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Integration of Medicinal and Culinary Herbs in an Agroforestry Combination on St. Croix, United States Virgin Islands


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INTEGRATION OF MEDICINAL AND CULINARY HERBS IN AN AGROFORESTRY COMBINATION ON ST. CR OIX, UNITED STATES VIRGIN ISLANDS By BRIAN N. BECKER A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2004

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Copyright 2004 By Brian N. Becker

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This document is dedicated to the small-scale farmers of St. Croix.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to take this opportunity to express my gratitude to my committee members Dr. Janaki Alavalapati, Dr. Manuel Palada, and my chair Dr. P.K.R. Nair for their guidance and support; and Marinela Capanu, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences statistics department for her assistance with the statistical analysis. The assistance of Jean-Marie Mitchell, Agricultural Experimental Station, University of the Virgin Islands, for data collection and maintaining the research plots was greatly appreciated, as were the efforts of Paulino Perez with the drip irrigation and setting the layouts. I want to thank the faculty and staff at the Agricultural Experimental Station, University of the Virgin Islands, for their invaluable assistance in establishing and maintaining the research plots and sharing their knowledge of St. Croix with me. I also wish to recognize my family for their love and support and my wife, Jensen, without whom I might not have completed this. Financial support for this research was through a research assistantship from School of Forest Resources and Conservation/Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences and an IFAFS Grant from the Center for Subtropical Agroforestry. iv

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES ...........................................................................................................viii LIST OF FIGURES ...........................................................................................................ix ABSTRACT .........................................................................................................................x CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 Historical Overview......................................................................................................2 Current State of the Economy.......................................................................................2 Environmental Challenges............................................................................................4 St. Croix Agriculture....................................................................................................4 A Way Forward............................................................................................................5 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.............................................................................................7 Culinary and Medicinal Herbs......................................................................................7 Medicinal and Aromatic PlantsHigh Value Products for Agroforestry..............8 Cultivation and Marketing of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants.............................9 A Role for Agroforestry..............................................................................................11 General Introduction to Agroforestry..................................................................11 Introduction to Alley Cropping...........................................................................11 Agroforestry Interaction and Competition..........................................................12 Economic Evaluation..................................................................................................14 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS...............................................................................19 Site Descriptions.........................................................................................................19 Location and Climate..........................................................................................19 Geology and Soils................................................................................................20 Vegetation and Land Use History.......................................................................21 Species Descriptions...................................................................................................22 Origin and Uses...................................................................................................22 Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae..........................................................22 Moringa stenopetala (Baker f.) Cufodontis, Moringaceae..........................23 Allium schoenoprasum L., Alliaceae............................................................23 v

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Coriandrum sativum L., Apiaceae...............................................................23 Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf, Poaceae..................................................24 Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl, Asteraceae.....................................................24 Matricaria recutita L. syn. Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert, Asteraceae...............................................................................................24 Mentha x piperita syn. M. nigricans., Lamiaceae........................................24 Ocimum basilicum L., Lamiaceae................................................................25 Origanum majorana L. syn. Majorana hortensis, Lamiaceae.....................25 Rosmarinus officinalis L., Lamiaceae..........................................................25 Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae...................................................................25 Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl, Verbenaceae...................................26 Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae....................................................................26 Verbesina alata L., Asteraceae....................................................................26 Provenances, Establishment and Management....................................................26 Experimental Design..................................................................................................27 Data Collection and Measurements............................................................................29 Data Analysis..............................................................................................................30 4 RESULTS...................................................................................................................33 Agronomic Evaluation................................................................................................33 Estate Rattan Moringa-Herb Intercropping Trial................................................33 Agriculture Experiment Station Moringa-Herb Intercropping Trial...................34 Economic Evaluation..................................................................................................38 Allium schoenoprasum........................................................................................38 Coriandrum sativum............................................................................................39 Cymbopogon citratus...........................................................................................40 Ocimum basilicum...............................................................................................41 Stachytarpheta jamaicensis.................................................................................42 Verbesina alata....................................................................................................43 5 DISCUSSION.............................................................................................................45 Culinary and Medicinal Herbs....................................................................................45 Moringa.......................................................................................................................51 6 CONCLUSIONS........................................................................................................53 APPENDIX A COSTS AND RETURN ESTIMATES .....................................................................56 B ECONOMIC ANALYSIS VARIABLES..................................................................63 Allium schoenoprasum (Chives)..........................................................................63 Coriandrum sativum (Cilantro)...........................................................................65 Cymbopogon citratus (Lemongrass)...................................................................65 Ocimum basilicum (Basil)...................................................................................66 vi

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Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (Worrywine)...........................................................66 Verbesina alata (Inflammation Bush).................................................................67 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................68 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................75 vii

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1. Rainfall and temperature throughout the Virgin Islands over a 30-year period, and monthly potential evapotranspiration.......................................................................20 4-1. Leaf yield of herbs sole-cropped and intercropped with Moringa oleifera and M. stenopetala at Estate Rattan, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, during the 2002-2003 field season...............................................................................................................36 4-2. Leaf yield of herbs sole-cropped and intercropped with Moringa oleifera at the AES, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, during the 2002-2003 field season................37 5-1. Summary of actual and estimated yields and results of herbs sole-cropped and intercropped with Moringa oleifera during the 2002-2003 field season, AES, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands........................................................................................48 viii

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3-1. Moringa oleifera, M. stenopetala and culinary and medicinal herb intercropping trial layout at Estate Rattan, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, during the 2002-2003 field season...............................................................................................................31 3-2. Moringa oleifera and culinary and medicinal herb intercropping trial layout at the AES, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, during the 2002-2003 field season. ...............32 4-1. NPV sensitivity analysis of Allium schoenoprasum sole-cropped and intercropped with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands.........................................39 4-2. NPV sensitivity analysis of Coriandrum sativum sole-cropped and intercropped with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands.........................................40 4-3. NPV sensitivity analysis of Cymbopogon citratus sole-cropped and intercropped with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands.........................................41 4-4. NPV sensitivity analysis of Ocimum basilicum sole-cropped and intercropped with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands.................................................42 4-5. NPV sensitivity analysis of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis sole-cropped and intercropped with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands....................43 4-6. NPV sensitivity analysis of Verbesina alata sole-cropped and intercropped with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands.................................................44 ix

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science INTEGRATION OF MEDICINAL AND CULINARY HERBS IN AN AGROFORESTRY COMBINATION ON ST. CROIX, UNITED STATES VIRGIN ISLANDS By Brian N. Becker August 2004 Chair: Dr. P.K.R. Nair Major Department: Forest Resources and Conservation Farmers in the United States Virgin Islands (USVI) may find economic advantages by diversifying their agricultural systems with lesser-known crops. Bush teas derived from culinary and medicinal herbs are a part of the local culture of the Virgin Islands that can be adapted for internal and export markets. This study examined the production of high value culinary and medicinal herbs intercropped with Moringa oleifera, a small multipurpose tree, on St. Croix, USVI. The objective of the study was to assess the productivity and economic costs and benefits of selected herbs when intercropped with Moringa compared to their sole-crop yields. The study, conducted on farm and at the Agricultural Experimental Station (AES), University of the Virgin Islands, included thirteen species of herbs along with Moringa. Herb intercropping and Moringa hedgerows were established with drip irrigation in strip-split plot designs with randomized subplots. Yields were determined from harvests and inputs were totaled for calculating economic returns. Herbs were ranked according to their sensitivity to intercropping and Net Present Value (NPV), Benefit/Cost Ratio (BCR) and Relative Net Return (RNR) criteria were employed for comparison of the profitability of the various x

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sole and intercrop systems. Sensitivity analyses were conducted with four different discount rates and five different market prices for herb intercrops. Yields of all intercropped herbs were lower than their sole-crops. On-farm yields were not statistically different between treatments while the yields at the AES demonstrated statistical differences among treatments. Between species comparisons indicated that Cymbopogon citratus and Stachytarpheta jamaicensis performed similarly with the highest yields, Cymbopogon yields being slightly higher. Economic analysis indicates that Cymbopogon provided the greatest economic return, NPV and BCR, while Ocimum basilicum had the greatest RNR. Comparison of results from this research to previous AES enterprise budgets suggests that even one of the lowest yielding systems tested, the Allium schoenoprasum sole-crop, will provide greater economic return than the same unit area of conventional tomato. Suboptimal densities and invading Moringa roots likely affected intercrop herb yields as much as shading did. Future research on herb culture and planting density on yields is warranted. xi

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Agriculture has figured prominently in the history of St. Croix. One of the three principal islands of the United States Virgin Islands (USVI), St. Croix, in the eastern Caribbean, developed during the heydays of the colonial era to become, by the eve of the American Revolution, the sixth leading producer of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) in the West Indies. The loss of cheap labor after the abolition of slavery followed by shifts in global markets led to a decline in plantation agriculture and, finally, the closing of the last sugar factory in 1966. After Castros Cuba became off-limits to American tourists, the USVI redefined themselves as popular tourist destinations (Dookhan 1994). Today, St. Croix seeks to rebuild her economy with an eclectic mix of industries such as petroleum refining and casino gambling. Despite challenges, small-scale farming persists on St. Croix for domestic consumption and local markets. Like small-scale producers throughout the world, St. Croix farmers face competition from industrially produced imported products. One viable strategy for small-scale farmers is to produce specialty products for niche markets. In almost any farm, homeor patio-garden in the USVI culinary and/or medicinal herbs can be found, grown for seasoning dishes or brewing up bush tea. This investigation examines the potential for small-scale farmers to produce culinary and medicinal herbs on a commercial scale. 1

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2 Historical Overview The Virgin Islands usually generate images of tropical paradise. These popular tourist destinations have been well visited beginning in the 3 rd century B.C. when the Taino (Ciboneys) followed by the Arawaks and Caribs indigenous groups settled the islands in successive waves, traveling up the Lesser Antilles island chain from South America. On his second voyage in 1493, Christopher Columbus named what is now the island chain of British and US Virgin Islands after St. Ursula and her pilgriming virgins. A long period of intermittent European settlements ensued from the 16 th to the 18 th century during which time the Spanish, Dutch, English, French, Knights of Malta, and Danish flags flew over the Virgin Islands. The strategic location of the islands along the Anegada Passage, a key sailing route, attracted pirates and buccaneers, who preyed upon Spanish galleons loaded with South American silver. By the mid-eighteenth century, plantations producing cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and sugarcane with African slave labor were the basis of the economy. The loss of cheap labor after emancipation of the slaves on St. Croix in 1848 and competition from sugar beets (Beta vulgaris) grown in Europe spelled an end to the plantation era by end of the nineteenth century. Since the early twentieth century the United States of America has maintained sovereignty over the Virgin Islands of St. Croix, St. Johns and St. Thomas (Dookhan 1994). Current State of the Economy Historically dominated by plantation economies for export markets, many Caribbean islands like the USVI have diversified through industry and tourism. Changes in the global economy and environmental challenges have meant that some islands have enjoyed only a precarious prosperity. Of the three principal islands of the USVI, St. Johns and St. Thomas offer tourists azure waters lapping palm-lined white sand beaches,

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3 a national park and a natural deep-water port that can provide safe harbor for the largest of cruise ships. Capitalizing on her natural harbor, St. Thomas has prospered since the colonial era as a free trade port. In 2002, over two million tourists (BER 2003) shopped for duty-free jewelry in the markets of Charlotte Amalie, the port city on St. Thomas and capital of the territory of the USVI. St. Croix, in contrast, hosted fewer than 250,000 tourists during 2002 (BER 2003), despite her natural attractions such as scuba diving The Wall at Cane Bay, a nine hundred fifty meter coral-encrusted drop-off just a short swim from shore, and the Buck Island Reef National Monument, a three and half square kilometer underwater preserve. Created by upliftment rather than volcanism like St. Thomas and St. Johns, St. Croix bears a mostly rocky coastline with no natural deep-water harbor, limiting her ability to capitalize on tourism. Instead this larger island has relied on agriculture and industry. While the USVI overall are still heavily dependent on tourism, which comprise seventy percent of the economy, manufacturing and one of the worlds largest petroleum refineries on St. Croix accounts for another twenty percent. Today, agriculture contributes to less than ten percent of the USVI economy and employs only one percent of the labor force (CIA 2003). As of January of 2003, the overall unemployment rate in the territory stood at 9.6 percent. Illuminating the unemployment and underemployment disproportionably felt on St. Croix, her 12.0 percent unemployment rate is nearly double the 7.6 percent rate of St. Thomas and St. John (Mills 2003). Civil unrest in Venezuela during the summer of 2002 cut off the supply of crude oil to St. Croixs refinery, resulting in the layoff of 300 employees. Nervousness amongst tourists over terrorism has been attributed to an 8.2 percent decline in tourist arrivals in 2002 (BER 2003).

