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Development and Deployment of Instrumentation Systems for Full-Scale Barge Impact Testing of St. George Island Bridge


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DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT OF INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEMS FOR FULL-SCALE BARGE IMPACT TESTING OF ST. GEORGE ISLAND BRIDGE By ALEXANDER EDWIN BIGGS A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2004

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Completion of this thesis and the accompanying research would not have been possible without the guidance of Dr. Gary Consolazio. His dedication to the research project discussed herein will be a model for me throughout my career and in my life. I would also like to thank Mr. Chuck Broward of the Civil and Coastal Engineering Structures Laboratory for the knowledge and guidance he provided in the field of instrumentation. Dr. Ronald Cook and Dr. H. R. Hamilton of the University of Florida, and Mr. Henry Bollmann and Mr. Marcus Ansley of the Florida Department of Transportation also contributed significantly to the success of the project. Further thanks go to my fellow graduate students David Cowan, Bibo Zhang, Jessica Hendrix, and Bill Yanko for their help and continued support. ii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS..................................................................................................ii TABLE OF CONTENTS...................................................................................................iii LIST OF TABLES..............................................................................................................v LIST OF FIGURES...........................................................................................................vi CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................................1 2 TEST SITE AND TEST BARGE..................................................................................3 2.1 Description of Pier-1.................................................................................................4 2.2 Description of Pier-3.................................................................................................5 2.3 Description of Bridge Superstructure.......................................................................6 2.4 Description of Test Barge.........................................................................................7 3 IMPACT TEST EVENTS............................................................................................10 3.1 Series P1: Impacts on Pier-1..................................................................................11 3.2 Series B3: Impacts on the bridge at Pier-3.............................................................12 3.3 Series P3: Impacts on Pier-3.................................................................................. 14 4 INSTRUMENTATION NETWORKS........................................................................15 4.1 Instrumentation Network for Test Series P1...........................................................15 4.2 Instrumentation Network for Test Series P3...........................................................19 4.3 Instrumentation Network for Test Series B3..........................................................21 4.4 Instrumentation Network for the Barge..................................................................22 5 DETAILS OF EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT................................................25 5.1 Data Acquisition System.........................................................................................25 5.2 Optical Break Beams..............................................................................................33 5.3 Impact Block and Load Cells..................................................................................35 5.4 Accelerometers.......................................................................................................44 5.5 Displacement Transducers......................................................................................49 iii

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5.6 Strain Gages (Strain Rings)....................................................................................51 5.7 Pressure Transducer................................................................................................55 5.8 Measurement of Permanent Barge Deformation....................................................56 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS......................................................58 APPENDIX A BARGE INSPECTION DRAWINGS........................................................................61 B IMPACT BLOCK DESIGN DRAWINGS.................................................................66 LIST OF REFERENCES..................................................................................................74 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH............................................................................................75 iv

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 3.1. Summary of the Impact Tests....................................................................................10 5.1. Specifications for Pier Data Acquisition System.......................................................26 5.2. Specifications for Barge Data Acquisition System....................................................26 5.3. Summary Specifications for Optical Break Beam Sensors........................................33 5.4. Summary Specifications for Accelerometers.............................................................45 5.5. Summary Specifications for Displacement Transducers...........................................49 5.6. Summary Specifications for Strain Rings..................................................................52 5.7. Summary Specifications for Pressure Transducer.....................................................55 v

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2.1. Overall Bridge Elevation..............................................................................................4 2.2. Locations of Pier-1 and Pier-3......................................................................................4 2.3. Pier-1 Dimensions.........................................................................................................5 2.4. Pier-3 Dimensions.........................................................................................................6 2.5. Bridge Deck Dimensions..............................................................................................7 2.6. Cross-section of the Bridge Deck................................................................................7 2.7. Overall Barge Dimensions............................................................................................8 2.8. Deck Barge Loaded with Bridge Spans for Pier-1 Impact Tests..................................9 3.1. Diagram of Series P1.................................................................................................12 3.2. Diagram of Series B3.................................................................................................13 3.3. Diagram of Series P3..................................................................................................14 4.1. Instrumentation Network for Test Series P1...............................................................15 4.2. Break Beams and Load Cells on Pier-1......................................................................17 4.3. Data Acquisition System on Pier-1.............................................................................18 4.4. Instrumentation Network for Series P3.......................................................................20 4.5. Locations of Strain Rings on Pier-3............................................................................20 4.6. Locations of Accelerometers on the Superstructure, Pier-2, and Pier-4.....................21 4.7. Instrumentation Network Used on Barge...................................................................23 4.8. Contact Between Barge and Pier Tripwires................................................................24 vi

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4.9. Barge Tripwire and Extension Arms..........................................................................24 5.10. Data Acquisition Chassis Configuration Used on Barge..........................................27 5.11. Data Acquisition Chassis Configuration Used on Pier.............................................27 5.12. NI-6036E PCMCIA Data Acquisition Card............................................................28 5.13. Panasonic Toughbook 28 Notebook Computer.......................................................29 5.14. Data Acquisition (DAQ) Case.................................................................................30 5.15. Direct Current Battery Case.....................................................................................31 5.16. DAQ and DC Cases Connected Together................................................................31 5.17. Components of the DAQ System on Pier-1 ............................................................32 5.18. Optical Break Beam Brackets for Pier-1 and Pier-3................................................34 5.19. Break Beam Sensors Installed on Aluminum Bracket ............................................34 5.20. Sample of Optical Break Beam Sensor Data ..........................................................35 5.21. Impact Block with Attached Load Cell Assemblies.................................................36 5.22. Test Barge Nearing Contact with Impact Block.......................................................37 5.23. Internal Reinforcing Steel Present in Impact Blocks...............................................38 5.24. Exploded Views of a Clevis Pin Load Cell Assembly.............................................39 5.25. Serial Numbers and Positive Directions for Load Cells..........................................40 5.26. Testing Impact Block and Load Cells as the FDOT Structures Lab........................41 5.27. Load Cells Supported on Grout Pads During FDOT Structures Lab Tests.............42 5.28. Sample of Load Cell Data Collected During Impact Testing..................................43 5.29. Procedure for Mounting Accelerometers on Concrete Structures............................47 5.30. Accelerometer Mounted on Concrete Pier...............................................................47 5.31. An Accelerometer Mounted to the Barge Deck.......................................................48 5.32. Sample of Acceleration Data Collected During Impact Testing..............................48 5.33. Stationary Timber Platform and Displacement Transducers....................................50 vii

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5.34. Displacement Transducer .........................................................................................50 5.35. Sample of Displacement Data Collected During Impact Testing.............................51 5.36. Typical Strain Ring with Integrated Stainless Steel Mounting Blocks....................52 5.37. Axially Loading a Steel Coupon .............................................................................53 5.39. Sample of Pile Strain Data Collected During Impact Testing.................................54 5.40. Sample of Water Pressure Data Collected During Impact Testing..........................55 5.41. Measurement of Permanent Barge Deformation.....................................................57 5.42. Positioning the Tape Rule at the Barge Head Log....................................................57 5.43. Measuring Distance from Headlog to Second Reference Beam..............................57 A.1. Internal Barge Member Truss Layout.......................................................................62 A.2. Internal Barge Members, Side Wall Profile and Details...........................................63 A.3. Internal Barge Members, 1st Hull Truss Section and Bracing.................................64 A.4. Internal Barge Members, Hull Frame Section and 2nd Hull Truss Section.............65 B.1. Pier-1 Schematic with Load Cell Elevations.............................................................67 B.2. Pier-3 Schematic with Load Cell Elevations.............................................................68 B.3. Pier-1 Load Cell Layout............................................................................................69 B.4. Pier-3 Load Cell Layout............................................................................................70 B.5. Load Cell Array Installation......................................................................................71 B.6. Welded Wire Fabric and Reinforcement Layout in the Impact Block......................72 B.7. Shear Reinforcement in the Impact block.................................................................73 viii

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Engineering DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT OF INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEMS FOR FULL-SCALE BARGE IMPACT TESTING OF ST. GEORGE ISLAND BRIDGE By Alexander Edwin Biggs December 2004 Chair: Gary R. Consolazio Major Department: Civil and Coastal Engineering During late Spring 2004, full-scale barge impact tests were conducted on multiple piers of the St. George Island Bridge in Northwestern Florida to experimentally quantify impact loads and associated pier displacements and barge deformations. This thesis describes the impact tests that were performed and the development, testing, and deployment of the instrumentation systems used to acquire test data. Special focus was given to the measurement of dynamic impact loads imparted to the bridge piers and to the measurement of pier and superstructure response during each collision test. High speed data acquisition systems were coupled with sensor arrays that included load cells, accelerometers, optical beams, displacement transducers, strain gages, and pressure transducers to characterize both loading and structural response during each collision test. Physical conditions assessments for these experiments included the examination of the two piers used in this experiment, as well as the examination of the superstructure over Pier-3, and the inspection of the construction barge used in the impacts. ix

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Replacement of the St. George Island Bridge near Apalachicola, Florida, during the Spring of 2004 presented a unique opportunity to perform full-scale barge impact tests on piers of the existing bridge prior to its demolition. The tests permitted direct measurement of dynamic barge impact forces imparted to the piers as well as measurement of structural response parameters such as acceleration, displacement, and strain [1]. Prior to the study discussed in this thesis, the main focus of the research involving full-scale barge impact tests was limited to impacts on lock gates and lock walls, not bridge piers. In 1990, Bridge Diagnostics, Inc. completed a series of tests for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers that involved a 9-barge flotilla impacting lock gates at Lock and Dam 26 on the Mississippi river near Alton, Illinois [2]. Each of the impacts was performed at approximately 0.4 knots. Force, acceleration, and velocity time histories for the impacting barge were recorded using commercially available sensors such as strain gages and accelerometers. In addition, a custom manufactured and calibrated load cell, developed by Bridge Diagnostics, was used to measure impact forces. More recently, impact tests conducted in 1997 by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers used a four-barge flotilla to ram a concrete lock wall at Old Lock and Dam 2, located north of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania [3]. This series of experiments was considered to be a prototype for a larger set of full-scale impacts conducted later that employed a 15-barge flotilla. The purpose of the prototype tests was to identify difficulties that might be 1

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2 encountered during the full-scale tests, as well as to test the various sensors required to capture structural response at the point of impact and overall flotilla interaction during impact. Strain gages installed on the impacting barge recorded steel plate deformations at the point of impact. An accelerometer was used to capture the overall acceleration history of the flotilla, and clevis pin load cells quantified lashing forces generated during impact. Subsequent to the prototype tests, full-scale impact experiments were initiated in December of 1998 at the decommissioned Gallipolis Lock at Byrd Lock and Dam in West Virginia [4]. As opposed to the prototype tests, one of the main goals of the full-scale tests was to recover actual force histories during impacts between the barge flotilla and the lock wall. To accomplish this goal, tests were conducted with a load measurement devicedesigned in-house and calibrated by the Army Corpsaffixed to the impact corner of the barge flotilla. Most recently, in Spring 2004, full-scale barge impact tests were conducted by the University of Florida (UF) and the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) on piers of the St. George Island Bridge to quantify impact loads and structural response parameters [5]. The main goals of this thesis are to document the test conditions studied, document the procedures used to instrument the barge and bridge for the testing, and offer recommendations for future testing of similar nature.

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CHAPTER 2 TEST SITE AND TEST BARGE All impact tests discussed in this thesis were conducted on the southern section of the former St. George Island Bridge near Apalachicola, Florida. Traversing the Apalachicola Bay, the bridge connected Cat Point, in Eastpoint, Florida, to St. George Island, off the coast of the Florida panhandle. Tests were performed on the portion of the bridge that spanned over the main navigation channel (see Figure 2.1 and Figure 2.2). Located directly south of the main navigation channel was Pier-1, an impact resistant reinforced concrete pier (denoted Pier 1-S in Figure 2.1). This pier, along with Pier 2-S, Pier 1-N and Pier 2-N, supported a continuous three span steel girder section that spanned over the navigation channel. Pier-3, a more flexible, non-impact resistant pier (denoted Pier 3-S in Figure 2.1), was located 260 ft south of Pier-1. Aside from the continuous steel girder section, all remaining spans of the bridge were simply supported, precast concrete girder sections. 3

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4 To: Saint George Island, South To: Cat Point, North Center-Line, Main ICWW Channel Timber Bridge Fender Wales Continuous Steel Girder Span Single Concrete Girder Spans MHW line End of Bridge Barrier Island Mud line Pier 5-N Pier 4-N Pier 3-N Pier 2-N Pier 1-N Pier 3-S Pier 1-S Pier 2-S Figure 2.1. Overall Bridge Elevation Pier-1 Pier-3 Figure 2.2. Locations of Pier-1 and Pier-3 2.1 Description of Pier-1 Designed during the 1960s, Pier-1 was constructed as an impact resistant pier because it was located directly adjacent to the navigation channel and thus had a higher likelihood of being struck by errant vessels. As Figure 2.3 illustrates, the pier consisted of two square columns, a pier cap, a shear wall for lateral resistance, and a pile cap with 36 steel H-piles. The top of the 5 ft thick pile cap was located 9 ft below mean sea level.

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5 Below the pile cap was a 6 ft thick concrete seal cast around the piles. An underwater visual inspection of the pier prior to impact testing showed that the elevation of the bay bottom (i.e., the mudline) was located at the bottom of the pile cap (i.e., at the top of the seal). Consequently, none of the steel H-piles were left directly exposed to the saltwater. 28'-1 1/2"31'-7 3/8"64'-7 3/8"7'15'5'6'39'-2"6' 6'-11 7/8"MSL Pier CapShear WallSteel H-piles ConcreteSealPile Cap16'-4 1/2"PierColumns Figure 2.3. Pier-1 Dimensions 2.2 Description of Pier-3 Pier-3, located approximately 260 ft south of Pier-1 and thus much farther away from the navigation channel, was not designed for significant vessel impact loads. Pier-3 was much more structurally flexible than Pier-1 with two slimmer, square columns, a smaller pier cap, two pile caps, and a shear strut rather than a shear wall for lateral resistance (see Figure 2.4). Pier-3 was founded on eight 20 in. square precast prestressed

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6 concrete piles. All of the piles were driven at a 1.5 in. per 12 in. batter, with the inner piles (closest to the shear strut) battered only in one direction and the outermost piles of each group battered in two directions. 17'3'-6" 4'4'4'35'-5 13/16"43'-5 13/16"24'6'PierColumns Pier CapLateral StrutPile Caps Precast Concrete Piles MSL Figure 2.4. Pier-3 Dimensions 2.3 Description of Bridge Superstructure During one series of Pier-3 impact tests, portions of the superstructure were left intact. Specifically, simply-supported prestressed concrete girder-slab spans connecting Pier-2 (south), Pier-3, Pier-4, Pier-5 and beyond (to the southern abutment of the bridge) were left intact during the second series of impact tests conducted in this study. Of primary importance in terms of redistribution of impact load were the superstructure spans connecting Pier-2 to Pier-3 and connecting Pier-3 to Pier-4. These 75.5 ft. long spans consisted of cast in place concrete decks supported on AASHTO Type II girders.

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7 Overall dimensions of the bridge superstructure spans are given in Figure 2.5. Diaphragms running transverse to the girders were cast in place at the ends and midpoint of each span (Figure 2.6). 75'-6"28'-3"6'-9"6'-9"6'-9"3'-1 1/2"3'-1 1/2" AASHTO Type II GirdersBridge Deck Diaphragms Diaphragm Railing Posts Typ. Figure 2.5. Bridge Deck Dimensions AASHTO Type II Girder (Typ.) Cast-in-Place Diaphram (Typ.)8" Bridge Deck Cast-in-PlaceConcrete Rail (Typ.) Figure 2.6. Cross-section of the Bridge Deck 2.4 Description of Test Barge Impact tests conducted in this study utilized a construction deck barge that was approximately 151 ft long, 50 ft wide, and 12 ft deep (Figure 2.7) and weighed approximately 275 tons when empty. The hull of the barge was made up of plates varying

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8 in thickness from 1/4 in. to 5/8 in. and having a nominal yield strength of 36 ksi. Internal trusses running in the longitudinal direction and providing internal structural stiffness to the barge were made up of steel angles and channels. External and internal visual inspections of the barge revealed no pre-existing corrosion or structural damage that would significant affect the structural integrity of the barge. Additional details of the inner structural configuration of the barge bow, as were recorded during visual internal inspection of the barge bow, are given in Appendix A. BargeMSL 35'116'-3"12'2' 14' Figure 2.7. Overall Barge Dimensions During all Pier-1 impact testsbut not during Pier-3 testsan increased test barge weight was achieved by loading two 55 ft. concrete bridge superstructure spans onto the deck barge (Figure 2.8). These payload spans were taken from a part of the bridge that had already been demolished at the time of impact testing. With both spans loaded, draft measurements were taken at five foot intervals along the entire length of the test barge. Combining these data with the known geometry of the barge hull, the total loaded weight of the barge was determined to be 600 tons.

