<%BANNER%>

The Role of Students' Perceptions of Classroom Climate in Predicting Academic Motivation and Assigned Grades in Middle S...


PAGE 1

THE ROLE OF STUDENTS PERCEPTI ONS OF CLASSROOM CLIMATE IN PREDICTING ACADEMIC MOTIVATION AND ASSIGNED GRADES IN MIDDLE SCHOOL MATHEMATICS By SUSAN E. DAVIS A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2004

PAGE 2

Copyright 2004 by Susan E. Davis

PAGE 3

To my husband, Jack.

PAGE 4

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to extend my gratitude to Dr. Heather Davis. Dr. Davis contributed to this project from its inception, providing me with the concepts and data extracted from her larger study. Her assistance in developing the project, guiding the research process, teaching me how to manage large data sets, and translating findings into words was invaluable to me. I would like to express my gratitude to my committee members, Dr. Tina Smith-Bonahue and Dr. Randall Penfield. Dr. Smith helped me gain focus and perspective while working on this project. Her advice and editing skills were indispensable and much appreciated. Dr. Penfields guidance throughout the analysis provided me with greater insight into statistical procedures as well as realizing the implications of the findings. I would like to extend a special thanks to Dr. Patricia Ashton who lent her time and attention during my defense. Finally, I would like to thank my husband, Jack, and son, Jim for their patience and support. They have encouraged me throughout my education and I could not have achieved so much without their love behind me iv

PAGE 5

TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES............................................................................................................vii LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................viii ABSTRACT.......................................................................................................................ix CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE..............................................................................3 Classroom Climate........................................................................................................4 Role of Belongingness in Classroom Climate, Motivation, and Achievement.....5 Contribution of School Climate to Classroom Climate, Achievement, and Motivation..........................................................................................................6 Teacher Contribution to Classroom Climate, Achievement, and Motivation.......7 Student Contribution to Classroom Climate in Relation to Motivation and Achievement....................................................................................................10 Gender Differences in Classroom Climate..........................................................12 Domain Differences in Classroom Climate.........................................................13 Developmental Differences in Classroom Climate.............................................14 Capturing Classroom Climate.....................................................................................15 Summary.....................................................................................................................16 Purpose.......................................................................................................................16 3 METHODOLOGY.....................................................................................................18 Participants.................................................................................................................18 Measures.....................................................................................................................19 Classroom Climate..............................................................................................19 Motivation...........................................................................................................20 Grades..................................................................................................................21 Procedures...................................................................................................................21 Analysis......................................................................................................................22 Creating Composites...........................................................................................23 v

PAGE 6

Statistical Analysis..............................................................................................23 4 RESULTS...................................................................................................................25 Descriptive Data.........................................................................................................25 Motivation...........................................................................................................26 Achievement........................................................................................................28 5 DISCUSSION.............................................................................................................31 Perceptions of Classroom Climate and Motivation....................................................32 Classroom Climate and Achievement........................................................................33 Implications................................................................................................................35 Limitations and Future Studies...................................................................................38 APPENDIX REGRESSION EQUATIONS...................................................................41 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................48 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................53 vi

PAGE 7

LIST OF TABLES Table page 1 Means and Standard Deviations...............................................................................25 2 Motivation Full Model.............................................................................................26 3 Regression for End of Year Motivation : Final Model...........................................27 4 Regression for Achievement : Initial Model............................................................28 5 Regression for Achievement : Revised Model.........................................................29 vii

PAGE 8

FIGURE Figure page 1 Baseline Motivation.................................................................................................40 viii

PAGE 9

Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Education THE ROLE OF STUDENTS PERCEPTIONS OF CLASSROOM CLIMATE IN PREDICTING ACADEMIC MOTIVATION AND ASSIGNED GRADES IN MIDDLE SCHOOL MATHEMATICS By Susan E. Davis December 2004 Chair: Tina Smith-Bonahue Major Department: Educational Psychology The purpose of this study was to determine if middle school math students perceptions of classroom climate could predict their end of year academic grade point averages and reported levels of end of year motivation. Students were asked to rate their mathematics class on perception of order and organization as well as perception of rule clarity and fairness of enforcement Students also rated how much they valued learning math and how well they expected to perform in the class. Results of this study indicated students reported a significant decline in motivation in mathematics at the end of the year. Students who rated classrooms as more orderly and organized tended to achieve higher grades and report higher levels of end of year motivation. Students who perceived rule policies as clear and fair reported higher levels of end of year motivation. There were no effects for rule clarity on grade achievement. ix

PAGE 10

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION As a first year graduate student, I had the opportunity to work with Dr. Heather Davis as a research assistant. Dr. Davis had been examining the role of student-teacher relationships among middle school students. As part of this extensive study, Dr. Davis collected a wide range of information concerning middle school students, in a comprehensive effort to understand the many impacting variables on academic success. Among the variables, were students self-report of values and expectations of academic success, their perceptions of school climate, classroom climate, and parent and peer relationships, as well as their perceptions of their relationships with their teachers. By exploring the values and expectations of the teachers, their perceptions of students success, their perception of school climate, and their perceptions of their relationships with students, this larger study focused on constructing relationship models to explain the variables impacting student-teacher relationships in middle schools in relation to student success. While working with these data sets, Dr, Davis would discuss the data with me and answer questions I had regarding the implications each of the measures. During these discussions, I became interested in how these variables impact student performance in schools. Of greatest interest to me, was the construct of classroom climate. In the past, I have had teachers and classrooms that remain prominent in my memory of school. Those teachers made a difference to me, motivating me to out-perform my previous performances. Along with this unexpected excellence, came the realization that learning 1

PAGE 11

2 was worthwhile and satisfying, intrinsically. Because of the memories of those most prominent experiences, I was driven to wonder what specific qualities figure most prominently in positive academic experiences. The data collected in this larger study gave me an opportunity to explore these qualities. Of the many questions I had, I wanted to understand how classroom variables affected student outcomes and if these outcomes were measurable in actual grade achievement. Classrooms that are orderly and organized, in which rules and expectations are fair and consistent, closely resemble my thoughts on classroom factors that would facilitate personal growth and academic success. Therefore, I decided to pursue these constructs of classroom climate. When discussing possibilities with Dr. Davis, she urged me to consider other factors involved, such as students expectations for success and the value they place on learning and achievement. In order to understand the effects of classroom climate on achievement, I realized that I would have to factor in and control for individual levels of motivation. It was then that I wondered if classroom climate would also affect motivation levels. By using existing data from Dr. Davis larger study, I decided to pursue this topic as well. In researching academic domains correlated with classroom climate scales, I selected math classes, since traditionally methods of instruction appeared to rank highest in correlation to the constructs of Order/Organization and Rule Clarity (Moos & Trickett, 1974). Finally Dr. Davis and I arrived at this study, which examines the predictive role of classroom climate on achievement and motivation.

PAGE 12

CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Focus on educational outcomes has increased in the past decade with statewide high stakes testing and nationwide school accountability programs. In an effort to improve the academic success of students, it has become necessary to examine all components of the educational process in order to maximize the effectiveness of instruction within the classroom. Demonstrated to enhance the learning process and affect academic outcomes (Kunc, 1992; Osterman, 2000) classroom climate has been emerging as an important component of education (Haertel, Walberg, & Haertel, 1981). The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of classroom climate on motivation and achievement. In order to understand and measure its effects, this study will examine the roles of the school, the teacher, and the individual student as they contribute to classroom climate in relation to student motivation and achievement. In examining role of classroom climate and motivation on academic achievement, this study seeks to answer two questions. First, if individual levels of motivation are controlled for, will students who perceive a more positive classroom climate score higher grades than those with less positive views? Second, if controlling for initial levels of motivation, will students with more positive perceptions of classroom climate report feeling more motivated at the end of the year? In the following sections, this study will define classroom climate and describe the contributory components comprising classroom climate in relation to motivation and learning. The contribution of school climate to classroom climate will then be considered 3

PAGE 13

4 as it relates to student motivation and achievement. This study will examine how teachers contribute to classroom climate through their own qualities and experiences (Crohn, 1983) and how students contribute to classroom climate with personal characteristics affecting how they interpret classroom climate (Chapin & Eastman, 1996). Contributions of student motivation to perceptions of classroom climate in relation to achievement (Alspaugh, 1998) will also be examined. Because individual motivation has been found to impact achievement, it will be necessary to understand its effects in order to clarify the roles of motivation and classroom climate on achievement. Because this study is interested in students perceptions of classroom climate on achievement and motivation for mathematics, possible differences will be considered for gender, developmental age, and preferences for math. Finally, the impact of perceptions of classroom climate on achievement and motivation will be examined. In order to understand the impact of classroom climate, it must be first understood. Classroom Climate Wang, Haertel, and Walberg (1993) described classroom climate as encompassing all the socio-psychological dimensions of classroom life. This included common interest and the pursuit of common goal achieved through focused, organized and well planned lessons. The physical arrangement of the classroom furniture, the availability of resource materials, length of the class period (Chapin & Eastman, 1996), and type and pace of instruction (Wang et al., 1993) were also considered to influence the climate of the classroom. In sum, all events and influences within the classroom, including classroom management, comprised the construct of classroom climate (Gottfredson & Gottfredson, 1989).

PAGE 14

5 Classroom climate encompassed the level of task difficulty (Wang et al., 1993), individual values, and interpersonal relationships (Gottfredson & Gottfredson, 1989). Review of the literature suggested that individual values and level of task difficulty were important determinants of student motivation to achieve (Wigfield, 1994). Therefore, in order to understand the role of classroom climate on student achievement it was necessary to understand the role of motivation in classroom climate as well as on academic outcomes. The next section will review how fundamental needs to belong to a community, school, and classroom affect perceptions of classroom climate as well as motivation and achievement. Role of Belongingness in Classroom Climate, Motivation, and Achievement Baumeister and Leary (1995) posited that the need to belong is a fundamental human motivation. Belongingness, or the feeling of relatedness to others, has been suggested as an influential factor in academic outcomes owing to its importance in behavioral and socio-emotional development (Deci, Vallerand, Pelletier, & Ryan, 1991). Belongingness has been correlated with lower rates of emotional distress, drug abuse, violent behavior, criminal behavior, suicide, and school dropout rates (Battistich & Horn, 1997; Resnick et al., 1997). Deci and colleagues (1991) suggested the need for a sense of belonging, was so important that not meeting these needs could adversely affect development, motivation, and performance. Beyond the community of family and peers, belongingness has been directly linked to student motivation and engagement within the school (Kunc, 1992; Osterman, 2000). In a study by Goodenow (1993a) belonging and support was demonstrated as having significant effects on motivation and achievement in individual subjects. Levels of

PAGE 15

6 classroom belonging were significantly associated with motivation-related measures indicating values for academic classwork and expectancies for success (Goodenow, 1995). Children who reported feeling involved within the school community were more likely to report a stronger sense of identity, a greater sense of autonomy, a better ability to self-regulate their behavior, a greater tendency to respect authority, with a lesser propensity for engaging in deviant or negative behavior (Johnson, Lutzow, Strothoff, & Zannis, 1995; Kunc, 1992; Osterman, 2000). While the importance of belongingness has been suggested by many to be critical to the development of cognitive and emotional process of students, research also showed that needs for belongingness were largely disregarded by schools (Kunc, 1992; Osterman, 2000). According to Kunc, schools were more likely to believe that the meeting of emotional needs should or did occur within the home community of family and peers. Students with unmet or greater needs, therefore, might be less likely to experience belongingness within the school community. Because the fundamental need to belong, and how it is promoted in the schools, effects the climate of the school and the individual students level of motivation for achievement, the next section will review the effects of school climate as it contributes to classroom climate, motivation and achievement. Contribution of School Climate to Classroom Climate, Achievement, and Motivation The extent to which a school community promotes belongingness has been demonstrated to affect outcomes in student development, motivation, and achievement (Kunc, 1992; Osterman, 2000). Studies found that schools rated high in the encouragement of student interrelationships, providing for feelings of safety and security,

PAGE 16

7 attention paid to morale, parent and community involvement, and in structure and organization reported less drop out rates, higher attendance records, greater levels of student engagement and motivation, and improved student educational outcomes (Alspaugh, 1998). Alspaugh suggested the significance of school climate was the degree to which policies and practices support or endorse these qualities. The relationship between school climate and student performance and student motivation was strong but indirect, retaining its influence across grades (Fyans & Maehr, 1987). Directed by policy and practices, the school community, consisting of teachers, students, and administrators, along with individual values and expectations, comprise the school climate. Rather than for their unique style of teaching which may contradict with the traditions within the school, prospective teachers tended to be hired for their congruity with school administrators expectations (Hamilton, 1983). Therefore, school climate indirectly affects classroom climate through the adopted policies and practices of the teachers. Ellis (1996) proposed that these practices were brought into the classroom and became components of the students immediate community, the classroom environment. Along with the promotion of school climate, teachers contribute their own personal characteristics to classroom climate, which impacts student motivation and achievement. To gain a better understanding of the role of the teacher in relation to motivation and achievement, the contributions of teacher characteristics will be examined. Teacher Contribution to Classroom Climate, Achievement, and Motivation Classroom climate variables involving teacher characteristics have been described by Chapin and Eastman (1996) as teaching methods, clear goals, and standards, vocational relevance, and appropriate workload. According to Haertel, Walberg, and

PAGE 17

8 Haertel (1981), positive classroom climates enhanced deeper rather than surface learning approaches. A surface approach to learning or reproductive learning has been described as reliance on the routine, memorization of materials. These more traditional approaches to learning allowed the student to recite facts and figures, with little interpretation. Deeper approaches to learning were those in which the teacher prompts the student to make connections of the new material with previous knowledge or with different aspects of that knowledge (Dart, Burnett, & Purdie, 2000). Dart (1998) suggested teachers could promote deep approaches to learning by creating classroom climates that were safe and supportive, with ample opportunities for exploration and experimentation. Clear and structured rules (Keyser & Barling, 1981), predictability and clarity (Anderson, Stevens, Prawat, & Nickerson, 1987), and teacher support (Osterman, 2000) were also found to promote deeper, rather than surface, approaches to learning. Additionally, explicit learning objectives, guided student practice, appropriate instructional pace, frequent assessment and positive feedback (Wang et al., 1993) with frequent opportunities for active engagement and participation (Keyser & Barling, 1981) promoted deeper approaches to learning. These positive classroom climates not only enhanced learning approaches, they were consistently correlated with higher achievement in a variety of educational outcomes (Haertel et al., 1981). Other characteristics found to impact student success were expectations and behaviors of the teacher (Crohn, 1983) and teacher creativity (Denny & Turner, 1967). Direct influences, such as the frequency and quality of student-teacher interactions, were also found to impact student success (Juarez, 2000;Wang et. al., 1993). Jacobson (2000) suggested that teacher student relationships could promote student motivation and

PAGE 18

9 increase students values for success through positive rapport and establishing supportive learning environments. In a study by Goodenow (1993a), teacher support was strongly correlated with expectancy and values for student success. While many studies have examined the role of relationships, other studies have concluded that elements of the instructional style, assignments, and degree of competitiveness promoted within the classroom were key determinants of educational outcomes. In a study involving 3rd and 4th grade students, Anderson and colleagues (1987) demonstrated the importance of the predictability of the task environment. Among his conclusions, he found learning was enhanced when teachers structured the classroom environment in a predictable and comprehensible manner. Specifically, teachers should provide explicit structures of information regarding the predictability, the consistency and relevance of tasks as well as providing students with a sense of control over their outcomes (Anderson et. al., 1987). Orderly and organized classrooms allowed for more emphasis on instruction and less in control, thereby increasing the amount of time spent on the lessons (Proctor, 1984). Other factors affecting teaching and learning included appropriate workload, clear goals, and consistent standards (Townsend & Hicks, 1995). In addition to these elements of classroom environment, the role of interclass competition was suggested to have an impact on academic success. While in most studies, a cooperative environment has been shown to enhance educational outcomes (Fraser, 1986) and attitudes (Zahn, Kagan, & Widaman, 1986), other studies have suggested that competition, in certain academic areas may, in fact, increase student productivity and learning ability (Dunn & Harris, 2002).

PAGE 19

10 Not only have teacher characteristics been found to contribute to classroom climate, motivation, and achievement, individual student characteristics have been found to mediate the effects of classroom climate on achievement and motivation as well. The next section will be review how the students contribute to classroom climate. Student Contribution to Classroom Climate in Relation to Motivation and Achievement Review of the literature suggested each individual brings into the classroom his or her own personal characteristics as well as previous educational history and experiences. Some of these characteristics included their sense of well-being, self-efficacy beliefs (House, 2002; Jackson, 2002), self-concept (Crohn, 1983), sense of belongingness (Goodenow, 1995; Osterman, 2000), as well as their satisfaction within social activities (Townsend & Hicks, 1997) and interpersonal relationships (Osterman, 2000). Just as students may differ in their personal characteristics, such as interest and knowledge, self-ability, and locus of control, so may their interpretation of the learning environment, which shapes their approach learning (Chapin & Eastman, 1996). For example, in a study of classroom motivation, Greene (1983) found classes containing more motivated students were perceived to have greater involvement, order and organization, and task orientation. Deci, and collleagues (1991) suggested teachers who supported active student engagement with mathematical concepts and who promote personal construction of math ideas may encourage more autonomy and independence in students, thereby increasing intrinsic interest in math. Students evaluation of their learning environment was found to be guided by their individual values and expectations for success (Eccles, 1983). Wigfield, and colleagues (1992) found that as early as the second grade, children have developed values for school

PAGE 20

11 activities as well as beliefs about their performance abilities. Although younger children tended to overestimate their abilities (Winfield, 1994) and engaged in tasks based upon personal interest, motivation for engagement was recognized early (Wigfield, Eccles, & Rodriguez, 1994). Eccles' (1983) model of expectancy-value system assumed that an individual's belief in, and interpretation of, an event were more influential on his behavior than the event itself. According to Eccles and colleagues (1983), the value an individual placed on task engagement related to level of interest, or intrinsic value, how important it was perceived to be, attainment value, and how useful it was perceived to be, utility value. They further suggested that the cost of engaging in a task, which excluded engagement in other, more desirable activities, affected the level of motivation to engage. Additionally, competency beliefs, or how well one predicts performance level, mediated the motivation to engage. From this perspective, students with high expectations and values for success might be more likely to engage in academic tasks with higher motivation to achieve while students with lower expectations and values for success might be more likely to avoid academic tasks, which would result in lower achievement. Likewise, Townsend and Hicks (1997) found students who reported more social satisfaction reported higher value and lower task cost associated with mathematic and language curricula. Classroom climates that promoted individual goal setting and provided choices for students were judged to be more encouraging by middle school students (Pintrich et al., 1994). Classrooms reporting variations in the use of learning strategies, valued effort, and fostered positive feelings toward learning were found to be more successful in promoting mastery of subject material (Ames & Archer, 1987).

PAGE 21

12 Perceptions of teacher support were positively associated with instructional techniques that featured mastery and learning goals (Wentzel, 1995). Other studies found that the degree to which students feel they are cared about mediate academic performance (Goodenow 1993b; Haertel 1996; Wentzel 1995). Although individual values and expectations for success were found to impact students motivation and achievement, elements in classroom climate were different for boys and girls. Goodenow (1993a) found that teacher support was found to have a stronger association with expectancy and value for girls while boys were more likely to be influenced by peer support. Because of gender differences in motivation, the next section will examine the potential gender differences in perceptions of classroom climate. Gender Differences in Classroom Climate Gender differences have been found in classroom climate ratings (Townsend & Hicks, 1995) with girls viewing classroom climate more favorably than boys (Goh & Fraser, 1995). Girls were more likely to favor a cooperative learning atmosphere (Owens & Barnes, 1982) in which positive social interactions provided a means of student support rather than individual competitiveness (Slavin, 1991). Because girls may be more likely to engage in behavior that is consistent with cooperative learning styles (Charlesworth & Dzur, 1987), Gardner, Mason, and Matyas (1989) found they were more likely to benefit from this type of classroom structure than boys. Specifically, in areas of mathematics and language activities, girls outcomes were more affected by climate factors than boys, with girls having more success in cooperative goal structured environments such as language curriculum (Townsend & Hicks, 1997). Because the domain in which the climate is perceived may mediate successful outcomes in relation to climate classroom, the effects of domains will be considered in the next section.

PAGE 22

13 Domain Differences in Classroom Climate Fraser (1993) found that classroom environment variables might actually differentiate among different curricula. Different components of classroom climate were found to correlate with success in different academic areas (Moos & Trickett, 1994). Deci, Spiegel, Ryan, Koestner, and Kauffman (1982) suggested teachers who support active student engagement with mathematical concepts and promote personal construction of math ideas may encourage more autonomy and independence in students, thereby increasing intrinsic interest in math. Conversely, a study on the effects of competition upon mathematical achievement determined that competition actually enhances learning in areas of math computation, concepts and applications (Dunn & Harris, 2002). While Dunn and Harris (1998) found no evidence that climate influences mathematical achievement in 4th grade students, Goh and Fraser (1995) not only found consistent associations between climate and outcome, but also found that in areas of mathematics, while boys performed better, girls rated classroom environment more favorably than boys. The perception of the learning environment may also affect the quality of educational outcomes (Dart, 1998; Fraser, 1986). Providing a caring and supportive environment was determined to be a necessary component in academic success (Juarez, 2000). Positive classroom climates have been associated with higher achievement outcomes for students in schools rated as having more positive climates than those with less positive outcomes (Alspaugh, 1998). For high school chemistry students, classroom climate variables have been accountable for a substantial variance in cognitive and affective outcomes beyond the characteristics of the student (McRobbie &Fraser, 1993). Specific variables in classroom climate, such as class activities, instructor skill, and the

PAGE 23

14 extent of critical demands were found to mediate academic outcomes for students (Hoffman, 1979). In studying the effects of domain differences, however, Wigfield and Eccles, (1992) found these differences change as children grow older. The next section will examine the possible effects of students development in perceptions of classroom climate. Developmental Differences in Classroom Climate While belongingness, family, teacher, and peer support play an important role in an individuals values and expectancies, the impact of these supports diminish with age. Goodenow (1993) discovered a decline in the impact of these factors from 6th grade to 8th grade and concluded that previous external influences on concepts of these constructs may begin to be replaced the more internalized concepts and self-efficacy beliefs. Fyans and Maehr (1987) also reported a shift in influence from family, to school to peer as children aged from 4th to 10th grade. With older students, academic experiences, such as prior knowledge, successes, and failures were found to play an important role in their current perceptions of values for learning as well as how successful they expect to be (Jacobson, 2000). Jacobson, suggested students with previous success in a subject may feel more confident and have a higher sense of self-esteem and self-efficacy, which may support a better expectation of future achievement. Those with negative experiences may feel devalued, reluctant to participate, with less motivation than their counterparts. Therefore, while individual motivation plays an important role in achievement, it may be changeable across grades. These findings suggested the effects of students perceptions of classroom climate might be susceptible to grade level differences. In order to determine the effects of classroom climate perceptions, however, it must be measurable. The next section reviews scales designed to measure perceptions of classroom climate.

PAGE 24

15 Capturing Classroom Climate Scales not only differ in terminology, but also on focus, according to the authors definition of classroom climate (Fraser, 1979; Moos, 1974). According to Moos (1974), climate refers to a group phenomenon relating to the social and psychological atmosphere of any social setting. Within this social climate, there exist four dimensions: Relationships, Personal Development, System Maintenance, and System Change. Relationships refer to the type and intensity of relationships and include teacher-student, student-student, and staff-staff. It reflects the extent to which individuals within the environment are involved, helpful, and supportive as well as the quality of openness within the relationships. Personal Development includes competition with emphasis on academic achievement and describes the basic direction in which personal growth and self-enhancement tend to occur. System Maintenance includes organization and orderliness within the classroom. Rule clarity, teacher consistency, and clarity of expectations are among the factors encompassed in this dimension. System Change refers to the manner and facility of change within the classroom as well as advocated variety within activities and creativity in student thinking. From these basic dimensions, a variety of scales were developed to assess classroom climate. The Classroom Environment Scale (CES) is one assessment scale, developed by Moos, to assess the social climate of the classroom environment in grades 7-12 (Moos & Trickett, 1973). The CES is based upon the four dimensions of climate and focuses on student interest and participation, interclass room relationships, the measurement of support within the environment, emphasis on task completion, the degree of task difficulty, the factors of interclassroom competition, the clarity of rules and expectations, the enforcement of rules and expectations, as well as how the overall environment is organized and managed. In

PAGE 25

16 addition, student contribution to creativity and planning, regarding class activities, is also considered. Summary School communities have been found to exert influence upon the classroom in addition to the influences of teachers and students. The policies and practices of the schools have been found to direct how the educational process is addressed within the classrooms. Within the classrooms, teachers have been found to bring unique perspective into the learning environment through teaching philosophy as well as student-teacher interaction. Additionally, each student has been found to enter the classroom with their own expectations and values, competency beliefs, and learning preferences developed as a result of their unique experiences. These perspectives may be different for girls versus boys and may be subject to change in response to academic domain and developmental age. These findings from the literature suggested in order to measure the effects of classroom climate on motivation and achievement, it will be necessary to include the influence of gender and grade differences for this study, as well as students self-ratings of motivation at the beginning of the school year. Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships among classroom climate, motivation, and achievement. Classroom climate has been described as encompassing all the socio-psychological dimensions of classroom life (Wang et al., 1993). Students in this study were asked to rate their perceptions of mathematics classroom as to the degree of order and organization present in the class as well as how clear and consistent they perceived the rules to be. Motivation has been described as encompassing the expectancy of success and the value placed on that attainment (Wigfield & Eccles, 1992). Students

PAGE 26

17 were asked to rate their levels of motivation in math class at the beginning and end of the year. Achievement was measured in end of year in numerical points, ranging from 0 to 100. Because the literature regarding motivation, achievement, and classroom climate ratings suggested students may vary by gender, age (Fyans & Maehr, 1987; Goodenow, 1993a), and the individual characteristics they bring to the classroom (Biggs, 1993; Chapin & Eastman, 1996), this study attempted to control for these variables. In past studies, classroom climate ratings were compared to mean grade achievement. To date, little or no research has centered on class grades, in relation to classroom climate ratings. This study will examine the relationship between students perception of classroom climate with academic outcomes and end of year motivation in mathematics. Specifically, this study proposes: Students higher or more positive ratings of the Order/Organization and Rule Clarity scales of CES (Moos & Trickett, 1973) will predict higher academic outcomes Students higher or more positive ratings Order/Organization and Rule Clarity scales of CES (Moos & Trickett, 1974) will predict end of year motivation

PAGE 27

CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Participants Data for this study were collected as part of a larger, school-wide case study in a rural middle school (Davis, 2001). The middle school was situated in a predominately agricultural county. Participants included 860 of the 1,100 students in the 6th, 7th, and 8th grades. Of the 860 students, 425 were boys and 435 were girls. Additionally, 45 teachers, including 28 homeroom teachers, also participated. At each grade level, students are divided into two teams of five teachers for their core classes of English, reading, mathematics, social studies and science. Within the larger study, multi-method data were collected simultaneously throughout the year. Survey data were collected at four time points from the students and three time points for the teachers over the 1999-2000 school year. The purpose of this study is to examine the students perception of classroom climate as it predicts academic outcome in mathematics in 6th, 7th and 8th grade at time point four, at the end of the school year. Additionally, this study examines the effect of classroom climate perception as it predicts motivation levels at the end of the academic year. For this study, 342 students (N= 169 boys, N=173 girls, N= 81 6th grade, N= 135 7th grade, and N=125 8th grade) were selected on the basis of participation across all time samples. 18

PAGE 28

19 Measures Classroom Climate The Classroom Environment Scale (CES) was developed by Moos and Trickett (1973) to assess students perceptions of the learning environment in junior and senior high school classrooms, grades 7-12. The development of the CES was based on the theory that there are four basic dimensions of social climate: relationships, personal development, and system maintenance and the physical environment. Each of these dimensions exerts a directional influence on behavior, for example learning and achievement in the classroom. System Maintenance measures the extent to which the environment is organized, orderly and clear in expectations. The System Maintenance dimension includes the subscales of Rule Clarity and Order and Organization. Rule clarity measures the degree to which the teacher presents clearly defined classroom rules, ensures the students understanding of these rules, and the consistency with which the teacher enforces these rules. Order and organization measures the emphasis on students behaving in and orderly, quiet and polite manner and the overall organization of classroom activities and assignments. Data for this study were originally collected as part of a larger study encompassing the role of social context on students motivation, learning, and achievement. Rule Clarity and Order/Organization were two measures that helped define the properties involved in student-teacher interactions and relationships (Davis & Davis, under review). The standard methods of mathematical instruction are generally organized into presentation then practice of new mathematical concepts in primary and secondary schools. Because of this widely accepted instructional style, mathematical curriculum is found to be most highly correlated with these subscales. Therefore, these two dimensions

PAGE 29

20 were the focus in the assessment of classroom climate. Classrooms rated high on organization and clarity has been found to correlate with better educational outcomes. Therefore, by focusing on these, it may be possible to determine if students perceptions of classroom climate can predict their level of mathematical achievement. A shortened form of the CES was administered encompassing these two dimensions, with 10 items measuring the qualities of Order/Organization and 10 measuring the qualities of Rule Clarity. The 20 item survey included questions such as The Math teacher is consistent in dealing with students who break the rules and Math is well organized and was completed across the domain of math as well as the domains of English, social studies, science, and reading. This study focuses on the classroom climate assessment of mathematics. The test-retest reliability of the CES was determined using 52 students within a 6-week interval. Reliability was reported as .85 for Order and Organization, and .72 for Rule Clarity (Moos & Trickett, 1994). An internal reliability analysis conducted for each scale in this study revealed an internal reliability of .80 for System Maintenance, .65 for Order and Organization, and .74 for Rule Clarity. Motivation To measure domain-specific motivations, items were drawn from the self-efficacy and intrinsic scales of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ: Pintrich & DeGroot, 1990). Items on these scales were developed to evaluate students perceived confidence and ability to perform in middle school and junior high school. For this study, items were slightly altered in order to evaluate domain specific motivations. Questions such as I think what we are learning in class is interesting were changed to I think what we are learning in math class is interesting. In addition, three items were

PAGE 30

21 eliminated due to similar wording. Internal consistency estimates for this subscale were reported at r = .89 (9 items) for the expectancy of success and r = .87 for the value of academic success (9 items) scales (Pintrich & DeGroot, 1990). Our findings revealed internal consistency estimates of r = .83 for expectations of success (8 items) and r = .82 for value of success (7 items). Grades Grades were measured by numerical points, scored 0 through 100, assigned to the students at the end of the year for mathematics. All grade data were collected at the completion of the study. Procedures Passive parental consent for survey participation was obtained for initial recruitment of each student. After notifying parents of the nature of the school-wide project, the purpose of the study, and the types of questions to be asked, parents were asked to respond only if they did not want their child to participate. Assent was also obtained from each student. Students were asked to complete surveys in class at four time points throughout the school year (time 1 = beginning of year, time 2 = midpoint of year, time 3 = early spring, time 4 = end of year). All survey items were rated on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1-Never true to 5-Always true. Students were allowed to complete the surveys at their own pace, with make up sessions arranged for those students who were unable to complete the surveys during class or students who were not present during the original administration times. For this study, time point 1, beginning of the year, and time point 2, end of the year, were considered.

