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Critical Analysis of Craft Skills Assessment Testing Instruments


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CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF CRAFT SKILLS ASSESSMENT TESTING INSTRUMENTS By SUSANNA DONATA CATALANO A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2004

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Copyright 2004 by Susanna Donata Catalano

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To my loving family: Mom, Dad, and RoRo.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank my family for their unconditional love and support. Words can not capture how thankful I am to have been blessed w ith two wonderful parents, Remo and Gladys Catalano. They have given me extraordinary support throughout all as pects of my entire college career. My sister, RoRo, I thank for her words of wisdom and her willingness to stop whatever she is doing to encourage and motivate her little sister. I thank my committee advisors for their help and insight toward my thesis. Special thanks go to Dr. Robert Cox for his know ledge, encouragement and counseling, which were all key components in helping me comp lete my thesis. I thank Dr. Raymond Issa for his knowledge and continued support. I would also like to thank Dr. Leon Wetherington. I thank the National Center for Construc tion Education and Re search for providing the NCCER Training Research conducted by Dr. Roger Liska and Yogesh V. Bansal from the Construction Science and Manageme nt Department at Clemson University. Special thanks go to Dr. Geor ge Casella from the Department of Statistics and Dr. Robert Stroh from the College of Design, Cons truction and Planning at the University of Florida for their statistical advice. Also, special thanks go to the UF ETD Computing Help Desk staff and Vijay Villavan for his expertise in helping to reformat my thesis.

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v TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES............................................................................................................vii LIST OF FIGURES.............................................................................................................x ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................xvii i CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 Statement of Problem...................................................................................................1 Objectives..................................................................................................................... 1 Methodology.................................................................................................................1 Scope and Limitations..................................................................................................3 Overview of Research...................................................................................................3 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.............................................................................................4 Training Programs........................................................................................................5 Union Programs.....................................................................................................6 Non-Union Programs.............................................................................................7 Assessment and Evaluation..........................................................................................9 Summary of Literature Review..................................................................................13 3 METHODOLOGY.....................................................................................................14 Introduction.................................................................................................................14 The Process.................................................................................................................14 Acquisition of Data..............................................................................................14 Literature Review................................................................................................15 Data Analyses......................................................................................................15 Conclusion...........................................................................................................17

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vi 4 DATA AND ANALYSIS...........................................................................................18 Data Explanation........................................................................................................18 Statistical Familiarity..................................................................................................19 Tables of Statistical Analysis......................................................................................21 Review and Discussion of Da ta from Average Scores...............................................24 Review of Data for Average Scores with 0-10 Years of Experience.........................28 Histograms..................................................................................................................30 Summary of Data Analysis.........................................................................................35 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.....................................................39 Synopsis of Research..................................................................................................39 Recommendations for Future Research......................................................................44 APPENDIX A: TABLES OF STATISTICAL ANALYSIS..................................................................45 Tables of Average Scores...........................................................................................56 B: GRAPHS OF AVERAGE SCORES.............................................................................89 Data of Average Scores with 0-10 Years of Experience..........................................120 LIST OF REFERENCES.................................................................................................168 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................171

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vii LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1 New Apprentices in Constructi on by Year and Program Type..................................6 4-1 All Trades................................................................................................................. 22 4-2 Average Scores by Craft and Categories..................................................................24 A-1 Abnormal Operating Conditions-Control Center.....................................................45 A-2 Abnormal Operating Conditions-Gas.......................................................................45 A-3. Abnormal Operating Conditions-General..................................................................46 A-4 Boiler Technician.....................................................................................................46 A-5 Boilermaker..............................................................................................................46 A-6 Commercial Carpenter.............................................................................................47 A-7 Commercial Electrician............................................................................................47 A-8. Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1-Installation...............................................47 A-9 Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1-Measurement.........................................48 A-10 Corrosion Prevention Field Technician-2................................................................48 A-11 Corrosion Prevention Field Technician-3................................................................48 A-12 Electrical and Instrument ation Pipeline Technician.................................................49 A-13 Field and Control Center Operations Technician.....................................................49 A-14 Gas Maintenance Specialty......................................................................................49 A-15 Gas Pipeline Operations...........................................................................................50 A-16 HVAC...................................................................................................................... .50 A-17 Industrial Carpenter..................................................................................................50

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viii A-18 Industrial Electrician................................................................................................51 A-19 Industrial Insulator...................................................................................................51 A-20 Industrial Ironworker................................................................................................51 A-21 Industrial Maintenance Electrician...........................................................................52 A-22 Industrial Maintenance Mechanic............................................................................52 A-23 Industrial Millwright................................................................................................52 A-24 Industrial Painter......................................................................................................53 A-25 Industrial Pipefitter...................................................................................................53 A-26 Instrumentation Fitter...............................................................................................53 A-27 Instrumentation Technician......................................................................................54 A-28 Mechanical Pipeline Technician..............................................................................54 A-29 Non-Destructive Testing..........................................................................................54 A-30 Pipeline Maintenance Technician............................................................................55 A-31 Scaffold Builder.......................................................................................................55 A-32 All Trades................................................................................................................ .55 A-33 Average Scores by Craft and Categories..................................................................56 A-34 Abnormal Operating Conditions-Con trol Center: T-Test and F-Test......................57 A-35 Abnormal Operating Conditions-Gas: T-Test and F-Test........................................58 A-36 Abnormal Operating Conditions-General: T-Test and F-Test.................................59 A-37 Boiler Technician: T-Test and F-Test......................................................................60 A-38 Boilermaker: T-Test and F-Test...............................................................................61 A-39 Commercial Carpente r: T-Test and F-Test..............................................................62 A-40 Commercial Electrici an: T-Test and F-Test.............................................................63 A-41 Corrosion Prevention Field Technici an 1-Installation: T-Test and F-Test....................................................................................................................64

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ix A-42 Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1-Measurement: T-Test and F-Test....................................................................................................................65 A-43 Corrosion Prevention Field Technician-2: T-Test and F-Test.................................66 A-44 Corrosion Prevention Field Technician-3: T-Test and F-Test.................................67 A-45 Electrical and Instrumentation Pipe line Technician: T-Test and F-Test..................68 A-46 Field and Control Center Operati ons Technician: T-Test and F-Test......................69 A-47 Gas Maintenance Specialty: T-Test and F-Test.......................................................70 A-48 Gas Pipeline Operati ons: T-Test and F-Test............................................................71 A-49 HVAC: T-Test and F-Test........................................................................................72 A-50 Industrial Carpenter: T-Test and F-Test...................................................................73 A-51 Industrial Electrician: T-Test and F-Test.................................................................74 A-52 Industrial Insulator: T-Test and F-Test....................................................................75 A-53 Industrial Ironworker: T-Test and F-Test.................................................................76 A-54 Industrial Maintenance Elect rician: T-Test and F-Test............................................77 A-55 Industrial Maintenance Mechanic: T-Test and F-Test.............................................78 A-56 Industrial Millwright: T-Test and F-Test.................................................................79 A-57 Industrial Painter: T-Test and F-Test.......................................................................80 A-58 Industrial Pipefitter: T-Test and F-Test....................................................................81 A-59 Instrumentation Fitter: T-Test and F-Test................................................................82 A-60 Instrumentation Technician: T-Test and F-Test.......................................................83 A-61 Mechanical Pipeline Tec hnician: T-Test and F-Test...............................................84 A-62 Non-Destructive Testin g: T-Test and F-Test...........................................................85 A-63 Pipeline Maintenance Technician: T-Test and F-Test.............................................86 A-64 Scaffold Builder: T-Test and F-Test........................................................................87 A-65 All Trades: T-Test and F-Test..................................................................................88

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x LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1 Flowchart of Methodology.........................................................................................2 2-1 An Example of the NCCER Craft Assessment Program Overview...........................8 2-2 Distribution of Construction Wo rkers Who are Racial Minorities..........................11 2-3 Distribution of Hispanic Construction Workers.......................................................12 4-1 Graph of Abnormal Operati ng ConditionsControl Center.....................................25 4-2 Graph of Corrosion Preven tion Field 1-Measurement.............................................26 4-3 Graph of Gas Maintenance Specialty.......................................................................27 4-4 Graph of Electrical and Instru mentation Pipeline Technician.................................28 4-5 Graph of Abnormal Oper ating Conditions-General.................................................29 4-6 Histogram of All Crafts Including All Categories...................................................30 4-7 Histogram of Category All Compar ing Average Scores, Frequency, and Cumulative Percentages...........................................................................................31 4-8 Histogram of Category With Tr aining Comparing Average Scores, Frequency, and Cumulative Percentages.................................................................32 4-9 Histogram of Category With NCCE R Training Comparing Average Scores, Frequency, and Cumulative Percentages.................................................................33 4-10 Histogram of Category Without Tr aining Comparing Average Scores, Frequency, and Cumulative Percentages.................................................................34 4-11 Graph of Abnormal Operating Cond itions Control Center Comparing Coefficient of Variation..........................................................................................35 5-1 NCCER Assessment Test Questionnaire on Training..............................................40 5-2 Question on Formal Training...................................................................................41

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xi 5-3 Question on By Whom.............................................................................................42 5-4 Question on Experience Type..................................................................................42 5-5 Question on Education Level...................................................................................43 5-6 Question on Age.......................................................................................................43 5-7 Question on Have You Taken This Test Before......................................................43 B-1 Graph of Abnormal Operating Conditi ons-Control Center Comparing Average Scores Between All, With Trai ning, With NCCER Training, and Without Training......................................................................................................89 B-2 Graph of Abnormal Operating Conditi ons-Gas Comparing Average Scores Between All, With Training, With N CCER Training, and W ithout Training.........90 B-3 Graph of Abnormal Operating Conditi ons-General Comparing Average Scores Between All, With Traini ng, With NCCER Training, and Without Training......................................................................................................91 B-4 Graph of Boiler Technician Compari ng Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Traini ng, and Without Training........................................92 B-5 Graph of Boilermaker Compari ng Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Tr aining, and Without Training...............................93 B-6 Graph of Commercial Carpenter Comp aring Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Tr aining, and Without Training...............................94 B-7 Graph of Commercial Electrician Comp aring Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Tr aining, and Without Training...............................95 B-8 Graph of Corrosion Prevention Fi eld Technician 1-Installation Comparing Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training,and Without Training................................................................................96 B-9 Graph of Corrosion Prevention Fiel d 1-Measurement Comparing Average Scores Between All, With Trai ning, With NCCER Training, and Without Training......................................................................................................97 B-10 Graph of Corrosion Prevention Field T echnician-2 Comparing Average Scores Between All, With Traini ng, With NCCER Training,and Without Training......................................................................................................98 B-11 Graph of Corrosion Prevention Field T echnician-3 Comparing Average Scores Between All, With Traini ng, With NCCER Training, and Without Training...............................................................................................99

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xii B-12 Graph of Electrical and Instrumentat ion Pipeline Techni cian Comparing Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training.............................................................................................100 B-13 Graph of Field and Control Center Op erations Technician Comparing Average Scores Between All, With Trai ning, With NCCER Training, and Without Training....................................................................................................101 B-14 Graph of Gas Maintenance Specialty Comparing Average Scores Between All,With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training.......................102 B-15 Graph of Gas Pipeline Operations Comparing Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCE R Training, and Without Training.....................103 B-16 Graph of HVAC Compar ing Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, a nd Without Training......................................................104 B-17 Graph of Industrial Carpenter Comp aring Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Tr aining, and Without Training............................105 B-18 Graph of Industrial Electrician Co mparing Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Tr aining, and Without Training............................106 B-19 Graph of Industrial Insulator Comp aring Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Tr aining, and Without Training.............................107 B-20 Graph of Industrial Ironworker Comp aring Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Tr aining, and Without Training.............................108 B-21 Graph of Industrial Maintenance El ectrician Comparing Average Scores Between All, With Training, With N CCER Training, and W ithout Training.......109 B-22 Graph of Industrial Maintenance Mech anic Comparing Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training......................110 B-23 Graph of Industrial Millwright Comp aring Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Tr aining, and Without Training.............................111 B-24 Graph of Industrial Painter Compar ing Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Tr aining, and Without Training.............................112 B-25 Graph of Industrial Pipefitter Comparing Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Tr aining, and Without Training.............................113 B-26 Graph of Instrumentation Fitter Comparing Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Traini ng, and Without Training......................................114

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xiii B-27 Graph of Instrumentation Technician Comparing Average Scores Between All,With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training.......................115 B-28 Graph of Mechanical Pipeline Tech nician Comparing Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training....................................................................................................116 B-29 Graph of Non-Destructive Testing Comparing Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training......................117 B-30 Graph of Pipeline Maintenance Compar ing Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Traini ng, and Without Training......................................118 B-31 Graph of Scaffold Builder Comparing Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Tr aining, and Without Training.............................119 B-32 Graph of All Trades Comparing Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Tr aining, and Without Training.............................120 B-33 Graph of Abnormal Operating C onditionsControl Center Comparing Years of Experience and Average Sc ores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, a nd Without Training......................................................121 B-34 Graph of Abnormal Operating Conditions Gas Comparing Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training.............................................................................122 B-35 Graph of Abnormal Operating Cond itionsGeneral Comparing Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training.............................................................................123 B-36 Graph of Boiler Technician Compar ing Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Trai ning, With NCCER Training, and Without Training....................................................................................................124 B-37 Graph of Boilermaker Comparing Ye ars of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training......125 B-38 Graph of Commercial Carpenter Comp aring Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Trai ning, With NCCER Training, and Without Training....................................................................................................126 B-39 Graph of Commercial Electrician Comp aring Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Trai ning, With NCCER Training, and Without Training....................................................................................................127

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xiv B-40 Graph of Corrosion Prevention Fi eld Technician 1-Installation Comparing Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Tr aining, and Without Training.............................128 B-41 Graph of Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1-Measurement Comparing Years of Experience and Average Scor es Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, a nd Without Training......................................................129 B-42 Graph of Corrosion Prevention Fiel d Technician-2 Comparing Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training.............................................................................130 B-43 Graph of Corrosion Prevention Fiel d Technician-3 Comparing Years of Experience and Average Scores Be tween All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training.............................................................................131 B-44 Graph of Electrical and Instrument ation Pipeline Tec hnician Comparing Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training...............................................................132 B-45 Graph of Field and Control Center Operations Technician Comparing Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training...............................................................133 B-46 Graph of Gas Maintenance Specialty Comparing Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training....................................................................................................134 B-47 Graph of Gas Pipeline Operations Co mparing Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Trai ning, With NCCER Training, and Without Training....................................................................................................135 B-48 Graph of HVAC Compar ing Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With N CCER Training, and W ithout Training.......136 B-49 Graph of Industrial Carpenter Co mparing Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training....................................................................................................137 B-50 Graph of Industrial Electrician Comparing Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training....................................................................................................138 B-51 Graph of Industrial Insulator Comparing Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training....................................................................................................139

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xv B-52 Graph of Industrial Ironworker Co mparing Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training....................................................................................................140 B-53 Graph of Industrial Maintenance Electrician Comparing Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training.............................................................................141 B-54 Graph of Industrial Maintenan ce Mechanic Comparing Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training.............................................................................142 B-55 Graph of Industrial Millwright Co mparing Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training....................................................................................................143 B-56 Graph of Industrial Painter Comparing Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training....................................................................................................144 B-57 Graph of Industrial Pipefitter Co mparing Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training....................................................................................................145 B-58 Graph of Industrial Fitter Comparin g Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Trai ning, With NCCER Training, and Without Training....................................................................................................146 B-59 Graph of Instrumentation Technici an Comparing Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training....................................................................................................147 B-60 Graph of Mechanical Pipeline Techni cian Comparing Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training....................................................................................................148 B-61 Graph of Non-Destructive Testing Co mparing Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Trai ning, With NCCER Training, and Without Training....................................................................................................149 B-62 Graph of Pipeline Mechanical Techni cian Comparing Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training....................................................................................................150 B-63 Graph of Scaffold Builder Comparing Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training....................................................................................................151

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xvi B-64 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Abnormal Operating ConditionsControl Center.....................................................................................................................152 B-65 Graph of Coefficient of Va riation of Abnormal Operating Conditions-Gas......................................................................................................152 B-66 Graph of Coefficient of Va riation of Abnormal Operating Conditions-General................................................................................................153 B-67 Graph of Coefficient of Va riation of Boiler Technician........................................153 B-68 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Boilermaker.................................................154 B-69 Graph of Coefficient of Vari ation of Commercial Carpenter................................154 B-70 Graph of Coefficient of Vari ation of Commercial Electrican................................155 B-71 Graph of Coefficient of Variat ion of Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1-Installation........................................................................................155 B-72 Graph of Coefficient of Variat ion of Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1-Measurement....................................................................................156 B-73 Graph of Coefficient of Variat ion of Corrosion Prevention Field Technician-2...........................................................................................................156 B-74 Graph of Coefficient of Variat ion of Corrosion Prevention Field Technician-3...........................................................................................................157 B-75 Graph of Coefficient of Variati on of Electrical and Instrumentation Pipeline Technician................................................................................................157 B-76 Graph of Coefficient of Variat ion of Field and Control Center Operations Technician............................................................................................158 B-77 Graph of Coefficient of Variat ion of Gas Maintenance Specialty.........................158 B-78 Graph of Coefficient of Variat ion of Gas Pipeline Operations..............................159 B-79 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of HVAC.........................................................159 B-80 Graph of Coefficient of Vari ation of Industrial Carpenter.....................................160 B-81 Graph of Coefficient of Vari ation of Industrial Electrician...................................160 B-82 Graph of Coefficient of Vari ation of Industr ial Insulator......................................161 B-83 Graph of Coefficient of Vari ation of Industrial Ironworker..................................161

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xvii B-84 Graph of Coefficient of Vari ation of Industrial Maintenance Electrician...............................................................................................................162 B-85 Graph of Coefficient of Vari ation of Industrial Maintenance Mechanic................................................................................................................162 B-86 Graph of Coefficient of Vari ation of Industrial Millwright...................................163 B-87 Graph of Coefficient of Va riation of Indus trial Painter.........................................163 B-88 Graph of Coefficient of Vari ation of Industr ial Pipefitter......................................164 B-89 Graph of Coefficient of Variat ion of Instrumentation Fitter..................................164 B-90 Graph of Coefficient of Variati on of Instrumentation Technician.........................165 B-91 Graph of Coefficient of Vari ation of Mechanical Pipeline Technician..............................................................................................................165 B-92 Graph of Coefficient of Variat ion of Non-Destructive Testing.............................166 B-93 Graph of Coefficient of Vari ation of Pipelin e Maintenance..................................166 B-94 Graph of Coefficient of Va riation of Scaffold Builder..........................................167 B-95 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of All Trades....................................................167

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Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Bu ilding Construction CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF CRAFT SKILLS ASSESSMENT TESTING INSTRUMENTS By Susanna Donata Catalano December 2004 Chair: Robert Cox Cochair: R. Raymond Issa Major Department: Building Construction Apprenticeships are programs where wo rkers gain a broad amount of skills necessary for their craft. Not only can wo rkers take formal training courses, but craftworkers may gain the skills for thei r craft from employers and other skilled craftsmen on the jobsite. The purpose of this thesis is to compare the assessment test scores of formally trained craftworkers compared to those test scores of other craftw orkers. This thesis further examines the assessment test scores of thirty-one crafts from the National Center for Construction Education and Research (NCCER) Training Res earch conducted by Dr. Roger Liska and Yogesh V. Bansal from the Construction Science Management Department at Clemson University. The topics covered in this thesis are an introduction to the research; literature review on apprenticeship training programs and demographics of craftsmen; the

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xix methodology of the thesis; data and analys is of the results; conclusions and recommendations based on the results; a nd appendices of all tables and graphs representing all the crafts in this thesis.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Statement of Problem The purpose of this thesis is to further examine the assessment test scores of thirtyone crafts from the National Center for C onstruction Education and Research (NCCER) Training Research conducted by Dr. Liska and Yogesh V. Ba nsal from the Construction Science Management Department at Clemson University. This thesis will compare the assessment test scores of formally trained craf tworkers compared to those test scores of other craftworkers. Objectives Apprenticeships are programs where wo rkers gain a broad amount of skills necessary for their craft. Not only can wo rkers take formal training courses, but craftworkers may gain the skills for thei r craft from employers and other skilled craftsmen on the jobsite. Construction workers may start the workforce with little or no training which can lead to problems in the industry as it continues to grow. Before this thesis began, hypotheses were formed regarding the scores of formally trained individuals compar ed to individuals without formal training: 1. Formally trained craftworkers wi ll have higher assessment scores. 2. The assessment test scores will show a gradual improvement with an increase in the years of experience. Methodology This thesis will use report ed data conducted by Dr. Roger Liska and Yogesh V. Bansal, which will be referred to as the Li ska Study. A statistical analysis will be

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2 performed on this data along with a review of research on material relating to this topic will be explored. Figure 1-1 represents the methodology taken in this thesis: Figure 1-1. Flowchart of Methodology From the methodology flowchart, number 1 is the NCCER Training Research conducted by Liska and Bansal. In number 2, the Assessment Test Data from NCCER was provided in book form accompanied by Microsoft Excel files. The Microsoft Excel files were organized by separate files for each individual craft. In number 3, the data from NCCER Trai ning Research was reviewed. In each crafts Excel file, the data was organized into tables and graphs. The Liska Study displayed the statistical analysis by each craft. The categories provided were the following: All, With Training, Training With NCCER and Years of Experience. Within the categories: All, With Training a nd With NCCER Training, there were two subcategories: Count and Average Score. The data from the tables were also put into graphs comparing years of expe rience with the average scores. In the number 4 part of the methodology flow chart, all the separated files from the reported data from the Liska Study were compiled into one file. Compiling the separate files into one file made the data more manageable to statistically analyze. Each craft was kept separate from the next craft by the listing each craft by name. 1 NCCER Training Research Conducted by Dr. Roger Liska and Yogesh V. Bansal 2 Assessment Test Data Received from NCCER 5 Statistical Analysis 6 Literature Review 7 Compare Results of Statistical Findings with Hypotheses and Literature Findings 8 Conclusions & Recommendations 3 Assessment Test Data Reviewed 4 Assessment Test Data Files Compiled and Reorganized in Microsoft Excel

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3 In numbers 5 and 6, a statis tical analysis was performed along with a literature review of topics of this s ubject. The statistical analysis used is called descriptive statistics. A detailed description of the statis tical process is discussed in Chapter 3 of this thesis. After the statistical analysis and literature review, a comparison of the data results with the hypotheses and literature findings were performed which are number 7 in the flowchart of methodology. At this point, number 8, conclusions and recommendations are accomplished by summarizing the findings from the analysis performed. Scope and Limitations The purpose of this thesis is to compare the assessment test scores of formally trained craftworkers compared to those test scores of other craftworkers. The scope is limited by the Liska Study. The limitations ar e the data reported by the Liska Study on training. The data provided by the Liska St udy were not accompanied with a written description of their methodology for their rese arch. Given these limitations, the results and conclusions are limited to only the data reported in the NCCER Training Research. Overview of Research Chapter 2 of this study discusses the liter ature review on appr enticeship programs in the construction industry. Chapter 3 furt her explains the methodology used to perform this analysis of test scor es among trained and non-trained craftworkers. The data and analysis and discussion of results is found in Chapter 4. The conclusions and recommendations is located in Chapter 5.

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4 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW In the construction industry, workers may enter the workforce without any formal training. Workers acquire their skills by apprenticeships, by other employee provided training or by informal on-the-job experi ence. The opportunities for education and training in our industry today our endless, and the need for con tinuing education is critical as our industry con tinues to grow and as constr uction becomes more complex (Nasvik 2002) Apprenticeship programs provide apprentices with extensive skills for their trade. Apprenticeship combines employment and tr aining in a formal framework whereby a worker acquires broad-based skills required for practicing a trade via on-the-job training (Bilginsoy 2003). Apprentices will usually accept lower wages during their training, because the high cost of the training is usua lly provided by the employer. The employer will eagerly pay for training since they can get back their costs later by highly trained apprentices that are more proficient in the trade. Workers pick up skills by working with more experienced workers and through instruction provided by their employers. As th ey demonstrate their ability to perform tasks they are assigned, they move to progr essively more challenging work. As they broaden their skills, th ey are allowed to work more i ndependently, while responsibilities and earnings increase (Bureau of Labor Statistics 2004). With more apprentices in a program a nd completing the training, the more highly skilled workers with higher productivity wi ll be performing on the jobsite. The idea

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5 behind this arrangement is for the apprentice not to quit the traini ng program before the employer can receive their return on investment More companies are willing to help the construction industry grow in a more produc tive and safer way by means of training. One employer, Building One, pays their work ers $6 an hour during first three weeks of training and then they receive a $1.50 raise in the fo rth week. After six weeks, they get another raise to $8.50 and become part of the formal 8,000-hour company apprenticeship program that takes about four years to co mplete with a $2,000 bonus for completing the entire apprenticeship (Krizan 1999). Not only are companies willing to pay fo r training, but some companies will pay for their workers transportation and lodging during intensive traini ng sessions which will last a few weeks. The construction industrys challenge is to attract and encourage individuals to work in this industry. Many i ndividuals view the construc tion industry as undignified, filthy, and with minimal wages. According to sources, in the United States, seven out of ten jobs require trade skills, not college (Bu ilders Guild 2004). The construction industry is large and will continue to grow, which m eans more skilled workers will be needed. Construction is the second-largest indus try in the nation, employing around 8 million workers who build almost $800 billion in new structures (Grogan 2000). Training Programs The apprenticeship programs that meet th e federal standards register with the Bureau of Apprenticeship Training, BAT, of the Department of Labor or the BAT recognized State Apprenticeship Councils, SACs These organizations promote training in the construction industry. These programs ar e organized either jointly by trade unions and employers signatory to collective bargaini ng agreement in the organized sector, or

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6 unilaterally by employers in the open-shop sector (Bilginso y 2003). Training in the construction industry is offe red by union and nonunion affilia tions, also known as joint and non-joint programs. Table 2-1 below is an example of the breakdown of new apprentices affiliated with union and non-union programs. Table 2-1. New Apprentices in Construction by Year and Program Type (Building and Constrution Trades De partment AFL-CIO 2003). TOTAL REGISTRATIONS UNION REGISTRATIONS NON-UNION REGISTRATIONS 1992 23,937 70.8% 29.2% 1993 28,034 73.2% 26.8% 1994 34,677 71.8% 28.2% 1995 28,340 73.2% 26.8% 1997 43,303 69.5% 30.5% 1998 47,826 70% 30% 1999 56,713 71.2% 28.8% 2000 63,633 71.8% 28.2% 2001 60,131 70.8% 29.2% 19892001 467,980 71.6% 28.4% Union Programs Union apprenticeship programs contribute a large portion of skill ed workers in the construction industry. According to 2003 labor statistics, unions enrolled 7,285 persons or 83 percent of people in construction appr enticeships (Vicent 2004). There are several types of joint appren ticeship programs across the United States. Most of the programs contribute a predet ermined amount into the training fund per hour of labor employed (and hence the training co sts are factored into the bids) and hire apprentices; unions provide trai ning coordinators, instructor s, and participate in the administration of the program; and trainees accept apprenticeship wa ges (Bradley 2002). The apprentices of union programs will usuall y earn half the wage amount of a skilled worker during their training, and upon comple tion will earn the full wage amount of a skilled worker, journeyman. The workers also receive benefits when they are participating in a joint apprenticeship program The unions negotiate wages and benefits

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7 high enough to encourage work ers to make construction a career; because of high quit rates, non-union firms that pay less well must continually retrain nov ices (Bradley 2002). Unions will negotiate with contractors to formulate the proper training program for apprentices. Most of the programs integr ate on-the-job traini ng with classroom education. The union apprenticeship programs differ in length of duration between two to five years of training. These programs usually combine structured, craft related classroom instruction, 144 hours/year mini mum, with on-the-j ob training under the supervision of an experienced, jo urney level worker (Libert 2004 ). Non-Union Programs The National Center for Construction Education and Research The NCCER is a not-for-profit 501(c) (3) education foundation founded in 1995 by 11 of the worlds largest and most progressive construction companies and several national construction associations (National Center for Constr uction Education and Research 2002). The NCCER has developed a training program ca lled the Contren Lear ning Series. This program enables individuals to customize thei r career path in construction by allowing them to choose which craft they want to learn. The Contren Learning Series has a curriculum for over 30 craft trades. Contren Learning Series curricula offe rs both perfect-bound and modular formats permits a school to customize th eir construction program on e ither a straight craft track, such as carpentry, electrical welding, etc., or on a general track by combining modules from a variety of trades (Prentice Hall 2004). The programs are developed from collaborati ons within the construction industry to create skill standards known th roughout the industry. Since it is competency based, there are written and performance tests for each module in the Contren Learning Series.

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8 There are two course paths available to individuals, see Figure 2-1. The Craft Assessment path is for a crafts person who is experienced a nd the Craft Training path is for an entry level craftsperson. From each pa th, a craftsperson has the opportunity to receive a certificate of recognition or to be certifie d or receive a certified plus Figure 2-1. An example of the NCCER Craf t Assessment Program Overview (National Center for Construction E ducation Research 2002). recognition. Taking the Craft Assessment pat h, an experience craftsperson will take a journey level assessment and results will be gi ven. From this point, an option to take a written test or take the Cont ren Learning Series is arranged. If the craftperson takes the written test and passes, they become certifie d. If they want to become certified plus a performance verification is taken. If an i ndividual does not want to take the written assessment tests, the certificat e of recognition is achievable. The Associated General Contractors of America The AGC of America was the first formal training program to be acknowle dged by BAT. In 1981, the U.S. Department Certified Journe y -level NCCER Core Curriculum EXPERIENCED CRAFTSPERSON Certificate of Recognition ContrenLearnin g Performance VerificationO p tiona l CRAFT TRAINING CRAFT ASSESSMENT Certified Plus ENTRY-LEVEL CRAFTSPERSON Assessed Training Prescribe d

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9 of Labor's Bureau of Apprenticeship and Tr aining (BAT) recognized the AGC Model for Unilateral Trainee Program St andards (Associated General Contractors of America 2004). The AGC of America apprenticeship prog ram allows individual s to participate in the program at their own pace. They offer several advantages that make it more attractive to young workers than more traditional time-based apprenticeship agreements. The programs are individualized, and allows workers to advance at an accelerat ed pace, as they demonstrate competency. The programs allow for advancement based upon demonstrated achievement of skills and knowledge by the individual apprentice. The tr aditional term of training may be reduced to not less than one-half the stated traditional term for the occupation. The program uses curriculum developed by AGC (Associated Ge neral Contractors of America-NM 2004). The curriculum brings together on-the-j ob experience with classroom training. The AGC of America continues to collaborate with joint and non-joint contractors, as well as the NCCER, to ensure an eminent training program. The Associated Builders and Contractors The ABC has approximately eighty chapters nationwide. The formal traini ng programs are registered with the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Appren ticeship and Training (BAT). In 1980, ABC developed a training program called the Wh eels of Learning (Associated Builders and Contractors 2004). Since that program, ABC offers the Contren Learning Series, developed by the National Center for Constr uction Education and Research. This curriculum also includes on-the-job trai ning combined with classroom learning. Assessment and Evaluation Assessment tests are given to evaluate or estimate the amount of knowledge and skills an individual possesses on a particular subj ect. The assessment of an individual is

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10 determined by documenting the number of corr ect answers given by the student. During this literature review, the characterization of assessment tests is best captured by Norton. Norton documents assessment belo w by quoting others definitions: According to Hornby (2003), assessment has fo ur main roles: formative, to provide support for future learning; summative, to provide information about performance at the end of a course; cer tification, selecting by means of qualification; evaluative, a means by which stakeholders can judge the effectiveness of the system as a whole. Such a list is fairly typical but it omits one of the most powerful roles that assessment can have, its effect not only on what students learn but how they learn. Gibbs (1999) has suggested that since st udents see assessment as the curriculum, effective teaching needs to use this k nowledge in order to use the power of assessment strategically to help students learn. Biggs (2002) makes the same point when he says that students learn what they think will be assessed rather than what is in the curriculum. This means that one of the pedagogical benefits of assessment is that it can be used to act as a lever to make students actively engage with a given task. Examinations have traditionally been used for this purpose throughout the entire history of higher education, but the nature of the learning that they engender is frequently passive and non-transforma tive (Scouller, 1998). Furthermore, as Elton and Johnston (2002, p. 8) point out, ex aminations tend to test for the lower levels in the hierarchy of knowledge, such as recall and simple applications rather than for creativity, critical thinking or the development of academic and/or life skills (Norton 2004). As described above, assessment can take on multiple connotations. The purpose of assessment is to quantify an individuals knowledge through examinations. As stated above, some students are not retaining the curr iculum as a whole; th ey are only retaining what material they believe will be assessed. It is said that assessments are mostly testing the lower levels of knowledge on a subject; this situation ca n lead to problems when craftsmen are not passing assessment tests. Craftsmen on the jobsite that are not passing assessment tests which are geared toward lo wer levels of knowledge in a specific craft can affect the outcome of a productivity and quality of work performed on a jobsite. Most of the assessment tests that are give n in the craft related field are multiple choice tests. Questions will be read by the test-taker and th en the answer is bubbled onto an answer sheet. Then the answer sheets ar e read by a computer which interprets the

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11 answers on the sheet and returns with a scor e. With the Contren Learning Series, by NCCER, there are computerized assessment test s. The test-takers read the question on the computer screen and answer the ques tions on the computer. According to the NCCER, within 15 minutes of receipt of the te st answered, results should be available to both Administrator and participant (Nationa l Center for Construction Education and Research 2004). Adult Literacy and Education According to the Adult Education and Fam ily Literacy Act in 1998, literacy is an individual's ability to read, write, and speak in English, compute and solve problems, at levels of proficiency necessary to function on the job, in the family of the individual, and in society (National Cent er for Literacy 1999). Figure 2-2. Distribution of C onstruction Workers Who are R acial Minorities (Center to Protect Workers Rights 2004). In the construction indus try, being able to communicate and reading comprehension is vital for a successful jobsit e. A large portion of workers are minorities which can lead to a language barrier problem. It is extremely important that workers are

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12 safe on a construction project. Figure 2-2 and 2-3 are pie charts representing the percentage of racial minorities and Hi spanics in the construction industry. Figure 2-3. Distribution of Hisp anic Construction Workers (Center to Protect Workers Rights 2004). Across the United States, about 40 million adul ts lack a high school credential, and at least six million lack English language ski lls (National Institute for Literacy 1999). Most of the individuals that fall under the cate gory of illiterate cannot perform tasks that require the simplest literacy and math skills. Most can function at a basic level, but need to improve their skills in order to functi on more effectively at work, home, and the community (National Institute for Literacy 1999). If indivi duals working on the jobsite can not understand a substantial amount of Engl ish, then they are unable to ask questions or participate in work related discussions. No communication on the jobsite could lead to a large portion of work related in juries. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, construction is one of the most dangerous industries, accounting for a record high of 20.8% of all workplace deaths in 2001 with Lati nos as the fastest share of growing share

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13 of workforce in the construction industry (New York State Trial Lawyers Association 2004 ). A large number of workers in the cons truction industry star t their careers in construction immediately after high school. Some workers have dropped out of high school and began their construction career. I lliteracy is not solely restricted to high school dropouts, but it is an issue not to be ignored. Most workers have not received any formal training. Some laborers can learn ther e job within a few hours, but a journeyman has several years of experience and training. Summary of Literature Review Workers in the construction industry are not required to participate in formal training. Workers learn their skills by apprenticeships, by employee training or by informal on the job training. Different form al training programs are discussed in the literature review. Most of the apprenticeship programs fall under the category of union and nonunion. All the topi cs covered in this literature review were: Training Programs: Union and Nonunion Assessment Test Evaluations Adult Literacy and Educ ation in Construction In the next chapter of this thesis, the methodology section will be discussed.

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14 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Introduction The purpose of this thesis was to determine if there was a difference between the scores of formally trained individuals and other individuals. The research statistical analysis was performed by using the reported sk ill assessment data from the Liska Study. The Process The following steps have been taken during this thesis: 1. Acquisition and Review of Data 2. Literature Review 3. Data Analyses 4. Conclusion Acquisition of Data The data from Liska Study was collected in two forms: by paper copy and by computer generated data on CDs. The data pr ovided and used for this research was in the program Microsoft Excel. The data was in thirty-one separate files. In each crafts Excel file, the data was organized into tables and graphs. In the Liska Study, the tables were displayed by each craft. The categories provided were: All, With Training, Training With NCCER and Years of Experience. With in the categories: All, With Training and With NCCER Training, there were two subcat egories: Count and Average Score. The data from the tables were also put into gr aphs comparing years of experience with the average scores. Each of the separated files reported from the Liska Study were compiled

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15 into one file. Compiling the separate files in to one file made the data more manageable to statistically analyze. Each craft was keep separate from the next craft by the listing each craft by their name. Literature Review The literature review for this research was performed by using research from the past five years. Topics of this subject were researched using scholarly journals and internet websites relati ng to craft training. Data Analyses After the reported data was compiled into a single file, the statistical analysis was performed by using the descri ptive statistics. Microsoft Excel has a tool called data analysis where the function desc riptive statistics was used to aid in this research. This function is able to compute the mean, media n, standard error, mode standard deviation, sample variance, range, minimum, maximum, sum and count of the test scores. This function was used on each craft in all the categories: All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training. This statistical function in Microsoft Excel became approximately 128 statistical tables. From these tables, graphs were used to visually compute the data. The graphs were created by also using Microsoft Excels ch art tool. Graphs for each of the thirty-one crafts were created comparing: average scores between each category: All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training; aver age scores and years of experiences in each category: All, With Tr aining, With NCCER Training, and Without Training; and histograms comparing averag e scores with frequency and cumulative percentages. All of tables a nd figures from this thesis ar e displayed in Appendices A and B and discussed in Chapter 4.

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16 To further investigate if there is a signif icant difference between the assessment test scores of formally trained craftworkers and other workers, the Coefficient of Variation, an Unequal Variance t-test and an F-test we re performed at a 95% confidence level. Hypotheses were formed before the calculations were performed: HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of formally trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of formally trained workers and other workers. After a meeting with Diane Greene from NC CER, it was suggested to take out the pipeline disciplines, because the pipeline ex ams do not require the test taker to pass the entire exam for the categorical skills recognition. Therefore, the following crafts were removed: Corrosion Prevention Field Technici an 1Installation; Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1Measurement; Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 2; Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 3; Electricala nd Instrumentation Pipe line Technician, Field and Control Center Operations Technician ; Gas Maintenance Specialty; Gas Pipeline Specialty; Mechanical Pipeline Technician; an d Pipeline Maintenance. After analyzing the data with the pipeline scores removed, th ere was not a difference in the results: the scores were still higher with trained workers than other workers and there was still a statistically significant difference between the scores of trained workers and other workers in All Trades. Therefore, it was deci ded to include the pipe line scores in this study. The tables and graphs from these ca lculations created in Microsoft Excel are found in Appendices A and B.

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17 Conclusion In the last chapter of this thesis, the c onclusion section will in clude the summary of results from the analysis conducted on the re ported data. Also, recommendations from the findings will be discussed as well as future topics for future research on this topic. The data will be will be disc ussed in detail in next chapter of this thesis which is the Data and Analysis section.

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18 CHAPTER 4 DATA AND ANALYSIS Data Explanation This chapter examines the test scores of formally trained individuals in comparison to other individuals. A stat istical analysis was performe d by using the reported Liska Study. The research documents thirty different crafts in the cons truction industry. The Liska Study was a statistical analysis of the average te st scores of individuals characterized by trade, traini ng, and years of experience. Listed below are the trades included: Abnormal Operating Conditions Control Center Abnormal Operating Conditions Gas Abnormal Operating Conditions General Boiler Technician Boilermaker Commercial Carpenter Commercial Electrician Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1 Installation Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1 Measurement Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 2 Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 3 Electrical and Instrumentation Pipeline Technician Field and Control Center Operations Technician

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19 Gas Maintenance Specialty Gas Pipeline Operations HVAC Industrial Insulator Industrial Ironworker Industrial Maintenance Electrician Industrial Maintenance Mechanic Industrial Millwright Industrial Painter Industrial Pipefitter Instrumentation Technician Non-Destructive Testing Pipeline Maintenance Technician Scaffold Builder Statistical Familiarity In order to make sure the an alysis performed in this thesis is a valid statistical study, the advice from Dr. George Casella from the Department of Statistics and Dr. Robert Stroh from the College of Design, Cons truction, and Planning at the University of Florida was sought. After discussing the da ta and the researche rs limited statistical experience, it was decided to summarize the data using tables, gra phs and histograms. By analyzing the data in those forms, there would be an adequate amount of information to make conclusions. To test the signifi cant difference among the scores of formally trained craftworkers and other workers, addi tional statistical tests were performed: the

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20 Coefficient of Variation, an Unequal Variance t-test and an F-test were performed at a 95% confidence level. Using the reported NCCER Training Research data, a statistical analysis known as descriptive statistics, was performed for this research. Brief e xplanations of some statistical terms used in this research are discussed below: Arithmetic mean Also known as the average or mean. The average score is computed by summing the scores and divi ding by the total number of scores. Median The middle value in a distribution; an equal number of values are below and above the median value. Mode The value occurring most fre quent in the statistical data. Standard deviation Measures the variation in the distribution, computed by taking the square root of the variance. Calculat ed by the taking the s quare root of squared distances from the mean, then averaging the squared deviations. Standard error The value where the standard de viation is divided by the square root of the sample size number. Sample variance Measures the variance of the sample mean. Coefficient of variation Measures the dispersion of a population. t-Test Measures if there is a statisti cal significant difference between two populations with the level of confidence varying with the degrees of freedom. F-test Measures if there is a statistical significant differenc e among the variances of two populations with a level of conf idence varying with degrees of freedom. In the following sections of this thesis, the data analysis is dem onstrated in tables and figures followed by written descriptions of findings.

