<%BANNER%>

Work-Behavior Analysis of Counselor Educators in CACREP-Accredited Programs

University of Florida Institutional Repository
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WORK-BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS OF COUNSELOR EDUCATORS IN CACREP-ACCREDITED PROGRAMS By KATHLEEN M. FALLON A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2004

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Copyright 2004 by Kathleen M. Fallon

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This dissertation is dedicated to my famil y, friends, teachers, students, and colleagues who inspire and nurture my creativity, ques tioning, inquiry, love of learning, and my personal and professional development.

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iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I offer thanks to those who inspired, challenged, and nurtured me through this process. Thanks go to my doctoral committee for their guidance and encouragement. I am grateful to Dr. Sondra Smith-Adcock for her ment orship. It has been a gift to witness Dr. Connie Shehan’s passion for teaching and learning. I appreciate Dr. Larry Loesch’s commitment to the education of counselo rs and his attending to the professional development of future faculty. Finally, I am i ndebted to Dr. Peter Sherrard for generously sharing his time, ideas, and support. Without fail, I left our lunches at Joe’s with note-filled napkins and more questions than answers. I am grateful to friends, colleagues, and students for their support and the many ways in which they nurtured my passion as a counselor educator and scholar. Extraordinary thanks go to Candy Spires and Patty Bruner for their limitless support, encouragement, and tenacious reminders to fini sh this dissertation! To my fellow doctoral students, there is comfort in the shared journey. Particularly, I am in awe of Lyn Goodwin and Ana Puig for how they ma sterfully model the quintessential scholar-practitioner. I am inspired by how they embody the art and science of scholarship at its finest. My deep gratitude goes to Da ve and Brian Marshall for their guidance with data analysis. With what began as the most challenging aspect of this process, they helped me discover the advent ure and fun within data an alysis. Miraculously, with recognizing the fun came understanding more a bout statistical analysis than I ever expected to know. It is no understatement to comply with their one request to document

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v that the Marshall brothers are indeed “Freakin’ Geniuses”! I look forward to seeing how my doctoral student colleagues create our next phases of life. My many friends who extended their shoulders and moments of re laxation, you provided the colorful backdrop to these exciting years. Finally, I thank my immediate and extende d family, who shared their gifts and resources. Although they often wondered if I would be fore ver a student, they never stopped believing in me. To my brother, Andrew M. Fallon, I extend thanks for his limitless artistry and creative inspiration. I thank my mother, Helen B. Fallon, for modeling meticulous organizational skills. I am indebted to my father, John S. Fallon (a fellow counselor, healer, and professor) for his gift of wisdom. Finally, my life partner, Elaine J. Casquarelli, blessed me with he r challenge to put my money where my mouth was, and by nurturing me to discover my best self.

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vi TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES.............................................................................................................ix ABSTRACT......................................................................................................................x ii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 Need for the Study........................................................................................................3 Purposes and Significance of the Study........................................................................5 Central Theoretical Frameworks..................................................................................6 Guiding Research Questions.........................................................................................7 Definition of Terms......................................................................................................8 Competencies........................................................................................................8 Counselor Education.............................................................................................8 Counselor Educator...............................................................................................9 Work Behavior....................................................................................................10 Work Behavior Analysis.....................................................................................11 Organization of the Study...........................................................................................11 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE............................................................................12 The Professoriate: An Overview................................................................................12 Preparing the Professoriate – Prob lems, Needs, and Interventions............................16 Purpose and Objectives of Doctoral Education...................................................16 Key Problems and Needs.....................................................................................16 Prior Interventions...............................................................................................19 Socialization and Competency-Based Frameworks as Interventions.........................24 Work-Behavior Analysis: A Foundational Step toward Change................................29 3 METHODOLOGY.....................................................................................................32 Sampling Procedures..................................................................................................32 Population............................................................................................................33 Instrument Development.....................................................................................34 Instrument............................................................................................................37

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vii Data Collection....................................................................................................38 Research Questions, Hypotheses, and Data Analysis.........................................43 4 RESULTS...................................................................................................................48 Demographic Characteristics of Counsel or Educators in CACREP-accredited Programs................................................................................................................49 Sample Demographics................................................................................................49 Profiles of CACREP-accredited Couns elor Education Departments.........................53 Factor Analysis...........................................................................................................56 Importance of Work Behaviors..................................................................................64 Frequency of Engaging in Work Behaviors...............................................................65 Interactions Among Academic Rank, Carn egie Classification, and Importance of Work Behaviors.....................................................................................................66 Interaction Among Academic Rank, Carneg ie Classification, and Frequency of Engaging in Work Behaviors.................................................................................71 Interaction Between Tenure Status, Carneg ie Classification, and Importance of Work Behaviors.....................................................................................................75 Interaction Between Tenure Status, Carn egie Classification, and Frequency of Engaging in Work Behaviors.................................................................................79 5 DISCUSSION.............................................................................................................83 Counselor Educators and CA CREP-Accredited Programs........................................84 CACREP-Accredited Counselor Education Programs........................................85 Factor Analysis...........................................................................................................86 Effects of Academic Rank, Tenure Stat us, and Carnegie Classification on Importance and Frequency of E ngaging in Work Behaviors.................................88 Academic Rank and Carnegie Classification......................................................88 Tenure Status and Carnegie Classification..........................................................89 Implications................................................................................................................90 Counselor Educators............................................................................................90 Counselor Education Programs...........................................................................91 Counselor Education Doctoral Students..............................................................92 Practice of Preparing Future Counselor Educators.............................................93 Limitations..................................................................................................................94 Survey Design.....................................................................................................94 Response Rate.....................................................................................................95 Recommendations for Future Research......................................................................96 Summary.....................................................................................................................97 APPENDIX A COUNSELOR EDUCATOR WORK BEHAVIOR INSTRUMENT........................98 B IMPORTANCE OF WORK BEHAVIORS.............................................................108

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viii C FREQUENCY OF ENGAGING IN WORK BEHAVIORS....................................112 LIST OF REFERENCES.................................................................................................116 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................122

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ix LIST OF TABLES Table page 4-1 Item Response Rates for Participant Demographic Variables (Total N=162).........50 4-2 Participant Demographics – Gender Identity and Ethnicity.....................................50 4-3 Participant Demographics – Age, Age & Gender Identity.......................................51 4-4 Participant Demogra phics –Age & Ethnicity...........................................................51 4-5 Participant Demographics – Professional Characteristics........................................52 4-6 Item Response Rates for Departme nt Demographic Variables (N=162).................54 4-7 Department Demographic Variables........................................................................54 4-8 Department Demographic Variables – Number of Faculty and Students................55 4-9 Results of Factor Analysis........................................................................................57 4-10 Most Important Work Behavior s – Average Item Means by Factor........................64 4-11 Most Frequently Engaged Work Beha viors – Average Item Means by Factor.......65 4-12 Summary of Significant Main Effect s for Importance of Work Behaviors on Academic Rank x Carnegie Classification...............................................................68 4-13 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Academic Rank on the Importance of Scholarship.......................................................................................68 4-14 Summary of Means and Variance Com ponents for Carnegie Classification on the Importance of Scholarship..................................................................................69 4-15 Summary of Means and Variance Com ponents for Carnegie Classification on the Importance of Counselor Educat or Professional Development.........................69 4-16 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Academic Rank on the Importance of Program Evaluation..........................................................................70 4-17 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Academic Rank on the Importance of Research Oversight...........................................................................71

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x 4-18 Summary of Significant Main Effect s for Frequency of Engaging in Work Behaviors on Academic Rank x Carnegie Classification.........................................72 4-19 Summary of Means and Variance Com ponents for Carnegie Classification on the Frequency of Engaging in Program Administration..........................................73 4-20 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Academic Rank on the Frequency of Engaging in Scholarship....................................................................73 4-21 Summary of Means and Variance Com ponents for Carnegie Classification on the Frequency of Scholarship...................................................................................74 4-22 Summary of Means and Variance Com ponents for Carnegie Classification on the Frequency of Engaging in Counselor Educator Professional Development......74 4-23 Summary of Significant Main Effects for Importance of Work Behaviors on Tenure Status x Carnegie Classification..................................................................76 4-24 Summary of Means and Variance Com ponents for Carnegie Classification on the Importance of Clini cal Counseling Practice.......................................................77 4-25 Summary of Means and Variance Co mponents for Tenure Status on the Importance of Scholarship.......................................................................................77 4-26 Summary of Means and Variance Com ponents for Carnegie Classification on the Importance of Scholarship..................................................................................77 4-27 Summary of Means and Variance Com ponents for Carnegie Classification on the Importance of Counselor Educ ator Professional Evaluation.............................78 4-28 Summary of Means and Variance Co mponents for Tenure Status on the Importance of Program Evaluation..........................................................................78 4-29 Summary of Significant Main Effect s for Frequency of Engaging in Work Behaviors on Tenure Status x Carnegie Classification............................................80 4-30 Summary of Means and Variance Com ponents for Carnegie Classification on the Frequency of Engaging in Program Administration..........................................81 4-31 Summary of Means and Variance Co mponents for Tenure Status on the Frequency of Engaging in Scholarship....................................................................81 4-32 Summary of Means and Variance Com ponents for Carnegie Classification on the Frequency of Engaging in Scholarship..............................................................82 4-33 Summary of Means and Variance Co mponents for Tenure Status on the Frequency of Engaging in Community Building.....................................................82

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xi 5-1 Summary of Most Important and Most Frequently Engaged Categories of Work Behaviors........................................................................................................87

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xii Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy WORK-BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS OF COUNSELOR EDUCATORS IN CACREP-ACCREDITED PROGRAMS By Kathleen M. Fallon December 2004 Chair: Peter A. D. Sherrard Major Department: Counselor Education My study investigated impor tant and frequently enga ged work behaviors of counselor educators working in academic departments housing programs accredited by the Council for the Accredita tion of Counseling and Rela ted Educational Programs (CACREP). An Internet-based survey was di stributed to counselor educators. Findings indicated important and frequently engaged work behaviors within twelve conceptual categories: program administration, clinical counseling practice, scholarship, teaching and mentoring, clinical supervision, shared governance, infusing technology, community building, consultation, counselor -educator professional development, program evaluation, and research oversight. My study has implica tions relevant to c ounselor educators, counselor-education doctoral students, counsel or education programs, and the practice of preparing future counselor educators.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Historically, the doctoral degree has been th e prerequisite educational credential for an academic career, particularly for professors holding graduate faculty status in research universities. Accreditation st andards for counselor education programs, developed by the Council for the Accreditation of Counse ling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) (Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs, 2001) require an earned doctorate for full-time faculty. The purpose of this degree is to prepare graduates who will adva nce the knowledge base of their specific disciplines; often through academic careers in research, teaching, a nd service to their profession and the public at large. In partic ular, counselor-educati on doctoral programs prepare graduates for careers as advanced mental-health cl inicians, administrators, and counselor educators (CACREP, 2001). A review of the literature reveals a lack of cohe rent objectives, curricular experiences, and structures that specifically address the preparation of doctoral students who are competent to perform work behavior s expected of counsel or educators (Adams, 2002). One new counselor educator reported, "better preparation in the nuts and bolts of professors at the graduate student level w ould be most helpful. It seems there are well-kept secrets which are only reveal ed after you start work” (Magnuson, 2002). These review findings are consistent acro ss the nation and across disciplines (Golde & Dore, 2001; Nerad & Cerney, 1999; Sm ith & Pedersen-Gallegos, 2001). While doctoral programs are tasked with preparing fu ture faculty, there appe ars to be a gap in

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2 the manner in which that preparation occurs (Golde & Dore, 2001). Recently, academic programs, disciplines, professional organizatio ns, and national initiat ives have responded to the problem of insufficient training of future faculty (e.g., Preparing Future Faculty, Carnegie Initiative on the Doctorat e, and Re-Envisioning the Ph.D.). In addition to a lack of clarity in stru cturing preparation pr ograms, the literature showed significant contextual changes in facu lty, departmental and in stitutional settings, and the delivery of curricular experiences (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2004). Faculty retirements, the demand placed on independent funding sources, and the immersion of technology in program delivery are influenc ing the expectations and functions of counselor educators entering the profession in the new millennium. Related to this, little research has been conducted on counselor-educat or work behaviors, particularly research attending to technology work behavior s (Loesch & Vacc, 1993; MohdZain, 1995). The purpose of my study was to identify counselor-educator work behaviors that comprise the various duties expected of this position. I sought to di scover differences in importance or frequency of work behaviors engaged within diverse academic units and institutional settings. This information has direct implications for doctoral students, faculty, academic programs, and the counselor-education profession. In particular, work behaviors can form the structural founda tion for developing cu rricular experiences designed to prepare future counselor e ducators. I conducted an Internet-based work-behavior analysis to address questi ons based on the following areas: (1) work behaviors, (2) counselor educator demographics, and (3) program and institutional demographics.

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3 Need for the Study National initiatives and research studies have identified six issues critical to faculty preparation. First, doctoral students are not sufficiently socialized into the academic profession (Austin, 2002; Gaff, Pruitt-Loga n, & Weibl, 2000; Gaff, 2002; Golde & Dore, 2001; Nerad & Cerney, 1999) Second, students l ack awareness of the multiple duties and responsibilities expected of a faculty member (Adams, 2002; Austin, 2002; Golde & Dore, 2001; Magnuson, 2002; National Associat ion of Graduate and Professional Students, 2001; Nerad & Cerney, 1999; Smith & Pedersen-Gallegos, 2001; Sorcinelli, 1992). Doctoral-program faculty are encouraged to “. .help their students develop the skills and capacities they need to survive th e first few years of an academic appointment and to meet the expectations and tenure requ irements of different types of institutions” (Adams, 2002). However, results of resear ch with new counselor educators reveal inconsistent faculty pr eparation (Magnuson, 2002). A slow-dying myth assumes content knowle dge is sufficient preparation for higher education teaching. A third issu e is the inadequate preparat ion to teach (Adams, 2002; Austin, 2002; Boice, 1992; Gaff, 2002; Golde & Dore, 2001; Magnuson, 2002; Magnuson, Norem, Haberstroh-Burke, Zirkle & Henderson, 2001; National Association of Graduate and Professional Students, 2001; Nerad & Cerney, 1999; Seidel, Benassi, & Richards, 1999). Doctoral students are imme rsed in discipline-specific curricular experiences, complemented by preparation in conducting research. However, their programs of study do not adequately address such areas as learni ng theory, curriculum design, departmental service responsibilitie s, and understanding university systems and policies (Adams, 2002; Austin, 2002; Golde & Dore, 2001; Magnuson, 2002).

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4 Fourth, across disciplines, apparently no structured faculty-preparation programs are seamlessly integrated with courses and curricular experiences (Austin, 2002; Gaff, 2002). A fifth issue concerns implications fo r graduates in the job market. There is a mismatch among graduate training, faculty resp onsibilities, and caree r expectations of doctoral students pursuing faculty positions (Adams, 2002; Austin, 2002; Boice, 1992; Gaff, 2002; Golde & Dore, 2001; Magnuson et al., 2001; Maples, 1989; Maples, Altekruse, & Testa, 1993; Ma ples & Macari, 1998). Many doc toral graduates expect to continue in their mentors’ f ootsteps, pursuing careers at re search-extensive institutions. However, these positions are few compared to the number of clinician-focused mastersgranting institutions emphasizing teaching and service. Finally, there is a need for research and empirical evidence of best practices in faculty preparation, particular ly within the Counselor Educ ation discipline (Gaff, 2002). Details of work behaviors of counsel or educators are unknown. One occupational analysis of counselor educators was conduc ted almost 10 years ago (MohdZain, 1995). The purpose of that study was to investigate pe rceptions of relative time spent performing common counselor educator roles. MohdZ ain’s study contributed to understanding common domains of responsibility (i.e ., administration, advising, consultation, counseling, scholarship, service, supervision, and teaching). However, it did not explore specific components and elements of these dom ains. It also did not reflect the growing trend toward faculty infusing technology into counselor-educ ation curricula and program delivery.

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5 Purposes and Significance of the Study Students are not receiving comprehensive tr aining preparing them to perform work behaviors common to counselor educators. To design such programs, it is important to identify common work behaviors. My study was based on the assumption that within CACREP-accredited doctoral programs, it is the Counselor Education depa rtment’s responsibility to prepare doctoral students to “master the knowledge and skill s to practice effectively” as counselor educators (CACREP, 2001). According to CACREP standards (2001), this includes curricular and mentoring experiences in in structional theory and methods, teaching, supervision, professional writing, profe ssional development, and service. The purpose of my study was to identify critical work behaviors relevant to counselor educators working in masters’ and doctoral-granting inst itutions. Faculty can use these results to help focus comprehensive curricular experiences that more effectively prepare doctoral students pursuing counselor educator careers. Students can use these results as a guide to shape their professi onal development, gaining and demonstrating competencies relevant to be haviors critical to faculty careers. Such a guide could strengthen their marketability in the j ob-search process. The counselor-education profession (i.e., the American Counseling A ssociation, the Associ ation of Counselor Education and Supervision, the Counsel for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs, and the National Board of Certified Counselors) can foster the development and enhancement of academic st andards and best practices in preparing counselor educators.

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6 Central Theoretical Frameworks Socialization and competency-based edu cation were the two central theoretical frameworks shaping my conceptual understa nding of the problem and influencing the research design and methods. Within a graduate school context, professional socialization is the developmental process in which student s are introduced to and immersed in their chosen discipline and professional setti ng. Using observation, role practicing, and mentorship, graduate students seek to l earn about and eventually internalize the professional roles they wish to assume. W ithin the setting of my study, the doctoral program is an appropriate time for students to be socialized into the academic profession (Weidman, Twale, & Stein, 2001). Critical to effective socializ ation is a clear understanding of the expectations and behavi ors common to faculty members, and of the opportunities to witness and engage in thos e behaviors during the doctoral experience. Competency-based education models provide a framework for structuring experiences and curricula so that students are introduced to faculty careers and gain competence and proficiency with the behavior s and with the unique contextual issues influencing decision-making (Whitty & Willmott, 1991). It is not enough for a student to be able to mirror the behaviors of a faculty member. Students need to understand how and why faculty behaviors are engaged; and gain exposure to the values and judgments that help determine the course of action in individual situations. Both socialization and competency-based education models are grounded in a clear understanding of work behaviors. Work beha viors common to counselor educators are not clearly identified. These frameworks suppor t the rationale for pursuing this line of inquiry.

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7 Guiding Research Questions My study was guided by research questions addressing counselor educator work behaviors, the demographic variables of th e people performing them, the settings in which these behaviors occur, and finally th e influence of tenure status and Carnegie classification on these work behaviors. Comb ined, my study sought to shed light on the behaviors, characteristics, a nd settings of counselor educat ors in the early twenty-first century. Identifying core work behaviors pe rformed by counselor-education faculty establishes the performance goals for prepar ing counselor educators. My study sought to answer questions related to what doctoral stude nts need to be prepared to do, in order to become counselor educators. My study wa s organized around gaining information on the following research questions: RQ 1. What are the demographic characteristics of counsel or educators working in CACREP-accredited programs? RQ2. What are the profiles of CACREP-accr edited counselor education programs? RQ 3. What are the most important categor ies of work behaviors performed by counselor educators in CACREP-accredited programs? RQ 4. What are the most frequently enga ged categories of work behaviors performed by counselor educators in CACREP-accredited programs? RQ 5. Is there a significant interaction between academic rank and Carnegie classification based on perceived importanc e of categories of work behaviors? RQ 6. Is there a significant interaction between academic rank and Carnegie classification based on freque ncy of engaging in categor ies of work behaviors? RQ 7. Is there a significant interaction between tenure status and Carnegie classification based on perceived importanc e of categories of work behaviors? RQ 8. Is there a significant interaction between tenure status and Carnegie classification based on freque ncy of engaging in categor ies of work behaviors?

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8 To address these questions, a work be havior analysis was conducted. Work behavior analyses (also known as job analysis, occupational analysis, or task analysis) have been used widely by governmental and private agencies seek ing to identify work behaviors specific to a part icular job or occupation (U. S. Office of Personnel Management, 2003). Across disciplines and voc ations, it has been used in training program development, curriculum, and syllabus design (DeCotiis & Morano, 1977; Doron & Marco, 1999; Fine & Cronshaw, 1999). The method has been used in counseling research to clarify tasks, assess the need for specialized training, and to inform the structure of the National Counselor Examinati on (Fitzgerald & Osipow, 1986; Loesch & Vacc, 1993; Vacc, 1989). A description of the method, rationale for use, and application in this study are furthe r explored in Chapters 2 and 3. Definition of Terms Competencies Competencies are defined as knowledge, sk ill, abilities, and related performance guidelines (Engels, 2004; Paulson, 2001). Counselor Education The CACREP (2001) defines counselor edu cation as “a process that prepares counselors in both didactic and clinical asp ects of counseling. Doctoral programs also prepare counselors to serve as counselor ed ucators.” Dr. Larry Loesch offered a similar definition; counselor education is the e ducation and/or professional preparation, knowledge attainment, and skill development of individuals who intend to assume the professional identity of a counselor, as de fined by the American Counseling Association (ACA), the National Board of Certifie d Counselors (NBCC), the Association for

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9 Counselor Education and Supervision (A CES), and other relevant professional associations” (Loesch, 2 004, personal correspondence). Counselor Educator A literature review revealed no formal definition of “Counselor Educator.” The CACREP Standards (2001) do not provide a definition in their glossary. Associate Director of CACREP, Jenny Gunderman, conf irmed there is no formal definition of counselor educator in the 2001 standards. She offered the following criteria based on her experience with the CACREP Board: The person should have a terminal degree in counselor education and identify with the field of counseling. If the terminal degree is not in counselor education, th e person must have a track record of activity in the fi eld of counseling. This would mean a history of publication, presentations, and leadership activity in ACA, its divisions and branches. Longstanding licensure and/or certi fication is another way of s howing professional identity to counseling (Gunderman, 2004). Inferences can be drawn from the CACRE P 2001 Standards, pa rticularly Section IV (Faculty and Staff), that can assist in formulating a definition. Based on Section IVA, a Counselor Educator is someone who meets the following criteria: Primary academic appointment is to th e unit in counselor education (IV.A.2) Possesses an earned doctoral degree in c ounselor education, preferably from a CACREP accredited program (IVA) Has relevant preparation and experience in the assigned area of teaching (IVA4) Identifies with the counseling profession through memberships and involvement in appropriate professional organi zations and appropriate cer tifications and/or licenses pertinent to the profession (IVA5) Has the authority to determine program curricula within the structure of the institution’s policy (IVA6).

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10 The standards offer guidance in defining a ffiliate and adjunct counselor education faculty. Criteria are similar to the above, while including subtle differences. For example, they specify that affiliate or adjunct faculty must hold graduate degrees, but do not require an earned doctorate. Otherwise, they are similar in requiring relevant preparation and experience in the assigned area of teach ing; professional identification; and an understanding of the mission, goals, and program curriculum (Section IV.C.1-4). For the purposes of my study, counselor educator is defined as someone who Has partor full-time academic appointment within a counselor education department in a CACREP-accredited program Possesses an earned graduate degree (p referably a doctorate) in counselor education or a related counseling degree Maintains identification with the counseling profession through membership and involvement in professional organiza tion, certifications and/or licenses appropriate to the profession Has relevant preparation and/or experien ce in the duties assigned (i.e., teaching, research, service, supervision, consultation, etc) Participates in ongoing program and cu rriculum evaluation and development ontributes to the ongoi ng scholarly conversations within the counseling profession. Work Behavior According to the Equal Employment O pportunity Coordinating Council’s Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (EEOCC, 2002), a work behavior is “an activity performed to achieve the objectives of the j ob. Work behaviors involve

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11 observable (physical) components and unobser vable (mental) components. A work behavior consists of the perfor mance of one or more tasks.” Work Behavior Analysis In their work behavior-analysis of professional counselors, Loesch and Vacc (1993, p. 4) defined work-behavior analysis (a lso called work-oriente d job analysis) as “a systematic examination of the nature and/or elements of a relatively broadly defined (employment) ‘position,’ ‘occupation,’ or ‘job’”. Organization of the Study The following chapters introduce the reader to the relevant contexts, theoretical frameworks, and details of the study. Chapter 2 reviews the relevant literature, theoretical frameworks, research questions, and th e study method. Chapter 3 describes the instrument-development process, provides an outline of the inst rument, describes the sample and procedure, identifies hypothese s, and discusses data-analysis methods. Results are presented in Chapter 4. Chapte r 5 links these findings to the ongoing conversation of preparing future counselor ed ucators, discussing limitations of the study, and presenting implications for fu rther research and application.

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12 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The purpose of my study was to identify critical work behaviors common to counselor educators. It is situated in a broader contex t relevant to preparing the professoriate within higher-edu cation settings. This chapter gives an overview of faculty preparation in higher educati on and counselor education. It identifies current trends, problems, and needs. Using socialization theory and competency-based conceptual frameworks, problems and needs are linked with potential interventions; yielding a framework for counselor-educator preparation base d on work behaviors. The workbehavior analysis is introduced as a foundational step toward linking academic preparation more seamlessly with faculty role expectations. The Professoriate: An Overview In the 2001-2002 academic year, 413 universities in the United States conferred 39,955 doctoral degrees. The average doctoral stude nt was a white male and a citizen of the United States. Of the 62.4% of graduate s with planned employment after graduation, 36.3% sought employment in educational inst itutions, which included 2-year, 4-year, and foreign colleges and universities, medical schools, and elementary and secondary schools. Of the 17,984 graduates with employ ment commitments after graduation, 39.6% identified teaching as their primary activity, and 19.8% identified teaching as their secondary activity (Hoffer et al., 2003). The same summary report provided a br eakdown of counselor education versus counseling and guidance doctora l recipients. The average co unselor education doctoral

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13 graduate was a white female and a U.S. citizen. In the 2001-2002 academic year, 256 counselor education doctorates were awarded (Hoffer et al., 2003). Their report provided no information on the career direction of counselor education doctoral graduates. Based on Hoffer’s survey of doctoral recipi ents, it appears that between 35 and 60% of doctoral graduates pursue some form of faculty work, whether it is their primary or secondary activity. Trends w ithin higher education indicate that the academy is in the midst of significant employment transiti on (Kezar, 2000; Magner, 1999; Mcguire & Price, 1989). There is a simultaneous increase in the number of hi gher education faculty and wide-scale retirements of a faculty cohort group hired in the 1960s and 1970s. Retirements and increased enrollments are two major factors influencing the projected increase of 36% or more in empl oyment of college and university faculty through 2012 (Bureau of Labor St atistics, 2004). “. . [A] si gnificant number of openings also is expected to arise due to the need to replace the large numbers of postsecondary teachers who are likely to retire over the ne xt decade. Many postsecondary teachers were hired in the late 1960s and 1970s to teach th e baby boomers, and they are expected to retire in growing numbers in the years ahead” (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2004) Comparisons between the 1990 and 2000 census identified a 22.4% increase in the number of postsecondary teachers (fro m 921,428 in 1990; to 1,127,597 in 2000) (Bureau, Date Unknown). Meanwhile, many faculty members are aging and nearing retirement. In a survey of 33,785 faculty members in 378 coll eges and universities, approximately 33% were over 55 years old. The proportion of f aculty under 45 years old has decreased from 41 to 34% (Magner, 1999).

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14 The counselor education disc ipline is experiencing sim ilar employment trends. The number of counselors, social workers, and community social service specialists rose 43% between 1990 and 2000 (Bureau, Date Unknown). This increase demonstrates a consistent need for counselor educators to respond to the demand for clinicians. The counselor educator populat ion reflects the history of modern higher education and the broader trend of aging in the prof essoriate. The modern counselor education profession grew out of the vocational e ducation movement. Originally focused on training secondary-school educators in gui dance counseling, two key post-World War Two initiatives shifted counselor education to graduate schools. The George-Barden Act of 1946, and the National Defense Education Act of 1958, provided financial support for counselor preparation programs in unive rsities (Sweeney, 2003). The number of counselor education programs rose fr om 175 to 475, between 1958 and 1961 (Sweeney, 2003). Between 1964 and 1967, the number of c ounselor educators grew from 706 to 1,119; while the number of institutions prep aring counselors increased from 327 to 372 (p. 29). In the 10th Edition of Counselor Preparation (Hollis & Dodson, 2000), the authors identified 542 academic departments having a counselor education program. Of the 428 departments that responded to the au thors’ survey, 2,808 counselor educators were identified. A cohort group of counselor educators gra duated during this era, and shortly after this surge. A significant number of them are at (or approaching) retirement age. For example, the University of Nevada at Re no was established after the National Defense Education Act (NDEA). Of the seven-member department, five were hired after the NDEA. Seventy-one percent of the department faculty were approaching retirement in

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15 the late 1980s (Maples, 1989). Using my depa rtment as a second example, three faculty members retired in 2003, and two are expected to retire within the ne xt 2 years with at least one additional faculty member retiring in 5 years. With 12 full-time faculty, this amounts to a turnover of 50% within 5 years. Ten years ago, in MohdZain’s (1995) role analysis of counsel or educators, 55.5% of the 353 respondents surveyed were over age 5 0. At the time of the study, an additional 33.1% were between ages 40 and 49. Adjusti ng for the decade sin ce the study, 88.6% of these respondents would be over age 50. Two programs at the 2004 ACA conference addressed the “retirem ent of a significant number of couns elor educators” (Association, 2004), p. 73) and its impact on the preparati on of the next generation of counselor educators (Alessandria & May, 2004; Bradley, Morris, & Brinson, 2004). An aging counselor-educator population a ppears consistent with the counseling profession. The National Board for Certifie d Counselors (Counselors, 2000) examined the demographics of National Certified C ounselors. Counselors over age 50 comprise 50% of National Certified Counselors. An additional 30% are between ages 40 and 50. Although undergoing a transition with significant numbers of retirements, faculty careers remain a viable professional opti on. Stakeholder expecta tions impacting the higher-education context include quality of teaching, learning outcomes, traditionalsubject expertise and technol ogical fluency, applying knowle dge to social problems, linking university research w ith community economic development, and overall fiscal constraints (Austin, 2002). The job market is growing increasingly competitive; with candidates expected to demonstrate awaren ess of differing emphases, and proficiency with faculty roles of teaching, research, servic e, and citizenship (B rinkley et al., 1999).

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16 The next section explores current methods of preparation, reported problems and needs, and interventions designed to enhance faculty preparation. Preparing the Professoriate – Problems, Needs, and Interventions Purpose and Objectives of Doctoral Education The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching gave this purpose of doctoral education: “to educate and prepare those to whom we can entrust the vigor, quality, and integrity of the field. We call su ch a person [so educated ] a ‘steward of the discipline” (Teaching, 2003). A steward demonstr ates proficiency in three critical areas: generation of new knowledge; conservation of the history and foundational development of the profession; and transformation of this knowledge through teaching, scholarship, practice, and service (Teaching, 2003). Mo re discipline-specific, the mission and objectives of doctoral degree programs in couns elor education are “to prepare students to work as counselor educators, supervisors, and advanced practitioners in academic and clinical settings . [P]rogram objectives address the professional leadership roles of counselor education, supervision, advan ced counseling practice, and research competencies of doctoral graduates” (CAC REP, 2001). Both the Carnegie Foundation and the accreditation standard s of the Council for the Accr editation of Counseling and Related Education Programs (CACREP) identi fied academic careers and their related activities (i.e., counselor educator, teaching, sc holarship, service, etc. ) as an appropriate professional context for doctoral graduates. Key Problems and Needs Six themes emerged from the literature re lated to problems with doctoral education and faculty preparation. First, graduate studen ts receive insufficient socialization into the academic profession (Austin, 2002; J. Gaff, Pruitt-Logan, & Weibl, 2000; J. G. Gaff,

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17 2002; C. Golde & T. Dore, 2001). Second, student s lack awareness of the multiple roles expected of a faculty member (Adams, 2002; Austin, 2002; C. M. Golde & T. M. Dore, 2001; Magnuson, 2002; Nerad & Cerney, 1999; Smith & Pedersen-Gallegos, 2001; Sorcinelli, 1992; National Association of Graduate and Professional Students, 2001). Third, while students may gain experience in some roles, the preparation may be inadequate (Adams, 2002; Austin, 2002; J. G. Gaff, 2002; C. Golde & T. Dore, 2001; Magnuson, 2002; Magnuson, Norem, HaberstrohBurke, Zirkle, & Henderson, 2001; Nerad & Cerney, 1999; Seidel, Benassi, & Ri chards, 1999; Sorcinelli, 1992; National Asssociation of Graduate and Professi onal Students, 2001; Zimpfer, Cox, West, Bubenzer, & Brooks, 1997). Related to the previ ous two problems, the fourth concern is a lack of structured faculty preparation programs (Austin, 2002 ; J. G. Gaff, 2002). Fifth, doctoral graduates experience a mismatch be tween their career expectations and the realities of the job market (Adams, 2002; Aust in, 2002; Boice, 1992; J. G. Gaff, 2002; C. Golde & T. Dore, 2001; Henderson, Clarke, & Reynolds, 1996; Henderson, Clarke, & Woods, 1998; Hollis & Dodson, 2000; Magnuson et al., 2001; Maples, 1989; Maples, Altekruse, & Testa, 1993; Maples & M acari, 1998; Olsen, 1993; Olsen & Crawford, 1998; Rice, 1996; Sanderson & Dugoni, 1999; Smith & Pedersen-Gallegos, 2001; Sorcinelli, 1992; Tierney, 1997; Tierney & Bensimon, 1996; Whitt, 1991; Zimpfer, 1993, 1996). Finally, there remains a need for further research and empirical evidence about the doctoral experience (Gaff, 2002) To what degree are these concerns an issue within counsel or education? The 2000 National Doctoral Program Survey (NAGPS, 2001) was the only study I located in which counselor-education doctora l students evaluated their pr ograms. Participants (n=97

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18 counselor education doctoral students or graduates) we re self-selected, and only 9 doctoral counselor-education pr ograms were represented. Th us, the results may not be representative of th e experiences of all counselor-education docto ral students or all counselor-education programs. Yet, the results are worth noting. The web-based survey included 10 sectio ns: (1) Information for prospective students, (2) Preparation for a broad range of careers, (3) Teaching and TA preparation, (4) Professional development, (5) Career gui dance & placement services, (6) Controlling time to degree, (7) Mentoring, (8) Program climate, (9) Overall satisfaction, and (10) Background information. Likert-scale item s assessing the degree of agreement with statements relevant to the section comprise d the first nine secti ons. The tenth section asked for participant background information. Items were based on best practices in graduate education (identif ied by the Association of American Universities; the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundati on; the Modern Language Association; and the National Research Council’s Committ ee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy). Points were assigned to each rank along the Likert-scale; results were calculated; and a letter grade was assi gned to each section. The next sections and items were releva nt to my study. Under Preparation for a Broad Range of Careers, “My program doe s a good job of preparing students for academic careers” received a B+ rating, with 90% of respondents (87 of 96) agreeing or strongly agreeing with that statement. Teaching and TA Preparation got a C rating. Four items were included in this section. First, respondents were asked about TA preparation and training before entering the classroom. Respondents gave prepara tion and training a C rating. Only 32% of

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19 respondents agreed or strongly agreed they were appropriately prepared and trained before entering the classroom. The second ite m asked about appropriate supervision to help teaching assistants improve their teachi ng skills. The item received a C+ rating, with 41% of respondents agreeing or strongly agreei ng with that statement. The third item about considering doctoral st udent needs and interests in determining which courses students teach. Respondents gave a C+ rating, with 50% agre eing or strongly agreeing with that practice. Of the respondents, 43% ag reed or strongly agr eed with the final item in the section asking whether the teaching e xperience available thr ough their programs is adequate preparation for an academic/teac hing career. This item got a C rating. Other selected items related to aspects of faculty careers or the academic job search. Respondents gave a C rating to the st atement about training in professional skills such as public speaking, grant writing, and working in teams. Effective career guidance and planning services for careers in academia got a Brating. For positions in academia, respondents got a Brating for effective pla cement assistance and job-search support. Respondents positively rated (B+) their comfort in talking to their advisors about a career in academia. The survey’s direct link to promising practi ces in graduate edu cation is a strength. The items and responses provide feedback on specific strategies designed to enhance doctoral education. These results offer a gl impse, although limited, into some of the strengths and challenges of doctoral educati on with regard to preparation for academic careers. Prior Interventions Four national initiatives addressing faculty preparation provide insight into the needs and strategies of intervention with doctoral education. This section provides an

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20 overview of each initiative, key elements, majo r research and programs, and relates them to this study and the research design. The four national initiati ves are (1) Preparing Future Faculty, (2) Re-envisioning the Ph.D ., (3) The Responsive Ph.D., and (4) and The Carnegie Initiative on the Doctorate. Preparing Future Faculty (PFF) ( http://www.preparing-faculty.org ) is an ongoing collaboration, now including more than 295 partner institutions representing higher education institutions ranging from community colleges to research-extensive doctoral granting universities. The ini tiative is sponsored by the Counc il of Graduate Schools, the Association of American Colle ges and Universities and with financial support from the National Science Foundation, the Pew Charitable Trusts, and the Atlantic Philanthropies. The purpose is to prepare doctoral students fo r the spectrum of roles and responsibilities fulfilled by faculty in diverse institutional settin gs. Three key elements form the structure of a PFF program. First, there is a cluster of institutions or departments, anchored by a doctoral granting university or department. Pa rtner institutions may include community colleges, liberal arts colleges, master’s gr anting colleges or universities. Second, within the cluster framework, doctoral students particip ate in experiences typi cal of the spectrum of work behaviors common to faculty member s in these diverse se ttings. Students are able to see how different settings valu e shifting emphases among the multiple faculty roles (e.g., teaching, service, and research). Third, students work with multiple mentors and receive direct feedback on their performance (Faculty, 2003). Within such programs, students are able to learn about diverse acad emic settings, gain experience that can inform their career decision making process, and develop awareness and competency with a broader range of faculty work behavior s and responsibilities. The current phase of

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21 the PFF program emphasizes multidisciplin ary collaboration and partnering with disciplinary societies and pr ofessional associations. For example, PFF is focusing attention on preparing faculty in the social sc iences. Coordinators have partnered with the American Psychological Association that has identified academic departments in which to address preparation of fu ture psychology professors. The Preparing Future Faculty programs re lated to this study along two dimensions. First, it addresses the limitation of doctoral students being prepared for academic positions in research-intensive and research-extensive institutions. Rather, it broadens a student’s experience by encour aging participation in the daily routines and work behaviors of faculty in diverse settings. W ithin this dimension is the link with work behaviors common to counselor educators, whet her they are located in clinician-focused master’s programs or advanced clinician and research-focused doctoral programs. A second dimension is the close partnership with disciplinary and profe ssional associations. Addressing doctoral education a nd preparing future counselor educators is a valuable issues for the American Counseling Associat ion (ACA), the Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Education Progr ams (CACREP), and related divisions of ACA. Faculty preparation is a multidisciplinary concern, yet the experience of faculty members varies depending on the discipline. This study addressed faculty work expectations from the unique perspective of counselor educators. While the behaviors are likely similar to other disciplines, they may be carried out in subtly different ways. For example, supervision may be different for a counselor educator than for an engineering educator.