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9 Figure 2.8. Deck Barge Loaded with Bridge Spans for Pier-1 Impact Tests

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CHAPTER 3 IMPACT TEST EVENTS Impact tests were scheduled to take place during an approximately one-month period (April 2004) and were sequenced so as to minimize delays to the demolition of the structure. As stated previously, piers that were impact tested were the impact resistant Pier-1 and the more flexible Pier-3. Finite element impact simulations of impacts on Piers 1 and 3 were performed using varying impact speeds and barge weight. Impact speed and barge weight were chosenbased on results from these simulationsto maximize the utility of the data collected while also minimizing the possibility of catastrophic pier or superstructure failure. Table 3.1 summarizes the impact conditions for each tests of the three series. Table 3.1. Summary of the Impact Tests Series Test Identifier Effective Barge Weight Impact Speed Kinetic Energy (tons) (knots) (tons-ft) P1 P1T1 600 0.75 15 P1 P1T2 600 1.75 81 P1 P1T3 600 1.98 204 P1 P1T4 600 2.59 178 P1 P1T5 600 2.42 155 P1 P1T6 600 3.45 316 P1 P1T7 600 3.41 309 P1 P1T8 600 3.04 245 B3 B3T1 297* 0.96 12 B3 B3T2 297* 0.89 10 B3 B3T3 297* 0.86 9 B3 B3T4 297* 1.53 31 P3 P3T1 297* 0.77 8 P3 P3T2 297* 1.33 23 P3 P3T3 297* 1.84 44 Effective weight includes weight of hard-rigged pushboat 10

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11 3.1 Series P1: Impacts on Pier-1 Due to the impact resistance of Pier-1, the first series of impact tests performed, denoted P1, had the highest impact energies of the three test series performed. Additionally, test series P1 was the only series to cause permanent inelastic deformations in the test barge. Eight tests were conducted on Pier-1 in isolation (Figure 3.1), using a loaded 600 ton barge, at speeds ranging from .75 knots to 3.5 knots (Table 3.1). Due to the presence of cross-currents at the test site, it was necessary to minimize the acceleration distance needed for each test. While starting the barge at a greater distance from the test pier would generally permit higher speeds to be attained at the time of impact, doing so also increased the likelihood that the barge trajectory would not result in an impact at the desired location on the barge bow (or that the barge might miss the test pier altogether; an event that happened on one occurrence). Thus, the acceleration distance between the barge starting point and the test pier was minimized as much as possible in each test. Acceleration was achieved by pushing at the stern of the barge with a pushboat. The pushboat was attached to the barge with soft lines, so that prior to impact, the pushboat could back off and avoid riding through the impact and receiving any possible damage. To aid the pushboats in accelerating and aligning the impact barge, a winch barge was positioned (and spudded down) to the east of Pier-1, opposite side of the pier being impacted. Cables from two winches on this stationary barge were then attached at the corners of the bow of the impact barge. Acceleration of the barge was then achieved by pushing at the stern with a pushboat and pulling at the bow with tensioned winch

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12 cables. Just prior to the point of impact, the pushboat would back off from the barge and the winch cables tension would be released so that the barge was in a free-floating conditions at impact. Since the pushboat was connected to the barge via soft lines, the pushboat was not able to fully control the trajectory of the barge during each test run. Therefore, two additional boats were used to guide the barge by applying transverse thrust at near the bow of the barge. Deck barge(with circularspud wells)Direction of bargemotion Pier-1Force (load)measurementimpact block EN Figure 3.1. Diagram of Series P1 3.2 Series B3: Impacts on the bridge at Pier-3 Test series B3, the second set of impact tests conducted, consisted of four collisions of an empty deck barge striking the bridge (i.e., multiple piers connected together via superstructure spans) at Pier-3. In this test series, the simply supported concrete girder deck spans from Pier-2 to the southern abutment of the bridge were left intact (Figure 3.2). Unlike series P1, tests in series B3 were conducted at lower energy levels, with barge speeds ranging from 0.75 to 1.5 knots (Table 3.1). Achieving these impact speeds did not require the use of the stationary winch barge described earlier. Instead, a

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13 single pushboat sufficed to accelerate the test barge during each B3 test. In contrast to series P1, hard rigging (tensioned steel cable) was used in series B3 to connect the pushboat to the stern of the test barge. As a result, the pushboat rode through each impact test tightly linked to the barge. The weight of the pushboat (approximately 22 tons) then added to the weight of the empty barge (275 tons) in terms of total kinetic energy at time of impact. No quantifiable permanent deformations were observed in the barge head log as a result of the B3 series of impact tests (due to the lower energy levels). To Pier-5and beyond 22.8 m (75 ft.)22.8 m (75 ft.) EN 22.8 m (75 ft.) Deck barge(with circularspud wells)Direction of bargemotion Force (load)measurementimpact block Pier-2No connectionto Pier-1Pier-3Pier-4Joint betweensimple spans Joint betweensimple spans Figure 3.2. Diagram of Series B3 3.3 Series P3: Impacts on Pier-3 The final series of impact tests conducted, denoted P3, consisted of empty barge collisions with Pier-3 in isolation. These tests occurred after the superstructure spans

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14 connecting Pier-2, Pier-3, and Pier-4 had been removed (Figure 3.3). Aside from the removal of the superstructure spans, tests in series P3 were similar to the series B3 tests in terms of impact speeds, barge weight, pushboat rigging, and absence of the winch barge. Impact load data were collected for three tests with impact speeds ranging from .75 knots to 1.8 knots (Table 3.1). Deck barge(with circularspud wells)Direction of bargemotion Pier-3Force (load)measurementimpact block EN Figure 3.3. Diagram of Series P3

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CHAPTER 4 INSTRUMENTATION NETWORKS In this chapter, the overall instrumentation networks used during the barge impact study are described. Detailed descriptions of individual sensors are presented in the chapter following. 4.1 Instrumentation Network for Test Series P1 Sensors used in the instrumentation network for test series P1 consisted of accelerometers, displacement transducers, optical break beams, load cells, and a pressure transducer (Figure 4.1). Also located on the pier were a high speed data acquisition (DAQ) system and a 12 volt, direct current power supply case. Excitation for each sensor was supplied by the data acquisition system. Y-axis Accelerometer (Typ.)Z-axis Accelerometer (Typ.)DisplacementTransducer (Typ.)Pressure Transducer X-axis Accelerometer (Typ.) zxy Tensioned DisplacementTransducer Cables (Typ.) Figure 4.1. Instrumentation Network for Test Series P1 15

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16 A total of seven accelerometers were mounted at two different elevations on the pier: at the pier cap elevation, and at elevation of the top of the shear wall (Figure 4.1). Double time integration of shear wall accelerometer data can then be performed to recover time histories of lateral pier motion during impact. Such information can then be merged with displacement data obtained directly from the displacement transducers to ensure that accurate pier response data are obtained. Two displacement transducers were attached to pretensioned light gage cables which extended from the east column of Pier-1 and to a stationary timber platform (Figure 4.1) approximately 30ft. east of the pier Recording displacements at two locations on the columnrather than simply at its centerlineallowed for an examination of possible overall pier torsion (rotation about the z-axis) during impact. Pressure in the bay water at the east side of the pier was monitored during each P1 test using a submerged pressure transducer. The transducer was suspended at a position approximately 8 ft. below the water surface (Figure 4.1) and adjacent to the east face of the pile cap. By monitoring water pressure at this location during impact, a determination as to influence of hydrodynamic inertial effects was made possible. Dynamic impact loads imparted to the pier were measured using four biaxial, clevis-pin load cells which were mounted to a concrete impact block on the west face of Pier-1 (Figure 4.2). The concrete impact bl ock served to distributed load from the barge to the four load cells and then, ultimately, into the pier column. To ensure that introduction of the impact block between the barge and pier did influence the loads that were being measured, the geometry (width) and the material type (concrete) of the impact block were chosen to match those of the west column of the pier. In this manner,

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17 interaction between the barge headlog and the concrete impact surface was not altered by the introduction of the impact-block-and-load-cell assembly. Furthermore, biaxial load cells were used, rather than uniaxial load cells, so that impact loads could be independently quantified in the horizontal (x) and vertical (z) directions. Determination of barge speed at impact and triggering of the data acquisition system were achieved using two sets of infrared optical break beam sensors mounted in front of the impact block (Figure 4.2). Each set consisted of an infrared transmitter and receiver. As the barge headlog passed between the transmitter and receiver, the infrared beam connecting them would be instantly interrupted and the output voltage from the receiver would drop to zero. By positioning two set of beams at a separation distance of 2 ft from each other, and by knowing the duration of time that elapsed between interruption of the two beams, the speed of the barge just prior to impact could be accurately gauged. Holding the break beam sensors in position was a 16 ft. tall aluminum bracket which was attached to side of the impact block. Break BeamReceiver(Typ.)Break BeamTransmitter(Typ.)Bi-axialLoad Cell(Typ.) zxy ImpactBlockInfrared BreakBeam (Typ.) Trip Wire EN Figure 4.2. Break Beams and Load Cells on Pier-1

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18 Also mounted to the aluminum bracket was a light-gage pre-tensioned steel trip wire which was used to electrically (rather than optically) trigger the data acquisition system on the barge. Additional details are given later in this chapter. A self-contained data acquisition (DAQ) and direct current (DC) power supply system installed on pier provided excitation power for each sensor, monitored all sensor outputs, provided signal conditioning (high frequency noise reduction), performed analog to digital conversion, and stored recorded data. Physically, the system was separated into two separate weather-tight cases ( Figure 4.3). A DAQ case housed a ruggedized notebook computer, an analog-to-digital conversion card, and multiple signal conditioner cards (together with associated batter packs). A separate DC battery case contained two deep-cycle 12 v marine batteries. To protect the data acquisition electronics from shock induced damage, both the DAQ and DC cases were mounted on a custom fabricated shock isolation carriage. Additional protection of the DAC and DC cases included the installation of a steel shelter to deflect spalled concrete debris originating from the top of the pier. DAQ ShelterShock Isolation SledBattery CaseDAQ Case zx y EN Figure 4.3. Data Acquisition System on Pier-1

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19 The data acquisition system in the series P1 received 20 total channels, which consisted of: 8 from the load cells, 7 from the accelerometers, 2 from the displacement transducers, 2 from the optical break beams, and 1 from the pressure transducer. 4.2 Instrumentation Network for Test Series P3 The instrumentation network on Pier-3 for test series P3 (Pier-3 tested in isolation) was very similar to that used during test series P1. As previously described for series P1, series P3 also used seven accelerometers, four load biaxial clevis-pin load cells, two displacement transducers, two sets of infrared optical break beams, and a DAQ system (Figure 4.4). In addition, the P3 (and B3) test series also included the use of 32 strain rings (long-gage strain gages) that were attached to the eight concrete piles supporting Pier-3. The strain sensors were attached to both the west and east faces of each pile at two different elevations for a total of four strain rings per pile (Figure 4.5). Individual strain sensors were identified by the convention: G P F E where G is the pile group (west or east), P is the pile position within the group (northeast, northwest, southeast, southwest), F is the pile face (west or east), and E is the relative elevation (top or bottom). For example, the strain ring located in the west pile group, southeast pile, eastern face, top elevation is denoted W-SE-E-T. Since the pile caps in Pier-3 were above waterline, the only submerged structural elements were the individual piles. Because the piles had relatively small surface areas (compared to the much larger surface area of the Pier-1 pile cap), significant changes in water pressure at locations adjacent to the piles were not expected. For this reason, pressure transducers were not used in tests series P3 (or B3).

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20 Y-axis Accelerometer (Typ.)Z-axis Accelerometer (Typ.)DisplacementTransducer (Typ.)X-axis Accelerometer (Typ.)Optical Break BeamReceiver (Typ.)Optical Break BeamTransmitter (Typ.)Biaxial Load Cell (Typ.)DAQ Sytem zxy Impact Block Infrared BreakBeam (Typ.) Trip Wire EN Figure 4.4. Instrumentation Network for Series P3 AASection A-ASWSENWNEWESTW-SE-E-T W-SE-E-T M.S.L.Mudline ~ 40" ~ 24" Figure 4.5. Locations of Strain Rings on Pier-3 In the P3 series of tests, the DAQ system received a total of 51 channels, consisting of: 8 from the load cells, 7 from the accelerometers, 2 from the displacement transducers, 2 from the optical break beams, and 32 from the strain rings.

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21 4.3 Instrumentation Network for Test Series B3 Test series B3 was identical to series P3 (described) above except that portions of the bridge superstructure were left intact during series B3. As a result, the sensor network for series B3 was exactly the same as for P3 with the exception that nine extra accelerometers were added. The additional accelerometers (Figure 4.6) were attached both to the superstructure as well as to the adjacent piers (Pier-2 and Pier-4). The purpose of attaching the additional accelerometers was to permit determination of load shedding that occurred through the superstructure (i.e., the portion of impact load that was shared distributed into adjacent piers through the bridge deck). zxy To Pier-5and beyond 22.8 m (75 ft.)22.8 m (75 ft.) X-axis Accelerometer(Typ.) Pier-4 Pier-3 Pier-2 EN 22.8 m (75 ft.) Figure 4.6. Locations of Accelerometers on the Superstructure, Pier-2, and Pier-4

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22 This series, P3, totaled 60 channels of data collected by the DAQ system, these included: 8 from the load cells, 16 from the accelerometers, 2 from the displacement transducers, 2 from the break beams, and 32 from the strain rings. 4.4 Instrumentation Network for the Barge Sensors included the barge instrumentation network consisted of accelerometers, electrical trip wires, and a global position system (GPS) logger (Figure 4.7). The GPS data logger consisted of a handheld GPS unit (a Garmin model GPSMap76S), an external antenna, a serial communication cable, and a notebook computer. Similar to the test piers, the barge was outfitted with a self-contained data acquisition (DAQ) and direct current (DC) power supply system. These provided sensor excitation, monitoring of sensor outputs, signal conditioning, analog to digital conversion, data capture, and data storage. A shock isolation carriage similar to that used on the pier was fabricated and welded to the surface of the test barge to protect the DAQ case, DC case, and GPS case from shock induced damage. Accelerometers were mounted to the top deck of the barge to permit recovery of deceleration-induced inertial forces as well as overall vessel motions (through double time-integration of the measured data). In total, seven accelerometers spanning three orthogonal directions (x, y, z) were installed on the barge deck at the positions indicated in Figure 4.7. Using this sensor array, translations in all three directions as well as rotations about all three axes (roll, pitch, yaw) may be determined. Triggering of the DAQ system on the barge was accomplished via an electrical trip wire apparatus (see Figure 4.7) that contactedjust prior to impacta single complimentary trip wire on the test pier. The trip wire apparatus consisted of retractable steel extension arms mounted to the barge bow and two horizontal, .032 diameter

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23 stainless steel wires that spanned the width of the barge bow and which were tensioned between the extension arms (Figure 4.8 a nd Figure 4.9). When these horizontal barge trip wires contacted the vertical trip wire mounted adjacent to the optical break beams on the pier, an electrical circuit connected to the barge DAQ system would close thus triggering high speed data collection. The whole barge instrumentation system totaled 8 channels of data. These 8 channels included: 7 from the accelerometers and one from the tripwire at the headlog of the barge to trigger the DAQ system. Trip WireAssembly DAQ, battery, and global positioningsystem boxes alongwith video cameraX-axis Accelerometer (Typ.)Y-axis Accelerometer (Typ.) zxy Z-axis Accelerometer (Typ.) 9.1 m (30 ft.)3.0 m (10 ft.) 0.6 m (2 ft.) 6.4 m (21 ft.) Figure 4.7. Instrumentation Network Used on Barge

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24 Tripwire leadsto DAQ system Bold lines indicateclosed circuit (i.e. triggered system) Tripwire attachedto the breakbeam arm Tripwires attachedto the barge extension arms Point of contact betweenpier tripwire and bargetripwires Figure 4.8. Contact Between Barge and Pier Tripwires Figure 4.9. Barge Tripwire and Extension Arms

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CHAPTER 5 DETAILS OF EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT The instrumentation networks used in this study included data acquisition systems, optical break beams, load cells, accelerometers, displacement transducers, strain rings, and pressure transducers. This chapter provides detailed descriptions for each of these components, descriptions of the sensor attachment methods used, and samples of typical data collected during impact testing. 5.1 Data Acquisition System Collection of data from sensors on the bridge pier and barge, both of which were subjected to abrupt impact loading, required the use of data acquisition systems that were portable, self-powered, tolerant of adverse environmental conditions (moisture, dust), and capable of surviving shocks of 2 g or more. In addition, the sampling rate of the DAQ systems needed to be high enough to capture the dynamic responses of the pier and barge for sensor arrays that included as many as 60 channels. Based on dynamic finite element impact simulations of the target testing conditions for each pier, it was determined that a sampling rate of 2000 samples/second/channel was desirable from the view points of capturing dynamic response as well as facilitating subsequent digital signal processing (e.g., frequency filtering). Capturing 60 data channels at 2000 samples/second/channel, required a minimum overall DAQ sampling speed of 120,000 samples/second. Based on these criteria, National Instruments, Inc. (NI) data acquisition systems (Table 5.1 and Table 5.2) were configured for use on the test piers and barge. Each 25

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26 system contained an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter, signal condition chassis, signal conditioning modules, and a battery pack (DC power source). Table 5.1. Specifications for Pier Data Acquisition System Table 5.2. Specifications for Barge Data Acquisition System Analog-to-Digital Conversion Card Model NI DAQCard-6036E Sampling Rate (kHz) 200 Signal Ranges (V) +/5 Resolution 16 Bit Signal Conditioning Chassis (Model) NI SCXI-1000DC Shock (g) 30 Num of Slots 4 Card1 (Model) NI SCXI-1102C Card Type Analog Input Channels 32 Filter (kHz) 10 Card2 (Model) NI SCXI-1520 Card Type Strain Gage Channels 8 Filter (Hz) 10-10,000 Battery Pack (DC Power Supply) 12 VDC Battery NI SCXI-1382 Configuration Analog-to-digital Card NI DAQCard-6036E Chassis (1) NI SCXI-1000DC Slot 1 NI SCXI-1520 Slot 2 NI SCXI-1520 Slot 3 NI SCXI-1520 Slot 4 NI SCXI-1520 DC Battery NI SCXI-1382 Chassis (2) NI SCXI-1000DC Slot 1 NI SCXI-1520 Slot 2 NI SCXI-1102C Slot 3 (empty) Slot 4 (empty) DC Battery NI SCXI-1382 Analog-to-Digital Conversion Card Model NI DAQCard-6036E Sampling Rate (kHz) 200 Signal Ranges (V) +/5 Resolution 16 Bit Signal Conditioning Chassis (Model) NI SCXI-1000DC Shock (g) 30 Num of Slots 4 Card (Model) NI SCXI-1102C Card Type Analog Input Channels 32 Filter (kHz) 10 Battery Pack (DC Power Supply) 12 VDC Battery NI SCXI-1382 Configuration Analog-to-digital Card NI DAQCard-6036E Chassis (1) NI SCXI-1000DC Slot 1 NI SCXI-1102C Slot 2 (empty) Slot 3 (empty) Slot 4 (empty) DC Battery NI SCXI-1382 As Tables 5.1 and 5.2 indicate, each of the DAQ systems utilized at least one NI SCXI-1000 DC signal conditioning chassis and matching 12 V DC battery pack