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21 Tables of Statistical Analysis An example of the statistical analysis of th e skills assessment test scores by craft is in Table 4-1. The remainder of the tables fo r each craft is found in Appendix A. Table 4-1 is representing the average assessment test scores of the 31 crafts. The categories represented below are: All, With Training, With NCCER Training a nd Without Training. Looking at the category With Training, the data analysis is in categories followed by a numerical value: Mean: The average test score of i ndividuals with training is 71.11. Standard Error: The standard e rror of the test scores is 0.28. Median: The median of average test scores is 72.17. Mode The mode of average test scores is 76.00. Standard Deviation: The standard deviation of test scores is 10.18. Sample Variance: The variance of test scores is 103.66 Range: The range of scores in this data set are 75.00 Minimum: The minimum average score is 22.00. Maximum: The maximum average score is 97.00. Sum The sum of all the average scores is 91,241. Count: The total number of average scores in the With Training category is 1,283. By understanding one category, comparisons among the other categories can be made.

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22 Table 4-1. All Trades All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Mean 70.55 Mean 71.11 Mean 72.26 Mean 69.48 Standard Error 0.28 Standard Error 0.28 Standard Error 0.37 Standard Error 0.33 Median 71.51 Median 72.17 Median 73.82 Median 70.60 Mode 69.00 Mode 76.00 Mode 77.00 Mode 59.00 Standard Deviation 10.12 Standard Deviation 10.18 Standard Devia tion 11.05 Standard Deviation 10.96 Sample Variance 102.38 Sample Variance 103.66 Sample Variance 122.13 Sample Variance 120.12 Range 76.00 Range 75.00 Range 71.50 Range 79.00 Minimum 21.00 Minimum 22.00 Minimum 28.50 Minimum 21.00 Maximum 97.00 Maximum 97.00 Maximum 100.00 Maximum 100.00 Sum 94538 Sum 91241 Sum 63299 Sum 75592 Count 1340 Count 1283 Count 876 Count 1088 The results from the tables 4-1 and 4-2 will be discussed by categories: All, With Training, With NCCER Traini ng and Without Training. Category All: The average test score ranged from the lowest with the Boiler Technician at 53.97 to the hi ghest score the Abnormal Operating ConditionsGas at 85.62. The mean score for all trades in the ca tegory All is 70.55. The median score of category All is 71.51, precisely 0.96 points above th e average mean score for all trades in the All category. The mode for this categor y is 69.00. The test scores ranged in this category from the minimum score of 21.00 to the maximum score of 97.00. Category With Training: The average score ranged from the lowest with the Boiler Technician at 55.61 to the highest score in the Abnormal Operati ng ConditionsGas at 86.36. The mean for all trades in the categor y With Training is 71.11. The median score of category With Training is 72.17, precisely 1.06 points above the average mean score for all trades in the With Training categor y. The mode for this category is 76.00. The test scores ranged in this category from the minimum score of 22.00 to the maximum score of 97.00.

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23 Category With NCCER Training : The average score ranged from the lowest with the Boiler Technician at 55.84 to the highe st score in the Abnormal Operating ConditionsGas at 84.66. The mean for all tr ades in the category With NCCER Training is 72.26. The median score of category W ith NCCER Training is 73.82, precisely 1.56 points above the average mean score for all tr ades in the With NCCER Training category. The mode for this category is 77.00. The test scores ranged in this category from the minimum score of 28.50 to the maximum score of 100.00. Category Without Training: The average scor e ranged was from the lowest with the Boiler Technician at 51.85 to the highest sc ore in Non-Destructiv e Testing at 85.67. The mean for all trades in th e category Without Training is 69.48. The median score of category Without Training is 70.62, precisely 1.14 points above the average mean score for all trades in the With NCCER Training category. The mode for this category is 59.00. The test scores ranged in this categ ory from the minimum score of 21.00 to the maximum score of 100.00. In the Table 4-2, the means from each of th e crafts were compiled into one table to compare the average scores in each category.

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24 Table 4-2. Average Scores by Craft and Categories All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Mean Mean Mean Mean Abnormal Operating Conditions Control Center 78.77 79.41 83.04 78.38 Abnormal Operating Conditions Gas 85.62 86.36 84.66 84.36 Abnormal Operating Conditions General 79.20 79.72 81.36 78.25 Boiler Technician 53.97 55.61 55.84 51.85 Boilermaker 63.52 65.20 66.40 62.31 Commercial Carpenter 58.26 59.01 62.05 53.60 Commercial Electrician 62.82 63.63 65.64 60.75 Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1 Installation 68.61 68.99 70.38 68.28 Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1 Measurement 61.85 62.14 57.85 60.82 Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 2 59.77 59.82 65.54 60.08 Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 3 69.70 68.89 78.68 72.32 Electrical and Instrumentation Pipelin e Technician 70.23 70.82 69.87 70.34 Field and Control Center Operations Technician 76.23 77.29 77.91 75.53 Gas Maintenance Specialty 76.42 74.39 73.87 81.30 Gas Pipeline Operations 74.32 74.21 70.76 76.61 HVAC 67.04 67.30 67.63 61.26 Industrial Carpenter 69.81 70.80 71.50 67.61 Industrial Electrician 71.06 71.83 71.43 68.48 Industrial Insulator 70.50 72.24 72.81 67.94 Industrial Ironworker 74.92 76.00 75.26 74.39 Industrial Maintenance Electr ician 62.60 63.36 64.94 60.21 Industrial Maintenance Mechanic 64.26 65.43 60.20 56.29 Industrial Millwright 69.55 70.56 73.53 67.88 Industrial Painter 71.14 72.42 76.18 68.04 Industrial Pipefitter 69.30 69.20 70.40 69.30 Instrumentation Fitter 74.41 75.14 75.11 74.30 Instrumentation Technician 77.37 77.40 74.93 75.28 Mechanical Pipeline Technician 74.52 74.98 75.17 73.04 Non-Destructive Testing 75.13 68.80 58.67 85.67 Pipeline Maintenance 77.95 78.19 78.40 76.87 Scaffold Builder 72.48 74.50 75.93 76.87 The average test score differences in each category are explored in the following section, Review and Discussion of Data from Average Scores. Review and Discussion of Data from Average Scores Without a methodology section from the Li ska Study, it is assumed the categories were formed by vague demographic profiles, as seen in Figure 5-1. With broad

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25 demographic profiling questions asked, test ta kers may have incorrectly filled out the questions. Inaccurately answering the dem ographic profiling questions may perhaps record an individuals score in an incorrect category. The following figures are graphic represen tations comparing some of the crafts average scores among the categories: All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training. Only a few graphs will be discussed in this section to the show differences between the categories. Exampl es of highest average scores from each category With NCCER Training, With Traini ng, and Without Training are shown. The other graphs of each craft in this thesis ar e in Appendix B. The following graphs will represent the differences among the categories, as well as the scattering of the highest average scores among the crafts. Abnormal Operating Conditions Control Center78.77 79.41 83.04 78.38 76.00 77.00 78.00 79.00 80.00 81.00 82.00 83.00 84.00Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure 4-1. Graph of Abnormal Operating ConditionsControl Center Comparing Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training.

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26 Abnormal Operating Conditions Control Ce nter data results, shown in Figure 4-1 and Figure B-1, of average scores are indi cating that With NCCER Training has the highest average score of 83.04, followed in descending order With Training with an average score of 79.41, All with an average score of 78.77 a nd Without Training with an average score of 78.38. The difference between the highest average score category and the lowest average scor e category is 4.66 points. With the lowest average score and highest score difference at 4.66, it is assumed the difference among the categories is not larg er due to the vague demographic profile used to represent each categor y reported by the Liska Study. Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1 Measurement61.85 62.14 57.85 60.82 55.00 56.00 57.00 58.00 59.00 60.00 61.00 62.00 63.00Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure 4-2. Graph of Corrosion Prevention Fi eld 1 Measurement Comparing Average Scores Between All, With Traini ng, With NCCER Trai ning, and Without Training Corrosion Prevention Field 1 Measurement data results, shown in Figure 4-2 and Figure B-9,of average scores are indicating W ith Training has the highest average score of 62.14; followed in descending order by All with an average score of 61.85; Without

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27 Training with an average score of 60.14 a nd With NCCER Training with an average score of 57.85. The difference between the lead ing average score cate gory and the lowest average score category is 4.29 points. When the lowest average score and highest score di fference is 4.29, it is again assumed the difference among the categories is not larger due to the vague demographic profile used to represent each ca tegory reported by the Liska Study. Gas Maintenance Specialty76.42 74.39 73.87 81.30 70.00 72.00 74.00 76.00 78.00 80.00 82.00Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure 4-3. Graph of Gas Maintenance Speci alty Comparing Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCE R Training, and Without Training Gas Maintenance Specialty data results, shown in Figure 4-3 and Figure B-14, of average scores are indicating Without Training with the highest average score of 81.30; followed in descending order by category All with an average score of 76.42; With Training with an average score of 74.39; a nd With NCCER Training with an average score of 73.87. The difference between the lead ing average score cate gory and the lowest average score category is 7.43 points.

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28 Without Training having the highest score difference among the previous graphs, it is to be assumed the difference among the cate gories is not larger due to the inaccurate answering and categorizing of th e demographic profile questions. Review of Data for Average Scores with 0-10 Years of Experience The following figures are some of the crafts graphic representations from the NCCER Training Research comparing the aver age scores and years of experience only from 0-10 years among the categories: All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training. The scores do not indicate a steady improvement with an increase in years of experience, because all the craf ts scores are different among years of experience; therefore the scores are not alwa ys improving with experience. Refer to the following figures below for examples of scores are not always improving with experience. The other graphs for each craf t in this thesis are in Appendix B. Electrical & Instrumentation Pipeline Technician0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0Years of Experience with Average Test ScoresAverage Test Scores All w/ Training Training w/ NCCER w/out Training All 65.465.870.563.574.868. 770.369.374.157.267.0 w/ Training 60.066.469.266.573.667. 771.668.576.356.566.4 Training w/ NCCER 61.764.559.967.086.060. 076.563.080.352.070.0 w/out Training 68.765.272.551.076.169. 968.471.568.659.068.6 012345678910 Figure 4-4. Graph of Electrica l and Instrumentation Pipeli ne Technician Comparing Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training

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29 Electrical and Instrumentation Pipeline Tec hnician data results, shown in Figure 44 and Figure B-44, show for this craft the highest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 74.8 at 4 years; With Training with a score of 76.3 at 8 years; With NCCER Training with a score of 86.0 at 4 years; and Without Training with a score of 76.1 at 4 years. The lowest test scores for the categor ies: All with a score of 57.2 at 9 years; With Training with a score of 56.5 at 9 years; With NCCER Training with a score of 52.0 at 9 years; Without Training with a score of 51.0 at 3 years. Abnormal Operating Conditions General68.0 70.0 72.0 74.0 76.0 78.0 80.0 82.0Years of Experience with Average Test ScoresAverage Test Scores All w/ Training Training w/ NCCER w/out Training All 76.977.277.878.878.179.478.879.579.278.7 w/ Training 77.778.178.678.679.079.579.379.379.179.1 Training w/ NCCER 81.278.781.380.279.179.180.279.780.480.1 w/out Training 73.775.375.475.879.275.679.077.380.279.477.7 012345678910 Figure 4-5. Graph of Abnormal Operating ConditionsGeneral Comparing Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training Abnormal Operating ConditionsGeneral da ta results, shown in Figure 4-5 and Figure B-35, show for this craft the highest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 79.5 at 8 years; With Training with a sc ore of 90.3 at 0 years; With NCCER Training with a score of 90.2 at 2 years; and Without Training with a sc ore of 92.0 at 9 years. The lowest test scores for the cat egories: All with a score of 76.9 at 1 year; With Training

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30 with a score of 77.7 at 1 year; With NCCER Training with a score of 78.7 at 2 years; Without Training with a sc ore of 73.7 at 0 years. Histograms The following figures 4-6 to 4-10 are Hi stograms equating the average scores, frequency, and cumulative percentages by th e categories: All Crafts Including All Categories, All, With Training, With NCCE R Training, and Without Training. In the histogram, the average scores are called Bin which is evenly distributed by using the minimum and maximum of the da ta in an ascending order. Histogram of All Crafts Including All Categories0 10 20 30BinFrequency.00% 20.00% 40.00% 60.00% 80.00% 100.00% 120.00% Frequency Cumulative % Frequency 124101182415271435 Cumulative % .81%2.42 % 5.65 % 13.7122.5829.0348.3960.4882.2693.5595.97100.0 51.8554.9858.1261.2664.4067.5470.6773.8176.9580.0983.22More Figure 4-6. Histogram of All Crafts Includi ng All Categories Comparing Average Scores, Frequency, and Cumulative Percentage s of All Crafts Including All Categories. The highest scores in the histogram are at 76.95 with the highest frequency of 27. The plotted histogram of All Crafts Incl uding All Categories, shown in Figure 4-6, indicates: Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, .81% of the time the average score was below 51.85 with a frequency of 1. Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 2.42% of the time the average score was below 54.98 with a frequency of 2 above the score of 51.85. Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 5.65% of the time the average score was below 58.12 with a frequency of 4 above the score of 54.98.

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31 Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 13.71% of the time the average score was below 61.26 with a frequency of 10 above the score of 58.12. Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 22.58% of the time the average score was below 64.40 with a frequency of 11 above the score of 61.26. Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 29.03% of the time the average score was below 67.54 with a frequency of 8 above the score of 64.40. Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 48.39% of the time the average score was below 70.67 with a frequency of 24 above the score of 67.54. Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 60.48% of the time the average score was below 73.81 with a frequency of 15 above the score of 70.67. Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 82.26% of the time the average score was below 76.95 with a frequency of 27 above the score of 73.81. Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 93.55% of the time the average score was below 80.09 with a frequency of 14 above the score of 76.95. Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 95.97% of the time the average score was below 83.22 with a frequency of 3 above the score 80.09. Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 100% of the time the average score was below 100 with a frequency of 5 above the score 83.22. Histogram of Category All0 5 10 15BinFrequency.00% 20.00% 40.00% 60.00% 80.00% 100.00% 120.00% Frequency Cumulative % Frequency 12511111 Cumulative % 3.23%9.68%25.81%61.29%96.77%100.00% 53.9760.3066.6372.9679.29More Figure 4-7. Histogram of Category All Co mparing Average Scores, Frequency, and Cumulative Percentages The highest scores in the Category All are the scores 72.96 and 79.29 both with the highest frequency of 11. The plotted histogr am of Category All, shown in Figure 4-7, show for this craft indicates:

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32 Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 3.23% of the time the average score was below 53.97 with a frequency of 1. Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 9.68% of the time the average score was below 60.30 with a frequency of 2 above the score of 53.97. Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 25.81% of the time the average score was below 66.63 with a frequency of 5 above the score of 60.30. Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 61.29% of the time the average score was below 72.96 with a frequency of 11 above the score of 66.63. Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 96.77% of the time the average score was below 79.29 with a frequency of 11 above the score of 72.96. Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 100% of the time the average score was below 100 with a frequency of 1 above the score 79.29. Histogram of Category With Training0 5 10 15BinFrequency.00% 20.00% 40.00% 60.00% 80.00% 100.00% 120.00% Frequency Cumulative % Frequency 12610111 Cumulative % 3.23%9.68%29.03%61.29%96.77%100.00% 55.6161.7667.9174.0680.21More Figure 4-8. Histogram of Category With Training Comparing Average Scores, Frequency, and Cumulative Percentages The highest average scores in the category With Traini ng, shown in Figure 4-8, are 80.21 with the highest frequency of 11. The pl otted histogram of Category With Training show for this craft: Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 3.23% of the time the average score was below 55.61 with a frequency of 1. Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 9.68% of the time the average score was below 61.76 with a frequency of 2 above the score of 55.61.

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33 Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 29.03% of the time the average score was below 67.91 with a frequency of 6 above the score of 61.76. Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 61.29% of the time the average score was below 74.06 with a frequency of 10 above the score of 67.91. Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 96.77% of the time the average score was below 80.21 with a frequency of 11 above the score of 74.06. Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 100% of the time the average score was below 100 with a frequency of 1 above the score 80.21. Histogram of Category With NCCER Training0 5 10 15BinFrequency.00% 20.00% 40.00% 60.00% 80.00% 100.00% 120.00% Frequency Cumulative % Frequency 1358113 Cumulative % 3.23%12.90%29.03%54.84%90.32%100.00% 55.8461.6067.3773.1378.90More Figure 4-9 Histogram of Category With N CCER Training Compari ng Average Scores, Frequency, and Cumulative Percentages The highest scores in the category With NCCER Training, shown in Figure 4-9, are 78.90 with a frequency of 11. The plotted hi stogram of Category With NCCER Training show: Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 3.23% of the time the average score was below 55.84 with a frequency of 1. Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 12.90% of the time the average score was below 61.60 with a frequency of 3 above the score of 55.84. Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 29.03% of the time the average score was below 67.37 with a frequency of 5 above the score of 61.60. Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 54.84% of the time the average score was below 73.13 with a frequency of 8 above the score of 67.37.

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34 Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 90.32% of the time the average score was below 78.90 with a frequency of 11 above the score of 73.13. Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 100% of the time the average score was below 100 with a frequency of 3 above the score 80.21. Histogram of Category Without Training0 5 10 15BinFrequency.00% 20.00% 40.00% 60.00% 80.00% 100.00% 120.00% Frequency Cumulative % Frequency 1268113 Cumulative % 3.23%9.68%29.03%54.84%90.32%100.00% 51.8558.6165.3772.1478.90More Figure 4-10. Histogram of Category Wit hout Training Comparing Average Scores, Frequency, and Cumulative Percentages Category Without Training, shown in Figure 4-10, had the highest frequency of 11 with an average score of 78.90. The plotte d histogram of Category Without Training indicate for this craft: Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 3.23% of the time the average score was below 51.85 with a frequency of 1. Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 9.68% of the time the average score was below 58.61 with a frequency of 2 above the score of 51.85. Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 29.03% of the time the average score was below 65.37 with a frequency of 6 above the score of 58.61. Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 54.84% of the time the average score was below 72.14 with a frequency of 8 above the score of 65.37. Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 90.32% of the time the average score was below 78.90 with a frequency of 11 above the score of 72.14. Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 100% of the time the average score was below 100 with a frequency of 3 above the score 78.90.

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35 Additional Statistical Tests Hypotheses were formed before the calculations were performed: HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of trained workers and other workers. To further investigate if there is a signif icant difference between the assessment test scores of formally trained craftworkers and other workers, the Coefficient of Variation, an Unequal Variance t-test and an F-test, s hown in Appendices A and B, were performed at a 95% confidence level. Abnormal Operating Conditions Control Center10.01% 12.68% 11.36% 9.78% 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 14.00%Coefficient of Variation (%) All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure 4-11. Graph of Abnormal Operating Conditions Control Center Comparing Coefficient of Variation. After performing a comparison of the Co efficient of Variation, a t-test was performed followed by an F-test, sh own in Table 4-3 and Table A-34.

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36 Table 4-3. Abnormal Operating Conditions Control Center t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 79.41 78.38 Mean 83.04 78.38 Variance 101.43 58.82 Variance 88.94 58.82 Observations 40.00 38.00 Observations 27.00 38.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 df 73.00 df 49.00 t Stat 0.51 t Stat 2.12 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.31 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.02 t Critical one-tail 1.67 t Critical one-tail 1.68 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.61 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.04 t Critical two-tail 1.99 t Critical two-tail 2.01 F-Test Two-Sample for Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 79.41 78.38 Mean 83.04 78.38 Variance 101.43 58.82 Variance 88.94 58.82 Observations 40.00 38.00 Observations 27.00 38.00 df 39.00 37.00 df 26.00 37.00 F 1.72 F 1.51 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.05 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.12 F Critical one-tail 1.72 F Critical one-tail 1.80 In the t-test shown from Table 4-3, the first table comparing With Training and Without indicates the t-Stat as 0.51 calculated from the data; P(T=t) two tail as .61, this is the calculation of probability of the t-value; and the T-Cr itical two tail at 1.99, which means this is the number the t-value will need to exceed to be considered significantly difference. By analyzing the table, it can be stated at a 95% confidence level that the scores are not significantly different. In the F-test shown from Table 4-3, the first table comparing With Training and Without indicates F as 1.72 which is the varian ce ratio and the F-Critical one tail at 1.72.

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37 By analyzing the table, it can be stated at a 95% confidence level that the variances of assessment test scores are not significantly different. Summary of Data Analysis As stated in the Introducti on, the hypotheses were formed regarding the scores of formally trained individuals ag ainst other individuals: Trained craftworkers will have higher assessment scores. The assessment scores will show a gradual improvement with an increase in the years of experience After this study, the research on exploring th e test scores of trained craftworkers compared to other craftworkers demonstrates small differences between the two categories. The trained craf tworkers slightly had higher test scores compared to nontrained craftworkers. After performing the tand F-tests at a 95% c onfidence level, it is concluded there is a significant difference betw een the assessment test scores of formally trained workers compared to other workers in All Trades, shown in Table A-52. Not every craft had a significant difference betw een the average test scores, except for the Scaffold Builder. The Scaffold Builder tand F-tests indicated th ere was a significant difference between the scores of trained cr aftworkers and other workers. While the Abnormal Operating Conditions-Gas, Commerci al Carpenter, Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1-Installation, El ectrical and Instrumentation Pi peline Technician, Field and Control Center Operations Technician, HVA C, Industrial Electrician and Industrial Insulator had a significant difference in the vari ances calculated by the F-test. The scores did not show a steady improvement with an increase in years of experience, because all the crafts were different among years of expe rience; the scores are not always improving with an increase in years of experience.

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38 The average scores were highest in th e category With NCCE R Training in 19 out of 31 crafts followed by With Training in 8 out of 31 and Without Training in 4 out of 31 occurrences. It was assumed in the hypothe ses Without Training would not have the highest average scores, but as discussed before incorrect recording of the demographic profile questions may have affected the outcome of this data. In 8 out of the 31 crafts, nearly 26 percen t of the average scores had a difference greater than the 5.00 points. Th e smallest margin when comp aring the lowest and highest average scores in any category is 0.84 in In strumentation Fitter shown in Figure B-26. The highest margin when comparing the lowest and highest average scores is 27 in NonDestructive Testing shown in Figure B-29. The lowest average scores were in the category Without Training in 22 out of 31 crafts followed by With NCCER Training in 5 out of 31 and With Training in 4 out of 31 occurrences. These differences in scores are further detailed in Chapter 5 with conclusions and recommendations.

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39 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Synopsis of Research Findings from this research do show trai ned craftsmen have a slightly higher average on assessment tests than non-trained craftsmen. It should be noted once again that the findings of this study are limited to the reported data from the Liska Study and only applies to the crafts provided from th e Liska Study. As stated in the Introduction, hypotheses were formed regarding the scores of formally trained individuals against other individuals and the results are: Trained craftworkers have higher assessmen t scores in 27 out of 31 crafts. After performing the tand F-tests at a 95% conf idence level, it is concluded there is a significant difference between the assessment test scores of formally trained workers compared to other workers in All Trades. When analyzing each craft, it was concluded not every craft had a statistical significant difference between the average test scores, except for the Scaffold Builder. The Scaffold Builder tand Ftests indicated there was a significant di fference between the scores of trained craftworkers and other workers. While the Abnormal Operating Conditions-Gas, Commercial Carpenter, Corrosion Preven tion Field Technician 1-Installation, Electrical and Instrumentation Pipeline Technician, Field and Control Center Operations Technician, HVAC, Industrial Electrician and Industrial Insulator had a significant difference in the variances calculated by the F-test. The assessment scores comparing years of experience with average scores did not show a gradual improvement with an increase in the years of experience. The lack of consistency indicating an increase of sc ores with years of experience may have occurred due to vague demographic profile questions asked of test takers. The literature findings indi cate trained workers perform at higher productivity rates. The slightly higher average scores are affected by the demographic profile questions asked of the test takers and possibl y as discussed in the literature review a language barrier problem with reading and writing in English. Figure A-32 shows a

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40 graph of all trades comparing the categorie s: All, With Traini ng, With NCCER Training, and Without Training. In this graph, the di fference between the average scores of With Training and Without Training is only 1.63 points. The findings of this research may help in revising the questions on the assessm ent tests. By changing the demographic profile questions of the test takers, the te st score data analysis might show a more accurate representation of the categories. Figure 5-1. NCCER Assessment Test Questionn aire on Training (National Center for Construction Education and Research Jan. 2004). During the data analysis, some further de mographic information would have been helpful in completing this study. Below are so me possible questions that should be added to the forms on assessment tests:

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41 Formal Training Completed? Yes No If Yes, Select all that apply and NCCER Union School Other:_________ List Years of Training: Less than or equal to 1 2 3 4 Greater than or equal to 5 Figure 5-2. Question on Formal Training. The reported data conducted by the Liska Study used the or ginal form in Figure 5-1 to determine the training category of crafts men. By adding the question shown in Figure 5-2, individuals answering the question will ha ve a clearer understanding of the question being asked on formal training. As the que stion is stated shown in Figure 5-1, an individual that may not have completed a formal training program may have answered Yes on the form in the category of Training, instead of the accurate answer, No. Not answering the question properly, may affect th e average score data outcome of categories between With Training and Wit hout Training by categorizing in correct average scores in the category.

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42 Training Conducted By Whom: Association Union Contractor School Figure 5-3. Question on By Whom. By asking the question shown in Figure 53, future studies on the apprenticeship training programs can be explor ed. Comparisons of scores can be determined not only by years of experience, but also by the type of apprenticeship program a craftsperson has attended. Experience Type: Check all that apply and Give Years of Experience: Industrial / Years of Exp.____ Commercial / Years of Exp.____ Residential / Years of Exp.____ Liquid Pipeline / Years of Exp.____ Gas Pipeline / Years of Exp._____ Figure 5-4. Question on Experience Type. An experience type question in a particular field including the y ears of experience, as seen in Figure 5-4, will make possible better demographic information on the working background of the craftsmen taking the assessment test.

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43 Education Level: Check highest level completed High School / GED Vocational College 2 year Degree 4 year Degree Graduate Degree Figure 5-5. Question on Education Level. The Figure 5-5 added to the assessment test forms, will make it possible to categorize the education levels of crafts men taking fiture assessment tests. Age: 18-34 25-30 31-35 36-40 41-50 51 > Figure 5-6. Question on Age. By asking the age of craftsmen taking the a ssessment test as in Figure 5-6, it will enhance the demographic categories of scor es from the craftsmen involved with the assessment tests. Have you taken this test before? Yes No If Yes, what was your previous score? _____________ Figure 5-7. Question on Have Y ou Taken This Test Before.

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44 Figure 5-7 asks the craftsmen if they have taken this test before. If the craftsmen answers Yes, then their previous score is reco rded. This question will help sort out repeat scores, as well as create an additional categor y on repeat craft assessment test takers. By adding the questions from Figures 5-1 through 5-7, future research will more accurately reflect the skills and levels of experiences of craf tworkers. Presently, there are two questions on training: on curriculum and by whom. The brief questions asked on the demographics of the test taken might have cau sed the minor differences in the scores of trained workers versus non-trained workers. For example, if a worker started a formal program, but did not complete the training, that individual still might check the box for training. This would lead to th e incorrect score dispersion across the different categories. Recommendations for Future Research While completing this thesis, several areas for future studies were identified: Examine the scores of craftworkers based on age. Investigate the scores of craftworkers based on thei r education and years of experience. Study the scores of craftworkers based on minority status. Categorizing the scores of craftsmen by industry. Research the scores of craftworkers ba sed on location: Northwest, Southwest, Midwest, Southcentral, Northeast, South east, Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico. Investigate the scores of repeat test takers. Examine the scores of craftsmen based on their affiliations with union or non-union apprenticeship programs Perform the same study on training craftsme n compared to other craftsmen, after the prescribed new questions are added to the assessment test forms

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45 APPENDIX A TABLES OF STATISTICAL ANALYSIS The tables A-1 thru A-33 are a statistical analysis of each craft. The data is in categories: All, With Training, With NCCER Training and W ithout Training. Table A-1. Abnormal Operating Conditions Control Center All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Mean 78.77 Mean 79.41 Mean 83.04 Mean 78.38 Standard Error 1.19 Standard Error 1.59 Standard Error 1.81 Standard Error 1.24 Median 80.69 Median 80.79 Median 83.00 Median 79.36 Mode 78.29 Mode 87.00 Mode 87.00 Mode 84.00 Standard Deviation 7.88 Standard Deviation 10.07 Standard Devia tion 9.43 Standard Deviation 7.67 Sample Variance 62.12 Sample Variance 101.43 Sample Variance 88.94 Sample Variance 58.82 Range 49.40 Range 55.00 Range 48.00 Range 35.50 Minimum 42.00 Minimum 42.00 Minimum 52.00 Minimum 57.00 Maximum 91.40 Maximum 97.00 Maximum 100.00 Maximum 92.50 Sum 3466 Sum 3177 Sum 2242 Sum 2978 Count 44 Count 40 Count 27 Count 38 Table A-2. Abnormal Operating Conditions Gas ALL With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Mean 85.62 Mean 86.36 Mean 84.66 Mean 84.36 Standard Error 0.82 Standard Error 0.96 Standard Error 4.68 Standard Error 1.30 Median 85.86 Median 87.00 Median 89.13 Median 85.17 Mode 84.50 Mode 90.00 Mode 95.00 Mode 92.00 Standard Deviation 5.61 Standard Deviation 6.35 Standard Devia tion 16.22 Standard Deviation 7.90 Sample Variance 31.43 Sample Variance 40.37 Sample Variance 263.16 Sample Variance 62.46 Range 25.00 Range 26.33 Range 60.00 Range 45.50 Minimum 72.00 Minimum 70.67 Minimum 37.00 Minimum 54.50 Maximum 97.00 Maximum 97.00 Maximum 97.00 Maximum 100.00 Sum 4024 Sum 3800 Sum 1016 Sum 3121 Count 47 Count 44 Count 12 Count 37

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46 Table A-3. Abnormal Operating Conditions General All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Mean 79.20 Mean 79.72 Mean 81.36 Mean 78.25 Standard Error 0.88 Standard Error 0.88 Standard Error 0.96 Standard Error 0.81 Median 80.34 Median 80.59 Median 82.01 Median 79.80 Mode Mode 80.00 Mode 88.50 Mode Standard Deviation 6.74 Standard Deviation 6.71 Standard Devia tion 7.04 Standard Deviation 5.98 Sample Variance 45.38 Sample Variance 45.08 Sample Variance 49.61 Sample Variance 35.76 Range 51.50 Range 52.67 Range 52.33 Range 35.20 Minimum 37.00 Minimum 37.00 Minimum 37.00 Minimum 50.00 Maximum 88.50 Maximum 89.67 Maximum 89.33 Maximum 85.20 Sum 4594 Sum 4624 Sum 4393 Sum 4304 Count 58 Count 58 Count 54 Count 55 Table A-4. Boiler Technician All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Mean 53.97 Mean 55.61 Mean 55.84 Mean 51.85 Standard Error 1.33 Standard Error 1.48 Standard Error 2.80 Standard Error 1.41 Median 54.62 Median 56.02 Median 55.44 Median 51.15 Mode 58.00 Mode 64.00 Mode 69.00 Mode 43.00 Standard Deviation 8.64 Standard Deviation 9.26 Standard Devia tion 11.89 Standard Deviation 8.20 Sample Variance 74.74 Sample Variance 85.75 Sample Variance 141.44 Sample Variance 67.17 Range 36.44 Range 45.00 Range 38.00 Range 38.73 Minimum 32.00 Minimum 32.00 Minimum 40.00 Minimum 33.00 Maximum 68.44 Maximum 77.00 Maximum 78.00 Maximum 71.73 Sum 2267 Sum 2169 Sum 1005 Sum 1763 Count 42 Count 39 Count 18 Count 34 Table A-5. Boilermaker All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Mean 63.52 Mean 65.20 Mean 66.40 Mean 62.31 Standard Error 1.74 Standard Error 1.45 Standard Error 2.14 Standard Error 1.54 Median 65.85 Median 65.47 Median 66.75 Median 64.18 Mode 69.00 Mode 79.00 Mode 80.00 Mode 70.50 Standard Deviation 11.69 Standard Deviation 9.26 Standard Devia tion 11.11 Standard Deviation 10.00 Sample Variance 136.64 Sample Variance 85.84 Sample Variance 123.38 Sample Variance 100.05 Range 61.00 Range 57.00 Range 49.00 Range 61.00 Minimum 21.00 Minimum 25.00 Minimum 35.00 Minimum 21.00 Maximum 82.00 Maximum 82.00 Maximum 84.00 Maximum 82.00 Sum 2858 Sum 2673 Sum 1793 Sum 2617 Count 45 Count 41 Count 27 Count 42

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47 Table A-6. Commercial Carpenter All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Mean 58.26 Mean 59.01 Mean 62.05 Mean 53.60 Standard Error 1.22 Standard Error 1.23 Standard Error 1.81 Standard Error 1.89 Median 58.50 Median 59.40 Median 61.50 Median 54.00 Mode 57.00 Mode 67.00 Mode 61.00 Mode 54.00 Standard Deviation 7.42 Standard Deviation 7.25 Standard Devia tion 8.09 Standard Deviation 9.63 Sample Variance 55.00 Sample Variance 52.59 Sample Variance 65.49 Sample Variance 92.82 Range 30.60 Range 31.08 Range 31.50 Range 47.00 Minimum 42.40 Minimum 41.92 Minimum 42.00 Minimum 26.00 Maximum 73.00 Maximum 73.00 Maximum 73.50 Maximum 73.00 Sum 2156 Sum 2065 Sum 1241 Sum 1394 Count 37 Count 35 Count 20 Count 26 Table A-7. Commer cial Electrician All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Mean 62.82 Mean 63.63 Mean 65.64 Mean 60.75 Standard Error 1.65 Standard Error 1.78 Standard Error 3.29 Standard Error 1.98 Median 62.50 Median 62.92 Median 68.00 Median 59.50 Mode 60.67 Mode 60.60 Mode 68.00 Mode 59.00 Standard Deviation 9.74 Standard Deviation 10.40 Standard Devia tion 11.87 Standard Deviation 9.28 Sample Variance 94.78 Sample Variance 108.13 Sample Variance 140.79 Sample Variance 86.13 Range 51.50 Range 60.00 Range 49.50 Range 34.00 Minimum 27.00 Minimum 27.00 Minimum 35.00 Minimum 44.00 Maximum 78.50 Maximum 87.00 Maximum 84.50 Maximum 78.00 Sum 2199 Sum 2164 Sum 853 Sum 1336 Count 35 Count 34 Count 13 Count 22 Table A-8. Corrosion Prevention Fiel d Technician 1 Installation All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Mean 68.61 Mean 68.99 Mean 70.38 Mean 68.28 Standard Error 0.69 Standard Error 0.76 Standard Error 0.93 Standard Error 0.66 Median 70.46 Median 69.85 Median 70.35 Median 68.78 Mode 73.00 Mode Mode 64.50 Mode 76.67 Standard Deviation 5.09 Standard Deviation 5.49 Standard Devia tion 6.46 Standard Deviation 4.69 Sample Variance 25.86 Sample Variance 30.18 Sample Variance 41.68 Sample Variance 22.02 Range 22.70 Range 24.50 Range 33.00 Range 21.67 Minimum 53.50 Minimum 53.50 Minimum 53.00 Minimum 55.00 Maximum 76.20 Maximum 78.00 Maximum 86.00 Maximum 76.67 Sum 3705 Sum 3588 Sum 3378 Sum 3414 Count 54 Count 52 Count 48 Count 50

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48 Table A-9. Corrosion Prevention Fi eld Technician 1 Measurement All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Mean 61.85 Mean 62.14 Mean 57.85 Mean 60.82 Standard Error 0.97 Standard Error 1.06 Standard Error 1.72 Standard Error 1.28 Median 60.92 Median 61.25 Median 58.05 Median 61.50 Mode Mode 56.67 Mode 59.25 Mode 59.00 Standard Deviation 6.74 Standard Deviation 7.29 Standard Devia tion 11.18 Standard Deviation 8.40 Sample Variance 45.46 Sample Variance 53.21 Sample Variance 124.95 Sample Variance 70.58 Range 31.25 Range 35.00 Range 60.50 Range 44.33 Minimum 51.75 Minimum 48.00 Minimum 28.50 Minimum 37.00 Maximum 83.00 Maximum 83.00 Maximum 89.00 Maximum 81.33 Sum 2969 Sum 2920 Sum 2430 Sum 2615 Count 48 Count 47 Count 42 Count 43 Table A-10. Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 2 All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Mean 59.77 Mean 59.82 Mean 65.54 Mean 60.08 Standard Error 1.13 Standard Error 1.22 Standard Error 2.01 Standard Error 1.78 Median 59.24 Median 59.00 Median 67.50 Median 59.88 Mode 50.00 Mode 55.00 Mode 56.00 Mode 57.00 Standard Deviation 8.01 Standard Deviation 8.51 Standard Devia tion 12.39 Standard Deviation 11.43 Sample Variance 64.22 Sample Variance 72.50 Sample Variance 153.53 Sample Variance 130.63 Range 47.00 Range 46.33 Range 56.00 Range 60.00 Minimum 40.00 Minimum 40.67 Minimum 31.00 Minimum 34.00 Maximum 87.00 Maximum 87.00 Maximum 87.00 Maximum 94.00 Sum 2989 Sum 2931 Sum 2490 Sum 2463 Count 50 Count 49 Count 38 Count 41 Table A-11. Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 3 All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Mean 69.70 Mean 68.89 Mean 78.68 Mean 72.32 Standard Error 1.31 Standard Error 1.74 Standard Error 1.63 Standard Error 2.18 Median 68.67 Median 69.00 Median 79.75 Median 72.42 Mode 69.00 Mode 63.00 Mode 76.00 Mode 86.00 Standard Deviation 8.97 Standard Deviation 11.95 Standard Devia tion 9.48 Standard Deviation 12.69 Sample Variance 80.49 Sample Variance 142.77 Sample Variance 89.83 Sample Variance 161.08 Range 48.00 Range 68.00 Range 40.00 Range 46.00 Minimum 44.00 Minimum 24.00 Minimum 56.00 Minimum 50.00 Maximum 92.00 Maximum 92.00 Maximum 96.00 Maximum 96.00 Sum 3276 Sum 3238 Sum 2675 Sum 2459 Count 47 Count 47 Count 34 Count 34

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49 Table A-12. Electrical and Instru mentation Pipeline Technician All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Mean 70.23 Mean 70.82 Mean 69.87 Mean 70.34 Standard Error 0.71 Standard Error 0.83 Standard Error 1.35 Standard Error 0.87 Median 70.61 Median 71.00 Median 70.00 Median 70.44 Mode 71.00 Mode 69.00 Mode 73.00 Mode 67.20 Standard Deviation 4.81 Standard Deviation 5.58 Standard Devia tion 8.23 Standard Deviation 5.71 Sample Variance 23.12 Sample Variance 31.12 Sample Variance 67.70 Sample Variance 32.66 Range 26.50 Range 30.00 Range 34.00 Range 31.67 Minimum 53.00 Minimum 53.00 Minimum 52.00 Minimum 51.00 Maximum 79.50 Maximum 83.00 Maximum 86.00 Maximum 82.67 Sum 3230 Sum 3187 Sum 2585 Sum 3024 Count 46 Count 45 Count 37 Count 43 Table A-13. Field and Control Ce nter Operations Technician All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Mean 76.23 Mean 77.29 Mean 77.91 Mean 75.53 Standard Error 0.75 Standard Error 0.85 Standard Error 1.15 Standard Error 0.64 Median 76.83 Median 77.75 Median 78.40 Median 75.77 Mode Mode 78.50 Mode 85.00 Mode Standard Deviation 5.11 Standard Deviation 5.63 Standard Devia tion 6.91 Standard Deviation 4.06 Sample Variance 26.10 Sample Variance 31.73 Sample Variance 47.82 Sample Variance 16.52 Range 28.00 Range 31.00 Range 29.50 Range 18.67 Minimum 60.00 Minimum 60.00 Minimum 60.00 Minimum 66.33 Maximum 88.00 Maximum 91.00 Maximum 89.50 Maximum 85.00 Sum 3507 Sum 3401 Sum 2805 Sum 3021 Count 46 Count 44 Count 36 Count 40 Table A-14. Gas Maintenance Specialty All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Mean 76.42 Mean 74.39 Mean 73.87 Mean 81.30 Standard Error 1.64 Standard Error 1.68 Standard Error 4.17 Standard Error 3.26 Median 78.67 Median 74.93 Median 77.33 Median 84.00 Mode 84.00 Mode 84.00 Mode 64.00 Mode 92.00 Standard Deviation 9.41 Standard Deviation 8.86 Standard Devia tion 9.31 Standard Deviation 13.84 Sample Variance 88.63 Sample Variance 78.57 Sample Variance 86.76 Sample Variance 191.50 Range 36.00 Range 36.00 Range 20.00 Range 48.00 Minimum 56.00 Minimum 56.00 Minimum 64.00 Minimum 48.00 Maximum 92.00 Maximum 92.00 Maximum 84.00 Maximum 96.00 Sum 2522 Sum 2083 Sum 369 Sum 1463 Count 33 Count 28 Count 5 Count 18

