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Large Wind Missile Impact Performance of Public and Commercial Building Assemblies


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LARGE WIND MISSILE IMPACT PE RFORMANCE OF PUBLIC AND COMMERCIAL BUILDING ASSEMBLIES By CHRISTOPHER PAUL BRADEN A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2004

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Copyright 2004 by Christopher P. Braden

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In loving memory of my father, Thomas G. Braden.

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iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The success of this project would not have been possible without the assistance of a number of individuals and companies. Primarily, thanks are extended to Dr. Pe rry S. Green, Dr. Ronald Cook, and Dr. Nur Yazdani for serving as the supervisory committee for this project. They have helped to guide me through any questions or problems encountered during testing and preparation. Thanks go also to Saif Har oon who provided most of the research and information necessary to carry out the testing. A thank you is also extended to Dr. Thomas Sputo, who assisted in answering many of the questions encountered during construction of the specimens. The laboratory staff, Chuck Broward, Da nny Brown, Hubert Nard Martin, and John Gamache, were indispensable during the cour se of this project. Without their help and willingness to teach, much of this project would not have been possible. Special thanks are extended to Eco Block, LLC and Gate Concrete Products Company for their donation of ma terials. Thanks are also given to Painter Masonry and Cement Precast Products for their assist ance in the construction of specimens. I thank all of the friends and students who gave their assistance in last minute times of need during the course of this project. Of course, none of this would have been possible without the continued support of my family, friends, and especially my fianc, Christina, who was always there to lend her support even through the toughest of times.

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v TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES............................................................................................................vii LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................viii ABSTRACT.....................................................................................................................xi ii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 1.1 Background.............................................................................................................1 1.2 Objective.................................................................................................................2 1.3 Scope of Work........................................................................................................3 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.............................................................................................4 2.1 Background............................................................................................................4 2.2 Performance Classificat ions and Expectations......................................................7 2.3 Validity of Recommended Wall and Roof Assemblies..........................................9 3 TESTING APPARATUS, PROC EDURE, AND RESULTS.....................................11 3.1 Introduction...........................................................................................................11 3.2 Testing Method.....................................................................................................11 3.2.1 Significance of Full-Scale Testing.............................................................11 3.2.2 Construction of Testing Assembly.............................................................12 3.2.2.1 Foundation........................................................................................12 3.2.2.2 Top restraint.....................................................................................12 3.2.3 Test Specimen Nomenclature.....................................................................13 3.2.4 Construction of Test Specimens.................................................................13 3.2.4.1 Timber wall frame construction.......................................................13 3.2.4.2 Steel wall frame construction...........................................................14 3.2.4.3 Steel roof frame construction...........................................................14 3.2.4.4 Construction of timber frame wall test specimens...........................14 3.2.4.5 Construction of steel fr ame wall test specimens..............................15

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vi 3.2.4.6 Construction of steel frame roof specimens.....................................16 3.2.4.7 Construction of concrete and masonry specimens...........................16 3.2.4.8 Construction of SB 3DK...............................................................18 3.2.5 Erection of Test Specimens........................................................................19 3.2.6 Hurricane Missiles......................................................................................20 3.2.7 Large Missile Cannon.................................................................................20 3.2.7.1 Measurement and data acquisition system.......................................21 3.2.7.2 Hurricane missile descriptions and calibrations...............................22 3.2.8 Acceptance Criteria....................................................................................22 3.2.9 Commonly Used Wall and Roof Assemblies.............................................23 3.3 Experimental Results............................................................................................23 4 SMALL SCALE TESTING FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS.......................................118 4.1 Introduction.........................................................................................................118 4.2 Nomenclature.....................................................................................................119 4.3 Testing Methodology..........................................................................................119 4.4 Experimental Results.........................................................................................121 5 RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS...................................................129 5.1 Specimen Classification......................................................................................129 5.2 Full Scale Testing...............................................................................................129 5.2.1 Multi-Layered Panel Specimens...............................................................130 5.2.2 Metal Specimens......................................................................................130 5.2.3 Masonry Specimens..................................................................................130 5.2.4 Concrete Specimens.................................................................................131 5.2.5 Conclusions..............................................................................................131 5.3 Small Scale Testing............................................................................................132 5.3.1 Test Results..............................................................................................132 5.3.2 Conclusions..............................................................................................133 5.3.3 Recommendations....................................................................................133 APPENDIX LIST OF REFERENCES.................................................................................................137 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................139

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vii LIST OF TABLES Table Page 3.1. Specimen Nomenclature..........................................................................................25 3.2. Acceptance Criteria for Basic a nd Enhanced Large Missile Impact Test................26 3.3. Identified Wall Assemblies for Basic Testing..........................................................27 3.4. Identified Roof Assemblies for Basic Testing.........................................................30 3.5. Identified Wall Assemblies for Enhanced Testing...................................................31 3.6. Identified Roof Assemblies for Enhanced Testing..................................................33 3.7. Missile Impact Test Resu lts in Chronological Order...............................................34 3.8. Test EM1--8CH 1/2PL 5VGA Speed Correction Calculations...............................62 4.1. Small Scale Missile Impact Test Results...............................................................122 5.1. Multi-Layered Panel Specimens............................................................................133 5.2. Metal Specimen Test Results.................................................................................134 5.3. Masonry Specimens...............................................................................................135 5.4. Concrete Specimens...............................................................................................136 5.5. Small Scale Test Specimen....................................................................................136

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viii LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 3.1 Testing Assembly Schematic...................................................................................63 3.2 Overall Testing Assembly........................................................................................63 3.3 Close-up of Concrete Foundation Blocks with J-Bolts and Threaded Rod.............64 3.4 Steel Top Restraint...................................................................................................64 3.6 Specimen PT-HC-1/2PL-SL Attached to Cold-Formed Steel Hat Purlins..............65 3.7 Stucco Lath Applied to 2x6 Wood Stud Test Frame...............................................66 3.8 Finished Stucco........................................................................................................66 3.9 5V Crimp Side Lap Detail........................................................................................66 3.10 5V Crimp Fastening Pattern.....................................................................................67 3.11 Standing Seam Side Lap Detail................................................................................67 3.12 Asphalt Shingle Nailing Pattern...............................................................................67 3.13 Construction of the Tilt -up Wall Test Panel Specimen............................................68 3.14 PVC Pipe Inserts for Tilt-up Wall Specimen...........................................................68 3.15 Typical Embedded Lifting Device for Tilt-up Wall Specimen................................69 3.16 Construction of CMU Test Specimen s With and Without Horizontal Joint Reinforcement..........................................................................................................69 3.17 Partial Construction of the ICF Test Specimen........................................................70 3.18 Reinforcing Bars Secured to ICF Forms Using Wire Ties.......................................70 3.19 2 x 8 Timber Studs Used as Endcaps for ICF Forms...............................................71 3.20 Completed ICF Test Specimen................................................................................71

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ix 3.21 Typical Puddle Welded Connection of Steel Deck to Support Framing..................72 3.22 3 in. Deck Specimen Construction...........................................................................72 3.23 Typical 3 in. Deck Specimen S upport Framing and Floor Connection...................73 3.24 3 in. Deck Specimen Installed..................................................................................73 3.25 8 in. Hollow Core Slab Specimen with Shoring......................................................74 3.26 9 lb and 15 lb Missiles with Sabot Attached............................................................74 3.27 Large Missile Cannon at UF....................................................................................75 3.28 Large Missile Cannon Firing Mechanism................................................................75 3.29 Handwritten Data Collection Sheet..........................................................................76 3.30 Labview Data Acquisition System...........................................................................77 3.31 Calibration Data Plot for 15 lb Missile....................................................................77 3.32 Calibration Curve for 15 lb Missile..........................................................................78 3.33 BC1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2DG ST Test Result at 34 mph...............................................78 3.34 BM1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2DG ST Test Result at 34 mph..............................................79 3.35 BC1--1/2GY 6SD 5/8GY ST Test Result at 34 mph...............................................79 3.36 BM1--1/2GY 6SD 5/8GY ST Test Result at 34 mph..............................................80 3.37 BM1--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS ST Test Result at 34 mph..............................................80 3.38 BC1--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS ST Test Result at 34 mph..............................................81 3.39 BC1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL ST Test Result at 34 mph................................................81 3.40 BM1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL ST Test Result at 34 mph...............................................82 3.41 BC1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL 5/16HB Test Result at 34 mph........................................82 3.42 BM1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL 5/16HB Test Result at 34 mph.......................................83 3.43 BM1--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS 5/ 16HB Test Result at 34 mph.....................................83 3.44 BC1--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS 5/16H B Test Result at 34 mph......................................84 3.45 EC1--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS 5/16H B Test Result at 50 mph......................................84

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x 3.46 EM1--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS 5/ 16HB Test Result at 50 mph.....................................85 3.47 BM1--1/2GY 8CH 7/16OS 5/ 16HB Test Result at 34 mph.....................................85 3.48 BC1--1/2GY 8CH 7/16OS 5/16H B Test Result at 34 mph.....................................86 3.49 BM1--1/2GY 8CH 1/2PL 5/16HB Test Result at 34 mph.......................................86 3.50 BC1--1/2GY 8CH 1/2PL 5/16HB Test Result at 34 mph........................................87 3.51 EM1--6HC Test Result at 50 mph............................................................................87 3.52 EM1--8HC Test Result at 50 mph............................................................................88 3.53 E(60)M2--8HC Test Result at 60 mph.....................................................................88 3.54 E(60)M3--8HC Test Result at 60 mph.....................................................................89 3.55 EM1--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS BV Test Result at 50 mph............................................89 3.56 E(60)M2--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS BV Test Result at 60 mph......................................90 3.57 EC1--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS BV Test Result at 50 mph.............................................90 3.58 EC1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL BV Test Result at 50 mph................................................91 3.59 EM1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL BV Test Result at 50 mph...............................................91 3.60 EM1--CMU(HR) Test Result at 50 mph..................................................................92 3.61 EM1--CMU Test Result at 50 mph..........................................................................92 3.62 EM2--CMU Test Result at 50 mph..........................................................................93 3.63 EM3--CMU Test Result at 50 mph..........................................................................93 3.64 BM1--CMU(HR) Test Result at 34 mph..................................................................94 3.65 BM2--CMU(HR) Test Result at 34 mph..................................................................94 3.66 BM1--CMU Test Result at 34 mph..........................................................................95 3.67 BM2--CMU Test Result at 34 mph..........................................................................95 3.68 BM3--CMU Test Result at 34 mph..........................................................................96 3.69 BM1--1/2GY 6SD 3/4AD Test Result at 34 mph....................................................96 3.70 BC1--1/2GY 6SD 3/4AD Test Result at 34 mph.....................................................97

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xi 3.71 BC2--1/2GY 6SD 3/4AD Test Result at 34 mph.....................................................97 3.72 BM2--1/2GY 6SD 3/4AD Test Result at 34 mph....................................................98 3.73 EM1--8CH 1/2PL 5VGA Test Result at 50 mph.....................................................98 3.74 EC1--8CH 1/2PL 5VGA Test Result at 50 mph......................................................99 3.75 BM1--8CH 1/2PL 5VGA Test Result at 34 mph.....................................................99 3.76 BM2--8CH 1/2PL 5VGA Test Result at 34 mph...................................................100 3.77 BC1--8CH 1/2PL 5VGA Test Result at 34 mph....................................................100 3.78 BC1--PT HC 1/2PL SL Test Result at 34 mph......................................................101 3.79 BC2--PT HC 1/2PL SL Test Result at 34 mph......................................................101 3.80 BM1--PT HC 1/2PL SL Test Result at 34 mph.....................................................102 3.81 EM1--PT HC 1/2PL SL Test Result at 50 mph.....................................................102 3.82 EC1--PT HC 1/2PL SL Test Result at 50 mph......................................................103 3.83 E(60)M2--PT HC 1/2PL SL Test Result at 60 mph...............................................103 3.84 BM1--PT HC 7/16OS AS Test Result at 34 mph..................................................104 3.85 BM2--PT HC 7/16OS AS Test Result at 34 mph..................................................104 3.86 BC1--PT HC 7/16OS AS Test Result at 34 mph...................................................105 3.87 EM1--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA Test Result at 50 mph...............................................105 3.88 BM1--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA Test Result at 34 mph...............................................106 3.89 BM2--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA Test Result at 34 mph...............................................106 3.90 BM3--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA Test Result at 34 mph...............................................107 3.91 BC1--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA Test Result at 34 mph................................................107 3.92 BC2--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA Test Result at 34 mph................................................108 3.93 EM1--PT 11/2DK 5VGA Test Result at 50 mph...................................................108 3.94 EM2--PT 11/2DK 5VGA Test Result at 50 mph...................................................109 3.95 EC1--PT 11/2DK 5VGA Test Result at 50 mph....................................................109

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xii 3.96 E(60)M3--PT 11/2DK 5VGA Test Result at 60 mph............................................110 3.97 EM1--5TU Test Result at 50 mph..........................................................................110 3.98 E(60)M2--5TU Test Result at 60 mph...................................................................111 3.99 EM1--6ICF Test Result at 50 mph.........................................................................111 3.100 E(60)M2--6ICF Test Result at 60 mph.................................................................112 3.101 EM1--SB 3DK Test Result at 50 mph..................................................................112 3.102 E(60)M2--SB 3DK Test Result at 60 mph...........................................................113 3.103 EC1--SB 3DK Test Result at 50 mph...................................................................113 3.104 E(60)C2--SB 3DK Test Result at 60 mph............................................................114 3.105 E(60)C3--SB 3DK Test Result at 60 mph............................................................114 3.106 E(60)M3--SB 3DK Test Result at 60 mph...........................................................115 3.108 BM1-AAC Test Result at 34 mph........................................................................116 3.109 EM1-AAC Test Result at 50 mph.........................................................................116 3.110 E(60)M2-AAC Test Result at 60 mph..................................................................117 4.1 Small Scale Support Apparatus..............................................................................123 4.2 Steel Test Frame.....................................................................................................123 4.3 Spring Support Assembly Mounted to the Steel Test Frame.................................124 4.4 BM1--1/2PL 5/16HB SS Test Result at 34 mph....................................................124 4.5 BM1--3/4HB SS Test Result at 34 mph.................................................................125 4.6 BM2--3/4AD SS Test Result at 34 mph.................................................................125 4.7 BM1--1/2PL 5V SS Test Result at 34 mph............................................................126 4.8 BM2--1/2PL 5V SS Test Result at 34 mph............................................................126 4.9 EM1--1/2PL SL SS Test Result at 50 mph............................................................127 4.10 EM1--1/2PL BV SS Test Result at 50 mph...........................................................127

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xiii Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Engineering LARGE WIND MISSILE IMPACT PE RFORMANCE OF PUBLIC AND COMMERCIAL BUILDING ASSEMBLIES By Christopher Paul Braden December, 2004 Chair: Perry S. Green Major Department: Civil and Coastal Engineering Hurricane Andrew was the most destructiv e natural disaster to occur in United States history. The total damage is estimated to have cost $25 billion in Florida alone and caused a total of 65 deaths. The hurricane missile impact testing was performed in order to gain a better understanding of what types of building ma terials, commonly used in Florida, can withstand impacts from windborne debris. The results of thes e tests will be used to mitigate the loss of property and life in future hurricanes. Testing was conducted on full-scale specimens This was deemed necessary in an attempt to represent the conditi ons present in a realistic stru cture. Testing was conducted in accordance with Florida Building Codes FBC (2001) TAS 201-94 basic test protocol and the United States Department of Energy enha nced impact testing protocols. Each test specimen was subject to 9 lb 2x4 timber miss ile impacts at 34 mph and 15 lb 2x4 timber missile impacts at 50 mph according to the basi c and enhanced tests respectively. If the

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xiv specimen passed the 50 mph test, it was then te sted with a 15 lb 2x4 timber missile at 60 mph. By the current FBC standards, a specimen pa sses a given test if it rejects the missile without penetration. For responses where fa ilure was not readily apparent, any damage to the test panels was also assessed us ing SBC (2000), FEMA-361 (2002), and ASTM E1996 (2001). These standards give add itional guidelines based on permanent deformation, spalling, occupant safety, and the size of any openings that may occur. Testing was performed on 24 specimens that can be described by four basic system categories: multi-layered panel, metal, masonry, and concrete. Multi-layer panel systems consist of layered sheets. These sheets may be composed of plywood, OSB, Advantech, gypsum board, or any other such material. All of the specimens that fall within this categor y failed the basic impact test. Each one experienced complete penetration by the missile. The metal category consists of systems with a metal fascia. These specimens performed well during basic testing. Each test resulted in some deformation of the metal near the impact zone. However, during e nhanced testing, the specimens exhibited a variety of responses ranging from comple te penetration to complete rejection. Masonry systems are primarily composed of a masonry material such as brick or concrete masonry units (CMU). This cat egory successfully passed basic testing. However, some systems were completely penetrated by the miss ile during enhanced testing while other systems passed the 60 mph test. Specimens in the concrete category are co mpletely composed of concrete. These specimens passed all impact tests.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background On the morning of August 24, 1992, Hurrican e Andrews storm surge began hitting the southern Florida shores. In the hours th at ensued, the Category 4 hurricane generated storm surges reaching a maximum of 16.9 ft in extreme cases, as well as sustained winds that were estimated to be in excess of 130 kt (or about 150 mph). The area was also saturated with more than seven inches of rainfall. Hurricane Andrew was the most destructiv e and expensive natural disaster in United States history. Estimates put the da mage at $25 billion in Florida alone. The hurricane left 25,524 homes completely destroyed, and an additional 101,241 homes damaged. A total of 65 deaths were attributed to the storm due to bot h direct and indirect causes (Rappaport, 1993). Following the destruction caused by Hu rricane Andrew, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Technical St andards division assembled a team of architects and engineers to investigate the perf ormance of the structures in south Florida. The intention of the investigation was to de termine why the structures did not perform better than they had. It was observed that a ma jority of the damage could be attributed to wind forces (Oliver and Hanson, 1994). Prio r to Hurricane Andrew, the South Florida Building Code (SFBC) made no specific provisi ons related to missile impact resistance or internal pressure. Much of the damage o ccurred because of a rupture in the building envelope. These ruptures allowed large amounts of wind and rain to enter the structure.

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2 In addition to this, large openings in the ex terior of a structure permit an increase in internal pressure causing some building components to fail (Schroeder, 1994). The research performed on the hurricane damage prompted Dade and Broward counties to adopt the ASCE 7-88 internal pre ssure provisions as we ll as a standard for missile impact resistance (Schroeder, 1994) Careful study of aerial photographs and ground measurements of tornado damage show ed that the most common missiles were medium sized pieces of timber. This resear ch concluded that a 12 to 15 lb, 2x4 timber missile would be representative of the mi ssiles that might become airborne during a hurricane windstorm (McDonald, 1990). The Florida Building Code (FBC) adopted a test specification, TAS 201-94, for missile impact of building materials which in cludes procedures for impact testing. In order for a specimen to be acceptable by the basic test, a specimen must reject a 9 lb 2x4 timber missile, fired at 50 ft/s (34 mph) without penetration. The United States Department of Energy has developed an enhanc ed test where the specimen must reject a 15 lb 2x4 timber missile fired at 73 ft/s (50 mph) without penetration. Other standards, such as SBC (2000), ASTM E-1996 (2001), a nd FEMA-361 (2002) are used in cases where penetration did not occur, however the specimens reaction could potentially cause harm to the occupants of the structure or otherwise caused an opening in the building envelope. 1.2 Objective The purpose of this research project is to evaluate the performance of commonly used wall and roof building assemblies in Flor ida. Materials and services were acquired independently by the University of Florid a (UF) Department of Civil and Coastal Engineering. Specimens representative of common building practices were constructed

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3 and tested for missile impact resistance in accordance with the Fl orida Building Codes basic and enhanced large missile impact testing procedures, FBC (2001) TAS 201-94. These procedures will be describe d in greater detail in Chapter 3. 1.3 Scope of Work The scope of this project included the proc urement of materials and construction of the testing apparatus and specimens represen tative of existing wall and roof assemblies used throughout the state. Additional work included the following: Calibration of the missile cannon Development of a testing plan Development of a testing procedure Construction of missiles Development of a LabView data collection program All missile tests were conducted at the Un iversity of Floridas Civil Engineering Structures Laboratory.

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4 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Background In the Florida Building Code (FBC, 2002) and Standard Building Code (SBC, 2001), provisions were made to test building products for la rge missile impacts and cyclic loading. These tests were intended to gauge the performance of build ings in the lower 30 feet of the structure. Several studies were conducted on the performance of varying building materials when subjected to mi ssile impact and pressure loadings. This standard evolved from research conducted by Minor et al. (1977). During this research, aerial photographs were studied and ground measurements made of tornado damage. Minor also observed wall and roof systems penetrated by individual timbers as well as attached pieces of failed roof a ssemblies. Based on this evidence, Minor concluded that a medium sized piece of tim ber, a 12 to 15 lb, nominal 2x4, was most representative of the obser ved windborne missiles. Mi nor later proposed a 12 ft, 2x4 timber missile, at half of the design wind sp eed, dictated by the ASCE 7-02 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures standard, as the large missile object. Following Hurricane Andrew, it was observed that a roof tile was the most common projectile in South Florida. This was deemed unsuitable, however, because of the inherent difficulty in choosing one representative tile out of the many types. It was also determined that it would be too difficult to pr opel a tile with a consistent orientation and velocity (Yazdani, 2004).