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4 Environmental Challenges Ecological challenges also abound in the Virgin Islands. St. Croix is routinely hit by hurricanes, experiencing four major storms in the past 15 years, hurricanes Hugo (1989), Marilyn (1995), Georges (1998) and Lenny (1999). Before the plantation era began, St. Croix was covered in thicket vegetation from the arid east side gradually transitioning into forests in the wetter west end. St. Croixs geographic isolation, even during the Ice Ages, permitted the evolution of a number of endemic species (Wiley and Vilella 1998). Drastic alterations of the islands vegetation composition began during the Danish era when most of the arable land on St. Croix was converted to cotton and sugarcane plantations (Dookhan 1994). In the early 20 th century the shrubby nitrogen-fixing tan-tan (Leucaena leucocephala syn. glauca) was introduced as a goat browse. The plant readily naturalized and now aggressively dominates open areas, displacing St. Croixs indigenous vegetation and requiring fields used for agriculture to be plowed and pastures burned to keep them open. The centuries of deforestation for timber and agriculture have stripped St. Croixs soil of most of its water-retaining humus layer. The lack of tree cover, continually blowing easterly winds and the low relief of the island have left St. Croix semiarid with no naturally occurring surface water or perennial streams. When rain does fall, rapid runoff carries sediment and rubbish from bare agriculture fields, overgrazed pastures, streets, parking lots and construction sites directly into the ocean, threatening St. Croixs coral reefs. St. Croix Agriculture The most recent soil survey of the USVI (Davis 2000) estimated that approximately sixteen percent of the surface area of the islands is devoted to agricultural purposes. Seventy-eight percent of this land is used for grazing or pasture and the majority of it is

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5 located on St. Croix. Censuses of the agriculture sector for the USVI (USDA 1995; 1998) dating back to 1987 indicate that after contracting through the mid-nineties following the destruction of Hurricanes Hugo (1989) and Marilyn (1995), the agriculture sector has begun to expand again. Especially noteworthy is the increase in sales of horticulture specialties products. As a small market on the far end of a distant marketing chain, the prices of inputs such as fertilizer, pesticide, irrigation and other farming equipment generally place Virgin Island farmers at a competitive disadvantage against imported produce and commodities. Unique and indigenously produced specialty products, however, may be suitable for lucrative niche markets (Palada et al. 2000). Culinary and medicinal herbs are specialty products that Virgin Island farmers produce for a steady local market. The consumption of herbal teas (rather than green or black tea, Camellia sinensis) for their culinary and medicinal properties in the Virgin Islands is a legacy of the synthesis of African and European healing traditions blended on the islands during the plantation days (Kuby 1979). Commonly referred to as bush medicine or bush tea throughout the West Indies, these teas are consumed on a daily basis by Virgin Islanders for their medicinal effects or simply as culinary refreshments. Herb production is usually small-scale and sales are mostly in farmers markets and roadside stands. Herbs are important to the diet of locals and tourists alike, and their economic significance to small-scale farmers provides the justification for research on USVI herb horticulture and the potential for their commercial production for export markets (Palada et al. 2000). A Way Forward The Agricultural Experimental Station (AES), University of the Virgin Islands (UVI), in cooperation with the Center for Subtropical Agroforestry (CSTAF), University

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6 of Florida, has been investigating agroforestry 1 as a means to address some of the social, economic and environmental issues prevalent on St. Croix. Researchers at the AES on St. Croix are investigating combinations of agroforestry systems that will permit farmers to produce economically viable crops while maintaining a cover of useful or native trees that will conserve the soil resource, contribute to improvements in the water quality and quanity and enhance the natural beauty of the island (CSTAF 2003). Drawing upon the indigenous wealth of knowledge and traditions related to medicinal and culinary herbs in the Virgin Islands, the following research investigates the potential economic viability of incorporating herbs in an agroforestry combination utilizing a multipurpose tree on St. Croix. This study evaluates the physical yields and economic cost and benefits of establishing and producing the desired products in alleys of the multipurpose tree Moringa oleifera versus in sole stands. The specific objectives of the study are to compare the productivity of culinary and medicinal herbs produced in alleys of Moringa oleifera versus in sole stands; and to determine the direct economic costs and benefits of establishing and producing culinary and medicinal herbs in alleys of Moringa oleifera by small-scale farmers on St. Croix, United States Virgin Islands. 1 Agroforestry is the deliberate combination and interaction between trees and crops and/or animals in sustainable systems that can maintain or increase the productivity and conserve the soil resource base in a technology or arrangement that is acceptable to local farmers (Nair 1993).

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW St. Croix, like many Caribbean islands, has sought to diversify her agricultural economy with non-traditional crops. Environmental sustainability has been recognized as a requirement for successful intensification of the island agriculture (Davis 1993). Export diversification through horticultural products, particularly fruit tree, herb and botanical products, can prove lucrative for countries that have suitable growing sites if quality standards can be met (Wainwright 1994). Plantation design and maintenance as well as marketing have long been recognized as important areas requiring attention for Caribbean horticulture (Pinchinat et al. 1981). Diversification with lesser-known fruits such as barbados cherry (Malpighia glabra), breadfruit (Artocarpus communis), carambola (Averrhoa carambola), cashew (Anacardium occidentale), guava (Psidium guajava), lychee (Litchi chinensis), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), papaya (Carica papaya), passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) and soursop (Annona muricata) and in combination with vertical integration of producers, processors and marketing operations is recommended for tropical products originating far from consumers (Marte 1988). This chapter reviews relevant literature on culinary and medicinal plant production, the agroforestry practice of alley cropping and economic evaluation techniques that can be utilized to value this production system. Culinary and Medicinal Herbs The USVI has a suitable climate for the production of tropical herbals and botanicals for domestic and export markets (Palada et al. 2000). Increasing popularity in 7

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8 the domestic and international markets and well suited for cultivation in both small corners of homegardens and out in the fields, the development of the botanical and medicinals sector is becoming increasingly attractive. Research into herbs at the USVI Agriculture Experiment Station, University of the Virgin Islands on St. Croix, has examined a variety of mulches for weed control and irrigation methods for improved production. Disease and pest resistance of various cultivars, fertilizer response, optimal spacing and minimum water requirements have also been investigated (Collingwood 1991a; 1991b; Palada et al. 1993; 1995a; 1995b; 2000). Medicinal and Aromatic PlantsHigh Value Products for Agroforestry Agroforestry has been evolving since the 1970s as a mechanism for poverty alleviation and a tool for local and regional development (Mercer and Miller 1998). The domestication of lesser known, yet locally popular, multipurpose trees and shrubs is one avenue to achieve these objectives (Leakey and Tomich 1999). The popularity of culinary and medicinal plants, many of which are annuals, makes them attractive potential products for land temporarily out of production as agroforestry systems mature. It is also more desirable for small-scale producers to have agroforests that provide a year-round supply of products from a number of different species (Leakey and Simons 1998). Commercialization, however, should be considered in tandem, as regional household-level use is an insufficient motivation or justification for farmers and/or researchers to undertake the intensive and expensive domestication process (Leakey and Izac 1996). Agroforests, intermediaries between natural forests and plantations, are suitable for production of both herbal medicines and natural products for national and international niche markets (Michon and de Foresta 1996). Reliable markets can also be found close

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9 to production sites among relocated city dwellers for whom cultural attachment to herbal remedies still persists (Waterman 1992). Cultivation and Marketing of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Cultivation is increasingly being promoted to meet market demands, stem the overexploitation and erosion of the genetic base, and as a potential foundation for enterprise and community development. Cultivated materials can assuage market fluctuations, improve quality control, ensure botanical identification and reduce the potential adulteration of the plant material, provide an arena for genetic improvement and agronomic manipulation and facilitate post-harvest handling (Palevitch 1991). For many popular aromatic, culinary and medicinal herbs field production techniques are well developed. Many species, such as basil (Ocimum basilicum), are either started from broadcast seeds or transplants set out at four to six weeks in rows 30 to 60 cm apart. Basil can have in-row spacing of 20 to 40 cm, and should be pinched at 12 cm to encourage branching (Simon 1985; Putievsky and Galambosi 1999). Higher density increases competition between plants, producing higher oil and dry herb production. Lower density planting (15 to 17 versus 8 to 14 plants per m 2 ) is better for fresh herb production (Putievsky and Galambosi 1999). In tropical regions three to five harvests can be expected per year, where plants are harvested prior to flower appearance for fresh or dried leaves (Simon 1985). For essential oils, plants are harvested from just prior to flower appearance up to the time when 50% of the seeds have ripened (Putievsky and Galambosi 1999). Research continues on crops lesser known in the United States (US). Five volumes of the proceedings of the national New Crops symposiums (Janick and Simon 1990; 1993; Janick 1996; 1999; Janick and Whipkey 2002) have been released providing

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10 information on new crops for marketers, researchers and US growers. Meanwhile, research is well established in countries like India where many aromatic, culinary and medicinal herbs unfamiliar to the US are commonplace. For example, in two recent studies from India, Singh et al. (1998) concluded that pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) intercropped with palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini) in Lucknow competed more for light than for water or nutrients due to differential rooting patterns, while Singh (1999) identified the moisture regime and fertilizer application required for the optimal yield of East Indian lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) biomass grown in Bangalore but concluded that neither had an effect on the quality or content of essential oil. Cultivation of medicinal and aromatic herbs can provide a steady supply for which sound marketing plans can be developed. Plantations geared towards market booms, however, may overwhelm benefits that can be captured by small-scale producers (Leakey and Izac 1996). The development of high yielding domesticated medicinal plants, the product of research efforts for plantation production, will mostly benefit elites with access to capital and just as the high-yielding grains of the green revolution. Small holders will be hit with the double-whammy of not being able to afford capital intensive improved stock then face the market price drop for their unimproved products as a result of the output of highly productive plantations. Agroforestry practices such as alley cropping or forest farming may be utilized as an alternative to plantation agriculture, as is the case with American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius). Limited supply, seasonality and genetic variety of undomesticated species are disadvantages when seeking larger markets because the products will lack the market appeal to encourage greater commercial interest. Therefore, small-scale producers like the farmers on St. Croix, who cannot

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11 compete with commercial production, should focus their efforts on lesser known products and cultivate niche markets. A Role for Agroforestry General Introduction to Agroforestry Agroforestry is a name for land use systems and practices that spatially and temporally combine woody perennials with agricultural crops and/or livestock. An agroforestry system is a specific local example, variations of which can be grouped into agroforestry practices alley cropping, forest farming or silvopasture (Nair 1993). The science of agroforestry includes the ecological and economic interactions between the components of the systems. These potential interactions between trees and crops in an intercropped system can be commensalistic, where there is a positive effect on one species and no observable effect on the second, amensalistic where there is a negative effect on one and no observable effect on the second species, inhibitory where there is a negative effect on both species, or synergistic interaction where there is a positive effect on both species (Nair 1993). Key characteristics of agroforestry systems are that trees recycle nutrients and regenerate soil fertility, shading helps in weed suppression and hedgerows provide in situ mulch and green manure. Nitrogen-fixing tree species can increase the supply of nutrients by biological N 2 fixation, retrieval of nutrients from below the rooting zone of crops and reduction of erosion and nutrient loss from leaching (Kang 1997). Introduction to Alley Cropping Alley cropping or hedgerow intercropping should be particularly suitable technologies for the conditions present on St. Croix, potentially reducing soil erosion, increasing soil fertility positively influencing yields and reducing disease and insect

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12 infestations. In the tropical alley cropping system, the trees are periodically pruned and the leaves, if not used for other purposes, are either placed on the surface as mulch or incorporated into the soil as a green manure. Incorporated prunings and root turnover affecting the physical and chemical nature of the soil as mentioned, are an integral part in the management of the nutrients cycle of the system (Nair 1993). Benefits of alley cropping depend on the site, component selection, age of the system and management. While the soil fertility improvements take time to develop, the sometimes less obvious but more pressing soil erosion control effect can be immediate (Haggar 1994). Tropical alley cropping and hedgerow intercropping research conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, south Asia and southeast Asia (Paningbatan et al. 1995; Presbitero et al. 1995; Craswell et al. 1998; Narain et al. 1998) attributes decreased soil erosion and increased soil fertility to a combination of rainfall interception by mulches from pruning, contours and hedgerows that intercept water runoff and encourage soil deposition and a fallow effect resulting from having trees present, particularly when they are nitrogen fixers. The underlying principle is that fast-growing, preferably N 2 -fixing trees and shrubs will create soil-improving conditions (recycling nutrients, suppressing weeds, and controlling erosion on sloping lands) similar to the fallow phase of shifting cultivation (Nair et al. 1999). Agroforestry Interaction and Competition Before agroforestry can be announced as a panacea, it is warranted to be clear about what takes place (Sanchez 1995). While facilitative effects are evidenced from the interaction between trees and crops, competition is also present. Facilitative effects include hydraulically lifted water by deeper roots of trees becoming available to herbaceous companion plants (Richards and Caldwell 1987; Caldwell et al. 1998) and the

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13 potential for translocation of nutrients such as phosphorus as was observed with kacholam (Kaempferia galangal) intercropped with coconut (Cocos nucifera) in humid southern India (Kumar et al. 1999). Competitive effects can be more pronounced, however, as was observed in an experiment in the Phu Wiang watershed, northeastern Thailand, where the yields of cassava (Manihot esculenta) and mungbean (Vigna radiata) rowcrops, intercropped with Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Leucaena leucocephala and Acacia auriculiformis grown for charcoal production, declined significantly after two years (Wannawong et al. 1991). Eucalyptus grown for timber provided some benefits as shelterbelts, but the overall effect in semiarid northern India was a steadily increasing crop loss attributed to shading of the intercrop as the trees aged (Ahmed 1989). And hedgerow intercropping research with Leucaena, pigeonpea and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) in semi-arid southern India utilizing 4 to 5 m alleys had severe yield reductions after the first year due to tree competition for water (Rao et al. 1990). It is misleading to generalize about hedgerow intercropping; system performance is location specific and sensitive to management (Nair et al. 1999). Sanchez (1995) concluded that the fundamental principles of agroforestry are that competition and complexity determine profitability and sustainability. The objective is to develop designs that maximize the facilitation while minimizing the competition. While early research into alley cropping was overly optimistic, it will work on sites that are naturally fertile with ample rainfall. Sanchez (1995) recognized that agroforestry practices will not likely meet 100% of the nutrient requirements for maximum yields of most agronomic crops, though nutrients from the available organic material subsidizes the requirements for inorganic fertilizer. Additionally, Sanchez (1995) noted that agroforestry must come to

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14 terms with the paradox that while what is profitable is not necessarily sustainable in agronomic, ecological, or social terms, agroforestry must be profitable if adoption is to be expected. Economic Evaluation Economics is a critical factor in producers adoption of new crops and technologies. Aspects of economic benefits of agroforestry include 1) maintenance or restoration of the productivity of land or the provision of low cost alternatives to fertilizer and soil conditioners, 2) direct economic benefits to farmers by the addition of products or the diversification of the range of farm outputs, 3) introduction of trees into agricultural lands leads to a reduction in labor per unit area of land required for the trees compared to traditional agricultural crops, freeing up or reducing labor loads, 4) products provided by trees that normally would be bought, and 5) capital reserves in the form of trees that accrue value over time and can be harvested as needed (Arnold 1983). A basic assumption of agroforestry is that benefits to farmers and the community will increase with agroforestry. A comparison of systems with (treatment) and without (control) a particular agroforestry technology is the basis of comparative research. The comparison of with and without is distinguished from a before and after comparison because conditions change over time and benefits and costs unrelated to the agroforestry practice under investigation may manifest (Gittinger 1982). In addition to the science of testing the biophysical characteristics of the basic assumptions, economic analysis is required to determine the most practical and appropriate allocation of scarce resources. The cost-benefit analysis can be used to determine which of a combination of systems is the most efficient. The three principal components of a cost-benefit analysis

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15 are the determination of Net Present Value (NPV), the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and the Benefit/Cost ratio (B/C ratio). The NPV of a system is the sum of the discounted benefits (goods and services) minus the costs (excluding intangibles) generated over a period of time. If the NPV is greater then zero then the system will have a net economic benefit over the time evaluated. This provides insight into the magnitude of the value of a system, and can be used as a basis for comparison between mutually exclusive systems i.e. either/or comparisons (Gittinger 1982). This is particularly important for agroforestry systems where various products will mature at different times during the lifetime of a system. The IRR is the internal rate of return on the investment, the amount of interest that is generated by the investment. Looked at another way, it is the maximum amount of interest that can be paid for the project to still break even. A higher IRR is preferred when comparing alternatives (Wojtkowski 1998). The B/C ratio, simply the ratio of benefits to costs currently being incurred by an enterprise modified by an estimator that discounts the ratio over time, provides a snapshot of the present value of the system. The B/C ratio allows a simple comparison of the costs and benefits, a ratio greater than one indicating a net benefit. The B/C ratio can be used as a basis for comparison between alternative systems, when the same discount rate is applied. The discount rate at which the B/C ratio is equal to one is the IRR 2 2 All three indicators, NPV, B/C ratio and IRR are used in an economic analysis; however, they may not necessarily lead to the same conclusion. The B/C ratio is a comparison of the sum of benefits and costs, without regard to magnitude while the NPV considers the magnitude of the sum of benefits to costs, but may hide particular costs that may be unacceptable. For example, the B/C ratio of a project with $5 dollars of costs and $10 dollars of benefits would be the same as a project with $500 dollars costs and $1000 benefits, while they would have very different NPVs. Conclusions based solely on IRR would be based on economic criteria without regard to the quality or quantity of actual benefits or costs incurred.