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50 Table A-15. Gas Pipeline Operations All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Mean 74.32 Mean 74.21 Mean 70.76 Mean 76.61 Standard Error 1.04 Standard Error 1.16 Standard Error 1.56 Standard Error 1.74 Median 75.00 Median 75.50 Median 70.50 Median 75.50 Mode 75.00 Mode 73.00 Mode 77.00 Mode 75.00 Standard Deviation 5.77 Standard Deviation 6.24 Standard Devia tion 7.63 Standard Deviation 6.94 Sample Variance 33.33 Sample Variance 38.98 Sample Variance 58.19 Sample Variance 48.19 Range 22.77 Range 25.67 Range 30.00 Range 32.00 Minimum 60.33 Minimum 60.33 Minimum 56.00 Minimum 60.00 Maximum 83.10 Maximum 86.00 Maximum 86.00 Maximum 92.00 Sum 2304 Sum 2152 Sum 1698 Sum 1226 Count 31 Count 29 Count 24 Count 16 Table A-16. HVAC All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Mean 67.04 Mean 67.30 Mean 67.63 Mean 61.26 Standard Error 1.25 Standard Error 1.59 Standard Error 2.60 Standard Error 2.71 Median 66.63 Median 69.00 Median 72.00 Median 63.00 Mode 67.00 Mode 69.00 Mode 55.00 Mode Standard Deviation 6.83 Standard Deviation 8.56 Standard Devia tion 10.08 Standard Deviation 10.48 Sample Variance 46.62 Sample Variance 73.28 Sample Variance 101.66 Sample Variance 109.86 Range 29.00 Range 37.33 Range 29.00 Range 45.00 Minimum 49.00 Minimum 40.67 Minimum 49.00 Minimum 37.00 Maximum 78.00 Maximum 78.00 Maximum 78.00 Maximum 82.00 Sum 2011 Sum 1952 Sum 1015 Sum 919 Count 30 Count 29 Count 15 Count 15 Table A-17. Industrial Carpenter All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Mean 69.81 Mean 70.80 Mean 71.50 Mean 67.61 Standard Error 1.06 Standard Error 1.15 Standard Error 1.42 Standard Error 1.21 Median 70.02 Median 70.94 Median 71.53 Median 65.81 Mode 72.30 Mode 73.85 Mode Mode 56.00 Standard Deviation 7.35 Standard Deviation 7.69 Standard Devia tion 8.03 Standard Deviation 7.91 Sample Variance 54.06 Sample Variance 59.10 Sample Variance 64.52 Sample Variance 62.55 Range 31.16 Range 33.65 Range 31.69 Range 32.62 Minimum 54.18 Minimum 52.35 Minimum 54.31 Minimum 55.09 Maximum 85.33 Maximum 86.00 Maximum 86.00 Maximum 87.70 Sum 3351 Sum 3186 Sum 2288 Sum 2907 Count 48 Count 45 Count 32 Count 43

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51 Table A-18. Industrial Electrician All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Mean 71.06 Mean 71.83 Mean 71.43 Mean 68.48 Standard Error 1.03 Standard Error 0.98 Standard Error 1.25 Standard Error 1.24 Median 72.78 Median 73.01 Median 72.75 Median 70.33 Mode Mode Mode 72.75 Mode Standard Deviation 7.23 Standard Deviation 6.86 Standard Devia tion 7.58 Standard Deviation 8.16 Sample Variance 52.21 Sample Variance 47.00 Sample Variance 57.45 Sample Variance 66.62 Range 38.68 Range 35.28 Range 37.14 Range 42.34 Minimum 45.32 Minimum 48.72 Minimum 46.86 Minimum 43.16 Maximum 84.00 Maximum 84.00 Maximum 84.00 Maximum 85.50 Sum 3482 Sum 3519 Sum 2643 Sum 2944 Count 49 Count 49 Count 37 Count 43 Table A-19. Industrial Insulator All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Mean 70.50 Mean 72.24 Mean 72.81 Mean 67.94 Standard Error 1.42 Standard Error 1.38 Standard Error 2.91 Standard Error 1.75 Median 71.01 Median 72.59 Median 75.79 Median 66.75 Mode Mode Mode 88.80 Mode Standard Deviation 9.21 Standard Deviation 8.84 Standard Devia tion 14.54 Standard Deviation 10.22 Sample Variance 84.89 Sample Variance 78.20 Sample Variance 211.35 Sample Variance 104.47 Range 50.00 Range 39.50 Range 53.25 Range 48.00 Minimum 40.00 Minimum 52.50 Minimum 38.00 Minimum 40.00 Maximum 90.00 Maximum 92.00 Maximum 91.25 Maximum 88.00 Sum 2961 Sum 2962 Sum 1820 Sum 2310 Count 42 Count 41 Count 25 Count 34 Table A-20. Industrial Ironworker All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Mean 74.92 Mean 76.00 Mean 75.26 Mean 74.39 Standard Error 1.02 Standard Error 0.97 Standard Error 1.32 Standard Error 1.10 Median 75.92 Median 75.98 Median 76.00 Median 75.51 Mode 70.70 Mode 76.00 Mode 76.00 Mode Standard Deviation 6.80 Standard Deviation 6.22 Standard Devia tion 6.84 Standard Deviation 6.69 Sample Variance 46.21 Sample Variance 38.71 Sample Variance 46.77 Sample Variance 44.76 Range 34.48 Range 30.85 Range 27.57 Range 34.35 Minimum 53.30 Minimum 57.00 Minimum 58.00 Minimum 53.30 Maximum 87.78 Maximum 87.85 Maximum 85.57 Maximum 87.65 Sum 3296 Sum 3116 Sum 2032 Sum 2752 Count 44 Count 41 Count 27 Count 37

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52 Table A-21. Industrial Ma intenance Electrician All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Mean 62.60 Mean 63.36 Mean 64.94 Mean 60.21 Standard Error 1.06 Standard Error 1.23 Standard Error 2.71 Standard Error 1.50 Median 62.50 Median 64.33 Median 65.00 Median 59.00 Mode 65.75 Mode 64.00 Mode Mode 59.00 Standard Deviation 6.06 Standard Deviation 6.97 Standard Devia tion 7.66 Standard Deviation 7.21 Sample Variance 36.77 Sample Variance 48.65 Sample Variance 58.60 Sample Variance 51.98 Range 22.00 Range 23.83 Range 21.00 Range 26.50 Minimum 52.00 Minimum 50.67 Minimum 55.00 Minimum 47.50 Maximum 74.00 Maximum 74.50 Maximum 76.00 Maximum 74.00 Sum 2066 Sum 2028 Sum 520 Sum 1385 Count 33 Count 32 Count 8 Count 23 Table A-22. Industrial Maintenance Mechanic All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Mean 64.26 Mean 65.43 Mean 60.20 Mean 56.29 Standard Error 1.17 Standard Error 1.15 Standard Error 3.09 Standard Error 1.45 Median 64.25 Median 64.92 Median 61.00 Median 56.50 Mode 71.00 Mode 71.00 Mode 60.00 Mode 60.00 Standard Deviation 7.43 Standard Deviation 7.17 Standard Devia tion 11.96 Standard Deviation 6.97 Sample Variance 55.17 Sample Variance 51.42 Sample Variance 143.03 Sample Variance 48.63 Range 35.00 Range 32.87 Range 41.00 Range 32.00 Minimum 44.00 Minimum 52.13 Minimum 36.00 Minimum 42.00 Maximum 79.00 Maximum 85.00 Maximum 77.00 Maximum 74.00 Sum 2571 Sum 2552 Sum 903 Sum 1295 Count 40 Count 39 Count 15 Count 23 Table A-23. Industrial Millwright All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Mean 69.55 Mean 70.56 Mean 73.53 Mean 67.88 Standard Error 0.99 Standard Error 0.78 Standard Error 0.95 Standard Error 1.09 Median 69.28 Median 69.96 Median 72.06 Median 67.91 Mode Mode 78.50 Mode 77.00 Mode 74.33 Standard Deviation 6.92 Standard Deviation 5.40 Standard Devia tion 6.24 Standard Deviation 7.25 Sample Variance 47.87 Sample Variance 29.20 Sample Variance 38.98 Sample Variance 52.59 Range 52.00 Range 30.44 Range 29.00 Range 42.00 Minimum 38.00 Minimum 59.56 Minimum 61.00 Minimum 38.00 Maximum 90.00 Maximum 90.00 Maximum 90.00 Maximum 80.00 Sum 3408 Sum 3387 Sum 3162 Sum 2987 Count 49 Count 48 Count 43 Count 44

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53 Table A-24. Industrial Painter All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Mean 71.14 Mean 72.42 Mean 76.18 Mean 68.04 Standard Error 1.27 Standard Error 1.34 Standard Error 1.81 Standard Error 1.77 Median 71.28 Median 73.01 Median 76.98 Median 69.29 Mode 87.50 Mode 87.50 Mode 82.00 Mode Standard Deviation 8.40 Standard Deviation 8.91 Standard Devia tion 10.26 Standard Deviation 10.18 Sample Variance 70.61 Sample Variance 79.30 Sample Variance 105.32 Sample Variance 103.61 Range 40.50 Range 47.00 Range 41.50 Range 45.50 Minimum 47.00 Minimum 47.00 Minimum 52.50 Minimum 41.00 Maximum 87.50 Maximum 94.00 Maximum 94.00 Maximum 86.50 Sum 3130 Sum 3186 Sum 2438 Sum 2245 Count 44 Count 44 Count 32 Count 33 Table A-25. Industrial Pipefitter All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Mean 69.30 Mean 69.20 Mean 70.40 Mean 69.30 Standard Error 1.01 Standard Error 1.04 Standard Error 1.25 Standard Error 1.04 Median 71.18 Median 71.04 Median 71.30 Median 69.82 Mode Mode 75.50 Mode 68.29 Mode 73.00 Standard Deviation 7.18 Standard Deviation 7.36 Standard Devia tion 7.72 Standard Deviation 6.91 Sample Variance 51.55 Sample Variance 54.24 Sample Variance 59.53 Sample Variance 47.71 Range 38.00 Range 39.00 Range 33.27 Range 36.39 Minimum 46.00 Minimum 46.00 Minimum 50.73 Minimum 49.61 Maximum 84.00 Maximum 85.00 Maximum 84.00 Maximum 86.00 Sum 3534 Sum 3460 Sum 2675 Sum 3049 Count 51 Count 50 Count 38 Count 44 Table A-26. Instrumentation Fitter All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Mean 74.41 Mean 75.14 Mean 75.11 Mean 74.30 Standard Error 1.53 Standard Error 1.59 Standard Error 1.79 Standard Error 1.25 Median 75.90 Median 76.12 Median 71.30 Median 74.99 Mode 73.75 Mode Mode 85.00 Mode 78.50 Standard Deviation 10.15 Standard Deviation 10.17 Standard Devia tion 8.02 Standard Deviation 7.62 Sample Variance 102.95 Sample Variance 103.39 Sample Variance 64.28 Sample Variance 58.04 Range 62.40 Range 66.00 Range 27.60 Range 34.42 Minimum 22.00 Minimum 22.00 Minimum 59.40 Minimum 50.00 Maximum 84.40 Maximum 88.00 Maximum 87.00 Maximum 84.42 Sum 3274 Sum 3081 Sum 1502 Sum 2749 Count 44 Count 41 Count 20 Count 37

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54 Table A-27. Instrumentation Technician All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Mean 77.37 Mean 77.40 Mean 74.93 Mean 75.28 Standard Error 0.86 Standard Error 0.83 Standard Error 1.52 Standard Error 1.27 Median 78.81 Median 78.34 Median 76.00 Median 75.74 Mode 81.00 Mode Mode 77.50 Mode 72.00 Standard Deviation 5.70 Standard Deviation 5.43 Standard Devia tion 8.45 Standard Deviation 7.53 Sample Variance 32.45 Sample Variance 29.44 Sample Variance 71.40 Sample Variance 56.73 Range 25.14 Range 25.00 Range 34.00 Range 30.00 Minimum 61.00 Minimum 61.00 Minimum 56.00 Minimum 60.00 Maximum 86.14 Maximum 86.00 Maximum 90.00 Maximum 90.00 Sum 3404 Sum 3328 Sum 2323 Sum 2635 Count 44 Count 43 Count 31 Count 35 Table A-28. Mechanical Pipeline Technician All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Mean 74.52 Mean 74.98 Mean 75.17 Mean 73.04 Standard Error 0.65 Standard Error 0.76 Standard Error 1.03 Standard Error 0.66 Median 74.76 Median 75.50 Median 75.00 Median 73.20 Mode 80.00 Mode 76.00 Mode 74.00 Mode 73.00 Standard Deviation 4.63 Standard Deviation 5.29 Standard Devia tion 6.46 Standard Deviation 4.44 Sample Variance 21.44 Sample Variance 27.94 Sample Variance 41.77 Sample Variance 19.73 Range 24.27 Range 24.20 Range 27.00 Range 21.50 Minimum 65.73 Minimum 65.80 Minimum 63.00 Minimum 62.00 Maximum 90.00 Maximum 90.00 Maximum 90.00 Maximum 83.50 Sum 3726 Sum 3674 Sum 2932 Sum 3287 Count 50 Count 49 Count 39 Count 45 Table A-29. Non-De structive Testing All With Training With NCCER Training Column1 Mean 75.13 Mean 68.80 Mean 58.67 Mean 85.67 Standard Error 5.46 Standard Error 7.42 Standard Error 2.67 Standard Error 2.33 Median 77.00 Median 64.00 Median 56.00 Median 85.00 Mode 56.00 Mode 56.00 Mode 56.00 Mode Standard Deviation 15.43 Standard Deviation 16.59 Standard Devia tion 4.62 Standard Deviation 4.04 Sample Variance 238.13 Sample Variance 275.20 Sample Variance 21.33 Sample Variance 16.33 Range 40.00 Range 40.00 Range 8.00 Range 8.00 Minimum 56.00 Minimum 56.00 Minimum 56.00 Minimum 82.00 Maximum 96.00 Maximum 96.00 Maximum 64.00 Maximum 90.00 Sum 601 Sum 344 Sum 176 Sum 257 Count 8 Count 5 Count 3 Count 3

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55 Table A-30. Pipeline Maintenance Technician All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Mean 77.95 Mean 78.19 Mean 78.40 Mean 76.87 Standard Error 0.75 Standard Error 0.58 Standard Error 0.63 Standard Error 0.86 Median 78.68 Median 78.89 Median 79.28 Median 77.49 Mode 80.00 Mode Mode Mode 75.00 Standard Deviation 5.92 Standard Deviation 4.46 Standard Devia tion 4.52 Standard Deviation 6.43 Sample Variance 35.06 Sample Variance 19.93 Sample Variance 20.41 Sample Variance 41.28 Range 40.50 Range 24.00 Range 22.86 Range 40.50 Minimum 53.50 Minimum 66.00 Minimum 65.00 Minimum 53.50 Maximum 94.00 Maximum 90.00 Maximum 87.86 Maximum 94.00 Sum 4833 Sum 4613 Sum 3998 Sum 4305 Count 62 Count 59 Count 51 Count 56 Table A-31. Scaffold Builder All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Mean 72.48 Mean 74.50 Mean 75.93 Mean 69.62 Standard Error 1.00 Standard Error 1.20 Standard Error 2.19 Standard Error 0.92 Median 72.58 Median 74.10 Median 76.00 Median 69.69 Mode 70.00 Mode 82.00 Mode 88.00 Mode 72.00 Standard Deviation 6.23 Standard Deviation 7.22 Standard Devia tion 10.94 Standard Deviation 5.36 Sample Variance 38.76 Sample Variance 52.13 Sample Variance 119.75 Sample Variance 28.78 Range 33.00 Range 40.00 Range 40.73 Range 26.01 Minimum 56.00 Minimum 56.00 Minimum 55.27 Minimum 59.99 Maximum 89.00 Maximum 96.00 Maximum 96.00 Maximum 86.00 Sum 2827 Sum 2682 Sum 1898 Sum 2367 Count 39 Count 36 Count 25 Count 34 Table A-32. All Trades All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Mean 70.55 Mean 71.11 Mean 72.26 Mean 69.48 Standard Error 0.28 Standard Error 0.28 Standard Error 0.37 Standard Error 0.33 Median 71.51 Median 72.17 Median 73.82 Median 70.60 Mode 69.00 Mode 76.00 Mode 77.00 Mode 59.00 Standard Deviation 10.12 Standard Deviation 10.18 Standard Devia tion 11.05 Standard Deviation 10.96 Sample Variance 102.38 Sample Variance 103.66 Sample Variance 122.13 Sample Variance 120.12 Range 76.00 Range 75.00 Range 71.50 Range 79.00 Minimum 21.00 Minimum 22.00 Minimum 28.50 Minimum 21.00 Maximum 97.00 Maximum 97.00 Maximum 100.00 Maximum 100.00 Sum 94538 Sum 91241 Sum 63299 Sum 75592 Count 1340 Count 1283 Count 876 Count 1088

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Tables of Average Scores Table A-33. Average Scores by Craft and Categories All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Abnormal Operating Conditions Control Cent er Mean 78.77 Mean 79.41 Mean 83.04 Mean 78.38 Abnormal Operating Conditions Gas Mean 85.62 Mean 86.36 Mean 84.66 Mean 84.36 Abnormal Operating Conditions General Mean 79.20 Mean 79.72 Mean 81.36 Mean 78.25 Boiler Technician Mean 53.97 Mean 55.61 Mean 55.84 Mean 51.85 Boilermaker Mean 63.52 Mean 65.20 Mean 66.40 Mean 62.31 Commercial Carpenter Mean 58.26 Mean 59.01 Mean 62.05 Mean 53.60 Commercial Electrician Mean 62.82 Mean 63.63 Mean 65.64 Mean 60.75 Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1 Insta llation Mean 68.61 Mean 68.99 Mean 70.38 Mean 68.28 Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1 Measur ement Mean 61.85 Mean 62.14 Mean 57.85 Mean 60.82 Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 2 Mean 59.77 Mean 59.82 Mean 65.54 Mean 60.08 Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 3 Mean 69.70 Mean 68.89 Mean 78.68 Mean 72.32 Electrical and Instrumentation Pipeline Technician Mean 70.23 Mean 70.82 Mean 69.87 Mean 70.34 Field and Control Center Operations Techni cian Mean 76.23 Mean 77.29 Mean 77.91 Mean 75.53 Gas Maintenance Specialty Mean 76.42 Mean 74.39 Mean 73.87 Mean 81.30 Gas Pipeline Operations Mean 74.32 Mean 74.21 Mean 70.76 Mean 76.61 HVAC Mean 67.04 Mean 67.30 Mean 67.63 Mean 61.26 Industrial Carpenter Mean 69.81 Mean 70.80 Mean 71.50 Mean 67.61 Industrial Electrician Mean 71.06 Mean 71.83 Mean 71.43 Mean 68.48 Industrial Insulator Mean 70.50 Mean 72.24 Mean 72.81 Mean 67.94 Industrial Ironworker Mean 74.92 Mean 76.00 Mean 75.26 Mean 74.39 Industrial Maintenance El ectrician Mean 62.60 Mean 63.36 Mean 64.94 Mean 60.21 Industrial Maintenance Mechanic Mean 64.26 Mean 65.43 Mean 60.20 Mean 56.29 Industrial Millwright Mean 69.55 Mean 70.56 Mean 73.53 Mean 67.88 Industrial Painter Mean 71.14 Mean 72.42 Mean 76.18 Mean 68.04 Industrial Pipefitter Mean 69.30 Mean 69.20 Mean 70.40 Mean 69.30 Instrumentation Fitter Mean 74.41 Mean 75.14 Mean 75.11 Mean 74.30 Instrumentation Technician Mean 77.37 Mean 77.40 Mean 74.93 Mean 75.28 Mechanical Pipeline Technician Mean 74.52 Mean 74.98 Mean 75.17 Mean 73.04 Non-Destructive Testing Mean 75.13 Mean 68.80 Mean 58.67 Mean 85.67 Pipeline Maintenance Mean 77.95 Mean 78.19 Mean 78.40 Mean 76.87 Scaffold Builder Mean 72.48 Mean 74.50 Mean 75.93 Mean 76.87 The tables A-34 thru A-65 are t-tests and F-Tests of each craft. The tests are comparing the categories: With Training, With NCCER Training and Without Training.

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57 Table A-34. Abnormal Operating Conditions Control Center: t-Test and F-Test t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 79.41 78.38 Mean 83.04 78.38 Variance 101.43 58.82 Variance 88.94 58.82 Observations 40.00 38.00 Observations 27.00 38.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 df 73.00 df 49.00 t Stat 0.51 t Stat 2.12 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.31 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.02 t Critical one-tail 1.67 t Critical one-tail 1.68 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.61 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.04 t Critical two-tail 1.99 t Critical two-tail 2.01 F-Test Two-Sample for Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 79.41 78.38 Mean 83.04 78.38 Variance 101.43 58.82 Variance 88.94 58.82 Observations 40.00 38.00 Observations 27.00 38.00 df 39.00 37.00 df 26.00 37.00 F 1.72 F 1.51 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.05 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.12 F Critical one-tail 1.72 F Critical one-tail 1.80 HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of trained workers and other workers. T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test scores of trained workers are not significantly different than the scores of other workers. F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test score va riances of trained workers are not significantly different th an the score variances of other workers

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58 Table A-35. Abnormal Operating Cond itions Gas: t-Test and F-Test t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 86.36 84.36 Mean 84.66 84.36 Variance 40.37 62.46 Variance 263.16 62.46 Observations 44.00 37.00 Observations 12.00 37.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 df 69.00 df 13.00 t Stat 1.24 t Stat 0.06 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.11 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.48 t Critical one-tail 1.67 t Critical one-tail 1.77 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.22 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.95 t Critical two-tail 1.99 t Critical two-tail 2.16 F-Test Two-Sample for Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 86.36 84.36 Mean 84.66 84.36 Variance 40.37 62.46 Variance 263.16 62.46 Observations 44.00 37.00 Observations 12.00 37.00 df 43.00 36.00 df 11.00 36.00 F 0.65 F 4.21 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.09 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.00 F Critical one-tail 0.59 F Critical one-tail 2.07 HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of trained workers and other workers. T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test scores of trained workers are not significantly different than the scores of other workers. F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test score variances of trained workers are significantly different than the score variances of other workers.

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59 Table A-36. Abnormal Operating Conditi ons General: t-Test and F-Test t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 79.72 78.25 Mean 81.36 78.25 Variance 45.08 35.76 Variance 49.61 35.76 Observations 58.00 55.00 Observations 54.00 55.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 df 111.00 df 104.00 t Stat 1.24 t Stat 2.48 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.11 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.01 t Critical one-tail 1.66 t Critical one-tail 1.66 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.22 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.01 t Critical two-tail 1.98 t Critical two-tail 1.98 F-Test Two-Sample for Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 79.72 78.25 Mean 81.36 78.25 Variance 45.08 35.76 Variance 49.61 35.76 Observations 58.00 55.00 Observations 54.00 55.00 df 57.00 54.00 df 53.00 54.00 F 1.26 F 1.39 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.20 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.12 F Critical one-tail 1.56 F Critical one-tail 1.57 HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of trained workers and other workers. T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test scores of trained workers are not significantly different than the scores of other workers. F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test score va riances of trained workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.

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60 Table A-37. Boiler Technici an: t-Test and F-Test t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 55.61 51.85 Mean 55.84 51.85 Variance 85.75 67.17 Variance 141.44 67.17 Observations 39.00 34.00 Observations 18.00 34.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 df 71.00 df 26.00 t Stat 1.84 t Stat 1.27 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.03 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.11 t Critical one-tail 1.67 t Critical one-tail 1.71 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.07 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.21 t Critical two-tail 1.99 t Critical two-tail 2.06 F-Test Two-Sample for Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 55.61 51.85 Mean 55.84 51.85 Variance 85.75 67.17 Variance 141.44 67.17 Observations 39.00 34.00 Observations 18.00 34.00 df 38.00 33.00 df 17.00 33.00 F 1.28 F 2.11 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.24 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.03 F Critical one-tail 1.76 F Critical one-tail 1.94 HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of trained workers and other workers. T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test scores of trained workers are not significantly different than the scores of other workers. F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test score va riances of trained workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.

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61 Table A-38. Boilermaker: T-Test and F-Test t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 65.20 62.31 Mean 66.40 62.31 Variance 85.84 100.05 Variance 123.38 100.05 Observations 41.00 42.00 Observations 27.00 42.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 df 81.00 df 51.00 t Stat 1.37 t Stat 1.55 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.09 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.06 t Critical one-tail 1.66 t Critical one-tail 1.68 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.18 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.13 t Critical two-tail 1.99 t Critical two-tail 2.01 F-Test Two-Sample for Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 65.20 62.31 Mean 66.40 62.31 Variance 85.84 100.05 Variance 123.38 100.05 Observations 41.00 42.00 Observations 27.00 42.00 df 40.00 41.00 df 26.00 41.00 F 0.86 F 1.23 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.31 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.27 F Critical one-tail 0.59 F Critical one-tail 1.77 HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of trained workers and other workers. T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test scores of trained workers are not significantly different than the scores of other workers. F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test score va riances of trained workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.

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62 Table A-39. Commercial Carp enter: T-Test and F-Test t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 59.01 53.60 Mean 62.05 53.60 Variance 52.59 92.82 Variance 65.49 92.82 Observations 35.00 26.00 Observations 20.00 26.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 df 45.00 df 44.00 t Stat 2.40 t Stat 3.23 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.01 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.00 t Critical one-tail 1.68 t Critical one-tail 1.68 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.02 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.00 t Critical two-tail 2.01 t Critical two-tail 2.02 F-Test Two-Sample for Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 59.01 53.60 Mean 62.05 53.60 Variance 52.59 92.82 Variance 65.49 92.82 Observations 35.00 26.00 Observations 20.00 26.00 df 34.00 25.00 df 19.00 25.00 F 0.57 F 0.71 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.06 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.22 F Critical one-tail 0.55 F Critical one-tail 0.47 HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of trained workers and other workers. T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test scores of trained workers are not significantly different than the scores of other workers. F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test score va riances of trained workers are significantly different than the score variances of other workers.

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63 Table A-40. Commercial Electr ician: T-Test and F-Test t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 63.63 53.60 Mean 65.64 53.60 Variance 108.13 92.82 Variance 140.79 92.82 Observations 34.00 26.00 Observations 13.00 26.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 df 56.00 df 20.00 t Stat 3.86 t Stat 3.17 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.00 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.00 t Critical one-tail 1.67 t Critical one-tail 1.72 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.00 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.00 t Critical two-tail 2.00 t Critical two-tail 2.09 F-Test Two-Sample for Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 63.63 60.75 Mean 65.64 60.75 Variance 108.13 86.13 Variance 140.79 86.13 Observations 34.00 22.00 Observations 13.00 22.00 df 33.00 21.00 df 12.00 21.00 F 1.26 F 1.63 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.30 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.16 F Critical one-tail 1.99 F Critical one-tail 2.25 HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of trained workers and other workers. T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test scores of trained workers are not significantly different than the scores of other workers. F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test score va riances of trained workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.

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64 Table A-41. Corrosion Prevention Field Technici an 1 Installation: T-Test and F-Test t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 68.99 68.28 Mean 70.38 68.28 Variance 30.18 22.02 Variance 41.68 22.02 Observations 52.00 50.00 Observations 48.00 50.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 df 99.00 df 86.00 t Stat 0.70 t Stat 1.83 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.24 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.04 t Critical one-tail 1.66 t Critical one-tail 1.66 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.48 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.07 t Critical two-tail 1.98 t Critical two-tail 1.99 F-Test Two-Sample for Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 68.99 68.28 Mean 70.38 68.28 Variance 30.18 22.02 Variance 41.68 22.02 Observations 52.00 50.00 Observations 48.00 50.00 df 51.00 49.00 df 47.00 49.00 F 1.37 F 1.89 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.13 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.01 F Critical one-tail 1.60 F Critical one-tail 1.61 HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of trained workers and other workers. T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test scores of trained workers are not significantly different than the scores of other workers. F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test score va riances of trained workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.

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65 Table A-42. Corrosion Prevention Field Techni cian 1 Measurement: T-Test and F-Test t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 62.14 60.82 Mean 57.85 60.82 Variance 53.21 70.58 Variance 124.95 70.58 Observations 47.00 43.00 Observations 42.00 43.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 df 84.00 df 76.00 t Stat 0.79 t Stat -1.38 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.22 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.09 t Critical one-tail 1.66 t Critical one-tail 1.67 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.43 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.17 t Critical two-tail 1.99 t Critical two-tail 1.99 F-Test Two-Sample for Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 62.14 60.82 Mean 57.85 60.82 Variance 53.21 70.58 Variance 124.95 70.58 Observations 47.00 43.00 Observations 42.00 43.00 df 46.00 42.00 df 41.00 42.00 F 0.75 F 1.77 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.17 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.03 F Critical one-tail 0.61 F Critical one-tail 1.67 HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of trained workers and other workers. T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test scores of trained workers are not significantly different than the scores of other workers. F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test score va riances of trained workers are significantly different than the score variances of other workers.

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66 Table A-43. Corrosion Prevention Field T echnician 2: T-Test and F-Test t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 59.82 60.08 Mean 65.54 60.08 Variance 72.50 130.63 Variance 153.53 130.63 Observations 49.00 41.00 Observations 38.00 41.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 df 73.00 df 75.00 t Stat -0.12 t Stat 2.03 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.45 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.02 t Critical one-tail 1.67 t Critical one-tail 1.67 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.91 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.05 t Critical two-tail 1.99 t Critical two-tail 1.99 F-Test Two-Sample for Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 59.82 60.08 Mean 65.54 60.08 Variance 72.50 130.63 Variance 153.53 130.63 Observations 49.00 41.00 Observations 38.00 41.00 df 48.00 40.00 df 37.00 40.00 F 0.56 F 1.18 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.03 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.31 F Critical one-tail 0.61 F Critical one-tail 1.71 HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of trained workers and other workers. T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test scores of trained workers are not significantly different than the scores of other workers. F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test score va riances of trained workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.

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67 Table A-44. Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 3: T-Test and F-Test t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 68.89 72.32 Mean 78.68 72.32 Variance 142.77 161.08 Variance 89.83 161.08 Observations 47.00 34.00 Observations 34.00 34.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 df 69.00 df 61.00 t Stat -1.23 t Stat 2.34 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.11 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.01 t Critical one-tail 1.67 t Critical one-tail 1.67 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.22 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.02 t Critical two-tail 1.99 t Critical two-tail 2.00 F-Test Two-Sample for Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 68.89 72.32 Mean 78.68 72.32 Variance 142.77 161.08 Variance 89.83 161.08 Observations 47.00 34.00 Observations 34.00 34.00 df 46.00 33.00 df 33.00 33.00 F 0.89 F 0.56 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.35 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.05 F Critical one-tail 0.59 F Critical one-tail 0.56 HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of trained workers and other workers. T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test scores of trained workers are not significantly different than the scores of other workers. F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test score va riances of trained workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.

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68 Table A-45. Electrical and Instrumentation Pipeline Technician: T-Test and F-Test t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 70.82 70.34 Mean 69.87 70.34 Variance 31.12 32.66 Variance 67.70 32.66 Observations 45.00 43.00 Observations 37.00 43.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 df 86.00 df 63.00 t Stat 0.40 t Stat -0.29 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.34 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.39 t Critical one-tail 1.66 t Critical one-tail 1.67 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.69 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.77 t Critical two-tail 1.99 t Critical two-tail 2.00 F-Test Two-Sample for Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 70.82 70.34 Mean 69.87 70.34 Variance 31.12 32.66 Variance 67.70 32.66 Observations 45.00 43.00 Observations 37.00 43.00 df 44.00 42.00 df 36.00 42.00 F 0.95 F 2.07 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.44 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.01 F Critical one-tail 0.60 F Critical one-tail 1.70 HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of trained workers and other workers. T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test scores of trained workers are not significantly different than the scores of other workers. F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test score va riances of trained workers are significantly different than the score variances of other workers.

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69 Table A-46. Field and Control Center Oper ations Technician: T-Test and F-Test t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 77.29 75.53 Mean 77.91 75.53 Variance 31.73 16.52 Variance 47.82 16.52 Observations 44.00 40.00 Observations 36.00 40.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 df 78.00 df 55.00 t Stat 1.65 t Stat 1.81 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.05 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.04 t Critical one-tail 1.66 t Critical one-tail 1.67 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.10 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.08 t Critical two-tail 1.99 t Critical two-tail 2.00 F-Test Two-Sample for Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 77.29 75.53 Mean 77.91 75.53 Variance 31.73 16.52 Variance 47.82 16.52 Observations 44.00 40.00 Observations 36.00 40.00 df 43.00 39.00 df 35.00 39.00 F 1.92 F 2.89 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.02 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.00 F Critical one-tail 1.69 F Critical one-tail 1.72 HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of trained workers and other workers. T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test scores of trained workers are not significantly different than the scores of other workers. F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test score variances of trained workers are significantly different than the score variances of other workers.

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70 Table A-47. Gas Maintenance Sp ecialty: T-Test and F-Test t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 74.39 81.30 Mean 73.87 81.30 Variance 78.57 191.50 Variance 86.76 191.50 Observations 28.00 18.00 Observations 5.00 18.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 df 26.00 df 10.00 t Stat -1.88 t Stat -1.40 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.04 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.10 t Critical one-tail 1.71 t Critical one-tail 1.81 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.07 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.19 t Critical two-tail 2.06 t Critical two-tail 2.23 F-Test Two-Sample for Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 74.39 81.30 Mean 73.87 81.30 Variance 78.57 191.50 Variance 86.76 191.50 Observations 28.00 18.00 Observations 5.00 18.00 df 27.00 17.00 df 4.00 17.00 F 0.41 F 0.45 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.02 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.23 F Critical one-tail 0.50 F Critical one-tail 0.17 HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of trained workers and other workers. T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test scores of trained workers are not significantly different than the scores of other workers. F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test score va riances of trained workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.

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71 Table A-48. Gas Pipeline Oper ations: T-Test and F-Test t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 74.21 76.61 Mean 70.76 76.61 Variance 38.98 48.19 Variance 58.19 48.19 Observations 29.00 16.00 Observations 24.00 16.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 df 28.00 df 34.00 t Stat -1.15 t Stat -2.51 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.13 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.01 t Critical one-tail 1.70 t Critical one-tail 1.69 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.26 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.02 t Critical two-tail 2.05 t Critical two-tail 2.03 F-Test Two-Sample for Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 74.21 76.61 Mean 70.76 76.61 Variance 38.98 48.19 Variance 58.19 48.19 Observations 29.00 16.00 Observations 24.00 16.00 df 28.00 15.00 df 23.00 15.00 F 0.81 F 1.21 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.30 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.36 F Critical one-tail 0.49 F Critical one-tail 2.30 HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of trained workers and other workers. T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test scores of trained workers are not significantly different than the scores of other workers. F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test score va riances of trained workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.

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72 Table A-49. HVAC: TTest and F-Test t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 67.30 61.26 Mean 67.63 61.26 Variance 73.28 109.86 Variance 101.66 109.86 Observations 29.00 15.00 Observations 15.00 15.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 df 24.00 df 28.00 t Stat 1.92 t Stat 1.70 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.03 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.05 t Critical one-tail 1.71 t Critical one-tail 1.70 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.07 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.10 t Critical two-tail 2.06 t Critical two-tail 2.05 F-Test Two-Sample for Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 67.30 61.26 Mean 67.63 61.26 Variance 73.28 109.86 Variance 101.66 109.86 Observations 29.00 15.00 Observations 15.00 15.00 df 28.00 14.00 df 14.00 14.00 F 0.67 F 0.93 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.18 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.44 F Critical one-tail 0.48 F Critical one-tail 0.40 HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of trained workers and other workers. T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test scores of trained workers are not significantly different than the scores of other workers. F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test score variances of trained workers are significantly different than the score variances of other workers.

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73 Table A-50. Industrial Carpenter: T-Test and F-Test t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 70.80 67.61 Mean 71.50 67.61 Variance 59.10 62.55 Variance 64.52 62.55 Observations 45.00 43.00 Observations 32.00 43.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 df 86.00 df 66.00 t Stat 1.92 t Stat 2.09 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.03 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.02 t Critical one-tail 1.66 t Critical one-tail 1.67 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.06 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.04 t Critical two-tail 1.99 t Critical two-tail 2.00 F-Test Two-Sample for Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 70.80 67.61 Mean 71.50 67.61 Variance 59.10 62.55 Variance 64.52 62.55 Observations 45.00 43.00 Observations 32.00 43.00 df 44.00 42.00 df 31.00 42.00 F 0.94 F 1.03 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.43 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.46 F Critical one-tail 0.60 F Critical one-tail 1.72 HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of trained workers and other workers. T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test scores of trained workers are not significantly different than the scores of other workers. F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test score va riances of trained workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.

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74 Table A-51. Industrial Electri cian: T-Test and F-Test t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 71.83 68.48 Mean 71.43 68.48 Variance 47.00 66.62 Variance 57.45 66.62 Observations 49.00 43.00 Observations 37.00 43.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 df 82.00 df 78.00 t Stat 2.12 t Stat 1.68 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.02 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.05 t Critical one-tail 1.66 t Critical one-tail 1.66 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.04 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.10 t Critical two-tail 1.99 t Critical two-tail 1.99 F-Test Two-Sample for Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 71.83 68.48 Mean 71.43 68.48 Variance 47.00 66.62 Variance 57.45 66.62 Observations 49.00 43.00 Observations 37.00 43.00 df 48.00 42.00 df 36.00 42.00 F 0.71 F 0.86 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.12 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.33 F Critical one-tail 0.61 F Critical one-tail 0.58 HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of trained workers and other workers. T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test scores of trained workers are not significantly different than the scores of other workers. F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test score va riances of trained workers are significantly different than the score variances of other workers.

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75 Table A-52. Industrial Insula tor: T-Test and F-Test t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 72.24 67.94 Mean 72.81 67.94 Variance 78.20 104.47 Variance 211.35 104.47 Observations 41.00 34.00 Observations 25.00 34.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 df 66.00 df 41.00 t Stat 1.93 t Stat 1.44 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.03 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.08 t Critical one-tail 1.67 t Critical one-tail 1.68 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.06 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.16 t Critical two-tail 2.00 t Critical two-tail 2.02 F-Test Two-Sample for Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 72.24 67.94 Mean 72.81 67.94 Variance 78.20 104.47 Variance 211.35 104.47 Observations 41.00 34.00 Observations 25.00 34.00 df 40.00 33.00 df 24.00 33.00 F 0.75 F 2.02 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.19 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.03 F Critical one-tail 0.58 F Critical one-tail 1.85 HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of trained workers and other workers. T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test scores of trained workers are not significantly different than the scores of other workers. F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test score va riances of trained workers are significantly different than the score variances of other workers.

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76 Table A-53. Industrial Ironwor ker: T-Test and F-Test t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 76.00 74.39 Mean 75.26 74.39 Variance 38.71 44.76 Variance 46.77 44.76 Observations 41.00 37.00 Observations 27.00 37.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 df 74.00 df 55.00 t Stat 1.10 t Stat 0.51 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.14 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.31 t Critical one-tail 1.67 t Critical one-tail 1.67 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.28 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.61 t Critical two-tail 1.99 t Critical two-tail 2.00 F-Test Two-Sample for Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 76.00 74.39 Mean 75.26 74.39 Variance 38.71 44.76 Variance 46.77 44.76 Observations 41.00 37.00 Observations 27.00 37.00 df 40.00 36.00 df 26.00 36.00 F 0.86 F 1.04 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.33 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.44 F Critical one-tail 0.58 F Critical one-tail 1.81 HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of trained workers and other workers. T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test scores of trained workers are not significantly different than the scores of other workers. F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test score variances of trained workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.