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5 One of the more common modes of fa ilure during Hurricane Andrew occurred when windows and doors were blown in (Dean, 1994). This allowed an opening in the building envelope larger than the 1% th reshold proposed by McDonald (1997) allowing the buildings internal pressure to grow to a significant level, in some cases causing an internal pressure failure of the entire building. In the investigations following Hurri cane Andrew, the most commonly observed cause of breaching of a building envelope wa s due to glazing component failures. These failures resulted in a variety of responses. In many of these failures, a structures roof sheathing was damaged or removed due to the co mbined effect of wind uplift and internal pressure buildup (Oliver, 1994). The loss of the roof sheathing allowed excessive amounts of wind and rain to enter the structur e causing extensive inte rnal structural and property damage. Based on the research conducted after Hurricane Andrew, Dade and Broward counties adopted the Minimum Design Load s for Buildings and Other Structures standard ASCE 7-88 (Schroeder, 1994). Initially, the ANSI A58.1-1982 standard provided wind load provisions. In 1988, ASCE adopted the ANSI standard into ASCE 788. The ASCE 7 standard made almost no technical changes to the ANSI standard, although it was converted to the ASCE fo rmat. In 1995 and 1998, ASCE 7 marked considerable changes to the ANSI standar d. The ASCE 7-02 standard has begun to reflect the latest research in wind engineering. One of the mo st significant changes in the 2002 edition is the conversion of the basic wi nd speed map to the three second gust rather than the fastest mile. Additional changes to the standard include the refinement of the

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6 determination of hurricane force winds in coastal and inland areas as well as the calculation of pressures for components and cladding (Gould and Griffin, 2004). Researchers at Texas Technological Univer sity investigated the effect on the interior pressure of a metal structure due to missile impact perforations at their Wind Engineering Research Field Laboratory (W ERFL) (McDonald and Wu, 1997). To do this, wall samples with window perforations were installed in the WERFL. Internal pressure readings were taken as a sust ained 20 mph wind blew for several hours. Researchers determined that all buildings experi ence an internal pressure effect due to the porosity of the building envelope materials. They also concluded th at internal pressure will not be significant until the envelope perfor ation reaches 1% of the total wall area. This amounts to approximately 100 2x4 missile perforations. Therefore, their findings show that it is not necessary to design for internal pressure. Eventually, the FBC adopted a test sp ecification, TAS 201-94, describing test specifications for missile impact. This provision details the procedure for firing a standardized 9 lb, 2x4 timber missile at a sp eed of 50 ft/s (34 mph). To be deemed acceptable by this standard, a specimen must reject the missile without penetration. Other hurricane missile impact standard s were developed by other agencies including the United States Department of Ener gy. This standard ca lls for a 15 lb missile to be fired at a specimen at 73 ft/s (5 0 mph). SBC (2000), ASTM E-1996 (2004), and FEMA-361 (2002) have all developed accepta nce criteria for situations where a specimens performance is not clearly de fined. A detailed summary of these performance criterion is listed in Large Wind Missile Impact Performance of Public and Commercial Building Assemblies (Yazdani et al., 2004). The ASTM E-1886 standard

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7 also addresses windborne missile impact, howev er, this standard de scribes the procedure for cyclic pressure load testing which was not performed in this study (ASTM E-1886, 2004). 2.2 Performance Classifications and Expectations There are varying failure criteria for th e large missile impact testing throughout different testing standards. The Florida Building Code (FBC 2002) states that failure occurs when a test specimen is penetrat ed by a large missile impact. A wall or roof assembly is considered to have passed the impact test if it rejects the missile without penetration. However, this criteria is not alwa ys sufficient to describe the performance of a test assembly. Metal clad structural assembly testing was performed by Anderson (1995) in which large gaps opened at the s eams. As a result of these tests, it was determined that the specimens failed the te st because of the opening through which wind could pass, although the missile did not penetrate the test specimen. According to FBC (2001), this metal assembly passed the impact test. It is clear that since the intent of these experiments was to determine the ability of a wall or roof system to protect the integrity of a building envelope, a system that allows air to pass through it after an impact should be considered a failure. This shortcoming of FBC (2001) did not ex ist in SBC (2000) and ASTM E-1996 (2001). The ASTM E-1996 (2004) standard states th at a non-porous specimen shall resist the missile impact with no tear formed longer than 5 in. and wider than 1/16 in. through which air can pass. Also, the standard st ates that no opening shall be formed through which a 3 in. diameter sphere can pass. For porous systems, there shall be no penetration of the innermost plane of the specimen. Fi nally, in Wind Zone 4 as described by ASTM E-1996 (2004), the seams of an impact protect ive system cannot have an opening greater

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8 than 1/180 of the span or 1/2 in. The length of this separation cannot be larger than 36 in. Impact needs to occur within a 2 1/2 in. radius circle with its center located at the center of infill and a 2 1/2 in. radi us circle with its center located 6 in. from a supporting member (ASTM E-1996, 2004). The SBC (2000) standard requires that all parts of the specimen be full size. The construction of each specimen needs to use th e same materials, details, and methods of construction as is required by code. Accord ing to the SBC (2000), each missile needs to impact the specimen within a 5 in. radius ci rcle located at midspan between supports and within a 5 in. radius circle with its center located 6 in. away from a support. The missile impacts shall occur on the thinne st portion of the specimen. For porous impact protective systems, the specimen needs to reject th e missile without penetration. Non-porous systems must not have any opening formed through which a 3 in. diameter sphere can pass (SBC, 2000). Additional failure criteria, based on research performed at Texas Tech University (2002) is provided by FEMA-361 (2002). Accord ing to their findings, failure can be considered any reaction that may cause injury to the occupants of the building. Failure modes that fit this classification include penetration of the missile, scabbing of the material that may cause debris, or large defo rmations in the building components. This description however, is unclear since definitions of what might cause injury to an occupant are a subjective measure. FEMA -361 (2002) also states that a permanent deformation of more than 3 in. is also considered failure. Additional criteria for emergency shelte rs and other essent ial structures is provided by the Florida Department of Community Affairs (DCA) Division of

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9 Emergency Management in the Statewide Emergency Shelter Plan (2004). The DCA recommends that emergency shelters be de signed using the map wind speed plus 40 mph with an importance factor of 1.0. Acco rding to the recommendation, the building enclosure, including walls, roofs, glazed openings, louvesrs, and doors, shall not be perforated or penetrated by a fl ying object. The materials used in such buildings shall be certified for missile impact resistance and glazing systems shall be designed for cyclic loading. The standard also st ates that roof openings, such as HVAC fans and ducts, shall be designed to meet wind speed and missile impact requirements. Unprotected window systems and door systems must be designed to meet wind speed and missile impact requirements. If a permanent protective syst em is employed, the system must completely cover the window or door assembly and anchor systems and meet wind load and missile impact requirements (DCA, 2004). 2.3 Validity of Recommended Wall and Roof Assemblies The U.S. Department of Energy (1994) de scribes four performance categories. They are as follows: Performance Category 1: A systems wind force resisting system should not fail under the design load. The occupants of a Category 1 structure should be able to find a safe area within the structure duri ng a severe wind event. As long as the structure does not collapse, severe or total loss is acceptable. Performance Category 2: For this cate gory, the structure may not collapse under the design load. The complete integrity of the building envelope is not required, however, a breach of the envelope that in terferes with the performance of the structure is not acceptable. Performance Category 3: A structure can be considered Category 3 if it is not covered in Performance Category 4 and if the failure of the building envelope causes adverse release consequences less than that of Category 4. Performance Category 4: A structure is Category 4 if it is a safety-class structure as defined in ST D-3009 (DOE 1994) and if failure can result in off-site release consequences equal to that of a severe accident (Yazdani et al. 2004).

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10 The DOE missile impact specifications recommend wind missile barriers for Performance Category 3 and 4 structures. The DOE enhanced test consists of a 15 lb timber 2x4 that impacts the specimen at 73 fps (50 mph). DOE recommended barriers are: 8 CMU wall with trussed horizontal joint reinforced at 16 o.c. Single width brick vene er with stud wall. 4 concrete slab with #3 rebar at 6 o.c each way placed in the middle of the slab (Yazdani et al., 2004). A deemed to comply list is provided by FBC (2001) high wind velocity section for impact resistance of the exterior buildi ng system. This list covers some assemblies used in residential constr uction. These assemblies are: Exterior concrete masonry wall (CMU) of minima l 8 thickness. Exterior frame walls or ga ble ends, sheathed with a minimum 19/32 CD exposure 1 plywood and clad with wire lath and stucco. Exterior frame walls and roofs sheathed with a minimum 24 ga. rib deck type material and clad with an approved wall finish. Exterior reinforced concrete elements having a minimum 2 thickness. Roof systems sheathed with a mini mum 19/32 CD exposure 1 plywood or minimum nominal 1 wood decking and su rfaced with an approved roof system (Yazdani et al. 2004). Previous research regarding th e testing of these systems is described by Yazdani et al. (2004).

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11 CHAPTER 3 TESTING APPARATUS, PROCEDURE, AND RESULTS 3.1 Introduction The means and methods used for the large missile impact testing are presented in this chapter. The information provided incl udes detailed descri ptions of the test significance, test assembly, test specimens, missiles, hurricane missile cannon, data collection system, acceptance crite ria, and the test data. 3.2 Testing Method 3.2.1 Significance of Full-Scale Testing The large missile impact testing has been performed following guidelines set forth in the United States Department of En ergy (DOE) standard 1020 and FBC (2001) TAS 201-94 Impact Test Procedures. The FBC sta ndards state that the specimen shall be full size, using the same materials, details, methods of construction and methods of attachment as proposed for actual use (FBC 2001). Both the FBC (2001) and DOE standards give guidelines regarding the missiles and testing and are disc ussed later in this chapter. The purpose of missile impact test ing is to determine the effectiveness of commonly used wall and roof building materi als in maintaining the building envelope during impact from windborne debris. The te st assembly was designed primarily to simulate the actual conditions th at the common exterior wall or roof systems, provided in Tables 3.3 through 3.6 might experience in a building when subjected to flying debris in a hurricane force windstorm.

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12 3.2.2 Construction of Testing Assembly There are three major co mponents to the assembly, a simulated concrete foundation, top steel cross-beam support, and the wall or roof test specimen as seen in Figures 3.1 and 3.2 3.2.2.1 Foundation The simulated concrete foundation is compri sed of two 1 ft. x 1 ft. x 9 ft. long concrete blocks, shown in Figure 3.3 that were anchored to the strong floor in the UF structures laboratory using three 1 in. diamet er pieces of high strength threaded rod. Prior to casting, the concrete forms were fitted with PVC pipe passing completely through the formwork, reinforcing bars, and Jbolts. The foundation blocks were secured to the floor using threaded rod once they we re sufficiently cured. Each foundation block was placed with the rod passing through the PVC pipe in the concrete. A nut was placed on each rod and tightened sufficiently to secure the block to the laboratory floor. Each foundation block has six J-bolts ex tending 6 in. out of the top of the concrete to secure the base of each test specimen. The exposed ends of these bolts are used to secure the bottom of each specimen in place, simulating the method used to secure a stud wall to its foundation. 3.2.2.2 Top restraint The specimen top restraint consists of two steel channels, shown in Figure 3.4 spanning between the two sides of the strong wa ll. Each steel beam consists of a in. plate on each end of an MC 10x8.4 channel. The larger plate is bolted to each side of the strong wall using 5/8 in diameter A325 structural bolts, wh ile the smaller plate is used to connect the two beams at midspan. This provi des lateral stability for the header of each

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13 specimen. The specimens are attached using 1/2 in. diameter bolts through the channel and specimen header. 3.2.3 Test Specimen Nomenclature The nomenclature used to describe each test specimen is given in Table 3.1 Each test specimen is described using an alphanumeric string. The name describes the type of test (basic or enhanced), target location (c orner or midspan), and sequence number. Following the test description, the component s of the specimen are described in order from interior facing to exterior facing, us ing a number to desc ribe the size and an abbreviation for each type of material. Fo r example, test EC1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL ST describes a specimen tested with the enhanced test, corner impact, 1st impact. The test specimen is composed of 1/2 in. gypsum board on the interior face, 2x6 timber stud framing, 1/2 in. plywood, and finished with stucco on the exterior face. 3.2.4 Construction of Test Specimens The large missile impact testing was perfor med on specimens constructed in such a way as to accurately represent the conditions pr esent in a realistic structure. These full size wall test specimens were constructed as 10 ft. x 4 ft. panels. The timber and steel wall frames were constructed with two such panels per frame. The steel roof specimens were constructed on a 10 ft. x 8 ft. frame with one specimen per frame with the exception of SB 3DK, which was construc ted on steel beams 12 ft. o.c. 3.2.4.1 Timber wall frame construction The timber frame systems have been c onstructed with 2x6 surface dry Southern Pine studs spaced 16 in. o.c. Each frame stands 10 ft. -4 1/2 in. high and 9 ft. wide. To provide additional strength to the timber frame, 2x6 cross br aces were added between the studs.

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14 Two test specimens have been included on each of the timber frames. The individual test specimens are the full height of the frame but only 4 ft. wide. Cladding for these specimens was attached using 6d nails spaced at 6 in. o.c. along the panel edges and 12 in. o.c. on intermediate studs as per FBC (2001) Section 2308.2.2.1. Two holes were drilled through the specimens near the t op of each frame and steel plates added to the header joints to facilitate lifting th em onto the foundation block with an overhead crane. 3.2.4.2 Steel wall frame construction For the steel framed specimens, 8 in. 16 ga cold-formed steel cee studs, shown in Figure 3.5 were used as the framing system. Th e studs were attached to top and bottom shallow track and bridging was added between the studs using self tapping screws. The plywood and oriented strand board (OSB) cove rings were attached using self tapping drywall screws. 3.2.4.3 Steel roof frame construction The roof truss systems were constructed us ing a frame consisting of 3 5/8 in. coldformed steel cee studs at 48 in. o.c., simulating the top truss chord, and 43 mil 1 in. hat channel purlins at 24 in. o.c. The exterior cladding was secured to the purlin system as seen in Figure 3.6 3.2.4.4 Construction of timber frame wall test specimens For the 1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL ST, 1/2GY 6 SD 7/16OS ST, 1/2GY 6SD 5/8GY ST, and 1/2GY 6SD 1/2DG ST specimens, the cl adding was secured to the timber frame using the methods outlined in Section 2.3.1 of th is chapter. The stucco and metal lath was applied in accordance with ASTM C 926 and ASTM C 1063 requirements.

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15 Photographs of the construction of speci mens 1/2GY 6SD5 /8GY ST and 1/2GY 6SD 1/2DG ST are available in Figures 3.7 and 3.8. The base material for test specimens 1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL 5/16 HB and 1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS 5/16HB was secured as mentioned in Section 2.3.1 of this chapter. The Hardiboard panels were then secured to th e plywood and OSB. The panels were secured using 6d nails at 6 in. o.c. along the panel edges. Specimen 1/2GY 6SD 3/4AD was secured to the timber frame using 6d nails. The nails were placed at 6 in. o.c. at the panel e dges and at 12 in. o.c. at the interior studs. The 1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL BV and 1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS BV specimens were constructed by Painter Masonry on the timber frames with the plywood and OSB secured as described in Section 2.3.1 of this chapter. 3.2.4.5 Construction of steel frame wall test specimens For the 1/2GY 8CH 1/2PL HB and 1/2GY 8CH 7/16OS HB test specimens, the plywood and OSB were secured to the steel fr ame using self-tapping drywall screws at 6 in. o.c. for the panel edges and 12 in. o.c. over intermediate studs. The Hardiboard was then secured to the frame with the self-tappi ng drywall screws at 6 in. o.c. at the panel edges. The plywood in the 8CH 1/2PL 5V was secure d to the steel frame in the same way as in specimens 1/2GY 8CH 1/2PL HB and 1/2GY 8CH 7/16OS HB. The 5V was secured to the plywood using the panel alignm ent and fastener pattern described in the manufacturers installa tion manual, these details are shown in Figures 3.9 and 3.10 respectively. The panels were fastened us ing #14 x 7/8 in. screws, 24 in. o.c. to the plywood covered with 30 lb felt.

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16 3.2.4.6 Construction of steel frame roof specimens For specimen PT HC 1/2PL 5V, the plywood was secured to the hat channel using self-tapping drywall screws and covered with 15 lb felt. The 5V panels were fastened in the same manner as in the 8CH 1/2PL 5V specimen. The plywood for the PT HC 1/2PL SL specimen was secured in the same way as in the PT HC 1/2PL 5V specimen. The standing seam panels were secured as per the manufacturers instruct ions. The panels were secured to the plywood on one side using #10-12 x 1 in. pancake head screws at 7 in. o.c. The other edge was secured to the previously secured panel by snappi ng them together as shown in Figure 3.11 The OSB with asphalt shingles test specime n was constructed using 3 tab shingles. OSB panels were secured to the roof frame in the same way as the plywood in the PT HC 1/2PL 5V specimen and covered with 15 lb tar paper. The shingles were applied over top of the tar paper. One inch galvani zed roofing nails were used to secure the shingles in the pattern shown in Figure 3.12 The purlins were removed from the roof frame for specimen PT 11/2DK 5V. The 1 1/2 in. steel deck panels were placed perpendicular to the truss chords and secured with self tapping screws at 12 in. o.c. The 5V panels were then secured to the steel deck as per the manufacturers instructions. 3.2.4.7 Construction of concrete and masonry specimens The concrete and masonry specimens were constructed in place, with the exception of the tilt-up and hollow core specimens. The tilt-up panel, as seen in Figures 3.13 through 3.15 was constructed at Cement Precast Products and transported to the UF structures laboratory. PVC pi pes were embedded in the panel to allow it to rest on the foundation block over top of the j-bolts. Lifting devices were embedded into the top of

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17 the tilt-up wall panel to allow lifting and pl acement with an overhead crane. At the time of construction, two 4 in. x 8 in. ASTM C 31 cylinders were cast in order that the concretes 28 day compressive strength c ould be determined. The average concrete compressive strength was 4150 psi. The hollow core slabs were placed on th e foundation block with the j-bolts falling in the cells. Two holes were drilled in each of the slabs through which threaded rod was placed to secure lifting hooks. Again, the sl abs were lifted and pl aced using an overhead crane. The concrete masonry unit (CMU) specimens were constructed in place. No. 6 reinforcing bars were epoxi ed into the foundation block and allowed to extend out approximately 36 in. These bars were located su ch that they would fall in the end cells of each CMU specimen as seen in Figure 3.16 These end cells were grouted as a safety precaution. The insulated concrete form (ICF) wall specimen, shown in Figures 3.17 through 3.20 was constructed in place on the concrete foundation block. Four No. 6 reinforcing bars were epoxied into the foundation blocks. The forms were placed over these bars with No. 3 bars at 16 in. o.c. provided as hor izontal reinforcing in the forms. The reinforcing bars and ICF forms were secured to gether using wire ties to protect against separation during the concrete placement. The open ends of the forms were closed off by attaching 2 x 8 timber studs init ially using nylon reinforced ta pe. Once the first lift of concrete had been placed, ratcheting straps were added to the forms to prevent the concrete from leaking from the forms. The concrete for the specimen was mixed in the a 6 cu. ft. mixer. Each concrete batch provide d enough material for a placed 1 ft. lift. Two

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18 1 ft. lifts were poured in succession then allo wed to cure for 1 hour before the next set was poured. This procedure was followed in or der prevent failure of the forms due to the hydrostatic pressure exerted by the wet c oncrete. Eight 4 in. x 8 in. ASTM C 31 cylinders were cast at the same time as the wall and allowed to cu re for 28 days in the same conditions as the ICF wall specimen. Th ree of the cylinders were tested and the average 28 day compressive strength was determined to be 7250 psi. The 8 in. Autoclaved Aerated concre te (8AAC) specimen was constructed by Painter Masonry on the concrete foundation bl ock. The AAC blocks measured 8 in. x 8 in. x 24 in. and were secured using thin-set mo rtar. No reinforcement was included in the specimen based on common building practices This material provides several advantages over other concrete products. Th ese characteristics include fire resistance, sound absorption, and excellent thermal insulati on. Autoclaved Aerated Concrete weighs about one-fifth that of standard concrete products, yet it has a greater compressive strength than a standard CMU of comparable size, due to the solid construction of the AAC blocks. Because of the light weight and high porosity of the AAC, the blocks are easily lifted into place and cored or cut as needed (AACPA, 2004). 3.2.4.8 Construction of SB -3DK Initially, the 3 steel deck te st specimen, shown in Figures 3.22 through 3.24 was welded in the vertical position using 3/4 i n. puddle welds. The deck was secured to two steel channels, spaced 12 ft. o.c. Two W12x40 columns with baseplates were bolted to the strong floor to which the channels were secured. Due to the poor performance of the welds and lack of lap screws, it was deemed necessary to rebuild and the specimen in the horizontal position so that th e desired welds could be produc ed and the lap screws could be included. To accomplish this, the deck wa s welded to the channels and lap screws

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19 applied while the specimen was lying on the floor. Another channel was welded across the top of the assembly which allowed it to be lifted without damaging the deck. Lifting bolts were attached and the assembly was lifte d into place using an overhead crane. Once in place, the specimen was again clamped to the columns using wrench clamps. 3.2.5 Erection of Test Specimens Erection of each frame specimen is accomplished by first placing the specimen over the embedded J-bolts and s ecuring it with a washer and nut A steel bracket is used to temporarily support the specimen prior to th e top restraint placemen t. The bracket can be attached and removed from the strong wall to allow finishing of th e interior portion of the specimen after erection is complete. A pipe clamp is used to secure the specimen to the bracket. Finally, the channels are lift ed into place and secure d in all appropriate locations. This setup, however, was not suffi cient for all of the specimens. The hollow core slab, tilt-up, and AAC specimens were cons idered to be too heavy to secure simply by using the half inch bolts as the previous specimens had been. For these specimens, a shoring system was constructed to support th e specimen and to carry the lateral forces caused by the missile impact. The shoring setup can be seen in Figure 3.25 Frames were constructed to fit against the slab from which two and four kickers were attached for the 6 in. and 8 in. slabs respectively. Th e tilt-up specimen used the four kicker configuration. This frame/kicker system wa s constructed on each side of the specimen. The kickers were attached to 2 x 6 timber r unners which were secured to the strong floor using threaded rod. Again, these runners were constructed on each side of the specimen. As an added precaution, the lifting chains remained in place.

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20 3.2.6 Hurricane Missiles Each missile has been constructed usi ng surface dry Southern Pine 2x4 boards. Figure 3.26 shows a typical 9 lb and 15 lb missile. The two different missiles have been sized such that the weight is between 9 and 9 1/2 lb with a length between 7 and 9 ft. or with a weight between 15 and 15 1/2 lb a nd a length between 11 and 13 ft., respectively in accordance with DOE standard 1020 and FBC (2001) TAS 201-94. Missiles were selected such that no knots appear within 12 i n. of the leading edge. The trailing edge of each missile has been affixed with a plastic sa bot to facilitate launc hing. This connection was accomplished by using a 3 in. long, 5/8 in. diameter screw. The sabots weight does not exceed lb. The initial missiles were marked every inch and congruently marked every 3 in. This was later deemed unnecessary because photoelectric sensors are used for velocity determination, not a high speed camera, thereby negating the need for the marks. 3.2.7 Large Missile Cannon The large missile cannon at th e University of Florida (U F) uses compressed air to propel a missile at the test specimen at st andard testing speeds in accordance with DOE standard 1020 (2002) and FBC (2001) TAS 20194 Impact Test Procedures. The basic and enhanced large missile impact tests require a 9 lb and 15 lb missile to be fired at 50 ft/sec (34 mph) and 73 ft/sec (50 mph), respec tively. If a specimen passes the enhanced test, it is tested w ith a 15 lb missile at 60 mph. Figures 3.27 through 3.30 display the large missile cannon at the University of Flor ida (UF) structures la boratory. There are several major components that comprise the hurricane missile cannon including the following: 1. Compressed air supply 2. Pressure release mechanism 3. Pressure gauge

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21 4. Barrel and frame 5. Timing system 6. Data Acquisition System A steel tube frame mounte d on casters supports the entire mechanism, allowing mobility of the apparatus. The cannon barrel rests on an aluminum beam which hangs from steel cables supported by the frame. Th ese cables can be adjusted using a pair of winches, allowing adjustment of the height of the cannon barrel. Two air compressors are mounted onto the frame. The larger of the two compressors provides the air pressure required to facilitate launching, while th e smaller one powers the trigger release mechanism. The firing m echanism can be seen in Figure 3.28 Once the desired launching pressure is attained, pushing th e trigger activates a piston, powered by the small air compressor, which opens the release va lve. With this setup, it is assured that the release valve will be opened rapidly a nd with consistency. The cannon barrel is approximately 20 ft. long with a stopping bolt located near the firing controls. The stop assures that each missile will be fired from a consistent location in the barrel. 3.2.7.1 Measurement and data acquisition system The large missile cannon timing system is comprised of two photoelectric sensors, a data collection computer running Labview software (National Instruments, 2003), shown in Figure 3.30 handwritten data collection sheets, shown in Figure 3.29 and an optional oscilloscope. According to FBC ( 2001) TAS 201-94, this timing system must be capable of measuring speeds accurate to %. The current timing system is comprised of two photoelectric sensors attached near the end of the cannon barrel spaced one meter apart. The sensors are triggered as the missile passes exiting the ba rrel. Using the photoelectric sensors, in addition to a pressure transducer, the computer records th e gauge and absolute pressure in the cannon,

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22 and trigger times for both photoelectric sensors, which are then used to calculate the exit velocity of the missile. As the firing pressure in the cannon is charged, Labview calculates the estimated missile velocity. This calculation is made using equations developed during the calibration process. During calibration, each size missile (9 and 15 lb) was fired using a range of pressures. The measured velocity and pressure was recorded for each firing and input into an Ex cel spreadsheet. These values were plotted for each missile and a best fit logarithmic cu rve was developed. The calibration test data for the 15 lb missile is shown in Figure 3.31 and the calibration curve for this missile in Figure 3.32 The generated equations fo r both missiles are as follows: 9 lb Missile V=58.510 ln(p)-46.724 (3.1) 15lb Missile V=49.846 ln(p)-46.113 (3.2) where p is the gauge pressure in lb/in.2 (psig) and V in ft/sec. In completing the calibration, it was found th at the pressure-veloc ity relationship is nearly independent of the missiles weight. 3.2.7.2 Hurricane missile descriptions and calibrations Each of the test specimens received two impacts for each of the basic and enhanced tests. The missile impacted normal to the surface of the test specimen at the required velocity for the given test. One of the impact s was within a 5 in. radius circle with its center point at the midspan between supports. The second impact occurred within a 5 in. radius circle having its center 6 in. away from any supporting members. 3.2.8 Acceptance Criteria The experiments were carried out in acco rdance with the FBC (2001) impact test criteria. This standard states that a test can be considered a pass if the missile is rejected by the test specimen with no penetration. However, the tests do not always provide

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23 results that can easily be read as pass or fail. If unclear results are obtained, additional criteria may be added based on the discussion in Chapter 2. The additional criteria used to evaluate test results are tabulated in Table 3.2 Since these tests will be used to evaluate the safety of structures for th e purpose of protecting the occupants during a hurricane, the same criteria was used fo r both the basic and enhanced tests. 3.2.9 Commonly Used Wall and Roof Assemblies Several Engineering firms in Tallahassee were contacted in an effort to prepare a comprehensive list of the most commonly used materials in Florida for public and commercial buildings. The list was compiled by comparing the responses received from each firm. Yazdani et al. (2004) reduced the compiled list to reflect only the materials that needed to be tested in this study. These specimens are presented in Tables 3.3 through 3.6 3.3 Experimental Results The specimens listed in Tables 3.3 through 3.6 have been tested. Photographs of the tested specimens are shown in Figures 3.33 through 3.110 and the resulting test data is shown in Table 3.7 The initial test specimen chronologically speaking, 1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS 5/16HB, was tested using both the enhanced and basic test criteria. It was decided, after both tests were conducted, that in some cases, it may be unnecessary to perform the enhanced test if the specimen fails the basic test It would also be unnecessary to perform the basic test if the specimen passed the enhanced test. Becau se of this, an engin eering judgment would be made as to how the specimen would pe rform and the order of testing would be performed accordingly. For example, the tilt-up specimen (5TU) was believed to be acceptable under the enhanced test. This test was conducted and the specimen passed,

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24 making it unnecessary to perfor m the basic test. Conversel y, it was believed that the Advantech specimen (1/2GY-6SD-3/4AD) woul d fail the basic test, which it did, making the enhanced test unnecessary. This provide d a time savings on many tests, as only two impacts needed to be performed, one at a midpoint and the other at a corner. Initial tests of the SB-3DK specimen produced unsatisfactory results. It is believed that the poor performance of this specimen occurred because of the lack of lap screws and the vertical orientation of the specimen during welding. This configuration caused the welds to be weak because the material ran to the bottom of the weld area and therefore a solid 3/4 in. puddle weld was not produced. The lack of lap screws and the failure of the welds during testing produced marg inal results. Because of the specimens performance, it was rebuilt as describe d in Section 3.2.3.8 of this chapter. During the EM1--8CH 1/2PL 5VGA test, a piece of debris became lodged in front of one of the photosensors causing a misreading of the missiles actual velocity. The first sensor of the two gave a correct time read ing; however the second sensors reading was erroneous. To remedy this, the clock times fr om each of the two se nsors for all of the previously performed enhanced test were r ecorded. The differences between all of the times were calculated. This difference was then averaged and added to the values recorded by the first sensor Following this, the velocity was calculated using the recorded times from the first sensor and the estimated times for the second sensor. The resulting velocity was 74 fps which was deem ed to be an acceptable estimate based on the velocities recorded for the other enhan ced tests. The spreadsheet calculations are presented in Table 3.8

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25 Table 3.1. Specimen Nomenclature Test Type Code Impact Location CodeSize CodeMaterial Code Basic (34 mph) B MidpointM 1 11/2 Gypsum GY Enhanced (50 mph) E Corner C 7/16"7/16 Wood Stud SD Enhanced (60 mph) E(60) 1/2" 1/2 Channel CH 5/8" 5/8 Plywood PL 3" 3 Oriented Strand Board OS 6" 6 Dinsgold DG 8" 8 Advantech AD 2x4 4 Galvalume GA 2x6 6 Stucco ST 5V 5V Hardiboard HB Brick Veneer BV Hollow Core HC Tilt Up TU Insulated Concrete Forms ICF Autoclaved Concrete AAC Concrete Masonry Unit CMU Concrete Masonry Unit, Horizontally Reinforced CMU(HR) Steel Deck DK PreEngineered Trusses PT Hat Channel HC SEMlok SL Asphalt Shingles AS

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26 Table 3.2. Acceptance Criteria for Basic and Enhanced Large Missile Impact Test (Yazdani et al., 2004) Acceptance Criteria Item No. Wall/Roof Assembly Type FBC Additional Criteria (FEMA-361 (2002), SBC (2000) and ASTM E-1996 (2004)) 1 Wood A specimen passes the test if the missile impact does not develop an opening through which a 3 diameter sphere can pass. Separation of the test assembly, which may cause injury or death of the occupants. 2 Metal A specimen passes the test if the missile impact does not develop an opening through which a 3 diameter sphere can pass. 3 Reinforced Concrete or CMU A test assembly passes the test if it rejects the missile without any penetration. A specimen passes the test if the missile impact does not develop an opening through which a 3 diameter sphere can pass. Spalling of concrete, which may cause injury or death of the occupants.

