daughter team, Katherine
Cook Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers, to expand Jung's theory and to relate it to
everyday life. "The MBTI is currently the most widely used inventory of psychological
types in the world" (Bishop-Clark & Wheeler, 360).
The MBTI is made up of four bipolar scales that measure Extraversion and
Introversion (E & I), Sensing and Intuition (S & N), Thinking and Feeling (T & F), and
Judging and Perceiving (S & P).
Extraversion and introversion (E & I). These terms describe a person's outward or
inward focus to their environment. E's are enthusiastic, enjoy the spotlight, engaged in
interaction, but can talk to much, could be unprepared, and are impatient. I's are
prepared, good at presenting ideas and concepts, but don't like surprises, interruptions,
and can appear aloof.
Sensing and intuition (S & N). These terms describe where people gather
information. S's tend to focus on the present, they know their facts, and are good
listeners, but they can be to detailed, and do not like 'what if questions. N's like
discussing new ideas and trends for the future, and like concepts and relationships but fly
by the seat of their pants, and are unconscious of audience reactions.
Thinking and feeling (T & F). These terms describe the system people use to make
decisions. T's are very logical and concise but they are also critical and insensitive. F's
are personable and friendly but can be overly sensitive and avoid negative circumstances.
Judging and perceiving (J & P). These terms describe the type of life people lead.
J's tend to plan and organize every aspect of their life's, they are structured and orderly,
but can be resistant to change. P's are spontaneous and flexible with their lives but can be
disorganized and late (Healy & Woodward, 1998; Harrington & Loffredo, 2001; Bishop-
Clark & Wheeler, 1994).
These four bipolar scales combine into 16 different personality types faces. Type
faces explain the dominate process that overshadows the other process (Myers & Myers
1980). "There is a unique combination associated with each type. Each of the 16 types
have two primary type faces (derived from the fact that each of us responds to both E and
I energy sources): a more public outer-energized face and a more private inner-energized
one" (Reinhold, n.d.). This explains why people can have two different personalities
based on different situations. The 16 type combinations classify people based on their
preference. The descriptions are listed in Table 2-1.
Table 2-1. MBTI Descriptions of Types
MRTI TYPE LABEL DESCRIPTION
ISTJ Introverted Sensing Thinking Well prepared, good at presenting ideas and concepts
Judging and very thorough.
ISTP Introverted Sensing Thinking Good mechanical skills with an interest in how things
ISFJ Introverted Sensing Feeling Dependable and practical while valuing security and
ISFP Introverted Sensing Feeling Flexible and faithful but avoid conflict.
Introverted Intuitive Feeling
INFJ Inroverted Intuitive Feeling Strong value systems and original style.
INFP Introverted Intuitive Feeling Secluded and reserved with the ability to see the larger
Introverted Intuitive Thinking Analytical and determined to turn theories and visions
Judging into firm plans of action.
Table 2-1. Continued
MRTI TYPE LABEL DESCRIPTION
INTP Introverted Intuitive Thinking Logical, original, and creative thinkers that become
Perceiving excited about knowledge and ideas.
ESTP Extraverted Sensing Thinking Focused on results they are friendly and action-oriented.
ESTJ Extraverted Sensing Thinking Value security and peaceful living with clear
Judging understandings of the way things should be.
ESFP Extraverted Sensing Feeling Practical and common sense driven they are usually the
Perceiving center of attention.
ESFJ Extraverted Sensing Feeling Warm-hearted they put others needs in front of their
ENFP Extraverted Intuitive Feeling Creative and enthusiastic with good people skills while
Perceiving living in harmony with their inner values.
ENFJ Extraverted Intuitive Feeling Great people skills especially at managing group
Judging discussions and issues.
ExtravertedIntuitive Thinking Creative and resourceful in applying logic to find
Perceiving solutions and understanding concepts.
Extraverted Intuitive Thinking
ENTJ Exravertedntuitive Thinking Organized and outspoken they are motivated to success.
(High-Level Description of the Sixteen Personality Types, 1998).
MBTI- Debate/Controversy/ Discussion
The MBTI has had mixed reviews despite its widespread use. One of the main
critiques is based on the reliability and validity of the MBTI (Healy & Woodward, 1998).
Reliability refers to the consistency of responses to a questionnaire. To maintain a high
reliability, test-retests need to be done to examine the assessment over long periods of
time. A few studies have found that when the test-retest interval is short (a few weeks)
almost 50% of the people will be classified into a different type, after the retest. Research
for long test-retest intervals could not be found leading us to believe, that this line of
research has not been completed or found to be significant (Pittenger, 1992; Johnson,
Validity refers to a judgment that indicated how well a question measures what it is
suppose to measure. The validity of the assessment has been tested numerous times, with
conflicting results. Some tests show there is no convergent validity while others proved it
very high. One of the main problems with testing validity is the tendency to emphasize
one scale in the research, instead of looking at all four (Carlson, 1989). Consequently
this creates conflicting results.
A factor analysis was conducted to find out the validity of the MBTI testing. A
factor analysis is a statistical procedure that tests the correlations among the questions in
the test. If the MBTI theory is correct and valid the following should be true.
1. The results should show four clusters.
2. Each factor should be independent of the other factors.
3. The factors should account for the majority of differences among individuals.
The results were not convincing with little to no significance. These results were
inconsistent with the MBTI theory, showing more than four clusters, and no clear
distinctions for the majority of differences among individuals (Pittenger, 1992).
Another debate is on gender and the relationship between the MBTI Type and
occupation. A few critics feel that the assessment is biased toward gender dominated
professions. Looking at management and nursing as examples they are both gender
dominated professions. In comparing the two it would appear that there are different
pattern types, which would be spread out evenly. This concludes that certain personality
types are more likely to be nurses while others become managers. The problem is that
both examples are gender dominated. Nursing is dominated by women and management
is dominated by males, causing the MBTI types to be skewed. If the MBTI were correct
then the proportion of types within the occupations would correspond to a random sample
of the population (Pittenger, 1992).
The statistical structure has also been questioned, if there are four bipolar scales
then the tests results should show eight difference curves. Each bipolar scale measuring
Extraversion and Introversion (E & I), Sensing and Intuition (S & N), Thinking and
Feeling (T & F), and Judging and Perceiving (S & P) should result in eight normal bell
shaped curves, with little to no overlap (Pittenger, 1992). What is found is that most
people score between the extremes, causing four (one for each pair) different curves.
