<%BANNER%>

The Middle Miocene Alum Bluff Flora, Liberty County, Florida


PAGE 1

THE MIDDLE MIOCENE ALUM BLUFF FLORA, LIBERTY COUNTY, FLORIDA By SARAH LYNN CORBETT A THESIS PRESENTED TO TH E GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2004

PAGE 2

For Daddy, who grew up under the shade of a big live oak and taught me the value of all things in nature 01/02/47-10/23/03 The Peace of Wild Things When despair for the world grows in me And I wake in the night at the least sound In fear of what my life and my childrens lives may be, I go and lie down where the wood drake Rests in his beauty on the water, and the great heron feeds. I come into the peace of wild things Who do not tax their lives with forethought Of grief. I come into t he presence of still water. And I feel above me the day-blind stars Waiting with their light. For a time I rest in the grace of the world, and am free. -Wendell Berry

PAGE 3

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my advisor and committee chair, Dr. Steven R. Manchester, for help with fieldwork, processing samples, examining leaf material critically, and for general advice along the way. I also thank my committee members, Dr. Walter Judd, Dr. David Dilcher, and Dr. Michelle Mack, for reviewing my work and making much needed suggestions. Several other persons and organizations deserve acknowledgment as well. The Nature Conservancy provided a permit for me and others to collect fossil plants on their property, and Greg Seamon of The Nature Conservancy helped to arrange access to the property. The Florida Paleontological Society Gary Morgan Award committee and the Southwest Florida Fossil Club provided monetary support for fieldwork and research. Dr. David Jarzen provided help with identification of some palynomorphs, provided access to modern reference pollen collections and palynological reprints, and made revisions to the pollen section. Student assistant, Sabrina Khouri helped with pollen counts, cuticle extraction, databasing, and photography. Global Geolabs of Medicine Hat, Alberta, Canada, and Russ Harms processed pollen samples and generously processed those samples for free. The University of Florida Electron Microscopy Core Laboratory provided their facilities at no cost, and Fred Bennett and Karen Kelly of the EM lab provided excellent training and technical support. Roger Portell answered ii

PAGE 4

questions on Alum Bluff geology and reviewed revisions of the geology section. Dr. Jon Bryan and Harley Means offered useful conversations on panhandle geology and allowed me to accompany them on several field trips. Dr. Bill Elsik, Dr. Vaughn Bryant, Dr. John Wrenn, and Dr. Fred Rich shared information and reprints on eastern Miocene palynofloras. J. Yoder, R. Portell, K. Schindler, T. Sweet, S. R. Manchester, T. A. Lott, the 1999 Paleobotany Class, the 2002 Phytogeography Class, and members of the Florida Paleontological Society (2003) collected fossils from Alum Bluff. Laura Corbett McGuire provided her photographic efforts and an occasional push in the right direction. Tamika Robinson offered advice and answered many late night frantic phone calls. Lastly, I would like to recognize my parents. I extend appreciation to my mother, Janice Corbett, for extensive photocopying of references, support through this project and always, and an enormous amount of tolerance and patience. And to my father, the late Richard Larry Corbett, I express deep gratitude for always providing much needed graduate school survival advice, being interested in my work, being attentive to my questions, and instilling the interest in me to begin with. iii

PAGE 5

TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS LIST OF TABLES....... LIST OF FIGURES. ABSTRACT.. INTRODUCTION. Modern Flora of Apalachicola Bluffs and Ravines. Geology.... MATERIALS AND METHODS.. RESULTS. Leaf Macrofossils Fruits and Seeds. Spores and Pollen.. Spores.. Pollen.... Fungi. DISCUSSION.. Comparison with Other Miocene Floras.. Paleoecological Implications. Biogeographical Implications CONCLUSIONS.. APPENDIX A SELECTED WOODY TAXA OCCURRING IN AND AROUND THE APALACHICOLA BLUFFS AND RAVINES AREA AND THEIR TYPICAL HABITATS. APPENDIX B EXPLANATION OF PALYNOMORPH TERMINOLOGY... ii vi vii ix 1 2 4 8 13 13 22 23 23 27 36 71 71 73 77 79 82 85 iv

PAGE 6

REFERENCES.... 90 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.... 96 v

PAGE 7

LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Examples of historical names of the stratum currently known as the Alum Bluff Group, undifferentiated and their corresponding publication 2 Terrestrial Miocene palynomorph localities from eastern North America used for comparison with Alum Bluff palynomorphs. 3 Taxa shared between Alum Bluff and other Miocene localities... 4 Summary of taxa identified at Alum Bluff page 7 24 74 81 vi

PAGE 8

LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Map showing Alum Bluff and surrounding area. 2 Apalachicola River and Alum Bluff exposure. 3 Alum Bluff exposures showing Pleistocene to Miocene age sediments. 4 Lithostratigraphy of Alum Bluff.. 5 Summary of geochronology, showing temporal relationships between Torreya and Chipola Formations, and the Alum Bluff Group, undifferentiated.. 6 Fossil plant strata at the Alum Bluff exposure.... 7 Leaflets of Carya (Juglandaceae)........ 8 Lauraceous leaf ..... 9 Leaves of Paliurus (Rhamnaceae) .. .. 10 Leaves and wood of Sabalites (Arecaceae). 11 Graduate student Xin Wang with a very large example of a Sabalites leaf from Alum Bluff... 12 Leaves of Ulmus (Ulmaceae) .. 13 Alum Bluff leaf Morphotype AB1 14 Alum Bluff leaf Morphotype AB2 15 Alum Bluff leaf Morphotype AB3 16 Alum Bluff leaf Morphotypes AB4, 5, 6, and 7... page 38 39 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 53 vii

PAGE 9

17 Alum Bluff leaf Morphotypes AB8 and 9 18 Alum Bluff leaf Morphotypes AB10, 11, and 12..... 19 Fruits and seeds from Alum Bluff. 20 Pie chart showing pollen count summary for Alum Bluff.. 21 Fern spores from Alum Bluff. 22 Gymnosperm and Poaceae type pollen from Alum Bluff.. 61 23 Liliaceae, Magnoliaceae type, and miscellaneous dicotyledonous pollen from Alum Bluff.... 24 Fagaceae and Ulmaceae pollen from Alum Bluff.. 25 Miscellaneous dicotyledonous pollen from Alum Bluff.. 26 Unknown palynomorphs and dinoflagellate cyst from Alum Bluff... 27 Fungal sporomorphs from Alum Bluff.. 54 55 56 57 59 63 64 66 68 70 viii

PAGE 10

Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science THE MIDDLE MIOCENE ALUM BLUFF FLORA, LIBERTY COUNTY, FLORIDA By Sarah Lynn Corbett December 2004 Chair: Steven R. Manchester Major Department: Botany The Miocene flora of Alum Bluff, Liberty County, Florida, is significant because of the relative rarity of Tertiary, and especially Miocene, fossil plant localities in eastern North America. After conducting a paleofloristic study including leaves, seeds, fruits, and pollen at Alum Bluff, implications for understanding Miocene climate, biogeography, and paleoecology of the region were inferred. The first study of the flora of the Alum Bluff site was conducted on leaf impressions by E.W. Berry in the early twentieth century. Berry studied only leaf macrofossils and identified 12 leaf species. Recent collections and further examination of specimens reveals 22 identified taxa, 7 morphotypes of uncertain taxonomic affinity, and 21 examples of unknown taxonomic affinity are also ix

PAGE 11

present in the flora. Berry described the flora as being tropical with some temperate elements found in the Florida panhandle today; however, recent finds such as Paliurus which is extinct in North America but present in Eurasia today, suggest different floristic affinities and indicate that the flora was warmtemperate. The composition of the flora was compared with modern floras and other Miocene floras to determine the environmental conditions present at Alum Bluff in the Miocene. It was found that the Alum Bluff flora an elm-hickorycabbage palm forest (similar to that of North central Florida today) occurring along a river or near a river delta. Biogeographical implications of the Florida panhandle region during the Miocene were inferred based on the floral composition of Alum Bluff. The use of fruit, seeds, pollen, and leaves increased the known diversity of the Alum Bluff flora, making it a paleobotanically important case. x

PAGE 12

INTRODUCTION Miocene floras are poorly known in eastern North America. In the southeast U.S., Tertiary paleobotanical deposits are even less common, though there are a number of marine Tertiary deposits in the region. The Brandon lignite flora of Vermont, the Brandywine flora of Maryland, and the Alum Bluff flora of Florida are some examples of the few eastern North American Miocene localities with good preservation of macrofossils (Berry 1916, McCartan et al. 1990, Tiffney 1994, Tiffney and Traverse 1994). Due to the rarity of Tertiary fossil plant localities in the southeastern coastal plain and especially in Florida, the Alum Bluff flora is of special interest. Alum Bluff is located in the Florida panhandle about 2 miles north-northwest of Bristol, Florida (30'08"N/84'10"W) (Fig. 1). The exposure is a steep river cut bluff along the Apalachicola River and is part of a property owned by the Nature Conservancy known as Apalachicola Bluffs and Ravines Preserve. The pioneering work on the Alum Bluff flora was done by Berry (1916). He identified 12 plant species (based on leaf forms) and one fungal species from the site. Recently collected leaf, seed, and pollen for this study from the same site reveal new taxa not treated by Berry. Berry's work characterized the Alum Bluff flora as being subtropical to tropical, and he made his identifications by comparing the leaves with modern North American genera. Some of the newer 1

PAGE 13

2 finds from the site evaluated in this study, however, suggest other floristic relationships. A temperate Eurasian genus, Paliurus (Rhamnaceae), extinct in North America today, was recently noted from the site by Manchester (1999). Paliurus has also been found in Eocene to Miocene strata in the Western U.S., since the Eocene in Asia, and in the Oligocene and Miocene of Europe (Manchester 1999). This study also revealed other taxa present at Alum Bluff, including members of the Juglandaceae, Ulmaceae, Fagaceae, Altingiaceae, Pinaceae, Cupressaceae, and a temperate member of the Aquifoliaceae. The presence of Paliurus and the other temperate genera represented suggests more temperate affinities than those Berry described based on his identifications. The goals of this project were 1) to investigate the overall biodiversity of Alum Bluff based on recent collections, 2) to interpret past climatological and paleoecological conditions of the Alum Bluff region based on the floristic assemblage, and 3) to examine the biogeographical implications and evidence for floral change presented by the Alum Bluff floristic assemblage. To investigate these goals, pollen, fruits, seeds, and leaves were examined from the Alum Bluff sediments. Modern Flora of Apalachicola Bluffs and Ravines In order to gain an appreciation of late Tertiary floristic change in southeastern North America, it is useful to compare the Miocene Alum Bluff flora with the flora existing in the region today. The modern flora of the area surrounding Alum Bluff is botanically distinctive (Clewell 1977, James 1961, Harper 1914, Leonard and Baker 1982, Means 1985, 1977, Ward 1979, Wolfe et

PAGE 14

3 al. 1988, Wunderlin and Hansen 2003). In a study using a rarity-weighted richness index to identify hot spots of rarity and richness, the Apalachicola River Valley region of the Panhandle was identified as one of the five hot spots of diversity for the United States (Stein et al. 2000). Also according to Stein et al. (2000), the forests of the Florida panhandle region possess the largest number of tree species per unit area of any forests in the United States. Compared with the number of taxa in the fossil flora examined by the author, the modern flora of the area is much more diverse (see Appendix A), however this difference is likely partially due to preservation factors which prevented the entire diversity of the Miocene flora from being preserved. Today, numerous endemic species are known from the Apalachicola River Valley, and the region also contains many northern species at the southern extreme of their range (or with disjunct occurrences). The reason for this geographic isolation of more northern species along the Apalachicola River corridor is largely because the Apalachicola corridor has been connected to the Appalachian region almost continuously since the late Miocene (Clewell 1977, Harper 1914). The Apalachicola River is the only river in Florida whose watershed is fed mostly by areas outside the coastal plain, namely the Piedmont and Appalachian Region, and thus the route for migration of species has primarily been from these areas. The high proportion of endemic species may be related to both genetic isolation and topography of the area (James 1961, Myers and Ewel 1990, Ward 1979, Wolfe et al. 1988). Unlike most of peninsular Florida, the Apalachicola River Valley is largely protected from fire. Fires cannot

PAGE 15

4 approach from the west because of the river, and fires are slow to spread downslope in the gully-eroded ravines along the eastern bank. Thus, humus accumulates creating a rich growing environment (Clewell 1977, Harper 1914). These conditions would not have been present during the Middle Miocene, however, since the Apalachicola River Valley began to form around this time (Clewell 1977). Geology The Apalachicola River is formed by the confluence of the Chattahochee and Flint rivers at the Georgia/Florida border near the town of Chatahoochee and Lake Seminole. It extends through the Northern Highlands geographic province of Florida and down through the Gulf Coastal Lowlands near Apalachicola, Florida. According to Harper (1914, p. 228), From its beginning at the southwestern corner of Georgia to about the latitude of Bristol the Apalachicola River has on its east side some of the highest land in Florida which comes out to the river in several places, making steep bluffs. Between these bluffs are deep rich valleys, some of which extend back several miles from the river. Alum Bluff, first described by Langdon (1889), is one of the bluff exposures characteristic along the Apalachicola. It is considered probably the most conspicuous topographic feature in Florida (Harper 1914, Schmidt 1986), and is characterized by a precipitous face that is about 170 feet high. The bluff exposes a stratigraphic sequence of Miocene to Pleistocene age sediments (Fig. 2, 3). There are five lithologic units exposed at Alum Bluff including Miocene Alum Bluff Group (Chipola Formation and unconformably overlying undifferentiated beds) (Gardner 1926, Johnson 1989b), the Pliocene

PAGE 16

5 Jackson Bluff Formation, the Plio-Pleistocene Citronelle Formation, and a section of undifferentiated surficial clastics (Schmidt 1986) (Fig. 4). The plant-bearing horizon is in the upper part of the Alum Bluff Group in unnamed beds (undifferentiated stratum) above the Early Miocene Chipola Formation and below the Pliocene Jackson Bluff Formation, and is inferred to be middle Miocene (15-18 million years old) in age (Bryant et al. 1992, Johnson 1989a, Schmidt 1986) (Fig. 5). This stratum is characterized by gray to yellow and white clayey sands (Schmidt 1986). Within the upper portion of this stratum, fossil leaves, roots, seeds, pollen, and wood have been collected. It was observed that there are approximately five fossil plant layers within a half-meter stratigraphic interval in the upper portion of the Alum Bluff Group (undifferentiated stratum) (Fig. 6). A number of age-significant mammals (Hemingfordian or early Barstovian) have also been isolated from the undifferentiated stratum of the Alum Bluff Group including Prosynthetoceras texanas a protoceratid mammal (Webb et al. 2003), a small anchitherine horse (Bryant et al. 1992, Olsen 1964, 1968), a small rhinocerotid, and an equid known as Merychippus gunteri (Bryant et al. 1992). It is important to note that mammal fossils have not been found in situ with the plant fossils, but rather as outwash from the Alum Bluff Group (undifferentiated) stratum. The underlying Chipola Formation has a rich molluscan fauna, and has been estimated to be about 18.3-18.9 million years old giving a maximum bound for the age of the leaf deposit (Bryant et al. 1992). The Alum Bluff Group (undifferentiated) however, due to the presence of late Hemingfordian or early Barstovian mammals, is estimated to be between 15-18 million years old. The

PAGE 17

6 overlying Jackson Bluff Formation is also a fossiliferous stratum, however it yields marine fossils including bone fragments of dugong, sharks teeth, and numerous mollusks. The Alum Bluff Group (undifferentiated) is thought to represent deltaic or pro-deltaic sediments (Schmidt 1986). Also, the sandy matrix surrounding fossil plants at Alum Bluff and the presence of trunks of Sabalities in the fossil beds suggests a high energy riverine depositional environment capable of carrying and depositing heavy sediment particles and plant materials (pers. comm. Dilcher 2004). The conspicuous lack of megaspores of heterosporous ferns in sieved material or sediment processed for pollen also indicates a moving-water depositional environment as opposed to a still-water lake or pond environment (pers. comm. Dilcher 2004). The nomenclatural history of geologic units exposed at Alum Bluff is somewhat confusing and has changed numerous times since the Alum Bluff lithostratigraphy was first described. The Alum Bluff Group, undifferentiated, has been called the Fort Preston Sand, the Alum Bluff Formation, the Hawthorne Formation, and the Choctawhatchie Stage, among others (Table 1).

PAGE 18

7 Table 1. Examples of historical names of the stratum currently known as the Alum Bluff Group, undifferentiated and their corresponding publication Historical Nomenclature Publication Oak Grove Sand Berry 1916 Choctawhatchie Stage Olsen 1964, 1968 Hawthorne Formation Campbell 1985, Schmidt 1986 Fort Preston Sand Puri and Vernon 1964, Bryant et al. 1992 Alum Bluff Group Gardner 1924, Johnson 1989b Alum Bluff Group/ Rupert 1994 Hawthorn Group sands Alum Bluff Formation Webb et al. 2003

PAGE 19

MATERIALS AND METHODS Macrofossils were collected haphazardly from the plant-fossil bearing strata by exposing fossiliferous platforms on the hillside at Alum Bluff. Care was then taken to extract mostly complete specimens from the excavated areas. Some specimens were collected as very large (ca. 0.3m 2 ) chunks which were allowed to dry in the lab, then broken apart to expose macrofossils. Most of the collections from Alum Bluff were made at the northernmost end of the exposure. Macrofossils collected from Alum Bluff were photographed with oblique lighting using a Nikon Coolpix 995 digital camera. Due to the fragile nature of the specimens from Alum Bluff, some were treated with Paleo-bond Penetrant Stabilizer (manufactured by Paleo-bond, Inc. of St. Paul, MN) to prevent the sandy matrix from crumbling. Others were stabilized with a diluted solution of Elmers white glue. No glue or Paleo-bond was applied to the face of the fossil itself, but only to the attached matrix. Leaf descriptions were developed using the categorization and terminology set forth in the Manual of Leaf Architecture (LAWG 1999). Some sediment was processed for pollen in the Paleobotany lab at the Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH) using a technique modified from Traverse (1988). Other samples were outsourced for processing by Global Geolabs, Ltd. of Medicine Hat, Alberta, Canada. At FLMNH, the outer surface of 30-200g sediment samples were first scraped away to avoid potential 8

PAGE 20

9 contamination with modern pollen. The samples were then ground with a mortar and pestle until only loose, coarse particles remained. The sediment was transferred to a plastic beaker, and distilled water was added to make a sediment slurry. Enough 5% HCl was added to cover the sample. No reaction was observed indicating that no carbonates were present, so the HCl was decanted. The sample was washed with distilled water and decanted three times. A volume of 49% HF equaling about one and a half times as much as the sample was then added. The beaker was covered and allowed to sit under a fume hood for 2-4 days. Periodically, the sample was agitated. The sample was then separated into plastic centrifuge tubes and centrifuged for 15 minutes. The HF was decanted and the samples were washed with distilled water three times. Zinc Chloride at a specific gravity of 1.7 was then added. Samples were agitated and centrifuged for 30-45 minutes. Samples were allowed to sit in a test tube rack for 4-10 days without being disturbed. After this period, a small amount of distilled water was added and then siphoned off with the organic matter that had separated from the sediment. The siphoned material was placed in a separate centrifuge tube and washed several times. Several drops of 30% EtOH was added to each tube to retard fungal growth. One to three drops of the organic slurry were then placed on a glass slide with one to two drops of glycerine. The sample was covered with a coverslip, which was rimmed with clear fingernail polish or Canada balsam. Pollen grains and spores were photographed via light microscopy with a Nikon SLR using black and white Technical Pan (ISO 25) or color print film (ISO 100). X and Y coordinates were recorded from the Nikon

PAGE 21

10 Eclipse E600 microscope. For comparison with coordinates of other microscopes, a point placed on a standard biological microscope slide 3 cm from the left edge and 1.5 cm from the bottom edge gives coordinates of 44.2x, 100.2y. Observations were also made using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Some preparations were made by placing a 12mm round smooth adhesive pad onto a standard SEM stub, and then placing a drop of pollen slurry on the pad. These SEM stubs were placed in a closed SEM stub box and then allowed to dry on a slide warmer. Other SEM stubs were prepared by placing a small 1.3 cm 2 piece of tinfoil with adhesive onto a standard 12mm SEM stub. A 12mm round glass coverslip was then placed in the center of the tinfoil square, and the corners of the square were crimped around the coverslip to hold it in place. A drop of pollen slurry was placed on the coverslip. The stubs were placed in a closed SEM stub box and then on a slide warmer or in incubator for several hours to dry. This second method was developed after it was found that the pollen grains and spores tended to sink into the adhesive, obscuring part of the structure. Also, the second method was advantageous in that it enabled a permanent slide to be prepared that can be accessioned into the UF paleobotanical collections. Stubs were sputter coated and observations were made using a Hitachi S-400 Fe-SEM at the University of Florida Electron Microscopy Core Laboratory. After SEM observations were completed, the coverslips were removed from the stubs and inverted onto a drop of Canada balsam on a standard glass microscope slide.

PAGE 22

11 Pollen, pteridophyte spores, and fungi (fruiting bodies and spores) were described using a synthesis of terminology defined by the AASP Workgroup on Fossil Fungal Palynomorphs (1983), Huang (1981), Moore et al. (1991), Traverse (1988), and Weber (1998) (see Appendix B). Pollen counts were conducted by tallying all pollen grains of specific genera or morphotypes on four slides. The slides were prepared from sediment that was either clay-rich or sand-rich from different levels in the exposure. At least 250 individual grains were counted on each slide. A total of 1,072 grains or spores were included in the percentage calculations. Because this was a random sampling technique, not all genera or morphotypes identified are described in the pollen count summary. Cuticle analysis was preformed on some specimens. The cuticle preparation method used was that of Kvaek (pers. comm. w/ S. R. Manchester 2003), which was modified from Dilcher (1974). Loose cuticle samples were removed carefully from fossils with forceps. The samples were then transferred to a water droplet on a glass slide. A fresh Schulz solution was then prepared by adding several crystals of Potassium Chlorate to a few drops of concentrated Nitric Acid, making sure the solution was saturated (crystals remained at bottom). Monocot cuticle was treated for 10 minutes, while dicot cuticle was treated for 2-5 minutes. Timing was determined by carefully watching the sample, and then quickly diluting the Schultz solution with distilled water when the cuticles had cleared to a pale brown color (eudicots and magnoliids), or had cleared partially (from black to chocolate brown)(monocot). After diluting the Schulz solution, it

PAGE 23

12 was pipetted off, and the specimen was washed two to three more times in a similar manner. Euicot and magnoliid cuticle was then transferred in water to a slide and observed via a dissecting microscope. The abaxial and adaxial cuticles were carefully teased apart with fine needles and the mesophyll was carefully scraped away. A drop of glycerine jelly was added to the slide and a slipcover was placed over it with a ring of clear fingernail polish to keep it in place and to prevent dehydration. Monocot cuticle was still dark and was treated with a couple drops of NH 3 (ammonia) after the Schulz treatment. The cuticle quickly cleared with this treatment, but remained very fragile. Repeated attempts were made to extract monocot cuticle, each time successively shortening the time in Schultz solution from 10 to 5 to 2 minutes and reducing the amount of ammonia and then eliminating the ammonia treatment entirely. However, despite these efforts, the cuticle disintegrated easily when the attempts were made to pry the cuticle layers apart. SEM observations were also attempted on monocot cuticle, but the cellular structure was obscured. No successful observations of monocot cuticle were made. Some sediment from Alum Bluff was sieved previous to the start of my investigations. Some of the grey, siltstone bearing black leaf compressions was disaggregated in Hydrogen Peroxide and washed through a series of screens with mesh size grading from 1 mm to 0.33 mm. Only one specimen obtained from the sieving method was found to be taxonomically identifiable.

PAGE 24

RESULTS From the leaf, spore, pollen, fruit and seed observations that were made, 30 taxa have been recognized (Table 4). Seven morphotypes of uncertain taxonomic affinity, and 22 examples of unknown taxonomic affinity were described (Table 4). In addition, 11 leaf morphotypes of uncertain taxonomic affinity, and 17 pollen or spore morphotypes of uncertain affinity were recognized. Leaf Macrofossils Sixteen morphotypes were identified from Alum Bluff. Only two of the morphotypes are named to genus, one morphotype is tentatively named to genus (Table 4), and the remaining 12 morphotypes are designated Morphotype AB1-12. In the current description of the flora, most leaves were not named to a specific genus, though the morphology of the leaves is certainly that of species belonging to a more temperate climate, as evidenced by the small leaf size and frequency of leaves with serrate margins. Carya (Juglandaceae). 10+ specimens. Fig. 7a-f. Leaves presumably compound. Lamina elliptic to ovate, asymmetrical, unlobed microphyll-notophylls, length to width ratio 2-2.4:1. Apex straight to cuneate, base cuneate. Margin serrated, 1 tooth order, 4 teeth/cm, spacing regular, teeth are straight above and may be straight or convex below, sinus angular. Primary vein straight 13

PAGE 25

14 to curved. Secondaries pinnate, craspedodromous. All secondaries terminate in a tooth. Spacing of secondaries increasing toward base, angle relative to the primary vein also increasing toward base. Tertiaries opposite percurrent, straight vein course, obtuse vein angle relative to primary. Quaternary and higher order veins not well preserved. The identification of this foliage as Carya is supported by the abundant pollen and nut evidence of the genus at Alum Bluff. The leaves are fragmentary in most cases, however the distinct character of the venation and the asymmetrical lamina base and overall asymmetrical shape of the leaf also lend support to the identification as Carya Of the modern reference material I observed, characteristic opposite percurrent tertiaries are very similar to the fossil material from Alum Bluff. Also, the tendency of the secondaries to dichotomize near the margin, and the dichotomous branches to enervate two teeth is characteristic of modern Carya In modern material, occasionally, one or both of the secondary branches branch again and feed into the teeth as well (thus one secondary enervates up to 3-4 teeth). This was observed in the fossil material as well. Extant Carya ranges from eastern North America to Central America and a few species occur in eastern Asia. There are six species of living Carya in the Apalachicola River Valley. Macrofossils of Carya are known from the Miocene of the eastern U.S. in the Brandon Lignite of Vermont (Tiffney 1994). Lauraceae. 1 specimen. Fig. 8a-c. Leaves simple. Lamina elliptical, entire microphyll. Apex and base missing. Secondary veins weak

PAGE 26

15 brochidodromous. Tertiary and higher order veins not well preserved. Stomata paracytic, oil cells common. Cuticle was successfully recovered and processed from this fragmentary Alum Bluff specimen. Before removal, the cuticular material appeared coriaceous (Fig. 8c). Several characteristics of this cuticle suggest that it may belong to a member of the Lauraceae. Before the abaxial and adaxial cuticles were separated, it was noted that the mesophyll contained numerous, large oil cells. One oil cell remained attach with some mesophyll remnant to one cuticle surface (Fig. 8a). Paliurus (Rhamnaceae). 3 specimens. Fig. 9a-d. Leaves simple. Lamina elliptical, symmetrical, unlobed microphylls to notophylls. Length to width ratio approximately 1.3:1. Apex missing in all specimens, base acute, straight to slightly concave. Leaf serrate with possibly gland-tipped teeth, 1 tooth order, 3 teeth/cm, spacing regular. Primary veins basal actinodromous with 3 basal veins. Secondaries craspedodromous. Tertiary and higher order veins not well preserved. The identification of Paliurus leaves at Alum Bluff is tenuous. Though a convincing winged fruit has been found at the site (Fig. 19g) (Manchester 1999), leaves have proven more troublesome. Though the leaves illustrated here as Paliurus share some common characters with that of modern Paliurus namely three basal veins arising from the same point and arching toward the leaf apex and serrate margins, identification cannot be confirmed in the leaves due to lack

PAGE 27

16 of preservation of higher order venation and the absence of a leaf apex. The identification presented here is provided as a possible taxon for this morphotype. Sabalites (Arecaceae). 20+ specimens. Fig. 10a-e, Fig. 11. Large plicate leaved, costapalmate (rachis of leaf continues through where leaf segments begin to diverge to form a narrow point near the midpoint of the leaf) palm fronds, up to 50X50+mm. Individual leaf segments display a prominent midvein. Veins arise at an acute angle from the costa and continue to the of the leaf apex. A small hastula (ligule-like appendage) is evident at the base of the leaf (Fig. 10c). Petiole of leaf large without spines or otherwise armed edges. Sabalites is probably the most common megafossil found at Alum Bluff. Fan palms of similar form are noted from Tertiary sites from the gulf coastal plain Florida to Texas and from Kentucky and Tennessee (Berry 1916, Daghlian 1978). The large, coriaceous leaves occur in dense overlapping mats within the fossil plant strata. Repeated efforts were made to extract cuticle from Sabalites specimens for more precise generic and species determination with no success. Several large trunks of palm were also observed, and a portion of one of these is illustrated in Fig. 10d. In viewing the trunks in cross section, large, conspicuous fibers typical of palm stems were evident. The form genus, Sabalites is used here to describe the costapalmate palm leaves from Alum Bluff. Sabalites was also the name used by Berry in his original description of the flora. Lacking diagnostic characters found in fruits, flowers, or leaf cuticle, identification to a modern genus can not and should not be made (Daghlian 1978, Read and Hickey 1972). Palm leaves from Alum Bluff

PAGE 28

17 may be erroneously named if assigned to a modern costapalmate palm genus such as Sabal in the absence of distinctive fruit, flower, or cuticle characters. Berry named the species at Alum Bluff Sabalites apalachicolensis however he named this species essentially as a locality morphotype without specifying of distinctive characters that distinguish the Alum Bluff material of Sabalites from that of other Tertiary deposits. Thus, this species name cannot be confirmed. Ulmus (Ulmaceae). 10+specimens. Fig. 12a-f. Leaves simple. Lamina elliptic to ovate, symmetrical to slightly asymmetrical at the base, unlobed microphyll-notophylls, length to width ratio 2-2.4:1. Apex straight to cuneate, base cuneate. Margin serrated, 1 tooth order, 4 teeth/cm, spacing regular, teeth are straight above and may be straight or convex below, sinus angular. Secondaries pinnate, craspedodromous, 1 basal vein. All secondaries terminate in a tooth. Spacing of secondaries increasing toward base, angle relative to the primary vein also increasing toward base. Tertiaries alternate percurrent, straight vein course, obtuse vein angle relative to primary. Quaternary and higher order veins are not well preserved. This is one of only two genera upheld from Berrys (1916) original work on the Alum Bluff flora (Berry designated a new fossil species, Ulmus floridana ). In Berrys description of the material, however, he describes the petiole of Ulmus floridana as being short and stout, about 2.5 millimeters in length. The material that I examined, however, exhibited a significantly longer petiole, being at least 4.0-9.0 mm in length (Fig. 12a, b, e, f). Specimens of Ulmus exhibit secondaries which often dichotomize near the margin. This phenomenon was observed in

PAGE 29

18 modern reference material as well. Unlike the Carya leaves, however, one of the dichotomous branches enervates the tooth, while the other usually feeds into the sinus between the teeth and rarely enervates a tooth. In addition, the alternate percurrent tertiary venation of Ulmus distinguishes it from Carya This type of tertiary venation is typical in modern Ulmus Morphotype AB1. 6 specimens. Fig. 13a-g. Leaves simple. Lamina ovate to elliptical, symmetrical, unlobed microphylls to notophylls, length to width ration 0.8-2.5:1. Apex obtuse, rounded. Only one specimen of an isolated apex was found (Fig 13g). Apex is missing in all other specimens. Base cuneate to slightly concave. Only fragmented petiole preserved in some specimens. Margin crenate with about 1-1.5 crenations/cm, spacing regular, sinuses rounded. Primary veins are basal actinodromous, five basal veins present. Primaries feed into the large, broad, rounded teeth. Secondaries enervate remaining teeth (craspedodromous) (Fig 13f). Berry (1916) reported observing but being unable to collect a palmately veined leaf at Alum Bluff that he thought was Ficus He gave no mention to whether marginal characters were observed. Berry may have observed the Morphotype AB1 leaf instead. Morphotype AB2. 4 specimens. Fig. 14a-d. Leaves simple. Lamina elongated ovate, symmetrical, unlobed microphylls, length to width ratio 7:1. Apex missing but likely acute-acuminate. Basal portion and petiole are missing in all specimens. Margin is serrate, 1 tooth order, 5 teeth/cm, tooth spacing regular, teeth are straight above and convex below, tooth apex simple, tooth

PAGE 30

19 sinuses angular. Secondaries pinnate, weakly brochidodromous. Secondaries terminate in some but not all teeth. Spacing of secondaries increasing toward base, secondary angle relative to the primary vein decreasing toward base. Tertiaries alternate percurrent, vein course straight. Quaternary and higher order veins not well preserved. Morphotype AB3. 3 specimens. Fig. 15a-d. Leaves simple. Lamina ovate, symmetrical, unlobed microphylls, length to width ratio ca. 2:1. Apex is missing (straight?) as is basal portion and petiole in all specimens. Margin is entire. Secondaries pinnate, weakly brochidodromous. Spacing of secondaries increasing toward base, secondary angle relative to the primary vein smoothly decreasing toward base. Tertiaries random reticulate, vein course slightly exmedially ramified. Quaternary veins reticulate. Areolation appears to be well developed, freely ending ultimate veins appear absent. Morphotype AB4. 1 specimen. Fig. 16a, b. Leaves simple. Lamina ovate, symmetrical, unlobed microphyll, length to width ratio 2.75:1. Apex narrowly rounded, basal portion and petiole missing. Margin entire. Primary veins basal acrodromous. Secondaries basal acrodromous. Tertiary and higher order veins are not well preserved. Morphotype AB5. 1 specimen. Fig. 16c, d. Leaves presumably compound. Lamina asymmetrical, unlobed microphyll-notophyll (or leaflets from a compound leaf), length to width ratio ca. 2.33:1. Apex is missing (interpreted as acuminate/straight?), base cuneate. Petiole ca. 0.5 cm. Margin entire. Secondaries pinnate, craspedodromous, 1 basal vein. Spacing of secondaries

PAGE 31

20 decreasing slightly toward base, vein angle relative to primary vein is uniform. Tertiary and higher order veins are not well preserved. Morphotype AB6. 1 specimen. Fig. 16e-g. Leaves simple. Lamina obovate, symmetrical, unlobed microphyll, length to width ratio 1.3:1. Apex obtuse, convex, base concave. Margin serrated, 1 tooth order, 2 teeth/cm, spacing regular, teeth flexuous or convex above and convex below. Secondary veins pinnate, craspedodromous, 1 basal vein. Secondary spacing and angle unclear due to poor preservation. Tertiary and higher order veins also obscure. This specimen is composed of fragmented segments of cuticle and no clear impression is evident. Morphotype AB7. 1 specimen. Fig. 16h, i. Leaves simple. Lamina ovate, symmetrical, unlobed micropyhll, length to width ratio 1.14:1. Apex obtuse, acuminate, base obtuse, rounded. Margin entire. Secondaries pinnate, weak brochidodromous, 1 basal vein. Spacing and vein angle of secondaries uniform. Tertiary and higher order veins poorly preserved. Morphotype AB8. 1 specimen. Fig. 17a, b. Leaves simple. Lamina elliptic, symmetrical, unlobed microphyll, length to width ratio 1.65:1. Apex obtuse-rounded, base acute-convex. Margin entire. Secondary veins pinnate, weak brochidodromous, 1 basal vein. Spacing and angle of secondaries decreasing toward base. Tertiaries random reticulate or regular polygonal reticulate (preservation makes determination difficult). Higher order veins are not visible due to poor preservation.

PAGE 32

21 Morphotype AB9. 1 specimen. Fig. 17c-d. Leaves simple. Lamina elliptical, symmetrical, unlobed microphyll, length to width ratio 2.7:1. Apex acute-straight, base is missing (perhaps cuneate). Margins serrate, 1 tooth order, 3 teeth/cm, irregular spacing, angular sinus, tooth straight above and convex below. Only tertiary veins enervate the teeth. Secondary veins pinnate, semicraspedodromous, 1 basal vein. Spacing and angle of secondary veins decreasing slightly toward base. Tertiary veins regular polygonal. Quarternary veins regular polygonal reticulate. Higher order veins lacking or poorly preserved. Morphotype AB10. 2 specimens. Fig. 18a-b. Leaves simple. Lamina elliptic, symmetrical, unlobed notophyll, length to width ratio 2.6:1. Apex acute, convex, base acute, cuneate. Margin entire. Secondary veins pinnate, brochidodromous. 1 basal vein. Spacing and angle of secondaries decreasing toward base. Tertiaries and higher order viens not well preserved. Morphotype AB11. 2 specimen. Fig. 18c-e. Leaves simple. Lamina elliptic, symmetrical, unlobed notophyll, length to width ratio 2:1. Apex acute, straight, base obtuse, rounded. Margin entire. Secondary pinnate, veins brochidodromous. 1 basal vein. Spacing of secondaries decreasing toward base. Angle of secondaries increasing toward base. Tertiaries alternate percurrent. Higher order veins are not well preserved. Morphotype AB12: 1 specimen. Fig. 18f. Leaves simple. Lamina elliptical, symmetrical, unlobed microphyll, length to width ratio 4:1. Apex convex, base convex. Margin entire. Secondaries pinnate, weak

PAGE 33

22 brochidodromous. Spacing of secondaries increasing toward the base, and vein angle of secondaries relative to the primary vein is smoothly increasing toward base. Tertiaries appear randomly reticulated, but are poorly preserved. Petiole ca. 0.3cm. Fruits and Seeds Carya (Juglandaceae). Fig. 19a-f. Fruits with thick, smooth husks (averaging ca. 2mm thick) (Fig. 19a, f), nut 13-15X20-30mm, endocarp 12-15X15-17mm. Husk appears to separate into four valves. Locule cast shows a pair of longitudinal grooves corresponding to primary and secondary septa with the the nut (Fig. 19d). Paliurus (Rhamnaceae). Fig. 19g. Winged fruit, with the wing extending horizontally outward around the circumference of the fruit. Approximately 10X15mm, seed body 4X6mm. Persistent perianth disk scar present. The evidence of a persistent perianth disk scar (raised rim below the wing), distinguishing it this taxa from Cyclocarya (Manchester 1999). Modern Paliurus occurs primarily in Asia, though some species do occur in southern Europe. The introduction of this Eurasian endemic group to the Alum Bluff flora significantly changes the interpretations of Berry (1916), as will be discussed later. Scirpus (Cyperaceae). Fig. 19h. Three angled achene, approximately 0.4X1.29mm, apparently not subtended by hyaline scales. Specimen was unfortunately broken during preparation for SEM, but the three angled nature is still evident.

PAGE 34

23 Unknown fruit. Fig. 19i. Globose fruit, 10X10mm. Several examples of this form exist at Alum Bluff, but none have yet revealed peduncle or perianth scars, etc. which would aid identification. Spores and Pollen Unlike the limited macrofloral assemblages, there are several Miocene localities in the eastern United States from which pollen is known (Table 2). Occurrence of palynomorphs at Alum Bluff has been compared with other known terrestrial Miocene localities in the eastern United States (Table 2). Approximately 30 palynomorphs have been identified at least to type (most similar systematic group) from Alum Bluff (Table 4). In addition, percentages of abundance of some of the pollen types identified at Alum Bluff are illustrated (Fig. 20). The most abundant pollen types, based on pollen counts of 1,072 grains, at Alum Bluff are Carya Pinus Ulmus and an unknown monosulcate pollen (Magnoliid type). All other pollen types account for 2% or less of the total pollen abundance at the site. No attempt was made to identify pollen morphotypes to the species level. Spores Fern spores are relatively common in the Alum Bluff sediments, and as a group account for approximately 4-5% of the total palynomorph abundance. Despite this frequent occurrence in the palynomorph record, ferns are entirely lacking from the macrofossil assembledge. This is probably due in large part to the harsh, sandy preservation environment. Herbaceous fern remains likely decayed quickly in the highly oxic riverine deposits along the Apalachicola River.

PAGE 35

24 Table 2. Terrestrial Miocene pollen localities from eastern North America used for comparison with Alum Bluff pollen. See Table 3 for details of the occurrence of individual elements of several of these floras. Formation Geographic Age Reference or Locality Location Ohoopee River Dune Field Catahoula Formation Brandywine Deposit Old Church Formation Calvert Formation Legler Lignite (Cohansey Formation) Brandon Lignite Emanuel County, Georgia Sicily Island, Louisiana Brandywine, Maryland Pamunkey River, Virginia Kent County, Delaware Legler, New Jersey Near Brandon, Vermont Likely Middle Miocene Early late Miocene Late Miocene Middle Miocene Late Oligocene-Miocene Late Miocene Early Miocene Rich et al. 2002 Wrenn et al. 2003 McCartan et al. 1990 Frederiksen 1984 Groot 1992 Rachele 1976 Traverse 1955, 1994, Tiffney 1994, Tiffney and Traverse 1994 Adiantaceae. Fig. 21a, b. Trilete spore, subtriangular., ca. 45X45 m. Laesural arms 17-20 m long, straight, margo flange-like with irregularly sinuous ridges. Surface verrucate. In the modern flora of Alum Bluff area, there is one species belonging to the Adiantaceae that occurs ( Adiantum capillus veneris ). The spore closely resembles Jamesonia a tropical member of the Adiantaceae. Jamesonia occurs from Mexico to Bolivia and Brazil at high altitutes. Jamesonia is not known from

PAGE 36

25 Tertiary sites in North America, though it does have a fossil record from the Pleistocene within its native range (Hammen and Gonzalez 1960, Hafsten 1960). Graham and Jarzen also noted fossil Jamesonia from Puerto Rico (1969). The laesural ridges also resemble Anogramma of the Adiantaceae. Botrychium (Ophioglossaceae). Figure 21c. 1 specimen observed. Trilete spore, subtriangular, ca. 35X35 m. Laesura not evident in SEM. Surface rugulato-reticulate. Extant Ophioglossaceae are subcosmopolitan. Fossil records from the Miocene of eastern North America are not known. Cyathea (Cyatheaceae). Figure 21d. Trilete spore, subtriangular, ca. 40X40 m. Laesural arms ca. 12X1 m long, straight, margo flange-like. Surface verrucate. In North America, modern Cyatheaceae are widespread in tropical montane Mexico to Chile and in the Caribbean. In eastern North America, Cyathea has been reported from the Miocene in the Legler Lignite of New Jersey (Rachele 1976). Frederiksen (1984) also reported a Cyathea -like type in the Old Church Flora of Virginia. Dryopteris (Dryopteridaceae). Fig. 21e, f. Trilete spore, 30-40X40-55 m. Laesural arms ca. 15X2 m long, straight, margo line-like. Surface covered with large verrucate, almost bladder-like, processes. Extant Dryopteris are cosmopolitan. Dryopteris ludoviciana occurs in the modern Alum Bluff area flora. Dryopteris is not known from other Miocene eastern North American sites.

PAGE 37

26 Polypodiaceae Fig. 21g-i. Bilateral monolete spore, 20-40X33-60 m.. Laesurae 20-45 m, simple commissure. Surface verrucate. Modern Polypodiaceae are widespread with many speices in temperate and tropical regions. Two species occur in the modern flora near Alum Bluff ( Pleopeltis polypodioides and Phlebodium aureum ). In the Cenozoic fossil record, Polypodiaceae is well known in North America. Polypodium fertile is known in the Miocene Weaverville Formation at Redding Creek, California (Kvaek et al. 2004). In eastern North America, members of the Polypodiaceae have been identified from the Brandon Lignite of Vermont (Traverse 1955, 1994, Tiffney 1994, Tiffney and Traverse 1994), Catahoula formation of Louisiana (Wrenn et al. 2003), Legler Lignite, New Jersey (Rachele 1976), and the Calvert Formation, Delaware (Groot 1992). Pteris (Pteridaceae). Figure 21j. Trilete spores, rounded triangular, ca. 45X47 m.. Laesurae not evident in SEM. Surface baculate to clavate. Equitorial ridge present, annulotrilete. Extant Pteris is cosmopolitan, occurring in both warm and temperate regions. Three species occur today in the Alum Bluff area flora ( Pteris cretica P multifida and the introduced P vittata ). Unknown Trilete Spores Figure 21k, l. Trilete spores, rounded triangular, ca. 15-17X20-25 m.. Laesural arms ca. 15 m long, straight, margo lip-like. Surface slightly verrucate. Perhaps Momipites (an angiosperm pollen type)?