PAGE 31

22 The CES (Moos& Trickett, 1973) abridged form measuring students perception of classroom climate on the System Maintenance and Change dimensions was administered during class at time 3, in the early spring. Data for motivation were collected at time 1, for the dependent variable motivation 1, at the beginning of the school year. Data for end of year motivation were collected at time 4, for the dependent variable motivation 3. Data on the students grades were collected at the end of the year. Analysis Data from Classroom Climate (Moos & Trickett, 1973) scales were entered into a text file and imported to SPSS (10.0 for Windows). An integrity check was performed to ensure the accuracy of the data. In order to address unavailable data, a correlational relationship was established among each item with all other items within the same grade level and domain. Each item was then examined to compare the strongest correlation of inner-item ratings. For example, ratings for item 1 might be strongest for items 5, 9, 15, and 17 within the 6th grade math surveys. These four strongest correlations were summed and averaged to produce a predicted value for the missing response. Owing to the strength of the correlation selected, these values were considered the best estimate with greater predictability for individual item response. Because unavailable responses were rare, these imputed values were not anticipated to affect the overall outcome of the items rated. Data files were sorted by descending order using the student identification number with the order of variables listed in the same sort sequence. Initially, data for climate, motivation, and grades were entered into imputed files. Data were merged by identification number per each domain, matching cases listwise. In rare instances, cases with duplicate numbers were identified and cross referenced with their original hard

PAGE 32

23 copy, corrected, and re-entered. Cases that did not have matching cases in the other files were excluded from analysis (e.g. listwise deletion). Once the files were merged, data for math domain were selected for the purpose of this analysis. Creating Composites In order to maintain consistent direction of response analysis, items whose wording reflected an opposite direction of strength in perception of quality rating were reverse coded. For example, item 8 on the classroom climate scale asks Math hardly ever starts on time. Students responding with a 1 indicate that they always disagree; therefore, the response reflects that math always starts on time. Items such as these were recoded to represent one to reflect a strong absence of the quality being perceived and five to indicate a strong presence of the quality being perceived. Data for motivation were entered using the same procedure. The actual grade point averages, collected at the end of the year, were entered into an SPSS file for each participant. Observations with multiple omissions across all three measures were excluded. Coefficient alpha was used as an estimate of reliability. For the System Maintenance scale, the value equaled .80, and for Order/Organization, the value equaled .74. Using frequency and descriptive statistics, composite data were screened for missing values, normality, and outliers. A composite score was computed for each subscale to create variables for Order/Organization and Rule Clarity by averaging scores across items. Statistical Analysis The independent variable, classroom climate, was examined in relation to the dependent variable of achievement and motivation. A univariate analysis of variance between subjects was run on the classroom climate subscales to evaluate homogeneity of

PAGE 33

24 student ratings of classroom climate across teachers. Results indicated the Rule Clarity and Order/Organization subscales exhibited differences in teacher ratings. Because this study was interested in patterns of students perceptions, scores were standardized to control for the influence of actual teacher differences. For each analysis, two multiple-regression models were examined, one for classroom climate with achievement and one with classroom climate and motivation. The first model included the interactions of gender and grade on Order/Organization, Rule Clarity, and motivation 1. Non-significant interactions were dropped, one at a time, from the regression equation. Analyses were then conducted to examine the linear relationship between the five predictive variables of Order/Organization, Rule Clarity, beginning of the year motivation 1, gender, and grade level with end of year motivation 3 and end of year achievement (see appendix A). For each analysis, an omnibus test of the proportion of explained variation in each response variable by the predictive variable in combination was calculated. Using semi-partial correlations, the unique contribution of each variable was considered.

PAGE 34

CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Descriptive Data The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between students perceptions of classroom climate with end of year motivation in mathematics and students perceptions of classroom climate with academic outcomes in mathematics. By controlling for student ratings of motivation at the beginning of the year, as well as gender and grade differences, this study proposed: Higher ratings of Order/Organization and Rule Clarity scales of the CES (Moos & Trickett, 1973) will correlate positively with higher academic outcomes. Higher ratings of Order/Organization and Rule Clarity scales of the CES (Moos & Trickett, 1973) will correlate positively with higher ratings for end of year motivation. Table 1. Means and Standard Deviations 6th grade 7th grade 8th grade Total Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls End of Year Motivation 3.94 (.70) 4.01 (.61) 3.76 (.73) 3.65 (.83) 3.46 (.75) 3.58 3.70 (.68) (.75) End of Year Achievement 85.07 (7.28) 87.08 (7.26) 85.16 (9.77) 86.41 (8.41) 75.89 (13.74) 84.30 83.78 (13.16) (11.16) Perception of Classroom Order/Organization 2.93 (.45) 3.00 (.49) 3.09 (.51) 2.97 (.56) 2.82 (.67) 3.03 2.97 (.54) (.57) Perception of Classroom Rule Clarity 3.27 (.57) 3.45 (.58) 1.56 (1.88) 1.46 (1.74) 3.12 (.71) 3.28 2.57 (.69) (1.51) Baseline Motivation 4.05 (.49) 4.09 (.68) 3.96 (.74) 3.82 (.77) 3.54 (.84) 3.82 3.85 (.64) (.73) N=45 N=36 N=61 N=74 N=62 N=63 N=341 25

PAGE 35

26 Motivation Regarding motivation, this study proposed students higher ratings of Order/Organization and Rule Clarity scales of the CES (Moos & Trickett, 1973) would positively correlate with higher selfreported ratings of end of year motivation for mathematics. Data analysis began by testing a full model in Time 1 (baseline) by gender and grade level. Table 2 displays findings based on the initial model run. This model accounted for 35.8 % of the variance (F(342.9) = 16.75, p<.000). Table 2 demonstrates interaction of rule clarity by grade to be significant. To teat for interaction effects, post hoc analysis using multiple regression, revealed the effects to be non-significant. Interactions were dropped, yielding a revised model for predicting end of year motivation. Table 2. Motivation Full Model. Model B t value p value r R F p End of Year Motivation .599 .358 16.75 .000 Perception of Classroom Order/Organization 0.236 3.474 0.001* Perception of Classroom Rule Clarity 0.104 2.238 0.026* Gender -0.112 -0.343 0.732 Grade 0.241 0.649 0.517 Baseline Motivation 0.360 5.135 0.000* Gender/Order Interaction -0.415 -1.355 0.176 Gender/Rule Interaction -0.046 -0.190 0.849 Gender/Motivation Interaction -0.157 -0.483 0.629 Grade/Order Interaction -0.294 -0.930 0.353 Grade/Rule Interaction 0.573 2.135 0.034* Grade/Motivation Interaction 0.069 0.238 0.812 Note. Denotes significant difference at p < .05

PAGE 36

27 The final model for end of year motivation in table 3 explained 35 % of the variance in end of year motivation (F(342,5) = 30.10, p<.000) Table 3 Regression for End of Year Motivation : Final Model Model B t value p value r R F p End of Year Motivation .592 .350 30.102 .000 Perception of Classroom Order/Organization 0.153 3.278 0.001* Perception of Classroom Rule Clarity 0.095 2.116 0.035* Gender -0.450 -1.889 0.060 Grade -0.136 -3.009 0.003* Baseline Motivation 0.376 5.865 0.000* Gender/Baseline Motivation Interaction 0.459 1.886 0.060 Note. denotes significance at p < .05 Note. Gender differences approach significance As anticipated, a significant positive relationship was also found between end of year motivation and students ratings of perceptions of classroom Rule Clarity, perceptions of classroom Order/Organization. These findings suggested students who perceived their classroom as more orderly and organized with fair and explicit rules tended to report higher levels of motivation at the end of the year. Differences by gender and baseline motivation approached significance (p = .06) When comparing gender, these findings suggested boys may have somewhat lower competency beliefs and/or value math less at the beginning of the school year than girls. Differences by gender and end of year motivation approached significance ( p=.06) with girls reporting higher levels of motivation at the end of the year when comparing across grades. However, when comparing all the boys and girls ratings of motivation in middle school mathematics, overall, there were no significant differences (Figure 1).

PAGE 37

28 Lastly, findings revealed significant differences in end of year motivation based on grade level suggesting students report different levels of motivation across the 6th, 7th, and 8th grades. Students in 6th grade reported the highest levels for motivation in mathematics while the 8th grade students reported the lowest level of end of year motivation towards math. This finding supports earlier research that, although values and expectations for math remain constant in relative to rankings of other domain in terms of importance and usefulness, such as reading and English, motivation towards mathematics decline as children grows older (Wigfield et al., 1994). Achievement Regarding achievement, this study proposed students higher or more positive ratings of the Order/Organization and Rule Clarity subscales of the CES (Moos & Trickett, 1973) would predict higher academic achievement in mathematics at the end of the school year. Data analysis began by testing a full model in Time 1 (baseline) by gender and grade level. Table 4 displays findings based on the initial model run. Table 4 Regression for Achievement : Initial Model Model B t value p value r R F p End of Year Achievement 0.442 0.196 8.866 0.000 Perception of Classroom Order/Organization 0.172 2.608 0.009* Perception of Classroom Rule Clarity 0.089 1.885 0.060 Gender 0.338 1.032 0.303 Grade -0.685 -1.877 0.061 Baseline Motivation 0.202 2.912 0.004* Gender/Order Interaction -0.149 -0.495 0.621 Gender/Rule Interaction -0.036 -0.148 0.882 Gender/Motivation Interaction 0.002 0.007 0.995 Grade/Order Interaction 0.291 0.936 0.350 Grade/Rule Interaction -0.082 -0.263 0.792 Grade/Motivation Interaction 0.328 1.142 0.254 Note. denotes significance at p < .05 Note. Grade differences approach significance This model accounted for 19.6% of the variance (F(342,10) = .8.9, p<.000). Post hoc analysis tests for interaction using multiple regression, dropping each interaction, one at a

PAGE 38

29 time, revealed the effects to be non-significant. Interactions were dropped, yielding a revised model for predicting end of year motivation. The final model predicting end of year motivation, gender, math grades, and baseline motivation with perceptions of Order/Organization, Rule Clarity is presented in Table 5. Table 5 Regression for Achievement : Revised Model Model B t value p value r R F p End of Year Achievement .433 .188 18.836 .000 Perception of Order/Organization 0.168 3.533 0.000* Perception of Rule Clarity 0.079 1.756 0.080 Gender 0.221 4.548 0.000* Grade 0.168 3.754 0.000* Baseline Motivation 0.151 3.312 0.001* Note. denotes significance at p < .05 This model explained 16.8 % of the variance (F(342,4) = 18.8, p<.000). Findings indicate a significant positive relationship between achievement and students ratings of Order/Organization. Students who perceived the classroom as more structured and organized tended to earn higher grades than students who did not. A significant negative relationship was found between baseline motivation and achievement. These findings suggested the students who reported lower levels of motivation for math at the beginning of the school year achieved higher grades than those who did not. However, student levels of motivation decline when comparing across grades while achievement improves. When comparing 6th grade students to 8th grade students, motivation levels tend to decline and achievement in mathematics increases. Therefore, when combining grade levels, these findings may suggest the overall rate of decline in motivation is greater than the overall rate of increase in achievement. However, this study did not address the level of achievement and motivation across grades. The negative relationship is not expected for within grade comparisons

PAGE 39

30 Gender differences were found to be significant for achievement. Girls tended to earn higher grades at the end of the year than boys (Table 1). These findings do not support earlier studies that suggest boys tend to have higher achievement in math for middle school students (Goh & Fraser, 1995). Lastly, there were significant differences in achievement by grade level. Achievement in 8th grade was significantly lower for boys and significantly higher for girls (Table 1). Because this study did not address the level of math difficulty across grades, future studies are needed to examine the role of grade and math performance in middle school.

PAGE 40

CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among classroom climate, motivation, and achievement. Classroom climate has been described as encompassing all the socio-psychological dimensions of classroom life (Wang et.al. 1993). Students in this study were asked to rate their perceptions of mathematics classroom as to the degree of order and organization present in the class as well as how clear and consistent they perceived the rules to be. Motivation is described as encompassing the expectancy of success and the value placed on that attainment (Wigfield & Eccles, 1992). Students were asked to rate their levels of motivation in math class at the beginning and end of the year. Achievement was measured at end of year in numerical points, ranging from 0 to 100. Because the literature regarding motivation, achievement, and classroom climate ratings suggest students may vary by gender, age (Fyans & Maehr, 1987; Goodenow, 1993a), and the individual characteristics they bring to the classroom (Biggs, 1993; Chapin & Eastman, 1996;), this study attempted to control for these variables. This chapter presents a discussion and interpretation of the results of the study as they relate to previous findings in the area of classroom climate and motivation, as well as the research questions and hypotheses. It also addresses the implications of the findings. The chapter concludes with a discussion of future directions for research and limitations of the current study. 31

PAGE 41

32 Perceptions of Classroom Climate and Motivation The first goal of this study was to determine if students who rated perceptions of classroom climate higher on would report higher levels of motivation at the end of the year than students with lower ratings. For end of year motivation levels, results of this study indicated that students who rated classroom climate as higher in rule clarity and order/organization also tended to report higher levels of motivation at the end of the year. These findings supported the literature, which suggested positive classroom climate promotes students expectations and values for success. In this analysis, there were no statistically significant differences between males and females ratings of motivation in middle school mathematics. However, while boys reported higher levels of motivation for math at the beginning of the year, girls tended to report higher levels of motivation towards math at the end of the year. Because the literature suggested boys have higher competency beliefs, with higher task values, and greater expectations for success for math (Wigfield & Eccles, 1992), it was expected ratings of motivation for math, boys would report higher ratings at both time points. However, literature also suggested that values and expectations associated with math decline for both boys and girls (Wigfield et. al., 1998). These findings bring interesting questions about gender differences in motivation. While motivation declines for math for girls and boys, these findings suggested the decline might be somewhat more pronounced in males during middle school. Another possibility may be recent trends in math competency suggesting the gender gap in math is narrowing (Townsend & Hicks, 1997). A third possibility may be girls were reported to be more sensitive to classroom climate (Goh & Fraser, 1995). Therefore, girls declines in competency beliefs, values, and expectations for math may be more responsive to positive classroom climate. Future

PAGE 42

33 studies may wish to address the differential role of gender and motivation as it pertains to middle school mathematics. Early motivation, as anticipated, was a significant factor in end of year motivation levels for girls and boys across grades. Findings revealed students who entered the classroom with higher expectations and values for success in math reported higher expectations and values for success in math at the end of the year than those who did not. There were also grade differences in ratings of motivation. In all grades, students who perceived their mathematics class as more orderly and organized tended to achieve higher than those who did not. However, while 6th grade students perception of rule clarity and fairness did not affect their self-ratings of motivation at the end of the year, students in the higher-grade levels, who rated higher levels of both the Rule Clarity and Order/Organization factors of classroom climate, expressed higher levels of motivation at the end of the year. Classroom Climate and Achievement This second goal of this study was to determine whether students who rated perceptions of classroom climate higher on subscales of Order/Organization and Rule Clarity would achieve higher grades than students with lower ratings. Results of this study indicated in middle school mathematics, students who perceived the classroom, as being more orderly and organized tended to earn higher grades than students who did not. These findings support earlier findings by Williams and Somers (2001), in which the orderliness of the classroom contributed significantly to test scores in mathematics and language. Overall, students perceptions of Rule Clarity, in which the rules are clearly defined and fairly executed, were not a significant factor in terms of predicting math achievement. These findings suggest that students perform better in math with a

PAGE 43

34 classroom that is structured with organized lessons. However, students perceptions of the fairness of rules, how clearly and defined they are, do not predict higher achievement. Middle school students experiences are reported to become less intimate and more anonymous than elementary school. Eccles, Midgely, and Adler (1984) suggested middle schools to be larger and more impersonal. Therefore, these results suggested students in middle school may be unaware of teacher bias in the enforcement of rules or did not perceive them to be an important component of their individual success. Findings revealed a negative relationship of students early ratings of motivation for math achievement. These findings indicated students entering the classroom with higher expectations and values for success for math earned lower grades at the end of the year. Gender was a factor in achievement, with girls earning higher grades in math than boys. Literature has suggested girls are more sensitive to classroom climate scales and tend to yield higher ratings while males perform better in climates that are more orderly and organized (Goh & Fraser, 1995). Results from this indicated no significant gender differences for ratings of classroom climate but did indicate higher achievement for females over males in end of year math achievement. These results do not support earlier findings which indicated boys have higher achievement in math (Townsend & Hicks, 1997). Reasons for these differences were considered to be a result of declines in motivation for math (Wigfield, & Eccles, 1992), social attitudes reflecting math as a nontraditional female domain, or classroom bias in the promotion of math achievement for girls. One reason for higher achievement for girls in middle school may be a reflection of the change in social values for math. Recent trends in research suggested

PAGE 44

35 the gap in gender differences for math achievement might be narrowing. Another possibility for gender differences in math achievement may be due to girls sensitivity to classroom climate, which was observed in this study with the increase in girls motivation for math at the end of the year. Therefore, while in this study, girls and boys were analogous in their perceptions of rule clarity and order/organization, achievement for girls may be more positively effected by positive classroom climates. Findings did show a difference in middle school students achievement as they progress to grade levels. These results suggested that students tended to achieve higher grades as they achieved higher-grade levels. One possibility may be students entering middle school tended to have lower performances across domains. Students in the sixth grade were prone to declines in school engagement in a study by Simons-Morton and Crump, (2003). While declines may be influenced by the transition to middle school (Eccles et al., 1993), academic performances were demonstrated to rebound, improving as students adjusted to their new environment and rose to higher grade levels (Wigfield, Eccles, &Rodriguez, 1998). Because this study did not address differences in math curriculum, reasons for improvement in achievement by grade level might be addressed in future studies. Implications In past decades, classroom climate has been established as a salient aspect of student learning and wellbeing. The construct of classroom climate has been considered a critical factor in students emotional and intellectual development. Gottfredson and Gottfredson (1989) explored the positive influential role of safety, morale, personal security, and classroom orderliness on academic performance, attendance, and dropout rates among elementary, middle, and high schools. Studies indicated that establishing a

PAGE 45

36 positive classroom climate increased attendance and student involvement (Mayer & Mitchell, 1993; DeYoung, 1977). Creation of classrooms with a positive climate has been indicated as a buffer to many current problems in the academic arena. Mayer and Mitchell (1993) suggested that creating positive classroom climates in which positive feedback, structured tutoring programs, with clearly defined rules resulted in reducing dropout rates, increasing attendance and increasing on task behavior. Other variables in the learning environment impacting academic success included feelings of support within the classroom, teacher availability, and feelings of belonging, safety and caring (Hayes, Ryan, & Zeller, 1994) which affected the students perception of the quality of life within the classroom (Dunn & Harris, 1998). Biggs (1993) suggested while students may bring a preferred approach into the classroom, but that the classroom climate can hinder or promote their preferences. These approaches have been found to determine whether the student learns on a superficial level or achieves mastery. Findings of this study indicated students with higher ratings of classroom climate performed better and were more motivated than those who did not. Interesting questions are: are better students more sensitive to classroom climate or do students do students perform better because they are better able to identify elements of the classroom that assist with learning? Because perceptions of classroom climate have been significantly associated with higher achievement and motivation in this study, implications for School Psychology are many. First, classroom climate scales may be used to understand the experience of the individual within the classroom. In assessing the individual, it will be helpful to gain an understanding of the student within his classroom. Using classroom climate scales as an

PAGE 46

37 assessment tool provides an opportunity to assess students perception these experiences. Using these results may help design better interventions within the classroom to improve students achievement outcomes. Additionally, just as children may be explicitly trained in social skills to recognize social cues, students at risk for academic failure may benefit with explicit training in recognizing classroom supports that may be obscure to students with low ratings of classroom climate. Students with lower ratings may then be able to benefit from positive classroom climates. Second, because the positive effects of classroom climate have been demonstrated in this study to be related to students achievement and motivation, teachers may find having structured and organized lesson plans, with fair and consistent enforcement of rules may improve student learning. With current emphasis on accountability for teachers regarding students educational success, teachers may find that promoting a positive classroom climate will increase productivity through high student motivation and improve academic grades through enhanced student learning. Additionally, teachers who implement classroom practices designed to promote a positive classroom climate may use the climate assessment as a means of assessing the success of the programs or as a means of facilitating changes within the classroom. Finally, the assessment of perceptions in classroom climate may help understand the changes in students perceptions of their educational experiences. For example, in this study, students perceptions of Order/Organization were associated with higher motivation and higher achievement. Rule clarity, however, was associated with higher motivation but did not effect achievement. Closer examination of the data revealed differences in effects of rule clarity on achievement for different grade levels. These

PAGE 47

38 results indicated developmental differences in the effects of classroom climate. By assessing classroom climate as a means of understanding developmental change, a greater understanding of students needs within the classroom may be achieved in order to improve academic outcomes. Limitations and Future Studies Findings of this study revealed perceptions of classroom climate to be significantly associated with higher achievement and higher motivation levels in middle school mathematics students. Because this study involved a large sample of middle school students, findings may generalize to other middle school students. Additionally, because this study controlled for gender, grade level and initial levels of motivation, the impact of classroom climate on achievement and end of year motivation may be more clearly indicated. Therefore, although students enter the classroom with values and expectations for success in mathematics, the classroom experience relating to positive classroom climates may be important for student success. Although the sample for this study was large, a limitation of this study might be the sample was taken from a predominantly white, rural middle school. Research has demonstrated the effects of positive classroom climates in rural middle schools were analogous to racially mixed urban middle schools. However, future studies may wish to replicate these findings to determine if actual grade achievement and motivation levels can be predicted by classroom climate in urban schools. Another limitation was the focus of this research, which did not include perceptions and ratings from other academic domains. Findings in this study may not generalize to domains where subscales of classroom climate of Rule Clarity and Order/Organization are not highly correlated. Research has indicated positive effects for

PAGE 48

39 classroom climates rated high on scales of Order/Organization and rule clarity in all domains (Juarez, 2000). However, future studies may wish to replicate the predictive role of classroom climate on achievement and motivation in other domains. A final limitation in the focus of this study was it sought to examine the predictive quality of positive classroom climate for middle school students. Because findings indicated different effects of ratings of Rule Clarity for 6th grade, future studies may wish to examine classroom climate for each grade, separately, to determine if the effects of classroom climate are stable across grade level. Future studies are needed to determine the predictive effects of positive classroom climate as it pertains to individual student achievement and self-ratings of motivation in elementary schools. Because initial levels of motivation are found to be associated with previous classroom experiences, promoting positive classroom climates early may help students develop higher motivation for academic engagement. Additionally, understanding the role of classroom climate may facilitate changes within the classroom that promote learning mastery. With the current emphasis on educational accountability, higher achievement outcomes associated with positive classroom climates are promising.