Resulting in individual's tests being similar even if one scored as an E and the other as an
I. Scoring is based on a middle bar (or cutoff points) where individuals fall on either side.
"The differences between the two-letter categories are not as sharp and clear cut as it
would appear, because the MBTI uses an absolute classification scheme for people, it is
possible for people with relatively similar scores to be labeled with much different
personalities" (Pittenger, 4). Some critic's feel that the MBTI is an absolute personality
indicator, which tries to fit all of humanity into 16 boxes of exact personality types. By
placing people into one of sixteen types it reduces the individuality of each person's
qualities or potential (Pittenger, 1992).
Even though the MBTI has been criticized the majority of reviews and researchers
have concluded that the MBTI is a valid and reliable assessment (Bishop-Clark &
Wheeler, 1994). The relationship between the MBTI Type and occupation has been
tested more than any other factor. "Many people have examined the relation between type
and occupation by examining the proportions of type within each profession" (Pittenger,
5). A problem with this is that some researches state that a certain type is dominate in a
certain occupation, what they do not do is find the correlation of that type to the general
population. If there is no difference between occupation and general population there is
no significance in the results. Because of this, some researchers believe there is not a
positive correlation between MBTI type and success in an occupation (Pittenger, 1992;
Dash & Logan, 1990).
What needs to be remembered about typing is that the MBTI is not an absolute
classification but preference indicator with everyone encompassing traits of both, but
preferring one side over the other. Peoples traits can change based on the situation again
explaining why we sometimes see people with two personalities.
The MBTI does not lock people into a certain type instead it shows individuals
their preferred type or face. A Type Face is the face an individual uses the majority of the
time, it is the preferred scale. "While our Myers-Briggs Type is a lifelong constant, the
Type Faces are the building blocks of a maturing and developing personality" (Reinhold,
n.d.). Today, the MBTI is one of the most widely accepted and researched assessment of
cognitive style and personality, and at predicting positive 'fits' for a career. Studies show
that in 1991 an estimated 2 million people had completed the MBTI (Healy &
Woodward, 1998; Bishop-Clark & Wheeler, 1994; Edwards, Lanning, & Hooker, 2002;
Harvey, Murry, & Markham, 1995).
Another way to look at personality types is through temperaments or type
functions. The middle two letters of a persons personality type is referred to as the type
function. "Some people who have studied and used Type for many years consider the
function approach best because this combination identifies the way a person prefers to
perceive (through either Sensing or Intuition) with they way he or she likes to judge
(through either Thinking or Feeling) in other words, what the person naturally notices
about the world and how he or she usually makes decisions" (Tieger & Barron-Tieger,
Keirsey and Bates discovered that the four temperaments, which have been
described throughout history with the Greek philosophers, the Middle Ages and
Paracelsus, in American Indian medicine, and in Hindu wisdom (Keirsy & Bates, 1978).
Temperaments refer to the preferred function or nature that operates together to effect
behavior. The temperaments have four categories in which all people seem to fit. The 16
MBTI types fall into one of the temperaments allowing data to be collapsed (Tieger &
Barron-Tieger, 2000; McBride, Cline, & Miller, 1987). Descriptions of the
temperaments and the percent of the population that falls into each temperament can be
seen in Table 2-2.
Table 2-2. Temperaments
% OF POP NAME MRTI LABEL DESCRIPTION
A 38 Traditionalists SJ Sensing Motivated by duty and
ox 3 enc S Sensing Motivated by action and
Approx 38% Experiencers SP Perceivers freedom
Intuitive Motivated by spirit and
Approx 12% Idealists NF
S.Intuitive Motivated by power and
Approx 12% Conceptualizes NT
(McBride, Cline, & Miller, 1987; Tieger & Barron-Tieger, 2000).
"Advertising is a paid, mediated form of communication form an identifiable
source, designed to persuade the reliever to take some action, now or in the future"
(Richards & Curran, 74). By being paid it makes Advertising different from Public
Relations. Mediated refers to the mass medium from a person such as a commercial or
radio ad. Identifiable makes the advertisements capable of being known. Advertising
persuades change of mind, attitude, and action. And last it creates an action by
identifying brands, recognizing, or having an attitude toward the brand.
Most advertising careers are organized into five distinct functions of account
service, creative department, media, production and studio, and research.
The liaisons between the clients (the actual advertisers) and the agencies. Account
service people work with the clients to develop advertising strategies and plans. They do
not create the advertisements, but are responsible for informing the rest of the agency
what to do.
Develops the concepts or for the client's ads. Copywriters are responsible for the
words and art directors take care of the pictures portion.
Media people buy advertising space from television stations, newspapers, and
magazines. They also make sure the ads are run during the correct spots, where they will
influence the largest target market.
Production and Studio
Transforms the ideas from the creative department into actual ads. They produce
the computer graphics and digital files, and are responsible for getting the ads printed or
to the media people.
Is in charge of gathering relevant information on the client's consumer behaviors.
They understand the wants, requests, feelings, concerns, motivating forces, and ideals of
the consumer (Strachan, 1999).
For the purpose of this study the definitions of jobs in advertising agencies are
listed and defined below.
* Advertising account executive: manages the account services department, devises
and coordinates advertising campaigns for their clients.
* Advertising account manager: acts as the liaison between the client, and the agency.
This person has to be able to get the best work for the agency at the best price
* Advertising creative director: develops the ideas, images, and words that make up
commercials and ads. Also, oversees the copy chief, art director, and associated
* Art Director: develops the visual concepts and designs for ads which may include:
preparing past-ups, rough lettering, and layouts for print ads and television
* Communications director: responsible for the planning and development of the
organization's activities as they relate to fundraising and communications.
* Copy writer/ publicity writer: generates ideas for product or company names and
writes dialogue for TV commercials and scripts for radio ads. Also develops
merchandising and sales promotion materials.
* Designer: creates the layout, and helps visualize the overall concept of a product.
* Editor: reads and corrects written material for publication, decides on the editorial
policy and the content of publications or news items, and/or manage the production
of publications and the staff involved.
* Freelance media planer: needs to be able to place advertisements in the right place
at the right time, where it will reach the right people. This requires the ability to
find and analyze data. This person does not work for an agency fulltime.
* Informational-graphics designer: creates everything from packaging designs,
websites, company and brand logos, and possibly stationary.
* International sales and marketing: an international understanding of what the
buyers want, and the values associated with what is being sold, and how that
product or service is marketed in a particular place.