PAGE 38

27 Figure 21m. Trilete spores, rounded triangular, ca. 17X20 m.. Laesural arms ca. 10 m long, straight, margo line-like. Surface psilate. Figure 21n. 1 specimen observed. Trilete spore, subtriangular, 45X45 m.. Laesural arms ca. 20 m long, curved. A large gap (ca. 15 m) extends between the laesurae. Margo may be line-like. Figure 21o. 47X46 m. Trilete spore, globose. Laesural arms ca 25 m long, straight, margo line-like. Surface reticulate. Figure 21p,q. ca. 45X60 m. Trilete spore, ellipsoidal. Laesural arms ca 30 m long, straight, margo line-like. Surface reticulate. May be a member of the Lycopodiaceae. Pollen Taxodium (Cupressaceae). Fig. 22a-c. Inaperturate pollen grains that split deeply and fold inwards along their equators, 18-25X15-22 m. Very small gemmate ornamentation is evident in SEM (Fig. 22c). Modern Taxodium is primarily restricted to the eastern North America, with one species occurring at higher elevations in Mexico. Both North American species of Taxodium occur near Alum Bluff in the modern flora. Taxodium is known from several other Miocene sites in eastern North America including the Brandywine Flora (McCartan et al. 1990), the Ohoopee River dune field (Rich et al. 2002), the Calvert Formation, Delaware (Groot 1992), and the Legler Lignite (Rachele 1976). Traverse identified Glyptostrobus a close relative of Taxodium in the Brandon Lignite (1955).

PAGE 39

28 At Alum Bluff, Taxodium is relatively uncommon, accounting for less than 2% of pollen abundance at the site. No macrofossils of Taxodium have been found at the site. Pinus (Pinaceae). Fig. 22d-g. Vesiculate pollen grain with bladders broadly attached to the corpus. Overall-40-55X70-80 m. Corpus 30-45X45-60 m. Sacci 30-45X30-45 m. Bladders reticulate under light microscopy (Fig. 22e, g), psilate under SEM (22d, f). Corpus reticulato-verrucate. Pine is one of the most abundant and widespread genera in the palynological record, largely due to its copious pollen production and long-distance pollen dispersal (Traverse 1988). Seven species are native today in the Apalachicola River Valley. In the Miocene of the eastern United States, Pinus is known from the Ohoopee River dune field (Rich et al. 2002), the Catahoula Formation (Wrenn et al. 2004), the Legler Lignite (Rachele 1976), the Brandywine Flora of Maryland (McCartan et al. 1990), and the Calvert Formation of Delaware (Groot 1992). Despite the abundance of Pinus pollen in the Alum Bluff sediment (26.4% of the total pollen assemblage), no macrofossils of Pinus were discovered at Alum Bluff, indicating that Pinus was likely transported to the site from some distance away. The overabundance of pine pollen in the Alum Bluff sediment, however, suggests that Pinus was certainly present in the area immediately surrounding Alum Bluff. Poaceae. Fig. 22h-k. Monoporate spheroidal-subspheroidal to prolate pollen grains, 40-45X40-65 m. Surface psilate. Most examples exhibit a

PAGE 40

29 prominent annulus (Fig. 22i-k), and one shows an operculum still in place (Fig. 22i). Poaceous type pollen has also been identified from the eastern U.S. Miocene in the Legler Lignite (Rachele 1976), the Catahoula Formation (Wrenn et al. 2003), the Ohoopee River dune field (Rich et al. 2002), and the Brandon Lignite (Traverse 1955). In the Alum Bluff sediments, Poaceous type pollen was identified successfully only with SEM and was rare in the samples overall. Liliales. Fig. 23a-d. Monosulcate pollen grains, 12-25X20-45 m. Surface perforate to foveolate. Liliaceous pollen has also been reported from the Miocene of the eastern U.S. at the Catahoula Formation (Wrenn et al. 2003), the Ohoopee River dune field (Rich et al. 2002), and the Piney Point Formation (Fredericksen 1984). At Alum Bluff, Liliaceous pollen is rare (>1% of total pollen assemblage). Magnoliaceae. Fig 23e, f. Monosulcate pollen grains, 15-25X25-28 m. Surface psilate. These inconspicuous monosulcate grains constitute a large fraction of the pollen at Alum Bluff (13.0%), though this percentage doubtless includes a number of unknown taxa. Magnoliid type pollen is also known from the Miocene localites at the Ohoopee River dune field (Rich et al. 2002), and the Catahoula Formation (Wrenn 2003). In the megafossil assemblage at Alum Bluff, there are several examples of entire margined, pinnately veined leaves that may belong to the Magnoliaceae,

PAGE 41

30 however sufficient characters are lacking to confirm identification of the family among the megafossils. Amaranthaceae. Fig. 23g-i. Periporate pollen grains, 15X15 m. Surface scabrate to gemmate. This pollen type is also know from the Calvert Formation (Groot 1992). Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae type pollen is relatively rare at Alum Bluff and was probably transported to the site from the surrounding area. Carya (Juglandaceae). Fig. 23j-m. Triporate pollen grains with the pores clearly shifted to one hemisphere, 45-50X45-60 m. Annulus present, but not prominent. Surface sculpture scabrate. Carya pollen is known from all the eastern U.S. Miocene localities except the Brandywine Flora. By far the most abundant pollen type at Alum Bluff, the presence of Carya pollen corroborates the identification of both leaf and seed macrofossils recovered from the site. The abundance of both macrofossil and palynological remains of Carya suggest that hickories were an important component of the Miocene Alum Bluff forest along with Ulmus and Sabalites Diospyros (Ebenaceae). Fig. 23n. Tricolpate pollen grains, ca. 30X30 m. Surface sculpture psilate. Sculpturing is evident within the broad colpi, and appears to be baculate. Diospyros is currently predominantly a tropical genus, with one species ( Diospyros virginiana ) occurring in the southeastern U.S. The Diospyros type is not known from any other Miocene eastern U.S. pollen localities. It is a rare component of the Alum Bluff flora (>0.5%).

PAGE 42

31 This pollen type resembles some members of the Styracaceae as well, though it is distinctly different from this family due to the psilate surface (Styracaceae possess scabrate surface sculpturing.) Gleditsia (Fabaceae). Fig. 25j-p. Tricolpate pollen grains, ca.30-40X30-40 m. Sculpturing reticulate with horizontal striations across reticulum. Comparison with modern reference material of Gleditsia supports this identification. Not only do both the fossil and modern material exhibit prominent reticulate sculpturing, but both exhibit horizontal striations on the reticulum. In addition, the length to width ratio (ca. 1.5:1) is the same for the modern and fossil material. Berry (1916) reported observing fruits very similar to those of Gleditsia aquatica at Alum Bluff, though he was unsuccessful in collecting them. Gleditsia aquatica is a component of the modern floodplain forests near Alum Bluff today. Ilex (Aquifoliaceae). Fig. 23o-u. Tricolpate pollen grains, 25-37X30-40 m. Surface covered with very large pilate processes (Fig. 23u) with the stalks of the clubs being very narrow in relation to the head. Surface of club head covered with rugulate sculpturing. Modern Ilex is a cosmopolitan genus, though most species are restricted to tropical and temperate Asia and America. There are 10 species native to the panhandle region of Florida. Ilex is known from all of the Miocene eastern U.S. palynofloras surveyed (Table 2). At Alum Bluff, it is a relatively infrequent occurrence.

PAGE 43

32 Liquidambar (Altingiaceae). Fig. 23v-x. Periporate, spheroidal pollen grains, ca. 30-40X30-40 m. Surface sculpturing foveolate. Pore membranes covered with bead-like sculpturing. There are only a few extant species of Liquidambar that occur either in eastern North America ( L styraciflua ) or Asia ( L acalycina and L formosana in China, and L orientalis in Asia Minor). Liquidambar styraciflua is a common component of floodplain habitats in the Apalachicola River Valley. Liquidambar is known from all of the Miocene eastern U.S. palynofloras (Table 2). At Alum Bluff, it comprises only 1% of the total palynofloral assemblage. Though Liquidambar was abundant in the modern environment at the Alum Bluff site, likelyhood of contamination from modern sources is low since Liquidambar was found in samples processed with sterile techniques at the Canadian Geolabs, Inc ( Liquidambar does not occur in Western Canada), and since grains exhibited no nucleus and were often corroded or deflated. Myrica (Myricaceae). Fig. 23y, z. Triporate pollen grains, annulus present but not prominent, 30-35X30-35 m. Surface sculpturing scabrate. Myrica is a subcosmopolitan genus. There are several species native to the eastern U.S. ( Myrica cerifera M inodora and M caroliniensis ). Myrica pollen is known from the Catahoula Formation (Wrenn et al. 2003), the Ohoopee River dune field (Rich et al. 2002), and the Brandon Lignite (Traverse 1955). It is uncommon at Alum Bluff.

PAGE 44

33 It is often difficult to discern the Betulaceous type pollen from the Myricaceous type pollen by light microscopy, and thus this palynomorph, which was not observed in SEM may represent Betulaceae. Quercus (Fagaceae). Fig. 24a-f. Tricolpate pollen grains, ca. 20X30 m. Surface sculpturing scrabrato-verrucate. Oaks occur primarily in northern temperate zones, with some species occurring at more tropical latitudes at high altitudes. In the panhandle of Florida, there are 24 native oak species (Clewell 1985, Wunderlin and Hansen 2003). Quercus is present in all of the Miocene eastern U.S. palynofloral localities. It is relatively rare at Alum Bluff, occurring at a frequency of about 1 per 1,000. Ulmus (Ulmaceae). Fig. 24g-l. Stephanoporate, oblate pollen grains, ca. 30-45X30-45 m. Distinct arci lacking (distinguishing it from Alnus ). Surface sculpturing scabrate and rugulate. May occur with four (Fig. 24g-j), five (Fig. 24k), or six (Fig 24l) pores. Modern elms are found primarily at northern temperate latitudes of North America and Eurasia. There are three species of Ulmus occurring in the Apalachicola River Valley ( U alata U americana and U rubra ). Pollen occurring at Alum Bluff is more likely Ulmus than Planera because according to Zavada, Planera possess little to no rugulae at the poles of the grain (1983). The specimens from Alum Bluff mostly show clear rugulae covering both the equatorial region as well as the poles (Fig. 24g-l). Present at all eastern U.S. Miocene localities, Ulmus is particularly abundant at Alum Bluff, comprising more than 10% of the pollen assemblage.

PAGE 45

34 Asteraceae and Malvaceae. Fig. 25a-e. Two size classes: 18-25X30 m, 30-45X32-47 m. Smaller pollen grains tricolporate (Fig. 25a, b). Colpi and pores unclear in larger grains (Fig. 25c-e). All with echinate surface sculpturing. Due to their clear tricolporate nature, it is suggested that the smaller grains (Fig. 25a, b) may be helianthid type pollen (Asteraceae). Similar helianthid type pollen recovered from the Catahoula Formation is age diagnostic for that area. Pollen of the helianthid type assigns an age of earliest late Miocene to the Catahoula Formation based on offshore pollen zonation markers in the Gulf of Mexico (Styzen 1996, Wrenn 1996, Wrenn et al. 2003). This reported age is slightly younger (ca. 3 million years) than that of Alum Bluff. Thus, the presence of the helianthid type pollen in the Alum Bluff assemblage may suggest a slightly younger age than reported by previous authors (Bryant et al. 1992, Webb et al. 2003). Until a firm diagnosis of the pollen at Alum Bluff being the helianthid type, this new assertation regarding age cannot be made with certainty. The larger pollen grains (Fig. 25c-e) show some characteristics of the Malvaceae, particularly small lines or bands that inervate the echinate processes. These seem to be lacking in the small grains (Fig. 25a, b). Certain identification cannot be made, however, due to lack of resolution in determining present/absence and position of pores and/or colpi. Further examination via TEM or SEM may be warranted to gain the necessary resolution to distinguish these taxa.

PAGE 46

35 Vitaceae type. Fig. 25u-x. Tricolporate pollen grain, ca. 18-30X18-30 m. Surface sculpturing rugulate. The sculpturing of this palynomorph closely resembles that of Vitis The larger sized specimens (Fig. 25v, x) approach the typical size for Parthenocissus Uncertain Pollen Forms Betulaceae type. Fig. 25f. Triporate pollen grain with a distinct annulus around the pores, 35X35 m. Surface ornamentation appears scabrate. Euphorbiaceae type. Fig. 25g, h. Pores and colpi not visible in SEM (may be inaperturate or have pores or colpi on one hemisphere), 30X35 m. Sculpturing appears gemmate. These morphotypes resemble sculpturing exhibited by some Euphorbiaceae. Fabaceae type. Fig. 25i. Pores and colpi not visible in SEM (may be inaperturate or have pores or colpi on one hemisphere), 40X45 m. Sculpturing dramatically reticulate. This taxon resembles Vigna (Fabaceae) pollen. Rubiaceae/Rhamnaceae type. Fig. 25q, r. Tricolporate, syncolpate, 15X15 m. Surface sculpturing verrucate. These pollen grain resemble some genera of Rubiaceae and Rhamnaceae. Rosaceae type. Fig. 25s, t. 8X12 m. Tricolpate pollen grain. Surface sculpturing striato-rugulate.

PAGE 47

36 This specimen resembles some members of the Rosaceae due to its prominent striato-rugulate sculpturing. Unknown Palynomorphs Fig. 26a. 60X115 m. Very large monosulcate pollen (?) grain. Surface psilate. Possibly an algal cyst. Fig. 26b-d. Varying sizes. Tricolpate pollen grains. Sculpturing varies. Fig. 26e, g-j. Varying sizes. Triporate pollen grains. Sculpturing varies. Fig. 26f. ca. 17X17 m. Tricolporate pollen grain. Surface verrucate. Fig. 26k, l. 33X33 m. Tricolpate pollen grain. Sculpturing perforate. Fig. 26m, n. 30-45X40-45 m. Periporate pollen grains. Sculpturing scabrate. Fig. 26o, p. 30-45X65-75 m. Apparently inaperturate, boat shaped pollen (?) grains. Surface psilate. Dinoflagellate cyst Fig. 26q. A marine dinoflagellate cyst. Fungi Several fungal types have been noted from Alum Bluff. Berry (1916) described a spot fungus known as Pestalozzites sabalana on leaves of Sabal from Alum Bluff. He compared it to modern species of Pestalozzites that occur on leaves of Serenoa and related groups, and his determination seems accurate. In examining sediment samples processed for pollen and spores at Alum Bluff, a number of fungal types were noted that occurred with frequency in the samples. Following are general descriptions of several fungal types, none of which were

PAGE 48

37 identified taxonomically. Descriptions are tentative and were made following the terminology of AASP Workgroup on Fossil Fungal Palynomorphs (1983). Fig. 27a. Obovate, psilate, apparently diporate, dicellate fungal spore. Fig. 27b. Elliptic, psilate, inaperturate, tricellate fungal spore. Axis straight. Fig. 27c. Rounded rhombic, Slightly longitudinally striate, inaperturate, dicellate fungal spore. Axis straight, dividing spore into equal proportions. Fig. 27d. Elliptic, psilate, inaperturate, monocellate fungal spore. Fig. 27e, f. Rounded obdeltate, psilate, inaperturate, monocellate fungal spores. Fig. 27g. Partial scutate fruit body. Ostiole/pseudo-ostiole missing in these fragmented specimens. Fig. 27h. Circular, psilate, inaperturate, dicellate spore. Axis straight, dividing the spore into unequal proportions. Fig. 27i. Elliptic, reticulate, inaperturate, monocellate spore. Fig. 27j, k. Circular, slightly rugulate, inaperturate, monocellate spore cluster.

PAGE 49

38 Figure 1. Map showing Alum Bluff and surrounding area. =Alum Bluff site. = Bristol boat landing.

PAGE 50

39 Figure 2. Apalachicola River and Alum Bluff exposure. Figure 3. Alum Bluff exposures showing Early Miocene (lowermost portion at water level) to Pleistocene (uppermost portion) age sediments.

PAGE 51

40 Figure 4. Lithostratigraphy of Alum Bluff. Modified from Schmidt 1986.

PAGE 52

41 Figure 5. Summary of geochronology, showing temporal relationships between Torreya and Chipola Formations, and the Alum Bluff Group, undifferentiated. Stippled areas are unrepresented time intervals. Abbreviations: N-ZONE, planktonic foraminiferal zonation; NALMA, North American land-mammal age. Modified from Bryant et al. 1992.

PAGE 53

42 Figure 6. Fossil plant strata at the Alum Bluff exposure. Arrows indicate fossil plant layers. One stratum lies slightly below where photo is cropped.

PAGE 54

43 Figure 7. Leaflets of Carya (Juglandaceae). Scalebar=1cm. A) UF18049-043542, B) UF18049-043504, C) counterpart of B, D) UF 18049-043502, E) UF18049-043588, F) counterpart of E. G) UF18049-043502

PAGE 55

44 Figure 8. Lauraceous leaf. A) 200X, Abaxial cuticle at vein, arrow indicates oil cell from mesophyll, B) 400X, Abaxial cuticle near vein, note paracytic stomata, C) Specimen from which cuticle was obtained, UF 18049-043550. Note entire margin, weakly brochidodromous venation, and flaky, coriaceous cuticle.

PAGE 56

45 Figure 9. Leaves of Paliurus (Rhamnaceae). Scale bar=1cm. A) UF18049-043543, B) UF18049-043505, C) UF18049-043514, D) closeup of venation of C.

PAGE 57

46 Figure 10. Leaves of Sabalites (Arecaceae). A) UF18049-029144, B) UF18049-?, C) UF18049-029143, D)UF18049-043552.

PAGE 58

47 Figure 11. Graduate student Xin Wang with a very large example of a Sabalites leaf from Alum Bluff.

PAGE 59

48 Figure 12. Leaves of Ulmus (Ulmaceae). Scale bar=1cm. A) UF18049-043513, B) UF18049-043531, C) Line drawing illustrating vein course, D) UF18049-043536, E) UF18049-043515, F) UF18049-029132, E) UF18049-043510.

PAGE 60

49 Figure 13. Alum Bluff leaf Morphotype AB1. Scale bar=1cm. A) UF18049-043566 (AB1.2), B) UF18049-043520, C) UF18049-043559, D) UF18049-043558 part, E) closeup of D, note arrows indicating primary and secondary veins, F) counterpart of D, note dotted line highlighting primary and secondary veins, G) leaf apex, UF18049-043522.

PAGE 61

50 Figure 14. Alum Bluff leaf Morphotype AB2. Scale bar=1cm. A) UF18049-043557 part, B) counterpart of A, C) UF18049-043567part, D) counterpart of C.

PAGE 62

51 Figure 15. Alum Bluff leaf Morphotype AB3. Scale bar=1cm. A) UF18049-043523, B) UF18049-043587, C) UF18049-043557, D) closeup of C showing higher order venation.

PAGE 63

Figure 16. Alum Bluff leaf Morphotypes AB4, 5, and 6. Scale bar=1cm. A) Morphotype AB4, UF18049-043575, B) counterpart of A, C) Morphotype AB5, UF18049-043573, D) line drawing of C showing vein course, E) Morphotype AB6, UF18049-043553, F) counterpart of E, G) line drawing of E showing vein course, H) Morphotype AB7, UF18049-043574), I) line drawing of H showing vein course.

PAGE 64

53

PAGE 65

54 Figure 17. Alum Bluff leaf Morphotypes AB8 and 9. Scale bar=1cm. A) UF18049-043512, B) line drawing of A showing vein course and higher order venation, C) UF18049-043521, D) closeup of C showing higher order venation, E) line drawing of C showing venation.

PAGE 66

55 Figure 18. Alum Bluff leaf Morphotypes AB10, 11. Scale bar=1cm. A-B Morphotype AB10, A) UF18049-043527, B) UF18049-043503, C-E, Morphotype AB11,C) UF18049-029133, D) UF18049-043551, E) counterpart of D, F) Morphotype AB12, UF 18049-043589.

PAGE 67

56 Figure 19. Fruits and Seeds from Alum Bluff. Scale bar=1cm. A-F, Carya A) arrows indicate valves of dehiscent husk. Also note partial husk in lower right corner, UF18049-043528, B) endocarp, UF18049-043509, C) endocarp, UF18049-043500, D) endocarp, arrows indicate longitudinal grooves, UF18049-043525, E) endocarp, UF18049-043524, F) husk valve, UF18049-043526, G) Paliurus fruit, UF18049-026117, H) Scirpus achene, UF18049-043597, I) Unknown fruit, UF18049-043540.

PAGE 68

57 Figure 20. Pie chart showing pollen count summary for Alum Bluff.

PAGE 69

Figure 21. Fern spores from Alum Bluff. Scale bar=15. LM=Light micrograph, SEM=Scanning electron micrograph. A-B. Adiantaceae. A) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02F, coordinates 29, 101.6, B) SEM, UF 18049-043594, PY01, SEM-A. C. Botrychium SEM UF18049-043591, PY01, SEM-B. D. Cyathea LM, UF18049-043592, PY02C, c oordinates 50.1, 103.1. E-F. Dryopteris E) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02C, coordinates 36.9, 98.5, F) SEM UF18049-043591, PY01, SEM-B G-I. Polypodiaceae. G) LM, UF18049-043593, PY0 1A, coordinates 37.1, 103.2, H) LM, UF18049-0435596, PY01A, co ordinates 41.9, 95, I) SEM, UF18049-043591, PY01, SEM-A. J-L. Pteris J) SEM UF18049-043593, PY01, SEM-B, K) LM, UF 18049043595, PY01A, coordinates 24.6, 104, hi gh focus showing trilete laesural arms, L) Low focus of K showing surface sculpturing. M. Unknown trilete spore. LM UF18049-043592, PY 02C, coordinates 49.2, 111) N. Unknown trilete spore, LM UF18049-043592, PY02C, coordinates 40.4, 113. O. Unknown trilete spore, LM, UF18049-043595, PY01A, coordinates 23, 107.3. P. Unknown trilete spore, LM, UF18049-043592, PY02B, no coordinates available. Q. Unknown trilete spore, LM, UF18049-0435596, PY01A, coordinates 35.1, 98. R-S. Unknown trilete spore, LM, UF18049-0435 92, PY02A, no coordinates available.

PAGE 70

59

PAGE 71

Figure 22. Gymnosperm and Poaceae type pollen from Alum Bluff. Scale bar=15. LM=Light micrograph, SEM=Scanning electron micrograph. A-C. Taxodium A) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02C, coordinates 51.8, 96.3), B) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02A, no coordinates available, C) SEM, UF18049-043594, PY01, SEM-A. D-G. Pinus D) SEM UF18049-043591, PY01, SEM-A, E) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02A, no coordinates available, F) SEM, UF18049-043591, PY01, SEM-A, G) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02B, no coordinates available). H-K. Poaceae, H) SEM, UF18049-043592, PY04, SEM-B, I) SEM, UF18049-043592, PY04, SEM-B), J) SEM, UF18049-043596, PY01, SEM-B, K) SEM, UF18049-043596, PY01, SEM-B.

PAGE 72

61

PAGE 73

Figure 23. Liliaceae, Magnoliaceae type and miscellaneous dicotyledonous pollen from Alum Bluff. Scale bar=15. LM=Light micrograph, SEM=Scanning electron micrograph. A-D. Liliaceae type. A) SEM, UF18049-043595, PY01, SEM-B, B) LM, UF18049-043591, PY02B, no coordinates available, C) LM, UF18049-043596, PY01A, coordinates 41.5, 113.6, D) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02C, coordinates 45.1, 96.2. E-F. Magnoliaceae type. E) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02B, no coordinates available, F) LM, UF18049-043592, no coordinates available. G-I. Amaranthaceae type. G) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02C, coordinates 28.4, 100.1, H) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02C, coordinates 45.2, 106.9, I) SEM, UF18049-043593, PY01, SEM-D. J-M. Carya J) LM, UF18049-043591, PY02B, no coordinates available, K) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02C, coordinates 47.3, 113.6), L) SEM, UF18049-043594, PY01, SEM-A, M) SEM, UF18049-043593, PY01, SEM-B. N. Diospyros SEM, UF18049-043596, PYO1, SEM-B. O-U. Ilex O) LM, high focus, UF18049-043593, PY01A, coordinates 43.3, 105.4, P) LM, mid-focus, UF18049-043596, PY01A, coordinates 45, 95), Q) LM, high focus, UF18049-043596, PY01A, coordinates 33.2, 99.8, R) same specimen as Q at mid-focus, S) SEM, UF18049-043596, PY01, SEM-B, T) SEM, UF18049-043596, PY01, SEM-B, U) closeup of S showing clavate sculpturing. V-X. Liquidambar V) LM, high focus, UF18049-043592, PY02C, coordinates 48.4, 103), W) SEM, UF18049-043591, PY01, SEM-B, X) SEM, UF18049-043594, PY01, SEM-B. Y-Z. Myrica Y) LM, UF18049-043596, PY01A, coordinates 43, 104.5, Z) SEM, UF18049-043591, PY01, SEM-C

PAGE 74

63

PAGE 75

64 Figure 24. Fagaceae and Ulmaceae pollen from Alum Bluff. Scale bar=15. LM=Light micrograph, SEM=Scanning electron micrograph. A-F. Fagaceae. A) SEM, equatorial view, UF18049-043591, PY01, SEM-C, B) closeup of A showing sculpturing, C) LM, polar view, UF18049-043592, PY02C, coordinates 50.5, 97.5, D) LM, polar view, UF18049-043592, PY02B, no coordinates available), E) SEM, polar view, UF18049-043591, PY01, SEM-C, F) SEM, polar view, UF18049-043594, PY01, SEM-B. G-L. Ulmaceae. G) LM, polar view, UF18049-043592, PY02A, no coordinates available, H) SEM, polar view, UF18049-043596, PY01, SEM-C, I) LM, oblique view, UF18049-043592, PY02C, coordinates 48.2, 113, J) SEM, oblique view, UF18049-043596, PY01, SEM-C, K) LM, polar view, UF18049-043592, PY02B, no coordinates available, L) SEM, oblique view, UF18049-043596, PY01, SEM-C.

PAGE 76

Figure 25. Miscellaneous dicotyledonous pollen from Alum Bluff. Scale bar=15. LM=Light micrograph, SEM=Scanning electron micrograph. A-E. Asteraceae/Malvaceae type. A) possible helianthid type, LM, UF18049-043592, PY02B, no coordinates available, B) possible helianthid type, LM, UF18049-043592, PY02C, coordinates 40,99, C) Malvaceae?, SEM, UF18049-043592, PY04, SEM-B, D) Malvaceae?, LM, UF18049-043592, PY02C, coordinates 43.6, 112.9, E) Malvaceae?, LM, UF18049-043592, PY02F, coordinates 33.8, 94.8). F. Betulaceae ? type, LM, UF18049-043596, PY01A, coordinates 43.4, 112. G-H. Euphorbiaceae ? type. G) SEM, UF18049-043591, PY01, SEM-C, H) closeup showing sculpturing of H. I. Fabaceae ? type, possible Vigna ? type, SEM, UF18049-043594, PY01, SEM-B. J-P. Gleditsia (Fabaceae), J) LM, UF18049-043596, PY01A, coordinates 34.4, 110.8), K) SEM, UF18049-043594, PY01, SEM-B, L) SEM, UF18049-043596, PY01, SEM-B, M) closeup of L, N) SEM, UF18049-043596, PY01, SEM-A, O) closeup of N, P) SEM, UF18049-043596, PY01, SEM-C. Q-R. Rhamnaceae/Rubiaceae ? type. Q) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02C, coordinates 43.5, 111, R) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02C, coordinates 41.5, 113.1. S-T. Rosaceae ? type. S) SEM, UF18049-043591, PY01, SEM-C (minor grain), T) closeup of S. U-X. Vitaceae. U) LM polar view, UF18049-043592, PY02C, coordinates 47.1, 107.4, V) SEM polar view, UF18049-043591, PY01, SEM-B, W) closeup of colpus and sculp turing of W, X) SEM, equatorial view, UF18049-043591, PY01, SEM-B.

PAGE 77

66

PAGE 78

Figure 26. Unknown palynomorphs and dinoflagellate cyst from Alum Bluff. Scale bar=15. LM=Light micrograph, SEM=Scanning electron micrograph. A. Unknown large monosulcate pollen grain, LM, UF18049-043596, PY02A, coordinates 45.9, 106. B-D. Unknown triporate pollen grains. B) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02C, coordinates 46, 107.1, C) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02B, no coordinates available, D) SEM, UF18049-043596, PY01, SEM-B. E-I. Unknown Tricolporate pollen grains. E) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02B, no coordinates available, F)SEM UF18049-043591, PY01, SEM-B, G) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02B, no coordinates available, H) LM, UF18049-043592, no coordinates available, I) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02B, no coordinates available, J) SEM, UF18049-043591, PY01, SEM-A. K-L. Unknown tricolpate pollen grain. K) SEM, UF18049-043594, PY01, SEM-A, L) closeup of sculpturing of J. M-N. Unknown periporate pollen grains. M) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02C coordinates 33, 107.5, N SEM, UF18049-043596, PY01, SEM-A. O-P. Unknown apparently inaperturate pollen grains. O) SEM, UF18049-043591, PY01, SEM-A, P) SEM, UF18049-043591, PY01, SEM-B. Q. Dinoflagellate cyst, LM, UF18049-043595, PY01A, coordinates 45.9, 106.

PAGE 79

68

PAGE 80

Figure 27. Fungal sporomorphs from Alum Bluff. Scale bar in A applies to all=15. A. Unknown obovate, dicellate fungal spore, SEM, UF18049-043596, PY01, SEM-B. B. Unknown elliptic, tricellate fungal spore, SEM, UF18049-043596, PY01, SEM-C C. Unknown rounded rhombic, dicellate fungal spore, SEM, UF18049-043592, PY04, SEM-B. D. Unknown elliptic, monocellate fungal spore, LM, UF18049-043592, PY01A, no coordinates available E-F. Unknown obdeltate, monocellate fungal spores. E) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02B, no coordinates available, F) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02C, coordinates 47.1, 43.8. G. Unknown scutate fungal fruit body, LM, UF18049-043596, PY01A, coordinates 44.5, 101. H. Unknown circular, dicellate fungal spore, SEM, UF18049-043594, PY01, SEM-B. I. Unkown elliptic, monocellate fungal spore, LM, UF18049-043596, PY01A, coordinates 32.2, 99. J-K. Unknown circular, monocellate fungal spore clusters. J) SEM, UF18049-043596, PY01, SEM-C, K) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02C, coordinates 49, 104.5.

PAGE 81

70

PAGE 82

DISCUSSION Comparison with Other Miocene Floras To place the paleocology of the Alum Bluff deposits in context, it may be useful to compare the flora to other known Miocene plant assemblages (Table 3). As mentioned earlier in the text, there are several southeastern U.S. Miocene pollen localities that are useful for comparison (Table 2, 3). In addition, Miocene pollen records are known from western localities such as the Clarkia flora of northern Idaho (Gray 1985). Leaf macrofossils have been identified from North American Miocene localites such as the Miocene Brandon Lignite, Vermont, (Tiffney 1993, 1994a, 1994b), the Brandywine deposits, Maryland (Late Miocene) (McCartan et al. 1990), the Clarkia flora, northern Idaho (Smiley et al. 1975, Smiley and Rember 1981, Rember 1991, Manchester et al. 1991, Kvaek and Rember 2000), and the Seldovia Point flora, Alaska (Miocene) (Wolfe 1972, Wolfe and Tanai 1980). Fruits and seeds have been identified from Miocene localities such as the Brandon Lignite, Vermont the Brandywine deposits of Maryland (Late Miocene) (McCartan et al. 1990), and the Clarkia Flora of Idaho (Smiley et al. 1975, Smiley and Rember 1981, Rember 1991, Manchester et al. 1991, Kvacek and Rember 2000). Tiffney described the Early Miocene Brandon Lignite to be a mixed evergreen-deciduous forest with a climate similar to that of the U.S. Gulf coast (temperate to subtropical) (1994). The Middle Miocene Old Church flora of 71

PAGE 83

72 Virginia was estimated to be similar to a modern temperate southern oak-hickory type forest (Fredericksen 1984). The late Miocene Brandywine flora of Maryland was thought to be deciduous with a warm-temperate climate (McCartan et al. 1990). The Ohoopee River Dune Field paleoecology was interpreted as being a myriad of habitats all similar to those of the southern coastal plain today, including an oak-hickory forest, a shrub swamp dominated by Cyrilla and a Sphagnum -bog (Rich et al. 2002). The flora of the Calvert Formation of Delaware was interpreted as being similar to the modern coastal plain flora of Delaware, typified by a temperate to warm-temperate flora (Groot 1992). The Legler Lignite of New Jersey was interpreted as being similar to that of the modern southern coastal plain floras (Rachele 1976). The Miocene Catahoula Formation in Louisiana was thought to be a subtropical to tropical mangrove type environment (Wrenn et al. 2003), though the large presence of temperate taxa shared with Alum Bluff (Table 3) may suggest other climatic conditions than described by Wrenn et al (2003). Turning to Miocene floras from Western North America, the Clarkia Flora of northern Idaho, unlike most of the Miocene floras of eastern North America, exhibits a larger number of taxa with Asian distributions today, such as Cercidiphyllum Trochodendron and Paliurus among others. The Clarkia Flora has been described as being a mixed-mesophytic forest (Smiley et al. 1975, Smiley and Rember 1981, Rember 1991, Manchester et al. 1991, Kvaek and Rember 2000). Higher latitude floras such as the Seldovian Point flora of Alaska also share some elements with Alum Bluff. The Seldovian Point flora is also

PAGE 84

73 described as a mixed-mesophytic to broad-leaved deciduous assemblage (Wolfe 1969, 1972, Wolfe and Tanai 1980). This flora also possesses more taxa now restricted to Asia, such as Zelkova and Cercidiphyllum than the eastern North America Miocene floras. In this respect, Alum Bluff is more like some western North American floras than with its eastern counterparts due to the presence of Paliurus which is restricted to the Eurasian landmass today. The European Miocene fossil flora of Hambach, near Dren, Germany (which is also based on microand megafossils), was estimated to represent a floodplain forest with some upland elements being co-dominant with a sedge wetland (van der Burgh and Zetter 1998). The Miocene floras of Central Honshu, Japan illustrate some of the shared components of Alum Bluff with Asian Miocene localities (Ozaki 1991). These floras are thought to represent temperate environments. Paleoecological Interpretations Though paleoecological and paleoclimatological work has been done based on invertebrate assemblages from strata above and below the geological formation where plant fossil are found at Alum Bluff (DuBar and Taylor 1962), little such work has been done with the floristic assemblages of the region. Berry (1916) made some climatological and ecological inferences about the Alum Bluff flora in his original report. He inferred the significant presence of thermophillic elements that he identified indicated the climate of the Miocene Alum Bluff region was much warmer than the conditions occurring in that region of Florida today.

PAGE 85

74 Table 3. Taxa shared between Alum Bluff and other Miocene localities. Amaranthaceae Asteraceae CCaarryyaa CCyyaatthheeaa GGleeddiittssiiaa l IIleexx l LLiiqquuiiddaammbbaarr LLiiliaacceeaaee li MMaaggnnoollaacceeaaee MMyyrriiccaa PPaalliiuurruuss PPiinnuuss PPooaacceeaaee PPoollyyppooddaacceeaaee QQuueerrccuuss T Taaxxooddiuumm i UUllmmuuss V Viittiiss Alum Bluff, FL X X XX XX XX XX X XX X XX XX XX X X XX XX XX XX BBrraannddoonn LLiiggnniittee,, VVTT X X X X X BBrraannddyywwiinnee fflloorraa,, MMDD X X X X X X X CCaallvveerrtt FFoorrmmaattiioonn,, DDEE XX X X X X X X LLeegglleerr LLiiggnniittee,, NNJJ X X X X X X X X X OOlldd CChhuurrcchh FFoorrmmaattiioonn,, VVAA X X X X X X OOhhooooppeeee RRiivveerr DDuunnee FFiieelldd,, GGAA X X X X X CCaattaahhoouullaa FFoorrmmaattiioonn,, LLAA X X X X X X X X X X X CCllaarrkkiiaa fflloorraa,, IIDD X X X X X X X X SSeellddoovviiaann PPooiinntt fflloorraa,, AAKK X X X X HHaammbbaacchh fflloorraa,, GGeerrmmaannyy XX XX X X X X X X X X X X HHoonnsshhuu fflloorraass,, JJaappaann X X X X X X X X X

PAGE 86

75 In other words, he interpreted the flora as being predominantly tropical and being gradually invaded by temperate elements, rather than the modern condition where the flora is predominantly temperate with some subtropical to tropical elements (Berry 1916). Berry identified tropical genera such as Artocarpus Pisonia Caesalpinia Fagra (= Zanthoxylum ), Rhamnus Nectandra and Bumelia (= Sideroxylon ). According to Dilcher (1973a), at least 60% of the material Berry described for southeastern Eocene floras is incorrect. Though no attempt was made to revise Berrys original descriptions of the Alum Bluff flora, the statistics presented by Dilcher suggest that revision of Berrys 1916 Alum Bluff flora may be needed. The description of the Alum Bluff flora presented here provides new data and a different interpretation regarding paleoclimate than that of Berry (1916). Of those morphotypes identified here, most are present in temperate areas. Taxa representative of tropical environments from the present study include Cyathea and Diospyros Cyathea has been found in other Miocene temperate palynofloras (Table 3), and there is one species of Diospyros ( Diospyros virginiana ) in the extant flora of the region. The current author observed that the common serrated leaf forms and small leaf sizes at Alum Bluff are more typical of temperate floras. In addition, the presence of leaves identified as Carya Ulmus and Paliurus as well as the large number of temperate taxa represented in the pollen, fruits, and seeds of Alum Bluff suggest that the climate of Alum Bluff was warm-temperate and more similar to the other North American, European, and eastern Asian Miocene communities discussed earlier. The community type

PAGE 87

76 would have been similar to the modern northern Gulf Coast of Florida possessing an elm-hickory-cabbage palm forest occurring adjacent to or near an oak and pine dominated landscape. This differs somewhat from the modern flora at the immediate area surrounding Alum Bluff, which is today influenced by the unique environmental circumstances created by the Apalachicola River corridor. Instead, the Miocene flora of Alum Bluff more closely resembles the area from the northern Gulf Coast of peninsular Florida through northern central Florida to the northern Atlantic coast of peninsular Florida extending up along the Georgia and South Carolina coasts. This difference between the modern and fossil floras of Alum Bluff is likely because the Apalachicola River Valley was in its infancy in the Middle Miocene (Clewell 1977) and had not yet developed the unique set of topographic (bluffs and ravines) and biogeographic (connection with Piedmont and Appalachia) characteristics that exists in the region today. As mentioned earlier, based on taphonomy and lithology of the site, the undifferentiated beds of Alum Bluff Group are thought to represent deltaic or pro-deltaic sediments deposited in a high energy depositional environment (pers. comm. Dilcher 2004, Schmidt 1986). Thus, it can be interpreted that the warm-temperate flora of Alum Bluff occurred as floodplain and upland forests flanking a river. The presence of dinoflagellate cysts suggest marine influence, though the infrequency of dinoflagellates (<0.1%) in the sediment indicates only a slight marine input. This reiterates the deltaic environment described previously, but it suggests that the coastline may have been near enough for some marine

PAGE 88

77 sediments to reach from the Gulf up the pre-Apalachicola river delta to Alum Bluff. However, it is not uncommon for sediment from other more ancient strata to be re-worked with younger sediments (Traverse et al. 1988, Wrenn et al. 2003). This is especially common when the anomalous element is found with extremely low frequency (Traverse 1988). Thus, the presence of dinoflagellates at Alum Bluff may indicate re-working from older sediments rather than a marine influence at the site. Because both the overlying Jackson Bluff Formation and the underlying Chipola Formation represent marine deposits (Schmidt 1986), it can further be inferred that the Alum Bluff flora represents a forest encroachment during an interval of sea level drop which was summarily displaced again as sea level rose. Biogeographical Implications Several important biogeographical conclusions are presented by this analysis of the Alum Bluff Flora. The presence of Paliurus suggests affinities with eastern Asian or southern European floras that are present in western North American Miocene assemblages, but conspicuously lacking from other eastern North American assemblages. This suggests that Paliurus at Alum Bluff was one of the last remnants of Eurasian taxa in eastern North America by the Miocene. The last record of Paliurus in North America was from the Miocene of Washington, USA (Berry 1928). It is unclear why Paliurus at Alum Bluff is disjunct from its contemporaneous western counterparts, or why Paliurus persisted at this more southern latitude while remaining absent in Miocene assemblages from the northeastern United States. Manchester (1999)

PAGE 89

78 commented that the Paliurus likely made its way to the North American continent via a Beringial crossing in the Eocene. The genus disappears from North America after the Miocene (Manchester 1999). Thus, Paliurus may have arrived at Alum Bluff after being dispersed across the North American continental interior from the west. This cannot be confirmed, however, due to a lack of Miocene age deposits in the interior North America (Manchester pers. comm. 2004). Alternatively, Paliurus may have arrived via a North Atlantic Land Bridge crossing. The genus is present in Europe and Asia today, and has an extensive fossil record on these continents, so it would be possible for Paliurus to arrive from Europe (in the Eocene?), however no Miocene fossil record of Paliurus is known from the northeastern U.S. (where it would have first arrived via an Atlantic crossing). The floral assemblage described here supports the concept of a warm temperate climate existing in the region since the early Tertiary. Dilcher (1973a, 1973b) reported a warm temperate to cool subtropical climate for the Middle Eocene Claiborne Formation in Tennessee. Prior to the authors investigations, the Alum Bluff flora was thought to represent a Miocene tropical flora intermediate between an Eocene warm temperate to cool subtropical flora (Claiborne Formation) and a Pliocene temperate flora (Citronelle Formation) (Dilcher 1973a, 1973b, Graham 1964). However, new data presented here show that warm temperate conditions have continued in the southeastern United States Gulf Coastal Plain region since the Eocene.

PAGE 90

CONCLUSIONS Of the taxa at Alum Bluff, two are positively confirmed in both the leaf and pollen record ( Carya Ulmus ), one is positively confirmed in the leaf, pollen, and fruit record ( Carya ), and one is tentatively confirmed in the leaf and pollen records while being positively confirmed in the fruit record ( Paliurus ). A summary of these and other taxa occurring at Alum Bluff is presented in Table 4. Of the North American Miocene paleofloras, there are only a handful known from pollen, fruits, seeds, and leaves including the Clarkia flora of Idaho (Smiley et al. 1975, Smiley and Rember 1981, Rember 1991, Manchester et al. 1991, Kvaek and Rember 2000), and the Brandywine flora of Maryland (McCartan et al. 1990). A few sites are known to have fruits, seeds, and pollen such as the Brandon Lignite flora (Traverse 1951, Traverse 1955, Traverse 1994, Tiffney 1993, 1994a, 1994b). According to Graham (1964), the best circumstance for reconstructing paleoenvironments is a study of megaand microfossils from a given locality. He also reported that very few Tertiary localities of this type in the southeastern United States were available. Review of the literature by the author also found occurrence of such sites in the Atlantic coastal plain to be rare. The compounding of data from both megaand microfossils and the resulting increase in floristic diversity makes the current analysis of the Alum Bluff flora a paleobotanically important case. The examination of palynomorphs at Alum Bluff has greatly increased the number of taxa known from the site. Examination of 79

PAGE 91

80 fruit and seed material has helped to confirm identification of pollen and leaves and increased the overall morphotype diversity at the site. The culmination of his study has been the determination that the Alum Bluff flora is more diverse than Berry originally described. Also, it was found that the Alum Bluff flora was likely warm-temperate, and that these conditions have persisted since the early Tertiary. In addition, the existence of Paliurus at Alum Bluff suggests biogeographical affinities with Eurasia, which further demonstrates that floristic elements limited to Eurasia today were once widely dispersed through both western and eastern North America.