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77 Table A-54. Industrial Maintenance Electrician: T-Te st and F-Test t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 63.36 60.21 Mean 64.94 60.21 Variance 48.65 51.98 Variance 58.60 51.98 Observations 32.00 23.00 Observations 8.00 23.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 df 47.00 df 12.00 t Stat 1.62 t Stat 1.53 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.06 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.08 t Critical one-tail 1.68 t Critical one-tail 1.78 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.11 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.15 t Critical two-tail 2.01 t Critical two-tail 2.18 F-Test Two-Sample for Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 63.36 60.21 Mean 64.94 60.21 Variance 48.65 51.98 Variance 58.60 51.98 Observations 32.00 23.00 Observations 8.00 23.00 df 31.00 22.00 df 7.00 22.00 F 0.94 F 1.13 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.43 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.38 F Critical one-tail 0.53 F Critical one-tail 2.46 HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of trained workers and other workers. T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test scores of trained workers are not significantly different than the scores of other workers. F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test score va riances of trained workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.

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78 Table A-55. Industrial Maintenanc e Mechanic: T-Test and F-Test t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 65.43 56.29 Mean 60.20 56.29 Variance 51.42 48.63 Variance 143.03 48.63 Observations 39.00 23.00 Observations 15.00 23.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 df 47.00 df 20.00 t Stat 4.93 t Stat 1.14 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.00 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.13 t Critical one-tail 1.68 t Critical one-tail 1.72 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.00 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.27 t Critical two-tail 2.01 t Critical two-tail 2.09 F-Test Two-Sample for Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 65.43 56.29 Mean 60.20 56.29 Variance 51.42 48.63 Variance 143.03 48.63 Observations 39.00 23.00 Observations 15.00 23.00 df 38.00 22.00 df 14.00 22.00 F 1.06 F 2.94 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.46 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.01 F Critical one-tail 1.95 F Critical one-tail 2.17 HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of trained workers and other workers. T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test scores of trained workers are not significantly different than the scores of other workers. F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test score va riances of trained workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.

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79 Table A-56. Industrial Millw right: T-Test and F-Test t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 70.56 67.88 Mean 73.53 67.88 Variance 29.20 52.59 Variance 38.98 52.59 Observations 48.00 44.00 Observations 43.00 44.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 df 79.00 df 84.00 t Stat 2.00 t Stat 3.90 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.02 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.00 t Critical one-tail 1.66 t Critical one-tail 1.66 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.05 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.00 t Critical two-tail 1.99 t Critical two-tail 1.99 F-Test Two-Sample for Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 70.56 67.88 Mean 73.53 67.88 Variance 29.20 52.59 Variance 38.98 52.59 Observations 48.00 44.00 Observations 43.00 44.00 df 47.00 43.00 df 42.00 43.00 F 0.56 F 0.74 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.02 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.17 F Critical one-tail 0.61 F Critical one-tail 0.60 HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of trained workers and other workers. T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test scores of trained workers are not significantly different than the scores of other workers. F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test score variances of trained workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.

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80 Table A-57. Industrial Pain ter: T-Test and F-Test t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 72.42 68.04 Mean 76.18 68.04 Variance 79.30 103.61 Variance 105.32 103.61 Observations 44.00 33.00 Observations 32.00 33.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 df 64.00 df 63.00 t Stat 1.97 t Stat 3.21 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.03 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.00 t Critical one-tail 1.67 t Critical one-tail 1.67 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.05 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.00 t Critical two-tail 2.00 t Critical two-tail 2.00 F-Test Two-Sample for Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 72.42 68.04 Mean 76.18 68.04 Variance 79.30 103.61 Variance 105.32 103.61 Observations 44.00 33.00 Observations 32.00 33.00 df 43.00 32.00 df 31.00 32.00 F 0.77 F 1.02 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.20 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.48 F Critical one-tail 0.58 F Critical one-tail 1.81 HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of trained workers and other workers. T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test scores of trained workers are not significantly different than the scores of other workers. F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test score va riances of trained workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.

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81 Table A-58. Industrial Pipef itter: T-Test and F-Test t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 69.20 69.30 Mean 70.40 69.30 Variance 54.24 47.71 Variance 59.53 47.71 Observations 50.00 44.00 Observations 38.00 44.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 df 92.00 df 75.00 t Stat -0.07 t Stat 0.68 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.47 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.25 t Critical one-tail 1.66 t Critical one-tail 1.67 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.94 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.50 t Critical two-tail 1.99 t Critical two-tail 1.99 F-Test Two-Sample for Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 69.20 69.30 Mean 70.40 69.30 Variance 54.24 47.71 Variance 59.53 47.71 Observations 50.00 44.00 Observations 38.00 44.00 df 49.00 43.00 df 37.00 43.00 F 1.14 F 1.25 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.34 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.24 F Critical one-tail 1.64 F Critical one-tail 1.69 HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of trained workers and other workers. T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test scores of trained workers are not significantly different than the scores of other workers. F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test score va riances of trained workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.

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82 Table A-59. Instrumentation Fitter: T-Test and F-Test t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 75.14 74.30 Mean 75.11 74.30 Variance 103.39 58.04 Variance 64.28 58.04 Observations 41.00 37.00 Observations 20.00 37.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 df 74.00 df 37.00 t Stat 0.41 t Stat 0.37 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.34 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.36 t Critical one-tail 1.67 t Critical one-tail 1.69 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.68 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.71 t Critical two-tail 1.99 t Critical two-tail 2.03 F-Test Two-Sample for Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 75.14 74.30 Mean 75.11 74.30 Variance 103.39 58.04 Variance 64.28 58.04 Observations 41.00 37.00 Observations 20.00 37.00 df 40.00 36.00 df 19.00 36.00 F 1.78 F 1.11 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.04 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.38 F Critical one-tail 1.73 F Critical one-tail 1.88 HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of trained workers and other workers. T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test scores of trained workers are not significantly different than the scores of other workers. F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test score variances of trained workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.

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83 Table A-60. Instrumentation T echnician: T-Test and F-Test t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 77.40 75.28 Mean 74.93 75.28 Variance 29.44 56.73 Variance 71.40 56.73 Observations 43.00 35.00 Observations 31.00 35.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 df 60.00 df 61.00 t Stat 1.40 t Stat -0.17 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.08 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.43 t Critical one-tail 1.67 t Critical one-tail 1.67 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.17 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.86 t Critical two-tail 2.00 t Critical two-tail 2.00 F-Test Two-Sample for Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 77.40 75.28 Mean 74.93 75.28 Variance 29.44 56.73 Variance 71.40 56.73 Observations 43.00 35.00 Observations 31.00 35.00 df 42.00 34.00 df 30.00 34.00 F 0.52 F 1.26 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.02 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.26 F Critical one-tail 0.59 F Critical one-tail 1.80 HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of trained workers and other workers. T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test scores of trained workers are not significantly different than the scores of other workers. F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test score va riances of trained workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.

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84 Table A-61. Mechanical Pipeline Technician: T-Test and F-Test t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 74.98 73.04 Mean 75.17 73.04 Variance 27.94 19.73 Variance 41.77 19.73 Observations 49.00 45.00 Observations 39.00 45.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 df 91.00 df 66.00 t Stat 1.94 t Stat 1.74 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.03 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.04 t Critical one-tail 1.66 t Critical one-tail 1.67 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.06 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.09 t Critical two-tail 1.99 t Critical two-tail 2.00 F-Test Two-Sample for Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 74.98 73.04 Mean 75.17 73.04 Variance 27.94 19.73 Variance 41.77 19.73 Observations 49.00 45.00 Observations 39.00 45.00 df 48.00 44.00 df 38.00 44.00 F 1.42 F 2.12 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.12 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.01 F Critical one-tail 1.64 F Critical one-tail 1.67 HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of trained workers and other workers. T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test scores of trained workers are not significantly different than the scores of other workers. F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test score va riances of trained workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.

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85 Table A-62. Non-Destructive Te sting: T-Test and F-Test t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 68.80 85.67 Mean 58.67 85.67 Variance 275.20 16.33 Variance 21.33 16.33 Observations 5.00 3.00 Observations 3.00 3.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 df 5.00 df 4.00 t Stat -2.17 t Stat -7.62 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.04 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.00 t Critical one-tail 2.02 t Critical one-tail 2.13 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.08 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.00 t Critical two-tail 2.57 t Critical two-tail 2.78 F-Test Two-Sample for Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 68.80 85.67 Mean 58.67 85.67 Variance 275.20 16.33 Variance 21.33 16.33 Observations 5.00 3.00 Observations 3.00 3.00 df 4.00 2.00 df 2.00 2.00 F 16.85 F 1.31 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.06 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.43 F Critical one-tail 19.25 F Critical one-tail 19.00 HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of trained workers and other workers. T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test scores of trained workers are not significantly different than the scores of other workers. F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test score va riances of trained workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.

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86 Table A-63. Pipeline Maintenance Technician: T-Test and F-Test t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 78.19 76.87 Mean 78.40 76.87 Variance 19.93 41.28 Variance 20.41 41.28 Observations 59.00 56.00 Observations 51.00 56.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 df 98.00 df 99.00 t Stat 1.28 t Stat 1.43 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.10 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.08 t Critical one-tail 1.66 t Critical one-tail 1.66 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.20 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.15 t Critical two-tail 1.98 t Critical two-tail 1.98 F-Test Two-Sample for Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 78.19 76.87 Mean 78.40 76.87 Variance 19.93 41.28 Variance 20.41 41.28 Observations 59.00 56.00 Observations 51.00 56.00 df 58.00 55.00 df 50.00 55.00 F 0.48 F 0.49 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.00 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.01 F Critical one-tail 0.64 F Critical one-tail 0.63 HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of trained workers and other workers. T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test scores of trained workers are not significantly different than the scores of other workers. F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test score va riances of trained workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.

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87 Table A-64. Scaffold Build er: T-Test and F-Test t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 74.50 69.62 Mean 75.93 69.62 Variance 52.13 28.78 Variance 119.75 28.78 Observations 36.00 34.00 Observations 25.00 34.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 df 65.00 df 32.00 t Stat 3.22 t Stat 2.66 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.00 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.01 t Critical one-tail 1.67 t Critical one-tail 1.69 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.00 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.01 t Critical two-tail 2.00 t Critical two-tail 2.04 F-Test Two-Sample for Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 74.50 69.62 Mean 75.93 69.62 Variance 52.13 28.78 Variance 119.75 28.78 Observations 36.00 34.00 Observations 25.00 34.00 df 35.00 33.00 df 24.00 33.00 F 1.81 F 4.16 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.04 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.00 F Critical one-tail 1.78 F Critical one-tail 1.85 HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of trained workers and other workers. T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test scores of trained workers are significantly different than the scores of other workers. F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test score va riances of trained workers are significantly different than the score variances of other workers.

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88 Table A-65. All Trades : T-Test and F-Test t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 71.11 69.48 Mean 72.26 69.48 Variance 103.66 120.12 Variance 122.13 120.12 Observations 1283.00 1088.00 Observations 876.00 1088.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 df 2242.00 df 1867.00 t Stat 3.74 t Stat 5.56 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.00 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.00 t Critical one-tail 1.65 t Critical one-tail 1.65 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.00 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.00 t Critical two-tail 1.96 t Critical two-tail 1.96 F-Test Two-Sample for Variances With Training Without Training With NCCER Without Training Mean 71.11 69.48 Mean 72.26 69.48 Variance 103.66 120.12 Variance 122.13 120.12 Observations 1283.00 1088.00 Observations 876.00 1088.00 df 1282.00 1087.00 df 875.00 1087.00 F 0.86 F 1.02 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.01 P(F<=f) one-tail 0.40 F Critical one-tail 0.91 F Critical one-tail 1.11 HO: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores of trained workers and other workers. HA: There is a statistically significant diffe rence between the asse ssment test scores of trained workers and other workers. T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test scores of trained workers are significantly different than the scores of other workers. F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the asse ssment test score va riances of trained workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.

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89 APPENDIX B GRAPHS OF AVERAGE SCORES The graphs B-1 thru B-63 are a statistical analysis of each craft. The data is in categories: All, With Training, With NCCER Training a nd Without Training. Abnormal Operating Conditions Control Center78.77 79.41 83.04 78.38 76.00 77.00 78.00 79.00 80.00 81.00 82.00 83.00 84.00Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-1. Graph of Abnorma l Operating ConditionsC ontrol Center comparing average scores between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training. Abnormal Operating Conditions Control Cent er data results of average scores are shown With NCCER Training with the highe st average score of 83.04, followed in descending order With Training with an av erage score of 79.41, A ll with an average score of 78.77 and Without Training with an average score of 78.38. The difference between the highest average sc ore category and the lowest av erage score category is 4.66 points.

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90 Abnormal Operating Conditions Gas85.62 86.36 84.66 84.36 83.00 83.50 84.00 84.50 85.00 85.50 86.00 86.50 87.00Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-2. Graph of Abnorma l Operating ConditionsGas comparing average scores between All, With Trai ning, With NCCER Training, and Without Training. Abnormal Operating ConditionsGas data re sults of average scores are indicating With Training with the highest average sc ore of 86.36, followed in descending order by category All with an average score of 85.62, With NCCER Training with an average score of 84.66 and Without Training with an average score of 84.36. The difference between the highest average sc ore category and the lowest av erage score category is 2.00 points.

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91 Abnormal Operating Conditions General79.20 79.72 81.36 78.25 76.50 77.00 77.50 78.00 78.50 79.00 79.50 80.00 80.50 81.00 81.50 82.00Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-3. Graph of Abnorma l Operating ConditionsGeneral comparing average scores between All, With Traini ng, With NCCER Trai ning, and Without Training. Abnormal Operating ConditionsGeneral da ta results of average scores are indicating With NCCER Traini ng with the highest average score of 81.36, followed in descending order by With Training with an average score of 79.72, All with an average score of 79.20 and Without Training with an average score of 78.25. The difference between the highest average sc ore category and the lowest av erage score category is 3.11 points.

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92 Boiler Technician53.97 55.61 55.84 51.85 49.00 50.00 51.00 52.00 53.00 54.00 55.00 56.00 57.00Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-4. Graph of Boiler Technician comp aring average scores between All, With Training, With NCCER Trai ning, and Without Training Boiler Technician data results of averag e scores show With NCCER Training with the highest average score of 55.84; followed in descending order by With Training with an average score of 55.61; All with an aver age score of 53.97; and Without Training with an average score of 51.85. The difference be tween the highest average score category and the lowest average score category is 3.99 points.

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93 Boilermaker63.52 65.20 66.40 62.31 60.00 61.00 62.00 63.00 64.00 65.00 66.00 67.00Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-5. Graph of Boilermaker comparing average scores between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training Boilermaker data results of average scores indicate With NCCER Training with the highest average score of 66.40; followed in descending order by With Training with an average score of 65.20; All with an average score of 63.52; a nd Without Training with an average score of 62.31. The difference between the highest average score category and the lowest average scor e category is 4.09 points.

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94 Commercial Carpenter58.26 59.01 62.05 53.60 48.00 50.00 52.00 54.00 56.00 58.00 60.00 62.00 64.00Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-6. Graph of Commercial Carpenter comparing average scores between All, With Training, With NCCER Tr aining, and Without Training Commercial Carpenter data results of average scores are shown With NCCER Training with the highest average score of 62.05; followed in descending order by With Training with an average score of 59.01; All with an average score of 58.26; and Without Training with an average score of 53.60. Th e difference between the highest average score category and the lowest av erage score category is 8.45 points.

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95 Commercial Electrician62.82 63.63 65.64 60.75 58.00 59.00 60.00 61.00 62.00 63.00 64.00 65.00 66.00 67.00Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-7. Graph of Commercia l Electrician comparing average scores between All, With Training, With NCCER Tr aining, and Without Training Commercial Electrician data results of average scores are indicating With NCCER Training with the highest average score of 65.64; followed in descending order by With Training with an average score of 63.63; All with an average score of 62.82; and Without Training with an average score of 60.82. Th e difference between the highest average score category and the lowest av erage score category is 4.89 points.

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96 Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1 Installation68.61 68.99 70.38 68.28 67.00 67.50 68.00 68.50 69.00 69.50 70.00 70.50 71.00Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-8. Graph of Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1Installation comparing average scores between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1Inst allation data results of average scores are indicating With NCCER Tr aining with the highest average score of 70.38; followed in descending order by With Training with an average score of 68.99; All with an average score of 68.61 and Without Training with an average score of 68.28. The difference between the highest average sc ore category and the lowest av erage score category is 2.10 points.

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97 Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1 Measurement61.85 62.14 57.85 60.82 55.00 56.00 57.00 58.00 59.00 60.00 61.00 62.00 63.00Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-9. Graph of Corrosi on Prevention Field 1 Measurement comparing average scores between All, With Traini ng, With NCCER Trai ning, and Without Training Corrosion Prevention Field 1 Measurement data results of average scores show With Training with the highest average sc ore of 62.14; followed in descending order by All with an average score of 61.85; Without Training with an average score of 60.14 and With NCCER Training with an average sc ore of 57.85. The difference between the highest average score category and the lowe st average score category is 4.29 points.

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98 Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 259.77 59.82 65.54 60.08 56.00 57.00 58.00 59.00 60.00 61.00 62.00 63.00 64.00 65.00 66.00Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-10. Graph of Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 2 comparing average scores between All, With Traini ng, With NCCER Trai ning, and Without Training Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 2 data results of average scores show With NCCER Training with the highe st average score of 65.54; fo llowed in descending order by Without Training with an av erage score of 60.08; With Trai ning with an average score of 59.82 and All with an aver age score of 57.77. The difference between the highest average score category and the lowest average score category is 7.77 points.

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99 Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 369.70 68.89 78.68 72.32 62.00 64.00 66.00 68.00 70.00 72.00 74.00 76.00 78.00 80.00Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-11. Graph of Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 3 comparing average scores between All, With Traini ng, With NCCER Trai ning, and Without Training Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 3 data results of average scores are indicating With NCCER Traini ng with the highest average score of 78.68; followed in descending order by Without Training with an average score of 72.32; All with an average score of 69.70; and With Traini ng with an average score of 68.89. The difference between the highest average scor e category and the lowest average score category is 7.77 points.

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100 Electrical & Instrumentation Pipeline Technician70.23 70.82 69.87 70.34 69.20 69.40 69.60 69.80 70.00 70.20 70.40 70.60 70.80 71.00Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-12. Graph of Electrical and Instru mentation Pipeline T echnician comparing average scores between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training Electrical and Instrumentation Pipeline Tec hnician data results of average scores are shown With Training with the highest av erage score of 70.82; followed in descending order by Without Training with an average sc ore of 70.34; All with an average score of 70.23; and With Training with an average score of 69.87. The difference between the highest average score category and the lowe st average score category is 0.95 points.

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101 Field and Control Center Operations Technician76.23 77.29 77.91 75.53 74.00 74.50 75.00 75.50 76.00 76.50 77.00 77.50 78.00 78.50Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-13. Graph of Field and Control Ce nter Operations Technician comparing average scores between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training Field and Control Center Operations Techni cian data results of average scores are indicating With NCCER Traini ng leading with an average score of 77.91; followed in descending order by With Training with an av erage score of 77.29; All with an average score of 76.23; and Without Training with an average score of 75.53. The difference between the highest average sc ore category and the lowest av erage score category is 2.38 points.

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102 Gas Maintenance Specialty76.42 74.39 73.87 81.30 70.00 72.00 74.00 76.00 78.00 80.00 82.00Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-14. Graph of Gas Maintenance Speci alty comparing average scores between All, With Training, With NCCE R Training, and Without Training Gas Maintenance Specialty data results of average scores show Without Training with the highest average score of 81.30; fo llowed in descending order by category All with an average score of 76.42; With Traini ng with an average score of 74.39; and With NCCER Training with an aver age score of 73.87. The diffe rence between the highest average score category and the lowest average score category is 7.43 points.

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103 Gas Pipeline Operations74.32 74.21 70.76 76.61 67.00 68.00 69.00 70.00 71.00 72.00 73.00 74.00 75.00 76.00 77.00 78.00Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-15. Graph of Gas Pipe line Operations comparing av erage scores between All, With Training, With NCCER Tr aining, and Without Training Gas Pipeline Operations data results of average scores are shown Without Training with the highest average score of 76.61; fo llowed in descending order by category All with an average score of 74.32; With Traini ng with an average score of 74.21; and With NCCER Training with an aver age score of 70.76. The diffe rence between the highest average score category and the lowest average score category is 5.85 points.

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104 HVAC67.04 67.30 67.63 61.26 58.00 60.00 62.00 64.00 66.00 68.00 70.00Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-16. Graph of HVAC comparing average scores between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training HVAC data results of average scores are indicating With NCCER Training with the highest average score of 67.63; followed in descending order by cat egory With Training with an average score of 67.30; All with an average score of 67.04; and Without Training with an average score of 61.26. The diffe rence between the highest average score category and the lowest averag e score category is 6.37 points.

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105 Industrial Carpenter69.81 70.80 71.50 67.61 65.00 66.00 67.00 68.00 69.00 70.00 71.00 72.00Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-17. Graph of Industrial Carpenter co mparing average scores between All, With Training, With NCCER Trai ning, and Without Training Industrial Carpenter data results of av erage scores show With NCCER Training with the highest average score of 71.50; fo llowed in descending order by category With Training with an average score of 70.80; All with an average score of 69.81; and Without Training with an average score of 67.61. Th e difference between the highest average score category and the lowest av erage score category is 3.89 points.

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106 Industrial Electrician71.06 71.83 71.43 68.48 66.00 67.00 68.00 69.00 70.00 71.00 72.00 73.00Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-18. Graph of Industrial Electrician co mparing average scores between All, With Training, With NCCER Trai ning, and Without Training Industrial Electrician data results of aver age scores show With Training with the highest average score of 71.83; followed in descending order by category With NCCER Training with an average score of 71.43; All with an average score of 71.06; and Without Training with an average score of 68.48. Th e difference between the highest average score category and the lowest av erage score category is 3.35 points.

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107 Industrial Insulator70.50 72.24 72.81 67.94 65.00 66.00 67.00 68.00 69.00 70.00 71.00 72.00 73.00 74.00Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-19. Graph of Industria l Insulator compari ng average scores between All, With Training, With NCCER Trai ning, and Without Training Industrial Insulator data results of average scor es are indicating With NCCER Training with the highest average score of 72.81; followed in descending order by category With Training with an average scor e of 72.24; All with an average score of 70.50; and Without Training with an average score of 67.94. The difference between the highest average score category and the lowe st average score category is 4.87 points.

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108 Industrial Ironworker74.92 76.00 75.26 74.39 73.50 74.00 74.50 75.00 75.50 76.00 76.50Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-20. Graph of Industrial Ironworker comparing average scores between All, With Training, With NCCER Tr aining, and Without Training Industrial Ironworker data re sults of average scores s how With Training with the highest average score of 76.00; followed in descending order by category With NCCER Training with an average score of 75.26; All with an average score of 74.92; and Without Training with an average score of 74.39. Th e difference between the highest average score category and the lowest av erage score category is 1.61 points.

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109 Industrial Maintenance Electrician62.60 63.36 64.94 60.21 57.00 58.00 59.00 60.00 61.00 62.00 63.00 64.00 65.00 66.00Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-21. Graph of Industrial Maintenan ce Electrician comparing average scores between All, With Trai ning, With NCCER Training, and Without Training. Industrial Maintenance Electrician data re sults of average scores are shown With NCCER Training with the highe st average score of 64.94; fo llowed in descending order by category With Training with an average sc ore of 63.36; All with an average score of 62.60; and Without Training with an average score of 60.21. The difference between the highest average score category and the lowe st average score category is 4.73 points.

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110 Industrial Maintenance Mechanic64.26 65.43 60.20 56.29 50.00 52.00 54.00 56.00 58.00 60.00 62.00 64.00 66.00 68.00Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-22. Graph of Industrial Maintena nce Mechanic comparing average scores between All, With Trai ning, With NCCER Training, and Without Training Industrial Maintenance Mechanic data resu lts of average scores are shown With Training with the highest average score of 65.43; followed in descending order by category All with an average score of 64.26; With NCCER Training with an average score of 60.20; and Without Training with an average score of 56.29. The difference between the highest average sc ore category and the lowest av erage score category is 9.14 points.

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111 Industrial Millwright69.55 70.56 73.53 67.88 65.00 66.00 67.00 68.00 69.00 70.00 71.00 72.00 73.00 74.00Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-23. Graph of Industrial Millwright co mparing average scores between All, With Training, With NCCER Trai ning, and Without Training Industrial Millwright data results of av erage scores are indicating With NCCER Training with the highest average score of 73.53; followed in descending order by With Training with an average score of 70.56; All with an average score of 69.55; and Without Training with an average score of 67.88. Th e difference between the highest average score category and the lowest av erage score category is 5.65 points.

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112 Industrial Painter 71.14 72.42 76.18 68.04 62.00 64.00 66.00 68.00 70.00 72.00 74.00 76.00 78.00Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-24. Graph of Industrial Painter comp aring average scores between All, With Training, With NCCER Trai ning, and Without Training Industrial Painter data re sults of average scores are indicating With NCCER Training with the highest average score of 76.18; followed in descending order by With Training with an average score of 72.42; All with an average score of 71.14; and Without Training with an average score of 68.04. Th e difference between the highest average score category and the lowest av erage score category is 8.14 points.

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113 Industrial Pipefitter 69.30 69.20 70.40 69.30 68.50 69.00 69.50 70.00 70.50Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-25. Graph of Industrial Pipefitter co mparing average scores between All, With Training, With NCCER Trai ning, and Without Training Industrial Pipefitter data results of average scores are shown With NCCER Training with the highest average score of 70.40; followed in descending order by category All with an average score of 69.30; W ithout Training with an average score of 69.30; and With Training with an average score of 69.20. The difference between the highest average score category and the lowest average score catego ry is 1.20 points.

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114 Instrumentation Fitter 74.41 75.14 75.11 74.30 73.80 74.00 74.20 74.40 74.60 74.80 75.00 75.20Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-26. Graph of Instrumentation Fitter comparing average scores between All, With Training, With NCCER Tr aining, and Without Training Instrumentation Fitter data results of av erage scores are indicating With Training with the highest average score of 75.14; fo llowed in descending order by With NCCER Training with an average score of 75.11; All with an average score of 74.41; and Without Training with an average score of 74.30. Th e difference between the highest average score category and the lowest av erage score category is .84 points.

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115 Instrumentation Technician 77.37 77.40 74.93 75.28 73.50 74.00 74.50 75.00 75.50 76.00 76.50 77.00 77.50 78.00Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-27. Graph of Instrumentation Tec hnician comparing average scores between All, With Training, With NCCE R Training, and Without Training Instrumentation Technician data results of average scores show With Training with the highest average score of 77.40; followed in descending order by ca tegory All with an average score of 77.37; Without Training w ith an average score of 75.28; and With NCCER Training with an aver age score of 74.93. The diffe rence between the highest average score category and the lowest average score category is 2.47 points.

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116 Mechanical Pipeline Technician 74.52 74.98 75.17 73.04 71.50 72.00 72.50 73.00 73.50 74.00 74.50 75.00 75.50Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-28. Graph of Mechanical Pipelin e Technician comparing average scores between All, With Trai ning, With NCCER Training, and Without Training Mechanical Pipeline Technician data result s of average scores are indicating With NCCER Training leading with an average sc ore of 75.17; followed in descending order by With Training with an average score of 74.98; All with an aver age score of 74.52; and Without Training with an average score of 73.04. The difference between the highest average score category and the lowest average score category is 2.13 points.

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117 Non-Destructive Testing 75.13 68.80 58.67 85.67 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00 90.00Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-29. Graph of Non-Destructive Testi ng comparing average scores between All, With Training, With NCCER Tr aining, and Without Training Non-Destructive Testing data results of average scores are indicating Without Training with the highest average score of 85.67; followed in descending order by All with an average score of 75.13; With Traini ng with an average score of 68.80; and With NCCER Training with an aver age score of 58.67. The diffe rence between the highest average score category and the lowest average score category is 27 points.

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118 Pipeline Maintenance 77.95 78.19 78.40 76.87 76.00 76.50 77.00 77.50 78.00 78.50 79.00Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-30. Graph of Pipeline Maintenance comparing average scores between All, With Training, With NCCER Tr aining, and Without Training Pipeline Maintenance data results of av erage scores are indicating With NCCER Training with the highest average score of 78.40; followed in descending order by With Training with an average score of 78.19; All with an average score of 77.95; and Without Training with an average score of 76.87. Th e difference between the highest average score category and the lowest av erage score category is 1.53 points.

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119 Scaffold Builder 72.48 74.50 75.93 76.87 70.00 71.00 72.00 73.00 74.00 75.00 76.00 77.00 78.00Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-31. Graph of Scaffold Builder comp aring average scores between All, With Training, With NCCER Trai ning, and Without Training Scaffold Builder data results of average scores are indicating Without Training with the highest average score of 76.87; follo wed in descending order by With NCCER Training with an average score of 75.93; With Training with an average score of 74.50; and All with an aver age score of 72.48. The differen ce between the highest average score category and the lowest av erage score category is 4.39 points.

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120 All Trades70.55 71.11 72.26 69.48 68.00 68.50 69.00 69.50 70.00 70.50 71.00 71.50 72.00 72.50Average Test Scores All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-32. Graph of All Trad es comparing average scores between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training All Trades data results of average sc ores are indicating With NCCER Training leading with an average sc ore of 72.26; followed in descending order by With Training with an average score of 71.11; All with an average score of 70.55; and Without Training with an average score of 69.48. The diffe rence between the highest average score category and the lowest averag e score category is 2.78 points. Data of Average Scores with 0-10 Years of Experience The following figures B-33 thru B-63 are graphic representations from the NCCER Training Research comparing the average scor es and years of experience only from 0-10 years among the categories: All, With Tr aining, With NCCER Tr aining, and Without Training.

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121 Abnormal Operating Conditions Control Center0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0Years of Experience with Average Test ScoresAverage Test Scores All w/ Training Training w/ NCCER w/out Training All 72.580.978.385.274.582.381.583.975.983.174.5 w/ Training 66.280.176.985.575.884.281.283.979.482.774.5 Training w/ NCCER 75.281.177.0100.084.787.088.382.081.084.7 w/out Training 78.482.079.784.557.079.082.060.084.074.4 012345678910 Figure B-33. Graph of Abnormal Operating C onditionsControl Center comparing years of experience and average scores betw een All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training Abnormal Operating Conditions data results show for this craft the highest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 85.2 at 3 years; With Training with a score of 85.5 at 3 years; With NCCER Training with a score of 100.0 at 3 years; and Without Training with a score of 84.5 at 3 years. The lowest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 72.5 at 0 years; With Trai ning with a score of 66.2 at 0 years; With NCCER Training with a score of 75.2 at 0 years; Without Trai ning with a score of 57.0 at 4 years.

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122 Abnormal Operating Conditions Gas0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0Years of Experience with Average Test ScoresAverage Test Scores All w/ Training Training w/ NCCER w/out Training All 87.784.078.181.879.686.485.383.884.684.589.5 w/ Training 90.383.681.581.788.086.987.481.585.283.789.9 Training w/ NCCER 82.090.288.5 75.089.8 w/out Training 77.388.065.283.554.585.279.788.583.392.088.5 012345678910 Figure B-34. Graph of Abnormal Operati ng ConditionsGas comparing years of experience and average scores betwee n All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training Abnormal Operating ConditionsGas data re sults show for this craft the highest test scores for the categories: All with a sc ore of 89.5 at 10 years; With Training with a score of 90.3 at 0 years; W ith NCCER Training with a sc ore of 90.2 at 2 years; and Without Training with a score of 92.0 at 9 ye ars. The lowest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 78.1 at 2 years; With Training with a score of 81.5 at 2 and 7 years; With NCCER Training with a score of 75.0 at 8 years; Without Training with a score of 54.5 at 4 years.

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123 Abnormal Operating Conditions General68.0 70.0 72.0 74.0 76.0 78.0 80.0 82.0Years of Experience with Average Test ScoresAverage Test Scores All w/ Training Training w/ NCCER w/out Training All 76.977.277.878.878.179.478.879.579.278.7 w/ Training 77.778.178.678.679.079.579.379.379.179.1 Training w/ NCCER 81.278.781.380.279.179.180.279.780.480.1 w/out Training 73.775.375.475.879.275.679.077.380.279.477.7 012345678910 Figure B-35. Graph of Abnormal Operating ConditionsGeneral comparing years of experience and average scores betwee n All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training Abnormal Operating ConditionsGeneral da ta results show fo r this craft the highest test scores for the cat egories: All with a score of 79.5 at 8 years; With Training with a score of 90.3 at 0 years; With NCCE R Training with a scor e of 90.2 at 2 years; and Without Training with a score of 92.0 at 9 years. The lowest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 76.9 at 1 y ear; With Training with a score of 77.7 at 1 year; With NCCER Training with a score of 78.7 at 2 years; Wit hout Training with a score of 73.7 at 0 years.

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124 Boiler Technician0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0Years of Experience with Average Test ScoresAverage Test Scores All w/ Training Training w/ NCCER w/out Training All 46.047.047.247.151.350.452.543.454.451.154.8 w/ Training 44.450.051.047.851.850.453.443.256.053.459.0 Training w/ NCCER 43.048.043.953.452.340.047.857.9 w/out Training 46.643.043.345.550.750.451.643.552.443.049.0 012345678910 Figure B-36. Graph of Boiler Technician co mparing years of experience and average scores between All, With Traini ng, With NCCER Trai ning, and Without Training Boiler Technician data results show for th is craft the highest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 54.8 at 10 year s; With Training with a score of 59.0 at 10 years; With NCCER Training w ith a score of 57.9 at 10 years; and Without Training with a score of 52.4 at 8 years. The lowest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 46.0 at 0 years; With Training with a scor e of 43.2 at 7 years; With NCCER Training with a score of 40.0 at 6 years; Without Training with a sc ore of 43.0 at 1 and 9 years.

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125 Boilermaker0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0Years of Experience with Average Test ScoresAverage Test Scores All w/ Training Training w/ NCCER w/out Training All 56.851.255.453.158.360.461.461.161.963.362.8 w/ Training 57.651.254.558.259.060.462.961.062.163.462.4 Training w/ NCCER 74.048.059.861.564.062.863.857.858.354.065.0 w/out Training 56.151.357.457.257.360.559.361.361.663.063.3 012345678910 Figure B-37. Graph of Boilermaker compari ng years of experience and average scores between All, With Trai ning, With NCCER Training, and Without Training Boilermaker data results show for this craft the highest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 63.3 at 9 year s; With Training with a score of 63.4 at 9 years; With NCCER Training w ith a score of 74.8 at 0 years; and Without Training with a score of 63.3 at 10 years. The lowest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 51.2 at 1 year; With Training with a score of 51.2 at 1 year; With NCCER Training with a score of 48.0 at 1 year; Without Trai ning with a score of 51.3 at 1 year.

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126 Commercial Carpenter0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0Years of Experience with Average Test ScoresAverage Test Scores All w/ Training Training w/ NCCER w/out Training All 42.443.347.745.452.352.056.858.857.652.857.0 w/ Training 46.541.947.347.052.650.257.858.861.954.357.0 Training w/ NCCER 59.652.558.770.061.072.064.067.0 w/out Training 26.047.552.540.750.559.351.041.748.057.0 012345678910 Figure B-38. Graph of Commerci al Carpenter comparing year s of experience and average scores between All, With Traini ng, With NCCER Trai ning, and Without Training Commercial Carpenter data results show for this craft the highest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 58.8 at 7 year s; With Training with a score of 61.9 at 8 years; With NCCER Training w ith a score of 72.0 at 8 years; and Without Training with a score of 59.3 at 5 years. The lowest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 42.4 at 0 years; With Training with a score of 41.9 at 1 year ; With NCCER Training with a score of 52.5 at 2 years; Without Tr aining with a score of 26.0 at 0 year.

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127 Commercial Electrician0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0Years of Experience with Average Test ScoresAverage Test Scores All w/ Training Training w/ NCCER w/out Training All 58.650.647.856.859.062.454.657.560.563.764.8 w/ Training 58.350.350.664.860.663.155.357.560.666.264.7 Training w/ NCCER 35.061.373.567.068.070.068.3 w/out Training 59.051.044.048.855.659.053.860.051.065.0 012345678910 Figure B-39. Graph of Commer cial Electrician comparing years of experience and average scores between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training Commercial Electrician data results show for this craft the highest test scores for the categories: All with a scor e of 64.8 at 10 years; With Tr aining with a score of 66.2 at 9 years; With NCCER Training with a score of 73.5 at 5 years; and Without Training with a score of 66.0 at 10 years. The lowest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 47.8 at 2 years; With Training w ith a score of 50.3 at 1 year; With NCCER Training with a score of 35.0 at 2 years; Wit hout Training with a scor e of 44.0 at 2 years.

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128 Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1 Installation0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0Years of Experience with Average Test ScoresAverage Test Scores All w/ Training Training w/ NCCER w/out Training All 62.260.861.964.664.664.462.664.968.763.065.1 w/ Training 63.561.164.464.563.765.062.164.769.564.165.5 Training w/ NCCER 64.363.862.371.566.265.562.969.270.765.067.3 w/out Training 61.060.457.064.865.963.063.465.367.160.264.5 012345678910 Figure B-40. Graph of Corrosion Prevention Fi eld Technician 1Installation comparing years of experience and average scores between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1In stallation data results show for this craft the highest test scores for the categorie s: All with a score of 68.7 at 8 years; With Training with a score of 69.5 at 8 years; With NCCER Training with a score of 71.5 at 3 years; and Without Training with a score of 67.1 at 8 years. Th e lowest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 60.8 at 1 y ear; With Training with a score of 61.1 at 1 year; With NCCER Training with a score of 62.3 at 2 years; Wit hout Training with a score of 57.0 at 2 years.

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129 Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1 Measurement0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0Years of Experience with Average Test ScoresAverage Test Scores All w/ Training Training w/ NCCER w/out Training All 56.155.256.861.958.762. 258.255.060.057.864.5 w/ Training 53.155.958.661.459.663. 155.555.960.564.167.0 Training w/ NCCER 45.355.353.058.558.263. 052.660.561.166.368.1 w/out Training 58.953.753.463.156.260. 864.544.059.048.060.8 012345678910 Figure B-41. Graph of Corrosion Preventi on Field Technician 1Measurement comparing years of experience and average scores between All, With Training, With NCCER Traini ng, and Without Training Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1Measurement data results show for this craft the highest test scores for the categorie s: All with a score of 64.5 at 10 years; With Training with a score of 67.0 at 10 years; W ith NCCER Training with a score of 68.1 at 10 years; and Without Training with a score of 64.5 at 6 years. The lowest test scores for the categories: All with a scor e of 55.0 at 7 years; With Tr aining with a score of 53.1 at 0 years; With NCCER Training w ith a score of 45.3 at 0 year s; Without Training with a score of 44.0 at 7 years.

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130 Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 20.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0Years of Experience with Average Test ScoresAverage Test Scores All w/ Training Training w/ NCCER w/out Training All 54.151.455.954.755.062. 960.059.459.061.159.0 w/ Training 54.252.655.456.656.662. 762.559.456.560.357.8 Training w/ NCCER 56.850.352.260.156.068. 563.579.867.070.969.2 w/out Training 53.949.857.149.949.8 63.355.867.264.061.6 012345678910 Figure B-42. Graph of Corrosion Prevention Field Technician2 comparing years of experience and average scores betwee n All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training Corrosion Prevention Field Technician2 da ta results show for this craft the highest test scores for the cat egories: All with a score of 62.9 at 5 years; With Training with a score of 62.7 at 5 years; With NCCE R Training with a scor e of 79.8 at 7 years; and Without Training with a score of 67.2 at 8 years. The lowest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 51.4 at 1 y ear; With Training with a score of 52.6 at 1 year; With NCCER Training with a score of 50.3 at 1 year; Without Training with a score of 49.8 at 1 and 4 years.

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131 Corrosion Prevention Field Technician30.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0Years of Experience with Average Test ScoresAverage Test Scores All w/ Training Training w/ NCCER w/out Training All 69.066.368.569.463.669. 066.963.464.166.371.6 w/ Training 77.667.366.765.567.370. 066.963.462.863.066.8 Training w/ NCCER 76.074.073.872.076.084. 067.079.580.774.074.8 w/out Training 54.764.474.886.059.2 67.666.968.086.079.7 012345678910 Figure B-43. Graph of Corrosion Prevention Fi eld Technician -3 comparing years of experience and average scores betwee n All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training Corrosion Prevention Field Technician -3 data results show for this craft the highest test scores for the cat egories: All with a score of 71.6 at 10 years; With Training with a score of 77.6 at 1 year; With NCCER Tr aining with a score of 84.0 at 5 years; and Without Training with a score of 86.0 at 3 ye ars. The lowest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 63.4 at 7 year s; With Training with a score of 62.8 at 8 years; With NCCER Training w ith a score of 67.0 at 6 year s; Without Training with a score of 54.7 at 0 years.

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132 Electrical & Instrumentation Pipeline Technician0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0Years of Experience with Average Test ScoresAverage Test Scores All w/ Training Training w/ NCCER w/out Training All 65.465.870.563.574.868. 770.369.374.157.267.0 w/ Training 60.066.469.266.573.667. 771.668.576.356.566.4 Training w/ NCCER 61.764.559.967.086.060. 076.563.080.352.070.0 w/out Training 68.765.272.551.076.169. 968.471.568.659.068.6 012345678910 Figure B-44. Graph of Electrical and Instru mentation Pipeline T echnician comparing years of experience and average scores between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training Electrical and Instrumentation Pipeline Techni cian data results show for this craft the highest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 7 4.8 at 4 years; With Training with a score of 76.3 at 8 years; With NCCER Training with a score of 86.0 at 4 years; and Without Training with a score of 76.1 at 4 years. Th e lowest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 57.2 at 9 year s; With Training with a score of 56.5 at 9 years; With NCCER Training w ith a score of 52.0 at 9 year s; Without Training with a score of 51.0 at 3 years.