* Media planner/buyer: needs to be able to place advertisements in the right place at
the right time, where it will reach the right people. This requires the ability to find
and analyze data.
* New market or product conceptualizer: evaluate market and corporate needs to
establish conceptual opportunities on a consulting basis. Leads Company in
conceptual brainstorming and research activities.
* Photographer: mostly done through freelancing, the photographer takes pictures for
* Research and development specialist: needs to understand the wants, requests,
feelings, concerns, motivating forces, and ideals of the consumer. This person
should be a specialist on consumer behavior.
* Research assistant: assists the research specialist in understanding the needs of the
* Strategic planner: identifies key strategic opportunities, and interfaces advertising
agencies and clients in the representation and development of strategic programs.
(The Job Guide, 2004; Advertising Association, 2004; Advertising Educational
Foundation, 2004; Avery, 2000).
The Myers-Briggs Personality Type and its Relationship to Computer Programming
This study investigates whether recent college graduates with certain personality
types (as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) performed better in certain areas
of advertising than those students with different personality types. A similar study was
done comparing personality types to success in writing computer programs, focusing on
the Thinking and Feeling (T & F) dimension, because students who are more logical
thinking tend to be better at writing computer programs than those that are feeling
oriented (Bishop-Clark & Wheeler, 1994).
Literature relating to problem solving and the MBTI laid the foundation for this
study. The scale having the strongest impact on problem solving is the Sensing and
Intuition scale. Sensors are good at facts, and move from general to specific, and
Intuitives are good at seeing the big picture, and viewing things different ways. While
jobs in the advertising industry are a good mix of both, computer programming relies
more on sensing (Bishop-Clark & Wheeler, 1994).
To test the relationship between the MBTI and computer programmers, an
experiment was done. First there was a pilot study done on 34 students in an introductory
programming class. Twenty-five of the students completed the class, the MBTI was
administered in the first week of class, and all assignments, quizzes, and tests were
collected and analyzed. The exploratory experiment provided the base for the hypotheses
that would be used in the real study.
The researchers created four hypotheses which looked at which dimension would
have a higher program average; Introverts or Extraverts, Sensors or Intuitives, Judgers or
Perceptives, and Thinkers or Feelers (Bishop-Clark & Wheeler, 1994).
The primary study consisted of 114 students, in four different sections of the same
introductory class the pilot study took. The professor was the same for all four sections
but was unaware of the hypotheses, so there was no biased on his part. Ninety-three of
the students completed the class, the MBTI was administered in the first week of class,
and all assignments, quizzes, and tests were collected and analyzed. The main difference
from the pilot study was the students worked in pairs to complete the assignments. All
pairs were instructor assigned and changed with every assignment. Individual grades
were given despite the working in pairs, so this did not affect the end results of the
experiment (Bishop-Clark & Wheeler, 1994).
The results showed which dimensions had a higher program average. Introverts and
Extraverts, Judgers and Perceptives, Thinkers and Feelers were all found to be
insignificant, showing no major difference in the scores. Sensors and Intuitives were
found to be significant with Sensors having a higher program average than Intuitives,
because computer programming relies more on sensing. The two dominate personalities
found were sensing and judging (SJ) which seemed to fair better then their partners,
intuitives and thinking, respectively (NT).
The study found that overall personality has little to do with how well students
succeeded in the computer programming class. The researchers do believe that
personality was a factor in how well students preformed different tasks associated with
the class, such as programming assignments (Bishop-Clark & Wheeler, 1994).
Relationships of Personality Traits in the Engineering and Architectural Professions
Another trend in business organizations today is the relationships between
personality traits and performance. A study was done investigating relationships of
personality traits with successful behaviors in the engineering and architectural (E/A)
professions' project design services. The categories for the five project service's are:
planning, conceptual design, contract documents, construction administration, and firm
management duties. The MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) was used to measure the
individual personalities (Carr, Garza, & Vorster, 2002).
The main focus was to examine the degree to which preferences of one's
personality are predictive of job performance. Organizations must learn to look beyond
the obvious performance indicators and look towards personality as a major factor. By
understanding how personality plays a roll it will enable these organizations to improve
the design and construction process (Carr, Garza, & Vorster, 2002).
To understand how personality works within design services an experiment was
developed into three parts. The first part was to select an instrument to measure
personality and conduct a pilot study. The second step was to create a Critical Project
Success Factors (CPSF) questionnaire which will be used to measure the validity and
reliability from the pilot study. The third step was to administer the MBTI and CPSF to a
sample of E/A service providers (Carr, Garza, & Vorster, 2002).
The Independent variable the MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) was selected to
measure individual personalities for both the pilot and main study. The Variables are
made up from the MBTI four bipolar scales that measure Extraversion and Introversion
(E & I), Sensing and Intuition (S & N), Thinking and Feeling (T & F), and Judging and
Perceiving (S & P) (Healy & Woodward, 1998). The dependent variables were the
Critical Project Success Factors (CPSF) questionnaire which categorizes the performance
measures of the design-related activities. The categories for the five design-related
activities project service's are: planning, conceptual design, contract documents,
construction administration, and firm management duties. These five services were
condensed into 3 phases for use in the study: Planning Phase (Study and Report;
Conceptual or Preliminary Design), Design Phase and Detailed Preparation or Contract
Documents, and Construction Administration Phase (Carr, Garza, & Vorster, 2002).
The Planning Phase (Study and Report; Conceptual or Preliminary Design)
includes the task of project planning. The individual with the best qualifications for this
phase should be a MBTI intuitive (N). N's like discussing new ideas and trends for the
future, and like concepts and relationships but fly by the seat of their pants, and are
unconscious of audience reactions. The Design Phase and Detailed Preparation or
Contract Documents includes having to work within the measures of project success "on
time and on budget". Design work is detailed oriented and requires a great deal of
discipline. The person should be an MBTI judging (J). J's tend to plan and organize every
aspect of their life's, they are structured and orderly, but can be resistant to change. The
Construction Administration Phase requires a professional who is a problem solver with
creative solutions an MBTI intuitive (N) (see above description) or thinker (T). T's are
very logic and concise but they are also critical and insensitive (Healy & Woodward,
1998; Harrington & Loffredo, 2001; Bishop-Clark & Wheeler, 1994; Carr, Garza, &
The researchers created a general hypothesis which looked at which personality
attributes will influence performance of the design services. Exploratory hypotheses were
created for each phase of the study to see if there were mean performance differences in
the four bipolar scales measured for the planning, design, construction administration,
and general firm management duties performed (Carr, Garza, & Vorster, 2002).