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27 (Figure 5.10 and Figure 5.11). Each chassis of this type can accommodate up to four individual signal conditioning modules (cards). In the case of the pier DAQ system, two chassis were daisy-chained (linked) together to increase the maximum number of signal conditions modules to eight. Figure 5.10. Data Acquisition Chassis Configuration Used on Barge Figure 5.11. Data Acquisition Chassis Configuration Used on Pier

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28 Two types of signal conditioning cards were used in the DAQ systems assembled for this study : NI SCXI-1520 and SCXI-1102C. The eight-channel NI SCXI-1520 modules, intended for use with low output sensors types such as strain gages, provide sensor excitation, programmable gain levels from 1 to 1000, and programmable frequency based filtering. In contrast, the 32-channel NI SCXI-1102C modules are intended for use with higher output level (0.1 V to 10 V) analog sensors and, as such, offer more limited gain and signal conditioning features. In this study, NI SCXI-1520 cards were used in to provide sensors excitation and channel monitoring for all load cells and strain rings. For the accelerometers, optical break beams, displacement transducers, and pressure transducers, NI SCXI-1102C cards were used for channel monitoring, while sensor excitation was provided by separate DC power supplies. Analog to digital conversion of the conditioned signals generated by the SCXI chassis was performed using a NI-6036E data acquisition card (a PCMCIA-based card intended for use with notebook computers). The NI-6036E DAQ card is capable of a maximum sampling rate of 200,000 samples/second which exceeded the minimum 120 kHz requirement of this study (Figure 5.12). Figure 5.12. NI-6036E PCMCIA Data Acquisition Card Capture and storage of digitized channel data generated by the DAQ card were accomplished using a notebook computer. Due to the adverse environmental conditions

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29 and impact loading that the computer would be subjected to, a ruggedized system capable of meeting the military durability standard MIL-STD-810F was selected. Specifically, two Panasonic Toughbook 28s (Figure 5.13) were used, one on the pier and one on the test barge. The Toughbook 28 is tolerant to moisture, dust, and shock levels up to 2 g's. Figure 5.13. Panasonic Toughbook 28 Notebook Computer National Instruments Labview software (version 6.1), installed on each Toughbook 28 was used to control the data acquisition systems. A Labview virtual instrument (VI) program was developed to allow control of sampling rate, data storage location, and trigger settings. After merging the VI, notebook computer, DAQ card, and signal conditioning chassis, tests were conducted at the University of Florida Structures Research Laboratory to confirm that the minimum required sampling rate could be achieved and to determine the length of time over which data could reliably be captured at this rate. Based on these tests, it was confirmed that the VI could safely and reliably capture and store data at a sampling rate of 2000 samples/second/channel for much more than the desired 60 second data capture window.

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30 Power for the notebook computer, DAQ card, and sensors were provided by two 12 V, deep cycle, marine batteries (Sears Die Hard brand). Each battery had in excess of 80 amp-hours of capacity when fully charged, allowing the DAQ system, which pulled approximately 6 amps, to run for at least 13 hours continuously from a single marine battery. A constant charge on the notebook computers internal battery was maintained by connecting the computer to a DC power inverter that was, in turn, connected to one of the 12 V marine batteries. Protection against environmental hazards such as water and dust was ensured by placing all of the DAQ equipmentlaptop computer, DAQ card, SCXI chassis, and power inverterinside a single, shock resistant and weather tight case (manufactured by Pelican Products). This case, referred to as the DAQ case is shown in Figure 5.14. Similarly, the two marine batteries were mounted inside a second case, referred to as the DC (direct current) battery case. Waterproof connectors were then used to connect the two cases together side-by-side, allowing them function as a single unit (see Figure 5.16). Laptop computerToughbook 28 InverterSCXI Chassis & Cards Figure 5.14. Data Acquisition (DAQ) Case

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31 Marine DeepCycle Battery Figure 5.15. Direct Current Battery Case Figure 5.16. DAQ and DC Cases Connected Together

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32 To protect against the possibility of shock damage, the DAQ and DC battery cases were mounted on shock isolation sleds that were in turn mounted to the test pier and test barge. Each shock isolation sled consisted of two steel frames connected together through a sliding track system and a set of linear springs. Spring stiffness and the presence of friction between the sliders and guide tracks isolated and dampened the shock loading experienced by the DAQ and battery cases during impact. On the test piers, the sliding track system was bolted (Figure 5.17) to the concrete pier whereas on the barge, the sled was welded to the deck of the barge. Further protection on the pier was also provided by installation of a steel shelter capable of deflecting spalled concrete and falling debris. DAQ Shelter Shock Isolation Sled Displacement TransducerJunction Box Accelerometer Junction BoxLoad Cell Junction Box Break Beam Junction Box Figure 5.17. Components of the DAQ System on Pier-1 (DAQ and DC Cases not Present)

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33 5.2 Optical Break Beams Key among the experimental measurements made during each impact test was the determination of barge impact speed. To accomplish this measurement in an accurate manner, two sets of infrared optical break beam sensors were positioned above and below the impact face of the concrete impact block (Figure 5.18). Each set of sensors consisted of a transmitter and a receiver, which were mounted to an aluminum bracket and axially aligned (Figure 5.19). Prior to each impact test, the DAQ system on the pier was entered into a mode in which it continuously monitored output from the outer most receiver (the receiver farthest from the impact block face). When the moving test barge crossed this outer beam on its way to the impact block, it would block reception of the outer infrared beam at the receiver and the receiver output signal would drop from high to low voltage. This crossing event would trigger the DAQ system on the pier to begin recording data from all sensors in the pier at a rate of 2000 samples/second/channel. Subsequently, as the barge crossed the inner beam, a second crossing event would be recorded just prior to impact. By knowing the duration of time that elapsed between the two cross events and by know the exact distance between the two sets of beams (2 ft), the impact speed could be determined. The infrared optical break beam sensors used in study were manufactured by Balluff, Inc. Sensor Specifications are given in Table 5.3. Table 5.3. Summary Specifications for Optical Break Beam Sensors Receiver (model) BLE-S51-PA-2-FOO-PK Transmitter (model) BLS-S51-PA-2-GOO-XG Range (ft) 40 Input (V) 24 Output (V) 0 or 6

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34 Optical Break Beam Transmitter (Typ.) Pier-1 Pier-3 Optical Break Beam Receiver (Typ.) Infrared OpticalBeam(Typ.) Trip Wire (Typ.) 16 ft. 24 in. 34-1/4 in. Figure 5.18. Optical break beam brackets for Pier-1 and Pier-3 Figure 5.19. Break Beam Sensors Installed on Aluminum Bracket Adjacent to Impact Block

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35 The break beam channels of the DAQ system were set at a range of to 10 V. Sample break beam data recorded during this study are shown in Figure 5.20. The plot clearly shows two points in time at which that the incoming barge interrupts each break beam and the voltage output of the sensor drops to zero. -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Break Beam (V)Time (s) 2.5 Break Beam 1 Break Beam 2 Figure 5.20. Sample of Optical Break Beam Sensor Data Collected During Impact Testing 5.3 Impact Block and Load Cells Measurement of dynamic impact loads generated during the barge collision tests was achieved using instrumented impact blocks, which were attached to columns of the test piers. Each impact block consisted of a heavily reinforced concrete block with four biaxial clevis-pin load cell assemblies attached (Figure 5.21). The blocks were positioned vertically such that the head log of the test barge would make contact with some portion of the block regardless of tidal fluctuations at the test site (Figure 5.22). During an impact test, the load imparted by the test barge was distributed through the

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36 block to the four load cells and then into the piers column. Based on the results of previously conducted finite element barge impact simulations, loads during the tests were not expected to exceed 1500 kips horizontally nor 600 kips vertically on Pier-1; 600 kips horizontally nor 200 kips vertically on Pier-3. Despite the large difference in expected loads for the Pier-1 and Pier-3 tests, the impact blocks for both piers were fabricated identically so that they would be fully interchangeable at the test site if such a need arose. 5.3.1. Reinforced Concrete Impact Blocks Each impact block was designed to matchas closely as was feasiblethe shape and stiffness of the pier column so that interaction between the barge and impact block would closely mimic the interaction that would have occurred had the barge struck the pier column directly. Consequently, each block was designed as a heavily reinforced deep concrete slab. Sufficient stiffness was provided such that local deflections within the block would be minimal in comparison to barge deformations and pier displacements. Heavily reinforcedconcrete block 72 in. 96"Impact face26 in High strengthall-thread bar Figure 5.21. Impact Block with Attached Load Cell Assemblies

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37 Figure 5.22. Test Barge Nearing Contact with Impact Block Each block was 8 ft tall, 6 ft wide, and 26 in. thick and was reinforced vertically (the span direction) using nine 1.375 in. diameter, 150 ksi Williams all-thread bars (obtained from Williams Form Engineering Corp). All-thread rods were extended beyond both ends of the blocks so that 5 in. by 10 in. by 1.5 in. thick bearing plates could be externally secured with nuts (Figure 5.21). The nuts were not torqued sufficiently to generate a post-tension force. Rather they were tightened only enough to bring the bearing plates into positive contact with the ends of the impact block. The bearing plates served to help confine the concrete at the ends of the blocks (necessary to avoid pullout of the anchor bolts connecting the blocks to the pier face) and eliminated the need to provide development length for the threaded rods. In addition to the main longitudinal reinforcement steel, five 8x8-D11xD11 welded wire sheetsapproximately equivalent to #3 reinforcing bars spaced at 8 in. on center in each directionmade of 60 ksi steel were distributed throughout the depth of the impact

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38 blocks (Figure 5.23) to provide shrinkage reinforcement, temperature reinforcement, and confinement. (Ivy Steel and Wire is gratefully acknowledged for donating the welded wire sheets to this project.) Shear reinforcement consisting of 60 ksi #4 rebar hooks were also installed at spacings of 8 in. in each direction. Detailed fabrication drawings for the impact blocks are provided in Appendix A of this thesis. Figure 5.23. Internal Reinforcing Steel Present in Impact Blocks Fabrication of the impact blocks was carried out by the Structures Research Laboratory of the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) in Tallahassee, Florida. The significant contributions of the FDOT to this project, including but not limited to impact block fabrication, load cell assembly and testing (described below), template fabrication, and impact block transportation, are gratefully acknowledged. 5.3.2. Load Cells The four load cell assemblies attached to the impact blocks each consisted of a stainless steel biaxial shear pin load cell and two hot rolled 1020 steel clevises (Figure 5.24). Biaxial load cells were used so that loads in both the horizontal and vertical directions could be directly quantified. To prevent the pin from rotating within the clevis

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39 or sliding out, a steel keeper plate locked the pin into position on each assembly (Figure 5.24). Biaxial Clevis Pin Keeper Plate Male Connectorto DAQ SystemFixture(Impact BlockSide) Fixture(Pier Side) Figure 5.24. Exploded Views of a Clevis Pin Load Cell Assembly Four clevis fixtures were attached to the back (non-impact) face of each concrete impact blocks using sixteen 1.375 in. diameter B7 thread bars that had been previously cast into the blocks during fabrication. In Figure 5.25, serial numbers and positive directions are provided for each of the load cells used in the Pier-1 test series (P1) and Pier-3 test series (B3 and P3).

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40 16566-4 16566-3 xy xy Pier-116566-216566-1 xy xy xy xy Pier-3 xy xy 16448-216448-116448-316448-4 Figure 5.25. Serial Numbers and Positive Directions for Load Cells Shear pins used in this study were 178 mm (7 in.) diameter and had capacities of 800 kips in each of two orthogonal directions. The pins, obtained from StrainSert Company, each had two full bridge circuitsone for each direction of load measurement. Uniaxial calibrations along each of the two primary orthogonal pin axes were performed for each pin by StrainSert at load levels of 160, 320, 480, 640, and 800 kips. During the calibration process, the load cells were given an excitation voltage of 10 V. Consequently, during the barge impact test program, each load cell was provided with a 10 V excitation. Additional testing of the clevis pin load cell assemblies was performed for the University of Florida by the FDOT Structures Research Laboratory in Tallahassee, Florida. After attaching four load cell assemblies to each impact block, the integrated units were placed on the FDOT Structures lab floor and subjected to statically applied

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41 loads ranging in magnitude from zero to 600 kips at the center and the top of the block (Figure 5.26). Results from this series of tests revealed that the impact blocks were indeed extremely stiff. However, while such stiffness was desirable from the stand point of preventing introduction of a soft layer between the impacting barge and test pier, it also had unintended consequences. During the FDOT lab tests, it was found that even the subtle slopes in the lab floorprovided for drainage purposeswere sufficient to result two diagonally opposed load cells carrying all of the applied load. Load redistribution that would normally be expected to occur in a more flexible systemeventually producing a more balanced distribution of load in all four load cellsdid not occur due to the very high stiffness of the impact blocks. Additionally, the close lateral proximity of the load cells at the blocks ends, in combination with the stiffness of 3 in. thick steel clevis bearing plates, was also suspected to be a contributing factor to the skewed load distributions observed. Figure 5.26. Testing Impact Block and Load Cells as the FDOT Structures Lab

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42 If similar non-uniform distributions of load were to occur during the full-scale barge impact testingdue to the fact that the blocks would be installed against pier column surfaces that clearly would not be precisely planar in naturethen a strong potential for overloading of individual load cells existed. To avoid such a condition, it was determined that MB 928 (from Master Builders Inc.) grout would need to be placed between the clevis fixture base plates and the pier column surfaces during the field installation. This procedure would then ensure that all four load cells on each impact block were in full contact with the pier face prior to any application of external impact load. Prior to transporting the impact blocks to the test site at St. George Island for use in the full-test barge impact program, additional tests were conducted at the FDOT structures lab to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed MB 928 grouting procedure. In this second series of lab tests, the impact blocks were suspended above the lab floor and grout pads were poured beneath each clevis base plate (Figure 5.27). Test results confirmed that this procedure produced much more uniform loading of all four load cells. Figure 5.27. Load Cells Supported on Grout Pads During FDOT Structures Lab Tests

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43 After transporting the impact blocks to St. George Island, they were taken by barge to the bridge and installed on Pier-1 and Pier-3 by Boh Brothers Construction, Inc. Attaching the clevis base plates to the test piers was accomplished by core drilling holes into the faces of the pier columns and grouting (using a structural adhesive) in 1.375 in. diameter B7 thread bars with a 20 in. embedment length. Using a crane barge, the impact blocks were then lifted into place leaving gaps between the clevis base plates and the pier surfaces. After installing wooden dams around each clevis base plate, MB 928 grout pads were poured and allowed to cure. In this manner, each load cell placed into direct contact with the pier surface prior to load being applied. Data from each of the eight load cell channels (four load cells with two orthogonal load channels each) were captured by the pier DAQ system at a rate of 2000 samples/second/channel with an input range of .1 to 0.1 V. In this manner, high resolution time histories of imparted barge impact load were recovered for a total of fourteen different test conditions. Figur e 5.28 shows a typical set of impact load data recorded during testing. -100-50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2Force (kips)Time (s) .5 Y-direction Load Cell X-direction Load Cell Figure 5.28. Sample of Load Cell Data Collected during Impact Testing

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44 5.4 Accelerometers Accelerometers were mounted on the barge, piers, and bridge superstructure so that time histories of acceleration for each would be recorded during the impact tests. By double time integrating these data, time histories of barge, pier, and superstructure motion may be recovered. In addition, knowing the approximate weight of the barge and the peak decelerations that the barge experienced during impact, indirect estimates of peak impact force may be computed and compared to the loads measured directly by the load cells. According to results from finite element impact simulations conducted prior to full-scale testing, all vessel and structural accelerations of interest were below the 10 g level. In terms of frequency ranges of interest, since a primary intended use of the data was to recover displacement time histories by double time-integration, only relatively low frequencies (below a few hundred Hz) were of interest. Furthermore, the accelerometers chosen needed to be capable of accurately recording data at relatively low acceleration and frequency levels so that double time integration could be successfully carried out after testing. Based on these requirements, direct current (DC) capacitive accelerometers, which are known to produce data of sufficient accuracy for double time integration, were chosen. This type of device measures acceleration by monitoring changes in capacitance between small charged plates contained within the sensor package. Two outer plates are on either side of an inner plate that has an attached mass. As the accelerometer is subjected to acceleration, inertial forces on the mass displace the inner plate, thus changing the overall capacitance of the device. Changes in capacitance, and associated voltage output by the sensor, can then be correlated to acceleration level. Capacitive

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45 accelerometers are generally very accurate at low levels of acceleration (<100 g) and have a high enough frequency response range to capture the full frequency content of the displacement histories of interest in this project (<250 Hz). Summary specifications for the accelerometers used in this study (which were manufactured by Summit Instruments, Inc.) are given in Table 5.4. All of the accelerometers used were of the uniaxial type, thus measuring acceleration only in a single direction. Circuitry contained within each accelerometer filtered and regulated the incoming supply voltage such that any unregulated DC source exceeding 12 V may be used to power the sensor. Accelerometers with peak ranges of 1, 5, and 10 g were installed at various positions on the barge and piers based on acceleration results obtained from finite element impact simulations. Selection of accelerometer range for each position was based on the need to avoid sensor over-ranging while also ensuring that sufficient resolution was retained in the data collected. Table 5.4. Summary Specifications for Accelerometers Model Range Max Shock Cutoff Frequency Noise Input Output (g) (g) (Hz) (mg rms) (V) (V) 13203 1 500 223 2.25 8-30 0-5 13203 5 500 223 2.25 8-30 0-5 13200 10 500 223 10 8-30 0-5 Pre-deployment testing of the accelerometers was conducted in the Civil Engineering Structures Research Lab at the University of Florida using a small dynamic shake table. Accelerometers were attached to the shake table platform using aluminum mounting angles such that the uniaxial orientation each accelerometer faced in the translational direction of the table. Time histories of barge and pier accelerationsobtained from finite element impact simulationswere then loaded in the computer

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46 system controlling the shake table. As the shake platform moved through the specified barge or pier motions, accelerations measured by the attached capacitive accelerometer were captured and recorded. In addition, displacement transducers were attached to the shake platform during selected tests to directly record displacement time histories. Applying frequency based filtering techniques and double time integration to the acceleration data produced displacement data that could be compared to the data measured directly using the displacement transducers and with the known motion of the shake table platform. Comparisons of the type indicated that the accelerometers possessed the necessary level of accuracy required for this project. At the St. George Island test site, accelerometers were mounted to the piers and bridge superstructure using 2 in. x 2 in. x 2 in. x 1/8 in. aluminum angle sections (see Figure 5.29). Each angle was attached to the concrete elements using 1/4 in. 20 x 1 in. expansion anchors. Mounts also included two set-screws that permitted adjustment of bracket alignment on sloped surfaces of the concrete piers. Care was taken to ensure that each mount was installed in an orientation that produced shear loading of the angle rather than flexure. This procedure ensured that the accelerations measured were in no way affected by flexural deformations of the mounting angles. Figure 5.30 shows a typical installation of an accelerometer mounted to one of the concrete piers at the test site. Mounting accelerometers to the steel surface of the barge was similar to the procedure shown in Figure 5.29. However, instead of using anchor bolts, a rapid setting commercial epoxy (J-B Kwik Weld) was used to bond the bottom flange of each aluminum mount to the barge deck (Figure 5.31). This was done after grinding through surface paint to expose bare deck steel.