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22 Re-envisioning the Ph.D. was a project funded by the Pew Charitable Trusts to answer the foundational question, how can we re -envision the Ph.D. to meet the needs of the society of the 21st Century (Re-envisioning the P h.D.., 2002). The project had four main objectives. In the first two objectiv es, they sought to pull together the multidisciplinary efforts to research and address concerns with doctoral education, analyzing major themes and patterns among the interventions, pr ogrammatic changes, and concerns of major stakeholders of doc toral education. Once this information was gathered and key stakeholders were iden tified, the Re-envision ing staff convened a national conversation in 2000 about the docto ral education process, including such stakeholders as students, facu lty, industry, K-12 educators, le gislators, representatives of the spectrum of higher educat ion settings, accrediting agencies and disciplinary agencies. The goal of the gathering was to identify frameworks and strategies for enhancing doctoral education. Their fourth objective was to provide an ongoing clearinghouse for resources on doctoral research and emerging best practices. Several concerns of major stakeholders were relevant to this study (Nyquist & Woodford, 2000). Members of research-focus ed doctoral instituti ons identified the conflict between the need for graduate te aching assistants to meet the demand for undergraduate teaching and the need for docto ral student development as educators. Often situations arise where doctoral students end up meeting the university, yet lacking a structured environment in which solid groundi ng in pedagogy and teaching is provided (Nyquist & Woodford, 2000). Members of maste r’s, liberal arts, and community colleges raised concerns that doctoral graduates are in sufficiently prepared for positions in their institutions. They lack awareness of diffe rences in institutional missions, shared

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23 governance responsibilities, tenur e and promotion processes, a nd expectations for faculty performance, such as service and outreac h. Graduates also lack the foundation in pedagogy needed to effectively teach stude nts and design curricula based on multiple learning styles (Nyquist & W oodford, 2000) Doctoral studen ts present at the national meeting were aware of their lack of sufficien t preparation. They identified the need for better understanding of the workings of faculty life, including work behavior expectations and life-work balance strategies (Nyquist & Woodford, 2000). Exposure to “the wide range of faculty members’ roles and responsib ilities – committee work, service, teaching across disciplinary lines, faculty governance and institutional policies – often remains very much unaddressed in traditional TA and RA experiences” (Nyquist & Woodford, 2000). Finally, disciplinary societies advocat ed for their role in attending to the disciplinary differences in faculty experi ences. They supported using disciplinary communication structures, such as conferences web pages, and newsletters as means of fostering further conversati ons about doctoral education. This study addressed the need for info rmation about faculty roles and work behaviors. Results could provi de doctoral students with a clearer picture of faculty expectations and demands. Again, addressi ng this question in a counselor education context recognized disciplinary uniqueness. The Responsive Ph.D. is sponsored by the Woodrow Wilson Foundation. The goal is to diversify both the knowledge base and the population of doctora l graduates in this country. It is a four-pillar model, focusing on new paradigms, new practices, new people, and new partnerships. Some of the key elemen ts are relevant to this study. They support professional development and pe dagogical training that better prepares doctoral students

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24 for the multiple roles faculty members fulfill. Much like the concerns expressed by other initiatives, project members recognized graduate students “get little help in learning to be educa tions – not only learning effective classroom teaching, but putting together course cu rriculum, thinking strategically about introducing a discipline or making connections among disciplines, or teaching to varied audiences. In many disciplines, docto ral students teach what the faculty does not want to teach” (The Responsive Ph.D., 2004) This initiative supported identifying co re competencies for doctoral students. Results of the present study could assist in developing core competencies for counselor educators, clarifying expecta tions and helping to shape pr eparation programs specific to the counselor education discipline. The Carnegie Initiative on the Doctorate is unique for its focus on academic departments’ attempts to structure doctoral programs. This initiative partners with departments and disciplinary societies. Curre ntly, they are working with in chemistry, educational psychology and curriculum and in struction within colleges of education, English, history, mathematics, and neuros cience. During a conf erence in 2003, faculty and students identified concerns and strategies. Consistent wi th the literature and with other initiatives, students reported inadequate preparation for faculty roles other than research (Golde & Bueschel, 2003). One strategy relevant to this st udy is a socialization process for first-year doctoral students, c onceptualized as “pedagogy of induction” (p. 33). Socialization and Competency-Based Frameworks as Interventions As the key problems and prior interventi ons described, doctoral students lack concrete information about the spectrum of faculty roles and work behaviors. Additionally, experience s within their programs do not adequately prepare them for fulfilling those roles. This section describe s how socialization and competency-based

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25 frameworks can inform intervening with thes e concerns. Finally, to address this gap in knowledge within counselor edu cation, the chapter concludes with an introduction to the work behavior analysis method. Socialization is the process in which an individual is introdu ced to the knowledge, skills, and values required for successful entr y into a discipline or specific career (Weidman, Twale, & Stein, 2001). For graduate students, this is a developmental process leading towards commitment to a particular role (e.g., faculty memb er) that involves specific stages. Stages of graduate student socialization include anticipatory, formal, informal, and personal (Weidman et al., 2001). The anticipatory stag e is the period during which an individual learns of the behavioral, attitudinal, and cogniti ve expectations of a particular role (Weidman et al., 2001). A gr aduate student is in the anticipatory stage during their search for an appropriate graduate program. They have developed expectations about careers based on popular media sources and personal knowledge of others who have held the role. For example, an individual pursuing a faculty career may have been developed perceptions of an academic career based on undergraduate faculty members, family who are faculty, or movies a nd literature. It is important that at this stage, the information about work behavior s is accurate and cl osely relates to the expectations of those actua lly working in the field. Students in the formal stage have entere d into their academic programs and are determining the goodness of fit (Weidman et al., 2001). From instructors and more advanced student colleagues and through didac tic and experiential oppor tunities, students are learning disciplinary knowle dge and the business of how work gets done. Role rehearsal is a key element in this stage. Ta sk issues are critical, and preparation is

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26 dependent on the spectrum of activities in which students participate, the clarity of standards and expectations, a nd sufficient time for role-pla ying opportunities (Weidman et al., 2001). Mentoring is critical to st udents in the informal stage. As they begin to try out behaviors and meet expectations of professional roles, they need direct feedback and support. Support may come from faculty or st udent colleagues. In previous stages, they may have been more comfortable imitating ot hers while developing competence in work behaviors common to a role. In this stage, they develop their own style for carrying out role behaviors (Weidman et al., 2001). In the personal stage, students interna lize a professional identity. In counselor education, this stage may be experienced during clinical and counselor education internships, during which time students fulfill roles and behaviors common to clinicians and faculty. As with each stage, observation, par ticipation, and role taki ng are critical to socialization (Weidman et al., 2001) Several aspects of these stag es are relevant to the curre nt study. Using the faculty role as an example, students in the anticip atory stage are introduced to behaviors and professional expectations held by a faculty member. Students gain awareness of both concrete and affective dimensions of faculty li fe. Students at this stag e are able to clarify their previously held expectations about faculty member s by learning what they need to know and be able to do as counselor e ducators (Weidman et al., 2001). Accurate behavioral information is very important. Al so, related to concerns identified in the literature, often students lack awareness of the full spectrum of faculty roles and work behaviors (Austin, 2002; J. Gaff et al., 2000; C. Golde & T. Dore, 2001). They may be

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27 more familiar of the activities involved in research, but do not know they will be expected to sit on committees, perform outreach and service, and secure external funding. The next section will demonstrate how this research design will address specific issues about work behaviors performe d by counselor educators in di verse educational settings. Socialization provides a framework fo r conceptualizing doctoral education, particularly faculty preparation, so that students are introduced to the knowledge requirements, the behavioral expectations, and the culture of faculty careers. In such a framework, the reality of faculty life with in diverse settings informs and seamlessly infuses program design, clinical and professional experienti al opportunities, mentorship and professional development. The goal is fo r doctoral graduates pursuing an academic career to be as prepared as possible, and as competitive as possible, to secure their first counselor educator positions. If socialization provides a framework for conceptualizing doctoral education, competency-based education theory provi des a structure for designing such an educational experience. Competency-based ed ucation (CBE) models had their origins in K-12 education (Houston & Howsam, 1972; Spady, 1978). More recently, it has been utilized in designing preparation progra ms for educators (Hyland, 1993; Reynolds & Salters, 1995; Whitty & Willmott, 1991). Grounded in providing academic and experiential opportunities to gain demonstrable proficiencies in competencies related to professional duties, benefits of CBE incl ude demystifying professional expectations, providing students with clear goals of ach ievement and evidence of progress, and providing employers with a cl earer understanding of the ab ilities of job applicants (Whitty & Willmott, 1991).

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28 Competencies are defined as knowledge, sk ill, abilities and re lated performance guidelines (Engels, 2004; Pauls on, 2001). Competencies must be meaningful and relevant to the professional context; competency stat ements must be derived from occupational analysis of roles within the related professi on; and competency statements must include knowledge and understanding required for effec tive performance in employment (Whitty & Willmott, 1991). The latest edition of The Professional Counselor: Portfolio, Competencies, Performance Guidelines, and Assessment demonstrated the role competencies play in counselor education (Engels, 2004). The au thors supported using a competency-based approach in program design and student ev aluation as a means of holding students and programs accountable for developing skills required of counselors and counselor educators. The counselor education and s upervision competencies and performance guidelines compliment an analysis of work behaviors common to counselor educators. While the competencies and guidelines all ude to many of the behaviors of faculty members (e.g., counselor, teacher, scholarsh ip, etc.), the relative importance and frequency of engaging in these behaviors depending on academic setting is unclear. Competency-based education can infl uence program design, accreditation selfstudies, course design, student evaluation and self-assessments (Engels, 2004; Mager, 1997; Whitty & Willmott, 1991). Competencies can form the framework for instructional objectives within curriculum design (Mag er, 1997). In counselor education, a competency-based approach was used in se lecting faculty members (Weitz, Anchor, & Percy, 1976)

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29 While vocational education, community colle ges, and professional education have recognized the value of linking curriculum desi gn with work-place abilities, the doctoral experience has not utilized such a model. Yet, the concerns raised in the literature build a powerful argument towards conceptualizing th e doctoral experience from this framework. Work-Behavior Analysis: A Founda tional Step toward Change The socialization process in cludes introducing doctoral students to the specific behavioral expectations held by faculty members – what they need to know and be able to do to fulfill the professiona l requirements of a counselor educator. A work behavioral analysis is tool to identify that informa tion. It provides informa tion about not only the broad role domains but also the specific work behaviors related to those domains. The work behavior analysis (a.k.a. job analysis or occupational analysis ) is often used in identify work behaviors, foundational to co mpetency-based education models (Browning, Bugbee, & Mullins, 1996). In their work behavior analysis of prof essional counselors, Loesch and Vacc (1993) defined a work behavior analysis (also referre d to as a work-oriented job analysis) as “a systematic examination of the nature and/or elements of a relatively broadly defined (employment) ‘position,’ ‘occupation,’ or ‘j ob’” (p. 4). The method is employed when a professional identity has not been clearly defi ned. Such analyses are also utilized for training purposes (Council, 2002). Occupational and work behavior analyses have been conducted in counseling and related professional contexts. An occupational analysis of counseling psychologists was performed in order to determine the actual wo rk behaviors engaged in by members of that profession (Fitzgerald & Osipow, 1986). The method used by Fitzgerald and Osipow informed a later study of counselors (Loesch & Vacc, 1993). In the design, a list of work

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30 behaviors was generated, based on a review of the literature, profe ssional materials, and related job analyses (Loesch & Vacc, 1993) Following a review by subject matter experts, the list informed th e development of a survey in strument in which respondents were asked to rate perceptions of importance and the frequency in which they engaged in the work behaviors. Work analyses conducted for counseling and related disciplines have informed this study, and the present study seeks to contribut e to the developing database of work behaviors. The most recent study was a role analysis conducted with counselor educators (MohdZain, 1995). Per MohdZain’s recommendati on, an analysis of job announcements was performed to ensure congruence between the instrument and work expectations. MohdZain’s study identified the major domains comprising the counselor educator role (e.g., supervision, teaching and advising, counsel ing and consultation, etc.). However the specific work behaviors encompassing those domains was not investigated. Fitzgerald and Osipow and Loesch and Vacc’s studies were conducted for related but distinct purposes. Their goals were not to identify work behaviors of counselor educators. While they were useful in developi ng the items for this study’s inst rument, they did not answer this study’s research questions. A review of the relevant research re vealed concerns fa lling under the broad umbrella of insufficient socialization of docto ral students pursuing facu lty careers. If it is assumed that the doctorate program is an appropriate time to introduce students to the behavioral, attitudinal, and performance expe ctations of faculty members, then current concerns identify a need to clarify role and behavioral expectations of faculty, increase awareness of and exposure to opportunities to participate in diverse behaviors common to

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31 faculty, and ultimately better prepare student s to enter their fi rst academic position. Approaching these concerns using a comp etency-based education framework, an appropriate first step was an analysis of wo rk behaviors common to counselor educators. While work behavior and occ upational analyses have b een conducted with counselors and counseling psychologists, and a role analysis was conducted with counselor educators; there was a gap in the research related to counsel or educator work behaviors. As a first step towards attending to preparati on of future faculty, this study used a work behavior analysis method to identify work behaviors common to counselor educators. The next chapter will describe the me thod, including sampling and instrument development.

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32 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Sampling Procedures Counselor education faculty members provide, oversee, and facilita te curricular and clinical experiences (Hollis & Dodson, 2000). The doctorate is the common highest academic degree earned by university faculty. They may hold additional credentials, such as clinical licensure and nati onal certification, an d may be affiliated with professional counseling associations, such as the Amer ican Counseling Association (ACA) and the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (CACREP) (Hollis & Dodson, 2000). According to the Occupational Outlook Handbook (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2004), academic positions will continue to increase. However, part-time and non-tenure track opportunities will increase faster than traditional full-time tenure-track positions. Neither Hollis and Dodson nor the Occupational Outlook Handbook provides demographic breakdowns of current counsel or educators by gender, age, race, or ethnicity. My study gathered demographic in formation from participants to better describe current counselor educators. Common tasks and functions include teach ing large and small undergraduate and graduate classes, supervising students, preparing lectures, se curing outside funding, administering grants, conducti ng research, analyzing data writing for publication, presenting at professional conferences, advi sing and mentoring stude nts, and supervising student research and student teaching. Increa singly, faculty members are expected to

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33 incorporate technology within each aspect of their jobs, including demonstrated competency with presentation software, th e Internet, distance learning technology, and course management applications. In additi on to work centered on teaching and research, faculty members participate in department and university service and governance. Also, they are involved in community, state, a nd national service as well as service to professional organizations. Clinical work co mpliments more traditional academic work for counselor educators. This may include individual and group supervision, outside clinical practice, and managing clinics associated with academic departments. Thus, the counselor educator population assume diverse responsibilities and balance numerous expectations within vari ed professional settings, ranging from clinician-focused entry-level programs to research extensive universities emphasizing research, publication, service, and teaching. Population The counselor educator population was obtained from the 2004 Directory of CACREP Accredited Programs, updated May 2003 (CACREP, 2003). The directory includes information on the name of the academ ic unit, institution name, address, web site, program liaison, telephone number, and em ail address. The directory contained 182 academic units housed within 180 institutions. Each academic unit included at least an email address of the program coordinato r, and most included a program website, indicating the degree to which technology and Internet use have become a mainstream medium of communication. For this study, ever y individual was c ontacted who met the following criteria: (1) identified as a facu lty member on a department website of a CACREP-accredited program and (2) has an email address.

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34 An Internet search of each academic unit’s web site was conducted. Faculty members were identified, and e-mail addresse s was copied and past ed into a “Counselor Educator Population” list within SurveyM onkey.com. No faculty members’ names were maintained in this study. In addition to surveys being sent to indi vidual email addresses, an email inviting participation was sent to the CESNET List serv, the listserv for counselor educators. Based on the comprehensive method used to id entify potential particip ants, it is assumed the sample invited to particip ate was representative of c ounselor educators working in CACREP-accredited programs. Instrument Development The Counselor Educator Work Behavior In strument developed for this study was based on a review of relevant l iterature, previous work behavi or analyses, and an analysis of current assistant prof essor job announcements. MohdZain (1995) conducted a role anal ysis of the counselor education professoriate. In his role analysis survey, MohdZain organized his items by six functional domains: teaching and advising, supervision, counseling and consultation, administration, scholarship, and service. These roles were ba sed on a review of literature pertaining to general work expectations of higher education faculty (Bow en & Schuster, 1986; Labor, 1991; Loesch & Vacc, 1993; Mintz, 1992). Lo esch and Vacc (1993) conducted a work behavior analysis of professi onal counselors. The results were a prioritized list of work behaviors organized into five clusters: fundamental counse ling practices, counseling for career development, counseling groups, couns eling families, and professional practice. This study did not differentiate counseli ng work behaviors conducted by counselor educators. However, a selection of work be haviors could be applicable to counselor

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35 educators as they related to the functi onal domains identified by MohdZain (i.e., supervise counselor train ees, conduct community outreach, provide consultation services). Using MohdZain’s domains as a foundationa l structure, an analysis was conducted on assistant professor counselor education pos itions posted in January 2004. To identify the duties, responsibilities, and job expecta tions of counselor educators, a search of current job postings was conducted using thr ee Internet-based job databases advertising either or both counselor education and acad emic jobs. On January 13, 2004, a search for posted faculty positions was conduc ted on the ACA Career Center (http://www.counseling.org/site /PageServer?pagename=career), the Chronicle of Higher Education (http://chronicle.com), and on HigherEdJobs.com (http://www.higheredjobs.com). The purpose of the search was to identify work behaviors of academic positions for which new counselor education doctoral gra duates would be competitive. Thus, criteria for selection included counselor education and related positions at the Assistant Professor rank. The ACA Career Center had 13 postings meeting the search criteria, with posting dates ranging from December 18, 2003, to January 12, 2004. The Chronicle of Higher Education listed a total of 5 postings, w ith posting dates ranging from December 17, 2003, to January 2, 2004. HigherEdJobs.com iden tified 46 postings meeting the search criteria, with posting dates ranging fr om September 10, 2003, to January 12, 2004. A total of 64 postings were identified. These positions were diverse in geographic location and institutional structure. Progr ams included masters-only, clinician-focused training programs as well as research-int ensive doctoral granting programs. Thus,

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36 institutions were represented that varied in the values placed on research, teaching, and service. Many programs were CACREP-accredited ; others were either not accredited or currently seeking CACREP accreditation. A fewer number were accredited by related organizations, including the American Associ ation of Marriage and Family Therapists (AAMFT) and the Council on Rehabilitation Ed ucation (CORE). Virt ually all positions advertised a Fall 2004 start date. Of note, in late 2003, the Chronicle of Higher Education removed “Counselor Education” as a unique category, integrat ing these positions within the “Teacher Education” category. Searches within the Chronicle were conducted in the following categories: teacher education, human developm ent/family sciences, other education, other social/behavioral sciences, and psychol ogy. HigherEdJobs.com maintains “Counselor Education” as a unique search category, and it is assumed that positions advertised by the American Counseling Association’s Career Cent er are relevant to counselor education. Because the Chronicle may have counselor education positions listed that were not identified, this search was not exhaustive. However, given the diversity of positions identified, it is assumed they are represen tative of the scope of counselor education positions currently available within the United States for which new counselor education doctoral graduates might apply. Each position was given a Position Number for reference, ranging from 01 to 64. The positions were reviewed, and a table wa s generated with rows representing each position and columns containing the following in formation: Position No., Track, Type of Program, Accreditation, Geogr aphic Region, Duties, Required Qualifications, and Preferred Qualifications. This data was s ought within each positi on. If the information

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37 was not available within the posting, “Not Available” was placed in the corresponding cell. A list of 281 duties was isolated a nd organized according to the six functional domains. Duplicates and similar items were eliminated. The resulting list, along with MohdZain’s domains, and work behaviors id entified by Loesch & Vacc were used to develop the Counselor Educator Work Behavior Instrument. Instrument The Counselor Educator Work Behavior Instrument consisted of a cover page detailing the informed consent process and two sections with a total of 32 items: Section I – Importance and Frequency of Work Be haviors and Section II – Demographic Information. Refer to Appendix A for a Micr osoft Word-formatted ve rsion of the online survey, Counselor Educator Work Behavior Instrument. In Section I (Items 1 though 6), work beha viors were organized according to six functional domains: (1) Admini stration, (2) Scholarship, (3) Se rvice, (4) Supervision, (5) Teaching and Advising, and (6) Your Practi ce of Counseling & Consultation. Seventy three (73) work behaviors were examined: Ad ministration (15), Scholarship (16), Service (8), Supervision (7), Teaching and Advisi ng (15), and Your Practice of Counseling & Consultation (12). For each work behavior, pa rticipants were asked to rate the importance and the frequency with which they engage in the work behavior. Par ticipants were asked to consider importance of work behaviors pe rformed within an average academic term. Importance of work behaviors was ranked al ong a 6-point Likert scale: Not performed, Not important, Somewhat important, Impor tant, Very important, and Extremely important. Participants were asked to consid er frequency as the number of hours a week a work behavior is performed within an av erage academic term. Frequency was ranked along a 6-point Likert scale: Not performed, <1 hour, 1-2 hours, 25 hours, 5-8 hours, 8+

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38 hours. The importance and frequency Likert scales appeared as radio buttons. The participant clicked th e radio button, and the corresponding scale appears. The participant clicked on the appropriate option. In Section II (Items 7 through 32), particip ants were asked to provide demographic information related to the individual respondent her or his institution and academic unit. Items relevant to the respondent included: ge nder, ethnicity, age, hi ghest degree earned related to current po sition, area(s) of professional sp ecialization, number of years working as a faculty member, academic rank, te nure status, fullor part-time counselor educator status, hours spent on pr ofessional, university -related work activities in a typical week, hours spent on professional, private work activities in a typi cal week, percent of total work time in a typical month spent on al l professional work activ ities, professional affiliation(s), and licensure(s) and certification(s). Items related to the institution and academic unit included: geographic location, Ca rnegie classification, approximate total number of faculty members in academic un it, approximate total number of students in academic unit, degree(s) offered in progr am, program specialization(s), program accreditation(s), general program type, and curriculum delivery mode. The final three items related to a participan t’s opinion about a professiona l credential for counselor educators and whether or not the particip ant wanted a global summary of the study’s findings. Data Collection The Internet-based survey was create d using SurveyMonkey.com LLC services (http://www.surveymonkey.com/home.asp). Account holders with SurveyMonkey.com LLC are able to design surveys, collect respon ses, and analyze results within a secure and confidential environment.

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39 Access is password protected to the following areas: surv ey design, data collected, and participant email list. Access is limited to the researcher, who is the sole account holder. This survey host does not allow sp amming. SurveyMonkey.com LLC states in their privacy policy that data collected are kept private and confidential. SurveyMonkey.com LLC provides the following overview of their security structure and procedures. Servers are kept at Berbee Networks ( www.berbee.com ) and owned and maintained by SurveyMonkey staff. Servers are kept in a locket cage. Entry requires a passcard and biometric recognition. Digital surveillance equipment monitors the servers. Controls are provided for temp erature, humidity, and smoke/fire detection, and professional staff are on the premises on a 24/7 basis. Network security is maintained by: multiple independent connections to Tier 1 Internet access providers; fully redundant OC-48 SONET Rings; uptime monitored every 5 minutes; and firewall restricts access to all ports except 80 (http) and 443 (https). Hard ware security is ma intained through the following procedures: servers have redundant internal power supplie s; data is on RIAD 10, operating system on RAID 1; and servers are mirrored and can failover in less than one hour. Finally, software security is main tained through the following procedures: code in ASP, running on SQL Server 2000 and Window s 2000 Server; latest patches applied to all operating system and application files; SSL encryption of all billing data; data are backed up every hour internally; and data are backed up every night to centralized backup system, with offsite backups in event of catastrophe. The Instrument was created using a Yello w Metal color theme for ease of reading and clear item distinction. A ll questions were optional. A cover page introducing the study provided the following information: re searcher and superv isor introductions;

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40 overview, rationale, and purpose of the study; overview of survey and directions; disclosure of potential risks, be nefits, and description of volunta ry nature of participation; instructions on removing oneself from the st udy; contact information; and an informed consent statement. Section I consisted of matrix-multiple answers per row (rating scale) questions for each work behavior. Work behaviors were organized alphabetically within functional domains. Along each work behavior within each item, participants will click on a radio button for importance and frequency, using th e mouse to select th e appropriate option. The importance and frequency radio buttons re fered to the corresponding Likert scales. The participant could change any re sponse at any point of the survey. Section II consisted of multiple item t ypes, depending on the information sought. SurveyMonkey.com provided options for item types and guided the researcher in selecting the most appropriat e type to generate the information sought. To maintain consistency, when multiple opti ons appeared, all options appe ared in a vertical format. The section began with items focused on indivi dual characteristics (Items 13 through 20). Gender identity was a choice – one answer item. Broadening the traditional dualistic male or female options, a third transgender opti on was included. Ethnicity was a choice – one answer item. Multiracial and international choices were provided to broaden options beyond traditional ethnic categories. The internationa l option was appropriate for a participant who was a citizen of a country other than the United States. Age was an openended/one line item with prompt, requesting the response be given in years. Highest degree earned was a choice – one answer ite m providing options of masters, advanced graduate studies, and doctoral degree in counseling or related fields. Area(s) of

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41 professional specialization was a choice – mu ltiple answers item. Specialization options corresponded to specializations identified by CACREP. An “other” field was provided, so a participant could enter a different answer than th e choices provided. Number of years working as a faculty member was an open-ended – one line item with prompt. Current academic rank was a choice – one an swer item. Options include the traditional academic ranks of assistant, associate, and full professor along with professor emeritus, adjunct and affiliate professor, visiting schol ar, and instructor. Tenure status was a choice – one answer item. The literature reported a sh ift in some instituti ons away from granting tenure towards annual contracts. The options refl ected that shift. Full or part-time status was a choice – one answer item. Two items as ked for hours spent on acti vities in a typical week, in open-ended with prompt format. One item asked for professional, universityrelated work and the second asked for profe ssional, private work. Next, respondents were asked to calculate the approximate percent of total work time in a typical month spent on all professional work activities. Written in an open-ended constant sum format, respondents supply percentages for each domai n referenced in Section I. Professional affiliation(s) and licensure and certificatio n(s) were choice – multiple answer items. Items 21 through 32 sought information on academic unit, program, and institutional characteristics. The two-letter state abbreviation wa s an open-ended – one line with prompt item. Respondents were asked to provide information on the institution’s Carnegie classifi cation, with defining descript ors of each classification. Two items were asked in open-ended one-line with prompt format asking about the size of the faculty and students. Items 25, 26, and 27 were choice – multiple answer items that inquire about the degree(s) offered, pr ogram specialization(s), and program

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42 accreditation(s). Items 28 and 29 were choice – single answer items seeking information on the program type and curriculum delivery mode. Item 30 was a choice – one answer request for the participant’s opinion about whether there should be a professional credential specifically fo r counselor educators. Likert-scale options included: No interest, Minimal interest, Neutral, Moderate intere st, and Strong interest. Items 31 and 32 asked participants if they would like a global summar y of the results. If yes, they were asked to provide their email address. Potential participant email addresses were obtained from a search of websites of programs included in the 2004 CACREP accredit ation directory, last updated in May 2003. Email addresses were copied and pasted into a “Counselor Educator Population” list created in List Management in Su rveyMonkey.com. This list, along with the CESNET counselor educator Li stserv, received an introductory email inviting them to participate. Respondents who declined to par ticipate and requested to be removed from the mailing list received no further contact. Incorrect or undeliverable email addresses were tracked to adjust the total number of participants surveyed. The email subject line read “I nvitation to Participate in a Work Behavior Analysis of Counselor Educators.” Follo wing the salutation, th e body of the email read, “I invite you to participate in a study that will help prepare future generations of counselor educators. This study is in response to previous research identifying concerns surrounding the degree to which graduate pr ograms prepare doctoral students for academic careers. The purpose is to iden tify work behaviors common to counselor educators in diverse academic units and instit utions. If you would lik e to participate in

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43 this study, please click on the hyperlink “I A ccept,” which will link you to the survey.” A link is provided for individuals to click w ho do not want to receive further emails. Doctoral committee members reviewed th e Instrument for consistency, ease of completion, and the time required for co mpletion. Revisions were made based on feedback received. Reviewer respondents took between 10 and 25 minutes to complete the Instrument, with an average of 15 mi nutes required to complete the survey. Research Questions, Hypotheses, and Data Analysis The purpose of this study was to identif y work behaviors common to counselor educators in CACREP-accredited academic units within diverse. Broad demographic questions included: (1) Who ar e counselor educators and (2) What do they do? Also of interest were potential differences in im portance and frequency of engaging in work behaviors depending on academic rank, tenure status, and Carnegie classification. The following research questions and hypothe ses are based on the purpose of this study. Research Questions 1 through 4 centere d on descriptive information and included no hypotheses. Research Questions 5 through 8 are listed with corresponding hypotheses. This section concludes with an overview of the data analysis process that tested hypotheses related to Questions 5 through 8. Da ta were analyzed using the Statistica application. Research Question 1. What are the demographic ch aracteristics of counselor educators working in CACREP-accredited programs? To address this question, descriptive statistics were calculated on th e following relevant it ems: gender identity, ethnicity, age, highest degree earned related to current po sition, area(s) of professional specialization, number of years working as a faculty member, current academic rank, tenure status, fullor part-time counselor ed ucator status, professional affiliation(s), and

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44 licensure(s) and certification(s). Descriptive statistics included: fr equencies and percent of respondents that performed each work. Research Question 2. What are the profiles of CACREP-accredited counselor education programs? To address this question, descriptive statistics were calculated on the following relevant items: two-letter stat e abbreviation, Carnegie classification, total number of faculty members, total number of students, degree(s) offered, program specialization(s), prog ram type, and curriculum delivery mode. Descriptive statistics include: frequencies and percent of responde nts that performed each work behavior. A factor analysis was conducted on the da ta from Section I of the Counselor Educator Work Behavior Invent ory. Tbe reliability of the f actor structure was confirmed with a reliability analysis using Chronbach’s Alpha, Inter-item Correlations, and Item/Total Correlation comparisons. Based on th e results of the reliability tests, Summed Score Scales were created for each of the f actors, which because the Dependent Variables for data analysis for Research Questions 5 through 6. Research Question 3. What are the most important work behaviors performed by counselor educators in CACREP-accredited pr ograms? Most important work behaviors performed were identified as those work be haviors that loaded greater than .40 on the factor analysis. Mean scores, confidence in tervals, and standard deviations were calculated for the items within each of the 12 factors. Research Question 4. What are the most frequen tly engaged work behaviors performed by counselor educators in CACR EP-accredited programs? Using the most important work behaviors as calculated by f actor analysis mentioned in the previous section, mean scores, confidence intervals, a nd standard deviations were calculated for

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45 the parallel survey items asking for the fr equency of engaging in the work behaviors identified within each of the 12 factors. Research Question 5. Is there a significant intera ction between academic rank and Carnegie classification based on perceived importance of work behaviors? Relevant instrument items included: academic rank, Ca rnegie classification, and responses to importance for each work behavior in Item s 1 through 6. Null Hypothesis – With regard to importance of work behaviors, there is no significant intera ction between academic rank and Carnegie classification. Research Question 6. Is there a significant intera ction between academic rank and Carnegie classification based on frequency of engaging in work behaviors? Relevant instrument items included: academic rank, Ca rnegie classification, and responses to frequency for each work behavior in Items 1 through 6. Null Hypothesis – With regard to frequency of work behaviors, there is no si gnificant interaction between academic rank and Carnegie classification. Research Question 7. Is there a significant intera ction between tenure status and Carnegie classification based on perceived importance of work behaviors? Relevant survey items included: tenure status, Carnegie classification, and responses to importance for each work behavior in Items 1 thr ough 6. Null Hypothesis – With regard to importance of work behaviors, there is no si gnificant interaction between tenure status and Carnegie classification. Research Question 8. Is there a significant intera ction between tenure status and Carnegie classification based on frequency of engaging in work behaviors? Relevant survey items included: tenure status, Carnegie classification, and responses to frequency

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46 for each work behavior in Items 1 through 6. Null Hypothesis – With regard to frequency of work behaviors, there is no significant interaction between tenure status and Carnegie classification. Research Questions 3 and 4 were analyzed by calculating the av erage responses for most important and most frequently engaged wo rk behaviors for items within each factor. The factor analysis process is ex plained in the following paragraphs. Data for Research Questions 5 through 8 were analyzed using the following process. Responses to Items 1 through 6 we re reviewed, and missing data cells were substituted using the following assumptions: If a response to Importance or Frequency was 0, then the corresponding response to Frequency or Importance was 0. In other words, if a participant responded to an ite m’s importance or frequency by reporting s/he did not engage in that behavi or, and if s/he left the Impor tance or Frequency item related to that behavior blank, then the mi ssing data point was replaced by a 0. An item analysis was conducted. Items we re dropped if mean responses had an average value of less than 1 or greater than 4 or the standard devi ation was less than 1.0. Based on this criteria, no items were eliminated. A factor analysis was conducted using a Maximum Likelihood F actor Analysis and a Varimax (or Orthogonal) rotation in order to maximize the independence of factors and minimize the likelihood of shared variance be tween factors. Factors were kept with Eigenvalues greater than 1.0. Item s were assigned to factors w ith factor loadings greater than .40. Items with factor loadings greater than .40 on multiple factor s were assigned to the factor in which they loaded the highest or were determined to be more conceptually consistent with other items within the factor.

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47 The reliability of the factor structure was confirmed by implementing a reliability analysis using Chronbach’s Alpha, Inter-item Correlations, and Item/Total Correlation comparisons. Items showing poor reliability (items that significantly decreased the Chronbach Alpha, Inter-item Correlations, or Item/Total Correlation comparisons) were not kept in the scale for the factor. Based on the results of the Reliability test s, Summed Score Scales were created for each of the factors. The Summed Score Scal es became the Dependent Variables for the data analysis. Respondents with three or fewer data points missing, either within importance or frequency, had the data points substituted by their Carnegie Mode Score. The Carnegie Mode Score was used because the Carnegie rank was the common independent variable in the analysis for Research Questions 5 through 8. This Mode Substitution was utilized in order to maxi mize the number of respondents able to be included in the multivariate analyses. The s ubstitution was determined to have minimal impact on the analysis, given the overall vari ance of the sample was minimally changed by these few data points.

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48 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS The purpose of this study was to identif y work behaviors common to counselor educators in CACREP-accredited academic units within diverse institutional settings. Additionally, this study sought to capture a snapshot of the current counselor educator population, based on the responses of survey pa rticipants. Research questions focused on identifying the current counselor educator popu lation, critically important and frequently engaged work behaviors, and potentially si gnificant interactions between Carnegie classification, tenure status, and academic rank based on perceived importance or frequency of engaging in common work behavior s. This chapter describes the results of this study, organized by research question. Resu lts for the first two research questions provide information on characteristics speci fic to both counselor educators and the specific academic units in which they wor k. Results are presente d under the distinct headings: Demographic Characteristics of Counselor Educators in CACREP-accredited Programs and Profiles of CACREP-accredited Counselor Education Programs. Next, results are presented for the factor analysis that conceptually categ orized critical work behaviors performed by respondent s. Finally, the chapter cont inues with a discussion of the results related to the remaining seven research questions. Sections are organized according to the main topic addressed by each research question. A discussion based on the results presented in this chapter follows in Chapter Five.

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49 Demographic Characteristics of Couns elor Educators in CACREP-accredited Programs What are the demographic characteristic s of counselor educators working in CACREP-accredited programs? The Counselor Educator Work Behavior Instrument was distributed online, via email, to 1738 potential participants. Participant inclusion criteria were: (1) name appeared as a faculty member on a web page of an academic department housing one or more CACREP-accredited counse lor education program and (2) faculty member had an email address. The original participant pool decr eased by 230 due to nonfunctioning email addresses (123), persons who declined to pa rticipate (93), and technical difficulties (14). Reasons for decl ining to participate included: retirement, person did not identify as a counselor educat or; the person was a former member of a now defunct counselor education program, a nd time constraints. The revised participant pool included 1508 counselor educators, of which 162 responded to the survey, comprising a 10.74% response rate. The response rate is consistent with response rates for mail, online, and email surveys, which can range from 5 to 68% (Alreck & Settle, 1995; Schonlau, Fricker, & Elliott, 2001). Chap ter Five will discuss the degree to which the sample was representative of the counselor edu cator population. Sample Demographics Descriptive statistics were calculated for the following vari ables: (1) gender identity, (2) ethnicity, (3) age, (4) highest degree earned related to current position, (5) area(s) of professional specia lization, (6) number of years working as a faculty member, (7) current academic rank, (8) tenure status, (9) fullor part-time counselor educator status, (10) professional affiliation(s), a nd (11) licensure(s) and certification(s).