The sample consisted of 85 subjects in the Engineering and Architectural fields,
with jobs at the 'project manager' level and above. The selection process was based on
assignments within their organizations and their group duties. A random selection was
picked and invited to participate by the target firms' management (Carr, Garza, &
The research did find that certain personality attributes will influence performance
of the design services. This finding was found in both this study and other research. A
few mean performance differences were found based on personality, phase and duties
preformed. It was also found that Individuals with high Intuitive (MBTI, N) and
Perceiving (MBTI, P) preferences did better than those with preferences for Sensing
(MBTI, S) and Judging (MBTI, J). These results held true for both the planning and
construction phase. Individuals with high Judging (MBTI, J) and Perceiving (MBTI, P)
preferences did better with the duties associated in the design phase. Individuals with
high Intuitive (MBTI, N) and Perceiving (MBTI, P) preferences were successful in the
construction phase. The Thinking/Feeling (MBTI, T/F) preferences did not influence
performance in any of the phases (Carr, Garza, & Vorster, 2002).
Overall the research shows that it is important to place the correct personality trait
within the correct career assignment. This is because individual personality
characteristics influence job performance. Organizations should learn to look beyond the
obvious performance indicators such as education, experience and cognitive abilities and
look towards personality as a major factor. By understanding how personalities play a roll
in job performance it will enable organizations to improve their overall effectiveness
(Carr, Garza, & Vorster, 2002).
Australian Advertising Agency
It has been revealed that the MBTI is a roadmap for individuals to use in
determining what profession orjob that their personality best fits. But, the advertising
profession has been neglected in this area of study as only one study was found on types
working in advertising agencies.
The study was conducted with a 30-member Australian agency which used the
pseudonym, Word & Pictures (W&P) to protect the agency's identity. Conducted by Judy
Strachan, an MBTI certified practitioner and advertising veteran. The study focused on
the relationship of psychological types to the different jobs within an agency-style
structure. Her theory was that ad agencies are predominantly ENTP/ENFP organizations.
The theory was supported with prior agency work and summaries from researcher
The ENTP organisation is an upbeat, can-do organisation that is at its best
designing or inventing an answer to a difficult problem.
ENFP organizations tend to fall into two categories: the creative organisation that
develops new ideas or products for people, and the idealistic organisation that
focuses on developing, serving or enlightening people (Strachan, 33).
Strachan believed that by combining Bridges two descriptions together, you have a very
good picture of a typical advertising agency- creative, inventive and trying to "enlighten"
The advertising agency was divided into typical departments/job functions
consisting of account service, creative department, production and studio, and media
(administration and finance). Then to find type preferences relevant to advertising
agencies Strachan used the career listings found at the back of the MBTIManual: A
Guide to the Development of Use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator by Isabel Myers
and Mary McCaulley. The following lists details the rankings of occupations relevant to
74.70% E Marketing personnel
66.29% E Public relations workers & publicity writers
86.06% N Writers, artists, entertainers & agents
75.58% N Writers and journalists
79.52% T Managers: sales, not specified
72.78% T Service workers
61.54% F Journalists
58.65% F Writers, artists, entertainers & agents
61.54% F Journalists
58.65% F Writers, artists, entertainers & agents
61.54% P Journalists
61.06% p Writers, artists, entertainers & agents
The lists for occupations attractive to the various types show:
21.15% ENFP Journalists
19.23% ENFP Writers, artists, entertainers & agents
16.95% ENTP Photographers
13.25% ENTP Marketing personnel
8.99% ENTP Public relations workers & publicity writers
The type breakdown for W&P confirmed the theory of ENTP/ ENFP. The
E 17 I 13 Group Type: (determined by largest count in each preference)
S 10 N 20 ENT/FP
T 15 F 15 Modal type: (determined by predominate type)
J 14 P 16 ENFP
Type was then broken down for each departments/job function.
* Account service- Group Type and Modal Type was ENTJ
* Creative department (Even split between Copywriters and Art directors) Group
Type ENFP and Modal Type was ENT/FP
* Production and studio- Group Type ESFP and Modal Type was ISFP
* Media (admin and finance) Media INTJ/ ENFP, Accounting ISTJ, Receptionist
Strachan found that Words and Pictures fit the MBTI concept with the agency
being predominantly an ENTP/ENFP organization. The most interesting observation
found was the S/N difference found between the Creative and Production departments.
Further research would help determine the reasons for the type differences (Strachan,
Because MBTI personality types cannot be used to categorize or group individuals,
temperaments are often used. So, do certain temperaments determine what advertising
career is chosen? Here are the following five Research Questions.
* RQ1: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Industry in
Which the Respondents Work?
* RQ2: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Respondents
* RQ3: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Respondents
* RQ4: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Respondents
Satisfaction Toward Their Present Job?
* RQ5: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the Respondents
Commitment to the Advertising Profession?
This chapter will describe the methods and procedures of the study as it relates to
(1) research design and (2) subject selection.
Data was taken from a questionnaire that was sent to advertising graduates from a
large Southeastern University in 2003. (See Appendix for sample of survey.) The purpose
of the questionnaire was to gather information from alumni of the advertising program. It
was not done to determine the answers to the aforementioned research questions. The
secondary research questionnaire consisted of three parts. The first part was comprised
of questions concerning involvement and evaluation of the subject's education. The
second part questioned the subject about their professional experiences and history. The
third asked demographic questions, relating to gender, ethnic background, and
citizenship. Once collected the surveys were coded and analysis was done to test the
relationships between variables.
Graduates from 1994 to 1998 were administered the MBTI while still attending the
university. MBTI scored were collected from a professor in advertising as part of the
course content for the core communications classes. The recorded MBTI scores were
used to test relationships between survey questions and personality types.
A listing bought and generated from a large Southeastern University's alumni
association enabled six thousand surveys to be sent out to graduates from the department
of advertising. Of those six thousand surveys 804 were returned, a response rate of
The participation of the survey was strictly voluntary; the subjects did not have to
answer any questions they did not wish to answer. There was no penalty for not
participating, no compensation provided for their participation, and all surveys were kept
Of the 804 surveys returned responses from the years 1994 to 1998 were sorted
down to 110, because MBTI scores existed for that time period. Out of the 110 surveys
52 could be matched to MBTI scores.
Major findings of this study are presented and data analysis results are reported in
this chapter. The first section presented will be the characteristics of the respondents.