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27Table 3.3. Identified Wall Assemblies for Basic Testing (Yazdani et al., 2004) Description of the assembly Siding Stud No. Wall system Interior Exterior Material Size Spacing Additional information 1 Wood 1/2 gypsum board 5/16 Hardiboard on plywood SPF or STF 2x6 16 Tested, See Table 3.7 2 Wood 1/2 gypsum board 5/16 Hardiboard on 7/16 OSB SPF or STF 2x6 16 Tested, See Table 3.7 3 Wood 1/2 gypsum board Stucco on 5/8 gypsum board SPF or STF 2x6 16 Tested, See Table 3.7 4 Wood 1/2 gypsum board Stucco on 1/2 dinsgold or dinsglass SPF or STF 2x6 16 Tested, See Table 3.7 5 Wood 1/2 gypsum board Stucco on 1/2 plywood SPF or STF 2x6 16 Tested, See Table 3.7 6 Wood 1/2 gypsum board Stucco on 7/16 OSB SPF or STF 2x6 16 Tested, See Table 3.7 7 Wood/Metal 1/2 gypsum board 5/16 Hardiboard on 1/2 plywood 16 ga. (33 ksi) 800S162-43 16 Tested, See Table 3.7

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28Table 3.3. Continued. Description of the assembly Siding Stud No. Wall system Interior Exterior Material Size Spacing Additional information 8 Wood/Metal 1/2 gypsum board 5/16 Hardiboard on 7/16 OSB 16 ga. (33 ksi) 800S162-43 16 Tested, See Table 3.7 9 Wood 1/2 gypsum board 5/16 Hardiboard (vertical siding) SPF or STF 2x4 16 Not Tested 10 Wood 1/2 gypsum board 3/4 Advantech SPF or STF 2x4 16 Tested, See Table 3.7 11* Metal ---5V Galvalume: 26 ga. 16 ga. (33 ksi) 800S162-43 16 Tested, See Table 3.7 12* Brick 1/2 gypsum board Brick veneer on 1/2 plywood SPF or STF 2x4 16 Tested, See Table 3.7 13* Brick 1/2 gypsum board Brick veneer on 19/32 OSB SPF or STF 2x4 16 Tested, See Table 3.7 14* AAC concrete block ----------Tested, See Table 3.7

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29Table 3.3. Continued. Description of the assembly Siding Stud No. Wall system Interior Exterior Material Size Spacing Additional information 15* Concrete walls using insulated concrete forms (ICF) ----------Tested, See Table 3.7 16* Tilt up ----------Tested, See Table 3.7 Enhanced test was also perf ormed on this test assembly

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30Table 3.4. Identified Roof Assemblies for Basic Testing (Yazdani et al., 2004) Description of the Assembly No Roof System Deck/Roof Membrane Support Other 1* 5V Galvalume 26 ga. (33 ksi) Tested, See Table 3.7 2* Standing seam 26 ga. (33 ksi) Tested, See Table 3.7 3* 1-1/2 structural deck (22 ga.) 28 ga. roofing Metal Pre-Engineered Trusses @ 24 o.c. Tested, See Table 3.7 4* Metal 3 metal deck (22 ga) --Steel beams @ 12 o.c. Tested, See Table 3.7 5 Wood/Metal 7/16 OSB with Asphalt Shingles --Metal Pre-Engineered Trusses @ 24 o.c. Tested, See Table 3.7 Enhanced test was also perf ormed on this test assembly

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31Table 3.5. Identified Wall Assemblies for Enhanced Testing (Yazdani et al., 2004) Description of the assembly Siding Stud No. Wall system Interior Exterior Material Size Spacing Additional information 1 Wood 1/2 gypsum board Stucco on 1/2 plywood SPF or STF 2x6 16 Failed Basic Test, Enhanced Test Not Performed. 2 Wood 1/2 gypsum board Stucco on 7/16 OSB SPF or STF 2x6 16 Failed Basic Test, Enhanced Test Not Performed. 5 Wood 1/2 gypsum board Stucco on 5/8 gypsum board SPF or STF 2x6 16 Failed Basic Test, Enhanced Test Not Performed. 6 Wood 1/2 gypsum board Stucco on 1/2 dinsgold or dinsglass SPF or STF 2x6 16 Failed Basic Test, Enhanced Test Not Performed. 7 Wood 1/2 gypsum board 5/16 Hardiboard on 1/2 plywood SPF or STF 2x6 16 Failed Basic Test, Enhanced Test Not Performed. 8 Wood 1/2 gypsum board 5/16 Hardiboard on 7/16 OSB SPF or STF 2x6 16 Failed Basic Test, Enhanced Test Not Performed. 9 Wood 1/2 gypsum board 5/16 Hardiboard (vertical siding) SPF or STF 2x4 16 ---

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32Table 3.5. Continued Description of the assembly Siding Stud No. Wall system Interior Exterior Material Size Spacing Additional information 10 Wood 1/2 gypsum board 3/4 Advantech SPF or STF 2x4 16 Failed Basic Test, Enhanced Test Not Performed. 11 Metal ---5V Galvalume: 26 ga. 16 ga. (33 ksi) 800S162-43 16 Tested, See Table 3.7 12 Brick 1/2 gypsum board Brick veneer on 1/2 plywood SPF or STF 2x4 16 Tested, See Table 3.7 13 Brick 1/2 gypsum board Brick veneer on 19/32 OSB SPF or STF 2x4 16 Tested, See Table 3.7 14 CMU ----------Tested, See Table 3.7 15 AAC concrete block ----------Tested, See Table 3.7 16 Concrete walls using insulated concrete forms (ICF) ----------Tested, See Table 3.7 17 Tilt up ----------Tested, See Table 3.7

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33Table 3.6. Identified Roof Asse mblies for Enhanced Testing. (Yazdani et al., 2004) Description of the Assembly No Roof System Deck/Roof Membrane Support Other 1 5V Galvalume 26 ga. (33 ksi) Tested, See Table 3.7 2 Standing seam 26 ga. (33 ksi) Tested, See Table 3.7 3 1-1/2 structural deck (22 ga.) 28 ga. roofing Metal Pre-Engineered Trusses @ 24 o.c. Tested, See Table 3.7 4 Metal 3 metal deck (22 ga) --Steel beams @ 12 o.c. Tested, See Table 3.7 5 Wood/Metal 7/16 OSB with Asphalt Shingles --Metal Pre-Engineered Trusses @ 24 o.c. Tested, See Table 3.7 6 Concrete 6 Hollow Core ----Tested, See Table 3.7 7 Concrete 8 Hollow Core ----Tested, See Table 3.7

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34Table 3.7. Missile Impact Test Results in Chronological Order Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity Test Name Test Date (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) Results Figure EM1--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS 5/16HB 04/07/04 50.5 34.4 51.4 35.1 The missile completely penetrated both the exterior and interior fascia. 3.46 BC1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL 5/16HB 04/08/04 50.1 34.1 50.5 34.4 The missile completely penetrated both the exterior and interior fascia. 3.41 EC1--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS 5/16HB 04/09/04 ----The missile completely penetrated both the exterior and interior fascia. 3.45 BC1--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS 5/16HB 04/10/04 50.1 34.2 52.1 35.5 The missile completely penetrated both the exterior and interior fascia. 3.44

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35Table 3.7. Continued Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity Test Name Test Date (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) Results Figure BM1--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS 5/16HB 04/11/04 50.2 34.2 51.3 35.0 The missile completely penetrated both the exterior and interior fascia. 3.43 BM1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL 5/16HB 04/12/04 50.1 34.1 51.7 35.2 The missile completely penetrated both the exterior and interior fascia. 3.42 BM1--1/2GY 6SD 5/8GY ST 04/13/04 49.8 34.0 51.7 35.2 The missile completely penetrated both the exterior and interior fascia. 3.37 BC1--1/2GY 6SD 5/8GY ST 04/14/04 50.2 34.2 49.7 33.9 The missile completely penetrated both the exterior and interior fascia. 3.36

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36Table 3.7. Continued Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity Test Name Test Date (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) Results Figure BC1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2DG ST 04/15/04 50.0 34.1 49.7 33.9 The missile completely penetrated both the exterior and interior fascia. 3.33 BM1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2DG ST 04/16/04 50.0 34.1 51.7 35.2 The missile completely penetrated both the exterior and interior fascia. 3.34 BM1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL ST 04/17/04 49.9 34.0 51.3 34.9 The missile completely penetrated both the exterior and interior fascia. 3.40 BC1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL ST 04/18/04 49.9 34.0 51.3 34.9 The missile completely penetrated both the exterior and interior fascia. 3.39

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37Table 3.7. Continued Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity Test Name Test Date (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) Results Figure BC1--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS ST 04/19/04 49.7 33.9 51.3 34.9 The missile completely penetrated both the exterior and interior fascia. 3.38 BM1--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS ST 04/20/04 49.8 34.0 50.9 34.7 The missile completely penetrated both the exterior and interior fascia. 3.37 BM1--1/2GY 8CH 7/16OS 5/16HB 04/21/04 53.1 36.2 51.3 34.9 The missile completely penetrated both the exterior and interior fascia. 3.47 BC1--1/2GY 8CH 7/16OS 5/16HB 04/22/04 52.2 35.6 54.7 37.3 The missile completely penetrated both the exterior and interior fascia. 3.48

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38Table 3.7. Continued Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity Test Name Test Date (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) Results Figure BM1--1/2GY 8CH PL 5/16HB 04/23/04 52.4 35.7 52.9 36.1 The missile completely penetrated both the exterior and interior fascia. 3.49 BC1--1/2GY 8CH PL 5/16HB 04/24/04 49.5 33.8 52.9 36.1 The missile completely penetrated both the exterior and interior fascia. 3.50 EM1--6HC 04/25/04 74.9 51.1 73.7 50.3 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. The impact resulted in a crack across the length of the specimen. The specimen shifted approximately 5/8 causing minor spalling of the concrete in the front. 3.51

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39Table 3.7. Continued Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity Test Name Test Date (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) Results Figure EM1--8HC 04/26/04 74.1 50.5 76.3 52.0 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration, spalling, or cracking. 3.52 E(60)M2--8HC 04/27/04 88.5 60.3 69.8 47.6 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration, spalling, or cracking. 3.53 E(60)M3--8HC 04/28/04 88.4 60.3 88.7 60.4 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration, spalling, or cracking. 3.54 EM1--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS BV 04/29/04 72.4 49.4 75.4 51.4 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration or spalling. Some minor cracking and crushing of the brick occurred near the impact point. 3.55

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40Table 3.7. Continued Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity Test Name Test Date (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) Results Figure E(60)M2--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS BV 04/30/04 88.7 60.5 93.7 63.9 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration or spalling. Some minor cracking and crushing of the brick occurred near the impact point. Cracks extended through the specimen. 3.56 EC1--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS BV 05/01/04 72.1 49.2 72.9 49.7 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration or spalling. The missile impact aggravated the existing cracks. 3.57

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41Table 3.7. Continued Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity Test Name Test Date (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) Results Figure EC1--1/2GY 6SD PL BV 05/02/04 74.6 50.9 72.9 49.7 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration or spalling. The missile impact aggravated the existing cracks. 3.58 EM1--1/2GY 6SD PL BV 05/03/04 72.3 49.3 72.1 49.2 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration or spalling. The missile impact aggravated the existing cracks. 3.59 EM1--CMU(HR) 05/04/04 72.4 49.3 73.7 50.3 The missile completely penetrated both the exterior and interior fascia. The missile impact caused massive spalling of the interior fascia. 3.60

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42Table 3.7. Continued Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity Test Name Test Date (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) Results Figure EM1--CMU 05/05/04 74.6 50.8 73.7 50.3 The missile penetrated the exterior fascia of the CMU. The missile impacted a web and is assumed to be the reason why complete penetration did not occur. 3.61 EM2--CMU 05/06/04 72.2 49.2 73.7 50.3 The grouted and reinforced end cell was targeted. The specimen rejected the missile without penetration, cracking, or spalling. 3.62

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43Table 3.7. Continued Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity Test Name Test Date (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) Results Figure EM3--CMU 05/07/04 71.7 48.8 74.6 50.8 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. However, impact occurred on a web which caused damage to several blocks. 3.63 BM1--CMU(HR) 05/08/04 49.8 34.0 49.7 33.9 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration, spalling, or cracking. 3.64 BM2--CMU(HR) 05/09/04 50.4 34.4 46.2 31.5 The missile impact penetrated the outer face of the block and impacted the horizontal reinforcement but did not completely penetrate the specimen. 3.65

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44Table 3.7. Continued Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity Test Name Test Date (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) Results Figure BM1--CMU 05/10/04 52.4 35.7 45.9 31.3 The missile impact penetrated the outer face of the block but did not completely penetrate the specimen. 3.66 BM2--CMU 05/11/04 52.9 36.0 45.6 31.1 The missile impact penetrated the outer face of the block but did not completely penetrate the specimen. 3.67 BM3--CMU 05/12/04 57.9 39.5 55.1 37.6 The missile impact penetrated the outer face of the block but did not completely penetrate the specimen. 3.68

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45Table 3.7. Continued Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity Test Name Test Date (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) Results Figure BM1--1/2GY 6SD 3/4AD 05/13/04 50.0 34.1 53.4 36.4 The missile completely penetrated both the exterior and interior fascia. 3.69 BC1--1/2GY 6SD 3/4AD 05/14/04 52.1 35.5 54.2 37.0 The missile completely penetrated both the exterior and interior fascia. 3.70 BC2--1/2GY 6SD 3/4AD 05/15/04 52.3 35.6 51.3 34.9 The missile completely penetrated both the exterior and interior fascia. 3.71

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46Table 3.7. Continued Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity Test Name Test Date (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) Results Figure BM2--1/2GY 6SD 3/4AD 05/16/04 51.6 35.2 50.5 34.4 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. The impact intentionally occurred on a stud. The impact crushed the Advantech and pushed the stud back into the interior portion of the specimen although no openings were formed. 3.72

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47Table 3.7. Continued Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity Test Name Test Date (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) Results Figure EM1--8CH 1/2PL 5VGA 05/17/04 73.4 50.0 74.0** 50.4 The missile completely penetrated both the exterior and interior fascia. **The second photosensor was not working correctly due to a piece of debris in front of it, therefore it did not record the correct time. The actual speed was estimated using the trends observed in the other enhanced tests. These calculations are presented in Table 3.8 The incorrect recorded velocity was 25.2 fps. 3.73

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48Table 3.7. Continued Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity Test Name Test Date (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) Results Figure EC1--8CH 1/2PL 5VGA 05/18/04 72.8 49.6 72.1 49.2 The missile completely penetrated both the exterior and interior fascia. 3.74 BM1--8CH 1/2PL 5VGA 05/19/04 48.0 32.7 44.0 30.0 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. Minor deformation of the metal occurred near the impact point. 3.75 BM2--8CH 1/2PL 5VGA 05/20/04 49.7 33.9 50.9 34.7 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. Minor deformation of the metal occurred near the impact point. 3.76

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49Table 3.7. Continued Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity Test Name Test Date (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) Results Figure BC1--8CH 1/2PL 5VGA 05/21/04 54.8 37.4 49.0 33.4 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. Minor deformation of the metal occurred near the impact point. 3.77 BC1--PT HC 1/2PL SL 05/22/04 52.1 35.5 46.5 31.7 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. Minor deformation of the metal occurred near the impact point. 3.78

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50Table 3.7. Continued Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity Test Name Test Date (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) Results Figure BC2--PT HC 1/2PL SL 05/23/04 51.4 35.0 50.5 34.4 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. The missile impact separated the panels on the left side and caused large deformations in the material and cracked the plywood. 3.79 BM1--PT HC 1/2PL SL 05/24/04 50.7 34.6 48.3 32.9 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. The missile impact separated the panels on the left side and caused large deformations in the material and cracked the plywood. 3.80

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51Table 3.7. Continued Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity Test Name Test Date (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) Results Figure EM1--PT HC 1/2PL SL 05/25/04 73.3 49.9 72.1 49.2 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. The missile impact separated the panels on the left side and caused large deformations in the material, cracked the plywood, and tore free from the fasteners on the right side. 3.81

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52Table 3.7. Continued Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity Test Name Test Date (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) Results Figure EC1--PT HC 1/2PL SL 05/26/04 73.5 50.1 68.4 46.6 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. The impact caused severe deformations in the metal and pulled some fasteners from the plywood. There was also severe cracking of the plywood. 3.82 E(60)M2--PT HC 1/2PL SL 05/27/04 88.5 60.4 88.7 60.4 The missile completely penetrated both the exterior and interior fascia. 3.83 BM1--PT HC 7/16OS AS 05/28/04 49.9 34.0 43.2 29.4 The missile completely penetrated both the exterior and interior fascia. 3.84

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53Table 3.7. Continued Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity Test Name Test Date (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) Results Figure BM2--PT HC 7/16OS AS 05/29/04 52.9 36.0 46.5 31.7 The missile completely penetrated both the exterior and interior fascia. 3.85 BC1--PT HC 7/16OS AS 05/30/04 52.3 35.7 49.0 33.4 The missile completely penetrated both the exterior and interior fascia. 3.86 EM1--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA 05/31/04 74.1 50.5 73.7 50.3 The missile completely penetrated both the exterior and interior fascia. 3.87 BM1--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA 06/01/04 48.7 33.2 43.2 29.4 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. Some local deformation in the metal occurred due to the impact. 3.88

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54Table 3.7. Continued Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity Test Name Test Date (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) Results Figure BM2--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA 06/02/04 53.4 36.4 41.0 28.0 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. Some local deformation in the metal occurred due to the impact. 3.89 BM3--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA 06/03/04 51.1 34.8 51.3 34.9 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. Some local deformation in the metal occurred due to the impact. 3.90 BC1--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA 06/04/04 52.2 35.6 48.3 32.9 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. Some local deformation in the metal occurred due to the impact. 3.91

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55Table 3.7. Continued Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity Test Name Test Date (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) Results Figure BC2--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA 06/05/04 50.2 34.2 45.9 31.3 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. Some local deformation in the metal occurred due to the impact. 3.92 EM1--PT 11/2DK 5VGA 06/06/04 74.0 50.5 53.8 36.7 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. Some local deformation in the metal occurred due to the impact. 3.93 EM2--PT 11/2DK 5VGA 06/07/04 73.1 49.9 75.4 51.4 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. Some local deformation in the metal occurred due to the impact. 3.94

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56Table 3.7. Continued Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity Test Name Test Date (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) Results Figure EC1--PT 11/2DK 5VGA 06/08/04 72.6 49.5 73.7 50.3 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. Some local deformation in the metal occurred due to the impact. 3.95 E(60)M3--PT 11/2DK 5VGA 06/09/04 88.1 60.1 89.9 61.3 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. The impact caused a large deformation in the deck as well as a tear in the 5V. This caused the center stud to rip from bottom track and the edge studs to buckle. 3.96 EM1--5TU 06/10/04 73.1 49.8 72.9 49.7 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. 3.97

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57Table 3.7. Continued Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity Test Name Test Date (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) Results Figure E(60)M2--5TU 06/11/04 87.9 59.9 87.5 59.6 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. 3.98 EM1--6ICF 06/12/04 73.7 50.2 72.1 49.2 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. 3.99 E(60)M2--6ICF 06/13/04 87.5 59.6 87.5 59.6 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. 3.100 EM1--SB 3DK 06/14/04 74.4 50.7 71.3 48.6 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. The missile hit the corner of a rib and caused some local deformation. The lap joint between panels was opened slightly by the impact. 3.101

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58Table 3.7. Continued Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity Test Name Test Date (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) Results Figure E(60)M2--SB 3DK 06/15/04 88.8 60.6 87.5 59.6 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. The impact did, however, cause large deformations in the material. 3.102 EC1--SB 3DK 06/16/04 73.0 49.8 69.8 47.6 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. The impact did, however, cause large deformations in the material and failure of the puddle welds. 3.103 E(60)C2--SB 3DK 06/17/04 87.6 59.7 87.5 59.6 The missile penetrated the lap joint which was targeted intentionally. 3.104

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59Table 3.7. Continued Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity Test Name Test Date (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) Results Figure E(60)C3--SB 3DK 06/18/04 88.2 60.1 87.5 59.6 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. The impact resulted in a large deformation at impact point. The impact tore the decking across the rib and at the weld. 3.105 E(60)M3--SB 3DK 06/19/04 88.5 60.3 86.3 58.9 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. Some local deformation in the metal occurred due to the impact. 3.106 E(60)C4--SB 3DK 06/20/04 88.4 60.3 86.3 58.9 The missile penetrated the joint, which was targeted intentionally, and tore two of the adjacent screws from the deck. 3.107

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60Table 3.7. Continued Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity Test Name Test Date (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) Results Figure BM1--AAC 11/04/04 51.0 34.7 50.5 34.4 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. The specimen experienced localized crushing of the material near the impact zone. 3.108 EM1--AAC 11/04/04 74.2 50.6 73.7 50.3 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. The specimen experienced massive cracking throughout. It is believed that the shoring helped to reject the missile and to keep the specimen standing after impact. 3.109

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61Table 3.7. Continued Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity Test Name Test Date (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) Results Figure E(60)M2--AAC 11/04/0487.7 59.8 87.5 59.6 The missile completely penetrated the specimen. More cracking developed and massive spalling was observed on the interior fascia of the specimen. 3.110 *Data Lost