PAGE 49

40 Gender Differences in Motivation-0.8-0.6-0.4-0.200.20.40.60.81123End of Year MotivationBaseline Motivation girls boys Figure 1. Baseline Motivation

PAGE 50

APPENDIX REGRESSION EQUATIONS Multiple Regression Equations How much is motivation predicted by classroom climate, controlling for gender, grade, and initial motivation ? YM = Motivation YM = b0 + b1X1 + b2X2 + b3X3 + b4X4 + b5X5 + b6 X6(X3X1) + b7X7 (X3*X2)+ b8X8(X3*X5) + b9X9(X4*X1) + b10 X10(X4X2)+ b11 X11(X4X5) X1 = Classroom climate : order/ organization X2 = Classroom climate: rule clarity X3 = gender X4 = grade X5 = motivation time 1 X6 = gender order/organization X7 = gender rule clarity X8 = gender motivation X9 = grade* order X10 = grade*rules X11= grade*motivation Omnibus Test of Predictive Variables for Motivation Full Model ( k = 11) Sample Size: H0 : R2 (YM/X1X2X3X4 X5X6 X7X8 X9X10 X11) = 0 FM 7 = R 2 (Y A /X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 X 6 X 7 X 8 X 9 X 10 X 11 )______ (1R2 ( YM/X1X2X3X4X5X6 X7X8 X9X10 X11) / ( N k-1)) 41

PAGE 51

42 Tests of Interaction H0 : R2 (YM/X1X2X3X4 X5X6 X7X8 X9X10 X11) = 0 FM = R 2 (Y m /X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 X 6 X 7 X 8 X 9 X 10 X 11 )______ (1R2 ( YM/X1X2X3X4X5X6 X7X8 X9X10 X11) / ( N k-1)) H0 : R2 (YM/X1X2X3X4 X5X6 X7X8 X9X10) = 0 FM = R 2 (Y m /X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 X 6 X 7 X 8 X 9 X 10 )______ (2R2 ( YM/X1X2X3X4X5X6 X7X8 X9X10 ) / ( N k-1)) H0 : R2 (YM/X1X2X3X4 X5X6 X7X8 X9 X11) = 0 FM = R 2 (Y A /X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 X 6 X 7 X 8 X 9 X 11 )______ (1R2 ( YM/X1X2X3X4X5X6 X7X8 X9 X11) / ( N k-1)) H0 : R2 (YM/X1X2X3X4 X5X6 X7X8 X10 X11) = 0 FM = R 2 (Y m /X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 X 6 X 7 X 8 X 10 X 11 )______ (3R2 ( YM/X1X2X3X4X5X6 X7X8 X10 X11) / ( N k-1)) H0 : R2 (YM/X1X2X3X4 X5X6 X7 X9X10 X11) = 0 FM = R 2 (Y m /X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 X 6 X 7 X 9 X 10 X 11 )______ (4R2 ( YM/X1X2X3X4X5X6 X7X8 X9X10 X11) / ( N k-1)) H0 : R2 (YM/X1X2X3X4 X5X6 X8 X9X10 X11) = 0 FM = R 2 (Y m /X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 X 6 X 8 X 9 X 10 X 11 )______ (5R2 ( YM/X1X2X3X4X5X6 X8 X9X10 X11) / ( N k-1)) H0 : R2 (YM/X1X2X3X4 X5 X7X8 X9X10 X11) = 0 FM = R 2 (Y m /X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 X 7 X 8 X 9 X 10 X 11 )______ (6R2 ( YM/X1X2X3X4X5 X7X8 X9X10 X11) / ( N k-1))

PAGE 52

43 Omnibus Test of Predictive Variables for Motivation Revised Model ( k = 6) H0 : R2 (YM/X1X2X3X4 X5X8) = 0 FM = R 2 (Y A /X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 X 8 )______ (1R2 ( YM/X1X2X3X4X5X8 ) / ( N k-1)) Tests of Individual Coefficients: H0 : B = 0, if =1 TX = R 2 (Y M /X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 ) R 2 (Y M /X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 ) (1R2 (Y M /X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 ) / ( N k-1)) Calculate Semi-Partial R2 H0: ( YM ( X1/ X2X3X4X5 X8 )) = 0 FA = R 2 (Y M / X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 X 8 ) R (X 1 / X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 X 8 ) (1R2 ( YM/ X1X2X3X4 X5 X8 ) / ( N k-1)) H0: ( YM ( X2/ X1X3X4 X5 X8)) = 0 FM = R 2 (Y M / X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 X 8 ) R 2 (X 2 / X 1 X 3 X 4 X 5 X 8 ) (1R2 ( YM/ X1X2X3X4 X5 X8) / ( N k-1)) H0: ( YM ( X3/ X1X2X4 X5 X8 )) = 0 FM = R 2 (Y M / X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 X 8 ) R 2 (X 3 / X 1 X 2 X 4 X 5 X 8 ) (1R2 ( YA/ X1X2X3X4 X5 X8) / ( N k-1))

PAGE 53

44 H0: ( YM ( X4/ X1X2X3 X5 X8 ) = 0 FM = R 2 (Y M / X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 X 8 ) R 2 (X 4 / X 1 X 2 X 3 X 5 X 8 ) (1 R2 ( YM/ X1X2X3X4 X5) / ( N k-1)) H0: ( YM ( X5/ X1X2X3 X4 X8) = 0 FM = R 2 (Y M / X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 X 8 ) R 2 (X 5 / X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 8 ) (1 R2 ( YM/ X1X2X3X4 X5 X8) / ( N k-1)) H0: ( YM ( X8/ X1X2X3 X4 X5) = 0 FM = R 2 (Y M / X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 X 8 ) R 2 (X 8 / X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 ) (1 R2 ( YM/ X1X2X3X4 X5 X8) / ( N k-1)) Multiple Regression Equations How much is achievement predicted by classroom climate given gender, grade, and motivation ? YA = Classroom Achievement YA = b0 + b1X1 + b2X2 + b3X3 + b4X4 + b5X5+ b6X6 (X4*X1)+ b7X7(X4*X2)+ b8X8(X4X3) + b9X9 (X5X1)+ b10X10(X5X2)+ b11X11(X5X3) X1 = Classroom climate : order/ organization (smorder) X2 = Classroom climate: rule clarity (smrules) X3 = motivation time 1 (mot1) X4 = gender X5 = grade X6 = gender order/organization X7 = gender rule clarity X8 = gender motivation X9 = grade* order X10 = grade* rules X11 = grade* motivation

PAGE 54

45 Omnibus Test of Predictive Variables for Achievement Revised Model ( k = 11) H0 : R2 (YA/X1X2X3X4 X5X6X7 X8X9X10X11) = 0 FA = R2 (Y A /X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 X 6 X 7 X 8 X 9 X 10 X 11 )______ (1R2 (YA/X1X2X3X4 X5X6X7 X8X9X10X11) / ( N k-1)) Tests of Interaction H0 : R2 (YA/X1X2X3X4 X5X6X7 X8X9X10X11) = 0 FA = R2 (Y A /X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 X 6 X 7 X 8 X 9 X 10 X 11 )______ (1R2 (YA/X1X2X3X4 X5X6X7 X8X9X10X11) / ( N k-1)) H0 : R2 (YA/X1X2X3X4 X5X6X7 X8X9X10) = 0 FA = R2 (Y A /X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 X 6 X 7 X 8 X 9 X 10 )______ (1R2 (YA/X1X2X3X4 X5X6X7 X8X9X10) / ( N k-1)) H0 : R2 (YA/X1X2X3X4 X5X6X7 X8X9X11) = 0 FA = R2 (Y A /X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 X 6 X 7 X 8 X 9 X 11 )______ (1R2 (YA/X1X2X3X4 X5X6X7 X8X9X11) / ( N k-1)) H0 : R2 (YA/X1X2X3X4 X5X6X7 X8X10X11) = 0 FA = R2 (Y A /X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 X 6 X 7 X 8 X 10 X 11 )______ (1R2 (YA/X1X2X3X4 X5X6X7 X8X10X11) / ( N k-1)) H0 : R2 (YA/X1X2X3X4 X5X6X7 X9X10X11) = 0 FA = R2 (Y A /X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 X 6 X 7 X 9 X 10 X 11 )______ (1R2 (YA/X1X2X3X4 X5X6X7 X9X10X11) / ( N k-1)) H0 : R2 (YA/X1X2X3X4 X5X6 X8X9X10X11) = 0 FA = R2 (Y A /X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 X 6 X 8 X 9 X 10 X 11 )______ (1R2 (YA/X1X2X3X4 X5X6 X8X9X10X11) / ( N k-1))

PAGE 55

46 H0 : R2 (YA/X1X2X3X4 X5X7 X8X9X10X11) = 0 FA = R2 (Y A /X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 X 7 X 8 X 9 X 10 X 11 )______ (1R2 (YA/X1X2X3X4 X5X7 X8X9X10X11) / ( N k-1)) Omnibus Test of Predictive Variables for Achievement Revised Model ( k = 5) H0 : R2 (YA/X1X2X3X4 X5) = 0 FA = R2 (Y A /X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 )______ (1R2 (YA/X1X2X3X4 X5) / ( N k-1)) Test of Individual Coefficients: H0 : B = 0, if =1 TX = R 2 (Y A / X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 ) R 2 (Y A / X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 ) (1R2 (YA/ X1X2X3X4 X5) / ( N k-1)) H0 : B2 = 0 FA = R 2 (Y A / X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 ) R 2 (Y A / X 1 X 3 X 4 X 5 ) (1R (YA/ X1X2X3X4 X5) / ( N k-1)) H0 : B3 = 0 FA = R 2 (Y A / X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 ) R 2 (Y A / X 1 X 2 X 4 X 5 ) (1R (YA/ X1X2X3X4 X5) / ( N k-1)) Calculate Semi-Partial R H0: ( YA ( X1/ X2X3X4 X5)) = 0 FA = R 2 (Y A / X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 ) R 2 (X 1 / X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 ) (2R ( YA/ X1X2X3X4 X5) / ( N k-1)) H0: ( YA ( X2/ X1X3X4 X5)) = 0

PAGE 56

47 FA = R 2 (Y A / X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 ) R 2 (X 2 / X 1 X 3 X 4 X 5 ) (2R2 ( YA/ X1X2X3X4 X5X6X7) / ( N k-1)) H0: ( YA ( X3/ X1X2X4 X5)) = 0 FA = R 2 (Y A / X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 ) R 2 (X 3 / X 1 X 2 X 4 X 5 ) (2R2 ( YA/ X1X2X3X4 X5) / ( N k-1)) H0: ( YA ( X4/ X1X2X3 X5)) = 0 FA = R 2 (Y A / X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 ) R 2 (X 4 / X 1 X 2 X 3 X 5 ) (1 R2 ( YA/ X1X2X3X4 X5) / ( N k-1)) H0: ( YA ( X5/ X1X2X3 X4)) = 0 FA = R 2 (Y A / X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5 ) R 2 (X 5 / X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 ) (1 R2 ( YA/ X1X2X3X4 X5) / ( N k-1))

PAGE 57

LIST OF REFERENCES Alspaugh, J. (1998). The relationship of school and community characteristics to high school dropout rates. The Clearinghouse, 71, 184-188. Anderson, L., Stevens, D., Prawat, R., & Nickerson, J. (1988). Classroom task environments and students' task-related beliefs. Elementary School Journal, 88, 281-295. Battistich, V., & Horn, A. (1997). The relationship between students' sense of their school as a community and their involvement in problem behaviors. American Journal of Public Health, 87, 1997-2001. Baumeister, R., & Leary, M. (1995). The need to belong personal attachments as fundamental human motivation. Bulletin, 117, 497-529. Biggs, J. (1993). What do inventories of students' learning processes really measure? A theoretical view and clarification. British Journal of Education, 63, 3-19. Chapin, S., & Eastman, K. (1996). External and internal characteristics of learning environments. Mathematics Teacher, 89, 112-115. Charlesworth, W., & Dzur, D. (1987). Gender comparisons of preschoolers' behavior and resource utilization in group problem solving skills. Child Development, 58, 191-200. Cheung, C., Rudowicz, E., & Lang, G. (2001). Critical thinking among university students: does the family background matter? College Student Journal, 35, 577-597. Crocker, R., & Brooker, G. (1986). Classroom control and student outcomes in grades 2 and 5. American Educational Research Journal, 23, 1-11. Crohn, L. (1983). Towards excellence: student and teacher behaviors predictors of school success. Research Summary Report, Retrieved July 1, 2001 from ERIC (ED242704). Dart, B. (1998). Teaching for improved learning in small classes. In B. Dart & G. Boulton-Lewis (Eds.), Teaching and learning in higher education (pp. 222-229). Melbourne: Australia: Australian Council for Educational Research. 48

PAGE 58

49 Dart, B., Burnett, P., & Purdie, N. (2000). Students' conception of learning, the classroom environment, and approaches to learning. The Journal of Educational Research, 93, 262-270. Deci, E., Vallerand, R., Pelletier, L., & Ryan, R. (1991). Motivation and education. Educational Psychologist, 26, 325-346. Denny, D., & Turner, R. (1967). Teacher characteristics, classroom behavior, and growth in pupil creativity. Retrieved June 13, 2002 from ERIC (ED011257). DeYoung, A. (1977). Classroom climate and class success: a case study at the university level. Journal of Educational Research, 70(5), 251-257. Dunn, R., & Harris, L. (1998). Organizational dimensions of climate and the impact on school achievement. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 25, 100-114. Eccles, J. (1983). Expectancies, values and academic behaviors. In J.T.Spence (Ed.), Achievement and Achievement Motives: Psychological and Sociological Approaches (pp. 75-146). San Francisco: W.H.Freeman. Eccles, S., Wigfield, A., Midgely, C., Reuman, D., MacIver, D., & Feldlaufer, H. (1993). Negative effects of traditional middle schools on students' motivation. The Elementary School Journal, 93, 555-591. Ellis, S. (1996). Staff development is the key to school reform: an interview with Efrain Vila. Journal of Staff Development, 17, 52. Fraser, B. (1986). Classroom Environnent. London: Croom Helm. Fyans, L., & Maehr, M. (1987). School "culture" motivation and achievement. In J. Arter (Ed.), Assessing School and Classroom Climate A Consumer's Guide (pp. 1-39). Portland, Or: Test Center of the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Gardner, A., Mason, C., & Matyas, M. (1989). Equity, excellence and "just plain good teaching. The American Biology Teacher, 51, 72-77. Goh, S., & Fraser, B. (1995). Learning environment and student outcomes in primary mathematics. Retrieved June 13, 2002 from ERIC (ED38962). Goodenow, C. (1993a). Classroom belonging among early adolescent students: relationships to motivation and achievement. Journal of Early Adolescence, 13, 21-43. Goodenow, C. (1993b). The psychological sense of school membership among adolescents: scale development and educational correlates. Psychology in the Schools, 30, 79-90.

PAGE 59

50 Goodenow, C. (1995). Conceptualizing and measuring classroom belonging and support among adolescents. Unpublished. Tufts University. Department of Education. Gottfredson, G., & Gottfredson, D. (1989). School climate, academic performance, attendance, and dropout. US Dept of Education. Greene, J. (1983) On the classroom component of classroom motivation. Presented at Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Montreal Haertel, G., Walberg, H., & Haertel, E. (1981). Social-psychological environments and learning: a quantitative synthesis. British Educational Research Journal, 7, 27-36. Hamilton, S. (1983). The social side of schooling: ecological studies of classrooms and schools. The Elementary School Journal, 4, 313-334. Hayes, C., Ryan, A., & Zeller, E. (1994). The middle school child's perceptions of caring teachers. American Journal of Education, 103, 1-19. Hoffman, R. (1979). Ability, involvement, and climate as multiple and interactive predictors of performance. Research Report, Retrieved from ERIC (ED183601). House, D. (2002). The independent effects of student characteristics and instructional activities on achievement: an application of the input-environmentoutcome assessment model. International Journal of Instructional Media, 29, 225-239. Jackson, J. (2002). Enhancing self-efficacy and learning performance (motivation and social processes). The Journal of Experimental Education, 70, 243-255. Jacobson, L. (2000). Valuing diversity-student-teacher relationships that enhance achievement. Community College Review, 28, 49-66. Johnson, L., Lutzow, J., Strothoff, M., & Zannis, C. (1995). Reducing negative behavior by establishing helping relationships and a community identity program. Rockford Ill Juarez, A. (2000). Enhancing student performance through classroom motivation. Dissertation Abstracts, RIEMAR2002. Retrieved June 13, 2002 from ERIC (ED458298). Keyser, V., & Barling, J. (1981). Determinants of children's self-efficacy beliefs in an academic environment. Cognitive Therapy Research, 5, 29-39. Kunc, N. (1992). The need to belong: rediscovering Maslow's hierarchy of needs. In R. Villa, J. Thousand, W. Stainback, & S.Stainback (Eds.). Restructuring for caring and effective education. Baltimore: Brookes. Kutnick, P. (1998). Relationships in the primary classroom. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.

PAGE 60

51 Mayer, G., & Mitchell, L. (1993). Dropout prevention program for at risk high-school students: emphasizing consulting to promote positive classroom climates. Education and Treatment of Children, 16, 2. McRobbie, C., & Fraser, B. (1993. Associations between student outcomes and psychosocial science environment. Journal of Educational Research, 87, 78-85. Moos, R., & Trickett, E. (1994). A social climate manual. Palo Alto, Ca: Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc. Osterman, K. (2000). Students' need for belonging in the school community. Review of Educational Research, 70, 323-367. Owens, L., & Barnes, J. (1982). The relationships between cooperative, competitive, and individualized learning preferences and students' perceptions of classroom learning atmosphere. American Educational Research Journal, 19, 182-200. Proctor, C. (1984). Teacher expectations: a model for school improvement. Elementary School Journal, 84, 469-481. Resnick, M., Bearman, P., Blum, R., Bauman, K., Harris, K., Jones, J., Tabor, J., Beuhring, T Sieving, R., Shew, M., Ireland, M., Bearinger, L. & Udry, J. (1997). Protecting adolescents from harm. JAMA, 278, 823-832. Simons-Morton, B., & Crump, A. (2003). Associations of parental environment and social competence with school adjustment and engagement among sixth graders. Journal of School Health, 73, 121-127. Slavin, R. (1991). Synthesis of research on cooperative learning. Educational Leadership, 48, 71-82. Townsend, M., & Hicks, L. (1997). Classroom goal structures, social; satisfaction and the perceived value of academic tasks. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 67, 1-12. Wang, M., Haertel, G., & Walberg, H. (1993). What helps students learn. Educational Leadership, 51, 74-76. Wigfield, A., Harold, R., Eccles, J., Blumenfeld, P., Aberbach, A., Freedman-Doon, C. &Yoon, K. (1992). The structure of childrens ability perceptions and achievement values: age, gender, and domain differences. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Associations. San Francisco. Wigfiled, A. (1994). Expectancy-Value theory of achievement motivation: a development perspective. Educational Psychology Review, 6, 49-78

PAGE 61

52 Williams, J., & Somers, M. (2001). Family, classroom and school effects on children's educational outcomes in Latin America. School Effectiveness and School Leadership, 12, 409-444. Zahn, G., Kagan, S., & Widaman, K. (1986). Cooperative learning and classroom climate. Journal of School Psychology, 24, 351-362.

PAGE 62

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Susan Davis graduated from the University of Florida in 2001 with a Bachelor of Science degree in psychology. She is currently a graduate student in the University of Florida school psychology program and plans to graduate in May of 2006. Susan lives in Gainesville with her husband, Jack, and son, Jim. 53