This will be followed by the results of the respondents' temperaments in the advertising
profession. Other variables found within the advertising profession will be correlated to
the respondents' temperaments. These include: (Research Question 1) the industry in
which they work, (Research Question 2) their current job titles, (Research Question 3)
their current duties, (Research Question 4) satisfaction toward their present job, and
(Research Question 5) commitment toward the advertising profession.
Characteristics of Respondents
The MBTI sample of respondents graduated between 1994 and 1998. A large
majority (78.8%) are female, while 80.8% are White, not Hispanic. Statistics of MBTI
respondent's compared to all survey respondents are found in table 4-1.
Table 4-1. All survey respondents compared to the MBTI sample.
All Respondents MBTI Respondents
n % n %
Began their academic career at the University 499 62.1 37 71.2
Transferred from an in-state community college 199 24.8 10 19.2
Did not work during the pursuit of their degree 295 36.7 21 40.4
First position after graduating was found after two
months 513 63.8 39 75.0
Have been employed by up to four companies 451 56.1 34 65.4
Are employed full time 601 74.8 44 84.6
Table 4-1. Continued
All Respondents Respondents
n % n %
Work either within the advertising or media industry 186 23.1 24 46.2
Are moderately satisfied with their current job 470 58.4 34 65.4
See their current position as a career instead of a job 526 65.4 32 61.5
Wish they had prepared for a major other than
advertising 506 62.9 20 38.4
The CAPT Study and Distribution of MBTI Types
A comparable study done by the Center for Applications of Psychological Type
(CAPT), was a Ten Year Follow-Up to The University of Florida Freshman Study. The
entire freshman class of 1972 was given the MBTI as part of an academic advisement
improvement study. A follow up study was done ten years later in 1982, to find out what
majors they graduated from, and how the overall group compared to the initial one from
1972. We don't know respondent's original scores just the majors they graduated from.
Table 4-2 shows the distribution of the 1994-1998 MTBI Types and Temperaments
compared to CAPT's (1982) MBTI types and Temperaments from the Advertising major.
There were 52 respondents for both studies (94-98 and 1982).
The data shows (Table 4-2) that MBTI Type and Temperaments are consistent
across time. Showing that both samples had 9 (17.3%) NT's (iNtuitive Thinkers). The
distribution of the 94-98 MBTI types shows that 15 out of the 16 types are present. There
were no respondent with the type INTJ (Introvert iNtuitive Thinking Judger). The most
respondents (13.46%, 7 respondents) were ESFJ's (Extravert Sensing Feeling Judgers).
Three types had 1 respondent (1.92%), ISTP (Introvert Sensing Thinking Perceiver),
ENTJ (Extravert iNtuitive Thinking Judger), and INFP (Introvert iNtuitive Feeling
Table 4-2. 94-98 MBTI Types Compared to the 1982 MBTI Types
94-98 MBTI 1982 MBTI 94-98 Temper 1982 Temper
Type n % n % Temperament n % n %
ISTP 1 19.2 2 3.9
ISFP 4 7.7 2 3.9
ESTP 4 7.7 0 0.0
ESFP 4 7.7 5 9.6 SP 13 25.0 9 17.3
ISTJ 4 7.7 4 7.7
ISFJ 3 5.8 3 5.8
ESTJ 4 7.7 5 9.6
ESFJ 7 13.5 3 5.8 SJ 18 34.6 15 28.9
INTJ 2 3.9 0 0.0
INTP 2 3.9 2 3.9
ENTP 4 7.7 3 5.8
ENTJ 1 1.9 4 7.7 NT 9 17.3 9 17.3
INFJ 0 0.0 1 1.9
INFP 1 1.9 3 5.8
ENFP 6 11.3 11 21.2
ENFJ 5 9.6 4 7.7 NF 12 23.1 19 36.5
Chi Square 2.58; df 3; n.s.
Due to the small incidence of specific types, MBTI types were collapsed into four
different temperaments to avoid analysis of small groups. Temperaments refer to the
preferred function or nature that operates together to effect behavior. The temperaments
have four categories in which all people seem to fit. The 16 MBTI types fall into one of
the temperaments allowing data to be collapsed (Tieger, & Barron-Tieger, 2000;
McBride, Cline, & Miller, 1987). All 52 Respondents were re categorized into
Temperaments. The analyses were run using these categories.
* Sensing Judgers- SJ (34.6%, 18 respondents)
* Sensing Perceivers- SP (25%, 13 respondents)
* Intuitive Feelers- NF (23%, 12 respondents)
* Intuitive Thinkers- NT (17.3%, 9 respondents)
Research Question 1: There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the
Industry in Which the Respondents Work?
Survey respondents were asked, to "best describe the industry in which they
currently work" (See Appendix, survey question 26). Out of the total number of
respondents 47 answered the question. Industries collapsed into Media were: graphic arts,
internet and new media, media-broadcast, media-print, and telecommunications.
Industries collapsed into "Other" were: arts and entertainment, automotive, beverage,
education, food, healthcare, legal services, non-profit and social services, real estate,
retail/wholesale, travel and tourism, and other.
The responses were collapsed into three groups for analysis (Table 4-3):
(1) Advertising Agencies (23.4%), (2) Media (27.7%), (3) Other industries (48.9%).
Table 4-3. MBTI Temperaments and Industry
SJ SP NF NT Total
Industry n % n % n % n % n %
Ad Agency 6 33.3 0 0.0 2 20.0 3 33.3 11 23.4
Media 3 16.7 6 60.0 1 10.0 3 33.3 13 27.7
Other 9 50.0 4 40.0 7 70.0 3 33.3 23 48.9
Total 18 100.0 10 100.0 10 100.0 9 100.0 47 100.0
Chi-Square 10.85; df6; p=.093
The Advertising agency had the majority of respondents 6 (33.3%) being classified
as Sensing Judgers (SJ). Media had the majority of 6 (60.0%) respondents being
classified as Sensing Perceivers (SP), while there was no Sensing Perceivers (SP) in
advertising agencies. Intuitive Feelers (NF) skewed slightly too advertising agencies
(20.0%, 2 respondents) over media (10.0%, 1 respondents). While Intuitive Thinkers
(NT) with 3 respondents each (33.3%), didn't skew to either advertising agencies or
media. Though there were some common factors with theories, the relationship between
Industry and MBTI Temperaments was not significant.
Research Question 2: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the
Respondents Job Titles?