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133 Field and Control Center Operations Technician0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0Years of Experience with Average Test ScoresAverage Test Scores All w/ Training Training w/ NCCER w/out Training All 69.372.975.874.172.775.473.072.677.675.474.3 w/ Training 72.773.676.773.372.879.971.573.978.577.777.5 Training w/ NCCER 71.073.474.376.574.777.781.085.079.875.382.3 w/out Training 67.872.075.075.272.569.075.070.676.571.371.4 012345678910 Figure B-45. Graph of Field and Control Cent er Operations Technician comparing years of experience and average scores betw een All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training Field and Control Center Operations Technici an data results show for this craft the highest test scores for the cat egories: All with a score of 77.6 at 8 years; With Training with a score of 79.9 at 5 years; With NCCE R Training with a scor e of 85.0 at 7 years; and Without Training with a score of 76.5 at 8 years. The lowest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 69.3 at 0 year s; With Training with a score of 71.5 at 6 years; With NCCER Training w ith a score of 71.0 at 0 year s; Without Training with a score of 69.0 at 5 years.

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134 Gas Maintenance Specialty0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0Years of Experience with Average Test ScoresAverage Test Scores All w/ Training Training w/ NCCER w/out Training All 82.770.057.079.075.373.670.792.076.062.079.3 w/ Training 64.092.057.074.774.077.070.074.062.079.0 Training w/ NCCER 80.0 w/out Training 92.048.092.076.060.072.092.080.080.0 012345678910 Figure B-46. Graph of Gas Maintenance Speci alty comparing years of experience and average scores between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training Gas Maintenance Specialty data results show for this craft the highest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 92.0 at 7 years; With Training with a score of 92.0 at 1 year; With NCCER Training with a scor e of 80.0 at 5 years; and Without Training with a score of 92.0 at 0, 3, and 7 years. The lowest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 57.0 at 2 years; With Trai ning with a score of 57.0 at 2 years; With NCCER Training with a score of 80.0 at 5 years; Without Trai ning with a score of 48.0 at 1 year.

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135 Gas Pipeline Operations0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0Years of Experience with Average Test ScoresAverage Test Scores All w/ Training Training w/ NCCER w/out Training All 74.065.767.568.360.369.475.072.573.082.076.0 w/ Training 74.065.764.967.160.371.873.072.573.086.076.0 Training w/ NCCER 68.360.959.065.056.069.377.070.067.586.073.5 w/out Training 75.073.373.560.083.078.0 012345678910 Figure B-47. Graph of Gas Pi peline Operations compari ng years of experience and average scores between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training Gas Pipeline Operations data results show for this craft the highest test scores for the categories: All with a scor e of 82.0 at 8 years; With Tr aining with a score of 86.0 at 9 years; With NCCER Training w ith a score of 86.0 at 9 years; and Without Training with a score of 83.0 at 6 years. The lowest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 60.3 at 4 years; With Training with a scor e of 60.3 at 4 years; With NCCER Training with a score of 56.0 at 4 years; Without Tr aining with a score of 60.0 at 5 years.

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136 HVAC0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0Years of Experience with Average Test ScoresAverage Test Scores All w/ Training Training w/ NCCER w/out Training All 59.955.065.261.664.866.066.375.067.867.063.8 w/ Training 40.773.065.162.365.866.366.475.075.768.854.0 Training w/ NCCER 66.055.061.076.054.0 w/out Training 67.137.066.059.059.565.365.044.058.070.3 012345678910 Figure B-48. Graph of HVAC co mparing years of experience and average scores between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training HVAC data results show for this craft the highest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 75.0 at 7 years; With Trai ning with a score of 75.7 at 8 years; With NCCER Training with a score of 76.0 at 7 years; and Without Training with a score of 37.0 at 6 years. The lowest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 55.0 at 1 year; With Training with a score of 40.7 at 0 years; With NCCER Training with a score of 54.0 at 10 years; Without Training with a score of 37.0 at 1 year.

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137 Industrial Carpenter0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0Years of Experience with Average Test ScoresAverage Test Scores All w/ Training Training w/ NCCER w/out Training All 54.255.259.858.661.365.263.567.164.461.465.4 w/ Training 52.353.359.560.559.866.963.268.366.662.266.6 Training w/ NCCER 57.354.364.657.167.767.962.370.062.470.763.5 w/out Training 55.558.760.155.164.463.164.065.861.559.663.2 012345678910 Figure B-49. Graph of Industrial Carpenter co mparing years of experience and average scores between All, With Traini ng, With NCCER Trai ning, and Without Training Industrial Carpenter data results show for th is craft the highest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 67.1 at 7 year s; With Training with a score of 68.3 at 7 years; With NCCER Training w ith a score of 70.7 at 9 years; and Without Training with a score of 66.8 at 7 years. The lowest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 54.2 at 0 years; With Training with a scor e of 52.3 at 0 years; With NCCER Training with a score of 54.3 at 1 year; Without Tr aining with a score of 55.1 at 3 years.

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138 Industrial Electrician0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0Years of Experience with Average Test ScoresAverage Test Scores All w/ Training Training w/ NCCER w/out Training All 45.351.556.458.561.263.365.064.765.766.567.6 w/ Training 48.752.958.360.262.365.066.165.966.467.668.5 Training w/ NCCER 46.953.660.960.366.367.568.468.669.470.167.7 w/out Training 43.248.351.854.759.059.162.062.264.164.165.7 012345678910 Figure B-50. Graph of Industrial Electrician comparing years of e xperience and average scores between All, With Traini ng, With NCCER Trai ning, and Without Training Industrial Electrician data results show for this craft the highest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 67.6 at 10 year s; With Training with a score of 68.5 at 10 years; With NCCER Training w ith a score of 70.1 at 9 years; and Without Training with a score of 65.7 at 10 years. The lowest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 45.3 at 0 years; With Training with a scor e of 48.7 at 0 years; With NCCER Training with a score of 46.9 at 1 year; Without Tr aining with a score of 43.2 at 0 years.

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139 Industrial Insulator0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0Years of Experience with Average Test ScoresAverage Test Scores All w/ Training Training w/ NCCER w/out Training All 56.153.756.958.962.363.367.865.168.667.766.8 w/ Training 55.752.557.360.762.066.067.164.970.265.867.4 Training w/ NCCER 46.353.151.861.767.576.538.067.986.375.189.0 w/out Training 56.455.556.555.562.859.668.765.666.772.365.9 012345678910 Figure B-51. Graph of Industr ial Insulator comparing year s of experience and average scores between All, With Traini ng, With NCCER Trai ning, and Without Training Industrial Insulator data results show for this craft the highest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 68.6 at 8 year s; With Training with a score of 70.2 at 8 years; With NCCER Training w ith a score of 89.0 at 10 years; and Without Training with a score of 72.3 at 9 years. The lowest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 53.7 at 1 year; With Training with a score of 52.5 at 1 year; With NCCER Training with a score of 38.0 at 6 year; Without Training with a score of 55.5 at 1 and 3 years.

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140 Industrial Ironworker0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0Years of Experience with Average Test ScoresAverage Test Scores All w/ Training Training w/ NCCER w/out Training All 61.166.767.770.071.871.673.175.875.175.974.5 w/ Training 60.166.766.870.772.572.373.175.875.575.074.1 Training w/ NCCER 66.271.080.076.075.578.068.573.983.677.373.9 w/out Training 62.366.768.869.370.870.573.275.774.677.274.9 012345678910 Figure B-52. Graph of Industrial Ironworker comparing years of experience and average scores between All, With Traini ng, With NCCER Trai ning, and Without Training Industrial Ironworker data resu lts show for this craft the highest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 75.9 at 9 year s; With Training with a score of 75.8 at 7 years; With NCCER Training w ith a score of 80.0 at 2 years; and Without Training with a score of 77.2 at 9 years. The lowest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 61.1 at 0 years; With Training with a scor e of 60.1 at 0 years; With NCCER Training with a score of 66.2 at 6 years; Without Tr aining with a score of 62.3 at 0 years.

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141 Industrial Maintenance Electrician0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0Years of Experience with Average Test ScoresAverage Test Scores All w/ Training Training w/ NCCER w/out Training All 52.162.353.357.964.257.255.058.065.865.458.1 w/ Training 56.069.551.559.364.054.955.658.169.865.457.2 Training w/ NCCER 63.059.057.067.0 w/out Training 50.548.057.055.064.360.152.057.559.062.5 012345678910 Figure B-53. Graph of Industrial Maintenance Electrician comparing years of experience and average scores between All, W ith Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training Industrial Maintenance Electrician data resu lts show for this craft the highest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 65.8 at 8 years; With Training with a score of 69.8 at 8 years; With NCCER Training with a score of 67.0 at 9 years; and Without Training with a score of 64.3 at 4 years. The lowest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 52.1 at 0 years; With Trai ning with a score of 51.5 at 2 years; With NCCER Training with a score of 57.0 at 7 years; Without Trai ning with a score of 48.0 at 1 year.

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142 Industrial Maintenance Mechanic0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0Years of Experience with Average Test ScoresAverage Test Scores All w/ Training Training w/ NCCER w/out Training All 50.952.955.155.360.760.260.161.964.956.362.6 w/ Training 52.153.055.155.261.361.459.962.265.955.963.0 Training w/ NCCER 60.059.043.058.062.0 w/out Training 49.450.056.056.554.755.161.360.058.367.058.2 012345678910 Figure B-54. Graph of Industrial Maintenan ce Mechanic comparing years of experience and average scores between All, W ith Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training Industrial Maintenance Mechanic data result s show for this craft the highest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 64.9 at 8 years; With Training with a score of 65.9 at 8 years; With NCCER Training with a score of 62.0 at 5 years; and Without Training with a score of 67.0 at 9 years. The lowest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 50.9 at 0 years; With Trai ning with a score of 52.1 at 0 years; With NCCER Training with a score of 43.0 at 3 years; Without Trai ning with a score of 49.4 at 0 years. Training with a score of 52.1 at 0 years; With NCCER Training with a score of 43.0 at 3 years; Without Training w ith a score of 49.4 at 0 years.

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143 Industrial Millwright0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0Years of Experience with Average Test ScoresAverage Test Scores All w/ Training Training w/ NCCER w/out Training All 59.861.066.463.964.864.265.865.965.667.266.2 w/ Training 59.661.866.564.765.665.166.166.366.467.765.9 Training w/ NCCER 64.269.071.668.071.466.869.372.172.470.767.1 w/out Training 60.258.666.061.761.861.164.364.463.165.766.9 012345678910 Figure B-55. Graph of Industrial Millwright co mparing years of experience and average scores between All, With Traini ng, With NCCER Trai ning, and Without Training Industrial Millwright data results show for th is craft the highest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 67.2 at 9 year s; With Training with a score of 67.7 at 9 years; With NCCER Training w ith a score of 72.4 at 8 years; and Without Training with a score of 66.9 at 10 years. The lowest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 59.8 at 0 years; With Training with a scor e of 59.6 at 0 years; With NCCER Training with a score of 64.2 at 0 years; Without Training with a score of 58.6 at 1 year.

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144 Industrial Painter0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0Years of Experience with Average Test ScoresAverage Test Scores All w/ Training Training w/ NCCER w/out Training All 54.056.262.563.564.067.968.166.371.071.668.9 w/ Training 57.557.464.363.464.468.969.668.073.675.470.6 Training w/ NCCER 64.562.263.157.877.075.076.278.075.385.077.0 w/out Training 52.754.459.663.763.166.664.961.166.566.065.7 012345678910 Figure B-56. Graph of Industrial Painter co mparing years of expe rience and average scores between All, With Traini ng, With NCCER Trai ning, and Without Training Industrial Painter data results show for this craft th e highest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 71.6 at 9 year s; With Training with a score of 75.4 at 9 years; With NCCER Training w ith a score of 85.0 at 9 years; and Without Training with a score of 66.6 at 5 years. The lowest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 54.0 at 0 years; With Training with a score of 57.4 at 1 year ; With NCCER Training with a score of 57.8 at 3 years; Without Trai ning with a score of 52.7 at 0 years.

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145 Industrial Pipefitter0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0Years of Experience with Average Test ScoresAverage Test Scores All w/ Training Training w/ NCCER w/out Training All 50.950.457.460.561.764.065.966.168.268.267.9 w/ Training 52.750.557.861.362.064.065.766.768.567.768.0 Training w/ NCCER 52.750.759.059.260.166.868.068.370.671.367.8 w/out Training 49.650.156.758.961.464.166.165.167.869.367.6 012345678910 Figure B-57. Graph of Industrial Pipefitter comparing years of experience and average scores between All, With Traini ng, With NCCER Trai ning, and Without Training Industrial Pipefitter data results show for this craft the highest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 68.2 at 8 and 9 years; With Training w ith a score of 68.5 at 8 years; With NCCER Training with a score of 71.3 at 9 years; and Without Training with a score of 69.3 at 9 years. The lowest te st scores for the categor ies: All with a score of 50.4 at 1 year; With Training with a scor e of 50.5 at 1 year; With NCCER Training with a score of 50.7 at 1 year; Without Tr aining with a score of 49.6 at 0 years.

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146 Instrumentation Fitter0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0Years of Experience with Average Test ScoresAverage Test Scores All w/ Training Training w/ NCCER w/out Training All 67.267.067.369.169.672.071.273.273.571.175.8 w/ Training 67.566.568.771.670.373.370.772.672.669.975.6 Training w/ NCCER 59.468.475.070.969.567.670.267.270.071.6 w/out Training 66.667.963.266.768.369.472.074.574.473.476.1 012345678910 Figure B-58. Graph of Industrial Fitter compar ing years of experien ce and average scores between All, With Trai ning, With NCCER Training, and Without Training Industrial Fitter data results show for this craft the hi ghest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 75.8 at 10 year s; With Training with a score of 75.6 at 10 years; With NCCER Training w ith a score of 75.0 at 3 years; and Without Training with a score of 76.1 at 10 years. The lowest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 67.0 at 1 year; With Training with a score of 66.5 at 1 year; With NCCER Training with a score of 59.4 at 0 years; Without Trai ning with a score of 63.2 at 2 years.

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147 Instrumentation Technician0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0Years of Experience with Average Test ScoresAverage Test Scores All w/ Training Training w/ NCCER w/out Training All 64.268.269.269.773.175.871.577.377.478.075.6 w/ Training 65.568.468.971.474.477.173.178.277.678.375.6 Training w/ NCCER 70.261.863.065.573.372.175.077.576.784.071.9 w/out Training 61.567.670.561.668.268.168.174.276.376.775.7 012345678910 Figure B-59. Graph of Instrumentation Techni cian comparing years of experience and average scores between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training Instrumentation Technician data results show for this craft the highest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 78.0 at 9 years; With Training with a score of 78.3 at 9 years; With NCCER Trai ning with a score of 84.0 at 9 years; and Without Training with a score of 76.7 at 9 years. The lowest te st scores for the categor ies: All with a score of 64.2 at 0 years; With Training with a sc ore of 66.5 at 0 years; With NCCER Training with a score of 61.8 at 1 year; Without Tr aining with a score of 61.5 at 0 years.

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148 Mechanical Pipeline Technician0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0Years of Experience with Average Test ScoresAverage Test Scores All w/ Training Training w/ NCCER w/out Training All 67.467.565.766.768.569.269.868.771.868.667.2 w/ Training 71.767.265.867.768.272.268.968.170.568.366.8 Training w/ NCCER 63.069.066.168.568.170.868.376.869.074.069.7 w/out Training 65.467.865.665.669.166.471.169.673.469.267.7 012345678910 Figure B-60. Graph of Mechanical Pipeline Te chnician comparing years of experience and average scores between All, W ith Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training Mechanical Pipeline Technician data result s show for this craft the highest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 71.8 at 8 years; With Training with a score of 72.2 at 5 years; With NCCER Training with a score of 76.8 at 7 years; and Without Training with a score of 73.4 at 8 years. The lowest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 65.7 at 2 years; With Trai ning with a score of 63.0 at 0 years; With NCCER Training with a score of 63.0 at 0 years; Without Trai ning with a score of 65.6 at 2 and 3 years.

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149 Non-Destructive Testing0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0Years of Experience with Average Test ScoresAverage Test Scores All w/ Training Training w/ NCCER w/out Training All 56.072.090.085.056.096.082.064.0 w/ Training 56.072.056.096.064.0 Training w/ NCCER 56.056.064.0 w/out Training 90.085.082.0 24141526283032 Figure B-61. Graph of Non-Destructive Te sting comparing years of experience and average scores between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training Non-Destructive Testing data results show fo r this craft the highest test scores for the categories: All with a scor e of 96.0 at 28 years; With Tr aining with a score of 96.0 at 28 years; With NCCER Training with a scor e of 64.0 at 32 years; and Without Training with a score of 90.0 at 14 years. The lowest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 56.0 at 0 years; With Training with a score of 56.0 at 0 and 26 years; With NCCER Training with a score of 56.0 at 0 and 26 years; Without Training with a score of 82.0 at 30 years.

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150 Pipeline Maintenance Technician62.0 64.0 66.0 68.0 70.0 72.0 74.0 76.0 78.0 80.0Years of Experience with Average Test ScoresAverage Test Scores All w/ Training Training w/ NCCER w/out Training All 69.869.370.372.973.173.674.174.075.274.275.3 w/ Training 72.469.471.672.973.274.373.974.775.974.376.1 Training w/ NCCER 70.571.071.274.475.675.670.577.674.876.776.7 w/out Training 67.469.267.872.773.171.974.672.273.773.873.4 012345678910 Figure B-62. Graph of Pipeline Mechanical T echnician comparing years of experience and average scores between All, W ith Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training Pipeline Mechanical Technician data results show for this craft the highest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 75.3 at 10 years; With Training with a score of 76.1 at 10 years; With NCCER Training with a score of 77.6 at 7 years; and Without Training with a score of 74.6 at 6 years. The lowest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 69.8 at 0 years; With Trai ning with a score of 69.4 at 1 year; With NCCER Training with a score of 70.5 at 0 and 6 years; Without Training with a score of 67.4 at 0 years.

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151 Scaffold Builder0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0Years of Experience with Average Test ScoresAverage Test Scores All w/ Training Training w/ NCCER w/out Training All 64.762.665.366.067.768.469.870.168.969.371.4 w/ Training 68.464.367.166.768.967.870.270.769.969.973.4 Training w/ NCCER 64.055.367.665.465.069.969.469.362.962.070.7 w/out Training 60.660.062.464.864.769.569.168.967.468.168.2 012345678910 Figure B-63. Graph of Scaffold Builder co mparing years of experience and average scores between All, With Traini ng, With NCCER Trai ning, and Without Training Scaffold Builder data results show for th is craft the highest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 71.4 at 10 year s; With Training with a score of 73.4 at 10 years; With NCCER Training w ith a score of 70.7 at 10 years; and Without Training with a score of 69.5 at 5 years. The lowest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 62.6 at 1 year; With Training with a score of 64.3 at 1 year; With NCCER Training with a score of 55.3 at 1 year; Without Trai ning with a score of 60.0 at 1 year.

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152 Abnormal Operating Conditions Control Center10.01% 12.68% 11.36% 9.78% 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 14.00%Coefficient of Variation (%) All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-64. Graph of Coefficient of Va riation of Abnormal Operating ConditionsControl Center. Abnormal Operating Conditions Gas6.55% 7.36% 19.16% 9.37% 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00%Coefficient of Variation (%) All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-65. Graph of Coefficient of Variat ion of Abnormal Operating ConditionsGas.

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153 Abnormal Operating Conditions General8.50% 8.42% 8.66% 7.64% 7.00% 7.20% 7.40% 7.60% 7.80% 8.00% 8.20% 8.40% 8.60% 8.80%Coefficient of Variation (%) All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-66. Graph of Coefficient of Va riation of Abnormal Operating ConditionsGeneral Boiler Technician16.02% 16.65% 21.30% 15.81% 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00%Coefficient of Variation (%) All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-67. Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Boiler Technician.

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154 Boilermaker18.40% 14.21% 16.73% 16.05% 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 14.00% 16.00% 18.00% 20.00%Coefficient of Variation (%) All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-68. Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Boilermaker. Commercial Carpenter12.73% 12.29% 13.04% 17.97% 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 14.00% 16.00% 18.00% 20.00%Coefficient of Variation (%) All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-69. Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Commercial Carpenter.

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155 Commercial Electrician15.50% 16.34% 18.08% 15.28% 13.50% 14.00% 14.50% 15.00% 15.50% 16.00% 16.50% 17.00% 17.50% 18.00% 18.50%Coefficient of Variation (%) All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-70. Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Commercial Electrican. Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1 Installation7.41% 7.96% 9.17% 6.87% 0.00% 1.00% 2.00% 3.00% 4.00% 5.00% 6.00% 7.00% 8.00% 9.00% 10.00%Coefficient of Variation (%) All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-71. Graph of Coefficient of Variat ion of Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1 Installation.

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156 Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1 Measurement10.90% 11.74% 19.32% 13.81% 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00%Coefficient of Variation (%) All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-72. Graph of Coefficient of Variat ion of Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1 Measurement. Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 213.41% 14.23% 18.91% 19.02% 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 14.00% 16.00% 18.00% 20.00%Coefficient of Variation (%) All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-73. Graph of Coefficient of Variat ion of Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 2.

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157 Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 312.87% 17.34% 12.05% 17.55% 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 14.00% 16.00% 18.00% 20.00%Coefficient of Variation (%) All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-74. Graph of Coefficient of Variat ion of Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 3. Electrical & Instrumentation Pipeline Technician6.85% 7.88% 11.78% 8.12% 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 14.00%Coefficient of Variation (%) All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-75. Graph of Coefficient of Variati on of Electrical and Instrumentation Pipeline Technician.

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158 Field and Control Center Operations Technician6.70% 7.29% 8.88% 5.38% 0.00% 1.00% 2.00% 3.00% 4.00% 5.00% 6.00% 7.00% 8.00% 9.00% 10.00%Coefficient of Variation (%) All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-76. Graph of Coefficient of Variati on of Field and Control Center Operations Technician. Gas Maintenance Specialty12.32% 11.92% 12.61% 17.02% 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 14.00% 16.00% 18.00%Coefficient of Variation (%) All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-77. Graph of Coefficient of Va riation of Gas Maintenance Specialty.

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159 Gas Pipeline Operations7.77% 8.41% 10.78% 9.06% 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00%Coefficient of Variation (%) All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-78. Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Gas Pipeline Operations. HVAC10.18% 12.72% 14.91% 17.11% 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 14.00% 16.00% 18.00%Coefficient of Variation (%) All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-79. Graph of Coeffici ent of Variation of HVAC.

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160 Industrial Carpenter10.53% 10.86% 11.23% 11.70% 9.80% 10.00% 10.20% 10.40% 10.60% 10.80% 11.00% 11.20% 11.40% 11.60% 11.80%Coefficient of Variation (%) All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-80. Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Industrial Carpenter. Industrial Electrician10.17% 9.54% 10.61% 11.92% 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 14.00%Coefficient of Variation (%) All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-81. Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Industrial Electrician.

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161 Industrial Insulator13.07% 12.24% 19.97% 15.05%0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00%Coefficient of Variation (%) All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-82. Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Industrial Insulator. Industrial Ironworker9.07% 8.19% 9.09% 8.99%7.60% 7.80% 8.00% 8.20% 8.40% 8.60% 8.80% 9.00% 9.20%Coefficient of Variation (%) All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-83. Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Industrial Ironworker.

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162 Industrial Maintenance Electrician9.69% 11.01% 11.79% 11.97%0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 14.00%Coefficient of Variation (%) All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-84. Graph of Coefficient of Variat ion of Industrial Main tenance Electrician. Industrial Maintenance Mechanic11.56% 10.96% 19.87% 12.39%0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00%Coefficient of Variation (%) All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-85. Graph of Coefficient of Vari ation of Industrial Ma intenance Mechanic.

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163 Industrial Millwright9.95% 7.66% 8.49% 10.68%0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00%Coefficient of Variation (%) All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-86. Graph of Coefficient of Variation of I ndustrial Millwright. Industrial Painter 11.81% 12.30% 13.47% 14.96%0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 14.00% 16.00%Coefficient of Variation (%) All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-87. Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Industrial Painter.

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164 Industrial Pipefitter 10.36% 10.64% 10.96% 9.97%9.40% 9.60% 9.80% 10.00% 10.20% 10.40% 10.60% 10.80% 11.00% 11.20%Coefficient of Variation (%) All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-88. Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Indus trial Pipefitter. Instrumentation Fitter 13.64% 13.53% 10.67% 10.25%0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 14.00% 16.00%Coefficient of Variation (%) All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-89. Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Instrumentation Fitter.

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165 Instrumentation Technician 7.36% 7.01% 11.28% 10.01%0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00%Coefficient of Variation (%) All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-90. Graph of Coefficient of Va riation of Instrumentation Technician. Mechanical Pipeline Technician 6.21% 7.05% 8.60% 6.08%0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00%Coefficient of Variation (%) All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-91. Graph of Coefficient of Vari ation of Mechanical Pipeline Technician.

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166 Non-Destructive Testing 20.54% 24.11% 7.87% 4.72%0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% 30.00%Coefficient of Variation (%) All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-92. Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Non-De structive Testing. Pipeline Maintenance 7.60% 5.71% 5.76% 8.36%0.00% 1.00% 2.00% 3.00% 4.00% 5.00% 6.00% 7.00% 8.00% 9.00%Coefficient of Variation (%) All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-93. Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Pipeline Maintenance.

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167 Scaffold Builder 8.59% 9.69% 14.41% 7.71%0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 14.00% 16.00%Coefficient of Variation (%) All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-94. Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Scaffold Builder. All Trades14.34% 14.32% 15.29% 15.77%13.50% 14.00% 14.50% 15.00% 15.50% 16.00%Coefficient of Variation (%) All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training Figure B-95. Graph of Coefficien t of Variation of All Trades.

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168 LIST OF REFERENCES Associated Builders and Contractors, “C raft Training,” Associated Builders and Contractors 2004, http://www.abc.org/wmspage.cfm?parm1=1284 last accessed September 15, 2004. The Associated General Contractors of Am erica, “Craft Training,” The Associated General Contractors (AGC) of America 2004, http://www.agc.org/page.ww?section=E ducation+%26+Training&name=Craft+Tra ining last accessed September 15, 2004. The Associated General Contr actors of America NM, “Appr enticeship,” The Associated General Contractors (AGC) of Amer ica New Mexico Building Branch 2004, http://www.agc-nm.org/w-apprentice.php lasted accessed September 15, 2004. Bilginsoy, Cihan, “The Hazards of Training: Attrition and Retention in Construction Industry Apprenticeship Programs,” I ndustrial & Labor Relations Review Oct. 2003: Vol.57, Issue 1, 54-68. Building and Construction Trades Departme nt AFL-CIO, “A Preliminary Report on Associated Builders and Contractors Appr enticeship Training: Flawed and Failing Initiatives,” Building & Constructi on Trades Department Oct. 2003, http://www.bctd.org/training/ABCreport.html lasted accessed September 20, 2004. Bradley, David, Ph.D., Stephen Herzenberg, Ph.D., and Keystone Research Center, “Construction and Apprenticeship and Trai ning in Pennsylvania,” Capital Area Labor-Management Council, Inc. Constr uction Partnership C oordination Project 2002, http://www.bctd.org/tra ining/studies/PennStudy.pdf last accessed September 20, 2004. Builders Guild, “Trade Me Apprenticeship Recruitment Program,” Builders Guild 2004, http://www.buildersguild.org/careers/ last accessed September 13, 2004. Bureau of Labor Statistics, US Department of Labor, “Constructi on,” Career Guide to Industries 2004-05 Edition 9 Mar. 2004, http://www.bls.gov/oco/cg/cgs003.htm last accessed October 1, 2004. Center to Protect Workers’ Rights, “Cente r to Protect Workers’ Rights Supplementary Charts,” Indiana University Division of Labor Studies 2004, http://www.labor.iu.edu/organizeindiana/ PDF%20Files/BuildingT radesManuals/CP WR-2004Sup-ALL-tcd1.pdf last accessed September 16, 2004.

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169 Cox, Robert F., Ph.D and Raja R.A. Issa, Ph.D., J.D., P.E., “Craft Training In The Construction Industry,” Ri nker School of Building C onstruction University of Florida 2004. Grogan, Tim and Staff, “The Dilemma of Good Times: More Work, Fewer Workers,” Engineering News-Record 30 Oct. 2000: 10. Krizan, William G., “Training: Boot Camps Give a Leg Up,” Engineering News-Record 27 Sept. 1999: 29. Libert, Lee, “Apprenticeship Program s with the Union Building Trades,” TheHighSchoolGraduate.com 2004, http://www.thehighschoolgraduate.com/editorial/AC/ACtrades.htm last accessed September 16, 2004. Liska, Roger, Dr. and Yogesh V. Bansal, “NCCER Training Resear ch,” Construction Science and Management Depart ment at Clemson University. Nasvik, Joe, “Training for Everyone: Se minar Providers—A Guide to Training Opportunities In The Concrete Industry,” Concrete Construction Jul. 2002: 39 National Institute for Literacy, “Adult and Fa mily Literacy in the United States: Key Issues for the 21st Century,” National Institute for Literacy 1999, http://www.nifl.gov/nifl/po licy/whpap.html#How%20Many last accessed September 20, 2004. National Center for Construction Educati on and Research, “About NCCER,” National Center for Construction E ducation and Research 2002, http://www.nccer.org/About_NCCER/about_home.asp last accessed September 16, 2004. National Center for Construction Education and Research, “National Craft Assessment and Certification Program,” National Ce nter for Construction Education and Research Gainesville, FL, Jan. 2004: 12, 18. New York State Trial Lawyers Associati on, “The ‘Scaffold Law’: An Essential Protection for Immigrant Constr uction Workers,” NYSTLA Jun. 2004, http://www.nystla.org/nicecontent/documents/LL240%20Immigrants%20and%20C onstruction.pdf last accessed October 1, 2004. Norton, Lin, “Using Assessment Criteria As Learning Criteria: A Case Study In Psychology,” Assessment and Eval uation in Higher Education Dec. 2004: Vol. 29, No. 6, 687-703. Prentice Hall, “Online Cata log,” CraftTraining.com 2004, http://www.prenhall.com/crafttr aining/html/catalog/catalog.pdf last accessed September 20, 2004.

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170 Vicent, Jeff and Vlahakis, George, “IU study: Union Apprenticeship Programs May Be Crucial In Future Development Projects, ” Indiana University Media Relations 12 Jul. 2004, http://newsinfo.iu.edu/news/page/normal/1525.html last accessed September 20, 2004.

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171 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Susanna Catalano was born in Pompa no Beach, Florida. She attended the University of Florida where she graduated with a Bachelor of Design in 2002. She attended graduate school at the M.E. Rinker, Sr. School of Building Construction at the University of Florida, graduating with a Ma ster of Science in Building Construction in 2004.


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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0008820/00001

Material Information

Title: Critical Analysis of Craft Skills Assessment Testing Instruments
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0008820:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0008820/00001

Material Information

Title: Critical Analysis of Craft Skills Assessment Testing Instruments
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0008820:00001


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Full Text












CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF CRAFT SKILLS
ASSESSMENT TESTING INSTRUMENTS















By

SUSANNA DONATA CATALANO


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2004

































Copyright 2004

by

Susanna Donata Catalano

































To my loving family: Mom, Dad, and RoRo.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I thank my family for their unconditional love and support. Words can not capture

how thankful I am to have been blessed with two wonderful parents, Remo and Gladys

Catalano. They have given me extraordinary support throughout all aspects of my entire

college career. My sister, RoRo, I thank for her words of wisdom and her willingness to

stop whatever she is doing to encourage and motivate her little sister.

I thank my committee advisors for their help and insight toward my thesis. Special

thanks go to Dr. Robert Cox for his knowledge, encouragement and counseling, which

were all key components in helping me complete my thesis. I thank Dr. Raymond Issa

for his knowledge and continued support. I would also like to thank Dr. Leon

Wetherington.

I thank the National Center for Construction Education and Research for providing

the NCCER Training Research conducted by Dr. Roger Liska and Yogesh V. Bansal

from the Construction Science and Management Department at Clemson University.

Special thanks go to Dr. George Casella from the Department of Statistics and Dr.

Robert Stroh from the College of Design, Construction and Planning at the University of

Florida for their statistical advice. Also, special thanks go to the UF ETD Computing

Help Desk staff and Vijay Villavan for his expertise in helping to reformat my thesis.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

LIST OF TA BLE S ........... ....................... ......... ......... ..............vii

LIST OF FIGURES ................................. .. ... .. ..................x

A B STR A C T ........................................................................................ ....... ..................xviii

CHAPTER

1 IN TR O D U C T IO N ............................................................. .. ......... ...... .....

State ent of P problem ........................................................... ......... ............ 1
O b j e c tiv e s ................................................................. ...................................... 1
M eth o d o lo g y ....................................................................................... 1
Scope and Lim stations ........................................ ..... ................ .. 3
O v erview of R research ........................................................... ........ ............... 3


2 L ITER A TU R E R E V IEW .................................................................... ....................4

Training Program s ...................... ............................ .. ......... ....... 5
U union P program s .................................................................................. .. 6
N on-U nion Program s........... .......................................................... ...............
A ssessm ent and Evaluation ........................................ ................................. 9
Sum m ary of Literature R review ......................................................... ............... 13


3 M E T H O D O L O G Y ...................................... ................................... .................... ... 14

Introduction ......................................................................................................14
T h e P ro c e s s ............................................................................................................ 1 4
A acquisition of D ata........... ........................................ .................. .. .... .. .... 14
L iteratu re R ev iew ......................................................................... ...... ... 15
D ata A n aly ses ................................................................... ............... 15
C conclusion ...................1................. 17





v









4 DATA AND ANALYSIS........................................................................ 18

D ata E x p lan atio n .............................................................................. .......... .. .. 18
Statistical F am iliarity ......................................................................... ........ .......... 19
Tables of Statistical A nalysis......................................................... .. ............... 21
Review and Discussion of Data from Average Scores.............................................24
Review of Data for Average Scores with 0-10 Years of Experience ....................28
H isto g ram s ...................... .. .. ......... .. .. .............................................. 3 0
Sum m ary of D ata A analysis ...... ............. ................ ....................... ............... 35


5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................. 39

Sy n op sis of R research ................ ..... ......... .. .. ........................ ....................39
Recommendations for Future Research.................... ...........................44


APPENDIX

A: TABLES OF STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ...................................... ............... 45

T ables of A v erage Scores ......................................... ....................... ....................56


B: GRAPHS OF AVERAGE SCORES.................................................................... 89

Data of Average Scores with 0-10 Years of Experience ............... ............... 120

LIST O F R EFER EN CE S ......... ............................. .............................. ............... 168

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .............. ............................................................. 171
















LIST OF TABLES

Table pge

2-1 New Apprentices in Construction by Year and Program Type..............................6

4 -1 A ll T rad es .............................. .......... ..... .......................................2 2

4-2 Average Scores by Craft and Categories....................................... ............... 24

A-i Abnormal Operating Conditions-Control Center................... .......................... 45

A-2 Abnormal Operating Conditions-Gas..................... .... ......................... 45

A-3. Abnormal Operating Conditions-General................................. ............. ............ 46

A-4 Boiler Technician ............ ...... ..... ......... ............ ........ ... .............46

A -5 B o ilerm ak er ...................... .. ............. .. ................................................4 6

A -6 C om m ercial C carpenter ..................................................................... ..................47

A -7 C om m ercial E lectrician ......................................... .............................................47

A-8. Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1-Installation.................. .............. 47

A-9 Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1-Measurement ......................................48

A-10 Corrosion Prevention Field Technician-2 ..................................... .................48

A-11 Corrosion Prevention Field Technician-3 ..................................... .................48

A-12 Electrical and Instrumentation Pipeline Technician ..........................................49

A-13 Field and Control Center Operations Technician.............. .... ...............49

A -14 G as M maintenance Specialty ........................................................... .....................49

A -15 G as Pipeline O operations ......... ................. ................... ................... ............... 50

A-16 HVAC .............. ........ ......... ..... ................50

A-17 Industrial Carpenter.............................................. 50









A -18 Indu trial E electrician ........................................................................ .................. 5 1

A -19 Industrial Insulator .......................................... .. .. ............. ......... 51

A -20 Indu strial Ironw orker........................................................................ ..................5 1

A-21 Industrial M maintenance Electrician...................................... ......................... 52

A-22 Industrial M maintenance M echanic ........................................ ........................ 52

A -23 Indu trial M illw right ........................................................................ .................. 52

A-24 Industrial Painter .......................................... .. ................... 53

A -2 5 Indu trial P ipefitter.......................................................................... ................... 53

A -26 Instrum entation F itter...................................................................... ...................53

A-27 Instrumentation Technician................................................ 54

A -28 M echanical Pipeline Technician ........................................ ......................... 54

A -29 N on-D destructive Testing ................................................ .............................. 54

A -30 Pipeline M maintenance Technician ........................................ ........................ 55

A -31 Scaffold B builder ............................................ .. .. ........... ......... 55

A -32 A ll T rades ........................................................................................................55

A-33 Average Scores by Craft and Categories....................................... ............... 56

A-34 Abnormal Operating Conditions-Control Center: T-Test and F-Test...................57

A-35 Abnormal Operating Conditions-Gas: T-Test and F-Test.....................................58

A-36 Abnormal Operating Conditions-General: T-Test and F-Test.............................59

A-37 Boiler Technician: T-Test and F-Test...................................................................60

A -38 B oilerm aker: T-Test and F-Test........................................ ........................... 61

A-39 Commercial Carpenter: T-Test and F-Test ................................... .................62

A-40 Commercial Electrician: T-Test and F-Test.................................. ...............63

A-41 Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1-Installation: T-Test and
F -T e st ............................................................................. 6 4









A-42 Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1-Measurement: T-Test and
F -T e st ............................................................................. 6 5

A-43 Corrosion Prevention Field Technician-2: T-Test and F-Test ..............................66

A-44 Corrosion Prevention Field Technician-3: T-Test and F-Test ..............................67

A-45 Electrical and Instrumentation Pipeline Technician: T-Test and F-Test..................68

A-46 Field and Control Center Operations Technician: T-Test and F-Test....................69

A-47 Gas Maintenance Specialty: T-Test and F-Test...................................................70

A-48 Gas Pipeline Operations: T-Test and F-Test................................. ...... ...............71

A -49 H V A C : T-Test and F-Test............................................... ............................. 72

A-50 Industrial Carpenter: T-Test and F-Test........................................ ............... 73

A-51 Industrial Electrician: T-Test and F-Test ...................................... ............... 74

A -52 Industrial Insulator: T-Test and F-Test ........................................ .....................75

A-53 Industrial Ironworker: T-Test and F-Test............................ ...................76

A-54 Industrial Maintenance Electrician: T-Test and F-Test......................................77

A-55 Industrial Maintenance Mechanic: T-Test and F-Test.............. ... ........... 78

A-56 Industrial Millwright: T-Test and F-Test ...................................... ............... 79

A-57 Industrial Painter: T-Test and F-Test ............................................ ............... 80

A-58 Industrial Pipefitter: T-Test and F-Test......................................... ............... 81

A-59 Instrumentation Fitter: T-Test and F-Test........................................................82

A-60 Instrumentation Technician: T-Test and F-Test....................... ...............83

A-61 Mechanical Pipeline Technician: T-Test and F-Test ............................................84

A-62 N on-Destructive Testing: T-Test and F-Test ........................................ ................85

A-63 Pipeline Maintenance Technician: T-Test and F-Test ............................................86

A-64 Scaffold Builder: T-Test and F-Test ............................................. ............... 87

A -65 A ll Trades: T-Test and F-T est...................................................................... .. .... 88
















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

1-1 Flow chart of M ethodology......... ................. ................... ................. ............... 2

2-1 An Example of the NCCER Craft Assessment Program Overview..........................8

2-2 Distribution of Construction Workers Who are Racial Minorities ..................... 11

2-3 Distribution of Hispanic Construction Workers............... .... .................12

4-1 Graph of Abnormal Operating Conditions- Control Center................................25

4-2 Graph of Corrosion Prevention Field 1-Measurement...........................................26

4-3 Graph of Gas M maintenance Specialty.................................................. ............... 27

4-4 Graph of Electrical and Instrumentation Pipeline Technician .............. ...............28

4-5 Graph of Abnormal Operating Conditions-General..............................................29

4-6 Histogram of All Crafts Including All Categories. ...............................................30

4-7 Histogram of Category All Comparing Average Scores, Frequency, and
Cumulative Percentages .................. ....................................