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47 Set Screw (typ.)AluminumAccelerometerMount2" x 2" x 2" x 1/8"1/4"-20Drop-In-AnchorConical Head 1/4"-20 Screw6-32 Screw (typ.)6-32 Nut (typ.)Sensor Lead to AccelerometerJnct. Box Accelerometer Direction of PositiveAcceleration Measurement Figure 5.29. Procedure for Mounting Accelerometers on Concrete Structures Figure 5.30. Accelerometer Mounted on Concrete Pier

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48 Figure 5.31. An Accelerometer Mounted to the Barge Deck Using these mounting techniques, accelerometers were placed at multiple positions on the barge, test piers, and superstructure (described in Chapter 5). A typical set of acceleration data recorded during impact testing is shown in Figure 5.32. The range on the accelerometer channels in the DAQ system was set to to 10V. Preliminary review of the acceleration data collected at St. George Island indicated that none of the sensors over-ranged and that selected sensor ranges gave the desired levels of measurement resolution. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5Acceleration (g)Time (s)-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 Figure 5.32. Sample of Acceleration Data Collected During Impact Testing

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49 5.5 Displacement Transducers Direct measurement of pier motion during each impact test was accomplished using displacement transducers. Accurate displacement measurement required that each transducer be anchored at a stationary position relative to the test pier. This was accomplished by driving timber piles and installing temporary timber platforms (Figure 5.33) adjacent to piers 1 and 3 opposite to side of the impact block. Each timber platform was located 30 ft. east of the pier so that that the transducer anchor points would be outside the soil zone of influence of the pier. To span the distance from the pier to the platform, light gage pre-stretched cables were pre-tensioned with large-deformation linear springs anchored at the timber platform. Displacement transducers were then attached to the cables thus measuring the movement of the pier relative to the platform. Cables were attached to the northeast and southeast corners of the east column of each pier (1 and 3). Recording displacement histories at these locations, rather than at the centerline of the pier, allowed for an examination of overall pier rotation during impact. Summary specifications for the displacement transducers (model DT-40 transducers manufactured by Scientific Technologies, Inc.) are given in Table 5.5. Figure 5.34 shows a typical DT-40 transducer both as an individual unit and as installed on the stationary timber platforms. Table 5.5. Summary Specifications for Displacement Transducers Model DT-40 Range (in) 40 Tension (oz) 24 Accuracy (in) 0.04

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50 Pulley (Typ.)SpringPVC PipeDisplacementTransducer (Typ.) Timber Platform Timber Pile (Typ.) Pier DisplacementPier Displacement Before PierDisplacementDuring PierDisplacement Figure 5.33. Stationary Timber Platform and Displacement Transducers Figure 5.34. Displacement Transducer (Individually and as Installed on Timber Platform)

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51 A typical set of displacement data recorded during impact testing is shown in Figure 5.35. The range of the channels used to receive the data from the displacement transducers were set to to 10V. The data shown in this case indicates that the pier returned to its original position after impact with no quantifiable permanent sway deformation. -2-1.5-1-0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5Displacement (in)Time (s) Figure 5.35. Sample of Displacement Data Collected During Impact Testing 5.6 Strain Gages (Strain Rings) Strain gages were used to record strains in the piles below Pier-3 during each impact test. By assuming linear strain profiles through the pile cross-sections, shears forces and bending moments could be calculated from the measured strain data. The type of strain gage selected for this study needed to have a long enough gage length (>2) to be able to measure average strains at concrete pile surfaces. Using too small a gage length would result in erroneous measurements if a gage happened to be positioned near surface

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52 cracks. Furthermore, the strain gages needed to be capable of being mounted to the surfaces of concrete piles underwater (in a saltwater environment). To meet these requirements, devices called strain rings (essentially strain gages with built-in bridge completion circuitry) were acquired from the Strainstall UK Ltd. (Figure 5.36). Summary specifications for the specific model of strain used in this study are given in Table 5.6. In particular, note that the devices are designed to be water tight to a depth of over 300 ft., thus providing more than sufficient environmental protection for the present application. Figure 5.36. Typical Strain Ring with Integrated Stainless Steel Mounting Blocks Table 5.6. Summary Specifications for Strain Rings Model 5745 Strain Ring Range () +/2000 Linearity (%) +/1 Input (V) 1-5 Depth Limit (ft) 330 Prior to deploying these devices at the barge impact test site, preliminary tests were conducted at the University of Florida Structures Research Laboratory. Strain rings were mounted on both sides of a steel coupon and loaded axially in tension using a 400 kip Tinius Olsen Universal Test Machine (Figure 5.37). In addition, foil-type strain gages

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53 were also glued to the steel coupon. Strains recorded by the strain rings were then averaged and compared strains measured by the steel foil gages. Strain Rings Foil Gages Steel Coupon Figure 5.37. Axially Loading a Steel Coupon with Attached Strain Rings and Foil Strain Gages Integrated stainless steel mounts attached at each end the strain ring devices produced a gage length of 5.6 in. Internal full bridge circuits were used to measure strains up to 2000 micro-strain. Attaching the devices to the concrete piles of Pier-3 was accomplished by installing 3 in. x 1 in. x 5/8 in. thick stainless steel mounting blocks against the pile surfaces using expansion anchors (Figure 5.38). An extension plate was also mounted between the strain ring and the top mounting block. Machining oversized holes into one end of the extension plate allowed variations in sensor gage length and anchor bolt location to be accommodated without introducing preload into the strain rings during installation. All components of the mounting system were held securely in place by applying sufficient torque to the M5 mounting screws so that friction could be relied upon to prevent slip during loading.

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54 Conical Head 1/4"-20 x 3/4"Screw (Typ.)Allen Head M5 x 40 mmScrew (Typ.)Sensor Lead to Strain RingJct. BoxSpacerStrain Ring MountingBlocks (Typ.)Allen Head M5 x 20 mmScrew (Typ.)1/4" Washer(Typ.)ExtensionPlate1/4"-20x1"Drop-in-anchor Figure 5.38. Strain ring mounting procedure As described in Chapter 5, strain rings were installed at 32 different locations on the piles of Pier-3. The range of the strain ring input channels of the DAQ system were set to .01 to 0.01 V. A typical set of strain data recorded during an impact test on this pier is shown in Figure 5.39. -100-50 0 50 100 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5Strain (micro-strain)Time (s) Figure 5.39. Sample of Pile Strain Data Collected During Impact Testing

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55 5.7 Pressure Transducer During the Pier-1 impact tests (series P1), a pressure transducer was submerged at the east side of the pier (opposite the impact side) to measure water pressure changes during impact. A large increase in water pressure at the vertical face of the pile cap would indicate the water surrounding the pier footing momentarily contributed resistance to pier motion during impact. Thus, a pressure transducer (Model P21-LA, manufactured by Trans-Metrics, a division of United Electric Controls) was installed to determine whether such a pressure increase occurred. Summary specifications for the transducer are given in Table 5.7. The range of the pressure transducer channel in the DAQ system was set to 10 to 10 V. A typical set of pressure data recorded during an impact test is shown in Figure 5.40. Table 5.7. Summary Specifications for Pressure Transducer Model P21-LA Range (psi) 0-50 Input (V) 12 Output (V) 0-5 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5Pressure (psi)Time (s) Figure 5.40. Sample of Water Pressure Data Collected During Impact Testing

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56 5.8 Measurement of Permanent Barge Deformation The extent of permanent deformation at the head log of the barge after each impact was an important measurement as this quantity relates to energy dissipated during impact. This measurement was only important during the Pier-1 impacts as this was the only series with sufficient impact energy to cause inelastic barge deformations. As Figure 5.41 illustrates, barge crush was measured using two reference lines, both located well outside the zone of crush. The lines were located at 15 ft and the 23 ft from the head log of the barge. Both were established by welding steel brackets to the barge deck at 8 ft. intervals transversally across the barge width. Square aluminum reference beams with tick-marks at 3 in. intervals were then locked against these brackets to form the reference lines. Distances from the barge head log (Figure 5.42) to the second reference beam (Figure 5.43) were then measured using a tape rule with tick-marks at 0.04 in. intervals. Proper alignment of the tape rule was achieved by ensuring that it passed over matching tick-marks on both the first and second reference beams. Prior to beginning impact testing, baseline measurements were made to determine the initial profile of the barge headlog. By taking the differences between later measurements and the initial baseline measurements, crush depths could be computed. Measurements of this type were made nominally at 6 in. intervals laterally across the width of the barge as well as at all additional locations that were necessary to characterize special features of the deformed profile (e.g., kink points).

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57 Initial CrushMeasurement Deformed CrushMeasurementBargeBargeFirst ReferenceLine (BaselineMeasurement) Second ReferenceLine (For Alignment) Figure 5.41. Measurement of Permanent Barge Deformation Figure 5.42. Positioning the Tape Rule at the Barge Head Log Figure 5.43. Measuring Distance from Headlog to Second Reference Beam

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CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Based on a preliminary review of data collected during the St. George Island barge impact test program, it has been found that the instrumentation networks developed and deployed in this study functioned properly. A major accomplishment of the project was the successful full-scale experimental measurement of the barge impact loads on bridge piers. Loads of this type has never before been recorded during full-scale barge collision events. Laboratory testing of load measurement impact blocksconducted prior to test site deploymentrevealed that the very high stiffness of the concrete blocks had a major effect on the distribution of loads to individual load cells. This undesirable characteristic, which could have resulted in overloading of individual load cells during field impact testing, was remedied by requiring that grout pads be poured between the load cell base plates and the surfaces to which the load cells were attached. Load data collected during the additional laboratory testing and during full-scale barge impact tests at St. George Island, indicated that this procedure produced more uniform distribution of loads and prevented potential over-ranging of individual load cells. In addition to the many successes that were achieved during this study, selected failures also occurred which should be addressed if similarly-focused testing programs are undertaken in the future. In particular, special attention needs to be given to the development of highly robust and tolerant data acquisition triggering schemes (in terms 58

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59 of both hardware and software). During a small number of the impact tests conducted in this study, the data acquisition system failed to trigger at the appropriate point in time. Eventually, the causes of these events were traced to two sources. One involved unexpected vibrations of the test pier, which in turn caused optical sensors, mounted to the pier to momentarily go out of alignment. This optical break then prematurely triggered the data acquisition system several minutes prior to barge impact. The vibrations were caused by a large jack hammer that was being used to demolish an adjacent pier. The second instance of trigger malfunction was found to be software related. While the data acquisition systems were laboratory tested to ensure that they possessed adequate sampling rates for the sizes of sensor networks to be used in the field tests, it was not anticipated that delays in trigger channel monitoring by the data acquisition software could pose problems. However, during two additional impact tests, time delays between virtual instrument (software) initiation and actual barge impacts resulted in failures of the data acquisition software. It is recommended that future laboratory testing of data acquisition systems intended for field deployment be subjected to the widest possible range of test conditions that can be anticipated. An additional key recommendation derived from the experiences gained during this study relates to the biaxial clevis pin load cells used. During laboratory testing of the load cellsprior to deployment to the bridge test sitecross-talk between the two orthogonal load measurement channels contained with each load cell was detected. Due to budget constraints on the project, exhaustive multi-axial load cell calibrations were not performed by the load cell supplier. Instead, only uniaxial calibrations along each of the

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60 two primary load cell axes were performed. It is recommended that future projects utilizing multi-axial load cells include off-axis (multi-axis) calibrations in addition to standard primary axis calibrations. Ongoing research being conducted by the University of Florida will focus on processing and interpretation of test data that was collected using the instrumentation systems described in this thesis. Details of the data collected will be published in a forthcoming research reports [3] and publications [6]. In the future, this data will be used to develop improved barge impact design provisions and validate/improve pier analysis software used by bridge designers.

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APPENDIX A BARGE INSPECTION DRAWINGS This appendix provides drawings completed to document the member sizes and locations of the internal trusses within the hull of the construction barge. 61

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62 Figure A.1. Internal Barge Member Truss Layout

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63 Figure A.2. Internal Barge Members, Side Wall Profile and Details

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64 Figure A.3. Internal barge Members, 1 st Hull Truss Section and Bracing

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65 Figure A.4. Internal Barge Members, Hull Frame Section and 2 nd Hull Truss Section

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APPENDIX B IMPACT BLOCK DESIGN DRAWINGS This appendix provides design drawings for the impact block used on Pier-1 and Pier-3. The drawings were used to assist the construction of the impact block at the Florida Department of Transportation Structures Laboratory. 66

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67 Figure B.1. Pier-1 Schematic with Load Cell Elevations

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68 Figure B.2. Pier-3 Schematic with Load Cell Elevations

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69 Figure B.3. Pier-1 Load Cell Layout

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70 Figure B.4. Pier-3 Load Cell Layout

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71 Figure B.5. Load Cell Array Installation

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72 Figure B.6. Welded Wire Fabric and Reinforcement Layout in the Impact Block

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73 Figure B.7. Shear Reinforcement in the Impact Block

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LIST OF REFERENCES 1. Consolazio, G.R., R.A. Cook, A.E. Biggs, D.R. Cowan, H.T. Bollman. Barge Impact Testing of the St. George Island Causeway Bridge Phase II : Design of Instrumentation Systems, Structures Research Report No. 883, Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, April 2003. 2. Goble G., J. Schulz, and B. Commander. Lock and Dam #26 Field Test Report for The Army Corps of Engineers, Bridge Diagnostics Inc., Boulder, CO, 1990. 3. Patev, R.C., and B.C. Barker. Prototype Barge Impact Experiments, Allegheny Lock and Dam 2, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ERDC/ITL TR-03-2, US Army Corps of Engineers, 2003. 4. Arroyo, J. R., R.M. Ebeling, and B.C. Barker. Analysis of Impact Loads from Full-Scale Low-Velocity, Controlled Barge Impact Experiments, December 1998. ERDC/ITL TR-03-3, US Army Corps of Engineers, 2003. 5. Consolazio, G.R., R.A. Cook, A.E. Biggs, D.R. Cowan, and H.T. Bollmann. Barge Impact Testing of the St. George Island Causeway Bridge: Final Report. Structures Research Report, Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, (To be published in Spring 2005) 6. Consolazio, G.R., D.R. Cowan, A.E. Biggs, R.A. Cook, M. Ansley, H.T. Bollman. Full-Scale Experimental Measurement of Barge Impact Loads on Bridge Piers. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2004 (Submitted for publication). 74

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH The author was born on October 1, 1980, in San Jose, California. He and his family moved to Seminole, Florida, in July of 1987, were he received a high school diploma from Seminole High School in 1998. After high school, he successfully completed his undergraduate studies at the University of South Florida and received a Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering in May of 2002. The author then began pursuit of a masters degree in the area of structural engineering at the University of Florida under the guidance of Dr. Gary R. Consolazio. Upon completion of his graduate school, the author plans to begin his professional career with Walter P. Moore in Tampa, Florida. 75


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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0007520/00001

Material Information

Title: Development and Deployment of Instrumentation Systems for Full-Scale Barge Impact Testing of St. George Island Bridge
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0007520:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0007520/00001

Material Information

Title: Development and Deployment of Instrumentation Systems for Full-Scale Barge Impact Testing of St. George Island Bridge
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0007520:00001


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DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT OF INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEMS FOR
FULL-SCALE BARGE IMPACT TESTING OF ST. GEORGE ISLAND BRIDGE

















By

ALEXANDER EDWIN BIGGS


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF MASTER OF ENGINEERING



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2004
















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Completion of this thesis and the accompanying research would not have been

possible without the guidance of Dr. Gary Consolazio. His dedication to the research

project discussed herein will be a model for me throughout my career and in my life. I

would also like to thank Mr. Chuck Broward of the Civil and Coastal Engineering

Structures Laboratory for the knowledge and guidance he provided in the field of

instrumentation. Dr. Ronald Cook and Dr. H. R. Hamilton of the University of Florida,

and Mr. Henry Bollmann and Mr. Marcus Ansley of the Florida Department of

Transportation also contributed significantly to the success of the project. Further thanks

go to my fellow graduate students David Cowan, Bibo Zhang, Jessica Hendrix, and Bill

Yanko for their help and continued support.














TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S .................................................................................................. ii

TA B LE O F C O N TEN T S.... .................................................................... ............... iii

LIST OF TABLES ..................... .......... ..............v

LIST OF FIGURES ................................................ vi

CHAPTER

1 IN T R O D U C T IO N ................................................. ............................................... 1

2 TE ST SITE AN D TE ST BAR G E ..................................... ...................... .............. 3

2 .1 D description of P ier-1 ........................................ ............................................. 4
2 .2 D description of P ier-3 ......................................................................... ............. 5
2.3 Description of Bridge Superstructure ................................................. 6
2.4 D description of Test B arge ................................................................. .............. 7

3 IM PA CT TEST EVEN TS. ................................................................. .............. 10

3.1 Series PI: Impacts on Pier-1 .......................... .............. 11
3.2 Series B3: Im pacts on the bridge at Pier-3......................................... .............. 12
3.3 Series P 3: Im pacts on Pier-3 .................................... ....................... .............. 14

4 INSTRUMENTATION NETWORKS .................................................................. 15

4.1 Instrumentation Network for Test Series P1..................................................... 15
4.2 Instrumentation Network for Test Series P3..................................................... 19
4.3 Instrumentation Network for Test Series B3 .................................................... 21
4.4 Instrum entation N etw ork for the Barge.............................................. .............. 22

5 DETAILS OF EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT................................................ 25

5.1 D ata A acquisition System ......................................... ......................... .............. 25
5.2 O ptical B reak B eam s .................................................................. ................... 33
5.3 Im pact B lock and L oad C ells..................................... ...................... .............. 35
5.4 A ccelerom eters ............... .... .......... ................................................. ..... ..... 44
5.5 D isplacem ent T ransducers ....................................... ........................ .............. 49









5.6 Strain G ages (Strain R ings) .................................. ........................ .............. 51
5.7 Pressure Transducer .................................................................... ............... .. .............. 55
5.8 Measurement of Permanent Barge Deformation .............................................. 56

6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................ 58

APPENDIX

A BARGE INSPECTION DRAWINGS .............. ..................... 61

B IMPACT BLOCK DESIGN DRAWINGS........................................................... 66

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S .................................................................................................. 74

BIO GR APH ICAL SK ETCH .. ................................................................... .............. 75






































iv
















LIST OF TABLES

Table page

3.1. Sum m ary of the Im pact T ests ...................................... ...................... ............... 10

5.1. Specifications for Pier Data Acquisition System .................................. ................ 26

5.2. Specifications for Barge Data Acquisition System...............................................26

5.3. Summary Specifications for Optical Break Beam Sensors...................................33

5.4. Summary Specifications for Accelerometers ................ ....................................45

5.5. Summary Specifications for Displacement Transducers......................................49

5.6. Sum m ary Specifications for Strain Rings............................................. ................ 52

5.7. Summary Specifications for Pressure Transducer................................................55

















LIST OF FIGURES

Figure page

2 .1. O overall B ridge E levation ..................................................................... ...............4...

2.2. L locations of P ier-1 and Pier-3 ....................................... ....................... ...............4...

2 .3 P ier-1 D im en sion s ............. .. .................. .................. .............................. ..... .... ......... 5

2 .4 P ier-3 D im en sion s ............. .. .................. .................. .............................. ..... .... ........... 6

2.5. B ridge D eck D im tensions ..................................................................... ...............7...

2.6. C ross-section of the B ridge D eck ........................................................... ...............7...

2 .7. O overall B arge D im tensions ........................................... ......................... ...............8...

2.8. Deck Barge Loaded with Bridge Spans for Pier-1 Impact Tests...............................9...

3.1. D iagram of Series P ................................................................. ........... .......... ...................12

3.2. D iagram of Series B 3 .. .................................................................... ............... 13

3.3. D iagram of Series P3 .............................. ............................................. 14

4.1. Instrumentation Network for Test Series P ..........................................................15

4.2. Break B eam s and Load Cells on Pier-1 ................................................. ................ 17

4.3. D ata A acquisition System on Pier-1 ........................................................ ............... 18

4.4. Instrum entation N etw ork for Series P3.................................................. ................ 20

4.5. L locations of Strain R ings on Pier-3 ....................................................... ................ 20

4.6. Locations of Accelerometers on the Superstructure, Pier-2, and Pier-4..................21

4.7. Instrumentation Network Used on Barge ..................................................23

4.8. Contact Between Barge and Pier Tripwires...........................................................24









4.9. Barge Tripwire and Extension Arm s ................................................... 24

5.10. Data Acquisition Chassis Configuration Used on Barge....................................27

5.11. Data Acquisition Chassis Configuration Used on Pier........................................27

5.12. NI-6036E PCM CIA Data Acquisition Card ....................................... ................ 28

5.13. Panasonic Toughbook 28 Notebook Computer..................................................29

5.14. D ata Acquisition (DAQ) Case ......................................................... 30

5.15. D irect C current B attery C ase....................................... ...................... ................ 3 1

5.16. DAQ and DC Cases Connected Together........................................... ................ 31

5.17. Components of the DAQ System on Pier-1 ....................................... ................ 32

5.18. Optical Break Beam Brackets for Pier-1 and Pier-3...........................................34

5.19. Break Beam Sensors Installed on Aluminum Bracket ............................34

5.20. Sample of Optical Break Beam Sensor Data ..................................... ................ 35

5.21. Impact Block with Attached Load Cell Assemblies...........................................36

5.22. Test Barge Nearing Contact with Impact Block.................................. ................ 37

5.23. Internal Reinforcing Steel Present in Impact Blocks..........................................38

5.24. Exploded Views of a Clevis Pin Load Cell Assembly ........................................39

5.25. Serial Numbers and Positive Directions for Load Cells....................................40

5.26. Testing Impact Block and Load Cells as the FDOT Structures Lab.....................41

5.27. Load Cells Supported on Grout Pads During FDOT Structures Lab Tests .............42

5.28. Sample of Load Cell Data Collected During Impact Testing ...............................43

5.29. Procedure for Mounting Accelerometers on Concrete Structures .........................47

5.30. Accelerom eter M mounted on Concrete Pier.......................................... ................ 47

5.31. An Accelerometer M mounted to the Barge Deck.................................. ................ 48

5.32. Sample of Acceleration Data Collected During Impact Testing ..............................48

5.33. Stationary Timber Platform and Displacement Transducers...............................50









5.34. D isplacem ent T ransducer ......................................... ........................ ................ 50

5.35. Sample of Displacement Data Collected During Impact Testing..........................51

5.36. Typical Strain Ring with Integrated Stainless Steel Mounting Blocks.................52

5.37. A xially L oading a Steel C oupon ........................................................ ................ 53

5.39. Sample of Pile Strain Data Collected During Impact Testing ...............................54

5.40. Sample of Water Pressure Data Collected During Impact Testing.......................55

5.41. Measurement of Permanent Barge Deformation ...............................................57

5.42. Positioning the Tape Rule at the Barge Head Log ..............................................57

5.43. Measuring Distance from Headlog to Second Reference Beam...........................57

A 1. Internal Barge M em ber Truss Layout.................................................. ................ 62

A.2. Internal Barge Members, Side Wall Profile and Details......................................63

A.3. Internal Barge Members, 1st Hull Truss Section and Bracing ...............................64

A.4. Internal Barge Members, Hull Frame Section and 2nd Hull Truss Section .............65

B. 1. Pier-1 Schem atic with Load Cell Elevations ................ .................................... 67

B.2. Pier-3 Schem atic with Load Cell Elevations ................ .................................... 68

B .3. P ier-1 L oad C ell L ayout........................................... ......................... ................ 69

B .4 P ier-3 L oad C ell L ayout........................................... ......................... ................ 70

B .5. L oad C ell A rray Installation.................................... ....................... ................ 71

B.6. Welded Wire Fabric and Reinforcement Layout in the Impact Block...................72

B.7. Shear Reinforcem ent in the Im pact block............................................ ................ 73














Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Engineering

DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT OF INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEMS FOR
FULL-SCALE BARGE IMPACT TESTING OF ST. GEORGE ISLAND BRIDGE

By

Alexander Edwin Biggs

December 2004

Chair: Gary R. Consolazio
Major Department: Civil and Coastal Engineering

During late Spring 2004, full-scale barge impact tests were conducted on multiple

piers of the St. George Island Bridge in Northwestern Florida to experimentally quantify

impact loads and associated pier displacements and barge deformations. This thesis

describes the impact tests that were performed and the development, testing, and

deployment of the instrumentation systems used to acquire test data. Special focus was

given to the measurement of dynamic impact loads imparted to the bridge piers and to the

measurement of pier and superstructure response during each collision test. High speed

data acquisition systems were coupled with sensor arrays that included load cells,

accelerometers, optical beams, displacement transducers, strain gages, and pressure

transducers to characterize both loading and structural response during each collision test.

Physical conditions assessments for these experiments included the examination of the

two piers used in this experiment, as well as the examination of the superstructure over

Pier-3, and the inspection of the construction barge used in the impacts.















CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Replacement of the St. George Island Bridge near Apalachicola, Florida, during the

Spring of 2004 presented a unique opportunity to perform full-scale barge impact tests on

piers of the existing bridge prior to its demolition. The tests permitted direct measurement

of dynamic barge impact forces imparted to the piers as well as measurement of structural

response parameters such as acceleration, displacement, and strain [1].

Prior to the study discussed in this thesis, the main focus of the research involving

full-scale barge impact tests was limited to impacts on lock gates and lock walls, not

bridge piers. In 1990, Bridge Diagnostics, Inc. completed a series of tests for the U.S.

Army Corps of Engineers that involved a 9-barge flotilla impacting lock gates at Lock

and Dam 26 on the Mississippi river near Alton, Illinois [2]. Each of the impacts was

performed at approximately 0.4 knots. Force, acceleration, and velocity time histories for

the impacting barge were recorded using commercially available sensors such as strain

gages and accelerometers. In addition, a custom manufactured and calibrated load cell,

developed by Bridge Diagnostics, was used to measure impact forces.

More recently, impact tests conducted in 1997 by the U.S. Army Corps of

Engineers used a four-barge flotilla to ram a concrete lock wall at Old Lock and Dam 2,

located north of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania [3]. This series of experiments was considered

to be a prototype for a larger set of full-scale impacts conducted later that employed a 15-

barge flotilla. The purpose of the prototype tests was to identify difficulties that might be






2


encountered during the full-scale tests, as well as to test the various sensors required to

capture structural response at the point of impact and overall flotilla interaction during

impact. Strain gages installed on the impacting barge recorded steel plate deformations at

the point of impact. An accelerometer was used to capture the overall acceleration history

of the flotilla, and clevis pin load cells quantified lashing forces generated during impact.

Subsequent to the prototype tests, full-scale impact experiments were initiated in

December of 1998 at the decommissioned Gallipolis Lock at Byrd Lock and Dam in

West Virginia [4]. As opposed to the prototype tests, one of the main goals of the full-

scale tests was to recover actual force histories during impacts between the barge flotilla

and the lock wall. To accomplish this goal, tests were conducted with a load

measurement device-designed in-house and calibrated by the Army Corps-affixed to

the impact corner of the barge flotilla.

Most recently, in Spring 2004, full-scale barge impact tests were conducted by the

University of Florida (UF) and the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) on

piers of the St. George Island Bridge to quantify impact loads and structural response

parameters [5]. The main goals of this thesis are to document the test conditions studied,

document the procedures used to instrument the barge and bridge for the testing, and

offer recommendations for future testing of similar nature.















CHAPTER 2
TEST SITE AND TEST BARGE

All impact tests discussed in this thesis were conducted on the southern section of

the former St. George Island Bridge near Apalachicola, Florida. Traversing the

Apalachicola Bay, the bridge connected Cat Point, in Eastpoint, Florida, to St. George

Island, off the coast of the Florida panhandle. Tests were performed on the portion of the

bridge that spanned over the main navigation channel (see Figure 2.1 and Figure 2.2).

Located directly south of the main navigation channel was Pier-1, an impact

resistant reinforced concrete pier (denoted Pier 1-S in Figure 2.1). This pier, along with

Pier 2-S, Pier 1-N and Pier 2-N, supported a continuous three span steel girder section

that spanned over the navigation channel. Pier-3, a more flexible, non-impact resistant

pier (denoted Pier 3-S in Figure 2.1), was located 260 ft south of Pier-1. Aside from the

continuous steel girder section, all remaining spans of the bridge were simply supported,

precast concrete girder sections.



















To Cat Point North
Continuous :
Single Concrete Girder Spans


Timber Bridge Fender Wales
- Center-Line, Main ICWW Channel

To Saint George Island, South


End of
Bndge


Pier-N '"N
Barrier Island Pier 4-N
Pier3-N Pier 1-S
Pier 2-N Pier 2-S
Pier 1-N Pier 3-S


Figure 2.1. Overall Bridge Elevation


fMHW lne
Mud line


Figure 2.2. Locations of Pier-1 and Pier-3


2.1 Description of Pier-1


Designed during the 1960s, Pier-1 was constructed as an impact resistant pier


because it was located directly adjacent to the navigation channel and thus had a higher


likelihood of being struck by errant vessels. As Figure 2.3 illustrates, the pier consisted of


two square columns, a pier cap, a shear wall for lateral resistance, and a pile cap with 36


steel H-piles. The top of the 5 ft thick pile cap was located 9 ft below mean sea level.


Illllllllll









Below the pile cap was a 6 ft thick concrete seal cast around the piles. An underwater

visual inspection of the pier prior to impact testing showed that the elevation of the bay

bottom (i.e., the mudline) was located at the bottom of the pile cap (i.e., at the top of the

seal). Consequently, none of the steel H-piles were left directly exposed to the saltwater.

28'-1 1/2"


Figure 2.3. Pier-1 Dimensions


2.2 Description of Pier-3

Pier-3, located approximately 260 ft south of Pier-1 and thus much farther away

from the navigation channel, was not designed for significant vessel impact loads. Pier-3

was much more structurally flexible than Pier-1 with two slimmer, square columns, a

smaller pier cap, two pile caps, and a shear strut rather than a shear wall for lateral

resistance (see Figure 2.4). Pier-3 was founded on eight 20 in. square precast prestressed









concrete piles. All of the piles were driven at a 1.5 in. per 12 in. batter, with the inner

piles (closest to the shear strut) battered only in one direction and the outermost piles of

each group battered in two directions.

24'


Pier Cap -

17' ,r3'-6"


Pier
Columns _



Lateral Strut


MSL 1 7
ile Caps


Precast Concrete Piles

Figure 2.4. Pier-3 Dimensions


2.3 Description of Bridge Superstructure

During one series of Pier-3 impact tests, portions of the superstructure were left

intact. Specifically, simply-supported prestressed concrete girder-slab spans connecting

Pier-2 (south), Pier-3, Pier-4, Pier-5 and beyond (to the southern abutment of the bridge)

were left intact during the second series of impact tests conducted in this study. Of

primary importance in terms of redistribution of impact load were the superstructure

spans connecting Pier-2 to Pier-3 and connecting Pier-3 to Pier-4. These 75.5 ft. long

spans consisted of cast in place concrete decks supported on AASHTO Type II girders.










Overall dimensions of the bridge superstructure spans are given in Figure 2.5.

Diaphragms running transverse to the girders were cast in place at the ends and midpoint

of each span (Figure 2.6).

75'-6"


J OLi W 1 LO U O L
-'---------------------------------------------------rT----------------------------------------^-------------







D hDiaphragm
---Dia hra ms -- ---- -------







i_ _m



Figure 2.5. Bridge Deck Dimensions
Figure 2.5. Bridge Deck Dimensions


IfL


en
to
(NI


Cast-in-Place
Diaphram (Typ.)

Figure 2.6. Cross-section of the Bridge Deck


2.4 Description of Test Barge

Impact tests conducted in this study utilized a construction deck barge that was

approximately 151 ft long, 50 ft wide, and 12 ft deep (Figure 2.7) and weighed

approximately 275 tons when empty. The hull of the barge was made up of plates varying









in thickness from 1/4 in. to 5/8 in. and having a nominal yield strength of 36 ksi. Internal

trusses running in the longitudinal direction and providing internal structural stiffness to

the barge were made up of steel angles and channels. External and internal visual

inspections of the barge revealed no pre-existing corrosion or structural damage that

would significant affect the structural integrity of the barge. Additional details of the

inner structural configuration of the barge bow, as were recorded during visual internal

inspection of the barge bow, are given in Appendix A.

116'-3" 35'


MSL Barge


Figure 2.7. Overall Barge Dimensions


During all Pier-1 impact tests-but not during Pier-3 tests-an increased test barge

weight was achieved by loading two 55 ft. concrete bridge superstructure spans onto the

deck barge (Figure 2.8). These "payload" spans were taken from a part of the bridge that

had already been demolished at the time of impact testing. With both spans loaded, draft

measurements were taken at five foot intervals along the entire length of the test barge.