Survey respondents were asked, in an open-ended question, "What is your current
job title?" (See Appendix, survey question 27). Out of the total number of respondents
52 answered the question.
Respondents were organized into 7 categories by job title (Table 4-4): (1) Account
Services (19.2%), (2) Media (15.4%), (3) Creative (21.2%), (4) Research (1.9%), (5)
Marketing management (19.2%), (6) Education (5.8%), (7) Other (17.3%).
Table 4-4. MBTI Temperaments and Job Titles
SJ SP NF NT Total
Industry n % n % n % n % n %
Account Service 4 22.2 2 15.4 3 25.0 1 11.1 10 19.2
Media 1 5.6 3 23.1 3 25.0 1 11.1 8 15.4
Creative 5 27.8 3 23.1 0 0.0 3 33.3 11 21.2
Research 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 11.1 1 1.9
Marketing Mgmt 2 11.1 3 23.1 3 25.0 2 22.2 10 19.2
Education 2 11.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 11.1 3 5.8
Other 4 22.2 2 15.4 3 25.0 0 0.0 9 17.3
Total 18 100.0 13 100.0 12 100.0 9 100.0 52 100.0
Chi-Square 17.49; df 18; p=.489
Job titles in the creative industry had the majority of 5 respondents (27.8%) being
classified as Sensing Judgers (SJ) and the majority of Intuitive Thinkers (NT) with 3
respondents (33.3%). Though, creative had the most Intuitive Thinkers (NT), marketing
management was close with 2 respondents (22.2%). Sensing Perceivers (SP) was fairly
evenly split with 3 respondents (23.1%) between job titles in media, creative, and
marketing management, and 2 respondents (15.4%) for account services. Intuitive Feelers
(NF) were also evenly split with 3 respondents (25%) between job titles in account
services, media, and marketing management. The relationship between Job Titles and
MBTI Temperaments is not significant (p=.489).
Research Question 3: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the
Respondents Current Duties?
Survey respondents were asked, in a "mark all that apply question" (See Appendix,
survey question 28), "What are your current duties?" Respondents were grouped by
examining all duties respondents indicated that they currently had. To place the
respondents more accurately job titles of the respondents (See Appendix, survey question
27) and the industry in which they work (See Appendix, survey question 26) were also
Duties collapsed into Account Service were: account manager, account planner,
brand manager, campaigning, and marketing management. Duties collapsed into Media
were: media planning, media buying, media sales and interactive media. Duties
collapsed into Creative were: art director, copywriting, creative director, graphic design,
and print production. And Duties collapsed into Other were: research, traffic, and other
duties. These other factors helped collapse the 18 possible responses of duties, into four
groups (Table 4-5): (1) Account (32.7%, 17 respondents), (2) Media (19.2%, 10
respondents), (3) Creative (13.5%, 7 respondents), (4) Other Duties (34.6%, 18
Current duties in account services had the most respondents for Sensing Judgers
(SJ) (8 respondents, 44.4%), Intuitive Feelers (NF) (4 respondents, 33.3%), and Intuitive
Thinkers (NT) (4 respondents, 44.4%), they also had the least Sensing Perceivers (SP)
(1 respondent, 7.7%). Sensing Perceivers (SP) were evenly split with 3 respondents
(23.1%) between duties in media and creative. Creative had the least respondents with 1
(5.6%) Sensing Judgers (SJ) and no Intuitive Feelers (NF). The least respondents in
Intuitive Thinkers (NT) were media with 1 (11.1%). The relationship between
Temperament and Current Duties is not significant (p=.156).
Table 4-5. MBTI Temperaments and Current Duties
SJ SP NF NT Total
Duties n % n % n % n % n %
Account Service 8 44.4 1 7.7 4 33.3 4 44.4 17 32.7
Media 4 22.2 3 23.1 2 16.7 1 11.1 10 19.2
Creative 1 5.6 3 23.1 0 0.0 3 33.3 7 13.5
Other Duties 5 27.8 6 46.2 6 50.0 1 11.1 18 34.6
Total 18 100.0 13 100.0 12 100.0 9 100.0 52 100.0
Chi-Square 13.14; df9; p=.156
Research Question 4: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the
Respondents Satisfaction Toward Their Present Job?
Respondents were asked, "All things considered, how satisfied are you with your
present job?" (See Appendix, survey question 33.) Over half of respondents 34 (65.4%)
are over moderately satisfied with their current job. The average level of satisfaction, as
it related to satisfaction with the profession, had a mean of 7.3 with a range of one to ten,
and a standard deviation of 2.0. The median was 7.5 and mode was 7.0.
Satisfaction with current job has no affect by type (Table 4-6), because over time
types will find where they are happy. There is no significant relationship between
respondents' MBTI Temperaments and satisfaction with their current job (p=.777).
Table 4-6. MBTI Temperaments and Satisfaction
SJ SP NF NT Total
Satisfaction 7.3 7.4 7.9 6.6 7.3
n46; df3; F .667; p=.577
Research Question 5: Is There a Relationship between MBTI Temperament and the
Respondents Commitment to the Advertising Profession?
Respondents were asked to evaluate their commitment to the advertising profession
on an interval scale where one was the lowest value and 10 was the highest. (See
Appendix, survey question 35.) The average level of commitment was 6.1 with a range
of one to ten and a standard deviation of 3.2. The median was 7.0 and the mode was one.
Commitment to the advertising profession has no affect by type (Table 4-7). The
relationship between respondents' MBTI Temperaments and Commitment to the
advertising profession is not significant (p=.768).
Table 4-7. MBTI Temperaments and Commitment
SJ SP NF NT Total
Commitment 5.6 6.5 5.7 6.9 6.1
n50; df3; F .380; p=.768
There were not significant relationships between the factors but the results do
support some preferences in results of theories, and consistency with other research.
Theory suggests that advertising agencies and account services would skew
towards Sensing Judgers (SJ) because they are motivated by duty and responsibility.
These respondents are people who are down to earth and decisive. They are hardworking,
organized and reliable (Tieger & Barron-Tieger, 2000).
Results and theories both show that sensing perceivers (SP) are motivated by action
and freedom. Media (graphic arts, internet, and new media) and creative people love to
live in the moment and be free to respond to whatever new opportunities may arise. They
focus on what they can accomplish here and now, and enjoy moving from one challenge
to another (Tieger & Barron-Tieger, 2000).
Intuitive Feelers (NF) were spread all over the board with no one group
dominating. NF's are motivated by spirit and unity. They enjoy jobs that are personally
meaningful, by helping others become fulfilled (Tieger & Barron-Tieger, 2000).