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16 Discounting is required because not all the benefits and costs incurred during the lifespan of a project can be directly compared. While direct comparisons are not possible, discounting theoretically permits comparisons of monetary value across time. Money invested in a project now has an opportunity cost the potential interest on the money if it had been invested instead of spent. Discounting projects the value of an investment at maturity in todays value, the opposite of compounding 3 For economic comparisons between alternative systems to be valid, the same discount rate must be applied to each. Discount rates also carry an inherent bias. High discount rates distort the evaluation of projects that might have the majority of the costs up front and the benefits further down the line. This is because the costs would be valued in or near todays values while the benefits would be valued at discounted rates, deemphasizing the true benefits. When selecting a discount rate, one can use the investors best alternative investment (equity), the current interest rate of borrowed capital (loan debt) or a mixture of equity and debt. Subsistence farmers without access to credit require a social discount rate that is based on farmers time preference. A high time preference for a return on their investment requires a higher discount rate. IRR can alleviate this problem of searching for a proper discount rate by determining the discount rate where NPV = 0 (Betters 1988). 3 Discounting attempts to accommodate the time value of money, considering that money available today is worth more to an individual than the same amount available at a future date. A high time preference indicates placing greater weight on current rather than future consumption, requiring a higher discount (interest) rate when determining the present value of a future benefit.

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17 Another way of comparing two systems (i.e. a sole-crop and an intercrop) is by determining the relative net return: maaabibbiaaYPDYPYPRNR (eq. 2.1) where P a and P b = price of crops a and b; Y ia and Y ib = yields of intercropped crops a and b; D ab = differential cost of cultivation of crops combination ab compared to the sole-crop of a; and Y ma = the yield of sole-crop a (Singh et al. 1998). There are numerous recent examples of economic return studies of alley cropping: Tonye and Titi-Newl (1995) analyzed maize/groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea) intercropped with Leucaena sp. in Cameroon; Akyeampong and Hitimana (1996) conducted a partial budget, comparing only what was different with and without a maize (Zea mays) and Leucaena diversifolia alley cropping system on an acid soil in the highlands of Burundi; maize alley cropped with Gliricidia sepium in the Philippines was examined by Nelson and Cramb (1998) and Nelson et al. (1998); and Countryman and Murrow (2000) investigated a variety of hardwoods intercropped with maize and soybeans (Glycine max) in Iowa to name just a few. The objectives of maximum or sustainable production are not necessarily compatible with optimum production or conservation. Externalities occur when costs or benefits to others are generated for which the farmer is not compensated or charged (Filius 1982). Failure to account for externalities and market fluctuations can have unintended consequences. In a Eucalyptus and Leucaena fuelwood project in northwest India that was initiated without preliminary market research and infrastructure development prices collapsed locally from over supply while the country continued to face a wood shortage (Saxena 1991). Mrz (1992) conducted an ex-ante economic

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18 potential of neem (Azadirachta indica) intercropping with white sorghum, safflowers (Carthamus tinctorius), and millet (Pennisetum glaucum). He predicted increases in farm income from fruit and wood sales but noted that fruit harvesting conflicted with agriculture activities resulting in decreased food security during harvesting years. Additionally, increased labor would be required for the processing of fruits and wood. He acknowledged that his long term projection of an increased income of 7% was dependent on market prices for the products. Considering fluctuations in market prices, Dunn et al. (1990) preformed a sensitivity analysis of the management of Alder in Ecuador for fuelwood, using multiple prices for labor, transportation and market prices of fuelwood. The production of culinary and medicinal herbs in diverse agroforestry systems may provide small-scale farmers on St. Croix competitively priced products for local and potential export markets. Agroforestry benefits include soil improvements, microclimate amelioration and soil erosion control. Proper economic evaluation facilitates research by directing allocation of scarce resources. Determination of appropriate discount rates and costs and benefits also provides a basis upon which sound marketing plans can be developed. This study is an initial attempt to provide concrete information for researchers and farmers on St. Croix.

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CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS Site Descriptions This investigation was conducted on-farm at the private Estate Rattan and at the Agricultural Experimental Station, University of the Virgin Islands, on St. Croix, United States Virgin Islands. Location and Climate St. Croix, USVI, is located in the eastern Caribbean (17N, 64W) about 200 kilometers southeast of Puerto Rico. The approximately 218 km 2 island (21,788.8 ha) is nearly 45 km long and no more then 13 km at its widest point. The climate is maritime tropical characterized by fair skies, steady winds and slight seasonal and diurnal fluctuations in temperature. Daily highs during the warmest months, August and September, average 31 C while nighttime temperatures average a balmy 24 C. The coolest months, January and February, experience days and evenings in the mid and low 20s (C) respectively (Davis 2000). St. Croixs eastern side has low rolling hills while the central and southern sections are low lying with a broad central valley. The northern and northwestern side is punctuated with steeply rising hills, peaking in the west-central at Mt. Eagle (355 m.a.s.l.). Annual rainfall ranges from 500 to 750 mm on the east to 1270 mm on the northwestern side of the island (Davis 2000). While there is no well defined dry season, September through November tend to be the wettest months while January through June are the driest. The nearly continuously blowing easterly trade winds and high temperatures have a drying effect on the island and evapotranspiration 19

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20 exceeds rainfall (Table 3-1). While tropical storms and hurricanes occasionally affect the island, destroying vegetation cover and eroding soil during periods of intense rainfall, they do not contribute significantly to the annual rainfall budgets. Table 3-1. Rainfall and temperature throughout the Virgin Islands over a 30-year period, and monthly potential evapotranspiration. Month Mean monthly rainfall Mean monthly air temperature @ Monthly potential evapotranspiration mm C mm January 66 24.6 99 February 47 24.6 93 March 53 24.9 113 April 73 25.6 126 May 116 26.3 151 June 75 27.2 159 July 81 27.8 166 August 116 27.8 163 September 144 27.2 149 October 148 26.9 145 November 154 25.8 125 December 96 24.9 109 Total 1169 1598 @ Potential evapotranspiration estimated by the Thornthwaite formula from open-pan measurements. Source: Adapted from Davis 2000. Geology and Soils The geological history of the island of St. Croix includes periods spent as shallow ocean floor and episodes of active volcanism. The volcanism has long since ceased and the islands sea level appears to have remained roughly the same since the Pleistocene. The parent materials of todays soils of St. Croix are a combination of calcareous marine sediment or volcanic rock. The soils of Estate Rattan and the AES are described as Typic Haplustolls and Typic Calciustolls respectively. Except where calcareous patches erupt to the surface (locally known as caliche and avoided for agricultural purposes) these

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21 soils are considered naturally fertile with available water being the major limitation (Davis 2000). The Rattan site has shallow, stony, well-drained soil on a west-facing slope (~10%), weathered from soft limestone bedrock. Permeability is slow, available water capacity is very low and the bulk density of the soil is 1.3 to 1.4 g cc -1 (Davis 2000). Analysis of soil samples conducted by A & L Southern Agriculture Laboratories, Inc. (2003), taken from the site before establishment indicate that average organic matter content is moderate to high (3.6% to 4.3%), pH is alkaline (7.7 to 7.8) and the CEC was determined to be between 36.0 to 39.8 cmol kg -1 The soil at the AES is a very deep, well-drained coarse-loamy soil formed on alkaline marine deposits on the floor of the broad central valley. The site has a slope of less then 5% and is rarely flooded. Davis (2000) describes the soil as light, with a bulk density of 1.15 to 1.30 g cc -1 permeability as rapid in the rooting zone though restricted in the substratum and the available water capacity declines from high in the rooting zone to dipping below permanent wilting point below 40 cm. Soil samples taken before establishment, analyzed by A & L Southern Agriculture Laboratories, Inc. (2003) had organic matter content between 2.2 and 2.9%, an alkaline soil pH between 7.8 and 8.1, and a high rooting zone CEC, measured between 60.9 and 70.1 cmol kg -1 though Davis (2000) reported that substratum CEC is very low (3.5 to 6.4 cmol kg -1 ). Vegetation and Land Use History The indigenous vegetation of St. Croix, while different from and less diverse as that found on neighboring Puerto Rico, St. Thomas and St. Johns, is typical of the Eastern Caribbean. Since evapotranspiration exceeds annual rainfall in all but the wettest sites on the island, native vegetation on the island generally consists of drought-tolerant types.

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22 Vegetation on St. Croix transitions from cacti and drought-tolerant scrub thicket on the east side to moist forest in the wetter west end. Both the Rattan site and the AES had historically been part of sugarcane plantations. The Rattan site had been fallow under Leucaena bush for at least 15 years before the onset of this research. The AES site was originally obtained by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) for creation of a Federal Experiment Station. The University of the Virgin Islands AES was established in 1972 and began conducting agricultural research on about eight hectares of the USDA Federal Experiment Station a year later (USDA 2002). The field used for this trial had been fallowed for six months under lab-lab bean (Lablab purpureus) and grass prior to initiation of research. Species Descriptions Origin and Uses The multipurpose trees Moringa oleifera and M. stenopetala and thirteen species of herbs (Allium schoenoprasum, Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon citratus, Eupatorium triplinerve, Matricaria recutita, Mentha x piperita, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Stachytarpheta jamaicensis, Thymus vulgaris and Verbesina alata) with culinary and medicinal uses were selected for the study. All of the herbs selected except for M. recutita are already grown on the islands and have traditional uses as bush teas and local markets or international markets for their oils and teas. The following section contains brief introductions to each species. Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae This small multipurpose tree, hear after referred to as moringa, originally a native of South and Southeast Asia is now distributed throughout the tropics but has only recently been introduced to St. Croix. Elsewhere, moringa is commonly planted as an

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23 ornamental and in fencerows or hedges, on account of its rapid growth and vigorous coppicing ability. The leaves, flowers, pods, seeds and roots are edible. The tree is commonly called drumstick on account of the long, green seedpods that can be eaten as a vegetable, and the root that can be ground into a spicy condiment, earns it the alternative name horseradish-tree. The fresh leaves are popular in Asia, prepared as a spinach-like green (Morton 1991, Palada 1996). Dried into powder, the leaves provide a highly nutritive food supplement (Fuglie 2001). Ben oil, extracted from the seeds, is used as a lubricant for watches, a base for perfumes and has medicinal attributes. Crushed seeds are a natural flocculent, used to purify drinking water (Morton 1991, Palada 1996). The flowers, present nearly year round, are an excellent nectar-source for bees (Little and Wadsworth 1989; Bown 2001; Fuglie 2001). Moringa stenopetala (Baker f.) Cufodontis, Moringaceae M. stenopetala, native to east Africa, shares many of the same properties and uses as M. oleifera, including edibility and flocculating properties. M. stenopetala belongs to the bottle group of the Moringa family, characterized by bloated, water storing stems. (Fuglie 2001). Allium schoenoprasum L., Alliaceae Chives are a popular perennial, clump-forming culinary herb usually consumed fresh in a variety of soups and salads, with cheeses, potatoes and eggs (Bown 2001). Coriandrum sativum L., Apiaceae Coriander is an annual, culinary herb grown for its foliage on St. Croix, commonly found in the farmers markets. Coriander oil, distilled from the leaves and seeds, is fungicidal and bactericidal, used for flavoring gin, vermouth and other liqueurs and is valued in the perfume industry (Bown 2001).

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24 Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf, Poaceae Lemongrass, native to South Asia, has been introduced throughout the tropics. A perennial grass with a distinctive lemon odor, lemongrass is used on St. Croix in bush teas both for flavor and medicinally to treat fevers (Kuby 1979). Lemongrass is used internationally in food flavorings, aromatherapy and the perfume industry (Bown 2001). Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl, Asteraceae Known in the Virgin Islands as Japana, this perennial herb can commonly be found growing in home gardens. Japana is native to the Atlantic coast of South America and has naturalized on St. Croix. It is utilized in bush tea as a refreshing cooling beverage and for treatment of coughs and colds (Thomas 1997). Matricaria recutita L. syn. Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert, Asteraceae German chamomile is an annual or short-lived perennial native to Eurasia. Along with Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile), a popular sedative tea is made from the flowers. German chamomile contains anti-inflammatory and analgesic compounds that are effective in healing burns and preventing infections and ulceration. Numerous commercial products utilize chamomile in everything from cosmetics and hair products to food flavorings (Bown 2001). Mentha x piperita syn. M. nigricans., Lamiaceae Peppermint is an aromatic, perennial herb hybrid between M. aquatica and M. spicata. Fresh and dried leaves are popularly consumed in teas to settle the stomach. One of the worlds most popular flavorings, peppermint oil is used in products ranging from perfumes, toiletries, oral hygiene and medicines, to liqueurs such as crme de menthe and candies (Bown 2001).

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25 Ocimum basilicum L., Lamiaceae Basil is an aromatic annual or short-lived perennial herbaceous plant native to tropical Asia. A popular culinary and medicinal herb, it has been distributed worldwide. Numerous varieties have developed with varying combinations of volatile oils, ornamental foliage and adaptations to local conditions (Bown 2001). In the Virgin Islands basil, known locally as mint, garden balsam or mosquito balsam, is cultivated for use as a cooking herb and in beverage and medicinal bush teas. A bush tea made from the leaves is used to treat stomachaches (Kuby 1979). Origanum majorana L. syn. Majorana hortensis, Lamiaceae Sweet marjoram is an annual or perennial sub-shrub native to the eastern Mediterranean. It is an annual in the Virgin Islands. It is a popular culinary herb and is used commercially in body care products and food flavorings (Bown 2001). Rosmarinus officinalis L., Lamiaceae Rosemary is a woody perennial shrub native to rocky woodlands, scrub and coastal areas of the Mediterranean. Rosemary contains anti-inflammatory and antiseptic flavonoids, phenolic acids and volatile oils. A popular culinary and medicinal herb, it is used dried in meat dishes and internally for digestive and nervous disorders (Bown 2001). Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae Common sage is an annual or perennial shrub native to the Mediterranean. Sage is a copious nectar producer making it good honeybee forage. Common sage is a popular culinary herb for meat dishes and teas. Common sage contains camphoraceous oil that is used medicinally to suppress perspiration, improve liver function and digestion and has anti-inflammatory and anti-depressant effects (Bown 2001).