PAGE 92

81 Table 4. Summary of taxa identified at Alum Bluff. Taxon Pollen Leaf? Seed or Fruit? or spore? Adiantaceae Yes No No Amaranthaceae/ Chenopodiaceae Yes No No Asteraceae/ Malvaceae Yes No No Betulaceae Yes No No Botrychium Yes No No Carya Yes Yes Yes Cyathea Yes No No Dinoflagellate cyst Yes N/A N/A Diospyros Yes ? No Dryopteris Yes No No Euphorbiaceae Yes No No Fabaceae Yes No No Gleditsia Yes No ? Ilex Yes No No Lauraceae No Yes (cuticle) No Liliales Yes No No Liquidambar Yes No No Magnoliaceae Yes No No Myrica Yes No No Paliurus ? Yes Yes Pinus Yes No No Poaceae Yes No No Polypodiaceae Yes No No Pteris Yes No No Quercus Yes No No Rosaceae Yes No No Sabalites ? Yes No Scirpus No No Yes Taxodium Yes No No Ulmus Yes Yes No Vitaceae Yes No No

PAGE 93

APPENDIX A SELECTED WOODY TAXA OCCURRING IN AND AROUND THE APALACHICOLA BLUFFS AND RAVINES AREA AND THEIR TYPICAL HABITATS Taxa marked with an asterisk (*) are either rare to Florida or endemic species. The list is compiled from taxa discussed for the region in Clewell (1977, 1985), Harper (1914), Ward (1979), Wolfe et al. (1988), and Wunderlin and Hansen (2003). Species Family Habitat Trees Acer saccharum Sapindaceae Bluffs, levees, hammocks subsp. floridanum Acer saccharum Sapindaceae Bluffs, levees, hammocks subsp. leucoderme Acer saccharinum Sapindaceae Riverbanks Betula nigra Betulaceae Riverbanks, floodplains Carpinus caroliniana Betulaceae Floodplains, bluffs Carya aquatica Juglandaceae Floodplains Carya glabra Juglandaceae Pine-oak-hickory woods Carya tomentosa Juglandaceae Pine-oak-hickory woods, calcarious hammocks Cornus florida Cornaceae Hammocks, pine-oak-hickory woods Fagus grandifolia Fagaceae Bluffs, hammocks Ilex opaca Aquifoliaceae Hammocks, bluffs Liquidambar styraciflua Altingiaceae Floodplains, bluffs, hammocks, secondary woods Liriodendron tulipifera Magnoliaceae Creek swamps, bluffs near seepages Magnolia ashei Magnoliaceae Bluffs, hammocks, bayheads (Endemic) Magnolia grandiflora Magnoliaceae Bluffs, floodplains, hammocks, secondary woods Ostrya virginiana Betulaceae Hammocks, bluffs Oxydendron arboreum Ericaceae Hammocks, bluffs, bayheads Planera aquatica Ulmaceae Floodplains, riverbanks Pinus glabra Pinaceae Hammocks, bluffs, well-drained floodplains Pinus echinata Pinaceae Pine-oak-hickory woods 82

PAGE 94

83 Species Family Habitat Trees (continued) Pinus serotina Pinaceae Pinelands Prunus caroliniana Rosaceae Bluffs, calcareous hammocks, scrub Quercus alba Fagaceae Bluffs, hammocks, pine-oak-hickory woods, sinks Quercus laevis Fagaceae Sandhills, scrub, pine-oak-hickory woods Quercus michauxii Fagaceae Moist hammocks, floodplains, sinks Quercus muhlenbergii Fagaceae Bluffs Quercus nigra Fagaceae Floodplains, hammocks, secondary woods Quercus shumardii Fagaceae Bluffs, calcareous hammocks Taxodium ascendens Cupressaceae Swamps, ravines Taxodium distichum Cupressaceae Swamps, ravines Tilia americana Malvaceae Bluffs, hammocks, riverbanks var. caroliniana Taxus floridana Taxaceae Hammocks and cedar swamps (Endemic) Torreya taxifolia Taxaceae Hammocks (Endemic) Ulmus alata Ulmaceae Bluffs, floodplains, calcareaous river swamps Ulmus a mericana Ulmaceae Bluffs, floodplains, hammocks Ulmus rubra Ulmaceae Bluffs, floodplains, hammocks Woody Vines Bignonia capreolata Bignoniaceae Floodplains, hammocks Campsis radicans Bignoniaceae Floodplains, ruderal Decumaria barbara Hydrangeaceae Calcareous hammocks, margins of gum swamps Gelsemium sempervirens Gelsemiaceae Various habitats Schisandra coccinea Schisandraceae Bluffs Smilax smallii Smilacaceae Hammocks, bluffs, dunes, secondary woods Vitis aestivalis Vitaceae Hammocks, riverbanks Vitis rotundifolia Vitaceae Various habitats Shrubs Alnus serrulata Betulaceae Along creeks and branches Aralia spinosa Araliaceae Hammocks, secondary woods Callicarpa americana Verbenaceae Flatwoods, scrub, bluffs, secondary woods Cornus alternifolia Cornaceae Moist woodlands Dirca palustris Thymelaeaceae Bluffs, riverbanks Euonymus americanus Celastraceae Hammocks, bluffs

PAGE 95

84 Species Family Habitat Shrubs (continued) Gleditsia aquatica Fabaceae Floodplains Gleditsia triacanthos Fabaceae Floodplains Hamammelis virginiana Hamamelidaceae Bluff, hammocks, floodplains, creek swamps Halesia carolinia Styracaceae Bluffs, calcareous hammocks, floodplains Halesia diptera Styracaceae Bluffs, hammocks, floodplains Hydrangea quercifolia Hydrangeaceae Bluffs, stream banks Hydrangea arborescens Hydrangeaceae Bluffs Hypericum frondosum Clusiaceae Floodplains Kalmia latifolia Ericaceae Bluffs, creek swamps Ilex coriacea Aquifoliaceae Wet ravines, bogs Illicium floridanum Illiciaceae Creek swamps, seepages on bluffs Leucothoe axillaris Ericaceae Creek swamps Lyonia ferruginia Ericaceae Flatwoods, bogs, acid swamps, creek swamps Lyonia lucida Ericaceae Flatwoods, bogs, acid swamps, creek swamps Myrica cerifera Myricaceae Flatwoods, bogs, hammocks Osmanthus americana Oleaceae Floodplains, bluffs, flatwoods, swamps Ptelea trifoliata Rutaceae Bluffs, hammocks Rhapidophyllum hystrix Arecaceae Bluffs, calcareous hammocks Rhododendron austrinum Ericaceae Bluffs, hammocks, floodplains *Sideroxylon lycioides Sapotaceae Stewartia malacodendron Theaceae Bluffs, steepheads, bayheads Symplocos tinctoria Symplocaceae Hammocks, bluffs, floodplains, sandhills, flatwoods Styrax americana Styracaceae Hammocks and swamps, flatwoods, riverbanks Styrax grandifolia Styracaceae Dry bluffs, calcareous hammocks, floodplains Rhus copallina Anacardiaceae Sandhills, flatwoods, floodplains, secondary woods, ruderal Vaccinium arboreum Ericaceae Uplands Viburnum dentatum Adoxaceae Floodplains, bluffs, titi swamps, secondary woods Viburnum obovatum Adoxaceae Floodplains, riverbanks

PAGE 96

APPENDIX B EXPLANATION OF PALYNOMORPH TERMINOLOGY The following is a brief description of terminology used to describe spores and pollen grains from Alum Bluff. Not all of the terms below are used in the thesis, but are provided as background and comparison for the palynomorph terminology that was used. The basic structure of a pollen grain consists of an outer exine. The exine is made up of the sexine (which is composed of a tectum, column and foot layer) and the nexine. An intine, a plasmalemma and the protoplast are the innermost layers. In fossilized pollen, typically only the outer layers remain (intine and exine). Some pollen grains belonging to conifers possess vesiculate pollen, or pollen with attached bladders (as in Pinus ). The sacci (=vesicles or bladders) attach to the corpus, or body of the pollen grain. There are typically two sacci present, however in some groups there is only one. Pollen is described based on (1) the shape of the grain, (2) the ornamentation of the exine, and (3) the number and arrangement of pores or apertures over the surface of the grain. (1) Grain Shape: The shape of a pollen grain is determined based on a ratio of the polar and equatorial diameters of the grain. The pole of a grain is the location of a single pore or the midpoint of a furrow of the grain OR where the end of the grain where furrows converge (in tricolpate or tricolporate grains). 85

PAGE 97

86 Grain shape, however, often varies between polar and equatorial views. Thus, grain shape terminology is often omitted from descriptions unless both polar and equatorial views are identified. The following terms describe the shape of a grain based on the P/E ratio. >2.0=perprolate (very elongated) 1.3-2.0=prolate (slightly elongated) 0.75-1.3=subspheroidal 0.50-0.75=oblate (slightly flattend) <0.5=peroblate (very flattened). (2) Ornamentation of the exine: The following terms describe the ornamentation of the exine. These features are often helpful in determining generic or specific divisions. Psilate-surface smooth Perforate-surface with small holes Foveolate-with holes or depressions Fossulate-sideways elongate holes Scabrate-rough or flecked Verrucate-warty or bumpy Papillate-hollow, finger-like projections, longer than broad and >1 m Baculate-having rod-shaped sculptural elements Gemmate-having door knob shaped elements less than 1 m in height. Clavate-having club-shaped sculptural elements

PAGE 98

87 Pilate-similar to gemmate, but knob-shaped elements taler than 1m. Echinatespiny Rugulate-irregular Striate-roughly parallel ridges Reticulate-net like (ridges and gaps) (3) Number and Arrangement of pores and apertures: Pollen with pores is referred to as porate. Pollen may be mono-, di-, tri-, or periporate. When a grain has more than four pores oriented along the equator of a grain, it is referred to as stephanoporate. In addition to pores, furrows also known as colpi may be present. Grains with furrows are referred to as colpate. Colpi range from being very long and stretching the length of the grain to being short and unapparent. When the colpi of a pollen grain fuse or meet (typically at the apex of the grain), it is referred to as being syncolpate. When a pollen grain possesses both pore and colpi, it is referred to as colporate. The pores in these grains are located within the furrows. Sometimes, the exine around the pore is modified. When the pore possesses a cap or plug, it is referred to as an operculum. The aspis is the thickening of the exine around the pore. The annulus may be a ring around the pore and may be a thickened or thinned area of the exine. The oncus is a thickening of the intine that may occur under a pore, and the arcus may be a band which arcs between pores and is actually thickened sexine. The terminology for pteridophyte and lycopod spore morphology differs somewhat from that of pollen. Spores that form tetrads during development may or may not split apart upon maturity. When they do split apart, they form

PAGE 99

88 monads with tetrad scars remaining on the surface where the spore once made contact with the tetrad. There are two basic forms: a radiosymetrical trilete form and a bilaterally symmetrical monolete form. Monolete and trilete refers to the number of dehiscence fissures present, also known as laesura. A spore is called anisopolar when there is a prominent tetrad scar on the proximal end (the end that was connected to the tetrad). A spore is apolar when the two poles are identical (occurs in globose and alete spores). When a swollen protrusion is present surrounding the laesura, this is referred to as a margo. The margo may be lip-like, flange-like, or line-like. When a margo is absent, the palynomorph is said to have a laesura with a simple commissure. When present, the lasural ridges may be ornamented. In addition, proximal ridges may be present near the equator of the spore. These proximal ridges may assume several different forms. Regarding the surface ornamentation of spores, the same terminology that was used for pollen in part II above may be used (as was done in this thesis). Shape of spores is also an important characteristic. Spores may be ellipsoidal (ratio of long axis/short axis falling between 1.25 to 2), subellipsoidal (ratio of long axis/short axis above 2), globose (ratio of long axis to short axis below 1.25), rounded triangular (convex sides), subtriangular (sides straight and angle rounded), deltoid triangular (sides straight and angles acute), triquete (sides slightly concave), or trilobate (sides deeply concave). In some fern species, an equatorial ridge is evident. When the equatorial ridge is the same width all the way around the spore, it is referred to as annulate. When

PAGE 100

89 the equatorial ridge is wider on the interradial side than at the radial angles, it is referred to as annulotrilete.

PAGE 101

REFERENCES American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists (AASP) Workgroup on Fossil Fungal Palynomorphs. 1983. Annotated Glossary of Fungal Palynomorphs. American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists Contributions Series No. 11. College Station, TX. 35pp. Berry, E. W. 1916. The physical conditions and age indicated by the flora of the Alum Bluff Formation. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, Report: P 0098-E 41-59. Berry, E. W. 1928. A Miocene Paliurus from the state of Washington. American Journal of Science 16: 39-44. Bryant, J. D., B. J. MacFadden, and P. A. Mueller. 1992. Improved chronologic resolution of the Hawthorn and the Alum Bluff Groups in northern Florida: Implications for Miocene chronostratigraphy. Geological Society of America Bulletin 104: 208-218. Campbell, K. M. 1985. Alum Bluff, Liberty County, Florida. Florida Geological Survey Open File Report no. 9 Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee, FL. 11 pp. Clewell, A.F. 1977. Geobotany of the Apalachicola River region. Florida Marine Research Publications 26: 6-15. Clewell, A. F. 1985. Guide to the Vascular Plants of the Florida Panhandle Florida State University Press, Tallahassee, FL. 605pp. Daghlian, C. P. 1978. Coryphoid palms form the lower and middle Eocene of southeastern North America. Palaeontographica Abt. B. 166: 44-82. Dilcher, D. L. 1973a. A revision of the Eocene floras of southeastern North America. The Paleobotanist. 20: 7-18. Dilcher, D. L. 1973b. A paleoclimatic interpretation of the Eocene floras of southeastern North America. In A. Graham (ed.), Symposium on Vegetation and Vegetational History in Northern Latin America 39-59. Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam and New York. 393pp. 90

PAGE 102

91 Dilcher, D. L. 1974. Approaches to the identification of angiosperm leaf remains. Botanical Review 40:1-157. DuBar, J. R. and D. S. Taylor. 1962. Paleoecology of the Choctawhatchee deposits, Jackson Bluff, Florida. Transactions-Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies 12: 349-376. Frederiksen, N. O. 1984. Sporomorph correlation and paleoecology, Piney Point and Old Church Formations, Pamunkey River, Virginia. In L.W. Ward and K. Krafft (eds.), Stratigraphy and Paleontology of the Outcropping Tertiary Beds in the Pamunkey River Region, Central Virginia Coastal Plain. Guidebook for the Atlantic Coastal Plain Geological Association 135-149. Atlantic Coastal Plain Geological Association, Durham, NC. 240pp, 49pl. Gardner, J. 1924. The molluscan fauna of the Alum Bluff Group of Florida: Part I. Prionodesmacea and Anomalodesmacea. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 142A. Graham, A. 1964. Origin and evolution of the biota of southeastern North America: evidence from the fossil plant record. Evolution 19: 571-585. Graham, A. and D. M. Jarzen. 1969. Studies in neotropical paleobotany I. The Oligocene communities of Puerto Rico. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 56: 308-357. Gray, J. 1985. Interpretation of co-occurring megafossils and pollen: A comparative study with Clarkia as an example. In C. J. Smiley, A.E. Leviton, and M. Berson (eds.), Late Cenozoic History of the Pacific Northwest: Interdisciplinary Studies on the Clarkia Fossil Beds of Northern Idaho 185-244. Pacific Division of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, San Francisco, CA, USA. 417pp. Groot, J. J. 1992. Plant microfossils from the Calvert Formation of Delaware. Delaware Geological Survey Report of Investigations 50: 1-6. Hafsten, U. 1960. Pleistocene development of vegetation and climate in Tristan da Cunha and Gough Island. Arbok for Universitete: Bergen, Naturvitenskapelig Rekke 20: 1-45. Hammen, T. van der, and E. Gonzalez. 1960. Upper Pleistocene and Holocene climate and vegetation of the Sabana de Bogota (Colombia, South America). Leidse Geologische Mededelingen 25: 261-315. Harper, R. M. 1914. Geography and vegetation of northern Florida. Annual Report of the Florida Geological Survey 6: 163-437.

PAGE 103

92 Huang, T-C. 1981. Spore Flora of Taiwan Tah-Jinn Press Co., Ltd., Taipai, Taiwan. 111pp, 120pl. James, C. W. 1961. Endemism in Florida. Brittonia 13: 225-244. Johnson, R. A. 1989a. Geologic descriptions of selected exposures in Florida. Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 25: 1-175. Johnson, R. A. 1989b. Geologic descriptions of selected exposures in Florida. Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 30: 67-72. Kvaek, Z., J. Dakov, R. Zetter. 2004. A re-examination of Cenozoic Polypodium in North America. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 128: 219-227. Kvaek, Z. and W. C. Rember. 2000. Shared Miocene conifers of the Clarkia flora and Europe. Acta Universitatis Carolinae-Geologica 44: 75-85. Langdon, D. W. Jr. 1889. Some Florida Miocene. American Journal of Science 3 rd series 38: 322. Leaf Architecture Working Group (LAWG). 1999. Manual of Leaf Architecture: Morphological Description and Categorization of Dicotyledonous and Net-Veined Monocotyledonous Angiosperms Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., USA. 65pp. Leonard, S. W., and W. W. Baker. 1982. Biologic survey of the Apalachicola ravines biotic region of Florida. Florida Natural Areas Inventory The Florida Nature Conservancy, Tallahassee, FL, USA. 99pp. Manchester, S. R., P. R. Crane, and D. L. Dilcher. 1991. Nordenskioldia and Trochodendron (Trochodendraceae) from the Miocene of northwestern North America. Botanical Gazette 152: 357-368. Manchester, S. R. 1999. Biogeographical relationships of North American tertiary floras. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 86: 472-522. McCartan, L., B. H. Tiffney, J. A. Wolfe, T. A. Ager, S. L. Wing, L. A. Sirkin, L. W. Ward, J. Brooks. 1990. Late Tertiary floral assemblage from upland gravel deposits of the southern Maryland Coastal Plain. Geology 18: 311-314. Means, D. B. 1977. Aspects of the significance to terrestrial vertebrates of the Apalachicola River drainage basin, Florida. Florida Marine Research Publications 26: 37-67.

PAGE 104

93 Means, D. B. 1985. The canyonlands of Florida. Nature Conservancy News 35: 13-17. Moore, P. D., J. A. Webb, and M. E. Collinson. 1991. Pollen Analysis Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK. 216 pp. Myers, R. L. and J. J. Ewel, eds. 1990. Ecosystems of Florida University of Central Florida Press, Orlando, FL. 756pp. Olsen, S. J. 1964. Vertebrate correlations and Miocene stratigraphy of north Florida fossil localities. Journal of Paleontology 38: 600-604. Olsen, S. J. 1968. Miocene vertebrates and north Florida shorelines. Palaeogeography, Paleoclimatology, Palaeocology 5: 127-134. Ozaki, K. 1991. Late Miocene and Pliocene Floras of Central Honshu, Japan: Bulletin of the Kanagawa Prefectural Musem of Natural Science, Special Issue Kanagawa Prefectural Museum, Yokohama, Japan. 244pp. Puri, H. S. and R. O. Vernon. 1964. Summary of the geology of Florida and a guidebook to the classic exposures: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 5 (revised): 1-312. Rachele, L. D. 1976. Palynology of the Legler Lignite: A deposit in the Tertiary Cohansey Formation of New Jersey, U.S.A. Review of Paleobotany and Palynology 22: 225-252. Read, R. W. and L. J. Hickey. 1972. A revised classification of fossil palm and palm-like leaves. Taxon 21: 129-137. Rember, W. C. 1991. Stratigraphy and Paleobotany of Miocene Lake Sediments Near Clarkia, Idaho Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID. Rich, F. J., F. L. Pirkle, and E. Arenberg. 2002. Palynology and paleoecology of strata associated with the Ohoopee River dune field, Emanuel County, Georgia. Palynology 26: 239-256. Rupert, F. R. 1994. A Fossil Hunters Guide to the Geology of Panhandle Florida: Florida Geological Survey Open File Report no. 63. Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee, FL. 11pp. Schmidt, W. 1986. Alum Bluff, Liberty County, Florida. In T. L. Neathery (ed.), Centinnial Field Guide. Southeastern Section of the Geological Society of America Vol. 6 355-357.Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO.

PAGE 105

94 Smiley, C. J., J. Gray, and L. M. Huggins. 1975. Preservation of Miocene fossils in Unoxidized lake deposits, Clarkia, Idaho. Journal of Paleontology 49: 833-844. Smiley, C. J. and W. C. Rember. 1981. Paleoecology of the Miocene Clarkia Lake (northern Idaho) and its environs. In J. Gray, ed., Communities of the Past 551-590. Hutchinson Ross Publ. Co., Stroudsburg, PA, USA. Stein, B. A., L. S. Kutner, and J. S. Adams, eds. 2000. Precious Heritage: The Status of Biodiversity in the United States Oxford University Press, Oxford, England. 399pp. Styzen, M. J. 1996. Late Cenozoic Chronostratigraphy of the Gulf of Mexico The Gulf Coast Section of the Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists. Houston, TX, USA. A chart printed as two sheets. Tiffney, B. H. 1994. Re-evalualtion of the age of the Brandon Lignite (Vermont, USA) based on plant megafossils. Review of Paleobotany and Palynology 82: 299-315. Tiffney, B. H. and A. Traverse. 1994. The Brandon lignite (Vermont) is of Cenozoic, not Cretaceous, age! Northeastern Geology 16: 215-220. Traverse, A. 1951. The Pollen and Spores of the Brandon Lignite; A Coal in Vermont of Lower Tertiary Age Ph.D. Dissertation. Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 187pp. Traverse, A. 1955. Pollen analysis of the Brandon Lignite of Vermont. US Bureau of Mines Report of Investigations 5151: 1-107. Traverse, A. 1988. Paleopalynology Unwin-Hyman, Boston, MA. Traverse, A. 1994. Palynofloral geochronology of the Brandon Lignite of Vermont, USA. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 82: 265-297. Van der Burgh, J. and R. Zetter. 1998. Plant megaand microfossil assemblages from the Brunssumian of Hambach near Dren, B. R. D. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 101: 209-256. Ward, D. B., ed. 1979. Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida Vol. 5: Plants University of Florida Press, Gainesville, FL. 175pp. Webb, S. D., B. L. Beatty, and G. Poinar, Jr. 2003. New Evidence of Miocene Protoceratidae including a new species from Chiapas, Mexico. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 13: 348-367.

PAGE 106

95 Weber, R. W. 1998. Pollen identification. Annals of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology 80: 141-147. Wolfe, J. A. 1969. Neogene floristic and vegetational history of the Pacific Northwest. Madroo 20: 83-110. Wolfe, J. A. 1972. An interpretation of Alaskan Tertiary floras, pp. 201-233. In A. Graham (ed.), Floristics and Paleofloristics of Asia and Eastern North America Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. 272pp. Wolfe, J. A. and T. Tanai. 1980. The Miocene Seldovia Point flora from the Kenai Group, Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1105: 52, 25pl. Wolfe, S. H., J. A. Reidenauer, and D. B. Means. 1988. An ecological characterization of the Florida panhandle. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Report Minerals Management Service OCS Study\MMS 88-0063 88: 1-277pp. Wrenn, J. H. 1996. Gulf Coast Neogene Palynological Zonation of Shell Offshore, Inc. Ninth International Palynologic Congress, Programs and Abstracts Houston, TX, p. 176 (Abstract). Wrenn, J. H., W. C. Elsik, and R. P. McCulloh. 2003. Palynologic age determination of the Catahoula Formation, Big Creek, Sicily Island, Louisiana. GCAGS/GCSSEPM Transactions 53: 865-875. Wunderlin, R. P. and B. F. Hansen. 2003. Guide to the Vascular Flora of Florida. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL. 787pp. Zavada, M. 1983. Pollen morphology of Ulmaceae. Grana 22: 23-30.

PAGE 107

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Sarah Lynn Corbett grew up in rural Echols County, Georgia. Her early rural experiences later inspired her career decision to become a botanist. She received her undergraduate degree in biology from Valdosta State University in Valdosta, Georgia. While a student at VSU, she worked as an assistant in the VSU herbarium for three years. Also while attending VSU, she spent a summer abroad studying Spanish in Guadalajara, Mexico, and another summer studying the anatomy of spathes of the genus Commelina at the Smithsonian Institutions National Museum of Natural History. After college, she spent a year in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, at the Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania as the Flora of Pennsylvania Intern. While there, she conducted a floristic inventory of an area adjacent to the Pine Swamp Natural Area in French Creek State Park. She also worked in the herbarium of the Academy of Natural Sciences Museum in Philadelphia during this time. Upon leaving Pennsylvania and before beginning her graduate studies at the University of Florida, she spent three months as an intern at the University of Georgia Marine Institute on Sapelo Island, Georgia, where she studied distribution and feeding habits of the marsh grasshopper ( Orchelium fedicinum ) on Sapelo and Cumberland Islands. She currently has a paper in press co-authored by Dr. Steven R. Manchester in the International Journal of Plant Sciences entitled Phytogeography and fossil 96

PAGE 108

history of Ailanthus (Simaroubaceae). She was recently hired as an agriculture specialist for the U.S. Bureau of Customs and Border Protection. 97