Intuitive Thinkers (NT) were found in creative and account services. NT's are
motivated by power and knowledge. They are good at seeing the big-picture, enjoy
strategizing, and knowledge (Tieger & Barron-Tieger, 2000).
Satisfaction and commitment are not affected by type. This deals with the theory
that overtime types will find a place they are comfortable and happy. So this sample must
have already found that place.
Overall, the data was consistent with other research such as, The Australian
Advertising Agency, the 1982 CAPT study and personality theories (temperaments). The
study done by the Center for Applications of Psychological Type (CAPT), on a Ten Year
Follow-Up to The University of Florida Freshman Study (in 1982) shows that MBTI
Type and Temperaments are fairly consistent. In the 1982 CAPT study and the above
research for 1994-98 there were 52 respondents for both studies.
The data showed that both samples had 9 (17.3%) Intuitive Thinkers (NT). The
1994-98 study had 18 (32.6%) Sensing Judgers (SJ) while the 1982 CAPT study had 15
(28.9%) Sensing Judgers (SJ). The 1982 CAPT study had more Intuitive Feelers (NF)
with 19 respondents (36.5%), while the 1994-98 study had 12 respondents (23.1%). The
1994-98 study did have more Sensing Perceivers (SP) with 13 (25.0%), while the 1982
CAPT study only had 9 respondents (17.3%).
Limitations and Future Research
This study has several limitations, which may account for the lack of significant
results required to support the research questions. Future research should address the
limitations of this study.
The nature of the sample used for this study mainly limited the research findings.
The small sample size (52) should not be generalized to the general population. The
majority of the respondents were women (78.8%) while only 21.1% were men. The
majority were also classified as Sensing Judgers (SJ). This is due to the fact studies have
shown that women and Sensing Judgers (SJ) are more likely to fill out and return a
mailed questionnaire. Sensing Judgers (SJ) are very organized and responsible people
causing a biased. The majority of the women responding were White, not Hispanic
(80.8%) which shows there was not a lot of diversity in the advertising department at the
large Southeastern University. The small sample size is why the above things are a
A larger sample size would allow researchers to see if there is significance in larger
samples. It might also be able to avoid the above biases found in small sample sizes. A
larger sample could examine more areas of personality types such as MBTI type,
Temperament, or Dominance type. A larger sample size could also examine specific
groups in the advertising industry such as art directors and media planners.
The research was taken from a secondary analysis and respondents MBTI Types
were taken while they were still in school at the university, and matched to their survey
data. These circumstances may also skew the results and lead to flawed conclusions. The
secondary analysis was an informational gathering survey not a research survey. Because
it was not created for research purposes the questions did not probe for deeper answers.
Probing questions should focus on current personality type habits, and more about the
A future research study would allow researchers to probe for more pertinent
information, such as current personality tendencies, and details about their careers in the
advertising industry. It would show the progress of jobs to see if there were any
correlations between job progression and personality type. Future research might also
include a random sample of individuals in other professions, to see different proportions.
Time was also a limitation. If this could be tested over a period of time it would
allow researchers to see if type has more of an affect on profession later in their careers.
Future Research with a larger sample size and a research based questionnaire would
allow respondents to be tested over a period of time. This would track types as they
become satisfied and committed to jobs, and their satisfaction compared to temperaments
compared to jobs.
Some important questions to keep in mind when researching the advertising
industry and personality types include: How is the advertising industry defined? How are
subheads such as media and creative classified and defined? How personality type is
classified (MBTI type, Temperament, or Dominance)? Is one type classification more
affective than the others? By answering these questions, future research will be more
useful to those interested in the concept of personality as it relates to the advertising
INFORMED CONSENT FORM AND QUESTIONNAIRE
Survey of Advertising Graduates
Please read this consent document carefully before you decide to participate in this study.
This study is being conducted by Dr. John Sutherland, professor and chair of the Department of
Advertising at the University of Florida.
Purpose of the research study:
The purpose of this study is to develop a profile of the professional history and accomplishments of
What you will be asked to do in the study:
To participate, you may complete the attached questionnaire.
10- 15 minutes
Risks and Benefits:
There are no risks. Participants will be able to receive a summary report of the results.
No compensation will be provided for your participation.
Your responses will remain anonymous.
Participation is strictly voluntary, and you will not have to answer any question you do not wish to answer.
There is no penalty for not participating.
Right to withdraw from the study:
You have the right to withdraw from the study at anytime without consequence.
Whom to contact if you have questions about the study:
John Sutherland, Professor and Chair
Department of Advertising
College of Journalism and Communications
University of Florida
PO Box 118400
Gainesville, FL 32611-8400
Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study:
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611-2250
Please fill in or mark your best answers.
1. When did you graduate from UF?
la. What year?
2. Which of the following best describes your academic program?
0 Started and completed my undergraduate program at UF
0 Transferred to UF from a community college in Florida
D Transferred to UF from a community college outside of
0 Transferred to UF from a 4-year institution in Florida
D Transferred to UF from a 4-year institution outside of Florida
3. Which of the following best describes you?
0 I knew the specific advertising area in which I wanted to
focus and I stayed within that area
0 I developed my career interests while I was an advertising
0 I had an interest in advertising when I entered the
advertising program, but after taking courses in
advertising I decided that it was not the career choice for me
0 I never intended to pursue a career related to advertising
0 I had a different career interest when I entered UF, but after
taking advertising courses I decided that advertising was the
career choice for me
4. In which of the following advertising areas were you most interested
while you were in college? (Mark all that apply.)
] Account coordinator
] Account management
] Account planner
] Advertising manager
] Art director
] Broadcast production
] Event planning
] Graphic designer
] Internet sales
] Magazine sales
] Marketing manager
] Media buyer
] Media planner
] Media sales in general
0 Newspaper sales
0 Outdoor sales
D Political campaigning
0 Print production
0 Product/brand manager
0 Promotion/IMC manager
D Promotional products-
D Public relations
0 Radio sales
0 Sales promotion
0 Television/cable sales
5. What was your minor or area of outside concentration?
6. Which did you complete?
D Foreign language requirement, or
D Quantitative option, or
0 Neither applied to my program
7. What was your grade point average for advertising courses?
8. What was your grade point average overall?
3 49 -30
2 99 -25
S2 49 -20
9. Did you graduate with honors?
D Yes, Honors
0 Yes, High or Highest Honors
10. Did you complete an internship?
0 Yes (Continue to 10a)
n No (Skip to question 11 )
10a. Did you intern in Gainesville?