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26 Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl, Verbenaceae Native throughout the Caribbean, the genus is commonly known as Porterweed or Vervain. This plant can be found on St. Croix growing along roadsides and on disturbed sites, where it is locally known as Worrywine. The fresh leaves are consumed in bush tea as a cooling tonic and blood cleanser, to treat asthma and ulcerated stomachs (Kuby 1979; Thomas 1997). Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae Thyme species are small, perennial, aromatic herbs and subshrubs native to Eurasia. Thyme species are ideally suited for St. Croix, preferring stony and rocky neutral to alkaline soils. Thyme is a popular culinary herb for meat and soups and stuffings. Dried thyme leaves are used in potpourris and thyme oil is used in toothpastes and mouthwashes. Thyme also make excellent honeybee forage (Bown 2001). Verbesina alata L., Asteraceae Native to parts of the eastern and southern Caribbean, this plant can be found growing wild on disturbed sites. Commonly cultivated in home gardens, it is known as Inflammation Bush in the Virgin Islands. It is consumed in bush tea as a cleansing tonic and a treatment for coughs, colds, and bruises (Kuby 1979; Thomas 1997). Provenances, Establishment and Management Ripe moringa seedpods were collected from trees growing on the AES. Without any pretreatment the seeds were direct sown, three to a hole, in the field at the Rattan site in late May and at the AES in mid-August, 2002. After planting the moringa seedlings were drip irrigated with 1.27 cm () polyhose lines. After two weeks the moringa was thinned to one tree per hole and supplemental water was discontinued after four weeks.

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27 The Matricaria, Mentha, Origanum, Salvia, and Thymus transplants were started from Richter seeds in Premier Pro-mix BX in 72 cell styrofoam trays. Locally obtained Cymbopogon culms, Rosmarinus cuttings and Ocimum seed were obtained for producing plant for this study. The Stachytarpheta and Verbesina were started from locally collected seed and the Eupatorium was started from cuttings collected on St. Thomas the first week of June 2002. Seeds and cuttings for all the trials were started in the greenhouse in June and July then transplanted out after 6 weeks. Local Allium slips and Richter Coriandrum seeds were planted directly in the field. The Rattan site was first cleared with a bulldozer and bush hog to remove the existing vegetation, and then plowed to prepare the field for planting. The site was cleaned with rakes and hoes and drip irrigation lines were laid out before the trees seeds were planted. Powdered cow manure was incorporated into the soil at a rate of about 6 t ha -1 with rakes before planting the herb intercrops. Herb intercrops were planted out with drip tape and were mulched with straw once they reached approximately 30 cm in height. To prepare the site at the AES, the grass and lab-lab fallow was plowed under. After several weeks the field was rototilled twice. Herbs were planted with drip irrigation similar to the Rattan site. Both sites were weeded as necessary and fertigated with a soluble fertilizer (20-20-20). Experimental Design The Rattan site was a strip-split plot with two plots (treatments: herbs alley cropped between moringa hedgerows and herb sole cropped) and 10 subplots (10 herb species). A stone terrace wall had been constructed along the contour of the slope prior to the onset of the research, dissecting the field into an upper and lower section. The moringa seeds were sown in two rows along the contour, 1.5 m in row spacing with 25 trees per row, M.

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28 stenopetala along the upper side of the terrace and M. oleifera in the second about 5 m further up the slope. The upper section was selected for the alley and the area below the wall was selected for the control of no alleys. To make efficient use of drip irrigation a single main line was run down the slope along the north end of the field and alternating lines of drip tape with 20.3 cm (8) and 60.9 cm (24) emitters spacing, 37.5 m long (120), were run off it every meter, four lines per alley for a total of eight lines. Four plants of Cymbopogon, Eupatorium, Ocimum, Stachytarpheta and Verbesina were planted at randomly assigned positions in each block along the 61 cm lines. Ten plants of Matricaria, Origanum, Rosmarinus, Salvia and Thymus were planted at randomly assigned positions in each block along the 20 cm lines. Each species was planted on both of the alternating upper and lower lines in each block (Figure 3-1). The length of the field permitted only three replications. A total of 120 plants of each variety on the 20 cm lines (10 plants per line x 4 lines x 3 replications) and 48 plants of each variety on the 61 cm lines (4 plants per line x 4 lines x 3 replications) were required. The AES experiment was similar to the Rattan design with modifications. Sufficient area was available at the AES for four replications and a split-plot design. The site had two treatments, herbs alley cropped between moringa hedgerows, and sole-cropped herbs, with four replications in 10 m by 8.75 m plots. The length of the field required that each block be shortened, which was compensated for by increasing the number of rows. The three hedgerows were planted five m apart, with trees within rows spaced at 1.75 m for a total of 18 trees per block (3 rows x 6 plants/row). Alley width was 5 m with two alleys per plot. Seventy-two Moringa oleifera trees (18 trees x 4 reps) were established by direct seeding at 10 cm depth. There were twelve rows of herbs

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29 intercrop per plot, six per alley spaced at 0.71 meters (28) between rows. A main line was run along the western end of the field and six lines of drip tape with 20.32 cm (8) emitter spacing and six lines of drip tape with 61 cm (24) emitter spacing, each 41 meters long (134.5), were run off of it the length of the field (Figure 3-2). Each plot of Cymbopogon, Eupatorium, Ocimum, Stachytarpheta and Verbesina consisted of three plants along each of the six adjacent lines, for 18 plants per plot, at randomly assigned positions in each block along the 61 cm lines. Each plot of Allium, Coriandrum, Mentha, Origanum and Thymus consisted of seven plants of each species planted along each of the six adjacent lines, for 42 plants per plot, at randomly assigned positions in each block along the 20 cm lines. A total of 336 plants of each variety on the 20 cm lines (7 plants per line x 6 lines x 2 treatments x 4 replications) and 144 plants of each variety on the 61 cm lines (3 plants per line x 6 lines x 2 treatments x 4 replications) were required. Data Collection and Measurements The trees and intercrops in this experiment were monitored separately. The following variables were monitored for the trees: height, number and length of leaves, onset of flowering and fruiting, number of fruits, and biomass (fresh and oven dried weight) of fruits, foliage, and woody material. Heights and leaf lengths were measured in the field with a 2-meter ruler. Fresh weights were determined in the field to the nearest decagram. One hundred gram sub samples of leaf and stem material were oven dried at 90 C for 24 hours and dry weights were determined to the nearest gram. The following variables were monitored for the intercrops: height, number of stems, and biomass (fresh and oven dried weight) of foliage and stems at each harvest. While all plants at the AES were sampled, at the Rattan site only the middle two plants of each species in each block on each 61 cm line and the middle six plants on each 20 cm

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30 line were sampled. Randomly selected plants of each species from each row in each block were oven dried at 90 C for 24 hours and dry weights were determined to the nearest 0.1 gram. Input values for the economic analysis were obtained from the AES trial data, previous AES enterprise budgets, informal surveys of local markets and World Wide Web searches. Data Analysis Total yields were summed from each harvest. Mean fresh and dry weight yields of the sole-crop and intercrops herbs were averaged for each species, by treatment and block in a Microsoft Excel XP spreadsheet. Total yields for each species were compared with a mixed linear model (PROC MIXED) in SAS for Windows 8e, utilizing the Tukey-Kramer adjustment of means. Yields of fresh herb sole and intercrops and dried Moringa (powdered dried leaves) were then extrapolated for an area of 250 m 2 (1/16 th acre) for the purpose of making them comparable with previous AES enterprise budgets. The economic analysis included the determination of break-even cost for each intercrop, the net present value (NPV) for a 20-year production of the system 4 and a benefit/cost (B/C) ratio, which can be used as a basis of comparison between alternative systems when the same discount rate is applied. A sensitivity analysis was performed utilizing multiple discount rates (3, 5, 7 and 9%) and several different market values, reflecting a decline in price as markets become saturated by increased production. The relative net return, calculated with the yields extrapolated for the 250 m 2 was used to determine the relative productivity of the different species of herbs. 4 20 years is the length of a typical lease on agriculture land from the Virgin Islands Department of Agriculture.

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X X X X X XXXXXXXXXXX X XXXXXXXXXXXXRosemary Sage MarjoramThymeChamomileChamomileThymeMarjoram SageRosemaryChamomileThymeRosemaryMarjoramSageJapana Basil WorrywineInflamation BushLemongrassInflamation BushLemongrassBasilJapanaWorrywineLemongrassInflamation BushBasilWorrywineJapanaRosemary Sage MarjoramThymeChamomileChamomileThymeMarjoram SageRosemaryChamomileThymeRosemaryMarjoramSageJapana Basil WorrywineInflamation BushLemongrassInflamation BushLemongrassBasilJapanaWorrywineLemongrassInflamation BushBasilWorrywineJapanaX X X X X XXXXXXXXXXX X XXXXXXXXXXXXRosemary Sage MarjoramThymeChamomileChamomileThymeMarjoram SageRosemaryChamomileThymeRosemaryMarjoramSageJapana Basil WorrywineInflamation BushLemongrassInflamation BushLemongrassBasilJapanaWorrywineLemongrassInflamation BushBasilWorrywineJapanaRosemary Sage MarjoramThymeChamomileChamomileThymeMarjoram SageRosemaryChamomileThymeRosemaryMarjoramSageJapana Basil WorrywineInflamation BushLemongrassInflamation BushLemongrassBasilJapanaWorrywineLemongrassInflamation BushBasilWorrywineJapanaAlternating lines of 8" and 24" drip tape, 118' in length.10 plants of each species on each of the 8" line and 4 plants of each species on each of the 24" lines in each block.X = Moringa hedgrows Stiple = Terrace wall Rattan Moringa Intercropping Trial Layout Estate Rattan, St. CroixDate of Establishment: Summer 2002 Block I Block II Block III 5 m 1m ( 8" ) 1m ( 24" ) 1m ( 8" ) 1m ( 24" ) 1m N5 m ( 8" ) 1m ( 24" ) 1m ( 8" ) 1m ( 24" ) 31 Figure 3-1. Moringa oleifera, M. stenopetala and culinary and medicinal herb intercropping trial layout at Estate Rattan, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, during the 2002-2003 field season.

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32 (East)< 2 m ><----5 m -----><----5 m ----->24" lines8" lines24" lines8" lines<----5 m -----><----5 m -----><----5 m -----><----5 m -----><----5 m -----><----5 m ----->< 2 m >(West)<----10 m -----><----10 m ----->MarjoramJapanaCilantroJapanaCilantroChives<----8.75 m ----->Inflammation BushMarjoramInflammation BushMintLemongrassMintLemongrassThymeRep 4WorrywineChivesBasilBasilThymeWorrywine< 2 m > Sole Crop PlotsAlley Plots<----10 m ----->CilantroBasilCilantroWorrywineMarjoramThyme<----8.75 m ----->WorrywineMarjoramBasilMintLemongrassThymeLemongrassChivesRep 3JapanaChivesJapanaInflammation BushMintInflammation BushN <-----< 2 m > Alley PlotsSole Crop Plots<----10 m ----->CilantroInflammation BushChivesBasilThymeMint<----8.75 m ----->JapanaMarjoramLemongrassChivesLemongrassCilantroWorrywineMarjoramRep 2BasilThymeInflammation BushWorrywineMintJapana< 2 m > Alley PlotsSole Crop Plots<----10 m ----->LemongrassCilantroLemongrassCilantroMarjoramInflammation BushChivesInflammation BushThymeWorrywineChives<----8.75 m ----->JapanaMarjoramBasilMintWorrywineThymeJapanaAES Moringa Intercropping Trial LayoutAgricultural Experiment Station, St. CroixDate of Establishment: Summer, 2002< Station Dirt Road >Sole Crop PlotsAlley Plots<----10 m ----->Rep 1BasilMint Figure 3-2. Moringa oleifera and culinary and medicinal herb intercropping trial layout at the AES, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, during the 2002-2003 field season.

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CHAPTER 4 RESULTS The following sections present the results of the first year trials at Estate Rattan and the AES sites. The agronomic yields from Estate Rattan and the AES trials are presented first. After the agronomic data, economic analysis of each system solecropped and intercropped for each species is presented. Included are the breakeven points, benefit/cost (B/C) ratio, a net present value (NPV) sensitivity analysis, and the relative net return (RNR) for each species. Agronomic Evaluation The agronomic yields are presented as mean yields per harvest, total yields per area and average yield per plant. Yields from moringa pruning are presented as total yield per area and average yield per plant. Statistical comparisons of yields between treatments and species are made for each planting density utilizing a Tukey-pairwise comparison. Estate Rattan Moringa-Herb Intercropping Trial At the Estate Rattan Stachytarpheta and Verbesina produced four harvests, Ocimum three and Cymbopogon, Origanum and Salvia only one harvest each. Regrowth after initial harvest of the last three species did not permit additional harvests. Establishment and subsequent growth of Eupatorium, Matricaria, Rosmarinus and Thymus was extremely poor and of the four species only a partial harvest of the Thymus was possible (Table 4-1). Between the sole-cropped and intercropped treatments, none of the species showed statistical differences in their yields (P > 0.05). Between species, the difference between the mean yields of the sole-cropped Cymbopogon and Ocimum, 33

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34 Cymbopogon and Verbesina, Ocimum and Stachytarpheta and between Origanum and Salvia were not significant (P > 0.05) while Cymbopogon and Stachytarpheta, Ocimum and Verbesina and Stachytarpheta and Verbesina were highly significant (P < 0.01). The difference in mean yields between intercropped Cymbopogon, Stachytarpheta and Verbesina, between Cymbopogon and Ocimum and between Ocimum and Verbesina were all highly significant (P < 0.01), while the difference between the mean yields of intercropped Origanum, Salvia and Thymus were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The average height of the Moringa oleifera six months after planting from seed was 427 cm while the M. stenopetala averaged 299 cm. The mean wet weight yield of M. oleifera prunings was 4.3 kg tree -1 and M. stenopetala prunings were 3.1 kg tree -1 73% of the M. oleifera yield. M. oleifera prunings averaged 25.4% dry matter after oven drying, the mean yield of dry leaf matter was 356 g tree -1 M. stenopetala dry matter after oven drying averaged 24.9%, the mean yield of dry leaf matter was 299 g tree -1 84% of the M. oleifera yield. M. oleifera yielded 8.9 kg dry leaf matter from 90 m 2 equaling 99 g m -2 or 0.989 Mg ha -1 M. stenopetala yielded 7.475 kg dry leaf matter from 90 m 2 equaling 83 g m -2 or 0.831 Mg ha -1 Agriculture Experiment Station Moringa-Herb Intercropping Trial While Allium, Coriandrum, Cymbopogon, Ocimum and Stachytarpheta grew well at the AES, the Verbesina provided three very small yields, and the Eupatorium, Mentha, Origanum and Thymus grew slowly and could only be harvested once each (Table 4-2). Between the sole-crop and intercrop treatments, mean yield differences were significant for Ocimum (P = .0197) and highly significant for Allium, Coriandrum, Cymbopogon and Stachytarpheta (P < 0.01). Between species, the differences between mean yields of sole-cropped Cymbopogon and Stachytarpheta, Eupatorium and Verbesina, and between