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID E20110320_AAAAFQ INGEST_TIME 2011-03-21T03:43:14Z PACKAGE UFE0008973_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES
FILE SIZE 860 DFID F20110320_AADFOK ORIGIN DEPOSITOR PATH davis_s_Page_52.txt GLOBAL false PRESERVATION BIT MESSAGE_DIGEST ALGORITHM MD5
839523d95384de8e3f4c19a685e46cfe
SHA-1
84ae82a499ca6d1368c2ca125e6b36e95c7cdc8b
25271604 F20110320_AADFEP davis_s_Page_22.tif
2bbdab11638097ff5b51dbd56a8db7ca
4d067652b0d6c0ce6065bd069ecceceb36f5572f
1062 F20110320_AADFOL davis_s_Page_53.txt
d710d1be5e579d3cefd65b4e55521a3f
5d2b4a55dce4ce45bad741eccfed781341bda51d
22227 F20110320_AADFJN davis_s_Page_49.jpg
e7d8792ca4a0dc6d432747937ed007f2
6ace3322e748d96316131677a1c235c5c044aa70
107736 F20110320_AADFEQ davis_s_Page_14.jp2
e535233ea606e84257a8f304af5b36f9
94c37ffac43a8d5648d19646a80c662d69be570c
936 F20110320_AADFOM davis_s_Page_55.txt
cac1a8dbceae45ad498846fe9606c10b
553dedc474288a49f1517be0d9b247a07f5f7112
40545 F20110320_AADFJO davis_s_Page_51.jpg
241d00b8fb62cc9dc29f41e874e42ffc
88dd3f8dcc19fdab219a816eca20e0721a19d3a1
3619 F20110320_AADFER davis_s_Page_52thm.jpg
c906a2610130244102dd451867e087a5
1fb16fb230c6a9e0f49a52feae79cc384a81f7c1
2387 F20110320_AADFON davis_s_Page_58.txt
b283f4d30b664d84524dc9d86d1c6302
c9e5b2b933223d91b312bad81a44720ba541dcb4
42483 F20110320_AADFJP davis_s_Page_54.jpg
d959b59c85f64985754a7dedb3e5343f
cf85fed89190b9ebb5711eac40f6d902c8daf779
16395 F20110320_AADFES davis_s_Page_33.QC.jpg
9d8ba204c73f0ce8a9130a34b6c15857
51c9035017afa4aca6f6c449ed803ff78d3dd9fa
2539 F20110320_AADFOO davis_s_Page_59.txt
b5998e0cf325c6713ba70c59b6e2e7e4
97a329c8393d194707826792852b778d0832dfc9
34816 F20110320_AADFJQ davis_s_Page_55.jpg
f0e876d8c68e52fcdc748e475d31eaec
df7c1b0fa257db6e31913e46c6cafb0601a9979c
29851 F20110320_AADFET davis_s_Page_39.jpg
9c427d143450565bf63a81b813ff567f
4db0ea425a817dcb015bbb29db9f6bc4e5463771
2361 F20110320_AADFOP davis_s_Page_60.txt
d64557cff25d3b535cbe8d6e0e703aed
fef80fc505790153cf36951cc7563d56343aabc1
22827 F20110320_AADFJR davis_s_Page_56.jpg
f492c13253b6cb3394513308520e6642
32a2e24d734a93894218ced70d704f7da439d809
23643 F20110320_AADFEU davis_s_Page_44.QC.jpg
0b46a23be01ff148e60c336e5a5110ac
980799fb45b711cb912d2acd4e73d77106145c45
390 F20110320_AADFOQ davis_s_Page_61.txt
e73a3b708bba9ca11350100e9d7a7440
0e64d3711f96b11cff2a21a2238003c128f3fa36
84785 F20110320_AADFJS davis_s_Page_59.jpg
b3f1308c753a6bcbe64f44b1820aba51
c34e96b0392f8a36ff3043dccac8841fbb1e561c
64931 F20110320_AADFEV davis_s_Page_57.jpg
2573d8c7dd8ffa07337490f2db934466
7e16e51dbdcdcc3632fee43724a33d9db80e7f3c
7135 F20110320_AADFOR davis_s_Page_24thm.jpg
b3f34772e7bf2a52454a9e019ed52384
6159f284455d379052bca1b44d6b8d6454164cf4
5483 F20110320_AADFJT davis_s_Page_02.jp2
b21c3a1f10a253227d5ed646acd9e76f
17566c22ea2b91170e4faec47418d696e306a96a
4166 F20110320_AADFEW davis_s_Page_54thm.jpg
713cd4d8cba3b02b6d782edb1dc3bd41
2be4bde1efbe9c4311f499a4524a6db7488b7e07
96351 F20110320_AADFJU davis_s_Page_08.jp2
b108d97eca94baf8f863b6bbecc1c6fd
b10b0c66ae04abf9f39008401af2263407532cce
F20110320_AADFEX davis_s_Page_06.tif
3c969985439877e2a92373481da9b9f5
b2cc86b7cf96ba57aac5497adfa6cdf597505d36
15441 F20110320_AADFOS davis_s_Page_04.QC.jpg
3e75fe90e6f34e74e24907f291bb1e42
f308fc34c3b8af4056e7d876a960decfbabab540
79655 F20110320_AADFJV davis_s_Page_09.jp2
1c82b4ef2e3c9a0554bb4e45830d2715
65206058e7a4eca2d1c8068c0f0f56b617266ee7
70683 F20110320_AADFCA davis_s_Page_29.jpg
5f1c7e97819ab084456638b525450d72
ad354dd1c1af03e82886a2e1f4bb4e3f1f633197
107409 F20110320_AADFEY davis_s_Page_15.jp2
d7c11a9d3190e09bcda88cc6efe0277a
da77dcc6f69c9ba46ad1905252e3782283959f72
7185 F20110320_AADFOT davis_s_Page_21thm.jpg
5b9092d99056423bed4eeac1e5a455b4
46ee64070271e1021f35dc1b2a197ac4275f4e34
96330 F20110320_AADFJW davis_s_Page_10.jp2
ba00d194f57e827d3e40b3a529b6688a
75b5a33facea84de1801df4425ede732ce0d8342
48329 F20110320_AADFCB davis_s_Page_55.jp2
0ec3c1cf7764ef3567405df9bb22606a
f84921be75e5038a2e521bd70470123a35a9eb51
69676 F20110320_AADFEZ davis_s_Page_25.jpg
d3c9dea6bbb5338d14fc31f5e628254b
0dbba28f15d17fa5eadc342abe5f270206871c84
5024 F20110320_AADFOU davis_s_Page_09thm.jpg
a049d7a1628429aef610b1f35df03765
3b685b3ff65e62d7570cfe23b3c41c2c4d254b86
97313 F20110320_AADFJX davis_s_Page_12.jp2
afdbb230dfdb4a2bb0463b8f4d68bba3
c5e81825954ccda1351bf78b2c336cad36634947
1990 F20110320_AADFCC davis_s_Page_29.txt
35430bca48a66efb2db06c470f3b71fc
ad9e2eb6140032eea071b24a7c0af791bae0182d
53549 F20110320_AADFHA davis_s_Page_41.pro
949b7420501799d6d86d6f31ad4ad02f
dc2014a513a2132140690d3251c9fcd593dba4f2
105159 F20110320_AADFJY davis_s_Page_13.jp2
b5d1f157d67c3072f5482ff4b022e2c5
6e4455f349c3538439acbdbea32420305331f06a
982 F20110320_AADFCD davis_s_Page_50.txt
6e0e3a6a4e53a47744026277175e568b
a72e896c13bc964e6c13e38f372e2a093fe91283
7863 F20110320_AADFOV davis_s_Page_49.QC.jpg
4ff3786ddc330c9962658da05a8493f6
1d249d779dbd4b445b4031cf5d316e19fd242d0d
46139 F20110320_AADFHB davis_s_Page_36.pro
ad829cb89b897830cb2248a568c92f06
b743fd87c42774c9c621e1647a5ff322f22c8875
112140 F20110320_AADFJZ davis_s_Page_16.jp2
1015a43407cb0963b956f942392510ae
ccf0bc8e3e295818d4f9381214f2f2bb890df20a
19649 F20110320_AADFCE davis_s_Page_30.QC.jpg
099fdf06e818fc85e2fea3c625c3dc9f
6dcd27fd32e5d079db572968c7d4c242e785be20
5907 F20110320_AADFOW davis_s_Page_61.QC.jpg
10bf9075688f39b8927a554e8c4ecd76
ded744446a8aeb9d76a0fe66d083f24559c18402
1053954 F20110320_AADFHC davis_s_Page_55.tif
6fdd96c0d84771ba71f41f66b0064c0b
52e6eaf3a52c09096ebed95048cf559a3c184362
445011 F20110320_AADFCF davis_s_Page_07.jp2
63bb613abf290fe68ae1557984bd7710
cc504f43424aa806ecaf97eda16b1d5b30beda89
17211 F20110320_AADFOX davis_s_Page_09.QC.jpg
8172470de50484c0c821cc6a7cc99a2c
2995edbe8a41edb3eec5fcc0a511e75e397ba2f1
699 F20110320_AADFHD davis_s_Page_39.txt
66b3710e55791cec9ce6f898a5a35d48
a1064f6762ed08f2f5b1ebdb1eed9e6d9e428ec5
1147 F20110320_AADFMA davis_s_Page_02.pro
137718faeaa8adcf2549ac5671d30c9d
93ce5e7d43ba76748cedd0ef7cbe701dc5c928d8
5668 F20110320_AADFOY davis_s_Page_57thm.jpg
c057fac0d39335ae98ba4882a99356bd
81432153af62148983f05818925dd14d32fdee58
93640 F20110320_AADFHE davis_s_Page_30.jp2
50309ff387954758027d5f6c88a1aee8
ed6b6a6e3549c030f836550b279acc56f0556ab1
2304 F20110320_AADFCG davis_s_Page_37.txt
46e2e719242fbace8a0f3333f2f22fbf
f64aabedfffdc65b0f1354236ca5f7269db89cdc
805 F20110320_AADFMB davis_s_Page_03.pro
10b8e89ad59120d4216192f52bed9f45
6f91ee5125b42ed654c3dc13c1177849df5e5583
3663 F20110320_AADFOZ davis_s_Page_53thm.jpg
e5090b855da56a1940f12ecbf541e6a2
e4e3ada74625f1f457b37ff897d6b692e7f086ee
225558 F20110320_AADFHF davis_s_Page_49.jp2
aed8daa9c2d59ef0b0425bc38af39d52
1c0dfaee4bdb933efc7193c89c7b7ced6330a87b
1952 F20110320_AADFCH davis_s_Page_36.txt
9fd7b22d113431e3ce4825badd6eb5fc
423a911192293fa7636618570f6ce09767863b58
37162 F20110320_AADFMC davis_s_Page_06.pro
d965cae46fe3f028d15e56159bc74c3c
d88093453b21968a3ae760df574df0d474e626a5
3819 F20110320_AADFHG davis_s_Page_08.QC.jpg
4b7d19dbf0ea5ad8f372a9916979d1e3
1bce4de1722ced3de93e49cb5c992775ae3274c3
2466 F20110320_AADFCI davis_s_Page_01thm.jpg
22843b84bef97f57272d872a6640e797
54748b966dc21b1b897deb1bc0132e7e870c8dac
4107 F20110320_AADFMD davis_s_Page_08.pro
6a221773a3cf799e88b558246ea9526e
708f500a63fa6772970e813986687b02f4f17b29
51885 F20110320_AADFHH davis_s_Page_48.jpg
c15b2db9d9758f6b4a023ee01419fd18
93f7a7aa0ef3545fe4c10ad67794ef7eaeaafafa
F20110320_AADFCJ davis_s_Page_02.tif
4f6206e5d01f6fba238244fb2c2f375c
2dbd7e9541ae0613f690373887bb182e3ba3b66c
44608 F20110320_AADFME davis_s_Page_10.pro
5b7e6429532e84990573323545377a74
7f84023086d624ea529319da1a546a392dce5b64
24636 F20110320_AADFHI davis_s_Page_41.QC.jpg
952234401fc5e898d29418cf4fd85799
487a03c6420f99b8d67ed33f6c1a6adeac920765
48868 F20110320_AADFCK davis_s_Page_33.jpg
bb74cebe1213481a03269dd9ab19f2c2
f839519ab00658697e3ef57890193299a4218170
44483 F20110320_AADFMF davis_s_Page_11.pro
30f39730ff93804409d282ef488d6675
7ae7ed09ffe23704fabd5e3f0288feac91f67df9
23854 F20110320_AADFCL davis_s_Page_19.QC.jpg
b38f158b074881c323255c80335e81ed
fa4ddb58c186e70f86b28add6c22ea422b3ec247
44766 F20110320_AADFMG davis_s_Page_12.pro
9cccac2604b20936aeb705b099b2f9ed
ce025685c5791eefc05aefca671623dc35ab5e0f
F20110320_AADFHJ davis_s_Page_18.tif
a385b42e7e2dd6b73bc57b0b3d34dc99
5899fc8644d1b484a5fae681f5d1379fc9fe799a
51287 F20110320_AADFCM davis_s_Page_16.pro
e48a74d06ed1a6136895ccd868c6f581
ee23e94eac2f8f1c8319ab47d8f4b2f93cde1dac
47574 F20110320_AADFMH davis_s_Page_13.pro
fbc0c235b73865ca6bb6a1ba377a8118
b598ab78728ab0f8cbc429b043d7bb255c60a4a3
25111 F20110320_AADFHK davis_s_Page_59.QC.jpg
f7a1d8f60fde0f9e0c44e6b29a0ca592
e66816f8d779688bfe710ff6005be8f8f519f60d
12580 F20110320_AADFCN davis_s_Page_51.QC.jpg
03a34e1a89ac88b80a7315ea625e96ae
dda733fbe998f891e60c01a4e3d06b8d62da641e
48810 F20110320_AADFMI davis_s_Page_14.pro
69f62cbe90236aee04148b9a2ed3e8dc
6b0c6dc7f6b10c30fae34e7466b400320789eade
6510 F20110320_AADFCO davis_s_Page_43thm.jpg
e75c7d5d720d1976fa838cf3407a79d0
724195d4476732b3835b1475568ed4587b0c2184
48440 F20110320_AADFMJ davis_s_Page_15.pro
7aa8d316864317c8142520e0e4509907
bd2185aacc7ebce68e78f785558502f4be66b4da
113789 F20110320_AADFHL davis_s_Page_17.jp2
c8a2f034e5fa1d8403feca2f4bab914d
2f078f0e0df1cf2897b33b6bbb81dae01c105960
670628 F20110320_AADFCP davis_s.pdf
f6efcc528039c4d5cc1edc80bd9d9a4f
1435217c4ce5fb5d604b36f747b6a57e2f9c5bef
51434 F20110320_AADFMK davis_s_Page_17.pro
5c364395808c58c7c07959a9836bfa2a
12ba9032495e6520d190d213dbb13d44ab273554
36931 F20110320_AADFHM davis_s_Page_50.jpg
3f76a009bebce0a588747ecc1c262dc1
8f33140177787f531269a28311722386307b94d2
68470 F20110320_AADFCQ davis_s_Page_05.jpg
641dc2011e7b4bdd6a89bc80d2b69d12
4ce2a7aaf43e182472585580b7b6335f51617c52
48114 F20110320_AADFML davis_s_Page_18.pro
9f01e4302438e2398875b562cf4445a5
a992c9cadf9a030b19c38103614849b377311c56
59185 F20110320_AADFHN davis_s_Page_40.jpg
b3ae5b247bcf241f754f9aef2ef63b0b
26476a26d96a78b6119241b977f5f27c88fed12c
72936 F20110320_AADFCR davis_s_Page_33.jp2
c670e21cf68855e336665a251eb5a1f0
fb1bd272cdb3b83221ec66605f2744d20d5a5c7c
50772 F20110320_AADFMM davis_s_Page_19.pro
03e6aab907c8d80a85c6c3a80d4e5eea
f2d9ff94684a3b9e9befc3b4489635e43a9ff567
1899 F20110320_AADFHO davis_s_Page_18.txt
43ef500c25e75bbdf31e833a148b8824
a1ebc7b7f99bb1854e7ae174ba0d1877446626ac
67033 F20110320_AADFCS davis_s_Page_04.jp2
044daf417c875124d08e1afba6ad9454
4769454ce89644f24db2438a1379af52a418b08e
50472 F20110320_AADFMN davis_s_Page_20.pro
a7821a6f477a98a46abcba2694460c64
5a5ac331974d81dfeab2d21bb3286a9da04917d1
79321 F20110320_AADFHP davis_s_Page_48.jp2
21f7ffda81aae13713b986e14615ae18
0fcd44c2d0d974efb45f644a3f45ee54184a37a2
109771 F20110320_AADFCT davis_s_Page_31.jp2
88bd2f4afaae710b12d6d5f2e92bb647
8b690da8ac69fe87090d979b7e746b738ec6faf5
52445 F20110320_AADFMO davis_s_Page_23.pro
f48868e0de13b164c64f1529aa86dcec
5863514d8dd7ffe7a9e82d5f2a8237a5b62a9207
35787 F20110320_AADFHQ davis_s_Page_06.jpg
848941fdd8eba12c4c671e1cfc1a5a86
59c68040d0b182689427ddb2e93cc5050f4f4ae4
106859 F20110320_AADFCU davis_s_Page_25.jp2
5ff34b987d80ad9af77edb353c24f2e0
7756607493a6beeae30c7cb23244fdf6803d16a7
52879 F20110320_AADFMP davis_s_Page_24.pro
b7113e46aef7792f0a0cc7e8b88faeae
8e136c65b3512c084e206df65f1152bdb6d14512
1369 F20110320_AADFHR davis_s_Page_02thm.jpg
1ca2481578d0c25845e498497fe0fbf9
09ca9a13ea2d6e37ad2764b015922124597ec2b8
1763 F20110320_AADFCV davis_s_Page_11.txt
5385b49fb06bad9d2e96c6b1fd4937ba
9c19da1492c9525c889346a1ab6088a0e9bb4f2b
12452 F20110320_AADFHS davis_s_Page_53.QC.jpg
9610692eaf502caf3058892e156d8d95
0d4c8f46dfd0b7f835e2f65798e8cd3d9e962548
23285 F20110320_AADFCW davis_s_Page_14.QC.jpg
36e33842684582ce08f1a9e30a04c1a8
530421aa7da0dcd142a8235fb64f47da191ab2a3
31873 F20110320_AADFMQ davis_s_Page_26.pro
13ebed79d2b3dfa4361f68c49d10ea9d
5c24b2536d606c046895991f6ebd5049efabb890
111055 F20110320_AADFHT davis_s_Page_45.jp2
47b2f41213dde49617c3e8f2b8eae2b1
ae3a1d6405d7c64644e766d9da576acfc769cf45
F20110320_AADFCX davis_s_Page_01.tif
1656927c95af3356598e4b1a2f54b650
7a2722fd9caf9fa363dff92331c2f0428d708f61
50666 F20110320_AADFMR davis_s_Page_31.pro
5866ea166c7b1800c7fa1293166ece8b
1f0250775f20bd68c6ed08662a92a29899056a6a
50751 F20110320_AADFHU davis_s_Page_46.pro
9956506828c700653e068bcec0afe9fb
04f2dd9a29eb273acdd56afa11d3275ec3327f1c
22934 F20110320_AADFCY davis_s_Page_43.QC.jpg
75dc162b9370016b2a0cf42037edf5d5
afb44a9d7933babefbe434d93b1836f92e3998ec
47961 F20110320_AADFMS davis_s_Page_32.pro
0e0402f033194c4d9757d4d2b8c2424a
8c93162746c9fd42bf19dede19d5feaf9c894618
110005 F20110320_AADFHV davis_s_Page_42.jp2
da33400b1d8990609ddf8054dd4c642d
3326e0e74a6a55d56a782123f0c6475d40338d93
8521 F20110320_AADFAA davis_s_Page_61.pro
c6c455acc5a27f399f8611f2edd21feb
cbf81a6f4abdd2911ac45c041446027cff287260
85 F20110320_AADFCZ davis_s_Page_03.txt
81f238e234bc317b2ba2c19cb450d83b
89213faecc1bbb0693f00c9aa8ee4a27519203df
40659 F20110320_AADFMT davis_s_Page_34.pro
a6580faa91a03730b7defba7ecef6faf
4b39dc5d1e657b8aff23b51a1762b9becffdb09b
25450 F20110320_AADFHW davis_s_Page_20.QC.jpg
c517be211cd72ea12120aa86c3a0e2d8
e56c43899c4e6843ba728f2754a00b1e1ae9c4ab
F20110320_AADFAB davis_s_Page_33.tif
bfa7ade60233d9a011b8ee199b098650
5451da46a62c9dbad715cae7f5377e204d3e205a
41649 F20110320_AADFMU davis_s_Page_35.pro
1c0086ecf5303e6d58eb548b48d962ae
8da79ba54c2632ffbe42ea286af70e6c88daca36
6605 F20110320_AADFHX davis_s_Page_29thm.jpg
2b6f8a078e268e4088a8b0e5236cc6a5
4fc79d56b28e44bac0f06752ab0456600662e55d
50596 F20110320_AADFAC davis_s_Page_22.pro
aaa95f7dfbe99d0502113e7ebfedc031
b7cd8656c0c33d6f1b95461cc570c8eec2fec0c9
17225 F20110320_AADFMV davis_s_Page_39.pro
4d4026bc967ba9065b3b535067917676
3288cbaf456f815229416427d0114ef9c2c59ba3
6267 F20110320_AADFFA davis_s_Page_37thm.jpg
01bc2fad28f0f6ba870796caee6d4cba
7b3bc01f7e4313a7eeb2df3c3a9418681fd0bc34
110163 F20110320_AADFHY davis_s_Page_37.jp2
4d0f45687b11d239f86e59b397656422
beeed036c4fbd11c0488ce44a9588b96ed7caa92
F20110320_AADFAD davis_s_Page_20.tif
66dc55e450d4c8843474c43bf216553b
62c831f02bc0ab291943626b310444875cbb0ec1
40352 F20110320_AADFMW davis_s_Page_40.pro
f8d12b28997e87e1bcb0fd8f36206058
ee52cdc1d32aee89985f08767acbac52268ab6b8
48621 F20110320_AADFFB davis_s_Page_25.pro
86f9e50a935c22c1b1f2bd7528c0542b
3967cfffe9e0139e8dad567138109a9a13a8fb0f
4782 F20110320_AADFHZ davis_s_Page_33thm.jpg
81b2d2ecfdcc5be7f129e1c16d7f6125
3a0e34ed9e0d7464575e44fd3a4f9da81595bbd8
50723 F20110320_AADFMX davis_s_Page_42.pro
ffde78b72b3807147c6b5ca679c3966d
70edb67b0f85e386c1fa976af7e31e25f2bc7724
6472 F20110320_AADFFC davis_s_Page_38thm.jpg
804eeed866b8c6ac4073269ef07e523f
7921b576990364029a909cec97f0bfa5701c9542
6433 F20110320_AADFAE davis_s_Page_46thm.jpg
5c1a4126f6e34c355d4bc8137f16800f
da3661bf67f9b5427b38e7ae46dd21a57338ea08
111676 F20110320_AADFKA davis_s_Page_19.jp2
93161940a06d8bb36bc87518feef0250
ab64317afe89e3f35860bedf82d750b3413afc6f
50068 F20110320_AADFMY davis_s_Page_43.pro
e36e64b9af77bc7513e380b29a5e004d
d3b5dac7bd26d32429230eefe916d12ab88c4f3d
51901 F20110320_AADFFD davis_s_Page_50.jp2
eeb5885694039a9985bfadc9fcee8b14
ba81dde84ff31c7e3b79a9fabbb685417d591d4d
5080 F20110320_AADFAF davis_s_Page_48thm.jpg
b8d526cf2ff6bf577f78c7f5cb71f508
6b14878cd5afd6a3a32be47d4fe46417772e5135
1051907 F20110320_AADFKB davis_s_Page_22.jp2
c602b564d33d9adb5d8955a840db98f3
79fac5e898728eebcc0c72644da1042aa425ee10
50718 F20110320_AADFMZ davis_s_Page_44.pro
65b529fea14ab0b642a42b11b9c217aa
1dbf03b5d792209546ee3aa879ee528f1d85e564
6800 F20110320_AADFFE davis_s_Page_59thm.jpg
a2f8e090f912d0272bbb6ef6f2b9f338
757723b1b02b19d84c29033390ac5b7e89f8c669
23289 F20110320_AADFAG davis_s_Page_31.QC.jpg
ba88673eeb6ad0c20cd53b33cd101a73
2802a8357a9b41cdf1131d4807723e880ef24512
114459 F20110320_AADFKC davis_s_Page_23.jp2
0875b695635dfe4a6347c22eb958b966
beffe49e75b1ca883f970337dc59bd228924e310
1988 F20110320_AADFFF davis_s_Page_25.txt
282f717c9689a241a7d5d9845d9c0e6e
2a75ca8df8120180960f385c8ef4474d398375ab
55703 F20110320_AADFAH davis_s_Page_34.jpg
871c2bb080d885f2dcb90d23e2f770df
8697388e57ab9243fdc9238cafa125c728257924
80212 F20110320_AADFKD davis_s_Page_27.jp2
033c3af4c0f49dd13a290ff25219db21
32f57d644abc73caa403c1d991f03b2e95e054b7
2299 F20110320_AADFFG davis_s_Page_62thm.jpg
e24ef715172f06d4c8fb18f39a9baf00
688e6db9689f3630f35f5bad95d1098737f551ca
7043 F20110320_AADFPA davis_s_Page_56.QC.jpg
ddfe5e01b65f55b79dd5d52d6bf90166
2787a9db1d2a7ef1c97450f6d7610345b5402458
67610 F20110320_AADFAI davis_s_Page_32.jpg
8247ccc921e696d8e6ce4e41a4fcba93
e55c2529ba70ffe5c81becc21225fccd045d0b95
108131 F20110320_AADFKE davis_s_Page_28.jp2
6cdefbf34e52315e4356cf357af4cf04
82562a46796ceabc03b43d50e8a5ade9345944ad
2534 F20110320_AADFFH davis_s_Page_56thm.jpg
154fabd1399abeefa9fa87a1001abede
7648a81df8f760c7882109bdbb43ca54d2f21e6f
6539 F20110320_AADFPB davis_s_Page_32thm.jpg
06e12985dde15ed37fffd412b1c20c35
24cacb618681856d832c1aca275097eb6c2d4eb5
22136 F20110320_AADFAJ davis_s_Page_13.QC.jpg
ca985359d491a8b4b374c45b342ea86b
e873d2e56f0ce884ee56a1ea201fb6ab3cab6bd9
4007 F20110320_AADFFI davis_s_Page_51thm.jpg
abdf62bca9c61936212cf520bacdc87e
81e2e867f307a4ad30f360d2f9df47c51d5cb20f
101601 F20110320_AADFPC UFE0008973_00001.xml FULL
a157299b1305fb51c07c1df250b68174
c9932bdfffaa78b4ed1cac508855e60a2e240239
32076 F20110320_AADFAK davis_s_Page_52.jpg
6057da9e51b0ab08bd4729332b948d98
18184f1313b0f55bba05f6b0982d8501088a3d76
111228 F20110320_AADFKF davis_s_Page_29.jp2
fa6e367823b8c752dfa0f7c6d4f77efd
1bc43cd55110f9b6b00ed67eb15b10880d17a3d5
8099 F20110320_AADFPD davis_s_Page_01.QC.jpg
7f0a5c61974cd03592ebfd0874bf5edd
16cb50dd88fa021ec8efb3067227aa2a88975512
51822 F20110320_AADFAL davis_s_Page_21.pro
4de72a349779d8be679777aa6a0f3f0d
365640eb0c804c6fd05ae2bfe593d3f1bb228b33
106541 F20110320_AADFKG davis_s_Page_32.jp2
8aec434e3c91ebc13763293ff7722a62
cf855cb20bc513f25278ac010e2147e052f2ac83
23495 F20110320_AADFFJ davis_s_Page_29.QC.jpg
3076baf74e349ca57dbf650bdfc7bb4b
6990216cbdf77c013979b6576ac811cd16f1fed7
7423 F20110320_AADFPE davis_s_Page_07.QC.jpg
05ceafa8091a3cc4f271857bafdcf0cf
cd2c4924b0a91984c73662bb2a3d9a3e27c23153
2900 F20110320_AADFAM davis_s_Page_06thm.jpg
ddcf6f7a3d1a11491bb986f024a6111f
869a29a02b8c622c297cd32275acb9eb71de0262
81364 F20110320_AADFKH davis_s_Page_34.jp2
543f9eb463522fb0f4dce701659e99e4
ce05eeaee0b523d235718a6538c499b8cafd0a0d
71779 F20110320_AADFFK davis_s_Page_45.jpg
950d41184def6c57d10c05306ada7025
b028d65a768b7f50705f71fd14b26d0f231423e8
21310 F20110320_AADFPF davis_s_Page_11.QC.jpg
50275ed43baef1799bdf0a4a3c5b12ec
fa01d2c344134d520e1b0555021129addc0ffaa3
11024 F20110320_AADFAN davis_s_Page_56.pro
a6615b684385e14435472669c53994d2
adfc7ea5360b77077981e1abda99950262b137b9
94773 F20110320_AADFKI davis_s_Page_36.jp2
09c7428870c74033f98e85266f5c6761
73c0b15d76379eb3b3610b07671aab2cbc5a41ee
F20110320_AADFFL davis_s_Page_42.tif
047c72d85ca5f8cac3b4b7fce92881e0
c148ea7a8c4ca7d655c92a009d47b268bcfab613
21036 F20110320_AADFPG davis_s_Page_12.QC.jpg
c19d14dd43fbeb0da2cb66ac58996ec7
6811afcd0e413d498bb6853559cf90fb3b70672a
6400 F20110320_AADFAO davis_s_Page_42thm.jpg
94c7fa16dbb3d1f481a8bfaa3600632a
e3088c77ca7d9ba8b8449e2282e34a17e189adf9
109033 F20110320_AADFKJ davis_s_Page_38.jp2
d71974a32a2dc0e15b5bf5a010627118
d6108f26944acb7c06c5685256de971be740c900
50515 F20110320_AADFFM davis_s_Page_29.pro
53502e4a0e13e5e2fff30107bd98788b
3672d17ce2cfe3357bb99a84d0e31b810a40fa32
23176 F20110320_AADFPH davis_s_Page_15.QC.jpg
dc3169762f434550a2419fcf528c056d
06af3d8bff799a9ee54e41f5cedad1e19e889e58
1987 F20110320_AADFAP davis_s_Page_20.txt
72536b51bff182e0fab35cf79d1474d6
1903dd9ca67d605445a0c9cad4c314e9b21f8cdd
40850 F20110320_AADFKK davis_s_Page_39.jp2
7d5625ea7e53266958c8ae15895ffbff
b59aa1ff3642197e0e626086f2c3ec65b073ce3c
35466 F20110320_AADFFN davis_s_Page_09.pro
941524cf97cbfb87b1bbd2a9281cd6b7
862e0c78171c5b371588c6417b865be3e1ab69ec
24005 F20110320_AADFPI davis_s_Page_16.QC.jpg
9a01b290dc75c8046663036f067830a7
f8636b409b3c158651c49237a2d63ea34d0a1f0b
6737 F20110320_AADFAQ davis_s_Page_41thm.jpg
5c9dafb0bf60deecda9dac610bc0d78b
f1d5725725861402f8bce656842b467a65b7f492
109026 F20110320_AADFKL davis_s_Page_47.jp2
b4b0724cb66e9c6c3122322c541fcb6b
3c3928a4bd45add8983c4378790f6633bde2b7c0
36168 F20110320_AADFFO davis_s_Page_27.pro
504accf6ab7702972a6508869f8bf330
31c17c4cea6b90e083512231cdbf7fe1dcfc6665
23847 F20110320_AADFPJ davis_s_Page_17.QC.jpg
12951b19c445ecfdceaf704becf38be3
a61ebd52cdec4e6ca0919c21544610483945df21
2053 F20110320_AADFAR davis_s_Page_23.txt
d9ddbb67393ace3fe9237849c41971cf
381f477e4ded2c5cad89dcfea00f18e8d6bda534
44754 F20110320_AADFKM davis_s_Page_52.jp2
382fd0b072826202c2b0d6cd78858e9c
126fdad4139eba8346f15024116173a722dbe827
22458 F20110320_AADFPK davis_s_Page_18.QC.jpg
27568a89ff995d2e8b06971bd0065cc2
22c671c2aac15a8ebfe7fefeba2a65875274d6dd
31852 F20110320_AADFFP davis_s_Page_33.pro
cbd68035b55912fc97bb2ffaf2fb72c7
2f65995157b7929180519599aee4e9cb294b0cdb
6564 F20110320_AADFAS davis_s_Page_19thm.jpg
c99dc8b7043ecd9e9a5a223080bb12d4
d64b2e471fab6e657f37bdda52005bdb1ba86305
58786 F20110320_AADFKN davis_s_Page_53.jp2
b6355852502bf68b7a6154c3e1ddd672
6518875c05cb1fa5089411ec81412dd827997f11
26000 F20110320_AADFPL davis_s_Page_21.QC.jpg
f1b82ff29d5b9b767ee6867083a1de57
7609e4e94463a98b18c3636d69e6678d58e99a11
20504 F20110320_AADFFQ davis_s_Page_62.jpg
06e0657850ae6640cb03f8b06d4aba40
48a5accb65dca38e8cb1e5db9fed805f6d46d98f
F20110320_AADFAT davis_s_Page_41.tif
64a0fb81a38d7c33301d9c1a8102ef04
334e8c16c91f0ba879e89d9cea1d9822beca7215
24717 F20110320_AADFPM davis_s_Page_22.QC.jpg
d084dd9650acc928a355519a49472e42
4f1308900a1cef28e4290fa1da6a379ad11cd670
2986 F20110320_AADFFR davis_s_Page_03.QC.jpg
c53c368402e4d086c77a4f533e2048d1
acfd62744d6820248abecf9193bbc11a9c3bbeb6
5707 F20110320_AADFAU davis_s_Page_36thm.jpg
ff5c9bef9b943882252d96b325a59155
2543b5384137e560e5f2414b7aca0f8378a77112
62664 F20110320_AADFKO davis_s_Page_54.jp2
b0fe2607283bbe1acc8f2bcc9bd0f61c
75759dd4731e1176733f41725a6e00f09e6d1c07
25521 F20110320_AADFPN davis_s_Page_24.QC.jpg
6c2ca26d1a27b0fd809af0861fce0814
6a9a1082823f1cf6a2e13b303cbd2ccad0ca4032
82932 F20110320_AADFFS davis_s_Page_21.jpg
91a9bf7c25338ee86d26d00c360b6e77
dff176ef1ed1e704902da3108309c349dd2440ee
64154 F20110320_AADFAV davis_s_Page_10.jpg
36bad2efcd67b448a98ea8cdc42b6df6
fb2c6cf84e82648695e35598c8487d3ee41918ef
27762 F20110320_AADFKP davis_s_Page_56.jp2
35093197ff5d6cdf9bae28ef08fb5611
bd3920c9e67b12cf7e403afeb10796c2b87a04d3
15819 F20110320_AADFPO davis_s_Page_26.QC.jpg
78230f99cc92e33ffbdb1dde6ee3ec25
f14a8e78c5bc6a98dbe7316e152279453dec3f08
111142 F20110320_AADFFT davis_s_Page_44.jp2
9ccc01edc6eb908a82e744479a3809c4
62fa6f8994d82ea84be23b8d203b7db4b45e1a1f
482 F20110320_AADFAW davis_s_Page_56.txt
868873f6a9a786e86af0681d67d90ae6
358a01c157b9538c0849d1594b4854e05c32ee0c
128168 F20110320_AADFKQ davis_s_Page_58.jp2
de0a26f61e6d9b17c1c053a8544631c5
3ca0873013dcaaa9599f1a31a3cb8faf33757046
23148 F20110320_AADFPP davis_s_Page_32.QC.jpg
7f8ec0cca37305d7983636e32d6cd369
a624f971354c2cb45869c9a46731292b5bb362c5
1308 F20110320_AADFFU davis_s_Page_03thm.jpg
a99495d7f76ccd5cf3dc08b8c4f1ece2
2af8f64ddcb487559a5892174a115856bf15c134
F20110320_AADFAX davis_s_Page_60.tif
17d04852647c16c76e405efceaedfb86
ab195f74bba2c6477eedbf0416cde16114f6f091
137080 F20110320_AADFKR davis_s_Page_59.jp2
f2114f5fbffc9e336c99bc89286bea03
f6546e5bb97ce900dcf1c1d6c8f467d65f5bf2a2
17940 F20110320_AADFPQ davis_s_Page_34.QC.jpg
be4db1fec519b95bbb3554562dea2b55
18d6bcc33f404a706345e0367dd93062c3f2db05
F20110320_AADFFV davis_s_Page_13.tif
79a2d291b09b9226d7f32b42275a8ca8
a6c408c2483246a3c291be857948f371e04b55ac
24240 F20110320_AADFAY davis_s_Page_23.QC.jpg
12f6be6f7586ef25bec8043b356bbaf3
1a2f9cae7621b7e79ffba582d9f468e4cc428b7f
126112 F20110320_AADFKS davis_s_Page_60.jp2
59aa913716fadeff116e5c02023f8fb5
d4bc87185a99d9c0eaf82fb6f0af8f0d0580cde3
20493 F20110320_AADFPR davis_s_Page_36.QC.jpg
0a2cad4fae8efd9b2e854fa60e067cab
df5f026b40087abb4eb3099f1b575092c1e6270d
F20110320_AADFFW davis_s_Page_47.tif
734d35cf170bc7893c935eefd78d287e
c8c5696b7777c912116f1da14ab5d06c9d9f87af
24902 F20110320_AADFAZ davis_s_Page_53.pro
4182cb7c3236f040bb70d427b2afbfb3
decfc4d4b0264d7e8e3da2090e20daea972853b7
23189 F20110320_AADFKT davis_s_Page_62.jp2
18d1ecb693a3f8b54282fd753081f447
030963e8a3357f577b723d56aa5094da7b409b83
23660 F20110320_AADFPS davis_s_Page_38.QC.jpg
e036a6719e53b6c7e8b9e6f0b4f01421
6910207859cdc4e0271c3422247940ab68aeeed8
F20110320_AADFFX davis_s_Page_29.tif
4e298f3c8cfc508a56f78327ac30fced
be9f3fc3a7b40f974b518b4ae34c84aea4b3272d
F20110320_AADFKU davis_s_Page_03.tif
3eeeb3066546411c987e2ff6621c3b1c
3b1a5da7ceee2b01221400f312446a55f0241f50
116281 F20110320_AADFFY davis_s_Page_41.jp2
a41294df18b360e266106c4d2e6c7371
ad90c7992becdca2e8f9df4b530fee73122a4dd4
F20110320_AADFKV davis_s_Page_05.tif
0b37c80db8b88f27d15dcad30aa40726
e15132d96fb94968f14e313951bf83282d31d792
1230 F20110320_AADFDA davis_s_Page_04.txt
1f69af63614a5f58f91131fdd8371d07
61a214d34f85322a9d6976d33b92d63a48b8ed91
19427 F20110320_AADFPT davis_s_Page_40.QC.jpg
9a69f3126c7f608c222c84bec159c711
df8f9c04e3b8ed30e287bb2c4db5641cac3bfaaa
F20110320_AADFFZ davis_s_Page_11.tif
0bb7cc5d4bc5131b5d9ed7fb47cf74dd
9c2701a07387100492f0efe034ca7057d1935396
F20110320_AADFKW davis_s_Page_07.tif
3fe1cca050befebf48b440e6387932bc
cc4a5201582ab927687b1118de96109b049db606
109321 F20110320_AADFDB davis_s_Page_43.jp2
43ab9882f50b352a68b6d1c517dcc2fc
156f7a5f2b515812f5d2d368d51e986c790d569f
23255 F20110320_AADFPU davis_s_Page_42.QC.jpg
b28c51e81ed20d452a96cce07d276ae5
dfd1bbf749213c252210796cf3e35c7c550e78c6
F20110320_AADFKX davis_s_Page_12.tif