4-8 Histogram of Category With Training Comparing Average Scores,
Frequency, and Cumulative Percentages ...................................... ............... 32

4-9 Histogram of Category With NCCER Training Comparing Average Scores,
Frequency, and Cumulative Percentages ...................................... ............... 33

4-10 Histogram of Category Without Training Comparing Average Scores,
Frequency, and Cumulative Percentages ...................................... ............... 34

4-11 Graph of Abnormal Operating Conditions Control Center Comparing
C oefficient of V ariation. ........... ........... ........ .... .......... ....... ................. 35

5-1 NCCER Assessment Test Questionnaire on Training .......................... ..........40

5-2 Question on Form al Training. ............................................................................41









5-3 Question on By W hom ................................................. ................................ 42

5-4 Question on Experience Type. ............................................................................ 42

5-5 Question on Education Level. ............................................................................43

5-6 Q u estion on A ge ..... .... ... ............................................... .................. .... 43

5-7 Question on Have You Taken This Test Before. ...........................................43

B-l Graph of Abnormal Operating Conditions-Control Center Comparing Average
Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and
W without T raining ............................................................................ ................ .. 89

B-2 Graph of Abnormal Operating Conditions-Gas Comparing Average Scores
Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training.........90

B-3 Graph of Abnormal Operating Conditions-General Comparing Average Scores
Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and
W without Training. ..................... ...... ............................... ........... .... 91

B-4 Graph of Boiler Technician Comparing Average Scores Between All, With
Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training .....................................92

B-5 Graph of Boilermaker Comparing Average Scores Between All,
With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training ............................93

B-6 Graph of Commercial Carpenter Comparing Average Scores Between All,
With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training ............................94

B-7 Graph of Commercial Electrician Comparing Average Scores Between All,
With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training ............................95

B-8 Graph of Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1-Installation
Comparing Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER
T raining,and W without Training ..................................................... .....................96

B-9 Graph of Corrosion Prevention Field 1-Measurement Comparing Average
Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and
W without T raining ....... .... ...... .... ........ ...................... .... ................ .. 97

B-10 Graph of Corrosion Prevention Field Technician-2 Comparing Average Scores
Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training,and
W without T raining .................................................................. ........ ....... .. 98

B-11 Graph of Corrosion Prevention Field Technician-3 Comparing Average Scores
Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training,
and W without Training ......................... ........... ........ ...............99









B-12 Graph of Electrical and Instrumentation Pipeline Technician Comparing
Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training,
an d W ith out T raining ....................................................... .......... .................... 100

B-13 Graph of Field and Control Center Operations Technician Comparing Average
Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and
W without T raining ....... .... ...... .... ........ .................... .... ................ .. 10 1

B-14 Graph of Gas Maintenance Specialty Comparing Average Scores Between
All,With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training .....................102

B-15 Graph of Gas Pipeline Operations Comparing Average Scores Between
All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training .................103

B-16 Graph of HVAC Comparing Average Scores Between All, With Training,
W ith NCCER Training, and W without Training ............................... ... ............... 104

B-17 Graph of Industrial Carpenter Comparing Average Scores Between All,
With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training ............................105

B-18 Graph of Industrial Electrician Comparing Average Scores Between All,
With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training ............................106

B-19 Graph of Industrial Insulator Comparing Average Scores Between All,
With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training .............................107

B-20 Graph of Industrial Ironworker Comparing Average Scores Between All,
With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training .............................108

B-21 Graph of Industrial Maintenance Electrician Comparing Average Scores
Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training.......109

B-22 Graph of Industrial Maintenance Mechanic Comparing Average Scores Between
All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training ......................110

B-23 Graph of Industrial Millwright Comparing Average Scores Between All,
With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training ............................ 111

B-24 Graph of Industrial Painter Comparing Average Scores Between All,
With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training ..........................112

B-25 Graph of Industrial Pipefitter Comparing Average Scores Between All,
With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training ..........................113

B-26 Graph of Instrumentation Fitter Comparing Average Scores Between All, With
Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training .............. ...............114









B-27 Graph of Instrumentation Technician Comparing Average Scores Between
All,With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training ....................115

B-28 Graph of Mechanical Pipeline Technician Comparing Average Scores
Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and
W without Training ............. ... ............ ....................... ...... ....116

B-29 Graph of Non-Destructive Testing Comparing Average Scores Between
All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training ......................117

B-30 Graph of Pipeline Maintenance Comparing Average Scores Between All, With
Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training .................................... 118

B-31 Graph of Scaffold Builder Comparing Average Scores Between All,
With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training ..........................119

B-32 Graph of All Trades Comparing Average Scores Between All,
With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training ...........................120

B-33 Graph of Abnormal Operating Conditions- Control Center Comparing
Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training,
W ith NCCER Training, and W without Training .................................................121

B-34 Graph of Abnormal Operating Conditions- Gas Comparing Years of Experience
and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER
T raining, and W without Training .................................................. .....................122

B-35 Graph of Abnormal Operating Conditions- General Comparing Years of
Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER
Training, and W without Training ........................................ ......................... 123

B-36 Graph of Boiler Technician Comparing Years of Experience and Average
Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and
W without T raining ....... .... ...... .... ........ .................... .... ................ .. 124

B-37 Graph of Boilermaker Comparing Years of Experience and Average Scores
Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training ......125

B-38 Graph of Commercial Carpenter Comparing Years of Experience and Average
Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and
W without T raining ....... .... ...... .... ........ .................... .... ................ .. 126

B-39 Graph of Commercial Electrician Comparing Years of Experience and Average
Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and
W without T raining ....... .... ...... .... ........ .................... .... ................ .. 127









B-40 Graph of Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1-Installation
Comparing Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All,
With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training ...........................128

B-41 Graph of Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1-Measurement Comparing
Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training,
W ith NCCER Training, and W without Training .................................................129

B-42 Graph of Corrosion Prevention Field Technician-2 Comparing Years of
Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER
Training, and W without Training ........................................ ......................... 130

B-43 Graph of Corrosion Prevention Field Technician-3 Comparing Years
of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER
Training, and W without Training ........................................ ......................... 131

B-44 Graph of Electrical and Instrumentation Pipeline Technician Comparing
Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With
NCCER Training, and W without Training .................................... ......... ......... 132

B-45 Graph of Field and Control Center Operations Technician Comparing
Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With
NCCER Training, and W without Training .................................... ......... ......... 133

B-46 Graph of Gas Maintenance Specialty Comparing Years of Experience and
Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and
W without T raining ....... .... ...... .... ........ .................... .... ................ .. 134

B-47 Graph of Gas Pipeline Operations Comparing Years of Experience and Average
Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and
W without Training ............. ... ............ ....................... ...... ....135

B-48 Graph of HVAC Comparing Years of Experience and Average Scores
Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training .......136

B-49 Graph of Industrial Carpenter Comparing Years of Experience and
Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and
W without T raining ......... ................ .................... .... ................ .. 137

B-50 Graph of Industrial Electrician Comparing Years of Experience and
Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and
W without T raining ......... ................ ............................................ .. 138

B-51 Graph of Industrial Insulator Comparing Years of Experience and
Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and
W without T raining ...... ....................................................... ................ ............ 139









B-52 Graph of Industrial Ironworker Comparing Years of Experience and
Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and
W ith ou t T rain in g ...... .. .... .. .... .... .... .. ........ .. .................... .... ................ .. 14 0

B-53 Graph of Industrial Maintenance Electrician Comparing Years of
Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER
Training, and W without Training ........................................ ......................... 141

B-54 Graph of Industrial Maintenance Mechanic Comparing Years of
Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER
Training, and W without Training ........................................ ......................... 142

B-55 Graph of Industrial Millwright Comparing Years of Experience and
Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and
W without T raining ....... .... ...... .... ........ .................... .... ................ .. 143

B-56 Graph of Industrial Painter Comparing Years of Experience and Average Scores
Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and
W without Training ........................................................ ............ 144

B-57 Graph of Industrial Pipefitter Comparing Years of Experience and
Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and
W without T raining ....... .... ...... .... ........ .................... .... ................ .. 145

B-58 Graph of Industrial Fitter Comparing Years of Experience and Average
Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and
W without T raining ....... .... ...... .... ........ .................... .... ................ .. 146

B-59 Graph of Instrumentation Technician Comparing Years of Experience
and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and
Without Training ................ ....... ......... ................ .. 147

B-60 Graph of Mechanical Pipeline Technician Comparing Years of Experience and
Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and
W ith ou t T rain in g ........ .... ........ .. .. .. .. ...... .................... .... ................ .. 14 8

B-61 Graph of Non-Destructive Testing Comparing Years of Experience and Average
Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and
W without T raining ....... .... ...... .... ........ .................... .... ................ .. 149

B-62 Graph of Pipeline Mechanical Technician Comparing Years of Experience and
Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and
W without T raining ....... .... ...... .... ........ .................... .... .............. 150

B-63 Graph of Scaffold Builder Comparing Years of Experience and Average Scores
Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and
W without Training ............. ... ............ ....................... ...... ....151









B-64 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Abnormal Operating Conditions- Control
C en ter. .......................................................................... 15 2

B-65 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Abnormal Operating
Conditions-Gas................. ......... ................................... ... ........ 152

B-66 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Abnormal Operating
Conditions-G general ......................... ....... .... .. ...... ........... ... 153

B-67 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Boiler Technician..................................153

B-68 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Boilermaker...........................................154

B-69 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Commercial Carpenter ........... ..............154

B-70 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Commercial Electrican.............................155

B-71 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Corrosion Prevention Field
T technician 1-Installation ......... ................................................... ............... 155

B-72 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Corrosion Prevention Field
Technician 1-M easurem ent. ........................................... ............................. 156

B-73 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Corrosion Prevention Field
T ech n ician -2 ......................................................................................... 156

B-74 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Corrosion Prevention Field
Technician-3 ................ ...... ... ............. ....... .......... ......... 157

B-75 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Electrical and Instrumentation
Pipeline Technician. ....................... .................. .......................... 157

B-76 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Field and Control Center
O operations T echnician.......... .......................................................... .... .... ... ... 158

B-77 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Gas Maintenance Specialty.......................158

B-78 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Gas Pipeline Operations ...........................159

B-79 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of HVAC. ............... .......................159

B-80 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Industrial Carpenter................................160

B-81 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Industrial Electrician.............................160

B-82 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Industrial Insulator. ................................... 161

B-83 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Industrial Ironworker. .............................161









B-84 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Industrial Maintenance
E lectrician...................................................... ................... ........ ...... 162

B-85 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Industrial Maintenance
M mechanic. ......................................................................... 162

B-86 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Industrial Millwright .............. ...............163

B-87 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Industrial Painter ............ ................163

B-88 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Industrial Pipefitter.................................... 164

B-89 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Instrumentation Fitter ..............................164

B-90 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Instrumentation Technician.........................165

B-91 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Mechanical Pipeline
T technician. ........................................................ .......... ...... 165

B-92 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Non-Destructive Testing ...........................166

B-93 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Pipeline Maintenance.............................166

B-94 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of Scaffold Builder ........................................167

B-95 Graph of Coefficient of Variation of All Trades..............................167
















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Building Construction

CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF CRAFT SKILLS
ASSESSMENT TESTING INSTRUMENTS


By

Susanna Donata Catalano

December 2004

Chair: Robert Cox
Cochair: R. Raymond Issa
Major Department: Building Construction

Apprenticeships are programs where workers gain a broad amount of skills

necessary for their craft. Not only can workers take formal training courses, but

craftworkers may gain the skills for their craft from employers and other skilled

craftsmen on the jobsite.

The purpose of this thesis is to compare the assessment test scores of formally

trained craftworkers compared to those test scores of other craftworkers. This thesis

further examines the assessment test scores of thirty-one crafts from the National Center

for Construction Education and Research (NCCER) Training Research conducted by Dr.

Roger Liska and Yogesh V. Bansal from the Construction Science Management

Department at Clemson University.

The topics covered in this thesis are an introduction to the research; literature

review on apprenticeship training programs and demographics of craftsmen; the


xviii









methodology of the thesis; data and analysis of the results; conclusions and

recommendations based on the results; and appendices of all tables and graphs

representing all the crafts in this thesis.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Statement of Problem

The purpose of this thesis is to further examine the assessment test scores of thirty-

one crafts from the National Center for Construction Education and Research (NCCER)

Training Research conducted by Dr. Liska and Yogesh V. Bansal from the Construction

Science Management Department at Clemson University. This thesis will compare the

assessment test scores of formally trained craftworkers compared to those test scores of

other craftworkers.

Objectives

Apprenticeships are programs where workers gain a broad amount of skills

necessary for their craft. Not only can workers take formal training courses, but

craftworkers may gain the skills for their craft from employers and other skilled

craftsmen on the jobsite. Construction workers may start the workforce with little or no

training which can lead to problems in the industry as it continues to grow.

Before this thesis began, hypotheses were formed regarding the scores of formally

trained individuals compared to individuals without formal training:

1. Formally trained craftworkers will have higher assessment scores.

2. The assessment test scores will show a gradual improvement with an increase in the
years of experience.

Methodology

This thesis will use reported data conducted by Dr. Roger Liska and Yogesh V.

Bansal, which will be referred to as the Liska Study. A statistical analysis will be










performed on this data along with a review of research on material relating to this topic

will be explored. Figure 1-1 represents the methodology taken in this thesis:


NCCER 5 5
Train g Statistical Analysis 7
Research 1-. FCompare Results of
Conducted Ass t Statistical Fmdmigs
by Dr Test Data with Hypotheses and
Roger e te seset Tes wLiterature Find gs
Llaccompska anied by Microsoft Excel files. The Microsoft Excel files were organized by
i separate fes Literature Review
Yogesh V .. ..
Bansal
Figure 1-1. Flowchart of Methodology

From the methodology flowchart, number 1 is the NCCER Training Research

conducted by Liska and Bansal.

In number 2, the Assessment Test Data from NCCER was provided in book form

accompanied by Microsoft Excel files. The Microsoft Excel files were organized by

separate files for each individual craft.

In number 3, the data from NCCER Training Research was reviewed. In each

crafts' Excel file, the data was organized into tables and graphs. The Liska Study

displayed the statistical analysis by each craft. The categories provided were the

following: All, With Training, Training With NCCER and Years of Experience. Within

the categories: All, With Training and With NCCER Training, there were two

subcategories: Count and Average Score. The data from the tables were also put into

graphs comparing years of experience with the average scores.

In the number 4 part of the methodology flowchart, all the separated files from the

reported data from the Liska Study were compiled into one file. Compiling the separate

files into one file made the data more manageable to statistically analyze. Each craft was

kept separate from the next craft by the listing each craft by name.









In numbers 5 and 6, a statistical analysis was performed along with a literature

review of topics of this subject. The statistical analysis used is called descriptive

statistics. A detailed description of the statistical process is discussed in Chapter 3 of this

thesis.

After the statistical analysis and literature review, a comparison of the data results

with the hypotheses and literature findings were performed which are number 7 in the

flowchart of methodology. At this point, number 8, conclusions and recommendations

are accomplished by summarizing the findings from the analysis performed.

Scope and Limitations

The purpose of this thesis is to compare the assessment test scores of formally

trained craftworkers compared to those test scores of other craftworkers. The scope is

limited by the Liska Study. The limitations are the data reported by the Liska Study on

training. The data provided by the Liska Study were not accompanied with a written

description of their methodology for their research. Given these limitations, the results

and conclusions are limited to only the data reported in the NCCER Training Research.

Overview of Research

Chapter 2 of this study discusses the literature review on apprenticeship programs

in the construction industry. Chapter 3 further explains the methodology used to perform

this analysis of test scores among trained and non-trained craftworkers. The data and

analysis and discussion of results is found in Chapter 4. The conclusions and

recommendations is located in Chapter 5.














CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

In the construction industry, workers may enter the workforce without any formal

training. Workers acquire their skills by apprenticeships, by other employee provided

training or by informal on-the-job experience. The opportunities for education and

training in our industry today our endless, and the need for continuing education is

critical as our industry continues to grow and as construction becomes more complex

(Nasvik 2002)

Apprenticeship programs provide apprentices with extensive skills for their trade.

Apprenticeship combines employment and training in a formal framework whereby a

worker acquires broad-based skills required for practicing a trade via on-the-job training

(Bilginsoy 2003). Apprentices will usually accept lower wages during their training,

because the high cost of the training is usually provided by the employer. The employer

will eagerly pay for training since they can get back their costs later by highly trained

apprentices that are more proficient in the trade.

Workers pick up skills by working with more experienced workers and through

instruction provided by their employers. As they demonstrate their ability to perform

tasks they are assigned, they move to progressively more challenging work. As they

broaden their skills, they are allowed to work more independently, while responsibilities

and earnings increase (Bureau of Labor Statistics 2004).

With more apprentices in a program and completing the training, the more highly

skilled workers with higher productivity will be performing on the jobsite. The idea









behind this arrangement is for the apprentice not to quit the training program before the

employer can receive their return on investment. More companies are willing to help the

construction industry grow in a more productive and safer way by means of training.

One employer, Building One, pays their workers $6 an hour during first three weeks of

training and then they receive a $1.50 raise in the forth week. After six weeks, they get

another raise to $8.50 and become part of the formal 8,000-hour company apprenticeship

program that takes about four years to complete with a $2,000 bonus for completing the

entire apprenticeship (Krizan 1999).

Not only are companies willing to pay for training, but some companies will pay

for their workers' transportation and lodging during intensive training sessions which will

last a few weeks.

The construction industry's challenge is to attract and encourage individuals to

work in this industry. Many individuals view the construction industry as undignified,

filthy, and with minimal wages. According to sources, in the United States, seven out of

ten jobs require trade skills, not college (Builders Guild 2004). The construction industry

is large and will continue to grow, which means more skilled workers will be needed.

Construction is the second-largest industry in the nation, employing around 8 million

workers who build almost $800 billion in new structures (Grogan 2000).

Training Programs

The apprenticeship programs that meet the federal standards register with the

Bureau of Apprenticeship Training, BAT, of the Department of Labor or the BAT

recognized State Apprenticeship Councils, SACs. These organizations promote training

in the construction industry. These programs are organized either jointly by trade unions

and employers signatory to collective bargaining agreement in the organized sector, or










unilaterally by employers in the open-shop sector (Bilginsoy 2003). Training in the

construction industry is offered by union and nonunion affiliations, also known as joint

and non-joint programs. Table 2-1 below is an example of the breakdown of new

apprentices affiliated with union and non-union programs.

Table 2-1. New Apprentices in Construction by Year and Program Type (Building and
Construction Trades Department AFL-CIO 2003).
TOTAL REGISTRATIONS UNION REGISTRATIONS NON-UNION REGISTRATIONS
1992 23,937 70.8% 29.2%
1993 28,034 73.2% 26.8%
1994 34,677 71.8% 28.2%
1995 28,340 73.2% 26.8%
1997 43,303 69.5% 30.5%
1998 47,826 70% 30%
1999 56,713 71.2% 28.8%
2000 63,633 71.8% 28.2%
2001 60,131 70.8% 29.2%
1989- 467,980 71.6% 28.4%
2001
Union Programs

Union apprenticeship programs contribute a large portion of skilled workers in the

construction industry. According to 2003 labor statistics, unions enrolled 7,285 persons

or 83 percent of people in construction apprenticeships (Vicent 2004). There are several

types of joint apprenticeship programs across the United States.

Most of the programs contribute a predetermined amount into the training fund per

hour of labor employed (and hence the training costs are factored into the bids) and hire

apprentices; unions provide training coordinators, instructors, and participate in the

administration of the program; and trainees accept apprenticeship wages (Bradley 2002).

The apprentices of union programs will usually earn half the wage amount of a skilled

worker during their training, and upon completion will earn the full wage amount of a

skilled worker, journeyman. The workers also receive benefits when they are

participating in a joint apprenticeship program. The unions negotiate wages and benefits









high enough to encourage workers to make construction a career; because of high quit

rates, non-union firms that pay less well must continually retrain novices (Bradley 2002).

Unions will negotiate with contractors to formulate the proper training program for

apprentices. Most of the programs integrate on-the-job training with classroom

education. The union apprenticeship programs differ in length of duration between two

to five years of training. These programs usually combine structured, craft related

classroom instruction, 144 hours/year minimum, with on-the-job training under the

supervision of an experienced, journey level worker (Libert 2004).

Non-Union Programs

The National Center for Construction Education and Research. The NCCER is

a not-for-profit 501(c)(3) education foundation founded in 1995 by 11 of the world's

largest and most progressive construction companies and several national construction

associations (National Center for Construction Education and Research 2002). The

NCCER has developed a training program called the Contren Learning Series. This

program enables individuals to customize their career path in construction by allowing

them to choose which craft they want to learn. The Contren Learning Series has a

curriculum for over 30 craft trades.

Contren Learning Series curricula offers both perfect-bound and modular formats

permits a school to customize their construction program on either a straight craft track,

such as carpentry, electrical, welding, etc., or on a general track by combining modules

from a variety of trades (Prentice Hall 2004).

The programs are developed from collaborations within the construction industry to

create skill standards known throughout the industry. Since it is competency based, there

are written and performance tests for each module in the Contren Learning Series.









There are two course paths available to individuals, see Figure 2-1. The Craft

Assessment path is for a craftsperson who is experienced and the Craft Training path is

for an entry level craftsperson. From each path, a craftsperson has the opportunity to

receive a certificate of recognition or to be certified or receive a certified plus








1

Assessed Training
Prescribed


Optional






Figure 2-1. An example of the NCCER Craft Assessment Program Overview (National
Center for Construction Education Research 2002).

recognition. Taking the Craft Assessment path, an experience craftsperson will take a

journey level assessment and results will be given. From this point, an option to take a

written test or take the Contren Learning Series is arranged. If the craftperson takes the

written test and passes, they become certified. If they want to become certified plus a

performance verification is taken. If an individual does not want to take the written

assessment tests, the certificate of recognition is achievable.

The Associated General Contractors of America. The AGC of America was the

first formal training program to be acknowledged by BAT. In 1981, the U.S. Department









of Labor's Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training (BAT) recognized the AGC Model for

Unilateral Trainee Program Standards (Associated General Contractors of America

2004). The AGC of America apprenticeship program allows individuals to participate in

the program at their own pace.

They offer several advantages that make it more attractive to young workers than

more traditional time-based apprenticeship agreements. The programs are individualized,

and allows workers to advance at an accelerated pace, as they demonstrate competency.

The programs allow for advancement based upon demonstrated achievement of skills and

knowledge by the individual apprentice. The traditional term of training may be reduced

to not less than one-half the stated traditional term for the occupation. The program uses

curriculum developed by AGC (Associated General Contractors of America-NM 2004).

The curriculum brings together on-the-job experience with classroom training. The

AGC of America continues to collaborate with joint and non-joint contractors, as well as

the NCCER, to ensure an eminent training program.

The Associated Builders and Contractors. The ABC has approximately eighty

chapters nationwide. The formal training programs are registered with the U.S.

Department of Labor's Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training (BAT). In 1980, ABC

developed a training program called the Wheels of Learning (Associated Builders and

Contractors 2004). Since that program, ABC offers the Contren Learning Series,

developed by the National Center for Construction Education and Research. This

curriculum also includes on-the-job training combined with classroom learning.

Assessment and Evaluation

Assessment tests are given to evaluate or estimate the amount of knowledge and

skills an individual possesses on a particular subject. The assessment of an individual is









determined by documenting the number of correct answers given by the student. During

this literature review, the characterization of assessment tests is best captured by Norton.

Norton documents assessment below by quoting other's definitions:

According to Hornby (2003), assessment has four main roles: formative, to provide
support for future learning; summative, to provide information about performance
at the end of a course; certification, selecting by means of qualification; evaluative,
a means by which stakeholders can judge the effectiveness of the system as a
whole. Such a list is fairly typical but it omits one of the most powerful roles that
assessment can have, its effect not only on what students learn but how they learn.
Gibbs (1999) has suggested that since students see assessment as the curriculum,
effective teaching needs to use this knowledge in order to use the power of
assessment strategically to help students learn. Biggs (2002) makes the same point
when he says that students learn what they think will be assessed rather than what
is in the curriculum. This means that one of the pedagogical benefits of assessment
is that it can be used to act as a lever to make students actively engage with a given
task. Examinations have traditionally been used for this purpose throughout the
entire history of higher education, but the nature of the learning that they engender
is frequently passive and non-transformative (Scouller, 1998). Furthermore, as
Elton and Johnston (2002, p. 8) point out, examinations tend to test for the lower
levels in the hierarchy of knowledge, such as recall and simple applications rather
than for creativity, critical thinking or the development of academic and/or life
skills (Norton 2004).

As described above, assessment can take on multiple connotations. The purpose of

assessment is to quantify an individual's knowledge through examinations. As stated

above, some students are not retaining the curriculum as a whole; they are only retaining

what material they believe will be assessed. It is said that assessments are mostly testing

the lower levels of knowledge on a subject; this situation can lead to problems when

craftsmen are not passing assessment tests. Craftsmen on the jobsite that are not passing

assessment tests which are geared toward lower levels of knowledge in a specific craft

can affect the outcome of a productivity and quality of work performed on a jobsite.

Most of the assessment tests that are given in the craft related field are multiple

choice tests. Questions will be read by the test-taker and then the answer is bubbled onto

an answer sheet. Then the answer sheets are read by a computer which interprets the










answers on the sheet and returns with a score. With the Contren Learning Series, by

NCCER, there are computerized assessment tests. The test-takers read the question on

the computer screen and answer the questions on the computer. According to the

NCCER, within 15 minutes of receipt of the test answered, results should be available to

both Administrator and participant (National Center for Construction Education and

Research 2004).

Adult Literacy and Education

According to the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act in 1998, literacy is an

individual's ability to read, write, and speak in English, compute and solve problems, at

levels of proficiency necessary to function on the job, in the family of the individual, and

in society (National Center for Literacy 1999).


Laborer, helper









P aint



SOp eng eia
18%


'efirk o~aOer 2%
34

Figure 2-2. Distribution of Construction Workers Who are Racial Minorities (Center to
Protect Workers' Rights 2004).

In the construction industry, being able to communicate and reading

comprehension is vital for a successful jobsite. A large portion of workers are minorities

which can lead to a language barrier problem. It is extremely important that workers are










safe on a construction project. Figure 2-2 and 2-3 are pie charts representing the

percentage of racial minorities and Hispanics in the construction industry.




Cona iratTc n Imbs reo hrlypr
2304

304.t














Figure 2-3. Distribution of Hispanic Construction Workers (Center to Protect Workers'
Rights 2004).

Across the United States, about 40 million adults lack a high school credential, and

at least six million lack English language skills (National Institute for Literacy 1999).

Most of the individuals that fall under the category of illiterate cannot perform tasks that

require the simplest literacy and math skills. Most can function at a basic level, but need

to improve their skills in order to function more effectively at work, home, and the

community (National Institute for Literacy 1999). If individuals working on the j obsite

can not understand a substantial amount of English, then they are unable to ask questions

or participate in work related discussions. No communication on the jobsite could lead to

a large portion of work related injuries. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics,

construction is one of the most dangerous industries, accounting for a record high of

20.8% of all workplace deaths in 2001 with Latinos as the fastest share of growing share









of workforce in the construction industry (New York State Trial Lawyers Association

2004).

A large number of workers in the construction industry start their careers in

construction immediately after high school. Some workers have dropped out of high

school and began their construction career. Illiteracy is not solely restricted to high

school dropouts, but it is an issue not to be ignored. Most workers have not received any

formal training. Some laborers can learn there job within a few hours, but a journeyman

has several years of experience and training.

Summary of Literature Review

Workers in the construction industry are not required to participate in formal

training. Workers learn their skills by apprenticeships, by employee training or by

informal on the job training. Different formal training programs are discussed in the

literature review. Most of the apprenticeship programs fall under the category of union

and nonunion. All the topics covered in this literature review were:

* Training Programs: Union and Nonunion

* Assessment Test Evaluations

* Adult Literacy and Education in Construction

In the next chapter of this thesis, the methodology section will be discussed.














CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

Introduction

The purpose of this thesis was to determine if there was a difference between the

scores of formally trained individuals and other individuals. The research statistical

analysis was performed by using the reported skill assessment data from the Liska Study.

The Process

The following steps have been taken during this thesis:

1. Acquisition and Review of Data

2. Literature Review

3. Data Analyses

4. Conclusion

Acquisition of Data

The data from Liska Study was collected in two forms: by paper copy and by

computer generated data on CD's. The data provided and used for this research was in

the program Microsoft Excel. The data was in thirty-one separate files. In each crafts'

Excel file, the data was organized into tables and graphs. In the Liska Study, the tables

were displayed by each craft. The categories provided were: All, With Training, Training

With NCCER and Years of Experience. Within the categories: All, With Training and

With NCCER Training, there were two subcategories: Count and Average Score. The

data from the tables were also put into graphs comparing years of experience with the

average scores. Each of the separated files reported from the Liska Study were compiled









into one file. Compiling the separate files into one file made the data more manageable

to statistically analyze. Each craft was keep separate from the next craft by the listing

each craft by their name.

Literature Review

The literature review for this research was performed by using research from the

past five years. Topics of this subject were researched using scholarly journals and

internet websites relating to craft training.

Data Analyses

After the reported data was compiled into a single file, the statistical analysis was

performed by using the descriptive statistics. Microsoft Excel has a tool called data

analysis where the function descriptive statistics was used to aid in this research. This

function is able to compute the mean, median, standard error, mode, standard deviation,

sample variance, range, minimum, maximum, sum and count of the test scores. This

function was used on each craft in all the categories: All, With Training, With NCCER

Training, and Without Training.

This statistical function in Microsoft Excel became approximately 128 statistical

tables. From these tables, graphs were used to visually compute the data. The graphs

were created by also using Microsoft Excel's chart tool. Graphs for each of the thirty-one

crafts were created comparing: average scores between each category: All, With

Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training; average scores and years of

experiences in each category: All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without

Training; and histograms comparing average scores with frequency and cumulative

percentages. All of tables and figures from this thesis are displayed in Appendices A and

B and discussed in Chapter 4.









To further investigate if there is a significant difference between the assessment test

scores of formally trained craftworkers and other workers, the Coefficient of Variation,

an Unequal Variance t-test and an F-test were performed at a 95% confidence level.

Hypotheses were formed before the calculations were performed:

Ho: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test

scores of formally trained workers and other workers.

HA: There is a statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores

of formally trained workers and other workers.

After a meeting with Diane Greene from NCCER, it was suggested to take out the

pipeline disciplines, because the pipeline exams do not require the test taker to pass the

entire exam for the categorical skills recognition. Therefore, the following crafts were

removed: Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1- Installation; Corrosion Prevention

Field Technician 1- Measurement; Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 2; Corrosion

Prevention Field Technician 3; Electricaland Instrumentation Pipeline Technician, Field

and Control Center Operations Technician; Gas Maintenance Specialty; Gas Pipeline

Specialty; Mechanical Pipeline Technician; and Pipeline Maintenance. After analyzing

the data with the pipeline scores removed, there was not a difference in the results: the

scores were still higher with trained workers than other workers and there was still a

statistically significant difference between the scores of trained workers and other

workers in All Trades. Therefore, it was decided to include the pipeline scores in this

study. The tables and graphs from these calculations created in Microsoft Excel are

found in Appendices A and B.






17


Conclusion

In the last chapter of this thesis, the conclusion section will include the summary of

results from the analysis conducted on the reported data. Also, recommendations from

the findings will be discussed as well as future topics for future research on this topic.

The data will be will be discussed in detail in next chapter of this thesis which is

the Data and Analysis section.














CHAPTER 4
DATA AND ANALYSIS

Data Explanation

This chapter examines the test scores of formally trained individuals in comparison

to other individuals. A statistical analysis was performed by using the reported Liska

Study. The research documents thirty different crafts in the construction industry. The

Liska Study was a statistical analysis of the average test scores of individuals

characterized by trade, training, and years of experience. Listed below are the trades


included:

* Abnormal Operating Conditions Control Center

* Abnormal Operating Conditions Gas

* Abnormal Operating Conditions General

* Boiler Technician

* Boilermaker

* Commercial Carpenter

* Commercial Electrician

* Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1 Installation

* Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1 Measurement

* Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 2

* Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 3

* Electrical and Instrumentation Pipeline Technician

* Field and Control Center Operations Technician









* Gas Maintenance Specialty

* Gas Pipeline Operations

* HVAC

* Industrial Insulator

* Industrial Ironworker

* Industrial Maintenance Electrician

* Industrial Maintenance Mechanic

* Industrial Millwright

* Industrial Painter

* Industrial Pipefitter

* Instrumentation Technician

* Non-Destructive Testing

* Pipeline Maintenance Technician

* Scaffold Builder

Statistical Familiarity

In order to make sure the analysis performed in this thesis is a valid statistical

study, the advice from Dr. George Casella from the Department of Statistics and Dr.

Robert Stroh from the College of Design, Construction, and Planning at the University of

Florida was sought. After discussing the data and the researcher's limited statistical

experience, it was decided to summarize the data using tables, graphs and histograms.

By analyzing the data in those forms, there would be an adequate amount of information

to make conclusions. To test the significant difference among the scores of formally

trained craftworkers and other workers, additional statistical tests were performed: the









Coefficient of Variation, an Unequal Variance t-test and an F-test were performed at a

95% confidence level.

Using the reported NCCER Training Research data, a statistical analysis known as

descriptive statistics, was performed for this research. Brief explanations of some

statistical terms used in this research are discussed below:

Arithmetic mean. Also known as the average or mean. The average score is

computed by summing the scores and dividing by the total number of scores.

Median. The middle value in a distribution; an equal number of values are below

and above the median value.

Mode. The value occurring most frequent in the statistical data.

Standard deviation. Measures the variation in the distribution, computed by

taking the square root of the variance. Calculated by the taking the square root of squared

distances from the mean, then averaging the squared deviations.

Standard error. The value where the standard deviation is divided by the square

root of the sample size number.

Sample variance. Measures the variance of the sample mean.

Coefficient of variation. Measures the dispersion of a population.

t-Test. Measures if there is a statistical significant difference between two

populations with the level of confidence varying with the degrees of freedom.

F-test. Measures if there is a statistical significant difference among the variances

of two populations with a level of confidence varying with degrees of freedom.

In the following sections of this thesis, the data analysis is demonstrated in tables

and figures followed by written descriptions of findings.









Tables of Statistical Analysis

An example of the statistical analysis of the skills assessment test scores by craft is

in Table 4-1. The remainder of the tables for each craft is found in Appendix A. Table

4-1 is representing the average assessment test scores of the 31 crafts. The categories

represented below are: All, With Training, With NCCER Training and Without Training.

Looking at the category With Training, the data analysis is in categories followed by a

numerical value:

* Mean: The average test score of individual's with training is 71.11.

* Standard Error: The standard error of the test scores is 0.28.

* Median: The median of average test scores is 72.17.

* Mode The mode of average test scores is 76.00.

* Standard Deviation: The standard deviation of test scores is 10.18.

* Sample Variance: The variance of test scores is 103.66

* Range: The range of scores in this data set are 75.00

* Minimum: The minimum average score is 22.00.

* Maximum: The maximum average score is 97.00.

* Sum The sum of all the average scores is 91,241.

* Count: The total number of average scores in the With Training category is 1,283.

By understanding one category, comparisons among the other categories can be


made.











Table 4-1. All Trades
All With Training With NCCER Training Without Training


Mean 7055 Mean 7111 Mean 7226 Mean 6948
Standard Error 028 Standard Error 028 Standard Error 0 37 Standard Error 033
Median 71 51 Median 72 17 Median 7382 Median 7060
Mode 6900 Mode 7600 Mode 7700 Mode 5900
Standard Deviation 10 12 Standard Deviation 10 18 Standard Deviation 11 05 Standard Deviation 1096
Sample Vanance 102 38 Sample Variance 10366 Sample Vanance 122 13 Sample Vanance 120 12
Range 76 00 Range 75 00 Range 71 50 Range 79 00
Minlmum 21 00 Minimum 22 00 Mnumum 28 50 Minimum 21 00
Maximum 9700 Maximum 9700 Maximum 100 00 Maximum 100 00
Sum 94538 Sum 91241 Sum 63299 Sum 75592
Count 1340 Count 1283 Count 876 Count 1088


The results from the tables 4-1 and 4-2 will be discussed by categories: All, With


Training, With NCCER Training and Without Training.


Category All: The average test score ranged from the lowest with the Boiler


Technician at 53.97 to the highest score the Abnormal Operating Conditions- Gas at


85.62. The mean score for all trades in the category All is 70.55. The median score of


category All is 71.51, precisely 0.96 points above the average mean score for all trades in


the All category. The mode for this category is 69.00. The test scores ranged in this


category from the minimum score of 21.00 to the maximum score of 97.00.


Category With Training: The average score ranged from the lowest with the Boiler


Technician at 55.61 to the highest score in the Abnormal Operating Conditions- Gas at


86.36. The mean for all trades in the category With Training is 71.11. The median score


of category With Training is 72.17, precisely 1.06 points above the average mean score


for all trades in the With Training category. The mode for this category is 76.00. The


test scores ranged in this category from the minimum score of 22.00 to the maximum


score of 97.00.









Category With NCCER Training: The average score ranged from the lowest with

the Boiler Technician at 55.84 to the highest score in the Abnormal Operating

Conditions- Gas at 84.66. The mean for all trades in the category With NCCER Training

is 72.26. The median score of category With NCCER Training is 73.82, precisely 1.56

points above the average mean score for all trades in the With NCCER Training category.

The mode for this category is 77.00. The test scores ranged in this category from the

minimum score of 28.50 to the maximum score of 100.00.

Category Without Training: The average score ranged was from the lowest with the

Boiler Technician at 51.85 to the highest score in Non-Destructive Testing at 85.67. The

mean for all trades in the category Without Training is 69.48. The median score of

category Without Training is 70.62, precisely 1.14 points above the average mean score

for all trades in the With NCCER Training category. The mode for this category is

59.00. The test scores ranged in this category from the minimum score of 21.00 to the

maximum score of 100.00.

In the Table 4-2, the means from each of the crafts were compiled into one table to

compare the average scores in each category.















Table 4-2. Average Scores by Craft and Categories

All With Training

Mean Mean

Abnormal Operating Conditions Control Center 78 77 79 41

Abnormal Operating Conditions Gas 85 62 86 36

Abnormal Operating Conditions General 79 20 79 72

Boiler Technician 5397 5561

Boilermaker 63 52 65 20

Commercial Carpenter 5826 5901

Commercial Electrician 62 82 63 63

Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1 Installation 6861 68 99

Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1 Measurement 61 85 62 14

Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 2 59 77 59 82

Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 3 69 70 68 89

Electrical and Instrumentation Pipeline Technician 70 23 70 82

Field and Control Center Operations Technician 76 23 77 29

Gas Maintenance Specialty 76 42 74 39

Gas Pipeline Operations 7432 7421

HVAC 67 04 67 30

Industrial Carpenter 6981 7080

Industrial Electrician 71 06 71 83

Industrial Insulator 70 50 72 24

Industrial Ironworker 74 92 76 00

Industrial Maintenance Electrician 62 60 63 36

Industrial Maintenance Mechanic 64 26 65 43

Industrial Millwright 69 55 70 56

Industnal Painter 71 14 72 42

Industrial Pipefitter 69 30 69 20

Instrumentation Fitter 7441 75 14

Instrumentation Technician 77 37 77 40

Mechanical Pipeline Technician 74 52 74 98

Non-Destructive Testing 75 13 6880

Pipeline Maintenance 7795 78 19

Scaffold Builder 72 48 74 50


With NCCER Training

Mean

8304

8466

8136

5584

6640

6205

65 64

7038

5785

65 54

7868

6987

7791

7387

7076

6763

7150

7143

7281

7526

6494

6020

7353

76 18

7040

75 11

7493

7517

5867

7840

75 93


The average test score differences in each category are explored in the following



section, Review and Discussion of Data from Average Scores.





Review and Discussion of Data from Average Scores



Without a methodology section from the Liska Study, it is assumed the categories



were formed by vague demographic profiles, as seen in Figure 5-1. With broad


Without Training

Mean

7838

8436

7825

51 85

6231

5360

6075

6828

6082

6008

7232

7034

7553

81 30

7661

61 26

6761

6848

6794

7439

6021

5629

6788

6804

6930

7430

7528

7304

8567

7687

7687









demographic profiling questions asked, test takers may have incorrectly filled out the

questions. Inaccurately answering the demographic profiling questions may perhaps

record an individual's score in an incorrect category.

The following figures are graphic representations comparing some of the crafts'

average scores among the categories: All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and

Without Training. Only a few graphs will be discussed in this section to the show

differences between the categories. Examples of highest average scores from each

category With NCCER Training, With Training, and Without Training are shown. The

other graphs of each craft in this thesis are in Appendix B. The following graphs will

represent the differences among the categories, as well as the scattering of the highest

average scores among the crafts.


Abnormal Operating Conditions Control Center

84.00
83.04
83.00
2 82.00
o
c 81.00
80.00 79.41
78.77
S79.00 78.38
> 78.00
77.00
76.00

SAll U With Training E With NCCER Training E Without Training

Figure 4-1. Graph of Abnormal Operating Conditions- Control Center Comparing
Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and
Without Training.