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35 Mentha, Origanum and Thymus were not statistically different (P > 0.05), while the difference between the mean yields of Cymbopogon and Eupatorium, Ocimum and Verbesina, between Eupatorium and both Ocimum and Stachytarpheta, between Ocimum and both Stachytarpheta and Verbesina and between Allium and Coriandrum both between each other and with Mentha, Origanum and Thymus were highly significant (P < 0.01). The difference in mean yields between intercropped Cymbopogon and both Eupatorium and Verbesina, Eupatorium and both Ocimum and Stachytarpheta, and between Verbesina and both Ocimum and Stachytarpheta were highly significant (P < 0.01), between Cymbopogon and Ocimum were significant (P < 0.01), while the difference between mean yields of Eupatorium and Verbesina, between Stachytarpheta and both Cymbopogon and Ocimum and between Allium, Coriandrum, Mentha, Origanum and Thymus were not significant (P > 0.05). At the time of the first pruning, four months after planting from seeds, the moringa trees averaged 275 cm in height. Lopped at 1.5 m, they averaged 337 cm three months later at the time of the second pruning. Average wet weight yield of the prunings was 6.4 kg. Leaf wet weight was 2.8 kg, yielding 30.5% after oven drying, for an average dry leaf matter yield of 767 g tree -1 Total yield for the 410 m 2 areas was 55.224 kg, equivalent to 0.135 kg m -2 or 1.35 Mg ha -1

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Table 4-1. Leaf yield of herbs sole-cropped and intercropped with Moringa oleifera and M. stenopetala at Estate Rattan, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, during the 2002-2003 field season. Fresh weights (kg) of leaves harvested during the season 36 Sole-crop Intercrop Harvests Harvests Species Area(m n 2 ) 1 2 3 4 Total n 1 2 3 4 Total Cymbopogon citratus 12.5 12 6.77 6.77 ac 12 5.50 5.50 Eupatorium triplinerve 12.5 12 *** 12 *** Matricaria recutita 12.5 36 *** 36 *** Ocimum basilicum 12.5 12 1.50 4.30 4.16 9.95 ab 12 1.24 2.96 5.53 9.73 a Origanum majorana 12.5 24 1.24 1.24 d 24 1.15 1.15 b Rosmarinus officinalis 12.5 36 *** 36 *** Salvia officinalis 12.5 24 0.97 0.97 d 24 0.78 0.78 b Stachytarpheta jamaicensis 12.5 12 1.24 1.19 1.39 8.80 12.61 b 12 1.15 1.27 1.32 6.73 10.47 a Thymus vulgaris 12.5 36 *** 16 0.68 0.68 b Verbesina alata 12.5 12 0.34 0.43 0.79 1.91 3.47 c 12 0.21 0.30 0.29 1.04 1.83 Letters indicate species with total yields with no statistical difference (P > 0.05), Tukey-Kramer Means Adjustment. *** = Incomplete harvests.

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Table 4-2. Leaf yield of herbs sole-cropped and intercropped with Moringa oleifera at the AES, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, during the 2002-2003 field season. Fresh weights (kg) of leaves harvested during the season 37 Sole-crop Intercrop Harvests Harvests Species Area(m 2 ) N 1 2 3 4 Total n 1 2 3 4 Total Allium schoenoprasum 9.4 157 9.79 10.77 20.56** 155 4.30 5.18 9.48** Coriandrum sativum 9.4 70 4.16 4.86 5.10 14.13** 44 0.89 1.32 1.45 3.65** Cymbopogon citratus 9.4 72 24.66 27.87 20.56 37.10 110.18 a ** 72 26.65 20.59 13.84 22.86 83.94 a ** Eupatorium triplinerve 9.4 72 4.87 4.87 b 72 2.69 2.69 b Mentha x piperita 9.4 168 5.16 *** 168 1.83 *** Ocimum basilicum 9.4 72 37.99 20.85 19.93 78.77 72 40.25 11.70 12.46 64.4 c Origanum majorana 9.4 168 1.19 *** 168 0.94 *** Stachytarpheta jamaicensis 9.4 72 45.94 57.89 103.83 a ** 72 40.50 32.75 73.25 ac ** Thymus vulgaris 9.4 168 1.17 *** 168 0.20 *** Verbesina alata 9.4 55 4.55 4.72 1.45 10.71 b 50 3.80 1.58 1.26 6.64 b Letters indicate species with total yields with no statistical difference (P > 0.05), Tukey-Kramer Means Adjustment. ** = Significant difference between treatments (P < 0.05). *** = Incomplete harvests.

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38 Economic Evaluation Due to incomplete records of inputs the economic analyses were based upon data collected from research plots at the AES. Allium, Coriandrum, Cymbopogon, Ocimum, Stachytarpheta and Verbesina were selected for further analysis. Estimated cost and returns with break-even points (see appendix A), NPV and B/C ratios were determined for each species in sole-crop and intercropped with moringa production systems. A sensitivity analysis was conducted for each species to examine the effect of price and discount rates on each system. The RNR for each species is also presented. Allium schoenoprasum Sole-cropped chive yields of 235.8 kg ha -1 yr -1 at current market prices gross $3,350 pre tax. With a 5% discount rate the estimated twenty-year NPV of the system is $41,743. Sensitivity analysis of market prices and discount rates (Figure 4-1) indicate that the system remains profitable until chive market prices dip below $7.80 kg -1 Intercropped chive yields of 87.8 kg ha -1 yr -1 and moringa powder yields of 34.25 kg ha -1 yr -1 gross only $139 pre tax. The twenty-year NPV with a 5% discount rate is $1,905. Sensitivity analysis of market prices and discount rates indicate that the system is only profitable at the current chive market price of $22 kg -1 due to the additional income from the moringa yield. The B/C ratio of the sole-crop is 2.82 while the intercrop B/C ratio is 1.08. The RNR of the intercrop compared to the sole-crop is 38%.

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39 Sensitivity to market prices of the 20-year NPV of Allium schoenprasum in sole stands and intercropped with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands-$30,000-$15,000$0$15,000$30,000$45,000$60,000$2.00$4.00$8.00$14.00$22.00Market PriceNPV 3% Sole 5% Sole 7% Sole 9% Sole 3% Intercrop 5% Intercrop 7% Intercrop 9% Intercrop Figure 4-1. NPV sensitivity analysis of Allium schoenoprasum sole-cropped and intercropped with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands Coriandrum sativum Yield of sole-cropped cilantro of 363.6 kg ha -1 yr -1 at current market prices grosses $6,111 pre tax. With a 5% discount rate the estimated twenty-year NPV of the system is $76,162. Sensitivity analysis of market prices and discount rates (Figure 4-2) indicate that the system remains profitable until market prices dips below $5.19 kg -1 Intercropped cilantro yields of 121.0 kg ha -1 yr -1 and moringa powder yields of 34.25 kg ha -1 yr -1 gross $828 pre tax. The twenty-year NPV with a 5% discount rate is $10,490. Sensitivity analysis of market prices and discount rates indicate that the system remains profitable until cilantro market prices dip below $17.23 kg -1 The B/C ratio of the sole-crop is 4.24 and the intercrop B/C ratio is 1.41. The RNR of the intercrop compared to the sole-crop is 34%.

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40 Sensitivity to market prices of the 20-year NPV of Coriandrum sativum in sole stands and intercropped with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands-$30,000$0$30,000$60,000$90,000$120,000$2.00$4.00$8.00$14.00$22.00Market PriceNPV 3% Sole 5% Sole 7% Sole 9% Sole 3% Intercrop 5% Intercrop 7% Intercrop 9% Intercrop Figure 4-2. NPV sensitivity analysis of Coriandrum sativum sole-cropped and intercropped with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Cymbopogon citratus Sole-cropped lemongrass yields of 918.0 kg ha -1 yr -1 at current market prices gross $16,580 pre tax. With a 5% discount rate the estimated twenty-year NPV of the system is $208,077. Sensitivity analysis of market prices and discount rates (Figure 4-3) indicate that the break-even point of the lemongrass system is $1.94 kg -1 Intercropped lemongrass yields of 559.7 kg ha -1 yr -1 and moringa powder yields of 34.25 kg ha -1 yr -1 gross $9,447 pre tax. The twenty-year NPV with a 5% discount rate is $119,087. A sensitivity analysis of market prices and discount rates indicate that the system remains profitable until lemongrass market prices dip below $3.57 kg -1 The B/C ratio of the sole-crop is 11.04 while the intercrop B/C ratio is 6.06. The RNR of the intercrop compared to the sole-crop is 61%.

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41 Sensitivity to market prices of the 20-year NPV of Cymbopogon citratus in sole stands and intercropped with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands-$50,000$0$50,000$100,000$150,000$200,000$250,000$2.00$3.00$5.00$10.00$20.00Market PriceNPV 3% Sole 5% Sole 7% Sole 9% Sole 3% Intercrop 5% Intercrop 7% Intercrop 9% Intercrop Figure 4-3. NPV sensitivity analysis of Cymbopogon citratus sole-cropped and intercropped with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Ocimum basilicum Yield of sole-cropped basil of 656.4 kg ha -1 yr -1 at current market prices grosses $11,286 pre tax. With a 5% discount rate the estimated twenty-year NPV of the system is $140,648. Sensitivity analysis of market prices and discount rates (Figure 4-4) indicate that the break-even point of the basil production system is $2.81 kg -1 Intercropped basil yields of 429.3 kg ha -1 yr -1 and moringa powder yields of 34.25 kg ha -1 yr -1 gross $6,790 pre tax. The twenty-year NPV with a 5% discount rate is $84,793. Sensitivity analysis of market prices and discount rates suggest that the system remains profitable until basil market prices dip below $4.77 kg -1 The B/C ratio of the sole-crop is 7.13 while the intercrop system is 4.35. The RNR of the intercrop compared to the sole-crop is 66%.

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42 Sensitivity to market prices of the 20-year NPV of Ocimum basilicum in sole stands and intercropped with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands-$25,000$0$25,000$50,000$75,000$100,000$125,000$150,000$175,000$2.00$3.00$5.00$10.00$20.00Market PriceNPV 3% Sole 5% Sole 7% Sole 9% Sole 3% Intercrop 5% Intercrop 7% Intercrop 9% Intercrop Figure 4-4. NPV sensitivity analysis of Ocimum basilicum sole-cropped and intercropped with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Stachytarpheta jamaicensis Sole-cropped worrywine yields of 865.2 kg ha -1 yr -1 at current market prices gross $15,657 pre tax. With a 5% discount rate the estimated twenty-year NPV of the system is $195,117. Sensitivity analysis of market prices and discount rates (Figure 4-5) indicate that the break-even point of the worrywine production system is $1.90 kg -1 Intercropped worrywine yields of 488.2 kg ha -1 yr -1 and moringa powder yields of 34.25 kg ha -1 yr -1 gross $8,123 pre tax. The twenty-year NPV with a 5% discount rate is $101,395. A sensitivity analysis of market prices and discount rates indicate that the system remains profitable until worrywine market prices dip below $3.88 kg -1 The B/C ratio of the sole-crop is 10.5 and the B/C ratio of the intercrop is 5.33. The RNR of the intercrop compared to the sole-crop is 56%.

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43 Sensitivity to market prices of the 20-year NPV of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis in sole stands and intercropped with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands-$50,000$0$50,000$100,000$150,000$200,000$250,000$2.00$3.00$5.00$10.00$20.00Market PriceNPV 3% Sole 5% Sole 7% Sole 9% Sole 3% Intercrop 5% Intercrop 7% Intercrop 9% Intercrop Figure 4-5. NPV sensitivity analysis of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis sole-cropped and intercropped with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Verbesina alata Yield of sole-cropped inflammation bush of 121.2 kg ha -1 yr -1 at current market prices grosses $1,316 pre tax. With a 5% discount rate the estimated twenty-year NPV of the system is $17,857. Sensitivity analysis of market prices and discount rates (Figure 4-6) indicate that the break-even point of the inflammation bush production system is $14.14 kg -1 Intercropped inflammation bush yields of 63.8 kg ha -1 yr -1 and moringa powder yields of 34.25 kg ha -1 yr -1 gross, at current market prices, -$98 pre tax. The twenty-year NPV with a 5% discount rate is only $140. Sensitivity analysis of market prices and discount rates indicate that the system is not profitable at current market prices. The B/C ratio of the sole-crop system is 1.9 while the intercrop system is only 1.01. The RNR of the intercrop system compared to the sole-crop system is 53%.

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44 Sensitivity to market prices of the 20-year NPV of Verbesina alata in sole stands and intercropped with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands-$22,500-$15,000-$7,500$0$7,500$15,000$22,500$10.00$12.00$15.00$20.00$25.00Market PriceNPV 3% Sole 5% Sole 7% Sole 9% Sole 3% Intercrop 5% Intercrop 7% Intercrop 9% Intercrop Figure 4-6. NPV sensitivity analysis of Verbesina alata sole-cropped and intercropped with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands.