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50 Table 4-1 summarizes the frequencies and percentage of total participants who responded to each of the 11 variables. Table 4-2 provides summary statistics for gender identity and ethnicity. Table 43 provides summary statistics for age, including average age, age ranges, and age in relation to gender. Table 4-4 provides summary statistics for age in relation to ethnicity. Table 4-5 pr ovides summary statistics for professional characteristics, includi ng Variables 4 through 11. Table 4-1 Item Response Rates for Particip ant Demographic Variab les (Total N=162) Variable Frequency Percent Gender Identity 147 90.7 Ethnicity 146 90.1 Age 147 90.7 Highest Degree Earned 146 90.1 Area(s) of Specialization 149 91.9 Number of Years as Faculty 148 91.3 Current Academic Rank 147 90.7 Tenure Status 145 89.5 Fullor Part-Time 148 91.3 Professional Affiliations 143 88.2 Licensure(s) and Certifications 140 86.4 Table 4-2 Participant Demographics – Gender Identity and Ethnicity Variable Frequency Percent Gender Identity Female82 50.6 Male65 40.1 Transgender0 0.0 Not Reported15 9.2 Ethnicity African American3 1.8 Asian American2 1.2 European American122 75.3 Hispanic American5 3.0 Native American2 1.2 Pacific Islander American0 0.0 Multiracial3 1.8 International4 2.4 Other6 3.7 Not Reported15 9.2

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51 Table 4-3 Participant Demographics – Age, Age & Gender Identity Variables – Age and Gender Identity Years Age Distribution Total Respondents29 to 75 Female29 to 63 Male34 to 75 Average Age Total Respondents50.95 Female45.79 Male57.19 Age Ranges 29 to 39N=24 Female16 Male8 40 to 49N=37 Female23 Male14 50 to 59N=55 Female35 Male20 60+N=31 Female8 Male23 Table 4-4 Participant Demogr aphics –Age & Ethnicity Ethnicity Average Age Age Distribution African American35.0 31 to 40 Asian American46.0 38 to 54 European American41.8 29 to 75 Hispanic American45.2 36 to 60 Native American42.0 39 to 45 Pacific Islander Americann/a n/a Multiracial47 34 to 56 International46.25 36 to 55 Other53.5 60 to 62 Table 4-5 presents demographic data re levant to participant’s professional qualifications and characteristics. Information within each variable is sorted by frequency and presented in descending order, beginning with the variable levels with highest frequency.

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52 Table 4-5 Participant Demographics – Professional Characteristics Variable Frequency Percent Highest Degree Earned Doctoral degree in counselor education99 67.8 Doctoral degree in clos ely related field42 28.8 Masters Degree in counseling5 3.4 Advanced Graduate Study degree in counselor education (i.e., Ed.S., CAGS) 0 0 Advanced Graduate Study degree in closely related field (i.e., Ed.S., CAGS) 0 0 Masters Degree in clos ely related field 0 0 Area(s) of Specialization Counselor education and supervision84 56.4 School counseling58 38.9 Mental health counseling54 36.2 Community counseling52 34.9 Marital, couple, and family counseling/therapy41 27.5 Counseling psychology33 22.1 Other30 20.1 Career counseling24 16.1 College counseling21 14.1 Student personnel in higher education18 12.1 Rehabilitation counseling15 10.1 Gerontological counseling4 2.7 Number of Years as Faculty (Range <1 to 40) 0 to 7 years59 39.8 8 to 14 years30 20.2 15 to 22 years22 14.8 23 to 30 years22 14.8 31+ years15 10.1 Current Academic Rank Full Professor54 36.7 Assistant Professor42 28.6 Associate Professor42 28.6 Adjunct Professor4 2.7 Instructor4 2.7 Visiting Scholar1 0.7 Professor Emeritus0 0 Affiliate Professor0 0 Tenure Status Earned tenure89 61.4 Seeking tenure42 29 Annual contract8 5.5 Not applicable6 4.1 Fullor Part-Time

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53 Table 4-5. Continued Variable Frequency Percent Full-time139 93.9 Part-time9 6.1 Professional Affiliations American Counseling Association (ACA)131 91.6 Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES) 93 65.0 Chi Sigma Iota (CSI)62 43.4 American Psychological Association (APA)44 30.8 American School Counseling Association (ASCA) 39 27.3 American Mental Health Counseling Association (AMHCA) 23 16.1 International Association of Marriage and Family Counselors (IAMFC) 23 16.1 American Association of Marriage and Family Therapists (AAMFT) 16 11.2 American Rehabilitation Counseling Association (ARCA) 9 6.3 Licensure(s) and Certifications Licensed116 82.9 Nationally Certified Counselor (NCC)92 65.7 NBCC Approved Clinical Supervisor22 15.7 License eligible – Actively seeking state licensure13 9.3 Profiles of CACREP-a ccredited Counselor Education Departments What are the profiles of CACREP-accred ited counselor education departments represented in this sample? To address this question, descriptive sta tistics were calculated on the following relevant items. To assess ge ographic representation, participants were asked to provide the state in which thei r institution was located. For the sake of interpretation, locations were organized acco rding to geographic regions, as identified by the American Counseling Association. The Am erican Counseling A ssociation has four geographic regions: North Atlantic Region (C T, DE, MA, ME, NJ, NY, PA, RI, VT, and NH); Western Region (AK, AZ, CA, CO, HI, ID, MO, NV, NM, OR, UT, WA, and WY); Midwest Region (ND, SD, NE, KS, OK MN, IA, MO, WI, IL, IN, OH, and MI);

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54 and Southern Region (AL, AR, FL, GA, KY LA, MD, MS, NC, SC TN, TX, VA, and WV). All states were not re presented in the re sponses, and there were no respondents who identified locations outside the United St ates. For the purposes of this analysis, respondents from the District of Columbia were placed in the Southern Region. Other variables included: Carnegie cl assification, total number of faculty members within each department, total number of students, degr ee(s) offered, program specialization(s), program type, and curriculum delivery mode. Table 4-6 provides a summary of response rates for the relevant department variables. Table 4-7 provides a su mmary of descriptive statistics for variables related to the depa rtments in which participants were employed. Table 4-6 Item Response Rates for Depa rtment Demographic Variables (N=162) Variable Frequency Percent Geographic region 146 90.1 Carnegie classification 147 90.7 Total number of faculty members 146 90.1 Total number of students 145 89.5 Degree(s) offered 148 91.3 Program specialization(s) 146 90.1 Program type 144 88.8 Curriculum delivery mode 146 90.1 The levels within the following variables are presented in descending order, sorted by frequency, with the most fre quent level appearing first. Table 4-7 Department Demographic Variables Variable Frequency Percent Geographic region Southern Region71 48.6 Midwest Region34 23.2 Western Region22 15.0 North Atlantic Region18 12.3 Carnegie classification Doctoral/Research Univ ersity-Extensive63 42.9 Master’s College and University I40 27.2 Doctoral/Research Univ ersity-Intensive32 21.8

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55 Table 4-7. Continued Variable Frequency Percent Master’s College and University II12 8.2 Degree(s) offered Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)81 54.7 Master of Arts (MA)68 45.9 Master of Education (M.Ed.)64 43.2 Master of Science (MS)59 39.9 Advanced Graduate Study (e.g., CAGS, Ed.S.)45 30.4 Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)22 14.9 Other19 12.8 Program specialization(s) School counseling142 96.6 Community counseling100 68.0 Counselor education and supervision60 40.8 Mental health counseling43 29.3 Student personnel in higher education43 29.3 Marital, couple, and family counseling/therapy41 27.5 College counseling37 25.2 Rehabilitation counseling34 23.1 Counseling psychology26 17.7 Other26 17.7 Career counseling16 10.9 Gerontological counseling0 0 Program type Full-time, Weekday, Day Program36 25 Part-time, Evening, Weekend Program27 18.8 Both Full-time, Weekday, Day Program and Part-time, Evening, Weekend Program 81 56.2 Curriculum delivery mode Campus-based146 100.0 Distance-learning46 31.5 Satellite campus-based39 26.7 Table 4-8 Department Demographic Variab les – Number of Faculty and Students Faculty and Students Range or Average Range of number of faculty members 3 to 81 Average number of faculty members 15.14 Range of number of students 14 to 1000 Average number of students 193.15

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56 Factor Analysis To identify and conceptually organi ze critical work behaviors common to counselor educators, a factor analysis was conducted. The an alysis was conducted using a Maximum Likelihood Factor Analysis and Vari max (or Orthogonal) ro tation in order to maximize the independence of factors and minimize the likelihood of shared variance between factors. Factors were kept with Eigenvalues greater than 1.0. Items were assigned to factors with fact or loadings greater than .40. Items with factor loadings greater than .40 on multiple factor s were assigned to the factor in which they loaded the highest or were determined to be more con ceptually consistent with other items within the factor. The reliability of the factor structure was confirmed by implementing a reliability analysis using Chronbach’s Alpha, Inter-item Correlations, and Item/Total Correlation comparisons. Items showing poor reliability (ite ms that either signi ficantly decreased the Chronbach Alpha, Inter-item Correlations, or Item/Total Correlation comparisons) were not kept in the scale for the factor. Based on the results of the Reliability test s, Summed Score Scales were created for each of the factors. The Summed Score Scal es became the Dependent Variables for the data analysis run for Research Questions Five through Eight. Res pondents with three or fewer data points missing, either within im portance or frequency, had the data points substituted for the Carnegie Mode Score. Th e Carnegie Mode Score was used because the Carnegie rank was the common independent va riable in the analysis for Research Questions Five through Eight. This Mode Subs titution was utilized in order to maximize the number of respondents able to be included in the multivariate analyses. The

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57 substitution was determined to have minima l impact on the analysis, given the overall variance of the sample was minimally changed by these few data points. Based on an analysis of items loaded with in each factor, the factor was assigned a name and conceptual description. Table 4-9 provides a list of each factor name, the conceptual description of the factor, items loaded greater than .40, and their corresponding factor loadings. On the table, items within each factor are identified by the item name and the abbreviation of the survey section and item number, each referring to importance (e.g., Admin 1-I refers to Item No. 1-Importance from the Administra section). Refer to Appendix A for a copy of the Counselor Educator Work Behavior Instrument. Note that items included within a factor may have been drawn from multiple sections of the survey. For example, the Co mmunity Building factor loaded items from both Service and Teaching and Advising sections of the instrument. Items are sorted in descending order by factor loadings, beginni ng with the item that loaded heaviest. Table 4-9 Results of Factor Analysis Factor Name Conceptual Descri ption Items Loaded >.40 Factor Loadings (Varimax Raw) Program Administration These activities describe how counselor educators develop, administer, and manage programs within an academic department Admin. 6-I: Coordinate advising programs 0.761063 Admin. 1-I: Administer counseling program 0.613342 Admin. 8-I: Coordinate specialization (e.g. School Counseling) program 0.588513

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58 Table 4-9. Continued Factor Name Conceptual Descri ption Items Loaded >.40 Factor Loadings (Varimax Raw) Admin. 7-I: Coordinate practicum and internship activities 0.529693 Admin. 9-I: Develop program related reports 0.422723 Clinical Counseling Practice These activities form the core elements of clinical counseling practice, including assessment, treatment planning, evaluation, and case management. Prac. 5-I: Establish counseling goals 0.963830 Prac. 6-I: Evaluate client’s movement toward counseling goals 0.963488 Prac. 7-I: Evaluate client’s need for referral 0.948984 Prac. 4-I: Develop comprehensive treatment plans 0.919675 Prac. 8-I: Maintain case notes, records, and/or files 0.919247 Prac. 3-I: Counsel clients 0.891819 Prac. 9-I: Participate in case conferences 0.823655 Prac. 1-I: Assess potential for client to harm self/others 0.783380 Scholarship These activities describe the practice of scholarly research from project design, implementation, analysis, and result dissemination. It describes a recursive process involving collaboration and sharing results with the professional community.

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59 Table 4-9. Continued Factor Name Conceptual Descri ption Items Loaded >.40 Factor Loadings (Varimax Raw) Schol. 2-I: Collect and analyze data 0.893752 Schol. 5-I: Engage in data analysis 0.837328 Schol. 1-I: Collaborate in research with other professionals 0.667209 Schol. 16-I: Write for publication in scholarly journals, books, and electronic media 0.631397 Schol. 3-I: Engage in counseling outcome research 0.488832 Serv. 5-I: Peer review articles 0.462029 Schol. 13-I: Secure external funding (e.g., grants) 0.430306 Teaching and Mentoring These activities describe the process in which academic courses are developed, designed, facilitated, and student work evaluated within counselor education programs. Included in this process is the mentoring element around students’ personal and professional development. T&A 13-I: Prepare lectures, exercises, and experiential activities 0.720678 T&A 7-I: Evaluate and/or grade exams and papers 0.667195 T&A 5-I: Develop and revise syllabi 0.522992 T&A 15-I: Teach core counseling classes 0.511396

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60 Table 4-9. Continued Factor Name Conceptual Descri ption Items Loaded >.40 Factor Loadings (Varimax Raw) T&A 11-I: Mentor students in professional development 0.508108 Clinical Supervision These activities describe the ways in which counselor educators provide clinical supervision, training, and assessment to counseling students. Sup. 4-I: Provide individual and group supervision 0.839647 Sup. 2-I: Evaluate practicum and internship counselor trainee’s performance 0.823176 Sup. 3-I: Provide counselor skill development training 0.703980 Sup. 1-I: Complete written progress and evaluation reports 0.447517 Sup. 1-I: Complete written progress and evaluation reports 0.447517 Shared Governance These activities describe the ways in which counselor educators participate as citizens in the governance of departments and institutions. Serv. 6-I: Serve on academic or administrative committees 0.807743 Serv. 4-I: Participate in university governance 0.787072 Infusing Technology These activities describe the process by which technology is infused into curriculum design and delivery.

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61 Table 4-9. Continued Factor Name Conceptual Descri ption Items Loaded >.40 Factor Loadings (Varimax Raw) T&A 12-I: Post course content, class notes, class schedules, and other information on the Internet 0.617700 T&A 8-I: Infuse technology into course design and management 0.603328 T&A 3-I: Conduct distance education activities 0.464669 Community Building These activities describe the ways in which counselor educator build community between students and external stakeholders utilizing mentorship, consultation, and outreach activities. Serv. 1-I: Conduct community outreach 0.652032 Serv. 2-I Engage in professional/community public relations 0.607341 Serv. 8-I: Work with student and community organizations 0.494964 T&A 10-I: Mentor students in personal development 0.434959 Prac. 2-I: Consult with community organizations 0.412069 T&A 11-I: Mentor students in professional development 0.404092 Consultation These activities identify the various consultation practices that counselor educators provide.

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62 Table 4-9. Continued Factor Name Conceptual Descri ption Items Loaded >.40 Factor Loadings (Varimax Raw) Prac. 11-I: Provide consultation services for interpersonal skills training 0.583772 Prac. 10-I: Provide consultation services for human relationships development 0.522933 Prac. 12-I Provide consultation services for professional skill development 0.495631 Counselor Educator Professional Development These activities identify the ways in which counselor educators participate in ongoing self-reflection and professional development. Schol. 8-I: Participate in continuing education/skill enhancement 0.600563 Schol. 12-I: Secure and maintain professional licensure and credentials 0.564444 Schol. 11-I: Review ethical standards, legal statutes and regulations 0.562700 Schol. 10-I: Read current professional literature 0.545889 T&A 4-I: Conduct selfreflection activities on teaching and learning strategies 0.424735

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63 Table 4-9. Continued Factor Name Conceptual Descri ption Items Loaded >.40 Factor Loadings (Varimax Raw) Program Evaluation These activities describe the methods by which counselor educators evaluate their programs and disseminate results to stakeholders in the profession. Admin. 3-I: Conduct formative evaluation of counselor education program 0.725781 Admin. 5-I: Conduct summative evaluation of counselor education program 0.701238 Admin. 4-I: Conduct program accreditation activities 0.691000 Serv. 7-I: Serve on committees in relevant local, state, regional, and national professional organizations 0.424036 Admin. 9-I: Develop program related reports 0.400414 Research Oversight These activities relate to the supervision and management of faculty and staff while engaged in counseling research. Schol. 3-I: Engage in counseling outcome research 0.542752 Admin. 15-I: Supervise faculty and staff members 0.514323 Schol. 4-I: Engage in counseling process research 0.467052 Admin. 10-I: Manage a budget 0.443439

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64 Table 4-9. Continued Factor Name Conceptual Descri ption Items Loaded >.40 Factor Loadings (Varimax Raw) Admin. 14-I: Participate in staffing processes 0.415352 Importance of Work Behaviors What are the most important work behavi ors performed by counselor educators in CACREP-accredited work programs? Most im portant work behaviors performed were identified as those work behaviors that load ed greater than .40 on the factor analysis described in the above section. Mean scor es, confidence intervals, and standard deviations were calculated for the items with in each of the 12 factors. Table 4-10 reports the results in descending order, beginning w ith the factor with the highest mean item score. See Appendix B for a results summary of the importance of work behaviors for each item within the survey. Table 4-10 Most Important Work Behavi ors – Average Item Means by Factor Factor Valid N Mean Confidence -.95% Confidence +95% Std. Dev. Standard Teaching and Mentoring 145 4.029 3.913 4.145 0.704 0.058 Clinical Supervision 147 3.711 3.505 3.917 1.264 0.104 Counselor Educator Professional Development 147 3.631 3.492 3.770 0.852 0.070 Scholarship 147 3.213 3.065 3.360 0.905 0.075 Community Building 143 3.047 2.882 3.211 0.995 0.083 Program Evaluation 147 3.039 2.867 3.212 1.057 0.087

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65 Table 4-10. Continued Factor Valid N Mean Confidence -.95% Confidence +95% Std. Dev. Standard Program Administration 148 2.830 2.626 3.033 1.254 0.103 Shared Governance 147 2.534 2.337 2.731 1.207 0.100 Clinical Counseling Practice 143 2.314 2.007 2.621 1.858 0.155 Research Oversight 148 2.205 2.009 2.402 1.210 0.099 Infusing Technology 145 2.179 1.998 2.361 1.104 0.092 Consultation 143 1.671 1.424 1.919 1.497 0.125 Frequency of Engaging in Work Behaviors What are the most frequently engaged work behaviors performed by counselor educators in CACREP-accredited work pr ograms? Using the most important work behaviors as calculated by fact or analysis outlined in the pr evious section, mean scores, confidence intervals, and standard deviations were calculated for the parallel survey items asking for the frequency of engaging in the wo rk behaviors identified within each of the 12 factors. Table 4-11 reports the results in descending order, begi nning with the factor with the highest mean item score. See Appe ndix C for a results summary of the frequency of engaging in work behaviors for each item within the survey. Table 4-11 Most Frequently Engaged Work Behaviors – Average Item Means by Factor Factor Valid N Mean Confidence -.95% Confidence +95% Std. Dev. Standard Teaching and Mentoring 144 2.721 2.586 2.855 0.816 0.068 Clinical Supervision 147 2.281 2.091 2.470 1.165 0.096 Program Administration 148 1.791 1.617 1.964 1.070 0.088

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66 Table 4-11. Continued Factor Valid N Mean Confidence -.95% Confidence +95% Std. Dev. Standard Shared Governance 144 1.785 1.583 1.986 1.224 0.102 Counselor Educator Professional Development 146 1.771 1.632 1.910 0.849 0.070 Scholarship 142 1.764 1.591 1.936 1.040 0.087 Community Building 137 1.627 1.479 1.774 0.875 0.075 Program Evaluation 144 1.426 1.288 1.565 0.840 0.070 Infusing Technology 145 1.168 1.020 1.316 0.900 0.075 Clinical Counseling Practice 142 1.033 0.840 1.225 1.159 0.097 Research Oversight 148 0.973 0.848 1.098 0.768 0.063 Consultation 142 0.812 0.650 0.974 0.975 0.082 Interactions Among Academic Rank, Carneg ie Classification, and Importance of Work Behaviors Is there a significant interaction between Academic Rank and Carnegie Classification based on perceived importance of categories of work behaviors? The null hypothesis is that there is no significant interaction between academic rank and Carnegie classification based on perceived importanc e of categories of work behaviors. Participants included in this analysis met the following criteria: they indicated that (1) their current academic rank was at the Assi stant, Associate, or Full Professor level; and (2) their institution’s Carnegie cla ssification was at the Doctoral/Research University-Extensive, Doctoral/Research-Intensiv e, Master’s College and University I, or Master’s College and University II. For the purposes of this analysis, Master’s College

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67 and University I and II were combined as one category (Masters Program). One hundred thirty one participants met the inclusion criteria for this analysis. A 3 (Academic Rank) x 3 (Carnegie Cl assification) x 12 (Work BehaviorsImportance) Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted utilizing Hotelling’s T as the test statistic and se tting the overall level of significance at = .05. The results of the 3 (Academic Rank) x 3 (Carnegie Classification) x 12 (Work Behaviors-Importance) MANO VA indicated that Hotelling’s T = 0.4376, F (48, 438) = 0.9984, p = 0.4799. The conclusion is to fail to re ject the null hypothesis and conclude that there is no significant interactio n between Academic Rank and Carnegie Classification across the categories of Work Behaviors-Importance. Given an insignificant interaction, main effects for both Academic Rank and Carnegie Classification were examined across the categories of Work BehaviorsImportance. Significant main effects were found on the MANOVA for Academic Rank; Hotelling’s T = 0.5067, F (24, 220) = 2.3227, p < 0.0008. Significant main effects were also found on the MANOVA for Carnegie Clas sification; Hotelling’s T = 0.6437, F (24, 220) = 2.9505, p < 0.0001. Separate 3 x 3 ANOVAs were conducted on ea ch of the factors of Work BehaviorsImportance and indicated that significant differences were found on the following Categories of Work Behaviors-Importance : Scholarship (Academic Rank, Carnegie Classification), Counselor Edu cator Professional Developmen t (Carnegie Classification), Program Evaluation (Academic Rank), and Research Oversight (Academic Rank). The significant results are su mmarized on Table 4-12.

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68 Table 4-12 Summary of Signifi cant Main Effects for Importa nce of Work Behaviors on Academic Rank x Carnegie Classification Category of Work Behaviors Main Effect df1 df2 F p-value Scholarship Academic Rank 2 122 3.615 0.0298 Scholarship Carnegie Classification 2 122 11.104 <.0001 Counselor Educator Professional Development Carnegie Classification 2 122 7.196 0.0011 Program Evaluation Academic Rank 2 122 5.647 0.0045 Research Oversight Academic Rank 2 122 3.870 0.0234 A Tukey’s HSD post-hoc analysis examined the main effect of Academic Rank in the Scholarship category of work behavior s-importance determined that there was a significant difference between the ranks of A ssistant Professor and Associate Professor (p = .0167). Effect size was calculated using C ohen’s d statistic and found that d = .5714, indicating a moderate effect si ze. A table of means and variance components is presented in Table 4-13. Table 4-13 Summary of Mean s and Variance Components for Academic Rank on the Importance of Scholarship Academic Rank N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI Assistant Professor 39 24.84 6.01 22.89 26.79 Associate Professor 42 21.30 4.97 19.75 22.86 Full Professor 50 22.32 6.89 20.36 24.27 Total 131 22.74 6.19 21.67 23.81 A Tukey’s HSD post-hoc analysis examined the main effect of Carnegie Classification in the Scholarship category of work behaviors-importance determined that there was a significant difference between th e classifications of Doctoral/Research University-Extensive and Masters Programs (p <0.0001). Effect size was calculated using Cohen’s d statistic and found that d = .8594, indicating a large effect size. A table of means and variance components is presented in Table 4-14.

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69 Table 4-14 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Carnegie Classification on the Importance of Scholarship Carnegie Classification N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI DoctoralExtensive 61 24.98 6.16 23.40 26.56 Doctoral-Intensive 31 22.22 5.53 20.19 24.25 Masters Programs 39 19.66 5.37 17.92 21.40 Total 131 22.74 6.19 21.67 23.81 A Tukey’s HSD post-hoc analysis examined the main effect of Carnegie Classification in the Counselor Educator Professional Developmen t category of work behaviors-importance determined that ther e was a significant difference between the classifications of Doctoral/Research-Ex tensive and Doctoral/Research-Intensive (p = 0.0105). Additionally, there was a significant di fference between the classifications of Doctoral/Research-Extensive and Masters Programs (p = 0.0057). Effect size for Doctoral/Research-Extensive and Doctora l/Research-Intensive was calculated using Cohen’s d statistic and found th at d = .6175, indicating a moderate effect size. Effect size for Doctoral/Research-Extensive and Masters Programs was calculated using Cohen’s d statistic and found that d = .6199, indicating a mo derate effect size. A table of means and variance components is pr esented in Table 4-15. Table 4-15 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Carnegie Classification on the Importance of Counselor Educ ator Professional Development Carnegie Classification N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI DoctoralExtensive 61 16.62 4.49 15.47 17.77 Doctoral-Intensive 31 19.22 3.23 18.04 20.41 Masters Programs 39 19.23 3.84 17.98 20.47 Total 131 18.01 4.21 17.28 18.74

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70 A Tukey’s HSD post-hoc analysis examined the main effect of Academic Rank in the Program Evaluation category of work be haviors-importance dete rmined that there was a significant difference between the ranks of Assistant Professo r and Full Professor (p < 0.0005). Effect size was calculated using Cohen’s d statistic and found that d = .7568, indicating a large effect size. A table of means and variance components is presented in Table 4-16. Table 4-16 Summary of Mean s and Variance Components for Academic Rank on the Importance of Program Evaluation Academic Rank N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI Assistant Professor 39 12.84 6.38 10.77 14.91 Associate Professor 42 15.07 5.15 13.46 16.67 Full Professor 50 16.98 4.25 15.76 18.19 Total 131 15.13 5.47 14.19 16.08 A Tukey’s HSD post-hoc analysis examined the main effect of Academic Rank in the Research Oversight category of work beha viors-importance determined that there was a significant difference between the ranks of Assistant Professor and Full Professor (p = .0074). Additionally, there was a significant di fference between the ranks of Associate Professor and Full Professor (p = .0140). Effect size for Assistant Professor and Full Professor was calculated using Cohen’s d st atistic and found that d = .5692, indicating a moderate effect size. Effect size for A ssociate Professor and Full Professor was calculated using Cohen’s d stat istic and found that d = .5501, i ndicating a moderate effect size. A table of means and variance co mponents is presented in Table 4-17.

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71 Table 4-17 Summary of Mean s and Variance Components for Academic Rank on the Importance of Research Oversight Academic Rank N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI Assistant Professor 39 9.89 5.43 8.13 11.65 Associate Professor 42 10.00 5.29 8.35 11.64 Full Professor 50 13.18 6.00 11.47 14.88 Total 131 11.18 5.78 10.18 12.18 Interaction Among Academic Rank, Carneg ie Classification, and Frequency of Engaging in Work Behaviors Is there a significant interaction between Academic Rank and Carnegie Classification based on frequenc y of engaging in categories of work behaviors? The null hypothesis is that there is no significant interaction between Academic Rank and Carnegie Classification based on frequency of engaging in categories of work behaviors. Participants included in this analysis met the following criteria: they indicated that (1) their current academic rank was at the Assi stant, Associate, or Full Professor level; and (2) their institution’s Carnegie Cla ssification was at the Doctoral/Research University-Extensive, Doctoral/Research-Intensiv e, Master’s College and University I, or Master’s College and University II. For the purposes of this analysis, Master’s College and University I and II were combined as one category (Masters Program). Due to participants not completing frequency items only one hundred twenty one subjects had completed data sets that could be utilized in this analysis. A 3 (Academic Rank) x 3 (Carnegie Cl assification) x 12 (Work BehaviorsFrequency) Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted utilizing Hotelling’s T as the test statistic and se tting the overall level of significance at = .05.

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72 The results of the 3 (Academic Rank) x 3 (Carnegie Classification) x 12 (Work Behaviors-Frequency) MANO VA indicated that Hotelling’s T = 0.2761, F (48, 402) = 0.5781, p = 0.9893. The conclusion is to fail to re ject the null hypothesis and conclude that there is no significant interactio n between Academic Rank and Carnegie Classification across the categories of Work Behaviors-Frequency. Given an insignificant interaction, main effects for both Academic Rank and Carnegie Classification were examined across the categories of Work BehaviorsFrequency. Significant main effects were found on the MANOVA for Academic Rank; Hotelling’s T = 0.3765, F (24, 202) = 1.5844, p = 0.0469. Significant main effects were also found on the MANOVA for Carnegie Clas sification; Hotelling’s T = 0.6548, F (24, 202) = 2.7557, p < 0.0001. Separate 3 x 3 ANOVAs were conducted on ea ch of the factors of Work BehaviorsFrequency and indicated that significant differences were found on the following Categories of Work Behaviors-Frequenc y: Program Admini stration (Carnegie Classification), Scholarship (Academic Rank, Carnegie Classification), and Counselor Educator Professional Development (Carnegie Classification). The significant results are summarized on Table 4-18. Table 4-18 Summary of Signi ficant Main Effects for Frequency of Engaging in Work Behaviors on Academic Rank x Carnegie Classification Category of Work Behaviors Main Effect df1 df2 F p-value Program Administration Carnegie Classification 2 113 5.0875 0.0076 Scholarship Academic Rank 2 113 3.5286 0.0326 Scholarship Carnegie Classification 2 113 8.4411 <.0004 Counselor Educator Professional Development Carnegie Classification 2 113 3.2403 0.0428

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73 A Tukey’s HSD post-hoc analysis examined the main effect of Carnegie Classification in the Program Administrati on category of work behaviors-frequency determined that there was a significant di fference between Doctoral/Research-Extensive and Doctoral/Research-Intensive (p = .0035). Effect size was cal culated using Cohen’s d statistic and found that d = .7400, indicating a large effect size (Table 4-19). Table 4-19 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Carnegie Classification on the Frequency of Engaging in Program Administration Carnegie Classification N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI Doctoral-Extensive 56 7.64 4.59 6.41 8.87 Doctoral-Intensive 30 11.30 5.24 9.34 13.25 Masters Programs 36 9.02 4.65 7.45 10.60 Total 122 8.95 4.95 8.06 9.83 A Tukey’s HSD post-hoc analysis examined the main effect of Academic Rank in the Scholarship category of work behavior s-frequency determined that there was a significant difference between the ranks of A ssistant Professor and Associate Professor (p = .0303). Effect size for Assistan t Professor and Associate Pr ofessor was calculated using Cohen’s d statistic and found that d = .4899, indi cating a moderate effect size. A table of means and variance components is presented in Table 4-20. Table 4-20 Summary of Mean s and Variance Components for Academic Rank on the Frequency of Engaging in Scholarship Academic Rank N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI Assistant Professor 34 15.23 7.88 12.48 17.98 Associate Professor 39 11.58 6.86 9.36 13.81 Full Professor 49 11.22 7.23 9.14 13.30 Total 122 12.45 7.45 11.12 13.79 A Tukey’s HSD post-hoc analysis examined the main effect of Carnegie Classification in the Scholarship category of work behaviors-frequency determined that

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74 there was a significant difference between Doctoral/Research-Extensive and Masters Programs (p = .0006). Additionally, there was a significant difference between Doctoral/Research-Intensive and Masters Programs (p = .0215). Effect size was calculated for Doctoral/Research-Extensive and Masters Programs using Cohen’s d statistic and found that d = .7731, indicating a large effect size Effect size was calculated for Doctoral/Research-Intensive and Masters Programs using Cohen’s d statistic and found that d = .6268, indicating a moderate eff ect size. A table of means and variance components is presented in Table 4-21. Table 4-21 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Carnegie Classification on the Frequency of Scholarship Carnegie Classification N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI Doctoral-Extensive 56 14.42 7.87 12.31 16.53 Doctoral-Intensive 30 13.33 8.23 10.25 16.40 Masters Programs 36 8.66 4.08 7.28 10.04 Total 122 12.45 7.45 11.12 13.79 A Tukey’s HSD post-hoc analysis examined the main effect of Carnegie Classification in the Counselor Educator Professional Developmen t category of work behaviors-frequency determined that ther e was a significant difference between Doctoral/Research-Extensive and Doctoral/Research-Intensive (p = .0189). Effect size was calculated using Cohen’s d statistic a nd found that d = .6109, indicating a moderate effect size. A table of means and varian ce components is presented in Table 4-22. Table 4-22 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Carnegie Classification on the Frequency of Engaging in Counselor Educator Professional Development Carnegie Classification N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI Doctoral-Extensive 56 7.85 3.27 6.97 8.73 Doctoral-Intensive 30 10.30 5.22 8.34 12.25 Masters Programs 36 8.33 3.58 7.12 9.54 Total 122 8.59 4.02 7.87 9.31

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75 Interaction Between Tenure Status, Carneg ie Classification, and Importance of Work Behaviors Is there a significant interaction between tenure status and Carnegie classification based on perceived importance of categories of work behaviors? The null hypothesis is that there is no significant in teraction between tenure status and Carnegie classification based on perceived importance of categories of work behaviors. Participants included in this analysis met the following criteria: they indicated that (1) their tenure status was at the Earned Tenure or Seeking Tenure level; and (2) their institution’s Carnegie classi fication was at the Doctoral/R esearch University-Extensive, Doctoral/Research-Intensive, Master’s College and University I, or Master’s College and University II. For the purposes of this anal ysis, Master’s College and University I and II were combined as one category (Masters Progr am). One hundred twenty five participants met the inclusion criteria for this analysis. A 2 (Tenure Status) x 3 (Carnegie Cl assification) x 12 (Work BehaviorsImportance) Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted utilizing Hotelling’s T as the test statistic and se tting the overall level of significance at = .05. The results of the 2 (Tenure Status) x 3 (Carnegie Classification) x 12 (Work Behaviors-Importance) MANO VA indicated that Hotelling’s T = 0.2372, F (24, 214) = 1.0577, p = 0.3950. The conclusion is to fail to re ject the null hypothesis and conclude that there is no significant in teraction between Tenure Status and Carnegie Classification across the categories of Wo rk Behaviors-Importance. Given an insignificant interaction, main effects for both Tenure Status and Carnegie Classification were examined across the categories of Work BehaviorsImportance. Significant main effects we re found on the MANOVA for Tenure Status;

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76 Hotelling’s T = 0.3192, F (12, 108) = 2.8724, p =0.0018. Significant main effects were also found on the MANOVA for Carnegie Clas sification; Hotelling’s T = 0.7166, F (24, 214) = 3.1949, p < 0.0001. Separate 2 x 3 ANOVAs were conducted on ea ch of the factors of Work BehaviorsImportance and indicated that significant differences were found on the following Categories of Work Behaviors-Importance : Clinical Counseli ng Practice (Carnegie Classification), Scholarship (T enure Status, Carnegie Classi fication), Counselor Educator Professional Development (Carnegie Classi fication), and Program Evaluation (Tenure Status). The significant results are summarized on Table 4-23. Table 4-23 Summary of Signifi cant Main Effects for Importa nce of Work Behaviors on Tenure Status x Carnegie Classification Category of Work Behaviors Main Effect df1 df2 F p-value Clinical Counseling Practice Carnegie Classification 2 119 3.8223 0.0246 Scholarship Tenure Status 1 119 4.811 0.0302 Scholarship Carnegie Classification 2 119 13.849 <.0001 Counselor Educator Professional Development Carnegie Classification 2 119 5.591 0.0047 Program Evaluation Tenure Status 1 119 4.8577 0.0294 A Tukey’s HSD post-hoc analysis examined the main effect of Carnegie Classification in the Clinical Counseling Practice category of work behaviors-importance determined that there was a significant di fference between Doctoral/Research-Extensive and Doctoral/Research-Intensive (p = .0289). Effect size was cal culated using Cohen’s d statistic and found that d = .5665, indicating a mo derate effect size. A table of means and variance components is pr esented in Table 4-24.