Combining these data with the known geometry of the barge hull, the total loaded weight

of the barge was determined to be 600 tons.














f


Figure 2.8. Deck Barge Loaded with Bridge Spans for Pier-1 Impact Tests

















CHAPTER 3
IMPACT TEST EVENTS

Impact tests were scheduled to take place during an approximately one-month

period (April 2004) and were sequenced so as to minimize delays to the demolition of the

structure. As stated previously, piers that were impact tested were the impact resistant

Pier-1 and the more flexible Pier-3. Finite element impact simulations of impacts on Piers

1 and 3 were performed using varying impact speeds and barge weight. Impact speed

and barge weight were chosen-based on results from these simulations-to maximize

the utility of the data collected while also minimizing the possibility of catastrophic pier

or superstructure failure. Table 3.1 summarizes the impact conditions for each tests of the

three series.


Table 3.1. Summary of the Impact Tests
Effective
Test Barge Impact Kinetic
Series Identifier Weight Speed Energy
(tons) (knots) (tons-ft)
P1 P1T1 600 0.75 15
P1 P1T2 600 1.75 81
P1 P1T3 600 1.98 204
P1 P1T4 600 2.59 178
P1 P1T5 600 2.42 155
P1 P1T6 600 3.45 316
P1 P1T7 600 3.41 309
P1 P1T8 600 3.04 245
B3 B3T1 297* 0.96 12
B3 B3T2 297* 0.89 10
B3 B3T3 297* 0.86 9
B3 B3T4 297* 1.53 31
P3 P3T1 297* 0.77 8
P3 P3T2 297* 1.33 23
P3 P3T3 297* 1.84 44
* Effective weight includes weight of hard-rigged pushboat












3.1 Series PI: Impacts on Pier-1

Due to the impact resistance of Pier-1, the first series of impact tests performed,

denoted P had the highest impact energies of the three test series performed.

Additionally, test series P was the only series to cause permanent inelastic deformations

in the test barge. Eight tests were conducted on Pier-1 in isolation (Figure 3.1), using

a loaded 600 ton barge, at speeds ranging from .75 knots to 3.5 knots (Table 3.1). Due

to the presence of cross-currents at the test site, it was necessary to minimize the

acceleration distance needed for each test. While starting the barge at a greater distance

from the test pier would generally permit higher speeds to be attained at the time of

impact, doing so also increased the likelihood that the barge trajectory would not result in

an impact at the desired location on the barge bow (or that the barge might miss the test

pier altogether; an event that happened on one occurrence). Thus, the "acceleration

distance" between the barge starting point and the test pier was minimized as much as

possible in each test.

Acceleration was achieved by pushing at the stern of the barge with a pushboat.

The pushboat was attached to the barge with soft lines, so that prior to impact, the

pushboat could back off and avoid riding through the impact and receiving any possible

damage. To aid the pushboats in accelerating and aligning the impact barge, a winch

barge was positioned (and spudded down) to the east of Pier-1, opposite side of the pier

being impacted. Cables from two winches on this stationary barge were then attached at

the corners of the bow of the impact barge. Acceleration of the barge was then achieved

by pushing at the stem with a pushboat and pulling at the bow with tensioned winch










cables. Just prior to the point of impact, the pushboat would back off from the barge and

the winch cables tension would be released so that the barge was in a free-floating

conditions at impact. Since the pushboat was connected to the barge via soft lines, the

pushboat was not able to fully control the trajectory of the barge during each test run.

Therefore, two additional boats were used to guide the barge by applying transverse

thrust at near the bow of the barge.


E Pier- 1


Force (load)
measurement
impact block


Direction
motion "-.





Deck barge
(with circular
spud wells)


Figure 3.1. Diagram of Series P1


3.2 Series B3: Impacts on the bridge at Pier-3

Test series B3, the second set of impact tests conducted, consisted of four collisions

of an empty deck barge striking the bridge (i.e., multiple piers connected together via

superstructure spans) at Pier-3. In this test series, the simply supported concrete girder

deck spans from Pier-2 to the southern abutment of the bridge were left intact (Figure 3.2).

Unlike series PI, tests in series B3 were conducted at lower energy levels, with

barge speeds ranging from 0.75 to 1.5 knots (Table 3.1). Achieving these impact

speeds did not require the use of the stationary winch barge described earlier. Instead, a











single pushboat sufficed to accelerate the test barge during each B3 test. In contrast to


series PI, hard rigging tensionedd steel cable) was used in series B3 to connect the


pushboat to the stern of the test barge. As a result, the pushboat rode through each impact


test tightly linked to the barge. The weight of the pushboat (approximately 22 tons) then


added to the weight of the empty barge (275 tons) in terms of total kinetic energy at time


of impact. No quantifiable permanent deformations were observed in the barge head log


as a result of the B3 series of impact tests (due to the lower energy levels).


Joint between


Pier-2


N E


Direction
of barge
motion


Joint between
simple spans


Pier-4


To Pier-5
and beyond


Deck barge
(with circular
spud wells)


Figure 3.2. Diagram of Series B3



3.3 Series P3: Impacts on Pier-3

The final series of impact tests conducted, denoted P3, consisted of empty barge


collisions with Pier-3 in isolation. These tests occurred after the superstructure spans










connecting Pier-2, Pier-3, and Pier-4 had been removed (Figure 3.3). Aside from the

removal of the superstructure spans, tests in series P3 were similar to the series B3 tests

in terms of impact speeds, barge weight, pushboat rigging, and absence of the winch

barge. Impact load data were collected for three tests with impact speeds ranging from

.75 knots to 1.8 knots (Table 3.1).


Deck barge
(with circular
spud wells)

Figure 3.3. Diagram of Series P3
















CHAPTER 4
INSTRUMENTATION NETWORKS

In this chapter, the overall instrumentation networks used during the barge impact

study are described. Detailed descriptions of individual sensors are presented in the

chapter following.

4.1 Instrumentation Network for Test Series P1

Sensors used in the instrumentation network for test series P consisted of

accelerometers, displacement transducers, optical break beams, load cells, and a pressure

transducer (Figure 4.1). Also located on the pier were a high speed data acquisition

(DAQ) system and a 12 volt, direct current power supply case. Excitation for each sensor

was supplied by the data acquisition system.

z


X-axis
Accelerometer
(Typ.)


Displacement
- Transducer
(Typ.)

Tensioned Displacement
Transducer Cables (Typ.)


Figure 4.1. Instrumentation Network for Test Series P









A total of seven accelerometers were mounted at two different elevations on the

pier: at the pier cap elevation, and at elevation of the top of the shear wall (Figure 4.1).

Double time integration of shear wall accelerometer data can then be performed to

recover time histories of lateral pier motion during impact. Such information can then be

merged with displacement data obtained directly from the displacement transducers to

ensure that accurate pier response data are obtained.

Two displacement transducers were attached to pretensioned light gage cables

which extended from the east column of Pier-1 and to a stationary timber platform

(Figure 4.1) approximately 30ft. east of the pier. Recording displacements at two locations

on the column-rather than simply at its centerline-allowed for an examination of

possible overall pier torsion (rotation about the z-axis) during impact.

Pressure in the bay water at the east side of the pier was monitored during each P1

test using a submerged pressure transducer. The transducer was suspended at a position

approximately 8 ft. below the water surface (Figure 4.1) and adjacent to the east face

of the pile cap. By monitoring water pressure at this location during impact, a

determination as to influence of hydrodynamic inertial effects was made possible.

Dynamic impact loads imparted to the pier were measured using four biaxial,

clevis-pin load cells which were mounted to a concrete impact block on the west face of

Pier-1 (Figure 4.2). The concrete impact block served to distributed load from the

barge to the four load cells and then, ultimately, into the pier column. To ensure that

introduction of the impact block between the barge and pier did influence the loads that

were being measured, the geometry (width) and the material type (concrete) of the impact

block were chosen to match those of the west column of the pier. In this manner,










interaction between the barge headlog and the concrete impact surface was not altered by

the introduction of the impact-block-and-load-cell assembly. Furthermore, biaxial load

cells were used, rather than uniaxial load cells, so that impact loads could be

independently quantified in the horizontal (x) and vertical (z) directions.

Determination of barge speed at impact and triggering of the data acquisition

system were achieved using two sets of infrared optical break beam sensors mounted in

front of the impact block (Figure 4.2). Each set consisted of an infrared transmitter

and receiver. As the barge headlog passed between the transmitter and receiver, the

infrared beam connecting them would be instantly interrupted and the output voltage

from the receiver would drop to zero. By positioning two set of beams at a separation

distance of 2 ft from each other, and by knowing the duration of time that elapsed

between interruption of the two beams, the speed of the barge just prior to impact could

be accurately gauged. Holding the break beam sensors in position was a 16 ft. tall

aluminum bracket which was attached to side of the impact block.

Break Beam z N, E
Receiver y x
Bi-axial
Load Cell
Impact (Typ.)
Blocky I


Infrared Break*
Beam (Typ.)


^- Break Beam
Transmitter
(Typ.)

Figure 4.2. Break Beams and Load Cells on Pier-1









Also mounted to the aluminum bracket was a light-gage pre-tensioned steel trip

wire which was used to electrically (rather than optically) trigger the data acquisition

system on the barge. Additional details are given later in this chapter.

A self-contained data acquisition (DAQ) and direct current (DC) power supply

system installed on pier provided excitation power for each sensor, monitored all sensor

outputs, provided signal conditioning (high frequency noise reduction), performed analog

to digital conversion, and stored recorded data. Physically, the system was separated into

two separate weather-tight cases (Figure 4.3). A DAQ case housed a ruggedized

notebook computer, an analog-to-digital conversion card, and multiple signal conditioner

cards (together with associated batter packs). A separate DC battery case contained two

deep-cycle 12 v marine batteries. To protect the data acquisition electronics from shock

induced damage, both the DAQ and DC cases were mounted on a custom fabricated

shock isolation carriage. Additional protection of the DAC and DC cases included the

installation of a steel shelter to deflect spalled concrete debris originating from the top of

the pier.


z N E
Y^ 'J"


Figure 4.3. Data Acquisition System on Pier-1









The data acquisition system in the series PI received 20 total channels, which

consisted of: 8 from the load cells, 7 from the accelerometers, 2 from the displacement

transducers, 2 from the optical break beams, and 1 from the pressure transducer.

4.2 Instrumentation Network for Test Series P3

The instrumentation network on Pier-3 for test series P3 (Pier-3 tested in

isolation) was very similar to that used during test series Pl. As previously described for

series PI, series P3 also used seven accelerometers, four load biaxial clevis-pin load cells,

two displacement transducers, two sets of infrared optical break beams, and a DAQ

system (Figure 4.4). In addition, the P3 (and B3) test series also included the use of 32

strain "rings" (long-gage strain gages) that were attached to the eight concrete piles

supporting Pier-3. The strain sensors were attached to both the west and east faces of

each pile at two different elevations for a total of four strain rings per pile (Figure 4.5).

Individual strain sensors were identified by the convention: G-P-F-E, where G is

the pile group (west or east), P is the pile position within the group (northeast, northwest,

southeast, southwest), F is the pile face (west or east), and E is the relative elevation (top

or bottom). For example, the strain ring located in the west pile group, southeast pile,

eastern face, top elevation is denoted W-SE-E-T.

Since the pile caps in Pier-3 were above waterline, the only submerged structural

elements were the individual piles. Because the piles had relatively small surface areas

(compared to the much larger surface area of the Pier-1 pile cap), significant changes in

water pressure at locations adjacent to the piles were not expected. For this reason,

pressure transducers were not used in tests series P3 (or B3).










z



X-axis
Accelerometer
(Typ.)
Optical Break Beam
Receiver (Typ.)

Tr, Wi;^ --- .


ip rvv1



Impact Block

Infrared Break
Beam (Tvn.)


N E


Y-axis
Accelerometer
(Typ.)


Displacement
Transducer
(Typ.)


Accelerometer


(Typ.)
DAQ Sytem

S_ Biaxial Load
Cell (Typ.)


Optical Break Beam
Transmitter (Typ.)

Figure 4.4. Instrumentation Network for Series P3


M.S.L.









Mudline


W-SE-E-T


Section A-A

Figure 4.5. Locations of Strain Rings on Pier-3


In the P3 series of tests, the DAQ system received a total of 51 channels, consisting

of: 8 from the load cells, 7 from the accelerometers, 2 from the displacement transducers,

2 from the optical break beams, and 32 from the strain rings.










4.3 Instrumentation Network for Test Series B3

Test series B3 was identical to series P3 (described) above except that portions of

the bridge superstructure were left intact during series B3. As a result, the sensor network

for series B3 was exactly the same as for P3 with the exception that nine extra

accelerometers were added. The additional accelerometers (Figure 4.6) were attached

both to the superstructure as well as to the adjacent piers (Pier-2 and Pier-4). The purpose

of attaching the additional accelerometers was to permit determination of load shedding

that occurred through the superstructure (i.e., the portion of impact load that was shared

distributed into adjacent piers through the bridge deck).


z N E
y 'Jt"X


Pier-3


and beyond


Figure 4.6. Locations of Accelerometers on the Superstructure, Pier-2, and Pier-4









This series, P3, totaled 60 channels of data collected by the DAQ system, these

included: 8 from the load cells, 16 from the accelerometers, 2 from the displacement

transducers, 2 from the break beams, and 32 from the strain rings.

4.4 Instrumentation Network for the Barge

Sensors included the barge instrumentation network consisted of accelerometers,

electrical trip wires, and a global position system (GPS) logger (Figure 4.7). The GPS

data logger consisted of a handheld GPS unit (a Garmin model GPSMap76S), an external

antenna, a serial communication cable, and a notebook computer. Similar to the test piers,

the barge was outfitted with a self-contained data acquisition (DAQ) and direct current

(DC) power supply system. These provided sensor excitation, monitoring of sensor

outputs, signal conditioning, analog to digital conversion, data capture, and data storage.

A shock isolation carriage similar to that used on the pier was fabricated and welded to

the surface of the test barge to protect the DAQ case, DC case, and GPS case from shock

induced damage.

Accelerometers were mounted to the top deck of the barge to permit recovery of

deceleration-induced inertial forces as well as overall vessel motions (through double

time-integration of the measured data). In total, seven accelerometers spanning three

orthogonal directions (x, y, z) were installed on the barge deck at the positions indicated

in Figure 4.7. Using this sensor array, translations in all three directions as well as

rotations about all three axes (roll, pitch, yaw) may be determined.

Triggering of the DAQ system on the barge was accomplished via an electrical

trip wire apparatus (see Figure 4.7) that contacted-just prior to impact-a single

complimentary trip wire on the test pier. The trip wire apparatus consisted of retractable

steel extension arms mounted to the barge bow and two horizontal, .032" diameter











stainless steel wires that spanned the width of the barge bow and which were tensioned

between the extension arms (Figure 4.8 and Figure 4.9). When these horizontal barge

trip wires contacted the vertical trip wire mounted adjacent to the optical break beams on

the pier, an electrical circuit connected to the barge DAQ system would close thus

triggering high speed data collection.

The whole barge instrumentation system totaled 8 channels of data. These 8

channels included: 7 from the accelerometers and one from the tripwire at the headlog of

the barge to trigger the DAQ system.


& 1 Trip Wire
.x ^Assembly





X-axis
Accelerometer
(Typ.)
Z-axis
Accelerometer
o(Typ.)

DAQ, battery, and
Q global positioning
system boxes along
with video camera


6,/


z
Y-axis y x
Accelerometer
(Typ.)


Figure 4.7. Instrumentation Network Used on Barge



















Point of contact between
pier tripwire and barge
tripwires

Tripwires attached
- to the barge
extension arms


Figure 4.8. Contact Between Barge and Pier Tripwires


Figure 4.9. Barge Tripwire and Extension Arms















CHAPTER 5
DETAILS OF EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT

The instrumentation networks used in this study included data acquisition systems,

optical break beams, load cells, accelerometers, displacement transducers, strain rings,

and pressure transducers. This chapter provides detailed descriptions for each of these

components, descriptions of the sensor attachment methods used, and samples of typical

data collected during impact testing.

5.1 Data Acquisition System

Collection of data from sensors on the bridge pier and barge, both of which were

subjected to abrupt impact loading, required the use of data acquisition systems that were

portable, self-powered, tolerant of adverse environmental conditions (moisture, dust), and

capable of surviving shocks of 2 g or more. In addition, the sampling rate of the DAQ

systems needed to be high enough to capture the dynamic responses of the pier and barge

for sensor arrays that included as many as 60 channels. Based on dynamic finite element

impact simulations of the target testing conditions for each pier, it was determined that a

sampling rate of 2000 samples/second/channel was desirable from the view points of

capturing dynamic response as well as facilitating subsequent digital signal processing

(e.g., frequency filtering). Capturing 60 data channels at 2000 samples/second/channel,

required a minimum overall DAQ sampling speed of 120,000 samples/second.

Based on these criteria, National Instruments, Inc. (NI) data acquisition systems

(Table 5.1 and Table 5.2) were configured for use on the test piers and barge. Each










system contained an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter, signal condition chassis, signal

conditioning modules, and a battery pack (DC power source).