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62 Table 3.8. Test EM1--8CH 1/2PL 5 VGA Speed Correction Calculations 1st up 1st down 2nd up 2nd down 1d -1u 2d 2u2d 1d 2u 1u 2693 3102 2833 3192 409 359 90 140 2299 2681 2433 2771 382 338 90 134 1940 2358 2083 2447 418 364 89 143 2336 2719 2469 2805 383 336 86 133 2164 2575 2305 2666 411 361 91 141 1690 2079 1824 2166 389 342 87 134 2665 3035 2795 3122 370 327 87 130 2138 2562 2281 2651 424 370 89 143 2349 2775 2492 2864 426 372 89 143 2331 2757 2474 2846 426 372 89 143 2509 2837 2632 2925 328 293 88 123 AVG 397 349 89 137 High 426 372 91 143 Low 328 293 86 123 Recorded Data Estimated Values 1 up 2358 2 up 2495 1 down 2737 2 down 2826 Estimated Velocity 74 ft/s

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63 Figure 3.1 Testing Assembly Schematic, (a) Plan View; (b) Profile View; and (c) Elevation View Figure 3.2 Overall Testing Assembly Strong Wall Strong Floor Foundation Block Test Specimen Top Restraint (b) (c)

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64 Figure 3.3 Close-up of Concrete Foundation Bl ocks with J-Bolts and Threaded Rod Figure 3.4 Steel Top Restraint J-Bolts Threaded Rod

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65 Figure 3.5 Steel Stud Test Frame with OSB and Plywood Cladding Figure 3.6 Specimen PT-HC-1/2PL-SL Attach ed to Cold-Formed Steel Hat Purlins

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66 Figure 3.7 Stucco Lath Applied to 2x6 Wood Stud Test Frame with Gypsum Wall Board Specimen (Upper Left) and Dinsglass Specimen (Lower Right) Figure 3.8 Finished Stucco Over Gypsum Wall Board Specimen (Upper Left) and Dinsglass Specimen (Lower Right) Figure 3.9 5V Crimp Side Lap Deta il (Source: Gibraltar, 2002)

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67 Figure 3.10 5V Crimp Fastening Patt ern (Source: Gibraltar, 2002) Figure 3.11 Standing Seam Side La p Detail (Source: Semco, 2002) Figure 3.12 Asphalt Shingle Nailing Pattern (S ource: National Roofing Conctractors Association, 2003)

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68 Figure 3.13 Construction of the T ilt-up Wall Test Panel Specimen Figure 3.14 PVC Pipe Inserts for Tilt-up Wall Specimen

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69 Figure 3.15 Typical Embedded Lifting Device for Tilt-up Wall Specimen Figure 3.16 Construction of CMU Test Specim ens With and Without Horizontal Joint Reinforcement

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70 Figure 3.17 Partial Construction of the ICF Test Specimen Figure 3.18 Reinforcing Bars Secured to ICF Forms Using Wire Ties

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71 Figure 3.19 2 x 8 Timber Studs Used as Endcaps for ICF Forms Figure 3.20 Completed ICF Test Specimen

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72 Figure 3.21 Typical Puddle Welded Connec tion of Steel Deck to Support Framing Figure 3.22 3 in. Deck Specimen Construction

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73 Figure 3.23 Typical 3 in. Deck Specimen Support Framing and Floor Connection Figure 3.24 3 in. Deck Specimen Installed

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74 Figure 3.25 8 in. Hollow Core Slab Specimen with Shoring Figure 3.26 9 lb and 15 lb Missiles with Sabot Attached Runne r Kickers Frame Lifting Chains

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75 Figure 3.27 Large Missile Cannon at UF Figure 3.28 Large Missile Cannon Firing Mechanism Pressure Gauge Pressure Release Mechanism Barrel Frame Barrel Data Acquisition System Compressed Air Supply

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76 Figure 3.29 Handwritten Data Collection Sheet

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77 Figure 3.30 Labview Data Acquisition System 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0246810121416 Pressure (psi)Velocity (fps) Figure 3.31 Calibration Data Plot for 15 lb Missile

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78 V = 49.846Ln(P) 46.113 R2 = 0.9959 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Pressure Velocity Figure 3.32 Calibration Curv e for 15 lb Missile Figure 3.33 BC1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2DG ST Test Result at 34 mph 73.3 ft/s = 50mph Target Velocity 11 psi. Target Pressure

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79 Figure 3.34 BM1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2D G ST Test Result at 34 mph Figure 3.35 BC1--1/2GY 6SD 5/8GY ST Test Result at 34 mph

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80 Figure 3.36 BM1--1/2GY 6SD 5/8G Y ST Test Result at 34 mph Figure 3.37 BM1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS ST Test Result at 34 mph

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81 Figure 3.38 BC1--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS ST Test Result at 34 mph Figure 3.39 BC1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL ST Test Result at 34 mph

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82 Figure 3.40 BM1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2P L ST Test Result at 34 mph Figure 3.41 BC1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL 5/ 16HB Test Result at 34 mph

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83 Figure 3.42 BM1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL 5/16HB Test Result at 34 mph Figure 3.43 BM1--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS 5/16HB Test Result at 34 mph

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84 Figure 3.44 BC1--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS 5/ 16HB Test Result at 34 mph Figure 3.45 EC1--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS 5/16HB Test Result at 50 mph

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85 Figure 3.46 EM1--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS 5/16HB Test Result at 50 mph Figure 3.47 BM1--1/2GY 8CH 7/16OS 5/16HB Test Result at 34 mph

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86 Figure 3.48 BC1--1/2GY 8CH 7/16OS 5/ 16HB Test Result at 34 mph Figure 3.49 BM1--1/2GY 8CH 1/2PL 5/16HB Test Result at 34 mph

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87 Figure 3.50 BC1--1/2GY 8CH 1/2PL 5/ 16HB Test Result at 34 mph Figure 3.51 EM1--6HC Te st Result at 50 mph

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88 Figure 3.52 EM1--8HC Te st Result at 50 mph Figure 3.53 E(60)M2--8HC Test Result at 60 mph

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89 Figure 3.54 E(60)M3--8HC Test Result at 60 mph Figure 3.55 EM1--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS BV Test Result at 50 mph

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90 Figure 3.56 E(60)M2--1/2GY 6SD 7/16O S BV Test Result at 60 mph Figure 3.57 EC1--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS BV Test Result at 50 mph

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91 Figure 3.58 EC1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL BV Test Result at 50 mph Figure 3.59 EM1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2P L BV Test Result at 50 mph

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92 Figure 3.60 EM1--CMU(HR) Test Result at 50 mph Figure 3.61 EM1--CMU Test Result at 50 mph EM1CMU(HR) EM1--CMU

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93 Figure 3.62 EM2--CMU Test Result at 50 mph Figure 3.63 EM3--CMU Test Result at 50 mph EM2--CMU EM3--CMU

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94 Figure 3.64 BM1--CMU(HR) Test Result at 34 mph Figure 3.65 BM2--CMU(HR) Test Result at 34 mph BM1CMU (HR) BM2CMU (HR)

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95 Figure 3.66 BM1--CMU Test Result at 34 mph Figure 3.67 BM2--CMU Test Result at 34 mph BM1CMU BM2CMU

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96 Figure 3.68 BM3--CMU Test Result at 34 mph Figure 3.69 BM1--1/2GY 6SD 3/4AD Test Result at 34 mph BM3CMU

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97 Figure 3.70 BC1--1/2GY 6SD 3/4AD Test Result at 34 mph Figure 3.71 BC2--1/2GY 6SD 3/4AD Test Result at 34 mph

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98 Figure 3.72 BM2--1/2GY 6SD 3/4AD Test Result at 34 mph Figure 3.73 EM1--8CH 1/2PL 5VGA Test Result at 50 mph

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99 Figure 3.74 EC1--8CH 1/2PL 5 VGA Test Result at 50 mph Figure 3.75 BM1--8CH 1/2PL 5VGA Test Result at 34 mph

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100 Figure 3.76 BM2--8CH 1/2PL 5VGA Test Result at 34 mph Figure 3.77 BC1--8CH 1/2PL 5VGA Test Result at 34 mph

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101 Figure 3.78 BC1--PT HC 1/2PL SL Test Result at 34 mph Figure 3.79 BC2--PT HC 1/2PL SL Test Result at 34 mph

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102 Figure 3.80 BM1--PT HC 1/2PL SL Test Result at 34 mph Figure 3.81 EM1--PT HC 1/2PL SL Test Result at 50 mph

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103 Figure 3.82 EC1--PT HC 1/2PL SL Test Result at 50 mph Figure 3.83 E(60)M2--PT HC 1/2P L SL Test Result at 60 mph

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104 Figure 3.84 BM1--PT HC 7/16OS AS Test Result at 34 mph Figure 3.85 BM2--PT HC 7/16OS AS Test Result at 34 mph

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105 Figure 3.86 BC1--PT HC 7/16OS AS Test Result at 34 mph Figure 3.87 EM1--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA Test Result at 50 mph

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106 Figure 3.88 BM1--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA Test Result at 34 mph Figure 3.89 BM2--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA Test Result at 34 mph

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107 Figure 3.90 BM3--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA Test Result at 34 mph Figure 3.91 BC1--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA Test Result at 34 mph

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108 Figure 3.92 BC2--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA Test Result at 34 mph Figure 3.93 EM1--PT 11/2DK 5VGA Test Result at 50 mph

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109 Figure 3.94 EM2--PT 11/2DK 5VGA Test Result at 50 mph Figure 3.95 EC1--PT 11/2DK 5VGA Test Result at 50 mph

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110 Figure 3.96 E(60)M3--PT 11/2DK 5VGA Test Result at 60 mph Figure 3.97 EM1--5TU Test Result at 50 mph

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111 Figure 3.98 E(60)M2--5TU Te st Result at 60 mph Figure 3.99 EM1--6ICF Test Result at 50 mph

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112 Figure 3.100 E(60)M2--6ICF Test Result at 60 mph Figure 3.101 EM1--SB 3DK Test Result at 50 mph

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113 Figure 3.102 E(60)M2--SB 3DK Test Result at 60 mph Figure 3.103 EC1--SB 3DK Test Result at 50 mph

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114 Figure 3.104 E(60)C2--SB 3DK Test Result at 60 mph Figure 3.105 E(60)C3--SB 3DK Test Result at 60 mph

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115 Figure 3.106 E(60)M3--SB 3DK Test Result at 60 mph Figure 3.107 E(60)C4--SB 3DK Test Result at 60 mph

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116 Figure 3.108 BM1-AAC Test Result at 34 mph Figure 3.109 EM1-AAC Test Result at 50 mph

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117 Figure 3.110 E(60)M2-AAC Test Result at 60 mph

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118 CHAPTER 4 SMALL SCALE TESTING FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS 4.1 Introduction This chapter describes the means and methods used to evaluate the feasibility of developing a small scale testing procedure as an alternative to full scale specimen testing for structural assemblies. While the expe riments described in Chapter 3 were being carried out, the process of testing full scal e specimens was found to be costly and time consuming. It was proposed that a sm all scale testing methodology could provide significant time and cost savings over the fu ll scale testing required by FBC (2001) TAS 201-94 Impact Test Procedures. The informati on presented in this chapter describes the proposed testing procedure, testi ng apparatus, an d test results. For the specimens supported by the timber and cold-formed steel frames, the response of a small scale specimen, e.g. a 2 ft x 2 ft. panel, mounted on spring supports and subjected to the same missile impact as the full scale specimen, would be representative of the full scale system. In the full scale specimens, the header and footer beams for the wall and roof frames were bolted into the top re straint and foundation block respectively. The header was attached using three 1/2 i n. bolts while the footer was secured using six 1/2 in. J-bolts. This configuration was modeled as having pinned supports. Other specimens, such as the concrete and masonry systems, are assumed to be rigid and therefore do no t require spring supports.

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119 4.2 Nomenclature The nomenclature for the small scale test specimens follows the same format and abbreviations as in the full scale specimens presented in Chapter 3. Only the SS abbreviation has been added in the small scale nomenclature denoting a small scale specimen. For example, the test name EM1-1/2PL SL SS refers to an enhanced midspan test, first impact. The sp ecimen portion of the name denotes the SEM-Lok specimen mounted on 1/2 in. plywood that is a 2 ft. x 2 ft. panel. 4.3 Testing Methodology It is believed that the support conditions of a particular full s cale specimen type can be modeled using a series of spring suppor ts. To determine the necessary spring stiffness, the timber and steel roof frames were modeled as a set of spri ngs in parallel. It was assumed that only two of the vertical supports would react to the missile impact, therefore, the stiffness of each of these studs was calculated using Equation 4.1 and distributed over two equivalent springs. The stiffness for the timber studs was calculated using a moment of inertia (I) of 20.797 in.4 and modulus of elastic ity (E) of 1700 ksi. The resulting equivalent stiffness for the f our supporting springs was determined to be 500 lb/in. The steel wall studs were not cons idered since the full scale testing showed that the performance of a wall system is de pendent on the cladding material and not the stud material. The cold formed steel roof truss stiffness was calculated using a 362S16268 cee stud having an I of 1.069 in.4 as listed in the St eel Stud Manufacturers Association Product Technical Information catalogue (SSMA, 2004) and E of 29000 ksi and was found to be 430 lb/in. The stiffnesse s for the timber and cold formed steel studs were close enough to each other to consider them equal. Four springs with a stiffness of 470 lb/in., which were the closes t available stiffness to the calculated values, were used

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120 to support the corners of a 2 ft. x 2 ft. sample of the specimen. The concrete and masonry systems were assumed to be rigid and therefore no springs were used. k = 48 E I (4.1) L3 Each of the small scale specimens consiste d of 2 ft. x 2 ft. samples of 3/4AD SS, 5/16HB 1/2PL SS, 1/2PL 5VGA SS, and 1/2PL SL SS. These samples were then secured using 1/2 in. bolts to the spri ng supports representative of the support systems in the full scale specimens. The spring support apparatus wa s clamped to the front of a test frame in the laboratory as shown in Figure 4.2 The test frame consists of a steel base with four steel posts, two channels acro ss the front to support specim ens, and a steel plate across the back to act as a backstop (see Figure 4.2 ). The spring support apparatus, shown in Figure 4.3 was placed between the two channels on the front of the frame to provide vertical support and clamped to the steel posts, providing hori zontal support. The weight of the test frame is large enough that it remain s in place during missile impact. The rigid systems were clamped directly to the test frame. Samples were also taken of the 1/2PL BV SS and 5TU SS specimens. The brick veneer specimen was mounted in a frame c onstructed of 2x4 timber studs. The frame was constructed with a layer of 1/2 in. pl ywood secured to the back and two 2x4 strips were added across the specimen to secure it in the frame. The sample of the 5 in. tilt-up slab was taken using a concrete saw. Since these systems were assumed to be rigid, they were mounted without springs to the test frame. Once the samples were mounted, they were tested using the missile impact pro cedures described by FBC (2001) TAS 201-94.

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121 4.4 Experimental Results All of the small scale specimens described in Section 4.3 of this chapter have been tested. Each specimen was tested with the highest missile speed th at it had passed during full scale testing. Specimens 3/4AD SS and 1/2PL 5/16HB SS were tested using the basic test protocol and failed. The 1/2PL 5VGA SS specimen was tested using the basic test. The specimen exhibited some minor defo rmation of the material and was considered acceptable under the basic test protocol. The 1/2PL SL SS specimen was tested using the enhanced test. The impact resulted in seve re deformation of the metal and cracking of the plywood. The response of the specimen was considered unacceptable under the enhanced test. The enhanced test was also performed on the 1/2PL BV SS specimen. The missile completely penetrated the specime n and resulted in the destruction of the brick at the impact location and perforation of the plywood backing. Finally, the 5TUSS specimen was tested using the enhanced test criteria for which it rejected the missile without penetration. Photographs of the test results are av ailable in Figures 4.3 through 4.10 and a summary of all of the small scale test results can be found in Table 4.1

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122Table 4.1. Small Scale Missile Impact Test Results Estimated Measured Test Name Test Date Velocity Velocity Results Figure (ft/s) (mph)(ft/s) (mph) BM1--1/2PL 5/16HB SS 10/22/04 53.9 36.8 48.3 32.9 The missile completely penetrated the specimen. 4.3 BM1--3/4AD SS 10/22/04 50.5 34.4 61.9 42.2 The missile completely penetrated the specimen. 4.4 BM2--3/4AD SS 10/23/04 50.8 34.6 53.9 36.7 The missile completely penetrated the specimen. A crack developed horizontally across the specimen and completely through the material. 4.5 BM1--1/2PL 5VGA SS 10/22/04 52.6 35.8 48.6 33.1 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. Some minor deformation occurred near the impact point. 4.6 BM2--1/2PL 5VGA SS 10/22/04 51.4 35.0 47.9 32.6 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. Some minor deformation occurred near the impact point. 4.7 EM1--1/2PL SL SS 10/22/04 73.0 49.7 72.9 49.7 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. There was severe deformation at the impact point and separation at the seams occurred. 4.8 EM1--1/2PL BV SS 10/22/04 72.2 49.2 75.4 51.4 The missile completely penetrated the specimen. 4.9 EM1--5TU SS 10/22/04 72.5 49.4 71.3 48.6 The specimen rejected the missile without penetration. 4.10

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123 Figure 4.1 Small Scale Support Apparatus (a ) Theoretical Location of Small Scale Specimen (b) Small Scale Specimen Support Apparatus Figure 4.2 Steel Test Frame Base Backstop Post Channel (a) (b)

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124 Figure 4.3 Spring Support Assembly Mounted to the Steel Test Frame Figure 4.4 BM1--1/2PL 5/16HB SS Test Result at 34 mph Specimen Spring Clamp Steel Frame Channel

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125 Figure 4.5 BM1--3/4HB SS Test Result at 34 mph Figure 4.6 BM2--3/4AD SS Test Result at 34 mph

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126 Figure 4.7 BM1--1/2PL 5V SS Test Result at 34 mph Figure 4.8 BM2--1/2PL 5V SS Test Result at 34 mph

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127 Figure 4.9 EM1--1/2PL SL SS Test Result at 50 mph Figure 4.10 EM1--1/2PL BV SS Test Result at 50 mph

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128 Figure 4.11 EM1--5TU SS Test Result at 50 mph

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129 CHAPTER 5 RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 5.1 Specimen Classification The specimens that were tested in this study can be broken down into four unique categories. These categories have been developed to describe the predominate composition of the specimen. The specimens within each category also exhibited a similar missile impact performance. Each of the specimens falls into one of the following categories: Multi-layered Panel A specimen that is pr imarily constructed of layered sheets. These sheets may be com posed of plywood, OSB, Advantech, gypsum board, or any other such material. An example of a multi-layered panel would be specimen 1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS 5/16HB since there is a layering of OSB and Hardiboard as the primary components of the specimen. Metal This category describes any specime n that has an outer layer consisting of metal paneling. An example of this would be the specimen 8CH 1/2PL 5VGA since the outer layer is made of 5V Galvalume. Masonry These specimens are composed prim arily of a masonry material. In this study, the specimens that are included in th is category are the brick veneer, CMU, and AAC specimens. Concrete These specimens are complete ly composed of concrete. Specimens included in this category are the ti lt-up, ICF, and hollow core slabs. 5.2 Full Scale Testing This section presents the test data an d summarizes the results for each of the specimen categories listed above. This data was collected during the full scale testing described in Chapter 3.

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130 5.2.1 Multi-Layered Panel Specimens All of the specimens that fall within this category failed the basic impact test. Each one experienced complete penetration by the missile. An abridged summary of the specimen results are presented in Table 5.1 and the detailed results along with photographs are available in Chapter 3. 5.2.2 Metal Specimens The metal specimens performed well during basic testing, though each test resulted in some deformation of the metal near the impact zone. Those specimens that were backed with plywood experienced cracking of the plywood, however, the missile did not penetrate the specimen. During enhanced testing, these specimens e xhibited a variety of responses. The 5V Galvalume specimens were completely penetrated by the missile. However, the Sem-lok specimens rejected the missile without pe netration. The impact did, however, cause severe deformation in the material and cracking of the plywood backing. In some instances, the material was torn from the fa steners on one side and the locking seam was separated on the other. The performance of these panels is considered acceptable under the enhanced test protocols. Finally, the sp ecimens with the 1 1/2 in. deck rejected the missile without penetration. This specimen was again tested using the 60 mph test and again, rejected the missile without penetra tion. An abridged summary of the specimen results are presented in Table 5.2 and the detailed results along with photographs are available in Chapter 3. 5.2.3 Masonry Specimens The masonry specimens were generally succe ssful during testing. All of the tested specimens, including the CMU, brick veneer, and AAC, rejected the missile during basic

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131 testing although some crushing was eviden t in the CMU and AAC specimens. During enhanced testing, the brick ve neer again rejected the miss ile. Following the enhanced test, the brick was tested at 60 mph which it also passed. The CMU specimens did not pass the enhanced tests. The complete pe netration by the missile resulted in severe spalling of the concrete on the interior por tion of the specimen. However, when the grouted end cells were impacted, they rejected the missile without penetration. The AAC specimen also performed poorly during enhanc ed testing. The enhanced test impact caused a large amount of cracking throughout the specimen. The specimen was then tested at 60 mph and failed. During this te st, the missile completely penetrated the specimen and resulted in a massive amount of spalling. An abridged summary of the specimen results are presented in Table 5.3 and the detailed results along with photographs are available in Chapter 3. 5.2.4 Concrete Specimens The concrete specimens include the tilt-up, ICF, and hollow core specimens. All of the concrete specimens rejected the missile during all testing without penetration. With the exception of the 6HC specimen, no visibl e reaction was observed for any of these specimens. The 6HC specimen did develop cr acks following the enhanced test. In addition to the cracking, the specimens base moved approximately 3/8 in.. An abridged summary of the specimen results are presented in Table 5.4 and the detailed results along with photographs are av ailable in Chapter 3. 5.2.5 Conclusions The results of this study show that the c oncrete specimens were the most effective against windborne missile impact. This is evident since all of the tested specimens passed the enhanced 60 mph test. Both the masonry and metal systems performed well.