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77 Table 4-24 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Carnegie Classification on the Importance of Clini cal Counseling Practice Carnegie Classification N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI Doctoral-Extensive 57 14.21 14.52 10.35 18.06 Doctoral-Intensive 30 22.43 14.49 17.02 27.84 Masters Programs 38 19.44 13.51 15.00 23.88 Total 125 17.77 14.51 15.20 20.34 The significant difference of Tenure Status in the Scholarship category of work behaviors-frequency was determined in the test for main effects (p = .0141). Effect size was calculated using Cohen’s d statistic and found that d = .4336, indicating a small effect size. A table of means and varian ce components is presented in Table 4-25. Table 4-25 Summary of Mean s and Variance Components for Tenure Status on the Importance of Scholarship Carnegie Classification N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI Earned Tenure 86 21.88 5.98 20.60 23.16 Seeking Tenure 39 24.56 6.30 22.52 26.60 Total 125 22.72 6.18 21.62 23.81 A Tukey’s HSD post-hoc analysis examined the main effect of Carnegie Classification in the Scholarship category of work behaviors-importance determined that there was a significant difference between Doctoral/Research-Extensive and Masters Programs (p = .0001). Effect size was calculated usi ng Cohen’s d statistic and found that d = .8932, indicating a large effect size. A ta ble of means and va riance components is presented in Table 4-26. Table 4-26 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Carnegie Classification on the Importance of Scholarship Carnegie Classification N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI Doctoral-Extensive 57 25.07 6.04 23.46 26.75 Doctoral-Intensive 30 22.26 5.62 20.16 24.36 Masters Programs 38 19.55 5.40 17.77 21.32 Total 125 22.72 6.18 21.62 23.81

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78 A Tukey’s HSD post-hoc analysis examined the main effect of Carnegie Classification in the Counselor Educator Professional Developmen t category of work behaviors-importance determined that th ere was a significant difference between Doctoral/Research-Extensive and Doctoral/Research-Intensive (p = .0098). Additionally, there was a significant difference between Doctoral/Research-Extensive and Masters Programs (p = .0066). Effect size for Doctor/R esearch-Extensive and Doctoral/ResearchIntensive was calculated usi ng Cohen’s d statistic and f ound that d = .6494, indicating a moderate effect size. Effect size for Doct or/Research-Extensive and Masters Programs was calculated using Cohen’s d statistic a nd found that d = .6305, indicating a moderate effect size. A table of means and varian ce components is presented in Table 4-27. Table 4-27 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Carnegie Classification on the Importance of Counselor Educ ator Professional Development Carnegie Classification N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI Doctoral-Extensive 57 16.50 4.52 15.30 17.70 Doctoral-Intensive 30 19.26 3.27 18.04 20.49 Masters Programs 38 19.18 3.88 17.90 20.46 Total 125 17.98 4.25 17.23 18.73 The significant difference of Tenure Status in the Program Ev aluation category of work behaviors-frequency was determined in the test for main effects (p = .0158). Effect size was calculated using Cohen’s d stat istic and found that d = .4686, indicating a moderate effect size. A table of means and variance components is presented in Table 428. Table 4-28 Summary of Mean s and Variance Components for Tenure Status on the Importance of Program Evaluation Carnegie Classification N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI Earned Tenure 86 16.16 4.60 15.17 17.15 Seeking Tenure 39 13.69 6.24 11.66 15.71 Total 125 15.39 5.27 14.45 16.32

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79 Interaction Between Tenure Status, Carneg ie Classification, and Frequency of Engaging in Work Behaviors Is there a significant interaction between tenure status and Carnegie classification based on frequency of engaging in categories of work behaviors? The null hypothesis is that there is no significant in teraction between Tenure Status and Carnegie Classification based on frequency of engaging in categories of work behaviors. Participants included in this analysis met the following criteria: they indicated that (1) their current tenure status was Earn ed Tenure or Seeking Tenure and (2) their institution’s Carnegie classi fication was at the Doctoral/R esearch University-Extensive, Doctoral/Research-Intensive, Master’s College and University I, or Master’s College and University II. For the purposes of this anal ysis, Master’s College and University I and II were combined as one category (Masters Pr ogram). One hundred seventeen subjects had completed data sets that could be utilized in this analysis. A 2 (Tenure) x 3 (Carnegie Classifica tion) x 12 (Work Behaviors-Frequency) Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted utilizing Hotelling’s T as the test statistic and setting th e overall level of significance at = .05. The results of the 2 (Tenure Status) x 3 (Carnegie Classification) x 12 (Work Behaviors-Frequency) MANO VA indicated that Hotelling’s T = 0.2110, F (24, 198) = 0.8707, p = 0.6417. The conclusion is to fail to re ject the null hypothesis and conclude that there is no significant in teraction between Tenure Status and Carnegie Classification across the categories of Work Behaviors-Frequency. Given an insignificant interaction, main effects for both Tenure Status and Carnegie Classification were examined across the categories of Work BehaviorsFrequency. Significant main effects we re found on the MANOVA for Tenure Status;

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80 Hotelling’s T = 0.2399, F (12, 100) = 1.9999, p = 0.0317. Significant main effects were also found on the MANOVA for Carnegie Clas sification; Hotelling’s T = 0.7390, F (24, 198) = 3.0485, p < 0.0001. Separate 2 x 3 ANOVAs were conducted on ea ch of the factors of Work BehaviorsFrequency and indicated that significant differences were found on the following Categories of Work Behaviors-Frequenc y: Program Admini stration (Carnegie Classification), Scholarship (Tenure Status, Carnegie Cl assification), and Community Building (Tenure Status). The significan t results are summarized on Table 4-29. Table 4-29 Summary of Signifi cant Main Effects for Frequency of Engaging in Work Behaviors on Tenure Status x Carnegie Classification Category of Work Behaviors Main Effect df1 df2 F p-value Program Administration Carnegie Classification 2 111 3.5444 0.0321 Scholarship Tenure Status 1 111 6.5627 0.0117 Scholarship Carnegie Classification 2 111 8.4504 <.0004 Community Building Tenure Status 1 111 4.0822 0.0457 A Tukey’s HSD post-hoc analysis examined the main effect of Carnegie Classification in the Program Administrati on category of work behaviors-frequency determined that there was a significant di fference between Doctoral/Research-Extensive and Doctoral/Research-Intensive (p = .0086). Effect size for Do ctoral/Research-Extensive and Doctoral/Research-Intensiv e was calculated using Cohen’ s d statistic and found that d = .6815, indicating a moderate effect size. A table of means and variance components is presented in Table 4-30.

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81 Table 4-30 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Carnegie Classification on the Frequency of Engaging in Program Administration Carnegie Classification N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI Doctoral-Extensive 53 7.88 4.53 6.63 9.13 Doctoral-Intensive 29 11.24 5.32 9.21 13.26 Masters Programs 35 9.02 4.71 7.40 10.64 Total 117 9.05 4.93 8.15 9.96 The significant difference of Tenure Status in the Scholarship category of work behaviors-frequency was determined in the test for main effects (p = .0117). Effect size was calculated using Cohen’s d statistic a nd found that d = .5623, indicating a moderate effect size. A table of means and varian ce components is presented in Table 4-31. Table 4-31 Summary of Mean s and Variance Components for Tenure Status on the Frequency of Engaging in Scholarship Carnegie Classification N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI Earned Tenure 82 11.30 6.98 9.76 12.84 Seeking Tenure 35 15.54 8.04 12.77 18.30 Total 117 12.57 7.54 11.19 13.95 A Tukey’s HSD post-hoc analysis examined the main effect of Carnegie Classification in the Scholarship category of work behaviors-frequency determined that there was a significant difference between Doctoral/Research-Extensive and Masters Programs (p < .0005). Additionally, there was a significant difference between Doctoral/Research-Intensive and Masters Programs (p = .0202). Effect size Doctoral/Research-Extensive and Masters Programs was calculated using Cohen’s d statistic and found that d = .7970, indicati ng a large effect size. Effect size Doctoral/Research-Intensive and Masters Programs was calculated using Cohen’s d statistic and found that d = .6220, indicating a mo derate effect size. A table of means and variance components is pr esented in Table 4-32.

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82 Table 4-32 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Carnegie Classification on the Frequency of Engaging in Scholarship Carnegie Classification N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI Doctoral-Extensive 53 14.69 7.91 12.51 16.88 Doctoral-Intensive 29 13.37 8.37 10.19 16.56 Masters Programs 35 8.68 4.14 7.26 10.10 Total 117 12.57 7.54 11.19 13.95 The significant difference of Tenure Status in the Community Building category of work behaviors-frequency was determined in the test for main effects (p = .0457). Effect size was calculated using Cohen’s d stat istic and found that d = .4891, indicating a moderate effect size. A table of means and variance components is presented in Table 433. Table 4-33 Summary of Mean s and Variance Components for Tenure Status on the Frequency of Engaging in Community Building Carnegie Classification N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI Earned Tenure 82 8.64 3.89 7.79 9.50 Seeking Tenure 35 11.11 6.82 8.76 13.46 Total 117 9.38 5.05 8.45 10.30

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83 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION This study investigated im portant and frequently e ngaged work behaviors of counselor educators working in academic departments housing programs accredited by The Council for the Accred itation of Counseling and Re lated Educational Programs (CACREP). This study was positioned within th e broader context of preparing doctoral students for academic careers, specifically within the couns elor education profession. A review of the literature rev ealed a lack of coherent objec tives, curricular experiences, and structures addressing the preparation of counselor educators (Adams, 2002). Additionally, the literature demonstrated si gnificant contextual changes in faculty, departmental, and institutional settings as well as changes in the delivery of curricular experiences (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2004). Finally, little research had been conducted on counselor educator work behaviors, particularly research attending to work behaviors (Loesch & Vacc, 1993; MohdZain, 1995). This study sought to address this issu e by identifying work behaviors most important to and most frequently engaged by counselor educators. A list of work behaviors was developed based on a literature review and content an alysis of assistant professor counselor educator positions. Base d on this list, and organized according to main counselor educator roles previous ly identified (MohdZain, 1995), the Counselor Educator Work Behavior Instrument was de veloped for this study and administered via the Internet to 1508 counselor educators working in departments housing CACREP-

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84 accredited programs. One hundred sixty two ( 162) participants responded, indicating a 10.74 % response rate. Counselor Educators and CACREP-Accredited Programs Findings indicated the average responde nt was a European-American female, approximately 50 years old, employed full-ti me, having earned te nure and secured the rank of full professor. This average partic ipant earned her doct orate in counselor education, and her most common area of sp ecialization was counselor education and supervision. Her three most common professi onal affiliations were with the American Counseling Association (ACA ), the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES), and Chi Sigma Iota (CSI), and she was both licensed and credentialed as a Nationally Certified Counselor (NCC). The literature and the content analysis of counselor education positions identified two issues relevant to counsel or educator demographics: an aging faculty and a need for diversity (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2004, Maples, 1989, National Board for Certified Counselors, 2000). Participants ranged in ag e between 29 and 75 years, with the average age being 50.95 years. Females ranged be tween 29 and 63 years, and men ranged between 34 to 75 years. The average fema le was 45.79, and the average male was 57.19 years old. If a retirement age of 68 is assu med, and the average respondent was almost 51 years old, then the average respondent could have approximately 17 more years left in their career as a counselor educator. When comparing age with number of years as faculty, current academic rank, and tenure st atus, results indicated almost 40% of respondents been faculty for at least 15 years, 10% longer th an 30 years. Over 61% of respondents had earned tenure, a nd over 65% were at the asso ciate or full professor rank. These data indicated a significant minority of participants was in the middle to later

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85 stages of their academic careers, consistent w ith the literature that supported the need for a continuing supply of higher education facu lty. Yet, a majority of respondents (60%) were in the first half of their academic ca reer, having been employed as faculty from less than 1 to 14 years. This s uggests the counselor education profession may be experiencing the transition from large-scale retirements to wards an insurgence of faculty members in the early stages of their careers. If these findings are representative of the counselor educator population, they demonstrate the need for increased diversit y. Over 75% of respondents were European American. Given that over 9% of respondent s did not report their ethnicity, diverse and traditionally underrepresented ethnic groups comp rised only 15% of the sample. Of the ethnic groups identified, Hispanic Ameri can (3%), Internati onal (2.4%), African American (1.8%), and Multiracial (1.8%) were the most represented. When compared with the overall sample, the average ages were younger for members of diverse ethnic backgrounds. Average ages ranged from 35 to 47 years old, perhaps suggesting an increase in the number of newer minor ity faculty enteri ng the profession. CACREP-Accredited Counselor Education Programs Based on the most frequently represented le vels of demographic program variables, the typical counselor education program was lo cated in the southern region of the United States, within a Carnegie Doctoral/Research Extensive university, offering both masters and doctoral degrees. The typical program ha d 15 faculty members, 193 students, and offered specializations in school counse ling, community counseling, and counselor education and supervision. Certain program variables are worth noti ng and have implications for future counselor educators and current program f aculty. Over 70% of respondents worked in

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86 Carnegie Research-Extensive or Master’s Co llege and University I programs. Such types of institutions may have specific expectations for research, funding, and scholarly productivity. The ways in which programs ar e designed and curriculum delivered appears to be changing to meet the needs of student consumers. A more traditional, full-time, weekday, day program is in the minority. Ra ther, programs are being offered during the evenings, weekends and may be completed on either a full-time or part-time basis. Finally, 31% of respondents working in pr ograms offering distance learning, and 26.7% working in programs housed in multiple sate llite campuses. This has implications for doctoral students as they consider how their fa culty career may be shaped in the years to come, as well as the pace and balance of carrying out the roles within the positions. Factor Analysis A factor analysis was conducted to identif y categories of work behavior important to and frequently engaged in by counselo r educators. A Maximum Likelihood Factor Analysis and Varimax rotation was conducted, and factors were kept with Eigenvalues greater than 1.0. Items were assigned to fact ors with factor loadings greater than .40. The analysis identified 12 factors with items demonstrating conceptual consistency. See Chapter 4, Table 4-9, for th e results of the factor analysis. The following are the 12 categories of work behaviors: Program Administration Clinical Counseling Practice Scholarship Teaching and Mentoring Clinical Supervision Shared Governance Infusing Technology Community Building Consultation Counselor Educator Professional Development

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87 Program Evaluation Research Oversight These categories are consistent with lite rature identifying work common to faculty members in higher education settings (Boice, 1992; Brinkley, Dessa nts, Flamm, Fleming, Forcey, & Rothschild, 1999). A dditionally, they are consiste nt with the functions of faculty within counselor edu cation programs (CACREP, 2001). Average mean item scores for items within each factor were calculated and sorted to determine most important categories of wo rk behaviors. The mean item scores for the corresponding items related to frequency were calculated to determine most frequently engaged categories of work behaviors. Tabl e 5-1 provides a summar y of most important and most frequently engaged categories of work behaviors. Table 5-1 Summary of Most Important a nd Most Frequently Engaged Categories of Work Behaviors Most Important Categories of Work Behaviors Most Frequently Engaged Categories of Work Behaviors Teaching and Mentoring Teaching and Mentoring Clinical Supervision Clinical Supervision Counselor Educator Professional Development Program Administration Scholarship Shared Governance Community Building Counselor Educator Professional Development Program Evaluation Scholarship Program Administration Community Building Shared Governance Program Evaluation Clinical Counseling Practice Infusing Technology Research Oversight Clinical Counseling Practice Infusing Technology Research Oversight Consultation Consultation Results indicated moderate consistency between the importan ce of a category of behaviors and the frequency with which it wa s engaged. It is important to note that

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88 importance and frequency are separate cons tructs. An important behavior can be accomplished in little time, and a less important task may take significantly greater time to complete. It is unknown whether time spent on an activity was sufficient, too frequent, or not frequent enough. Thus, although scholarship was a ve ry important category of work behaviors, it was engaged in less freque ntly than program administration and shared governance. More qualitative, follow-up anal ysis, could investigat e the challenges of balancing these multiple categories within a give n semester or over the course of a career. Effects of Academic Rank, Tenure Stat us, and Carnegie Classification on Importance and Frequency of Engaging in Work Behaviors Multiple, independent, Multivariate Analys is of Variance (MANOVA) revealed no significant interactions between Carnegie Cl assification and Academic Rank or Tenure Status based on importance and frequenc y of engaging in work behaviors. Academic Rank and Carnegie Classification The results indicated significant differ ences in the importance of Scholarship, Program Evaluation, and Resear ch Oversight. Assistant Pr ofessors tended to rank Scholarship as more important than Associate Professors. This finding is consistent with the role scholarship plays in the tenure process for Assist ant Professors. A significant difference was identified between Assistant Professor and Full Professor for Program Evaluation. This is an interesting findi ng, raising the questions of how program evaluation is conducted and the role of all department faculty members in the process. Given the responsibilities involved in seek ing tenure, the program evaluation process may be taken on more by faculty who have co mpleted the tenure process. Significant differences were found between Assistant a nd Full Professors and Associate and Full Professors when ranking the im portance of Research Oversight.

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89 Results indicated significant differences in the importance of Scholarship and Counselor Educator Professional Developm ent within the levels of Carnegie Classification. Not surprisingly, scholars hip is rated as more important for Doctoral/Research University-Extensive facu lty than by counselor educators in Masters Programs. Significant differences existed between Doctoral/Research-Extensive and Doctoral/Research-Intensive and between Do ctoral/Research-Extensive and Masters Programs when rating Counselor Edu cator Professional Development. Significant differences within levels of Academic Rank and Carnegie Classification were found in the frequency in which fa culty members participated in Program Administration, Scholarship, and Counselor Educator Professional Development. Differences within frequency of engaging in scholarship were f ound between Assistant and Associate Professors and between Do ctoral/Research-Extensive and Masters programs. This is consistent with the experien ces of assistant profe ssors seeking tenure as well as the differential expectations for scholarship within doctoral and masters institutions. Tenure Status and Carnegie Classification Significant differences were identified be tween levels of Tenure Status and Carnegie Classifications related to the im portance of work behaviors in the following categories: Clinical Counseling Practice, Sc holarship, Counselor E ducator Professional Development, and Program Evaluation. Consistent with the literature and with findings in previous sections of this study, scholarship is ranked as more important by Assistant Professors than by Associate Professors and by faculty in Research-Extensive institutions than by faculty in Masters programs.

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90 Interestingly, one notable difference was in clinical counseling practice. Faculty in Doctoral-Intensive institutions tended to rate clinical counseling practice as more important than Doctoral-Extensive institutions. Given the balance of expectations within doctoral research-exten sive and intensive programs, it is surprising f aculty members balance those expectations while maintaining their clinical practice. Significant differences were identified be tween levels of Tenure Status and Carnegie Classifications related to the fre quency of engaging in the following categories of work behaviors: Program Administra tion, Scholarship, and Community Building. Most notably, faculty seeking tenure more frequently engage in community building activities than do faculty memb ers who have earned tenure. Implications Counselor Educators Given the findings, it is reasonable to infe r the counselor education profession may be experiencing a shift following a significant nu mber of retirements in which a majority of counselor educators are in the first st ages of their academic careers (i.e., 31 respondents were over 60 years old). This has implications at the departmental, institutional, and professional levels in the areas of faculty development, support in all areas of faculty work life and scholarly produc tivity, and far reaching implications for the generation of new knowledge within the pr ofession. The counseling profession may be entering an era of rebirth, with the potentia l for increased produc tivity and scholarship, impacting the next generation of counseli ng students and stake holders throughout the professional community. Given the findings, it is reasonable to infe r the need for increased diversity and multicultural representation among the counsel or education faculty. Only 15% of the

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91 sample was diverse in ethnicity, well below th eir representation in th e population at large (U. S. Census Bureau, 2003). This has im plications for both departments and the profession. If this sample is consistent with the counselor educat or population, counselor education students rarely expe rience the profession through th e diverse perspectives that are growing more representative of the worl d outside the department. Additionally, this has implications on the counseling professi on. As counselor edu cators become more diverse, this impacts the foci of researc h, publications, and the enhancement of theory and practice. To recruit a more diverse faculty, it must begin at the doctoral level. These findings suggest program faculty recr uit heavily among diverse comm unities, identifying future scholars representing the breadth of our global societies. Counselor Education Programs Counselor education program design and curriculum delivery modes are becoming more flexible, taking advantage of technological advancements. This researcher attends a program in which the majority of courses are offered during the day, during weekdays only. According to respondents in this study, such programs are in the minority. Rather, faculty members are challenged to design programs that balance accreditation and professional standards with the needs of students managing multiple professional and personal roles. An increasing number of pr ograms are offered through distance learning, satellite campuses, with cla sses offered during the eveni ngs and weekends. Doctoral students graduating from more traditional, weekday full-time programs, will need to adapt to more flexible models of curriculum delivery and program design.

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92 Counselor Education Doctoral Students This study has direct implic ations for doctoral students, potentially raising their awareness of the “nuts and bolts of profe ssors at the graduate student level” and demystifying the “well-kept secr ets” that are typically reveal ed after doctoral students have begun their academic careers (Magnuson, 2002). Specifically, these findings can help docto ral students proactively organize their academic experience, empowering them to seek out curricular and experiential opportunities in which they can gain skill in th ese general categories of work behaviors. It would be important to in troduce the factors and correspond ing work behaviors early in a student’s doctoral career. For example, stud ents could seek out c ourses and trainings to prepare them to infuse technology into cu rriculum design and delivery. They could practice infusing technology during supervised teaching experiences. Demonstrated proficiency could be marketed through st udents’ curriculum vitae and presentations during job interviews. In another example, students could seek out opportunities to engage in shared governance w ithin their own departments, colleges and universities, and the broader profession, recognizing the place shared governance has in the career of a faculty member. Even prior to initial enro llment, this study can help inform counseling students considering pursuing an academic career. It can raise awareness of professional expectations, the multiple roles and work be haviors engaged by counselor educators, and help them assess their level of interest in this career opt ion. These findings could also assist candidates in identifying doctoral progr ams. Again utilizing the factor structure, candidates could identify doctora l programs that provide suppor t for students interested in preparing for an academic career.

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93 This study has implications for doctoral students engaging in an academic job search. Throughout the student ’s doctoral career, their experiences and personal preferences can help them identif y the environment that best su its their career goals. They can use these findings to guide and inform their perceptions of expecta tions at institutions based on Carnegie status. Additionally, it wi ll help them articulate differences in importance and frequency of work behaviors of faculty seeking tenur e. In all, doctoral students may have a more clear pictur e of a counselor educator career. Practice of Preparing Fu ture Counselor Educators This study identified work behaviors critical to counselor educat ors. Thus, findings may come as no surprise to faculty working in counselor educati on programs. However, they can help guide program evaluations, pa rticularly evaluations of current doctoral programs. In what ways are doctoral students bei ng socialized in program administration, teaching and mentoring, community buildi ng, shared governance, program evaluation, and research oversight? Are these experiences infused within the doctoral curriculum or are they a part of the hidden curriculum, maintained as well-kept secrets? Using the factor structure as a guide, departments could survey current students and doctoral graduates to assess the degree to which th eir program prepares students for faculty careers. Programs could follow up with their gr aduates and track them through the critical initial years of their career, specifically their tenure process. Based on this study’s findings and any departmental program evalua tions, faculty could pa rtner with their own doctoral students, alumni, campus resources and national initiatives to create programming to build competence in critical faculty work behaviors. Finally, these

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94 findings could help clarify docto ral accreditation standards, he lping identify core areas of counselor educator preparation. Limitations Limitations of this study ex ist and should be taken into account when interpreting the results. Particularly, limitations associ ated with survey design and response rate warrant caution being used when interpreta tions seek to generalize results to the counselor educator population. Survey Design The researcher received several email re sponses indicating pa rticipant confusion interpreting the purpose of th e study and the appropriatene ss of their completing the survey. In the invitation to participate, th e purpose of the study was situated within a broader context of doctoral prep aration of future faculty. Multiple potential participants interpreted the study was only appropriate fo r faculty in departments housing doctoral programs. Several faculty members wrote explaining they did not have a doctoral program in their department and were not appropriate to participate. The researcher attempted to minimize this confusion by clarifying the purpose of the study in the first and second reminder emails. The researcher emphasized the importance of counselor educators from all type s of programs particip ating, regardless of degrees offered. This confusion may have impacted nega tively the response rate; however, it is unknown the significance of this limitation on th e overall response rate Any replications of this study should clearly di fferentiate the context of the issue of faculty preparation and the purpose of the specific study.

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95 Response Rate Invitations to participate in this online survey were distributed via email to 1738 potential participants. Faculty members in academic units housing CACREP-accredited programs were identified by visiting each prog ram’s website and copying and pasting the corresponding email addresses into a list contained with in SurveyMonkey.com. Two hundred thirty (230) potential participants were eliminated from the pool due to nonfunctioning email addresses, individuals who declined to participate, and technical difficulties. Of the 1508 potential participants who received anywhere between one and three invitations to partic ipate, 162 responded, constituting a 10.74% response rate. The response rate was consistent with response ra tes for both mail, online, and email surveys, which can range from 5 to 68% (Alreck & Settle, 1995; Schonlau, Fricker, & Elliott, 2001). Although this response rate falls within acceptable levels, a hi gher response rate is recommended. Timing is one possible explanation for the low response rate. Assuming that faculty members have access to email throughout the year, regardless of whether they are on campus and attempting to control for the hectic pace of the academic year; the research chose to distribute the survey during the summ er, with the initial invitation and first reminder distributed in May and June. Anticip ating the low response rate may be due to the timing, the researcher distributed the s econd and final reminder within the first two weeks of the fall semester. Prior to conducti ng the study, the research er posited potential participants may have had more time and fewe r competing projects, thereby leading to a higher response rate. However, this theory may not be valid. Researchers including counselor educators may want to conduct st udies during the academ ic year and compare response rates.

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96 Recommendations for Future Research While the response rate in this study fe ll within acceptable ranges established within the literature, it is recommended that future replications include a larger sample size. Possible strategies include multiple methods of survey di stribution (e.g., paperbased and Internet-based), di stributing surveys at professi onal conferences sponsored by such organizations as the American Couns eling Association and the Association for Counselor Educators and Supervisors, a nd conducting the study during the traditional academic year when a greater number of counselor educators may respond. This study could serve as the foundation of a research agenda addressing the preparation of future counselor educators. Based on the findings of this study, doctoral counselor education students could be survey ed to assess the degree to which they are prepared to engage in work behaviors critic al to counselor educat ors. Such a study, or a parallel study, could investig ate doctoral programs to asse ss the ways in which students receive training in these work behaviors in preparation for a faculty career. Program evaluations could be conducted at the departmental level as well as the professional level. The Council for the Accred itation of Counseling and Re lated Educational Programs could use these findings to evaluate their accreditati on requirements for doctoral programs. While this study identified critical work be haviors, future studies could identify and evaluate effective strategies for developing competence in these work behaviors. Such research could draw from relevant fields such as teaching and learning, educational psychology, educational administration. Finally, should this study inform co unselor educator preparation, follow-up, longitudinal, outcome-based research c ould be conducted with doctoral students.

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97 Students in a program infusing training in th ese work behaviors could be followed during and after their doctora te. Follow-up surveys could be conducted with counselor educators employing these doctoral graduates, specifically faculty who serve on search committees. The goals could be to identify the merits of faculty preparatio n, the strengths and limitations of strategies of faculty preparat ion, the impact of such training on seeking tenure, the advancement of scholarsh ip and securing funding, and productivity. Summary This study investigated im portant and frequently e ngaged work behaviors of counselor educators working in academic departments housing programs accredited by The Council for the Accredita tion of Counseling and Relate d Educational Programs. An Internet-based survey was distributed to counselor e ducators. Findings indicated important and frequently engaged work behavi ors within twelve conceptual categories: program administration, clinical counse ling practice, scholar ship, teaching and mentoring, clinical supervision, shared governance, infusing technology, community building, consultation, counselor educator professional development, program evaluation, and research oversight. This study has impli cations relevant to counselor educators, counselor education doctoral students, counselor education programs, and the practice of preparing future counselor educators.

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98 APPENDIX A COUNSELOR EDUCATOR WORK BEHAVIOR INSTRUMENT I invite your to participate in a study that will help prepare future generations of counselor educators. This study is in response to previous re search identifying concerns surrounding the degree to which graduate pr ograms prepare doctoral students for academic careers. It compliments the work of national initiatives (e .g., Carnegie Initiative on the Doctorate, Preparing Future Faculty and Re-envisioning the Ph.D.) that support collaborative involvement between institutio ns, academic departments, professional associations, and accrediting bodies. If you would like to participate in this study, please click “Next” at the bottom of the page, and proceed to the survey. Furthe r information about the study is provided in the following paragraphs. Thank you for your consideration. This is a self-administered Internet-based survey. The survey consists of two sections: (I) Importance and Frequency of Work Behaviors and (II) Demographic Information. Section I include s a list of work behaviors, organized alphabetically by major functional domains. You will be asked to rate the relative importance of each work behavior along a Likert-scale (from “Not performed” to “Extremely important”). Also, you will be asked to rate the relative fre quency in wh ich you engage in each work behavior per week during an average academ ic term along a Likert -scale (from “Not performed” to “8+ hours per week”). Sec tion II invites you to provide relevant demographic information about yourself, your institution, and your academic program.

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99 This study should take approximately 15 minut es to complete, and you may complete it at your own convenience. You will be able to ex it from and return to complete the survey at a later time. The study will be available between May 20th and August 20th. There are no anticipated risk s, discomforts, or direct benefits for participation. Participation is voluntary, and there is no co mpensation offered for involvement in this study. Participants have the right to withdraw consent at any time without consequence. Individuals wishing to withdraw consent may delete this email prior to participating in the survey or may close the web browse r during the survey, thus ending their involvement with the study. A participant does not have to answer any survey item that s/he does not want to answer. The identity of individuals involved in th is study will be kept confidential to the extent provided by the law. The data coll ected are kept private and confidential. If you have any questions about this study, please contact Kathleen Fallon (Principal Investigator) or Dr. Peter Sherra rd (Faculty Advisor). Ms. Fallon may be reached via phone at (352) 392-0731, Ext. 224 or via email at kfallon@coe.ufl.edu. Dr. Sherrard may be reached via phone at (352) 392-0731, Ext. 234 or via email at psherrard@coe.ufl.edu. Additionally, questions or concerns about your rights as a participant may be directed to the Univer sity of Florida Institutional Review Board. Members of the UF-IRB may be reached via phone at (352) 392-0433 or via email at irb2@ufl.edu. Please use Protocol #2004U-206 in reference to this study. Thank you for your consideration. If you wish to participate, please click “Next” and proceed to the survey. Kathleen M. Fallon, Doctoral Ca ndidate, Principal Investigator Dr. Peter A.D. Sherrard, Faculty Advisor

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100 Department of Counselor Education University of Florida Protocol #2004-U-206 Section I – Importance and F requency of Work Behaviors For each of the following behaviors, please use the following response scales. In an average academic term, how important is it for you to perform each of the behaviors effectively in your work as a counselor educator? The scale for importance is: (1) Not performed, (2) Not important, (3) Somewhat important, (4) Important, (5) Very important, and (6) Extremely important. In an average academic term, how many hours a week do you perform each work behavior. The scale for frequency is: (1) Not performed), (2) <1 hour, (3) 1-2 hours, (4) 2-5 hours, (5) 5-8 hours, (6) 8+ hours. [The online survey provided pull down menu items for importance and frequency with options corresponding to the scales listed in the above paragraph.] 1. Administration Importance Frequency Administer counseling program Attend faculty meetings Conduct formative evaluation of counselor education program Conduct program accreditation activities Conduct summative evaluation of counselor education program Coordinate advising programs Coordinate practicum and internship activities Coordinate specialization (e.g., School Counseling) program Develop program-related reports Manage a budget Manage grants Participate in curriculum development and evaluation activities Participate in marketing, recruiting, and admissions activities Participate in staffing processes

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101 Supervise faculty and staff members 2. Scholarship Importance Frequency Collaborate in research with other professionals Collect and analyze data Engage in counseling outcome research Engage in counseling process research Engage in data analysis Engage in experimental/l aboratory research Engage in field/observational research Participate in continuing education/skill enhancement Participate in professional conferences Read current professi onal literature Review ethical standards, lega l statutes and regulations Secure and maintain professiona l licensure and credentials Secure external funding (e.g., grants) Write for non-counseling audiences Write to other professionals to maintain professional communications Write for publication in schol arly journals, books, and electronic media 3. Service Importance Frequency Conduct community outreach Engage in professional/comm unity public relations Participate in professional organization activities Participate in university governance Peer review articles Serve on academic or administrative committees Serve on committees in relevant local, state, regional, and national professional organizations Work with student and co mmunity organizations 4. Supervision Importance Frequency Complete written progress and evaluation reports Evaluate practicum and inte rnship counselor trainee’s performance Provide counselor skill development training Provide individual and group supervision Review audio and videotapes Supervise graduate student teaching Supervise graduate student research (e.g., independent study, thesis, dissertation) 5. Teaching and Advising Importance Frequency Chair or serve on masters and doctoral committees Conduct career guidance for students Conduct distance education activities Conduct self-reflection activities on teaching and learning strategies

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102 Develop and revise syllabi Develop elective courses Evaluate and/or grade exams and papers Infuse technology into course design and management Maintain office hours Mentor students in personal development Mentor students in professional development Post course content, class not es, class schedules, and other information on the Internet Prepare lectures, exercises, and experiential activities Review and select textbooks Teach core counseling courses 6. Your Practice of Counseling and Consultation Importance Frequency Assess potential for client to harm self/others Consult with community organizations Counsel clients Develop comprehensive treatment plans Establish counseling goals Evaluate client’s moveme nt toward counseling goals Evaluate client’s need for referral Maintain case notes, records, and/or files Participate in case conferences Provide consultation services for human relationships development Provide consultation services for interpersonal skills training Provide consultation services for professional skill development Section II – Demographic Information Please provide the requested information. 7. Gender Identity Female Male Transgender 8. Ethnicity African American Asian American European American Hispanic American

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103 Native American Pacific Islander American Multiracial (a descendent of more than one of the above) International Other (please specify) 9. Your age (years) 10. Highest degree earned related to your current position: Doctoral degree in counselor education Doctoral degree in cl osely related field Advanced Graduate Study degree in c ounselor education (e.g., CAGS, Ed.S.) Advanced Graduate Study degree in clos ely related field (e.g., CAGS, Ed.S.) Master’s degree in counseling Master’s degree in closely related field 11. Your area(s) of professional speci alization (Check all that apply): Career Counseling (CRC) College Counseling (CLC) Community Counseling (CC) Counseling Psychology (CP) Counselor Education an d Supervision (CES) Gerontological Counseling (GC) Marital, Couple, and Family Counseling/Therapy (MFT/C) Mental Health Counseling (MHC) Rehabilitation Counseling (RC) School Counseling (SC) Student Personnel in Higher Education (SPH) Other (Please specify) 12. Number of years working as a faculty member 13. Current academic rank Assistant Professor Associate Professor Full Professor Professor Emeritus Adjunct Professor Affiliate Professor Visiting Scholar Instructor

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104 14. Tenure status Earned tenure Seeking tenure Contract Not applicable 15. Full or Part-Time couns elor educator status Full-Time Part-Time 16. Hours spent on professional, university-rel ated work activities in a typical week 17. Hours spent on professional private work activities (e.g., clinical practice) in a typical week 18. Percent of total work time in a typical mo nth spent on all professional activities (total must equal 100%) Administration _______ % Counseling and Consultation _______ % Scholarship _______ % Service _______ % Supervision _______ % Teaching and Advising _______ % 19. Professional Affiliations (Check all that apply) American Counseling Association (ACA) American Association of Marriage and Family Therapists (AAMFT) American Mental Health C ounseling Association (AMHCA) American Psychological Association (APA) American Rehabilitation C ounseling Association (ARCA) American School Counseling Association (ASCA) Association for Counselor Edu cation and Supervision (ACES) Chi Sigma Iota (CSI) International Association of Marri age and Family Counselors (IAMFC) 20. Your Licensure(s) and Certificat ion(s) (Check all that apply): Nationally Certifie d Counselor (NCC) NBCC Approved Clinical Supervisor

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105 Licensed License Eligible – Actively Seeking State License 21. Two-letter state abbreviation in which you r institution is located (i.e., Florida = FL, British Columbia = BC) 22. Your institution’s Carnegie classification Doctoral/Research University-Extensive ( 50+ doctoral degree s awarded per year across 15+ disciplines) Doctoral/Research-Intensive (10+ doctoral degrees awarded per year across 3+ disciplines or 20+ doctoral degrees overall) Master’s College and Univers ity I (40+ master’s degrees awarded per year across 3 disciplines) Master’s College and University II (20+ master’s degrees awarded per year) 23. Approximate total number of faculty me mbers in your department (including part-time and full-time faculty) 24. Approximate total number of students in your department (including part-time and full-time students) 25. Degrees offered in your program (Check all that apply) Master of Arts (MA) Master of Science (MS) Master of Education (M.Ed.) Advanced Graduate Study (e.g., CAGS, Ed.S.) Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) Doctor of Education (Ed.D.) Other (Please identify) 26. Program specializations (Check all that apply): Career Counseling (CRC) College Counseling (CLC) Community Counseling (CC) Counseling Psychology (CP) Counselor Education an d Supervision (CES) Gerontological Counseling (GC) Marital, Couple, and Family Counseling/Therapy (MFT/C) Mental Health Counseling (MHC)

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106 Rehabilitation Counseling (RC) School Counseling (SC) Student Personnel in Higher Education (SPH) Other (Please identify) 27. Program accreditations (Check all that apply) American Psychological Association (APA) Commission on Accreditation of Marria ge and Family Therapy Education (COAMFTE) Council for the Accreditation of Counse ling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) Council on Rehabilitati on Education (CORE) None/Not Applicable Other (Please identify) 28. General Program Type Full-time, Weekday, Day Program Part-time, Evening, Weekend Program Both Full-time, Weekday, Day Program & Part-time, Evening, Weekend Program 29. Curriculum delivery mode (check all that apply) Campus-based Distance-learning Satellite campus-based 30. To what extent do you think there should be a professional credential specifically for counselor educators, ref lecting work behaviors such as those identified in this study? No Interest Minimal Interest Neutral Moderate Interest Strong Interest Thank You!