3cf93019a980b4363f55f494f6699687
c2f86a78277cff06920d17ce985855120c6d82c0
6336 F20110320_AADFDC davis_s_Page_15thm.jpg
be1753ef1dc2bee0409586b0021e114d
9dd9433f19345a2638550ab4746c992fd8e9911c
23244 F20110320_AADFPV davis_s_Page_45.QC.jpg
86563ed9fec7fa4ae2a6d05b7d304f6b
56249fd92deed741d0b70ece6dce31eec65b19ea
10310 F20110320_AADFIA davis_s_Page_52.QC.jpg
8d4e831689859d880b5c8e20931531c2
c578be8c500118871370429f66b63054eff7b5fe
F20110320_AADFKY davis_s_Page_14.tif
aa056d2bfeffb002e6fd7fda72d6693b
eec7a4bbb0953d0f32480bbbfbb0e921bd7e665f
26789 F20110320_AADFDD davis_s_Page_54.pro
caf0e8347198dd8de3df8cad26d6e40e
dabda9ee09a680b6692e49e289eb37f815d58a7d
11559 F20110320_AADFPW davis_s_Page_50.QC.jpg
9c1c81425d386a6bd2edfd7d5246e697
19f1df7079dcbd3e0786d280d45efb99d2b6234d
1582 F20110320_AADFIB davis_s_Page_08thm.jpg
3a5cbf6bbf9432027cd33dcdb9120363
ee2ee66cec82b33f2bcfeb78b1016a675a7c5e75
F20110320_AADFKZ davis_s_Page_15.tif
d4dd9ab92519b491cddaa474f3abc541
66a3db8c8988c7ae012bf9004282ebd010a2d5ec
29720 F20110320_AADFDE davis_s_Page_04.pro
63f3926f20d6a61f6dbec4ae012d8f00
cd2285095aea484524ac5453f66d4a19df6ed33b
13424 F20110320_AADFPX davis_s_Page_54.QC.jpg
530cf45ab3e09d5788912024be3157c7
60d869da2e1e0a300b6be753301e290c190790cc
3171 F20110320_AADFIC davis_s_Page_39thm.jpg
1a2b111bcb4f7885520369d44f8f209e
4e58d3696ef858aaf71df2555484f680278d4bc8
F20110320_AADFDF davis_s_Page_52.tif
fb6862db44085908033d00f9aa0ff738
e334675491cbfd804dcfb098084aad115b4b204c
20134 F20110320_AADFPY davis_s_Page_57.QC.jpg
2169c04dccb1abdb58e9f3b7b784c645
657ea32cf0235f320cddaf1ab86436d9d08cc439
50648 F20110320_AADFNA davis_s_Page_45.pro
72cb75a1fd7c1ed88fb933e98f75be2b
a49dacf6a19540130eba982e766ffc663ec83b47
97044 F20110320_AADFID davis_s_Page_11.jp2
4395c2636deefb51388f6d53714716fc
08e56190cdb6f965a29385d26e3e5e221a595711
2036 F20110320_AADFDG davis_s_Page_21.txt
295f312c416c1a768a297ab6548f52dd
ae57e618775c7211750baaaa3e610a0aa34a7a6d
6636 F20110320_AADFPZ davis_s_Page_62.QC.jpg
f6834d5ef44eab2d855be674f6e37525
a06bfac3229e8699b58de0940ec324487c02113e
24445 F20110320_AADFIE davis_s_Page_60.QC.jpg
1d8c574c01871e278b0010d477cae45b
435fcf1c036685f8d45fb551a3554282dd534bb7
35089 F20110320_AADFNB davis_s_Page_48.pro
7c0dcf1c29ce9492c8fec930f1add58c
c02365d16fa52999a00584f564b4e7cc8839c625
40745 F20110320_AADFIF davis_s_Page_53.jpg
09f95119fb1258f0bd11c62e4d4f251c
6bb6a6faf8c56a2a1ab1cc6c2fe6b85542355b8d
397 F20110320_AADFDH davis_s_Page_62.txt
efded2c6b636eb757b5f0ba5f4f857ce
57a0bf6dda8c0f8a75befb29b83957c4b6db7927
4996 F20110320_AADFNC davis_s_Page_49.pro
575f8b994640ea7fa13f58d511852fb5
50dc9094a5561b8e9d9f73e720d20697f5e9f160
77135 F20110320_AADFIG davis_s_Page_05.pro
a456b5a97558ea821da96308d662f577
4050871401fdf829b5fd7dce9771872a5e6ffbd7
F20110320_AADFDI davis_s_Page_23.tif
32f0e12926960524409d5d6b966839d9
7389d4c5b6083a5c8470bfe8460259c001294a89
21778 F20110320_AADFND davis_s_Page_50.pro
2c787b9634104bd666fe7674ebc76fe7
ea9c78fa42ef4b239b2daa7ea647fd543f5677b0
5870 F20110320_AADFIH davis_s_Page_10thm.jpg
cfb7d4801bf8d9cf6a50fc6c7efc6045
5d2c6b239f9859c29cf26b26015b9ac82999b1a8
F20110320_AADFDJ davis_s_Page_44.tif
fd395cc395b94508b6cd6af9f2690a60
b879b123271ed69a7872b63af322a6fafa686098
25464 F20110320_AADFNE davis_s_Page_51.pro
5514b23718fa718792da8a6767fea438
073a014420b54c4ea996e762f613bbf64f596b28
2005 F20110320_AADFII davis_s_Page_57.txt
8b68d7dc2a204c7a1305cd6d3d8a506d
0d5dd7a3b8ec02b8e683b513c5bf569f38b205c1
1125 F20110320_AADFDK davis_s_Page_51.txt
75e6b2913162b407ab2347308caa710b
90519b361e70d09771f0e7198ef1d1ba69517456
18327 F20110320_AADFNF davis_s_Page_52.pro
63e747cd997e6bc4844542234c1a7883
9a391f87e5a98a8dbbe92195db428f5d27ec90b4
55781 F20110320_AADFIJ davis_s_Page_37.pro
eb21b6985cb63b2887d66d9e8a60047e
6f3a4920a722c02197a609a30a0e48e419b405a6
1277 F20110320_AADFDL davis_s_Page_33.txt
1f1d818c91d1093470b635818f8d739c
bb3cf9309ac573c53f937f23de54417ec3dfed4d
49021 F20110320_AADFNG davis_s_Page_57.pro
6349aef8604e0c80723ab0ab5bdb1cdf
b7f2ad21088f5e1b7c21a29b3c254246344392a9
F20110320_AADFIK davis_s_Page_43.tif
b5be1678fca40f1e13d042ebed78e1da
416c4602961d82cf3917567f402cf090555c3155
5999 F20110320_AADFDM davis_s_Page_30thm.jpg
5e1e5c452f61e94b548250aaecd51db2
d9b106d13b2aa701d0cc643e20a3c18fb8a54cfb
58938 F20110320_AADFNH davis_s_Page_58.pro
2b22455b59ebe0201bdf0947473c8f19
e224f8670c0f86d6e86d64280210b6e8d229192a
6000 F20110320_AADFIL davis_s_Page_12thm.jpg
ac4aae300d0e46c6743e84239e28cff3
e62ea2f8f440742e48c8f60e78ba74530ae778e4
4674 F20110320_AADFDN davis_s_Page_05thm.jpg
4404538493385552f906bf9f0ac0cb34
1d92c9fbfb0f6d7487a957ea17aa4b20bc35c1eb
58203 F20110320_AADFNI davis_s_Page_60.pro
b7083ea58f9111ea11e1cc40bdbc7ac4
9ed110cdbadcd97d4b70129a16b84db42c3bcc2f
17969 F20110320_AADFDO davis_s_Page_27.QC.jpg
a086ba088d48bf46445d3fc9347f119d
4aa65ab7ee6fc809cddbe84f261226cc914828ed
8743 F20110320_AADFNJ davis_s_Page_62.pro
5b2de14ab073571e336d793336d012f9
eeea8f0c0f83915a5f8687a3fd573e687f582158
73616 F20110320_AADFIM davis_s_Page_16.jpg
a52f17ba5bc576ee1b5f1bec04d2f2a0
43cca07338062095a3a41fa2e55d8e3f57b8d6b1
11232 F20110320_AADFDP davis_s_Page_55.QC.jpg
4daa4ee9d95471dcb78043ad05fc9937
2d8ce3e463abed44f530473c5f8fa9833a787c5d
528 F20110320_AADFNK davis_s_Page_01.txt
9905af29a0cf93f4f7869df68545cf47
4b1ef1ea235063044ff836dfa614a5d656267669
F20110320_AADFIN davis_s_Page_04.tif
bed39a86ad91f45c85766ea0e491b13a
512ae200336ffa193f5db2798f65de300c5115df
81397 F20110320_AADFDQ davis_s_Page_35.jp2
b17ca0bb7871f8c13587babef67a0cf4
529b49b259a2e8d755f6869e2de72cdabe00d384
3197 F20110320_AADFNL davis_s_Page_05.txt
6f0a6630a783aa7954bb342294729302
d4cd616f66f0ae4661e5f0a75e5e085cbfa286b0
1051984 F20110320_AADFIO davis_s_Page_05.jp2
0e47e58c24cf24f600df5d8df7a0774e
4223883d8c5b6313b48d9030cad0cb522be2563f
1934 F20110320_AADFDR davis_s_Page_14.txt
b5d68b2b1e0327b3911da779f11fed32
c7cc072a1ebaa476b97adbbbd9f576e7bd0f0a0b
1493 F20110320_AADFNM davis_s_Page_06.txt
935586bed92e155ac8a6e3012edf6514
2e98bc679e1988d44daa57a073b183c94650ae2a
F20110320_AADFIP davis_s_Page_27.tif
eb849688957e29977b1c55b552f3eacf
f6b936102321e56c8599ae3204c966c82ca21cbd
15359 F20110320_AADFDS davis_s_Page_07.pro
c8eea5d7a7905962487b94ecf74caebd
e489e53f934d7bdb96e715229cf266be20c67dd3
685 F20110320_AADFNN davis_s_Page_07.txt
5edc39ea25952a0aad49fd06a89ada00
da1b702d6d2da74dafb70aad509449fe8fc7f923
73433 F20110320_AADFIQ UFE0008973_00001.mets
786c6e1f733187067c054fdee40657ee
ff2e0f09608028ce4db2279eb2031d90eb4bb92e
28028 F20110320_AADFDT davis_s_Page_01.jp2
ea3b4d098ac3fb173526ad4de5cd0496
4f578cafd533d8d38ca42d6d6dba46899af28d21
196 F20110320_AADFNO davis_s_Page_08.txt
61c35cc117baebd3756f4f1e1821461a
76f96b3fa91883852f767c441d6f2b70972e87a0
F20110320_AADFDU davis_s_Page_26.tif
5a31db2e94e4661ef60601f12dd1af62
1678f770f4d8deed0e53a12dbf6748946a9bbf34
1831 F20110320_AADFNP davis_s_Page_10.txt
80d64dfc76ab6c8989fe66d8b02424eb
f2d7281457f3d4b946ef27361d2e0be7abd7951f
1291 F20110320_AADFDV davis_s_Page_26.txt
a88607e25c41342cca4059d3cc4955af
0703684221393955016ddc69395f60bc9028fb05
1835 F20110320_AADFNQ davis_s_Page_12.txt
b6d3009f93f08fbc70ac1cd0db22164f
06189023141b55dd3bb944b16b22a59f4d7d4d8e
10244 F20110320_AADFIT davis_s_Page_02.jpg
2c918893aeb4140e0792af1d71206e0e
189e6083cee4fbd90d2231671c29448cf561b36e
70928 F20110320_AADFDW davis_s_Page_43.jpg
4bcaf9e183e54deb655bf2f0a0236413
e99e497f424a2ca01f154b2aa8dea3d544ae6917
9662 F20110320_AADFIU davis_s_Page_03.jpg
cca7bf71c55537a536fb7f6fb4eb581f
d39819f123d9a3ed5bd2ab2a05ad2c2aeb50de11
71027 F20110320_AADFDX davis_s_Page_15.jpg
ac02c1e172ed066159cab1626434eba1
51de4d52819ad00c57ee94b63e798358a7500a23
1914 F20110320_AADFNR davis_s_Page_13.txt
507ba7966ea0395cbdce4f72f4cc2fc9
2105350728e49a1e914738d12ed0fa21e0055bfa
23324 F20110320_AADFIV davis_s_Page_07.jpg
c75bf4570cbc6da51aa062718526633e
bd42e0cd078afcd8e8590cee8a14ca40aa0c6283
110 F20110320_AADFBA davis_s_Page_02.txt
3f3c56d51b97ee37196965a4d728b349
8b528f837e3baa57b1d1e51f0863ff68db158189
17596 F20110320_AADFDY davis_s_Page_48.QC.jpg
67d9110130760def4267780334d4add0
7c56e931e4f065d4e80f3c1dd270c1845cb9628d
2023 F20110320_AADFNS davis_s_Page_16.txt
54567d55348df071dac0a5a5f5a4429e
a928d9f2ffae12e55c43bdb20a8a892c4c03f9f7
56640 F20110320_AADFIW davis_s_Page_09.jpg
764cd7509600b974e461268cd6e105df
8f48bd5ae380e250593a0c831c8ad505bd87e229
71327 F20110320_AADFBB davis_s_Page_42.jpg
70b184f4c16373d70687aa887dffced2
1c853b1b0aa406349f199792b27f1dad89e462bb
70336 F20110320_AADFDZ davis_s_Page_28.jpg
2a1825edd1df52cdb08dc56be8d53aa5
cc172e4e09975541a9798bf0986803e8f7c9a422
2018 F20110320_AADFNT davis_s_Page_17.txt
82fd877e7063f138a5ada2871ef21c24
b940682459668265f740cff75149e85228c30f76
64681 F20110320_AADFIX davis_s_Page_11.jpg
cc5864f70acf2c285c821466fc065296
7a5b44afe0901322937947971780c7e396919c64
21966 F20110320_AADFBC davis_s_Page_37.QC.jpg
4d300b24d20f18ef95bb9a0605666151
deb5fd4d0c99885b9c13f0925a4b85a2001545fb
2014 F20110320_AADFNU davis_s_Page_19.txt
0ef26432cedaaab3d7ffe661f33e8225
549ca10e270b7167c8c2815b5a1c515fbdee875b
65171 F20110320_AADFIY davis_s_Page_12.jpg
c689b20dfa60eed1374e2c6e98ae759a
b141060e4f5d9ca54cb2fecf7ff688b98d44d8a8
80996 F20110320_AADFBD davis_s_Page_58.jpg
8813d5cc9ee5a60ec9b883f310f49e51
110b630a40cfbe85bd0645e2c08a79d54c41efff
F20110320_AADFNV davis_s_Page_22.txt
f66b08e5b6b7278470c0c5cdcd4913af
998a9d0345e99c5f533fd5b8e9d0e08841166520
1917 F20110320_AADFGA davis_s_Page_15.txt
d0a8b0b55957a9232b8f36a59e69e5e2
2017a623a2d832cedadc0474e6d9b6253899ef47
71815 F20110320_AADFIZ davis_s_Page_14.jpg
597dd7fbcf7fc693c3e5b114483e2247
4f9c9b31c89dd556b7ad9ef19dec001217c5498a
F20110320_AADFBE davis_s_Page_08.tif
5f59a2a55a6edd16705a477ed13fb2a6
a9dc0e5ea191777a7ee3e73da0cf940c08d1a269
1557 F20110320_AADFNW davis_s_Page_27.txt
c3272aebb716b9c9dc4f0e63f607d270
cd0b06c86989b3eab191a5d7e713cfb2ad16be40
2533 F20110320_AADFGB davis_s_Page_34.txt
96b0a6b13d0f945cb04c6ad7a75cf802
edfa41fe29cc08d42ba3f2d54def88d51b74531c
1961 F20110320_AADFNX davis_s_Page_28.txt
f0f253ec47072c109d7e3a85c497f3b2
e7c8d0df837980c6b994d212605b47ff6bcd28dc
20388 F20110320_AADFGC davis_s_Page_55.pro
6e607be0b83fa620131d2adaca400c0d
50b8db13b7194c1ae8ba3ca995af8d091097957d
6290 F20110320_AADFBF davis_s_Page_13thm.jpg
0809d578ee4e423fca5d634e0bf1e961
ea67fd26148c08f7b4b4ff2ad7529054f2cb6f8c
F20110320_AADFLA davis_s_Page_16.tif
19de99a13b60a9255dd83f4b4a8942fc
f75a741bcdfe4e501e728d4116c702fd5fbad35f
1738 F20110320_AADFNY davis_s_Page_30.txt
f355af5ea507d813b5f57f75e5f144d2
d1a20c5c7b9a215e86b810a9d8eac10886b7bda2
F20110320_AADFGD davis_s_Page_48.tif
0704d7d685a7a72c975be01558e96688
9facb223d080391b918b34e4e3a51adc9f784a9b
18236 F20110320_AADFBG davis_s_Page_35.QC.jpg
cf8a6e8b0d7d7f61c21e02ca5ef504f7
b6d944a6b26c3a4fe7bb5918201f22c3c9663796
F20110320_AADFLB davis_s_Page_17.tif
eab55c44cf9c88c663a9b49c5f9f0db6
0eaff95098961eb3be0dc0ac86bc962b6c3adeee
2035 F20110320_AADFNZ davis_s_Page_31.txt
5bfd7bb2c0bcc641562305bc9456eed2
0a511931b88cf589d906fb3385b868bd585a617a
48877 F20110320_AADFGE davis_s_Page_28.pro
a64032568fba2c98c913729cffb19c40
89008352673738a21dfc5029e7e76d1a1ed91780
9954 F20110320_AADFBH davis_s_Page_39.QC.jpg
c3e1496d7b0235707b568ff6896640ab
d5d9491a198cea6d95212046476e667db6e50861
F20110320_AADFLC davis_s_Page_19.tif
59d4e6f283f7cfed909b753132810ba5
261980c4237d455c9ca129b3daa343af6b016cc8
F20110320_AADFGF davis_s_Page_39.tif
1d07942e0e1440e42d59e3bc3058a6f7
cac843a637cc8d02bb0d7d435f111a505ae65089
4440 F20110320_AADFQA davis_s_Page_04thm.jpg
bfed2aa1ca87b388e2e53126e0085436
50e5a53838191878921e9bf55475d9491bf850c4
71972 F20110320_AADFBI davis_s_Page_26.jp2
37705cc3a7fb6d5f62079d9ff31b3e7a
9205ea4cbd2215a7fb42f934268021eb29d57313
F20110320_AADFLD davis_s_Page_21.tif
f96f7b9dbcdc58f531f53a7394abdba6
6a357cfd66f72bef91f3881bbdc0179503338ff0
5391 F20110320_AADFGG davis_s_Page_40thm.jpg
bb9c4c37a0ffa9afb3a92e63d96e823a
94591d5a876cf83e2cd895b223a4027b2b01d9ed
2422 F20110320_AADFQB davis_s_Page_07thm.jpg
2db239bf04efee731d32b3a07e91cf0b
2c87ee6dd8630dad359e50eeb90e8bb59f1970ed
71211 F20110320_AADFBJ davis_s_Page_37.jpg
9038b81712992d57b88284939242ddbb
5c5b9906f4d5af7afe35b2db18da289c4b9af6db
F20110320_AADFLE davis_s_Page_25.tif
b2514427c09a2c4c84f90da13cd692e4
9178a261695daa2cc26e37a6025593d69fd852a4
3259 F20110320_AADFGH davis_s_Page_02.QC.jpg
f644c6a8c307e9e059325a99c31eaf43
f7fa09f62303c1adb5ff3f12d1ddb8a451d45602
5981 F20110320_AADFQC davis_s_Page_11thm.jpg
def08b3b252caa22fd3a17b02c2edffe
8c269c1b00e5ec254ad2465b8b570ffbca7f8032
4615 F20110320_AADFBK davis_s_Page_03.jp2
3118e17825b5ab64c80887b5197f385e
b917a8c4469681bf77aab27199208006aa465ae1
F20110320_AADFLF davis_s_Page_28.tif
914e160228fdf6daef9e53f55e3802bd
636f31578db77b647ef0b671ebe55818286f9b4c
24535 F20110320_AADFGI davis_s_Page_58.QC.jpg
22c2d8a0f6559213dae3762905bcba81
5ab4913ce90a27db6a53363244a824a25171cab3
6445 F20110320_AADFQD davis_s_Page_14thm.jpg
3063db145e5c1d39ff8a4edf84e17cc1
a246e4b2cf757b6a16bde2a25fb3b36c31c0e4db
18030 F20110320_AADFBL davis_s_Page_05.QC.jpg
fb23ae018e136802fd1ac90ef728e354
da5a79391d1ce5a5df8245c5d29b834ca8326ee1
F20110320_AADFLG davis_s_Page_30.tif
6e3914460e98f96f1c818da682bd07ca
81a8f995ea8663b42a7a46555590eb0125238aa5
20031 F20110320_AADFGJ davis_s_Page_61.jpg
482f48e1ccae847d5fdfa80f955d603c
217fef61f887eaa2e67359ae389e549c73991ca3
6754 F20110320_AADFQE davis_s_Page_16thm.jpg
cbbad13cdc3aa82777d9b5a9e6ac3694
e7ad12916f781131c98e99360d8600f93b6ada55
5136 F20110320_AADFBM davis_s_Page_27thm.jpg
ecc053ed9da76383100654bc45760099
304b619eae7727b21992986631c685a5e1bd8b5f
F20110320_AADFLH davis_s_Page_31.tif
da0f4e0716e00e6f36c30b789d83063f
3931438593d7848e235551ddacb5c2b252b29126
6432 F20110320_AADFQF davis_s_Page_17thm.jpg
cfebecbf1749f2973b2577a5611c7ca8
3d2246ad195e206e54df633ec31bdaf80341dc3a
20597 F20110320_AADFBN davis_s_Page_10.QC.jpg
09070a2333ddfd9a3ec8773283d62631
c24c5a32354fc04ddab63017a2b1d8f6716cd4f6
F20110320_AADFLI davis_s_Page_32.tif
99f363fee2feee3d2375934907b4376f
1181a3fb1b5ce98a8d1facd43e8b70d9dc842fc7
67861 F20110320_AADFGK davis_s_Page_13.jpg
7b4fa39623f5e87568bdc06848fc9aa4
1b6791974b15d709b5d7a31550a7d81788fb75a8
6415 F20110320_AADFQG davis_s_Page_18thm.jpg
5a0bd6fc06dafd232bc184dd6395f794
b5884c5c46d567a079c51111d5f0a0ffe6c9577f
F20110320_AADFBO davis_s_Page_24.tif
97a61e01576f74b40aafb421f1ee5f20
316e7d3f468a9d91b7627829ad2697fbc5ac8caa
F20110320_AADFLJ davis_s_Page_34.tif
32ffbc29d954ac9f012d18212f1c61e0
57d4e0a58f8c6ba6d9297a3bbbe4c144fe90b581
6508 F20110320_AADFGL davis_s_Page_58thm.jpg
7d53eb8ea692cf81cda29bf5c7517de0
688de4cc487a88239844c908a333740599a6ec29
7085 F20110320_AADFQH davis_s_Page_20thm.jpg
02e85601cd7aec37c9c1ab7e5c80b101
1bd5bf3d2c98d8c6f704832c3a0880ae1bd2c930
50779 F20110320_AADFBP davis_s_Page_38.pro
bc02c4297246308d99b9ec84382861fa
b6a6e322a052dcdb01718c1675e266d9f0c734bb
F20110320_AADFLK davis_s_Page_35.tif
128ceafee1e7b839d0dba1b78fc8d748
bdf919c590556a7b755e77b0bc2165f336d51f4f
3729 F20110320_AADFGM davis_s_Page_50thm.jpg
d076fdf1d9eadede241cfd9abf13e514
cff9af3ada602945844735c1910c0e851f8e3157
7016 F20110320_AADFQI davis_s_Page_22thm.jpg
b359c9e1656109cf4635a7a76ae03a8d
377257630a0cf739fdafa2e5efe07ed037ec047e
F20110320_AADFLL davis_s_Page_37.tif
e3f9ce637dc391978cd9c2324f54a53f
d1824a61eac4f5ee2bbfade5de960856bbd1797f
106543 F20110320_AADFGN davis_s_Page_57.jp2
798e2c7dcd059d277530f753f7e2eac3
392ffd734dcf2a7d0f1e701212db4ebd28ff31cb
26657 F20110320_AADFBQ davis_s_Page_01.jpg
0284d84d12cc556e4004a59419c74fd5
278c546adbe39138fdc474eceb25c65bc8c807f1
6449 F20110320_AADFQJ davis_s_Page_25thm.jpg
b2124e7cc0af13c418bb2b0af466c528
9f7fed39349f49bcf6392e03970fe8bd6d74efd3
F20110320_AADFLM davis_s_Page_38.tif
a293cf5a747b5a961a8ab515ba780608
974a4ceebdc698fb06141e8ff62d847b1e76493c
60797 F20110320_AADFGO davis_s_Page_30.jpg
92e4b9c913c6a0d1d2401490c91eeece
7e8b9f6fc36998aecadc703c3d84a59145ffab82
2097 F20110320_AADFBR davis_s_Page_24.txt
6db96ec92b2678208d615613299b91a8
17e70f4170da4caf7f4d8508a9d3ec04de527299
4567 F20110320_AADFQK davis_s_Page_26thm.jpg
ffcc8cc8610eb92d9a2bf8ebad2a9ffe
fc1c0e8f47efa0d81e55486020c2a606ed5ec43d
F20110320_AADFLN davis_s_Page_40.tif
2fdc5623332b415effe46376ae9bcdf4
f48f051bbd227197ddbfeaf6f53da13225e1760f
42753 F20110320_AADFGP davis_s_Page_30.pro
4683a117f6dbcf08bf6af05fe72c1059
0e3aeaa40b043ca6368c7ab0ae1da34692e84f04
79493 F20110320_AADFBS davis_s_Page_22.jpg
4caac422fef3dc51c4369d13b91cc4e3
088bb312fa6c8ae1d4ebdfed1c067162585ca51b
6501 F20110320_AADFQL davis_s_Page_28thm.jpg
04269b1fb1ae0be84c1642d6f1860507
26a59a5e424587cb951eff9ad97324e29bae15e2
F20110320_AADFLO davis_s_Page_45.tif
7c94ec40f000ddf4c726d8c28916346d
37d799924546e13ec2a26fc7aa9761d7d1e14010
2000 F20110320_AADFGQ davis_s_Page_46.txt
aed12bab364d89e66b0038175d9cfc24
1a52d3c44fb10bff359f4ce109fe98da5b492501
6795 F20110320_AADFBT davis_s_Page_23thm.jpg
9151ab369de6f42348d9d00202b9cb5b
c6788d060818bc0a15f175ad1127ac8f4e91a4b2
6481 F20110320_AADFQM davis_s_Page_31thm.jpg
ef063918470f4746f4ed1f197328fd35
2540bf000154d598756156dfd932a5585627eee3
F20110320_AADFGR davis_s_Page_61thm.jpg
b85e7a84e75c78bb5f8d3a114fa350ec
24fb0d3aaf7d25d033cd31ff9ece5db1b4ab44a6
1160 F20110320_AADFBU davis_s_Page_54.txt
58845a82d836474e2697e69c8029cb6d
60fbe7607ffebef4508063bdc64effdc5a363e9c
5301 F20110320_AADFQN davis_s_Page_34thm.jpg
c956487cb9e1753bc1a6d52d25849228
d51e2d0e3c542f7d7826d2de12539301c29c861e
F20110320_AADFLP davis_s_Page_46.tif
7ed4c7f3c421556860a969c063bd7582
8213720b1fcf0a595c351f8e90f3d276edd60d8b
74236 F20110320_AADFGS davis_s_Page_23.jpg
ce7460f93f74b2bdf75222d115216cd5
ba4a449b6ad5a79dea5aeed37b42dc46cb0628e1
49455 F20110320_AADFBV davis_s_Page_47.pro
470f992f5caff01efd3b9fb99e0db42e
5d0344b5f1adccadcbcfa6d6c89e88a960286336
5058 F20110320_AADFQO davis_s_Page_35thm.jpg
097b1f5133e38d63c988a186fb0d7b3a
de049368a79a5d6f4895b6eb059300e591cf08c3
F20110320_AADFLQ davis_s_Page_49.tif
8d5b48648d045b7260b828260f832ac5
5fc2c3230b512f7c801c2ee0c15cf64e1d2eeea1
2152 F20110320_AADFGT davis_s_Page_38.txt
2aa5328b82bcd175e5b752d382c4f762
c8aca165c2f7adce74e97417ce1746e7ee1f91f8
F20110320_AADFBW davis_s_Page_36.tif
138fccce39aadd4c251fb81a515911c5
c1d8cb42161e78236bae35ffef8985a5b3f0fa01
6499 F20110320_AADFQP davis_s_Page_44thm.jpg
fa6551a79e99d7879b54410229a026e5
32a325e9c059c4d679f08c9d037c03deb9451988
F20110320_AADFLR davis_s_Page_50.tif
cf2224385bf4c5404d6ddbae7f028aee
ca9f521f52e4d9c6eec4333ecd9d12252732a658
1051928 F20110320_AADFGU davis_s_Page_20.jp2
4a620b325e39ecd839766bd9d84e17b8
b22df3b90941bda028ebd9580a38ad6aeeb45e23
23536 F20110320_AADFBX davis_s_Page_46.QC.jpg
d74622d7d4f9d4162f3f4aceacd7f045
80ac0df354d2ea4edbdefe8a597e1ace1cb06d87
6468 F20110320_AADFQQ davis_s_Page_45thm.jpg
5a19e0621000b3e0190f934e9582c91d
c5ff23e4fef16df7d748d8e1402a56cecea92f67
F20110320_AADFLS davis_s_Page_53.tif
678d44b23c6c68c00e7e8cd763c9d47e
5dd56d784d15d6e6fa488d38a4b698e59e555f00
70517 F20110320_AADFGV davis_s_Page_47.jpg
a2ac3ceae8629f2be131e55678d1f67c
ddf4d4c92af3e05c0683c14a5042608273b5e7e3
23111 F20110320_AADEZY davis_s_Page_47.QC.jpg
f5e5d2abe8ecd26debfdd67169aeb35f
7b95ccd4d0681c4b2c15ce289869105e679e8cad
110975 F20110320_AADFBY davis_s_Page_46.jp2
420bdc0efd5067557e85cac52ce7ef9c
afca3671b0a14f4d7aac807def19506c5bc1c9e3
6531 F20110320_AADFQR davis_s_Page_47thm.jpg
e507c40470d1cfb7806727203bd3ebd1
ea7868124cb7b652e3e9a0d8f3664435ea6d7d36
F20110320_AADFLT davis_s_Page_54.tif
f35d365d0583ce521c615594e6e1152f
8c3c8993e18310e0404d57f7721230130ce265a3
62986 F20110320_AADFGW davis_s_Page_59.pro
aba0891eab381ffa6074a33a3ac77ef4
e940b4520210813274656ceec9ac2dd024877ccb
F20110320_AADEZZ davis_s_Page_58.tif
64378370f584f85cf7beb18720eda2cd
757998786360442c46470aa66776fdc3d7aaae29
85068 F20110320_AADFBZ davis_s_Page_60.jpg
76b52ec3b220016487a9c9c8e747602c
c986dfeefb692811ce6f3454df2c4ee455ad4c92
2948 F20110320_AADFQS davis_s_Page_49thm.jpg
75dba798925bda96ff0b196b5dfec6de
23c2c75e1d8f3d5fcedc87e1a83e9f57702ff601
F20110320_AADFLU davis_s_Page_56.tif
9336d012ae6a83d3be833a66c0cbb1b8
2dff80df1bb93adebf8e9368f07578f87c8bf05a
F20110320_AADFGX davis_s_Page_09.tif
6b8abdfc766fc23a6d949c250f2e987f
dd3df68a27563ed2cb9a9f755213ac4f83b02fd3
3586 F20110320_AADFQT davis_s_Page_55thm.jpg
730b15d93310a6043766c45b77e9b138
a1c7bcc3d01fcffc063236a80bea13c1fa295116
F20110320_AADFLV davis_s_Page_57.tif
27d66e86c7e0189486931fe8e9d9065a
07596f137205cb6112286f6414bd59e63d491472
854616 F20110320_AADFEA davis_s_Page_06.jp2
44c32f4158b5cffbe8937d0944066aba
69ddfb941b64f239413c9f0bb0f49a0f2869056b
1051957 F20110320_AADFGY davis_s_Page_21.jp2
dc0cde924a2f6b3f7a29d580be9765b1
5b7284f98f189ef798188d00b335e5c64eb75428
F20110320_AADFLW davis_s_Page_59.tif
acfe7fdfde274ecce62d000d7c3f2e16
c53a091d4883bd6180678a7cfe30c1a9ecbcb1f5
23058 F20110320_AADFEB davis_s_Page_28.QC.jpg
847400aef6273403d9a3690b62e8e023
22a4dfc15d9a49ba2cdb1834832698e95c80f023
1051974 F20110320_AADFGZ davis_s_Page_24.jp2
ff4fa2f0382792d962cc729bd31ab617
56c16e12916b49fdcfbfeb8e7c9638b1b1da72fe
6567 F20110320_AADFQU davis_s_Page_60thm.jpg
ab99ded272bc41207128c37d44b0f5ad
eeb8d9861c338f442a869293400dc1558b7221a1
F20110320_AADFLX davis_s_Page_61.tif
bb486da507b3140c35c66c92681a705d
ae9a473df2478c6fb11c64c8a8781bf6d3088cb4
1679 F20110320_AADFEC davis_s_Page_40.txt
f383b2ac2284e243325e7a7f9264d863
0173a124ed40714119c081327823fd986eba92e6
F20110320_AADFLY davis_s_Page_62.tif
de5676bffad1fbaa187f7d9aa0d8413d
e5d63bb7c698e5c3bc7962127de336ceea62d0c2
59672 F20110320_AADFED davis_s_Page_51.jp2
9b9dbad5dcbf10f1a89470270fe1379d
34143cec2cf340c5da84d256d5930c3cdcd4479b
73080 F20110320_AADFJA davis_s_Page_17.jpg
60a2fd96b2b93a112906d8a33a645c8f
50161c50fdfc702d9e298bce5c493c84a6a5c319
89329 F20110320_AADFEE davis_s_Page_40.jp2
c380581a76fd1d2faef91aec18c1c870
4d80ce9573a798be94425c5ebae05daec298660e
69117 F20110320_AADFJB davis_s_Page_18.jpg
9fcd0fe0e96167192acc8809978a0062
f692eb687e9b995c7665dc657390c72b0c93c656
9797 F20110320_AADFLZ davis_s_Page_01.pro
c5187e75ec104abfdded2c89fdd210d1
2c52f38d8b569b3c6e27956a1188a598e684b564
1592 F20110320_AADFEF davis_s_Page_09.txt
e3215f2645e34d53a4f1da0fdc8940c3
e9a3a8c9d7280ec29e9917b33dab16afe9e9bbd8
79207 F20110320_AADFJC davis_s_Page_20.jpg
f3630a758b1d79d90dabc0bdfd1bf7f5
a7d6a74006b3b7086130d56b80f276bbe4320e97
F20110320_AADFEG davis_s_Page_10.tif
944719c74d615099644d8e07eacdbb8f
81499488d0950fa63687463b41e1a65b4a21b69b
1909 F20110320_AADFOA davis_s_Page_32.txt
3901be2da5d8fa8f00f137e567445495
0b99c62901cb49ee8c8a29f3ce852900be2ed7b7
83176 F20110320_AADFJD davis_s_Page_24.jpg
34c6b9e318b0d0ecb9b0130a2616ff81
aebe85b98fbdf11cf20bbdf31c9cbfc2d91a2dd8
47251 F20110320_AADFEH davis_s_Page_04.jpg
2265782ab5731bb701aa76c277078d85
8478bff7f5b56b9835eee9c14f8cbe19cbc7dcb4
1828 F20110320_AADFOB davis_s_Page_35.txt
35a1214254852b1c6a51827deea05030
3b56bd9423c4de521c22e9f38b5b19b59636cfc5
49030 F20110320_AADFJE davis_s_Page_26.jpg
56af65c4e4fa3fd3b5a4052b5ad6ffed
08b63f0813725886a97dead3014b2aa0e9a61b1f
2119 F20110320_AADFOC davis_s_Page_41.txt
037cdbfaf92fec5d1805f8d476b1b906
da45dae4fb7bd4043da712946c3472d5157a280f
54083 F20110320_AADFJF davis_s_Page_27.jpg
301c3a19e770288c5a84786ea258c05f
3fe01a462ceeb017e05b044a3789a63638164eff
22769 F20110320_AADFEI davis_s_Page_25.QC.jpg
db47d9d996f18f98400b9daaf722cebf
4d273f9f9a1a1d6d1f7abb2670fc4ce0a2d9aa31
F20110320_AADFOD davis_s_Page_42.txt
e081bc27fda04ea39bf2c9b8272454e4
73f304f458d25cfb6c4effd16099d2d99912f1de
71384 F20110320_AADFJG davis_s_Page_31.jpg
c69119e34160bee52829f6db714103d7
1be27dfe2ee53e1d2afb6f955b51219d5ba8f9fa
11964 F20110320_AADFEJ davis_s_Page_08.jpg
f27264e92fe2c4d5823a1fa38e75fabf
b6fab60864a346ac86decca14fe74d2669411e79
1973 F20110320_AADFOE davis_s_Page_43.txt
40a42233d9c654eca47a119acacc8a30
17b92bd6e4e98afc298b133c5d031c8012c13d58
54232 F20110320_AADFJH davis_s_Page_35.jpg
da43543db92905569efe178293a2bb4c
922a61ab040b4e659b5ca3337e0013504e1a4e61
10338 F20110320_AADFEK davis_s_Page_06.QC.jpg
a89999a157529b1936c388cba3764f05
de7d8541aec97ac21db5361a67ec7066b3fde50f
2030 F20110320_AADFOF davis_s_Page_44.txt
88279554110e46671de5ccb0e97e4857
dfd8cb11269eff6c9ca586740871109ff1a0424d
63421 F20110320_AADFJI davis_s_Page_36.jpg
3709de7e14851d057bbe04f6c225c754
e3258a4697b0c8c85cdf46b4fae4df52700f97ea
22373 F20110320_AADFEL davis_s_Page_61.jp2
e27aec13dc7159c43fe4ab8382894568
2b3f6624670d920894ff2da43448b2679876e18d
1995 F20110320_AADFOG davis_s_Page_45.txt
dbeffa132a756a9c6727d1c1de6eab84
248a597757c964c6c80112bd3d41bc037636a7d5
71241 F20110320_AADFJJ davis_s_Page_38.jpg
3c43c154fe9c7fd1f72835dc6001cc38
0ac19340cf2b8174f68a5d79f314ec711d0486a0
1982 F20110320_AADFOH davis_s_Page_47.txt
958b08190f13bb871f555a55e9d7037c
d051c3efa1bfb9fa31ecef3147bafe8755fb7986
75942 F20110320_AADFJK davis_s_Page_41.jpg
fcb76a6c6e2918f25c82d156c59ec709
4f4733743403076829ab073fec2f27d83d5d9add
F20110320_AADFEM davis_s_Page_51.tif
0f85e7b494b5945c2595a049161881dc
66ec304d3dd942162ca9a1dc41d191e0570d20e5
1406 F20110320_AADFOI davis_s_Page_48.txt
624f914a2c4883d3290a993c3c5b7520
13797fa67b7632d541edaa4ea29ef980e6223ddd
72025 F20110320_AADFJL davis_s_Page_44.jpg
d0988069277b03ab2930fe929dd81e19
7ebfa67041e302c5bc05f30afda0c7f762428e08
73427 F20110320_AADFEN davis_s_Page_19.jpg
3a5e8eacc97eb16fa7b2263ab6a1c456
79ea443b457c84676244a2a4a838a2e8b4225e36
383 F20110320_AADFOJ davis_s_Page_49.txt
d3b36d66f0d76d23ddbc6c8bed93c56e
47b176b3f2ba3f550db2a933c453d1a44adaa051
71706 F20110320_AADFJM davis_s_Page_46.jpg
91868daab2b3b31d847a2887a0790718
3b0b9923e139dadcb83213136e6da928e44417ae
106574 F20110320_AADFEO davis_s_Page_18.jp2
7588a6c33c9ae1e5b8b7521c387783e2
62182b43271960535c76a9fb4c35eac0bdaebf97


Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0008973/00001

Material Information

Title: The Role of Students' Perceptions of Classroom Climate in Predicting Academic Motivation and Assigned Grades in Middle School Mathematics
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0008973:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0008973/00001

Material Information

Title: The Role of Students' Perceptions of Classroom Climate in Predicting Academic Motivation and Assigned Grades in Middle School Mathematics
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0008973:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text












THE ROLE OF STUDENTS' PERCEPTIONS OF CLASSROOM CLIMATE IN
PREDICTING ACADEMIC MOTIVATION AND ASSIGNED GRADES IN MIDDLE
SCHOOL MATHEMATICS















By

SUSAN E. DAVIS


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS IN EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2004


































Copyright 2004

by

Susan E. Davis

































To my husband, Jack.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to extend my gratitude to Dr. Heather Davis. Dr. Davis contributed to

this project from its inception, providing me with the concepts and data extracted from

her larger study. Her assistance in developing the project, guiding the research process,

teaching me how to manage large data sets, and translating findings into words was

invaluable to me. I would like to express my gratitude to my committee members, Dr.

Tina Smith-Bonahue and Dr. Randall Penfield. Dr. Smith helped me gain focus and

perspective while working on this project. Her advice and editing skills were

indispensable and much appreciated. Dr. Penfield's guidance throughout the analysis

provided me with greater insight into statistical procedures as well as realizing the

implications of the findings. I would like to extend a special thanks to Dr. Patricia

Ashton who lent her time and attention during my defense. Finally, I would like to thank

my husband, Jack, and son, Jim for their patience and support. They have encouraged me

throughout my education and I could not have achieved so much without their love

behind me
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

LIST OF TABLES ........... ...................... ........... ......... .................. .. vii

LIST OF FIGU RE S ........................................ ............ .............. .. viii

ABSTRACT ........ .............. ............. ...... .......... .......... ix

CHAPTER

1 IN TRODU CTION ................................................. ...... .................

2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ........................................ ......................... 3

C classroom C lim ate.................. ...... ... ...... .... ........ .. .............. ... ..............4
Role of Belongingness in Classroom Climate, Motivation, and Achievement.....5
Contribution of School Climate to Classroom Climate, Achievement, and
M o tiv atio n .............................. ... ........... ....... ...... .. ........... ...............6
Teacher Contribution to Classroom Climate, Achievement, and Motivation.......7
Student Contribution to Classroom Climate in Relation to Motivation and
Achievement ............................... ... ............ ......... ............ 10
Gender Differences in Classroom Climate....................................................... 12
Domain Differences in Classroom Climate............................... ............... 13
Developmental Differences in Classroom Climate ..........................................14
C apturing C classroom C lim ate................................................................ ............... 15
S u m m ary ...................................... .................................................. 16
P u rp o se ............................................................................ 1 6

3 M E T H O D O L O G Y ........................................................................ .......................18

P a rtic ip a n ts ......................................................................... 1 8
M e a su re s .................. ...................................................... ................ 19
C classroom C lim ate ........................ ............ .............. ...........19
M o tiv atio n ...................................................... ................ 2 0
G rad es ................................................................................................ .... 2 1
P ro cedu res ..................................... .................. ................................................2 1
A n a ly sis ..............................................................................2 2
C reatin g C om p o sites ..................................................................................... 2 3









Statistical A analysis ........................ ............ ............... .... ....... 23

4 R E S U L T S .............................................................................2 5

D e scrip tiv e D ata ................................................................................................... 2 5
M o tiv atio n ..................................................................................................... 2 6
A chievem ent ..................................................... ........... .. ...... 28

5 D IS C U S SIO N ............................................................................... 3 1

Perceptions of Classroom Climate and Motivation .................................................32
Classroom Climate and Achievement ............................................. ............... 33
Im p lic atio n s ...........................................................................3 5
L im stations and Future Studies........................................................................ ... 38

APPENDIX REGRESSION EQUATIONS ....................................... ............... 41

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S ........................................................................ .....................48

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E TCH ..................................................................... ..................53
















LIST OF TABLES

Table page

1 M eans and Standard Deviations...................................... ......... ......... 25

2 M motivation Full M odel. .................................................................... ..................26

3 Regression for End of Year Motivation : Final Model .............. ...................27

4 Regression for Achievem ent: Initial M odel .................................... .................28

5 Regression for Achievement : Revised Model............... ......... ..................29
















FIGURE

Figurege

1 B aselin e M otiv action ........................................................................ ...................4 0















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Education

THE ROLE OF STUDENTS' PERCEPTIONS OF CLASSROOM CLIMATE IN
PREDICTING ACADEMIC MOTIVATION AND ASSIGNED GRADES IN MIDDLE
SCHOOL MATHEMATICS

By

Susan E. Davis

December 2004

Chair: Tina Smith-Bonahue
Major Department: Educational Psychology

The purpose of this study was to determine if middle school math students'

perceptions of classroom climate could predict their end of year academic grade point

averages and reported levels of end of year motivation. Students were asked to rate their

mathematics class on perception of order and organization as well as perception of rule

clarity and fairness of enforcement. Students also rated how much they valued learning

math and how well they expected to perform in the class. Results of this study indicated

students reported a significant decline in motivation in mathematics at the end of the

year. Students who rated classrooms as more orderly and organized tended to achieve

higher grades and report higher levels of end of year motivation. Students who perceived

rule policies as clear and fair reported higher levels of end of year motivation. There were

no effects for rule clarity on grade achievement.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

As a first year graduate student, I had the opportunity to work with Dr. Heather

Davis as a research assistant. Dr. Davis had been examining the role of student-teacher

relationships among middle school students. As part of this extensive study, Dr. Davis

collected a wide range of information concerning middle school students, in a

comprehensive effort to understand the many impacting variables on academic success.

Among the variables, were students self-report of values and expectations of academic

success, their perceptions of school climate, classroom climate, and parent and peer

relationships, as well as their perceptions of their relationships with their teachers. By

exploring the values and expectations of the teachers, their perceptions of students'

success, their perception of school climate, and their perceptions of their relationships

with students, this larger study focused on constructing relationship models to explain the

variables impacting student-teacher relationships in middle schools in relation to student

success.

While working with these data sets, Dr, Davis would discuss the data with me and

answer questions I had regarding the implications each of the measures. During these

discussions, I became interested in how these variables impact student performance in

schools. Of greatest interest to me, was the construct of classroom climate. In the past, I

have had teachers and classrooms that remain prominent in my memory of school. Those

teachers made a difference to me, motivating me to out-perform my previous

performances. Along with this unexpected excellence, came the realization that learning









was worthwhile and satisfying, intrinsically. Because of the memories of those most

prominent experiences, I was driven to wonder what specific qualities figure most

prominently in positive academic experiences. The data collected in this larger study

gave me an opportunity to explore these qualities.

Of the many questions I had, I wanted to understand how classroom variables

affected student outcomes and if these outcomes were measurable in actual grade

achievement. Classrooms that are orderly and organized, in which rules and expectations

are fair and consistent, closely resemble my thoughts on classroom factors that would

facilitate personal growth and academic success. Therefore, I decided to pursue these

constructs of classroom climate. When discussing possibilities with Dr. Davis, she urged

me to consider other factors involved, such as students' expectations for success and the

value they place on learning and achievement. In order to understand the effects of

classroom climate on achievement, I realized that I would have to factor in and control

for individual levels of motivation. It was then that I wondered if classroom climate

would also affect motivation levels. By using existing data from Dr. Davis' larger study,

I decided to pursue this topic as well. In researching academic domains correlated with

classroom climate scales, I selected math classes, since traditionally methods of

instruction appeared to rank highest in correlation to the constructs of Order/Organization

and Rule Clarity (Moos & Trickett, 1974). Finally Dr. Davis and I arrived at this study,

which examines the predictive role of classroom climate on achievement and motivation.














CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

Focus on educational outcomes has increased in the past decade with statewide

high stakes testing and nationwide school accountability programs. In an effort to

improve the academic success of students, it has become necessary to examine all

components of the educational process in order to maximize the effectiveness of

instruction within the classroom. Demonstrated to enhance the learning process and

affect academic outcomes (Kunc, 1992; Osterman, 2000) classroom climate has been

emerging as an important component of education (Haertel, Walberg, & Haertel, 1981).

The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of classroom climate on motivation

and achievement. In order to understand and measure its effects, this study will examine

the roles of the school, the teacher, and the individual student as they contribute to

classroom climate in relation to student motivation and achievement. In examining role

of classroom climate and motivation on academic achievement, this study seeks to

answer two questions. First, if individual levels of motivation are controlled for, will

students who perceive a more positive classroom climate score higher grades than those

with less positive views? Second, if controlling for initial levels of motivation, will

students with more positive perceptions of classroom climate report feeling more

motivated at the end of the year?

In the following sections, this study will define classroom climate and describe the

contributory components comprising classroom climate in relation to motivation and

learning. The contribution of school climate to classroom climate will then be considered









as it relates to student motivation and achievement. This study will examine how

teachers contribute to classroom climate through their own qualities and experiences

(Crohn, 1983) and how students contribute to classroom climate with personal

characteristics affecting how they interpret classroom climate (Chapin & Eastman, 1996).

Contributions of student motivation to perceptions of classroom climate in relation to

achievement (Alspaugh, 1998) will also be examined. Because individual motivation has

been found to impact achievement, it will be necessary to understand its effects in order

to clarify the roles of motivation and classroom climate on achievement.

Because this study is interested in students' perceptions of classroom climate on

achievement and motivation for mathematics, possible differences will be considered for

gender, developmental age, and preferences for math. Finally, the impact of perceptions

of classroom climate on achievement and motivation will be examined. In order to

understand the impact of classroom climate, it must be first understood.

Classroom Climate

Wang, Haertel, and Walberg (1993) described classroom climate as encompassing

all the socio-psychological dimensions of classroom life. This included common interest

and the pursuit of common goal achieved through focused, organized and well planned

lessons. The physical arrangement of the classroom furniture, the availability of resource

materials, length of the class period (Chapin & Eastman, 1996), and type and pace of

instruction (Wang et al., 1993) were also considered to influence the climate of the

classroom. In sum, all events and influences within the classroom, including classroom

management, comprised the construct of classroom climate (Gottfredson & Gottfredson,

1989).









Classroom climate encompassed the level of task difficulty (Wang et al., 1993),

individual values, and interpersonal relationships (Gottfredson & Gottfredson, 1989).

Review of the literature suggested that individual values and level of task difficulty were

important determinants of student motivation to achieve (Wigfield, 1994). Therefore, in

order to understand the role of classroom climate on student achievement it was

necessary to understand the role of motivation in classroom climate as well as on

academic outcomes.

The next section will review how fundamental needs to belong to a community,

school, and classroom affect perceptions of classroom climate as well as motivation and

achievement.

Role of Belongingness in Classroom Climate, Motivation, and Achievement

Baumeister and Leary (1995) posited that the need to belong is a fundamental

human motivation. Belongingness, or the feeling of relatedness to others, has been

suggested as an influential factor in academic outcomes owing to its importance in

behavioral and socio-emotional development (Deci, Vallerand, Pelletier, & Ryan, 1991).

Belongingness has been correlated with lower rates of emotional distress, drug abuse,

violent behavior, criminal behavior, suicide, and school dropout rates (Battistich & Horn,

1997; Resnick et al., 1997). Deci and colleagues (1991) suggested the need for a sense of

belonging, was so important that not meeting these needs could adversely affect

development, motivation, and performance.

Beyond the community of family and peers, belongingness has been directly linked

to student motivation and engagement within the school (Kunc, 1992; Osterman, 2000).

In a study by Goodenow (1993a) belonging and support was demonstrated as having

significant effects on motivation and achievement in individual subjects. Levels of









classroom belonging were significantly associated with motivation-related measures

indicating values for academic classwork and expectancies for success (Goodenow,

1995). Children who reported feeling involved within the school community were more

likely to report a stronger sense of identity, a greater sense of autonomy, a better ability to

self-regulate their behavior, a greater tendency to respect authority, with a lesser

propensity for engaging in deviant or negative behavior (Johnson, Lutzow, Strothoff, &

Zannis, 1995; Kunc, 1992; Osterman, 2000).

While the importance of belongingness has been suggested by many to be critical

to the development of cognitive and emotional process of students, research also showed

that needs for belongingness were largely disregarded by schools (Kunc, 1992; Osterman,

2000). According to Kunc, schools were more likely to believe that the meeting of

emotional needs should or did occur within the home community of family and peers.

Students with unmet or greater needs, therefore, might be less likely to experience

belongingness within the school community.

Because the fundamental need to belong, and how it is promoted in the schools,

effects the climate of the school and the individual students level of motivation for

achievement, the next section will review the effects of school climate as it contributes to

classroom climate, motivation and achievement.

Contribution of School Climate to Classroom Climate, Achievement, and
Motivation

The extent to which a school community promotes belongingness has been

demonstrated to affect outcomes in student development, motivation, and achievement

(Kunc, 1992; Osterman, 2000). Studies found that schools rated high in the

encouragement of student interrelationships, providing for feelings of safety and security,









attention paid to morale, parent and community involvement, and in structure and

organization reported less drop out rates, higher attendance records, greater levels of

student engagement and motivation, and improved student educational outcomes

(Alspaugh, 1998). Alspaugh suggested the significance of school climate was the degree

to which policies and practices support or endorse these qualities. The relationship

between school climate and student performance and student motivation was strong but

indirect, retaining its influence across grades (Fyans & Maehr, 1987).

Directed by policy and practices, the school community, consisting of teachers,

students, and administrators, along with individual values and expectations, comprise the

school climate. Rather than for their unique style of teaching which may contradict with

the traditions within the school, prospective teachers tended to be hired for their

congruity with school administrators' expectations (Hamilton, 1983). Therefore, school

climate indirectly affects classroom climate through the adopted policies and practices of

the teachers. Ellis (1996) proposed that these practices were brought into the classroom

and became components of the students' immediate community, the classroom

environment.

Along with the promotion of school climate, teachers contribute their own personal

characteristics to classroom climate, which impacts student motivation and achievement.

To gain a better understanding of the role of the teacher in relation to motivation and

achievement, the contributions of teacher characteristics will be examined.

Teacher Contribution to Classroom Climate, Achievement, and Motivation

Classroom climate variables involving teacher characteristics have been described

by Chapin and Eastman (1996) as teaching methods, clear goals, and standards,

vocational relevance, and appropriate workload. According to Haertel, Walberg, and









Haertel (1981), positive classroom climates enhanced deeper rather than surface learning

approaches. A surface approach to learning or reproductive learning has been described

as reliance on the routine, memorization of materials. These more traditional approaches

to learning allowed the student to recite facts and figures, with little interpretation.

Deeper approaches to learning were those in which the teacher prompts the student to

make connections of the new material with previous knowledge or with different aspects

of that knowledge (Dart, Burnett, & Purdie, 2000). Dart (1998) suggested teachers could

promote deep approaches to learning by creating classroom climates that were safe and

supportive, with ample opportunities for exploration and experimentation. Clear and

structured rules (Keyser & Barling, 1981), predictability and clarity (Anderson, Stevens,

Prawat, & Nickerson, 1987), and teacher support (Osterman, 2000) were also found to

promote deeper, rather than surface, approaches to learning. Additionally, explicit

learning objectives, guided student practice, appropriate instructional pace, frequent

assessment and positive feedback (Wang et al., 1993) with frequent opportunities for

active engagement and participation (Keyser & Barling, 1981) promoted deeper

approaches to learning. These positive classroom climates not only enhanced learning

approaches, they were consistently correlated with higher achievement in a variety of

educational outcomes (Haertel et al., 1981).

Other characteristics found to impact student success were expectations and

behaviors of the teacher (Crohn, 1983) and teacher creativity (Denny & Turner, 1967).

Direct influences, such as the frequency and quality of student-teacher interactions, were

also found to impact student success (Juarez, 2000;Wang et. al., 1993). Jacobson (2000)

suggested that teacher student relationships could promote student motivation and









increase students' values for success through positive rapport and establishing supportive

learning environments. In a study by Goodenow (1993a), teacher support was strongly

correlated with expectancy and values for student success.

While many studies have examined the role of relationships, other studies have

concluded that elements of the instructional style, assignments, and degree of

competitiveness promoted within the classroom were key determinants of educational

outcomes. In a study involving 3rd and 4th grade students, Anderson and colleagues

(1987) demonstrated the importance of the predictability of the task environment.

Among his conclusions, he found learning was enhanced when teachers structured the

classroom environment in a predictable and comprehensible manner. Specifically,

teachers should provide explicit structures of information regarding the predictability, the

consistency and relevance of tasks as well as providing students with a sense of control

over their outcomes (Anderson et. al., 1987). Orderly and organized classrooms allowed

for more emphasis on instruction and less in control, thereby increasing the amount of

time spent on the lessons (Proctor, 1984). Other factors affecting teaching and learning

included appropriate workload, clear goals, and consistent standards (Townsend & Hicks,

1995).

In addition to these elements of classroom environment, the role of interclass

competition was suggested to have an impact on academic success. While in most

studies, a cooperative environment has been shown to enhance educational outcomes

(Fraser, 1986) and attitudes (Zahn, Kagan, & Widaman, 1986), other studies have

suggested that competition, in certain academic areas may, in fact, increase student

productivity and learning ability (Dunn & Harris, 2002).









Not only have teacher characteristics been found to contribute to classroom climate,

motivation, and achievement, individual student characteristics have been found to

mediate the effects of classroom climate on achievement and motivation as well. The

next section will be review how the students contribute to classroom climate.

Student Contribution to Classroom Climate in Relation to Motivation and
Achievement

Review of the literature suggested each individual brings into the classroom his or

her own personal characteristics as well as previous educational history and experiences.

Some of these characteristics included their sense of well-being, self-efficacy beliefs

(House, 2002; Jackson, 2002), self-concept (Crohn, 1983), sense ofbelongingness

(Goodenow, 1995; Osterman, 2000), as well as their satisfaction within social activities

(Townsend & Hicks, 1997) and interpersonal relationships (Osterman, 2000).

Just as students may differ in their personal characteristics, such as interest and

knowledge, self-ability, and locus of control, so may their interpretation of the learning

environment, which shapes their approach learning (Chapin & Eastman, 1996). For

example, in a study of classroom motivation, Greene (1983) found classes containing

more motivated students were perceived to have greater involvement, order and

organization, and task orientation. Deci, and colleagues (1991) suggested teachers who

supported active student engagement with mathematical concepts and who promote

personal construction of math ideas may encourage more autonomy and independence in

students, thereby increasing intrinsic interest in math.