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132 Each of these system categorie s rejected the missile during ba sic testing, however, they did not perform consistently during enhanced testing. Finally, the multi-layered panel systems performed the worst out of the syst ems tested. These systems failed all basic testing and are therefore ineffective against the standardized windborne missile impact at the sizes and speeds described by FBC (2001) TAS-201. 5.3 Small Scale Testing Testing on small scale specimens was conducted in an attempt to determine the feasibility of using small panels in place of full scale specimens for missile impact testing. 5.3.1 Test Results The overall feasibility of the small scale sp ecimen testing is difficult to judge since the specimens exhibited a range of responses as compared to the full scale specimens. The test data for the small scale missile impact testing is presented in Table 5.5 The 3/4AD SS and 5/16HB 1/2PL SS specimens both fa iled basic testing as they had in the full scale specimens. The 3/4AD SS specime n, however, developed a horizontal crack completely through the material that was not demonstrated in the full scale specimen. Specimen 1/2PL 5VGA SS was tested using the basic test protocols and passed. However, the deformations resulting from th e impact appeared to be less severe than those in the full scale specimen. The 1/ 2PL SL SS specimen was tested with the enhanced testing protocols and failed. This marked a departure from the results obtained from full scale testing. In the full scale te st, the material experienced deformation and some cracking of the plywood underneath. The small scale specimen, however, experienced severe deformations in the mate rial and the developmen t of several severe cracks in the underlying plywood. The 1/2P L BV SS specimen experienced complete

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133 failure when tested with the enhanced test. During impact, the missile completely penetrated the brick and plywood backing, how ever, in full scale te sting, the specimen successfully passed the 60 mph test. Finally, the 5TU SS specimen rejected the missile without penetration, this same reaction was demonstrated in full scale testing. 5.3.2 Conclusions Based on the results gained from the sma ll scale testing, it is concluded that the methods used are not realistic under the condi tions and assumptions used in this study. The test results were far too di vergent from the full scale tests to be considered reliable at this time. 5.3.3 Recommendations Although it is believed that the methods used in this study to conduct the small scale testing are inadequate to model a realistic system, it is recommended that more research be conducted in this area. Development of a sm all scale testing procedure would provide a significant savings in both co st and labor. This is believed to be beneficial because a reduction in the cost, bot h time and monetary, to test each specimen would allow research programs to study more materials and to look at various other characteristics of the material and support sy stem. This additional research could result in the development of new construction methods since more permutations of materials, supports, and fasteners could be testing in a shorter time and with a lower cost. Table 5.1. Multi-Layered Panel Sp ecimens Test Result Summary Estimated Measured Test Name Velocity Velocity Results (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) BC1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL 5/16HB 50.1 34.1 50.5 34.4 Failed BC1--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS 5/16HB 50.1 34.2 52.1 35.5 Failed BC1--1/2GY 6SD 5/8GY ST 50.2 34.2 49.7 33.9 Failed BC1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2DG ST 50.0 34.1 49.7 33.9 Failed

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134 Table 5.1. Continued Estimated Measured Test Name Velocity Velocity Results (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) BC1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL ST 49.9 34.0 51.3 34.9 Failed BC1--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS ST 49.7 33.9 51.3 34.9 Failed BC1--1/2GY 8CH 7/16OS 5/16HB 52.2 35.6 54.7 37.3 Failed BC1--1/2GY 8CH 1/2PL 5/16HB 49.5 33.8 52.9 36.1 Failed BC1--1/2GY 6SD 3/4AD 52.1 35.5 54.2 37.0 Failed BC2--1/2GY 6SD 3/4AD 52.3 35.6 51.3 34.9 Failed BC1--PT HC 7/16OS AS 52.3 35.7 49.0 33.4 Failed BM1--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS 5/16HB 50.2 34.2 51.3 35.0 Failed BM1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL 5/16HB 50.1 34.1 51.7 35.2 Failed BM1--1/2GY 6SD 5/8GY ST 49.8 34.0 51.7 35.2 Failed BM1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2DG ST 50.0 34.1 51.7 35.2 Failed BM1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL ST 49.9 34.0 51.3 34.9 Failed BM1--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS ST 49.8 34.0 50.9 34.7 Failed BM1--1/2GY 8CH 7/16OS 5/16HB 53.1 36.2 51.3 34.9 Failed BM1--1/2GY 8CH 1/2PL 5/16HB 52.4 35.7 52.9 36.1 Failed BM1--1/2GY 6SD 3/4AD 50.0 34.1 53.4 36.4 Failed BM2--1/2GY 6SD 3/4AD 51.6 35.2 50.5 34.4 Passed BM1--PT HC 7/16OS AS 49.9 34.0 43.2 29.4 Failed BM2--PT HC 7/16OS AS 52.9 36.0 46.5 31.7 Failed EM1--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS 5/16HB 50.5 34.4 51.4 35.1 Failed EC1--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS 5/16HB ----Failed *Data Lost Table 5.2. Metal Specimen Test Result Summary Estimated Measured Test Name Velocity Velocity Results (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) BC1--8CH 1/2PL 5VGA 54.8 37.4 49.0 33.4 Pass BC1--PT HC 1/2PL SL 52.1 35.5 46.5 31.7 Pass BC2--PT HC 1/2PL SL 51.4 35.0 50.5 34.4 Pass BC1--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA 52.2 35.6 48.3 32.9 Pass BC2--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA 50.2 34.2 45.9 31.3 Pass BM1--8CH 1/2PL 5VGA 48.0 32.7 44.0 30.0 Pass BM2--8CH 1/2PL 5VGA 49.7 33.9 50.9 34.7 Pass BM1--PT HC 1/2PL SL 50.7 34.6 48.3 32.9 Pass BM1--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA 48.7 33.2 43.2 29.4 Pass BM2--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA 53.4 36.4 41.0 28.0 Pass BM3--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA 51.1 34.8 51.3 34.9 Pass

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135 Table 5.2. Continued Estimated Measured Test Name Velocity Velocity Results (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) EC1--8CH 1/2PL 5VGA 72.8 49.6 72.1 49.2 Failed EC1--PT HC 1/2PL SL 73.5 50.1 68.4 46.6 Pass EC1--PT 11/2DK 5VGA 72.6 49.5 73.7 50.3 Pass EC1--SB 3DK 73.0 49.8 69.8 47.6 Failed EM1--8CH 1/2PL 5VGA 73.4 50.0 74.0** 50.4 Failed EM1--PT HC 1/2PL SL 73.3 49.9 72.1 49.2 Pass EM1--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA 74.1 50.5 73.7 50.3 Failed EM1--PT 11/2DK 5VGA 74.0 50.5 53.8 36.7 Pass EM2--PT 11/2DK 5VGA 73.1 49.9 75.4 51.4 Pass EM1--SB 3DK 74.4 50.7 71.3 48.6 Pass E(60)C2--SB 3DK 87.6 59.7 87.5 59.6 Failed E(60)C3--SB 3DK 88.2 60.1 87.5 59.6 Failed E(60)C4--SB 3DK 88.4 60.3 86.3 58.9 Failed E(60)M2--PT HC 1/2PL SL 88.5 60.4 88.7 60.4 Failed E(60)M2--SB 3DK 88.8 60.6 87.5 59.6 Pass E(60)M3--PT 11/2DK 5VGA 88.1 60.1 89.9 61.3 Failed E(60)M3--SB 3DK 88.5 60.3 86.3 58.9 Pass Table 5.3. Masonry Specimens Test Result Summary Estimated Measured Test Name Velocity Velocity Results (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) BM1--CMU(HR) 49.8 34.0 49.7 33.9 Pass BM2--CMU(HR) 50.4 34.4 46.2 31.5 Pass BM1--CMU 52.4 35.7 45.9 31.3 Pass BM2--CMU 52.9 36.0 45.6 31.1 Pass BM3--CMU 57.9 39.5 55.1 37.6 Pass BM1--AAC 51.0 34.7 50.5 34.4 Pass EC1--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS BV 72.1 49.2 72.9 49.7 Pass EC1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL BV 74.6 50.9 72.9 49.7 Pass EM1--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS BV 72.4 49.4 75.4 51.4 Pass EM1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL BV 72.3 49.3 72.1 49.2 Pass EM1--CMU(HR) 72.4 49.3 73.7 50.3 Fail EM1--CMU 74.6 50.8 73.7 50.3 Pass EM2--CMU 72.2 49.2 73.7 50.3 Pass EM3--CMU 71.7 48.8 74.6 50.8 Pass

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136 Table 5.3. Continued Estimated Measured Test Name Velocity Velocity Results (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) EM1--AAC 74.2 50.6 73.7 50.3 Fail E(60)M2--1/2GY 6SD 7/16OS BV 88.7 60.5 93.7 63.9 Pass E(60)M2--AAC 87.7 59.8 87.5 59.6 Fail Table 5.4. Concrete Specimens Estimated Measured Test Name Velocity Velocity Results (ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph) EM1--6HC 74.9 51.1 73.7 50.3 Pass EM1--8HC 74.1 50.5 76.3 52.0 Pass EM1--5TU 73.1 49.8 72.9 49.7 Pass EM1--6ICF 73.7 50.2 72.1 49.2 Pass E(60)M2--8HC 88.5 60.3 69.8 47.6 Pass E(60)M3--8HC 88.4 60.3 88.7 60.4 Pass E(60)M2--5TU 87.9 59.9 87.5 59.6 Pass E(60)M2--6ICF 87.5 59.6 87.5 59.6 Pass Table 5.5. Small Scale Specimen Test Result Summary Estimated Measured Test Name Velocity Velocity Results (ft/s) (mph)(ft/s) (mph) BM1--3/4AD SS 50.5 34.4 61.9 42.2 Fail BM2--3/4AD SS 50.8 34.6 53.9 36.7 Fail BM1--1/2PL 5/16HB SS 53.9 36.8 48.3 32.9 Fail BM1--1/2PL 5VGA SS 52.6 35.8 48.6 33.1 Pass BM2--1/2PL 5VGA SS 51.4 35.0 47.9 32.6 Pass EM1--1/2PL SL SS 73.0 49.7 72.9 49.7 Fail EM1--1/2PL BV SS 72.2 49.2 75.4 51.4 Fail EM1--5TU SS 72.5 49.4 71.3 48.6 Pass

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137 LIST OF REFERENCES American Society for Testing and Materi als (ASTM), Standard Test Method for Performance of Exterior Windows, Curtai n Walls, Doors, and Impact Protective Systems Impacted by Missile(s) and Exposed to Cyclic Pressure Differentials, ASTM E-1886, West Conshohocken, PA 2004 American Society for Testing and Materi als (ASTM), Standard Specification for Performance of Exterior Windows, Curt ain Walls, Doors and Impact Protective Systems Impacted by Windborne Debris in Hurricanes, ASTM E-1996, West Conshohocken, PA 2004 Anderson, S. H., Large Missile Impact Test for Metal-Clad Structures, MS Thesis, Department of Civil Engineeri ng, University of Florida, 1995. Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Products Association (AACPA), Homepage, http://www.aacpa.org/ Accessed November 2004. Dean, Nanette, Successes and Failures of Metal Building Systems During Hurricane Andrew, Hurricanes of 1992 Ed. Ronald A. Cook and Mehrdad Soltani, New York, NY, 1994. 465 471. Department of Energy (DOE), DOE Standard Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Sa fety Analysis Reports, DOE-STD-3009, Washington, DC, July 1994. Federal Emergency Management Agency, Design and Construction Guidance for Community Shelters, FEMA 361, Washington, DC, July 2000. Florida Building Code (FBC), Stat e of Florida, Tallahassee, 2001. Florida Department of Community Affa irs Division of Emergency Management, Statewide Emergency Shelter Plan, Tallahassee, FL, 2004. Gibraltar Construction Products, V Crimp Panel Installation Guide, http://www.semetals.com/MetalR oofing/5V-CRIMP_DETAIL_MANUAL.pdf Jacksonville, FL, Accessed July 2004. Gould, Nathan C., and Griffin, Michael J., Managing Extreme Wind (Hurricane) Losses, International Risk Management Institute, http://www.irmi.com/Expert/Articles/2004/Gould03.aspx 2004, Accessed October 2004.

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138 McDonald, James R., Impact Resistance of Common Building Materials to Tornado Missiles, Journal of Wind Engineer ing and Industrial Aerodynamics Texas Tech University, Wind Engineering Re search Center, 36 (1990): 717-724. McDonald, James R., and Wu, Fuqiang, Effect of Missile Impact on Internal Pressure: for Metal Building Manufacturers Asso ciation, Texas Tech University, Wind Engineering Research Center, L ubbock, Texas, August 1997, 37 pages. Minor, J.E., McDonald, J.R., and Mehta, K.C., The Tornado: An Engineering Oriented Perspective, NOAA Technical Memo, ERL NSSL-82, National Severe Storms Laboratory, Norman, OK., 1977. National Instruments Corporation, L abview 7 Express, Austin, TX, 2003. National Roofing Contractors Association, The Roofing and Wa terproofing Manual, 5th ed., Rosemont, IL, 2003 Oliver, Clifford, and Hanson, Chris, Failure of Residential Building Envelopes As a Result of Hurricane Andrew in Dade County, Florida, Hurricanes of 1992 Ed. Ronald A Cook, Mehrdad Soltani, New York, NY, 1994. 496 508. Rappaport, Ed, Preliminary Report: Hurri cane Andrew 16-28 August, 1992, National Hurricane Center, http://www.nhc.noaa .gov/1992andrew.html 1993, Accessed July 2004. Schroeder, John, Design, Construction, Calibra tion and Applications of an Apparatus which Conducts the Large Missile Impact Test, University of Missouri, Civil Engineering Department, Columbia, MO, March 23, 1994, 10 pages. Semco Southeastern Metals, Sem-lok Metal Panel Detail Manual, Jacksonville, FL, 2002. Standard Building Code (SBC), Southern Building Code Congress International, Birmingham, AL, 2000. Steel Stud Manufacturers Association, Pr oduct Technical Information, Chicago, IL, 2004. Wind Science and Engineering Research Center Debris Impact Testing at Texas Tech University, Texas Tech Univer sity, Lubbock, Texas, February 2002. Yazdani, Nur, Green, Perry, Haroon, Saif, a nd Braden, Christopher, Large Wind Missile Impact Performance of Public and Co mmercial Building Assemblies, Florida Department of Community Affairs, Division of Emergency Management, University of Florida, Florida A&M Un iversity Florida State University, 2004.

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139 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Following graduation from high school in 1998, the author attended Daytona Beach Community College for 2 years and received his Associate of Arts degree. He then entered the University of Florida in August of 2001. Here he studied civil engineering and received his Bachelor of Science in May 2003. During his undergraduate studies, the author found an interest in the structures ar ea of civil engineering. Following graduation, he enrolled in the structural engineering mast ers program at the University of Florida. He graduated in December, 2004 with his Ma ster of Engineering degree in civil engineering.


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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0008700/00001

Material Information

Title: Large Wind Missile Impact Performance of Public and Commercial Building Assemblies
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0008700:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0008700/00001

Material Information

Title: Large Wind Missile Impact Performance of Public and Commercial Building Assemblies
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0008700:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text












LARGE WIND MISSILE IMPACT PERFORMANCE OF PUBLIC AND
COMMERCIAL BUILDING ASSEMBLIES
















By

CHRISTOPHER PAUL BRADEN


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2004

































Copyright 2004

by

Christopher P. Braden

































In loving memory of my father, Thomas G. Braden.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The success of this project would not have been possible without the assistance of a

number of individuals and companies.

Primarily, thanks are extended to Dr. Perry S. Green, Dr. Ronald Cook, and Dr.

Nur Yazdani for serving as the supervisory committee for this project. They have helped

to guide me through any questions or problems encountered during testing and

preparation. Thanks go also to SaifHaroon who provided most of the research and

information necessary to carry out the testing. A thank you is also extended to Dr.

Thomas Sputo, who assisted in answering many of the questions encountered during

construction of the specimens.

The laboratory staff, Chuck Broward, Danny Brown, Hubert "Nard" Martin, and

John Gamache, were indispensable during the course of this project. Without their help

and willingness to teach, much of this project would not have been possible.

Special thanks are extended to Eco Block, LLC and Gate Concrete Products

Company for their donation of materials. Thanks are also given to Painter Masonry and

Cement Precast Products for their assistance in the construction of specimens.

I thank all of the friends and students who gave their assistance in last minute times

of need during the course of this project.

Of course, none of this would have been possible without the continued support of

my family, friends, and especially my fiance, Christina, who was always there to lend her

support even through the toughest of times.

















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

LIST O F TA B LE S ............................ ........... .......... .............. .. vii

LIST OF FIGURES ............. .. ..... ...... ........ ....... .......................... viii

A B S T R A C T .......................................... ..................................................x iii

CHAPTER

1 IN TR OD U CTION ............................................... .. ......................... ..

1.1 B background ......... ...... .................................................................... ...............1
1.2 O objective ................................................. 2
1.3 Scope of W ork ........... ... ................................................................ ........... 3

2 LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................. ...............4

2.1 Background ............. .............. .... ....... .......................... 4
2.2 Performance Classifications and Expectations ................................................
2.3 Validity of Recommended Wall and Roof Assemblies............... ..................9

3 TESTING APPARATUS, PROCEDURE, AND RESULTS.................................11

3 .1 In tro du ctio n ...................................... ............................ ................ 1 1
3.2 Testing M ethod .............................. ................................ ........ .... 11
3.2.1 Significance of Full-Scale Testing ............. .............................................11
3.2.2 Construction of Testing Assembly .................................. ............... 12
3 .2 .2 .1 F o u n d atio n .............................................................. ................ .. 12
3.2.2.2 Top restraint .......................................... .................. ......12
3.2.3 Test Specimen Nomenclature..... .................... ...............13
3.2.4 Construction of Test Specimens..... ................................13
3.2.4.1 Timber wall fram e construction .................................. .............. 13
3.2.4.2 Steel wall frame construction.................... ...............14
3.2.4.3 Steel roof frame construction ..................... ............... ..... ........ 14
3.2.4.4 Construction of timber frame wall test specimens ......................... 14
3.2.4.5 Construction of steel frame wall test specimens ............. ..............15


v









3.2.4.6 Construction of steel frame roof specimens................................ 16
3.2.4.7 Construction of concrete and masonry specimens .........................16
3.2.4.8 Construction of SB 3DK .................................... ............... 18
3.2.5 Erection of Test Specim ens ....... .. .............................. ................. 19
3.2.6 H hurricane M issiles........................................................... ............... 20
3.2.7 L arge M issile C annon.................. .................. ............... .... 20
3.2.7.1 Measurement and data acquisition system....................................21
3.2.7.2 Hurricane missile descriptions and calibrations............. ...............22
3.2.8 Acceptance Criteria .............. ...... .............. ........................... 22
3.2.9 Commonly Used Wall and Roof Assemblies ........................................23
3.3 E xperim ental R results ............................................................................. .. ... 23

4 SMALL SCALE TESTING FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS ............ ... ................118

4 .1 Intro du action ...................................... .......................................... 1 18
4.2 N om enclature .................................................. ........ .. ........ .. 119
4.3 Testing M ethodology .......................................................... ............... 119
4.4 Experimental Results ...................................................... 121

5 RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS.............................................129

5.1 Specim en C lassification ........................................................... ..................... 129
5.2 Full Scale Testing ............................................ ............... ... 129
5.2.1 M ulti-Layered Panel Specim ens.................................... ............... 130
5.2.2 M etal Specim ens ............................................... ............ ............... 130
5.2.3 M asonry Specim ens....................................................... ............... 130
5.2.4 Concrete Specim ens ........................................................................... 131
5 .2 .5 C o n clu sio n s ........................................................................................ 13 1
5.3 Sm all Scale T testing ............................................ .. ........ .... ...........132
5 .3 .1 T e st R e su lts ........................................................................................ 13 2
5 .3 .2 C o n clu sio n s ........................................................................................ 13 3
5.3.3 R ecom m endations ............................................................................. 133

APPENDIX

L IST O F R E FE R E N C E S ........................................................................ ................... 137

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ............................................................. ............... 139
















LIST OF TABLES

Table Page

3.1. Specim en N om enclature ................................................ .............................. 25

3.2. Acceptance Criteria for Basic and Enhanced Large Missile Impact Test...............26

3.3. Identified W all Assemblies for Basic Testing................... ............ ............... 27

3.4. Identified Roof Assemblies for Basic Testing .............. ..... ................. 30

3.5. Identified Wall Assemblies for Enhanced Testing............... ...........................31

3.6. Identified Roof Assemblies for Enhanced Testing. ..........................................33

3.7. Missile Impact Test Results in Chronological Order ..............................................34

3.8. Test EM1--8CH 1/2PL 5VGA Speed Correction Calculations ..............................62

4.1. Sm all Scale M issile Im pact Test Results ........................................ ............... 122

5.1. M ulti-Layered Panel Specim ens ........................................ ........................ 133

5.2. Metal Specimen Test Results ..... ................................. 134

5.3. M asonry Specim ens ......................... ....... ..... .. ...... .............. 135

5.4. C concrete Specim ens ......... ....................................... ... .................. .. 136

5.5. Sm all Scale Test Specim en ............................................ ............. ............... 136
















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Page

3.1 Testing A assembly Schem atic .............................................................................63

3.2 Overall Testing A ssem bly ............. ................... ........................ ............... 63

3.3 Close-up of Concrete Foundation Blocks with J-Bolts and Threaded Rod ............64

3.4 Steel Top R restraint ........... ............ .... .......... ........... .. ........ .... 64

3.6 Specimen PT-HC-1/2PL-SL Attached to Cold-Formed Steel Hat Purlins ..............65

3.7 Stucco Lath Applied to 2x6 Wood Stud Test Frame ............................................66

3 .8 F finish ed Stucco ................................................................66

3.9 5V Crim p Side L ap D etail........... ............... ............................. ............... 66

3.10 5V Crimp Fastening Pattern.......... .... ................. ............... 67

3.11 Standing Seam Side Lap Detail...................... ............. .... ...............67

3.12 Asphalt Shingle Nailing Pattern .................. ................................... 67

3.13 Construction of the Tilt-up Wall Test Panel Specimen............. .................68

3.14 PVC Pipe Inserts for Tilt-up Wall Specimen................ ..................68

3.15 Typical Embedded Lifting Device for Tilt-up Wall Specimen.............................69

3.16 Construction of CMU Test Specimens With and Without Horizontal Joint
R einforcem ent .................................................................. ..........69

3.17 Partial Construction of the ICF Test Specimen.......... ................................. 70

3.18 Reinforcing Bars Secured to ICF Forms Using Wire Ties...................................70

3.19 2 x 8 Timber Studs Used as Endcaps for ICF Forms................... ....... .........71

3.20 Com pleted ICF Test Specim en ........................................... ......................... 71









3.21 Typical Puddle Welded Connection of Steel Deck to Support Framing..................72

3.22 3 in. Deck Specimen Construction...................................................... ............... 72

3.23 Typical 3 in. Deck Specimen Support Framing and Floor Connection ...................73

3.24 3 in. D eck Specim en Installed.......................................... ............................ 73

3.25 8 in. Hollow Core Slab Specimen with Shoring ............................................... 74

3.26 9 lb and 15 lb M missiles with Sabot Attached....................................... ................ 74

3.27 Large M issile Cannon at UF .............................................................................. 75

3.28 Large Missile Cannon Firing Mechanism ........................................ ...........75

3.29 H andw written D ata Collection Sheet.................................. ..................................... 76

3.30 Labview Data Acquisition System ............................................... ......... ...... 77

3.31 Calibration D ata Plot for 15 lb M issile .................................... ..... ............... 77

3.32 Calibration Curve for 15 lb Missile ............ ........ ............................78

3.33 BC1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2DG ST Test Result at 34 mph ........................................78

3.34 BM1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2DG ST Test Result at 34 mph ................... ................... 79

3.35 BC1--1/2GY 6SD 5/8GY ST Test Result at 34 mph........................................79

3.36 BM1--1/2GY 6SD 5/8GY ST Test Result at 34 mph ................... ................... 80

3.37 BM1--1/2GY 6SD 7/160S ST Test Result at 34 mph................... ........ ........80

3.38 BC1--1/2GY 6SD 7/160S ST Test Result at 34 mph................... ........ ........81

3.39 BC1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL ST Test Result at 34 mph .........................................81

3.40 BM1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL ST Test Result at 34 mph ..............................................82

3.41 BC1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL 5/16HB Test Result at 34 mph ........................................82

3.42 BM1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL 5/16HB Test Result at 34 mph .......................................83

3.43 BM1--1/2GY 6SD 7/160S 5/16HB Test Result at 34 mph .....................................83

3.44 BC1--1/2GY 6SD 7/160S 5/16HB Test Result at 34 mph ..................................... 84

3.45 EC1--1/2GY 6SD 7/160S 5/16HB Test Result at 50 mph ......................................84









3.46 EM1--1/2GY 6SD 7/160S 5/16HB Test Result at 50 mph .................................85

3.47 BM1--1/2GY 8CH 7/160S 5/16HB Test Result at 34 mph....................................85

3.48 BC1--1/2GY 8CH 7/160S 5/16HB Test Result at 34 mph .....................................86

3.49 BM1--1/2GY 8CH 1/2PL 5/16HB Test Result at 34 mph ...................................... 86

3.50 BC1--1/2GY 8CH 1/2PL 5/16HB Test Result at 34 mph ........................................87

3.51 EM 1--6H C Test R result at 50 m ph ................ ..... ................ .....................87

3.52 EM1--8HC Test Result at 50 mph......................................................88

3.53 E(60)M2--8HC Test Result at 60 mph............................ ....................88

3.54 E(60)M3--8HC Test Result at 60 mph ................. ......... ...............89

3.55 EM1--1/2GY 6SD 7/160S BV Test Result at 50 mph ........................................89

3.56 E(60)M2--1/2GY 6SD 7/160S BV Test Result at 60 mph............... ..................90

3.57 EC1--1/2GY 6SD 7/160S BV Test Result at 50 mph ....................................... 90

3.58 EC1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL BV Test Result at 50 mph........................................91

3.59 EM1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL BV Test Result at 50 mph ......................................91

3.60 EM1--CMU(HR) Test Result at 50 mph........................................................... 92

3.61 EM 1--CM U Test Result at 50 mph........................................................ .. ......... 92

3.62 EM 2--CM U Test Result at 50 mph........................................................ .. ......... 93

3.63 EM 3--CM U Test Result at 50 mph........................................................ .. ......... 93

3.64 BM1--CMU(HR) Test Result at 34 mph....................... .......... ... ........... 94

3.65 BM2--CMU(HR) Test Result at 34 mph..................................... ............... 94

3.66 BM 1--CM U Test Result at 34 m ph................................. ........................ .. ......... 95

3.67 BM 2--CM U Test Result at 34 m ph................................. ........................ .. ......... 95

3.68 BM 3--CM U Test Result at 34 m ph................................. ........................ .. ......... 96

3.69 BM1--1/2GY 6SD 3/4AD Test Result at 34 mph............................... ...............96

3.70 BC1--1/2GY 6SD 3/4AD Test Result at 34 mph...............................................97









3.71 BC2--1/2GY 6SD 3/4AD Test Result at 34 mph...............................................97

3.72 BM2--1/2GY 6SD 3/4AD Test Result at 34 mph .............................................98

3.73 EM1--8CH 1/2PL 5VGA Test Result at 50 mph................. ............... ..............98

3.74 EC1--8CH 1/2PL 5VGA Test Result at 50 mph .................................................99

3.75 BM1--8CH 1/2PL 5VGA Test Result at 34 mph................. ............... ..............99

3.76 BM2--8CH 1/2PL 5VGA Test Result at 34 mph...................................................100

3.77 BC1--8CH 1/2PL 5VGA Test Result at 34 mph....................................................100

3.78 BC1--PT HC 1/2PL SL Test Result at 34 mph.................................................101

3.79 BC2--PT HC 1/2PL SL Test Result at 34 mph.................................................101

3.80 BM1--PT HC 1/2PL SL Test Result at 34 mph .............................................. 102

3.81 EM1--PT HC 1/2PL SL Test Result at 50 mph ........................................... 102

3.82 EC1--PT HC 1/2PL SL Test Result at 50 mph ............................................... 103

3.83 E(60)M2--PT HC 1/2PL SL Test Result at 60 mph........................................103

3.84 BM1--PT HC 7/160S AS Test Result at 34 mph ...............................................104

3.85 BM2--PT HC 7/160S AS Test Result at 34 mph ...............................................104

3.86 BC1--PT HC 7/160S AS Test Result at 34 mph.................................105

3.87 EM1--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA Test Result at 50 mph ............................................105