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107 Thank you for taking the time to participate in this survey. If you woul d like to receive a global summary of the results, please check in the box and provide your email address. To close the survey, please click “Done.” 31. Would you like to receive a glob al summary of the results? Yes No 32. If you would like to receive a glob al summary, please provide your email address. Done

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108 APPENDIX B IMPORTANCE OF WORK BEHAVIORS Listed below are the frequencies for each of the possible options per item. The Response Total refers to the number of participants who responded to each item. Key: 1 = Not performed, 2 = Not impor tant, 3 = Somewhat important, 4 = Important, 5 = Very important, 6 = Extremely important 1 2 3 4 5 6 Response Total 1. Administration Administer counseling program 47 1 14 27 35 31 155 Attend faculty meetings 2 6 29 53 42 22 154 Conduct formative evaluation of counselor education program 16 0 14 48 58 17 153 Conduct program accreditation activities 16 1 12 33 45 46 153 Conduct summative evaluation of counselor education program 22 2 12 45 54 14 149 Coordinate advising programs 39 2 14 43 37 18 153 Coordinate practicum and internship activities 26 1 3 18 54 51 153 Coordinate specialization (e.g., School Counseling) program 38 0 9 27 52 28 153 Develop program-related reports 30 6 37 48 22 11 153 Manage a budget 90 3 13 23 12 12 153 Manage grants 64 0 22 38 19 10 153 Participate in curriculum development and evaluation activities 3 0 15 50 60 24 152 Participate in marketing, recruiting, and admissions activities 18 1 14 38 44 37 152 Participate in staffing processes 45 2 16 37 27 24 151 Supervise faculty and staff members 79 1 8 25 23 15 151

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109 1 2 3 4 5 6 Response Total 2. Scholarship Collaborate in research with other professionals 4 0 14 40 60 34 152 Collect and analyze data 5 0 18 46 51 29 149 Engage in counseling outcome research 29 1 16 38 50 14 148 Engage in counseling process research 34 2 12 46 40 14 148 Engage in data analysis 12 1 24 46 44 21 148 Engage in experimental/laboratory research 83 12 20 20 7 6 148 Engage in field/observational research 39 2 21 49 29 8 148 Participate in continuing education/skill enhancement 5 0 12 52 49 31 149 Participate in professional conferences 1 1 11 32 67 37 149 Read current professional literature 0 1 8 38 58 44 149 Review ethical standards, legal statutes and regulations 5 2 19 46 36 41 149 Secure and maintain professional licensure and credentials 6 0 9 23 56 55 149 Secure external funding (e.g., grants) 33 3 32 41 29 11 149 Write for non-counseling audiences 49 13 44 31 10 2 149 Write to other professionals to maintain professional communications 7 4 44 44 38 12 149 Write for publication in scholarly journals, books, and electronic media 1 0 6 27 49 65 148 3. Service Conduct community outreach 10 4 35 47 37 16 149 Engage in professional/community public relations 18 3 35 50 36 6 148 Participate in professional organization activities 2 1 18 49 52 25 147 Participate in university governance 28 9 32 53 19 7 148

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110 1 2 3 4 5 6 Response Total Peer review articles 22 1 25 59 27 15 149 Serve on academic or administrative committees 9 10 34 59 25 11 148 Serve on committees in relevant local, state, regional, and national professional organizations 11 1 22 59 36 19 148 Work with student and community organizations 18 5 37 50 28 10 148 4. Supervision Complete written progress and evaluation reports 21 2 10 42 43 28 146 Evaluate practicum and internship counselor trainee’s performance 15 0 3 17 40 73 148 Provide counselor skill development training 12 1 5 25 46 58 147 Provide individual and group supervision 14 0 2 15 41 76 148 Review audio and videotapes 17 0 8 28 50 46 149 Supervise graduate student teaching 61 1 5 25 37 18 147 Supervise graduate student research (e.g., independent study, thesis, dissertation) 12 0 15 26 47 48 148 5. Teaching and Advising Chair or serve on masters and doctoral committees 27 1 8 26 42 44 148 Conduct career guidance for students 19 1 28 43 42 15 148 Conduct distance education activities 75 9 24 26 9 6 149 Conduct self-reflection activities on teaching and learning strategies 14 2 15 48 38 29 146 Develop and revise syllabi 0 2 7 45 56 38 148 Develop elective courses 36 11 37 34 23 7 148 Evaluate and/or grade exams and papers 0 1 11 37 57 41 147 Infuse technology into course design and management 9 3 36 57 26 15 146 Maintain office hours 3 2 19 38 46 38 146 Mentor students in personal development 9 4 20 42 30 42 147

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111 1 2 3 4 5 6 Response Total Mentor students in professional development 2 2 5 27 54 56 146 Post course content, class notes, class schedules, and other information on the Internet 29 5 46 42 14 10 146 Prepare lectures, exercises, and experiential activities 0 1 1 22 60 62 146 Review and select textbooks 3 3 26 58 40 16 146 Teach core counseling courses 4 0 3 16 49 72 144 6. Your Practice of Counseling and Consultation Assess potential for client to harm self/others 44 0 5 7 22 64 142 Consult with community organizations 36 0 22 39 36 9 142 Counsel clients 56 1 10 16 28 30 141 Develop comprehensive treatment plans 59 3 10 24 34 11 141 Establish counseling goals 54 1 11 15 35 24 140 Evaluate client’s movement toward counseling goals 54 1 8 13 41 23 140 Evaluate client’s need for referral 54 0 15 19 29 23 140 Maintain case notes, records, and/or files 56 0 10 12 32 30 140 Participate in case conferences 56 1 16 36 25 7 141 Provide consultation services for human relationships development 71 2 25 26 9 7 140 Provide consultation services for interpersonal skills training 68 3 21 26 15 7 140 Provide consultation services for professional skill development 45 3 28 29 23 12 140

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112 APPENDIX C FREQUENCY OF ENGAGING IN WORK BEHAVIORS Listed below are frequencies (n) for each of the possible options per item. The Response Total refers to the number of participants who responded to each item. The most frequently selected res ponse is bolded for each item. Key: 1 = Not performed, 2 = <1 hour, 3 = 12 hours, 4 = 2-5 hours, 5 = 5-8 hours, 6 = 8+ hours 1 2 3 4 5 6 Response Total 1. Administration Administer counseling program 47 10 20 28 19 30 154 Attend faculty meetings 4 37 76 20 3 14 154 Conduct formative evaluation of counselor education program 25 66 42 13 3 3 152 Conduct program accreditation activities 23 57 49 11 6 6 152 Conduct summative evaluation of counselor education program 37 73 29 5 3 2 149 Coordinate advising programs 49 31 39 23 4 7 153 Coordinate practicum and internship activities 38 20 33 31 13 15 150 Coordinate specialization (e.g., School Counseling) program 47 22 37 21 9 14 150 Develop program-related reports 37 65 28 15 4 3 152 Manage a budget 101 29 10 5 0 3 148 Manage grants 73 31 23 10 2 8 147 Participate in curriculum development and evaluation activities 7 56 58 14 10 7 152 Participate in marketing, recruiting, and admissions activities 21 44 61 13 1 10 150 Participate in staffing processes 48 53 32 11 1 3 148

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113 1 2 3 4 5 6 Response Total Supervise faculty and staff members 88 17 27 9 3 3 147 2. Scholarship Collaborate in research with other professionals 5 37 51 28 10 19 150 Collect and analyze data 11 62 39 14 9 14 149 Engage in counseling outcome research 46 48 32 10 2 7 145 Engage in counseling process research 55 45 26 12 2 5 145 Engage in data analysis 20 64 36 11 4 11 146 Engage in experimental/laboratory research 114 22 3 1 1 1 142 Engage in field/observational research 57 41 26 10 4 8 146 Participate in continuing education/skill enhancement 5 52 66 9 7 10 149 Participate in professional conferences 2 70 48 7 7 15 149 Read current professional literature 0 27 68 31 7 16 149 Review ethical standards, legal statutes and regulations 9 94 28 8 7 3 149 Secure and maintain professional licensure and credentials 10 94 28 7 2 7 148 Secure external funding (e.g., grants) 63 41 25 9 4 5 147 Write for non-counseling audiences 72 45 17 8 1 2 145 Write to other professionals to maintain professional communications 10 69 41 15 8 5 148 Write for publication in scholarly journals, books, and electronic media 4 16 52 27 21 27 147 3. Service Conduct community outreach 15 64 36 13 10 5 143 Engage in professional/community public relations 30 69 28 9 3 4 143 Participate in professional organization activities 5 53 52 18 8 9 145

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114 1 2 3 4 5 6 Response Total Participate in university governance 43 36 31 19 8 7 144 Peer review articles 40 48 33 8 5 10 144 Serve on academic or administrative committees 13 34 55 26 5 12 145 Serve on committees in relevant local, state, regional, and national professional organizations 31 40 43 18 6 7 145 Work with student and community organizations 35 49 36 15 3 7 145 4. Supervision Complete written progress and evaluation reports 24 51 39 13 10 7 144 Evaluate practicum and internship counselor trainee’s performance 20 14 50 37 9 16 146 Provide counselor skill development training 20 17 44 31 14 20 146 Provide individual and group supervision 17 3 39 38 22 27 146 Review audio and videotapes 21 11 41 49 9 16 147 Supervise graduate student teaching 73 24 27 15 2 3 144 Supervise graduate student research (e.g., independent study, thesis, dissertation) 18 21 43 33 17 16 148 5. Teaching and Advising Chair or serve on masters and doctoral committees 31 17 50 23 9 16 146 Conduct career guidance for students 25 62 40 10 6 5 148 Conduct distance education activities 100 11 20 7 3 3 144 Conduct self-reflection activities on teaching and learning strategies 16 60 44 16 6 3 145 Develop and revise syllabi 0 77 46 10 9 5 147 Develop elective courses 61 55 14 5 4 5 144 Evaluate and/or grade exams and papers 0 20 47 49 13 17 146 Infuse technology into course design and management 18 57 41 20 5 4 145 Maintain office hours 3 3 18 63 24 35 146

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115 1 2 3 4 5 6 Response Total Mentor students in personal development 11 45 46 27 10 7 146 Mentor students in professional development 2 36 50 33 10 15 146 Post course content, class notes, class schedules, and other information on the Internet 45 53 26 14 3 3 144 Prepare lectures, exercises, and experiential activities 0 7 35 62 22 20 146 Review and select textbooks 3 94 36 8 2 2 145 Teach core counseling courses 8 1 4 42 46 43 144 6. Your Practice of Counseling and Consultation Assess potential for client to harm self/others 49 52 18 8 2 5 134 Consult with community organizations 42 57 23 10 3 1 136 Counsel clients 58 14 16 19 9 15 131 Develop comprehensive treatment plans 59 32 25 3 5 5 129 Establish counseling goals 54 39 26 2 1 6 128 Evaluate client’s movement toward counseling goals 51 37 28 3 2 6 127 Evaluate client’s need for referral 52 53 15 2 2 4 128 Maintain case notes, records, and/or files 53 26 32 7 5 5 128 Participate in case conferences 56 32 29 7 3 2 129 Provide consultation services for human relationships development 74 31 14 6 1 1 127 Provide consultation services for interpersonal skills training 67 36 16 4 4 2 129 Provide consultation services for professional skill development 47 41 30 7 3 4 132

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118 Hoffer, T. B., Sederstrom, S., Selfa, L., Welch, V., Hess, M., Brown, S., et al. (2003). Doctorate recipients from United St ates universities: Summary report 2002 Chicago: National Opinion Research Center. Hollis, J. W., & Dodson, T. A. (2000). Counselor preparation: 1999-2001: Programs, faculty, trends (10th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: A ccelerated Development (Taylor & Francis) and National Board for Certified Counselors. Houston, W. R., & Howsam R. B. (Eds.). (1972). Competency-based teacher education: Progress, problems, and prospects Chicago, IL: Science Research Associates, Inc. Hyland, T. (1993). Professional development and competence-based education. Educational Studies, 19 (1), 123-129. Kezar, A. J.(2000). Faculty: ERIC Trends, 1999-2000 Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education and Geor ge Washington University, Graduate School of Education and Human Development. Loesch, L. C., & Vacc, N. A. (1993). A work behavior analysis of professional counselors Greensboro, NC; Muncie, IN: Nationa l Board of Certified Counselors; Accelerated Development, Inc. Mager, R. F. (1997). Preparing instructional objectives: A critical tool in the development of effective instruction (3rd ed.). Atlanta, GA: The Center for Effecive Performance. Magner, D. K. (1999). The graying professoriate. Chronicle of Higher Education, 46 (2), A18-A19. Magnuson, S. (2002). New assistant professors of counselor education: Their 1st year. Counselor Education & Supervision, 41 (4), 306-320. Magnuson, S., Norem, K., Haberstroh-Burke, S., Zirkle, D. S., & Henderson, N. J. (2001). New assistant professors of couns elor education: Their preparation and their induction. Counselor Education & Supervision, 40 (3), p. 220. Maples, M. F. (1989). The counselor educat or crunch: Anatomy of a faculty search. Counselor Education & Supervision, 29 94-101. Maples, M. F., Altekruse, M. K., & Test a, A. M. (1993). Counselor education 2000: Extinction or distinction? Counselor Education & Supervision, 33 47-52. Maples, M. F., & Macari, D. P. (1998). The c ounselor educator crunch revisited: A status report. Counselor Education & Supervision, 38 (1), p. 52. Mcguire, M. D., & Price, J. A. (1989, May 1989). Faculty replacement needs for the next 15 years: A similated attrition model. Paper presented at the Annual Forum of the Association for Institutional Research, Baltimore, MD.

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119 Mintz, L. B. (1992). Assistant profes sor: Paranoid or self-preserving? The Counseling Psychologist, 20 39-46. MohdZain, A. Z. (1995). Counselor education professo riate in CACREP accredited counselor preparation programs: A role analysis. Unpublished Dissertation, Kent State University. National Association of Graduate an d Professional Students. (2001a). The 2000 national doctoral program survey Retrieved November 17, 2002, from http://survey.nagps.org National Association of Graduate and Professional Students. (2001b). Preliminary executive summary of the National Doctoral Program Survey Washington, DC: National Association of Graduate and Professional Students. National Board for Certified Counselor s. (2000). Gracefully aging at NBCC. The National Certified Counselor, 17 (1), 1-2. Nerad, M., & Cerney, J. (1999). From rumors to facts: Career outcomes of English Ph.D.s. The Communicator (Fall). Nyquist, J., & Woodford, B. (2000). Re-envisioning the Ph.D.: What concerns do we have? from http://www.grad.washington.edu/envisi on/project_resources/concerns.html Olsen, D. (1993). Work satisfaction and stress in the first and third year of academic appointment. Journal of Higher Education, 64 453-471. Olsen, D., & Crawford, L. (1998). A five-year study of junior faculty expectations about their work. Review of Higher Education, 22 39-54. Paulson, K. (2001). An annotated bibliography on competencies. New Directions for Institutional Research, 110 (Summer), 97-111. Preparing Future Faculty. (2003). Welcome to the website for th e preparing future faculty program Retrieved 5/1/03, 2003, from h ttp://www.preparing-faculty.org Re-envisioning the Ph.D. (2002). The Ph.D.: A tapestry of change for the 21st Century: Summary of initiatives Retrieved December 17, 2002, from http://www.grad.washington.edu/envi sion/resources/tapestry_init.html Reynolds, M., & Salters, M. (1995). Models of competence and teacher training. Cambridge Journal of Education, 25 (3), 349-360. Rice, R. E. (1996). Rethinking faculty careers: Heeding new voices. Educational Record, 76 (25-26).

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120 Sanderson, A., & Dugoni, B. (1999). Summary report 1997: Doctor ate recipients from United States universities Chicago: National Opin ion Research Center. Schonlau, M., Fricker, R., D., & Elliott, M. N. (2002). Conducting research surveys via e-mail and the web Santa Monica, CA: Rand. Seidel, L. F., Benassi, V. A., & Richards, H. J. (1999). College teaching as a professional field of study: The New Hampshire model .Unpublished manuscript. Smith, S. J., & Pedersen-Gallegos, L. (2001). The careers and work of Ph.D. physical scientists: Not simply academic Unpublished manuscript. Sorcinelli, M. D. (1992). New and junior faculty stress: Research and responses. In M. D. Sorcinelli & A. E. Austin (Eds.), New Directions for Teaching and Learning (Vol. 50, pp. 27-37). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Spady, W. G. (1978). The concept and impli cations of competency-based education. Educational Leadership (October), 16-22. Sweeney, T. J. (2003). Counselin g: Milestones and history make rs. In J. D. West, C. J. Osborn & D. L. Bubenzer (Eds.), Leaders and legacies: Contributions to the profession of counseling New York: Brunner-Routledge. The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. (2003). Preparing Stewards of the Discipline Retrieved December 8, 2003, from http://www.carnegiefoundati on.org/CID/stewards.htm The Council for the Accred itation of Counseling and Re lated Educational Programs (CACREP). (2001). The 2001 Standards from http://www.counseling.org /CACREP/2001standards700.htm The Council for the Accred itation of Counseling and Re lated Educational Programs (CACREP). (2003). Directory of Accredited Programs-Updated May 2003 Retrieved 4/29/04, 2004, from http://www.counseling.org/site/PageServer?pagename=cacrep The Responsive Ph.D. (2004). Activities: The Responsi ve PhD: Sectors' forum Retrieved April 30, 2004, from http://www.woodrow.or g/responsivephd/forum_synopsis.html Tierney, W. G. (1997). Organizational socialization in higher education. Journal of Higher Education, 68 1-16. Tierney, W. G., & Bensimon, E. M. (1996). Promotion and tenure: Community and socialization in academe Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

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121 U. S. Census Bureau (2003). Annual Estim ates of the Population by Race Alone and Hispanic or Latino Origin for the United States and States: July 1, 2003. Retrieved November 24, 2004, from http://www.cen sus.gov/popest/states/asrh/SC-EST200304.html. U.S. Census Bureau. (Date Unknown). Table 11. 1990 Census redistributed occupation data compared to Census 2000 occupati on data, Using the categories found on Census 2000 summary files 3 and 4 Retrieved April 8, 2004, 2004, from http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/ 10index/pdf10/techtab11.pdf U. S. Office of Personnel Management. (2003). Delegated examining operations handbook Retrieved July 21, 2003, from http://www.opm.gov/deu/handbook_2003 U.S. Department of Labor. (1991). Dictionary of Occupational Titles Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor. Vacc, N. A. (1989). An occupational anal ysis of counselors working with oncology patients. Counselor Education & Supervision, 29 102-110. Weidman, J. C., Twale, D. J., & Stein, E. L. (2001). Socialization of graduate and professional students in higher e ducation: A perilous passage? New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Weitz, L. J., Anchor, K. N., & Percy, R. L. (1976). Competency-based evaluation for selecting a counselor educator. Counselor Education & Supervision, 16 (1), 53-58. Whitty, G., & Willmott, E. (1991). Competen ce-based teacher education: Approaches and issues. Cambridge Journal of Education, 21 (3), 309-319. Zimpfer, D. G. (1993). A comparison of docto ral graduates in counselor education and counseling psychology. Counselor Education & Supervision, 32 227-240. Zimpfer, D. G. (1996). Five-year followup of doctoral grad uates in counseling. Counselor Education & Supervision, 35 218-229. Zimpfer, D. G., Cox, J. A., West, J. D., B ubenzer, D. L., & Brooks, D. K., Jr. (1997). An examination of counselor prep aration doctoral program goals. Counselor Education & Supervision, 36 (4), p. 318.

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122 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Kathleen McCann Fallon was born and raised in Rhode Island. She received her undergraduate education at Mount Holyoke College and Salve Regina University, graduating Magna Cum Laude from Salve with a Bachelor of Arts in Psychology and Religious Studies. She pursued graduate studies in counselor education at the University of Florida, completing Master of Education and Education Sp ecialist degrees in Marriage and Family Therapy. For 3 years, she worked in community agency settings, specializing in crisis intervention and substance-abus e counseling. In 1999, sh e returned to the Department of Counselor Education at the Univ ersity of Florida to pursue a doctorate in Counselor Education and Supe rvision, with a specializati on in counselor education. During her doctoral studies, she continued with clinical work, establishing a private practice, and completing a yearlong clinical internship in career counseling at the University of Florida Career Resource Ce nter. She also worked as the Admissions Coordinator for the Departme nt of Counselor Education. In July 2004, she joined the Counselor Education faculty at the Univers ity of Florida as an Assistant Scholar. Responsible for overseeing the admissions pr ocess and the practicum and internship program, this position integrates her passion for teaching, administration, supervision, advising, mentoring, and counseling.


Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0008328/00001

Material Information

Title: Work-Behavior Analysis of Counselor Educators in CACREP-Accredited Programs
Physical Description: 134 p.
Creator: Fallon, Kathleen M. ( Dissertant )
Sherrard, Peter A. D. ( Thesis advisor )
Smith-Adcock, Sondra ( Reviewer )
Shehan, Constance L. ( Reviewer )
Loesch, Larry ( Reviewer )
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Counselor Education thesis, Ph.D
Academic, analysis, behavior, careers, counselor, doctoral, faculty, student, work
Dissertations, Academic -- UF -- Counselor Education

Notes

Abstract: My study investigated important and frequently engaged work behaviors of counselor educators working in academic departments housing programs accredited by the Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP). An Internet-based survey was distributed to counselor educators. Findings indicated important and frequently engaged work behaviors within twelve conceptual categories: program administration, clinical counseling practice, scholarship, teaching and mentoring, clinical supervision, shared governance, infusing technology, community building, consultation, counselor-educator professional development, program evaluation, and research oversight. My study has implications relevant to counselor educators, counselor-education doctoral students, counselor education programs, and the practice of preparing future counselor educators.
General Note: Title from title page of source document.
General Note: Document formatted into pages; contains 134 pages.
General Note: Includes vita.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2004.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0008328:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0008328/00001

Material Information

Title: Work-Behavior Analysis of Counselor Educators in CACREP-Accredited Programs
Physical Description: 134 p.
Creator: Fallon, Kathleen M. ( Dissertant )
Sherrard, Peter A. D. ( Thesis advisor )
Smith-Adcock, Sondra ( Reviewer )
Shehan, Constance L. ( Reviewer )
Loesch, Larry ( Reviewer )
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Counselor Education thesis, Ph.D
Academic, analysis, behavior, careers, counselor, doctoral, faculty, student, work
Dissertations, Academic -- UF -- Counselor Education

Notes

Abstract: My study investigated important and frequently engaged work behaviors of counselor educators working in academic departments housing programs accredited by the Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP). An Internet-based survey was distributed to counselor educators. Findings indicated important and frequently engaged work behaviors within twelve conceptual categories: program administration, clinical counseling practice, scholarship, teaching and mentoring, clinical supervision, shared governance, infusing technology, community building, consultation, counselor-educator professional development, program evaluation, and research oversight. My study has implications relevant to counselor educators, counselor-education doctoral students, counselor education programs, and the practice of preparing future counselor educators.
General Note: Title from title page of source document.
General Note: Document formatted into pages; contains 134 pages.
General Note: Includes vita.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2004.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0008328:00001


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WORK-BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS OF COUNSELOR EDUCATORS IN
CACREP-ACCREDITED PROGRAMS















By

KATHLEEN M. FALLON


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2004

































Copyright 2004

by

Kathleen M. Fallon































This dissertation is dedicated to my family, friends, teachers, students, and colleagues
who inspire and nurture my creativity, questioning, inquiry, love of learning, and my
personal and professional development.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I offer thanks to those who inspired, challenged, and nurtured me through this

process. Thanks go to my doctoral committee for their guidance and encouragement. I am

grateful to Dr. Sondra Smith-Adcock for her mentorship. It has been a gift to witness Dr.

Connie Shehan's passion for teaching and learning. I appreciate Dr. Larry Loesch's

commitment to the education of counselors and his attending to the professional

development of future faculty. Finally, I am indebted to Dr. Peter Sherrard for generously

sharing his time, ideas, and support. Without fail, I left our lunches at Joe's with

note-filled napkins and more questions than answers.

I am grateful to friends, colleagues, and students for their support and the many

ways in which they nurtured my passion as a counselor educator and scholar.

Extraordinary thanks go to Candy Spires and Patty Bruner for their limitless support,

encouragement, and tenacious reminders to finish this dissertation! To my fellow doctoral

students, there is comfort in the shared journey. Particularly, I am in awe of Lyn

Goodwin and Ana Puig for how they masterfully model the quintessential

scholar-practitioner. I am inspired by how they embody the art and science of scholarship

at its finest. My deep gratitude goes to Dave and Brian Marshall for their guidance with

data analysis. With what began as the most challenging aspect of this process, they

helped me discover the adventure and fun within data analysis. Miraculously, with

recognizing the fun came understanding more about statistical analysis than I ever

expected to know. It is no understatement to comply with their one request to document









that the Marshall brothers are indeed "Freakin' Geniuses"! I look forward to seeing how

my doctoral student colleagues create our next phases of life. My many friends who

extended their shoulders and moments of relaxation, you provided the colorful backdrop

to these exciting years.

Finally, I thank my immediate and extended family, who shared their gifts and

resources. Although they often wondered if I would be forever a student, they never

stopped believing in me. To my brother, Andrew M. Fallon, I extend thanks for his

limitless artistry and creative inspiration. I thank my mother, Helen B. Fallon, for

modeling meticulous organizational skills. I am indebted to my father, John S. Fallon (a

fellow counselor, healer, and professor) for his gift of wisdom. Finally, my life partner,

Elaine J. Casquarelli, blessed me with her challenge to put my money where my mouth

was, and by nurturing me to discover my best self.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

LIST OF TABLES ......................................... .................. ix

ABSTRACT ........ .............. ............. .. ...... .......... .......... xii

CHAPTER

1 IN TR OD U CTION ............................................... .. ......................... ..

N eed for the Stu dy ......................................................... ........................ .. 3
Purposes and Significance of the Study.............................................. .................. 5
Central Theoretical Fram ew orks ............................................ .......................... 6
G uiding R research Q uestions............................................................................. 7
D definition of T erm s ................. ................................ ........ ........ .......... .......
C om p eten cies ....................................................... 8
C counselor E education ................... .... .......................... .. ......... ............ .....
Counselor Educator ................................................ .... ................ .9
W ork B behavior ..................................................................... 10
W ork B behavior A analysis ................................................... ....... ............... 11
O organization of the Stu dy ................................................................ ..................... 11

2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE .................................... .......................... ........ 12

The Professoriate: A n O verview ............... .... ......... ........... ............... .... 12
Preparing the Professoriate Problems, Needs, and Interventions............................16
Purpose and Objectives of Doctoral Education............................................ 16
K ey Problem s and N eeds.................................................................................. 16
Prior Interventions ................ ........ .... ............... .. ..................... 19
Socialization and Competency-Based Frameworks as Interventions.........................24
Work-Behavior Analysis: A Foundational Step toward Change.............................29

3 M E T H O D O L O G Y ............................................................................ ................... 32

Sam pling Procedures ...................... .................... ................. .... ....... 32
P population .................................................................................................. ..... 33
Instrum ent Developm ent .................................. .....................................34
In stru m ent ...................................... .............................. ................ 3 7









D ata C collection ......................... ... ....................... ................. 38
Research Questions, Hypotheses, and Data Analysis ......................................43

4 R E S U L T S .......................................................................... 4 8

Demographic Characteristics of Counselor Educators in CACREP-accredited
P rog ram s ............................................................................ 4 9
Sam ple D em graphics ....................................................................... .. .. ... ...............49
Profiles of CACREP-accredited Counselor Education Departments.......................53
F acto r A n aly sis .............. .............. ........... ...... ................... ................ 5 6
Im portance of W ork B ehaviors ......................... ... ........................ ................64
Frequency of Engaging in W ork Behaviors ..................... ........... ......................65
Interactions Among Academic Rank, Carnegie Classification, and Importance of
W ork B behaviors .................... ...... ..... ..... ... ......................... ............. 66
Interaction Among Academic Rank, Carnegie Classification, and Frequency of
Engaging in W ork Behaviors ....... ............. ... ...... .. ... .................. 71
Interaction Between Tenure Status, Carnegie Classification, and Importance of
W ork Behaviors ................. ... .... ....... .... ........ ...............75
Interaction Between Tenure Status, Carnegie Classification, and Frequency of
Engaging in Work Behaviors..................................................... 79

5 D ISCU SSIO N ......... ..... ....... ......... ....................................... 83

Counselor Educators and CACREP-Accredited Programs .......................................84
CACREP-Accredited Counselor Education Programs ....................................85
F actor A analysis .............. ........ ........ .................. .... .. ... .................. 86
Effects of Academic Rank, Tenure Status, and Carnegie Classification on
Importance and Frequency of Engaging in Work Behaviors ...............................88
Academic Rank and Carnegie Classification ............................................... 88
Tenure Status and Carnegie Classification......................................89
Im p location s ........................................................................... 9 0
Counselor Educators ............. ............. .......... ...... ...... ........ ............... 90
Counselor Education Program s ........................................ ....................... 91
Counselor Education Doctoral Students.......................... ..................92
Practice of Preparing Future Counselor Educators ................ .............. 93
L im itatio n s ...................... .. ............. .. ....................................................9 4
S u rv ey D e sig n ............................................................................................... 9 4
R response R ate ...................... ......................................................................... 95
Recommendations for Future Research.................... ...........................96
S u m m ary ...................... .. .. ......... .. .. ................................................. 9 7

APPENDIX

A COUNSELOR EDUCATOR WORK BEHAVIOR INSTRUMENT.....................98

B IMPORTANCE OF WORK BEHAVIORS ............. ..................... ....108









C FREQUENCY OF ENGAGING IN WORK BEHAVIORS ....................................112

L IST O F R E FE R E N C E S ......................................................................... ................... 116

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .............................................................. ...............122



















































viii
















LIST OF TABLES


Table page

4-1 Item Response Rates for Participant Demographic Variables (Total N=162).........50

4-2 Participant Demographics Gender Identity and Ethnicity................................50

4-3 Participant Demographics Age, Age & Gender Identity.................. ............51

4-4 Participant Demographics -Age & Ethnicity ............. ..........................................51

4-5 Participant Demographics Professional Characteristics.......................................52

4-6 Item Response Rates for Department Demographic Variables (N=162).................54

4-7 Department Demographic Variables ............................ ........ ............. .................. 54

4-8 Department Demographic Variables- Number of Faculty and Students ..............55

4-9 R results of Factor A nalysis.............................................. .............................. 57

4-10 Most Important Work Behaviors Average Item Means by Factor........................64

4-11 Most Frequently Engaged Work Behaviors Average Item Means by Factor.......65

4-12 Summary of Significant Main Effects for Importance of Work Behaviors on
Academic Rank x Carnegie Classification..................... ...................... 68

4-13 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Academic Rank on the
Im portance of Scholarship .............................................. ............................. 68

4-14 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Carnegie Classification on
the Im portance of Scholarship........................................................ ................69

4-15 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Carnegie Classification on
the Importance of Counselor Educator Professional Development .......................69

4-16 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Academic Rank on the
Importance of Program Evaluation .............. .................................... ............... 70

4-17 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Academic Rank on the
Im portance of R research Oversight.................................. .............................. ........ 71









4-18 Summary of Significant Main Effects for Frequency of Engaging in Work
Behaviors on Academic Rank x Carnegie Classification...........................72

4-19 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Carnegie Classification on
the Frequency of Engaging in Program Administration ........................................73

4-20 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Academic Rank on the
Frequency of Engaging in Scholarship ........................................ ............... 73

4-21 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Carnegie Classification on
the Frequency of Scholarship............................. ........................... ...... ......... 74

4-22 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Carnegie Classification on
the Frequency of Engaging in Counselor Educator Professional Development......74

4-23 Summary of Significant Main Effects for Importance of Work Behaviors on
Tenure Status x Carnegie Classification ...................................... ............... 76

4-24 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Carnegie Classification on
the Importance of Clinical Counseling Practice........................................... 77

4-25 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Tenure Status on the
Im portance of Scholarship .............................................. ............................. 77

4-26 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Carnegie Classification on
the Im portance of Scholarship........................................................ ............... 77

4-27 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Carnegie Classification on
the Importance of Counselor Educator Professional Evaluation ...........................78

4-28 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Tenure Status on the
Im portance of Program Evaluation ................................. ...................................... 78

4-29 Summary of Significant Main Effects for Frequency of Engaging in Work
Behaviors on Tenure Status x Carnegie Classification ........................................80

4-30 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Carnegie Classification on
the Frequency of Engaging in Program Administration ...............................81

4-31 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Tenure Status on the
Frequency of Engaging in Scholarship ........................................ .....................81

4-32 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Carnegie Classification on
the Frequency of Engaging in Scholarship ................................... ..................82

4-33 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Tenure Status on the
Frequency of Engaging in Community Building ....... ......... ..............................82









5-1 Summary of Most Important and Most Frequently Engaged Categories of
W ork Behaviors....................................................................... ....... ...... 87















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

WORK-BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS OF COUNSELOR EDUCATORS IN
CACREP-ACCREDITED PROGRAMS

By

Kathleen M. Fallon

December 2004

Chair: Peter A. D. Sherrard
Major Department: Counselor Education

My study investigated important and frequently engaged work behaviors of

counselor educators working in academic departments housing programs accredited by

the Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs

(CACREP). An Internet-based survey was distributed to counselor educators. Findings

indicated important and frequently engaged work behaviors within twelve conceptual

categories: program administration, clinical counseling practice, scholarship, teaching

and mentoring, clinical supervision, shared governance, infusing technology, community

building, consultation, counselor-educator professional development, program evaluation,

and research oversight. My study has implications relevant to counselor educators,

counselor-education doctoral students, counselor education programs, and the practice of

preparing future counselor educators.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Historically, the doctoral degree has been the prerequisite educational credential for

an academic career, particularly for professors holding graduate faculty status in research

universities. Accreditation standards for counselor education programs, developed by the

Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs

(CACREP) (Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational

Programs, 2001) require an earned doctorate for full-time faculty. The purpose of this

degree is to prepare graduates who will advance the knowledge base of their specific

disciplines; often through academic careers in research, teaching, and service to their

profession and the public at large. In particular, counselor-education doctoral programs

prepare graduates for careers as advanced mental-health clinicians, administrators, and

counselor educators (CACREP, 2001).

A review of the literature reveals a lack of coherent objectives, curricular

experiences, and structures that specifically address the preparation of doctoral students

who are competent to perform work behaviors expected of counselor educators (Adams,

2002). One new counselor educator reported, "better preparation in the nuts and bolts of

professors at the graduate student level would be most helpful. It seems there are

well-kept secrets which are only revealed after you start work" (Magnuson, 2002).

These review findings are consistent across the nation and across disciplines (Golde

& Dore, 2001; Nerad & Cerney, 1999; Smith & Pedersen-Gallegos, 2001). While

doctoral programs are tasked with preparing future faculty, there appears to be a gap in









the manner in which that preparation occurs (Golde & Dore, 2001). Recently, academic

programs, disciplines, professional organizations, and national initiatives have responded

to the problem of insufficient training of future faculty (e.g., Preparing Future Faculty,

Carnegie Initiative on the Doctorate, and Re-Envisioning the Ph.D.).

In addition to a lack of clarity in structuring preparation programs, the literature

showed significant contextual changes in faculty, departmental and institutional settings,

and the delivery of curricular experiences (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2004). Faculty

retirements, the demand placed on independent funding sources, and the immersion of

technology in program delivery are influencing the expectations and functions of

counselor educators entering the profession in the new millennium. Related to this, little

research has been conducted on counselor-educator work behaviors, particularly research

attending to technology work behaviors (Loesch & Vacc, 1993; MohdZain, 1995).

The purpose of my study was to identify counselor-educator work behaviors that

comprise the various duties expected of this position. I sought to discover differences in

importance or frequency of work behaviors engaged within diverse academic units and

institutional settings. This information has direct implications for doctoral students,

faculty, academic programs, and the counselor-education profession. In particular, work

behaviors can form the structural foundation for developing curricular experiences

designed to prepare future counselor educators. I conducted an Internet-based

work-behavior analysis to address questions based on the following areas: (1) work

behaviors, (2) counselor educator demographics, and (3) program and institutional

demographics.









Need for the Study

National initiatives and research studies have identified six issues critical to faculty

preparation. First, doctoral students are not sufficiently socialized into the academic

profession (Austin, 2002; Gaff, Pruitt-Logan, & Weibl, 2000; Gaff, 2002; Golde & Dore,

2001; Nerad & Cerney, 1999) Second, students lack awareness of the multiple duties and

responsibilities expected of a faculty member (Adams, 2002; Austin, 2002; Golde &

Dore, 2001; Magnuson, 2002; National Association of Graduate and Professional

Students, 2001; Nerad & Cerney, 1999; Smith & Pedersen-Gallegos, 2001; Sorcinelli,

1992). Doctoral-program faculty are encouraged to ". .help their students develop the

skills and capacities they need to survive the first few years of an academic appointment

and to meet the expectations and tenure requirements of different types of institutions"

(Adams, 2002). However, results of research with new counselor educators reveal

inconsistent faculty preparation (Magnuson, 2002).

A slow-dying myth assumes content knowledge is sufficient preparation for higher

education teaching. A third issue is the inadequate preparation to teach (Adams, 2002;

Austin, 2002; Boice, 1992; Gaff, 2002; Golde & Dore, 2001; Magnuson, 2002;

Magnuson, Norem, Haberstroh-Burke, Zirkle, & Henderson, 2001; National Association

of Graduate and Professional Students, 2001; Nerad & Cerney, 1999; Seidel, Benassi, &

Richards, 1999). Doctoral students are immersed in discipline-specific curricular

experiences, complemented by preparation in conducting research. However, their

programs of study do not adequately address such areas as learning theory, curriculum

design, departmental service responsibilities, and understanding university systems and

policies (Adams, 2002; Austin, 2002; Golde & Dore, 2001; Magnuson, 2002).









Fourth, across disciplines, apparently no structured faculty-preparation programs

are seamlessly integrated with courses and curricular experiences (Austin, 2002; Gaff,

2002). A fifth issue concerns implications for graduates in the job market. There is a

mismatch among graduate training, faculty responsibilities, and career expectations of

doctoral students pursuing faculty positions (Adams, 2002; Austin, 2002; Boice, 1992;

Gaff, 2002; Golde & Dore, 2001; Magnuson et al., 2001; Maples, 1989; Maples,

Altekruse, & Testa, 1993; Maples & Macari, 1998). Many doctoral graduates expect to

continue in their mentors' footsteps, pursuing careers at research-extensive institutions.

However, these positions are few compared to the number of clinician-focused masters-

granting institutions emphasizing teaching and service.