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID E20110114_AAAADM INGEST_TIME 2011-01-14T18:45:16Z PACKAGE UFE0007580_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES
FILE SIZE 1051985 DFID F20110114_AACCQI ORIGIN DEPOSITOR PATH corbett_s_Page_008.jp2 GLOBAL false PRESERVATION BIT MESSAGE_DIGEST ALGORITHM MD5
a1c5d75bf03c043984aad0fda79b6033
SHA-1
780e79252096268f5b898832c0750f37edf688a6
867832 F20110114_AACCPU corbett_s_Page_069.jp2
655d0f08ae96c03a08f22bd0c4bfd215
f576c2b94c6e27c13876c866a22115e33508db71
979438 F20110114_AACCQJ corbett_s_Page_070.jp2
7eac52f7e059d3d92f01068661ba79e3
639f637c38c71c8ba5e7c25011999cbfa1a12d58
7128 F20110114_AACCPV corbett_s_Page_014thm.jpg
813541fbb9b5676aa6fe5119f6eb054d
b6cf877c61b14a91e95755ff9b7281ca067fdd4e
25271604 F20110114_AACCQK corbett_s_Page_038.tif
65b272c611e61e0264eda99dd21b8978
bb7bf395f50cc91091ec41916890bee48345c5dd
178 F20110114_AACCPW corbett_s_Page_100.txt
2a4bcac90f40af031a69fa1400f6ea5f
caeea6333197ad144c95a36402cc1e681627d33a
7013 F20110114_AACCQL corbett_s_Page_030thm.jpg
57857a04930a4daa571f6cf28b5ae8bf
1a606a94e5d4f738c108410802de66d207c48367
1517 F20110114_AACCPX corbett_s_Page_006thm.jpg
4872ea868b5d585332092650af32dc91
dfa0172a31824c5e6d0f02e0125290bb446b3aca
63629 F20110114_AACCQM corbett_s_Page_005.jpg
c0f3703bd20c61bbe144e26e3303e849
60f63b1a9debf1f863a7e25fa0ab1e613fa31450
1708 F20110114_AACCRA corbett_s_Page_021.txt
c4ff7e5d4f04d61ebcec1389e5dba4ae
75da03659df43aa4646cecaeb3ecc05fbaee38dd
31552 F20110114_AACCQN corbett_s_Page_007.jpg
7608b0c6a94580460c8f1f41810ab327
ff51b134cdd98058d03d78417afd09265a2b3024
589744 F20110114_AACCPY corbett_s_Page_051.jp2
7c9f9c0d822cb886524a637067f3afb2
a31cd5454eb1af806125e1e1274807f4faf2fa49
257 F20110114_AACCRB corbett_s_Page_049.txt
b7a44ae1ec75b3e71576937c8209acaa
dcd78ab361f2940831eeec4b9f53a364a5329f10
52069 F20110114_AACCQO corbett_s_Page_056.jpg
bb34368d8058a2d26906db927a32cb32
8d079d3cdf7f86ccd0995b8366c235320e6e334a
19723 F20110114_AACCPZ corbett_s_Page_057.QC.jpg
b3767728191a96635d784aa5f0ab2db4
d1a860ff339a81b7d60545f96043f90e9b60492e
1053954 F20110114_AACCRC corbett_s_Page_108.tif
8e977f4095ee5bb742fde1703d0285fc
be76175cc2f5d5eef5b1f1b00282908c57d4a34d
25381 F20110114_AACCQP corbett_s_Page_032.QC.jpg
db1b1e75ce8b8a6d12c8f31ec2802e6c
baf0a04b1d7fcfa20159b3bf70419e798b8b876f
87421 F20110114_AACCRD corbett_s_Page_027.jpg
2068c32be1a63f711660fef8b910c678
47abf85b091658b98857cb417769fdf1b4892140
1564 F20110114_AACCQQ corbett_s_Page_096.txt
8a760d77a80ab416bcdc25cc2ee268de
d99eb8673fe3998deaefa7c25bdc11bac7010f86
992584 F20110114_AACCRE corbett_s_Page_043.jp2
6c979b68f85cb50ed2550c8edd6548c7
f7868ac88ba7d8700c87305a0797894cdbefb52b
24552 F20110114_AACCQR corbett_s_Page_021.QC.jpg
afb35263696487b9b9a05c0374553319
64b94bde2d842c0f85c2ac97641d9e47488380c0
F20110114_AACCRF corbett_s_Page_079.tif
49913b35346fa4ef52a1294608288b07
bca8fa61939b6cc4fbb2bf4d753cd99adbc89175
46123 F20110114_AACCQS corbett_s_Page_044.pro
8f9476e96eb0cf89a4c99ef0110f547f
1bb1679e9bbcec0a03292bbd3b47ef3bc45c9bd4
104416 F20110114_AACCRG corbett_s_Page_020.jp2
06b95ac579349ed9305f73e712c0aea0
cc85bdc6b8ddc81b9a23897ee549c77469f1dd74
3876 F20110114_AACCQT corbett_s_Page_009thm.jpg
60f543fd1640977f48cd97e3d32685fa
189c16c22f2e341a68d154b5b197cbf77a877b70
1051965 F20110114_AACCRH corbett_s_Page_034.jp2
32862a8235ef9eee469c8ee757808010
faf07764a20eb868aa60bf2774a79fec389afdbe
F20110114_AACCQU corbett_s_Page_067.tif
2bdd3918c7c9766500c1aff4b1b46815
e531ac45292a567619ae1b6d552c305d184441a1
1310 F20110114_AACCRI corbett_s_Page_004.txt
42d07763de126565328c1e93287d5a1e
fe2c09bed166e91ddda36c085156cabac05d72c1
59540 F20110114_AACCQV corbett_s_Page_105.pro
38052ecca617291bf2039163d39779fa
0472a02b6971634ff4fd6b6665d20ac18b601e71
1439 F20110114_AACCRJ corbett_s_Page_106.txt
1bec870aeaf089c06536df2a8882c609
7b2801e3b0e979cb6246d5acda692bd745e38176
1361 F20110114_AACCQW corbett_s_Page_010.txt
25029f66a560ecba44d61e34022d8026
1e553df5b3d4fe140909bfc52a030547b619c79c
16898 F20110114_AACCRK corbett_s_Page_097.QC.jpg
f4cf1311bd52283cd0f2a93a3c52fa9a
0302b9c368a63c078e9321e0bc376b4281d7385c
5971 F20110114_AACCQX corbett_s_Page_057thm.jpg
90b5cda646bf9f07b48d9c604e5a2c05
8b7490772d09d5175cf25763822ad8bbe31f8d88
14459 F20110114_AACCRL corbett_s_Page_092.QC.jpg
76b10d232a4cf90327bb6735981a33e7
c1e8911efd9af76690b19b2b169cf489f9094581
75819 F20110114_AACCQY corbett_s_Page_019.jpg
8bd391ac69dc58f5440c88dd3565cf0f
73e937cb685f21b830f98014eea2217d39e59652
6045 F20110114_AACCSA corbett_s_Page_095thm.jpg
74db31f2906de0015e88a67acd81433b
46ab46772fc2e50cecacbca6dd8b89ec3b4fca6d
F20110114_AACCRM corbett_s_Page_080.tif
7c85ddebaa410616d12318a5c7ede4bb
01cd910525ccb01bc5b2f5b8b91e69bc5e8a1659
40543 F20110114_AACCSB corbett_s_Page_033.pro
c861318290205d4170c9c84245ab3f17
c24d738b9065fc5aa211595bc04393356890c08c
79963 F20110114_AACCRN corbett_s_Page_095.jpg
837134fd30d10ea5c7ac88255098747c
5b2e9de7a0800734dbb8d92e6fdcc14e699a26ca
25070 F20110114_AACCQZ corbett_s_Page_022.QC.jpg
686811dda03b5cfa2710a189b625a9c4
f231596eadead8af5e6a6d9f8f06cceba7b12cc0
15026 F20110114_AACCSC corbett_s_Page_052.QC.jpg
97343bafa303979c2afdcb7cef8d1457
f85c206338dde378030eac494f1c802936a37369
45458 F20110114_AACCRO corbett_s_Page_090.pro
32aea5e01083ee2a947ed9057b2bb4d5
83fdda90a0a6aab2dc2ad0b616a4f49c0c00c474
26268 F20110114_AACCSD corbett_s_Page_103.QC.jpg
c9355f3201b024233baf86df7b37992f
1bd3edc5d66c1d4ad628b4e6d854adab21c40da7
1477 F20110114_AACCRP corbett_s_Page_047.txt
2d843486469b444fffa026a28fd818c7
1dec64dd297f2547e5dfe24e4e432695e5191c3d
F20110114_AACCSE corbett_s_Page_015.jp2
e0e2f2b2bc43a4a8359910a6002874b5
e504be561efe42357f74eb05cbf69c9d4b030209
1801 F20110114_AACCRQ corbett_s_Page_101.txt
d96eba98a76cd9ef641054c792c4c2b9
342f3cf5ef2af2645b797ea7acf3670468675359
49300 F20110114_AACCSF corbett_s_Page_052.jpg
2a13b4343fce4a3b68696f0e343692bc
632da7f623c2cd23e08ae5d345d69fff48a347f1
947318 F20110114_AACCRR corbett_s_Page_012.jp2
38cfdcf32d7b4408f8a2fc4da693e986
f5ba9060ffda478f7232bffb164dfd4bb5ea7b92
50294 F20110114_AACCSG corbett_s_Page_014.pro
c1b7a4f06b4e1a3f9b98963c915e6c6b
3938e6fe53520c994bfa94a6f5f97b03c0b240fa
784486 F20110114_AACCRS corbett_s_Page_017.jp2
de04b5a896ccf1f5c004b80db2c3fec6
a1acb52d24e5e225c872f19e95368569c589b76f
1662 F20110114_AACCSH corbett_s_Page_045.txt
b6260691a53706604b77cd8f768ef78e
f7090e3a163782d0992850b3397c594540338bbb
F20110114_AACCRT corbett_s_Page_092.tif
483ab2693712b08039fa988f671cbabe
5972058f9dbc8ebce039151c945b36f2cf5c8eb3
20971 F20110114_AACCSI corbett_s_Page_055.pro
30e7c3ac27abe36a627928335d276ee3
f59be76282eb1be6a122210c04c9de51397eb7b7
18798 F20110114_AACCRU corbett_s_Page_071.pro
6accac2b04bbbf0b21b1f62a3f52200e
26e5364aa8180c665fb52940a6a293f6a31e163d
23241 F20110114_AACCSJ corbett_s_Page_094.QC.jpg
b9edde014eea4dc21c54bf116053ed9c
91e821ae436b5f999a2143b04f0040b842fa0952
18010 F20110114_AACCRV corbett_s_Page_002.pro
e5aedf656b141a8fdd175f886c1e82a0
1be74a06671fb43273fe2c93772963bba4a10f4c
23685 F20110114_AACCSK corbett_s_Page_098.QC.jpg
53cbbf71c018c5e7f98a3c00ea7186c6
eecf77ea1220d25e4dfc3fa672956b4d3992fda4
76097 F20110114_AACCRW corbett_s_Page_041.jpg
7710ca6d9c35e7b6e5c451d4d2425e33
fcd44b1aff1ea8587404adc7ed3870dc51b6e873
1851 F20110114_AACCSL corbett_s_Page_028.txt
d7401c46c87a552bdc0992fdd49c9dd9
b0a420eacd4714c8694321123653fe2ba831fecf
1787 F20110114_AACCRX corbett_s_Page_108thm.jpg
ae9f0c479227cd316a2b321bc23ff881
1dec83aab0a8328d052f57174d5a472835cc75fb
24138 F20110114_AACCTA corbett_s_Page_036.QC.jpg
15aaf9751f4bc74099ee0a74eab216b9
be4c38c2b00a5d502cc62fdaf889ee4f59405aff
1816 F20110114_AACCSM corbett_s_Page_099.txt
16adca468cb4d4ca8a1e31b076bd7438
9ccb94f5aae5e5927cd9d3f0bbcd446278816368
114555 F20110114_AACCRY corbett_s_Page_103.jp2
b64cb511d8d25f10746c835e84ba312b
976513a4f3acb22d51b05eb626f50ac53990cd7d
343 F20110114_AACCTB corbett_s_Page_066.txt
b8669657f5d66b1fb735c4a61cd9b565
021b39ba18ac51f8579c5de8cdfca2f32d333949
540 F20110114_AACCSN corbett_s_Page_067.txt
470115b48d03f1286b750ab58897e4e5
f9e79a3c423d0bbb7d2314c057b31efec3dc6279
17481 F20110114_AACCRZ corbett_s_Page_061.QC.jpg
004be5b80d2e8dd35cc3cac13c8e0397
dbc10b5448e7b445d7ad1ac38265ca2db45b9aa0
471874 F20110114_AACCTC corbett_s_Page_071.jp2
f9345b2c7a569d49d65e7151a0a3abcf
0e304d88f4dd760634640bdacfff7e7f703fdeb7
55343 F20110114_AACCSO corbett_s_Page_011.jp2
6996f20f7a8f2ccdceb03e1c6a587222
9dd5f27f1495d1b931d72adf443968cc8936d57d
115013 F20110114_AACCTD corbett_s_Page_105.jp2
272976c0b685230dcfc2c5501ca4d164
9ec33a285b694bac56f2b96a7c89984160f5f7bc
10060 F20110114_AACCSP corbett_s_Page_059.pro
a92539c4f80693e16424d9517cf0cac4
7dcbff4e88c2d1dfffed48487d48804c028d3c17
79901 F20110114_AACCTE corbett_s_Page_032.jpg
a515f4964037b1e21d5fd48146b559b5
2348cf341cf0d40d78e0712063f1ee6dbadc6593
20669 F20110114_AACCSQ corbett_s_Page_024.QC.jpg
d45e916c5745b37f40248fdf0c5cb4da
082b4bd969af9c8be18bd086338323cca73b25aa
24877 F20110114_AACCTF corbett_s_Page_087.QC.jpg
7db0b1e3aa17a6c280fa8fb6d079e06b
facdab3e6f80f1b7a3b520a0108f4b2206bcce1b
42896 F20110114_AACCSR corbett_s_Page_031.pro
41d0af5f1e6622df7a591434cede7a7b
b4307ff616a4b4aedc7c0103b1d4f9d09ff227d6
810069 F20110114_AACCTG corbett_s_Page_078.jp2
275ee5e781e8ac3ca11e6c827d42bd0c
d57d4bae39711bd4e1e9b4a4a7a205d7d3dee3d4
F20110114_AACCSS corbett_s_Page_011.tif
629ff325fa20190010906b787acfe448
deebba722d313b2bf5b8e3461258c5247d73010f
6599 F20110114_AACCTH corbett_s_Page_038thm.jpg
2564bdf41c2a74bf0e63ab90c0238714
851f02f50c4bf7195a60bb6c6130a501eb06fc8d
50256 F20110114_AACCST corbett_s_Page_027.pro
bea0fd7b80295d3e9beb34c619adb6a7
9e9c0250751b92a22cef5ee731124a9c73356d5a
12208974 F20110114_AACCTI corbett_s.pdf
c46f6b8b5c004d117804c1f885ae934c
8ad85ff5d5c05f4df9528135e980eda24d99ddff
93084 F20110114_AACCSU corbett_s_Page_089.jp2
ef2397156b4170b7757b503f12de6697
d021f6f699a21085f12934e9d327b26a833c2eff
37086 F20110114_AACCTJ corbett_s_Page_024.pro
98b86a6adeb76f05cc9c8c55ebc24974
781c1d14160515869522daa252e0471f5f723e1a
22825 F20110114_AACCSV corbett_s_Page_037.QC.jpg
21f346671f4ee53834183cf0d66f4ecd
5f4134916dc0098e14154ed0086601d24c0cfb31
2994 F20110114_AACCTK corbett_s_Page_018thm.jpg
6f538680044c00f94ad988206b70edaa
8de40da685d385aaa31059f88a330671f0742a29
985850 F20110114_AACCSW corbett_s_Page_042.jp2
d69c64c4510dcb016a2a80a9451cd71f
d441b65984b153099f7121613f6038130b45fced
26190 F20110114_AACCTL corbett_s_Page_104.QC.jpg
4f1343bf85b2739c4705c522cad26105
d00b22b34f8dae8aeb56f466f9f088b03a62ab9c
6564 F20110114_AACCSX corbett_s_Page_012thm.jpg
6c627c76e9ec63e4a67b0bdf5c34250e
6cccc212b26a3d570a56fc45b098859480238266
6710 F20110114_AACCTM corbett_s_Page_107thm.jpg
8a1fe4ba6898dcdd8b62110a9a860fab
6a286b5b3880693b6c96a9813e0eeccc8fc079dc
12471 F20110114_AACCSY corbett_s_Page_079.QC.jpg
40576c1e4f490c17938da9d1daa1f6d0
8bcd450546b1943ba26dd76017f6a8c39fd19f77
F20110114_AACCUA corbett_s_Page_022.tif
e4356814c9b690e4d3bec7c37fbf2abf
4f7b7302939eed566f29b962a21e27fb8fd34d55
683112 F20110114_AACCTN corbett_s_Page_080.jp2
5dfc717617fd53c3a4eed9ea112ac8bf
656755f21ba1544537b7bb6afa11d470cfbdc2f4
5458 F20110114_AACCSZ corbett_s_Page_004thm.jpg
cac507a96625965ea9da00b6337344d3
9e4f5563acb1b6cdccec11f09538d4e95419efbd
631 F20110114_AACCUB corbett_s_Page_018.txt
a6fa53ed34bb31c48d8cfe2969843e07
b192f5aa622ff0762f40782dd29bc29717dbd076
42752 F20110114_AACCUC corbett_s_Page_042.pro
f04f29e067e9a368591e40cbf50545b1
f6116f877103a855e971e56e8b2d2e1240c54c4e
16256 F20110114_AACCTO corbett_s_Page_080.QC.jpg
5e354a73c647ebe29f43cc2c6d9e0976
847d723521bf54292b4362dc006c054fb24d877e
F20110114_AACCUD corbett_s_Page_087.tif
c07060a0015fbf3e2b5ade14f38984ab
c05f42925fb6267b4a809a2d3ae54065c7015a5d
1597 F20110114_AACCTP corbett_s_Page_107.txt
f5e2b91c3c00a1cdfcd1602371057210
f58cf311978b5f53218f1f22785c764b4ce7f78b
18975 F20110114_AACCUE corbett_s_Page_075.QC.jpg
fbf56a8b3e59b075a2967666507e8c41
5fc3e50fb6c19ee2b899b7e767d64b621ac29f36
F20110114_AACCTQ corbett_s_Page_019.tif
7b0a286a9584ee94c69373531884f11a
51cbf5b8cde39a98bb3bdb8a5bb36bdbe15120c8
1051984 F20110114_AACDAA corbett_s_Page_055.jp2
5f4aba6686e80ff96195eb64fc6a275e
25d37274a7dbb75f7676cb1306aeb3f7afd5dd97
F20110114_AACCUF corbett_s_Page_097.tif
a6409c1bb54636ab6ae9225f93f68be4
6d8b581d4d5ca8abf8803306e39b76985d605979
855 F20110114_AACCTR corbett_s_Page_052.txt
17c538e2d7eb6665a674302d70c7eddc
9a40842b5025d0e1b1babc764aae81f81a3219c6
1051961 F20110114_AACDAB corbett_s_Page_056.jp2
7989c123c5631a621344f5309c04288a
b9f7c3901da9988bfecb57b932f4f4c8baf02323
81017 F20110114_AACCUG corbett_s_Page_044.jpg
b638f64c25ad0a4a405fe160ad929e88
4fc38b1ba9581627588088c43cd13990208adbd5
3949 F20110114_AACCTS corbett_s_Page_051thm.jpg
e5423b5c736281fa306c23479716a024
04e00594ae69039ff90f42d10982491073f131e8
1051868 F20110114_AACDAC corbett_s_Page_057.jp2
c805ecb8e0a3bd393b87b14818d2ae2d
a7e88236076e7983534c9f70037fee3c876d8a00
75859 F20110114_AACCUH corbett_s_Page_082.jpg
c46a8979bdd8ee5bd822296d234be054
22582da0b620b76e65868e8d53d51e25f4a5b737
79723 F20110114_AACCTT corbett_s_Page_090.jpg
f6e9882b378a1f6e9a27df6aab82afc7
1969a953ab1d0fec8a5b09c2aa9f7ec4d812fc90
1051972 F20110114_AACDAD corbett_s_Page_058.jp2
ead611fd7525730cc129a721fe831b07
d9e1ffe78608a2ccc03e6abd45aa4ebc0925d8d9
4957 F20110114_AACCUI corbett_s_Page_065thm.jpg
377277071b105995cc83a1dfdeefc29d
5bdc31db49524554878fccd0e8514a71223824f2
F20110114_AACCTU corbett_s_Page_036.tif
32d724f0dc61dbab74c2ab687a33cf0e
30dcd4f405330804ab04d4a91030243de733e241
1051930 F20110114_AACDAE corbett_s_Page_059.jp2
5bc85e6583738d49b2991a6d08f75ac9
6196de5232ffd5874128b3066b84213ad15e13b1
7355 F20110114_AACCUJ corbett_s_Page_027thm.jpg
f329da3fef44efe420ac95d1d1f539f9
cd2e587859df52ffb43c204c7b0580fb627b63e8
1105 F20110114_AACCTV corbett_s_Page_085.txt
ae62d31c1abeee3a23b7e6c0a2bd75cc
d2740e0eca87584343b6f72b353615938c205e18
1051864 F20110114_AACDAF corbett_s_Page_061.jp2
1b827120abf7c33cc2964c38b6cfd81d
eef03dae9ad6ff3813d958beb82dabaf9b52e4af
1548 F20110114_AACCUK corbett_s_Page_012.txt
eaf6629c51fc918bd42a10c371611ada
e1fe51d4ccb1b1952dae0c2952b723710a3cd23e
20248 F20110114_AACCTW corbett_s_Page_054.QC.jpg
1234a62464479a1e540a5f2b72e79594
1d24663a5be7bd9c2c60df100605b79997e006f7
1051951 F20110114_AACDAG corbett_s_Page_062.jp2
9b782b321265e4fcfb747e1981a45a11
ab59c614902632065cea0b7738f6c663e58b8890
1856 F20110114_AACCUL corbett_s_Page_027.txt
50df4bfd55d8149cc59d04e74b5ffb8f
083c6ed3c45577cbd9dc10ba5102445d92bc0957
77556 F20110114_AACCTX corbett_s_Page_107.jpg
3e3deb462a946fe93c11a4553f6f9d85
f6f91b803cd3818e0f5f7e0e6e4c4416ac8e5924
267104 F20110114_AACDAH corbett_s_Page_063.jp2
801be9b6a677c20709103ff4548b322f
cbcf250c77b64b0f5ef9aee3a0a03f1587dd0a50
1550 F20110114_AACCVA corbett_s_Page_035.txt
b9eec2b3406a07ec0700b457a9c65742
ea0d0c16861fc6a31838fcc10645df07c8641586
7167 F20110114_AACCUM corbett_s_Page_105thm.jpg
14c1c477a56f99307aa6975193c19837
757b5dbe3c2a1edf12c9622fe50dc8d90bfee113
1051949 F20110114_AACCTY corbett_s_Page_060.jp2
1f50722614e9787fc6d3d0f4ac572ae2
657460fbab39556ed0e75cc698faa2da6a14d54d
125907 F20110114_AACCVB UFE0007580_00001.mets FULL
8ee50192b28746940640ed69674e329a
bc7c1c3fc54d9705728eb96226f7b7fe97de628d
4352 F20110114_AACCUN corbett_s_Page_011thm.jpg
0d6fb5dd5693d1249827130cd649a98d
3bc81bb3487ae31789f758c4d705719dec53a7ea
F20110114_AACCTZ corbett_s_Page_037.txt
e5f95e9c5cb9e57b3af704b428948d7c
80989cd00204e642895a3a6bac45932e5d4e1706
1051977 F20110114_AACDAI corbett_s_Page_064.jp2
549555cf4a4943a405b53f675d66ab04
47cbd6da42bf80c47ef8616522cd0b06ab9a728c
706 F20110114_AACCUO corbett_s_Page_091.txt
258e5c8a3f514543b401193803452672
88a77097a635e7af9774d07fb02adce999a6303d
1051963 F20110114_AACDAJ corbett_s_Page_066.jp2
2d1881ca1dfecfdf3b2183bcb0bb05d6
aa060ad33b41d480e2365b00d6ac0bb0565bc05a
40836 F20110114_AACCUP corbett_s_Page_068.jpg
c5b22183dde7fcb63df4997272de1de6
a3e1df59796f8204735f774a7c464da699b645d9
923106 F20110114_AACDAK corbett_s_Page_072.jp2
519c68e1c7ce48da9a53104bf37ff72d
9d38f4d511bf31a6d8fa73f39c821415c9147686
22648 F20110114_AACCVE corbett_s_Page_001.jpg
47235adf50a2ad85d91fbbefae87e7c5
929239dfaab4c6a733bdb92db40f9adae45cbc4b
24470 F20110114_AACCUQ corbett_s_Page_090.QC.jpg
ebfb4acebdaabe9c7a260fd66dc8c7f1
12d37181db8370e80114789f2bf63d3ff32826c2
34474 F20110114_AACCVF corbett_s_Page_002.jpg
ba8cb6526b8ac18e5dea2b3f623111a4
2bb6e1d541472d1adacc18b515da03bf94d46086
31641 F20110114_AACCUR corbett_s_Page_010.pro
30dfe8d35f4ae2906f1c950c94d5e0b6
08b051f908228d5052922c952ea72a6f79112a92
1051986 F20110114_AACDBA corbett_s_Page_094.jp2
8de10da57842f643f3671501e0392a1c
23f85968949943944e5a768da510047a90ac9636
1051958 F20110114_AACDAL corbett_s_Page_073.jp2
bfab5f811898d31ace00df54cf249443
fd84aad0dd0d69b05fbe20ab1095883c3b6025ed
58667 F20110114_AACCVG corbett_s_Page_004.jpg
d099494a587cd231ea4640b8aad1c102
83f5b096e1b584c0d020be2c831082f23deaa3c3
1843 F20110114_AACCUS corbett_s_Page_014.txt
c7661ded28823bc9decaa257ad378597
e6d248daa9945a8c0f564361100effdf5f2eb680
F20110114_AACDBB corbett_s_Page_095.jp2
f41efd1c96bef0a63dc4138a2b56e91a
e873166693d6f989741216867706fceb7b0ecb5a
F20110114_AACDAM corbett_s_Page_074.jp2
4291a4ac3a996178830965bdf340d210
b1b5c123a043d1fc4d6f084ff23696eda1879d8e
13689 F20110114_AACCVH corbett_s_Page_006.jpg
08e05a5e8fb92bf888d0b535492b4d51
f6d52017070ec30ee5b243fc66d8860a4df45bf7
F20110114_AACCUT corbett_s_Page_050.jp2
c3b082ac3b9d695eab6d26b0037be33a
8b7c8b48eb6a99a4916ca4c49421f15fe242d4e1
924212 F20110114_AACDBC corbett_s_Page_096.jp2
b5aaed6323b687c05e47580e6390c8bc
7129f1d6528b2eedbe6668dd46ec42f96dbc700a
1051796 F20110114_AACDAN corbett_s_Page_075.jp2
6b8debef260d4b83ffee7f25d3e5417c
f7b0e0f2bc168104a1909dc0b93134ef18c70b09
63143 F20110114_AACCVI corbett_s_Page_008.jpg
00119497e31a74d03fa18bd4f86b0323
74668d4e7778b8ace687d36b00b94201dc3cbd87
22564 F20110114_AACCUU corbett_s_Page_040.QC.jpg
a62158760d8282093c083925912f2ab0
282d50607955c7e5625c42dfb8efbaaed59adef9
63465 F20110114_AACDBD corbett_s_Page_097.jp2
c57dce1a403bb11f2b6977562e6399c4
5d8b0623e95b8825d94db54b476509893b4438a2
1051827 F20110114_AACDAO corbett_s_Page_077.jp2
18f201c1a70405206720c756934846f5
86684c37d17bbd9c909ed24554c3b3f076b0a7d6
44286 F20110114_AACCVJ corbett_s_Page_009.jpg
88dffc94c634f3145cfa41433dd435c3
85bebda39ff4aa5c2b03ef269356a4a9658939d7
5340 F20110114_AACCUV corbett_s_Page_050thm.jpg
087d5ae7e41561473a91c6fa739f79af
5fc9c757339ba89256a594f9d37d81bdff974033
90960 F20110114_AACDBE corbett_s_Page_098.jp2
70625b16553ea4e8f15d8696fce2f630
29b714e423275bf5a866e634dbdf309d2212e692
846543 F20110114_AACDAP corbett_s_Page_079.jp2
34329b2cc9c4602af756a9074cf4bc1d
2529b67270a8e70650381e43b3f0108acf4fe4b1
59125 F20110114_AACCVK corbett_s_Page_010.jpg
d30fe0357bc27b038c4a9d0d5b098b04
387b7da9fed61e40c9a0bb9106be96d0837d9f96
6707 F20110114_AACCUW corbett_s_Page_036thm.jpg
23f27a6fefbe2d6b422468d5fc44e9dd
aa3403d3d95524176338810bb9ebb513c56f3f49
101958 F20110114_AACDBF corbett_s_Page_099.jp2
3a620037e67fd27689bfb2bed81fda88
aebd1274f8b0da8a92548e2e11876ae34f3ae08a
1033340 F20110114_AACDAQ corbett_s_Page_082.jp2
03677f1aa3f3df3e37f28e9ec431c824
6fd39701b4c8d3851f9650b13c8a70c9fd123653
45833 F20110114_AACCVL corbett_s_Page_011.jpg
1001d1ab344b4d585639ecb901c704db
6a4202c0258647cec386008438e70a576c44faed
6503 F20110114_AACCUX corbett_s_Page_098thm.jpg
b3d876f5e501966ca40e895e4d90dd2e
e7c3b2d626b48fe5c72539a3878a44e93a3f6813
9899 F20110114_AACDBG corbett_s_Page_100.jp2
0b609b7dbc3f511e529640b4ffcf1d5a
7bb0b435d26542105da02f0e61c87d5a690bb52a
1051980 F20110114_AACDAR corbett_s_Page_083.jp2
8a6bb926921e0c3280f7104cedc302c6
fe6018bd78fefc89183bb45a1787c254b695061d
72281 F20110114_AACCVM corbett_s_Page_012.jpg
93390bbf65359bff8c031c70bf320cc8
472080cd4a576cbaaf4408d0288e7df93a9343ce
17373 F20110114_AACCUY corbett_s_Page_052.pro
dce7161563f8243291ccfe92e222c9df
308b2caca58032763c41def7ba7c406ffb6b62a8
125960 F20110114_AACDBH corbett_s_Page_102.jp2
e5e7c03a25ddad42f72e841263088e88
c4de8d2cb3744d5fb258a9f32dbcffaa92fe405f
83265 F20110114_AACCWA corbett_s_Page_029.jpg
9edf7dd4c09a6dacca07a3a34792f174
38e9dcf7d4d892e9f483359c64f9180b069ba32d
1051960 F20110114_AACDAS corbett_s_Page_084.jp2
c6eefea9ba985300a04aa4ff9eab4f2b
b232aedbe8ab69124a1b90e70c34a137d94b8c53
83644 F20110114_AACCVN corbett_s_Page_013.jpg
c28d67de8ba4367571ca47d93ee3a63d
832c310fab7b7d5ebbe930ab09e1108cf4098b83
5213 F20110114_AACCUZ corbett_s_Page_070.pro
f172f6f15990b016c6298e43bc82246e
cffffb838852b436498afeaf6c0b1d33ff335261
114330 F20110114_AACDBI corbett_s_Page_104.jp2
14dcf5593591ec01f3ff5b8875de500b
240008d3332406afb81e1ae3d5751cc830b66e3c
82223 F20110114_AACCWB corbett_s_Page_030.jpg
a17dc57798d4fc1c6f14ea47745e7c46
16576511befb3b8a91ff66de94b9583c7044fcb2
618949 F20110114_AACDAT corbett_s_Page_085.jp2
d9e6332bc875e49d50608792b3ebb5f4
1fefd8dae784ede7ec8671ce5e3424d2cc822f26
78452 F20110114_AACCVO corbett_s_Page_014.jpg
5bcf70680d869fa50e506127e47dfda5
9df4c8bdbdf24ed5c6674d3fa9860f66ca118053
75720 F20110114_AACCWC corbett_s_Page_031.jpg
fcf5663799c0101ba954478684e3a5c4
3a8b21849991c83dcc9f514f9644f94f70a3f860
1051975 F20110114_AACDAU corbett_s_Page_086.jp2
8b21a8a19bcf3715b2c2f7468961e5c7
1927b66c655cce8b514eeac3915227fb686de6f7
89528 F20110114_AACCVP corbett_s_Page_016.jpg
abee23096020635596d4b4cb2712b689
a11e9eec1034cd011535a48c5bc561345d2a1083
80548 F20110114_AACDBJ corbett_s_Page_106.jp2
2af58bd1286944f0e55aa2e8097fb8a8
b2c77a2458c008f4ad321129229101764af4ed54
73029 F20110114_AACCWD corbett_s_Page_033.jpg
5eefa2c50d555c58c0d2344d6a553e71
99caa3fc8c668199e288203b3d8fe5a77e446f04
1051981 F20110114_AACDAV corbett_s_Page_088.jp2
7059bed379323f7d27d62a6782ab4f14
662e8fc8f43fc6b83621c623908d6bc9e6577b72
61931 F20110114_AACCVQ corbett_s_Page_017.jpg
1198f87dc90136a4dc829c9d7d5aeb82
413e917535f6c88ba24a3cddd8149dcd14783fd9
1008811 F20110114_AACDBK corbett_s_Page_107.jp2
ddce767c47c07ef1e2cd98ba74408f93
6fa1acf2cc11790a352b63fe18bbeed5e15f715d
78271 F20110114_AACCWE corbett_s_Page_034.jpg
8201f202abdaeb1033cdf4c14c40dea2
ba183b76f4bbb7da20501871c1d7dad8dcbecff6
1039847 F20110114_AACDAW corbett_s_Page_090.jp2
250b43c7f3fa10efb140a37ec5d8e792
6a5c163d6e0bccb7bdea7d6f16f8162e24d581bb
34374 F20110114_AACCVR corbett_s_Page_018.jpg
f377c0ed939389f8d2263f65777b02f1
f48190a5574fb7508c5d2be5328f6c176957e588
F20110114_AACDCA corbett_s_Page_018.tif
3c7dc9b6677dcc23349d3edb415d87c4
4d985643f9bd9a1c55d1969dff35016061b107ff
F20110114_AACDBL corbett_s_Page_001.tif
f4f2a2731bf55d14a82c3debc378ea4c
23e144301fb82810a0e9f748d4f3887db654bdc3
75073 F20110114_AACCWF corbett_s_Page_035.jpg
ce0b00640b3419c1911625d771c754ca
99e9a86a09bf7e7a7bbd57876d0ccbe5977b83e5
40595 F20110114_AACDAX corbett_s_Page_091.jp2
320cb86c56c262a720ec5c19c198496d
ee5c5bac1cc47614337a5641e7ac4201934532ff
79946 F20110114_AACCVS corbett_s_Page_020.jpg
c6fb45801ed1b2574f2f34d33e541aed
d9d6f7dfff8494b6f41cf8bae794e52128826bc7
F20110114_AACDCB corbett_s_Page_020.tif
17f5f466468d782cf0b7d2dd8ff31d03
56cc22f0293d29d9f7d1ce7412be2e1c58746f14
F20110114_AACDBM corbett_s_Page_002.tif
61ff78c41289be7f602540bf5013fa82
0809b10ebc5f153181176fc7c700b0fd281ef8c5
75688 F20110114_AACCWG corbett_s_Page_036.jpg
dd135763b14917a59eca732b4619bf92
642e0945684ccf388eaf717a412d2085ccc7a8a1
563599 F20110114_AACDAY corbett_s_Page_092.jp2
77ac340b4cba106a98796bb49b602161
9554e8ca041ea555e8e48699134aec34201ae55f
74806 F20110114_AACCVT corbett_s_Page_021.jpg
3fcc51cb22e84dbcb9928dec7c4c41f2
ba390cc640828d001c0e4d2a51efdb6311d36de3
F20110114_AACDCC corbett_s_Page_021.tif
639dc94c517f9c8fec3677bbc6a0d8a3
ae2b927dc77d441838b0378e823267acea7595c2
F20110114_AACDBN corbett_s_Page_003.tif
229924fd5ef7806d275a8c84290eae6a
59c56983c1a257f428b782db12e2e3878ab1b678
74543 F20110114_AACCWH corbett_s_Page_037.jpg
c6080568d8781a35f78bb3eb68ebb364
3cb63f1396f94d63eb102a0aa9c031b9aae05c45
1031053 F20110114_AACDAZ corbett_s_Page_093.jp2
289f893518bb8f1631ffaed192eb3003
541528d7b2b9fd3c5ada5aba239ccff14f567560
77366 F20110114_AACCVU corbett_s_Page_022.jpg
9d16323e1cf630f526f1b8634d050277
e00298edca75e599d2f7dbf65dace053af5efc9b
F20110114_AACDCD corbett_s_Page_023.tif
d10907e77679e27cf23900c4d566a04d
cf18887e1aea0757ec9eb2c37014c2cd358318ea
F20110114_AACDBO corbett_s_Page_004.tif
1078f3d8de85b8f6b548b312c8b246ed
752617ffbe55e24d66637c7a2d0fc8b8462837f5
79933 F20110114_AACCWI corbett_s_Page_039.jpg
a28e48a807c7ce5f852f4698291d9b4b
e53588a887d53d933b51aaf7f54d0f4dedbb5299
71431 F20110114_AACCVV corbett_s_Page_023.jpg
3ca8150b88d16f1fd89aea952f46b406
380ae9746f339e4d3ac374607fa607a59a9140b5
F20110114_AACDCE corbett_s_Page_025.tif
5fe89b94d94d9f6e7499aab5a514750d
9b352c15c501835ceb31bc91dfbf999bab64ce89
F20110114_AACDBP corbett_s_Page_005.tif
de582a1014c54747075594221f2cb5f7
d9f9ec09127f71ebc20215c723603c610f60a3af
74031 F20110114_AACCWJ corbett_s_Page_042.jpg
b339a196425210cbfd1d49b2551818d9
1833fb396b67cc88b36befc6a5e2413d3f8e857b
67745 F20110114_AACCVW corbett_s_Page_024.jpg
8f072874ca94297df8005367641a26f6
4e2656679ac76c6c1c890882b1dcf2e3e89370e4
F20110114_AACDCF corbett_s_Page_026.tif
ca0fc2723842b788dda1afabe4c834b9
df63edba0cc35fa9a68ec1d52995a6df8bd0a97f
F20110114_AACDBQ corbett_s_Page_006.tif
76613a8139cf27790cbe336e5810df30
89db44f185d242b3ecaa090e6762b7f961edb3c8
76439 F20110114_AACCWK corbett_s_Page_043.jpg
b25b348bb9cc41c939ff6ced75acc6a8
8492564d70c4fe8834a1f7145119209e433b979e
81252 F20110114_AACCVX corbett_s_Page_025.jpg
26261034b318501d4e70e9281063367f
730a01ab93b540d3fe9973e09187c17c42dee593
F20110114_AACDCG corbett_s_Page_027.tif
0617971276282fe1fdb5237c1e6cb0e0
0260515956e768526e3c740625e2e2523537b78c
F20110114_AACDBR corbett_s_Page_007.tif
afa60c9cbfa6a5f03116c3b3c8e08d95
68b025ae72bb61b28398be23846030219487047c
77881 F20110114_AACCWL corbett_s_Page_045.jpg
bcf96b59ee15c6ca5257c2fbe51c9c32
ad6de850ac4e965ed24efa4caef2e6d254716d5e
76814 F20110114_AACCVY corbett_s_Page_026.jpg
e4b09a1b6be77c79965ccfe9e027596a
15ee8135c8088f644e2745a2b54862ff902be2d1
F20110114_AACDCH corbett_s_Page_028.tif
799608f27a894bfa5336e4be37da131a
1e55da4ed3f2da20460a21076bb00aa6a3d38f00
26226 F20110114_AACCXA corbett_s_Page_063.jpg
bdb139055fe2b90f75cd75fab7400ec2
6607eb22dec273167ee662aac4c34a7d68b06c6f
F20110114_AACDBS corbett_s_Page_008.tif
224095c875efd6af95264acca235a25d
908188b23db85a61723acf6a1e609555faaa8111
63203 F20110114_AACCWM corbett_s_Page_046.jpg
4ecbfc34d1b4b5e58d7050ab55550c68
738d0b3d1e43ba6b6f7c9abcd6389e21c8274f2f
87671 F20110114_AACCVZ corbett_s_Page_028.jpg
53fe8ae6fd8e73b872a0c7cc8701b6b4
4d118b2798d4878ea349222f9e349ed9142894b8
F20110114_AACDCI corbett_s_Page_029.tif
11a6016addfc717788d0627a5402223e
a0d46bac5a1f3f27519aa62eb703abd4bb8ca8f3
64298 F20110114_AACCXB corbett_s_Page_064.jpg
3e51763bb3200dc8d243e7ef4dc1118c
8a49f107549845a18e9ef9a0cbc8ff63a3911aaf
F20110114_AACDBT corbett_s_Page_009.tif
0cf0a8a1c2a358a2e4c18eeb27464a2e
96a10cbd22061cad5ce352e1e58dfa8bb76fad93
69973 F20110114_AACCWN corbett_s_Page_047.jpg
4f2763c9e8f09538278d2122531fffe3
2689d066501234128ba94acce797c8b6141965f7
F20110114_AACDCJ corbett_s_Page_030.tif
635f49d7cb3e3b6998e8fcba944d90d1
1725c11cda76e0e03891da39cea65a1b12b5d8e5
63658 F20110114_AACCXC corbett_s_Page_065.jpg
1a09dbf5f5678bbd91aabe6d4c4020a4
b28a82c5699ff6f8a29b4dc6b5617c5df57f86e1
F20110114_AACDBU corbett_s_Page_012.tif
dc36bb918bf0925120aed449dbab00c8
00ef4873f75bd599424e077274451fba973c6d21
51296 F20110114_AACCWO corbett_s_Page_048.jpg
858c8b793bf6f9df6a49e5efca94285e
435d54c067d7e50a13fa2ec0f464b960d4690d19
68982 F20110114_AACCXD corbett_s_Page_066.jpg
d61a8a790c9e1ba7012af1e8c5efec11
476b878b18fe490bc4192e8548ce406f69721d69
F20110114_AACDBV corbett_s_Page_013.tif
86697d8817014b7793a585ca1e6d1e7b
bd39d1aef833e9af2328a784501ee15aeb378cf9
55983 F20110114_AACCWP corbett_s_Page_049.jpg
caa05dfc88a413b3cab235b061bde0b8
f90741f078787636decf569e630b0cdfcf784f62
F20110114_AACDCK corbett_s_Page_031.tif
2edfb009316c1746e82f5b3e9c55b32a
2e5ccfa889bbc8b90c967b13e9ddc21b73fd9b01
73235 F20110114_AACCXE corbett_s_Page_067.jpg
0dcb3a3c341beb3e85b34521dd78737a
00c3ffeeeb607815118cff902405f9d131a545ca
F20110114_AACDBW corbett_s_Page_014.tif
04c1b9df23ef76310357ac4a873972f4
45e5455e3b44ed70d2fe6ef01aa80ece23884004
55228 F20110114_AACCWQ corbett_s_Page_050.jpg
0313e36edd7443e9ff44ea57f5fecd21
cb3964de51577876116312794bdb36e2e3e078f9
F20110114_AACDCL corbett_s_Page_032.tif
92c389a913ba5c6260e3a570f6e0087d
b233f4e5e22a19da77310d7a858b555612839874
70637 F20110114_AACCXF corbett_s_Page_069.jpg
a182a64e8c9bb80009c6eabed1162304
42e77775068ff42cc8c49945e47ceedd4e35abf2
F20110114_AACDBX corbett_s_Page_015.tif
88849e6953df4a19cbd9eae580c3af6a
0c1f924622197aa626cb02f75db434214ad7216a
38613 F20110114_AACCWR corbett_s_Page_051.jpg
ee16c957830cc1c33278c0b1ae052744
0094ff47afe77bbfb193aefda229e3f73a8dbeb0
F20110114_AACDDA corbett_s_Page_050.tif
52f2ed27214246d147cddcb807354193
19715d73536e944c371c89f4e492b5ce3f5b8bc6
F20110114_AACDCM corbett_s_Page_033.tif
c8968ea7f651df0d8a217564aa798c0a
2635d8d7f3cbb8b874d42d6a37e2a0416b7f2bf9
45759 F20110114_AACCXG corbett_s_Page_070.jpg
4e667c5de11f98547b3d2fe66204217c
38f9954af6b4fe1963d92bb993b56b1b67218d65
F20110114_AACDBY corbett_s_Page_016.tif
ad178eb84a0f88e0fcdbd193a4429a41
23bbdc065b4f00a0763b91fcad5ec95cb84b8276
45716 F20110114_AACCWS corbett_s_Page_053.jpg
dfb606431a6b18665bdd0417b36dcda1
10bbe5befd8aadf7f084436c51573e82c7be4a90
F20110114_AACDDB corbett_s_Page_051.tif
5f8da1f5f032a7acc750d3e2623077af
8eda38a2cb5741fd0b258f2e0ce2667d14def834
F20110114_AACDCN corbett_s_Page_034.tif
63f3ed89942966fe8dbdf51123a51e47
42eeb6fc35443f1207e2cfa4bc3aa80320051e7a
40842 F20110114_AACCXH corbett_s_Page_071.jpg
d073207ff8f12e5e44c114a506ac03b9
700cbb2ea0690caf05c14732ee933277eae0aefe
F20110114_AACDBZ corbett_s_Page_017.tif
3bc0adbc2bd0fd58d6badedda190439b
8720bbc5ed0e3a7ac056128c1706a2e2ec8d8d32
73186 F20110114_AACCWT corbett_s_Page_054.jpg
9296299b11a38fbc8b44f03afe7711bb
f2a1eb686d7ea913c7256b1c3997e0939f3663b9
F20110114_AACDDC corbett_s_Page_052.tif
f6d11017bc06726dad3b349273a1a72a
886c8934c40c989329f7cd8462e2aedffa7c87a8
F20110114_AACDCO corbett_s_Page_035.tif
9f1d3845a17a8de35bb1670a2b40e60c
bb01da9f32cf0b1be6f16d832ed6de658783528e
37545 F20110114_AACCXI corbett_s_Page_072.jpg
a3ebf34bb2318be738dec9b89c239a97
6aca8228b26342c18cd39330d04a1dca1fb79dbb
70597 F20110114_AACCWU corbett_s_Page_057.jpg
84577e40a2fd355eafcac45fd0ed4fa6
b7adb30b823f16e2afee5bb2535b7a6064e5d816
F20110114_AACDDD corbett_s_Page_053.tif
30dc5030540c716bfce3f0ec5e299b9d
99c0465eea55fe0d25322f0836e35cff3f7423da
F20110114_AACDCP corbett_s_Page_037.tif
09fc8cdba7ce1fce7090ae84a122c853
0d3275ef70ba13faaef896cd561a88ee76663860
85434 F20110114_AACCXJ corbett_s_Page_073.jpg
f2d717974470e01a8cd4d31f2412789e
223270a4cf30ea24d878de25e3696a6487a0d474
47773 F20110114_AACCWV corbett_s_Page_058.jpg
3d038114ba723c111b90be82cc60def1
6cde6d279e1b145c44a937dc6055b2ddb563eef2
F20110114_AACDDE corbett_s_Page_054.tif
428e45292e295a847b71b175a927b952
abdb5d323e13c596d193e5fcdbee9520c5cc12e5
F20110114_AACDCQ corbett_s_Page_039.tif
2609b472ce94e8ebb68843deaede2bd3
df8fc95af631449ef8c99d8660cc018149a08963
58828 F20110114_AACCXK corbett_s_Page_074.jpg
8a52d3546a8d79af2a1f84bac818ae57
cc8a52f0ab29f59562eb3d3063f896278c863d3b
72941 F20110114_AACCWW corbett_s_Page_059.jpg
db7d1e9f7b7c66e9e32312bdb11e46a7
1ca4aa60416f12ac560b670a670fba417a76a832
F20110114_AACDDF corbett_s_Page_056.tif
73125c33995f2cbc234a37abfeae8df4
450c066366db30640eb6927f17c77a55f7ad639c
48904 F20110114_AACCYA corbett_s_Page_092.jpg
aab95b5fdbdcc080f75c71e8929bb12e
b8a83bd29786ec8f6198ff2bb0e2dbb4c865b1ce
F20110114_AACDCR corbett_s_Page_040.tif
ef6a1fe3eebb4528a3fbf36f693bbc66
047e4cf61e21c910584904fab62e66911fbcea6f
66619 F20110114_AACCXL corbett_s_Page_075.jpg
74ab61293bdaba8febc0761cedadc5b1
183c94ef47cefcc4931705ae053e72172baa3614
74122 F20110114_AACCWX corbett_s_Page_060.jpg
3b099dd01d25b93586c467d4988ae6c9
d77a6e7a4ab7f4eaf5473d27cedd78061c6806f8
F20110114_AACDDG corbett_s_Page_057.tif
c4c7df20b9262f999bd93678613ad2fa
c164401aefa4d3eb5f066af0bcaabd7de62dc32e
F20110114_AACDCS corbett_s_Page_041.tif
6b4bd88ed455e77efda174ad193393cf
30f286815e5034f93c0fc8a1ea8fbf54cd59322a
78263 F20110114_AACCXM corbett_s_Page_076.jpg
b3cb98c6657a8099d19252bd72c4e7d5
cb3f180b4753a67451bb413819775e2f6f2dc697
64813 F20110114_AACCWY corbett_s_Page_061.jpg
ca539c5bae394b710a82d1a03bad50b6
d48a0616bac794e9b648f52582d27fbe0ac9c183
F20110114_AACDDH corbett_s_Page_058.tif
cc31091771844846b44404c85138726c
788c811bbb241795d5c7bb72e4f97fbe14e9b557
77750 F20110114_AACCYB corbett_s_Page_093.jpg
144e5cea4a932d77537dc71d3de39217
2a6896e18d129b6b9f3b007475866fc9184d1a2f
F20110114_AACDCT corbett_s_Page_042.tif
e4bc85dfcbb5eef702348bae634a072f
b653c24db9c15be4e80a828c1e7d2e1dc0e55757
58178 F20110114_AACCXN corbett_s_Page_077.jpg
38d89ab7fa33a645698c960007b70ed0
0bcd69b63516918db5b023c93b1edc4536f3f03b
71551 F20110114_AACCWZ corbett_s_Page_062.jpg
a7690d7f0e307ab0966910b0845c69e5
9a4637f003b95555decaba28c62cea9cc34cca76
F20110114_AACDDI corbett_s_Page_059.tif
80b6df9f7d2a09b7d8e05ea2fd51bc9e
55517084ec5e88939710e6f024353553612e379b
71861 F20110114_AACCYC corbett_s_Page_096.jpg
444e3973f4bafc05e4e8da84d6ac1a64
0473ba9546a731b1243f26a3f8a3b4c7486239b3
F20110114_AACDCU corbett_s_Page_043.tif
6dc74e0961901a5693dd87d061165951
780c4c82ee3947a9516c260b6fab95850e1131c5
64731 F20110114_AACCXO corbett_s_Page_078.jpg
3e221ed36ae6bc4ec6c9e0008fa83900
d0ead979eaef5cb7e34612b60e6fcbb8b40134cd
F20110114_AACDDJ corbett_s_Page_060.tif
d455d351c2f443f4aa13a25af25901bd
7273986d8e474c58a08143566931a688489f7e48
50906 F20110114_AACCYD corbett_s_Page_097.jpg
00472d8feb1500931909c994bb8fb839
91355dcd5899c6941ac97492409c1f4e207d71c9
F20110114_AACDCV corbett_s_Page_044.tif
84a1ba4bfe7a560bf71b9c273a3aecc4
ad74316f98df47d4fa21b0d1636e18e86be8cf18
39395 F20110114_AACCXP corbett_s_Page_079.jpg
d95f8ecef592982c39cc1a001c6ea8b0
7cc37b2adddbf5a14244dfc66bc2a6b7b26715bb
F20110114_AACDDK corbett_s_Page_062.tif
43978dc79ad41352a7b691cdd1a12e2b
d474f68cef112b956b06618be4612a2065bcde84
71872 F20110114_AACCYE corbett_s_Page_098.jpg
e8204bf364238c23d5680c723b4f00b9
e1c9145791a9ff01d5ef08658d92d5bedbf689e8
F20110114_AACDCW corbett_s_Page_045.tif
a81b2079c3427507efbb0735fca2f41f
35967c1c538590abb44e2566aa9c09daaf48b732
54127 F20110114_AACCXQ corbett_s_Page_080.jpg
fa0b8db83e80886073138aa35d786ac7
0d307d89d21f4950185768098a290d4c53661367
13509 F20110114_AACCYF corbett_s_Page_100.jpg
521874efe9b672480a6bbc58ef24bda7
7e3b1b8dd6b95fc106876271015c36f48aa85251
F20110114_AACDCX corbett_s_Page_046.tif
9bb8a295989fe8a5357822f8cd5f790b
3a5466c258834f0286aba1e87064d9db3afe4280
27096 F20110114_AACCXR corbett_s_Page_081.jpg
9cf319b65d0ef5cd48caa1dfd1e00730
a32871610637a78d3e7e85abad5f8ca9d20d90b9
F20110114_AACDEA corbett_s_Page_084.tif
c8be9c8ebac97b56becc558d065f9d99
acee966a1db6f35d34bd2e5b83bfc28db19e441d
F20110114_AACDDL corbett_s_Page_063.tif
223d6a8db5fd85f69a5ca44a82f650f9
5711ff7e077749dd89a5b56652ed885ee92b8aa5
89551 F20110114_AACCYG corbett_s_Page_101.jpg
8559c52cf5a627e70631221cf4bfd570
596580d992c54a88bdfdedfaa335f169886e3289
F20110114_AACDCY corbett_s_Page_047.tif
c58e171432303c2118d5373d31798f7d
9a7730e803e1cd43b5dfe4ceb017246467699896
86181 F20110114_AACCXS corbett_s_Page_083.jpg
e25b75eb274ee73b6abba479d4c403c4
94f2cc15207313f59d615c8723c040049ec9aec6
F20110114_AACDEB corbett_s_Page_085.tif
4bb6f2fe5ed03358e714ecb8e2ada7b8
6f49bc91255f21b79dc77e9fb08bd2e3bf3063d9
F20110114_AACDDM corbett_s_Page_065.tif
0b4d65bbc2e3722a71a1617b5a0ff570
0e5ba05bb7b944ef4ae33d0256d9f7792b23c8b6
98712 F20110114_AACCYH corbett_s_Page_102.jpg
1f2674df988e538baa120f3b8d7351d0
9193ab11c480fe6096d234502ae2b7bda30727fb
F20110114_AACDCZ corbett_s_Page_048.tif
bfcc53b652c043427f7de0ab01cb2c9b
e5ac70276ee736d483f5764403cbd73477dffd1d
80244 F20110114_AACCXT corbett_s_Page_084.jpg
5b3052634d66caea098640d05826a0c6
4e8fa6145404e2d7f1cc35cd993b7314aaf715cd
F20110114_AACDEC corbett_s_Page_086.tif
3556a755f82e5bf15abe0557c54079d5
9994d2aec17d09c09f902367f8f02ebb4f15f6bf
F20110114_AACDDN corbett_s_Page_068.tif
1416e052ad6f71cb78209b14d5866364
c61552d1c807c8b2b72f28c46d7ff7ded7fec07c
89243 F20110114_AACCYI corbett_s_Page_103.jpg
5c8d1d52e969f350c2bcdae4e53bbc2c
9a95c8a6c5f205b1020061158affa9779a5712a6
55777 F20110114_AACCXU corbett_s_Page_085.jpg
3bf0e6e3b5a7c00bba866fd59d67fa46
8d7e8cabed2cfe2a7fe847cee785cfc538019b03
F20110114_AACDED corbett_s_Page_088.tif
b02592c3bcae2cd5b9af429f5742fd13
cc544aa1c87df0a1b91c1fecb3f2cded67d6a6cd
F20110114_AACDDO corbett_s_Page_069.tif
60a18867e15d38df25e44dd6f4809c52
c157fa6a9f7519ffaa8bfd152a8fa42e016f941d
89397 F20110114_AACCYJ corbett_s_Page_104.jpg
e463dcb4c79eb2b10e6554b3aac2a517
af01dc6ac82becd9f783aa10a492551ed24e8acb
86725 F20110114_AACCXV corbett_s_Page_086.jpg
1a1d78e6dd4d063ea6a31fab9d82d454
d90f4f87294d13aabd72cf4211f69a966c7f8c72
F20110114_AACDEE corbett_s_Page_089.tif
f9e82302d4a349643a7aafa89208959c
a73442818e7255f6c6c549ee0816fc8d6ac88f04
F20110114_AACDDP corbett_s_Page_070.tif
362275e6596569ed5f489d90a26cf6b5
2bf1b2671bce89b86cba5c32f9b063b271918ee5
92302 F20110114_AACCYK corbett_s_Page_105.jpg
598649ad05b090cb720df927cec21018
45a57611dbdbe8aa4f8f2cff9d108c3ad047ca12
77097 F20110114_AACCXW corbett_s_Page_087.jpg
ca21de0803b9587b463e799eba6c1d6a
1482d1f4ec374e7c564c7f730642890b62066e06
F20110114_AACDEF corbett_s_Page_090.tif
7371e90b771a940e0cb46f097a156ca1
a829f94f960cf6e8e6541e5031eb087440513b53
F20110114_AACDDQ corbett_s_Page_072.tif
6946092e63b8c56e0e6af6145dd7ccf0
241bb4c5e9df17b8fb3ee45ae24a6344aafe0348
83460 F20110114_AACCXX corbett_s_Page_088.jpg
99093c5169c0ef571b5bf9953d3411de
5fa68f23de1461d8f7112ecc7ecfa93ea377a859
F20110114_AACDEG corbett_s_Page_091.tif
cf159342e3ecc9d0d218f7d7c2b79208
76c894b9ab5ab3c6af97b86f75e2623a32a30496
96332 F20110114_AACCZA corbett_s_Page_021.jp2
f553fb606100a4b6d964964e03fc1c73
4791b471996e09a2cf04bf3bb986f9ba4d48b983
F20110114_AACDDR corbett_s_Page_073.tif
06e3e873d36526cbbb20572703fbb81d
39852700bb7a4f483ed24d8cbfa62bf2179cb9c9
65767 F20110114_AACCYL corbett_s_Page_106.jpg
b928375acbf2aa3938269674c8e391a3
d8238c00882f0fd70f7dfcc7b63cb730d4def484
72690 F20110114_AACCXY corbett_s_Page_089.jpg
b77844ed15cf0b0ba06850450597fdde
174d525f222ccb6ec4fcf00f4bd6bab9c3ecd8ad
F20110114_AACDEH corbett_s_Page_093.tif
f89edcdc06f3bbc79afc0971fb63c14e
f9f7ec91837c9827884afdb12a7e5b32dc1c505f
100261 F20110114_AACCZB corbett_s_Page_022.jp2
2907f402ea4fa4161e65114cb224d9d3
c43e18e56bcf631cf88ebe395dc36ebca6e41c33
F20110114_AACDDS corbett_s_Page_074.tif
caf2aff34ccccc30acd219a50c58db69
740393331e2da84a90f117a1ec30f48a75f7cf26
15214 F20110114_AACCYM corbett_s_Page_108.jpg
c478d6db78dfc0102cc57ea8a10a9eae
87cf9a361224de042a96854c06c28f7bc58ddadb
34416 F20110114_AACCXZ corbett_s_Page_091.jpg
0f38350205012dad816d724c72d05e66
9bb225f7586d6fc2542b27ea8d63b4ab425de039
8423998 F20110114_AACDEI corbett_s_Page_094.tif
38c1d8a33fb6eeaa07807f4e805bb2c1
5067460d2d94f8586e2934acb26ff3d2003e2d86
F20110114_AACDDT corbett_s_Page_075.tif
c73c1f3830dbb57426c30d000ead0211
8952060b8ced9d782adca7cd12f49a6eca2125d3
20916 F20110114_AACCYN corbett_s_Page_001.jp2
bb99dbd95c0d772b1cb13eaf066d511a
25aca00184da6c406f49c241e6689dd27eef01dc
F20110114_AACDEJ corbett_s_Page_095.tif
db8007607db837f00cfcab7b8aaef37b
dc49a443b00e14827752981a82df41a2248a46b0
92577 F20110114_AACCZC corbett_s_Page_023.jp2
6b1bdb38a6c7cd2ddb13c4f42db39185
fc2055f05b25880cf054a232d577afaf91e9748d
F20110114_AACDDU corbett_s_Page_076.tif
710c249b91fe3b9a5e26366520f93425
7c539a5950ff19e943a853c10b2a3957b570a0db
42618 F20110114_AACCYO corbett_s_Page_002.jp2
07b1a309b8e6ed9f3c241fffdf0fa10f
2c80d750b816969f8bb7c246d5b093575417762c
F20110114_AACDEK corbett_s_Page_098.tif
9ae3247961b45d79b68fc03ab4ad66bd
b836adb720bab294986432626a59c040ec90dd44
905069 F20110114_AACCZD corbett_s_Page_024.jp2
d0cb1c305cdfbe4284a9b41f75a8af86
fbf41f0457b75969032df021e04f461ac9ef7a05
F20110114_AACDDV corbett_s_Page_077.tif
fb8db192ed1c75728ccca3ad29d0dd69
02692f02b3ebbf4d527f2d5351cf72212f6ddf3f
989290 F20110114_AACCYP corbett_s_Page_003.jp2
c40639fb5d584c1bd4653620a103b2ef
b710d9d1b096fc929ffcfebbfd114acca72850e0
F20110114_AACDEL corbett_s_Page_099.tif
2602f8142170b0d203d1c0bde48f25c2
db4cc4717182d35d2fc8c87d22bf5d91138f6377
1051944 F20110114_AACCZE corbett_s_Page_025.jp2
223cfc26b71d59a113c607ed01d7c390
246d9313caf2755162ce695250132b89815e28ad
F20110114_AACDDW corbett_s_Page_078.tif
74f54e8944f5554d65fc7c9d28e7ef08
501b07547a20ef7fe09eea429d11f9a1014d7d8b
73704 F20110114_AACCYQ corbett_s_Page_004.jp2
12f4444517b7517bcfe392f8838d0722
ab5f9e8660188c714103f622d6683b3c4fbc2800
44939 F20110114_AACDFA corbett_s_Page_008.pro
fb08387c2209ac1154dfd1a9ecd51e97
aceb774e46f6a8a2f8682a56e6ace23816f071da
1006028 F20110114_AACCZF corbett_s_Page_026.jp2
c845ab9de379eef13758371313339e65
5a80a060ba0149ac0f7a5907992a7ac0b71aaf44
F20110114_AACDDX corbett_s_Page_081.tif
f6c0dce8b0e099668b7595ec399c5d9a
aca60be401a38b5089493dad27a3d704b39dff68
F20110114_AACCYR corbett_s_Page_005.jp2
162e85c8ef0b19478fb975544d623962
505effde10ee4828c722605aa7ab8b3311f5a09f
25530 F20110114_AACDFB corbett_s_Page_009.pro
0e81ca3eaa069f2a47b761aaf4aa6ddf
afa4fdf7e60ecd2124aafa7d26112e1ebb9c8615
F20110114_AACDEM corbett_s_Page_100.tif
2d6b472d9d1bca1a7b34cdadb400cc3c
409d4758c9eb9074af1bfe615bb8b36778878167
1051974 F20110114_AACCZG corbett_s_Page_027.jp2
21f065cc8e5e21ed42951db3efda7129
226fa94a1f42302418e815d7f31c11f21a89bd67
F20110114_AACDDY corbett_s_Page_082.tif
1c2fbfd0284e62ae9eac9977f23fde10
0fb37fb7c650e3195c6a94a73bb4c093e19200ed
127830 F20110114_AACCYS corbett_s_Page_006.jp2
9ad873b43ef0fd2ce954307e0ae12695
0a588e41ef8290e36d3b8a1af250694fef9e0b09
26933 F20110114_AACDFC corbett_s_Page_011.pro
51924b387aba05c9938422dc9281ce17
cce670799ca9639a29d04a722e48a2b9e5934d21
F20110114_AACDEN corbett_s_Page_101.tif
9b144cdc755d9a967e28db4eb0dafc41
ef4f2ca1ba27adc9b42a255cd48264f3318d858a
1051973 F20110114_AACCZH corbett_s_Page_028.jp2
8fb5f70ae3bf3fe292c1aa6efee5b938
f0947ad7fd27b4fad9c813069fae5da04a4311d3
F20110114_AACDDZ corbett_s_Page_083.tif
f377586faa1bcd7c96c98b9e775e2f9e
f64a5d5dbb65c2bcea02f306c48945fd02322bf5
629678 F20110114_AACCYT corbett_s_Page_007.jp2
96e8cafbb26c2ddafedd858e46b37c1f
c759901ce813faec7bf95fe3ee61190aa7c9fd32
41728 F20110114_AACDFD corbett_s_Page_012.pro
8727be2b1bbfd0b233b82da063ede23f
f0b31529b653c35a3543e02e4ece639b4f55468e
F20110114_AACDEO corbett_s_Page_102.tif
af4ae8b517dbdb3fbdbef30cfe87c524
48aca2549810daf9c5e3d62be2feffe0d82efd66
F20110114_AACCZI corbett_s_Page_030.jp2
e73572031a331b030042f16aabf7e7be
332244177b5db24d775ec3da6777b09cd4697e39
1002598 F20110114_AACCYU corbett_s_Page_009.jp2
d33bcd45e153b5c05e182493f19f562d
5589c5d7ec6bfa6b73b40c826f5c19946628c05b
47776 F20110114_AACDFE corbett_s_Page_013.pro
4cb5fcea651e0ca0d77a0f1bd07b9c13
1598bc808bb46872b34e946f0a777c1862192161
F20110114_AACDEP corbett_s_Page_103.tif
e0fc13f8dc3fceac660a7dedc7069d43
d5ac000ce8c36746043af7fe5a39cf09fc9ebab9
1009325 F20110114_AACCZJ corbett_s_Page_031.jp2
74d85f9403a5527296b5279429ea2501
9819b0094deb3bb76a770ff63b4ccabfa39b38fc
834397 F20110114_AACCYV corbett_s_Page_010.jp2
918bb2864b37378314917757ca614fc9
4d72ab593a95ee245712f77d1e9dbe878af07679
48241 F20110114_AACDFF corbett_s_Page_015.pro
616d3d0a70f1a9c4e40e38b3b8c03ab8
e8a7cf6020fcafc7a651bf7cdbbd503e7ab7d586
F20110114_AACDEQ corbett_s_Page_104.tif
22b270e73ae55223709ac66bf8103b73
c561e18183c2f49b77f16224e3949cdc93c7124c
F20110114_AACCZK corbett_s_Page_032.jp2
869976d69b76d2483cb67eaceb496af4
685b6b017c9a5eb699a02e3d15c63c00d2809008
101736 F20110114_AACCYW corbett_s_Page_014.jp2
410d1b3b550650a73b0048f54c223a71
a5bc5e17d1752851624aa2159dd3ae6bca152a9d
51690 F20110114_AACDFG corbett_s_Page_016.pro
258f54a9d215bd0ce25bdcd8f68f99e3
c7433e4059c6b883d1d9331d8517ce2cbb22fdcb
F20110114_AACDER corbett_s_Page_105.tif
6461cf44ca72db0ee212448609d50d45
83a31d127db53f97807c40c0c1432169f7ca70be
977652 F20110114_AACCZL corbett_s_Page_033.jp2
fd32c595f98935a0f00f1d884d324cfe
c7cc2d69992042e8cfe4faa88c7bfcf8a93ef653
F20110114_AACCYX corbett_s_Page_016.jp2
0169f45cf42ec07293e62ea633fd700a
a80cd942a9900a302a9aff8e41f8be1c52936714
33647 F20110114_AACDFH corbett_s_Page_017.pro
d312c28c69f5c8bbefda009cd8dbc9a0
43a2b203270984a61a873f882ba98005176d3138
F20110114_AACDES corbett_s_Page_106.tif
424ec6e8da9ecfc4062019b87985a218
875f7f3073c7068ef3fcd13e3a74164e6038ad7e
939801 F20110114_AACCZM corbett_s_Page_035.jp2
0e4a0e05d73e7fa43248a98b2b01bf97
b842942e0db5e6839f5ee7db3ce3f321c1cbbc82
355567 F20110114_AACCYY corbett_s_Page_018.jp2
9181bbb9a31df63a19b3f2bb87899e47
063411fb4b71e791b965bca765d59392108195a5
15121 F20110114_AACDFI corbett_s_Page_018.pro
2ac22cd7d812850ed8e2eb64b62d61ff
a822e1fe4b7b60e523797ff8b1eac579c841b208
F20110114_AACDET corbett_s_Page_107.tif
c8ad5a401803e9b95f063c64db896c0f
a84b4d6d29c540560c467340a78c792f5a3cd855
988153 F20110114_AACCZN corbett_s_Page_036.jp2
146a74fb8d9eb5e158b60591d8e0d86b
7e60da79710b8ff7938860835ac933d00e35ae2e
1005496 F20110114_AACCYZ corbett_s_Page_019.jp2
b384348c688766baeb4b6d2f12456d0d
7afadd4906c76ae9d56faa2365bb33ad3f9a3b7f
8097 F20110114_AACDEU corbett_s_Page_001.pro
d0b8ea438dc54460212e300a17a86178
8a4b7eb7ced2074231d44e4bc30b5fa5ace3959b
979042 F20110114_AACCZO corbett_s_Page_037.jp2
459115b0b91b796db78925acc3e03e97
cee89271b3a5bbbafd50fc983b220e4c4fb8513f
42516 F20110114_AACDFJ corbett_s_Page_019.pro
7b314bd529ed78c2a24e3cf2610fa134
3025111909a341c85c9993b77b1b1c72ec56a92f
41764 F20110114_AACDEV corbett_s_Page_003.pro
f7441918f91f6649400956e052027129
e1b0e1bec6db5fcaf7a8a59c76f1414b87129daa