3.88 BM1--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA Test Result at 34 mph ............................................106

3.89 BM2--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA Test Result at 34 mph ............................................106

3.90 BM3--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA Test Result at 34 mph ............................................107

3.91 BC1--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA Test Result at 34 mph ...............................................107

3.92 BC2--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA Test Result at 34 mph ...............................................108

3.93 EM1--PT 11/2DK 5VGA Test Result at 50 mph...............................................108

3.94 EM2--PT 11/2DK 5VGA Test Result at 50 mph...............................................109

3.95 EC1--PT 11/2DK 5VGA Test Result at 50 mph...................................................109









3.96 E(60)M3--PT 11/2DK 5VGA Test Result at 60 mph ...........................................110

3.97 EM 1--5TU Test R esult at 50 m ph................................. ........................ .. ......... 110

3.98 E(60)M 2--5TU Test Result at 60 mph .......................... ................................. 111

3.99 EM1--6ICF Test Result at 50 mph ...............................................111

3.100 E(60)M 2--6ICF Test Result at 60 mph ..................... ................... ..... .... ........... 112

3.101 EM 1--SB 3DK Test Result at 50 mph..................................................... 112

3.102 E(60)M 2--SB 3DK Test Result at 60 mph ....... ...... .................................. 113

3.103 EC1--SB 3DK Test Result at 50 mph................ ............................... 113

3.104 E(60)C2--SB 3DK Test Result at 60 mph ..................... ............................ 114

3.105 E(60)C3--SB 3DK Test Result at 60 mph ..................... ............................ 114

3.106 E(60)M 3--SB 3DK Test Result at 60 mph ....... ...... .................................. 115

3.108 BM1-AAC Test Result at 34 mph ................... ........................ 16

3.109 EM 1-AAC Test Result at 50 mph.................. ......... ................... ............... 116

3.110 E(60)M2-AAC Test Result at 60 mph.............. .................. .......... 117

4.1 Small Scale Support Apparatus ................... ........... ................... 123

4.2 Steel Test Frame ............. .. .. ................... ...... 123

4.3 Spring Support Assembly Mounted to the Steel Test Frame..............................124

4.4 BM 1--1/2PL 5/16HB SS Test Result at 34 mph...................................................124

4.5 BM1--3/4HB SS Test Result at 34 mph .......................................... .............125

4.6 BM 2--3/4AD SS Test Result at 34 mph..................................... ............... 125

4.7 BM 1--1/2PL 5V SS Test Result at 34 mph.................... .......... ............... 126

4.8 BM 2--1/2PL 5V SS Test Result at 34 mph .................................. ........ ....... 126

4.9 EM 1--1/2PL SL SS Test Result at 50 mph .................................... ............... 127

4.10 EM 1--1/2PL BV SS Test Result at 50 mph ................................. ............... 127















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Engineering

LARGE WIND MISSILE IMPACT PERFORMANCE OF PUBLIC AND
COMMERCIAL BUILDING ASSEMBLIES

By

Christopher Paul Braden

December, 2004

Chair: Perry S. Green
Major Department: Civil and Coastal Engineering

Hurricane Andrew was the most destructive natural disaster to occur in United

States history. The total damage is estimated to have cost $25 billion in Florida alone

and caused a total of 65 deaths.

The hurricane missile impact testing was performed in order to gain a better

understanding of what types of building materials, commonly used in Florida, can

withstand impacts from windborne debris. The results of these tests will be used to

mitigate the loss of property and life in future hurricanes.

Testing was conducted on full-scale specimens. This was deemed necessary in an

attempt to represent the conditions present in a realistic structure. Testing was conducted

in accordance with Florida Building Code's FBC (2001) TAS 201-94 basic test protocol

and the United States Department of Energy enhanced impact testing protocols. Each test

specimen was subject to 9 lb 2x4 timber missile impacts at 34 mph and 15 lb 2x4 timber

missile impacts at 50 mph according to the basic and enhanced tests respectively. If the









specimen passed the 50 mph test, it was then tested with a 15 lb 2x4 timber missile at 60

mph.

By the current FBC standards, a specimen passes a given test if it rejects the missile

without penetration. For responses where failure was not readily apparent, any damage

to the test panels was also assessed using SBC (2000), FEMA-361 (2002), and ASTM E-

1996 (2001). These standards give additional guidelines based on permanent

deformation, spelling, occupant safety, and the size of any openings that may occur.

Testing was performed on 24 specimens that can be described by four basic system

categories: multi-layered panel, metal, masonry, and concrete.

Multi-layer panel systems consist of layered sheets. These sheets may be

composed of plywood, OSB, Advantech, gypsum board, or any other such material. All

of the specimens that fall within this category failed the basic impact test. Each one

experienced complete penetration by the missile.

The metal category consists of systems with a metal fascia. These specimens

performed well during basic testing. Each test resulted in some deformation of the metal

near the impact zone. However, during enhanced testing, the specimens exhibited a

variety of responses ranging from complete penetration to complete rejection.

Masonry systems are primarily composed of a masonry material such as brick or

concrete masonry units (CMU). This category successfully passed basic testing.

However, some systems were completely penetrated by the missile during enhanced

testing while other systems passed the 60 mph test.

Specimens in the concrete category are completely composed of concrete. These

specimens passed all impact tests.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

On the morning of August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew's storm surge began hitting

the southern Florida shores. In the hours that ensued, the Category 4 hurricane generated

storm surges reaching a maximum of 16.9 ft in extreme cases, as well as sustained winds

that were estimated to be in excess of 130 kt (or about 150 mph). The area was also

saturated with more than seven inches of rainfall.

Hurricane Andrew was the most destructive and expensive natural disaster in

United States history. Estimates put the damage at $25 billion in Florida alone. The

hurricane left 25,524 homes completely destroyed, and an additional 101,241 homes

damaged. A total of 65 deaths were attributed to the storm due to both direct and indirect

causes (Rappaport, 1993).

Following the destruction caused by Hurricane Andrew, the Federal Emergency

Management Agency (FEMA) Technical Standards division assembled a team of

architects and engineers to investigate the performance of the structures in south Florida.

The intention of the investigation was to determine why the structures did not perform

better than they had. It was observed that a majority of the damage could be attributed to

wind forces (Oliver and Hanson, 1994). Prior to Hurricane Andrew, the South Florida

Building Code (SFBC) made no specific provisions related to missile impact resistance or

internal pressure. Much of the damage occurred because of a rupture in the building

envelope. These ruptures allowed large amounts of wind and rain to enter the structure.









In addition to this, large openings in the exterior of a structure permit an increase in

internal pressure causing some building components to fail (Schroeder, 1994).

The research performed on the hurricane damage prompted Dade and Broward

counties to adopt the ASCE 7-88 internal pressure provisions as well as a standard for

missile impact resistance (Schroeder, 1994). Careful study of aerial photographs and

ground measurements of tornado damage showed that the most common missiles were

medium sized pieces of timber. This research concluded that a 12 to 15 lb, 2x4 timber

missile would be representative of the missiles that might become airborne during a

hurricane windstorm (McDonald, 1990).

The Florida Building Code (FBC) adopted a test specification, TAS 201-94, for

missile impact of building materials which includes procedures for impact testing. In

order for a specimen to be acceptable by the basic test, a specimen must reject a 9 lb 2x4

timber missile, fired at 50 ft/s (34 mph) without penetration. The United States

Department of Energy has developed an enhanced test where the specimen must reject a

15 lb 2x4 timber missile fired at 73 ft/s (50 mph) without penetration. Other standards,

such as SBC (2000), ASTM E-1996 (2001), and FEMA-361 (2002) are used in cases

where penetration did not occur, however the specimen's reaction could potentially cause

harm to the occupants of the structure or otherwise caused an opening in the building

envelope.

1.2 Objective

The purpose of this research project is to evaluate the performance of commonly

used wall and roof building assemblies in Florida. Materials and services were acquired

independently by the University of Florida (UF) Department of Civil and Coastal

Engineering. Specimens representative of common building practices were constructed









and tested for missile impact resistance in accordance with the Florida Building Code's

basic and enhanced large missile impact testing procedures, FBC (2001) TAS 201-94.

These procedures will be described in greater detail in Chapter 3.

1.3 Scope of Work

The scope of this project included the procurement of materials and construction of

the testing apparatus and specimens representative of existing wall and roof assemblies

used throughout the state. Additional work included the following:

* Calibration of the missile cannon
* Development of a testing plan
* Development of a testing procedure
* Construction of missiles
* Development of a LabView data collection program

All missile tests were conducted at the University of Florida's Civil Engineering

Structures Laboratory.














CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Background

In the Florida Building Code (FBC, 2002) and Standard Building Code (SBC,

2001), provisions were made to test building products for large missile impacts and cyclic

loading. These tests were intended to gauge the performance of buildings in the lower 30

feet of the structure. Several studies were conducted on the performance of varying

building materials when subjected to missile impact and pressure loadings.

This standard evolved from research conducted by Minor et al. (1977). During this

research, aerial photographs were studied and ground measurements made of tornado

damage. Minor also observed wall and roof systems penetrated by individual timbers as

well as attached pieces of failed roof assemblies. Based on this evidence, Minor

concluded that a medium sized piece of timber, a 12 to 15 lb, nominal 2x4, was most

representative of the observed windborne missiles. Minor later proposed a 12 ft, 2x4

timber missile, at half of the design wind speed, dictated by the ASCE 7-02 "Minimum

Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures" standard, as the large missile object.

Following Hurricane Andrew, it was observed that a roof tile was the most common

projectile in South Florida. This was deemed unsuitable, however, because of the

inherent difficulty in choosing one representative tile out of the many types. It was also

determined that it would be too difficult to propel a tile with a consistent orientation and

velocity (Yazdani, 2004).









One of the more common modes of failure during Hurricane Andrew occurred

when windows and doors were blown in (Dean, 1994). This allowed an opening in the

building envelope larger than the 1% threshold proposed by McDonald (1997) allowing

the building's internal pressure to grow to a significant level, in some cases causing an

internal pressure failure of the entire building.

In the investigations following Hurricane Andrew, the most commonly observed

cause of breaching of a building envelope was due to glazing component failures. These

failures resulted in a variety of responses. In many of these failures, a structure's roof

sheathing was damaged or removed due to the combined effect of wind uplift and internal

pressure buildup (Oliver, 1994). The loss of the roof sheathing allowed excessive

amounts of wind and rain to enter the structure causing extensive internal structural and

property damage.

Based on the research conducted after Hurricane Andrew, Dade and Broward

counties adopted the "Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures"

standard ASCE 7-88 (Schroeder, 1994). Initially, the ANSI A58.1-1982 standard

provided wind load provisions. In 1988, ASCE adopted the ANSI standard into ASCE 7-

88. The ASCE 7 standard made almost no technical changes to the ANSI standard,

although it was converted to the ASCE format. In 1995 and 1998, ASCE 7 marked

considerable changes to the ANSI standard. The ASCE 7-02 standard has begun to

reflect the latest research in wind engineering. One of the most significant changes in the

2002 edition is the conversion of the basic wind speed map to the three second gust rather

than the fastest mile. Additional changes to the standard include the refinement of the









determination of hurricane force winds in coastal and inland areas as well as the

calculation of pressures for components and cladding (Gould and Griffin, 2004).

Researchers at Texas Technological University investigated the effect on the

interior pressure of a metal structure due to missile impact perforations at their Wind

Engineering Research Field Laboratory (WERFL) (McDonald and Wu, 1997). To do

this, wall samples with window perforations were installed in the WERFL. Internal

pressure readings were taken as a sustained 20 mph wind blew for several hours.

Researchers determined that all buildings experience an internal pressure effect due to the

porosity of the building envelope materials. They also concluded that internal pressure

will not be significant until the envelope perforation reaches 1% of the total wall area.

This amounts to approximately 100 2x4 missile perforations. Therefore, their findings

show that it is not necessary to design for internal pressure.

Eventually, the FBC adopted a test specification, TAS 201-94, describing test

specifications for missile impact. This provision details the procedure for firing a

standardized 9 lb, 2x4 timber missile at a speed of 50 ft/s (34 mph). To be deemed

acceptable by this standard, a specimen must reject the missile without penetration.

Other hurricane missile impact standards were developed by other agencies

including the United States Department of Energy. This standard calls for a 15 lb missile

to be fired at a specimen at 73 ft/s (50 mph). SBC (2000), ASTM E-1996 (2004), and

FEMA-361 (2002) have all developed acceptance criteria for situations where a

specimen's performance is not clearly defined. A detailed summary of these

performance criterion is listed in "Large Wind Missile Impact Performance of Public and

Commercial Building Assemblies" (Yazdani et al., 2004). The ASTM E-1886 standard









also addresses windborne missile impact, however, this standard describes the procedure

for cyclic pressure load testing which was not performed in this study (ASTM E-1886,

2004).

2.2 Performance Classifications and Expectations

There are varying failure criteria for the large missile impact testing throughout

different testing standards. The Florida Building Code (FBC 2002) states that failure

occurs when a test specimen is penetrated by a large missile impact. A wall or roof

assembly is considered to have passed the impact test if it rejects the missile without

penetration. However, this criteria is not always sufficient to describe the performance of

a test assembly. Metal clad structural assembly testing was performed by Anderson

(1995) in which large gaps opened at the seams. As a result of these tests, it was

determined that the specimens failed the test because of the opening through which wind

could pass, although the missile did not penetrate the test specimen. According to FBC

(2001), this metal assembly passed the impact test. It is clear that since the intent of these

experiments was to determine the ability of a wall or roof system to protect the integrity

of a building envelope, a system that allows air to pass through it after an impact should

be considered a failure. This shortcoming of FBC (2001) did not exist in SBC (2000) and

ASTM E-1996 (2001).

The ASTM E-1996 (2004) standard states that a non-porous specimen shall resist

the missile impact with no tear formed longer than 5 in. and wider than 1/16 in. through

which air can pass. Also, the standard states that no opening shall be formed through

which a 3 in. diameter sphere can pass. For porous systems, there shall be no penetration

of the innermost plane of the specimen. Finally, in Wind Zone 4 as described by ASTM

E-1996 (2004), the seams of an impact protective system cannot have an opening greater









than 1/180 of the span or 1/2 in. The length of this separation cannot be larger than 36 in.

Impact needs to occur within a 2 1/2 in. radius circle with its center located at the center

of infill and a 2 1/2 in. radius circle with its center located 6 in. from a supporting

member (ASTM E-1996, 2004).

The SBC (2000) standard requires that all parts of the specimen be full size. The

construction of each specimen needs to use the same materials, details, and methods of

construction as is required by code. According to the SBC (2000), each missile needs to

impact the specimen within a 5 in. radius circle located at midspan between supports and

within a 5 in. radius circle with its center located 6 in. away from a support. The missile

impacts shall occur on the thinnest portion of the specimen. For porous impact protective

systems, the specimen needs to reject the missile without penetration. Non-porous

systems must not have any opening formed through which a 3 in. diameter sphere can

pass (SBC, 2000).

Additional failure criteria, based on research performed at Texas Tech University

(2002) is provided by FEMA-361 (2002). According to their findings, failure can be

considered any reaction that may cause injury to the occupants of the building. Failure

modes that fit this classification include penetration of the missile, scabbing of the

material that may cause debris, or large deformations in the building components. This

description however, is unclear since definitions of what might cause injury to an

occupant are a subjective measure. FEMA-361 (2002) also states that a permanent

deformation of more than 3 in. is also considered failure.

Additional criteria for emergency shelters and other essential structures is

provided by the Florida Department of Community Affairs (DCA) Division of









Emergency Management in the Statewide Emergency Shelter Plan (2004). The DCA

recommends that emergency shelters be designed using the map wind speed plus 40 mph

with an importance factor of 1.0. According to the recommendation, the building

enclosure, including walls, roofs, glazed openings, louvesrs, and doors, shall not be

perforated or penetrated by a flying object. The materials used in such buildings shall be

certified for missile impact resistance and glazing systems shall be designed for cyclic

loading. The standard also states that roof openings, such as HVAC fans and ducts, shall

be designed to meet wind speed and missile impact requirements. Unprotected window

systems and door systems must be designed to meet wind speed and missile impact

requirements. If a permanent protective system is employed, the system must completely

cover the window or door assembly and anchor systems and meet wind load and missile

impact requirements (DCA, 2004).

2.3 Validity of Recommended Wall and Roof Assemblies

The U.S. Department of Energy (1994) describes four performance categories.

They are as follows:

* Performance Category 1: A systems wind force resisting system should not fail
under the design load. The occupants of a Category 1 structure should be able to
find a safe area within the structure during a severe wind event. As long as the
structure does not collapse, severe or total loss is acceptable.

* Performance Category 2: For this category, the structure may not collapse under
the design load. The complete integrity of the building envelope is not required,
however, a breach of the envelope that interferes with the performance of the
structure is not acceptable.

* Performance Category 3: A structure can be considered Category 3 if it is not
covered in Performance Category 4 and if the failure of the building envelope
causes adverse release consequences less than that of Category 4.

* Performance Category 4: A structure is Category 4 if it is a "safety-class"
structure as defined in STD-3009 (DOE 1994) and if failure can result in off-site
release consequences equal to that of a severe accident (Yazdani et al. 2004).









The DOE missile impact specifications recommend wind missile barriers for

Performance Category 3 and 4 structures. The DOE enhanced test consists of a 15 lb

timber 2x4 that impacts the specimen at 73 fps (50 mph). DOE recommended barriers

are:

* 8" CMU wall with trussed horizontal joint reinforced at 16" o.c.
* Single width brick veneer with stud wall.
* 4" concrete slab with #3 rebar at 6" o.c. each way placed in the middle of the slab
(Yazdani et al., 2004).

A "deemed to comply" list is provided by FBC (2001) high wind velocity section

for impact resistance of the exterior building system. This list covers some assemblies

used in residential construction. These assemblies are:

* Exterior concrete masonry wall (CMU) of minimal 8" thickness.

* Exterior frame walls or gable ends, sheathed with a minimum 19/32" CD exposure
1 plywood and clad with wire lath and stucco.

* Exterior frame walls and roofs sheathed with a minimum 24 ga. rib deck type
material and clad with an approved wall finish.

* Exterior reinforced concrete elements having a minimum 2" thickness.

* Roof systems sheathed with a minimum 19/32" CD exposure 1 plywood or
minimum nominal 1" wood decking and surfaced with an approved roof system
(Yazdani et al. 2004).

Previous research regarding the testing of these systems is described by Yazdani et al.

(2004).














CHAPTER 3
TESTING APPARATUS, PROCEDURE, AND RESULTS

3.1 Introduction

The means and methods used for the large missile impact testing are presented in

this chapter. The information provided includes detailed descriptions of the test

significance, test assembly, test specimens, missiles, hurricane missile cannon, data

collection system, acceptance criteria, and the test data.

3.2 Testing Method

3.2.1 Significance of Full-Scale Testing

The large missile impact testing has been performed following guidelines set forth

in the United States Department of Energy (DOE) standard 1020 and FBC (2001) TAS

201-94 Impact Test Procedures. The FBC standards state that the specimen shall be full

size, using the same materials, details, methods of construction and methods of

attachment as proposed for actual use (FBC 2001). Both the FBC (2001) and DOE

standards give guidelines regarding the missiles and testing and are discussed later in this

chapter. The purpose of missile impact testing is to determine the effectiveness of

commonly used wall and roof building materials in maintaining the building envelope

during impact from windborne debris. The test assembly was designed primarily to

simulate the actual conditions that the common exterior wall or roof systems, provided in

Tables 3.3 through 3.6, might experience in a building when subjected to flying debris in

a hurricane force windstorm.









3.2.2 Construction of Testing Assembly

There are three major components to the assembly, a simulated concrete

foundation, top steel cross-beam support, and the wall or roof test specimen as seen in

Figures 3.1 and 3.2.

3.2.2.1 Foundation

The simulated concrete foundation is comprised of two 1 ft. x 1 12 ft. x 9 /2 ft. long

concrete blocks, shown in Figure 3.3, that were anchored to the strong floor in the UF

structures laboratory using three 1 /2 in. diameter pieces of high strength threaded rod.

Prior to casting, the concrete forms were fitted with PVC pipe passing completely

through the formwork, reinforcing bars, and J-bolts. The foundation blocks were secured

to the floor using threaded rod once they were sufficiently cured. Each foundation block

was placed with the rod passing through the PVC pipe in the concrete. A nut was placed

on each rod and tightened sufficiently to secure the block to the laboratory floor. Each

foundation block has six J-bolts extending 6 in. out of the top of the concrete to secure

the base of each test specimen. The exposed ends of these bolts are used to secure the

bottom of each specimen in place, simulating the method used to secure a stud wall to its

foundation.

3.2.2.2 Top restraint

The specimen top restraint consists of two steel channels, shown in Figure 3.4,

spanning between the two sides of the strong wall. Each steel beam consists of a 34 in.

plate on each end of an MC 10x8.4 channel. The larger plate is bolted to each side of the

strong wall using 5/8 in. diameter A325 structural bolts, while the smaller plate is used to

connect the two beams at midspan. This provides lateral stability for the header of each









specimen. The specimens are attached using 1/2 in. diameter bolts through the channel

and specimen header.

3.2.3 Test Specimen Nomenclature

The nomenclature used to describe each test specimen is given in Table 3.1. Each

test specimen is described using an alphanumeric string. The name describes the type of

test (basic or enhanced), target location (corner or midspan), and sequence number.

Following the test description, the components of the specimen are described in order

from interior facing to exterior facing, using a number to describe the size and an

abbreviation for each type of material. For example, test EC1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL ST

describes a specimen tested with the enhanced test, corner impact, 1st impact. The test

specimen is composed of 1/2 in. gypsum board on the interior face, 2x6 timber stud

framing, 1/2 in. plywood, and finished with stucco on the exterior face.

3.2.4 Construction of Test Specimens

The large missile impact testing was performed on specimens constructed in such a

way as to accurately represent the conditions present in a realistic structure. These full

size wall test specimens were constructed as 10 ft. x 4 ft. panels. The timber and steel

wall frames were constructed with two such panels per frame. The steel roof specimens

were constructed on a 10 ft. x 8 ft. frame with one specimen per frame with the exception

of SB 3DK, which was constructed on steel beams 12 ft. o.c.

3.2.4.1 Timber wall frame construction

The timber frame systems have been constructed with 2x6 surface dry Southern

Pine studs spaced 16 in. o.c. Each frame stands 10 ft. -4 1/2 in. high and 9 ft. wide. To

provide additional strength to the timber frame, 2x6 cross braces were added between the

studs.









Two test specimens have been included on each of the timber frames. The

individual test specimens are the full height of the frame but only 4 ft. wide. Cladding

for these specimens was attached using 6d nails spaced at 6 in. o.c. along the panel edges

and 12 in. o.c. on intermediate studs as per FBC (2001) Section 2308.2.2.1. Two holes

were drilled through the specimens near the top of each frame and steel plates added to

the header joints to facilitate lifting them onto the foundation block with an overhead

crane.

3.2.4.2 Steel wall frame construction

For the steel framed specimens, 8 in. 16 ga cold-formed steel cee studs, shown in

Figure 3.5, were used as the framing system. The studs were attached to top and bottom

shallow track and bridging was added between the studs using self tapping screws. The

plywood and oriented strand board (OSB) coverings were attached using self tapping

drywall screws.

3.2.4.3 Steel roof frame construction

The roof truss systems were constructed using a frame consisting of 3 5/8 in. cold-

formed steel cee studs at 48 in. o.c., simulating the top truss chord, and 43 mil 1 /2 in. hat

channel purlins at 24 in. o.c. The exterior cladding was secured to the purlin system as

seen in Figure 3.6.

3.2.4.4 Construction of timber frame wall test specimens

For the 1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL ST, 1/2GY 6SD 7/160S ST, 1/2GY 6SD 5/8GY ST,

and 1/2GY 6SD 1/2DG ST specimens, the cladding was secured to the timber frame

using the methods outlined in Section 2.3.1 of this chapter. The stucco and metal lath

was applied in accordance with ASTM C 926 and ASTM C 1063 requirements.