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CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION This investigation examined thirteen different species of herbs intercropped with moringa. The apparent yield reductions evident in the intercropped systems at both sites failed to demonstrate statistical significance for most species. This lack of statistical significance with the yields is attributed to the variability in the data magnified by the split-plot treatment of the data. Data variability is a consideration with the design of agroforestry experiments with large plot sizes, since the area is large and the land may be more variable, in addition to the excessive strain on labor, which likely affected the reliability of data collected (Nair 1993). Greater confidence is therefore held in the validity of the results of the on-station trials, where greater control over and records of inputs and harvests were kept, then the on-farm trial, where weeding, watering and harvesting was not consistent or recorded. Culinary and Medicinal Herbs The herb intercropping trial on the private Estate Rattan did not result in significant differences between control and intercropped plots. Droughty conditions, poor quality and survival of Eupatorium, Rosmarinus, and Thymus planting material, overzealous harvesting of Cymbopogon, Origanum and Salvia and their poor subsequent regrowth contributed to the wide variability in the yields between blocks that were responsible for the statistical results. Matricaria in particular failed to establish on the arid and alkaline site. Stachytarpheta and Verbesina, both native species commonly present on disturbed sites, did well at the Estate Rattan site. The performance of the Eupatorium is attributed 45

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46 to the poor quality of the planting material derived from material purchased in local farmers markets and the straw mulch, applied after planting for weed control and moisture retention, which interfered with the rooting of runners. The sensitivity of the selected herbs to intercropping ranked accordingly from the least sensitive to the most as: Basil Marjoram Worrywine Lemongrass/Sage Inflammation Bush. The herb intercropping trial on the AES demonstrated significant differences between the control and intercropped plots in the species that performed well overall, i.e. Allium, Coriandrum, Cymbopogon, Ocimum, and Stachytarpheta, while the species that preformed poorly overall, i.e. Eupatorium, Mentha, Origanum, Thymus, and Verbesina did not. The sensitivity of the selected herbs to intercropping ranked accordingly from the least sensitive to the most as: Basil Marjoram Lemongrass Worrywine Inflammation Bush Japana Chive Mint Cilantro Thyme. AES control plot Ocimum yields of 656.4 kg (26.3 Mg ha -1 ) from this research were similar to earlier research station yields of 29.7 Mg ha -1 (Collingwood et al. 1991a). Of the highest yielding systems, estimated single year returns from the yields of fresh Cymbopogon and Stachytarpheta sole-crops, while statistically equivalent, varied financially by more then $900 (Table 5-1). Likewise, the estimated single year return from fresh Cymbopogon intercrop was financially more lucrative than Stachytarpheta by over $1000. Estimated single year fresh weight yields of Ocimum sole-crop and intercrop, while not statistically different, varied by nearly $4500 or 40%, highlighting the difference between statistical significance and practical differences. Of the systems selected for economic analysis, Cymbopogon sole-crop had the greatest twenty-year 5% NPV of $208,077 and a B/C of 11.04 while the Verbesina-moringa intercrop had the

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47 lowest of $140 and 1.01 respectively (Table 5-1). The RNR of the Ocimum systems was the highest at 66% and the Coriandrum system was the lowest at 34%. This studys single year estimated Allium return of 235.8 kg for 250 m 2 is slightly higher than the 218.2 kg for 250 m 2 obtained in a 1999 mulch and irrigation study of organic chives, organic tomatoes and conventional tomatoes conducted at the AES (anonymous, unpublished). The 1999 adjusted returns of $3780 from 250 m 2 which did not include the cost of slips, irrigation equipment, or the particular insecticides used during this study, are similar to the estimated sole-crop returns from this study of $3350 for 250 m 2 Both the 1999 study and the results from this trial conclude that sole-cropped Allium, one of the lowest producing herbs in this study, offers producers higher returns then the adjusted estimated returns of $2,970 for 250 m 2 of conventional tomatoes. The use of the current market prices when determining the profitability of the systems could be misleading. St. Croix is small market comprising fewer than 55,000 people (US Census 2000). The introduction of the produce of even a single 250 m 2 field into the St. Croix fresh herb market will certainly drive down prices. Therefore, five different prices were selected when determining the profitability of each system to examine the impact of falling prices on profitability. During an examination of the listing price of over 80 parcels of land one hectare or less on St. Croix in June, 2004 the average price per hectare was over $217,000. At one half the current market prices, only the Cymbopogon system would provide an economic return sufficient to equal the land value. Several factors likely contributed to the reduced yields and economic returns from the intercrop systems. Resource competition, lower herb plant densities in the intercrops and the differential production costs between sole-crop and intercrop systems appear

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Table 5-1. Summary of actual and estimated yields and results of herbs sole-cropped and intercropped with Moringa oleifera during the 2002-2003 field season, AES, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Herbs are presented ranked according to their actual yields and estimated 20-year NPV. 48 Sole-crop Intercrop ActualYield Estimated Yield Estimated Returns Estimated NPV Actual Yield Estimated Yield Estimated Returns Estimated NPV Species (kg / 9.4 m 2 ) (kg / 250 m 2 ) ($/ha/yr) ($) B/C (kg / 9.4 m 2 ) (kg / 250 m 2 ) ($/ha/yr) ($) B/C RNR 1. Cymbopogon citratus 110.18 918.0 16,580 208,077 11.04 83.94 559.7 9,447 119,087 6.06 61% 2. Stachytarpheta jamaicensis 103.83 865.2 15,657 195,117 10.5 73.25 488.2 8,123 101,395 5.33 56% 3. Ocimum basilicum 78.77 656.4 11,286 140,648 7.13 64.4 429.3 6,790 84,793 4.35 66% 4. Coriandrum sativum 14.13 363.6 6,111 76,162 4.24 3.65 121.0 828 10,490 1.41 34% 5. Allium schoenoprasum 20.56 235.8 3,350 41,743 2.82 9.48 87.8 139 1,905 1.08 38% 6. Verbesina alata 10.71 121.2 1,316 17,857 1.9 6.64 63.8 -98 140 1.01 53%

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49 obvious. Both the sole-crop and intercrop herbs and moringa hedgerows received fertilization and drip irrigation. Assuming that nutrient and water requirements were sufficiently and equally met for both the sole-crop and intercrops, then yield reductions were likely due to light interception by hedgerows. The sole-crop yields in the AES trials were also possibly reduced somewhat, compared to earlier research, by invading moringa roots competing for below ground nutrients. Tree roots invading control plots are a common problem with alley-cropping research (Coe 1994). It is evident that intercrop planting densities requires further investigation. Farmers in the Virgin Islands typically plant herbs in small, informal gardens and at a much closer spacing than might be expected for field trials. Shalaby and Razin (1992) concluded that increased height of Thymus in dense planting was due to light competition, with shorter plants from less dense plantings that permitted the growth of laterals resulting in overall greater yield per plant. Denser plantings however, despite the smaller plants, produced greater yield per area. Some herbs, such as Allium, Coriandrum, Eupatorium, and Verbesina might also produce greater yields at a higher density then was utilized in this study. Of the herb species selected, the culture is well established for all but three of the local herbs, Eupatorium, Stachytarpheta, and Verbesina, of which little is known. The local Cymbopogon and Stachytarpheta preformed the best, producing the most biomass. An advantage of Cymbopogon is that it is a perennial grass that once established requires only occasional weeding and harvesting. Additionally, culms can be readily separated for new planting material. The local Stachytarpheta is a low, sprawling shrub that endured heavy harvesting and regrew quite readily. On sub-tropical St. Croix, Stachytarpheta is

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50 an annual or short-lived perennial that requires periodic replanting. Stachytarpheta can be a prolific seed producer and dense shrubberies could be established in a field along a drip line, requiring little attention aside from periodic harvesting. Verbesina is another local annual or perennial. Harvested once flowering begins, it endured severe pruning back to the base of the plant and recovered with vigor. Verbesina is also a prolific seed producer that could easily produce dense shrubberies in a field setting along a drip line. Some of the weeds in the research plots removed by periodic hoeing were in fact Verbesina seedlings. The Eupatorium used for this research was derived from cuttings purchased in the local farmers markets. The cuttings were rooted in water and planted in pots before being transplanted to the field. Eupatorium is a low, perennial herb that roots from the nodes of its creeping stems. The poor performance of this herb is attributed to the poor quality (not very fresh) of cuttings derived from market purchased material and the straw mulch that prevented the Eupatorium stems from rooting readily. Until established, Eupatorium did not appear to be very tolerant of heavy pruning. The culture of the common aromatic culinary herb Ocimum is well worked out (Simon et al. 1999). Ocimum is an annual that will provide multiple harvests throughout the year when managed properly. The requirement for replanting during the course of this research was due to over harvesting of the plants, which should only be cut back to a basal node, just above a pair of leaves. Allium preformed well from sets and Coriandrum from seeds. Mentha, Origanum, and Thymus apparently are less suitable to field cultivation under the conditions present at the AES on St. Croix. Desiccating winds, intense sub-tropical sun, and drought conditions followed by flooding from periodic, intense rains all contributed to their poor performance. At the Estate Rattan, the same

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51 conditions applied. Origanum, Salvia and Thymus may have been particularly adversely affected by over harvesting. While Rosmarinus does well on the island, the failure to establish during this trial is attributed to the poor quality of the material planted. Finally, the Matricaria, which is not commonly grown on St. Croix, may have failed to establish due to the high pH of the soils (7.7), as Matricaria prefers acidic soils. Moringa Moringa preformed very well on the alkaline soils of St. Croix. At the Estate Rattan, planted from seed and provided supplemental water for only one month, hedgerow trees averaged four and quarter meters after six months despite the droughty conditions of the 2002 fall season. At the AES, moringa established under the same techniques as the hedges at Estate Rattan reached an average of two and three-fourths meters in four months and grew an additional one and three-fourths meters in the following four months after pruning. It is apparent that at the planting density used for moringa in this study and the current estimated market price for moringa powder, the intercrop systems will not be profitable. A higher density of herb, moringa or further value-addition might increase the profitability of a moringa-herb intercropping system on St. Croix. A higher moringa density could also offset the low price for the moringa product in this experiment. Double row hedgerows might accomplish this, as well as closer in line spacing or narrower alleys. An additional shortcoming of this research was the lack of a moringa sole-crop. Unfortunately, the lack of a sole tree control is all too common a problem in alley-cropping experiments (Coe 1994). Without the sole-crop moringa yield data a

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52 LER 5 calculation was not possible. Finally, the IRR could not be calculated because this study treated the Moringa as an annual crop. Without a return discounted over time, the internal rate of return is essentially the single year return. Though moringa was selected for research based on its potential for multiple uses, this may reflect the researchers bias. The low price used in this study for moringa powder as a food supplement reflects the lack of demand in the Virgin Islands, where malnutrition not undernourishment is a common problem. Other moringa products may find market niches though. South Asian communities in North American are a potential market for the fresh young seed pods, which are a component of the diet of South Indian cuisine. The water purifying capabilities of the crushed seeds requires scientific investigation, as there may be spin-off products and markets for related products. Value added requires consideration as the tree itself in the systems studied does not appear to be a viable economic option for small-scale farmers on St. Croix. 5 Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) = bbaaabYYYY where Ya and Yb are the sole crop yields of species a and b respectively, Yab is the yield of species a when intercropped with species b, and Yba is the yield of species b when intercropped with species a.

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CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS St. Croix, USVI is faced with historical, environmental, and economic challenges. Virgin Island farmers can find lucrative market opportunities by diversifying their agricultural systems with lesser-known crops. Bush teas derived from culinary and medicinal herbs are a part of the local culture and can be adapted for internal and export markets. This study examined the production of high value culinary and medicinal herbs intercropped with moringa on St. Croix, USVI. The objective was to determine the productivity and economic costs and benefits of selected herbs when intercropped with moringa compared to sole-crop yields. Specifically, the study determined whether the physical yields and economic benefits were greater for the selected herb-moringa intercrop system or the respective herb sole-crop. This study was conducted at two locations at a private estate and at the agricultural experimental station. Both sites, while considered fertile, are semi-arid. Thirteen species of herbs were selected for investigation along with moringa. Herb intercropping and moringa hedgerows were established with drip irrigation in strip-split plot designs with randomized subplots. Yields were determined from harvests and inputs were totaled for calculating economic returns. Net Present Value (NPV), Benefit/Cost Ratio (B/C) and Relative Net Return (RNR) were employed for comparison of the various sole and intercrop systems. A sensitivity analysis was included with four different discount rates and five different market prices. 53

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54 Yields of all intercropped herbs were lower than their sole-crops. Yields at Estate Rattan were not statistically different while the yields between treatments at the AES were. Between species comparisons show that Cymbopogon and Stachytarpheta preformed similarly with the highest yields, Cymbopogon yields being slightly higher. Economic analysis indicates that Cymbopogon provides the greatest economic return, NPV and B/C while Ocimum had the greatest RNR. Statistical results may have been confounded by the split-plot design, which magnifies variation in data from subplots. Comparison of results from this research to previous AES enterprise budgets suggests that even the lowest yielding system tested, the Allium moringa intercrop, will provide a greater economic return from the same area as that of a conventional tomato crop. Suboptimal densities and invading moringa roots likely affected yields as much as shading did. Future research of herb culture, particularly of Eupatorium, is warranted. A fruitful avenue for future research is in examining the effects of planting densities and culture on aromatic, culinary and medicinal herbs. Traditional herb gardens in the Virgin Islands are typically small, compact and in close association with stones used to delineate herb beds. While a trade-off can be expected with high densities producing lower yielding plants, the optimal density for overall herb yields should be determined. Working with drip irrigation lines, a proposed method to optimize densities might be to have two parallel drip lines set apart equal to their spacing, with three plants, two on the outside of the lines and one in the middle. The effect of density and culture, including whether stones lining herb beds regulate diurnal temperature fluctuations, on the yield of active ingredients and essential oils, requires investigation.

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55 Serious marketing is required before the prospects of the Virgin Islands becoming a supplier of aromatic, culinary or medicinal herb to North American markets can be realized. Developing viable large-scale production requires vertical integration of the production and marketing infrastructure: suppliers, processors, buyers, quantity and quality control. While the value of moringa is appreciated in many parts of Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean, it does not yet appear to have gained a following in the Virgin Islands. Other native trees may hold greater potential for agroforestry systems in the Virgin Islands. Soursop (Annona muricata) and sugar apple (Annona squamosa) are two common, native trees for which a steady markets exists for both the edible fruit and medicinal leaves. Alley cropping with aromatic, culinary, and medicinal herbs might also be particularly suitable for guavaberry (Myrciaria floribunda), a slow growing fruit tree for which there is a great demand when in season, but few landowners plant due to the 12 year maturation period. Rocheleau (1999) describes the formal research model with initial trials on-station with the winners moved to on-farm later and farmer participatory input restricted to problem diagnosis during first phase and adaptive research during the final stage. This limits the capacity of farmers and researchers to jointly innovate and experiment to fixed times and places. The paradigm of parallel line of research, as described by Rocheleau, with on-station and on-farm simultaneously, with researchers and farmers exchanging ideas, material and evaluation of the experiments is apparent in this study. Continued AES research along the lines of this project can produce viable agroforestry systems based on aromatic, culinary, and medicinal herbs that will benefit small-scale farmers on St. Croix.