Table 5.1. Specifications for Pier Data
Acquisition System


Analog-to-Digital Conversion Card
Model NI DAQCard-6036E
Sampling Rate (kHz) 200
Signal Ranges (V) +/- 5
Resolution 16 Bit

Chassis (Model) NI SCXI-1000DC
Shock (g) 30
Num of Slots 4
Cardl (Model) NI SCXI-1102C
Card Type Analog Input
Channels 32
Filter (kHz) 10
Card2 (Model) NI SCXI-1520
Card Type Strain Gage
Channels 8
Filter (Hz) 10-10,000
Battery Pack (DC Power Supply)
12 VDC Battery NI SCXI-1382
C il. I l, t 1, il
Analog-to-digital Card NI DAQCard-6036E
Chassis (1) NI SCXI-1000DC
Slot 1 NI SCXI-1520
Slot 2 NI SCXI-1520
Slot 3 NI SCXI-1520
Slot 4 NI SCXI-1520
DC Battery NI SCXI-1382
Chassis (2) NI SCXI-1000DC
Slot 1 NI SCXI-1520
Slot 2 NI SCXI-1102C
Slot 3 (empty)
Slot 4 (empty)
DC Battery NI SCXI-1382


Table 5.2. Specifications for Barge Data
Acquisition System


Analog-to-Digital Conversion Card
Model NI DAQCard-6036E
Sampling Rate (kHz) 200
Signal Ranges (V) +/- 5
Resolution 16 Bit

Chassis (Model) NI SCXI-1000DC
Shock (g) 30
Num of Slots 4
Card (Model) NI SCXI-1102C
Card Type Analog Input
Channels 32
Filter (kHz) 10
Battery Pack (DC Power Supply)
12 VDC Battery NI SCXI-1382
C ,0,il I g, "t1, 0i
Analog-to-digital Card NI DAQCard-6036E
Chassis (1) NI SCXI-1000DC
Slot 1 NI SCXI-1102C
Slot 2 (empty)
Slot 3 (empty)
Slot 4 (empty)
DC Battery NI SCXI-1382


As Tables 5.1 and 5.2 indicate, each of the DAQ systems utilized at least one

NI SCXI-1000 DC signal conditioning chassis and matching 12 V DC battery pack









(Figure 5.10 and Figure 5.11). Each chassis of this type can accommodate up to four

individual signal conditioning modules (cards). In the case of the pier DAQ system, two

chassis were daisy-chained (linked) together to increase the maximum number of signal

conditions modules to eight.


Figure 5.10. Data Acquisition Chassis Configuration Used on Barge


Figure 5.11. Data Acquisition Chassis Configuration Used on Pier









Two types of signal conditioning cards were used in the DAQ systems assembled

for this study : NI SCXI-1520 and SCXI-1102C. The eight-channel NI SCXI-1520

modules, intended for use with low output sensors types such as strain gages, provide

sensor excitation, programmable gain levels from 1 to 1000, and programmable

frequency based filtering. In contrast, the 32-channel NI SCXI-1102C modules are

intended for use with higher output level (0.1 V to 10 V) analog sensors and, as such,

offer more limited gain and signal conditioning features. In this study, NI SCXI-1520

cards were used in to provide sensors excitation and channel monitoring for all load cells

and strain rings. For the accelerometers, optical break beams, displacement transducers,

and pressure transducers, NI SCXI-1102C cards were used for channel monitoring, while

sensor excitation was provided by separate DC power supplies.

Analog to digital conversion of the conditioned signals generated by the SCXI

chassis was performed using a NI-6036E data acquisition card (a PCMCIA-based card

intended for use with notebook computers). The NI-6036E DAQ card is capable of a

maximum sampling rate of 200,000 samples/second which exceeded the minimum

120 kHz requirement of this study (Figure 5.12).









Figure 5.12. NI-6036E PCMCIA Data Acquisition Card


Capture and storage of digitized channel data generated by the DAQ card were

accomplished using a notebook computer. Due to the adverse environmental conditions









and impact loading that the computer would be subjected to, a ruggedized system capable

of meeting the military durability standard MIL-STD-810F was selected. Specifically,

two Panasonic Toughbook 28s (Figure 5.13) were used, one on the pier and one on

the test barge. The Toughbook 28 is tolerant to moisture, dust, and shock levels up to

2 g's.

















Figure 5.13. Panasonic Toughbook 28 Notebook Computer


National Instruments' Labview software (version 6.1), installed on each

Toughbook 28 was used to control the data acquisition systems. A Labview virtual

instrument (VI) program was developed to allow control of sampling rate, data storage

location, and trigger settings. After merging the VI, notebook computer, DAQ card, and

signal conditioning chassis, tests were conducted at the University of Florida Structures

Research Laboratory to confirm that the minimum required sampling rate could be

achieved and to determine the length of time over which data could reliably be captured

at this rate. Based on these tests, it was confirmed that the VI could safely and reliably

capture and store data at a sampling rate of 2000 samples/second/channel for much more

than the desired 60 second data capture window.









Power for the notebook computer, DAQ card, and sensors were provided by two

12 V, deep cycle, marine batteries (Sears Die Hard brand). Each battery had in excess of

80 amp-hours of capacity when fully charged, allowing the DAQ system, which pulled

approximately 6 amps, to run for at least 13 hours continuously from a single marine

battery. A constant charge on the notebook computer's internal battery was maintained

by connecting the computer to a DC power inverter that was, in turn, connected to one of

the 12 V marine batteries.

Protection against environmental hazards such as water and dust was ensured by

placing all of the DAQ equipment-laptop computer, DAQ card, SCXI chassis, and

power inverter-inside a single, shock resistant and weather tight case (manufactured by

Pelican Products). This case, referred to as the DAQ case is shown in Figure 5.14.

Similarly, the two marine batteries were mounted inside a second case, referred to as the

DC (direct current) battery case. Waterproof connectors were then used to connect the

two cases together side-by-side, allowing them function as a single unit (see Figure 5.16).





Inverter



... SCXI Chassis
& Cards

Laptop computer
Toughbook 28


Figure 5.14. Data Acquisition (DAQ) Case





















Marine Deep
Cycle Battery


Figure 5.15. Direct Current Battery Case


Figure 5.16. DAQ and DC Cases Connected Together










To protect against the possibility of shock damage, the DAQ and DC battery cases

were mounted on shock isolation sleds that were in turn mounted to the test pier and test

barge. Each shock isolation sled consisted of two steel frames connected together through

a sliding track system and a set of linear springs. Spring stiffness and the presence of

friction between the sliders and guide tracks isolated and dampened the shock loading

experienced by the DAQ and battery cases during impact. On the test piers, the sliding

track system was bolted (Figure 5.17) to the concrete pier whereas on the barge, the

sled was welded to the deck of the barge. Further protection on the pier was also provided

by installation of a steel shelter capable of deflecting spalled concrete and falling debris.





DAQ Shelter -




Displacement Transducer
Junction Box

Shock Isolation Sled --

Accelerometer
Junction Box '

Load Cell
Junction Box .


Break Beam '
Junction Box .

Figure 5.17. Components of the DAQ System on Pier-1 (DAQ and DC Cases not
Present)









5.2 Optical Break Beams

Key among the experimental measurements made during each impact test was the

determination of barge impact speed. To accomplish this measurement in an accurate

manner, two sets of infrared optical break beam sensors were positioned above and below

the impact face of the concrete impact block (Figure 5.18). Each set of sensors

consisted of a transmitter and a receiver, which were mounted to an aluminum bracket

and axially aligned (Figure 5.19). Prior to each impact test, the DAQ system on the

pier was entered into a mode in which it continuously monitored output from the outer

most receiver (the receiver farthest from the impact block face).

When the moving test barge crossed this outer beam on its way to the impact block,

it would block reception of the outer infrared beam at the receiver and the receiver output

signal would drop from high to low voltage. This "crossing event" would trigger the

DAQ system on the pier to begin recording data from all sensors in the pier at a rate of

2000 samples/second/channel. Subsequently, as the barge crossed the inner beam, a

second crossing event would be recorded just prior to impact. By knowing the duration of

time that elapsed between the two cross events and by know the exact distance between

the two sets of beams (2 ft), the impact speed could be determined.

The infrared optical break beam sensors used in study were manufactured by

Balluff, Inc. Sensor Specifications are given in Table 5.3.

Table 5.3. Summary Specifications for Optical Break Beam Sensors

Receiver (model) BLE-S51-PA-2-FOO-PK
Transmitter (model) BL S-S51-PA-2-GOO-XG
Range (ft) 40
Input (V) 24
Output (V) 0 or 6













Optical Break Beam
Receiver (Typ.)
| i


Infrared Optical o
Beam(Typ.) | Pier-
iPier-1




Trip Wire (Typ.) 0

12 24In 34-1/4m

Optical Break Beam
Transmitter (Typ.)

Figure 5.18. Optical break beam brackets for Pier-1 and Pier-3


Figure 5.19. Break Beam Sensors Installed on Aluminum Bracket
Adjacent to Impact Block










The break beam channels of the DAQ system were set at a range of -10 to 10 V.

Sample break beam data recorded during this study are shown in Figure 5.20. The plot

clearly shows two points in time at which that the incoming barge interrupts each break

beam and the voltage output of the sensor drops to zero.




5

Break Beam 1
4
Break Beam 2






1





0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
Time (s)

Figure 5.20. Sample of Optical Break Beam Sensor Data Collected During Impact
Testing


5.3 Impact Block and Load Cells

Measurement of dynamic impact loads generated during the barge collision tests

was achieved using instrumented impact blocks, which were attached to columns of the

test piers. Each impact block consisted of a heavily reinforced concrete block with four

biaxial clevis-pin load cell assemblies attached (Figure 5.21). The blocks were

positioned vertically such that the head log of the test barge would make contact with

some portion of the block regardless of tidal fluctuations at the test site (Figure 5.22).

During an impact test, the load imparted by the test barge was distributed through the









block to the four load cells and then into the piers column. Based on the results of

previously conducted finite element barge impact simulations, loads during the tests were

not expected to exceed 1500 kips horizontally nor 600 kips vertically on Pier-1; 600 kips

horizontally nor 200 kips vertically on Pier-3. Despite the large difference in expected

loads for the Pier-1 and Pier-3 tests, the impact blocks for both piers were fabricated

identically so that they would be fully interchangeable at the test site if such a need arose.

5.3.1. Reinforced Concrete Impact Blocks

Each impact block was designed to match-as closely as was feasible-the shape

and stiffness of the pier column so that interaction between the barge and impact block

would closely mimic the interaction that would have occurred had the barge struck the

pier column directly. Consequently, each block was designed as a heavily reinforced deep

concrete slab. Sufficient stiffness was provided such that local deflections within the

block would be minimal in comparison to barge deformations and pier displacements.

Heavily reinforced High strength
concrete block all-thread bar







96"


Impact face






72Figure 5.21. Impact Block with Attached Load Cell Assemblies



Figure 5.21. Impact Block with Attached Load Cell Assemblies





























Figure 5.22. Test Barge Nearing Contact with Impact Block


Each block was 8 ft tall, 6 ft wide, and 26 in. thick and was reinforced vertically

(the span direction) using nine 1.375 in. diameter, 150 ksi Williams all-thread bars

(obtained from Williams Form Engineering Corp). All-thread rods were extended beyond

both ends of the blocks so that 5 in. by 10 in. by 1.5 in. thick bearing plates could be

externally secured with nuts (Figure 5.21). The nuts were not torqued sufficiently to

generate a post-tension force. Rather they were tightened only enough to bring the

bearing plates into positive contact with the ends of the impact block. The bearing plates

served to help confine the concrete at the ends of the blocks (necessary to avoid pullout

of the anchor bolts connecting the blocks to the pier face) and eliminated the need to

provide development length for the threaded rods.

In addition to the main longitudinal reinforcement steel, five 8x8-D1 lxD 11 welded

wire sheets-approximately equivalent to #3 reinforcing bars spaced at 8 in. on center in

each direction-made of 60 ksi steel were distributed throughout the depth of the impact









blocks (Figure 5.23) to provide shrinkage reinforcement, temperature reinforcement,

and confinement. (Ivy Steel and Wire is gratefully acknowledged for donating the welded

wire sheets to this project.) Shear reinforcement consisting of 60 ksi #4 rebar hooks were

also installed at spacings of 8 in. in each direction. Detailed fabrication drawings for the

impact blocks are provided in Appendix A of this thesis.
















Figure 5.23. Internal Reinforcing Steel Present in Impact Blocks


Fabrication of the impact blocks was carried out by the Structures Research

Laboratory of the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) in Tallahassee, Florida.

The significant contributions of the FDOT to this project, including but not limited to

impact block fabrication, load cell assembly and testing (described below), template

fabrication, and impact block transportation, are gratefully acknowledged.

5.3.2. Load Cells

The four load cell assemblies attached to the impact blocks each consisted of a

stainless steel biaxial shear pin load cell and two hot rolled 1020 steel clevises

(Figure 5.24). Biaxial load cells were used so that loads in both the horizontal and vertical

directions could be directly quantified. To prevent the pin from rotating within the clevis










or sliding out, a steel keeper plate locked the pin into position on each assembly

(Figure 5.24).


Fixture
(Pier Side)


Biaxial
Clevis Pin


* Keeper Plate


Male Connector
to DAQ System


Figure 5.24. Exploded Views of a Clevis Pin Load Cell Assembly


Four clevis fixtures were attached to the back (non-impact) face of each concrete

impact blocks using sixteen 1.375 in. diameter B7 thread bars that had been previously

cast into the blocks during fabrication. In Figure 5.25, serial numbers and positive

directions are provided for each of the load cells used in the Pier-1 test series (PI) and

Pier-3 test series (B3 and P3).










16566-3 ( 16448-2

116566-4 1 16448-1 y




16566-2 16448-3

16566-1 16448-4








Pier-1 Pier-3


Figure 5.25. Serial Numbers and Positive Directions for Load Cells



Shear pins used in this study were 178 mm (7 in.) diameter and had capacities of

800 kips in each of two orthogonal directions. The pins, obtained from StrainSert

Company, each had two full bridge circuits-one for each direction of load measurement.

Uniaxial calibrations along each of the two primary orthogonal pin axes were performed

for each pin by StrainSert at load levels of 160, 320, 480, 640, and 800 kips. During the

calibration process, the load cells were given an excitation voltage of 10 V.

Consequently, during the barge impact test program, each load cell was provided with a

10 V excitation.

Additional testing of the clevis pin load cell assemblies was performed for the

University of Florida by the FDOT Structures Research Laboratory in Tallahassee,

Florida. After attaching four load cell assemblies to each impact block, the integrated

units were placed on the FDOT Structures lab floor and subjected to statically applied









loads ranging in magnitude from zero to 600 kips at the center and the top of the block

(Figure 5.26). Results from this series of tests revealed that the impact blocks were

indeed extremely stiff. However, while such stiffness was desirable from the stand point

of preventing introduction of a "soft layer" between the impacting barge and test pier, it

also had unintended consequences. During the FDOT lab tests, it was found that even the

subtle slopes in the lab floor-provided for drainage purposes-were sufficient to result

two diagonally opposed load cells carrying all of the applied load. Load redistribution

that would normally be expected to occur in a more flexible system-eventually

producing a more balanced distribution of load in all four load cells-did not occur due

to the very high stiffness of the impact blocks. Additionally, the close lateral proximity of

the load cells at the blocks ends, in combination with the stiffness of 3 in. thick steel

clevis bearing plates, was also suspected to be a contributing factor to the skewed load

distributions observed.


Figure 5.26. Testing Impact Block and Load Cells as the FDOT Structures Lab









If similar non-uniform distributions of load were to occur during the full-scale

barge impact testing-due to the fact that the blocks would be installed against pier

column surfaces that clearly would not be precisely planar in nature-then a strong

potential for overloading of individual load cells existed. To avoid such a condition, it

was determined that MB 928 (from Master Builders Inc.) grout would need to be placed

between the clevis fixture base plates and the pier column surfaces during the field

installation. This procedure would then ensure that all four load cells on each impact

block were in full contact with the pier face prior to any application of external impact

load.

Prior to transporting the impact blocks to the test site at St. George Island for use

in the full-test barge impact program, additional tests were conducted at the FDOT

structures lab to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed MB 928 grouting procedure.

In this second series of lab tests, the impact blocks were suspended above the lab floor

and grout pads were poured beneath each clevis base plate (Figure 5.27). Test results

confirmed that this procedure produced much more uniform loading of all four load cells.


"al "


Figure 5.27. Load Cells Supported on Grout Pads During FDOT Structures Lab Tests











After transporting the impact blocks to St. George Island, they were taken by barge

to the bridge and installed on Pier-1 and Pier-3 by Boh Brothers Construction, Inc.


Attaching the clevis base plates to the test piers was accomplished by core drilling holes

into the faces of the pier columns and grouting (using a structural adhesive) in 1.375 in.

diameter B7 thread bars with a 20 in. embedment length. Using a crane barge, the impact

blocks were then lifted into place leaving gaps between the clevis base plates and the pier

surfaces. After installing wooden dams around each clevis base plate, MB 928 grout pads

were poured and allowed to cure. In this manner, each load cell placed into direct contact

with the pier surface prior to load being applied.

Data from each of the eight load cell channels (four load cells with two orthogonal

load channels each) were captured by the pier DAQ system at a rate of 2000

samples/second/channel with an input range of -0.1 to 0.1 V. In this manner, high

resolution time histories of imparted barge impact load were recovered for a total of

fourteen different test conditions. Figure 5.28 shows a typical set of impact load data

recorded during testing.

300

250
Y-direction Load Cell
200
X-direction Load Cell
150

8 100

50



-50

-100
0 05 1 15 2 25
Time (s)

Figure 5.28. Sample of Load Cell Data Collected during Impact Testing









5.4 Accelerometers

Accelerometers were mounted on the barge, piers, and bridge superstructure so that

time histories of acceleration for each would be recorded during the impact tests. By

double time integrating these data, time histories of barge, pier, and superstructure

motion may be recovered. In addition, knowing the approximate weight of the barge and

the peak decelerations that the barge experienced during impact, indirect estimates of

peak impact force may be computed and compared to the loads measured directly by the

load cells.

According to results from finite element impact simulations conducted prior to full-

scale testing, all vessel and structural accelerations of interest were below the 10 g level.

In terms of frequency ranges of interest, since a primary intended use of the data was to

recover displacement time histories by double time-integration, only relatively low

frequencies (below a few hundred Hz) were of interest. Furthermore, the accelerometers

chosen needed to be capable of accurately recording data at relatively low acceleration

and frequency levels so that double time integration could be successfully carried out

after testing.