10b. Where did you intern?
0 Radio station
D Television station
0 Advertising agency
0 Subscription newsletter
10c. Did you receive academic credit?
10d. Did you get paid for your internship(s)?
10e. Did your internship lead to employment with the
organization that offered the internship?
10f. Did your internship enhance your intent to pursue
advertising as a career?
11. During your last year in school, how many hours per week
(if any) were you working in a paying job?
1 5 hours
S6 -10 hours
S11 -15 hours
S16 20 hours
n 20 + hours
12. What metropolitan area, city or town, did you consider your
hometown while you were a student at UF?
State Zip Code
13. While you were an advertising major at UF, which of the
following were you involved with? (Mark all that apply)
D Independent Florida Alligator
0 Orange and Blue Magazine
0 Ad Society Member
D Ad Society Leader
0 Entered a student ADDY competition and placed
0 Entered a student ADDY competition, but did not place
D Entered the One Show competition and placed
0 Entered the One Show competition, but did not place
0 Served on AAF National Student Advertising Competition
0 Served on DMA ECHO Student Competition Team
D Served on IAA Interad Competition Team
14. On a scale of 1 -10, with 1 being not completely prepared
and 10 being completely prepared, how well would you
say the advertising program prepared you?
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
15. What would you recommend to improve our program?
16. What advertising courses) would you say has been most
helpful to your career development?
17. What advertising courses) would you say has been least
helpful to your career development?
19. After graduation, what did you do?
[ Went to graduate school
[ Went to the military
0 Continued a job I held while in school
D Accepted a position held open for me while I was in school
D Accepted a position I found after graduation
0 Did not go to work immediately
20. At the time of your graduation, how many job offers or
solid job opportunities were available to you?
21. In the time since you graduated, have you ever worked for
at least a year in any of the following categories?
(Mark all that apply AND place a 1 next to the category where
you had your first job.)
0 Advertising agency 0 Insurance
0 Aerospace and Defense 0 Internet and New Media
I Agriculture 0 Legal Services
Arts and Entertainment
Aviation and Airlines
Energy and Utilities
Fire, Law Enforcement, and
Hotel, Gaming, and Leisure
] Library Services
] Non-Profit and Social
] Personal Care and Service
] Public Relations
] Real Estate
I Restaurant and Food
] Science and Research
] Sports and Recreation
] Transportation and
] Travel and Tourism
18. At this point in your career, what advertising professor
would you say had the most influence...
1 On you personally as an advertising student
2 On your career development
22. Counting only the time you actively sought a position, how
many months would you say it took you to get yourfirst job
23. Did you use a placement service or university resource to
find post-graduation work? (Mark all that apply)
D Yes, College of Journalism Advertising Department Office
D Yes, general university resource
D Yes, general placement agency
D Yes, general online resource
24. Are you currently employed or self-employed?
I Yes, full-time
0 Yes, part-time
D Yes, both full-time and part-time
D No, I am enrolled in school (go to 34)
D No, I am unemployed but looking for work (go to 34)
D No, I am unemployed and not looking for work (go to 34)
0 Other (please specify)
25. When did you start to work at your current job?
26. Do you think of the work you do as a "job" or do you think
of it as a "career"?
0 Don't know
30. What is your current income before taxes from your employer?
] $125,000- 149,999
] $150,000- 174,999
] $175,000- 199,999
] $200,000- 224,999
26. Which of the following best describes the industry in
which you currently work? [ Hotel, Gaming, and Leisure
O Retired I Insurance
[ Advertising agency I Internet and New Media
0 Aerospace and Defense [ Legal Services
[ Agriculture [ Library Services
0 Architecture 0 Media-Broadcast
D Arts and Entertainment [ Media-Print
0 Automotive 0 Media-Outdoor
n Aviation and Airlines Military
n Banking/Financial Services 0 Mining
D Beverage n Non-Profit and Social
n Biotechnology Services
0 Construction 0 Personal Care and Service
SConsulting Services 0 Pharmaceuticals
n Education 0 Public Relations
O Energy and Utilities R Real Estate
n Engineering I Restaurant and Food
0 Environment Services
n Fire, Law Enforcement, and I RetailNVholesale
Security 0 Science and Research
I Fishing [ Sports and Recreation
SFood n Tobacco
I Forestry [ Telecommunications
n Government-Federal [ Transportation and
n Government-Local Warehousing
n Government-State n T -,,l I T r.
D Graphic Arts
27. What is your current job title?
28. What are your current duties?
0 Art direction
0 Account management
D Account planner
D Brand management
0 Broadcast production
D Creative director
0 Graphic design
rave an tourism
] Interactive media
] Marketing management
] Media buying
] Media planning
] Media sales
] Print production
] Traffic management
31. Please approximate the total number of people employed in
the company for which you work andlor in your own company.
(please make your best estimate)
32. In what metropolitan area, city or town, do you currently
33. On a scale of 1 -10, 1 being not very satisfied and 10 being
very satisfied, all things considered (that is, thinking of the
work, the opportunity for advancement, the salary, etc.), how
satisfied are you with your present job?
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
34. How many different employers, including your current employer,
have you worked for since you graduated?
(Please specify number. If you have ever been self-employed,
please write a 1 next to "Self-employed".)
# of employers
35. On a scale of 1 10, 1 being not very committed and 10 being very
committed, how committed do you feel to your advertising profession?
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
36. Do you wish now that you had prepared for a major other
than in advertising?
37. What is your gender?
38. Please mark your ethnic background:
0 American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut
D Asian or Pacific Islander
n Black, not Hispanic
i Hispanic, of any race
0 White, not Hispanic
39. Are you an American citizen?
Thank you for your participation. Please use the envelope provided
to return this questionnaire by April 15, 2003.
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Alaina M. Rodriguez was born and raised in Orlando, Florida. As a child she was
very creative with a large imagination. These traits would help determine her career path
as she grew older.
In 1999 she moved to Elon, North Carolina, to pursue her bachelor's degree at
Elon University near Greensboro. In May 2003 she received her Bachelor of Arts degree
in corporate communications. A few months later, in August, she began the pursuit of a
Master of Advertising degree in from the University of Florida.
Upon completion of her graduate degree for University of Florida in December
2004, Alaina plans to move to Atlanta, Georgia, to explore the realm of corporate