Finally, there is a need for research and empirical evidence of best practices in

faculty preparation, particularly within the Counselor Education discipline (Gaff, 2002).

Details of work behaviors of counselor educators are unknown. One occupational

analysis of counselor educators was conducted almost 10 years ago (MohdZain, 1995).

The purpose of that study was to investigate perceptions of relative time spent performing

common counselor educator roles. MohdZain's study contributed to understanding

common domains of responsibility (i.e., administration, advising, consultation,

counseling, scholarship, service, supervision, and teaching). However, it did not explore

specific components and elements of these domains. It also did not reflect the growing

trend toward faculty infusing technology into counselor-education curricula and program

delivery.









Purposes and Significance of the Study

Students are not receiving comprehensive training preparing them to perform work

behaviors common to counselor educators. To design such programs, it is important to

identify common work behaviors.

My study was based on the assumption that within CACREP-accredited doctoral

programs, it is the Counselor Education department's responsibility to prepare doctoral

students to "master the knowledge and skills to practice effectively" as counselor

educators (CACREP, 2001). According to CACREP standards (2001), this includes

curricular and mentoring experiences in instructional theory and methods, teaching,

supervision, professional writing, professional development, and service.

The purpose of my study was to identify critical work behaviors relevant to

counselor educators working in masters' and doctoral-granting institutions. Faculty can

use these results to help focus comprehensive curricular experiences that more effectively

prepare doctoral students pursuing counselor educator careers. Students can use these

results as a guide to shape their professional development, gaining and demonstrating

competencies relevant to behaviors critical to faculty careers. Such a guide could

strengthen their marketability in the job-search process. The counselor-education

profession (i.e., the American Counseling Association, the Association of Counselor

Education and Supervision, the Counsel for Accreditation of Counseling and Related

Educational Programs, and the National Board of Certified Counselors) can foster the

development and enhancement of academic standards and best practices in preparing

counselor educators.









Central Theoretical Frameworks

Socialization and competency-based education were the two central theoretical

frameworks shaping my conceptual understanding of the problem and influencing the

research design and methods. Within a graduate school context, professional socialization

is the developmental process in which students are introduced to and immersed in their

chosen discipline and professional setting. Using observation, role practicing, and

mentorship, graduate students seek to learn about and eventually internalize the

professional roles they wish to assume. Within the setting of my study, the doctoral

program is an appropriate time for students to be socialized into the academic profession

(Weidman, Twale, & Stein, 2001). Critical to effective socialization is a clear

understanding of the expectations and behaviors common to faculty members, and of the

opportunities to witness and engage in those behaviors during the doctoral experience.

Competency-based education models provide a framework for structuring

experiences and curricula so that students are introduced to faculty careers and gain

competence and proficiency with the behaviors and with the unique contextual issues

influencing decision-making (Whitty & Willmott, 1991). It is not enough for a student to

be able to mirror the behaviors of a faculty member. Students need to understand how

and why faculty behaviors are engaged; and gain exposure to the values and judgments

that help determine the course of action in individual situations.

Both socialization and competency-based education models are grounded in a clear

understanding of work behaviors. Work behaviors common to counselor educators are

not clearly identified. These frameworks support the rationale for pursuing this line of

inquiry.









Guiding Research Questions

My study was guided by research questions addressing counselor educator work

behaviors, the demographic variables of the people performing them, the settings in

which these behaviors occur, and finally the influence of tenure status and Carnegie

classification on these work behaviors. Combined, my study sought to shed light on the

behaviors, characteristics, and settings of counselor educators in the early twenty-first

century.

Identifying core work behaviors performed by counselor-education faculty

establishes the performance goals for preparing counselor educators. My study sought to

answer questions related to what doctoral students need to be prepared to do, in order to

become counselor educators. My study was organized around gaining information on the

following research questions:

* RQ 1. What are the demographic characteristics of counselor educators working in
CACREP-accredited programs?

* RQ2. What are the profiles of CACREP-accredited counselor education programs?

* RQ 3. What are the most important categories of work behaviors performed by
counselor educators in CACREP-accredited programs?

* RQ 4. What are the most frequently engaged categories of work behaviors
performed by counselor educators in CACREP-accredited programs?

* RQ 5. Is there a significant interaction between academic rank and Carnegie
classification based on perceived importance of categories of work behaviors?

* RQ 6. Is there a significant interaction between academic rank and Carnegie
classification based on frequency of engaging in categories of work behaviors?

* RQ 7. Is there a significant interaction between tenure status and Carnegie
classification based on perceived importance of categories of work behaviors?

* RQ 8. Is there a significant interaction between tenure status and Carnegie
classification based on frequency of engaging in categories of work behaviors?









To address these questions, a work behavior analysis was conducted. Work

behavior analyses (also known as job analysis, occupational analysis, or task analysis)

have been used widely by governmental and private agencies seeking to identify work

behaviors specific to a particular job or occupation (U. S. Office of Personnel

Management, 2003). Across disciplines and vocations, it has been used in training

program development, curriculum, and syllabus design (DeCotiis & Morano, 1977;

Doron & Marco, 1999; Fine & Cronshaw, 1999). The method has been used in

counseling research to clarify tasks, assess the need for specialized training, and to

inform the structure of the National Counselor Examination (Fitzgerald & Osipow, 1986;

Loesch & Vacc, 1993; Vacc, 1989). A description of the method, rationale for use, and

application in this study are further explored in Chapters 2 and 3.

Definition of Terms

Competencies

Competencies are defined as knowledge, skill, abilities, and related performance

guidelines (Engels, 2004; Paulson, 2001).

Counselor Education

The CACREP (2001) defines counselor education as "a process that prepares

counselors in both didactic and clinical aspects of counseling. Doctoral programs also

prepare counselors to serve as counselor educators." Dr. Larry Loesch offered a similar

definition; counselor education is the education and/or professional preparation,

knowledge attainment, and skill development of individuals who intend to assume the

professional identity of a counselor, as defined by the American Counseling Association

(ACA), the National Board of Certified Counselors (NBCC), the Association for









Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES), and other relevant professional

associations" (Loesch, 2004, personal correspondence).

Counselor Educator

A literature review revealed no formal definition of "Counselor Educator." The

CACREP Standards (2001) do not provide a definition in their glossary. Associate

Director of CACREP, Jenny Gunderman, confirmed there is no formal definition of

counselor educator in the 2001 standards. She offered the following criteria based on her

experience with the CACREP Board:

* The person should have a terminal degree in counselor education and identify with
the field of counseling.

* If the terminal degree is not in counselor education, the person must have a track
record of activity in the field of counseling. This would mean a history of publication,
presentations, and leadership activity in ACA, its divisions and branches. Long-
standing licensure and/or certification is another way of showing professional identity
to counseling (Gunderman, 2004).

Inferences can be drawn from the CACREP 2001 Standards, particularly Section

IV (Faculty and Staff), that can assist in formulating a definition. Based on Section IVA,

a Counselor Educator is someone who meets the following criteria:

* Primary academic appointment is to the unit in counselor education (IV.A.2)

* Possesses an earned doctoral degree in counselor education, preferably from a
CACREP accredited program (IVA)

* Has relevant preparation and experience in the assigned area of teaching (IVA4)

* Identifies with the counseling profession through memberships and involvement in
appropriate professional organizations and appropriate certifications and/or licenses
pertinent to the profession (IVA5)

* Has the authority to determine program curricula within the structure of the
institution's policy (IVA6).









The standards offer guidance in defining affiliate and adjunct counselor education

faculty. Criteria are similar to the above, while including subtle differences. For example,

they specify that affiliate or adjunct faculty must hold graduate degrees, but do not

require an earned doctorate. Otherwise, they are similar in requiring relevant preparation

and experience in the assigned area of teaching; professional identification; and an

understanding of the mission, goals, and program curriculum (Section IV.C.1-4).

For the purposes of my study, counselor educator is defined as someone who

Has part- or full-time academic appointment within a counselor education

department in a CACREP-accredited program

Possesses an earned graduate degree (preferably a doctorate) in counselor

education or a related counseling degree

Maintains identification with the counseling profession through membership and

involvement in professional organization, certifications, and/or licenses

appropriate to the profession

Has relevant preparation and/or experience in the duties assigned (i.e., teaching,

research, service, supervision, consultation, etc)

Participates in ongoing program and curriculum evaluation and development

Contributes to the ongoing scholarly conversations within the counseling

profession.

Work Behavior

According to the Equal Employment Opportunity Coordinating Council's Uniform

Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (EEOCC, 2002), a work behavior is "an

activity performed to achieve the objectives of the job. Work behaviors involve









observable (physical) components and unobservable (mental) components. A work

behavior consists of the performance of one or more tasks."

Work Behavior Analysis

In their work behavior-analysis of professional counselors, Loesch and Vacc

(1993, p. 4) defined work-behavior analysis (also called work-oriented job analysis) as "a

systematic examination of the nature and/or elements of a relatively broadly defined

(employment) 'position,' 'occupation,' or 'job'".

Organization of the Study

The following chapters introduce the reader to the relevant contexts, theoretical

frameworks, and details of the study. Chapter 2 reviews the relevant literature, theoretical

frameworks, research questions, and the study method. Chapter 3 describes the

instrument-development process, provides an outline of the instrument, describes the

sample and procedure, identifies hypotheses, and discusses data-analysis methods.

Results are presented in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 links these findings to the ongoing

conversation of preparing future counselor educators, discussing limitations of the study,

and presenting implications for further research and application.














CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

The purpose of my study was to identify critical work behaviors common to

counselor educators. It is situated in a broader context relevant to preparing the

professoriate within higher-education settings. This chapter gives an overview of faculty

preparation in higher education and counselor education. It identifies current trends,

problems, and needs. Using socialization theory and competency-based conceptual

frameworks, problems and needs are linked with potential interventions; yielding a

framework for counselor-educator preparation based on work behaviors. The

work- behavior analysis is introduced as a foundational step toward linking academic

preparation more seamlessly with faculty role expectations.

The Professoriate: An Overview

In the 2001-2002 academic year, 413 universities in the United States conferred

39,955 doctoral degrees. The average doctoral student was a white male and a citizen of

the United States. Of the 62.4% of graduates with planned employment after graduation,

36.3% sought employment in educational institutions, which included 2-year, 4-year, and

foreign colleges and universities, medical schools, and elementary and secondary

schools. Of the 17,984 graduates with employment commitments after graduation, 39.6%

identified teaching as their primary activity, and 19.8% identified teaching as their

secondary activity (Hoffer et al., 2003).

The same summary report provided a breakdown of counselor education versus

counseling and guidance doctoral recipients. The average counselor education doctoral









graduate was a white female and a U.S. citizen. In the 2001-2002 academic year, 256

counselor education doctorates were awarded (Hoffer et al., 2003). Their report provided

no information on the career direction of counselor education doctoral graduates.

Based on Hoffer's survey of doctoral recipients, it appears that between 35 and

60% of doctoral graduates pursue some form of faculty work, whether it is their primary

or secondary activity. Trends within higher education indicate that the academy is in the

midst of significant employment transition (Kezar, 2000; Magner, 1999; Mcguire &

Price, 1989). There is a simultaneous increase in the number of higher education faculty

and wide-scale retirements of a faculty cohort group hired in the 1960s and 1970s.

Retirements and increased enrollments are two major factors influencing the

projected increase of 36% or more in employment of college and university faculty

through 2012 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2004). ". [A] significant number of openings

also is expected to arise due to the need to replace the large numbers of postsecondary

teachers who are likely to retire over the next decade. Many postsecondary teachers were

hired in the late 1960s and 1970s to teach the baby boomers, and they are expected to

retire in growing numbers in the years ahead" (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2004)

Comparisons between the 1990 and 2000 census identified a 22.4% increase in the

number of postsecondary teachers (from 921,428 in 1990; to 1,127,597 in 2000) (Bureau,

Date Unknown). Meanwhile, many faculty members are aging and nearing retirement. In

a survey of 33,785 faculty members in 378 colleges and universities, approximately 33%

were over 55 years old. The proportion of faculty under 45 years old has decreased from

41 to 34% (Magner, 1999).









The counselor education discipline is experiencing similar employment trends. The

number of counselors, social workers, and community social service specialists rose 43%

between 1990 and 2000 (Bureau, Date Unknown). This increase demonstrates a

consistent need for counselor educators to respond to the demand for clinicians.

The counselor educator population reflects the history of modem higher education

and the broader trend of aging in the professoriate. The modem counselor education

profession grew out of the vocational education movement. Originally focused on

training secondary-school educators in guidance counseling, two key post-World War

Two initiatives shifted counselor education to graduate schools. The George-Barden Act

of 1946, and the National Defense Education Act of 1958, provided financial support for

counselor preparation programs in universities (Sweeney, 2003). The number of

counselor education programs rose from 175 to 475, between 1958 and 1961 (Sweeney,

2003). Between 1964 and 1967, the number of counselor educators grew from 706 to

1,119; while the number of institutions preparing counselors increased from 327 to 372

(p. 29). In the 10th Edition of Counselor Preparation (Hollis & Dodson, 2000), the

authors identified 542 academic departments having a counselor education program. Of

the 428 departments that responded to the authors' survey, 2,808 counselor educators

were identified.

A cohort group of counselor educators graduated during this era, and shortly after

this surge. A significant number of them are at (or approaching) retirement age. For

example, the University of Nevada at Reno was established after the National Defense

Education Act (NDEA). Of the seven-member department, five were hired after the

NDEA. Seventy-one percent of the department faculty were approaching retirement in









the late 1980s (Maples, 1989). Using my department as a second example, three faculty

members retired in 2003, and two are expected to retire within the next 2 years with at

least one additional faculty member retiring in 5 years. With 12 full-time faculty, this

amounts to a turnover of 50% within 5 years.

Ten years ago, in MohdZain's (1995) role analysis of counselor educators, 55.5%

of the 353 respondents surveyed were over age 50. At the time of the study, an additional

33.1% were between ages 40 and 49. Adjusting for the decade since the study, 88.6% of

these respondents would be over age 50. Two programs at the 2004 ACA conference

addressed the "retirement of a significant number of counselor educators" (Association,

2004), p. 73) and its impact on the preparation of the next generation of counselor

educators (Alessandria & May, 2004; Bradley, Morris, & Brinson, 2004).

An aging counselor-educator population appears consistent with the counseling

profession. The National Board for Certified Counselors (Counselors, 2000) examined

the demographics of National Certified Counselors. Counselors over age 50 comprise

50% of National Certified Counselors. An additional 30% are between ages 40 and 50.

Although undergoing a transition with significant numbers of retirements, faculty

careers remain a viable professional option. Stakeholder expectations impacting the

higher-education context include quality of teaching, learning outcomes, traditional-

subject expertise and technological fluency, applying knowledge to social problems,

linking university research with community economic development, and overall fiscal

constraints (Austin, 2002). The job market is growing increasingly competitive; with

candidates expected to demonstrate awareness of differing emphases, and proficiency

with faculty roles of teaching, research, service, and citizenship (Brinkley et al., 1999).









The next section explores current methods of preparation, reported problems and needs,

and interventions designed to enhance faculty preparation.

Preparing the Professoriate Problems, Needs, and Interventions

Purpose and Objectives of Doctoral Education

The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching gave this purpose of

doctoral education: "to educate and prepare those to whom we can entrust the vigor,

quality, and integrity of the field. We call such a person [so educated] a 'steward of the

discipline" (Teaching, 2003). A steward demonstrates proficiency in three critical areas:

generation of new knowledge; conservation of the history and foundational development

of the profession; and transformation of this knowledge through teaching, scholarship,

practice, and service (Teaching, 2003). More discipline-specific, the mission and

objectives of doctoral degree programs in counselor education are "to prepare students to

work as counselor educators, supervisors, and advanced practitioners in academic and

clinical settings [P]rogram objectives address the professional leadership roles of

counselor education, supervision, advanced counseling practice, and research

competencies of doctoral graduates" (CACREP, 2001). Both the Carnegie Foundation

and the accreditation standards of the Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and

Related Education Programs (CACREP) identified academic careers and their related

activities (i.e., counselor educator, teaching, scholarship, service, etc.) as an appropriate

professional context for doctoral graduates.

Key Problems and Needs

Six themes emerged from the literature related to problems with doctoral education

and faculty preparation. First, graduate students receive insufficient socialization into the

academic profession (Austin, 2002; J. Gaff, Pruitt-Logan, & Weibl, 2000; J. G. Gaff,









2002; C. Golde & T. Dore, 2001). Second, students lack awareness of the multiple roles

expected of a faculty member (Adams, 2002; Austin, 2002; C. M. Golde & T. M. Dore,

2001; Magnuson, 2002; Nerad & Cerney, 1999; Smith & Pedersen-Gallegos, 2001;

Sorcinelli, 1992; National Association of Graduate and Professional Students, 2001).

Third, while students may gain experience in some roles, the preparation may be

inadequate (Adams, 2002; Austin, 2002; J. G. Gaff, 2002; C. Golde & T. Dore, 2001;

Magnuson, 2002; Magnuson, Norem, Haberstroh-Burke, Zirkle, & Henderson, 2001;

Nerad & Cerney, 1999; Seidel, Benassi, & Richards, 1999; Sorcinelli, 1992; National

Association of Graduate and Professional Students, 2001; Zimpfer, Cox, West,

Bubenzer, & Brooks, 1997). Related to the previous two problems, the fourth concern is a

lack of structured faculty preparation programs (Austin, 2002; J. G. Gaff, 2002). Fifth,

doctoral graduates experience a mismatch between their career expectations and the

realities of the job market (Adams, 2002; Austin, 2002; Boice, 1992; J. G. Gaff, 2002; C.

Golde & T. Dore, 2001; Henderson, Clarke, & Reynolds, 1996; Henderson, Clarke, &

Woods, 1998; Hollis & Dodson, 2000; Magnuson et al., 2001; Maples, 1989; Maples,

Altekruse, & Testa, 1993; Maples & Macari, 1998; Olsen, 1993; Olsen & Crawford,

1998; Rice, 1996; Sanderson & Dugoni, 1999; Smith & Pedersen-Gallegos, 2001;

Sorcinelli, 1992; Tiemey, 1997; Tierney & Bensimon, 1996; Whitt, 1991; Zimpfer, 1993,

1996). Finally, there remains a need for further research and empirical evidence about the

doctoral experience (Gaff, 2002)

To what degree are these concerns an issue within counselor education? The 2000

National Doctoral Program Survey (NAGPS, 2001) was the only study I located in

which counselor-education doctoral students evaluated their programs. Participants (n=97









counselor education doctoral students or graduates) were self-selected, and only 9

doctoral counselor-education programs were represented. Thus, the results may not be

representative of the experiences of all counselor-education doctoral students or all

counselor-education programs. Yet, the results are worth noting.

The web-based survey included 10 sections: (1) Information for prospective

students, (2) Preparation for a broad range of careers, (3) Teaching and TA preparation,

(4) Professional development, (5) Career guidance & placement services, (6) Controlling

time to degree, (7) Mentoring, (8) Program climate, (9) Overall satisfaction, and

(10) Background information. Likert-scale items assessing the degree of agreement with

statements relevant to the section comprised the first nine sections. The tenth section

asked for participant background information. Items were based on best practices in

graduate education (identified by the Association of American Universities; the

Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation; the Modern Language Association;

and the National Research Council's Committee on Science, Engineering and Public

Policy). Points were assigned to each rank along the Likert-scale; results were calculated;

and a letter grade was assigned to each section.

The next sections and items were relevant to my study. Under Preparation for a

Broad Range of Careers, "My program does a good job of preparing students for

academic careers" received a B+ rating, with 90% of respondents (87 of 96) agreeing or

strongly agreeing with that statement.

Teaching and TA Preparation got a C rating. Four items were included in this

section. First, respondents were asked about TA preparation and training before entering

the classroom. Respondents gave preparation and training a C rating. Only 32% of









respondents agreed or strongly agreed they were appropriately prepared and trained

before entering the classroom. The second item asked about appropriate supervision to

help teaching assistants improve their teaching skills. The item received a C+ rating, with

41% of respondents agreeing or strongly agreeing with that statement. The third item

about considering doctoral student needs and interests in determining which courses

students teach. Respondents gave a C+ rating, with 50% agreeing or strongly agreeing

with that practice. Of the respondents, 43% agreed or strongly agreed with the final item

in the section asking whether the teaching experience available through their programs is

adequate preparation for an academic/teaching career. This item got a C rating.

Other selected items related to aspects of faculty careers or the academic job

search. Respondents gave a C rating to the statement about training in professional skills

such as public speaking, grant writing, and working in teams. Effective career guidance

and planning services for careers in academia got a B- rating. For positions in academia,

respondents got a B- rating for effective placement assistance and job-search support.

Respondents positively rated (B+) their comfort in talking to their advisors about a career

in academia.

The survey's direct link to promising practices in graduate education is a strength.

The items and responses provide feedback on specific strategies designed to enhance

doctoral education. These results offer a glimpse, although limited, into some of the

strengths and challenges of doctoral education with regard to preparation for academic

careers.

Prior Interventions

Four national initiatives addressing faculty preparation provide insight into the

needs and strategies of intervention with doctoral education. This section provides an









overview of each initiative, key elements, major research and programs, and relates them

to this study and the research design. The four national initiatives are (1) Preparing

Future Faculty, (2) Re-envisioning the Ph.D., (3) The Responsive Ph.D., and (4) and The

Carnegie Initiative on the Doctorate.

Preparing Future Faculty (PFF) (http://www.preparing-faculty.org) is an ongoing

collaboration, now including more than 295 partner institutions representing higher

education institutions ranging from community colleges to research-extensive doctoral

granting universities. The initiative is sponsored by the Council of Graduate Schools, the

Association of American Colleges and Universities and with financial support from the

National Science Foundation, the Pew Charitable Trusts, and the Atlantic Philanthropies.

The purpose is to prepare doctoral students for the spectrum of roles and responsibilities

fulfilled by faculty in diverse institutional settings. Three key elements form the structure

of a PFF program. First, there is a cluster of institutions or departments, anchored by a

doctoral granting university or department. Partner institutions may include community

colleges, liberal arts colleges, master's granting colleges or universities. Second, within

the cluster framework, doctoral students participate in experiences typical of the spectrum

of work behaviors common to faculty members in these diverse settings. Students are

able to see how different settings value shifting emphases among the multiple faculty

roles (e.g., teaching, service, and research). Third, students work with multiple mentors

and receive direct feedback on their performance (Faculty, 2003). Within such programs,

students are able to learn about diverse academic settings, gain experience that can

inform their career decision making process, and develop awareness and competency

with a broader range of faculty work behaviors and responsibilities. The current phase of









the PFF program emphasizes multidisciplinary collaboration and partnering with

disciplinary societies and professional associations. For example, PFF is focusing

attention on preparing faculty in the social sciences. Coordinators have partnered with the

American Psychological Association that has identified academic departments in which

to address preparation of future psychology professors.

The Preparing Future Faculty programs related to this study along two dimensions.

First, it addresses the limitation of doctoral students being prepared for academic

positions in research-intensive and research-extensive institutions. Rather, it broadens a

student's experience by encouraging participation in the daily routines and work

behaviors of faculty in diverse settings. Within this dimension is the link with work

behaviors common to counselor educators, whether they are located in clinician-focused

master's programs or advanced clinician and research-focused doctoral programs. A

second dimension is the close partnership with disciplinary and professional associations.

Addressing doctoral education and preparing future counselor educators is a valuable

issues for the American Counseling Association (ACA), the Council for the Accreditation

of Counseling and Related Education Programs (CACREP), and related divisions of

ACA. Faculty preparation is a multidisciplinary concern, yet the experience of faculty

members varies depending on the discipline. This study addressed faculty work

expectations from the unique perspective of counselor educators. While the behaviors are

likely similar to other disciplines, they may be carried out in subtly different ways. For

example, supervision may be different for a counselor educator than for an engineering

educator.









Re-envisioning the Ph.D. was a project funded by the Pew Charitable Trusts to

answer the foundational question, how can we re-envision the Ph.D. to meet the needs of

the society of the 21st Century (Re-envisioning the Ph.D.., 2002). The project had four

main objectives. In the first two objectives, they sought to pull together the

multidisciplinary efforts to research and address concerns with doctoral education,

analyzing major themes and patterns among the interventions, programmatic changes,

and concerns of major stakeholders of doctoral education. Once this information was

gathered and key stakeholders were identified, the Re-envisioning staff convened a

national conversation in 2000 about the doctoral education process, including such

stakeholders as students, faculty, industry, K-12 educators, legislators, representatives of

the spectrum of higher education settings, accrediting agencies, and disciplinary agencies.

The goal of the gathering was to identify frameworks and strategies for enhancing

doctoral education. Their fourth objective was to provide an ongoing clearinghouse for

resources on doctoral research and emerging best practices.

Several concerns of major stakeholders were relevant to this study (Nyquist &

Woodford, 2000). Members of research-focused doctoral institutions identified the

conflict between the need for graduate teaching assistants to meet the demand for

undergraduate teaching and the need for doctoral student development as educators.

Often situations arise where doctoral students end up meeting the university, yet lacking a

structured environment in which solid grounding in pedagogy and teaching is provided

(Nyquist & Woodford, 2000). Members of master's, liberal arts, and community colleges

raised concerns that doctoral graduates are insufficiently prepared for positions in their

institutions. They lack awareness of differences in institutional missions, shared









governance responsibilities, tenure and promotion processes, and expectations for faculty

performance, such as service and outreach. Graduates also lack the foundation in

pedagogy needed to effectively teach students and design curricula based on multiple

learning styles (Nyquist & Woodford, 2000) Doctoral students present at the national

meeting were aware of their lack of sufficient preparation. They identified the need for

better understanding of the workings of faculty life, including work behavior expectations

and life-work balance strategies (Nyquist & Woodford, 2000). Exposure to "the wide

range of faculty members' roles and responsibilities committee work, service, teaching

across disciplinary lines, faculty governance and institutional policies often remains

very much unaddressed in traditional TA and RA experiences" (Nyquist & Woodford,

2000). Finally, disciplinary societies advocated for their role in attending to the

disciplinary differences in faculty experiences. They supported using disciplinary

communication structures, such as conferences, web pages, and newsletters as means of

fostering further conversations about doctoral education.

This study addressed the need for information about faculty roles and work

behaviors. Results could provide doctoral students with a clearer picture of faculty

expectations and demands. Again, addressing this question in a counselor education

context recognized disciplinary uniqueness.

The Responsive Ph.D. is sponsored by the Woodrow Wilson Foundation. The goal

is to diversify both the knowledge base and the population of doctoral graduates in this

country. It is a four-pillar model, focusing on new paradigms, new practices, new people,

and new partnerships. Some of the key elements are relevant to this study. They support

professional development and pedagogical training that better prepares doctoral students









for the multiple roles faculty members fulfill. Much like the concerns expressed by other

initiatives, project members recognized graduate students

"get little help in learning to be educations not only learning effective classroom
teaching, but putting together course curriculum, thinking strategically about
introducing a discipline or making connections among disciplines, or teaching to
varied audiences. In many disciplines, doctoral students teach what the faculty does
not want to teach" (The Responsive Ph.D., 2004)

This initiative supported identifying core competencies for doctoral students.

Results of the present study could assist in developing core competencies for counselor

educators, clarifying expectations and helping to shape preparation programs specific to

the counselor education discipline.

The Carnegie Initiative on the Doctorate is unique for its focus on academic

departments' attempts to structure doctoral programs. This initiative partners with

departments and disciplinary societies. Currently, they are working with in chemistry,

educational psychology and curriculum and instruction within colleges of education,

English, history, mathematics, and neuroscience. During a conference in 2003, faculty

and students identified concerns and strategies. Consistent with the literature and with

other initiatives, students reported inadequate preparation for faculty roles other than

research (Golde & Bueschel, 2003). One strategy relevant to this study is a socialization

process for first-year doctoral students, conceptualized as "pedagogy of induction" (p.

33).

Socialization and Competency-Based Frameworks as Interventions

As the key problems and prior interventions described, doctoral students lack

concrete information about the spectrum of faculty roles and work behaviors.

Additionally, experiences within their programs do not adequately prepare them for

fulfilling those roles. This section describes how socialization and competency-based









frameworks can inform intervening with these concerns. Finally, to address this gap in

knowledge within counselor education, the chapter concludes with an introduction to the

work behavior analysis method.

Socialization is the process in which an individual is introduced to the knowledge,

skills, and values required for successful entry into a discipline or specific career

(Weidman, Twale, & Stein, 2001). For graduate students, this is a developmental process

leading towards commitment to a particular role (e.g., faculty member) that involves

specific stages. Stages of graduate student socialization include anticipatory, formal,

informal, and personal (Weidman et al., 2001). The anticipatory stage is the period during

which an individual learns of the behavioral, attitudinal, and cognitive expectations of a

particular role (Weidman et al., 2001). A graduate student is in the anticipatory stage

during their search for an appropriate graduate program. They have developed

expectations about careers based on popular media sources and personal knowledge of

others who have held the role. For example, an individual pursuing a faculty career may

have been developed perceptions of an academic career based on undergraduate faculty

members, family who are faculty, or movies and literature. It is important that at this

stage, the information about work behaviors is accurate and closely relates to the

expectations of those actually working in the field.

Students in the formal stage have entered into their academic programs and are

determining the goodness of fit (Weidman et al., 2001). From instructors and more

advanced student colleagues and through didactic and experiential opportunities, students

are learning disciplinary knowledge and the business of how work gets done. Role

rehearsal is a key element in this stage. Task issues are critical, and preparation is









dependent on the spectrum of activities in which students participate, the clarity of

standards and expectations, and sufficient time for role-playing opportunities (Weidman

et al., 2001).

Mentoring is critical to students in the informal stage. As they begin to try out

behaviors and meet expectations of professional roles, they need direct feedback and

support. Support may come from faculty or student colleagues. In previous stages, they

may have been more comfortable imitating others while developing competence in work

behaviors common to a role. In this stage, they develop their own style for carrying out

role behaviors (Weidman et al., 2001).

In the personal stage, students internalize a professional identity. In counselor

education, this stage may be experienced during clinical and counselor education

internships, during which time students fulfill roles and behaviors common to clinicians

and faculty. As with each stage, observation, participation, and role taking are critical to

socialization (Weidman et al., 2001)

Several aspects of these stages are relevant to the current study. Using the faculty

role as an example, students in the anticipatory stage are introduced to behaviors and

professional expectations held by a faculty member. Students gain awareness of both

concrete and affective dimensions of faculty life. Students at this stage are able to clarify

their previously held expectations about faculty members by learning what they need to

know and be able to do as counselor educators (Weidman et al., 2001). Accurate

behavioral information is very important. Also, related to concerns identified in the

literature, often students lack awareness of the full spectrum of faculty roles and work

behaviors (Austin, 2002; J. Gaff et al., 2000; C. Golde & T. Dore, 2001). They may be









more familiar of the activities involved in research, but do not know they will be

expected to sit on committees, perform outreach and service, and secure external funding.

The next section will demonstrate how this research design will address specific issues

about work behaviors performed by counselor educators in diverse educational settings.

Socialization provides a framework for conceptualizing doctoral education,

particularly faculty preparation, so that students are introduced to the knowledge

requirements, the behavioral expectations, and the culture of faculty careers. In such a

framework, the reality of faculty life within diverse settings informs and seamlessly

infuses program design, clinical and professional experiential opportunities, mentorship

and professional development. The goal is for doctoral graduates pursuing an academic

career to be as prepared as possible, and as competitive as possible, to secure their first

counselor educator positions.

If socialization provides a framework for conceptualizing doctoral education,

competency-based education theory provides a structure for designing such an

educational experience. Competency-based education (CBE) models had their origins in

K-12 education (Houston & Howsam, 1972; Spady, 1978). More recently, it has been

utilized in designing preparation programs for educators (Hyland, 1993; Reynolds &

Salters, 1995; Whitty & Willmott, 1991). Grounded in providing academic and

experiential opportunities to gain demonstrable proficiencies in competencies related to

professional duties, benefits of CBE include demystifying professional expectations,

providing students with clear goals of achievement and evidence of progress, and

providing employers with a clearer understanding of the abilities of job applicants

(Whitty & Willmott, 1991).









Competencies are defined as knowledge, skill, abilities and related performance

guidelines (Engels, 2004; Paulson, 2001). Competencies must be meaningful and relevant

to the professional context; competency statements must be derived from occupational

analysis of roles within the related profession; and competency statements must include

knowledge and understanding required for effective performance in employment (Whitty

& Willmott, 1991).

The latest edition of The Professional Counselor: Portfolio, Competencies,

Performance Guidelines, and Assessment demonstrated the role competencies play in

counselor education (Engels, 2004). The authors supported using a competency-based

approach in program design and student evaluation as a means of holding students and

programs accountable for developing skills required of counselors and counselor

educators. The counselor education and supervision competencies and performance

guidelines compliment an analysis of work behaviors common to counselor educators.

While the competencies and guidelines allude to many of the behaviors of faculty

members (e.g., counselor, teacher, scholarship, etc.), the relative importance and

frequency of engaging in these behaviors depending on academic setting is unclear.

Competency-based education can influence program design, accreditation self-

studies, course design, student evaluation and self-assessments (Engels, 2004; Mager,

1997; Whitty & Willmott, 1991). Competencies can form the framework for instructional

objectives within curriculum design (Mager, 1997). In counselor education, a

competency-based approach was used in selecting faculty members (Weitz, Anchor, &

Percy, 1976)









While vocational education, community colleges, and professional education have

recognized the value of linking curriculum design with work-place abilities, the doctoral

experience has not utilized such a model. Yet, the concerns raised in the literature build a

powerful argument towards conceptualizing the doctoral experience from this framework.

Work-Behavior Analysis: A Foundational Step toward Change

The socialization process includes introducing doctoral students to the specific

behavioral expectations held by faculty members what they need to know and be able

to do to fulfill the professional requirements of a counselor educator. A work behavioral

analysis is tool to identify that information. It provides information about not only the

broad role domains but also the specific work behaviors related to those domains. The

work behavior analysis (a.k.a. job analysis or occupational analysis) is often used in

identify work behaviors, foundational to competency-based education models (Browning,

Bugbee, & Mullins, 1996).

In their work behavior analysis of professional counselors, Loesch and Vacc (1993)

defined a work behavior analysis (also referred to as a work-oriented job analysis) as "a

systematic examination of the nature and/or elements of a relatively broadly defined

(employment) 'position,' 'occupation,' or 'job'" (p. 4). The method is employed when a

professional identity has not been clearly defined. Such analyses are also utilized for

training purposes (Council, 2002).

Occupational and work behavior analyses have been conducted in counseling and

related professional contexts. An occupational analysis of counseling psychologists was

performed in order to determine the actual work behaviors engaged in by members of that

profession (Fitzgerald & Osipow, 1986). The method used by Fitzgerald and Osipow

informed a later study of counselors (Loesch & Vacc, 1993). In the design, a list of work









behaviors was generated, based on a review of the literature, professional materials, and

related job analyses (Loesch & Vacc, 1993). Following a review by subject matter

experts, the list informed the development of a survey instrument in which respondents

were asked to rate perceptions of importance and the frequency in which they engaged in

the work behaviors.

Work analyses conducted for counseling and related disciplines have informed this

study, and the present study seeks to contribute to the developing database of work

behaviors. The most recent study was a role analysis conducted with counselor educators

(MohdZain, 1995). Per MohdZain's recommendation, an analysis of job announcements

was performed to ensure congruence between the instrument and work expectations.

MohdZain's study identified the major domains comprising the counselor educator role

(e.g., supervision, teaching and advising, counseling and consultation, etc.). However the

specific work behaviors encompassing those domains was not investigated. Fitzgerald

and Osipow and Loesch and Vacc's studies were conducted for related but distinct

purposes. Their goals were not to identify work behaviors of counselor educators. While

they were useful in developing the items for this study's instrument, they did not answer

this study's research questions.

A review of the relevant research revealed concerns falling under the broad

umbrella of insufficient socialization of doctoral students pursuing faculty careers. If it is

assumed that the doctorate program is an appropriate time to introduce students to the

behavioral, attitudinal, and performance expectations of faculty members, then current

concerns identify a need to clarify role and behavioral expectations of faculty, increase

awareness of and exposure to opportunities to participate in diverse behaviors common to









faculty, and ultimately better prepare students to enter their first academic position.

Approaching these concerns using a competency-based education framework, an

appropriate first step was an analysis of work behaviors common to counselor educators.

While work behavior and occupational analyses have been conducted with counselors

and counseling psychologists, and a role analysis was conducted with counselor

educators; there was a gap in the research related to counselor educator work behaviors.

As a first step towards attending to preparation of future faculty, this study used a work

behavior analysis method to identify work behaviors common to counselor educators.

The next chapter will describe the method, including sampling and instrument

development.














CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

Sampling Procedures

Counselor education faculty members provide, oversee, and facilitate curricular and

clinical experiences (Hollis & Dodson, 2000). The doctorate is the common highest

academic degree earned by university faculty. They may hold additional credentials, such

as clinical licensure and national certification, and may be affiliated with professional

counseling associations, such as the American Counseling Association (ACA) and the

Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (CACREP) (Hollis & Dodson,

2000).

According to the Occupational Outlook Handbook (Bureau of Labor Statistics,

2004), academic positions will continue to increase. However, part-time and non-tenure

track opportunities will increase faster than traditional full-time tenure-track positions.

Neither Hollis and Dodson nor the Occupational Outlook Handbook provides

demographic breakdowns of current counselor educators by gender, age, race, or

ethnicity. My study gathered demographic information from participants to better

describe current counselor educators.