Students' evaluation of their learning environment was found to be guided by their

individual values and expectations for success (Eccles, 1983). Wigfield, and colleagues

(1992) found that as early as the second grade, children have developed values for school









activities as well as beliefs about their performance abilities. Although younger children

tended to overestimate their abilities (Winfield, 1994) and engaged in tasks based upon

personal interest, motivation for engagement was recognized early (Wigfield, Eccles, &

Rodriguez, 1994).

Eccles' (1983) model of expectancy-value system assumed that an individual's

belief in, and interpretation of, an event were more influential on his behavior than the

event itself. According to Eccles and colleagues (1983), the value an individual placed

on task engagement related to level of interest, or intrinsic value, how important it was

perceived to be, attainment value, and how useful it was perceived to be, utility value.

They further suggested that the cost of engaging in a task, which excluded engagement in

other, more desirable activities, affected the level of motivation to engage. Additionally,

competency beliefs, or how well one predicts performance level, mediated the motivation

to engage. From this perspective, students with high expectations and values for success

might be more likely to engage in academic tasks with higher motivation to achieve while

students with lower expectations and values for success might be more likely to avoid

academic tasks, which would result in lower achievement.

Likewise, Townsend and Hicks (1997) found students who reported more social

satisfaction reported higher value and lower task cost associated with mathematic and

language curricula. Classroom climates that promoted individual goal setting and

provided choices for students were judged to be more encouraging by middle school

students (Pintrich et al., 1994). Classrooms reporting variations in the use of learning

strategies, valued effort, and fostered positive feelings toward learning were found to be

more successful in promoting mastery of subject material (Ames & Archer, 1987).









Perceptions of teacher support were positively associated with instructional techniques

that featured mastery and learning goals (Wentzel, 1995). Other studies found that the

degree to which students' feel they are cared about mediate academic performance

(Goodenow 1993b; Haertel 1996; Wentzel 1995).

Although individual values and expectations for success were found to impact

students' motivation and achievement, elements in classroom climate were different for

boys and girls. Goodenow (1993a) found that teacher support was found to have a

stronger association with expectancy and value for girls while boys were more likely to

be influenced by peer support. Because of gender differences in motivation, the next

section will examine the potential gender differences in perceptions of classroom climate.

Gender Differences in Classroom Climate

Gender differences have been found in classroom climate ratings (Townsend &

Hicks, 1995) with girls viewing classroom climate more favorably than boys (Goh &

Fraser, 1995). Girls were more likely to favor a cooperative learning atmosphere (Owens

& Barnes, 1982) in which positive social interactions provided a means of student

support rather than individual competitiveness (Slavin, 1991). Because girls may be

more likely to engage in behavior that is consistent with cooperative learning styles

(Charlesworth & Dzur, 1987), Gardner, Mason, and Matyas (1989) found they were more

likely to benefit from this type of classroom structure than boys. Specifically, in areas of

mathematics and language activities, girls' outcomes were more affected by climate

factors than boys', with girls having more success in cooperative goal structured

environments such as language curriculum (Townsend & Hicks, 1997). Because the

domain in which the climate is perceived may mediate successful outcomes in relation to

climate classroom, the effects of domains will be considered in the next section.









Domain Differences in Classroom Climate

Fraser (1993) found that classroom environment variables might actually

differentiate among different curricula. Different components of classroom climate were

found to correlate with success in different academic areas (Moos & Trickett, 1994).

Deci, Spiegel, Ryan, Koestner, and Kauffman (1982) suggested teachers who support

active student engagement with mathematical concepts and promote personal

construction of math ideas may encourage more autonomy and independence in students,

thereby increasing intrinsic interest in math. Conversely, a study on the effects of

competition upon mathematical achievement determined that competition actually

enhances learning in areas of math computation, concepts and applications (Dunn &

Harris, 2002). While Dunn and Harris (1998) found no evidence that climate influences

mathematical achievement in 4th grade students, Goh and Fraser (1995) not only found

consistent associations between climate and outcome, but also found that in areas of

mathematics, while boys performed better, girls rated classroom environment more

favorably than boys.

The perception of the learning environment may also affect the quality of

educational outcomes (Dart, 1998; Fraser, 1986). Providing a caring and supportive

environment was determined to be a necessary component in academic success (Juarez,

2000). Positive classroom climates have been associated with higher achievement

outcomes for students in schools rated as having more positive climates than those with

less positive outcomes (Alspaugh, 1998). For high school chemistry students, classroom

climate variables have been accountable for a substantial variance in cognitive and

affective outcomes beyond the characteristics of the student (McRobbie &Fraser, 1993).

Specific variables in classroom climate, such as class activities, instructor skill, and the









extent of critical demands were found to mediate academic outcomes for students

(Hoffman, 1979). In studying the effects of domain differences, however, Wigfield and

Eccles, (1992) found these differences change as children grow older. The next section

will examine the possible effects of students' development in perceptions of classroom

climate.

Developmental Differences in Classroom Climate

While belongingness, family, teacher, and peer support play an important role in an

individual's values and expectancies, the impact of these supports diminish with age.

Goodenow (1993) discovered a decline in the impact of these factors from 6th grade to 8th

grade and concluded that previous external influences on concepts of these constructs

may begin to be replaced the more internalized concepts and self-efficacy beliefs. Fyans

and Maehr (1987) also reported a shift in influence from family, to school to peer as

children aged from 4th to 10th grade. With older students, academic experiences, such as

prior knowledge, successes, and failures were found to play an important role in their

current perceptions of values for learning as well as how successful they expect to be

(Jacobson, 2000). Jacobson, suggested students with previous success in a subject may

feel more confident and have a higher sense of self-esteem and self-efficacy, which may

support a better expectation of future achievement. Those with negative experiences may

feel devalued, reluctant to participate, with less motivation than their counterparts.

Therefore, while individual motivation plays an important role in achievement, it may be

changeable across grades. These findings suggested the effects of students' perceptions

of classroom climate might be susceptible to grade level differences. In order to

determine the effects of classroom climate perceptions, however, it must be measurable.

The next section reviews scales designed to measure perceptions of classroom climate.









Capturing Classroom Climate

Scales not only differ in terminology, but also on focus, according to the authors'

definition of classroom climate (Fraser, 1979; Moos, 1974). According to Moos (1974),

climate refers to a group phenomenon relating to the social and psychological atmosphere

of any social setting. Within this social climate, there exist four dimensions:

Relationships, Personal Development, System Maintenance, and System Change.

Relationships refer to the type and intensity of relationships and include teacher-student,

student-student, and staff-staff It reflects the extent to which individuals within the

environment are involved, helpful, and supportive as well as the quality of openness

within the relationships. Personal Development includes competition with emphasis on

academic achievement and describes the basic direction in which personal growth and

self-enhancement tend to occur. System Maintenance includes organization and

orderliness within the classroom. Rule clarity, teacher consistency, and clarity of

expectations are among the factors encompassed in this dimension. System Change

refers to the manner and facility of change within the classroom as well as advocated

variety within activities and creativity in student thinking. From these basic dimensions,

a variety of scales were developed to assess classroom climate. The Classroom

Environment Scale (CES) is one assessment scale, developed by Moos, to assess the

social climate of the classroom environment in grades 7-12 (Moos & Trickett, 1973).

The CES is based upon the four dimensions of climate and focuses on student interest

and participation, interclass room relationships, the measurement of support within the

environment, emphasis on task completion, the degree of task difficulty, the factors of

interclassroom competition, the clarity of rules and expectations, the enforcement of rules

and expectations, as well as how the overall environment is organized and managed. In









addition, student contribution to creativity and planning, regarding class activities, is also

considered.

Summary

School communities have been found to exert influence upon the classroom in

addition to the influences of teachers and students. The policies and practices of the

schools have been found to direct how the educational process is addressed within the

classrooms. Within the classrooms, teachers have been found to bring unique perspective

into the learning environment through teaching philosophy as well as student-teacher

interaction. Additionally, each student has been found to enter the classroom with their

own expectations and values, competency beliefs, and learning preferences developed as

a result of their unique experiences. These perspectives may be different for girls versus

boys and may be subject to change in response to academic domain and developmental

age. These findings from the literature suggested in order to measure the effects of

classroom climate on motivation and achievement, it will be necessary to include the

influence of gender and grade differences for this study, as well as students' self-ratings

of motivation at the beginning of the school year.

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships among classroom climate,

motivation, and achievement. Classroom climate has been described as encompassing all

the socio-psychological dimensions of classroom life (Wang et al., 1993). Students in

this study were asked to rate their perceptions of mathematics classroom as to the degree

of order and organization present in the class as well as how clear and consistent they

perceived the rules to be. Motivation has been described as encompassing the expectancy

of success and the value placed on that attainment (Wigfield & Eccles, 1992). Students









were asked to rate their levels of motivation in math class at the beginning and end of the

year. Achievement was measured in end of year in numerical points, ranging from 0 to

100. Because the literature regarding motivation, achievement, and classroom climate

ratings suggested students may vary by gender, age (Fyans & Maehr, 1987; Goodenow,

1993a), and the individual characteristics they bring to the classroom (Biggs, 1993;

Chapin & Eastman, 1996), this study attempted to control for these variables.

In past studies, classroom climate ratings were compared to mean grade

achievement. To date, little or no research has centered on class grades, in relation to

classroom climate ratings. This study will examine the relationship between students'

perception of classroom climate with academic outcomes and end of year motivation in

mathematics. Specifically, this study proposes:

* Students' higher or more positive ratings of the Order/Organization and Rule
Clarity scales of CES (Moos & Trickett, 1973) will predict higher academic
outcomes

* Students' higher or more positive ratings Order/Organization and Rule Clarity
scales of CES (Moos & Trickett, 1974) will predict end of year motivation














CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

Participants

Data for this study were collected as part of a larger, school-wide case study in a

rural middle school (Davis, 2001). The middle school was situated in a predominately

agricultural county. Participants included 860 of the 1,100 students in the 6th, 7th, and 8th

grades. Of the 860 students, 425 were boys and 435 were girls. Additionally, 45

teachers, including 28 homeroom teachers, also participated. At each grade level,

students are divided into two teams of five teachers for their core classes of English,

reading, mathematics, social studies and science. Within the larger study, multi-method

data were collected simultaneously throughout the year. Survey data were collected at

four time points from the students and three time points for the teachers over the 1999-

2000 school year.

The purpose of this study is to examine the students' perception of classroom

climate as it predicts academic outcome in mathematics in 6t, 7th and 8th grade at time

point four, at the end of the school year. Additionally, this study examines the effect of

classroom climate perception as it predicts motivation levels at the end of the academic

year. For this study, 342 students (N= 169 boys, N=173 girls, N= 81 6th grade, N= 135

7th grade, and N=125 8th grade) were selected on the basis of participation across all time

samples.









Measures

Classroom Climate

The Classroom Environment Scale (CES) was developed by Moos and Trickett

(1973) to assess students' perceptions of the learning environment in junior and senior

high school classrooms, grades 7-12. The development of the CES was based on the

theory that there are four basic dimensions of social climate: relationships, personal

development, and system maintenance and the physical environment. Each of these

dimensions exerts a directional influence on behavior, for example learning and

achievement in the classroom. System Maintenance measures the extent to which the

environment is organized, orderly and clear in expectations. The System Maintenance

dimension includes the subscales of Rule Clarity and Order and Organization. Rule

clarity measures the degree to which the teacher presents clearly defined classroom rules,

ensures the students' understanding of these rules, and the consistency with which the

teacher enforces these rules. Order and organization measures the emphasis on students

behaving in and orderly, quiet and polite manner and the overall organization of

classroom activities and assignments.

Data for this study were originally collected as part of a larger study encompassing

the role of social context on students' motivation, learning, and achievement. Rule

Clarity and Order/Organization were two measures that helped define the properties

involved in student-teacher interactions and relationships (Davis & Davis, under review).

The standard methods of mathematical instruction are generally organized into

presentation then practice of new mathematical concepts in primary and secondary

schools. Because of this widely accepted instructional style, mathematical curriculum is

found to be most highly correlated with these subscales. Therefore, these two dimensions









were the focus in the assessment of classroom climate. Classrooms rated high on

organization and clarity has been found to correlate with better educational outcomes.

Therefore, by focusing on these, it may be possible to determine if students' perceptions

of classroom climate can predict their level of mathematical achievement.

A shortened form of the CES was administered encompassing these two

dimensions, with 10 items measuring the qualities of Order/Organization and 10

measuring the qualities of Rule Clarity. The 20 item survey included questions such as

"The Math teacher is consistent in dealing i ith students who break the rules" and "Math

is well organized" and was completed across the domain of math as well as the domains

of English, social studies, science, and reading. This study focuses on the classroom

climate assessment of mathematics.

The test-retest reliability of the CES was determined using 52 students within a 6-

week interval. Reliability was reported as .85 for Order and Organization, and .72 for

Rule Clarity (Moos & Trickett, 1994). An internal reliability analysis conducted for each

scale in this study revealed an internal reliability of .80 for System Maintenance, .65 for

Order and Organization, and .74 for Rule Clarity.

Motivation

To measure domain-specific motivations, items were drawn from the self-efficacy

and intrinsic scales of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ:

Pintrich & DeGroot, 1990). Items on these scales were developed to evaluate students'

perceived confidence and ability to perform in middle school and junior high school. For

this study, items were slightly altered in order to evaluate domain specific motivations.

Questions such as "I ihinuk i hIt we are learning in class is interesting" were changed to

"I ihiluk ii ht we are learning in math class is interesting." In addition, three items were









eliminated due to similar wording. Internal consistency estimates for this subscale were

reported at r = .89 (9 items) for the expectancy of success and r = .87 for the value of

academic success (9 items) scales (Pintrich & DeGroot, 1990). Our findings revealed

internal consistency estimates ofr = .83 for expectations of success (8 items) and r = .82

for value of success (7 items).

Grades

Grades were measured by numerical points, scored 0 through 100, assigned to the

students at the end of the year for mathematics. All grade data were collected at the

completion of the study.

Procedures

Passive parental consent for survey participation was obtained for initial

recruitment of each student. After notifying parents of the nature of the school-wide

project, the purpose of the study, and the types of questions to be asked, parents were

asked to respond only if they did not want their child to participate. Assent was also

obtained from each student.

Students were asked to complete surveys in class at four time points throughout the

school year (time 1 = beginning of year, time 2 = midpoint of year, time 3 = early spring,

time 4 = end of year). All survey items were rated on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from

1-Never true to 5-Always true. Students were allowed to complete the surveys at their

own pace, with make up sessions arranged for those students who were unable to

complete the surveys during class or students who were not present during the original

administration times. For this study, time point 1, beginning of the year, and time point

2, end of the year, were considered.









The CES (Moos& Trickett, 1973) abridged form measuring students' perception of

classroom climate on the System Maintenance and Change dimensions was administered

during class at time 3, in the early spring. Data for motivation were collected at time 1,

for the dependent variable motivation 1, at the beginning of the school year. Data for end

of year motivation were collected at time 4, for the dependent variable motivation 3.

Data on the students' grades were collected at the end of the year.

Analysis

Data from Classroom Climate (Moos & Trickett, 1973) scales were entered into a

text file and imported to SPSS (10.0 for Windows). An integrity check was performed to

ensure the accuracy of the data. In order to address unavailable data, a correlational

relationship was established among each item with all other items within the same grade

level and domain. Each item was then examined to compare the strongest correlation of

inner-item ratings. For example, ratings for item 1 might be strongest for items 5, 9, 15,

and 17 within the 6th grade math surveys. These four strongest correlations were summed

and averaged to produce a predicted value for the missing response. Owing to the

strength of the correlation selected, these values were considered the best estimate with

greater predictability for individual item response. Because unavailable responses were

rare, these imputed values were not anticipated to affect the overall outcome of the items

rated.

Data files were sorted by descending order using the student identification number

with the order of variables listed in the same sort sequence. Initially, data for climate,

motivation, and grades were entered into imputed files. Data were merged by

identification number per each domain, matching cases listwise. In rare instances, cases

with duplicate numbers were identified and cross referenced with their original hard









copy, corrected, and re-entered. Cases that did not have matching cases in the other files

were excluded from analysis (e.g. listwise deletion). Once the files were merged, data for

math domain were selected for the purpose of this analysis.

Creating Composites

In order to maintain consistent direction of response analysis, items whose wording

reflected an opposite direction of strength in perception of quality rating were reverse

coded. For example, item 8 on the classroom climate scale asks Math hardly ever starts

on time. Students responding with a 1 indicate that they always disagree; therefore, the

response reflects that math always starts on time. Items such as these were recorded to

represent "one" to reflect a strong absence of the quality being perceived and "five" to

indicate a strong presence of the quality being perceived. Data for motivation were

entered using the same procedure. The actual grade point averages, collected at the end

of the year, were entered into an SPSS file for each participant.

Observations with multiple omissions across all three measures were excluded.

Coefficient alpha was used as an estimate of reliability. For the System Maintenance

scale, the value equaled .80, and for Order/Organization, the value equaled .74.

Using frequency and descriptive statistics, composite data were screened for

missing values, normality, and outliers. A composite score was computed for each

subscale to create variables for Order/Organization and Rule Clarity by averaging scores

across items.

Statistical Analysis

The independent variable, classroom climate, was examined in relation to the

dependent variable of achievement and motivation. A univariate analysis of variance

between subjects was run on the classroom climate subscales to evaluate homogeneity of









student ratings of classroom climate across teachers. Results indicated the Rule Clarity

and Order/Organization subscales exhibited differences in teacher ratings. Because this

study was interested in patterns of students' perceptions, scores were standardized to

control for the influence of actual teacher differences.

For each analysis, two multiple-regression models were examined, one for

classroom climate with achievement and one with classroom climate and motivation.

The first model included the interactions of gender and grade on Order/Organization,

Rule Clarity, and motivation 1. Non-significant interactions were dropped, one at a time,

from the regression equation. Analyses were then conducted to examine the linear

relationship between the five predictive variables of Order/Organization, Rule Clarity,

beginning of the year motivation 1, gender, and grade level with end of year motivation 3

and end of year achievement (see appendix A).

For each analysis, an omnibus test of the proportion of explained variation in each

response variable by the predictive variable in combination was calculated. Using semi-

partial correlations, the unique contribution of each variable was considered.
















CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

Descriptive Data

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between students'

perceptions of classroom climate with end of year motivation in mathematics and

students' perceptions of classroom climate with academic outcomes in mathematics. By

controlling for student ratings of motivation at the beginning of the year, as well as

gender and grade differences, this study proposed:

* Higher ratings of Order/Organization and Rule Clarity scales of the CES (Moos &
Trickett, 1973) will correlate positively with higher academic outcomes.

* Higher ratings of Order/Organization and Rule Clarity scales of the CES (Moos &
Trickett, 1973) will correlate positively with higher ratings for end of year
motivation.

Table 1. Means and Standard Deviations
6t grade 7th grade 8h grade
Total
Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls

End of Year Motivation 3.94 4.01 3.76 3.65 3.46 3.58 3.70
(.70) (.61) (.73) (.83) (.75) (.68)
(.75)

End of Year Achievement 85.07 87.08 85.16 86.41 75.89 84.30 83.78
(7.28) (7.26) (9.77) (13.74) (13.16)
(8.41) (11.16)
Perception of Classroom 2.93 3.00 3.09 2.97 2.82 3.03 2.97
Order/Organization (.45) (.49) (.51) (.56) (.67) (.54)
(.57)
Perception of Classroom Rule Clarity 3.27 3.45 1.56 1.46 3.12 3.28 2.57
(.57) (.58) (1.88) (1.74) (.71) (.69)
(1.51)
Baseline Motivation 4.05 4.09 3.96 3.82 3.54 3.82 3.85
(.49) (.68) (.74) (.77) (.84) (.64) (.73)

N=45 N=36 N=61 N=74 N=62 N=63
N=341












Motivation

Regarding motivation, this study proposed students' higher ratings of

Order/Organization and Rule Clarity scales of the CES (Moos & Trickett, 1973) would

positively correlate with higher self- reported ratings of end of year motivation for

mathematics. Data analysis began by testing a full model in Time 1 (baseline) by gender

and grade level.

Table 2 displays findings based on the initial model run. This model accounted for

35.8 % of the variance (F(342.9)= 16.75, p<.000). Table 2 demonstrates interaction of rule

clarity by grade to be significant. To teat for interaction effects, post hoc analysis using

multiple regression, revealed the effects to be non-significant. Interactions were dropped,

yielding a revised model for predicting end of year motivation.

Table 2. Motivation Full Model.
Model B t value p value r R F p

End of Year Motivation .599 .358 16.75 .000

Perception of Classroom 0.236 3.474 0.001*
Order/Organization
Perception of Classroom Rule 0.104 2.238 0.026*
Clarity
Gender -0.112 -0.343 0.732

Grade 0.241 0.649 0.517

Baseline Motivation 0.360 5.135 0.000*

Gender/Order Interaction -0.415 -1.355 0.176

Gender/Rule Interaction -0.046 -0.190 0.849

Gender/Motivation Interaction -0.157 -0.483 0.629

Grade/Order Interaction -0.294 -0.930 0.353

Grade/Rule Interaction 0.573 2.135 0.034*

Grade/Motivation Interaction 0.069 0.238 0.812

Note. Denotes significant difference at p < .05









The final model for end of year motivation in table 3 explained 35 % of the

variance in end of year motivation (F(342,5)= 30.10, p<.000) .

Table 3 Regression for End of Year Motivation : Final Model
Model B value p value r R F p

End of Year Motivation .592 .350 30.102 .000

Perception of Classroom 0.153 3.278 0.001*
Order/Organization
Perception of Classroom Rule Clarity 0.095 2.116 0.035*

Gender -0.450 -1.889 0.060

Grade -0.136 -3.009 0.003*

Baseline Motivation 0.376 5.865 0.000*

Gender/Baseline Motivation Interaction 0.459 1.886 0.060

Note. denotes significance at p < .05 Note. Gender differences approach significance

As anticipated, a significant positive relationship was also found between end of year

motivation and students' ratings of perceptions of classroom Rule Clarity, perceptions of

classroom Order/Organization. These findings suggested students who perceived their

classroom as more orderly and organized with fair and explicit rules tended to report

higher levels of motivation at the end of the year.

Differences by gender and baseline motivation approached significance (p = .06)

When comparing gender, these findings suggested boys may have somewhat lower

competency beliefs and/or value math less at the beginning of the school year than girls.

Differences by gender and end of year motivation approached significance ( p=.06) with

girls reporting higher levels of motivation at the end of the year when comparing across

grades. However, when comparing all the boys' and girls' ratings of motivation in

middle school mathematics, overall, there were no significant differences (Figure 1).










Lastly, findings revealed significant differences in end of year motivation based on

grade level suggesting students report different levels of motivation across the 6t, 7th, and

8th grades. Students in 6th grade reported the highest levels for motivation in mathematics

while the 8th grade students reported the lowest level of end of year motivation towards

math. This finding supports earlier research that, although values and expectations for

math remain constant in relative to rankings of other domain in terms of importance and

usefulness, such as reading and English, motivation towards mathematics decline as

children grows older (Wigfield et al., 1994).

Achievement

Regarding achievement, this study proposed students' higher or more positive

ratings of the Order/Organization and Rule Clarity subscales of the CES (Moos &

Trickett, 1973) would predict higher academic achievement in mathematics at the end of

the school year. Data analysis began by testing a full model in Time 1 (baseline) by

gender and grade level. Table 4 displays findings based on the initial model run.

Table 4 Regression for Achievement: Initial Model
Model B t value p value r R F p
End of Year Achievement 0.442 0.196 8.866 0.000
Perception of Classroom 0.172 2.608 0.009*
Order/Organization
Perception of Classroom Rule 0.089 1.885 0.060
Clarity
Gender 0.338 1.032 0.303
Grade -0.685 -1.877 0.061
Baseline Motivation 0.202 2.912 0.004*
Gender/Order Interaction -0.149 -0.495 0.621
Gender/Rule Interaction -0.036 -0.148 0.882
Gender/Motivation Interaction 0.002 0.007 0.995
Grade/Order Interaction 0.291 0.936 0.350
Grade/Rule Interaction -0.082 -0.263 0.792
Grade/Motivation Interaction 0.328 1.142 0.254
Note. denotes significance at p < .05 Note. Grade differences approach significance

This model accounted for 19.6% of the variance (F(342,l0)= .8.9, p<.000). Post hoc

analysis tests for interaction using multiple regression, dropping each interaction, one at a









time, revealed the effects to be non-significant. Interactions were dropped, yielding a

revised model for predicting end of year motivation. The final model predicting end of

year motivation, gender, math grades, and baseline motivation with perceptions of

Order/Organization, Rule Clarity is presented in Table 5.

Table 5 Regression for Achievement: Revised Model
Model B t p r R F p
value value
End of Year Achievement .433 .188 18.836 .000
Perception of Order/Organization 0.168 3.533 0.000*
Perception of Rule Clarity 0.079 1.756 0.080
Gender 0.221 4.548 0.000*
Grade 0.168 3.754 0.000*
Baseline Motivation 0.151 3.312 0.001*
Note. denotes significance at p < .05

This model explained 16.8 % of the variance (F(342,4)= 18.8, p<.000). Findings

indicate a significant positive relationship between achievement and students' ratings of

Order/Organization. Students who perceived the classroom as more structured and

organized tended to earn higher grades than students who did not.

A significant negative relationship was found between baseline motivation and

achievement. These findings suggested the students who reported lower levels of

motivation for math at the beginning of the school year achieved higher grades than those

who did not. However, student levels of motivation decline when comparing across

grades while achievement improves. When comparing 6th grade students to 8th grade

students, motivation levels tend to decline and achievement in mathematics increases.

Therefore, when combining grade levels, these findings may suggest the overall rate of

decline in motivation is greater than the overall rate of increase in achievement. .

However, this study did not address the level of achievement and motivation across

grades. The negative relationship is not expected for within grade comparisons









Gender differences were found to be significant for achievement. Girls tended to

earn higher grades at the end of the year than boys (Table 1). These findings do not

support earlier studies that suggest boys tend to have higher achievement in math for

middle school students (Goh & Fraser, 1995).

Lastly, there were significant differences in achievement by grade level.

Achievement in 8th grade was significantly lower for boys and significantly higher for

girls (Table 1). Because this study did not address the level of math difficulty across

grades, future studies are needed to examine the role of grade and math performance in

middle school.














CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among classroom

climate, motivation, and achievement. Classroom climate has been described as

encompassing all the socio-psychological dimensions of classroom life (Wang et.al.

1993). Students in this study were asked to rate their perceptions of mathematics

classroom as to the degree of order and organization present in the class as well as how

clear and consistent they perceived the rules to be. Motivation is described as

encompassing the expectancy of success and the value placed on that attainment

(Wigfield & Eccles, 1992). Students were asked to rate their levels of motivation in math

class at the beginning and end of the year. Achievement was measured at end of year in

numerical points, ranging from 0 to 100. Because the literature regarding motivation,

achievement, and classroom climate ratings suggest students may vary by gender, age

(Fyans & Maehr, 1987; Goodenow, 1993a), and the individual characteristics they bring

to the classroom (Biggs, 1993; Chapin & Eastman, 1996;), this study attempted to control

for these variables.

This chapter presents a discussion and interpretation of the results of the study as

they relate to previous findings in the area of classroom climate and motivation, as well

as the research questions and hypotheses. It also addresses the implications of the

findings. The chapter concludes with a discussion of future directions for research and

limitations of the current study.









Perceptions of Classroom Climate and Motivation

The first goal of this study was to determine if students who rated perceptions of

classroom climate higher on would report higher levels of motivation at the end of the

year than students with lower ratings. For end of year motivation levels, results of this

study indicated that students who rated classroom climate as higher in rule clarity and

order/organization also tended to report higher levels of motivation at the end of the

year. These findings supported the literature, which suggested positive classroom climate

promotes students' expectations and values for success.

In this analysis, there were no statistically significant differences between males'

and females' ratings of motivation in middle school mathematics. However, while boys

reported higher levels of motivation for math at the beginning of the year, girls tended to

report higher levels of motivation towards math at the end of the year. Because the

literature suggested boys have higher competency beliefs, with higher task values, and

greater expectations for success for math (Wigfield & Eccles, 1992), it was expected

ratings of motivation for math, boys would report higher ratings at both time points.

However, literature also suggested that values and expectations associated with math

decline for both boys and girls (Wigfield et. al., 1998). These findings bring interesting

questions about gender differences in motivation. While motivation declines for math for

girls and boys, these findings suggested the decline might be somewhat more pronounced

in males during middle school. Another possibility may be recent trends in math

competency suggesting the gender gap in math is narrowing (Townsend & Hicks, 1997).