967193 F20110114_AACCZP corbett_s_Page_038.jp2
b283fde7593b7bda135bb25d7d362135
36fc846ce40c216849e207220f45cb52aa0e9ccd
50500 F20110114_AACDFK corbett_s_Page_020.pro
ddc319d9066ea37922c03b1a6c21b379
733cf112e2877f571aa8dce034ed65a09051b7bc
35345 F20110114_AACDEW corbett_s_Page_004.pro
40758be32447f1838dc837465076a043
eef06d590134fad80988711cde4e34aac43e8ddd
956981 F20110114_AACCZQ corbett_s_Page_040.jp2
4f861d037420e6cf05027a2f57dbffe5
1679419263ec73443c688ccf8a7154ce94700e29
46395 F20110114_AACDFL corbett_s_Page_021.pro
937da7463f0e564a57f4db7c85aa266f
cdfb2eb51b53f9367f863890e2495baa0adf0830
50668 F20110114_AACDEX corbett_s_Page_005.pro
0d2a8d10bb47384606951beb97f3a86e
e3609d79957235c30d56ef3e72286880b312786f
1015964 F20110114_AACCZR corbett_s_Page_041.jp2
29b41e23d846d941c66669e1ad8b1ab9
5cbdbf5ef69cc9285159d964968924de989f8c70
44628 F20110114_AACDGA corbett_s_Page_045.pro
7efe6c391cb1633b7065ad527f8f58f4
ae442967f3bd8d20da76bbc3bf3f156ea1950269
48842 F20110114_AACDFM corbett_s_Page_022.pro
129bf7b84a7ed1ac690cdb4b33b9aabf
145b3ec7b3df9256fc811c5fa54f4790e0671a15
4091 F20110114_AACDEY corbett_s_Page_006.pro
c690128dbfe4525b2bc866096b1ca425
a82f0efe5940db8fe444c682ec7846fed50b6852
F20110114_AACCZS corbett_s_Page_044.jp2
c7c26502c38588f7b47b84b9ceab497f
dbe8b425e3c9c3d9ccd466763fbb61a113ced2c5
37558 F20110114_AACDGB corbett_s_Page_047.pro
d974e4b930aea85a1dd3ac1958f87978
38c2c41e67a64a79fa8eba75d711c2a1821b2344
15672 F20110114_AACDEZ corbett_s_Page_007.pro
25290cb71903cdd85e6a1b6275364451
34f5a2f468f432c9717527749e0cde44ef422d57
840636 F20110114_AACCZT corbett_s_Page_046.jp2
2efa387349b1f691b90db7740e7c9dd5
8c157029ed94a83482b2ace90135dbd26481ce8b
27858 F20110114_AACDGC corbett_s_Page_048.pro
b5d6b150968e960b22a431fed0df40b2
55eb900ea21231e7e3e94cbc4722cde4bb311dce
46771 F20110114_AACDFN corbett_s_Page_025.pro
29e9bbe0053d1df3afe50da6bf038676
5e5964ae7155f52f44b653dbc572b92bbbf42f9a
938504 F20110114_AACCZU corbett_s_Page_047.jp2
9d3fbe714e0951c49ca47dab421ea9c6
fcb91a25231be3579c1421f0709cf1c7a3cd8334
4085 F20110114_AACDGD corbett_s_Page_049.pro
58cd263b63db413cb726cfc9a3de62b0
9e2907383da4d0f5cd9c40a5784c161bfc9cb6d9
43462 F20110114_AACDFO corbett_s_Page_026.pro
dfb782141343875f841cd068e9731760
ac7051c52e8e4eb15660ebb556af64ab5af49bed
690963 F20110114_AACCZV corbett_s_Page_048.jp2
63ed21a56ffebc805857c0b98ffabb16
73554ec127e9c26911dfd9dad9b962e477f90a54
7708 F20110114_AACDGE corbett_s_Page_050.pro
9432e87efa904d27c8623763edd9c3ec
ae52498a286ca1ec97e2211548f09fd76fa592bf
50318 F20110114_AACDFP corbett_s_Page_028.pro
72ba152a5bdf8e76d79b892a72c3e09d
6433f3093d85edab6b905abdc14285b7849372e5
1051933 F20110114_AACCZW corbett_s_Page_049.jp2
56d4529cc16809788ebab5934827ed4a
1c5cdbaeafbb4de77109c941d54a12213f4afa20
4873 F20110114_AACDGF corbett_s_Page_053.pro
9994863c764eb010f29922a6001cf25e
0effca60f4c3fbf67c430ea105ee3e832a5dffe9
46736 F20110114_AACDFQ corbett_s_Page_029.pro
bea6d37eedfea17e7334c4ab766b5fb0
74c6c42c8b9c159b0ff4335a782ecf39cff71ba0
728002 F20110114_AACCZX corbett_s_Page_052.jp2
212c2016163385a2abcb1a3b6efcaa37
df42a57a3e0d80692b60be297260add12726c4f9
6268 F20110114_AACDGG corbett_s_Page_054.pro
5d1fa6eb7365997c2dc6233f20417304
fd884d5b145f93de8e750440f93157ef43aae833
45332 F20110114_AACDFR corbett_s_Page_032.pro
822419ec9d8e50c9eca86767a6f65478
726d83ef07efdf86e426443711f59908c8c1e610
F20110114_AACCZY corbett_s_Page_053.jp2
b4ab159f8158cd3c6b588aca88855319
39ba34d51a1604ffdb4bb1a4e1802669abb6f49f
4327 F20110114_AACDGH corbett_s_Page_056.pro
69bb0d5257012407e9971c2fd4e9b041
fd1cc3f8c0564a88c42378d1c8864a99188fd7fe
44410 F20110114_AACDFS corbett_s_Page_034.pro
b862f287a32464c3f71743fd3d60d3cd
ad7fe773b67ec58ffdfb2069a96f1a198ce76cdc
1051941 F20110114_AACCZZ corbett_s_Page_054.jp2
7b42472ec4e528bd49e848b69d5d65e6
941926875cc1726de14db6c125e3ed5989c28d60
3723 F20110114_AACDGI corbett_s_Page_057.pro
15990dfdf7889d11110854a18fdd0ce3
57194e02d1edf1b2e91351390c0549c2480867cc
39848 F20110114_AACDFT corbett_s_Page_035.pro
8a5b21980bd1963d43016b9feab7cb9e
515426871631085931c22cdb6b25dd887ae48e4e
3275 F20110114_AACDGJ corbett_s_Page_058.pro
b7a0508e10a12e2a42a04a802dbce468
61971161b5c9c65f3436a83ae92a00e5b2d60e53
41252 F20110114_AACDFU corbett_s_Page_037.pro
48178dc2caf656a970bca5f11b4d11eb
798772d83fe33d236f72e601c90a6c06a53abca7
10114 F20110114_AACDGK corbett_s_Page_060.pro
85961dcadf621038de9e57bb7a05b5c4
9f557fe886c6961ff2635378e1b9e01bc14eb085
40037 F20110114_AACDFV corbett_s_Page_038.pro
2786c6311600bf2973e6375e2ea6645b
fefa42b523af4e63194152116d60f7ff5788885d
4925 F20110114_AACDGL corbett_s_Page_061.pro
7c12df4decaf5991f11d03c6d844dc76
691751aff0598114f8065901264935c11339fd32
44209 F20110114_AACDFW corbett_s_Page_039.pro
1f54584cc19b18665450fa2df21d8d94
443e36fea2467d0f15383331d708d4e0c05db653
33755 F20110114_AACDHA corbett_s_Page_078.pro
ccb1fd8ddebc3ee07d2e037d66c44132
ed6a2145673061ad8ae59b44a4d766a01b9a27fd
5172 F20110114_AACDGM corbett_s_Page_062.pro
6d4aec64b1962c61a6d53c63b6254aed
de8a4c085e6cea96599f922b6111352f67195fd4
40871 F20110114_AACDFX corbett_s_Page_040.pro
e31586143a864386f1ec566b387022d3
cd4ed652f4f719116d20d6659a733db3bdf0f0fc
3206 F20110114_AACDHB corbett_s_Page_079.pro
13056dbcbbbae2569996d161018f56d0
0cb02d1d364b65e8404280da532d5da0057f7595
11107 F20110114_AACDGN corbett_s_Page_063.pro
4a1d3eec4f20d56a6069bb2a7aed13d1
b5a22a9a6d623726f621cc1033c7dd3bd64bc81b
43044 F20110114_AACDFY corbett_s_Page_041.pro
9f196f804229fbbea602420ca32c1dc8
b015164d02945ed8e2396a56369398aedec4c814
28386 F20110114_AACDHC corbett_s_Page_080.pro
ecf9c8d3b029ad9d5fa0f263e391c3c2
36720392ab91c8a1c171ffa2fbd9993436fa489a
41802 F20110114_AACDFZ corbett_s_Page_043.pro
fbe7507933ba87d959fc87256e1e4af4
7307628a4e25dcae64e5b64fc4c8acfcb2faae89
418 F20110114_AACDHD corbett_s_Page_081.pro
346c19e122e3fd5a66c38b97ed284966
f5888cfc98adacc045dc28f5ce2860869eb764b8
516 F20110114_AACDGO corbett_s_Page_064.pro
dcdbba54990c99b457ea1a51ee0b0f85
4a8a2f53c60472626fb4ec6c72e66c0212dbd041
41702 F20110114_AACDHE corbett_s_Page_082.pro
b59c34b6af3019dd5eea20c1b4764fdc
15a2dabbf7197ab73eff903e7733d128d5abf542
8464 F20110114_AACDGP corbett_s_Page_065.pro
cfc83fcf7911a310aa54d6cfa614cc51
9997e5d8de4c727786fc3f8b3ff3d72a687ec1d2
49044 F20110114_AACDHF corbett_s_Page_083.pro
2704466bb92c8d389d165c65f18975cb
901dcca0a9acc2eb0f59a9e6568bc9661716335d
7471 F20110114_AACDGQ corbett_s_Page_066.pro
dbd24011758dc3a3fd2f0b374e9241ba
fc405f36b4ce8c98e55b85acbe4c1dc99b7e5cee
45119 F20110114_AACDHG corbett_s_Page_084.pro
b416cc64bb2127a18ef981a7639de55b
c28d42b00bb78cce4d6c6b789ba59046e9903bad
13982 F20110114_AACDGR corbett_s_Page_067.pro
d1600556c680607b518b944bd7432fe5
eac87fc42d2349310bb096e0af34865e85cac91d
21850 F20110114_AACDHH corbett_s_Page_085.pro
da1e5b5e22923bb7918be1ad7a59d75c
9f4559798e7189310cbc4a2a2ca554ae3dc83205
11712 F20110114_AACDGS corbett_s_Page_068.pro
db1d6bfb35863f7a8e7f20450787ca6c
2396a0980829701d1e74c8c6c3990fb79e67e2d4
49511 F20110114_AACDHI corbett_s_Page_086.pro
f97bffb7edea5f7be1893adada2543c1
d56551dd9fa3b601e3e9308c971f0c7e839177f7
35814 F20110114_AACDGT corbett_s_Page_069.pro
2c13458f7350560155658bd5cce2a60c
29ecf6a0fb47ca3d9c8bed872b5aad4486209e50
49156 F20110114_AACDHJ corbett_s_Page_087.pro
31488699aa4d9447370bcec222ac74a0
6988172133097f4a6a9f976f7b635c27d3c03247
1763 F20110114_AACDGU corbett_s_Page_072.pro
edf4ed4a38234137c7fa406e4ba30997
f07ce273b5c089159fda4e90633973ff25fe4524
47038 F20110114_AACDHK corbett_s_Page_088.pro
47a9e1f36cb41545da4f8fc0ce1d084a
0147272403825ba40280bc089ccca8bed299131a
44236 F20110114_AACDGV corbett_s_Page_073.pro
1a87faf7cfc25bfbbaca21a383abb5a5
ff0f6b9afe2d037468b3946d50dae96dffe5878c
45470 F20110114_AACDHL corbett_s_Page_089.pro
26b6ef949845900efcf45623e5004ffe
20ef748148153813e2aa0b2c7f3c9cbd174007c6
2815 F20110114_AACDGW corbett_s_Page_074.pro
d8933a55c664f991d98c3584437f3991
aeec33782e05dff4da8b05387302c72838483076
19012 F20110114_AACDHM corbett_s_Page_091.pro
85ea4252c7769e43f0828c554933c4df
aa6f7e9034f40a38ac316043f19c8d3aa0f7a226
25376 F20110114_AACDGX corbett_s_Page_075.pro
9441063454b0b9befd04f5910b73d87f
b09e0d1a5d10f21b3ef9f59626cdb792c33f3c08
39305 F20110114_AACDIA corbett_s_Page_106.pro
389a52ad17b22f34ac4062aecab65296
43572e17d0cef295572f71bb9472cf4e11fbe0c3
23233 F20110114_AACDHN corbett_s_Page_092.pro
94f16e95f1c4b70ff9ffa195fa3d93b9
1595bd14de78921e78ae62eb26328a27b3736537
42292 F20110114_AACDGY corbett_s_Page_076.pro
495524ec20b4b9ed6c53c09a69e8e7a8
60a0e80c657d2ba071bc8e6c4ed8567f29433ba0
42485 F20110114_AACDIB corbett_s_Page_107.pro
0637403869bc359144f0fe88ead88d35
090e62d38ee5933b4074f6fae0a9938028559241
45927 F20110114_AACDHO corbett_s_Page_093.pro
43e3b9754e58de8eed323d17724e94c4
07971bf6abfbaa4c59c7b96fc60f815d12dfc718
2833 F20110114_AACDGZ corbett_s_Page_077.pro
74efe966b2021474053af3e3faa75972
88bd0f414ef7675961f9e562ef12150fe09614b0
4331 F20110114_AACDIC corbett_s_Page_108.pro
2624b2f7f807e1493d5192bde9427bfe
a1ef3c645e9fded35ce08b7d50f1e3502ac70932
399 F20110114_AACDID corbett_s_Page_001.txt
6bad68ee1aefec8bae4bb74222033762
2dda2ea0c6c4a2b109e35d93680f49f7cff2f3bf
54771 F20110114_AACDHP corbett_s_Page_094.pro
dc7e864869b69676246f6445e603699b
249ed1ce27ba26613119f25f1659a344bf75e8ad
777 F20110114_AACDIE corbett_s_Page_002.txt
33d6917049e44d2ec25a79efce746809
f59c7714bb945edae76f4f06bd4f981b90b168d3
49802 F20110114_AACDHQ corbett_s_Page_095.pro
ad1ab8443597e1e95835bd7063249731
1624cbc11534f43718f42c0a8c52b641164af18a
1542 F20110114_AACDIF corbett_s_Page_003.txt
41fed0a9ffabab1b8e22d1c23f56cf7e
681685b96c619dba2422971c736c2e5a657fefa9
40626 F20110114_AACDHR corbett_s_Page_096.pro
76ab21ba4acbe5636d6928a39f45eea0
430ce65ee176de8cb13b33958edc96b8154a455a
1984 F20110114_AACDIG corbett_s_Page_005.txt
211b36caf6410ab9c8ff1a922a540a0f
6f3826219fdfee9377351455fd2a25a7f8e5878d
29160 F20110114_AACDHS corbett_s_Page_097.pro
9141aa1538b3b66b538b4f3bb73041b9
68e4da86538e8b31b523136e26eecd35a447b0e2
159 F20110114_AACDIH corbett_s_Page_006.txt
a3683a6bc9b8e0e74575f9ba7d1775fc
7b9420b5596aedd2e565adbb3c033da73aaf22b8
44938 F20110114_AACDHT corbett_s_Page_098.pro
99a54822aa8f57a5a39eab17fe2967e0
5ddaccc5000fb5816fd1ad5d9ae4a1a850988bb8
692 F20110114_AACDII corbett_s_Page_007.txt
ab4426b1288c12ab10d98ffc6060b132
f062477295f04a68eb18b1fd3f919964586803cd
49376 F20110114_AACDHU corbett_s_Page_099.pro
5c1ad7a4617550e8e1015bcd36b2be22
fe524784e779280a4d56759de50ba809446e0393
1794 F20110114_AACDIJ corbett_s_Page_008.txt
df40445c28f136b591d71f40fa073b68
56e31403b71ae403790f5a18e0e5c475f7a4b8c3
3637 F20110114_AACDHV corbett_s_Page_100.pro
d521de3d17a9930a97ac9d4a8a7ad44f
598fc8f728c006cfdcb77e48a923befeb763b569
981 F20110114_AACDIK corbett_s_Page_009.txt
91d92f160aab0a53b2938ef3d5771b1b
4b672f99e5a1b75b55f65df8f4a45dd1b53a1911
49585 F20110114_AACDHW corbett_s_Page_101.pro
ac20cc64a338cf992ddc3e4beb56d14a
59f6425c34705fa1fcd7a61bd76e7dc7ef3e7514
999 F20110114_AACDIL corbett_s_Page_011.txt
b4f42530a11270f5946a061f226d0804
848b16940e66bfa39a04b65f95c10397babee1ea
64374 F20110114_AACDHX corbett_s_Page_102.pro
77d25d44c6bdce6d8fc05d5c3b47ce50
0ea08f05720ad7200bbcb27149ac6a02f79d705f
1688 F20110114_AACDJA corbett_s_Page_032.txt
9887083f47e0e94a531d1beeef8d5c53
444e7046a50c0d53e445f5550877c2184d031a83
1775 F20110114_AACDIM corbett_s_Page_013.txt
de5a0c7862ac846cc2fe4a13a08e9ad0
96ec3c6bce2104daaa6f87dba1721911f1edb2fe
57424 F20110114_AACDHY corbett_s_Page_103.pro
91e9191dfe31c8f4f8e3f2abb0cae14b
f9bfeb75f9c9273caa8e1259c75420d88a558d1a
1549 F20110114_AACDJB corbett_s_Page_033.txt
e03bd54a2aa94f7eec94e0a7f65d97f7
baac7230f9d04b67f575e5561aa604aed119e4a7
1822 F20110114_AACDIN corbett_s_Page_015.txt
f3ae19f9e62210616f8c8f9a441116c8
d994357ac719b50ed4b541006910b01196e4108c
57638 F20110114_AACDHZ corbett_s_Page_104.pro
2755a3b2657edd7316fc34ed666f9468
eeafd8824d34b7b8030f6db7e43650e55414e8d3
1677 F20110114_AACDJC corbett_s_Page_034.txt
06a5d989122c8ecb43899a345946f545
3f6a74a954f175ca9dd3ea9618b4765e46ad5114
1888 F20110114_AACDIO corbett_s_Page_016.txt
caf5a3063e287bfdb1f8d66de3525a39
47c87c61ae014ad6d59fa47fac9f36cae598916c
F20110114_AACDJD corbett_s_Page_036.txt
7f80bcd3a884c06adc20f022fcba20ca
16005da05054d0a4dd0e01dfbc89c95e413604df
1261 F20110114_AACDIP corbett_s_Page_017.txt
ce22a7da6bfce7e17c39ddf7dca34736
5330943e4536f1180357000888a0213efbfecde7
1514 F20110114_AACDJE corbett_s_Page_038.txt
47bab28a0a71ce437089b63d66071df1
bb1b1fc3d73db74b46485f493e7119f9860d1e92
1655 F20110114_AACDJF corbett_s_Page_039.txt
835e50d475c055a517d74d3af0d65f53
29fe04cce61e99380976a127f9132c7fe7d9c6f2
1601 F20110114_AACDIQ corbett_s_Page_019.txt
9f6419797aec3d718676a9f71047db3e
b1838ddf326cf048fa6e15f99e8f6319b0023102
1545 F20110114_AACDJG corbett_s_Page_040.txt
57762459b7b7b33ebeb0139116a9eb9a
8fee1013d24602b8e572ee907980f74424b72c68
1845 F20110114_AACDIR corbett_s_Page_020.txt
0e12f44d82c52af92630caf892a489d4
dcb949b798ce8baad458dd6c827aef6c387ae27a
1621 F20110114_AACDJH corbett_s_Page_041.txt
2288090794580df701fd5c037e29d18e
a10eadeb5cf897eb41f9035b4c6ad0e9ee080d39
1803 F20110114_AACDIS corbett_s_Page_022.txt
4d1493367bd360d5ce1ca91432055e73
51fd675a63023b7f4785504a9bb7372ba0d7bfbb
1618 F20110114_AACDJI corbett_s_Page_042.txt
bb56274c6ec2911dd785b6218cd57d0e
49716452401d90d18c01e4091b745fea72621186
1664 F20110114_AACDIT corbett_s_Page_023.txt
9e6479ab1bce39b64e1b13bca6b51daa
5b171fcefacaa83244c81c459807a82827068b4f
1569 F20110114_AACDJJ corbett_s_Page_043.txt
b739d0da7879811988063888e82edb61
acdfd8de269614ed897f4df268269e7fa180a296
1456 F20110114_AACDIU corbett_s_Page_024.txt
cf6c5ea5dcb1357ba134f2f21bdf5d0b
90f7c94c3ea22c3d3c34a42264a6b44027db95b6
1727 F20110114_AACDJK corbett_s_Page_044.txt
a73c9f0eaa4130028fff19a47db47b17
075920141d41bbdaf6df155adcc791d0f14da0c4
1735 F20110114_AACDIV corbett_s_Page_025.txt
0c008fa4d92222b825b1586f90735b05
32741ea27150e96227d803a4681b28403e7f6e34
F20110114_AACDJL corbett_s_Page_048.txt
8f695e8d32cadb338b1c5ffc53bc0250
7220231b093595c35f778558d8a5dc8ebeb5dc47
1614 F20110114_AACDIW corbett_s_Page_026.txt
51e030beb9f4a67996770c5ece468fbe
934c2de3714b9b6e7a40d23fba06fafc1db847fa
715 F20110114_AACDKA corbett_s_Page_068.txt
2fdbcd9e05b65dec43eeee6158e6a021
1a62cdf00da463d9bda0717b5bb98d983807db2b
325 F20110114_AACDJM corbett_s_Page_050.txt
4ff31726a6b97b2572d1991d80db5c74
357272e4f9f58eac7157be55bad5332fec07a64a
1729 F20110114_AACDIX corbett_s_Page_029.txt
42854986704051a533c75891afae0db4
f7cb32caa6df79d661d143d0393784a529909ae7
1470 F20110114_AACDKB corbett_s_Page_069.txt
fd8bf3f167820a96371b32ba1a5ae211
066960d375a1433724f42e9642520f8e1b63d899
555 F20110114_AACDJN corbett_s_Page_051.txt
24d60b318864d666217d57e4f17ca5f8
bbc10dddc91915b863da54b7e0f87216964bedcd
1716 F20110114_AACDIY corbett_s_Page_030.txt
ea1c22f79bf280a562207d9519298dde
95b116d3975bb32f64887a93ab1509ed59a2445d
F20110114_AACDKC corbett_s_Page_070.txt
fcf752f80e0d7324b24440589454a472
81d16f3a512f9d89fa9b87eafcf5576209b4e336
278 F20110114_AACDJO corbett_s_Page_053.txt
6e6d9ecb68ab0396f323aa5949de8326
ddf168aa5e68341d6b8a3be0644065ff02e8ae78
F20110114_AACDIZ corbett_s_Page_031.txt
bdc8646e39db80b77cecfb8095527ea2
28bb0bdfe341e49b18386cc013ac2caff9cae44e
741 F20110114_AACDKD corbett_s_Page_071.txt
7486d50502a6354eaacbcc94f145e956
a0de9c4fcd65cd3c57679c332fbd58ec1e427aba
300 F20110114_AACDJP corbett_s_Page_054.txt
a62bde5961e0743afd35abc430c99088
b02e415e3723b45c8c1742972006e12aa84306c1
235 F20110114_AACDKE corbett_s_Page_072.txt
ae2a861d7954771c30d14a1c9840c668
37d60edb447e3e9d0724c45327b19648ac501988
948 F20110114_AACDJQ corbett_s_Page_055.txt
fcf988c1acceecb558666ce46759738a
97d6be66f029ab4b7f286b75923186e370fdbfa8
1772 F20110114_AACDKF corbett_s_Page_073.txt
67418d666d6588701f8da2d43da4be2d
81edbb888fe4b118e067ffafb140c347fbf11dda
234 F20110114_AACDJR corbett_s_Page_056.txt
1866a8333017384c1535994f87af1feb
511737c193a803c6b73d49ac777807903da26caf
188 F20110114_AACDKG corbett_s_Page_074.txt
a7d92eea4ec668223df35ae265cb552d
a9a1bee0d8e0c120fd3983101d5a8188b2c76486
218 F20110114_AACDJS corbett_s_Page_057.txt
478aeb2ce782ed0a1e50363619d0bdc6
893fd08d00fd2e567b4b24d5461b7d8f53dc9339
988 F20110114_AACDKH corbett_s_Page_075.txt
009db2100b0b3740b29d5f02837e43d6
fdc75fb1e9fa40e40e120d365bc8ea2834deea30
199 F20110114_AACDJT corbett_s_Page_058.txt
6c0ebb5ee705f20947ff6362a559b377
3802181848898d21c4225b4af71911d9e1bc7410
F20110114_AACDKI corbett_s_Page_076.txt
ce3e6bd80c5fec81c47b554e60c70429
226a2e6b361acc22ce6af0696c46212ddc552e61
597 F20110114_AACDJU corbett_s_Page_059.txt
3e108e0142ea62654b62fc535935ce19
d7832178dd2e83db0b607b5c93821274a62e5679
171 F20110114_AACDKJ corbett_s_Page_077.txt
6c2a49376c6db1520257295a72e5ad02
8e9ff4ba82365b9c7767c93be5bf4ad0ce677622
433 F20110114_AACDJV corbett_s_Page_060.txt
55e82b5dbad9818ee93043f2db1294ce
05c7cf0983fad46dddc56e30b4c4bebe0b4e6eac
1353 F20110114_AACDKK corbett_s_Page_078.txt
0330aea003e3c6789c4d785f9d29c7c6
1a696a6c9cf225dc16ea459214735259cc946d10
269 F20110114_AACDJW corbett_s_Page_062.txt
77c6c3241906fe27885b0020a79d1e59
95f9e115853a21abd3d2eaf00bf3630941cf867b
262 F20110114_AACDKL corbett_s_Page_079.txt
79eb9e13ff675e3f14384e965cda5c73
ec2867c45ed8eadb97e33541d1386ff96cba1c53
407 F20110114_AACDJX corbett_s_Page_063.txt
e53f6e75d3fef3a3b3e6e554f6898ae6
a36d360df77f6cd6a732f949a8ced8e7b8635bf6
1690 F20110114_AACDLA corbett_s_Page_098.txt
5c973b14150a15c2042547f191b4e9c9
6595effd3d86f6f927478a16a292e8f4230027ee
62 F20110114_AACDKM corbett_s_Page_081.txt
152668ade55881a431bd4aca02d6a899
768e10a666b020defe145745d66bbbd1d26f2cb0
92 F20110114_AACDJY corbett_s_Page_064.txt
821e831a5cb136a70589f476b079d2fb
d83ae7345ef40bf476120b5b797d85ccbfcb08de
2077 F20110114_AACDLB corbett_s_Page_103.txt
12a0b96b9e2d7a95462eff1daa0fc1c3
c2beb175224b1eaef3121332cebe4325ed202177
1600 F20110114_AACDKN corbett_s_Page_082.txt
41d8fdce73e3e5316df297b99ce284a0
6e0c5da32ffc03c971e03c65256cc4ccb284ef1e
415 F20110114_AACDJZ corbett_s_Page_065.txt
42501ba950d5a3a8ff1862094c4e7e70
d332d9f931fa3a9955c76d85961c1b508c03c667
2084 F20110114_AACDLC corbett_s_Page_104.txt
fd4470340e12821a499a9a77bbd796d4
dd36424906dd80f518f66d32897f076d56be8135
1806 F20110114_AACDKO corbett_s_Page_083.txt
e9373aff61ba3f23f31ff630331e137a
6d05ff51728c9309933951450c9f0a3c5a844865
2151 F20110114_AACDLD corbett_s_Page_105.txt
b2f25ba9a588acef32d9ad99375e7751
f1f11ea59dcc40654711afaa7146f1de30778d00
1689 F20110114_AACDKP corbett_s_Page_084.txt
89f3a232cf27d7c8feaa79e61f37e51f
a9131d294904f002cecac76c5440a76f88256639
164 F20110114_AACDLE corbett_s_Page_108.txt
df17a042eb059b677f143747e303da26
0bbb0a40c10b267f84a974b586239a16d0d4fbd0
F20110114_AACDKQ corbett_s_Page_086.txt
2d7036d7209fb04f4de8e09dd6c5edd1
987fe45c2719c0127fb9e9f7ee6cc228c1401855
23529 F20110114_AACDLF corbett_s_Page_082.QC.jpg
ed92e4aff65d8d6129fc26692ac88980
091c9b608e1bbdd561f80fc5e16be175e03362b9
1809 F20110114_AACDKR corbett_s_Page_087.txt
53ea9e7b254a63f7dac80632fb2d8916
b96c06937ade37c66f956fe845143625560b4779
7384 F20110114_AACDLG corbett_s_Page_086thm.jpg
7355c8c81beb4f8fc977bf0ad27c0a30
208113dce3bda28fa891c97cdc8559083ed89436
5443 F20110114_AACDLH corbett_s_Page_017thm.jpg
3c8a94be82905577277a71b077d0c55c
773c896029d898704df6064332223d1d51d7d911
1758 F20110114_AACDKS corbett_s_Page_088.txt
3ec4d6dbf51179f798cad1da8b298e54
e9977031ec8eae623acae563af0aae4764508f8d
13649 F20110114_AACDLI corbett_s_Page_009.QC.jpg
0abb11c4891eccea7861645df88e1e97
8cb8d66ef887965156ffd846702780aea8a9af05
F20110114_AACDKT corbett_s_Page_089.txt
997d1958b0c31d51b36d2ae46f162844
4b6fe6684d0e810ab88b8d45e7f03c06b11083cd
25986 F20110114_AACDLJ corbett_s_Page_099.QC.jpg
0a923cff59e60a4efc9090f107bfc7aa
c1880c4a734b67329becd7a6fe8e16210d5c74f6
1707 F20110114_AACDKU corbett_s_Page_090.txt
a032757bf5c6a360abad23c112b47fc2
f1116b80b39be5b94e444ad48835297c602d8adb
7113 F20110114_AACDLK corbett_s_Page_032thm.jpg
2fc079dfd11d1e3f1a897e4087143b64
bd6b5a95152185e332f5111f549ce8cf5148d678
1183 F20110114_AACDKV corbett_s_Page_092.txt
5ef0702ff5bd5a0b35185772b3c4f634
69a49e4460d0ea4cd27984803bd074032ca32112
2740 F20110114_AACDLL corbett_s_Page_007thm.jpg
1d1c49e297c481e9527aaf70a945b84c
21d5e9a7a24496d5dd27e4ab65cded3478f9d95e
1828 F20110114_AACDKW corbett_s_Page_093.txt
3933521066f047b6155833f208be0842
1a0fcbafc0ed815653cde8b82f2c1c90436879b8
4484 F20110114_AACDMA corbett_s_Page_100.QC.jpg
0fe2f153df0189da1dbc1c6f08e53b79
92f42d893897516c894f02f3d9a0eb9c2e60b0aa
5926 F20110114_AACDLM corbett_s_Page_059thm.jpg
6769ad7ac84b81c801ca9187823a84aa
3b2f22b32c1510e49682106aad185ee8658c6a67
2561 F20110114_AACDKX corbett_s_Page_094.txt
a070ef26143b3e4e930f93bec02cf2ce
7d917e2f010e9a4eacafe036f835a1a6af467cd2
20272 F20110114_AACDMB corbett_s_Page_067.QC.jpg
9b9f422791dfda5a4688ed68470330c7
b91a20d622d74cc9c5b36892e9d54e9de761fef9
15418 F20110114_AACDLN corbett_s_Page_058.QC.jpg
7bf0f294f9271358d81873b275d0a1f2
538b68b17be1db8f42eb59c956d337f067c712cc
1902 F20110114_AACDKY corbett_s_Page_095.txt
4f3c791383bc844a1a5fb90b36ab0f7b
f3e4866bbb7f3a27e6ba7108f8250b5193a9bd82
5239 F20110114_AACDMC corbett_s_Page_061thm.jpg
ddb6b3ddd406883e5d1846c582b3c838
af1c40a7b8580ba12708f7673dfb3733efa69d0f
5935 F20110114_AACDLO corbett_s_Page_064thm.jpg
c3b0a2a906581265f9da71a694ef785d
959043628c3957337f5aa9887c24b1c4ab06758c
1253 F20110114_AACDKZ corbett_s_Page_097.txt
0041dfddcdc44b3512e0b22b1015e3a5
3547afd2202e189338fea052baff2178e32021ec
22435 F20110114_AACDMD corbett_s_Page_012.QC.jpg
2fcc50569d7e1371fb7ad1cc28d5aa52
cde85e2c08b422c51118ecd818e66d21fe151b15
5565 F20110114_AACDLP corbett_s_Page_062thm.jpg
cd60a794897422532fd52b451bfddb21
06fa114e76db18924b7191895f4cccc3c265b790
26497 F20110114_AACDME corbett_s_Page_013.QC.jpg
bb038356eccaf3f54bc38127b33afa02
6daa90caa397488893f3ac10204bba67454705df
6681 F20110114_AACDLQ corbett_s_Page_082thm.jpg
d16637130c803f9a69e4966b3b1747c7
867edfc0f7891617fe3cfe7342b5a35b2cfa3b4b
5347 F20110114_AACDMF corbett_s_Page_077thm.jpg
a7d266189059ab389fe822e257ca3b47
16d21d65c4e8df16c88c64853fcf1cbe02a65045
6016 F20110114_AACDLR corbett_s_Page_046thm.jpg
279ff4029109e88b7cca6daec4bf00c1
69f4edf6f647660ddbbc20d2f72450f99b7ef896
5009 F20110114_AACDMG corbett_s_Page_080thm.jpg
8fb34d8325b42defceca4bd52f5d0189
db980f08cdacf147816c7f50af26c7b58471d1f8
6331 F20110114_AACDLS corbett_s_Page_023thm.jpg
e40bcaaf1523f166fa7db588078e08ff
4d15554612d4be01a220e3fa1a6dfb2c3a351ffe
19671 F20110114_AACDMH corbett_s_Page_004.QC.jpg
418c58a5c93471891a82bb7de589c584
bffbc081325af0c58fe0e1bae3d5b6e92e0e3aa5
7208 F20110114_AACDMI corbett_s_Page_020thm.jpg
62e08fef83d892ac23c5343a454f9e56
6243617804c1d4cbafdf98403d35bde2782c5cd1
6777 F20110114_AACDLT corbett_s_Page_040thm.jpg
f620c7083df670b49c948eeb3ce42e2b
2299843454548f4ce5d1ecc57250e28a90b64735
19688 F20110114_AACDMJ corbett_s_Page_046.QC.jpg
f6784bc03ea60e245617a6392df0fdec
5f0fb6d063483929637746e861f14491ed4c1d45
4979 F20110114_AACDLU corbett_s_Page_048thm.jpg
42cec783f0a66fddeaec23c25b019e88
345a0924f90ad815544ee187c6cd762f03121e1b
3338 F20110114_AACDMK corbett_s_Page_071thm.jpg
c2d81a8f2902af623bc97db774345cca
52a2f23b3abbbb64c42b58628f2287d6dd3b217c
6989 F20110114_AACDLV corbett_s_Page_090thm.jpg
131ce375990c6737d2bae2fdcdf96034
064ad00f48573cf7a908b31bd36e71647fe19c3d
14955 F20110114_AACDML corbett_s_Page_011.QC.jpg
42a93c0b1a9402d9442be836d48975da
45f36bae99d8ebc15ccfce802a82b80eb9d8dc1e
23566 F20110114_AACDLW corbett_s_Page_089.QC.jpg
4583e07b6f0aa44bcc455eba86138dd7
3673d1246a8891cf9e0b93ffd1b4f4530f4bbea6
23864 F20110114_AACDMM corbett_s_Page_043.QC.jpg
5fbb043555ec77caa8b0a47a72856085
2e5a1c8d397ae444dca0bb2b258deb38591ac50b
19627 F20110114_AACDLX corbett_s_Page_059.QC.jpg
932e65d3ece787fa386d58ec3a9e9e71
9f8cb3ba283bcb9a97c5b773bfc49d388abca598
5054 F20110114_AACDNA corbett_s_Page_097thm.jpg
eb9b705bf763c4fe6c6a0e1ad83cd681
4c39ffa1b3fed6900bb862aac5582ea8a662b2a4
21792 F20110114_AACDMN corbett_s_Page_076.QC.jpg
732c8e2f75dcbb15ce03dfabb45e1cee
604913c0de992c009fbc618798d1dea3d33cb267
23876 F20110114_AACDLY corbett_s_Page_101.QC.jpg
369923dbcf1f4a895d848c98aa123d58
9075a245e4935ed30577fd4caa76f01e1c2e59b0
26782 F20110114_AACDNB corbett_s_Page_083.QC.jpg
fc9bbe0a00ef3f42bcd5275dbe6fcefd
54b5eb19e84bcefb7bff62e30a7ed53e2632185d
6562 F20110114_AACDMO corbett_s_Page_003thm.jpg
879d2e6537b834418bd164647cd0142e
f4e29a6190a83c4163d900f9c6817f63107c46b8
5268 F20110114_AACDLZ corbett_s_Page_058thm.jpg
5db0b4700d624461a97f378d19237e66
b35e6cce09fad11f422c5e00fec3ee2b481f92eb
163211 F20110114_AACDNC UFE0007580_00001.xml
0e5e34c3f96fd62578cfebdb25924bd9
fcc850fed7007f601f92c3a699ec6037d9ee8ffc
4116 F20110114_AACDMP corbett_s_Page_006.QC.jpg
8bc7199ec71a3c675a22ac466e3f93af
7bb59a290bd6c8e31206a67fda09625eedb90e97
6814 F20110114_AACDND corbett_s_Page_001.QC.jpg
964f732dd3bb2ed4d335c418bfcf61f7
224f856ec50f7bf6282dee5e3cf6e277f4ca24e9
6154 F20110114_AACDMQ corbett_s_Page_024thm.jpg
c754927bc41ada69119d79eae7dd289c
945235ef59f0889628406cf9f718bf3f2df49266
2393 F20110114_AACDNE corbett_s_Page_001thm.jpg
7662a117d3cf22efea261e30a89113a7
c8cbb795381383f98dbccdf890bc14cfc1fb9bcf
5130 F20110114_AACDMR corbett_s_Page_108.QC.jpg
9a4241c03e9d8b6a1aa8e4e6b3f18566
92306d9cc1615ee6ef62acbe2f08002db436c77e
9789 F20110114_AACDNF corbett_s_Page_002.QC.jpg
db2f164cea603bea7978c6300f2f8ece
e779a6321403695e13487b3974ffaa238ea27ab3
6501 F20110114_AACDMS corbett_s_Page_094thm.jpg
804d86b08182fac93d26f4f93b4650c1
cd01a5d19a00bfdb7bbf7ad67b1bb87c74ceb83c
23456 F20110114_AACDNG corbett_s_Page_003.QC.jpg
2d89694b2a27fe0eccf0c6af3b8d799a
7b796528a4ee2a22f5abcb7ba3778caf6cb5b44e
9033 F20110114_AACDMT corbett_s_Page_007.QC.jpg
d060efab6f7075bf98a019a9914ca428
cbb955a1023425a8e8517b19985c6f33ba2335bd
18507 F20110114_AACDNH corbett_s_Page_005.QC.jpg
e29ce58d5101d1cb7e1e7cd982d3ba47
cb4c009ee5c35447b4e16273aa426d1572ebb2b5
4986 F20110114_AACDNI corbett_s_Page_005thm.jpg
cca7c55eb43bbaa3ee54069cf3eb11f5
27383878bb9dc47786a7cdc294bec43fa81be805
26189 F20110114_AACDMU corbett_s_Page_020.QC.jpg
626708e7bb70cb681e7c2055866f3779
f51615611265991a924a286045d4507a58e46eef
18699 F20110114_AACDNJ corbett_s_Page_008.QC.jpg
2e90c937421af5228cee128c3c2dc953
4119c8f7ce6b5267b1c265e14401bea2bc6cf850
6650 F20110114_AACDMV corbett_s_Page_043thm.jpg
25ed3647a5bfa4127c801deb72a56c87
9089c7cd6953aabc6ed6bfdc8425eb785902443f
5397 F20110114_AACDNK corbett_s_Page_008thm.jpg
7f36fe8cab27dadb08bf46877f2cc22f
aefea70514cbb83e57ed7bedb8b25bce12d6a7fc
17607 F20110114_AACDMW corbett_s_Page_074.QC.jpg
dee40b1eddd03657fd623dd9e49c001d
e782f39331e034847e84d82ed559755f10f20193
17488 F20110114_AACDNL corbett_s_Page_010.QC.jpg
6acfdf550c4a9053c691322a43b64687
eaf5779a7dc2455bef381942e3846da0a4969f6c
14967 F20110114_AACDMX corbett_s_Page_070.QC.jpg
3f21f1a1d37fa1bd2b6405d56dae2963
058efe8ff7db5eda7467b28287698b7716f0c94a
27166 F20110114_AACDOA corbett_s_Page_027.QC.jpg
bdd2c53882e7c89d8657005f90656869
b24bf41e712ce9ded18ae9bcb99b12257d043e2b
7233 F20110114_AACDNM corbett_s_Page_013thm.jpg
f302587b4d41e80fe0a4c7ed7c0df7da
7003c212ca41b2f771665a7653062950cc94690f
22138 F20110114_AACDMY corbett_s_Page_038.QC.jpg
0a9e81a8c85a5c83da826503ed8a559f
4bd0d832d8805954c2acdf928052971f29c8a878
27435 F20110114_AACDOB corbett_s_Page_028.QC.jpg
b083b6b1a7a75ef7437b27623cf5bb58
5b23ef8d6cd3f44b1767df2bba8a910a6d60d7da
25570 F20110114_AACDNN corbett_s_Page_014.QC.jpg
a18befe7aa08f1e227c663f558774c06
f7c0d69408edef811fae8950224ea50b4c851986
3285 F20110114_AACDMZ corbett_s_Page_081thm.jpg
c0c277a1d30e8ecb5dd65243b05e2a24
81a4b5f2cd6a3c4972966680b1d6d40f3055fbce
7392 F20110114_AACDOC corbett_s_Page_028thm.jpg
b83b665a94c6d68b2dff2c315c0c6b5c
30ab82af3692f422c6729bf49b29c64eab5baa40
25234 F20110114_AACDNO corbett_s_Page_015.QC.jpg
e386adb2612c29783c1cb4aa3b82794c
f16336ef131a1212ad0cbc6a486983ba6a979efe
25800 F20110114_AACDOD corbett_s_Page_029.QC.jpg
c4c9a7f7285e304444f2b1a321fbd887
34e713f9e8d22bfee31e30b1e2f473773eb4fb9e
6717 F20110114_AACDNP corbett_s_Page_015thm.jpg
a7b429e9216b666828cf0bac8edcb97c
0933cbe1926b7ae73fcd6212db31d99ed188a7ca
7005 F20110114_AACDOE corbett_s_Page_029thm.jpg
34440ad07502ae3fc0ac1d8c50c17c2b
a231cb7781e01e7d3cfcc8edbf56d34d93f48f8c
7530 F20110114_AACDNQ corbett_s_Page_016thm.jpg
59cf09047ee4a5e3f651431e6f413a2b
9dcd4d53d2c87d72f3c5646e9ecaa0809775e55e
23358 F20110114_AACDOF corbett_s_Page_031.QC.jpg
febb0a32104eec9d3b024faff56952f8
604f89c54271705529e8dc0e0624460c9c0580b2
19705 F20110114_AACDNR corbett_s_Page_017.QC.jpg
c79a91ac316d8d661b1dad74fc62f500
8ff94cb8dc51785f0a8059bc41592450e3884e70
6847 F20110114_AACDOG corbett_s_Page_031thm.jpg
56b0741a34fba17df4ce33ecef4db01b
f032c2b714a4bc5835b53e0b5e13a232bfa95b96
9836 F20110114_AACDNS corbett_s_Page_018.QC.jpg
397af8c5bb002bd5d2dda1d4a7fe20c3
61a541d078e8bbe6c88f91ead9fb879c1b2680ff
22800 F20110114_AACDOH corbett_s_Page_033.QC.jpg
5658998711b51956193596f6d60cfa0c
0de22e50a741f48264c022da760a296291ee65a7
23365 F20110114_AACDNT corbett_s_Page_019.QC.jpg
d87645257cfe1ac33affa48b04593b66
c29185750d7f29bfad601050653cf109ea6d0d25
6768 F20110114_AACDOI corbett_s_Page_033thm.jpg
3fef7e366a9b2cb957648d6705972d23
3053fbe21e045f40ce87dde80e64262abaf99f43
6793 F20110114_AACDNU corbett_s_Page_019thm.jpg
6152792d47249f89b05f56fec95473d9
1c5719cdd43b0bb541daf514abaf5fc33dab37b6
25148 F20110114_AACDOJ corbett_s_Page_034.QC.jpg
86cb6fd502ef8047e75997ba89fbfd89
f4e4a8a1b33fdb9323480a51fc793a75cb6f0d6d
21899 F20110114_AACDOK corbett_s_Page_035.QC.jpg
8f45b8b649eacb4b76cf06de807a15fe
ac7090793984c282f514edde8dd25a607b4772d4
6975 F20110114_AACDNV corbett_s_Page_022thm.jpg
7854342d0673dffff73169797c2da065
f4ec6758f52d1d0793830a990c8de875bd2d1754
6569 F20110114_AACDOL corbett_s_Page_037thm.jpg
a285fbbdc877564ab4e75804db690a9f
b768c55ce40389ce11a93595d3ef8fcef9dded03
23151 F20110114_AACDNW corbett_s_Page_023.QC.jpg
b5b5deea727925487816752f910afb95
5f8a8ecdc91e7504bde1a3b861d8eb802b0ba198
4890 F20110114_AACDPA corbett_s_Page_049thm.jpg
576e1080d396e787689f902672bbd647
1d0cf44a25c5c3712c63e17794436f8f55e2eabb
25312 F20110114_AACDOM corbett_s_Page_039.QC.jpg
a231c406b08fe99ddf36b0937538f771
580c2347af0a5de4fc205a58b441762a8fec7b3d
7249 F20110114_AACDNX corbett_s_Page_025thm.jpg
6ae14983dc3d3d5592a2a4b53268b8e6
eb789cb95fff26676480a783a8269dd0e42c1210
16511 F20110114_AACDPB corbett_s_Page_050.QC.jpg
4ff78bfcf7c3d1b97345394109631975
5c9761ecf915d96a5d3af0848d4eea337991f828
7082 F20110114_AACDON corbett_s_Page_039thm.jpg
045e78168a2676c1a981fea1588605ae
e566273279ee2bc37f330b28e5d8f3f7bc178982
23871 F20110114_AACDNY corbett_s_Page_026.QC.jpg
02ac12e85893f23b364555832f30df18
b61719325384ebf3780d6cdd0a530c85962ec92d
11460 F20110114_AACDPC corbett_s_Page_051.QC.jpg
97b71dfef2fe3699fe7b1b784778aaec
b3686b83d82274dea29f44ab533b4e42b7e86b9c
23787 F20110114_AACDOO corbett_s_Page_041.QC.jpg
50abc1524eeb889339b52d5f1ba967f9
76cf9a58d3a50fa7df13aec124ec0012a10358a6
7004 F20110114_AACDNZ corbett_s_Page_026thm.jpg
2757f7a4de9045de1be1d3b2999d0719
523252ca060040b62366992ffefb740760ed59b4
6702 F20110114_AACDOP corbett_s_Page_041thm.jpg
7c824d0105c7039587da36a1a37a8262
917440372d4ea4f3c10c093c02fe1c66fbf6e967
4613 F20110114_AACDPD corbett_s_Page_052thm.jpg
ebb626aa921ae000b1c118ee1aa2ca53
0457c88996bf1f1a30ddc7879b496765ab02abc6
23042 F20110114_AACDOQ corbett_s_Page_042.QC.jpg
7b5c4dab2bf8d0bf08de40cfecd718c0
305ba70183908dd397f55720b7b3b072a2edcbb1
4046 F20110114_AACDPE corbett_s_Page_053thm.jpg
cc93b6d1c663505291444ce169236b12
de04ada26429519bdf7a0e44783b3eb4aa81375a
6903 F20110114_AACDOR corbett_s_Page_042thm.jpg
827e4fdf494f7648ad185cd5cdc7de11
680135f49506648ee5410a3290bae64a2abfb65f
6224 F20110114_AACDPF corbett_s_Page_054thm.jpg
35c3b00ef50a7dcdd933ad63becfcc0d
a8223561e938adaa042d079649b0a6f7af20aa0b
25003 F20110114_AACDOS corbett_s_Page_044.QC.jpg
96a862326c709bcf880c9eedebc46571
58e73ad5b674c7359c981fa641ec93c7eaba0a06
17525 F20110114_AACDPG corbett_s_Page_055.QC.jpg
b4ade5d92a2b3643fdbbc132226fc72b
c49bd0f966d1250cd72e4819970e4a5126612cd9
7137 F20110114_AACDOT corbett_s_Page_044thm.jpg
72f2596bd507cd9f48b6ca12f562eb67
292f36219d72297f43027e114c6ad81113da677c
5080 F20110114_AACDPH corbett_s_Page_055thm.jpg
b520f3cf7c86d191b39406968513b56f
78e692c78f6e549083682bf9345ba711ff56239e
24369 F20110114_AACDOU corbett_s_Page_045.QC.jpg
516790320c7ac3f09df7181ed16d1662
902a620e00d2f79ae5318381b2608128aeead67f
15006 F20110114_AACDPI corbett_s_Page_056.QC.jpg
e4eab09753e6f143af5a36086fcc4eef
314bbf10b2099cae11a1174cc841004ff6325818
6914 F20110114_AACDOV corbett_s_Page_045thm.jpg
e9dc1101a3030379d032420894531c1f
aa10968f9afef4caf2e947dfbce8d7281239bec9
4639 F20110114_AACDPJ corbett_s_Page_056thm.jpg
0043dca3a5ae6cbda8ce459ae5713180
e299f53f15bafb211d9aa27cb87a47bd507d9045
6084 F20110114_AACDPK corbett_s_Page_060thm.jpg
c45e4c891439bb8a56aa23cdbfa75452
1ccbaa4354cf4ed13ce1b08e30039527498e84e4
21313 F20110114_AACDOW corbett_s_Page_047.QC.jpg
2f09f1d57afde8a0ac720833ca3fe905
db5e31fe939857585f522ce9b5ea2cbdcb46375f
19161 F20110114_AACDPL corbett_s_Page_062.QC.jpg
f9efeec8d600ae53d56466f12f698eb0
858f3a3d7fa555fa4726d0b4aafa9d8b026f964d
6328 F20110114_AACDOX corbett_s_Page_047thm.jpg
0ff6c25698ab861161265307f0b850bd
f9a0d7244c20a664c2eceacfe7d02a5977e329e2
4007 F20110114_AACDQA corbett_s_Page_072thm.jpg
c0f827bec99f7b2813093cc9f442c6da
d34ac22383d5c8fcd077484739db3593f306c594
7090 F20110114_AACDPM corbett_s_Page_063.QC.jpg
2cf2271bb482971df393f8530585089e
d813784365dd5503794abdec98831139b350653b
16183 F20110114_AACDOY corbett_s_Page_048.QC.jpg
d2025bbc1ab29abdbaa1ccf9b861e5f5
8bce04539667bc39329bf9bbdacd3dc834c7583f
22798 F20110114_AACDQB corbett_s_Page_073.QC.jpg
34acb51eed821beab9b1958d041a82d7
fe6ed635d5aac883b4d1dc9687ec3d8cc4ec9295
2290 F20110114_AACDPN corbett_s_Page_063thm.jpg
e206ceaf2aa3a198e9819f2b75550085
df97a606385989ad9f799b81ef62fa71d49ffab1
16027 F20110114_AACDOZ corbett_s_Page_049.QC.jpg
9bb75e9419a3b4b9a5882b98ad374974
e6d46a1ee86d42418547836ccdb2cde9ad6f496d
5934 F20110114_AACDQC corbett_s_Page_073thm.jpg
49ac616a20ad5bfcca732e1e062732c2
e465f67d9094fdb0b4566c19178f4bc878f1bdf6
18814 F20110114_AACDPO corbett_s_Page_064.QC.jpg
b9a4faa34817d42d437ad702166e9589
c02f4105ae5cd917d044b8a9ef7d943177516f07
5512 F20110114_AACDQD corbett_s_Page_074thm.jpg
711381e2bab2807c4f3f6c75f3371657
e393d2ba360c71c53ba97092048dcc93f5bc1559
17282 F20110114_AACDPP corbett_s_Page_065.QC.jpg
2ee2c6d785f0bbd5641d038535f0de53
3a96bfb01142573a03aab4d8bbf419198200bd46
5674 F20110114_AACDQE corbett_s_Page_075thm.jpg
aee16bd8fdd796d72a850cbf1007cab2
dad1cdf2160318a4318467d16971449db52cf6b0
18996 F20110114_AACDPQ corbett_s_Page_066.QC.jpg
c40e7f3ca05398c367812533164b6b61
59cac523b861a1af3b8df440ed602a3b9c18588d
5982 F20110114_AACDQF corbett_s_Page_076thm.jpg
641f6260b943f0d35b1b1406d60ed6f4
def70752b42e480e6ea0c5578619b7478291cb6f
5608 F20110114_AACDPR corbett_s_Page_066thm.jpg
3fda9d512127244d2670da8de3c5eb61
b9f1d91f27100a00efaa3814ee17da7003b73291
17316 F20110114_AACDQG corbett_s_Page_077.QC.jpg
983297fc0e1dd722a620141add2d7c10
f8df9580b95fb72918c706ce15ba06fd1138e774
6298 F20110114_AACDPS corbett_s_Page_067thm.jpg
b305a56861ad738b5d244c4caeaefc92
d3b4a48408eadf75899bb2f91567965fe3b92358
18238 F20110114_AACDQH corbett_s_Page_078.QC.jpg
a8e9f09e31d83b54a58296099c4ae9f7
1455888119829b7dd2d42c720a6b7e4da26571d0
13272 F20110114_AACDPT corbett_s_Page_068.QC.jpg
869ba7f8f27deaecfc54088b8866f7e1
5fdc1f7cc611370c90aaeaf9973b8e19e6f6210e
5015 F20110114_AACDQI corbett_s_Page_078thm.jpg
97ccc85d3a291fb6938fd8761c67b034
85f96c1533708abdc0d7720636ae2112f978cfd0
4328 F20110114_AACDPU corbett_s_Page_068thm.jpg
5544592cceff66f9e4c6caf57296139e
419e92ac6861366d386ae9cf8459b8f2ba0b9607
4237 F20110114_AACDQJ corbett_s_Page_079thm.jpg
8f67c2498f515ba4dc66af31545dc268
81152fb8d25b35baa94d0331ca2cb5d3e241356a
20799 F20110114_AACDPV corbett_s_Page_069.QC.jpg
aa71a7ebb2af27442b2268f4a61527c4
cf04a9d97ae62c8b15490b4a02adb6aef868a67f
9006 F20110114_AACDQK corbett_s_Page_081.QC.jpg
f79da1a9d933ee1869c2d447501a83b7
fe8db2c7b52d7a683bba7385c59378a8d8782d55
5872 F20110114_AACDPW corbett_s_Page_069thm.jpg
aba36fa1667cf4b4e6b0d81111a8ba65
c8ec9b3e3986936b249ea361adca8b8d77eaab88
24755 F20110114_AACDQL corbett_s_Page_084.QC.jpg
a7d273481a02fb5d719e8e4a8f758771
3c0d9df81f0cbeb3e754f2b6ccbcc0ba16450109
1651 F20110114_AACDRA corbett_s_Page_100thm.jpg
ece051880487dde6d9dd629c9a8bab93
7f9b075daf366916a8379a4ec0ef80090a0a1d0d
6960 F20110114_AACDQM corbett_s_Page_084thm.jpg
3cd37d6fa645e06a8f8aef7b302088b3
09e2f06bd4b88c846f90b4b9be1c06ade586fab5
5109 F20110114_AACDPX corbett_s_Page_070thm.jpg
35140f75317a31af6c00b61a9721c24a
7d775e406b76ab5fcf3d44b3a1ccb8df1370573e
6751 F20110114_AACDRB corbett_s_Page_101thm.jpg
5444abfaea9d8ce7ce2e264325e926e4
117b0c36c798c6ebc2c6e09ff2304af894416738
18161 F20110114_AACDQN corbett_s_Page_085.QC.jpg
b8d6bbf0a649e2e6142985ddad392c3f
50ad57e2e2e04e9a4038960f7f2c51b98c92a602
11156 F20110114_AACDPY corbett_s_Page_071.QC.jpg
3b66bd245a3f33b82e02cc0a5659f8f0
3d558df992c30b86abe73774155addab843c9c1f
27442 F20110114_AACDRC corbett_s_Page_102.QC.jpg
985c71369f6d7d40e1293fd7a24f3e8c
4177a3f18aee640c60ee26fb6146edce34bff196
5413 F20110114_AACDQO corbett_s_Page_085thm.jpg
b992a78cd080ee7ac4b4ccd421781ef1
a04a9f7163dcaaae56ec0a76d8c1e439a2eb0b2e
11440 F20110114_AACDPZ corbett_s_Page_072.QC.jpg
ff61fd4749228fc463cab06296cd8b79
ece4cc96f2fcd87b3be684e59155703875cf0d76
7533 F20110114_AACDRD corbett_s_Page_102thm.jpg
3a8a05b21ee7285b726f34f4e9a3deda
4d23b10af5e67f9837a0d87db34ab29a5db026aa
6838 F20110114_AACDQP corbett_s_Page_087thm.jpg
da3f6b98314671f8cf0347a984f0398a
d85a54a958c0aa45ac4c9d5be28f53310e7e577c
7311 F20110114_AACDRE corbett_s_Page_103thm.jpg
cbe9bc48416d86ec2b8a9f72fcd00180
95e803156646a5b10eaaf7e66fd5c90c97259fac
6963 F20110114_AACDQQ corbett_s_Page_088thm.jpg
dbe126c7102643791cf0913ed2676210
02306839330d9fa916c031bad9a74be570ce3e8a
41048 F20110114_AACCOD corbett_s_Page_036.pro
0b225e95d62e7c4eb24a47548a4223cb
f1b429e1f83c75a69085cf4bb2419e499aff708f
7248 F20110114_AACDRF corbett_s_Page_104thm.jpg
40aa0747bab67ed859622fbbda9ec811
52049b894eec4b379bc65c8cb5bad0a5150014cf
6583 F20110114_AACDQR corbett_s_Page_089thm.jpg
e4fbfd888ef590c286201f6353da3322
493abe27a94e91fe1cbee5babf77f659d0ea743e
F20110114_AACCOE corbett_s_Page_066.tif
7dc5757735ba872a2e831eaf053dd470
a271e3e6ee24dc00dcf07a3b896874e6735ee2e5
26813 F20110114_AACDRG corbett_s_Page_105.QC.jpg
d72237218100ba2751586e1adc03d091
3c7c252eb5206498de9a97a980a0bf58feb681a4
3462 F20110114_AACDQS corbett_s_Page_091thm.jpg
dcdb197e574c52078e2770b077f83077
e439ed81ef9b2bb77805582bcb19752cceae34b7
85467 F20110114_AACCOF corbett_s_Page_094.jpg
d97c2cc4ce8828ef9a69d1b572ec989d
0b9dd79d134c92c7fce333ba12cebfaa58831ce7
19510 F20110114_AACDRH corbett_s_Page_106.QC.jpg
d33c0e9c6436f7774e067ec575d6761e
47adc1993dc9e787b12ed0379bc0e828d0ac69b4
4321 F20110114_AACDQT corbett_s_Page_092thm.jpg
cd218276922610b07b77bb7f8749beb5
9cb6a0b8680ee1190dd38e82cb6823c6f18c5f32
1040671 F20110114_AACCOG corbett_s_Page_039.jp2
b8883de75e6bd802e53436ec82e988dd
1eade5cdffeabc684d9825158bee90c0a1e44da3
5463 F20110114_AACDRI corbett_s_Page_106thm.jpg
c5ea476f5815a8462b27dd6086da98c4
2e64876f7cf885c4dd15954ba1ea357fd4a771c4
22068 F20110114_AACDQU corbett_s_Page_093.QC.jpg
f1d1ce0b8c602a376abd28beb8826516
c413acc5f002d913155e89f3e086d5d94744c450
1051940 F20110114_AACCOH corbett_s_Page_101.jp2
ede4d41db5139d889477575be5d98d1e
5aff9f78c537e16db90b1ff724cea1991d69e31d
23492 F20110114_AACDRJ corbett_s_Page_107.QC.jpg
872a252a735b6ff234b9665d7f42cd8d
5bd048126b4bf96d5ce00787bd1be2e444677a70
6149 F20110114_AACDQV corbett_s_Page_093thm.jpg
63c1d7f3d8da277bf6649b5f3281dec2
7d179a0529a613ba147b1fb33062e6c5286e896b
F20110114_AACCOI corbett_s_Page_024.tif
0af85e0f1905c54aaa0b0a69d8a8b246
52a3d2a291d77d275e48dcf5fa532238ef121aa2
21975 F20110114_AACDQW corbett_s_Page_095.QC.jpg
bed84a82a6a3e7ca11810def0260fa3b
af9e7dde63f8c63d2695de53bf2b879d0f11372d
25681 F20110114_AACCOJ corbett_s_Page_030.QC.jpg
5377efba3972b65343c90a18157fdff8
8d4e89809ed9a992a7e5ead03d8afe87ea917f27
22493 F20110114_AACDQX corbett_s_Page_096.QC.jpg
72c147db2490a712207d9ee368399e1b
62453b6377ac930a9170f0be53cdfdea720f1627
20418 F20110114_AACCOK corbett_s_Page_060.QC.jpg
9e4603f10dd6b8ee51231bde70b7316a
60a61a1032dc1239e5dc012750b1a743c756cee6
F20110114_AACCOL corbett_s_Page_096.tif
99d7121da205b171796c178f7e115875
a270c2701dccc55535e8f81e002c67f1df661049
6671 F20110114_AACDQY corbett_s_Page_096thm.jpg
09ff210af666004025c5f12c4dd5d516
ec86d075c419d058396135dc09d373959ff655e1
F20110114_AACCOM corbett_s_Page_055.tif
dcfa57fcdf9ada747a901cbeb582637c
f77072864618239be220323112ab17fd4afa67c4
7003 F20110114_AACDQZ corbett_s_Page_099thm.jpg
daecf54af8a6c870089ef9ee7f23f807
d7fb793dd9ab08a7fc0d4540ba02a10a1100c15a
71935 F20110114_AACCPA corbett_s_Page_038.jpg
e528513e739c938d4e3b339ef2680883
70d073f5fe76ac0c1598c6bc07b81db1c2d684d0
11705 F20110114_AACCON corbett_s_Page_051.pro
c4c2a513a48226e0f5d3310927265ae7
995e86bcf078f69b3114117b17c2bfbc7e54f1b0
7006 F20110114_AACCPB corbett_s_Page_034thm.jpg
14368a105cdcf6fe37bf02f00b0bd1c7
051547b369172227c236c1f533e969806657626d
1180 F20110114_AACCOO corbett_s_Page_080.txt
d4b2c7e40abeb08254ab06244cf06f96
c48b1d0d982f06dd55cffc93a8dcf4fbfdc6a185
99044 F20110114_AACCPC corbett_s_Page_087.jp2
dbc78a6ab613b4739bf9655448996f37
465eb009cafc7095ca656a10325f491ce2f43884
26384 F20110114_AACCOP corbett_s_Page_088.QC.jpg
9125e24164940bbc158f2207fdbe25d3
3b3bed530b20ca750ff76666755889529f54081b
F20110114_AACCPD corbett_s_Page_049.tif
0f3972cf8bb1dcb63b3ce2983286c3e4
ef2a5db950370f513f468c0d99a55268ce4f2c90
74811 F20110114_AACCOQ corbett_s_Page_003.jpg
15a0a28688880c3de3f0a75e62d9fc32
738ba9fe96e441bbde4d217152aa8bb007aedab6
13855 F20110114_AACCPE corbett_s_Page_053.QC.jpg
9a3fa2ad8b8ca935cc040b9f4f512d56
704a47d357ce1a379f9f459e1bf31d19a49dcd10
44900 F20110114_AACCPF corbett_s_Page_023.pro
d2ce6ca2a0a5f9be0ff516b3b7a697c0
d91ef29d0b391abecc35d2736c4653652788db03
545382 F20110114_AACCOR corbett_s_Page_068.jp2
cd3c5a7a854748b11ea2b5a8e84495dd
00eb0c60cff90e4988d262bcf511c93d47fb6884
F20110114_AACCPG corbett_s_Page_071.tif
502e8bdecb45a5331e9bfa10b95095f0
dd6d6effc39ea4be0c4eb780f5e346f6a3ac96c8
F20110114_AACCOS corbett_s_Page_064.tif
0238efac795d875f954596976740eda5
69d884339eb3dc6be3230c6cbcf985cd23683c6b
1051770 F20110114_AACCPH corbett_s_Page_065.jp2
6a34cd745d6929eca7629bb21488df52
2f3682e7ac06e1b06cdf854e2d1d4613c709df32
2968 F20110114_AACCOT corbett_s_Page_002thm.jpg
72e363da4f058c2b6ff112f7864e0374
3bbd91439c2c58a184c469864610c536a28470cb
1051982 F20110114_AACCPI corbett_s_Page_029.jp2
a26e6b4707e6fdebd8bcaf0fdaa01ed5
5bc5a6450103a2b4a76e35635c1b7f2c41d59b68
33350 F20110114_AACCOU corbett_s_Page_046.pro
54ec7f8d1346b01081c47fa35b01f37c
b095339287220d9a537db71c0e60a4b7a8b4a7e0
2322 F20110114_AACCPJ corbett_s_Page_102.txt
8ab1fdbcbc43f487632d2c5db41fb8df
615536322f4c99835a8dcac6596d831ca73d9f75
26653 F20110114_AACCOV corbett_s_Page_086.QC.jpg
058900f7e415677abc8064de27175f45
d98ae0518becb9926d67e05bc2c7188f9395ba95
1022423 F20110114_AACCPK corbett_s_Page_076.jp2
3802fd0b38e111fb62f9cb77222a217d
3eb7c456312302df5ccdd1bf00df2923d54e4d7d
25759 F20110114_AACCOW corbett_s_Page_025.QC.jpg
3df944c989c71c1449f39e1d206ab754
37f03c1bc811605bc3548a30519a5e76bc289007
6919 F20110114_AACCPL corbett_s_Page_021thm.jpg
3ac54c0bc0ee917c496d79222f0ef250
52ac5c81d0a2f8c948fa954f5e97c67770a134f4
1051969 F20110114_AACCQA corbett_s_Page_013.jp2
b0861670e3723dc7ec137ce735206df5
9a664467f958f80ece149212ba71c38ff4eb525e
6541 F20110114_AACCPM corbett_s_Page_035thm.jpg
9b7a394911b0eede0b6ad447c1ef4bbc
01e538073daee0c951b98f11f17199fb443c811a
1051937 F20110114_AACCOX corbett_s_Page_067.jp2
e5e0f05a33944bb8b55067f5a1f1e5ac
662122d0a885b81bd75cfba5be8a91a5872c56f2
1020307 F20110114_AACCQB corbett_s_Page_045.jp2
c1f2c635889188a383d010b128b7e347
c07f224fdb90ae0bf4d3896c622d6f4dfad162d2
5260 F20110114_AACCPN corbett_s_Page_010thm.jpg
436907cca0fe642f76c3fa84a320d714
fb69afe4834d36607041f827c1496e6ef8fb2c37
77616 F20110114_AACCOY corbett_s_Page_099.jpg
43fe5c0cf3315fcfeb76550b09a3accf
036dabcb8c29bfb1dc9c7009fefc0644d3cc6096
466653 F20110114_AACCQC corbett_s_Page_081.jp2
1831ac6dbaacc4dd33fbbc1432acc36f
253e00b5cfcf5138b99c2b6c876cc0a6df6a3cb4
7336 F20110114_AACCPO corbett_s_Page_083thm.jpg
ae63524cb4fd90de9af3b26df2552450
7bdc4ac90214a2bff5a924c3ce153c97f8b9dc1e
F20110114_AACCOZ corbett_s_Page_010.tif
832dc138357df1f731a2c7c49dfaf225
a3114c6c4a7769812b5c150a1806433d41eb3b86
46387 F20110114_AACCQD corbett_s_Page_030.pro
ec87991d59aa4a49b1ae2b4fcbabe96a
e6b94ddd1a706c8a70e64a26d6b85255569519dd
28139 F20110114_AACCPP corbett_s_Page_016.QC.jpg
f1706afb45ddea7ffecfa8eafa1f9a26
ca1b21e7b6ddf33885fbb012d3eaaa146f614780
1304 F20110114_AACCQE corbett_s_Page_046.txt
f666f3c9cd71d13ac812051ef5dfe8f6
303f2f4b815ec9d8a7eeae811b3ff2ae34f226e5
187 F20110114_AACCPQ corbett_s_Page_061.txt
91bdd2cf2cf14ca49dfaf1b4ce76c735
f67ef5960c1275156f028d7adfa77133af48e0dd
F20110114_AACCQF corbett_s_Page_061.tif
a87760a07833eb66edfb5f73579491f1
09db53f7d628fe5918966e81521fc4d4f94b9008
60600 F20110114_AACCPR corbett_s_Page_055.jpg
bd2b72eb1cd8b8965a48ad2eb84d3c7b
9c44a884ce14c314ea54131f493a1a516a3ff324
12172 F20110114_AACCQG corbett_s_Page_108.jp2
f0a98efffad7e6ac52581d6038db9e1d
df01f21bc8625b8d106b9adc7d5b094e7244f775
84643 F20110114_AACCPS corbett_s_Page_015.jpg
e4488db72a80bf4fb3f21ba663320476
a1d3ab2e16930f61380895e8b5b78e1858f6c636
11015 F20110114_AACCQH corbett_s_Page_091.QC.jpg
73f70f926a6e66a42fe2bc6a5ab5c6ba
4578ce175e5acbb38b1c82b9ac6ff0482b3c2897
72626 F20110114_AACCPT corbett_s_Page_040.jpg
92e0e3aded44867438c94ff9ab1101c4
e23249c332398d65f8e1e8f3aa04b98f2b91da8f


Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0007580/00001

Material Information

Title: The Middle Miocene Alum Bluff Flora, Liberty County, Florida
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0007580:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0007580/00001

Material Information

Title: The Middle Miocene Alum Bluff Flora, Liberty County, Florida
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0007580:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text











THE MIDDLE MIOCENE ALUM BLUFF FLORA,
LIBERTY COUNTY, FLORIDA












By

SARAH LYNN CORBETT


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2004


















For Daddy,


who grew up under the shade of
a big live oak and taught me
the value of all things in nature

01/02/47-10/23/03




The Peace of Wild Things

When despair for the world grows in me
And I wake in the night at the least sound
In fear of what my life and my children's lives may be,
I go and lie down where the wood drake
Rests in his beauty on the water, and the great heron feeds.
I come into the peace of wild things
Who do not tax their lives with forethought
Of grief. I come into the presence of still water.
And I feel above me the day-blind stars
Waiting with their light. For a time
I rest in the grace of the world, and am free.


-Wendell Berry














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


I would like to thank my advisor and committee chair, Dr. Steven R.

Manchester, for help with fieldwork, processing samples, examining leaf material

critically, and for general advice along the way. I also thank my committee

members, Dr. Walter Judd, Dr. David Dilcher, and Dr. Michelle Mack, for

reviewing my work and making much needed suggestions. Several other

persons and organizations deserve acknowledgment as well. The Nature

Conservancy provided a permit for me and others to collect fossil plants on their

property, and Greg Seamon of The Nature Conservancy helped to arrange

access to the property. The Florida Paleontological Society Gary Morgan Award

committee and the Southwest Florida Fossil Club provided monetary support for

fieldwork and research. Dr. David Jarzen provided help with identification of

some palynomorphs, provided access to modern reference pollen collections and

palynological reprints, and made revisions to the pollen section. Student

assistant, Sabrina Khouri helped with pollen counts, cuticle extraction,

databasing, and photography. Global Geolabs of Medicine Hat, Alberta, Canada,

and Russ Harms processed pollen samples and generously processed those

samples for free. The University of Florida Electron Microscopy Core Laboratory

provided their facilities at no cost, and Fred Bennett and Karen Kelly of the EM

lab provided excellent training and technical support. Roger Portell answered









questions on Alum Bluff geology and reviewed revisions of the geology section.

Dr. Jon Bryan and Harley Means offered useful conversations on panhandle

geology and allowed me to accompany them on several field trips. Dr. Bill Elsik,

Dr. Vaughn Bryant, Dr. John Wrenn, and Dr. Fred Rich shared information and

reprints on eastern Miocene palynofloras. J. Yoder, R. Portell, K. Schindler, T.

Sweet, S. R. Manchester, T. A. Lott, the 1999 Paleobotany Class, the 2002

Phytogeography Class, and members of the Florida Paleontological Society

(2003) collected fossils from Alum Bluff. Laura Corbett McGuire provided her

photographic efforts and an occasional push in the right direction. Tamika

Robinson offered advice and answered many late night frantic phone calls.

Lastly, I would like to recognize my parents. I extend appreciation to my mother,

Janice Corbett, for extensive photocopying of references, support through this

project and always, and an enormous amount of tolerance and patience. And to

my father, the late Richard Larry Corbett, I express deep gratitude for always

providing much needed graduate school survival advice, being interested in my

work, being attentive to my questions, and instilling the interest in me to begin

with.














TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOW LEDG M ENTS................................. ........................ ii

LIST OF TABLES ............. ..................... .............. vi

LIST OF FIGURES ............................ .......... ............ vii

A BST RA C T ..... .............................................. ........... ix

INTRO DUCTIO N ................................... ................. 1

Modern Flora of Apalachicola Bluffs and Ravines.................... 2
Geology............. .................... ............. ......... 4

MATERIALS AND METHODS ...... ..... ........... ... ....................... 8

RESULTS ................................... ................. ................ 13

Leaf M acrofossils................. ............ ............... .......... 13
Fruits and Seeds ......... ........................ ..... ......... 22
Spores and Pollen................ .................. ... .... ........ 23
Spores .............. ................ ............... .......... 23
Pollen ............... ........ ........ ......... ....... .......... 27
Fungi ................ ......... ....................... ............. 36

DISCUSSION..................... ...... ................ ......... 71

Comparison with Other Miocene Floras................. .............. 71
Paleoecological Im plications ........ ... ..... ........ .. ......... ... 73
Biogeographical Im plications ........ ... ..... ........ .. ......... ... 77

C O N C LU S IO N S .......................................................... .......... 79

APPENDIX A SELECTED WOODY TAXA OCCURRING IN AND
AROUND THE APALACHICOLA BLUFFS AND RAVINES AREA AND
THEIR TYPICAL HABITATS...... ...... ...................... ..... ............ 82

APPENDIX B EXPLANATION OF PALYNOMORPH TERMINOLOGY...... 85









REFERENCES. .............. .. ......... ........... .............. ... 90

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH................... ... ........... 96














LIST OF TABLES



Table page

1 Examples of historical names of the stratum currently known as the
Alum Bluff Group, undifferentiated and their corresponding
publication ................................. ........ . ...... 7

2 Terrestrial Miocene palynomorph localities from eastern North
America used for comparison with Alum Bluff palynomorphs......... 24

3 Taxa shared between Alum Bluff and other Miocene localities ........74

4 Summary of taxa identified at Alum Bluff.............. ... ........... 81















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

1 Map showing Alum Bluff and surrounding area.............. .......... 38

2 Apalachicola River and Alum Bluff exposure.............. ............. 39

3 Alum Bluff exposures showing Pleistocene to Miocene age
sediments. ............ ............. ......... ...... .... ...... 39

4 Lithostratigraphy of Alum Bluff......... .. ........... ....................... 40

5 Summary of geochronology, showing temporal relationships
between Torreya and Chipola Formations, and the Alum Bluff
Group, undifferentiated ................................................. 41

6 Fossil plant strata at the Alum Bluff exposure.............. .............42

7 Leaflets of Carva (Juglandaceae) .................. ............. ................43

8 Lauraceous leaf ............... ................ ........... .... ......... 44

9 Leaves of Paliurus (Rhamnaceae) .. ........................................ 45

10 Leaves and 'wood' of Sabalites (Arecaceae)............................... 46

11 Graduate student Xin Wang with a very large example of a
Sabalites leaf from Alum Bluff .... ....... ... ................. ......... 47

12 Leaves of Ulmus (Ulmaceae) ............ ........ ......... .......... 48

13 Alum Bluff leaf Morphotype AB1 ............ ..... ... ...... ....... 49

14 Alum Bluff leaf Morphotype AB2 ........... .. ......... ......... 50

15 Alum Bluff leaf Morphotype AB3 ..................... ... ...... ......... 51

16 Alum Bluff leaf Morphotypes AB4, 5, 6, and 7.............. ............ 53









17 Alum Bluff leaf Morphotypes AB8 and 9 ......... .................. 54

18 Alum Bluff leaf Morphotypes AB10, 11, and 12................ ..........55

19 Fruits and seeds from Alum Bluff.................... .......... ...... 56

20 Pie chart showing pollen count summary for Alum Bluff ............... 57

21 Fern spores from Alum Bluff ............. ... ....... ...........59

22 Gymnosperm and Poaceae type pollen from Alum Bluff ................61

23 Liliaceae, Magnoliaceae type, and miscellaneous dicotyledonous
pollen from Alum Bluff............. ........ ...... ......... ... ... 63

24 Fagaceae and Ulmaceae pollen from Alum Bluff...................... 64

25 Miscellaneous dicotyledonous pollen from Alum Bluff........ ......... 66

26 Unknown palynomorphs and dinoflagellate cyst from Alum Bluff...... 68

27 Fungal sporomorphs from Alum Bluff ............. ..................70
















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

THE MIDDLE MIOCENE ALUM BLUFF FLORA,
LIBERTY COUNTY, FLORIDA

By

Sarah Lynn Corbett

December 2004


Chair: Steven R. Manchester
Major Department: Botany


The Miocene flora of Alum Bluff, Liberty County, Florida, is significant

because of the relative rarity of Tertiary, and especially Miocene, fossil plant

localities in eastern North America. After conducting a paleofloristic study

including leaves, seeds, fruits, and pollen at Alum Bluff, implications for

understanding Miocene climate, biogeography, and paleoecology of the region

were inferred. The first study of the flora of the Alum Bluff site was conducted on

leaf impressions by E.W. Berry in the early twentieth century. Berry studied only

leaf macrofossils and identified 12 leaf species. Recent collections and further

examination of specimens reveals 22 identified taxa, 7 morphotypes of uncertain

taxonomic affinity, and 21 examples of unknown taxonomic affinity are also









present in the flora. Berry described the flora as being tropical with some

temperate elements found in the Florida panhandle today; however, recent finds

such as Paliurus, which is extinct in North America but present in Eurasia today,

suggest different floristic affinities and indicate that the flora was warm-

temperate. The composition of the flora was compared with modern floras and

other Miocene floras to determine the environmental conditions present at Alum

Bluff in the Miocene. It was found that the Alum Bluff flora an elm-hickory-

cabbage palm forest (similar to that of North central Florida today) occurring

along a river or near a river delta. Biogeographical implications of the Florida

panhandle region during the Miocene were inferred based on the floral

composition of Alum Bluff. The use of fruit, seeds, pollen, and leaves increased

the known diversity of the Alum Bluff flora, making it a paleobotanically important

case.















INTRODUCTION


Miocene floras are poorly known in eastern North America. In the

southeast U.S., Tertiary paleobotanical deposits are even less common, though

there are a number of marine Tertiary deposits in the region. The Brandon

lignite flora of Vermont, the Brandywine flora of Maryland, and the Alum Bluff

flora of Florida are some examples of the few eastern North American Miocene

localities with good preservation of macrofossils (Berry 1916, McCartan et al.

1990, Tiffney 1994, Tiffney and Traverse 1994). Due to the rarity of Tertiary

fossil plant localities in the southeastern coastal plain and especially in Florida,

the Alum Bluff flora is of special interest. Alum Bluff is located in the Florida

panhandle about 2 miles north-northwest of Bristol, Florida

(30028'08"N/84059'10"W) (Fig. 1). The exposure is a steep river cut bluff along

the Apalachicola River and is part of a property owned by the Nature

Conservancy known as Apalachicola Bluffs and Ravines Preserve.

The pioneering work on the Alum Bluff flora was done by Berry (1916). He

identified 12 plant species (based on leaf forms) and one fungal species from the

site. Recently collected leaf, seed, and pollen for this study from the same site

reveal new taxa not treated by Berry. Berry's work characterized the Alum Bluff

flora as being subtropical to tropical, and he made his identifications by

comparing the leaves with modern North American genera. Some of the newer









finds from the site evaluated in this study, however, suggest other floristic

relationships. A temperate Eurasian genus, Paliurus (Rhamnaceae), extinct in

North America today, was recently noted from the site by Manchester (1999).

Paliurus has also been found in Eocene to Miocene strata in the Western U.S.,

since the Eocene in Asia, and in the Oligocene and Miocene of Europe

(Manchester 1999). This study also revealed other taxa present at Alum Bluff,

including members of the Juglandaceae, Ulmaceae, Fagaceae, Altingiaceae,

Pinaceae, Cupressaceae, and a temperate member of the Aquifoliaceae. The

presence of Paliurus and the other temperate genera represented suggests more

temperate affinities than those Berry described based on his identifications.

The goals of this project were 1) to investigate the overall biodiversity of

Alum Bluff based on recent collections, 2) to interpret past climatological and

paleoecological conditions of the Alum Bluff region based on the floristic

assemblage, and 3) to examine the biogeographical implications and evidence

for floral change presented by the Alum Bluff floristic assemblage. To investigate

these goals, pollen, fruits, seeds, and leaves were examined from the Alum Bluff

sediments.

Modern Flora of Apalachicola Bluffs and Ravines

In order to gain an appreciation of late Tertiary floristic change in

southeastern North America, it is useful to compare the Miocene Alum Bluff flora

with the flora existing in the region today. The modern flora of the area

surrounding Alum Bluff is botanically distinctive (Clewell 1977, James 1961,

Harper 1914, Leonard and Baker 1982, Means 1985, 1977, Ward 1979, Wolfe et









al. 1988, Wunderlin and Hansen 2003). In a study using a rarity-weighted

richness index to identify hot spots of rarity and richness, the Apalachicola River

Valley region of the Panhandle was identified as one of the five hot spots of

diversity for the United States (Stein et al. 2000). Also according to Stein et al.

(2000), the forests of the Florida panhandle region possess the "largest number

of tree species per unit area of any forests in the United States." Compared with

the number of taxa in the fossil flora examined by the author, the modern flora of

the area is much more diverse (see Appendix A), however this difference is likely

partially due to preservation factors which prevented the entire diversity of the

Miocene flora from being preserved.

Today, numerous endemic species are known from the Apalachicola River

Valley, and the region also contains many northern species at the southern

extreme of their range (or with disjunct occurrences). The reason for this

geographic isolation of more northern species along the Apalachicola River

corridor is largely because the Apalachicola corridor has been connected to the

Appalachian region almost continuously since the late Miocene (Clewell 1977,

Harper 1914). The Apalachicola River is the only river in Florida whose

watershed is fed mostly by areas outside the coastal plain, namely the Piedmont

and Appalachian Region, and thus the route for migration of species has

primarily been from these areas. The high proportion of endemic species may be

related to both genetic isolation and topography of the area (James 1961, Myers

and Ewel 1990, Ward 1979, Wolfe et al. 1988). Unlike most of peninsular

Florida, the Apalachicola River Valley is largely protected from fire. Fires cannot









approach from the west because of the river, and fires are slow to spread

downslope in the gully-eroded ravines along the eastern bank. Thus, humus

accumulates creating a rich growing environment (Clewell 1977, Harper 1914).

These conditions would not have been present during the Middle Miocene,

however, since the Apalachicola River Valley began to form around this time

(Clewell 1977).

Geology

The Apalachicola River is formed by the confluence of the Chattahochee

and Flint rivers at the Georgia/Florida border near the town of Chatahoochee and

Lake Seminole. It extends through the Northern Highlands geographic province

of Florida and down through the Gulf Coastal Lowlands near Apalachicola,

Florida. According to Harper (1914, p. 228),

From its beginning at the southwestern corner of Georgia to about the
latitude of Bristol the Apalachicola River has on its east side some of the highest
land in Florida ..., which comes out to the river in several places, making steep
bluffs. Between these bluffs are deep rich valleys, some of which extend back
several miles from the river.

Alum Bluff, first described by Langdon (1889), is one of the bluff

exposures characteristic along the Apalachicola. It is considered probably the

most conspicuous topographic feature in Florida (Harper 1914, Schmidt 1986),

and is characterized by a precipitous face that is about 170 feet high.