Photographs of the construction of specimens 1/2GY 6SD5 /8GY ST and 1/2GY

6SD 1/2DG ST are available in Figures 3.7 and 3.8.

The base material for test specimens 1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL 5/16HB and 1/2GY 6SD

7/160S 5/16HB was secured as mentioned in Section 2.3.1 of this chapter. The

Hardiboard panels were then secured to the plywood and OSB. The panels were secured

using 6d nails at 6 in. o.c. along the panel edges.

Specimen 1/2GY 6SD 3/4AD was secured to the timber frame using 6d nails. The

nails were placed at 6 in. o.c. at the panel edges and at 12 in. o.c. at the interior studs.

The 1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL BV and 1/2GY 6SD 7/160S BV specimens were

constructed by Painter Masonry on the timber frames with the plywood and OSB secured

as described in Section 2.3.1 of this chapter.

3.2.4.5 Construction of steel frame wall test specimens

For the 1/2GY 8CH 1/2PL HB and 1/2GY 8CH 7/160S HB test specimens, the

plywood and OSB were secured to the steel frame using self-tapping drywall screws at 6

in. o.c. for the panel edges and 12 in. o.c. over intermediate studs. The Hardiboard was

then secured to the frame with the self-tapping drywall screws at 6 in. o.c. at the panel

edges.

The plywood in the 8CH 1/2PL 5V was secured to the steel frame in the same way

as in specimens 1/2GY 8CH 1/2PL HB and 1/2GY 8CH 7/160S HB. The 5V was

secured to the plywood using the panel alignment and fastener pattern described in the

manufacturer's installation manual, these details are shown in Figures 3.9 and 3.10

respectively. The panels were fastened using #14 x 7/8 in. screws, 24 in. o.c. to the

plywood covered with 30 lb felt.









3.2.4.6 Construction of steel frame roof specimens

For specimen PT HC 1/2PL 5V, the plywood was secured to the hat channel using

self-tapping drywall screws and covered with 15 lb felt. The 5V panels were fastened in

the same manner as in the 8CH 1/2PL 5V specimen.

The plywood for the PT HC 1/2PL SL specimen was secured in the same way as in

the PT HC 1/2PL 5V specimen. The standing seam panels were secured as per the

manufacturer's instructions. The panels were secured to the plywood on one side using

#10-12 x 1 in. pancake head screws at 7 in. o.c. The other edge was secured to the

previously secured panel by snapping them together as shown in Figure 3.11.

The OSB with asphalt shingles test specimen was constructed using 3 tab shingles.

OSB panels were secured to the roof frame in the same way as the plywood in the PT

HC 1/2PL 5V specimen and covered with 15 lb tar paper. The shingles were applied

over top of the tar paper. One inch galvanized roofing nails were used to secure the

shingles in the pattern shown in Figure 3.12.

The purlins were removed from the roof frame for specimen PT 11/2DK 5V. The

1 1/2 in. steel deck panels were placed perpendicular to the truss chords and secured with

self tapping screws at 12 in. o.c. The 5V panels were then secured to the steel deck as per

the manufacturer's instructions.

3.2.4.7 Construction of concrete and masonry specimens

The concrete and masonry specimens were constructed in place, with the exception

of the tilt-up and hollow core specimens. The tilt-up panel, as seen in Figures 3.13

through 3.15, was constructed at Cement Precast Products and transported to the UF

structures laboratory. PVC pipes were embedded in the panel to allow it to rest on the

foundation block over top of the j-bolts. Lifting devices were embedded into the top of









the tilt-up wall panel to allow lifting and placement with an overhead crane. At the time

of construction, two 4 in. x 8 in. ASTM C 31 cylinders were cast in order that the

concrete's 28 day compressive strength could be determined. The average concrete

compressive strength was 4150 psi.

The hollow core slabs were placed on the foundation block with the j-bolts falling

in the cells. Two holes were drilled in each of the slabs through which threaded rod was

placed to secure lifting hooks. Again, the slabs were lifted and placed using an overhead

crane.

The concrete masonry unit (CMU) specimens were constructed in place. No. 6

reinforcing bars were epoxied into the foundation block and allowed to extend out

approximately 36 in. These bars were located such that they would fall in the end cells of

each CMU specimen as seen in Figure 3.16. These end cells were grouted as a safety

precaution.

The insulated concrete form (ICF) wall specimen, shown in Figures 3.17 through

3.20, was constructed in place on the concrete foundation block. Four No. 6 reinforcing

bars were epoxied into the foundation blocks. The forms were placed over these bars

with No. 3 bars at 16 in. o.c. provided as horizontal reinforcing in the forms. The

reinforcing bars and ICF forms were secured together using wire ties to protect against

separation during the concrete placement. The open ends of the forms were closed off by

attaching 2 x 8 timber studs initially using nylon reinforced tape. Once the first lift of

concrete had been placed, ratcheting straps were added to the forms to prevent the

concrete from leaking from the forms. The concrete for the specimen was mixed in the a

6 cu. ft. mixer. Each concrete batch provided enough material for a placed 1 ft. lift. Two









1 ft. lifts were poured in succession then allowed to cure for 1 hour before the next set

was poured. This procedure was followed in order prevent failure of the forms due to the

hydrostatic pressure exerted by the wet concrete. Eight 4 in. x 8 in. ASTM C 31

cylinders were cast at the same time as the wall and allowed to cure for 28 days in the

same conditions as the ICF wall specimen. Three of the cylinders were tested and the

average 28 day compressive strength was determined to be 7250 psi.

The 8 in. Autoclaved Aerated concrete (8AAC) specimen was constructed by

Painter Masonry on the concrete foundation block. The AAC blocks measured 8 in. x 8

in. x 24 in. and were secured using thin-set mortar. No reinforcement was included in the

specimen based on common building practices. This material provides several

advantages over other concrete products. These characteristics include fire resistance,

sound absorption, and excellent thermal insulation. Autoclaved Aerated Concrete weighs

about one-fifth that of standard concrete products, yet it has a greater compressive

strength than a standard CMU of comparable size, due to the solid construction of the

AAC blocks. Because of the light weight and high porosity of the AAC, the blocks are

easily lifted into place and cored or cut as needed (AACPA, 2004).

3.2.4.8 Construction of SB -- 3DK

Initially, the 3" steel deck test specimen, shown in Figures 3.22 through 3.24, was

welded in the vertical position using 3/4 in. puddle welds. The deck was secured to two

steel channels, spaced 12 ft. o.c. Two W12x40 columns with baseplates were bolted to

the strong floor to which the channels were secured. Due to the poor performance of the

welds and lack of lap screws, it was deemed necessary to rebuild and the specimen in the

horizontal position so that the desired welds could be produced and the lap screws could

be included. To accomplish this, the deck was welded to the channels and lap screws









applied while the specimen was lying on the floor. Another channel was welded across

the top of the assembly which allowed it to be lifted without damaging the deck. Lifting

bolts were attached and the assembly was lifted into place using an overhead crane. Once

in place, the specimen was again clamped to the columns using wrench clamps.

3.2.5 Erection of Test Specimens

Erection of each frame specimen is accomplished by first placing the specimen

over the embedded J-bolts and securing it with a washer and nut. A steel bracket is used

to temporarily support the specimen prior to the top restraint placement. The bracket can

be attached and removed from the strong wall to allow finishing of the "interior" portion

of the specimen after erection is complete. A pipe clamp is used to secure the specimen

to the bracket. Finally, the channels are lifted into place and secured in all appropriate

locations. This setup, however, was not sufficient for all of the specimens. The hollow

core slab, tilt-up, and AAC specimens were considered to be too heavy to secure simply

by using the half inch bolts as the previous specimens had been. For these specimens, a

shoring system was constructed to support the specimen and to carry the lateral forces

caused by the missile impact. The shoring setup can be seen in Figure 3.25. Frames

were constructed to fit against the slab from which two and four kickers were attached for

the 6 in. and 8 in. slabs respectively. The tilt-up specimen used the four kicker

configuration. This frame/kicker system was constructed on each side of the specimen.

The kickers were attached to 2 x 6 timber runners which were secured to the strong floor

using threaded rod. Again, these runners were constructed on each side of the specimen.

As an added precaution, the lifting chains remained in place.









3.2.6 Hurricane Missiles

Each missile has been constructed using surface dry Southern Pine 2x4 boards.

Figure 3.26 shows a typical 9 lb and 15 lb missile. The two different missiles have been

sized such that the weight is between 9 and 9 1/2 lb with a length between 7 and 9 ft. or

with a weight between 15 and 15 1/2 lb and a length between 11 and 13 ft., respectively

in accordance with DOE standard 1020 and FBC (2001) TAS 201-94. Missiles were

selected such that no knots appear within 12 in. of the leading edge. The trailing edge of

each missile has been affixed with a plastic sabot to facilitate launching. This connection

was accomplished by using a 3 in. long, 5/s in. diameter screw. The sabot's weight does

not exceed 12 lb. The initial missiles were marked every inch and congruently marked

every 3 in. This was later deemed unnecessary because photoelectric sensors are used for

velocity determination, not a high speed camera, thereby negating the need for the marks.

3.2.7 Large Missile Cannon

The large missile cannon at the University of Florida (UF) uses compressed air to

propel a missile at the test specimen at standard testing speeds in accordance with DOE

standard 1020 (2002) and FBC (2001) TAS 201-94 Impact Test Procedures. The basic

and enhanced large missile impact tests require a 9 lb and 15 lb missile to be fired at 50

ft/sec (34 mph) and 73 ft/sec (50 mph), respectively. If a specimen passes the enhanced

test, it is tested with a 15 lb missile at 60 mph. Figures 3.27 through 3.30 display the

large missile cannon at the University of Florida (UF) structures laboratory. There are

several major components that comprise the hurricane missile cannon including the

following:

1. Compressed air supply
2. Pressure release mechanism
3. Pressure gauge









4. Barrel and frame
5. Timing system
6. Data Acquisition System

A steel tube frame mounted on casters supports the entire mechanism, allowing

mobility of the apparatus. The cannon barrel rests on an aluminum beam which hangs

from steel cables supported by the frame. These cables can be adjusted using a pair of

winches, allowing adjustment of the height of the cannon barrel. Two air compressors

are mounted onto the frame. The larger of the two compressors provides the air pressure

required to facilitate launching, while the smaller one powers the trigger release

mechanism. The firing mechanism can be seen in Figure 3.28. Once the desired

launching pressure is attained, pushing the trigger activates a piston, powered by the

small air compressor, which opens the release valve. With this setup, it is assured that

the release valve will be opened rapidly and with consistency. The cannon barrel is

approximately 20 ft. long with a stopping bolt located near the firing controls. The stop

assures that each missile will be fired from a consistent location in the barrel.

3.2.7.1 Measurement and data acquisition system

The large missile cannon timing system is comprised of two photoelectric sensors,

a data collection computer running Labview software (National Instruments, 2003),

shown in Figure 3.30, handwritten data collection sheets, shown in Figure 3.29, and an

optional oscilloscope. According to FBC (2001) TAS 201-94, this timing system must be

capable of measuring speeds accurate to +2%.

The current timing system is comprised of two photoelectric sensors attached near

the end of the cannon barrel spaced one meter apart. The sensors are triggered as the

missile passes exiting the barrel. Using the photoelectric sensors, in addition to a

pressure transducer, the computer records the gauge and absolute pressure in the cannon,









and trigger times for both photoelectric sensors, which are then used to calculate the exit

velocity of the missile. As the firing pressure in the cannon is charged, Labview

calculates the estimated missile velocity. This calculation is made using equations

developed during the calibration process. During calibration, each size missile (9 and 15

lb) was fired using a range of pressures. The measured velocity and pressure was

recorded for each firing and input into an Excel spreadsheet. These values were plotted

for each missile and a best fit logarithmic curve was developed. The calibration test data

for the 15 lb missile is shown in Figure 3.31 and the calibration curve for this missile in

Figure 3.32. The generated equations for both missiles are as follows:

9 lb Missile V=58.510 ln(p)-46.724 (3.1)

151b Missile V=49.846 ln(p)-46.113 (3.2)

where p is the gauge pressure in lb/in.2 (psig) and V in ft/sec.

In completing the calibration, it was found that the pressure-velocity relationship is

nearly independent of the missile's weight.

3.2.7.2 Hurricane missile descriptions and calibrations

Each of the test specimens received two impacts for each of the basic and enhanced

tests. The missile impacted normal to the surface of the test specimen at the required

velocity for the given test. One of the impacts was within a 5 in. radius circle with its

center point at the midspan between supports. The second impact occurred within a 5 in.

radius circle having its center 6 in. away from any supporting members.

3.2.8 Acceptance Criteria

The experiments were carried out in accordance with the FBC (2001) impact test

criteria. This standard states that a test can be considered a pass if the missile is rejected

by the test specimen with no penetration. However, the tests do not always provide









results that can easily be read as pass or fail. If unclear results are obtained, additional

criteria may be added based on the discussion in Chapter 2. The additional criteria used

to evaluate test results are tabulated in Table 3.2. Since these tests will be used to

evaluate the safety of structures for the purpose of protecting the occupants during a

hurricane, the same criteria was used for both the basic and enhanced tests.

3.2.9 Commonly Used Wall and Roof Assemblies

Several Engineering firms in Tallahassee were contacted in an effort to prepare a

comprehensive list of the most commonly used materials in Florida for public and

commercial buildings. The list was compiled by comparing the responses received from

each firm. Yazdani et al. (2004) reduced the compiled list to reflect only the materials

that needed to be tested in this study. These specimens are presented in Tables 3.3

through 3.6.

3.3 Experimental Results

The specimens listed in Tables 3.3 through 3.6 have been tested. Photographs of

the tested specimens are shown in Figures 3.33 through 3.110 and the resulting test data

is shown in Table 3.7.

The initial test specimen chronologically speaking, 1/2GY 6SD 7/160S 5/16HB,

was tested using both the enhanced and basic test criteria. It was decided, after both tests

were conducted, that in some cases, it may be unnecessary to perform the enhanced test if

the specimen fails the basic test. It would also be unnecessary to perform the basic test if

the specimen passed the enhanced test. Because of this, an engineering judgment would

be made as to how the specimen would perform and the order of testing would be

performed accordingly. For example, the tilt-up specimen (5TU) was believed to be

acceptable under the enhanced test. This test was conducted and the specimen passed,









making it unnecessary to perform the basic test. Conversely, it was believed that the

Advantech specimen (1/2GY-6SD-3/4AD) would fail the basic test, which it did, making

the enhanced test unnecessary. This provided a time savings on many tests, as only two

impacts needed to be performed, one at a midpoint and the other at a corer.

Initial tests of the SB-3DK specimen produced unsatisfactory results. It is believed

that the poor performance of this specimen occurred because of the lack of lap screws

and the vertical orientation of the specimen during welding. This configuration caused

the welds to be weak because the material ran to the bottom of the weld area and

therefore a solid 3/4 in. puddle weld was not produced. The lack of lap screws and the

failure of the welds during testing produced marginal results. Because of the specimen's

performance, it was rebuilt as described in Section 3.2.3.8 of this chapter.

During the EM1--8CH 1/2PL 5VGA test, a piece of debris became lodged in front

of one of the photosensors causing a misreading of the missile's actual velocity. The first

sensor of the two gave a correct time reading; however the second sensor's reading was

erroneous. To remedy this, the clock times from each of the two sensors for all of the

previously performed enhanced test were recorded. The differences between all of the

times were calculated. This difference was then averaged and added to the values

recorded by the first sensor. Following this, the velocity was calculated using the

recorded times from the first sensor and the estimated times for the second sensor. The

resulting velocity was 74 fps which was deemed to be an acceptable estimate based on

the velocities recorded for the other enhanced tests. The spreadsheet calculations are

presented in Table 3.8.









Table 3.1. Specimen Nomenclature
Test Impact
t Code Impact Code Size Code Material Code
Type Location
Basic
Bac B Midpoint M 1 12" 11/2 Gypsum GY
(34 mph)
Enhanced
Enhanced E Corner C 7/16" 7/16 Wood Stud SD
(50 mph)
Enhanced
6nha d E(60) 1/2" 1/2 Channel CH
(60 mph) (6
5/8" 5/8 Plywood PL
Oriented
3" 3 Strand OS
Board
6" 6 Dinsgold DG
8" 8 Advantech AD
2x4 4 Galvalume GA
2x6 6 Stucco ST
5V 5V Hardiboard HB
Brick
BV
Veneer
Hollow
HC
Core
Tilt Up TU
Insulated
Concrete ICF
Forms
Autoclaved A
AAC
Concrete
Concrete
Masonry CMU
Unit
Concrete
Masonry
Unit, CMU(HR)
Horizontally
Reinforced
Steel Deck DK
Pre-
Engineered PT
Trusses
Hat Channel HC
SEMlok SL
Asphalt
__Shingles









Table 3.2. Acceptance Criteria for Basic and Enhanced Large Missile Impact Test
(Yazdani et al., 2004)
Item Wall/Roof Acceptance Criteria
Item Wall/Roof
SA Additional Criteria (FEMA-361 (2002),
No. Assembly Type FBCSBC (2000) and ASTM 1996 (2004))
SBC (2000) and ASTM E-1996 (2004))


2 Metal


Reinforced
Concrete or
CMU


A test assembly
passes the test if it
rejects the missile
without any
penetration.


A specimen passes the test if the missile
impact does not develop an opening
through which a 3" diameter sphere can
pass. Separation of the test assembly,
which may cause injury or death of the
occupants.
A specimen passes the test if the missile
impact does not develop an opening
through which a 3" diameter sphere can
pass.
A specimen passes the test if the missile
impact does not develop an opening
through which a 3" diameter sphere can
pass. Spalling of concrete, which may
cause injury or death of the occupants.


Wood












Table 3.3. Identified Wall Assemblies for Basic Testing
(Yazdani et al., 2004)
Description of the assembly
No. Wall system Siding Stud
Additional information
Interior Exterior Material Size Spacing
5/16"
1/2" gypsum SPF or
1 Wood 1/2 gypsum Hardiboard on SPFr 2"x6" 16" Tested, See Table 3.7
board pod STF
1/2" plywood
5/16"
1/2" gypsum SPF or
2 Wood ardiboard on 2"x6" 16" Tested, See Table 3.7
1/"Hadbboard STF
7/16" OSB

3 Wood 1/2" gypsum Stucco on 5/8" SPF or 2"x6" 16" Tested, See Table 3.7
board gypsum board STF
Stucco on 1/2"
o ,1/2" gypsum S SPF or
4 Wood g dinsgold or SF 2"x6" 16" Tested, See Table 3.7
board STF
dinsglass
1/2" gypsum Stucco on 1/2" SPF or
5 Wood 1/2" gypsum Stucco on 1/2" SPF 2"x6" 16" Tested, See Table 3.7
board plywood STF

1/2" gypsum Stucco on SPF or
6 Wood gypsum Stucco on SF or 2"x6" 16" Tested, See Table 3.7
board 7/16" OSB STF
5/16"
1/2" gypsum 16 ga. (33
7 Wood/Metal b d Hardiboard on ) 800S162-43 16" Tested, See Table 3.7
board plywo ksi)
1/2" plywood












Table 3.3. Continued.
Description of the assembly
No. Wall system Siding Stud
Additional information
Interior Exterior Material Size Spacing
5/16"
1/2" gypsum 16 ga. (33
8 Wood/Metal 1/" gy m Hardiboard on 800S162-43 16" Tested, See Table 3.7
board 7/16" OSB
5/16"
9 Wood 1/2" gypsum Hardiboard SPF or 2"x4" 16" Not Tested
board (vertical STF
siding)
1/2" gypsum 3/4" SPF or
10 Wood 1/2" gypsum 3/4" SPF or 2"x4" 16" Tested, See Table 3.7
board Advantech STF

1 Metal 5V Galvalume: 16 ga. (33 6
11* Metal --6 ga. 800S162-43 16" Tested, See Table 3.7
26 ga. ksi)
Brick veneer
1/2" gypsum SPF or
12* Brick / gypm on 1/2" 2"x4" 16" Tested, See Table 3.7
board STF
plywood
13* Brick 1/2" gypsum Brick veneer SPF or 2"x4" 16" Tested, See Table 3.7
board on 19/32" OSB STF
AAC
14* concrete --- --- --- --- --- Tested, See Table 3.7
block












Table 3.3. Continued.
Description of the assembly
No. Wall system Siding Stud
Additional information
Interior Exterior Material Size Spacing
Concrete
walls using
15* insulated -- -- -- -- -- Tested, See Table 3.7
concrete
forms (ICF)
16* Tilt up --- --- --- --- --- Tested, See Table 3.7
* Enhanced test was also performed on this test assembly












Table 3.4. Identified Roof Assemblies for Basic Testing
(Yazdani et al., 2004)
No Roof System Description of the Assembly
No Roof System
Deck/Roof Membrane Support Other
1* 5V Galvalume 26 ga. (33 ksi) Tested, See Table 3.7
2* Standing seam 26 ga. (33 ksi) Metal Pre-Engineered Trusses @ Tested, See Table 3.7
3i1-1/2" structural -24" o.c.
3* Metal structural 28 ga. roofingo.c. Tested, See Table 3.7
deck (22 ga.)
4* 3" metal deck (22 Steel beams @ 12' o.c. Tested, See Table 3.7
ga)
5 Wood/Metal 7/16" OSB with Metal Pre-Engineered Trusses @ Tested, See Table 3.7
5 Wood/Metal Tested, See Table 3.7
Asphalt Shingles 24" o.c.
* Enhanced test was also performed on this test assembly












Table 3.5. Identified Wall Assemblies for Enhanced Testing
(Yazdani et al., 2004)
Description of the assembly
Wall
No. alSiding Stud
system Additional information
Interior Exterior Material Size Spacing
1W /2" gypsum Stucco on 1/2" SPF or Failed Basic Test, Enhanced
board plywood STF Test Not Performed.

d 1/2" gypsum Stucco on SPF or Failed Basic Test, Enhanced
board 7/16" OSB STF Test Not Performed.

d 1/2" gypsum Stucco on 5/8" SPF or 2 Failed Basic Test, Enhanced
5 Wood 2"x6 16"
board gypsum board STF Test Not Performed.
Stucco on 1/2"
1/2" gypsum SPF or Failed Basic Test, Enhanced
6 Wood dinsgold or 2"x6" 16"
board o STF Test Not Performed.
dinsglass
5/16"
1/2" gypsum H SPF or Failed Basic Test, Enhanced
7 Wood Hardiboard on 2"x6" 16"
board STF Test Not Performed.
1/2" plywood
5/16"
W d 1/2" gypsum H SPF or Failed Basic Test, Enhanced
8 Wood bHardiboard on 2"x6" 16"
board STF Test Not Performed.
7/16" OSB
5/16"
9 Wood 1/2" gypsum Hardiboard SPF or 2"x4" 16"
board (vertical STF
siding)












Table 3.5. Continued
Description of the assembly
Wall
No. Siding Stud
system Additional information
Interior Exterior Material Size Spacing
0 W 1/2" gypsum 3/4" SPF or 2 Failed Basic Test, Enhanced
10 Wood 2"x4 16"
board Advantech STF Test Not Performed.

5V Galvalume: 16 ga. (33
11 Metal 5V Galvalume 16 ga. (33 800S162-43 16" Tested, See Table 3.7
26 ga. ksi)
Brick veneer
1/2" gypsum i SPF or 2 1
12 Brick gypsm on 1/2" S 2"x4" 16" Tested, See Table 3.7
board STF
plywood
n i 1/2" gypsum Brick veneer SPF or ,, ,,
13 Brick 1/2" gypsum Brick veneer SPF or 2"x4" 16" Tested, See Table 3.7
board on 19/32" OSB STF
14 CMU --- --- --- --- --- Tested, See Table 3.7
AAC
15 concrete --- --- --- --- --- Tested, See Table 3.7
block
Concrete
walls
using
16 insulated -- -- -- -- -- Tested, See Table 3.7
concrete
forms
(ICF)
17 Tilt up --- --- --- --- --- Tested, See Table 3.7












Table 3.6. Identified Roof Assemblies for Enhanced Testing.
(Yazdani et al., 2004)
o R f S Description of the Assembly
No RoofSystem hr
Deck/Roof Membrane Support Other
1 5V Galvalume 26 ga. (33 ksi) Tested, See Table 3.7
2 Standing seam 26 ga. (33 ksi) Metal Pre-Engineered Trusses @ Tested, See Table 3.7
3 1-1/2" structural -24" o.c.
3 Metal r 28 ga. roofing Tested, See Table 3.7
deck (22 ga.)
43" metal deck (22 Steel beams @ 12' o.c. Tested, See Table 3.7
g___a)
5 Wood/M l 7/16" OSB with Metal Pre-Engineered Trusses @ T S T
5 Wood/Metal Tested, See Table 3.7
Asphalt Shingles 24" o.c.
6 Concrete 6" Hollow Core --- --- Tested, See Table 3.7
7 Concrete 8" Hollow Core --- --- Tested, See Table 3.7












Table 3.7. Missile Impact Test Results in Chronological Order
Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity
Test Name Test Date Results Figure
(ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph)
The missile
completely
EM1--1/2GY 6SD 7/160S 5/16HB 04/07/04 50.5 34.4 51.4 35.1 penetrated both the 3.46
exterior and interior
fascia.
The missile
completely
BC1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL 5/16HB 04/08/04 50.1 34.1 50.5 34.4 penetrated both the 3.41
exterior and interior
fascia.
The missile
completely
EC1--1/2GY 6SD 7/160S 5/16HB 04/09/04 -- -- penetrated both the 3.45
exterior and interior
fascia.
The missile
completely
BC1--1/2GY 6SD 7/160S 5/16HB 04/10/04 50.1 34.2 52.1 35.5 penetrated both the 3.44
exterior and interior
fascia.