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APPENDIX A COSTS AND RETURN ESTIMATES This appendix contains the estimated costs and returns for a 250 m 2 sole-crop and intercrop of each herb, based on yield data collected from the AES, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, during the 2002-2003 field seasons. Explanations for values can be found in Appendix B. 56

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ItemUnitQty.Price ($)Amt.ItemUnitQty.Price ($)Amt.SALESSALES Sale of fresh chives from .025 hakg235.8$22.00$5,188 Sale of fresh chives from .025 hakg87.8$22.00$1,932 Other sales$0 Moringa Powder saleskg34.25$7.33$251Total Revenue$5,188Total Revenue$2,183OPERATING COSTSOPERATING COSTS Seedlingsplants1800$0.15$270 Seedlingsplants1440$0.15$216 Fertilizer (20 20 20)bags0.7$23.60$16 Fertilizer (20 20 20)bags0.7$23.60$16 Herbicide and Insecticides (Azetin, Dipel, and Mpede)package1$245.15$245 Herbicide and Insecticides (Azetin, Dipel, and Mpede)package1$245.15$245 Drip irrigation lineslayout1$300.00$300 Drip irrigation lineslayout1$300.00$300 Waterm312.0$4.49$54 Waterm313.5$4.49$61Labor: (a) irrigation (set-up & repair)hours9.3$6.25$58Labor: (a) irrigation (set-up & repair)hours9.3$6.25$58 (b) plantinghours10.0$6.25$63 (b) plantinghours9.5$6.25$59 (c) fertigating and weedinghours83.4$6.25$521 (c) fertigating and weedinghours83.4$6.25$521 (d) harvesting (including weighting & bunching)hours15.0$6.25$94 (d) harvesting (including weighting & bunching)hours54.2$6.25$339Machinery: (a) plowinghectare0.025$154.44$4Machinery: (a) plowinghectare0.025$154.44$4 (b) harrowinghectare0.025$38.61$1 (b) harrowinghectare0.025$38.61$1 (c) tillinghectare0.025$38.61$1 (c) tillinghectare0.025$38.61$1Interest on operating capital$6%$1,626$98Interest on operating capital$6%$1,821$109Total Operating Cost$1,724Total Operating Cost$1,930FIXED COSTSFIXED COSTSLand leasehectare0.025$49.42$1Land leasehectare0.025$49.42$1Interest on avg. investment (excl. land)$10.00%1041.67$104Interest on avg. investment (excl. land)$10.00%1041.67$104Depreciation: (a) irrigation equipmenthectare0.025$257.40$6Depreciation: (a) irrigation equipmenthectare0.025$257.40$6 (b) other equipmenthectare0.025$12.87$0 (b) other equipmenthectare0.025$12.87$0 (c) wellhectare0.025$72.08$2 (c) wellhectare0.025$72.08$2 (d) otherhectare0.025$5.15$0 (d) otherhectare0.025$5.15$0Total Fixed Cost$114Total Fixed Cost$114$7.80$23.27$59.70Assumptions: 1. Total revenue and costs are rounded off to the nearest dollar.Data Source:1. Input and yield data: UVI-AES experimental plots; production data are for 2002/2003.2. Depreciation rates: Previous UVI-CES enterprise budgets.3. Selected costs and prices: VI Dept. of Agriculture and previous UVI-CES enterprise budgets.4. Output price: Informal survey of local growers, farmers market and supermarket. Moringa powder price from WWW search.BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM =BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM (Chive) =(at current production level) = ([total fixed costs / kgs sold] + [operating cost per kilogram])BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM (Moringa) =(at current production level) = ([total fixed costs / kgs sold] + [operating cost per kilogram])NET PRESENT VALUE (PRE-TAX) OF A 20-YEAR LEASE UNDER THIS PRODUCTION SYSTEM (AT 5%):$41,743NET PRESENT VALUE (PRE-TAX) OF A 20-YEAR LEASE UNDER THIS PRODUCTION SYSTEM (AT 5%):$1,734Estimated Costs and Returns at Current Market Prices, St. Croix, USVI, 2002-2003Allium Sole-cropAllium Moringa Intercrop.025 hectare unit .025 hectare unit PRE-TAX RETURNS (total revenue total operating costs fixed cost)$3,350PRE-TAX RETURNS (total revenue total operating costs fixed cost)$139 57

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ItemUnitQty.Price ($)Amt.ItemUnitQty.Price ($)Amt.SALESSALES Sale of fresh cilantro from .025 hakg363.6$22.00$7,999 Sale of fresh cilantro from .025 hakg121.0$22.00$2,661 Other sales$0 Moringa Powder saleskg34.25$7.33$251Total Revenue$7,999Total Revenue$2,912OPERATING COSTSOPERATING COSTS Seedlingsplants1800$0.15$270 Seedlingsplants1440$0.15$216 Fertilizer (20 20 20)bags0.7$23.60$16 Fertilizer (20 20 20)bags0.7$23.60$16 Herbicide and Insecticides (Azetin, Dipel, and Mpede)package1$245.15$245 Herbicide and Insecticides (Azetin, Dipel, and Mpede)package1$245.15$245 Drip irrigation lineslayout1$300.00$300 Drip irrigation lineslayout1$300.00$300 Waterm312.0$4.49$54 Waterm313.5$4.49$61Labor: (a) irrigation (set-up & repair)hours9.3$6.25$58Labor: (a) irrigation (set-up & repair)hours9.3$6.25$58 (b) plantinghours10.0$6.25$63 (b) plantinghours9.5$6.25$59 (c) fertigating and weedinghours83.4$6.25$521 (c) fertigating and weedinghours83.4$6.25$521 (d) harvesting (including weighting & bunching)hours22.5$6.25$141 (d) harvesting (including weighting & bunching)hours60.2$6.25$376Machinery: (a) plowinghectare0.025$154.44$4Machinery: (a) plowinghectare0.025$154.44$4 (b) harrowinghectare0.025$38.61$1 (b) harrowinghectare0.025$38.61$1 (c) tillinghectare0.025$38.61$1 (c) tillinghectare0.025$38.61$1Interest on operating capital$6%$1,673$100Interest on operating capital$6%$1,858$112Total Operating Cost$1,774Total Operating Cost$1,970FIXED COSTSFIXED COSTSLand leasehectare0.025$49.42$1Land leasehectare0.025$49.42$1Interest on avg. investment (excl. land)$10.00%1041.67$104Interest on avg. investment (excl. land)$10.00%1041.67$104Depreciation: (a) irrigation equipmenthectare0.025$257.40$6Depreciation: (a) irrigation equipmenthectare0.025$257.40$6 (b) other equipmenthectare0.025$12.87$0 (b) other equipmenthectare0.025$12.87$0 (c) wellhectare0.025$72.08$2 (c) wellhectare0.025$72.08$2 (d) otherhectare0.025$5.15$0 (d) otherhectare0.025$5.15$0Total Fixed Cost$114Total Fixed Cost$114$5.19$17.23$60.86Assumptions: 1. Total revenue and costs are rounded off to the nearest dollar.Data Source:1. Input and yield data: UVI-AES experimental plots; production data are for 2002/2003.2. Depreciation rates: Previous UVI-CES enterprise budgets.3. Selected costs and prices: VI Dept. of Agriculture and previous UVI-CES enterprise budgets.4. Output price: Informal survey of local growers, farmers market and supermarket. Moringa powder price from WWW search.BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM =BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM (Cilantro) =(at current production level) = ([total fixed costs / kgs sold] + [operating cost per kilogram])BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM (Moringa) =(at current production level) = ([total fixed costs / kgs sold] + [operating cost per kilogram])NET PRESENT VALUE (PRE-TAX) OF A 20-YEAR LEASE UNDER THIS PRODUCTION SYSTEM (AT 5%):$76,162NET PRESENT VALUE (PRE-TAX) OF A 20-YEAR LEASE UNDER THIS PRODUCTION SYSTEM (AT 5%):$10,319Estimated Costs and Returns at Current Market Prices, St. Croix, USVI, 2002-2003Coriandrum Sole-cropCoriandrum Moringa Intercrop.025 hectare unit .025 hectare unit PRE-TAX RETURNS (total revenue total operating costs fixed cost)$6,111PRE-TAX RETURNS (total revenue total operating costs fixed cost)$828 58

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ItemUnitQty.Price ($)Amt.ItemUnitQty.Price ($)Amt.SALESSALES Sale of fresh lemongrass from .025 hakg918.0$20.00$18,360 Sale of fresh lemongrass from .025 hakg559.7$20.00$11,194 Other sales$0 Moringa Powder saleskg34.25$7.33$251Total Revenue$18,360Total Revenue$11,445OPERATING COSTSOPERATING COSTS Seedlingsplants600$0.15$90 Seedlingsplants480$0.15$72 Fertilizer (20 20 20)bags0.7$23.60$16 Fertilizer (20 20 20)bags0.7$23.60$16 Herbicide and Insecticides (Azetin, Dipel, and Mpede)package1$245.15$245 Herbicide and Insecticides (Azetin, Dipel, and Mpede)package1$245.15$245 Drip irrigation lineslayout1$300.00$300 Drip irrigation lineslayout1$300.00$300 Waterm312.0$4.49$54 Waterm313.5$4.49$61Labor: (a) irrigation (set-up & repair)hours9.3$6.25$58Labor: (a) irrigation (set-up & repair)hours9.3$6.25$58 (b) plantinghours5.0$6.25$31 (b) plantinghours5.5$6.25$34 (c) fertigating and weedinghours83.4$6.25$521 (c) fertigating and weedinghours83.4$6.25$521 (d) harvesting (including weighting & bunching)hours40.0$6.25$250 (d) harvesting (including weighting & bunching)hours74.2$6.25$464Machinery: (a) plowinghectare0.025$154.44$4Machinery: (a) plowinghectare0.025$154.44$4 (b) harrowinghectare0.025$38.61$1 (b) harrowinghectare0.025$38.61$1 (c) tillinghectare0.025$38.61$1 (c) tillinghectare0.025$38.61$1Interest on operating capital$6%$1,571$94Interest on operating capital$6%$1,777$107Total Operating Cost$1,666Total Operating Cost$1,884FIXED COSTSFIXED COSTSLand leasehectare0.025$49.42$1Land leasehectare0.025$49.42$1Interest on avg. investment (excl. land)$10.00%1041.67$104Interest on avg. investment (excl. land)$10.00%1041.67$104Depreciation: (a) irrigation equipmenthectare0.025$257.40$6Depreciation: (a) irrigation equipmenthectare0.025$257.40$6 (b) other equipmenthectare0.025$12.87$0 (b) other equipmenthectare0.025$12.87$0 (c) wellhectare0.025$72.08$2 (c) wellhectare0.025$72.08$2 (d) otherhectare0.025$5.15$0 (d) otherhectare0.025$5.15$0Total Fixed Cost$114Total Fixed Cost$114$1.94$3.57$58.34Assumptions: 1. Total revenue and costs are rounded off to the nearest dollar.2. Replanting not required due to natural regeneration.Data Source:1. Input and yield data: UVI-AES experimental plots; production data are for 2002/2003.2. Depreciation rates: Previous UVI-CES enterprise budgets.3. Selected costs and prices: VI Dept. of Agriculture and previous UVI-CES enterprise budgets.4. Output price: Informal survey of local growers, farmers market and supermarket. Moringa powder price from WWW search.BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM =BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM (Lemongrass) =(at current production level) = ([total fixed costs / kgs sold] + [operating cost per kilogram])BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM (Moringa) =(at current production level) = ([total fixed costs / kgs sold] + [operating cost per kilogram])NET PRESENT VALUE (PRE-TAX) OF A 20-YEAR LEASE UNDER THIS PRODUCTION SYSTEM (AT 5%):$206,626NET PRESENT VALUE (PRE-TAX) OF A 20-YEAR LEASE UNDER THIS PRODUCTION SYSTEM (AT 5%):$117,730PRE-TAX RETURNS (total revenue total operating costs fixed cost)$16,580PRE-TAX RETURNS (total revenue total operating costs fixed cost)$9,447Estimated Costs and Returns at Current Market Prices, St. Croix, USVI, 2002-2003.025 hectare unit .025 hectare unit Cymbopogon Sole-cropCymbopogon Moringa Intercrop 59

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ItemUnitQty.Price ($)Amt.ItemUnitQty.Price ($)Amt.SALESSALES Sale of fresh basil from .025 hakg656.4$20.00$13,128 Sale of fresh basil from .025 hakg429.3$20.00$8,587 Other sales$0 Moringa Powder saleskg34.25$7.33$251Total Revenue$13,128Total Revenue$8,838OPERATING COSTSOPERATING COSTS Seedlingsplants1200$0.15$180 Seedlingsplants960$0.15$144 Fertilizer (20 20 20)bags0.7$23.60$16 Fertilizer (20 20 20)bags0.7$23.60$16 Herbicide and Insecticides (Azetin, Dipel, and Mpede)package1$245.15$245 Herbicide and Insecticides (Azetin, Dipel, and Mpede)package1$245.15$245 Drip irrigation lineslayout1$300.00$300 Drip irrigation lineslayout1$300.00$300 Waterm312.0$4.49$54 Waterm313.5$4.49$61Labor: (a) irrigation (set-up & repair)hours9.3$6.25$58Labor: (a) irrigation (set-up & repair)hours9.3$6.25$58 (b) plantinghours10.0$6.25$63 (b) plantinghours9.5$6.25$59 (c) fertigating and weedinghours83.4$6.25$521 (c) fertigating and weedinghours83.4$6.25$521 (d) harvesting (including weighting & bunching)hours30.0$6.25$188 (d) harvesting (including weighting & bunching)hours66.2$6.25$414Machinery: (a) plowinghectare0.025$154.44$4Machinery: (a) plowinghectare0.025$154.44$4 (b) harrowinghectare0.025$38.61$1 (b) harrowinghectare0.025$38.61$1 (c) tillinghectare0.025$38.61$1 (c) tillinghectare0.025$38.61$1Interest on operating capital$6%$1,630$98Interest on operating capital$6%$1,824$109Total Operating Cost$1,728Total Operating Cost$1,933FIXED COSTSFIXED COSTSLand leasehectare0.025$49.42$1Land leasehectare0.025$49.42$1Interest on avg. investment (excl. land)$10.00%1041.67$104Interest on avg. investment (excl. land)$10.00%1041.67$104Depreciation: (a) irrigation equipmenthectare0.025$257.40$6Depreciation: (a) irrigation equipmenthectare0.025$257.40$6 (b) other equipmenthectare0.025$12.87$0 (b) other equipmenthectare0.025$12.87$0 (c) wellhectare0.025$72.08$2 (c) wellhectare0.025$72.08$2 (d) otherhectare0.025$5.15$0 (d) otherhectare0.025$5.15$0Total Fixed Cost$114Total Fixed Cost$114$2.81$4.77$59.79Assumptions: 1. Total revenue and costs are rounded off to the nearest dollar.2. Two plantings.Data Source:1. Input and yield data: UVI-AES experimental plots; production data are for 2002/2003.2. Depreciation rates: Previous UVI-CES enterprise budgets.3. Selected costs and prices: VI Dept. of Agriculture and previous UVI-CES enterprise budgets.4. Output price: Informal survey of local growers, farmers market and supermarket. Moringa powder price from WWW search.BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM =BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM (Basil) =(at current production level) = ([total fixed costs / kgs sold] + [operating cost per kilogram])BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM (Moringa) =(at current production level) = ([total fixed costs / kgs sold] + [operating cost per kilogram])PRE-TAX RETURNS (total revenue total operating costs fixed cost)$11,286PRE-TAX RETURNS (total revenue total operating costs fixed cost)$6,790Estimated Costs and Returns at Current Market Prices, St. Croix, USVI, 2002-2003Ocimum Sole-cropOcimum Moringa Intercrop.025 hectare unit .025 hectare unit NET PRESENT VALUE (PRE-TAX) OF A 20-YEAR LEASE UNDER THIS PRODUCTION SYSTEM (AT 5%):NET PRESENT VALUE (PRE-TAX) OF A 20-YEAR LEASE UNDER THIS PRODUCTION SYSTEM (AT 5%):$140,648$84,622 60