Abnormal Operating Conditions Control Center data results, shown in Figure 4-1

and Figure B-1, of average scores are indicating that With NCCER Training has the

highest average score of 83.04, followed in descending order With Training with an

average score of 79.41, All with an average score of 78.77 and Without Training with an

average score of 78.38. The difference between the highest average score category and

the lowest average score category is 4.66 points.

With the lowest average score and highest score difference at 4.66, it is assumed

the difference among the categories is not larger due to the vague demographic profile

used to represent each category reported by the Liska Study.


Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1 -
Measurement

63.00 62
62.14
61.85
62.00
60.82
2 61.00 -
0
o
0 60.00
59.00
5. 57.85
o 58.00 -
? 57.00
56.00
55.00

All With Training O With NCCER Training 0 Without Training

Figure 4-2. Graph of Corrosion Prevention Field 1 Measurement Comparing Average
Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without
Training

Corrosion Prevention Field 1 Measurement data results, shown in Figure 4-2 and

Figure B-9,of average scores are indicating With Training has the highest average score

of 62.14; followed in descending order by All with an average score of 61.85; Without










Training with an average score of 60.14 and With NCCER Training with an average

score of 57.85. The difference between the leading average score category and the lowest

average score category is 4.29 points.

When the lowest average score and highest score difference is 4.29, it is again

assumed the difference among the categories is not larger due to the vague demographic

profile used to represent each category reported by the Liska Study.





Gas Maintenance Specialty

82.00 81.30

80.00
U)
0
8 78.00
_O 76.42
76.00
74.39
S74.00

72.00

70.00

SAll U With Training O With NCCER Training O Without Training

Figure 4-3. Graph of Gas Maintenance Specialty Comparing Average Scores Between
All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training

Gas Maintenance Specialty data results, shown in Figure 4-3 and Figure B-14, of

average scores are indicating Without Training with the highest average score of 81.30;

followed in descending order by category All with an average score of 76.42; With

Training with an average score of 74.39; and With NCCER Training with an average

score of 73.87. The difference between the leading average score category and the lowest

average score category is 7.43 points.












Without Training having the highest score difference among the previous graphs, it


is to be assumed the difference among the categories is not larger due to the inaccurate


answering and categorizing of the demographic profile questions.


Review of Data for Average Scores with 0-10 Years of Experience


The following figures are some of the craft's graphic representations from the


NCCER Training Research comparing the average scores and years of experience only


from 0-10 years among the categories: All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and


Without Training. The scores do not indicate a steady improvement with an increase in


years of experience, because all the crafts' scores are different among years of


experience; therefore the scores are not always improving with experience. Refer to the


following figures below for examples of scores are not always improving with


experience. The other graphs for each craft in this thesis are in Appendix B.


Electrical & Instrumentation Pipeline Technician
1000
90 0
80 0
700
S600
500
400
300
200
100
00
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
All 654 658 705 635 748 687 703 693 741 572 670
Sw/Training 600 664 692 665 736 677 716 685 763 565 664
Training w/NCCER 61 7 645 599 670 860 600 765 630 803 520 700
Sw/out Training 687 652 725 510 761 699 684 715 686 590 686
Years of Experience with Average Test Scores
1 All U w/ Training 0 Training w/ NCCER 0 w/out Training


Figure 4-4. Graph of Electrical and Instrumentation Pipeline Technician Comparing
Years of Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With
NCCER Training, and Without Training












Electrical and Instrumentation Pipeline Technician data results, shown in Figure 4-


4 and Figure B-44, show for this craft the highest test scores for the categories: All with a


score of 74.8 at 4 years; With Training with a score of 76.3 at 8 years; With NCCER


Training with a score of 86.0 at 4 years; and Without Training with a score of 76.1 at 4


years. The lowest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 57.2 at 9 years; With


Training with a score of 56.5 at 9 years; With NCCER Training with a score of 52.0 at 9


years; Without Training with a score of 51.0 at 3 years.


Abnormal Operating Conditions- General
82 0

80 0

780

760
I-
740

720

700
68 0 ...
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
All 769 772 778 788 781 794 788 795 792 787
Sw/Training 777 781 786 786 790 795 793 793 791 791
Training w/ NCCER 81 2 787 81 3 802 791 791 82 797 804 801
w/out Training 737 753 754 758 792 756 790 773 802 794 777
Years of Experience with Average Test Scores
SAll m w/ Training 0 Training w/ NCCER 0 w/out Training


Figure 4-5. Graph of Abnormal Operating Conditions- General Comparing Years of
Experience and Average Scores Between All, With Training, With NCCER
Training, and Without Training


Abnormal Operating Conditions- General data results, shown in Figure 4-5 and


Figure B-35, show for this craft the highest test scores for the categories: All with a score


of 79.5 at 8 years; With Training with a score of 90.3 at 0 years; With NCCER Training


with a score of 90.2 at 2 years; and Without Training with a score of 92.0 at 9 years. The


lowest test scores for the categories: All with a score of 76.9 at 1 year; With Training










with a score of 77.7 at 1 year; With NCCER Training with a score of 78.7 at 2 years;

Without Training with a score of 73.7 at 0 years.

Histograms

The following figures 4-6 to 4-10 are Histograms equating the average scores,

frequency, and cumulative percentages by the categories: All Crafts Including All

Categories, All, With Training, With NCCER Training, and Without Training. In the

histogram, the average scores are called "Bin" which is evenly distributed by using the

minimum and maximum of the data in an ascending order.


Histogram of All Crafts Including All Categories

>% 30 120.00%
S_ i-100.00%
S 20 80.00%
3 60.00% Frequency
4"10 1 l 40.00% -- Cumulative %
20.00%
LL 0 ]L.00%
51 85 54 98 58 12 61 26 64 4067 54 70 67 73 81 76 95 80 09 83 22 More
SFrequency 1 2 4 10 11 8 24 15 27 14 3 5
-u-Cumulative % 81% 2 425 651371 225829 03 48 39 60 48 822693 5595 97 100 0
Bin

Figure 4-6. Histogram of All Crafts Including All Categories Comparing Average Scores,
Frequency, and Cumulative Percentages of All Crafts Including All
Categories.

The highest scores in the histogram are at 76.95 with the highest frequency of 27.

The plotted histogram of All Crafts Including All Categories, shown in Figure 4-6,

indicates:

* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, .81% of the time the average score was
below 51.85 with a frequency of 1.

* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 2.42% of the time the average score was
below 54.98 with a frequency of 2 above the score of 51.85.

* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 5.65% of the time the average score was
below 58.12 with a frequency of 4 above the score of 54.98.










* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 13.71% of the time the average score was
below 61.26 with a frequency of 10 above the score of 58.12.

* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 22.58% of the time the average score was
below 64.40 with a frequency of 11 above the score of 61.26.

* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 29.03% of the time the average score was
below 67.54 with a frequency of 8 above the score of 64.40.

* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 48.39% of the time the average score was
below 70.67 with a frequency of 24 above the score of 67.54.

* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 60.48% of the time the average score was
below 73.81 with a frequency of 15 above the score of 70.67.

* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 82.26% of the time the average score was
below 76.95 with a frequency of 27 above the score of 73.81.

* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 93.55% of the time the average score was
below 80.09 with a frequency of 14 above the score of 76.95.

* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 95.97% of the time the average score was
below 83.22 with a frequency of 3 above the score 80.09.

* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 100% of the time the average score was
below 100 with a frequency of 5 above the score 83.22.


Histogram of Category All

15 120.00%
S-- -- 100.00%
S10- 80% Frequency
60.00%
oI 5 .40.00% Cumulative
S 20.00%
LLr -~^H ^ ^H ^H ^^ ~~\


U 5397 6030 6663 7296 7929 More
Frequency 1 2 5 11 11 1
-- Cumulative % 323% 968% 25 81% 61 29% 9677% 100 O0
Bin


- UU


%


Figure 4-7. Histogram of Category All Comparing Average Scores, Frequency, and
Cumulative Percentages

The highest scores in the Category All are the scores 72.96 and 79.29 both with the

highest frequency of 11. The plotted histogram of Category All, shown in Figure 4-7,

show for this craft indicates:


0%










* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 3.23% of the time the average score was
below 53.97 with a frequency of 1.

* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 9.68% of the time the average score was
below 60.30 with a frequency of 2 above the score of 53.97.

* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 25.81% of the time the average score was
below 66.63 with a frequency of 5 above the score of 60.30.

* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 61.29% of the time the average score was
below 72.96 with a frequency of 11 above the score of 66.63.

* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 96.77% of the time the average score was
below 79.29 with a frequency of 11 above the score of 72.96.

* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 100% of the time the average score was
below 100 with a frequency of 1 above the score 79.29.



Histogram of Category With Training


120.00%
100.00%
80.00%
60.00%
40.00%
20.00%
.00%


Frequency
-- Cumulative %


15

10 -

5 -

55 61 61 76 67 91 74 06 80 21 More
Frequency 1 2 6 10 11 1
- Cumulative % 323% 968% 29 03% 61 29% 96 77% 100 00%
Bin


Figure 4-8. Histogram of Category With Training Comparing Average Scores,
Frequency, and Cumulative Percentages

The highest average scores in the category With Training, shown in Figure 4-8, are

80.21 with the highest frequency of 11. The plotted histogram of Category With Training

show for this craft:

* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 3.23% of the time the average score was
below 55.61 with a frequency of 1.

* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 9.68% of the time the average score was
below 61.76 with a frequency of 2 above the score of 55.61.










* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 29.03% of the time the average score was
below 67.91 with a frequency of 6 above the score of 61.76.

* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 61.29% of the time the average score was
below 74.06 with a frequency of 10 above the score of 67.91.

* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 96.77% of the time the average score was
below 80.21 with a frequency of 11 above the score of 74.06.

* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 100% of the time the average score was
below 100 with a frequency of 1 above the score 80.21.



Histogram of Category With NCCER Training


120.00%
100.00%
80.00%
60.00%
40.00%
20.00%
.00%


15

10 -

5B

0 5584 61 60 67 37 7313 78 90 More
S Frequency 1 3 5 8 11 3
-m-Cumulative % 323% 1290% 2903% 5484% 9032% 100 00%
Bin


- Frequency
- Cumulative %


Figure 4-9 Histogram of Category With NCCER Training Comparing Average Scores,
Frequency, and Cumulative Percentages

The highest scores in the category With NCCER Training, shown in Figure 4-9, are

78.90 with a frequency of 11. The plotted histogram of Category With NCCER Training

show:

* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 3.23% of the time the average score was
below 55.84 with a frequency of 1.

* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 12.90% of the time the average score was
below 61.60 with a frequency of 3 above the score of 55.84.

* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 29.03% of the time the average score was
below 67.37 with a frequency of 5 above the score of 61.60.

* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 54.84% of the time the average score was
below 73.13 with a frequency of 8 above the score of 67.37.










* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 90.32% of the time the average score was
below 78.90 with a frequency of 11 above the score of 73.13.

* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 100% of the time the average score was
below 100 with a frequency of 3 above the score 80.21.



Histogram of Category Without Training

15 120.00%
S100.00%
10 80.00% Frequency
60.00%
I" 5 40.00% Cumulative %
20.00%
0 5185 5861 6537 7214 7890 More 00%
S Frequency 1 2 6 8 11 3
-U- Cumulative % 323% 968% 2903% 5484% 9032% 100 00%
Bin

Figure 4-10. Histogram of Category Without Training Comparing Average Scores,
Frequency, and Cumulative Percentages

Category Without Training, shown in Figure 4-10, had the highest frequency of 11

with an average score of 78.90. The plotted histogram of Category Without Training

indicate for this craft:

* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 3.23% of the time the average score was
below 51.85 with a frequency of 1.

* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 9.68% of the time the average score was
below 58.61 with a frequency of 2 above the score of 51.85.

* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 29.03% of the time the average score was
below 65.37 with a frequency of 6 above the score of 58.61.

* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 54.84% of the time the average score was
below 72.14 with a frequency of 8 above the score of 65.37.

* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 90.32% of the time the average score was
below 78.90 with a frequency of 11 above the score of 72.14.

* Average scores ranging from 0 to 100, 100% of the time the average score was
below 100 with a frequency of 3 above the score 78.90.









Additional Statistical Tests

Hypotheses were formed before the calculations were performed:

Ho: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test

scores of trained workers and other workers.

HA: There is a statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores

of trained workers and other workers.

To further investigate if there is a significant difference between the assessment test

scores of formally trained craftworkers and other workers, the Coefficient of Variation,

an Unequal Variance t-test and an F-test, shown in Appendices A and B, were performed

at a 95% confidence level.


Abnormal Operating Conditions Control Center

14.00% 12.680o
12.6800
12.00% 11.36c%
a 10.0100 9.780
.2 10.00% -

ca 8.00%
0
6.00%

.' 4.00%

2.00%

0.00%

SAll 0 With Training E With NCCER Training E Without Training

Figure 4-11. Graph of Abnormal Operating Conditions Control Center Comparing
Coefficient of Variation.

After performing a comparison of the Coefficient of Variation, a t-test was

performed followed by an F-test, shown in Table 4-3 and Table A-34.













Table 4-3. Abnormal Operating Conditions Control Center


Mean

Variance

Observations

Hypothesized Mean Difference

df

tStat

P(T<-t) one-tail

t Critical one-tail

P(T
t Critical two-tail


t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances


With Without
Training Training

79 41 78 38 Mean

101 43 5882 Variance

40 00 38 00 Observations

o 00 Hypothesized Mean Difference

7300 df

051 t Stat

031 P(T<-t) one-tail

1 67 t Critical one-tail

061 P(T
1 99 t Critical two-tail


F-Test Two-Sample for Variances


With Without With Without
Training Training NCCER Training

Mean 79 41 78 38 Mean 83 04 78 38

Variance 101 43 5882 Variance 8894 5882

Observations 40 00 38 00 Observations 27 00 38 00

df 3900 37 00 df 2600 37 00

F 1 72 F 151

P(F<=f) one-tail o05 P(F<=f) one-tail 0 12

F Critical one-tail 1 72 F Critical one-tail 1 80


In the t-test shown from Table 4-3, the first table comparing With Training and


Without indicates the t-Stat as 0.51 calculated from the data; P(T<=t) two tail as .61, this


is the calculation of probability of the t-value; and the T-Critical two tail at 1.99, which


means this is the number the t-value will need to exceed to be considered significantly


difference. By analyzing the table, it can be stated at a 95% confidence level that the


scores are not significantly different.


In the F-test shown from Table 4-3, the first table comparing With Training and


Without indicates F as 1.72 which is the variance ratio and the F-Critical one tail at 1.72.


Without
Training

7838

5882

3800


With
NCCER

8304

8894

2700

00

4900

212

002

1 68

004

201









By analyzing the table, it can be stated at a 95% confidence level that the variances of

assessment test scores are not significantly different.

Summary of Data Analysis

As stated in the Introduction, the hypotheses were formed regarding the scores of

formally trained individuals against other individuals:

* Trained craftworkers will have higher assessment scores.

* The assessment scores will show a gradual improvement with an increase in the
years of experience

After this study, the research on exploring the test scores of trained craftworkers

compared to other craftworkers demonstrates small differences between the two

categories. The trained craftworkers slightly had higher test scores compared to non-

trained craftworkers. After performing the t- and F-tests at a 95% confidence level, it is

concluded there is a significant difference between the assessment test scores of formally

trained workers compared to other workers in All Trades, shown in Table A-52. Not

every craft had a significant difference between the average test scores, except for the

Scaffold Builder. The Scaffold Builder t- and F-tests indicated there was a significant

difference between the scores of trained craftworkers and other workers. While the

Abnormal Operating Conditions-Gas, Commercial Carpenter, Corrosion Prevention Field

Technician 1-Installation, Electrical and Instrumentation Pipeline Technician, Field and

Control Center Operations Technician, HVAC, Industrial Electrician and Industrial

Insulator had a significant difference in the variances calculated by the F-test. The scores

did not show a steady improvement with an increase in years of experience, because all

the crafts were different among years of experience; the scores are not always improving

with an increase in years of experience.









The average scores were highest in the category With NCCER Training in 19 out

of 31 crafts followed by With Training in 8 out of 31 and Without Training in 4 out of 31

occurrences. It was assumed in the hypotheses Without Training would not have the

highest average scores, but as discussed before incorrect recording of the demographic

profile questions may have affected the outcome of this data.

In 8 out of the 31 crafts, nearly 26 percent of the average scores had a difference

greater than the 5.00 points. The smallest margin when comparing the lowest and highest

average scores in any category is 0.84 in Instrumentation Fitter shown in Figure B-26.

The highest margin when comparing the lowest and highest average scores is 27 in Non-

Destructive Testing shown in Figure B-29.

The lowest average scores were in the category Without Training in 22 out of 31

crafts followed by With NCCER Training in 5 out of 31 and With Training in 4 out of 31

occurrences. These differences in scores are further detailed in Chapter 5 with

conclusions and recommendations.














CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Synopsis of Research

Findings from this research do show trained craftsmen have a slightly higher

average on assessment tests than non-trained craftsmen. It should be noted once again

that the findings of this study are limited to the reported data from the Liska Study and

only applies to the crafts provided from the Liska Study. As stated in the Introduction,

hypotheses were formed regarding the scores of formally trained individuals against other

individuals and the results are:

* Trained craftworkers have higher assessment scores in 27 out of 31 crafts. After
performing the t- and F-tests at a 95% confidence level, it is concluded there is a
significant difference between the assessment test scores of formally trained
workers compared to other workers in All Trades. When analyzing each craft, it
was concluded not every craft had a statistical significant difference between the
average test scores, except for the Scaffold Builder. The Scaffold Builder t- and F-
tests indicated there was a significant difference between the scores of trained
craftworkers and other workers. While the Abnormal Operating Conditions-Gas,
Commercial Carpenter, Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1-Installation,
Electrical and Instrumentation Pipeline Technician, Field and Control Center
Operations Technician, HVAC, Industrial Electrician and Industrial Insulator had a
significant difference in the variances calculated by the F-test.

* The assessment scores comparing years of experience with average scores did not
show a gradual improvement with an increase in the years of experience. The lack
of consistency indicating an increase of scores with years of experience may have
occurred due to vague demographic profile questions asked of test takers.

The literature findings indicate trained workers perform at higher productivity

rates. The slightly higher average scores are affected by the demographic profile

questions asked of the test takers and possibly as discussed in the literature review a

language barrier problem with reading and writing in English. Figure A-32 shows a










graph of all trades comparing the categories: All, With Training, With NCCER Training,

and Without Training. In this graph, the difference between the average scores of With

Training and Without Training is only 1.63 points. The findings of this research may

help in revising the questions on the assessment tests. By changing the demographic

profile questions of the test takers, the test score data analysis might show a more

accurate representation of the categories.

OPTIONAL hi' Curril:z.i.nl i tp Tp=
Gender: 0 r,.nii ri1 0 Male 0 Blar~ not of Hipanic origin 0 Hispanic C0 ~om erial
0 LJr,,',,1 f- i% prj'^rrliai
0 Female 0 Amwan ndian Or Alaska fNabi 0 00thFr RiSadial
0 Other 0 UQuid Pipe"im
I I .0) 0 0000000 00 00 000 ONo FormalTraining C Gas Piplire
000000 00:, 0000 00000000
OO00000 0000000 00000000 y Wh Ep. aluie:
00000000 0000000 00000000 e Wh0conanuctin
00000000 00000Q0 00*0000 OAscillon OMeinlennc
00000000 0000000 00000000
00000000 0000000 00000000 OLocal OPipeline
O0000000 0000000 00000000
OO0000':': 0000000 000000 0 OConfactor
0000000O **eeeO0 00000000 School 3g42
Figure 5-1. NCCER Assessment Test Questionnaire on Training (National Center for
Construction Education and Research Jan. 2004).

During the data analysis, some further demographic information would have been

helpful in completing this study. Below are some possible questions that should be added

to the forms on assessment tests:










Formal Training Completed?
0 Yes ONo
If Yes, Select all that apply and
O NCCER
O Union
O School
O Other:
List Years of Training:
0 Less than or equal to 1
02
03
0 4
0 Greater than or equal to 5
Figure 5-2. Question on Formal Training.

The reported data conducted by the Liska Study used the original form in Figure 5-1

to determine the training category of craftsmen. By adding the question shown in Figure

5-2, individuals answering the question will have a clearer understanding of the question

being asked on formal training. As the question is stated shown in Figure 5-1, an

individual that may not have completed a formal training program may have answered

"Yes" on the form in the category of Training, instead of the accurate answer, "No". Not

answering the question properly, may affect the average score data outcome of categories

between With Training and Without Training by categorizing incorrect average scores in

the category.









Training Conducted By Whom:


O Association
0 Union
0 Contractor
O School


Figure 5-3. Question on By Whom.

By asking the question shown in Figure 5-3, future studies on the apprenticeship

training programs can be explored. Comparisons of scores can be determined not only by

years of experience, but also by the type of apprenticeship program a craftsperson has

attended.

Experience Type:
Check all that apply and Give Years of
Experience:
O Industrial / Years of Exp.
O Commercial / Years of Exp.
O Residential / Years of Exp.
O Liquid Pipeline / Years of Exp.
O Gas Pipeline / Years of Exp.


Figure 5-4. Question on Experience Type.

An experience type question in a particular field including the years of experience,

as seen in Figure 5-4, will make possible better demographic information on the working

background of the craftsmen taking the assessment test.









Education Level:
Check highest level completed
O High School / GED
O Vocational
College
O 2 year Degree
O 4 year Degree
O Graduate Degree
Figure 5-5. Question on Education Level.

The Figure 5-5 added to the assessment test forms, will make it possible to

categorize the education levels of craftsmen taking fiture assessment tests.

Age:


0 18-34
0 25-30
0 31-35
0 36-40
0 41-50
051>
Figure 5-6. Question on Age.

By asking the age of craftsmen taking the assessment test as in Figure 5-6, it will

enhance the demographic categories of scores from the craftsmen involved with the

assessment tests.

Have you taken this test before?
0 Yes 0 No
If Yes, what was your previous score?


Figure 5-7. Question on Have You Taken This Test Before.









Figure 5-7 asks the craftsmen if they have taken this test before. If the craftsmen

answers Yes, then their previous score is recorded. This question will help sort out repeat

scores, as well as create an additional category on repeat craft assessment test takers.

By adding the questions from Figures 5-1 through 5-7, future research will more

accurately reflect the skills and levels of experiences of craftworkers. Presently, there are

two questions on training: on curriculum and by whom. The brief questions asked on the

demographics of the test taken might have caused the minor differences in the scores of

trained workers versus non-trained workers. For example, if a worker started a formal

program, but did not complete the training, that individual still might check the box for

training. This would lead to the incorrect score dispersion across the different categories.

Recommendations for Future Research

While completing this thesis, several areas for future studies were identified:

* Examine the scores of craftworkers based on age.

* Investigate the scores of craftworkers based on their education and years of
experience.

* Study the scores of craftworkers based on minority status.

* Categorizing the scores of craftsmen by industry.

* Research the scores of craftworkers based on location: Northwest, Southwest,
Midwest, Southcentral, Northeast, Southeast, Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico.

* Investigate the scores of repeat test takers.

* Examine the scores of craftsmen based on their affiliations with union or non-union
apprenticeship programs

* Perform the same study on training craftsmen compared to other craftsmen, after
the prescribed new questions are added to the assessment test forms


























APPENDIX A

TABLES OF STATISTICAL ANALYSIS



The tables A-i thru A-33 are a statistical analysis of each craft. The data is in



categories: All, With Training, With NCCER Training and Without Training.






Table A-1. Abnormal Operating Conditions Control Center


With Training


Mean

Standard Error


Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Variance

Range


Minimum

Maximum

Sum


44 Count


With NCCER Training


Mean

Standard Error


Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Variance

Range


Minimum

Maximum

Sum


40 Count


Mean

Standard Error


Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range


Minimum

Maximum

Sum


27 Count


Table A-2. Abnormal Operating Conditions Gas


With Training


85 62 Mean

0 82 Standard Error

85 86 Median

84 50 Mode

561 Standard Deviation

31 43 Sample Variance

25 00 Range

72 00 Minimum

97 00 Maximum

4024 Sum


With NCCER Training


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Sum


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Sum


44 Count


Mean

Standard Error


Without Training


Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range


Mi1mmum

Maximum

Sum


Count


Without Training


ALL



Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Sum

Count


47 Count


12 Count










46





Table A-3. Abnormal Operating Conditions General


With Training


With NCCER Training


79 20 Mean

0 88 Standard Error

80 34 Median

Mode

6 74 Standard Deviation

45 38 Sample Vanance

51 50 Range

37 00 Minimum

88 50 Maximum

4594 Sum

58 Count


79 72 Mean

0 88 Standard Error

80 59 Median

80 00 Mode

6 71 Standard Deviation

45 08 Sample Variance

52 67 Range

37 00 Minimum

89 67 Maximum

4624 Sum

58 Count


81 36 Mean

0 96 Standard Error

82 01 Median

88 50 Mode

704 Standard Deviation

49 61 Sample Vanance

52 33 Range

37 00 Minimum

89 33 Maximum

4393 Sum

54 Count


Table A-4. Boiler Technician


With Training


53 97 Mean

1 33 Standard Error

54 62 Median

58 00 Mode

8 64 Standard Deviation

74 74 Sample Vanance

36 44 Range

32 00 Mimnmum

68 44 Maximum

2267 Sum

42 Count


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Sum

Count


With Training


55 84 Mean

2 80 Standard Error

55 44 Median

69 00 Mode

11 89 Standard Deviation

141 44 Sample Vanance

38 00 Range

40 00 Minimum

78 00 Maximum

1005 Sum

18 Count


With NCCER Training


63 52 Mean

1 74 Standard Error

65 85 Median

6900 Mode

11 69 Standard Deviation

136 64 Sample Vanance

61 00 Range

2100 Mimnmum

82 00 Maximum

2858 Sum

45 Count


6520 Mean

1 45 Standard Error

65 47 Median

7900 Mode

9 26 Standard Deviation

85 84 Sample Variance

57 00 Range

25 00 Minimum

82 00 Maximum

2673 Sum

41 Count


66 40 Mean

2 14 Standard Error

66 75 Median

80 00 Mode

11 11 Standard Deviation

123 38 Sample Vanance

49 00 Range

35 00 Minimum

8400 Maximum

1793 Sum

27 Count


Without Training


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Sum

Count


With NCCER Training


Without Training


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Sum

Coumt


Table A-5. Boilermaker


Without Training


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Sum

Count



















Table A-6. Commercial Carpenter


With Training


58 26 Mean

1 22 Standard Error

58 50 Median

5700 Mode

742 Standard Deviation

55 00 Sample Vanance

30 60 Range

42 40 Mimnmum

73 00 Maximum

2156 Sum

37 Count


5901 Mean

1 23 Standard Error

59 40 Median

6700 Mode

725 Standard Deviation

52 59 Sample Variance

31 08 Range

41 92 Mimmum

73 00 Maximum

2065 Sum

35 Count


62 05 Mean

181 Standard Error

61 50 Median

6100 Mode

809 Standard Deviation

65 49 Sample Vanance

3150 Range

42 00 Mimnmum

73 50 Maximum

1241 Sum

20 Count


Table A-7. Commercial Electrician


With Training


62 82 Mean

1 65 Standard Error

62 50 Median

60 67 Mode

9 74 Standard Deviation

94 78 Sample Vanance

51 50 Range

27 00 Minimum

78 50 Maximum

2199 Sum

35 Count


63 63 Mean

1 78 Standard Error

62 92 Median

60 60 Mode

10 40 Standard Deviation

108 13 Sample Variance

60 00 Range

27 00 Mimmum

87 00 Maximum

2164 Sum

34 Count


65 64 Mean

3 29 Standard Error

68 00 Median

68 00 Mode

1187 Standard Deviation

140 79 Sample Vanance

49 50 Range

35 00 Mimmum

8450 Maximum

853 Sum

13 Count


Table A-8. Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1 Installation


With Training


With NCCER Training


Without Training


6861 Mean

0 69 Standard Error

70 46 Median

73 00 Mode

5 09 Standard Deviation

25 86 Sample Vanance

22 70 Range

53 50 Minimum

76 20 Maximum

3705 Sum

54 Count


68 99 Mean

0 76 Standard Error

69 85 Median

Mode

5 49 Standard Deviation

30 18 Sample Variance

24 50 Range

53 50 Mimmum

78 00 Maximum

3588 Sum

52 Count


70 38 Mean

0 93 Standard Error

70 35 Median

6450 Mode

6 46 Standard Deviation

41 68 Sample Vanance

33 00 Range

53 00 Minimum

86 00 Maximum

3378 Sum

48 Count


With NCCER Training


Without Training


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Minmum

Maximum

Sum

Count


With NCCER Training


Without Training


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Sum

Count


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Sum

Count










48







Table A-9. Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1 Measurement


With Training


With NCCER Training


61 85 Mean

097 Standard Error

60 92 Median

Mode

6 74 Standard Deviation

45 46 Sample Vanance

31 25 Range

51 75 Mimnmum

83 00 Maximum

2969 Sum

48 Count


62 14 Mean

1 06 Standard Error

6125 Median

5667 Mode

729 Standard Deviation

5321 Sample Vanance

35 00 Range

48 00 Minimum

83 00 Maximum

2920 Sum

47 Count


57 85 Mean

1 72 Standard Error

58 05 Median

59 25 Mode

11 18 Standard Deviation

124 95 Sample Vanance

60 50 Range

2850 Mimnium

89 00 Maximum

2430 Sum

42 Count


Table A-10. Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 2


With Training


With NCCER Training


5977 Mean

1 13 Standard Error

5924 Median

50 00 Mode

8 01 Standard Deviation

64 22 Sample Variance

47 00 Range

40 00 Mimmum

87 00 Maximum

2989 Sum

50 Count


59 82 Mean

1 22 Standard Error

59 00 Median

55 00 Mode

851 Standard Deviation

72 50 Sample Vanance

46 33 Range

40 67 Minmmum

87 00 Maximum

2931 Sum

49 Count


6554 Mean

201 Standard Error

67 50 Median

56 00 Mode

12 39 Standard Deviation

153 53 Sample Vanance

56 00 Range

31 00 Mnnimum

87 00 Maximum

2490 Sum

38 Count


Table A-11. Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 3


With Training


With NCCER Training


69 70 Mean

131 Standard Error

6867 Median

69 00 Mode

8 97 Standard Deviation

80 49 Sample Variance

48 00 Range

44 00 Mimmum

92 00 Maximum

3276 Sum

47 Count


68 89 Mean

1 74 Standard Error

6900 Median

63 00 Mode

11 95 Standard Deviation

14277 Sample Variance

68 00 Range

2400 Mimmum

92 00 Maximum

3238 Sum

47 Count


78 68 Mean

1 63 Standard Error

7975 Median

76 00 Mode

9 48 Standard Deviation

89 83 Sample Vanance

40 00 Range

56 00 Mnnimum

96 00 Maximum

2675 Sum

34 Count


Without Training


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Minmum

Maximum

Sum

Count


Without Training


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Sum

Count


Without Training


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Sum

Count










49







Table A-12. Electrical and Instrumentation Pipeline Technician


With Training


With NCCER Training


70 23 Mean

0 71 Standard Error

70 61 Median

71 00 Mode

481 Standard Deviation

23 12 Sample Vanance

26 50 Range

53 00 Mimnmum

79 50 Maximum

3230 Sum

46 Count


70 82 Mean

0 83 Standard Error

71 00 Median

69 00 Mode

5 58 Standard Deviation

31 12 Sample Variance

30 00 Range

53 00 Mimmum

83 00 Maximum

3187 Sum

45 Count


69 87 Mean

1 35 Standard Error

70 00 Median

7300 Mode

823 Standard Deviation

67 70 Sample Vanance

3400 Range

52 00 Mimnmum

86 00 Maximum

2585 Sum

37 Count


Table A-13. Field and Control Center Operations Technician


With Training


With NCCER Training


Without Training


76 23 Mean

0 75 Standard Error

76 83 Median

Mode

5 11 Standard Deviation

26 10 Sample Vanance

28 00 Range

60 00 Mimnmum

88 00 Maximum

3507 Sum

46 Count


7729 Mean

0 85 Standard Error

7775 Median

78 50 Mode

5 63 Standard Deviation

31 73 Sample Variance

31 00 Range

60 00 Mimmum

91 00 Maximum

3401 Sum

44 Count


7791 Mean

1 15 Standard Error

78 40 Median

85 00 Mode

691 Standard Deviation

47 82 Sample Vanance

2950 Range

60 00 Mimimum

89 50 Maximum

2805 Sum

36 Count


Table A-14. Gas Maintenance Specialty


With Training


With NCCER Training


76 42 Mean

1 64 Standard Error

78 67 Median

84 00 Mode

9 41 Standard Deviation

88 63 Sample Vanance

36 00 Range

56 00 Mimimum

92 00 Maximum

2522 Sum

33 Count


7439 Mean

1 68 Standard Error

7493 Median

8400 Mode

8 86 Standard Deviation

78 57 Sample Vanance

36 00 Range

56 00 Minimum

92 00 Maximum

2083 Sum

28 Count


7387 Mean

417 Standard Error

7733 Median

6400 Mode

931 Standard Deviation

86 76 Sample Vanance

2000 Range

6400 Mimnmum

84 00 Maximum

369 Sum

5 Count


Without Training


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Milnmum

Maximum

Sum

Count


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Mimnmum

Maximum

Sum

Count


Without Training


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Sum

Count



















Table A-15. Gas Pipeline Operations


With Training


74 32 Mean

1 04 Standard Error

75 00 Median

75 00 Mode

577 Standard Deviation

33 33 Sample Vanance

2277 Range

60 33 Mimnmum

83 10 Maximum

2304 Sum

31 Count


7421 Mean

1 16 Standard Error

75 50 Median

73 00 Mode

6 24 Standard Deviation

38 98 Sample Variance

25 67 Range

60 33 Mimnmum

86 00 Maximum

2152 Sum

29 Count


70 76 Mean

1 56 Standard Error

70 50 Median

7700 Mode

763 Standard Deviation

58 19 Sample Vanance

30 00 Range

56 00 Mimimum

86 00 Maximum

1698 Sum

24 Count


Table A-16. HVAC


6763 Mean

260 Standard Error

72 00 Median

55 00 Mode

10 08 Standard Deviation

10166 Sample Vanance

29 00 Range

49 00 Minimum

78 00 Maximum

1015 Sum

15 Count


Table A-17. Industrial Carpenter


6981 Mean

1 06 Standard Error

70 02 Median

72 30 Mode

735 Standard Deviation

54 06 Sample Vanance

31 16 Range

54 18 Mimnmum

85 33 Maximum

3351 Sum

48 Count


70 80 Mean

1 15 Standard Error

70 94 Median

73 85 Mode

769 Standard Deviation

59 10 Sample Variance

33 65 Range

52 35 Mimimum

86 00 Maximum

3186 Sum

45 Count


71 50 Mean

1 42 Standard Error

71 53 Median

Mode

8 03 Standard Deviation

64 52 Sample Vanance

3169 Range

5431 Mimnmum

86 00 Maximum

2288 Sum

32 Count


With NCCER Training


Without Training


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Milnmum

Maximum

Sum

Count


With Training


With NCCER Training


Without Training


All



Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Sum

Count


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Variance

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Sum

Count


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Sum

Count


With Training


With NCCER Training


Without Training


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Sum

Count



















Table A-18. Industrial Electrician


With Training


71 06 Mean

1 03 Standard Error

72 78 Median

Mode

723 Standard Deviation

52 21 Sample Vanance

38 68 Range

45 32 Mimimum

84 00 Maximum

3482 Sum

49 Count


71 83 Mean

0 98 Standard Error

7301 Median

Mode

6 86 Standard Deviation

47 00 Sample Variance

35 28 Range

48 72 Mimnmum

84 00 Maximum

3519 Sum

49 Count


71 43 Mean

1 25 Standard Error

72 75 Median

72 75 Mode

758 Standard Deviation

57 45 Sample Vanance

3714 Range

46 86 Mimimum

84 00 Maximum

2643 Sum

37 Count


Table A-19. Industrial Insulator


With Training


70 50 Mean

1 42 Standard Error

71 01 Median

Mode

9 21 Standard Deviation

84 89 Sample Variance

50 00 Range

40 00 Mimnmum

90 00 Maximum

2961 Sum

42 Count


72 24 Mean

1 38 Standard Error

72 59 Median

Mode

884 Standard Deviation

78 20 Sample Vanance

39 50 Range

52 50 Mimmum

92 00 Maximum

2962 Sum

41 Count


7281 Mean

291 Standard Error

75 79 Median

88 80 Mode

1454 Standard Deviation

21135 Sample Vanance

5325 Range

38 00 Minimum

9125 Maximum

1820 Sum

25 Count


Table A-20. Industrial Ironworker


With Training


7492 Mean

1 02 Standard Error

75 92 Median

70 70 Mode

680 Standard Deviation

4621 Sample Vanance

3448 Range

53 30 Minimum

87 78 Maximum

3296 Sum

44 Count


76 00 Mean

0 97 Standard Error

75 98 Median

76 00 Mode

6 22 Standard Deviation

38 71 Sample Variance

30 85 Range

57 00 Mimnmum

87 85 Maximum

3116 Sum

41 Count


7526 Mean

1 32 Standard Error

76 00 Median

76 00 Mode

6 84 Standard Deviation

4677 Sample Vanance

27 57 Range

58 00 Mimnium

85 57 Maximum

2032 Sum

27 Count


With NCCER Training


Without Training


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Minmum

Maximum

Sum

Count


With NCCER Training


Without Training


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Sum

Count


With NCCER Training


Without Training


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Sum

Count










52





Table A-21. Industrial Maintenance Electrician


With Training


62 60 Mean

1 06 Standard Error

62 50 Median

65 75 Mode

6 06 Standard Deviation

36 77 Sample Vanance

22 00 Range

52 00 Minimum

74 00 Maximum

2066 Sum

33 Count


63 36 Mean

1 23 Standard Error

64 33 Median

64 00 Mode

6 97 Standard Deviation

48 65 Sample Variance

23 83 Range

50 67 Miimum

74 50 Maximum

2028 Sum

32 Count


6494 Mean

2 71 Standard Error

65 00 Median

Mode

766 Standard Deviation

58 60 Sample Vanance

2100 Range

55 00 Mimnmum

76 00 Maximum

520 Sum

8 Count


Table A-22. Industrial Maintenance Mechanic


All With Training With NCCER Training


64 26 Mean

1 17 Standard Error

64 25 Median

71 00 Mode

743 Standard Deviation

55 17 Sample Vanance

35 00 Range

44 00 Minmmum

79 00 Maximum

2571 Sum

40 Count


65 43 Mean

1 15 Standard Error

6492 Median

71 00 Mode

717 Standard Deviation

51 42 Sample Vanance

32 87 Range

52 13 Minimum

85 00 Maximum

2552 Sum

39 Count


60 20 Mean

3 09 Standard Error

61 00 Median

60 00 Mode

11 96 Standard Deviation

143 03 Sample Vanance

41 00 Range

36 00 Minimum

7700 Maximum

903 Sum

15 Count


Table A-23. Industrial Millwright


With Training


69 55 Mean

0 99 Standard Error

69 28 Median

Mode

6 92 Standard Deviation

47 87 Sample Vanance

52 00 Range

38 00 Mimnmum

90 00 Maximum

3408 Sum

49 Count


70 56 Mean

0 78 Standard Error

69 96 Median

78 50 Mode

5 40 Standard Deviation

29 20 Sample Variance

30 44 Range

59 56 Miimmum

90 00 Maximum

3387 Sum

48 Count


73 53 Mean

0 95 Standard Error

72 06 Median

7700 Mode

624 Standard Deviation

38 98 Sample Vanance

2900 Range

6100 Minmmum

90 00 Maximum

3162 Sum

43 Count


With NCCER Training


Without Training


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Sum

Count


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Sum

Coumt


With NCCER Training


Without Training


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Sum

Count


Without Training
















Table A-24. Industrial Painter


With Training


71 14 Mean

1 27 Standard Error

71 28 Median

87 50 Mode

8 40 Standard Deviation

7061 Sample Variance

40 50 Range

47 00 Minimum

87 50 Maximum

3130 Sum

44 Count


72 42 Mean

1 34 Standard Error

73 01 Median

87 50 Mode

891 Standard Deviation

79 30 Sample Vanance

4700 Range

47 00 Minimum

94 00 Maximum

3186 Sum

44 Count


76 18 Mean

1 81 Standard Error

76 98 Median

82 00 Mode

10 26 Standard Deviation

105 32 Sample Vanance

41 50 Range

52 50 Minimum

9400 Maximum

2438 Sum

32 Count


Table A-25. Industrial Pipefitter


With Training


69 30 Mean

101 Standard Error

71 18 Median

Mode

718 Standard Deviation

51 55 Sample Vanance

38 00 Range

46 00 Minmmum

84 00 Maximum

3534 Sum

51 Count


6920 Mean

1 04 Standard Error

71 04 Median

75 50 Mode

736 Standard Deviation

54 24 Sample Variance

39 00 Range

46 00 Minimum

85 00 Maximum

3460 Sum

50 Count


70 40 Mean

1 25 Standard Error

71 30 Median

68 29 Mode

7 72 Standard Deviation

59 53 Sample Vanance

33 27 Range

50 73 Mimnmum

84 00 Maximum

2675 Sum

38 Count


Table A-26. Instrumentation Fitter


With Training


7441 Mean

1 53 Standard Error

75 90 Median

73 75 Mode

10 15 Standard Deviation

102 95 Sample Vanance

62 40 Range

2200 Mimnmum

84 40 Maximum

3274 Sum

44 Count


75 14 Mean

1 59 Standard Error

76 12 Median

Mode

10 17 Standard Deviation

103 39 Sample Vanance

66 00 Range

2200 Mimnmum

88 00 Maximum

3081 Sum

41 Count


75 11 Mean

1 79 Standard Error

71 30 Median

85 00 Mode

8 02 Standard Deviation

64 28 Sample Vanance

27 60 Range

59 40 Minimum

87 00 Maximum

1502 Sum

20 Count


With NCCER Training


Without Training


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Sum

Count


With NCCER Training


Without Training


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Sum


Count


With NCCER Training


Without Training


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Sum

Count
















Table A-27. Instrumentation Technician


With Training


With NCCER Training


7737 Mean

086 Standard Error

78 81 Median

81 00 Mode

5 70 Standard Deviation

32 45 Sample Vanance

25 14 Range

61 00 Minimum

86 14 Maximum

3404 Sum

44 Count


7740 Mean

0 83 Standard Error

78 34 Median

Mode

5 43 Standard Deviation

29 44 Sample Variance

25 00 Range

61 00 Miimum

86 00 Maximum

3328 Sum

43 Count


74 93 Mean

1 52 Standard Error

76 00 Median

7750 Mode

8 45 Standard Deviation

71 40 Sample Vanance

3400 Range

56 00 Minimum

90 00 Maximum

2323 Sum

31 Count


Table A-28. Mechanical Pipeline Technician


With Training


With NCCER Training


74 52 Mean

0 65 Standard Error

74 76 Median

80 00 Mode

4 63 Standard Deviation

21 44 Sample Vanance

2427 Range

65 73 Mimnmum

90 00 Maximum

3726 Sum

50 Count


75 13 Mean

5 46 Standard Error

7700 Median

56 00 Mode

1543 Standard Deviation

238 13 Sample Vanance

40 00 Range

56 00 Minimum

96 00 Maximum

601 Sum

8 Count


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Variance

Range

Miimum

Maximum

Sum


49 Count


75 17 Mean

1 03 Standard Error

75 00 Median

7400 Mode

6 46 Standard Deviation

41 77 Sample Vanance

27 00 Range

63 00 Mimnmum

90 00 Maximum

2932 Sum

39 Count


With NCCER Training


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Sum

Count


58 67 Mean

2 67 Standard Error

56 00 Median

56 00 Mode

4 62 Standard Deviation

21 33 Sample Vanance

8 00 Range

56 00 Minimum

64 00 Maximum

176 Sum

3 Count


Without Training


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Sum

Count


Without Training


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Sum


Count


Table A-29. Non-Destructive Testing

All With Training


Column


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Sum

Count
















Table A-30. Pipeline Maintenance Technician


With Training


With NCCER Training


7795 Mean

0 75 Standard Error

78 68 Median

80 00 Mode

5 92 Standard Deviation

35 06 Sample Vanance

40 50 Range

53 50 Minimum

94 00 Maximum

4833 Sum

62 Count


78 19 Mean

0 58 Standard Error

78 89 Median

Mode

4 46 Standard Deviation

19 93 Sample Variance

24 00 Range

66 00 Minimum

90 00 Maximum

4613 Sum

59 Count


78 40 Mean

0 63 Standard Error

79 28 Median

Mode

452 Standard Deviation

20 41 Sample Vanance

2286 Range

65 00 Mimnmum

87 86 Maximum

3998 Sum

51 Count


Table A-31. Scaffold Builder


With Training


72 48 Mean

1 00 Standard Error

72 58 Median

70 00 Mode

6 23 Standard Deviation

38 76 Sample Vanance

33 00 Range

56 00 Mimnmum

89 00 Maximum

2827 Sum

39 Count


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Sum

Count


With Training


75 93 Mean

2 19 Standard Error

76 00 Median

88 00 Mode

1094 Standard Deviation

119 75 Sample Vanance

40 73 Range

55 27 Minimum

96 00 Maximum

1898 Sum

25 Count


With NCCER Training


70 55 Mean

0 28 Standard Error

71 51 Median

6900 Mode

10 12 Standard Deviation

10238 Sample Variance

76 00 Range

21 00 Minimum

9700 Maximum

94538 Sum

1340 Count


7111 Mean

0 28 Standard Error

72 17 Median

7600 Mode

10 18 Standard Deviation

103 66 Sample Vanance

75 00 Range

22 00 Minimum

9700 Maximum

91241 Sum

1283 Count


72 26 Mean

0 37 Standard Error

73 82 Median

7700 Mode

11 05 Standard Deviation

122 13 Sample Vanance

71 50 Range

28 50 Minimum

10000 Maximum

63299 Sum

876 Count


Without Training


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Sum

Count


With NCCER Training


Without Training


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Mimnmum

Maximum

Sum

Coumt


Table A-32. All Trades


Without Training


Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Vanance

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Sum

Count
















Tables of Average Scores


Table A-33. Average Scores by Craft and Categories

All With Training

Abnormal Operating Conditions Control Center Mean 78 77 Mean 79 41

Abnormal Operating Conditions Gas Mean 85 62 Mean 86 36


With NCCER Training Without Training

Mean 83 04 Mean 7!