Table 3.7. Continued
Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity
Test Name Test Date Results Figure
(ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph)
The missile
completely
BM1--1/2GY 6SD 7/160S 5/16HB 04/11/04 50.2 34.2 51.3 35.0 penetrated both the 3.43
exterior and interior
fascia.
The missile
completely
BM1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL 5/16HB 04/12/04 50.1 34.1 51.7 35.2 penetrated both the 3.42
exterior and interior
fascia.
The missile
completely
BM1--1/2GY 6SD 5/8GY ST 04/13/04 49.8 34.0 51.7 35.2 penetrated both the 3.37
exterior and interior
fascia.
The missile
completely
BC1--1/2GY 6SD 5/8GY ST 04/14/04 50.2 34.2 49.7 33.9 penetrated both the 3.36
exterior and interior
fascia.












Table 3.7. Continued
Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity
Test Name Test Date Results Figure
(ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph)
The missile
completely
BC1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2DG ST 04/15/04 50.0 34.1 49.7 33.9 penetrated both the 3.33
exterior and interior
fascia.
The missile
completely
BM1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2DG ST 04/16/04 50.0 34.1 51.7 35.2 penetrated both the 3.34
exterior and interior
fascia.
The missile
completely
BM1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL ST 04/17/04 49.9 34.0 51.3 34.9 penetrated both the 3.40
exterior and interior
fascia.
The missile
completely
BC1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL ST 04/18/04 49.9 34.0 51.3 34.9 penetrated both the 3.39
exterior and interior
fascia.












Table 3.7. Continued
Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity
Test Name Test Date Results Figure
(ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph)
The missile
completely
BC1--1/2GY 6SD 7/160S ST 04/19/04 49.7 33.9 51.3 34.9 penetrated both the 3.38
exterior and interior
fascia.
The missile
completely
BM1--1/2GY 6SD 7/160S ST 04/20/04 49.8 34.0 50.9 34.7 penetrated both the 3.37
exterior and interior
fascia.
The missile
completely
BM1--1/2GY 8CH 7/160S 5/16HB 04/21/04 53.1 36.2 51.3 34.9 penetrated both the 3.47
exterior and interior
fascia.
The missile
completely
BC1--1/2GY 8CH 7/160S 5/16HB 04/22/04 52.2 35.6 54.7 37.3 penetrated both the 3.48
exterior and interior
fascia.












Table 3.7. Continued
Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity
Test Name Test Date Results Figure
(ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph)
The missile
completely
BM1--1/2GY 8CH 12PL 5/16HB 04/23/04 52.4 35.7 52.9 36.1 penetrated both the 3.49
exterior and interior
fascia.
The missile
completely
BC1--1/2GY 8CH 1/PL 5/16HB 04/24/04 49.5 33.8 52.9 36.1 penetrated both the 3.50
exterior and interior
fascia.

The specimen
rejected the missile
without penetration.
The impact resulted
in a crack across the
EM1--6HC 04/25/04 74.9 51.1 73.7 50.3 length of the 3.51
specimen. The
specimen shifted
approximately 5/8"
causing minor
spelling of the
concrete in the front.












Table 3.7. Continued
Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity
Test Name Test Date Results Figure
(ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph)

The specimen
rejected the missile
EM1--8HC 04/26/04 74.1 50.5 76.3 52.0 rejected the missile 3.52
without penetration,
spelling, or cracking.

The specimen
rejected the missile
E(60)M2--8HC 04/27/04 88.5 60.3 69.8 47.6 rejected the miss 3.53
without penetration,
spelling, or cracking.

The specimen
rejected the missile
E(60)M3--8HC 04/28/04 88.4 60.3 88.7 60.4 rejeted the miie 3.54
without penetration,
spelling, or cracking.

The specimen
rejected the missile
without penetration
EM1--1/2GY 6SD 7/160S BV 04/29/04 72.4 49.4 75.4 51.4 or spelling. Some 3.55
minor cracking and
crushing of the brick
occurred near the
impact point.












Table 3.7. Continued
Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity
Test Name Test Date Results Figure
(ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph)


The specimen
rejected the missile
without penetration
or spelling. Some
minor cracking and
E(60)M2--1/2GY 6SD 7/160S BV 04/30/04 88.7 60.5 93.7 63.9 minor cracking and 3.56
crushing of the brick
occurred near the
impact point. Cracks
extended through the
specimen.


The specimen
rejected the missile
without penetration
EC1--1/2GY 6SD 7/160S BV 05/01/04 72.1 49.2 72.9 49.7 or spelling. The 3.57
missile impact
aggravated the
existing cracks.












Table 3.7. Continued
Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity
Test Name Test Date Results Figure
(ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph)
The specimen
rejected the missile
without penetration
EC1--1/2GY 6SD 12PL BV 05/02/04 74.6 50.9 72.9 49.7 or spelling. The 3.58
missile impact
aggravated the
existing cracks.

The specimen
rejected the missile
without penetration
EM1--1/2GY 6SD 12PL BV 05/03/04 72.3 49.3 72.1 49.2 or spelling. The 3.59
missile impact
aggravated the
existing cracks.

The missile
completely
penetrated both the
exterior and interior
EM1--CMU(HR) 05/04/04 72.4 49.3 73.7 50.3 exterior and interior 3.60
fascia. The missile
impact caused
massive spelling of
the interior fascia.












Table 3.7. Continued
Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity
Test Name Test Date Results Figure
(ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph)


The missile
penetrated the
exterior fascia of the
CMU. The missile
EM1--CMU 05/05/04 74.6 50.8 73.7 50.3 impacted a web and 3.61
is assumed to be the
reason why complete
penetration did not
occur.



The grouted and
reinforced end cell
was targeted. The
EM2--CMU 05/06/04 72.2 49.2 73.7 50.3 specimen rejected the 3.62
missile without
penetration, cracking,
or spelling.












Table 3.7. Continued
Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity
Test Name Test Date Results Figure
(ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph)

The specimen
rejected the missile
without penetration.
EM3--CMU 05/07/04 71.7 48.8 74.6 50.8 However, impact 3.63
occurred on a web
which caused damage
to several blocks.


The specimen
rejected the missile
BM1--CMU(HR) 05/08/04 49.8 34.0 49.7 33.9 th t penetrtmissile 3.64
without penetration,
spelling, or cracking.

The missile impact
penetrated the outer
face of the block and
impacted the
BM2--CMU(HR) 05/09/04 50.4 34.4 46.2 31.5 horizontal 3.65
reinforcement but did
not completely
penetrate the
specimen.












Table 3.7. Continued
Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity
Test Name Test Date Results Figure
(ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph)

The missile impact
penetrated the outer
face of the block but
BM1--CMU 05/10/04 52.4 35.7 45.9 31.3 face of the block3.66
did not completely
penetrate the
specimen.


The missile impact
penetrated the outer
face of the block but
BM2--CMU 05/11/04 52.9 36.0 45.6 31.1 face ofthe block b 3.67
did not completely
penetrate the
specimen.


The missile impact
penetrated the outer
face of the block but
BM3--CMU 05/12/04 57.9 39.5 55.1 37.6 face of the block b 3.68
did not completely
penetrate the
specimen.












Table 3.7. Continued
Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity
Test Name Test Date Results Figure
(ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph)
The missile
completely
BM1--1/2GY 6SD 3/4AD 05/13/04 50.0 34.1 53.4 36.4 penetrated both the 3.69
exterior and interior
fascia.
The missile
completely
BC1--1/2GY 6SD 3/4AD 05/14/04 52.1 35.5 54.2 37.0 penetrated both the 3.70
exterior and interior
fascia.
The missile
completely
BC2--1/2GY 6SD 3/4AD 05/15/04 52.3 35.6 51.3 34.9 penetrated both the 3.71
exterior and interior
fascia.












Table 3.7. Continued
Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity
Test Name Test Date Results Figure
(ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph)


BM2--1/2GY 6SD 3/4AD


34.4


The specimen
rejected the missile
without penetration.
The impact
intentionally occurred
on a stud. The
impact crushed the
Advantech and
pushed the stud back
into the interior
portion of the
specimen although no
openings were
formed.


3.72


05/16/04


51.6


35.2


50.5












Table 3.7. Continued
Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity
Test Name Test Date Results Figure
(ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph)


EM1--8CH 1/2PL 5VGA


50.4


The missile
completely
penetrated both the
exterior and interior
fascia.
**The second
photosensor was not
working correctly due
to a piece of debris in
front of it, therefore it
did not record the
correct time. The
actual speed was
estimated using the
trends observed in the
other enhanced tests.
These calculations
are presented in
Table 3.8. The
incorrect recorded
velocity was 25.2 fps.


3.73


05/17/04


73.4


50.0


74.0**












Table 3.7. Continued
Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity
Test Name Test Date Results Figure
(ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph)
The missile
completely
EC1--8CH 1/2PL 5VGA 05/18/04 72.8 49.6 72.1 49.2 penetrated both the 3.74
exterior and interior
fascia.

The specimen
rejected the missile
BM1--8CH 1/2PL 5VGA 05/19/04 48.0 32.7 44.0 30.0 without penetration. 3.75
Minor deformation of
the metal occurred
near the impact point.


The specimen
rejected the missile
BM2--8CH 1/2PL SVGA 05/20/04 49.7 33.9 50.9 34.7 without penetration. 3.76
Minor deformation of
the metal occurred
near the impact point.












Table 3.7. Continued
Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity
Test Name Test Date Results Figure
(ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph)

The specimen
rejected the missile
BC1--8CH 1/2PL 5VGA 05/21/04 54.8 37.4 49.0 33.4 without penetration. 377
Minor deformation of
the metal occurred
near the impact point.


The specimen
rejected the missile
BC1--PT HC 1/2PL SL 05/22/04 52.1 35.5 46.5 31.7 without penetration. 3.78
Minor deformation of
the metal occurred
near the impact point.












Table 3.7. Continued
Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity
Test Name Test Date Results Figure
(ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph)

The specimen
rejected the missile
without penetration.
The missile impact
BC2--PT HC 1/2PL SL 05/23/04 51.4 35.0 50.5 34.4 separated the panels 3.79
on the left side and
caused large
deformations in the
material and cracked
the plywood.


The specimen
rejected the missile
without penetration.
The missile impact
BM1--PT HC 1/2PL SL 05/24/04 50.7 34.6 48.3 32.9 separated the panels 3.80
on the left side and
caused large
deformations in the
material and cracked
the plywood.












Table 3.7. Continued
Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity
Test Name Test Date Results Figure
(ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph)


EM1--PT HC 1/2PL SL


72.1


49.2


The specimen
rejected the missile
without penetration.
The missile impact
separated the panels
on the left side and
caused large
deformations in the
material, cracked the
plywood, and tore
free from the
fasteners on the right
side.


3.81


05/25/04


73.3


49.9












Table 3.7. Continued
Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity
Test Name Test Date Results Figure
(ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph)

The specimen
rejected the missile
without penetration.
The impact caused
severe deformations
EC1--PT HC 1/2PL SL 05/26/04 73.5 50.1 68.4 46.6 in the metal and 3.82
pulled some fasteners
from the plywood.
There was also severe
cracking of the
plywood.

The missile
completely
E(60)M2--PT HC 1/2PL SL 05/27/04 88.5 60.4 88.7 60.4 penetrated both the 3.83
exterior and interior
fascia.
The missile
completely
BM1--PT HC 7/160S AS 05/28/04 49.9 34.0 43.2 29.4 penetrated both the 3.84
exterior and interior
fascia.












Table 3.7. Continued
Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity
Test Name Test Date Results Figure
(ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph)
The missile
completely
BM2--PT HC 7/160S AS 05/29/04 52.9 36.0 46.5 31.7 penetrated both the 3.85
exterior and interior
fascia.
The missile
completely
BC1--PT HC 7/160S AS 05/30/04 52.3 35.7 49.0 33.4 penetrated both the 3.86
exterior and interior
fascia.
The missile
completely
EM1--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA 05/31/04 74.1 50.5 73.7 50.3 penetrated both the 3.87
exterior and interior
fascia.
The specimen
rejected the missile
without penetration.
BM1--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA 06/01/04 48.7 33.2 43.2 29.4 Some local 3.88
deformation in the
metal occurred due to
the impact.












Table 3.7. Continued
Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity
Test Name Test Date Results Figure
(ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph)
The specimen
rejected the missile
without penetration.
BM2--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA 06/02/04 53.4 36.4 41.0 28.0 Some local 3.89
deformation in the
metal occurred due to
the impact.

The specimen
rejected the missile
without penetration.
BM3--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA 06/03/04 51.1 34.8 51.3 34.9 Some local 3.90
deformation in the
metal occurred due to
the impact.

The specimen
rejected the missile
without penetration.
BC1--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA 06/04/04 52.2 35.6 48.3 32.9 Some local 3.91
deformation in the
metal occurred due to
the impact.












Table 3.7. Continued
Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity
Test Name Test Date Results Figure
(ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph)
The specimen
rejected the missile
without penetration.
BC2--PT HC 1/2PL 5VGA 06/05/04 50.2 34.2 45.9 31.3 Some local 3.92
deformation in the
metal occurred due to
the impact.

The specimen
rejected the missile
without penetration.
EM1--PT 11/2DK 5VGA 06/06/04 74.0 50.5 53.8 36.7 Some local 3.93
deformation in the
metal occurred due to
the impact.

The specimen
rejected the missile
without penetration.
EM2--PT 11/2DK 5VGA 06/07/04 73.1 49.9 75.4 51.4 Some local 3.94
deformation in the
metal occurred due to
the impact.












Table 3.7. Continued
Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity
Test Name Test Date Results Figure
(ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph)
The specimen
rejected the missile
without penetration.
EC1--PT 11/2DK 5VGA 06/08/04 72.6 49.5 73.7 50.3 Some local 3.95
deformation in the
metal occurred due to
the impact.

The specimen
rejected the missile
without penetration.
The impact caused a
large deformation in
E(60)M3--PT 11/2DK 5VGA 06/09/04 88.1 60.1 89.9 61.3 the deck as well as a 3.96
tear in the 5V. This
caused the center stud
to rip from bottom
track and the edge
studs to buckle.

The specimen
EM1--5TU 06/10/04 73.1 49.8 72.9 49.7 rejected the missile 3.97
without penetration.












Table 3.7. Continued
Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity
Test Name Test Date Results Figure
(ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph)
The specimen
E(60)M2--5TU 06/11/04 87.9 59.9 87.5 59.6 rejected the missile 3.98
without penetration.
The specimen
EM1--6ICF 06/12/04 73.7 50.2 72.1 49.2 rejected the missile 3.99
without penetration.
The specimen
E(60)M2--6ICF 06/13/04 87.5 59.6 87.5 59.6 rejected the missile 3.100
without penetration.

The specimen
rejected the missile
without penetration.
The missile hit the
corner of a rib and
EM1--SB 3DK 06/14/04 74.4 50.7 71.3 48.6 c er of b3.101
caused some local
deformation. The lap
joint between panels
was opened slightly
by the impact.












Table 3.7. Continued
Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity
Test Name Test Date Results Figure
(ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph)
The specimen
rejected the missile
without penetration.
E(60)M2--SB 3DK 06/15/04 88.8 60.6 87.5 59.6 The impact did, 3.102
however, cause large
deformations in the
material.

The specimen
rejected the missile
without penetration.
EC1--SB 3DK 06/16/04 73.0 49.8 69.8 47.6 The impact did,3.103
however, cause large
deformations in the
material and failure
of the puddle welds.


The missile
E(60)C2--SB 3DK 06/17/04 87.6 59.7 87.5 59.6 penetrated the lap 3.104
joint which was
targeted intentionally.












Table 3.7. Continued
Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity
Test Name Test Date Results Figure
(ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph)
The specimen
rejected the missile
without penetration.
The impact resulted
E(60)C3--SB 3DK 06/18/04 88.2 60.1 87.5 59.6 in a large 3.105
deformation at impact
point. The impact
tore the decking
across the rib and at
the weld.
The specimen
rejected the missile
without penetration.
E(60)M3--SB 3DK 06/19/04 88.5 60.3 86.3 58.9 Some local 3.106
deformation in the
metal occurred due to
the impact.
The missile
penetrated the joint,
which was targeted
E(60)C4--SB 3DK 06/20/04 88.4 60.3 86.3 58.9 which was targ3.107
intentionally, and tore
two of the adjacent
screws from the deck.












Table 3.7. Continued
Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity
Test Name Test Date Results Figure
(ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph)
The specimen
rejected the missile
without penetration.
BM1--AAC 11/04/04 51.0 34.7 50.5 34.4 The specimen 3.108
experienced localized
crushing of the
material near the
impact zone.


The specimen
rejected the missile
without penetration.
The specimen
experienced massive
EM1--AAC 11/04/04 74.2 50.6 73.7 50.3 cracking throughout. 3.109
It is believed that the
shoring helped to
reject the missile and
to keep the specimen
standing after impact.












Table 3.7. Continued
Estimated Velocity Measured Velocity
Test Name Test Date Results Figure
(ft/s) (mph) (ft/s) (mph)
The missile
completely
penetrated the
specimen. More
E(60)M2--AAC 11/04/04 87.7 59.8 87.5 59.6 cracking developed 3.110
and massive
spelling was
observed on the
interior fascia of the
specimen.
*Data Lost









Table 3.8. Test EM1--8CH 1/2PL 5VGA Speed Correction Calculations
1st 1st 2nd 2nd
up down up down Id-lu 2d 2u 2d-l d 2u- lu
2693 3102 2833 3192 409 359 90 140
2299 2681 2433 2771 382 338 90 134
1940 2358 2083 2447 418 364 89 143
2336 2719 2469 2805 383 336 86 133
2164 2575 2305 2666 411 361 91 141
1690 2079 1824 2166 389 342 87 134
2665 3035 2795 3122 370 327 87 130
2138 2562 2281 2651 424 370 89 143
2349 2775 2492 2864 426 372 89 143
2331 2757 2474 2846 426 372 89 143
2509 2837 2632 2925 328 293 88 123

AVG 397 349 89 137
High 426 372 91 143
Low 328 293 86 123

Recorded Data Estimated Values

lup 2358 2 up 2495
1
down 2737 2 down 2826


Estimated
Velocity 74 ft/s









[I t t 4 t


Plan View


Profile View Elevation View
Figure 3.1 Testing Assembly Schematic, (a) Plan View; (b) Profile View; and (c)
Elevation View


Strong Wall











Strong Floor


Foundation Block


Figure 3.2 Overall Testing Assembly


r


I


1


I

















Figure 3.3 Close-up of Concrete Foundation Blocks with J-Bolts and Threaded Rod
~ In


Figure 3.4 Steel Top Restraint






























Figure 3.5 Steel Stud Test Frame with OSB and Plywood Cladding


Figure 3.6 Specimen PT-HC-1/2PL-SL Attached to Cold-Formed Steel Hat Purlins






66





"..:.. .. ...


Figure 3.7 Stucco Lath Applied to 2x6 Wood Stud Test Frame with Gypsum Wall Board
Specimen (Upper Left) and Dinsglass Specimen (Lower Right)


Figure 3.8 Finished Stucco Over Gypsum Wall
Dinsglass Specimen (Lower Right)


board Specimen (Upper Left) and


Anti-Siphon Channel


Figure 3.9 5V Crimp Side Lap Detail (Source: Gibraltar, 2002)


lu



























Figure 3.10 5V Crimp Fastening Pattern (Source: Gibraltar, 2002)


Figure 3.11 Standing Seam Side Lap Detail (Source: Semco, 2002)


Figure 3.12 Asphalt Shingle Nailing Pattern (Source: National Roofing Conctractors
Association, 2003)






























~.k '


Figure 3.13 Construction of the Tilt-up Wall Test Panel Specimen


UM i^

j ,jjjjr- ar.w.w .. --


Figure 3.14 PVC Pipe Inserts for Tilt-up Wall Specimen






69






















Figure 3.15 Typical Embedded Lifting Device for Tilt-up Wall Specimen























Figure 3.16 Construction of CMU Test Specimens With and Without Horizontal Joint
Reinforcement



























Figure 3.17 Partial Construction of the ICF Test Specimen


Figure 3.18 Reinforcing Bars Secured to ICF Forms Using Wire Ties






























Figure 3.19 2 x 8 Timber Studs Used as Endcaps for ICF Forms


Figure 3.20 Completed ICF Test Specimen



























Figure 3.21 Typical Puddle Welded Connection of Steel Deck to Support Framing


Figure 3.22 3 in. Deck Specimen Construction







73
























Figure 3.23 Typical 3 in. Deck Specimen Support Framing and Floor Connection
Figure 3.23 Typical 3 in. Deck Specimen Support Framing and Floor Connection


Figure 3.24 3 in. Deck Specimen Installed





























Figure 3.25 8 in. Hollow Core Slab Specimen with Shoring


Figure 3.26 9 lb and 15 lb Missiles with Sabot Attached











Compressed Air
Supply


Figure 3.27 Large Missile Cannon at UF


Pressure Release
Mechanism


Barrel


Pressure
Gauge

Figure 3.28 Large Missile Cannon Firing Mechanism












Large Missile Impact Data Collection Sheet


Test Date


-: ole.i'le Cannon to Specimen Osc3lloscope
Length Distance Calculated
Test Name Feet Inches Weight (Ib) Feet Inches Time Reading (ms) Speed [mph)*





Lab View Data
Differential Pressure (psi.) Estimated Velodity (its) Measured 'elo cry I .' i







Impact Result Notes


"Speed (ts) =


3281
Time (ms)


Figure 3.29 Handwritten Data Collection Sheet







77






Air Cannon Software


19.91 5.20



as391


SAVE FE

1 st Velocity
2nd Velocity






Figure 3.30 Labview Data Acquisition System


100
90
80 *
S70 -
60 *
50 *
.o 40
> 30
20
10 -
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Pressure (psi)


Figure 3.31 Calibration Data Plot for 15 lb Missile






78



100- 73.3 ft/s = 50mph
90g Target Velocity
80
70


5 40 ll psi.
> 30 Target
20 V = 49.846Ln(P)- 46.113 Pressure
10 R2 = 0.9959
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Pressure


Figure 3.32 Calibration Curve for 15 lb Missile


Figure 3.33 BC1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2DG ST Test Result at 34 mph





























Figure 3.34 BM1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2DG ST Test Result at 34 mph


Figure 3.35 BC1--1/2GY 6SD 5/8GY ST Test Result at 34 mph





























Figure 3.36 BM1--1/2GY 6SD 5/8GY ST Test Result at 34 mph


1/2GY 6SD 7/160S ST Test Result at 34 mph


Figure 3.37 BM1-





























Figure 3.38 BC1--1/2GY 6SD 7/160S ST Test Result at 34 mph


Figure 3.39 BC1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL ST Test Result at 34 mph





























Figure 3.40 BM1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL ST Test Result at 34 mph


Figure 3.41 BC1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL 5/16HB Test Result at 34 mph





























Figure 3.42 BM1--1/2GY 6SD 1/2PL 5/16HB Test Result at 34 mph


Figure 3.43 BM1--1/2GY 6SD 7/160S 5/16HB Test Result at 34 mph












It ~

..i ... ..
If :- h

ILI
i, ..........



If
F 3 i

;;


IF
Figure 3 44 BC1 -1/2GY 6SD 7/160S 5/16HB Test Result at 34 mph


Figure 3.45 EC1--1/2GY 6SD 7/160S 5/16HB Test Result at 50 mph
































Figure 3.46 EM1--1/2GY 6SD 7/160S 5/16HB Test Result at 50 mph


Figure 3.47 BM1--1/2GY 8CH 7/160S 5/161


iest Kesult at .4 mpn





























Figure 3.48 BC1--1/2GY 8CH 7/160S 5/16HB Test Result at 34 mph


Figure 3.49 BM1--1/2GY 8CH 1/2PL 5/16HB Test Result at 34 mph