The bluff exposes a stratigraphic sequence of Miocene to Pleistocene

age sediments (Fig. 2, 3). There are five lithologic units exposed at Alum Bluff

including Miocene Alum Bluff Group (Chipola Formation and unconformably

overlying undifferentiated beds) (Gardner 1926, Johnson 1989b), the Pliocene









Jackson Bluff Formation, the Plio-Pleistocene Citronelle Formation, and a section

of undifferentiated surficial clastics (Schmidt 1986) (Fig. 4). The plant-bearing

horizon is in the upper part of the Alum Bluff Group in unnamed beds

(undifferentiated stratum) above the Early Miocene Chipola Formation and below

the Pliocene Jackson Bluff Formation, and is inferred to be middle Miocene (15-

18 million years old) in age (Bryant et al. 1992, Johnson 1989a, Schmidt 1986)

(Fig. 5). This stratum is characterized by gray to yellow and white clayey sands

(Schmidt 1986). Within the upper portion of this stratum, fossil leaves, roots,

seeds, pollen, and wood have been collected. It was observed that there are

approximately five fossil plant layers within a half-meter stratigraphic interval in

the upper portion of the Alum Bluff Group (undifferentiated stratum) (Fig. 6). A

number of age-significant mammals (Hemingfordian or early Barstovian) have

also been isolated from the undifferentiated stratum of the Alum Bluff Group

including Prosynthetoceras texanas, a protoceratid mammal (Webb et al. 2003),

a small anchitherine horse (Bryant et al. 1992, Olsen 1964, 1968), a small

rhinocerotid, and an equid known as Merychippus gunteri (Bryant et al. 1992). It

is important to note that mammal fossils have not been found in situ with the

plant fossils, but rather as outwash from the Alum Bluff Group (undifferentiated)

stratum. The underlying Chipola Formation has a rich molluscan fauna, and has

been estimated to be about 18.3-18.9 million years old giving a maximum bound

for the age of the leaf deposit (Bryant et al. 1992). The Alum Bluff Group

(undifferentiated) however, due to the presence of late Hemingfordian or early

Barstovian mammals, is estimated to be between 15-18 million years old. The









overlying Jackson Bluff Formation is also a fossiliferous stratum, however it

yields marine fossils including bone fragments of dugong, sharks teeth, and

numerous mollusks.

The Alum Bluff Group (undifferentiated) is thought to represent deltaic or

pro-deltaic sediments (Schmidt 1986). Also, the sandy matrix surrounding fossil

plants at Alum Bluff and the presence of trunks of Sabalities in the fossil beds

suggests a high energy riverine depositional environment capable of carrying and

depositing heavy sediment particles and plant materials (pers. comm. Dilcher

2004). The conspicuous lack of megaspores of heterosporous ferns in sieved

material or sediment processed for pollen also indicates a moving-water

depositional environment as opposed to a still-water lake or pond environment

(pers. comm. Dilcher 2004).

The nomenclatural history of geologic units exposed at Alum Bluff is

somewhat confusing and has changed numerous times since the Alum Bluff

lithostratigraphy was first described. The Alum Bluff Group, undifferentiated, has

been called the "Fort Preston Sand," the Alum Bluff Formation, the Hawthorne

Formation, and the Choctawhatchie Stage, among others (Table 1).






7


Table 1. Examples of historical names of the stratum currently known as the
Alum Bluff Group, undifferentiated and their corresponding publication


Historical Nomenclature


Publication


Oak Grove Sand Berry 1916
Choctawhatchie Stage Olsen 1964, 1968
Hawthorne Formation Campbell 1985, Schmidt 1986
Fort Preston Sand Puri and Vernon 1964, Bryant et al. 1992
Alum Bluff Group Gardner 1924, Johnson 1989b
Alum Bluff Group/ Rupert 1994
Hawthorn Group sands
Alum Bluff Formation Webb et al. 2003














MATERIALS AND METHODS

Macrofossils were collected haphazardly from the plant-fossil bearing

strata by exposing fossiliferous platforms on the hillside at Alum Bluff. Care was

then taken to extract mostly complete specimens from the excavated areas.

Some specimens were collected as very large (ca. 0.3m2) chunks which were

allowed to dry in the lab, then broken apart to expose macrofossils. Most of the

collections from Alum Bluff were made at the northernmost end of the exposure.

Macrofossils collected from Alum Bluff were photographed with oblique lighting

using a Nikon Coolpix 995 digital camera. Due to the fragile nature of the

specimens from Alum Bluff, some were treated with Paleo-bond Penetrant

Stabilizer (manufactured by Paleo-bond, Inc. of St. Paul, MN) to prevent the

sandy matrix from crumbling. Others were stabilized with a diluted solution of

Elmer's white glue. No glue or Paleo-bond was applied to the face of the fossil

itself, but only to the attached matrix. Leaf descriptions were developed using

the categorization and terminology set forth in the Manual of Leaf Architecture

(LAWG 1999).

Some sediment was processed for pollen in the Paleobotany lab at the

Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH) using a technique modified from

Traverse (1988). Other samples were outsourced for processing by Global

Geolabs, Ltd. of Medicine Hat, Alberta, Canada. At FLMNH, the outer surface of

30-200g sediment samples were first scraped away to avoid potential









contamination with modern pollen. The samples were then ground with a mortar

and pestle until only loose, coarse particles remained. The sediment was

transferred to a plastic beaker, and distilled water was added to make a sediment

slurry. Enough 5% HCI was added to cover the sample. No reaction was

observed indicating that no carbonates were present, so the HCI was decanted.

The sample was washed with distilled water and decanted three times. A volume

of 49% HF equaling about one and a half times as much as the sample was then

added. The beaker was covered and allowed to sit under a fume hood for 2-4

days. Periodically, the sample was agitated. The sample was then separated

into plastic centrifuge tubes and centrifuged for 15 minutes. The HF was

decanted and the samples were washed with distilled water three times. Zinc

Chloride at a specific gravity of 1.7 was then added. Samples were agitated and

centrifuged for 30-45 minutes. Samples were allowed to sit in a test tube rack for

4-10 days without being disturbed. After this period, a small amount of distilled

water was added and then siphoned off with the organic matter that had

separated from the sediment. The siphoned material was placed in a separate

centrifuge tube and washed several times. Several drops of 30% EtOH was

added to each tube to retard fungal growth. One to three drops of the organic

slurry were then placed on a glass slide with one to two drops of glycerine. The

sample was covered with a coverslip, which was rimmed with clear fingernail

polish or Canada balsam. Pollen grains and spores were photographed via light

microscopy with a Nikon SLR using black and white Technical Pan (ISO 25) or

color print film (ISO 100). X and Y coordinates were recorded from the Nikon









Eclipse E600 microscope. For comparison with coordinates of other

microscopes, a point placed on a standard biological microscope slide 3 cm from

the left edge and 1.5 cm from the bottom edge gives coordinates of 44.2x,

100.2y.

Observations were also made using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Some preparations were made by placing a 12mm round smooth adhesive pad

onto a standard SEM stub, and then placing a drop of pollen slurry on the pad.

These SEM stubs were placed in a closed SEM stub box and then allowed to dry

on a slide warmer. Other SEM stubs were prepared by placing a small 1.3 cm2

piece of tinfoil with adhesive onto a standard 12mm SEM stub. A 12mm round

glass coverslip was then placed in the center of the tinfoil square, and the

corners of the square were crimped around the coverslip to hold it in place. A

drop of pollen slurry was placed on the coverslip. The stubs were placed in a

closed SEM stub box and then on a slide warmer or in incubator for several

hours to dry. This second method was developed after it was found that the

pollen grains and spores tended to sink into the adhesive, obscuring part of the

structure. Also, the second method was advantageous in that it enabled a

permanent slide to be prepared that can be accessioned into the UF

paleobotanical collections. Stubs were sputter coated and observations were

made using a Hitachi S-400 Fe-SEM at the University of Florida Electron

Microscopy Core Laboratory. After SEM observations were completed, the

coverslips were removed from the stubs and inverted onto a drop of Canada

balsam on a standard glass microscope slide.









Pollen, pteridophyte spores, and fungi (fruiting bodies and spores) were

described using a synthesis of terminology defined by the AASP Workgroup on

Fossil Fungal Palynomorphs (1983), Huang (1981), Moore et al. (1991), Traverse

(1988), and Weber (1998) (see Appendix B).

Pollen counts were conducted by tallying all pollen grains of specific

genera or morphotypes on four slides. The slides were prepared from sediment

that was either clay-rich or sand-rich from different levels in the exposure. At

least 250 individual grains were counted on each slide. A total of 1,072 grains or

spores were included in the percentage calculations. Because this was a

random sampling technique, not all genera or morphotypes identified are

described in the pollen count summary.

Cuticle analysis was preformed on some specimens. The cuticle

preparation method used was that of Kva6ek (pers. comm. w/ S. R. Manchester

2003), which was modified from Dilcher (1974). Loose cuticle samples were

removed carefully from fossils with forceps. The samples were then transferred

to a water droplet on a glass slide. A fresh Schulz' solution was then prepared

by adding several crystals of Potassium Chlorate to a few drops of concentrated

Nitric Acid, making sure the solution was saturated (crystals remained at bottom).

Monocot cuticle was treated for 10 minutes, while dicot cuticle was treated for 2-5

minutes. Timing was determined by carefully watching the sample, and then

quickly diluting the Schultz solution with distilled water when the cuticles had

cleared to a pale brown color (eudicots and magnoliids), or had cleared partially

(from black to chocolate brown)(monocot). After diluting the Schulz' solution, it









was pipetted off, and the specimen was washed two to three more times in a

similar manner.

Euicot and magnoliid cuticle was then transferred in water to a slide and

observed via a dissecting microscope. The abaxial and adaxial cuticles were

carefully teased apart with fine needles and the mesophyll was carefully scraped

away. A drop of glycerine jelly was added to the slide and a slipcover was

placed over it with a ring of clear fingernail polish to keep it in place and to

prevent dehydration.

Monocot cuticle was still dark and was treated with a couple drops of NH3

(ammonia) after the Schulz treatment. The cuticle quickly cleared with this

treatment, but remained very fragile. Repeated attempts were made to extract

monocot cuticle, each time successively shortening the time in Schultz solution

from 10 to 5 to 2 minutes and reducing the amount of ammonia and then

eliminating the ammonia treatment entirely. However, despite these efforts, the

cuticle disintegrated easily when the attempts were made to pry the cuticle layers

apart. SEM observations were also attempted on monocot cuticle, but the

cellular structure was obscured. No successful observations of monocot cuticle

were made.

Some sediment from Alum Bluff was sieved previous to the start of my

investigations. Some of the grey, siltstone bearing black leaf compressions was

disaggregated in Hydrogen Peroxide and washed through a series of screens

with mesh size grading from 1 mm to 0.33 mm. Only one specimen obtained

from the sieving method was found to be taxonomically identifiable.














RESULTS

From the leaf, spore, pollen, fruit and seed observations that were made,

30 taxa have been recognized (Table 4). Seven morphotypes of uncertain

taxonomic affinity, and 22 examples of unknown taxonomic affinity were

described (Table 4). In addition, 11 leaf morphotypes of uncertain taxonomic

affinity, and 17 pollen or spore morphotypes of uncertain affinity were

recognized.

Leaf Macrofossils

Sixteen morphotypes were identified from Alum Bluff. Only two of the

morphotypes are named to genus, one morphotype is tentatively named to genus

(Table 4), and the remaining 12 morphotypes are designated "Morphotype AB1-

12."

In the current description of the flora, most leaves were not named to a

specific genus, though the morphology of the leaves is certainly that of species

belonging to a more temperate climate, as evidenced by the small leaf size and

frequency of leaves with serrate margins.

Carva (Juglandaceae). 10+ specimens. Fig. 7a-f. Leaves presumably

compound. Lamina elliptic to ovate, asymmetrical, unlobed microphyll-

notophylls, length to width ratio 2-2.4:1. Apex straight to cuneate, base cuneate.

Margin serrated, 1 tooth order, 4 teeth/cm, spacing regular, teeth are straight

above and may be straight or convex below, sinus angular. Primary vein straight









to curved. Secondaries pinnate, craspedodromous. All secondaries terminate in

a tooth. Spacing of secondaries increasing toward base, angle relative to the

primary vein also increasing toward base. Tertiaries opposite percurrent, straight

vein course, obtuse vein angle relative to primary. Quaternary and higher order

veins not well preserved.

The identification of this foliage as Carva is supported by the abundant

pollen and nut evidence of the genus at Alum Bluff. The leaves are fragmentary

in most cases, however the distinct character of the venation and the

asymmetrical lamina base and overall asymmetrical shape of the leaf also lend

support to the identification as Carva. Of the modern reference material I

observed, characteristic opposite percurrent tertiaries are very similar to the fossil

material from Alum Bluff. Also, the tendency of the secondaries to dichotomize

near the margin, and the dichotomous branches to enervate two teeth is

characteristic of modern Carya. In modern material, occasionally, one or both of

the secondary branches branch again and feed into the teeth as well (thus one

secondary enervates up to 3-4 teeth). This was observed in the fossil material as

well.

Extant Carva ranges from eastern North America to Central America and

a few species occur in eastern Asia. There are six species of living Carva in the

Apalachicola River Valley. Macrofossils of Carva are known from the Miocene of

the eastern U.S. in the Brandon Lignite of Vermont (Tiffney 1994).

Lauraceae. 1 specimen. Fig. 8a-c. Leaves simple. Lamina elliptical,

entire microphyll. Apex and base missing. Secondary veins weak









brochidodromous. Tertiary and higher order veins not well preserved. Stomata

paracytic, oil cells common.

Cuticle was successfully recovered and processed from this fragmentary

Alum Bluff specimen. Before removal, the cuticular material appeared

coriaceous (Fig. 8c). Several characteristics of this cuticle suggest that it may

belong to a member of the Lauraceae. Before the abaxial and adaxial cuticles

were separated, it was noted that the mesophyll contained numerous, large oil

cells. One oil cell remained attach with some mesophyll remnant to one cuticle

surface (Fig. 8a).

Paliurus (Rhamnaceae). 3 specimens. Fig. 9a-d. Leaves simple.

Lamina elliptical, symmetrical, unlobed microphylls to notophylls. Length to width

ratio approximately 1.3:1. Apex missing in all specimens, base acute, straight to

slightly concave. Leaf serrate with possibly gland-tipped teeth, 1 tooth order, 3

teeth/cm, spacing regular. Primary veins basal actinodromous with 3 basal

veins. Secondaries craspedodromous. Tertiary and higher order veins not well

preserved.

The identification of Paliurus leaves at Alum Bluff is tenuous. Though a

convincing winged fruit has been found at the site (Fig. 19g) (Manchester 1999),

leaves have proven more troublesome. Though the leaves illustrated here as

Paliurus share some common characters with that of modern Paliurus, namely

three basal veins arising from the same point and arching toward the leaf apex

and serrate margins, identification cannot be confirmed in the leaves due to lack









of preservation of higher order venation and the absence of a leaf apex. The

identification presented here is provided as a possible taxon for this morphotype.

Sabalites (Arecaceae). 20+ specimens. Fig. 10a-e, Fig. 11. Large

plicate leaved, costapalmate (rachis of leaf continues through where leaf

segments begin to diverge to form a narrow point near the midpoint of the leaf)

palm fronds, up to 50X50+mm. Individual leaf segments display a prominent

midvein. Veins arise at an acute angle from the costa and continue to the of the

leaf apex. A small hastula (ligule-like appendage) is evident at the base of the

leaf (Fig. 10c). Petiole of leaf large without spines or otherwise armed edges.

Sabalites is probably the most common megafossil found at Alum Bluff.

Fan palms of similar form are noted from Tertiary sites from the gulf coastal plain

Florida to Texas and from Kentucky and Tennessee (Berry 1916, Daghlian

1978). The large, coriaceous leaves occur in dense overlapping mats within the

fossil plant strata. Repeated efforts were made to extract cuticle from Sabalites

specimens for more precise generic and species determination with no success.

Several large trunks of palm were also observed, and a portion of one of these is

illustrated in Fig. 10d. In viewing the trunks in cross section, large, conspicuous

fibers typical of palm stems were evident.

The form genus, Sabalites, is used here to describe the costapalmate

palm leaves from Alum Bluff. Sabalites was also the name used by Berry in his

original description of the flora. Lacking diagnostic characters found in fruits,

flowers, or leaf cuticle, identification to a modern genus can not and should not

be made (Daghlian 1978, Read and Hickey 1972). Palm leaves from Alum Bluff









may be erroneously named if assigned to a modern costapalmate palm genus

such as Sabal in the absence of distinctive fruit, flower, or cuticle characters.

Berry named the species at Alum Bluff Sabalites apalachicolensis, however he

named this species essentially as a locality morphotype without specifying of

distinctive characters that distinguish the Alum Bluff material of Sabalites from

that of other Tertiary deposits. Thus, this species name cannot be confirmed.

Ulmus (Ulmaceae). 10+specimens. Fig. 12a-f. Leaves simple. Lamina

elliptic to ovate, symmetrical to slightly asymmetrical at the base, unlobed

microphyll-notophylls, length to width ratio 2-2.4:1. Apex straight to cuneate,

base cuneate. Margin serrated, 1 tooth order, 4 teeth/cm, spacing regular, teeth

are straight above and may be straight or convex below, sinus angular.

Secondaries pinnate, craspedodromous, 1 basal vein. All secondaries terminate

in a tooth. Spacing of secondaries increasing toward base, angle relative to the

primary vein also increasing toward base. Tertiaries alternate percurrent, straight

vein course, obtuse vein angle relative to primary. Quaternary and higher order

veins are not well preserved.

This is one of only two genera upheld from Berry's (1916) original work on

the Alum Bluff flora (Berry designated a new fossil species, Ulmus floridana). In

Berry's description of the material, however, he describes the petiole of Ulmus

floridana as being "short and stout, about 2.5 millimeters in length." The material

that I examined, however, exhibited a significantly longer petiole, being at least

4.0-9.0 mm in length (Fig. 12a, b, e, f). Specimens of Ulmus exhibit secondaries

which often dichotomize near the margin. This phenomenon was observed in









modern reference material as well. Unlike the Carya leaves, however, one of the

dichotomous branches enervates the tooth, while the other usually feeds into the

sinus between the teeth and rarely enervates a tooth. In addition, the alternate

percurrent tertiary venation of Ulmus distinguishes it from Carva. This type of

tertiary venation is typical in modern Ulmus.

Morphotype AB1. 6 specimens. Fig. 13a-g. Leaves simple. Lamina

ovate to elliptical, symmetrical, unlobed microphylls to notophylls, length to width

ration 0.8-2.5:1. Apex obtuse, rounded. Only one specimen of an isolated apex

was found (Fig 13g). Apex is missing in all other specimens. Base cuneate to

slightly concave. Only fragmented petiole preserved in some specimens. Margin

crenate with about 1-1.5 crenations/cm, spacing regular, sinuses rounded.

Primary veins are basal actinodromous, five basal veins present. Primaries feed

into the large, broad, rounded teeth. Secondaries enervate remaining teeth

(craspedodromous) (Fig 13f).

Berry (1916) reported observing but being unable to collect a palmately

veined leaf at Alum Bluff that he thought was Ficus. He gave no mention to

whether marginal characters were observed. Berry may have observed the

Morphotype AB1 leaf instead.

Morphotype AB2. 4 specimens. Fig. 14a-d. Leaves simple. Lamina

elongated ovate, symmetrical, unlobed microphylls, length to width ratio 7:1.

Apex missing but likely acute-acuminate. Basal portion and petiole are missing

in all specimens. Margin is serrate, 1 tooth order, 5 teeth/cm, tooth spacing

regular, teeth are straight above and convex below, tooth apex simple, tooth









sinuses angular. Secondaries pinnate, weakly brochidodromous. Secondaries

terminate in some but not all teeth. Spacing of secondaries increasing toward

base, secondary angle relative to the primary vein decreasing toward base.

Tertiaries alternate percurrent, vein course straight. Quaternary and higher order

veins not well preserved.

Morphotype AB3. 3 specimens. Fig. 15a-d. Leaves simple. Lamina

ovate, symmetrical, unlobed microphylls, length to width ratio ca. 2:1. Apex is

missing (straight?) as is basal portion and petiole in all specimens. Margin is

entire. Secondaries pinnate, weakly brochidodromous. Spacing of secondaries

increasing toward base, secondary angle relative to the primary vein smoothly

decreasing toward base. Tertiaries random reticulate, vein course slightly

exmedially ramified. Quaternary veins reticulate. Areolation appears to be well

developed, freely ending ultimate veins appear absent.

Morphotype AB4. 1 specimen. Fig. 16a, b. Leaves simple. Lamina

ovate, symmetrical, unlobed microphyll, length to width ratio 2.75:1. Apex

narrowly rounded, basal portion and petiole missing. Margin entire. Primary

veins basal acrodromous. Secondaries basal acrodromous. Tertiary and higher

order veins are not well preserved.

Morphotype AB5. 1 specimen. Fig. 16c, d. Leaves presumably

compound. Lamina asymmetrical, unlobed microphyll-notophyll (or leaflets from

a compound leaf), length to width ratio ca. 2.33:1. Apex is missing (interpreted

as acuminate/straight?), base cuneate. Petiole ca. 0.5 cm. Margin entire.

Secondaries pinnate, craspedodromous, 1 basal vein. Spacing of secondaries









decreasing slightly toward base, vein angle relative to primary vein is uniform.

Tertiary and higher order veins are not well preserved.

Morphotype AB6. 1 specimen. Fig. 16e-g. Leaves simple. Lamina

obovate, symmetrical, unlobed microphyll, length to width ratio 1.3:1. Apex

obtuse, convex, base concave. Margin serrated, 1 tooth order, 2 teeth/cm,

spacing regular, teeth flexuous or convex above and convex below. Secondary

veins pinnate, craspedodromous, 1 basal vein. Secondary spacing and angle

unclear due to poor preservation. Tertiary and higher order veins also obscure.

This specimen is composed of fragmented segments of cuticle and no clear

impression is evident.

Morphotype AB7. 1 specimen. Fig. 16h, i. Leaves simple. Lamina

ovate, symmetrical, unlobed micropyhll, length to width ratio 1.14:1. Apex

obtuse, acuminate, base obtuse, rounded. Margin entire. Secondaries pinnate,

weak brochidodromous, 1 basal vein. Spacing and vein angle of secondaries

uniform. Tertiary and higher order veins poorly preserved.

Morphotype AB8. 1 specimen. Fig. 17a, b. Leaves simple. Lamina

elliptic, symmetrical, unlobed microphyll, length to width ratio 1.65:1. Apex

obtuse-rounded, base acute-convex. Margin entire. Secondary veins pinnate,

weak brochidodromous, 1 basal vein. Spacing and angle of secondaries

decreasing toward base. Tertiaries random reticulate or regular polygonal

reticulate (preservation makes determination difficult). Higher order veins are not

visible due to poor preservation.









Morphotype AB9. 1 specimen. Fig. 17c-d. Leaves simple. Lamina

elliptical, symmetrical, unlobed microphyll, length to width ratio 2.7:1. Apex

acute-straight, base is missing (perhaps cuneate). Margins serrate, 1 tooth order,

3 teeth/cm, irregular spacing, angular sinus, tooth straight above and convex

below. Only tertiary veins enervate the teeth. Secondary veins pinnate,

semicraspedodromous, 1 basal vein. Spacing and angle of secondary veins

decreasing slightly toward base. Tertiary veins regular polygonal. Quarternary

veins regular polygonal reticulate. Higher order veins lacking or poorly

preserved.

Morphotype AB10. 2 specimens. Fig. 18a-b. Leaves simple. Lamina

elliptic, symmetrical, unlobed notophyll, length to width ratio 2.6:1. Apex acute,

convex, base acute, cuneate. Margin entire. Secondary veins pinnate,

brochidodromous. 1 basal vein. Spacing and angle of secondaries decreasing

toward base. Tertiaries and higher order viens not well preserved.

Morphotype AB11. 2 specimen. Fig. 18c-e. Leaves simple. Lamina

elliptic, symmetrical, unlobed notophyll, length to width ratio 2:1. Apex acute,

straight, base obtuse, rounded. Margin entire. Secondary pinnate, veins

brochidodromous. 1 basal vein. Spacing of secondaries decreasing toward

base. Angle of secondaries increasing toward base. Tertiaries alternate

percurrent. Higher order veins are not well preserved.

Morphotype AB12: 1 specimen. Fig. 18f. Leaves simple. Lamina

elliptical, symmetrical, unlobed microphyll, length to width ratio 4:1. Apex

convex, base convex. Margin entire. Secondaries pinnate, weak









brochidodromous. Spacing of secondaries increasing toward the base, and vein

angle of secondaries relative to the primary vein is smoothly increasing toward

base. Tertiaries appear randomly reticulated, but are poorly preserved. Petiole

ca. 0.3cm.

Fruits and Seeds

Carya (Juglandaceae). Fig. 19a-f. Fruits with thick, smooth husks

(averaging ca. 2mm thick) (Fig. 19a, f), nut 13-15X20-30mm, endocarp 12-

15X15-17mm. Husk appears to separate into four valves. Locule cast shows a

pair of longitudinal grooves corresponding to primary and secondary septa with

the the nut (Fig. 19d).

Paliurus (Rhamnaceae). Fig. 19g. Winged fruit, with the wing extending

horizontally outward around the circumference of the fruit. Approximately

10X15mm, seed body 4X6mm. Persistent perianth disk scar present.

The evidence of a persistent perianth disk scar (raised rim below the

wing), distinguishing it this taxa from Cyclocarya (Manchester 1999). Modern

Paliurus occurs primarily in Asia, though some species do occur in southern

Europe. The introduction of this Eurasian endemic group to the Alum Bluff flora

significantly changes the interpretations of Berry (1916), as will be discussed

later.

Scirpus (Cyperaceae). Fig. 19h. Three angled achene, approximately

0.4X1.29mm, apparently not subtended by hyaline scales. Specimen was

unfortunately broken during preparation for SEM, but the three angled nature is

still evident.









Unknown fruit. Fig. 19i. Globose fruit, 10X10mm. Several examples of

this form exist at Alum Bluff, but none have yet revealed peduncle or perianth

scars, etc. which would aid identification.

Spores and Pollen

Unlike the limited macrofloral assemblages, there are several Miocene

localities in the eastern United States from which pollen is known (Table 2).

Occurrence of palynomorphs at Alum Bluff has been compared with other known

terrestrial Miocene localities in the eastern United States (Table 2).

Approximately 30 palynomorphs have been identified at least to "type" (most

similar systematic group) from Alum Bluff (Table 4). In addition, percentages of

abundance of some of the pollen types identified at Alum Bluff are illustrated (Fig.

20). The most abundant pollen types, based on pollen counts of 1,072 grains, at

Alum Bluff are Carva, Pinus, Ulmus, and an unknown monosulcate pollen

(Magnoliid type). All other pollen types account for 2% or less of the total pollen

abundance at the site. No attempt was made to identify pollen morphotypes to

the species level.

Spores

Fern spores are relatively common in the Alum Bluff sediments, and as a

group account for approximately 4-5% of the total palynomorph abundance.

Despite this frequent occurrence in the palynomorph record, ferns are entirely

lacking from the macrofossil assembledge. This is probably due in large part to

the harsh, sandy preservation environment. Herbaceous fern remains likely

decayed quickly in the highly oxic riverine deposits along the Apalachicola River.









Table 2. Terrestrial Miocene pollen localities from eastern North America used
for comparison with Alum Bluff pollen. See Table 3 for details of the occurrence
of individual elements of several of these floras.


Formation
or Locality

Ohoopee River
Dune Field

Catahoula
Formation

Brandywine
Deposit

Old Church
Formation

Calvert Formation


Legler Lignite
(Cohansey
Formation)

Brandon Lignite


Geographic
Location

Emanuel County,
Georgia

Sicily Island,
Louisiana

Brandywine,
Maryland

Pamunkey River,
Virginia

Kent County,
Delaware

Legler, New
Jersey


Near Brandon,
Vermont


Age


Reference


Likely Middle
Miocene

Early late Miocene


Late Miocene


Middle Miocene


Late Oligocene-
Miocene

Late Miocene



Early Miocene


Rich et al. 2002


Wrenn et al. 2003


McCartan et al.
1990

Frederiksen 1984


Groot 1992


Rachele 1976


Traverse 1955,
1994, Tiffney
1994, Tiffney and
Traverse 1994


Adiantaceae. Fig. 21a, b. Trilete spore, subtriangular., ca. 45X45 pm.

Laesural arms 17-20 pm long, straight, margo flange-like with irregularly sinuous

ridges. Surface verrucate.

In the modern flora of Alum Bluff area, there is one species belonging to

the Adiantaceae that occurs (Adiantum capillus-veneris). The spore closely

resembles Jamesonia, a tropical member of the Adiantaceae. Jamesonia occurs

from Mexico to Bolivia and Brazil at high altitutes. Jamesonia is not known from









Tertiary sites in North America, though it does have a fossil record from the

Pleistocene within it's native range (Hammen and Gonzalez 1960, Hafsten

1960). Graham and Jarzen also noted fossil Jamesonia from Puerto Rico

(1969). The laesural ridges also resemble Anogramma of the Adiantaceae.

Botrychium (Ophioglossaceae). Figure 21c. 1 specimen observed.

Trilete spore, subtriangular, ca. 35X35 pm. Laesura not evident in SEM. Surface

rugulato-reticulate.

Extant Ophioglossaceae are subcosmopolitan. Fossil records from the

Miocene of eastern North America are not known.

Cyathea (Cyatheaceae). Figure 21d. Trilete spore, subtriangular, ca.

40X40 pm. Laesural arms ca. 12X1 pm long, straight, margo flange-like.

Surface verrucate.

In North America, modern Cyatheaceae are widespread in tropical

montane Mexico to Chile and in the Caribbean. In eastern North America,

Cyathea has been reported from the Miocene in the Legler Lignite of New Jersey

(Rachele 1976). Frederiksen (1984) also reported a Cyathea-like type in the Old

Church Flora of Virginia.

Dryopteris (Dryopteridaceae). Fig. 21e, f. Trilete spore, 30-40X40-55

pm. Laesural arms ca. 15X2 pm long, straight, margo line-like. Surface covered

with large verrucate, almost bladder-like, processes.

Extant Dryopteris are cosmopolitan. Dryopteris ludoviciana occurs in the

modern Alum Bluff area flora. Dryopteris is not known from other Miocene

eastern North American sites.









Polypodiaceae. Fig. 21g-i. Bilateral monolete spore, 20-40X33-60 pm..

Laesurae 20-45 pm, simple commissure. Surface verrucate.

Modern Polypodiaceae are widespread with many speices in temperate

and tropical regions. Two species occur in the modern flora near Alum Bluff

(Pleopeltis polypodioides and Phlebodium aureum). In the Cenozoic fossil

record, Polypodiaceae is well known in North America. Polypodium fertile is

known in the Miocene Weaverville Formation at Redding Creek, California

(Kva6ek et al. 2004). In eastern North America, members of the Polypodiaceae

have been identified from the Brandon Lignite of Vermont (Traverse 1955, 1994,

Tiffney 1994, Tiffney and Traverse 1994), Catahoula formation of Louisiana

(Wrenn et al. 2003), Legler Lignite, New Jersey (Rachele 1976), and the Calvert

Formation, Delaware (Groot 1992).

Pteris (Pteridaceae). Figure 21j. Trilete spores, rounded triangular, ca.

45X47 pm.. Laesurae not evident in SEM. Surface baculate to clavate.

Equitorial ridge present, annulotrilete.

Extant Pteris is cosmopolitan, occurring in both warm and temperate

regions. Three species occur today in the Alum Bluff area flora (Pteris cretica, P.

multifida, and the introduced P. vittata).

Unknown Trilete Spores

Figure 21k, I. Trilete spores, rounded triangular, ca. 15-17X20-25 pm..

Laesural arms ca. 15 pm long, straight, margo lip-like. Surface slightly verrucate.

Perhaps Momipites (an angiosperm pollen type)?









Figure 21m. Trilete spores, rounded triangular, ca. 17X20 pm.. Laesural

arms ca. 10 pm long, straight, margo line-like. Surface psilate.

Figure 21n. 1 specimen observed. Trilete spore, subtriangular, 45X45

pm.. Laesural arms ca. 20 pm long, curved. A large gap (ca. 15 pm) extends

between the laesurae. Margo may be line-like.

Figure 21o. 47X46 pm. Trilete spore, globose. Laesural arms ca 25 pm

long, straight, margo line-like. Surface reticulate.

Figure 21p,q. ca. 45X60 pm. Trilete spore, ellipsoidal. Laesural arms ca

30 pm long, straight, margo line-like. Surface reticulate. May be a member of

the Lycopodiaceae.

Pollen

Taxodium (Cupressaceae). Fig. 22a-c. Inaperturate pollen grains that

split deeply and fold inwards along their equators, 18-25X15-22 pm. Very small

gemmate ornamentation is evident in SEM (Fig. 22c).

Modern Taxodium is primarily restricted to the eastern North America, with

one species occurring at higher elevations in Mexico. Both North American

species of Taxodium occur near Alum Bluff in the modern flora. Taxodium is

known from several other Miocene sites in eastern North America including the

Brandywine Flora (McCartan et al. 1990), the Ohoopee River dune field (Rich et

al. 2002), the Calvert Formation, Delaware (Groot 1992), and the Legler Lignite

(Rachele 1976). Traverse identified Glyptostrobus, a close relative of Taxodium,

in the Brandon Lignite (1955).









At Alum Bluff, Taxodium is relatively uncommon, accounting for less than

2% of pollen abundance at the site. No macrofossils of Taxodium have been

found at the site.

Pinus (Pinaceae). Fig. 22d-g. Vesiculate pollen grain with bladders

broadly attached to the corpus. Overall-40-55X70-80 pm. Corpus 30-45X45-60

pm. Sacci 30-45X30-45 pm. Bladders reticulate under light microscopy (Fig.

22e, g), psilate under SEM (22d, f). Corpus reticulato-verrucate.

Pine is one of the most abundant and widespread genera in the

palynological record, largely due to its copious pollen production and long-

distance pollen dispersal (Traverse 1988). Seven species are native today in the

Apalachicola River Valley. In the Miocene of the eastern United States, Pinus is

known from the Ohoopee River dune field (Rich et al. 2002), the Catahoula

Formation (Wrenn et al. 2004), the Legler Lignite (Rachele 1976), the

Brandywine Flora of Maryland (McCartan et al. 1990), and the Calvert Formation

of Delaware (Groot 1992).

Despite the abundance of Pinus pollen in the Alum Bluff sediment (26.4%

of the total pollen assemblage), no macrofossils of Pinus were discovered at

Alum Bluff, indicating that Pinus was likely transported to the site from some

distance away. The overabundance of pine pollen in the Alum Bluff sediment,

however, suggests that Pinus was certainly present in the area immediately

surrounding Alum Bluff.

Poaceae. Fig. 22h-k. Monoporate spheroidal-subspheroidal to prolate

pollen grains, 40-45X40-65 pm. Surface psilate. Most examples exhibit a









prominent annulus (Fig. 22i-k), and one shows an operculum still in place (Fig.

22i).

Poaceous type pollen has also been identified from the eastern U.S.

Miocene in the Legler Lignite (Rachele 1976), the Catahoula Formation (Wrenn

et al. 2003), the Ohoopee River dune field (Rich et al. 2002), and the Brandon

Lignite (Traverse 1955). In the Alum Bluff sediments, Poaceous type pollen was

identified successfully only with SEM and was rare in the samples overall.

Liliales. Fig. 23a-d. Monosulcate pollen grains, 12-25X20-45 pm.

Surface perforate to foveolate.

Liliaceous pollen has also been reported from the Miocene of the eastern

U.S. at the Catahoula Formation (Wrenn et al. 2003), the Ohoopee River dune

field (Rich et al. 2002), and the Piney Point Formation (Fredericksen 1984). At

Alum Bluff, Liliaceous pollen is rare (>1% of total pollen assemblage).

Magnoliaceae. Fig 23e, f. Monosulcate pollen grains, 15-25X25-28 pm.

Surface psilate.

These inconspicuous monosulcate grains constitute a large fraction of the

pollen at Alum Bluff (13.0%), though this percentage doubtless includes a

number of unknown taxa. Magnoliid type pollen is also known from the Miocene

localites at the Ohoopee River dune field (Rich et al. 2002), and the Catahoula

Formation (Wrenn 2003).

In the megafossil assemblage at Alum Bluff, there are several examples of

entire margined, pinnately veined leaves that may belong to the Magnoliaceae,









however sufficient characters are lacking to confirm identification of the family

among the megafossils.

Amaranthaceae. Fig. 23g-i. Periporate pollen grains, 15X15 pm.

Surface scabrate to gemmate.

This pollen type is also know from the Calvert Formation (Groot 1992).

Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae type pollen is relatively rare at Alum Bluff and

was probably transported to the site from the surrounding area.

Carya (Juglandaceae). Fig. 23j-m. Triporate pollen grains with the pores

clearly shifted to one hemisphere, 45-50X45-60 pm. Annulus present, but not

prominent. Surface sculpture scabrate.

Carya pollen is known from all the eastern U.S. Miocene localities except

the Brandywine Flora. By far the most abundant pollen type at Alum Bluff, the

presence of Carva pollen corroborates the identification of both leaf and seed

macrofossils recovered from the site. The abundance of both macrofossil and

palynological remains of Carva suggest that hickories were an important

component of the Miocene Alum Bluff forest along with Ulmus and Sabalites.

Diospyros (Ebenaceae). Fig. 23n. Tricolpate pollen grains, ca. 30X30

pm. Surface sculpture psilate. Sculpturing is evident within the broad colpi, and

appears to be baculate.

Diospyros is currently predominantly a tropical genus, with one species

(Diospyros virginiana) occurring in the southeastern U.S. The Diospyros type is

not known from any other Miocene eastern U.S. pollen localities. It is a rare

component of the Alum Bluff flora (>0.5%).









This pollen type resembles some members of the Styracaceae as well,

though it is distinctly different from this family due to the psilate surface

(Styracaceae possess scabrate surface sculpturing.)

Gleditsia (Fabaceae). Fig. 25j-p. Tricolpate pollen grains, ca.30-40X30-

40 pm. Sculpturing reticulate with horizontal striations across reticulum.

Comparison with modern reference material of Gleditsia supports this

identification. Not only do both the fossil and modern material exhibit prominent

reticulate sculpturing, but both exhibit horizontal striations on the reticulum. In

addition, the length to width ratio (ca. 1.5:1) is the same for the modern and fossil

material.

Berry (1916) reported observing fruits very similar to those of Gleditsia

aquatica at Alum Bluff, though he was unsuccessful in collecting them. Gleditsia

aquatica is a component of the modern floodplain forests near Alum Bluff today.

Ilex (Aquifoliaceae). Fig. 23o-u. Tricolpate pollen grains, 25-37X30-40

pm. Surface covered with very large pilate processes (Fig. 23u) with the stalks of

the clubs being very narrow in relation to the head. Surface of club head covered

with rugulate sculpturing.

Modern Ilex is a cosmopolitan genus, though most species are restricted

to tropical and temperate Asia and America. There are 10 species native to the

panhandle region of Florida. Ilex is known from all of the Miocene eastern U.S.

palynofloras surveyed (Table 2). At Alum Bluff, it is a relatively infrequent

occurrence.









Liquidambar (Altingiaceae). Fig. 23v-x. Periporate, spheroidal pollen

grains, ca. 30-40X30-40 pm. Surface sculpturing foveolate. Pore membranes

covered with bead-like sculpturing.

There are only a few extant species of Liquidambar that occur either in

eastern North America (L. styraciflua) or Asia (L. acalycina and L. formosana in

China, and L. orientalis in Asia Minor). Liquidambar styraciflua is a common

component of floodplain habitats in the Apalachicola River Valley. Liquidambar

is known from all of the Miocene eastern U.S. palynofloras (Table 2). At Alum

Bluff, it comprises only 1% of the total palynofloral assemblage. Though

Liquidambar was abundant in the modern environment at the Alum Bluff site,

likelihood of contamination from modern sources is low since Liquidambar was

found in samples processed with sterile techniques at the Canadian Geolabs, Inc

(Liquidambar does not occur in Western Canada), and since grains exhibited no

nucleus and were often corroded or deflated.

Myrica (Myricaceae). Fig. 23y, z. Triporate pollen grains, annulus

present but not prominent, 30-35X30-35 pm. Surface sculpturing scabrate.

Myrica is a subcosmopolitan genus. There are several species native to

the eastern U.S. (Myrica cerifera, M. inodora, and M. caroliniensis). Myrica

pollen is known from the Catahoula Formation (Wrenn et al. 2003), the Ohoopee

River dune field (Rich et al. 2002), and the Brandon Lignite (Traverse 1955). It is

uncommon at Alum Bluff.









It is often difficult to discern the Betulaceous type pollen from the

Myricaceous type pollen by light microscopy, and thus this palynomorph, which

was not observed in SEM may represent Betulaceae.

Quercus (Fagaceae). Fig. 24a-f. Tricolpate pollen grains, ca. 20X30 pm.

Surface sculpturing scrabrato-verrucate.

Oaks occur primarily in northern temperate zones, with some species

occurring at more tropical latitudes at high altitudes. In the panhandle of Florida,

there are 24 native oak species (Clewell 1985, Wunderlin and Hansen 2003).

Quercus is present in all of the Miocene eastern U.S. palynofloral localities. It is

relatively rare at Alum Bluff, occurring at a frequency of about 1 per 1,000.

Ulmus (Ulmaceae). Fig. 24g-l. Stephanoporate, oblate pollen grains, ca.

30-45X30-45 pm. Distinct arci lacking (distinguishing it from Alnus). Surface

sculpturing scabrate and rugulate. May occur with four (Fig. 24g-j), five (Fig.

24k), or six (Fig 241) pores.

Modern elms are found primarily at northern temperate latitudes of North

America and Eurasia. There are three species of Ulmus occurring in the

Apalachicola River Valley (U. alata, U. americana, and U. rubra). Pollen

occurring at Alum Bluff is more likely Ulmus than Planera, because according to

Zavada, Planera possess little to no rugulae at the poles of the grain (1983). The

specimens from Alum Bluff mostly show clear rugulae covering both the

equatorial region as well as the poles (Fig. 24g-l). Present at all eastern U.S.

Miocene localities, Ulmus is particularly abundant at Alum Bluff, comprising more

than 10% of the pollen assemblage.









Asteraceae and Malvaceae. Fig. 25a-e. Two size classes: 18-25X30

pm, 30-45X32-47 pm. Smaller pollen grains tricolporate (Fig. 25a, b). Colpi and

pores unclear in larger grains (Fig. 25c-e). All with echinate surface sculpturing.

Due to their clear tricolporate nature, it is suggested that the smaller

grains (Fig. 25a, b) may be helianthid type pollen (Asteraceae). Similar

helianthid type pollen recovered from the Catahoula Formation is age diagnostic

for that area. Pollen of the helianthid type assigns an age of earliest late

Miocene to the Catahoula Formation based on offshore pollen zonation markers

in the Gulf of Mexico (Styzen 1996, Wrenn 1996, Wrenn et al. 2003). This

reported age is slightly younger (ca. 3 million years) than that of Alum Bluff.

Thus, the presence of the helianthid type pollen in the Alum Bluff assemblage

may suggest a slightly younger age than reported by previous authors (Bryant et

al. 1992, Webb et al. 2003). Until a firm diagnosis of the pollen at Alum Bluff

being the helianthid type, this new assertation regarding age cannot be made

with certainty.

The larger pollen grains (Fig. 25c-e) show some characteristics of the

Malvaceae, particularly small "lines" or "bands" that inervate the echinate

processes. These seem to be lacking in the small grains (Fig. 25a, b). Certain

identification cannot be made, however, due to lack of resolution in determining

present/absence and position of pores and/or colpi. Further examination via

TEM or SEM may be warranted to gain the necessary resolution to distinguish

these taxa.









Vitaceae type. Fig. 25u-x. Tricolporate pollen grain, ca. 18-30X18-30

pm. Surface sculpturing rugulate.

The sculpturing of this palynomorph closely resembles that of Vitis. The

larger sized specimens (Fig. 25v, x) approach the typical size for Parthenocissus.



Uncertain Pollen Forms

Betulaceae type. Fig. 25f. Triporate pollen grain with a distinct annulus

around the pores, 35X35 pm. Surface ornamentation appears scabrate.

Euphorbiaceae type. Fig. 25g, h. Pores and colpi not visible in SEM

(may be inaperturate or have pores or colpi on one hemisphere), 30X35 pm.

Sculpturing appears gemmate.

These morphotypes resemble sculpturing exhibited by some

Euphorbiaceae.

Fabaceae type. Fig. 25i. Pores and colpi not visible in SEM (may be

inaperturate or have pores or colpi on one hemisphere), 40X45 pm. Sculpturing

dramatically reticulate.

This taxon resembles Vigna (Fabaceae) pollen.

Rubiaceae/Rhamnaceae type. Fig. 25q, r. Tricolporate, syncolpate,

15X15 pm. Surface sculpturing verrucate.

These pollen grain resemble some genera of Rubiaceae and

Rhamnaceae.

Rosaceae type. Fig. 25s, t. 8X12 pm. Tricolpate pollen grain. Surface

sculpturing striato-rugulate.









This specimen resembles some members of the Rosaceae due to its

prominent striato-rugulate sculpturing.

Unknown Palynomorphs

Fig. 26a. 60X115 pm. Very large monosulcate pollen (?) grain. Surface

psilate. Possibly an algal cyst.

Fig. 26b-d. Varying sizes. Tricolpate pollen grains. Sculpturing varies.

Fig. 26e, g-j. Varying sizes. Triporate pollen grains. Sculpturing varies.

Fig. 26f. ca. 17X17 pm. Tricolporate pollen grain. Surface verrucate.

Fig. 26k, I. 33X33 pm. Tricolpate pollen grain. Sculpturing perforate.

Fig. 26m, n. 30-45X40-45 pm. Periporate pollen grains. Sculpturing

scabrate.