Mean 84 66 Mean 8-


Abnormal Operating Conditions General

Boiler Technician

Boilermaker

Commercial Carpenter

Commercial Electncian

Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1 Installation

Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1 Measurement

Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 2

Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 3

Electrical and Instrumentation Pipeline Technician

Field and Control Center Operations Technician

Gas Maintenance Specialty

Gas Pipeline Operations

HVAC

Industrial Carpenter

Industrial Electncian

Industrial Insulator

Industrial Ironworker

Industrial Maintenance Electrician

Industrial Maintenance Mechanic

Industrial Millwright

Industrial Painter

Industrial Pipefitter

Instrumentation Fitter

Instrunentation Technician

Mechanical Pipeline Technician

Non-Destructive Testing

Pipeline Maintenance

Scaffold Builder


Mean 79 20 Mean 79 72

Mean 5397 Mean 5561

Mean 63 52 Mean 65 20

Mean 5826 Mean 5901

Mean 62 82 Mean 63 63

Mean 6861 Mean 6899

Mean 61 85 Mean 62 14

Mean 5977 Mean 5982

Mean 69 70 Mean 68 89

Mean 70 23 Mean 70 82

Mean 7623 Mean 7729

Mean 76 42 Mean 74 39

Mean 7432 Mean 7421

Mean 6704 Mean 6730

Mean 69 81 Mean 70 80

Mean 71 06 Mean 71 83

Mean 70 50 Mean 72 24

Mean 74 92 Mean 76 00

Mean 62 60 Mean 63 36

Mean 64 26 Mean 65 43

Mean 69 55 Mean 70 56

Mean 71 14 Mean 7242

Mean 69 30 Mean 69 20

Mean 7441 Mean 75 14

Mean 7737 Mean 7740

Mean 7452 Mean 7498

Mean 75 13 Mean 6880

Mean 7795 Mean 78 19

Mean 72 48 Mean 74 50


Mean 81 36 Mean

Mean 55 84 Mean

Mean 66 40 Mean

Mean 62 05 Mean

Mean 65 64 Mean

Mean 70 38 Mean

Mean 57 85 Mean

Mean 65 54 Mean

Mean 78 68 Mean

Mean 69 87 Mean

Mean 7791 Mean

Mean 73 87 Mean

Mean 70 76 Mean

Mean 67 63 Mean

Mean 71 50 Mean

Mean 71 43 Mean

Mean 7281 Mean

Mean 7526 Mean

Mean 6494 Mean

Mean 6020 Mean

Mean 73 53 Mean

Mean 76 18 Mean

Mean 70 40 Mean

Mean 75 11 Mean

Mean 7493 Mean

Mean 75 17 Mean

Mean 58 67 Mean

Mean 78 40 Mean

Mean 75 93 Mean


The tables A-34 thru A-65 are t-tests and F-Tests of each craft. The tests are



comparing the categories: With Training, With NCCER Training and Without Training.








57



Table A-34. Abnormal Operating Conditions Control Center: t-Test and F-Test


Mean

Variance

Observations

Hypothesized Mean Difference

df

tStat

P(T<-t) one-tail

t Critical one-tail

P(T
t Critical two-tail


t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances


With Without
Training Training

79 41 78 38 Mean

101 43 5882 Variance

40 00 38 00 Observations

0 00 Hypothesized Mean Difference

7300 df

051 t Stat

031 P(T<-t) one-tail

1 67 t Critical one-tail

061 P(T
1 99 t Critical two-tail


F-Test Two-Sample for Variances


With Without With Without
Training Training NCCER Training

Mean 79 41 78 38 Mean 83 04 78 38

Variance 101 43 5882 Variance 8894 5882

Observations 40 00 38 00 Observations 27 00 38 00
df 3900 3700 df 2600 3700

F 1 72 F 151

P(F<=f) one-tail 005 P(F<=f) one-tail 0 12

F Critical one-tail 1 72 F Critical one-tail 180


Ho: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test


scores of trained workers and other workers.


HA: There is a statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores


of trained workers and other workers.


T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test scores of trained workers


are not significantly different than the scores of other workers.


F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test score variances of trained


workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers


Without
Training

7838

5882

3800


With
NCCER

8304

8894

2700

00

4900

212

002

1 68

004

201








58



Table A-35. Abnormal Operating Conditions Gas: t-Test and F-Test


t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances

With Without With Without
Training Training NCCER Training
Mean 86 36 84 36 Mean 84 66 84 36
Variance 4037 62 46 Variance 263 16 62 46
Observations 44 00 37 00 Observations 12 00 37 00
Hypothesized Mean Difference o oo Hypothesized Mean Difference o 00
df 6900 df 1300
t Stat 124 t Stat 006
P(T t Critical one-tail 1 67 t Critical one-tail 1 77
P(T t Critical two-tail 1 99 t Critical two-tail 2 16


F-Test Two-Sample for Variances

With Without With Without
Training Training NCCER Training
Mean 86 36 84 36 Mean 84 66 84 36
Variance 4037 62 46 Variance 263 16 62 46
Observations 44 00 37 00 Observations 12 00 37 00
df 4300 3600 df 1100 3600
F 065 F 421
P(F<=f) one-tail 0 09 P(F<=f) one-tail o00
F Critical one-tail 059 F Critical one-tail 207


Ho: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test


scores of trained workers and other workers.


HA: There is a statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores


of trained workers and other workers.


T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test scores of trained workers


are not significantly different than the scores of other workers.


F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test score variances of trained


workers are significantly different than the score variances of other workers.








59



Table A-36. Abnormal Operating Conditions General: t-Test and F-Test


Mean

Variance

Observations
Hypothesized Mean
Difference

df

tStat

P(T
t Critical one-tail

P(T
t Critical two-tail


t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances


With Without
Training Training

79 72 78 25 Mean

45 08 35 76 Variance

58 00 55 00 Observations

000 Hypothesized Mean Difference

11100oo df

1 24 t Stat

011 P(T
1 66 t Critical one-tail

022 P(T
1 98 t Critical two-tail


F-Test Two-Sample for Variances


With Without With Without
Training Training NCCER Training

Mean 7972 7825 Mean 81 36 7825

Variance 4508 35 76 Variance 4961 35 76

Observations 58 00 55 00 Observations 54 00 55 00

df 5700 5400 df 5300 5400

F 126 F 139

P(F<=f) one-tail 020 P(F<=f) one-tail 0 12

F Critical one-tail 1 56 F Critical one-tail 157


Ho: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test


scores of trained workers and other workers.


HA: There is a statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores


of trained workers and other workers.


T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test scores of trained workers


are not significantly different than the scores of other workers.


F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test score variances of trained


workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.


Without
Training

7825

3576

5500


With
NCCER

8136

4961

5400

000

10400

248

001

1 66

001

1 98








60



Table A-37. Boiler Technician: t-Test and F-Test


Mean

Variance

Observations

Hypothesized Mean Difference
df

tStat

P(T t Critical one-tail

P(T
t Critical two-tail


t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances


With Without
Training Training

5561 51 85 Mean

85 75 67 17 Variance

39 00 34 00 Observations

0 00 Hypothesized Mean Difference
71 00 df

184 t Stat

0 03 P(T<-t) one-tail
1 67 t Critical one-tail

0 07 P(T
1 99 t Critical two-tail


F-Test Two-Sample for Variances


With Without With Without
Training Training NCCER Training

Mean 5561 51 85 Mean 5584 5185

Variance 85 75 67 17 Variance 141 44 6717

Observations 3900 3400 Observations 1800 3400
df 3800 3300 df 1700 3300

F 128 F 211

P(F<=f) one-tail 0 24 P(F<=f) one-tail 0 03

F Critical one-tail 1 76 F Critical one-tail 1 94


Ho: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test


scores of trained workers and other workers.


HA: There is a statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores


of trained workers and other workers.


T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test scores of trained workers


are not significantly different than the scores of other workers.


F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test score variances of trained


workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.


Without
Training

5185

6717

3400


With
NCCER

5584

141 44

1800

00

2600

1 27

011
1 71

021

206








61



Table A-38. Boilermaker: T-Test and F-Test


Mean

Variance

Observations

Hypothesized Mean Difference

df

tStat

P(T<-t) one-tail

t Critical one-tail

P(T<-t) two-tail

t Critical two-tail


t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances


With Without
Training Training

6520 6231 Mean

8584 10005 Variance

41 00 42 00 Observations

0 oo Hypothesized Mean Difference

8100oo df

1 37 t Stat

0 09 P(T<-t) one-tail

1 66 t Critical one-tail

0 18 P(T<-t) two-tail

1 99 t Critical two-tail


F-Test Two-Sample for Variances


With Without With Without
Training Training NCCER Training

Mean 6520 6231 Mean 6640 6231

Variance 8584 100 05 Variance 12338 10005

Observations 41 00 42 00 Observations 27 00 42 00
df 4000 41 00 df 2600 4100

F 086 F 123

P(F<=f) one-tail 0 31 P(F<=f) one-tail 0 27

F Critical one-tail 059 F Critical one-tail 1 77


Ho: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test


scores of trained workers and other workers.


HA: There is a statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores


of trained workers and other workers.


T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test scores of trained workers


are not significantly different than the scores of other workers.


F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test score variances of trained


workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.


Without
Training

6231

10005

4200


With
NCCER

6640

12338

2700

00

51 00

1 55

006

1 68

013

201








62



Table A-39. Commercial Carpenter: T-Test and F-Test


Mean

Variance

Observations

Hypothesized Mean Difference

df

tStat

P(T<-t) one-tail

t Critical one-tail

P(T<-t) two-tail

t Critical two-tail


t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances


With Without
Training Training

59 01 53 60 Mean

52 59 92 82 Variance

35 00 26 00 Observations

0 00 Hypothesized Mean Difference

4500 df

240 t Stat

S01 P(T<-t) one-tail

1 68 t Critical one-tail

0 02 P(T<-t) two-tail

201 t Critical two-tail


F-Test Two-Sample for Variances


With Without With Without
Training Training NCCER Training

Mean 59 01 53 60 Mean 62 05 53 60

Variance 52 59 92 82 Variance 65 49 92 82

Observations 35 00 26 00 Observations 20 00 26 00

df 3400 2500 df 1900 2500

F 057 F 071

P(F<=f) one-tail 0 06 P(F<=f) one-tail 0 22

F Critical one-tail 055 F Critical one-tail 047


Ho: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test


scores of trained workers and other workers.


HA: There is a statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores


of trained workers and other workers.


T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test scores of trained workers


are not significantly different than the scores of other workers.


F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test score variances of trained


workers are significantly different than the score variances of other workers.


Without
Training

5360

9282

2600


With
NCCER

6205

6549

2000

00

4400

323

000

1 68

000

202








63



Table A-40. Commercial Electrician: T-Test and F-Test


Mean

Variance

Observations

Hypothesized Mean Difference
df

tStat

P(T t Critical one-tail

P(T
t Critical two-tail


t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances


With Without
Training Training

63 63 53 60 Mean

108 13 92 82 Variance

34 00 26 00 Observations

0 00 Hypothesized Mean Difference
5600 df

386 t Stat

000 P(T<-t) one-tail
1 67 t Critical one-tail

000 P(T<-t) two-tail

2 00 t Critical two-tail


F-Test Two-Sample for Variances


With Without With Without
Training Training NCCER Training

Mean 63 63 60 75 Mean 65 64 60 75

Variance 108 13 86 13 Variance 140 79 8613

Observations 34 00 22 00 Observations 13 00 22 00
df 3300 2100 df 1200 2100

F 126 F 163

P(F<=f) one-tail 030 P(F<=f) one-tail 0 16

F Critical one-tail 1 99 F Critical one-tail 225


Ho: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test


scores of trained workers and other workers.


HA: There is a statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores


of trained workers and other workers.


T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test scores of trained workers


are not significantly different than the scores of other workers.


F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test score variances of trained


workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.


Without
Training

5360

9282

2600


With
NCCER

6564

14079

1300

00

2000

3 17

000
1 72

000

209








64



Table A-41. Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1 Installation: T-Test and F-Test


Mean

Variance

Observations
Hypothesized Mean
Difference

df

tStat

P(T t Critical one-tail

P(T
t Critical two-tail


t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances


With Without
Training Training

68 99 68 28 Mean

30 18 22 02 Variance

52 00 50 00 Observations

000 Hypothesized Mean Difference

9900 df

0 70 t Stat

0 24 P(T 1 66 t Critical one-tail

048 P(T
1 98 t Critical two-tail


F-Test Two-Sample for Variances


With Without With Without
Training Training NCCER Training

Mean 68 99 68 28 Mean 70 38 68 28

Variance 30 18 22 02 Variance 41 68 2202

Observations 52 00 50 00 Observations 48 00 50 00

df 5100 4900 df 4700 4900

F 137 F 189

P(F<=f) one-tail 0 13 P(F<=f) one-tail o01

F Critical one-tail 1 60 F Critical one-tail 161


Ho: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test


scores of trained workers and other workers.


HA: There is a statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores


of trained workers and other workers.


T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test scores of trained workers


are not significantly different than the scores of other workers.


F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test score variances of trained


workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.


Without
Training

6828

2202

5000


With
NCCER

7038

4168

4800

000

8600

183

004

1 66

007

1 99













Table A-42. Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 1 Measurement: T-Test and F-Test


Mean

Variance

Observations

Hypothesized Mean Difference

df

tStat

P(T
t Critical one-tail

P(T
t Critical two-tail


t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances


With Without
Training Training

62 14 6082 Mean

5321 70 58 Variance

47 00 43 00 Observations

0 oo Hypothesized Mean Difference

8400 df

0 79 t Stat

0 22 P(T<-t) one-tail

1 66 t Critical one-tail

043 P(T
1 99 t Critical two-tail


F-Test Two-Sample


for Variances


With Without With Without
Training Training NCCER Training

Mean 62 14 6082 Mean 57 85 6082

Variance 5321 7058 Variance 12495 7058

Observations 47 00 43 00 Observations 42 00 43 00

df 4600 4200 df 41 00 4200

F 075 F 177

P(F<=f) one-tail 0 17 P(F<=f) one-tail 003

F Critical one-tail 061 F Critical one-tail 1 67


Ho: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test


scores of trained workers and other workers.


HA: There is a statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores


of trained workers and other workers.


T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test scores of trained workers


are not significantly different than the scores of other workers.


F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test score variances of trained


workers are significantly different than the score variances of other workers.


Without
Training

6082

7058

43 00


With
NCCER

5785

12495

42 00

000

7600

-1 38

009

1 67

0 17

1 99








66



Table A-43. Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 2: T-Test and F-Test


Mean

Variance

Observations
Hypothesized Mean
Difference

df

tStat

P(T<-t) one-tail

t Critical one-tail

P(T<-t) two-tail

t Critical two-tail


t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances


With Without
Training Training

59 82 60 08 Mean

72 50 13063 Variance

49 00 41 00 Observations

000 Hypothesized Mean Difference

7300 df

-0 12 t Stat

0 45 P(T<-t) one-tail

1 67 t Critical one-tail

091 P(T<-t) two-tail

1 99 t Critical two-tail


F-Test Two-Sample for Variances


With Without With Without
Training Training NCCER Training

Mean 59 82 60 08 Mean 65 54 60 08

Variance 72 50 13063 Variance 15353 13063

Observations 49 00 41 00 Observations 38 00 41 00

df 4800 4000 df 3700 4000

F 056 F 118

P(F<=f) one-tail 003 P(F<=f) one-tail 031

F Critical one-tail 061 F Critical one-tail 171


Ho: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test


scores of trained workers and other workers.


HA: There is a statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores


of trained workers and other workers.


T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test scores of trained workers


are not significantly different than the scores of other workers.


F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test score variances of trained


workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.


Without
Training

6008

13063

4100


With
NCCER

6554

15353

3800

000

7500

203

002

167

005

1 99








67



Table A-44. Corrosion Prevention Field Technician 3: T-Test and F-Test


Mean

Variance

Observations
Hypothesized Mean
Difference

df

tStat

P(T<-t) one-tail

t Critical one-tail

P(T<-t) two-tail

t Critical two-tail


t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances


With Without
Training Training

68 89 72 32 Mean

14277 161 08 Variance

47 00 34 00 Observations

000 Hypothesized Mean Difference

6900 df

-123 t Stat

0 11 P(T<-t) one-tail

1 67 t Critical one-tail

022 P(T<-t) two-tail

1 99 t Critical two-tail


F-Test Two-Sample


for Variances


With Without With Without
Training Training NCCER Training

Mean 68 89 72 32 Mean 78 8 72 32

Variance 14277 161 08 Variance 8983 161 08

Observations 47 00 34 00 Observations 3400 3400

df 4600 3300 df 3300 3300

F 089 F 056

P(F<=f) one-tail 0 35 P(F<=f) one-tail 0 05

F Critical one-tail 059 F Critical one-tail 056


Ho: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test


scores of trained workers and other workers.


HA: There is a statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores


of trained workers and other workers.


T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test scores of trained workers


are not significantly different than the scores of other workers.


F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test score variances of trained


workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.


Without
Training

7232

16108

3400


With
NCCER

7868

8983

3400

000

6100

234

001

167

002

2 00








68



Table A-45. Electrical and Instrumentation Pipeline Technician: T-Test and F-Test


Mean

Variance

Observations

Hypothesized Mean Difference
df

tStat

P(T t Critical one-tail

P(T
t Critical two-tail


t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances


With Without
Training Training

70 82 70 34 Mean

3112 3266 Variance

45 00 43 00 Observations

0 00 Hypothesized Mean Difference
8600 df

040 t Stat

034 P(T<-t) one-tail
1 66 t Critical one-tail

069 P(T
1 99 t Critical two-tail


F-Test Two-Sample for Variances


With Without With Without
Training Training NCCER Training

Mean 70 82 70 34 Mean 69 87 70 34

Variance 3112 32 66 Variance 67 70 32 66

Observations 45 00 43 00 Observations 37 00 43 00
df 4400 4200 df 3600 4200

F 095 F 207

P(F<=f) one-tail o 44 P(F<=f) one-tail o 01

F Critical one-tail 060 F Critical one-tail 1 70


Ho: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test


scores of trained workers and other workers.


HA: There is a statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores


of trained workers and other workers.


T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test scores of trained workers


are not significantly different than the scores of other workers.


F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test score variances of trained


workers are significantly different than the score variances of other workers.


Without
Training

7034

3266

43 00


With
NCCER

6987

6770

3700

000

6300

-0 29

039

1 67








69



Table A-46. Field and Control Center Operations Technician: T-Test and F-Test


Mean

Variance

Observations

Hypothesized Mean Difference
df

tStat

P(T t Critical one-tail

P(T
t Critical two-tail


t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances


With Without
Training Training

77 29 75 53 Mean

3173 1652 Variance

44 00 40 00 Observations

0 00 Hypothesized Mean Difference
7800 df

165 t Stat

005 P(T<-t) one-tail
1 66 t Critical one-tail

0 10 P(T
1 99 t Critical two-tail


F-Test Two-Sample for Variances


With Without With Without
Training Training NCCER Training

Mean 7729 7553 Mean 7791 7553

Variance 31 73 1652 Variance 47 82 1652

Observations 44 00 40 00 Observations 36 00 40 00

df 4300 3900 df 3500 3900

F 192 F 289

P(F<=f) one-tail 0 02 P(F<=f) one-tail o 00

F Critical one-tail 169 F Critical one-tail 1 72


Ho: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test


scores of trained workers and other workers.


HA: There is a statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores


of trained workers and other workers.


T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test scores of trained workers


are not significantly different than the scores of other workers.


F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test score variances of trained


workers are significantly different than the score variances of other workers.


Without
Training

7553

1652

40 00


With
NCCER

7791

4782

3600

000

5500

1 81

004

1 67

008

200








70



Table A-47. Gas Maintenance Specialty: T-Test and F-Test


Mean

Variance

Observations

Hypothesized Mean Difference
df

tStat

P(T<-t) one-tail
t Critical one-tail

P(T<-t) two-tail

t Critical two-tail


t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances


With Without
Training Training

74 39 81 30 Mean

7857 191 50 Variance

28 00 18 00 Observations

o 00 Hypothesized Mean Difference
2600 df

-188 t Stat

004 P(T<-t) one-tail
1 71 t Critical one-tail

0 07 P(T
2 06 t Critical two-tail


F-Test Two-Sample for Variances


With Without With Without
Training Training NCCER Training

Mean 7439 8130 Mean 7387 8130

Variance 7857 191 50 Variance 86 76 19150

Observations 2800 1800 Observations 500 1800
df 2700 1700 df 400 1700

F 041 F 045

P(F<=f) one-tail o 02 P(F<=f) one-tail o 23

F Critical one-tail 050 F Critical one-tail 0 17


Ho: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test


scores of trained workers and other workers.


HA: There is a statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores


of trained workers and other workers.


T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test scores of trained workers


are not significantly different than the scores of other workers.


F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test score variances of trained


workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.


Without
Training

8130

19150

1800


With
NCCER

7387

8676

500

00

1000

-1 40

010

181

019

223









71



Table A-48. Gas Pipeline Operations: T-Test and F-Test


t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances


With Without
Training Training


Mean

Variance

Observations

Hypothesized Mean Difference

df

tStat

P(T
t Critical one-tail

P(T<-t) two-tail

t Critical two-tail


7421

38 98

2900

000

2800

-1 15

0 13

1 70

026

205


7661 Mean

48 19 Variance

16 00 Observations

Hypothesized Mean Difference

df

tStat

P(T
t Critical one-tail

P(T<-t) two-tail

t Critical two-tail



F-Test Two-Sample for Variances


With Without With Without
Training Training NCCER Training

Mean 7421 7661 Mean 70 76 7661

Variance 3898 48 19 Variance 58 19 48 19

Observations 2900 1600 Observations 2400 1600

df 2800 1500 df 2300 1500

F 081 F 121

P(F<=f) one-tail o 30 P(F<=f) one-tail o 36

F Critical one-tail 049 F Critical one-tail 2 30


Ho: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test


scores of trained workers and other workers.


HA: There is a statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores


of trained workers and other workers.


T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test scores of trained workers


are not significantly different than the scores of other workers.


F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test score variances of trained


workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.


Without
Training

7661

48 19

1600


With
NCCER

7076

58 19

2400

00

3400

-2 51

001

1 69

002

203













Table A-49. HVAC: T-Test and F-Test


Mean

Variance

Observations

Hypothesized Mean Difference

df

tStat

P(T
t Critical one-tail

P(T
t Critical two-tail


t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances


With Without
Training Training

67 30 61 26 Mean

7328 10986 Variance

29 00 15 00 Observations

0 oo Hypothesized Mean Difference

2400 df

1 92 t Stat

003 P(T<-t) one-tail

1 71 t Critical one-tail

o 07 P(T
2 06 t Critical two-tail


F-Test Two-Sample for Variances


With Without With Without
Training Training NCCER Training

Mean 67 30 61 26 Mean 67 63 6126

Variance 7328 10986 Variance 101 66 10986

Observations 2900 1500 Observations 1500 1500

df 2800 1400 df 1400 1400

F 067 F 093

P(F<=f) one-tail o 18 P(F<=f) one-tail o 44

F Critical one-tail 048 F Critical one-tail 040


Ho: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test


scores of trained workers and other workers.


HA: There is a statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores


of trained workers and other workers.


T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test scores of trained workers


are not significantly different than the scores of other workers.


F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test score variances of trained


workers are significantly different than the score variances of other workers.


Without
Training

6126

10986

1500


With
NCCER

6763

101 66

1500

00

2800

1 70

005

1 70

010

205








73



Table A-50. Industrial Carpenter: T-Test and F-Test


Mean

Variance

Observations

Hypothesized Mean Difference
df

tStat

P(T t Critical one-tail

P(T<-t) two-tail

t Critical two-tail


t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances


With Without
Training Training

7080 6761 Mean

59 10 62 55 Variance

45 00 43 00 Observations

0 00 Hypothesized Mean Difference
8600 df

1 92 t Stat

0 03 P(T<-t) one-tail
1 66 t Critical one-tail

0 06 P(T
1 99 t Critical two-tail


F-Test Two-Sample for Variances


With Without With Without
Training Training NCCER Training

Mean 7080 6761 Mean 71 50 6761

Variance 59 10 62 55 Variance 64 52 62 55

Observations 45 00 43 00 Observations 32 00 43 00

df 4400 4200 df 31 00 4200

F 094 F 103

P(F<=f) one-tail 0 43 P(F<=f) one-tail 0 46

F Critical one-tail 060 F Critical one-tail 1 72


Ho: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test


scores of trained workers and other workers.


HA: There is a statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores


of trained workers and other workers.


T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test scores of trained workers


are not significantly different than the scores of other workers.


F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test score variances of trained


workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.


Without
Training

6761

6255

4300


With
NCCER

71 50

6452

3200

00

6600

209

002

1 67

004

200








74



Table A-51. Industrial Electrician: T-Test and F-Test


Mean

Variance

Observations

Hypothesized Mean Difference
df

tStat

P(T t Critical one-tail

P(T
t Critical two-tail


t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances


With Without
Training Training

71 83 68 48 Mean

47 00 66 62 Variance

49 00 43 00 Observations

0 00 Hypothesized Mean Difference
8200 df

2 12 t Stat

0 02 P(T<-t) one-tail
1 66 t Critical one-tail

004 P(T
1 99 t Critical two-tail


F-Test Two-Sample for Variances


With Without With Without
Training Training NCCER Training

Mean 71 83 68 48 Mean 71 43 68 48

Variance 47 00 66 62 Variance 57 45 66 62

Observations 49 00 43 00 Observations 37 00 43 00
df 4800 4200 df 3600 4200

F 071 F 086

P(F<=f) one-tail 0 12 P(F<=f) one-tail 0 33

F Critical one-tail 061 F Critical one-tail o 58


Ho: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test


scores of trained workers and other workers.


HA: There is a statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores


of trained workers and other workers.


T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test scores of trained workers


are not significantly different than the scores of other workers.


F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test score variances of trained


workers are significantly different than the score variances of other workers.


Without
Training

6848

66 62

4300


With
NCCER

71 43

5745

3700

00

7800

1 68

005

1 66

010

1 99













Table A-52. Industrial Insulator: T-Test and F-Test


Mean

Variance

Observations

Hypothesized Mean Difference

df

tStat

P(T< t) one-tail

t Critical one-tail

P(T< t) two-tail

t Critical two-tail


t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances


With Without
Training Training

72 24 67 94 Mean

7820 10447 Variance

41 00 34 00 Observations

0 00 Hypothesized Mean Difference

6600 df

1 93 t Stat

0 03 P(T<-t) one-tail

1 67 t Critical one-tail

006 P(T<-t) two-tail

2 00 t Critical two-tail


F-Test Two-Sample


for Variances


With Without With Without
Training Training NCCER Training

Mean 7224 67 94 Mean 7281 6794

Variance 7820 10447 Variance 211 35 10447

Observations 41 00 34 00 Observations 25 00 34 00

df 4000 3300 df 2400 3300

F 075 F 202

P(F<=f) one-tail 0 19 P(F<=f) one-tail 0 03

F Critical one-tail 058 F Critical one-tail 1 85


Ho: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test


scores of trained workers and other workers.


HA: There is a statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores


of trained workers and other workers.


T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test scores of trained workers


are not significantly different than the scores of other workers.


F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test score variances of trained


workers are significantly different than the score variances of other workers.


Without
Training

6794

10447

3400


With
NCCER

7281

211 35

2500

00

41 00

1 44

008

1 68

016

202








76



Table A-53. Industrial Ironworker: T-Test and F-Test


Mean

Variance

Observations

Hypothesized Mean Difference
df

tStat

P(T t Critical one-tail

P(T
t Critical two-tail


t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances


With Without
Training Training

76 00 74 39 Mean

38 71 44 76 Variance

41 00 37 00 Observations

0 00 Hypothesized Mean Difference
7400 df

1 10 t Stat

0 14 P(T<-t) one-tail
1 67 t Critical one-tail

028 P(T
1 99 t Critical two-tail


F-Test Two-Sample for Variances


With Without With Without
Training Training NCCER Training

Mean 76 00 74 39 Mean 75 26 74 39

Variance 38 71 44 76 Variance 46 77 44 76

Observations 41 00 37 00 Observations 27 00 37 00
df 4000 3600 df 2600 3600

F 086 F 104

P(F<=f) one-tail 0 33 P(F<=f) one-tail 0 44

F Critical one-tail 058 F Critical one-tail 181


Ho: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test


scores of trained workers and other workers.


HA: There is a statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores


of trained workers and other workers.


T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test scores of trained workers


are not significantly different than the scores of other workers.


F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test score variances of trained


workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.


Without
Training

7439

4476

3700


With
NCCER

7526

4677

2700

00

5500

051

031

1 67

061

200








77



Table A-54. Industrial Maintenance Electrician: T-Test and F-Test


Mean

Variance

Observations

Hypothesized Mean Difference
df

tStat

P(T<-t) one-tail
t Critical one-tail

P(T
t Critical two-tail


t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances


With Without
Training Training

63 36 60 21 Mean

4865 51 98 Variance

32 00 23 00 Observations

o 00 Hypothesized Mean Difference
4700 df

162 t Stat

0 06 P(T<-t) one-tail
1 68 t Critical one-tail

011 P(T
201 t Critical two-tail


F-Test Two-Sample for Variances


With Without With Without
Training Training NCCER Training

Mean 6336 6021 Mean 6494 6021

Variance 4865 51 98 Variance 5860 51 98

Observations 32 00 23 00 Observations 8 00 23 00

df 3100 2200 df 700 2200

F 094 F 113

P(F<=f) one-tail 0 43 P(F<=f) one-tail 0 38

F Critical one-tail 0 53 F Critical one-tail 2 46


Ho: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test


scores of trained workers and other workers.


HA: There is a statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores


of trained workers and other workers.


T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test scores of trained workers


are not significantly different than the scores of other workers.


F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test score variances of trained


workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.


Without
Training

6021

51 98

2300


With
NCCER

6494

5860

800

000

1200

1 53

008

1 78

0 15

2 18








78



Table A-55. Industrial Maintenance Mechanic: T-Test and F-Test


Mean

Variance

Observations

Hypothesized Mean Difference
df

tStat

P(T<-t) one-tail
t Critical one-tail

P(T<-t) two-tail

t Critical two-tail


t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances


With Without
Training Training

65 43 56 29 Mean

51 42 4863 Variance

39 00 23 00 Observations

0 00 Hypothesized Mean Difference
4700 df

493 t Stat

000 P(T<-t) one-tail
1 68 t Critical one-tail

000 P(T<-t) two-tail

201 t Critical two-tail


F-Test Two-Sample


for Variances


With Without With Without
Training Training NCCER Training

Mean 65 43 56 29 Mean 60 20 56 29

Variance 51 42 4863 Variance 14303 4863

Observations 39 00 23 00 Observations 15 00 23 00

df 3800 2200 df 1400 2200

F 106 F 294

P(F<=f) one-tail 0 46 P(F<=f) one-tail o 01

F Critical one-tail 1 95 F Critical one-tail 2 17


Ho: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test


scores of trained workers and other workers.


HA: There is a statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores


of trained workers and other workers.


T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test scores of trained workers


are not significantly different than the scores of other workers.


F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test score variances of trained


workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.


Without
Training

5629

48 63

2300


With
NCCER

6020

14303

1500

000

2000

1 14

0 13

1 72

027

209








79



Table A-56. Industrial Millwright: T-Test and F-Test


Mean

Variance

Observations

Hypothesized Mean Difference
df

tStat

P(T<-t) one-tail
t Critical one-tail

P(T
t Critical two-tail


t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances


With Without
Training Training

70 56 67 88 Mean

29 20 52 59 Variance

48 00 44 00 Observations

0 00 Hypothesized Mean Difference
7900 df

200 t Stat

002 P(T<-t) one-tail
1 66 t Critical one-tail

005 P(T<-t) two-tail

1 99 t Critical two-tail


F-Test Two-Sample for Variances


With Without With Without
Training Training NCCER Training

Mean 70 56 67 88 Mean 73 53 67 88

Variance 29 20 52 59 Variance 38 98 52 59

Observations 48 00 44 00 Observations 43 00 44 00
df 4700 4300 df 4200 4300

F 056 F 074

P(F<=f) one-tail 002 P(F<=f) one-tail 0 17

F Critical one-tail 061 F Critical one-tail 060


Ho: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test


scores of trained workers and other workers.


HA: There is a statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores


of trained workers and other workers.


T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test scores of trained workers


are not significantly different than the scores of other workers.


F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test score variances of trained


workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.


Without
Training

6788

5259

4400


With
NCCER

7353

3898

43 00

00

8400

390

000

1 66

000

1 99








80



Table A-57. Industrial Painter: T-Test and F-Test


Mean

Variance

Observations

Hypothesized Mean Difference
df

tStat

P(T t Critical one-tail

P(T
t Critical two-tail


t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances


With Without
Training Training

72 42 68 04 Mean

7930 10361 Variance

44 00 33 00 Observations

0 00 Hypothesized Mean Difference
6400 df

1 97 t Stat

0 03 P(T<-t) one-tail
1 67 t Critical one-tail

005 P(T
2 00 t Critical two-tail


F-Test Two-Sample


for Variances


With Without With Without
Training Training NCCER Training

Mean 7242 6804 Mean 76 18 6804

Variance 7930 10361 Variance 105 32 10361

Observations 44 00 33 00 Observations 32 00 33 00

df 4300 3200 df 31 00 3200

F 077 F 102

P(F<=f) one-tail 0 20 P(F<=f) one-tail 0 48

F Critical one-tail 058 F Critical one-tail 181


Ho: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test


scores of trained workers and other workers.


HA: There is a statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores


of trained workers and other workers.


T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test scores of trained workers


are not significantly different than the scores of other workers.


F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test score variances of trained


workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.


Without
Training

6804

10361

3300


With
NCCER

76 18

10532

3200

00

6300

321

000

1 67

000

200








81



Table A-58. Industrial Pipefitter: T-Test and F-Test


Mean

Variance

Observations

Hypothesized Mean Difference

df

tStat

P(T< t) one-tail

t Critical one-tail

P(T< t) two-tail

t Critical two-tail


t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances


With Without
Training Training

69 20 69 30 Mean

54 24 47 71 Variance

50 oo 44 00 Observations

0 oo Hypothesized Mean Difference

9200 df

-o 07 t Stat

0 47 P(T< t) one-tail

1 66 t Critical one-tail

094 P(T<-t) two-tail

1 99 t Critical two-tail


F-Test Two-Sample for Variances


With Without With Without
Training Training NCCER Training

Mean 69 20 69 30 Mean 70 40 69 30

Variance 54 24 47 71 Variance 59 53 4771

Observations so oo 44 00 Observations 38 00 44 00

df 4900 4300 df 37 00 4300

F 1 14 F 1 25

P(F<=f) one-tail 0 34 P(F<=f) one-tail 0 24

F Critical one-tail 1 64 F Critical one-tail 1 69


Ho: There is no statistically significant difference between the assessment test


scores of trained workers and other workers.


HA: There is a statistically significant difference between the assessment test scores


of trained workers and other workers.


T-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test scores of trained workers


are not significantly different than the scores of other workers.


F-Test. At a 95% confidence level, the assessment test score variances of trained


workers are not significantly different than the score variances of other workers.


Without
Training

6930

4771

4400


With
NCCER

70 40

5953

3800

00

7500

068

025

1 67

050

1 99