Common tasks and functions include teaching large and small undergraduate and

graduate classes, supervising students, preparing lectures, securing outside funding,

administering grants, conducting research, analyzing data, writing for publication,

presenting at professional conferences, advising and mentoring students, and supervising

student research and student teaching. Increasingly, faculty members are expected to









incorporate technology within each aspect of their jobs, including demonstrated

competency with presentation software, the Internet, distance learning technology, and

course management applications. In addition to work centered on teaching and research,

faculty members participate in department and university service and governance. Also,

they are involved in community, state, and national service as well as service to

professional organizations. Clinical work compliments more traditional academic work

for counselor educators. This may include individual and group supervision, outside

clinical practice, and managing clinics associated with academic departments.

Thus, the counselor educator population assume diverse responsibilities and

balance numerous expectations within varied professional settings, ranging from

clinician-focused entry-level programs to research extensive universities emphasizing

research, publication, service, and teaching.

Population

The counselor educator population was obtained from the 2004 Directory of

CACREP Accredited Programs, updated May 2003 (CACREP, 2003). The directory

includes information on the name of the academic unit, institution name, address, web

site, program liaison, telephone number, and email address. The directory contained 182

academic units housed within 180 institutions. Each academic unit included at least an

email address of the program coordinator, and most included a program website,

indicating the degree to which technology and Internet use have become a mainstream

medium of communication. For this study, every individual was contacted who met the

following criteria: (1) identified as a faculty member on a department website of a

CACREP-accredited program and (2) has an email address.









An Internet search of each academic unit's web site was conducted. Faculty

members were identified, and e-mail addresses was copied and pasted into a "Counselor

Educator Population" list within SurveyMonkey.com. No faculty members' names were

maintained in this study.

In addition to surveys being sent to individual email addresses, an email inviting

participation was sent to the CESNET Listserv, the listserv for counselor educators.

Based on the comprehensive method used to identify potential participants, it is assumed

the sample invited to participate was representative of counselor educators working in

CACREP-accredited programs.

Instrument Development

The Counselor Educator Work Behavior Instrument developed for this study was

based on a review of relevant literature, previous work behavior analyses, and an analysis

of current assistant professor job announcements.

MohdZain (1995) conducted a role analysis of the counselor education

professoriate. In his role analysis survey, MohdZain organized his items by six functional

domains: teaching and advising, supervision, counseling and consultation, administration,

scholarship, and service. These roles were based on a review of literature pertaining to

general work expectations of higher education faculty (Bowen & Schuster, 1986; Labor,

1991; Loesch & Vacc, 1993; Mintz, 1992). Loesch and Vacc (1993) conducted a work

behavior analysis of professional counselors. The results were a prioritized list of work

behaviors organized into five clusters: fundamental counseling practices, counseling for

career development, counseling groups, counseling families, and professional practice.

This study did not differentiate counseling work behaviors conducted by counselor

educators. However, a selection of work behaviors could be applicable to counselor









educators as they related to the functional domains identified by MohdZain (i.e.,

supervise counselor trainees, conduct community outreach, provide consultation

services).

Using MohdZain's domains as a foundational structure, an analysis was conducted

on assistant professor counselor education positions posted in January 2004. To identify

the duties, responsibilities, and job expectations of counselor educators, a search of

current job postings was conducted using three Internet-based job databases advertising

either or both counselor education and academic jobs. On January 13, 2004, a search for

posted faculty positions was conducted on the ACA Career Center

(http://www.counseling.org/site/PageServer?pagename=career), the Chronicle of Higher

Education (http://chronicle.com), and on HigherEdJobs.com

(http://www.higheredjobs.com).

The purpose of the search was to identify work behaviors of academic positions for

which new counselor education doctoral graduates would be competitive. Thus, criteria

for selection included counselor education and related positions at the Assistant Professor

rank. The ACA Career Center had 13 postings meeting the search criteria, with posting

dates ranging from December 18, 2003, to January 12, 2004. The Chronicle of Higher

Education listed a total of 5 postings, with posting dates ranging from December 17,

2003, to January 2, 2004. HigherEdJobs.com identified 46 postings meeting the search

criteria, with posting dates ranging from September 10, 2003, to January 12, 2004.

A total of 64 postings were identified. These positions were diverse in geographic

location and institutional structure. Programs included masters-only, clinician-focused

training programs as well as research-intensive doctoral granting programs. Thus,









institutions were represented that varied in the values placed on research, teaching, and

service. Many programs were CACREP-accredited; others were either not accredited or

currently seeking CACREP accreditation. A fewer number were accredited by related

organizations, including the American Association of Marriage and Family Therapists

(AAMFT) and the Council on Rehabilitation Education (CORE). Virtually all positions

advertised a Fall 2004 start date.

Of note, in late 2003, the Chronicle of Higher Education removed "Counselor

Education" as a unique category, integrating these positions within the "Teacher

Education" category. Searches within the Chronicle were conducted in the following

categories: teacher education, human development/family sciences, other education, other

social/behavioral sciences, and psychology. HigherEdJobs.com maintains "Counselor

Education" as a unique search category, and it is assumed that positions advertised by the

American Counseling Association's Career Center are relevant to counselor education.

Because the Chronicle may have counselor education positions listed that were not

identified, this search was not exhaustive. However, given the diversity of positions

identified, it is assumed they are representative of the scope of counselor education

positions currently available within the United States for which new counselor education

doctoral graduates might apply.

Each position was given a Position Number for reference, ranging from 01 to 64.

The positions were reviewed, and a table was generated with rows representing each

position and columns containing the following information: Position No., Track, Type of

Program, Accreditation, Geographic Region, Duties, Required Qualifications, and

Preferred Qualifications. This data was sought within each position. If the information









was not available within the posting, "Not Available" was placed in the corresponding

cell. A list of 281 duties was isolated and organized according to the six functional

domains. Duplicates and similar items were eliminated. The resulting list, along with

MohdZain's domains, and work behaviors identified by Loesch & Vacc were used to

develop the Counselor Educator Work Behavior Instrument.

Instrument

The Counselor Educator Work Behavior Instrument consisted of a cover page

detailing the informed consent process and two sections with a total of 32 items: Section I

- Importance and Frequency of Work Behaviors and Section II Demographic

Information. Refer to Appendix A for a Microsoft Word-formatted version of the online

survey, Counselor Educator Work Behavior Instrument.

In Section I (Items 1 though 6), work behaviors were organized according to six

functional domains: (1) Administration, (2) Scholarship, (3) Service, (4) Supervision, (5)

Teaching and Advising, and (6) Your Practice of Counseling & Consultation. Seventy

three (73) work behaviors were examined: Administration (15), Scholarship (16), Service

(8), Supervision (7), Teaching and Advising (15), and Your Practice of Counseling &

Consultation (12). For each work behavior, participants were asked to rate the importance

and the frequency with which they engage in the work behavior. Participants were asked

to consider importance of work behaviors performed within an average academic term.

Importance of work behaviors was ranked along a 6-point Likert scale: Not performed,

Not important, Somewhat important, Important, Very important, and Extremely

important. Participants were asked to consider frequency as the number of hours a week a

work behavior is performed within an average academic term. Frequency was ranked

along a 6-point Likert scale: Not performed, <1 hour, 1-2 hours, 2-5 hours, 5-8 hours, 8+









hours. The importance and frequency Likert scales appeared as radio buttons. The

participant clicked the radio button, and the corresponding scale appears. The participant

clicked on the appropriate option.

In Section II (Items 7 through 32), participants were asked to provide demographic

information related to the individual respondent, her or his institution and academic unit.

Items relevant to the respondent included: gender, ethnicity, age, highest degree earned

related to current position, areas) of professional specialization, number of years

working as a faculty member, academic rank, tenure status, full- or part-time counselor

educator status, hours spent on professional, university-related work activities in a typical

week, hours spent on professional, private work activities in a typical week, percent of

total work time in a typical month spent on all professional work activities, professional

affiliationss, and licensure(s) and certification(s). Items related to the institution and

academic unit included: geographic location, Carnegie classification, approximate total

number of faculty members in academic unit, approximate total number of students in

academic unit, degrees) offered in program, program specialization(s), program

accreditation(s), general program type, and curriculum delivery mode. The final three

items related to a participant's opinion about a professional credential for counselor

educators and whether or not the participant wanted a global summary of the study's

findings.

Data Collection

The Internet-based survey was created using SurveyMonkey.com LLC services

(http://www.surveymonkey.com/home.asp). Account holders with SurveyMonkey.com

LLC are able to design surveys, collect responses, and analyze results within a secure and

confidential environment.









Access is password protected to the following areas: survey design, data collected,

and participant email list. Access is limited to the researcher, who is the sole account

holder. This survey host does not allow spamming. SurveyMonkey.com LLC states in

their privacy policy that data collected are kept private and confidential.

SurveyMonkey.com LLC provides the following overview of their security

structure and procedures. Servers are kept at Berbee Networks (www.berbee.com) and

owned and maintained by SurveyMonkey staff. Servers are kept in a locket cage. Entry

requires a passcard and biometric recognition. Digital surveillance equipment monitors

the servers. Controls are provided for temperature, humidity, and smoke/fire detection,

and professional staff are on the premises on a 24/7 basis. Network security is maintained

by: multiple independent connections to Tier 1 Internet access providers; fully redundant

OC-48 SONET Rings; uptime monitored every 5 minutes; and firewall restricts access to

all ports except 80 (http) and 443 (https). Hardware security is maintained through the

following procedures: servers have redundant internal power supplies; data is on RIAD

10, operating system on RAID 1; and servers are mirrored and can failover in less than

one hour. Finally, software security is maintained through the following procedures: code

in ASP, running on SQL Server 2000 and Windows 2000 Server; latest patches applied to

all operating system and application files; SSL encryption of all billing data; data are

backed up every hour internally; and data are backed up every night to centralized backup

system, with offsite backups in event of catastrophe.

The Instrument was created using a Yellow Metal color theme for ease of reading

and clear item distinction. All questions were optional. A cover page introducing the

study provided the following information: researcher and supervisor introductions;









overview, rationale, and purpose of the study; overview of survey and directions;

disclosure of potential risks, benefits, and description of voluntary nature of participation;

instructions on removing oneself from the study; contact information; and an informed

consent statement.

Section I consisted of matrix-multiple answers per row (rating scale) questions for

each work behavior. Work behaviors were organized alphabetically within functional

domains. Along each work behavior within each item, participants will click on a radio

button for importance and frequency, using the mouse to select the appropriate option.

The importance and frequency radio buttons referred to the corresponding Likert scales.

The participant could change any response at any point of the survey.

Section II consisted of multiple item types, depending on the information sought.

SurveyMonkey.com provided options for item types and guided the researcher in

selecting the most appropriate type to generate the information sought. To maintain

consistency, when multiple options appeared, all options appeared in a vertical format.

The section began with items focused on individual characteristics (Items 13 through 20).

Gender identity was a choice one answer item. Broadening the traditional dualistic male

or female options, a third transgender option was included. Ethnicity was a choice one

answer item. Multiracial and international choices were provided to broaden options

beyond traditional ethnic categories. The international option was appropriate for a

participant who was a citizen of a country other than the United States. Age was an open-

ended/one line item with prompt, requesting the response be given in years. Highest

degree earned was a choice one answer item providing options of masters, advanced

graduate studies, and doctoral degree in counseling or related fields. Area(s) of









professional specialization was a choice multiple answers item. Specialization options

corresponded to specializations identified by CACREP. An "other" field was provided,

so a participant could enter a different answer than the choices provided. Number of

years working as a faculty member was an open-ended one line item with prompt.

Current academic rank was a choice one answer item. Options include the traditional

academic ranks of assistant, associate, and full professor along with professor emeritus,

adjunct and affiliate professor, visiting scholar, and instructor. Tenure status was a choice

- one answer item. The literature reported a shift in some institutions away from granting

tenure towards annual contracts. The options reflected that shift. Full or part-time status

was a choice one answer item. Two items asked for hours spent on activities in a typical

week, in open-ended with prompt format. One item asked for professional, university-

related work and the second asked for professional, private work. Next, respondents were

asked to calculate the approximate percent of total work time in a typical month spent on

all professional work activities. Written in an open-ended constant sum format,

respondents supply percentages for each domain referenced in Section I. Professional

affiliations) and licensure and certification(s) were choice multiple answer items.

Items 21 through 32 sought information on academic unit, program, and

institutional characteristics. The two-letter state abbreviation was an open-ended one

line with prompt item. Respondents were asked to provide information on the

institution's Carnegie classification, with defining descriptors of each classification. Two

items were asked in open-ended one-line with prompt format asking about the size of the

faculty and students. Items 25, 26, and 27 were choice multiple answer items that

inquire about the degrees) offered, program specialization(s), and program









accreditation(s). Items 28 and 29 were choice single answer items seeking information

on the program type and curriculum delivery mode. Item 30 was a choice one answer

request for the participant's opinion about whether there should be a professional

credential specifically for counselor educators. Likert-scale options included: No interest,

Minimal interest, Neutral, Moderate interest, and Strong interest. Items 31 and 32 asked

participants if they would like a global summary of the results. If yes, they were asked to

provide their email address.

Potential participant email addresses were obtained from a search of websites of

programs included in the 2004 CACREP accreditation directory, last updated in May

2003. Email addresses were copied and pasted into a "Counselor Educator Population"

list created in List Management in SurveyMonkey.com. This list, along with the

CESNET counselor educator Listserv, received an introductory email inviting them to

participate. Respondents who declined to participate and requested to be removed from

the mailing list received no further contact. Incorrect or undeliverable email addresses

were tracked to adjust the total number of participants surveyed.

The email subject line read "Invitation to Participate in a Work Behavior Analysis

of Counselor Educators." Following the salutation, the body of the email read, "I invite

you to participate in a study that will help prepare future generations of counselor

educators. This study is in response to previous research identifying concerns

surrounding the degree to which graduate programs prepare doctoral students for

academic careers. The purpose is to identify work behaviors common to counselor

educators in diverse academic units and institutions. If you would like to participate in









this study, please click on the hyperlink "I Accept," which will link you to the survey." A

link is provided for individuals to click who do not want to receive further emails.

Doctoral committee members reviewed the Instrument for consistency, ease of

completion, and the time required for completion. Revisions were made based on

feedback received. Reviewer respondents took between 10 and 25 minutes to complete

the Instrument, with an average of 15 minutes required to complete the survey.

Research Questions, Hypotheses, and Data Analysis

The purpose of this study was to identify work behaviors common to counselor

educators in CACREP-accredited academic units within diverse. Broad demographic

questions included: (1) Who are counselor educators and (2) What do they do? Also of

interest were potential differences in importance and frequency of engaging in work

behaviors depending on academic rank, tenure status, and Carnegie classification.

The following research questions and hypotheses are based on the purpose of this

study. Research Questions 1 through 4 centered on descriptive information and included

no hypotheses. Research Questions 5 through 8 are listed with corresponding hypotheses.

This section concludes with an overview of the data analysis process that tested

hypotheses related to Questions 5 through 8. Data were analyzed using the Statistica

application.

Research Question 1. What are the demographic characteristics of counselor

educators working in CACREP-accredited programs? To address this question,

descriptive statistics were calculated on the following relevant items: gender identity,

ethnicity, age, highest degree earned related to current position, areas) of professional

specialization, number of years working as a faculty member, current academic rank,

tenure status, full- or part-time counselor educator status, professional affiliationss, and









licensure(s) and certification(s). Descriptive statistics included: frequencies and percent

of respondents that performed each work.

Research Question 2. What are the profiles of CACREP-accredited counselor

education programs? To address this question, descriptive statistics were calculated on

the following relevant items: two-letter state abbreviation, Carnegie classification, total

number of faculty members, total number of students, degrees) offered, program

specialization(s), program type, and curriculum delivery mode. Descriptive statistics

include: frequencies and percent of respondents that performed each work behavior.

A factor analysis was conducted on the data from Section I of the Counselor

Educator Work Behavior Inventory. Tbe reliability of the factor structure was confirmed

with a reliability analysis using Chronbach's Alpha, Inter-item Correlations, and

Item/Total Correlation comparisons. Based on the results of the reliability tests, Summed

Score Scales were created for each of the factors, which because the Dependent Variables

for data analysis for Research Questions 5 through 6.

Research Question 3. What are the most important work behaviors performed by

counselor educators in CACREP-accredited programs? Most important work behaviors

performed were identified as those work behaviors that loaded greater than .40 on the

factor analysis. Mean scores, confidence intervals, and standard deviations were

calculated for the items within each of the 12 factors.

Research Question 4. What are the most frequently engaged work behaviors

performed by counselor educators in CACREP-accredited programs? Using the most

important work behaviors as calculated by factor analysis mentioned in the previous

section, mean scores, confidence intervals, and standard deviations were calculated for









the parallel survey items asking for the frequency of engaging in the work behaviors

identified within each of the 12 factors.

Research Question 5. Is there a significant interaction between academic rank and

Carnegie classification based on perceived importance of work behaviors? Relevant

instrument items included: academic rank, Carnegie classification, and responses to

importance for each work behavior in Items 1 through 6. Null Hypothesis With regard

to importance of work behaviors, there is no significant interaction between academic

rank and Carnegie classification.

Research Question 6. Is there a significant interaction between academic rank and

Carnegie classification based on frequency of engaging in work behaviors? Relevant

instrument items included: academic rank, Carnegie classification, and responses to

frequency for each work behavior in Items 1 through 6. Null Hypothesis With regard to

frequency of work behaviors, there is no significant interaction between academic rank

and Carnegie classification.

Research Question 7. Is there a significant interaction between tenure status and

Carnegie classification based on perceived importance of work behaviors? Relevant

survey items included: tenure status, Carnegie classification, and responses to importance

for each work behavior in Items 1 through 6. Null Hypothesis With regard to

importance of work behaviors, there is no significant interaction between tenure status

and Carnegie classification.

Research Question 8. Is there a significant interaction between tenure status and

Carnegie classification based on frequency of engaging in work behaviors? Relevant

survey items included: tenure status, Carnegie classification, and responses to frequency









for each work behavior in Items 1 through 6. Null Hypothesis With regard to frequency

of work behaviors, there is no significant interaction between tenure status and Carnegie

classification.

Research Questions 3 and 4 were analyzed by calculating the average responses for

most important and most frequently engaged work behaviors for items within each factor.

The factor analysis process is explained in the following paragraphs.

Data for Research Questions 5 through 8 were analyzed using the following

process. Responses to Items 1 through 6 were reviewed, and missing data cells were

substituted using the following assumptions: If a response to Importance or Frequency

was 0, then the corresponding response to Frequency or Importance was 0. In other

words, if a participant responded to an item's importance or frequency by reporting s/he

did not engage in that behavior, and if s/he left the Importance or Frequency item related

to that behavior blank, then the missing data point was replaced by a 0.

An item analysis was conducted. Items were dropped if mean responses had an

average value of less than 1 or greater than 4 or the standard deviation was less than 1.0.

Based on this criteria, no items were eliminated.

A factor analysis was conducted using a Maximum Likelihood Factor Analysis and

a Varimax (or Orthogonal) rotation in order to maximize the independence of factors and

minimize the likelihood of shared variance between factors. Factors were kept with

Eigenvalues greater than 1.0. Items were assigned to factors with factor loadings greater

than .40. Items with factor loadings greater than .40 on multiple factors were assigned to

the factor in which they loaded the highest or were determined to be more conceptually

consistent with other items within the factor.









The reliability of the factor structure was confirmed by implementing a reliability

analysis using Chronbach's Alpha, Inter-item Correlations, and Item/Total Correlation

comparisons. Items showing poor reliability (items that significantly decreased the

Chronbach Alpha, Inter-item Correlations, or Item/Total Correlation comparisons) were

not kept in the scale for the factor.

Based on the results of the Reliability tests, Summed Score Scales were created for

each of the factors. The Summed Score Scales became the Dependent Variables for the

data analysis. Respondents with three or fewer data points missing, either within

importance or frequency, had the data points substituted by their Carnegie Mode Score.

The Carnegie Mode Score was used because the Carnegie rank was the common

independent variable in the analysis for Research Questions 5 through 8. This Mode

Substitution was utilized in order to maximize the number of respondents able to be

included in the multivariate analyses. The substitution was determined to have minimal

impact on the analysis, given the overall variance of the sample was minimally changed

by these few data points.














CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

The purpose of this study was to identify work behaviors common to counselor

educators in CACREP-accredited academic units within diverse institutional settings.

Additionally, this study sought to capture a snapshot of the current counselor educator

population, based on the responses of survey participants. Research questions focused on

identifying the current counselor educator population, critically important and frequently

engaged work behaviors, and potentially significant interactions between Carnegie

classification, tenure status, and academic rank based on perceived importance or

frequency of engaging in common work behaviors. This chapter describes the results of

this study, organized by research question. Results for the first two research questions

provide information on characteristics specific to both counselor educators and the

specific academic units in which they work. Results are presented under the distinct

headings: Demographic Characteristics of Counselor Educators in CACREP-accredited

Programs and Profiles of CACREP-accredited Counselor Education Programs. Next,

results are presented for the factor analysis that conceptually categorized critical work

behaviors performed by respondents. Finally, the chapter continues with a discussion of

the results related to the remaining seven research questions. Sections are organized

according to the main topic addressed by each research question. A discussion based on

the results presented in this chapter follows in Chapter Five.









Demographic Characteristics of Counselor Educators in CACREP-accredited
Programs

What are the demographic characteristics of counselor educators working in

CACREP-accredited programs? The Counselor Educator Work Behavior Instrument was

distributed online, via email, to 1738 potential participants. Participant inclusion criteria

were: (1) name appeared as a faculty member on a web page of an academic department

housing one or more CACREP-accredited counselor education program and (2) faculty

member had an email address. The original participant pool decreased by 230 due to

nonfunctioning email addresses (123), persons who declined to participate (93), and

technical difficulties (14). Reasons for declining to participate included: retirement,

person did not identify as a counselor educator; the person was a former member of a

now defunct counselor education program, and time constraints. The revised participant

pool included 1508 counselor educators, of which 162 responded to the survey,

comprising a 10.74% response rate. The response rate is consistent with response rates

for mail, online, and email surveys, which can range from 5 to 68% (Alreck & Settle,

1995; Schonlau, Fricker, & Elliott, 2001). Chapter Five will discuss the degree to which

the sample was representative of the counselor educator population.

Sample Demographics

Descriptive statistics were calculated for the following variables: (1) gender

identity, (2) ethnicity, (3) age, (4) highest degree earned related to current position, (5)

areas) of professional specialization, (6) number of years working as a faculty member,

(7) current academic rank, (8) tenure status, (9) full- or part-time counselor educator

status, (10) professional affiliationss, and (11) licensure(s) and certification(s).









Table 4-1 summarizes the frequencies and percentage of total participants who

responded to each of the 11 variables. Table 4-2 provides summary statistics for gender

identity and ethnicity. Table 4-3 provides summary statistics for age, including average

age, age ranges, and age in relation to gender. Table 4-4 provides summary statistics for

age in relation to ethnicity. Table 4-5 provides summary statistics for professional

characteristics, including Variables 4 through 11.

Table 4-1 Item Response Rates for Participant Demographic Variables (Total N=162)
Variable Frequency Percent
Gender Identity 147 90.7
Ethnicity 146 90.1
Age 147 90.7
Highest Degree Earned 146 90.1
Area(s) of Specialization 149 91.9
Number of Years as Faculty 148 91.3
Current Academic Rank 147 90.7
Tenure Status 145 89.5
Full- or Part-Time 148 91.3
Professional Affiliations 143 88.2
Licensure(s) and Certifications 140 86.4


Table 4-2 Participant Demographics Gender Identity and Ethnicity
Variable Frequency Percent
Gender Identity
Female 82 50.6
Male 65 40.1
Transgender 0 0.0
Not Reported 15 9.2
Ethnicity
African American 3 1.8
Asian American 2 1.2
European American 122 75.3
Hispanic American 5 3.0
Native American 2 1.2
Pacific Islander American 0 0.0
Multiracial 3 1.8
International 4 2.4
Other 6 3.7
Not Reported 15 9.2









Table 4-3 Participant Demographics Age, Age & Gender Identity
Variables Age and Gender Identity Years
Age Distribution


Average Age



Age Ranges


Total Respondents
Female
Male

Total Respondents
Female
Male


29 to 75
29 to 63
34 to 75


50.95
45.79
57.19


29 to 39 N=24
Female 16
Male 8
40 to 49 N=37
Female 23
Male 14
50 to 59 N=55
Female 35
Male 20
60+ N=31
Female 8
Male 23


Table 4-4 Participant Demographics -Age & Ethnicity
Ethnicity Average Age
African American 35.0


Asian American
European American
Hispanic American
Native American
Pacific Islander American
Multiracial
International
Other


46.0
41.8
45.2
42.0
n/a
47
46.25
53.5


Age Distribution
31 to 40
38 to 54
29 to 75
36 to 60
39 to 45
n/a
34 to 56
36 to 55
60 to 62


Table 4-5 presents demographic data relevant to participant's professional

qualifications and characteristics. Information within each variable is sorted by frequency

and presented in descending order, beginning with the variable levels with highest


frequency.









Table 4-5 Participant Demographics Professional Characteristics
Variable Frequency Percent
Highest Degree Earned
Doctoral degree in counselor education 99 67.8
Doctoral degree in closely related field 42 28.8
Masters Degree in counseling 5 3.4
Advanced Graduate Study degree in 0 0
counselor education (i.e., Ed.S., CAGS)
Advanced Graduate Study degree in 0 0
closely related field (i.e., Ed.S., CAGS)
Masters Degree in closely related field 0 0
Area(s) of Specialization
Counselor education and supervision 84 56.4
School counseling 58 38.9
Mental health counseling 54 36.2
Community counseling 52 34.9
Marital, couple, and family counseling/therapy 41 27.5
Counseling psychology 33 22.1
Other 30 20.1
Career counseling 24 16.1
College counseling 21 14.1
Student personnel in higher education 18 12.1
Rehabilitation counseling 15 10.1
Gerontological counseling 4 2.7
Number of Years as Faculty (Range <1 to 40)
0 to 7 years 59 39.8
8 to 14 years 30 20.2
15 to 22 years 22 14.8
23 to 30 years 22 14.8
31+ years 15 10.1
Current Academic Rank
Full Professor 54 36.7
Assistant Professor 42 28.6
Associate Professor 42 28.6
Adjunct Professor 4 2.7
Instructor 4 2.7
Visiting Scholar 1 0.7
Professor Emeritus 0 0
Affiliate Professor 0 0
Tenure Status
Earned tenure 89 61.4
Seeking tenure 42 29
Annual contract 8 5.5
Not applicable 6 4.1
Full- or Part-Time









Table 4-5. Continued
Variable
Full-time
Part-time
Professional Affiliations
American Counseling Association (ACA)
Association for Counselor Education
and Supervision (ACES)
Chi Sigma Iota (CSI)
American Psychological Association (APA)
American School Counseling
Association (ASCA)
American Mental Health Counseling
Association (AMHCA)
International Association of Marriage
and Family Counselors (IAMFC)
American Association of Marriage
and Family Therapists (AAMFT)
American Rehabilitation Counseling
Association (ARCA)
Licensure(s) and Certifications
Licensed
Nationally Certified Counselor (NCC)
NBCC Approved Clinical Supervisor
License eligible Actively seeking state licensure


Frequency
139
9

131
93

62
44
39

23

23

16

9


116
92
22
13


Percent
93.9
6.1

91.6
65.0

43.4
30.8
27.3

16.1

16.1

11.2

6.3


82.9
65.7
15.7
9.3


Profiles of CACREP-accredited Counselor Education Departments

What are the profiles of CACREP-accredited counselor education departments

represented in this sample? To address this question, descriptive statistics were calculated

on the following relevant items. To assess geographic representation, participants were

asked to provide the state in which their institution was located. For the sake of

interpretation, locations were organized according to geographic regions, as identified by

the American Counseling Association. The American Counseling Association has four

geographic regions: North Atlantic Region (CT, DE, MA, ME, NJ, NY, PA, RI, VT, and

NH); Western Region (AK, AZ, CA, CO, HI, ID, MO, NV, NM, OR, UT, WA, and

WY); Midwest Region (ND, SD, NE, KS, OK, MN, IA, MO, WI, IL, IN, OH, and MI);









and Southern Region (AL, AR, FL, GA, KY, LA, MD, MS, NC, SC, TN, TX, VA, and

WV). All states were not represented in the responses, and there were no respondents

who identified locations outside the United States. For the purposes of this analysis,

respondents from the District of Columbia were placed in the Southern Region. Other

variables included: Carnegie classification, total number of faculty members within each

department, total number of students, degrees) offered, program specialization(s),

program type, and curriculum delivery mode. Table 4-6 provides a summary of response

rates for the relevant department variables. Table 4-7 provides a summary of descriptive

statistics for variables related to the departments in which participants were employed.

Table 4-6 Item Response Rates for Department Demographic Variables (N=162)
Variable Frequency Percent
Geographic region 146 90.1
Carnegie classification 147 90.7
Total number of faculty members 146 90.1
Total number of students 145 89.5
Degree(s) offered 148 91.3
Program specialization(s) 146 90.1
Program type 144 88.8
Curriculum delivery mode 146 90.1


The levels within the following variables are presented in descending order, sorted

by frequency, with the most frequent level appearing first.

Table 4-7 Department Demographic Variables
Variable Frequency Percent
Geographic region
Southern Region 71 48.6
Midwest Region 34 23.2
Western Region 22 15.0
North Atlantic Region 18 12.3
Carnegie classification
Doctoral/Research University-Extensive 63 42.9
Master's College and University I 40 27.2
Doctoral/Research University-Intensive 32 21.8









Table 4-7. Continued
Variable Frequency Percent
Master's College and University II 12 8.2
Degree(s) offered
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) 81 54.7
Master of Arts (MA) 68 45.9
Master of Education (M.Ed.) 64 43.2
Master of Science (MS) 59 39.9
Advanced Graduate Study (e.g., CAGS, Ed.S.) 45 30.4
Doctor of Education (Ed.D.) 22 14.9
Other 19 12.8
Program specialization(s)
School counseling 142 96.6
Community counseling 100 68.0
Counselor education and supervision 60 40.8
Mental health counseling 43 29.3
Student personnel in higher education 43 29.3
Marital, couple, and family counseling/therapy 41 27.5
College counseling 37 25.2
Rehabilitation counseling 34 23.1
Counseling psychology 26 17.7
Other 26 17.7
Career counseling 16 10.9
Gerontological counseling 0 0
Program type
Full-time, Weekday, Day Program 36 25
Part-time, Evening, Weekend Program 27 18.8
Both Full-time, Weekday, Day Program 81 56.2
and Part-time, Evening, Weekend Program
Curriculum delivery mode
Campus-based 146 100.0
Distance-learning 46 31.5
Satellite campus-based 39 26.7

Table 4-8 Department Demographic Variables Number of Faculty and Students
Faculty and Students Range or Average
Range of number of faculty members 3 to 81
Average number of faculty members 15.14
Range of number of students 14 to 1000
Average number of students 193.15









Factor Analysis

To identify and conceptually organize critical work behaviors common to

counselor educators, a factor analysis was conducted. The analysis was conducted using a

Maximum Likelihood Factor Analysis and Varimax (or Orthogonal) rotation in order to

maximize the independence of factors and minimize the likelihood of shared variance

between factors. Factors were kept with Eigenvalues greater than 1.0. Items were

assigned to factors with factor loadings greater than .40. Items with factor loadings

greater than .40 on multiple factors were assigned to the factor in which they loaded the

highest or were determined to be more conceptually consistent with other items within

the factor.

The reliability of the factor structure was confirmed by implementing a reliability

analysis using Chronbach's Alpha, Inter-item Correlations, and Item/Total Correlation

comparisons. Items showing poor reliability (items that either significantly decreased the

Chronbach Alpha, Inter-item Correlations, or Item/Total Correlation comparisons) were

not kept in the scale for the factor.

Based on the results of the Reliability tests, Summed Score Scales were created for

each of the factors. The Summed Score Scales became the Dependent Variables for the

data analysis run for Research Questions Five through Eight. Respondents with three or

fewer data points missing, either within importance or frequency, had the data points

substituted for the Carnegie Mode Score. The Carnegie Mode Score was used because the

Carnegie rank was the common independent variable in the analysis for Research

Questions Five through Eight. This Mode Substitution was utilized in order to maximize

the number of respondents able to be included in the multivariate analyses. The









substitution was determined to have minimal impact on the analysis, given the overall

variance of the sample was minimally changed by these few data points.

Based on an analysis of items loaded within each factor, the factor was assigned a

name and conceptual description. Table 4-9 provides a list of each factor name, the

conceptual description of the factor, items loaded greater than .40, and their

corresponding factor loadings. On the table, items within each factor are identified by the

item name and the abbreviation of the survey section and item number, each referring to

importance (e.g., Admin 1-I refers to Item No. 1-Importance from the Administra

section). Refer to Appendix A for a copy of the Counselor Educator Work Behavior

Instrument. Note that items included within a factor may have been drawn from multiple

sections of the survey. For example, the Community Building factor loaded items from

both Service and Teaching and Advising sections of the instrument. Items are sorted in

descending order by factor loadings, beginning with the item that loaded heaviest.

Table 4-9 Results of Factor Analysis
Factor Name Conceptual Description Items Loaded >.40 Factor
Loadings
(Varimax
Raw)
Program These activities describe how
Administration counselor educators develop,
administer, and manage
programs within an academic
department
Admin. 6-I: Coordinate 0.761063
advising programs
Admin. 1-I: Administer 0.613342
counseling program
Admin. 8-I: Coordinate
specialization (e.g.588513
School Counseling)
program









Table 4-9. Continued
Factor Name Conceptual Description


Clinical
Counseling
Practice

























Scholarship


These activities form the core
elements of clinical counseling
practice, including assessment,
treatment planning, evaluation,
and case management.























These activities describe the
practice of scholarly research
from project design,
implementation, analysis, and
result dissemination. It describes
a recursive process involving
collaboration and sharing results
with the professional
community.


Items Loaded >.40


Admin. 7-I: Coordinate
practicum and
internship activities
Admin. 9-I: Develop
program related reports






Prac. 5-I: Establish
counseling goals
Prac. 6-I: Evaluate
client's movement
toward counseling goals
Prac. 7-I: Evaluate
client's need for referral
Prac. 4-I: Develop
comprehensive
treatment plans
Prac. 8-I: Maintain case
notes, records, and/or
files
Prac. 3-I: Counsel
clients
Prac. 9-I: Participate in
case conferences
Prac. 1-I: Assess
potential for client to
harm self/others


Factor
Loadings
(Varimax
Raw)

0.529693


0.422723







0.963830


0.963488


0.948984


0.919675


0.919247


0.891819

0.823655


0.783380









Table 4-9. Continued
Factor Name Conceptual Description Items Loaded >.40 Factor
Loadings
(Varimax
Raw)
Schol. 2-I: Collect and
0.893752
analyze data
Schol. 5-I: Engage in 0.
0.837328
data analysis
Schol. 1-I: Collaborate
in research with other 0.667209
professionals
Schol. 16-I: Write for
publication in scholarly 0.631397
journals, books, and
electronic media
Schol. 3-I: Engage in
counseling outcome 0.488832
research
Serv. 5-I: Peer review
0.462029
articles
Schol. 13-1: Secure
external funding (e.g., 0.430306
grants)
Teaching and These activities describe the
Mentoring process in which academic
courses are developed, designed,
facilitated, and student work
evaluated within counselor
education programs. Included in
this process is the mentoring
element around students'
personal and professional
development.
T&A 13-I: Prepare
lectures, exercises, and 0.720678
experiential activities
T&A 7-I: Evaluate
and/or grade exams and 0.667195
papers
T&A 5-I: Develop and 522992
0.522992
revise syllabi
T&A 15-I: Teach core 0.5
coun0.511396
counseling classes









Table 4-9. Continued
Factor Name Conceptual Description


Clinical
Supervision























Shared
Governance










Infusing
Technology


These activities describe the
ways in which counselor
educators provide clinical
supervision, training, and
assessment to counseling
students.


















These activities describe the
ways in which counselor
educators participate as citizens
in the governance of
departments and institutions.







These activities describe the
process by which technology is
infused into curriculum design
and delivery.


Items Loaded >.40


T&A 11-I: Mentor
students in professional
development







Sup. 4-I: Provide
individual and group
supervision
Sup. 2-I: Evaluate
practicum and
internship counselor
trainee's performance
Sup. 3-I: Provide
counselor skill
development training
Sup. 1-I: Complete
written progress and
evaluation reports
Sup. 1-I: Complete
written progress and
evaluation reports






Serv. 6-I: Serve on
academic or
administrative
committees
Serv. 4-I: Participate in
university governance


Factor
Loadings
(Varimax
Raw)

0.508108









0.839647



0.823176



0.703980


0.447517


0.447517








0.807743


0.787072









Table 4-9. Continued
Factor Name Conceptual Description


Items Loaded >.40


T&A 12-I: Post course
content, class notes,
class schedules, and
other information on
the Internet
T&A 8-I: Infuse
technology into course
design and management
T&A 3-I: Conduct
distance education
activities


Community
Building


These activities describe the
ways in which counselor
educator build community
between students and external
stakeholders utilizing
mentorship, consultation, and
outreach activities.


Serv. 1-I: Conduct
community outreach
Serv. 2-I Engage in
professional/community
public relations
Serv. 8-I: Work with
student and community
organizations
T&A 10-I: Mentor
students in personal
development
Prac. 2-I: Consult with
community
organizations
T&A 11-I: Mentor
students in professional
development


Consultation


These activities identify the
various consultation practices
that counselor educators
provide.


Factor
Loadings
(Varimax
Raw)


0.617700



0.603328


0.464669


0.652032


0.607341


0.494964


0.434959


0.412069


0.404092









Table 4-9. Continued
Factor Name Conceptual Description


Counselor
Educator
Professional
Development


These activities identify the
ways in which counselor
educators participate in ongoing
self-reflection and professional
development.