Fig. 260, p. 30-45X65-75 pm. Apparently inaperturate, "boat shaped"

pollen (?) grains. Surface psilate.

Dinoflagellate cyst

Fig. 26q. A marine dinoflagellate cyst.

Fungi

Several fungal types have been noted from Alum Bluff. Berry (1916)

described a spot fungus known as Pestalozzites sabalana on leaves of Sabal

from Alum Bluff. He compared it to modern species of Pestalozzites that occur

on leaves of Serenoa and related groups, and his determination seems accurate.

In examining sediment samples processed for pollen and spores at Alum Bluff, a

number of fungal types were noted that occurred with frequency in the samples.

Following are general descriptions of several fungal types, none of which were









identified taxonomically. Descriptions are tentative and were made following the

terminology of AASP Workgroup on Fossil Fungal Palynomorphs (1983).

Fig. 27a. Obovate, psilate, apparently diporate, dicellate fungal spore.

Fig. 27b. Elliptic, psilate, inaperturate, tricellate fungal spore. Axis

straight.

Fig. 27c. Rounded rhombic, Slightly longitudinally striate, inaperturate,

dicellate fungal spore. Axis straight, dividing spore into equal proportions.

Fig. 27d. Elliptic, psilate, inaperturate, monocellate fungal spore.

Fig. 27e, f. Rounded obdeltate, psilate, inaperturate, monocellate fungal

spores.

Fig. 27g. Partial scutate fruit body. Ostiole/pseudo-ostiole missing in

these fragmented specimens.

Fig. 27h. Circular, psilate, inaperturate, dicellate spore. Axis straight,

dividing the spore into unequal proportions.

Fig. 27i. Elliptic, reticulate, inaperturate, monocellate spore.

Fig. 27j, k. Circular, slightly rugulate, inaperturate, monocellate spore


cluster.
























































I o0 1 2 3 4 5Miles


Figure 1. Map showing Alum Bluff and surrounding area. *=Alum Bluff site.
W= Bristol boat landing.


































IM-41I& TI Mr


Figure 2. Apalachicola River and Alum Bluff exposure.

Figure 3. Alum Bluff exposures showing Early Miocene lowermostt portion at
water level) to Pleistocene (uppermost portion) age sediments.


TF- :: .. ......... ....





























CONTINENTAL SANDS





AL A ARGILLACEOUS SANDS



-- --"- ARENACEOUS CLAY


ARGILLACEOUS SAND
MOLDS OF MOLLUSKS

SHELL MARL

SAND WrTH CLAY LENSES.
WOOD COMMON


ANDY
0cJX.CAAENIMTE AND
ALCAfVEOS SANDS
-"RIHVER LEVEL


Citronelle Formation and
Terrace Sands











Jackson Bluff Formation



Alum Bluff Group,
undifferentiated

Chipola Formation


Figure 4. Lithostratigraphy of Alum Bluff. Modified from Schmidt 1986.














AGE (M EPOCH STAGE ZONE NALMA


z



"s




JI--

0


z


P$
~cr
"O e

m
a
Er:
I=a


0







IL

c.
uJ


1 1 _Ir'~7au


Figure 5. Summary of geochronology, showing temporal relationships between
Torreya and Chipola Formations, and the Alum Bluff Group, undifferentiated.
Stippled areas are unrepresented time intervals. Abbreviations: N-ZONE,
planktonic foraminiferal zonation; NALMA, North American land-mammal age.
Modified from Bryant et al. 1992.


I I


Jl
0


0
0


0
o



U1
1.1


15.0-


16.0-




17.0 -




18,0-




19.0-


N9



N8


N6


N5


z


0
DC
m


BOCK UNITS


r

RIs
?: '

















































1W.
U."r~


Figure 6. Fossil plant strata at the Alum Bluff exposure. Arrows indicate fossil
plant layers. One stratum lies slightly below where photo is cropped.


















































Figure 7. Leaflets of Carya (Juglandaceae). Scalebar=lcm. A) UF18049-
043542, B) UF18049-043504, C) counterpart of "B," D) UF 18049-043502, E)
UF18049-043588, F) counterpart of "E." G) UF18049-043502













P hj _
?5>^^



., ". ."~f
-" A^- ^ --
---^


.- I,' ...
(" < t .--f / .-


-^^/
^ *^ >>.


... ...:-^ '5, *. F ... ..-" ,-'

>.- *-, ,. .,. /''
1 .,- ., ,." **^, .
t-i<. ~---' < ,- '

Cr..- -. ^ /


- -rV r
/" ,-i *


**' ~ ~ *-* A'.. L -


^YA.rI





\ I I,









~-q. .,, \'


/' ."'.
f-,rJ rN
r~"W~l
\.. f-.


T V '

\' [ ." \

^^ t


y.- -r '





'/i <\ 2


Figure 8. Lauraceous leaf. A) 200X, Abaxial cuticle at vein, arrow indicates oil
cell from mesophyll, B) 400X, Abaxial cuticle near vein, note paracytic stomata,
C) Specimen from which cuticle was obtained, UF 18049-043550. Note entire
margin, weakly brochidodromous venation, and flaky, coriaceous cuticle.


-. 8b
I













































Figure 9. Leaves of Paliurus (Rhamnaceae). Scale bar=lcm. A) UF18049-
043543, B) UF18049-043505, C) UF18049-043514, D) closeup of venation of C.




















































Figure 10. Leaves of Sabalites (Arecaceae). A) UF18049-029144, B) UF18049-
?, C) UF18049-029143, D)UF18049-043552.


















































Figure 11. Graduate student Xin Wang with a very large example of a Sabalites
leaf from Alum Bluff.














12c



2I .



2f2
















Figure 12. Leaves of Ulmus (Ulmaceae). Scale bar=lcm. A) UF18049-043513,
B) UF18049-043531, C) Line drawing illustrating vein course, D) UF18049-
043536, E) UF18049-043515, F) UF18049-029132, E) UF18049-043510.
-7

Pe~











043536, E) UF18049-043515, F) UF18049-029132, E) UF18049-043510.




















































Figure 13. Alum Bluff leaf Morphotype AB1. Scale bar=1cm. A) UF18049-
043566 (AB1.2), B) UF18049-043520, C) UF18049-043559, D) UF18049-043558
part, E) closeup of D, note arrows indicating primary and secondary veins, F)
counterpart of D, note dotted line highlighting primary and secondary veins, G)
leaf apex, UF18049-043522.















ij


Figure 14. Alum Bluff leaf Morphotype AB2. Scale bar=lcm. A) UF18049-
043557 part, B) counterpart of A, C) UF18049-043567part, D) counterpart of "C."





















































Figure 15. Alum Bluff leaf Morphotype AB3. Scale bar=lcm. A) UF18049-
043523, B) UF18049-043587, C) UF18049-043557, D) closeup of C showing
higher order venation.









Figure 16. Alum Bluff leaf Morphotypes AB4, 5, and 6. Scale bar=lcm. A)
Morphotype AB4, UF18049-043575, B) counterpart of "A," C) Morphotype AB5,
UF18049-043573, D) line drawing of C showing vein course, E) Morphotype
AB6, UF18049-043553, F) counterpart of "E," G) line drawing of "E" showing vein
course, H) Morphotype AB7, UF18049-043574), I) line drawing of "H" showing
vein course.









































IF


I -





















17a '\,17b

























17e17







Figure 17. Alum Bluff leaf Morphotypes AB8 and 9. Scale bar=lcm. A)
UF18049-043512, B) line drawing of A showing vein course and higher order
venation, C) UF18049-043521, D) closeup of C showing higher order venation,
E) line drawing of C showing venation.



















































Figure 18. Alum Bluff leaf Morphotypes AB10, 11. Scale bar=1cm. A-B
Morphotype AB10, A) UF18049-043527, B) UF18049-043503, C-E, Morphotype
AB11,C) UF18049-029133, D) UF18049-043551, E) counterpart of D, F)
Morphotype AB12, UF 18049-043589.




















WYD'

19c .-


Figure 19. Fruits and Seeds from Alum Bluff. Scale bar=lcm. A-F, Carva. A)
arrows indicate valves of dehiscent husk. Also note partial husk in lower right
corner, UF18049-043528, B) endocarp, UF18049-043509, C) endocarp,
UF18049-043500, D) endocarp, arrows indicate longitudinal grooves, UF18049-
043525, E) endocarp, UF18049-043524, F) husk valve, UF18049-043526, G)
Paliurus fruit, UF18049-026117, H) Scirpus achene, UF18049-043597, 1)
Unknown fruit, UF18049-043540.














Rubiace;
Rhamnaci
Quercus Type
11% Ty pe

Ilex ULiquidambar
1.2% 1 %

Taxodium Unnown
1 9% Tricolporate
S18%
Poiypodium
Type
2,0%
Unknown
Periporate



Unknown /
Triporate / Ulmus
2.1% I 106%


d Jamesonia Type
>1.0%

Dryopteris Type >1 .0%
Unknown Trilete Spc
>1.0%
Amaranthaceae/
Chenopodiaceae
Type


re


Figure 20. Pie chart showing pollen count summary for Alum Bluff.









Figure 21. Fern spores from Alum Bluff. Scale bar=15p. LM=Light micrograph,
SEM=Scanning electron micrograph.

A-B. Adiantaceae. A) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02F, coordinates 29,
101.6, B) SEM, UF 18049-043594, PY01, SEM-A.

C. Botrvchium, SEM UF18049-043591, PY01, SEM-B.

D. Cyathea, LM, UF18049-043592, PY02C, coordinates 50.1, 103.1.

E-F. Dryopteris, E) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02C, coordinates 36.9,
98.5, F) SEM UF18049-043591, PY01, SEM-B

G-I. Polypodiaceae. G) LM, UF18049-043593, PY01A, coordinates 37.1,
103.2, H) LM, UF18049-0435596, PY01A, coordinates 41.9, 95, 1) SEM,
UF18049-043591, PY01, SEM-A.

J-L. Pteris, J) SEM UF18049-043593, PY01, SEM-B, K) LM, UF 18049-
043595, PY01A, coordinates 24.6, 104, high focus showing trilete laesural
arms, L) Low focus of "K" showing surface sculpturing.

M. Unknown trilete spore. LM, UF18049-043592, PY02C, coordinates
49.2, 111)

N. Unknown trilete spore, LM, UF18049-043592, PY02C, coordinates
40.4, 113.

O. Unknown trilete spore, LM, UF18049-043595, PY01A, coordinates 23,
107.3.

P. Unknown trilete spore, LM, UF18049-043592, PY02B, no coordinates
available.

Q. Unknown trilete spore, LM, UF18049-0435596, PY01A, coordinates
35.1, 98.

R-S. Unknown trilete spore, LM, UF18049-043592, PY02A, no
coordinates available.




















21a '11 21e 21f








21 221d
Vip





221h
21 rn




21n 21o


21 1r211
21k 211



21r 21s






.,. .. ....
tit .
L "#









Figure 22. Gymnosperm and Poaceae type pollen from Alum Bluff. Scale
bar=15p. LM=Light micrograph, SEM=Scanning electron micrograph.

A-C. Taxodium, A) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02C, coordinates 51.8,
96.3), B) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02A, no coordinates available, C)
SEM, UF18049-043594, PY01, SEM-A.

D-G. Pinus, D) SEM UF18049-043591, PY01, SEM-A, E) LM, UF18049-
043592, PY02A, no coordinates available, F) SEM, UF18049-043591,
PY01, SEM-A, G) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02B, no coordinates
available).

H-K. Poaceae, H) SEM, UF18049-043592, PY04, SEM-B, I) SEM,
UF18049-043592, PY04, SEM-B), J) SEM, UF18049-043596, PYO1,
SEM-B, K) SEM, UF18049-043596, PY01, SEM-B.




















22a 22b 22c










22d

22e










22f -- 22g









Figure 23. Liliaceae, Magnoliaceae type and miscellaneous dicotyledonous
pollen from Alum Bluff. Scale bar=15p. LM=Light micrograph, SEM=Scanning
electron micrograph.

A-D. Liliaceae type. A) SEM, UF18049-043595, PY01, SEM-B, B) LM,
UF18049-043591, PY02B, no coordinates available, C) LM, UF18049-
043596, PY01A, coordinates 41.5, 113.6, D) LM, UF18049-043592,
PY02C, coordinates 45.1, 96.2.

E-F. Magnoliaceae type. E) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02B, no
coordinates available, F) LM, UF18049-043592, no coordinates available.

G-I. Amaranthaceae type. G) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02C, coordinates
28.4, 100.1, H) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02C, coordinates 45.2, 106.9, 1)
SEM, UF18049-043593, PY01, SEM-D.

J-M. Carva. J) LM, UF18049-043591, PY02B, no coordinates available,
K) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02C, coordinates 47.3, 113.6), L) SEM,
UF18049-043594, PY01, SEM-A, M) SEM, UF18049-043593, PYO1,
SEM-B.

N. Diospyros, SEM, UF18049-043596, PYO1, SEM-B.

O-U. Ilex. O) LM, high focus, UF18049-043593, PY01A, coordinates
43.3, 105.4, P) LM, mid-focus, UF18049-043596, PY01A, coordinates 45,
95), Q) LM, high focus, UF18049-043596, PY01A, coordinates 33.2, 99.8,
R) same specimen as "Q" at mid-focus, S) SEM, UF18049-043596, PYO1,
SEM-B, T) SEM, UF18049-043596, PY01, SEM-B, U) closeup of "S"
showing clavate sculpturing.

V-X. Liquidambar. V) LM, high focus, UF18049-043592, PY02C,
coordinates 48.4, 103), W) SEM, UF18049-043591, PY01, SEM-B, X)
SEM, UF18049-043594, PY01, SEM-B.

Y-Z. Myrica. Y) LM, UF18049-043596, PY01A, coordinates 43, 104.5, Z)
SEM, UF18049-043591, PY01, SEM-C























23b


,.j)


S23e


23p






23r


23m


23w


23c




23d


23g


23h
23 I


-, ~


23q













q!IM 24a


&4~ 24c


Figure 24. Fagaceae and Ulmaceae pollen from Alum Bluff. Scale bar=15p.
LM=Light micrograph, SEM=Scanning electron micrograph.

A-F. Fagaceae. A) SEM, equatorial view, UF18049-043591, PY01, SEM-
C, B) closeup of A showing sculpturing, C) LM, polar view, UF18049-
043592, PY02C, coordinates 50.5, 97.5, D) LM, polar view, UF18049-
043592, PY02B, no coordinates available), E) SEM, polar view, UF18049-
043591, PY01, SEM-C, F) SEM, polar view, UF18049-043594, PYO1,
SEM-B.

G-L. Ulmaceae. G) LM, polar view, UF18049-043592, PY02A, no
coordinates available, H) SEM, polar view, UF18049-043596, PY01, SEM-
C, I) LM, oblique view, UF18049-043592, PY02C, coordinates 48.2, 113,
J) SEM, oblique view, UF18049-043596, PY01, SEM-C, K) LM, polar
view, UF18049-043592, PY02B, no coordinates available, L) SEM,
oblique view, UF18049-043596, PY01, SEM-C.









Figure 25. Miscellaneous dicotyledonous pollen from Alum Bluff. Scale
bar=15p. LM=Light micrograph, SEM=Scanning electron micrograph.

A-E. Asteraceae/Malvaceae type. A) possible helianthid type, LM,
UF18049-043592, PY02B, no coordinates available, B) possible helianthid
type, LM, UF18049-043592, PY02C, coordinates 40,99, C) Malvaceae?,
SEM, UF18049-043592, PY04, SEM-B, D) Malvaceae?, LM, UF18049-
043592, PY02C, coordinates 43.6, 112.9, E) Malvaceae?, LM, UF18049-
043592, PY02F, coordinates 33.8, 94.8).

F. Betulaceae ? type, LM, UF18049-043596, PY01A, coordinates 43.4,
112.

G-H. Euphorbiaceae ? type. G) SEM, UF18049-043591, PY01, SEM-C,
H) closeup showing sculpturing of "H."

I. Fabaceae ? type, possible Vigna ? type, SEM, UF18049-043594, PYO1,
SEM-B.

J-P. Gleditsia (Fabaceae), J) LM, UF18049-043596, PY01A, coordinates
34.4, 110.8), K) SEM, UF18049-043594, PY01, SEM-B, L) SEM,
UF18049-043596, PY01, SEM-B, M) closeup of"L", N) SEM, UF18049-
043596, PY01, SEM-A, O) closeup of "N," P) SEM, UF18049-043596,
PY01, SEM-C.

Q-R. Rhamnaceae/Rubiaceae ? type. Q) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02C,
coordinates 43.5, 111, R) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02C, coordinates
41.5, 113.1.

S-T. Rosaceae ? type. S) SEM, UF18049-043591, PY01, SEM-C (minor
grain), T) closeup of "S."

U-X. Vitaceae. U) LM, polar view, UF18049-043592, PY02C,
coordinates 47.1, 107.4, V) SEM, polar view, UF18049-043591, PYO1,
SEM-B, W) closeup of colpus and sculpturing of "W," X) SEM, equatorial
view, UF18049-043591, PY01, SEM-B.










a


C


B i 251 25n



5n 0 25s

25u 25v

-^^^^- -rig 6a


25p
II 25r









Figure 26. Unknown palynomorphs and dinoflagellate cyst from Alum Bluff.
Scale bar=15p. LM=Light micrograph, SEM=Scanning electron micrograph.

A. Unknown large monosulcate pollen grain, LM, UF18049-043596,
PY02A, coordinates 45.9, 106.

B-D. Unknown triporate pollen grains. B) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02C,
coordinates 46, 107.1, C) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02B, no coordinates
available, D) SEM, UF18049-043596, PY01, SEM-B.

E-I. Unknown Tricolporate pollen grains. E) LM, UF18049-043592,
PY02B, no coordinates available, F)SEM UF18049-043591, PY01, SEM-
B, G) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02B, no coordinates available, H) LM,
UF18049-043592, no coordinates available, I) LM, UF18049-043592,
PY02B, no coordinates available, J) SEM, UF18049-043591, PY01, SEM-
A.

K-L. Unknown tricolpate pollen grain. K) SEM, UF18049-043594, PYO1,
SEM-A, L) closeup of sculpturing of "J."

M-N. Unknown periporate pollen grains. M) LM, UF18049-043592,
PY02C coordinates 33, 107.5, N SEM, UF18049-043596, PY01, SEM-A.

O-P. Unknown apparently inaperturate pollen grains. 0) SEM, UF18049-
043591, PY01, SEM-A, P) SEM, UF18049-043591, PY01, SEM-B.

Q. Dinoflagellate cyst, LM, UF18049-043595, PY01A, coordinates 45.9,
106.
















74 gggg

(" :26e

26c -


26d

S-,. 26g






26h

I



26k








26n A.


26rn


26f










Figure 27. Fungal sporomorphs from Alum Bluff. Scale bar in A applies to
all=15p.

A. Unknown obovate, dicellate fungal spore, SEM, UF18049-043596,
PY01, SEM-B.

B. Unknown elliptic, tricellate fungal spore, SEM, UF18049-043596,
PY01, SEM-C

C. Unknown rounded rhombic, dicellate fungal spore, SEM, UF18049-
043592, PY04, SEM-B.

D. Unknown elliptic, monocellate fungal spore, LM, UF18049-043592,
PY01A, no coordinates available

E-F. Unknown obdeltate, monocellate fungal spores. E) LM, UF18049-
043592, PY02B, no coordinates available, F) LM, UF18049-043592,
PY02C, coordinates 47.1, 43.8.

G. Unknown scutate fungal fruit body, LM, UF18049-043596, PY01A,
coordinates 44.5, 101.

H. Unknown circular, dicellate fungal spore, SEM, UF18049-043594,
PY01, SEM-B.

I. Unkown elliptic, monocellate fungal spore, LM, UF18049-043596,
PY01A, coordinates 32.2, 99.

J-K. Unknown circular, monocellate fungal spore clusters. J) SEM,
UF18049-043596, PY01, SEM-C, K) LM, UF18049-043592, PY02C,
coordinates 49, 104.5.





























f 27d














DISCUSSION

Comparison with Other Miocene Floras

To place the paleocology of the Alum Bluff deposits in context, it may be

useful to compare the flora to other known Miocene plant assemblages (Table 3).

As mentioned earlier in the text, there are several southeastern U.S. Miocene

pollen localities that are useful for comparison (Table 2, 3). In addition, Miocene

pollen records are known from western localities such as the Clarkia flora of

northern Idaho (Gray 1985). Leaf macrofossils have been identified from North

American Miocene localites such as the Miocene Brandon Lignite, Vermont,

(Tiffney 1993, 1994a, 1994b), the Brandywine deposits, Maryland (Late Miocene)

(McCartan et al. 1990), the Clarkia flora, northern Idaho (Smiley et al. 1975,

Smiley and Rember 1981, Rember 1991, Manchester et al. 1991, Kva6ek and

Rember 2000), and the Seldovia Point flora, Alaska (Miocene) (Wolfe 1972,

Wolfe and Tanai 1980). Fruits and seeds have been identified from Miocene

localities such as the Brandon Lignite, Vermont the Brandywine deposits of

Maryland (Late Miocene) (McCartan et al. 1990), and the Clarkia Flora of Idaho

(Smiley et al. 1975, Smiley and Rember 1981, Rember 1991, Manchester et al.

1991, Kvacek and Rember 2000).

Tiffney described the Early Miocene Brandon Lignite to be a mixed

evergreen-deciduous forest with a climate similar to that of the U.S. Gulf coast

(temperate to subtropical) (1994). The Middle Miocene Old Church flora of









Virginia was estimated to be similar to a modern temperate southern oak-

hickory type forest (Fredericksen 1984). The late Miocene Brandywine flora of

Maryland was thought to be deciduous with a warm-temperate climate (McCartan

et al. 1990). The Ohoopee River Dune Field paleoecology was interpreted as

being a myriad of habitats all similar to those of the southern coastal plain today,

including an oak-hickory forest, a shrub swamp dominated by Cyrilla, and a

Sphagnum-bog (Rich et al. 2002). The flora of the Calvert Formation of

Delaware was interpreted as being similar to the modern coastal plain flora of

Delaware, typified by a temperate to warm-temperate flora (Groot 1992). The

Legler Lignite of New Jersey was interpreted as being similar to that of the

modern southern coastal plain floras (Rachele 1976). The Miocene Catahoula

Formation in Louisiana was thought to be a subtropical to tropical mangrove type

environment (Wrenn et al. 2003), though the large presence of temperate taxa

shared with Alum Bluff (Table 3) may suggest other climatic conditions than

described by Wrenn et al (2003).

Turning to Miocene floras from Western North America, the Clarkia Flora

of northern Idaho, unlike most of the Miocene floras of eastern North America,

exhibits a larger number of taxa with Asian distributions today, such as

Cercidiphyllum, Trochodendron, and Paliurus among others. The Clarkia Flora

has been described as being a mixed-mesophytic forest (Smiley et al. 1975,

Smiley and Rember 1981, Rember 1991, Manchester et al. 1991, Kva6ek and

Rember 2000). Higher latitude floras such as the Seldovian Point flora of Alaska

also share some elements with Alum Bluff. The Seldovian Point flora is also









described as a mixed-mesophytic to broad-leaved deciduous assemblage (Wolfe

1969, 1972, Wolfe and Tanai 1980). This flora also possesses more taxa now

restricted to Asia, such as Zelkova and Cercidiphyllum, than the eastern North

America Miocene floras. In this respect, Alum Bluff is more like some western

North American floras than with its eastern counterparts due to the presence of

Paliurus, which is restricted to the Eurasian landmass today.

The European Miocene fossil flora of Hambach, near DCren, Germany

(which is also based on micro- and megafossils), was estimated to represent a

floodplain forest with some upland elements being co-dominant with a sedge

wetland (van der Burgh and Zetter 1998). The Miocene floras of Central Honshu,

Japan illustrate some of the shared components of Alum Bluff with Asian

Miocene localities (Ozaki 1991). These floras are thought to represent temperate

environments.

Paleoecological Interpretations

Though paleoecological and paleoclimatological work has been done

based on invertebrate assemblages from strata above and below the geological

formation where plant fossil are found at Alum Bluff (DuBar and Taylor 1962),

little such work has been done with the floristic assemblages of the region. Berry

(1916) made some climatological and ecological inferences about the Alum Bluff

flora in his original report. He inferred the significant presence of thermophillic

elements that he identified indicated the climate of the Miocene Alum Bluff region

was much warmer than the conditions occurring in that region of Florida today.










Table 3. Taxa shared between Alum Bluff and other Miocene localities.


CU M



Alum Bluff, X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
FL
Brandon
-X X X X X
Lignite, VT

Brandywine XX X X X X
flora, MD

Calvert
Formation, X X X X X X X
DE

Legler X X XX X X X X X
Lignite, NJ
Old Church
Formation, X X X X X X
VA
Ohoopee
River Dune X X X X X
Field, GA
Catahoula
Formation, X X X X X X X X X X X
LA
Clarkia flora, X X X X X
ID
Seldovian
Point flora, X X X X
AK
Hambach
flora, X X X X X X X X X X X X
Germany
Honshu
floras, X X X X X X X XX
Japan









In other words, he interpreted the flora as being predominantly tropical and being

gradually invaded by temperate elements, rather than the modern condition

where the flora is predominantly temperate with some subtropical to tropical

elements (Berry 1916). Berry identified tropical genera such as Artocarpus,

Pisonia, Caesalpinia, Fagra (=Zanthoxylum), Rhamnus, Nectandra, and Bumelia

(=Sideroxylon). According to Dilcher (1973a), at least 60% of the material Berry

described for southeastern Eocene floras is incorrect. Though no attempt was

made to revise Berry's original descriptions of the Alum Bluff flora, the statistics

presented by Dilcher suggest that revision of Berry's 1916 Alum Bluff flora may

be needed.

The description of the Alum Bluff flora presented here provides new data

and a different interpretation regarding paleoclimate than that of Berry (1916). Of

those morphotypes identified here, most are present in temperate areas. Taxa

representative of tropical environments from the present study include Cyathea

and Diospyros. Cyathea has been found in other Miocene temperate

palynofloras (Table 3), and there is one species of Diospyros (Diospyros

virginiana) in the extant flora of the region. The current author observed that the

common serrated leaf forms and small leaf sizes at Alum Bluff are more typical of

temperate floras. In addition, the presence of leaves identified as Carva, Ulmus,

and Paliurus, as well as the large number of temperate taxa represented in the

pollen, fruits, and seeds of Alum Bluff suggest that the climate of Alum Bluff was

warm-temperate and more similar to the other North American, European, and

eastern Asian Miocene communities discussed earlier. The community type









would have been similar to the modern northern Gulf Coast of Florida possessing

an elm-hickory-cabbage palm forest occurring adjacent to or near an oak and

pine dominated landscape. This differs somewhat from the modern flora at the

immediate area surrounding Alum Bluff, which is today influenced by the unique

environmental circumstances created by the Apalachicola River corridor.

Instead, the Miocene flora of Alum Bluff more closely resembles the area from

the northern Gulf Coast of peninsular Florida through northern central Florida to

the northern Atlantic coast of peninsular Florida extending up along the Georgia

and South Carolina coasts. This difference between the modern and fossil floras

of Alum Bluff is likely because the Apalachicola River Valley was in its infancy in

the Middle Miocene (Clewell 1977) and had not yet developed the unique set of

topographic (bluffs and ravines) and biogeographic (connection with Piedmont

and Appalachia) characteristics that exists in the region today.

As mentioned earlier, based on taphonomy and lithology of the site, the

undifferentiated beds of Alum Bluff Group are thought to represent deltaic or pro-

deltaic sediments deposited in a high energy depositional environment (pers.

comm. Dilcher 2004, Schmidt 1986). Thus, it can be interpreted that the warm-

temperate flora of Alum Bluff occurred as floodplain and upland forests flanking a

river.

The presence of dinoflagellate cysts suggest marine influence, though the

infrequency of dinoflagellates (<0.1%) in the sediment indicates only a slight

marine input. This reiterates the deltaic environment described previously, but it

suggests that the coastline may have been near enough for some marine









sediments to reach from the Gulf up the pre-Apalachicola river delta to Alum

Bluff. However, it is not uncommon for sediment from other more ancient strata

to be re-worked with younger sediments (Traverse et al. 1988, Wrenn et al.

2003). This is especially common when the anomalous element is found with

extremely low frequency (Traverse 1988). Thus, the presence of dinoflagellates

at Alum Bluff may indicate re-working from older sediments rather than a marine

influence at the site.

Because both the overlying Jackson Bluff Formation and the underlying

Chipola Formation represent marine deposits (Schmidt 1986), it can further be

inferred that the Alum Bluff flora represents a forest encroachment during an

interval of sea level drop which was summarily displaced again as sea level rose.

Biogeographical Implications

Several important biogeographical conclusions are presented by this

analysis of the Alum Bluff Flora. The presence of Paliurus suggests affinities

with eastern Asian or southern European floras that are present in western North

American Miocene assemblages, but conspicuously lacking from other eastern

North American assemblages. This suggests that Paliurus at Alum Bluff was one

of the last remnants of Eurasian taxa in eastern North America by the Miocene.

The last record of Paliurus in North America was from the Miocene of

Washington, USA (Berry 1928). It is unclear why Paliurus at Alum Bluff is

disjunct from its contemporaneous western counterparts, or why Paliurus

persisted at this more southern latitude while remaining absent in Miocene

assemblages from the northeastern United States. Manchester (1999)









commented that the Paliurus likely made its way to the North American continent

via a Beringial crossing in the Eocene. The genus disappears from North

America after the Miocene (Manchester 1999). Thus, Paliurus may have arrived

at Alum Bluff after being dispersed across the North American continental interior

from the west. This cannot be confirmed, however, due to a lack of Miocene age

deposits in the interior North America (Manchester pers. comm. 2004).

Alternatively, Paliurus may have arrived via a North Atlantic Land Bridge

crossing. The genus is present in Europe and Asia today, and has an extensive

fossil record on these continents, so it would be possible for Paliurus to arrive

from Europe (in the Eocene?), however no Miocene fossil record of Paliurus is

known from the northeastern U.S. (where it would have first arrived via an

Atlantic crossing).

The floral assemblage described here supports the concept of a warm

temperate climate existing in the region since the early Tertiary. Dilcher (1973a,

1973b) reported a warm temperate to cool subtropical climate for the Middle

Eocene Claiborne Formation in Tennessee. Prior to the author's investigations,

the Alum Bluff flora was thought to represent a Miocene tropical flora

intermediate between an Eocene warm temperate to cool subtropical flora

(Claiborne Formation) and a Pliocene temperate flora (Citronelle Formation)

(Dilcher 1973a, 1973b, Graham 1964). However, new data presented here show

that warm temperate conditions have continued in the southeastern United

States Gulf Coastal Plain region since the Eocene.














CONCLUSIONS

Of the taxa at Alum Bluff, two are positively confirmed in both the leaf and

pollen record (Carva, Ulmus), one is positively confirmed in the leaf, pollen, and

fruit record (Carva), and one is tentatively confirmed in the leaf and pollen

records while being positively confirmed in the fruit record (Paliurus). A summary

of these and other taxa occurring at Alum Bluff is presented in Table 4. Of the

North American Miocene paleofloras, there are only a handful known from pollen,

fruits, seeds, and leaves including the Clarkia flora of Idaho (Smiley et al. 1975,

Smiley and Rember 1981, Rember 1991, Manchester et al. 1991, Kva6ek and

Rember 2000), and the Brandywine flora of Maryland (McCartan et al. 1990). A

few sites are known to have fruits, seeds, and pollen such as the Brandon Lignite

flora (Traverse 1951, Traverse 1955, Traverse 1994, Tiffney 1993, 1994a,

1994b). According to Graham (1964), the best circumstance for reconstructing

paleoenvironments is a study of mega- and microfossils from a given locality. He

also reported that very few Tertiary localities of this type in the southeastern

United States were available. Review of the literature by the author also found

occurrence of such sites in the Atlantic coastal plain to be rare. The

compounding of data from both mega- and microfossils and the resulting

increase in floristic diversity makes the current analysis of the Alum Bluff flora a

paleobotanically important case. The examination of palynomorphs at Alum Bluff

has greatly increased the number of taxa known from the site. Examination of









fruit and seed material has helped to confirm identification of pollen and leaves

and increased the overall morphotype diversity at the site. The culmination of his

study has been the determination that the Alum Bluff flora is more diverse than

Berry originally described. Also, it was found that the Alum Bluff flora was likely

warm-temperate, and that these conditions have persisted since the early

Tertiary. In addition, the existence of Paliurus at Alum Bluff suggests

biogeographical affinities with Eurasia, which further demonstrates that floristic

elements limited to Eurasia today were once widely dispersed through both

western and eastern North America.









Table 4. Summary of taxa identified at Alum Bluff.


Taxon Pollen Leaf? Seed or Fruit?
or spore?


Adiantaceae
Amaranthaceae/
Chenopodiaceae
Asteraceae/
Malvaceae
Betulaceae
Botrychium
Carya
Cyathea
Dinoflagellate cyst
Diospyros
Dryopteris
Euphorbiaceae
Fabaceae
Gleditsia
Ilex
Lauraceae
Liliales
Liquidambar
Magnoliaceae
Myrica
Paliurus
Pinus
Poaceae
Polypodiaceae
Pteris
Quercus
Rosaceae
Sabalites
Scirpus
Taxodium
Ulmus
Vitaceae


Yes

Yes

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
No
Yes
Yes
Yes


No
No
No
Yes
No
N/A
?
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
Yes
No


No

No
No
No
Yes
No
N/A
No
No
No
No
?
No
(cuticle) No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No















APPENDIX A
SELECTED WOODY TAXA OCCURRING
IN AND AROUND THE APALACHICOLA BLUFFS AND
RAVINES AREA AND THEIR TYPICAL HABITATS


Taxa marked with an asterisk (*) are either rare to Florida or endemic species.
The list is compiled from taxa discussed for the region in Clewell (1977, 1985),
Harper (1914), Ward (1979), Wolfe et al. (1988), and Wunderlin and Hansen
(2003).


Species Family Habitat

Trees


Acer saccharum
subsp. floridanum
Acer saccharum
subsp. leucoderme
Acer saccharinum
Betula niQra
Carpinus caroliniana
Carya aquatica
Carya glabra
Carya tomentosa

Cornus florida
Fagus grandifolia
Ilex opaca
Liquidambar styraciflua

Liriodendron tulipifera

*Maqnolia ashei

Magnolia grandiflora

Ostrya virginiana
Oxydendron arboreum
Planera aquatica
Pinus glabra

Pinus echinata


Sapindaceae

Sapindaceae

Sapindaceae
Betulaceae
Betulaceae
Juglandaceae
Juglandaceae
Juglandaceae

Cornaceae
Fagaceae
Aquifoliaceae
Altingiaceae

Magnoliaceae

Magnoliaceae

Magnoliaceae

Betulaceae
Ericaceae
Ulmaceae
Pinaceae

Pinaceae


Bluffs, levees, hammocks


Bluffs, levees, hammocks

Riverbanks
Riverbanks, floodplains
Floodplains, bluffs
Floodplains
Pine-oak-hickory woods
Pine-oak-hickory woods, calcarious
hammocks
Hammocks, pine-oak-hickory woods
Bluffs, hammocks
Hammocks, bluffs
Floodplains, bluffs, hammocks,
secondary woods
Creek swamps, bluffs near
seepages
Bluffs, hammocks, bayheads
(Endemic)
Bluffs, floodplains, hammocks,
secondary woods
Hammocks, bluffs
Hammocks, bluffs, bayheads
Floodplains, riverbanks
Hammocks, bluffs, well-drained
floodplains
Pine-oak-hickory woods











Species Family Habitat

Trees (continued)

Pinus serotina Pinaceae Pinelands
Prunus caroliniana Rosaceae Bluffs, calcareous hammocks, scrub
Quercus alba Fagaceae Bluffs, hammocks, pine-oak-hickory
woods, sinks
Quercus laevis Fagaceae Sandhills, scrub, pine-oak-hickory
woods
Quercus michauxii Fagaceae Moist hammocks, floodplains, sinks
Quercus muhlenbergii Fagaceae Bluffs
Quercus nigra Fagaceae Floodplains, hammocks, secondary
woods
Quercus shumardii Fagaceae Bluffs, calcareous hammocks
Taxodium ascendens Cupressaceae Swamps, ravines
Taxodium distichum Cupressaceae Swamps, ravines

Tilia americana Malvaceae Bluffs, hammocks, riverbanks
var. caroliniana
*Taxus floridana Taxaceae Hammocks and cedar swamps
(Endemic)
*Torreya taxifolia Taxaceae Hammocks (Endemic)
Ulmus alata Ulmaceae Bluffs, floodplains, calcareaous river
swamps
Ulmus americana Ulmaceae Bluffs, floodplains, hammocks
Ulmus rubra Ulmaceae Bluffs, floodplains, hammocks

Woody Vines

Bignonia capreolata Bignoniaceae Floodplains, hammocks
Campsis radicans Bignoniaceae Floodplains, ruderal
Decumaria barbara Hydrangeaceae Calcareous hammocks, margins of
gum swamps
Gelsemium sempervirens Gelsemiaceae Various habitats
*Schisandra coccinea Schisandraceae Bluffs
Smilax smallii Smilacaceae Hammocks, bluffs, dunes,
secondary woods
Vitis aestivalis Vitaceae Hammocks, riverbanks
Vitis rotundifolia Vitaceae Various habitats

Shrubs


Alnus serrulata
Aralia spinosa
Callicarpa americana

*Cornus alternifolia
*Dirca palustris
Euonymus americanus


Betulaceae
Araliaceae
Verbenaceae

Cornaceae
Thymelaeaceae
Celastraceae


Along creeks and branches
Hammocks, secondary woods
Flatwoods, scrub, bluffs, secondary
woods
Moist woodlands
Bluffs, riverbanks
Hammocks, bluffs











Species Family Habitat

Shrubs (continued)


Gleditsia aquatica
Gleditsia triacanthos
Hamammelis virginiana

Halesia carolinia

Halesia diptera
Hydrangea quercifolia
*Hydrangea arborescens
Hypericum frondosum
*Kalmia latifolia
Ilex coriacea
Illicium floridanum
Leucothoe axillaris
Lyonia ferruginia

Lyonia lucida

Myrica cerifera
Osmanthus americana

Ptelea trifoliata
*Rhapidophyllum hystrix
*Rhododendron austrinum
*Sideroxylon lycioides
*Stewartia malacodendron
Symplocos tinctoria

Styrax americana

Styrax grandifolia

Rhus copallina

Vaccinium arboreum
Viburnum dentatum


Fabaceae
Fabaceae
Hamamelidaceae

Styracaceae

Styracaceae
Hydrangeaceae
Hydrangeaceae
Clusiaceae
Ericaceae
Aquifoliaceae
Illiciaceae
Ericaceae
Ericaceae

Ericaceae

Myricaceae
Oleaceae

Rutaceae
Arecaceae
Ericaceae
Sapotaceae
Theaceae
Symplocaceae

Styracaceae

Styracaceae

Anacardiaceae

Ericaceae
Adoxaceae


Viburnum obovatum


Floodplains
Floodplains
Bluff, hammocks, floodplains, creek
swamps
Bluffs, calcareous hammocks,
floodplains
Bluffs, hammocks, floodplains
Bluffs, stream banks
Bluffs
Floodplains
Bluffs, creek swamps
Wet ravines, bogs
Creek swamps, seepages on bluffs
Creek swamps
Flatwoods, bogs, acid swamps,
creek swamps
Flatwoods, bogs, acid swamps,
creek swamps
Flatwoods, bogs, hammocks
Floodplains, bluffs, flatwoods,
swamps
Bluffs, hammocks
Bluffs, calcareous hammocks
Bluffs, hammocks, floodplains

Bluffs, steepheads, bayheads
Hammocks, bluffs, floodplains,
sandhills, flatwoods
Hammocks and swamps, flatwoods,
riverbanks
Dry bluffs, calcareous hammocks,
floodplains
Sandhills, flatwoods, floodplains,
secondary woods, ruderal
Uplands
Floodplains, bluffs, titi swamps,
secondary woods
Floodplains, riverbanks


Adoxaceae














APPENDIX B
EXPLANATION OF PALYNOMORPH TERMINOLOGY


The following is a brief description of terminology used to describe spores

and pollen grains from Alum Bluff. Not all of the terms below are used in the

thesis, but are provided as background and comparison for the palynomorph

terminology that was used.

The basic structure of a pollen grain consists of an outer exine. The exine

is made up of the sexine (which is composed of a tectum, column and foot

layer) and the nexine. An intine, a plasmalemma and the protoplast are the

innermost layers. In fossilized pollen, typically only the outer layers remain

(intine and exine). Some pollen grains belonging to conifers possess vesiculate

pollen, or pollen with attached bladders (as in Pinus). The sacci vesiclesles" or

"bladders") attach to the corpus, or body of the pollen grain. There are typically

two sacci present, however in some groups there is only one.

Pollen is described based on (1) the shape of the grain, (2) the

ornamentation of the exine, and (3) the number and arrangement of pores or

apertures over the surface of the grain.

(1) Grain Shape: The shape of a pollen grain is determined based on a

ratio of the polar and equatorial diameters of the grain. The pole of a grain is the

location of a single pore or the midpoint of a furrow of the grain OR where the

end of the grain where furrows converge (in tricolpate or tricolporate grains).









Grain shape, however, often varies between polar and equatorial views. Thus,

grain shape terminology is often omitted from descriptions unless both polar and

equatorial views are identified. The following terms describe the shape of a grain

based on the P/E ratio.

>2.0=perprolate (very elongated)

1.3-2.0=prolate (slightly elongated)

0.75-1.3=subspheroidal

0.50-0.75=oblate (slightly flattend)

<0.5=peroblate (very flattened).

(2) Ornamentation of the exine: The following terms describe the

ornamentation of the exine. These features are often helpful in determining

generic or specific divisions.

Psilate-surface smooth

Perforate-surface with small holes

Foveolate-with holes or depressions

Fossulate-sideways elongate holes

Scabrate-rough or flecked

Verrucate-warty or bumpy

Papillate-hollow, finger-like projections, longer than broad and >1 pm

Baculate-having rod-shaped sculptural elements

Gemmate-having "door knob" shaped elements less than 1 pm in height.

Clavate-having club-shaped sculptural elements









Pilate-similar to gemmate, but knob-shaped elements taler than 1 pm.

Echinate- spiny

Rugulate-irregular

Striate-roughly parallel ridges

Reticulate-net like (ridges and gaps)

(3) Number and Arrangement of pores and apertures: Pollen with pores is

referred to as porate. Pollen may be mono-, di-, tri-, or periporate. When a

grain has more than four pores oriented along the equator of a grain, it is referred

to as stephanoporate. In addition to pores, furrows also known as colpi may be

present. Grains with furrows are referred to as colpate. Colpi range from being

very long and stretching the length of the grain to being short and unapparent.

When the colpi of a pollen grain fuse or meet (typically at the apex of the grain),

it is referred to as being syncolpate. When a pollen grain possesses both pore

and colpi, it is referred to as corporate. The pores in these grains are located

within the furrows. Sometimes, the exine around the pore is modified. When the

pore possesses a cap or plug, it is referred to as an operculum. The aspis is

the thickening of the exine around the pore. The annulus may be a ring around

the pore and may be a thickened or thinned area of the exine. The oncus is a

thickening of the intine that may occur under a pore, and the arcus may be a

band which arcs between pores and is actually thickened sexine.

The terminology for pteridophyte and lycopod spore morphology differs

somewhat from that of pollen. Spores that form tetrads during development may

or may not split apart upon maturity. When they do split apart, they form









monads with tetrad scars remaining on the surface where the spore once made

contact with the tetrad. There are two basic forms: a radiosymetrical trilete

form and a bilaterally symmetrical monolete form. Monolete and trilete refers

to the number of dehiscence fissures present, also known as laesura. A spore is

called anisopolar when there is a prominent tetrad scar on the proximal end (the

end that was connected to the tetrad). A spore is apolar when the two poles are

identical (occurs in globose and alete spores). When a swollen protrusion is

present surrounding the laesura, this is referred to as a margo. The margo may

be lip-like, flange-like, or line-like. When a margo is absent, the palynomorph is

said to have a laesura with a simple commissure. When present, the lasural

ridges may be ornamented. In addition, proximal ridges may be present near

the equator of the spore. These proximal ridges may assume several different

forms.

Regarding the surface ornamentation of spores, the same terminology that

was used for pollen in part II above may be used (as was done in this thesis).

Shape of spores is also an important characteristic. Spores may be

ellipsoidal (ratio of long axis/short axis falling between 1.25 to 2),

subellipsoidal (ratio of long axis/short axis above 2), globose (ratio of long axis

to short axis below 1.25), rounded triangular (convex sides), subtriangular

(sides straight and angle rounded), deltoid triangular (sides straight and angles

acute), triquete (sides slightly concave), or trilobate (sides deeply concave). In

some fern species, an equatorial ridge is evident. When the equatorial ridge is

the same width all the way around the spore, it is referred to as annulate. When






89


the equatorial ridge is wider on the interradial side than at the radial angles, it is

referred to as annulotrilete.