A third possibility may be girls were reported to be more sensitive to classroom climate

(Goh & Fraser, 1995). Therefore, girls' declines in competency beliefs, values, and

expectations for math may be more responsive to positive classroom climate. Future









studies may wish to address the differential role of gender and motivation as it pertains to

middle school mathematics.

Early motivation, as anticipated, was a significant factor in end of year motivation

levels for girls and boys across grades. Findings revealed students who entered the

classroom with higher expectations and values for success in math reported higher

expectations and values for success in math at the end of the year than those who did not.

There were also grade differences in ratings of motivation. In all grades, students

who perceived their mathematics class as more orderly and organized tended to achieve

higher than those who did not. However, while 6th grade students' perception of rule

clarity and fairness did not affect their self-ratings of motivation at the end of the year,

students in the higher-grade levels, who rated higher levels of both the Rule Clarity and

Order/Organization factors of classroom climate, expressed higher levels of motivation

at the end of the year.

Classroom Climate and Achievement

This second goal of this study was to determine whether students who rated

perceptions of classroom climate higher on subscales of Order/Organization and Rule

Clarity would achieve higher grades than students with lower ratings. Results of this

study indicated in middle school mathematics, students who perceived the classroom, as

being more orderly and organized tended to earn higher grades than students who did not.

These findings support earlier findings by Williams and Somers (2001), in which the

orderliness of the classroom contributed significantly to test scores in mathematics and

language. Overall, students' perceptions of Rule Clarity, in which the rules are clearly

defined and fairly executed, were not a significant factor in terms of predicting math

achievement. These findings suggest that students' perform better in math with a









classroom that is structured with organized lessons. However, students' perceptions of

the fairness of rules, how clearly and defined they are, do not predict higher achievement.

Middle school students' experiences are reported to become less intimate and more

anonymous than elementary school. Eccles, Midgely, and Adler (1984) suggested middle

schools to be larger and more impersonal. Therefore, these results suggested students in

middle school may be unaware of teacher bias in the enforcement of rules or did not

perceive them to be an important component of their individual success.

Findings revealed a negative relationship of students' early ratings of motivation

for math achievement. These findings indicated students entering the classroom with

higher expectations and values for success for math earned lower grades at the end of the

year.

Gender was a factor in achievement, with girls earning higher grades in math than

boys. Literature has suggested girls are more sensitive to classroom climate scales and

tend to yield higher ratings while males perform better in climates that are more orderly

and organized (Goh & Fraser, 1995). Results from this indicated no significant gender

differences for ratings of classroom climate but did indicate higher achievement for

females over males in end of year math achievement. These results do not support earlier

findings which indicated boys have higher achievement in math (Townsend & Hicks,

1997). Reasons for these differences were considered to be a result of declines in

motivation for math (Wigfield, & Eccles, 1992), social attitudes reflecting math as a

nontraditional female domain, or classroom bias in the promotion of math achievement

for girls. One reason for higher achievement for girls in middle school may be a

reflection of the change in social values for math. Recent trends in research suggested









the gap in gender differences for math achievement might be narrowing. Another

possibility for gender differences in math achievement may be due to girls' sensitivity to

classroom climate, which was observed in this study with the increase in girls' motivation

for math at the end of the year. Therefore, while in this study, girls and boys were

analogous in their perceptions of rule clarity and order/organization, achievement for

girls may be more positively effected by positive classroom climates.

Findings did show a difference in middle school students' achievement as they

progress to grade levels. These results suggested that students tended to achieve higher

grades as they achieved higher-grade levels. One possibility may be students entering

middle school tended to have lower performances across domains. Students in the sixth

grade were prone to declines in school engagement in a study by Simons-Morton and

Crump, (2003). While declines may be influenced by the transition to middle school

(Eccles et al., 1993), academic performances were demonstrated to rebound, improving

as students' adjusted to their new environment and rose to higher grade levels (Wigfield,

Eccles, &Rodriguez, 1998). Because this study did not address differences in math

curriculum, reasons for improvement in achievement by grade level might be addressed

in future studies.

Implications

In past decades, classroom climate has been established as a salient aspect of

student learning and well- being. The construct of classroom climate has been considered

a critical factor in students' emotional and intellectual development. Gottfredson and

Gottfredson (1989) explored the positive influential role of safety, morale, personal

security, and classroom orderliness on academic performance, attendance, and dropout

rates among elementary, middle, and high schools. Studies indicated that establishing a









positive classroom climate increased attendance and student involvement (Mayer &

Mitchell, 1993; DeYoung, 1977). Creation of classrooms with a positive climate has

been indicated as a buffer to many current problems in the academic arena. Mayer and

Mitchell (1993) suggested that creating positive classroom climates in which positive

feedback, structured tutoring programs, with clearly defined rules resulted in reducing

dropout rates, increasing attendance and increasing on task behavior. Other variables in

the learning environment impacting academic success included feelings of support within

the classroom, teacher availability, and feelings of belonging, safety and caring (Hayes,

Ryan, & Zeller, 1994) which affected the students' perception of the quality of life within

the classroom (Dunn & Harris, 1998).

Biggs (1993) suggested while students may bring a preferred approach into the

classroom, but that the classroom climate can hinder or promote their preferences. These

approaches have been found to determine whether the student learns on a superficial level

or achieves mastery. Findings of this study indicated students with higher ratings of

classroom climate performed better and were more motivated than those who did not.

Interesting questions are: are better students more sensitive to classroom climate or do

students do students perform better because they are better able to identify elements of

the classroom that assist with learning?

Because perceptions of classroom climate have been significantly associated with

higher achievement and motivation in this study, implications for School Psychology are

many. First, classroom climate scales may be used to understand the experience of the

individual within the classroom. In assessing the individual, it will be helpful to gain an

understanding of the student within his classroom. Using classroom climate scales as an









assessment tool provides an opportunity to assess students' perception these experiences.

Using these results may help design better interventions within the classroom to improve

students' achievement outcomes. Additionally, just as children may be explicitly trained

in social skills to recognize social cues, students at risk for academic failure may benefit

with explicit training in recognizing classroom supports that may be obscure to students

with low ratings of classroom climate. Students' with lower ratings may then be able to

benefit from positive classroom climates.

Second, because the positive effects of classroom climate have been demonstrated

in this study to be related to students' achievement and motivation, teachers may find

having structured and organized lesson plans, with fair and consistent enforcement of

rules may improve student learning. With current emphasis on accountability for

teachers regarding students' educational success, teachers may find that promoting a

positive classroom climate will increase productivity through high student motivation and

improve academic grades through enhanced student learning. Additionally, teachers who

implement classroom practices designed to promote a positive classroom climate may use

the climate assessment as a means of assessing the success of the programs or as a means

of facilitating changes within the classroom.

Finally, the assessment of perceptions in classroom climate may help understand

the changes in students' perceptions of their educational experiences. For example, in

this study, students' perceptions of Order/Organization were associated with higher

motivation and higher achievement. Rule clarity, however, was associated with higher

motivation but did not effect achievement. Closer examination of the data revealed

differences in effects of rule clarity on achievement for different grade levels. These









results indicated developmental differences in the effects of classroom climate. By

assessing classroom climate as a means of understanding developmental change, a greater

understanding of students' needs within the classroom may be achieved in order to

improve academic outcomes.

Limitations and Future Studies

Findings of this study revealed perceptions of classroom climate to be

significantly associated with higher achievement and higher motivation levels in middle

school mathematics students. Because this study involved a large sample of middle

school students, findings may generalize to other middle school students. Additionally,

because this study controlled for gender, grade level and initial levels of motivation, the

impact of classroom climate on achievement and end of year motivation may be more

clearly indicated. Therefore, although students' enter the classroom with values and

expectations for success in mathematics, the classroom experience relating to positive

classroom climates may be important for student success.

Although the sample for this study was large, a limitation of this study might be

the sample was taken from a predominantly white, rural middle school. Research has

demonstrated the effects of positive classroom climates in rural middle schools were

analogous to racially mixed urban middle schools. However, future studies may wish to

replicate these findings to determine if actual grade achievement and motivation levels

can be predicted by classroom climate in urban schools.

Another limitation was the focus of this research, which did not include

perceptions and ratings from other academic domains. Findings in this study may not

generalize to domains where subscales of classroom climate of Rule Clarity and

Order/Organization are not highly correlated. Research has indicated positive effects for









classroom climates rated high on scales of Order/Organization and rule clarity in all

domains (Juarez, 2000). However, future studies may wish to replicate the predictive

role of classroom climate on achievement and motivation in other domains.

A final limitation in the focus of this study was it sought to examine the predictive

quality of positive classroom climate for middle school students. Because findings

indicated different effects of ratings of Rule Clarity for 6th grade, future studies may wish

to examine classroom climate for each grade, separately, to determine if the effects of

classroom climate are stable across grade level.

Future studies are needed to determine the predictive effects of positive classroom

climate as it pertains to individual student achievement and self-ratings of motivation in

elementary schools. Because initial levels of motivation are found to be associated with

previous classroom experiences, promoting positive classroom climates early may help

students develop higher motivation for academic engagement. Additionally,

understanding the role of classroom climate may facilitate changes within the classroom

that promote learning mastery. With the current emphasis on educational accountability,

higher achievement outcomes associated with positive classroom climates are promising.








40




Gender Differences in Motivation


1


0.8


0.6


0.4



0.2
---girls
5 oAIF---r g I
--- boys
V 0


-0.2


-0.4


-0.6


-0.8

End of Year Motivation


Figure 1. Baseline Motivation














APPENDIX
REGRESSION EQUATIONS

Multiple Regression Equations


How much is motivation predicted by classroom climate, controlling for gender, grade,
and initial motivation ?

Y = Motivation

YM= bo + biXi + b2X2 + b3X3 + b4X4 + b5X5 + b6 X6(X3X) + b7X7 (X3*X2)+
b8X8(X3*X5) + b9X9(X4*X1) + b1o X1o(X4X2)+ b1 X11(X4X5)

Xi = Classroom climate : order/ organization
X2 = Classroom climate: rule clarity
X3= gender
X4 = grade
X5 = motivation time 1
X6 = gender order/organization
X7 = gender rule clarity
Xs = gender motivation
X9 = grade* order
X10 = grade*rules
X11= grade*motivation


Omnibus Test of Predictive Variables for Motivation Full Model

(k= 11)
Sample Size:

Ho : R2 (YM/XlX2X3X4 X5X6 X7X8 X9X10 X11) = 0

FM7= 7R2 (YA X3X4X5 X6 X7 X9X10 Xl1)
(1- R2 ( YM/X1X2X3X4X5X6_X7X8 X9X10 X) / ( N k-1))









Tests of Interaction

Ho : R2 (YM/X1X2X3X4 X5X6 X7X8 X9X10 X11) = 0

FM R2 (Ym/XlX2X-X4X X6 XX6 8 X9Xo1 Xll1)
(1- R2 ( YM/X1X2X3X4X5X6 X7X8 X9X10 X11)/ ( N k-1))



Ho : R2 (YM/XlX2X3X4 X5X6 X7X8 X9Xo0) = 0

FM = R2 LY/XiX2X3X4XX6 X7~ X9Xl o_)
(2- R2 ( YM/XlX2X3X4X5X6 X7X8 X9X0o) / (N k-1))


Ho : R2 (YM/XlX2X3X4 X5X6 X7X8 X9 X1l) = 0

F = R2 (YA/XX2X3X4 X5X6 X7Xs~ X-1)
(1- R2 ( YM/XIX2X3X4X5X6_X7X8 X9 X1 )/( N k-1))


Ho : R2 (YM/XlX2X3X4 X5X6 X7XS X10 X01) = 0

FM = R2 (/XiX2X3X4 XX6 XX-8 X10 Xl 1)
(3- R2 ( YM/X1X2X3X4X5X6 X7X8 X10 Xl1)/ ( N k-1))


Ho : R2 (YM/X1X2X3X4 X5X6 X7 X9X10 X11) = 0

FM R= (Ym/XiX2X3X4 X5X X X9X10 XI11)
(4- R2 ( YM/X1X2X3X4X5X6 X7X8 X9X10 X11)/ ( N k-1))


Ho : R2 (YM/XlX2X3X4 X5X6 X8 X9X10 X11) = 0

FM R2 (Ym/XiX2X3 XX XX6 X iX9Xo1 X11)
(5- R2 ( YM/X1X2X3X4X5X6 X8 X9X10 X11)/ ( N k-1))


Ho : R2 (YM/XiX2X3X4 X5 X7X8 X9X10 X11) = 0

FM R2 (Ym/XiX234X53 X X XX9X0 Xl1)
(6- R2 ( YM/X1X2X3X4X5 X7X8 X9X10 X1) / ( N k-1))









Omnibus Test of Predictive Variables for Motivation Revised Model

(k= 6)

Ho : R2 (YM/XIX2X3X4 X5X8) = 0


FM = R2 (YA/Xl3X 4 X5X8)
(1- R2 ( YM/X1X2X3X4X5X8) / ( N k-1))



Tests of Individual Coefficients:



Ho: Bi = 0, if i=

Txi = R2 (Y/XIX2X3X4 X5) R2 (Y /XX4X
(1- R2 (Y,/XIX2x3X4x5 ) / (N k-l))




Calculate Semi-Partial R2


Ho: ( YM ( X/ X2X3X4X5 X8 ))


FA = R2_Y,/XIX2X3X4 X5 X R (X1/ /X2X3X4 X5 X
(1- R2 ( YM/ XX2X3X4 X5 X8 )/ (N k-))


Ho: ( YM (X2/ X1X3X4 X5 X8)) = 0

FM = R (Y/ I X2X3X4_X__ X )- R2 (X/ X1XX4 X5
(1- R2 ( YM/ X1X2X3X4 X5 X8) / (N k-))




Ho: (YM (X3/ XlX2X4 X5 X )) = 0

FM = R (YM/ XXX3X4 X5 X) R2 (X3/ XX2X4 X5 X8
(1- R2 ( YA/ XX2X3X4 X5 X8) / (N k-l))











Ho: ( YM (X4/ XX2X3 X5 X8) = 0

FM = R2 (YM/ XlX-X3X4 X, X)- R2 (X4/ X-X13XX
(1 R2 ( YM/ X1XX3X4 X5) / (N k-l))



Ho: ( YM (Xs/ XiX2X3 X4 X8) = 0

FM = R2 (Y X1~X3X4 X5 X8- R2 (X5/ XIX2X3 X4 Xs,
(1 R2 ( YM/ XX2X3X4 X5 X8) / (N k-l))

Ho: ( YM (X/ XIX2X3 X4 X5) = 0

FM = R2 (YM/ XIX2X3X4 XXS)- R2 (X/ XX2X3 X4 X5
(1 R2 ( YM/ XX2X3X4 X5 X8) / (N k-l))


Multiple Regression Equations


How much is achievement predicted by classroom climate given gender, grade, and
motivation ?

YA = Classroom Achievement

YA = bo + blX1 + b2X2 + b3X3 + b4X4+ b5X5+ b6X6 (X4*Xi)+ b7X7(X4*X2)+
b8X8(X4X3) + b9X9 (X5Xl)+ bloXio(X5X2)+ bllXll(X5X3)


Xi = Classroom climate : order/ organization (smorder)
X2 = Classroom climate: rule clarity (smrules)
X3 = motivation time 1 (motl)
X4 = gender
X5 = grade
X6 = gender order/organization
X7 = gender rule clarity
Xs = gender motivation
X9 = grade* order
Xio = grade* rules
X11 = grade* motivation









Omnibus Test of Predictive Variables for Achievement Revised Model

(k= 11)

Ho : R2 (YA/XlX2X3X4 X5X6X7 XsX9X1oXil) = 0

FA = R2 (YA/XX2X3X4 X5sXX7-X9XIoXil
(1- R2 (YA/X1X2X3X4 X5X6X7 X8X9XoX11) / ( N k-1))


Tests of Interaction


Ho : R2 (YA/XlX2X3X4 X5X6X7 X8X9XoXil1) = 0

FA = R2 (YAX X2X3X4 X5X6X7 XX9XIoX11)
(1- R2 (YA/XIX2X3X4 X5X6X7 X8X9XoX11) / ( N k-1))

Ho : R2 (YA/XlX2X3X4 X5X6X7 XsX9Xo1) = 0

FA = R2 (YA/Xl1X X4 X5X6X7 X9X10
(1- R2 (YA/XlX2X3X4 X5X6X7 X8X9X0) / ( N k-1))

Ho : R2 (YA/XX2X3X4 X5X6X7 X8X9X1) = 0

FA = R2 (YA/X1X-X3X4 X5X6X7 X9X1X)
(1- R2 (YA/XlX2X3X4 X5X6X7 XX9X11) / ( N k-1))


Ho : R2 (YA/XX2X3X4 X5X6X7 XsX1oX11) = 0

FA = R2 (YA/ X2X3X4 5X6X7 XXloXl1)
(1- R2 (YA/XIX2X3X4 X5X6X7 X8gXoXI1) / ( N k-1))


Ho : R2 (YA/XlX2X3X4 X5X6X7 X9XIoX11) = 0

FA =R2 (YA/XlX2X3X4 X5X6X7 XX1oX1)
(1- R2 (YA/XlX2X3X4 X5X6X7 X9XIoX1) / ( N k-1))


Ho : R2 (YA/XX2X3X4 X5X6 X8X9X1oX1) = 0

FA = R2 (YA/X1X-X3X4 XsX6 X&X910oX11
(1- R2 (YA/XIX2X3X4 X5X6 X8X9XoX11) / ( N k-1))










Ho : R2 (YA/XIX2X3X4 X5X7 X8X9X10X11) = 0

FA= R2 (YA /X1XXX4 X3X7X8XX11XO1 )
(1- R2 (YA/XIX2X3X4 X5X7 X8X9X10X1)/ ( N k-1))



Omnibus Test of Predictive Variables for Achievement Revised Model

(k= 5)

Ho : R2 (YA/XIX2X3X4 X5) = 0


FA = R(2 (YA/X1XXX4 5)
(1- R2 (YA/X1X2X3X4 X5)/ (N k-1))



Test of Individual Coefficients:


Ho: Bi = 0, if i=
Txi = R2(Y/ XlX2XX3X4 X)- R2 X 2/ X2X4 X-1
(1- R2 (YA/ XX2X3X4 X5)/ (N k-l))

Ho: B2 = 0

FA = R2 (Y XlX2X X4_X)- R2 (YA/ X1_3X4 X
(1- R (YA/ XiX2X3X4 X5)/ (N k-l))

Ho : B3 = 0

FA = R2 Y/ _X2X13X4 X)- R2_(Y/ X_1X4 X)
(1- R (YA/ XiX2X3X4 X5)/ (N k-l))

Calculate Semi-Partial R


Ho: ( YA (Xi/ X2X3X4 X5)) = 0

FA = R2 (Y/ XiX2X3X4 X5 R2 (X/ X1X3X4 X5)
(2- R ( YA/ X1X2X3X4 X5) / (N k-l))


Ho: ( YA (X2/ X1X3X4 X5))










FA = R2 (Y/ X2X3X4 X5)- R2W (X2/1Xi 4 X5)
(2- R2 ( YA/ XX2X3X4 X5X6X7) / (N k-l))


Ho: (YA (X3/ X1X2X4 X5)) = 0

FA = R2 (YA/ X 3X~23 X4 R2 (X/ XIX2X4 X5
(2- R2 ( YA/ XX2X3X4 X5) / (N k-1))


Ho: ( YA ( X XXX2X3 X5)) = 0

FA = R2 (Y/ XX3X4 X51- R2 (XJ XiX2X X5)
(1 R2 ( YA/ XX2X3X4 X5) / (N k-))

Ho: ( YA (X/ X1X2X3 X4)) = 0

FA = R2 (/ X2X3X4X-)- R2 (X5/ XIXX X4)
(1 R2 ( YA/ XX2X3X4 X5) / (N k-l))















LIST OF REFERENCES


Alspaugh, J. (1998). The relationship of school and community characteristics to high
school dropout rates. The Clearinghouse, 71, 184-188.

Anderson, L., Stevens, D., Prawat, R., & Nickerson, J. (1988). Classroom task
environments and students' task-related beliefs. Elementary School Journal, 88,
281-295.

Battistich, V., & Horn, A. (1997). The relationship between students' sense of their
school as a community and their involvement in problem behaviors. American
Journal of Public Health, 87, 1997-2001.

Baumeister, R., & Leary, M. (1995). The need to belong personal attachments as
fundamental human motivation. Bulletin, 117, 497-529.

Biggs, J. (1993). What do inventories of students' learning processes really measure? A
theoretical view and clarification. British Journal ofEducation, 63, 3-19.

Chapin, S., & Eastman, K. (1996). External and internal characteristics of learning
environments. 1 A/tui', ntiL Teacher, 89, 112-115.

Charlesworth, W., & Dzur, D. (1987). Gender comparisons of preschoolers' behavior and
resource utilization in group problem solving skills. Child Development, 58, 191-
200.

Cheung, C., Rudowicz, E., & Lang, G. (2001). Critical thinking among university
students: does the family background matter? College Student Journal, 35, 577-
597.

Crocker, R., & Brooker, G. (1986). Classroom control and student outcomes in grades 2
and 5. American Educational Research Journal, 23, 1-11.

Crohn, L. (1983). Towards excellence: student and teacher behaviors predictors of school
success. Research Summary Report, Retrieved July 1, 2001 from ERIC
(ED242704).

Dart, B. (1998). Teaching for improved learning in small classes. In B. Dart & G.
Boulton-Lewis (Eds.), Teaching and learning in higher education (pp. 222-229).
Melbourne: Australia: Australian Council for Educational Research.









Dart, B., Burnett, P., & Purdie, N. (2000). Students' conception of learning, the classroom
environment, and approaches to learning. The Journal of Educational Research, 93,
262-270.

Deci, E., Vallerand, R., Pelletier, L., & Ryan, R. (1991). Motivation and education.
Educational Psychologist, 26, 325-346.

Denny, D., & Turner, R. (1967). Teacher characteristics, classroom behavior, and growth
in pupil creativity. Retrieved June 13, 2002 from ERIC (ED011257).

DeYoung, A. (1977). Classroom climate and class success: a case study at the university
level. Journal of Educational Research, 70(5), 251-257.

Dunn, R., & Harris, L. (1998). Organizational dimensions of climate and the impact on
school achievement. Journal of instructional Psychology, 25, 100-114.

Eccles, J. (1983). Expectancies, values and academic behaviors. In J.T.Spence (Ed.),
Achievement and Achievement Motives: Psychological and Sociological
Approaches (pp. 75-146). San Francisco: W.H.Freeman.

Eccles, S., Wigfield, A., Midgely, C., Reuman, D., MacIver, D., & Feldlaufer, H. (1993).
Negative effects of traditional middle schools on students' motivation. The
Elementary School Journal, 93, 555-591.

Ellis, S. (1996). Staff development is the key to school reform: an interview with Efrain
Vila. Journal of StaffDevelopment, 17, 52.

Fraser, B. (1986). Classroom Environnent. London: Croom Helm.

Fyans, L., & Maehr, M. (1987). School "culture" motivation and achievement. In J. Arter
(Ed.), Assessing School and Classroom Climate A Consumer's Guide (pp. 1-39).
Portland, Or: Test Center of the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.

Gardner, A., Mason, C., & Matyas, M. (1989). Equity, excellence and "just plain good
teaching." The American Biology Teacher, 51, 72-77.

Goh, S., & Fraser, B. (1995). Learning environment and student outcomes in primary
mathematics. Retrieved June 13, 2002 from ERIC (ED38962).

Goodenow, C. (1993a). Classroom belonging among early adolescent students:
relationships to motivation and achievement. Journal ofEarly Adolescence, 13, 21-
43.

Goodenow, C. (1993b). The psychological sense of school membership among
adolescents: scale development and educational correlates. Psychology in the
Schools, 30, 79-90.









Goodenow, C. (1995). Conceptualizing and measuring classroom belonging and support
among adolescents. Unpublished. Tufts University. Department of Education.

Gottfredson, G., & Gottfredson, D. (1989). School climate, academic performance,
attendance, and dropout. US Dept ofEducation.

Greene, J. (1983) On the classroom component of classroom motivation. Presented at
Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Montreal

Haertel, G., Walberg, H., & Haertel, E. (1981). Social-psychological environments and
learning: a quantitative synthesis. British Educational Research Journal, 7, 27-36.

Hamilton, S. (1983). The social side of schooling: ecological studies of classrooms and
schools. The Elementary School Journal, 4, 313-334.

Hayes, C., Ryan, A., & Zeller, E. (1994). The middle school child's perceptions of caring
teachers. American Journal ofEducation, 103, 1-19.

Hoffman, R. (1979). Ability, involvement, and climate as multiple and interactive
predictors of performance. Research Report, Retrieved from ERIC (ED 183601).

House, D. (2002). The independent effects of student characteristics and instructional
activities on achievement: an application of the input-environment- outcome
assessment model. International Journal ofInstructional Media, 29, 225-239.

Jackson, J. (2002). Enhancing self-efficacy and learning performance (motivation and
social processes). The Journal ofExperimental Education, 70, 243-255.

Jacobson, L. (2000). Valuing diversity-student-teacher relationships that enhance
achievement. Community College Review, 28, 49-66.

Johnson, L., Lutzow, J., Strothoff, M., & Zannis, C. (1995). Reducing negative behavior
by establishing helping relationships and a community identity program. Rockford
Ill

Juarez, A. (2000). Enhancing student performance through classroom motivation.
Dissertation Abstracts, RIEMAR2002. Retrieved June 13, 2002 from ERIC
(ED458298).

Keyser, V., & Barling, J. (1981). Determinants of children's self-efficacy beliefs in an
academic environment. Cognitive Therapy Research, 5, 29-39.

Kunc, N. (1992). The need to belong: rediscovering Maslow's hierarchy of needs. In R.
Villa, J. Thousand, W. Stainback, & S.Stainback (Eds.). Restructuringfor caring
and effective education. Baltimore: Brookes.

Kutnick, P. (1998). Relationships in the primary classroom. London: Paul Chapman
Publishing.









Mayer, G., & Mitchell, L. (1993). Dropout prevention program for at risk high-school
students: emphasizing consulting to promote positive classroom climates.
Education and Treatment of Children, 16, 2.

McRobbie, C., & Fraser, B. (1993. Associations between student outcomes and
psychosocial science environment. Journal of Educational Research, 87, 78-85.

Moos, R., & Trickett, E. (1994). A social climate manual. Palo Alto, Ca: Consulting
Psychologists Press, Inc.

Osterman, K. (2000). Students' need for belonging in the school community. Review of
Educational Research, 70, 323-367.

Owens, L., & Barnes, J. (1982). The relationships between cooperative, competitive, and
individualized learning preferences and students' perceptions of classroom learning
atmosphere. American Educational Research Journal, 19, 182-200.

Proctor, C. (1984). Teacher expectations: a model for school improvement. Elementary
School Journal, 84, 469-481.

Resnick, M., Bearman, P., Blum, R., Bauman, K., Harris, K., Jones, J., Tabor, J.,
Beuhring, T Sieving, R., Shew, M., Ireland, M., Bearinger, L. & Udry, J. (1997).
Protecting adolescents from harm. JAMA, 278, 823-832.

Simons-Morton, B., & Crump, A. (2003). Associations of parental environment and
social competence with school adjustment and engagement among sixth graders.
Journal of School Health, 73, 121-127.

Slavin, R. (1991). Synthesis of research on cooperative learning. Educational Leadership,
48, 71-82.

Townsend, M., & Hicks, L. (1997). Classroom goal structures, social; satisfaction and the
perceived value of academic tasks. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 67,
1-12.

Wang, M., Haertel, G., & Walberg, H. (1993). What helps students learn. Educational
Leadership, 51, 74-76.

Wigfield, A., Harold, R., Eccles, J., Blumenfeld, P., Aberbach, A., Freedman-Doon, C.
&Yoon, K. (1992). The structure of children's ability perceptions and achievement
values: age, gender, and domain differences. Presented at the Annual Meeting of
the American Educational Research Associations. San Francisco.

Wigfiled, A. (1994). Expectancy-Value theory of achievement motivation: a development
perspective. Educational Psychology Review, 6, 49-78






52


Williams, J., & Somers, M. (2001). Family, classroom and school effects on children's
educational outcomes in Latin America. School Effectiveness and School
Leadership, 12, 409-444.

Zahn, G., Kagan, S., & Widaman, K. (1986). Cooperative learning and classroom
climate. Journal of School Psychology, 24, 351-362.















BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Susan Davis graduated from the University of Florida in 2001 with a Bachelor of

Science degree in psychology. She is currently a graduate student in the University of

Florida school psychology program and plans to graduate in May of 2006. Susan lives in

Gainesville with her husband, Jack, and son, Jim.