Items Loaded >.40


Prac. 11-I: Provide
consultation services
for interpersonal skills
training
Prac. 10-I: Provide
consultation services
for human relationships
development
Prac. 12-I Provide
consultation services
for professional skill
development






Schol. 8-I: Participate
in continuing
education/skill
enhancement
Schol. 12-I: Secure and
maintain professional
licensure and
credentials
Schol. 11-I: Review
ethical standards, legal
statutes and regulations
Schol. 10-I: Read
current professional
literature
T&A 4-I: Conduct self-
reflection activities on
teaching and learning
strategies


Factor
Loadings
(Varimax
Raw)


0.583772



0.522933



0.495631









0.600563



0.564444



0.562700


0.545889



0.424735









Table 4-9. Continued
Factor Name Conceptual Description Items Loaded >.40 Factor
Loadings
(Varimax
Raw)
Program These activities describe the
Evaluation methods by which counselor
educators evaluate their
programs and disseminate
results to stakeholders in the
profession.
Admin. 3-I: Conduct
formative evaluation of
0.725781
counselor education
program
Admin. 5-I: Conduct
summative evaluation
0.701238
of counselor education
program
Admin. 4-I: Conduct
program accreditation 0.691000
activities
Serv. 7-I: Serve on
committees in relevant
local, state, regional, 0.424036
and national
professional
organizations
Admin. 9-I: Develop 0.400414
program related reports
Research These activities relate to the
Oversight supervision and management of
faculty and staff while engaged
in counseling research.
Schol. 3-I: Engage in
counseling outcome 0.542752
research
Admin. 15-I: Supervise
faculty and staff 0.514323
members
Schol. 4-I: Engage in
counseling process 0.467052
research
Admin. 10-I: Manage a 44343
budget0.443439
budget









Table 4-9. Continued
Factor Name Conceptual Description Items Loaded >.40 Factor
Loadings
(Varimax
Raw)
Admin. 14-I:
Participate in staffing 0.415352
processes


Importance of Work Behaviors

What are the most important work behaviors performed by counselor educators in

CACREP-accredited work programs? Most important work behaviors performed were

identified as those work behaviors that loaded greater than .40 on the factor analysis

described in the above section. Mean scores, confidence intervals, and standard

deviations were calculated for the items within each of the 12 factors. Table 4-10 reports

the results in descending order, beginning with the factor with the highest mean item

score. See Appendix B for a results summary of the importance of work behaviors for

each item within the survey.

Table 4-10 Most Important Work Behaviors Average Item Means by Factor
Factor Valid N Mean Confidence Confidence Std. Standard
-.95% +95% Dev.
Teaching and
145 4.029 3.913 4.145 0.704 0.058
Mentoring
Clinical
147 3.711 3.505 3.917 1.264 0.104
Supervision
Counselor
Educator
147 3.631 3.492 3.770 0.852 0.070
Professional
Development
Scholarship 147 3.213 3.065 3.360 0.905 0.075
Community
Community 143 3.047 2.882 3.211 0.995 0.083
Building
Program
P ionm 147 3.039 2.867 3.212 1.057 0.087
Evaluation









Table 4-10. Continued
Factor Valid N Mean Confidence Confidence Std. Standard
-.95% +95% Dev.
Program
Program 148 2.830 2.626 3.033 1.254 0.103
Administration
Shared
S 147 2.534 2.337 2.731 1.207 0.100
Governance
Clinical
Counseling 143 2.314 2.007 2.621 1.858 0.155
Practice
Research
e h 148 2.205 2.009 2.402 1.210 0.099
Oversight
Infusing
Infusing 145 2.179 1.998 2.361 1.104 0.092
Technology
Consultation 143 1.671 1.424 1.919 1.497 0.125


Frequency of Engaging in Work Behaviors

What are the most frequently engaged work behaviors performed by counselor

educators in CACREP-accredited work programs? Using the most important work

behaviors as calculated by factor analysis outlined in the previous section, mean scores,

confidence intervals, and standard deviations were calculated for the parallel survey items

asking for the frequency of engaging in the work behaviors identified within each of the

12 factors. Table 4-11 reports the results in descending order, beginning with the factor

with the highest mean item score. See Appendix C for a results summary of the frequency

of engaging in work behaviors for each item within the survey.

Table 4-11 Most Frequently Engaged Work Behaviors Average Item Means by Factor
Factor Valid N Mean Confidence Confidence Std. Standard
-.95% +95% Dev.
Teaching and
Teaching and 144 2.721 2.586 2.855 0.816 0.068
Mentoring
Clinical
147 2.281 2.091 2.470 1.165 0.096
Supervision
Program 148 1.791 1.617 1.964 1.070 0.088
Administration









Table 4-11. Continued
Factor Valid N Mean Confidence Confidence Std. Standard
-.95% +95% Dev.
Shared
e 144 1.785 1.583 1.986 1.224 0.102
Governance
Counselor
Educator
146 1.771 1.632 1.910 0.849 0.070
Professional
Development
Scholarship 142 1.764 1.591 1.936 1.040 0.087
Community 137 1.627 1.479 1.774 0.875 0.075
Building
Program
vProgram 144 1.426 1.288 1.565 0.840 0.070
Evaluation
Infusing
Infusing 145 1.168 1.020 1.316 0.900 0.075
Technology
Clinical
Counseling 142 1.033 0.840 1.225 1.159 0.097
Practice
Research
e h 148 0.973 0.848 1.098 0.768 0.063
Oversight
Consultation 142 0.812 0.650 0.974 0.975 0.082


Interactions Among Academic Rank, Carnegie Classification, and Importance of
Work Behaviors

Is there a significant interaction between Academic Rank and Carnegie

Classification based on perceived importance of categories of work behaviors? The null

hypothesis is that there is no significant interaction between academic rank and Carnegie

classification based on perceived importance of categories of work behaviors.

Participants included in this analysis met the following criteria: they indicated that

(1) their current academic rank was at the Assistant, Associate, or Full Professor level;

and (2) their institution's Carnegie classification was at the Doctoral/Research

University-Extensive, Doctoral/Research-Intensive, Master's College and University I, or

Master's College and University II. For the purposes of this analysis, Master's College









and University I and II were combined as one category (Masters Program). One hundred

thirty one participants met the inclusion criteria for this analysis.

A 3 (Academic Rank) x 3 (Carnegie Classification) x 12 (Work Behaviors-

Importance) Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted utilizing

Hotelling's T as the test statistic and setting the overall level of significance at c = .05.

The results of the 3 (Academic Rank) x 3 (Carnegie Classification) x 12 (Work

Behaviors-Importance) MANOVA indicated that Hotelling's T = 0.4376, F (48, 438) =

0.9984, p = 0.4799. The conclusion is to fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude

that there is no significant interaction between Academic Rank and Carnegie

Classification across the categories of Work Behaviors-Importance.

Given an insignificant interaction, main effects for both Academic Rank and

Carnegie Classification were examined across the categories of Work Behaviors-

Importance. Significant main effects were found on the MANOVA for Academic Rank;

Hotelling's T = 0.5067, F (24, 220) = 2.3227, p < 0.0008. Significant main effects were

also found on the MANOVA for Carnegie Classification; Hotelling's T = 0.6437, F (24,

220) = 2.9505, p < 0.0001.

Separate 3 x 3 ANOVAs were conducted on each of the factors of Work Behaviors-

Importance and indicated that significant differences were found on the following

Categories of Work Behaviors-Importance: Scholarship (Academic Rank, Carnegie

Classification), Counselor Educator Professional Development (Carnegie Classification),

Program Evaluation (Academic Rank), and Research Oversight (Academic Rank). The

significant results are summarized on Table 4-12.









Table 4-12 Summary of Significant Main Effects for Importance of Work Behaviors on
Academic Rank x Carnegie Classification
Category of Work Behaviors Main Effect dfl df2 F p-value
Scholarship Academic Rank 2 122 3.615 0.0298
Scholarship Carnegie 2 122 11.104 <.0001
Classification
Counselor Educator Carnegie 2 122 7.196 0.0011
Professional Development Classification
Program Evaluation Academic Rank 2 122 5.647 0.0045
Research Oversight Academic Rank 2 122 3.870 0.0234


A Tukey's HSD post-hoc analysis examined the main effect of Academic Rank in

the Scholarship category of work behaviors-importance determined that there was a

significant difference between the ranks of Assistant Professor and Associate Professor (1

= .0167). Effect size was calculated using Cohen's d statistic and found that d = .5714,

indicating a moderate effect size. A table of means and variance components is presented

in Table 4-13.

Table 4-13 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Academic Rank on the
Importance of Scholarship
Academic Rank N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI
Assistant Professor 39 24.84 6.01 22.89 26.79
Associate Professor 42 21.30 4.97 19.75 22.86
Full Professor 50 22.32 6.89 20.36 24.27
Total 131 22.74 6.19 21.67 23.81


A Tukey's HSD post-hoc analysis examined the main effect of Carnegie

Classification in the Scholarship category of work behaviors-importance determined that

there was a significant difference between the classifications of Doctoral/Research

University-Extensive and Masters Programs (p <0.0001). Effect size was calculated using

Cohen's d statistic and found that d = .8594, indicating a large effect size. A table of

means and variance components is presented in Table 4-14.









Table 4-14 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Carnegie Classification on
the Importance of Scholarship
Carnegie N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI
Classification
Doctoral- 61 24.98 6.16 23.40 26.56
Extensive
Doctoral-Intensive 31 22.22 5.53 20.19 24.25
Masters Programs 39 19.66 5.37 17.92 21.40
Total 131 22.74 6.19 21.67 23.81


A Tukey's HSD post-hoc analysis examined the main effect of Carnegie

Classification in the Counselor Educator Professional Development category of work

behaviors-importance determined that there was a significant difference between the

classifications of Doctoral/Research-Extensive and Doctoral/Research-Intensive (p =

0.0105). Additionally, there was a significant difference between the classifications of

Doctoral/Research-Extensive and Masters Programs (p = 0.0057). Effect size for

Doctoral/Research-Extensive and Doctoral/Research-Intensive was calculated using

Cohen's d statistic and found that d = .6175, indicating a moderate effect size. Effect size

for Doctoral/Research-Extensive and Masters Programs was calculated using Cohen's d

statistic and found that d = .6199, indicating a moderate effect size. A table of means and

variance components is presented in Table 4-15.

Table 4-15 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Carnegie Classification on
the Importance of Counselor Educator Professional Development
Carnegie N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI
Classification
Doctoral- 61 16.62 4.49 15.47 17.77
Extensive
Doctoral-Intensive 31 19.22 3.23 18.04 20.41
Masters Programs 39 19.23 3.84 17.98 20.47
Total 131 18.01 4.21 17.28 18.74









A Tukey's HSD post-hoc analysis examined the main effect of Academic Rank in

the Program Evaluation category of work behaviors-importance determined that there

was a significant difference between the ranks of Assistant Professor and Full Professor

(1 < 0.0005). Effect size was calculated using Cohen's d statistic and found that d =

.7568, indicating a large effect size. A table of means and variance components is

presented in Table 4-16.

Table 4-16 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Academic Rank on the
Importance of Program Evaluation
Academic Rank N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI
Assistant 39 12.84 6.38 10.77 14.91
Professor
Associate 42 15.07 5.15 13.46 16.67
Professor
Full Professor 50 16.98 4.25 15.76 18.19
Total 131 15.13 5.47 14.19 16.08


A Tukey's HSD post-hoc analysis examined the main effect of Academic Rank in

the Research Oversight category of work behaviors-importance determined that there was

a significant difference between the ranks of Assistant Professor and Full Professor (p =

.0074). Additionally, there was a significant difference between the ranks of Associate

Professor and Full Professor (p = .0140). Effect size for Assistant Professor and Full

Professor was calculated using Cohen's d statistic and found that d = .5692, indicating a

moderate effect size. Effect size for Associate Professor and Full Professor was

calculated using Cohen's d statistic and found that d = .5501, indicating a moderate effect

size. A table of means and variance components is presented in Table 4-17.









Table 4-17 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Academic Rank on the
Importance of Research Oversight
Academic Rank N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI
Assistant 39 9.89 5.43 8.13 11.65
Professor
Associate 42 10.00 5.29 8.35 11.64
Professor
Full Professor 50 13.18 6.00 11.47 14.88
Total 131 11.18 5.78 10.18 12.18


Interaction Among Academic Rank, Carnegie Classification, and Frequency of
Engaging in Work Behaviors

Is there a significant interaction between Academic Rank and Carnegie

Classification based on frequency of engaging in categories of work behaviors? The null

hypothesis is that there is no significant interaction between Academic Rank and

Carnegie Classification based on frequency of engaging in categories of work behaviors.

Participants included in this analysis met the following criteria: they indicated that

(1) their current academic rank was at the Assistant, Associate, or Full Professor level;

and (2) their institution's Carnegie Classification was at the Doctoral/Research

University-Extensive, Doctoral/Research-Intensive, Master's College and University I, or

Master's College and University II. For the purposes of this analysis, Master's College

and University I and II were combined as one category (Masters Program). Due to

participants not completing frequency items, only one hundred twenty one subjects had

completed data sets that could be utilized in this analysis.

A 3 (Academic Rank) x 3 (Carnegie Classification) x 12 (Work Behaviors-

Frequency) Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted utilizing

Hotelling's T as the test statistic and setting the overall level of significance at c = .05.









The results of the 3 (Academic Rank) x 3 (Carnegie Classification) x 12 (Work

Behaviors-Frequency) MANOVA indicated that Hotelling's T = 0.2761, F (48, 402) =

0.5781, p = 0.9893. The conclusion is to fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude

that there is no significant interaction between Academic Rank and Carnegie

Classification across the categories of Work Behaviors-Frequency.

Given an insignificant interaction, main effects for both Academic Rank and

Carnegie Classification were examined across the categories of Work Behaviors-

Frequency. Significant main effects were found on the MANOVA for Academic Rank;

Hotelling's T = 0.3765, F (24, 202) = 1.5844, p = 0.0469. Significant main effects were

also found on the MANOVA for Carnegie Classification; Hotelling's T = 0.6548, F (24,

202) = 2.7557, p < 0.0001.

Separate 3 x 3 ANOVAs were conducted on each of the factors of Work Behaviors-

Frequency and indicated that significant differences were found on the following

Categories of Work Behaviors-Frequency: Program Administration (Carnegie

Classification), Scholarship (Academic Rank, Carnegie Classification), and Counselor

Educator Professional Development (Carnegie Classification). The significant results are

summarized on Table 4-18.

Table 4-18 Summary of Significant Main Effects for Frequency of Engaging in Work
Behaviors on Academic Rank x Carnegie Classification
Category of Work Behaviors Main Effect dfl df2 F p-value
Program Administration Carnegie 2 113 5.0875 0.0076
Classification
Scholarship Academic Rank 2 113 3.5286 0.0326
Scholarship Carnegie 2 113 8.4411 <.0004
Classification
Counselor Educator Carnegie 2 113 3.2403 0.0428
Professional Development Classification









A Tukey's HSD post-hoc analysis examined the main effect of Carnegie

Classification in the Program Administration category of work behaviors-frequency

determined that there was a significant difference between Doctoral/Research-Extensive

and Doctoral/Research-Intensive (p = .0035). Effect size was calculated using Cohen's d

statistic and found that d = .7400, indicating a large effect size (Table 4-19).

Table 4-19 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Carnegie Classification on
the Frequency of Engaging in Program Administration
Carnegie Classification N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI
Doctoral-Extensive 56 7.64 4.59 6.41 8.87
Doctoral-Intensive 30 11.30 5.24 9.34 13.25
Masters Programs 36 9.02 4.65 7.45 10.60
Total 122 8.95 4.95 8.06 9.83


A Tukey's HSD post-hoc analysis examined the main effect of Academic Rank in

the Scholarship category of work behaviors-frequency determined that there was a

significant difference between the ranks of Assistant Professor and Associate Professor (p

= .0303). Effect size for Assistant Professor and Associate Professor was calculated using

Cohen's d statistic and found that d = .4899, indicating a moderate effect size. A table of

means and variance components is presented in Table 4-20.

Table 4-20 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Academic Rank on the
Frequency of Engaging in Scholarship
Academic Rank N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI
Assistant 34 15.23 7.88 12.48 17.98
Professor
Associate 39 11.58 6.86 9.36 13.81
Professor
Full Professor 49 11.22 7.23 9.14 13.30
Total 122 12.45 7.45 11.12 13.79


A Tukey's HSD post-hoc analysis examined the main effect of Carnegie

Classification in the Scholarship category of work behaviors-frequency determined that









there was a significant difference between Doctoral/Research-Extensive and Masters

Programs (1 = .0006). Additionally, there was a significant difference between

Doctoral/Research-Intensive and Masters Programs (p = .0215). Effect size was

calculated for Doctoral/Research-Extensive and Masters Programs using Cohen's d

statistic and found that d = .7731, indicating a large effect size. Effect size was calculated

for Doctoral/Research-Intensive and Masters Programs using Cohen's d statistic and

found that d = .6268, indicating a moderate effect size. A table of means and variance

components is presented in Table 4-21.

Table 4-21 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Carnegie Classification on
the Frequency of Scholarship
Carnegie Classification N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI
Doctoral-Extensive 56 14.42 7.87 12.31 16.53
Doctoral-Intensive 30 13.33 8.23 10.25 16.40
Masters Programs 36 8.66 4.08 7.28 10.04
Total 122 12.45 7.45 11.12 13.79


A Tukey's HSD post-hoc analysis examined the main effect of Carnegie

Classification in the Counselor Educator Professional Development category of work

behaviors-frequency determined that there was a significant difference between

Doctoral/Research-Extensive and Doctoral/Research-Intensive (p = .0189). Effect size

was calculated using Cohen's d statistic and found that d = .6109, indicating a moderate

effect size. A table of means and variance components is presented in Table 4-22.

Table 4-22 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Carnegie Classification on
the Frequency of Engaging in Counselor Educator Professional Development
Carnegie Classification N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI
Doctoral-Extensive 56 7.85 3.27 6.97 8.73
Doctoral-Intensive 30 10.30 5.22 8.34 12.25
Masters Programs 36 8.33 3.58 7.12 9.54
Total 122 8.59 4.02 7.87 9.31









Interaction Between Tenure Status, Carnegie Classification, and Importance of
Work Behaviors

Is there a significant interaction between tenure status and Carnegie classification

based on perceived importance of categories of work behaviors? The null hypothesis is

that there is no significant interaction between tenure status and Carnegie classification

based on perceived importance of categories of work behaviors.

Participants included in this analysis met the following criteria: they indicated that

(1) their tenure status was at the Earned Tenure or Seeking Tenure level; and (2) their

institution's Carnegie classification was at the Doctoral/Research University-Extensive,

Doctoral/Research-Intensive, Master's College and University I, or Master's College and

University II. For the purposes of this analysis, Master's College and University I and II

were combined as one category (Masters Program). One hundred twenty five participants

met the inclusion criteria for this analysis.

A 2 (Tenure Status) x 3 (Carnegie Classification) x 12 (Work Behaviors-

Importance) Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted utilizing

Hotelling's T as the test statistic and setting the overall level of significance at c = .05.

The results of the 2 (Tenure Status) x 3 (Carnegie Classification) x 12 (Work

Behaviors-Importance) MANOVA indicated that Hotelling's T = 0.2372, F (24, 214) =

1.0577, p = 0.3950. The conclusion is to fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude

that there is no significant interaction between Tenure Status and Carnegie Classification

across the categories of Work Behaviors-Importance.

Given an insignificant interaction, main effects for both Tenure Status and

Carnegie Classification were examined across the categories of Work Behaviors-

Importance. Significant main effects were found on the MANOVA for Tenure Status;









Hotelling's T = 0.3192, F (12, 108) = 2.8724, p =0.0018. Significant main effects were

also found on the MANOVA for Carnegie Classification; Hotelling's T = 0.7166, F (24,

214) = 3.1949, 2 < 0.0001.

Separate 2 x 3 ANOVAs were conducted on each of the factors of Work Behaviors-

Importance and indicated that significant differences were found on the following

Categories of Work Behaviors-Importance: Clinical Counseling Practice (Carnegie

Classification), Scholarship (Tenure Status, Carnegie Classification), Counselor Educator

Professional Development (Carnegie Classification), and Program Evaluation (Tenure

Status). The significant results are summarized on Table 4-23.

Table 4-23 Summary of Significant Main Effects for Importance of Work Behaviors on
Tenure Status x Carnegie Classification
Category of Work Behaviors Main Effect dfl df2 F p-value
Clinical Counseling Practice Carnegie 2 119 3.8223 0.0246
Classification
Scholarship Tenure Status 1 119 4.811 0.0302
Scholarship Carnegie 2 119 13.849 <.0001
Classification
Counselor Educator Carnegie 2 119 5.591 0.0047
Professional Development Classification
Program Evaluation Tenure Status 1 119 4.8577 0.0294


A Tukey's HSD post-hoc analysis examined the main effect of Carnegie

Classification in the Clinical Counseling Practice category of work behaviors-importance

determined that there was a significant difference between Doctoral/Research-Extensive

and Doctoral/Research-Intensive (p = .0289). Effect size was calculated using Cohen's d

statistic and found that d = .5665, indicating a moderate effect size. A table of means and

variance components is presented in Table 4-24.









Table 4-24 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Carnegie Classification on
the Importance of Clinical Counseling Practice
Carnegie Classification N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI
Doctoral-Extensive 57 14.21 14.52 10.35 18.06
Doctoral-Intensive 30 22.43 14.49 17.02 27.84
Masters Programs 38 19.44 13.51 15.00 23.88
Total 125 17.77 14.51 15.20 20.34


The significant difference of Tenure Status in the Scholarship category of work

behaviors-frequency was determined in the test for main effects (p = .0141). Effect size

was calculated using Cohen's d statistic and found that d = .4336, indicating a small

effect size. A table of means and variance components is presented in Table 4-25.

Table 4-25 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Tenure Status on the
Importance of Scholarship
Carnegie Classification N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI
Earned Tenure 86 21.88 5.98 20.60 23.16
Seeking Tenure 39 24.56 6.30 22.52 26.60
Total 125 22.72 6.18 21.62 23.81


A Tukey's HSD post-hoc analysis examined the main effect of Carnegie

Classification in the Scholarship category of work behaviors-importance determined that

there was a significant difference between Doctoral/Research-Extensive and Masters

Programs (p = .0001). Effect size was calculated using Cohen's d statistic and found that

d = .8932, indicating a large effect size. A table of means and variance components is

presented in Table 4-26.

Table 4-26 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Carnegie Classification on
the Importance of Scholarship
Carnegie Classification N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI
Doctoral-Extensive 57 25.07 6.04 23.46 26.75
Doctoral-Intensive 30 22.26 5.62 20.16 24.36
Masters Programs 38 19.55 5.40 17.77 21.32
Total 125 22.72 6.18 21.62 23.81









A Tukey's HSD post-hoc analysis examined the main effect of Carnegie

Classification in the Counselor Educator Professional Development category of work

behaviors-importance determined that there was a significant difference between

Doctoral/Research-Extensive and Doctoral/Research-Intensive (1= .0098). Additionally,

there was a significant difference between Doctoral/Research-Extensive and Masters

Programs (p = .0066). Effect size for Doctor/Research-Extensive and Doctoral/Research-

Intensive was calculated using Cohen's d statistic and found that d = .6494, indicating a

moderate effect size. Effect size for Doctor/Research-Extensive and Masters Programs

was calculated using Cohen's d statistic and found that d = .6305, indicating a moderate

effect size. A table of means and variance components is presented in Table 4-27.

Table 4-27 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Carnegie Classification on
the Importance of Counselor Educator Professional Development
Carnegie Classification N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI
Doctoral-Extensive 57 16.50 4.52 15.30 17.70
Doctoral-Intensive 30 19.26 3.27 18.04 20.49
Masters Programs 38 19.18 3.88 17.90 20.46
Total 125 17.98 4.25 17.23 18.73


The significant difference of Tenure Status in the Program Evaluation category of

work behaviors-frequency was determined in the test for main effects (p= .0158). Effect

size was calculated using Cohen's d statistic and found that d = .4686, indicating a

moderate effect size. A table of means and variance components is presented in Table 4-

28.

Table 4-28 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Tenure Status on the
Importance of Program Evaluation
Carnegie Classification N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI
Earned Tenure 86 16.16 4.60 15.17 17.15
Seeking Tenure 39 13.69 6.24 11.66 15.71
Total 125 15.39 5.27 14.45 16.32









Interaction Between Tenure Status, Carnegie Classification, and Frequency of
Engaging in Work Behaviors

Is there a significant interaction between tenure status and Carnegie classification

based on frequency of engaging in categories of work behaviors? The null hypothesis is

that there is no significant interaction between Tenure Status and Carnegie Classification

based on frequency of engaging in categories of work behaviors.

Participants included in this analysis met the following criteria: they indicated that

(1) their current tenure status was Earned Tenure or Seeking Tenure and (2) their

institution's Carnegie classification was at the Doctoral/Research University-Extensive,

Doctoral/Research-Intensive, Master's College and University I, or Master's College and

University II. For the purposes of this analysis, Master's College and University I and II

were combined as one category (Masters Program). One hundred seventeen subjects had

completed data sets that could be utilized in this analysis.

A 2 (Tenure) x 3 (Carnegie Classification) x 12 (Work Behaviors-Frequency)

Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted utilizing Hotelling's T as

the test statistic and setting the overall level of significance at c = .05.

The results of the 2 (Tenure Status) x 3 (Carnegie Classification) x 12 (Work

Behaviors-Frequency) MANOVA indicated that Hotelling's T = 0.2110, F (24, 198) =

0.8707, p = 0.6417. The conclusion is to fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude

that there is no significant interaction between Tenure Status and Carnegie Classification

across the categories of Work Behaviors-Frequency.

Given an insignificant interaction, main effects for both Tenure Status and

Carnegie Classification were examined across the categories of Work Behaviors-

Frequency. Significant main effects were found on the MANOVA for Tenure Status;









Hotelling's T = 0.2399, F (12, 100) = 1.9999, p = 0.0317. Significant main effects were

also found on the MANOVA for Carnegie Classification; Hotelling's T = 0.7390, F (24,

198) = 3.0485, p< 0.0001.

Separate 2 x 3 ANOVAs were conducted on each of the factors of Work Behaviors-

Frequency and indicated that significant differences were found on the following

Categories of Work Behaviors-Frequency: Program Administration (Carnegie

Classification), Scholarship (Tenure Status, Carnegie Classification), and Community

Building (Tenure Status). The significant results are summarized on Table 4-29.

Table 4-29 Summary of Significant Main Effects for Frequency of Engaging in Work
Behaviors on Tenure Status x Carnegie Classification
Category of Work Behaviors Main Effect dfl df2 F p-value
Program Administration Carnegie 2 111 3.5444 0.0321
Classification
Scholarship Tenure Status 1 111 6.5627 0.0117
Scholarship Carnegie 2 111 8.4504 <.0004
Classification
Community Building Tenure Status 1 111 4.0822 0.0457


A Tukey's HSD post-hoc analysis examined the main effect of Carnegie

Classification in the Program Administration category of work behaviors-frequency

determined that there was a significant difference between Doctoral/Research-Extensive

and Doctoral/Research-Intensive (p = .0086). Effect size for Doctoral/Research-Extensive

and Doctoral/Research-Intensive was calculated using Cohen's d statistic and found that

d = .6815, indicating a moderate effect size. A table of means and variance components is

presented in Table 4-30.









Table 4-30 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Carnegie Classification on
the Frequency of Engaging in Program Administration
Carnegie Classification N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI
Doctoral-Extensive 53 7.88 4.53 6.63 9.13
Doctoral-Intensive 29 11.24 5.32 9.21 13.26
Masters Programs 35 9.02 4.71 7.40 10.64
Total 117 9.05 4.93 8.15 9.96


The significant difference of Tenure Status in the Scholarship category of work

behaviors-frequency was determined in the test for main effects (p = .0117). Effect size

was calculated using Cohen's d statistic and found that d = .5623, indicating a moderate

effect size. A table of means and variance components is presented in Table 4-31.

Table 4-31 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Tenure Status on the
Frequency of Engaging in Scholarship
Carnegie Classification N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI
Earned Tenure 82 11.30 6.98 9.76 12.84
Seeking Tenure 35 15.54 8.04 12.77 18.30
Total 117 12.57 7.54 11.19 13.95


A Tukey's HSD post-hoc analysis examined the main effect of Carnegie

Classification in the Scholarship category of work behaviors-frequency determined that

there was a significant difference between Doctoral/Research-Extensive and Masters

Programs (p < .0005). Additionally, there was a significant difference between

Doctoral/Research-Intensive and Masters Programs (p = .0202). Effect size

Doctoral/Research-Extensive and Masters Programs was calculated using Cohen's d

statistic and found that d = .7970, indicating a large effect size. Effect size

Doctoral/Research-Intensive and Masters Programs was calculated using Cohen's d

statistic and found that d = .6220, indicating a moderate effect size. A table of means and

variance components is presented in Table 4-32.









Table 4-32 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Carnegie Classification on
the Frequency of Engaging in Scholarship
Carnegie Classification N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI
Doctoral-Extensive 53 14.69 7.91 12.51 16.88
Doctoral-Intensive 29 13.37 8.37 10.19 16.56
Masters Programs 35 8.68 4.14 7.26 10.10
Total 117 12.57 7.54 11.19 13.95


The significant difference of Tenure Status in the Community Building category of

work behaviors-frequency was determined in the test for main effects (p = .0457). Effect

size was calculated using Cohen's d statistic and found that d = .4891, indicating a

moderate effect size. A table of means and variance components is presented in Table 4-

33.

Table 4-33 Summary of Means and Variance Components for Tenure Status on the
Frequency of Engaging in Community Building
Carnegie Classification N Mean STD Dev -95% CI +95% CI
Earned Tenure 82 8.64 3.89 7.79 9.50
Seeking Tenure 35 11.11 6.82 8.76 13.46
Total 117 9.38 5.05 8.45 10.30














CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION

This study investigated important and frequently engaged work behaviors of

counselor educators working in academic departments housing programs accredited by

The Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs

(CACREP). This study was positioned within the broader context of preparing doctoral

students for academic careers, specifically within the counselor education profession. A

review of the literature revealed a lack of coherent objectives, curricular experiences, and

structures addressing the preparation of counselor educators (Adams, 2002).

Additionally, the literature demonstrated significant contextual changes in faculty,

departmental, and institutional settings as well as changes in the delivery of curricular

experiences (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2004). Finally, little research had been

conducted on counselor educator work behaviors, particularly research attending to work

behaviors (Loesch & Vacc, 1993; MohdZain, 1995).

This study sought to address this issue by identifying work behaviors most

important to and most frequently engaged by counselor educators. A list of work

behaviors was developed based on a literature review and content analysis of assistant

professor counselor educator positions. Based on this list, and organized according to

main counselor educator roles previously identified (MohdZain, 1995), the Counselor

Educator Work Behavior Instrument was developed for this study and administered via

the Internet to 1508 counselor educators working in departments housing CACREP-









accredited programs. One hundred sixty two (162) participants responded, indicating a

10.74 % response rate.

Counselor Educators and CACREP-Accredited Programs

Findings indicated the average respondent was a European-American female,

approximately 50 years old, employed full-time, having earned tenure and secured the

rank of full professor. This average participant earned her doctorate in counselor

education, and her most common area of specialization was counselor education and

supervision. Her three most common professional affiliations were with the American

Counseling Association (ACA), the Association for Counselor Education and

Supervision (ACES), and Chi Sigma Iota (CSI), and she was both licensed and

credentialed as a Nationally Certified Counselor (NCC).

The literature and the content analysis of counselor education positions identified

two issues relevant to counselor educator demographics: an aging faculty and a need for

diversity (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2004, Maples, 1989, National Board for Certified

Counselors, 2000). Participants ranged in age between 29 and 75 years, with the average

age being 50.95 years. Females ranged between 29 and 63 years, and men ranged

between 34 to 75 years. The average female was 45.79, and the average male was 57.19

years old. If a retirement age of 68 is assumed, and the average respondent was almost 51

years old, then the average respondent could have approximately 17 more years left in

their career as a counselor educator. When comparing age with number of years as

faculty, current academic rank, and tenure status, results indicated almost 40% of

respondents been faculty for at least 15 years, 10% longer than 30 years. Over 61% of

respondents had earned tenure, and over 65% were at the associate or full professor rank.

These data indicated a significant minority of participants was in the middle to later









stages of their academic careers, consistent with the literature that supported the need for

a continuing supply of higher education faculty. Yet, a majority of respondents (60%)

were in the first half of their academic career, having been employed as faculty from less

than 1 to 14 years. This suggests the counselor education profession may be experiencing

the transition from large-scale retirements towards an insurgence of faculty members in

the early stages of their careers.

If these findings are representative of the counselor educator population, they

demonstrate the need for increased diversity. Over 75% of respondents were European

American. Given that over 9% of respondents did not report their ethnicity, diverse and

traditionally underrepresented ethnic groups comprised only 15% of the sample. Of the

ethnic groups identified, Hispanic American (3%), International (2.4%), African

American (1.8%), and Multiracial (1.8%) were the most represented. When compared

with the overall sample, the average ages were younger for members of diverse ethnic

backgrounds. Average ages ranged from 35 to 47 years old, perhaps suggesting an

increase in the number of newer minority faculty entering the profession.

CACREP-Accredited Counselor Education Programs

Based on the most frequently represented levels of demographic program variables,

the typical counselor education program was located in the southern region of the United

States, within a Carnegie Doctoral/Research Extensive university, offering both masters

and doctoral degrees. The typical program had 15 faculty members, 193 students, and

offered specializations in school counseling, community counseling, and counselor

education and supervision.

Certain program variables are worth noting and have implications for future

counselor educators and current program faculty. Over 70% of respondents worked in









Carnegie Research-Extensive or Master's College and University I programs. Such types

of institutions may have specific expectations for research, funding, and scholarly

productivity. The ways in which programs are designed and curriculum delivered appears

to be changing to meet the needs of student consumers. A more traditional, full-time,

weekday, day program is in the minority. Rather, programs are being offered during the

evenings, weekends and may be completed on either a full-time or part-time basis.

Finally, 31% of respondents working in programs offering distance learning, and 26.7%

working in programs housed in multiple satellite campuses. This has implications for

doctoral students as they consider how their faculty career may be shaped in the years to

come, as well as the pace and balance of carrying out the roles within the positions.

Factor Analysis

A factor analysis was conducted to identify categories of work behavior important

to and frequently engaged in by counselor educators. A Maximum Likelihood Factor

Analysis and Varimax rotation was conducted, and factors were kept with Eigenvalues

greater than 1.0. Items were assigned to factors with factor loadings greater than .40.

The analysis identified 12 factors with items demonstrating conceptual consistency.

See Chapter 4, Table 4-9, for the results of the factor analysis. The following are the 12

categories of work behaviors:

* Program Administration
* Clinical Counseling Practice
* Scholarship
* Teaching and Mentoring
* Clinical Supervision
* Shared Governance
* Infusing Technology
* Community Building
* Consultation
* Counselor Educator Professional Development










* Program Evaluation
* Research Oversight


These categories are consistent with literature identifying work common to faculty

members in higher education settings (Boice, 1992; Brinkley, Dessants, Flamm, Fleming,

Forcey, & Rothschild, 1999). Additionally, they are consistent with the functions of

faculty within counselor education programs (CACREP, 2001).

Average mean item scores for items within each factor were calculated and sorted

to determine most important categories of work behaviors. The mean item scores for the

corresponding items related to frequency were calculated to determine most frequently

engaged categories of work behaviors. Table 5-1 provides a summary of most important

and most frequently engaged categories of work behaviors.

Table 5-1 Summary of Most Important and Most Frequently Engaged Categories of
Work Behaviors
Most Important Categories of Work Most Frequently Engaged Categories of
Behaviors Work Behaviors
Teaching and Mentoring Teaching and Mentoring
Clinical Supervision Clinical Supervision
Counselor Educator Professional Progm
e m Program Administration
Development
Scholarship Shared Governance
Community Building Counselor Educator Professional
Development
Program Evaluation Scholarship
Program Administration Community Building
Shared Governance Program Evaluation
Clinical Counseling Practice Infusing Technology
Research Oversight Clinical Counseling Practice
Infusing Technology Research Oversight
Consultation Consultation


Results indicated moderate consistency between the importance of a category of

behaviors and the frequency with which it was engaged. It is important to note that









importance and frequency are separate constructs. An important behavior can be

accomplished in little time, and a less important task may take significantly greater time

to complete. It is unknown whether time spent on an activity was sufficient, too frequent,

or not frequent enough. Thus, although scholarship was a very important category of

work behaviors, it was engaged in less frequently than program administration and shared

governance. More qualitative, follow-up analysis, could investigate the challenges of

balancing these multiple categories within a given semester or over the course of a career.

Effects of Academic Rank, Tenure Status, and Carnegie Classification on
Importance and Frequency of Engaging in Work Behaviors

Multiple, independent, Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) revealed no

significant interactions between Carnegie Classification and Academic Rank or Tenure

Status based on importance and frequency of engaging in work behaviors.

Academic Rank and Carnegie Classification

The results indicated significant differences in the importance of Scholarship,

Program Evaluation, and Research Oversight. Assistant Professors tended to rank

Scholarship as more important than Associate Professors. This finding is consistent with

the role scholarship plays in the tenure process for Assistant Professors. A significant

difference was identified between Assistant Professor and Full Professor for Program

Evaluation. This is an interesting finding, raising the questions of how program

evaluation is conducted and the role of all department faculty members in the process.

Given the responsibilities involved in seeking tenure, the program evaluation process

may be taken on more by faculty who have completed the tenure process. Significant

differences were found between Assistant and Full Professors and Associate and Full

Professors when ranking the importance of Research Oversight.