Based on these requirements, direct current (DC) capacitive accelerometers, which

are known to produce data of sufficient accuracy for double time integration, were

chosen. This type of device measures acceleration by monitoring changes in capacitance

between small charged plates contained within the sensor package. Two outer plates are

on either side of an inner plate that has an attached mass. As the accelerometer is

subjected to acceleration, inertial forces on the mass displace the inner plate, thus

changing the overall capacitance of the device. Changes in capacitance, and associated

voltage output by the sensor, can then be correlated to acceleration level. Capacitive









accelerometers are generally very accurate at low levels of acceleration (<100 g) and

have a high enough frequency response range to capture the full frequency content of the

displacement histories of interest in this project (<250 Hz).

Summary specifications for the accelerometers used in this study (which were

manufactured by Summit Instruments, Inc.) are given in Table 5.4. All of the

accelerometers used were of the uniaxial type, thus measuring acceleration only in a

single direction. Circuitry contained within each accelerometer filtered and regulated the

incoming supply voltage such that any unregulated DC source exceeding 12 V may be

used to power the sensor. Accelerometers with peak ranges of 1, 5, and 10 g were

installed at various positions on the barge and piers based on acceleration results obtained

from finite element impact simulations. Selection of accelerometer range for each

position was based on the need to avoid sensor over-ranging while also ensuring that

sufficient resolution was retained in the data collected.

Table 5.4. Summary Specifications for Accelerometers
Max Cutoff
Model Range Shock Frequency Noise Input Output
(g) (g) (Hz) (mg rms) (V) (V)
13203 1 500 223 2.25 8-30 0-5
13203 5 500 223 2.25 8-30 0-5
13200 10 500 223 10 8-30 0-5

Pre-deployment testing of the accelerometers was conducted in the Civil

Engineering Structures Research Lab at the University of Florida using a small dynamic

shake table. Accelerometers were attached to the shake table platform using aluminum

mounting angles such that the uniaxial orientation each accelerometer faced in the

translational direction of the table. Time histories of barge and pier accelerations-

obtained from finite element impact simulations-were then loaded in the computer









system controlling the shake table. As the shake platform moved through the specified

barge or pier motions, accelerations measured by the attached capacitive accelerometer

were captured and recorded. In addition, displacement transducers were attached to the

shake platform during selected tests to directly record displacement time histories.

Applying frequency based filtering techniques and double time integration to the

acceleration data produced displacement data that could be compared to the data

measured directly using the displacement transducers and with the known motion of the

shake table platform. Comparisons of the type indicated that the accelerometers

possessed the necessary level of accuracy required for this project.

At the St. George Island test site, accelerometers were mounted to the piers and

bridge superstructure using 2 in. x 2 in. x 2 in. x 1/8 in. aluminum angle sections (see

Figure 5.29). Each angle was attached to the concrete elements using 1/4 in. 20 x 1 in.

expansion anchors. Mounts also included two set-screws that permitted adjustment of

bracket alignment on sloped surfaces of the concrete piers. Care was taken to ensure that

each mount was installed in an orientation that produced shear loading of the angle rather

than flexure. This procedure ensured that the accelerations measured were in no way

affected by flexural deformations of the mounting angles. Figure 5.30 shows a typical

installation of an accelerometer mounted to one of the concrete piers at the test site.

Mounting accelerometers to the steel surface of the barge was similar to the

procedure shown in Figure 5.29. However, instead of using anchor bolts, a rapid setting

commercial epoxy (J-B Kwik Weld) was used to bond the bottom flange of each

aluminum mount to the barge deck (Figure 5.31). This was done after grinding

through surface paint to expose bare deck steel.










Set Screw (typ.)




) 1 Conical Head
1/4"-20 Screw


(D Aluminum
Accelerometer
Mount
2" x 2" x 2" x 1/8"


1/4"-20
Drop-In-Anchor


Sensor Lead to


6-32 Screw (typ.)


Direction of Positive
Acceleration Measurement


Figure 5.29. Procedure for Mounting Accelerometers on Concrete Structures


Figure 5.30. Accelerometer Mounted on Concrete Pier
























Figure 5.31. An Accelerometer Mounted to the Barge Deck


Using these mounting techniques, accelerometers were placed at multiple positions

on the barge, test piers, and superstructure (described in Chapter 5). A typical

set of acceleration data recorded during impact testing is shown in Figure 5.32. The

range on the accelerometer channels in the DAQ system was set to -10 to 10V.

Preliminary review of the acceleration data collected at St. George Island indicated that

none of the sensors over-ranged and that selected sensor ranges gave the desired levels of

measurement resolution.


0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
Time (s)

Figure 5.32. Sample of Acceleration Data Collected During Impact Testing









5.5 Displacement Transducers

Direct measurement of pier motion during each impact test was accomplished using

displacement transducers. Accurate displacement measurement required that each

transducer be anchored at a stationary position relative to the test pier. This was

accomplished by driving timber piles and installing temporary timber platforms

(Figure 5.33) adjacent to piers 1 and 3 opposite to side of the impact block. Each timber

platform was located 30 ft. east of the pier so that that the transducer anchor points would

be outside the soil zone of influence of the pier. To span the distance from the pier to the

platform, light gage pre-stretched cables were pre-tensioned with large-deformation

linear springs anchored at the timber platform.

Displacement transducers were then attached to the cables thus measuring the

movement of the pier relative to the platform. Cables were attached to the northeast and

southeast corners of the east column of each pier (1 and 3). Recording displacement

histories at these locations, rather than at the centerline of the pier, allowed for an

examination of overall pier rotation during impact. Summary specifications for the

displacement transducers (model DT-40 transducers manufactured by Scientific

Technologies, Inc.) are given in Table 5.5. Figure 5.34 shows a typical DT-40 transducer

both as an individual unit and as installed on the stationary timber platforms.


Table 5.5. Summary Specifications for Displacement Transducers
Model DT-40
Range (in) 40
Tension (oz) 24
Accuracy (in) 0.04













Timber
Pile (Typ


.. ... .


Pulley (Typ )


Timber
Platform



Disp placement Spring
Trar sducer (Typ)





-PVC Pipe



Pier
Displacement
Pier
Displacement



_ P^le; ......[' I1










1, _


During Pier
Displacement


Figure 5.33. Stationary Timber Platform and Displacement Transducers


Figure 5.34. Displacement Transducer (Individually and as Installed on Timber Platform)


Before Pier
Displacement











A typical set of displacement data recorded during impact testing is shown in

Figure 5.35. The range of the channels used to receive the data from the displacement

transducers were set to -10 to 10V. The data shown in this case indicates that the pier

returned to its original position after impact with no quantifiable permanent sway

deformation.



1.5









-0.5

-1

-1.5

-2 I I I
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
Time (s)

Figure 5.35. Sample of Displacement Data Collected During Impact Testing


5.6 Strain Gages (Strain Rings)

Strain gages were used to record strains in the piles below Pier-3 during each

impact test. By assuming linear strain profiles through the pile cross-sections, shears

forces and bending moments could be calculated from the measured strain data. The type

of strain gage selected for this study needed to have a long enough gage length (>2") to

be able to measure average strains at concrete pile surfaces. Using too small a gage length

would result in erroneous measurements if a gage happened to be positioned near surface









cracks. Furthermore, the strain gages needed to be capable of being mounted to the

surfaces of concrete piles underwater (in a saltwater environment).

To meet these requirements, devices called strain rings (essentially strain gages

with built-in bridge completion circuitry) were acquired from the Strainstall UK Ltd.

(Figure 5.36). Summary specifications for the specific model of strain used in this study

are given in Table 5.6. In particular, note that the devices are designed to be water tight to

a depth of over 300 ft., thus providing more than sufficient environmental protection for

the present application.













Figure 5.36. Typical Strain Ring with Integrated Stainless Steel Mounting Blocks


Table 5.6. Summary Specifications for Strain Rings
Model 5745 Strain Ring
Range (wus) +/- 2000
Linearity (%) +/- 1
Input (V) 1-5
Depth Limit (ft) 330

Prior to deploying these devices at the barge impact test site, preliminary tests were

conducted at the University of Florida Structures Research Laboratory. Strain rings were

mounted on both sides of a steel coupon and loaded axially in tension using a 400 kip

Tinius Olsen Universal Test Machine (Figure 5.37). In addition, foil-type strain gages









were also glued to the steel coupon. Strains recorded by the strain rings were then

averaged and compared strains measured by the steel foil gages.








Foil Gages





Strain Rings

Steel Coupon


Figure 5.37. Axially Loading a Steel Coupon with Attached Strain Rings
and Foil Strain Gages


Integrated stainless steel mounts attached at each end the strain ring devices

produced a gage length of 5.6 in. Internal full bridge circuits were used to measure strains

up to 2000 micro-strain. Attaching the devices to the concrete piles of Pier-3 was

accomplished by installing 3 in. x 1 in. x 5/8 in. thick stainless steel mounting blocks

against the pile surfaces using expansion anchors (Figure 5.38). An extension plate

was also mounted between the strain ring and the top mounting block. Machining

oversized holes into one end of the extension plate allowed variations in sensor gage

length and anchor bolt location to be accommodated without introducing preload into the

strain rings during installation. All components of the mounting system were held

securely in place by applying sufficient torque to the M5 mounting screws so that friction

could be relied upon to prevent slip during loading.












Allen Head
M5 x 20 mm


Allen Head
M5 x 40 mm
I | Screw (Typ.)


Sensor Lead
to Strain Ring
Jet. Box


1/4" Washer
(Typ.)



Extension
Plate


1/4"-20xl"
Drop-in-anchor


Figure 5.38. Strain ring mounting procedure


As described in Chapter 5, strain rings were installed at 32 different locations on


the piles of Pier-3. The range of the strain ring input channels of the DAQ system were


set to -0.01 to 0.01 V. A typical set of strain data recorded during an impact test on this


pier is shown in Figure 5.39.


0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
Time (s)

Figure 5.39. Sample of Pile Strain Data Collected During Impact Testing










5.7 Pressure Transducer

During the Pier-1 impact tests (series PI), a pressure transducer was submerged at

the east side of the pier (opposite the impact side) to measure water pressure changes

during impact. A large increase in water pressure at the vertical face of the pile cap would

indicate the water surrounding the pier footing momentarily contributed resistance to pier

motion during impact. Thus, a pressure transducer (Model P21-LA, manufactured by

Trans-Metrics, a division of United Electric Controls) was installed to determine whether

such a pressure increase occurred. Summary specifications for the transducer are given in

Table 5.7. The range of the pressure transducer channel in the DAQ system was set to -

10 to 10 V. A typical set of pressure data recorded during an impact test is shown in

Figure 5.40.

Table 5.7. Summary Specifications for Pressure Transducer
Model P21-LA
Range (psi) 0-50
Input (V) 12
Output (V) 0-5

22


21


20




18


17


16''''
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
Time (s)

Figure 5.40. Sample of Water Pressure Data Collected During Impact Testing









5.8 Measurement of Permanent Barge Deformation

The extent of permanent deformation at the head log of the barge after each impact

was an important measurement as this quantity relates to energy dissipated during impact.

This measurement was only important during the Pier-1 impacts as this was the only

series with sufficient impact energy to cause inelastic barge deformations. As Figure 5.41

illustrates, barge crush was measured using two reference lines, both located well outside

the zone of crush. The lines were located at 15 ft and the 23 ft from the head log of the

barge. Both were established by welding steel brackets to the barge deck at 8 ft. intervals

transversally across the barge width. Square aluminum reference beams with tick-marks

at 3 in. intervals were then locked against these brackets to form the reference lines.

Distances from the barge head log (Figure 5.42) to the second reference beam

(Figure 5.43) were then measured using a tape rule with tick-marks at 0.04 in.

intervals. Proper alignment of the tape rule was achieved by ensuring that it passed over

matching tick-marks on both the first and second reference beams. Prior to beginning

impact testing, baseline measurements were made to determine the initial profile of the

barge headlog. By taking the differences between later measurements and the initial

baseline measurements, crush depths could be computed. Measurements of this type were

made nominally at 6 in. intervals laterally across the width of the barge as well as at all

additional locations that were necessary to characterize special features of the deformed

profile (e.g., kink points).









Measurement


Measurement)


Second Reference
Line (For Alignment)


Figure 5.41. Measurement of Permanent Barge Deformation


Figure 5.42. Positioning the Tape Rule at the Barge Head Log


a


Figure 5.43. Measuring Distance from Headlog to Second Reference Beam


Initial Crush
Measurement


Barge


Barge















CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on a preliminary review of data collected during the St. George Island barge

impact test program, it has been found that the instrumentation networks developed and

deployed in this study functioned properly. A major accomplishment of the project was

the successful full-scale experimental measurement of the barge impact loads on bridge

piers. Loads of this type has never before been recorded during full-scale barge collision

events.

Laboratory testing of load measurement impact blocks-conducted prior to test site

deployment-revealed that the very high stiffness of the concrete blocks had a major

effect on the distribution of loads to individual load cells. This undesirable characteristic,

which could have resulted in overloading of individual load cells during field impact

testing, was remedied by requiring that grout pads be poured between the load cell base

plates and the surfaces to which the load cells were attached. Load data collected during

the additional laboratory testing and during full-scale barge impact tests at St. George

Island, indicated that this procedure produced more uniform distribution of loads and

prevented potential over-ranging of individual load cells.

In addition to the many successes that were achieved during this study, selected

failures also occurred which should be addressed if similarly-focused testing programs

are undertaken in the future. In particular, special attention needs to be given to the

development of highly robust and tolerant data acquisition triggering schemes (in terms









of both hardware and software). During a small number of the impact tests conducted in

this study, the data acquisition system failed to trigger at the appropriate point in time.

Eventually, the causes of these events were traced to two sources. One involved

unexpected vibrations of the test pier, which in turn caused optical sensors, mounted to

the pier to momentarily go out of alignment. This optical "break" then prematurely

triggered the data acquisition system several minutes prior to barge impact. The

vibrations were caused by a large jack hammer that was being used to demolish an

adjacent pier.

The second instance of trigger malfunction was found to be software related. While

the data acquisition systems were laboratory tested to ensure that they possessed adequate

sampling rates for the sizes of sensor networks to be used in the field tests, it was not

anticipated that delays in trigger channel monitoring by the data acquisition software

could pose problems. However, during two additional impact tests, time delays between

virtual instrument (software) initiation and actual barge impacts resulted in failures of the

data acquisition software. It is recommended that future laboratory testing of data

acquisition systems intended for field deployment be subjected to the widest possible

range of test conditions that can be anticipated.

An additional key recommendation derived from the experiences gained during

this study relates to the biaxial clevis pin load cells used. During laboratory testing of the

load cells-prior to deployment to the bridge test site-cross-talk between the two

orthogonal load measurement channels contained with each load cell was detected. Due

to budget constraints on the project, exhaustive multi-axial load cell calibrations were not

performed by the load cell supplier. Instead, only uniaxial calibrations along each of the









two primary load cell axes were performed. It is recommended that future projects

utilizing multi-axial load cells include off-axis (multi-axis) calibrations in addition to

standard primary axis calibrations.

Ongoing research being conducted by the University of Florida will focus on

processing and interpretation of test data that was collected using the instrumentation

systems described in this thesis. Details of the data collected will be published in a

forthcoming research reports [3] and publications [6]. In the future, this data will be used

to develop improved barge impact design provisions and validate/improve pier analysis

software used by bridge designers.















APPENDIX A
BARGE INSPECTION DRAWINGS

This appendix provides drawings completed to document the member sizes and

locations of the internal trusses within the hull of the construction barge.






























































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APPENDIX B
IMPACT BLOCK DESIGN DRAWINGS

This appendix provides design drawings for the impact block used on Pier-1 and

Pier-3. The drawings were used to assist the construction of the impact block at the

Florida Department of Transportation Structures Laboratory.





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LIST OF REFERENCES


1. Consolazio, G.R., R.A. Cook, A.E. Biggs, D.R. Cowan, H.T. Bollman. Barge
Impact Testing of the St. George Island Causeway Bridge Phase II : Design of
Instrumentation Systems, Structures Research Report No. 883, Engineering and
Industrial Experiment Station, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, April
2003.

2. Goble G., J. Schulz, and B. Commander. Lock and Dam #26 Field Test Report
for The Army Corps of Engineers, Bridge Diagnostics Inc., Boulder, CO, 1990.

3. Patev, R.C., and B.C. Barker. Prototype Barge Impact Experiments, Allegheny
Lock and Dam 2, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ERDC/ITL TR-03-2, US Army
Corps of Engineers, 2003.

4. Arroyo, J. R., R.M. Ebeling, and B.C. Barker. Analysis of Impact Loads from
Full-Scale Low-Velocity, Controlled Barge Impact Experiments, December 1998.
ERDC/ITL TR-03-3, US Army Corps of Engineers, 2003.

5. Consolazio, G.R., R.A. Cook, A.E. Biggs, D.R. Cowan, and H.T. Bollmann.
Barge Impact Testing of the St. George Island Causeway Bridge: Final Report.
Structures Research Report, Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, (To be published in Spring 2005)

6. Consolazio, G.R., D.R. Cowan, A.E. Biggs, R.A. Cook, M. Ansley, H.T.
Bollman. Full-Scale Experimental Measurement of Barge Impact Loads on
Bridge Piers. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation
Research Board, 2004 (Submitted for publication).













BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

The author was born on October 1, 1980, in San Jose, California. He and his

family moved to Seminole, Florida, in July of 1987, were he received a high school

diploma from Seminole High School in 1998. After high school, he successfully

completed his undergraduate studies at the University of South Florida and received a

Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering in May of 2002. The author then began pursuit

of a master's degree in the area of structural engineering at the University of Florida

under the guidance of Dr. Gary R. Consolazio. Upon completion of his graduate school,

the author plans to begin his professional career with Walter P. Moore in Tampa, Florida.