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ItemUnitQty.Price ($)Amt.ItemUnitQty.Price ($)Amt.SALESSALES Sale of fresh worrywine from .025 hakg865.2$20.00$17,304 Sale of fresh worrywine from .025 hakg488.2$20.00$9,763 Other sales$0 Moringa Powder saleskg34.25$7.33$251Total Revenue$17,304Total Revenue$10,014OPERATING COSTSOPERATING COSTS Seedlingsplants600$0.15$90 Seedlingsplants480$0.15$72 Fertilizer (20 20 20)bags0.7$23.60$16 Fertilizer (20 20 20)bags0.7$23.60$16 Herbicide and Insecticides (Azetin, Dipel, and Mpede)package1$245.15$245 Herbicide and Insecticides (Azetin, Dipel, and Mpede)package1$245.15$245 Drip irrigation lineslayout1$300.00$300 Drip irrigation lineslayout1$300.00$300 Waterm312.0$4.49$54 Waterm313.5$4.49$61Labor: (a) irrigation (set-up & repair)hours9.3$6.25$58Labor: (a) irrigation (set-up & repair)hours9.3$6.25$58 (b) plantinghours5.0$6.25$31 (b) plantinghours5.5$6.25$34 (c) fertigating and weedinghours83.4$6.25$521 (c) fertigating and weedinghours83.4$6.25$521 (d) harvesting (including weighting & bunching)hours20.0$6.25$125 (d) harvesting (including weighting & bunching)hours58.2$6.25$364Machinery: (a) plowinghectare0.025$154.44$4Machinery: (a) plowinghectare0.025$154.44$4 (b) harrowinghectare0.025$38.61$1 (b) harrowinghectare0.025$38.61$1 (c) tillinghectare0.025$38.61$1 (c) tillinghectare0.025$38.61$1Interest on operating capital$6%$1,446$87Interest on operating capital$6%$1,677$101Total Operating Cost$1,533Total Operating Cost$1,778FIXED COSTSFIXED COSTSLand leasehectare0.025$49.42$1Land leasehectare0.025$49.42$1Interest on avg. investment (excl. land)$10.00%1041.67$104Interest on avg. investment (excl. land)$10.00%1041.67$104Depreciation: (a) irrigation equipmenthectare0.025$257.40$6Depreciation: (a) irrigation equipmenthectare0.025$257.40$6 (b) other equipmenthectare0.025$12.87$0 (b) other equipmenthectare0.025$12.87$0 (c) wellhectare0.025$72.08$2 (c) wellhectare0.025$72.08$2 (d) otherhectare0.025$5.15$0 (d) otherhectare0.025$5.15$0Total Fixed Cost$114Total Fixed Cost$114$1.90$3.88$55.24Assumptions: 1. Total revenue and costs are rounded off to the nearest dollar.Data Source:1. Input and yield data: UVI-AES experimental plots; production data are for 2002/2003.2. Depreciation rates: Previous UVI-CES enterprise budgets.3. Selected costs and prices: VI Dept. of Agriculture and previous UVI-CES enterprise budgets.4. Output price: Informal survey of local growers, farmers market and supermarket. Moringa powder price from WWW search.BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM =BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM (Worrywine) =(at current production level) = ([total fixed costs / kgs sold] + [operating cost per kilogram])BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM (Moringa) =(at current production level) = ([total fixed costs / kgs sold] + [operating cost per kilogram])NET PRESENT VALUE (PRE-TAX) OF A 20-YEAR LEASE UNDER THIS PRODUCTION SYSTEM (AT 5%):$195,117NET PRESENT VALUE (PRE-TAX) OF A 20-YEAR LEASE UNDER THIS PRODUCTION SYSTEM (AT 5%):$101,225PRE-TAX RETURNS (total revenue total operating costs fixed cost)$15,657PRE-TAX RETURNS (total revenue total operating costs fixed cost)$8,123Estimated Costs and Returns at Current Market Prices, St. Croix, USVI, 2002-2003Stachytarpheta Sole-cropStachytarpheta Moringa Intercrop.025 hectare unit .025 hectare unit 61

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ItemUnitQty.Price ($)Amt.ItemUnitQty.Price ($)Amt.SALESSALES Sale of fresh inflammation bush from .025 hakg121.2$25.00$3,030 Sale of fresh inflammation bush from .025 hakg63.8$25.00$1,596 Other sales$0 Moringa Powder saleskg34.25$7.33$251Total Revenue$3,030Total Revenue$1,847OPERATING COSTSOPERATING COSTS Seedlingsplants600$0.15$90 Seedlingsplants480$0.15$72 Fertilizer (20 20 20)bags0.7$23.60$16 Fertilizer (20 20 20)bags0.7$23.60$16 Herbicide and Insecticides (Azetin, Dipel, and Mpede)package1$245.15$245 Herbicide and Insecticides (Azetin, Dipel, and Mpede)package1$245.15$245 Drip irrigation lineslayout1$300.00$300 Drip irrigation lineslayout1$300.00$300 Waterm312.0$4.49$54 Waterm313.5$4.49$61Labor: (a) irrigation (set-up & repair)hours9.3$6.25$58Labor: (a) irrigation (set-up & repair)hours9.3$6.25$58 (b) plantinghours5.0$6.25$31 (b) plantinghours5.5$6.25$34 (c) fertigating and weedinghours83.4$6.25$521 (c) fertigating and weedinghours83.4$6.25$521 (d) harvesting (including weighting & bunching)hours30.0$6.25$188 (d) harvesting (including weighting & bunching)hours66.2$6.25$414Machinery: (a) plowinghectare0.025$154.44$4Machinery: (a) plowinghectare0.025$154.44$4 (b) harrowinghectare0.025$38.61$1 (b) harrowinghectare0.025$38.61$1 (c) tillinghectare0.025$38.61$1 (c) tillinghectare0.025$38.61$1Interest on operating capital$6%$1,509$91Interest on operating capital$6%$1,727$104Total Operating Cost$1,599Total Operating Cost$1,831FIXED COSTSFIXED COSTSLand leasehectare0.025$49.42$1Land leasehectare0.025$49.42$1Interest on avg. investment (excl. land)$10.00%1041.67$104Interest on avg. investment (excl. land)$10.00%1041.67$104Depreciation: (a) irrigation equipmenthectare0.025$257.40$6Depreciation: (a) irrigation equipmenthectare0.025$257.40$6 (b) other equipmenthectare0.025$12.87$0 (b) other equipmenthectare0.025$12.87$0 (c) wellhectare0.025$72.08$2 (c) wellhectare0.025$72.08$2 (d) otherhectare0.025$5.15$0 (d) otherhectare0.025$5.15$0Total Fixed Cost$114Total Fixed Cost$114$14.14$30.46$56.79Assumptions: 1. Total revenue and costs are rounded off to the nearest dollar.2. Replanting not required due to natural regeneration.Data Source:1. Input and yield data: UVI-AES experimental plots; production data are for 2002/2003.2. Depreciation rates: Previous UVI-CES enterprise budgets.3. Selected costs and prices: VI Dept. of Agriculture and previous UVI-CES enterprise budgets.4. Output price: Informal survey of local growers, farmers market and supermarket. Moringa powder price from WWW search.Estimated Costs and Returns at Current Market Prices, St. Croix, USVI, 2002-2003Verbesina Sole-cropVerbesina Moringa Intercrop.025 hectare unit .025 hectare unit PRE-TAX RETURNS (total revenue total operating costs fixed cost)$1,316PRE-TAX RETURNS (total revenue total operating costs fixed cost)-$98BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM =BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM (Inflammation Bush) =(at current production level) = ([total fixed costs / kgs sold] + [operating cost per kilogram])BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM (Moringa) =(at current production level) = ([total fixed costs / kgs sold] + [operating cost per kilogram])NET PRESENT VALUE (PRE-TAX) OF A 20-YEAR LEASE UNDER THIS PRODUCTION SYSTEM (AT 5%):$16,406NET PRESENT VALUE (PRE-TAX) OF A 20-YEAR LEASE UNDER THIS PRODUCTION SYSTEM (AT 5%):-$1,217 62

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APPENDIX B ECONOMIC ANALYSIS VARIABLES Allium schoenoprasum (Chives) 1. The mean yield per plant (wet weight) from each block of the control (area = 37.5 m 2 N = 157) was 0.13 kg. In 250 m 2 there would be 1800 plants on 20.3 cm (8) drip line (120 plants per line 15 lines), therefore yield from 250 m 2 can be expected to be = 0.13 kg 1800 = 235.8 kg / 250 m 2 The mean yield per plant (wet weight) from each block of the treatment (area = 37.5 m 2 N = 155) was 0.06 kg. In 250 m 2 intercrop there would be 1440 plants on 20.3 cm (8) drip line (120 plants per line 12 lines), therefore the yield from 250 m 2 can be expected to be = 0.06 1440 = 87.8. This is the yield from 2 harvests. 2. Market price of $22 kg -1 for fresh chives was determined from previous AES enterprise budgets and informal surveys of St. Croix and St. John markets. 3. Average yield (wet weight) of Moringa cuttings from harvest 1 was 0.64 kg. Dry weight equaled 35.8%. Average yield dry Moringa powder per tree from harvest 1 was therefore 0.64 kg 0.36 = 0.23 kg. Average yield (wet weight) of Moringa cuttings from harvest 2 was 2.13 kg. Dry weight equaled 25.1%. Average yield dry Moringa power per tree from harvest two was therefore 2.13 kg 0.25 = 0.53 kg. In three, 25-meter long alleys with in-row spacing of 1.75 meters, there would be 15 trees per row, for 45 trees total. Total Moringa powder yield for 250 m 2 would be 45 trees 0.23 + 45 trees 0.53 = 34.25 kg. 4. Moringa powder was estimated to be $7.33 per kg based on web searches for Moringa powder products, which yielded a minimum retail price of $22 per kg (Moringa Farms, 2003), assuming farmers could capture 33% of this price. 5. Chives are an annual that require replanting in subsequent years. $0.15 per plant is the price per seedling from the Virgin Islands, Department of Agriculture, Kingshill, St. Croix. 6. Fertilizer (20-20-20) used for the research field (370 m 2 ) was one bag, at $23.60. One species occupied 37 m 2 so fertilizer required per species is one bag / 10 6.67 (250 m 2 / 37 m 2 = 6.67) = 0.67 bags for 250 m 2 7. Herbicide and insecticides used were Azatin ($174.75 per quart), Dipel ($15.60 per bag), and Mpede ($54.80 per 2.5 gallon bottle). Precise amounts were not available, so price per unit is used. 63

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64 8. Drip irrigation for a sole-crop covering 250 m 2 would require 375 meters (15 lines x 25 m = 375 m or 1200 feet) drip tape at $0.80 per meters, 45 meters of polyhose at $0.32 per meter, 15 Ts at $1.25 each and 15 endcaps at $0.85 each. Drip irrigation for the intercrop covering 250 m 2 would require 300 meters (960 feet) drip tape, 116 meters of polyhose, 15 Ts, 15 endcaps, 45 emitters at $0.75 each and one emitter hole punch at $10. 9. 12 m 3 of water at the UVI rate of $4.49 / m 3 Basil water usage of 12 m 3 was determined by dividing total gallons (4773.4 for each 24 species) by 10 (2 treatments and 5 species) and multiplying by 6.67 (for 250 m 2 ) then converting from gallons to m 3 (3.79 m 3 / 1000 gallons). Moringa water usage was 1.49 m 3 (295.2 gallons / 5 6.67 = 393.62 gallons). 10. Going rate of labor on St. Croix is $6.25 per hour. 11. Irrigation setup and repair was 9.3 hours per species per treatment for the season (14 hrs / 10 6.67 = 9.3 hours). 12. Planting time required for the sole-crop is 10 hours (3 plants / minute 1800 plants = 600 minutes / 60 = 10 hours) and 8 hours for the intercrop (1440 plants). Moringa hedgerows require 1.5 hours to establish and replant. 13. Fertigating and weeding was 83.4 hours (125 hours / 10 6.67 = 83.38). 14. Harvesting and bunching estimated to be 4 plants per minute per harvest, which equals 15 hours for the 1800 chive plants in the sole-crop (1800 plants / 4 plants per minute 2 chive harvests / 60 minutes = 15 hours) and 12 hours for the intercrop (1440 plants). Moringa harvesting and drying estimated to require 42.2 hours to process yield from 250 m 2 per season. 15. Plowing is estimated to be $154.44 per ha ($60 / ac from 1999, adjusted by 1.04167, the rate of inflation, to $62.50 2.471 ac / ha = $154.44). Harrowing and tilling were estimated to be $38.61 per ha ($15 / ac from 1999, adjusted by 1.04167 to $15.63 2.471 ac / ha = $38.61). 16. Interest on operating capital equal to 1% per month. 17. Land lease from the Virgin Islands Department of Agriculture = $20 / acre 2.471 acre / ha = $49.42 / ha. 18. Interest on average investment (excluding land) = $1000 (1999 rate) adjusted by 1.04167 to $1041.67. 19. Depreciation on irrigation = $100 1.04167 = $104.17 2.471 acres/ha = $257.40; on other equipment = $5 1.04167 = $5.21 2.471 acres/ha = $12.87; on well = $28 1.04167 = $29.17 2.471 acres/ha = $72.08; on other = $2 1.04167 = $2.08 2.471 = $5.15.

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65 Coriandrum sativum (Cilantro) 20. The mean yield per plant (wet weight) from each block of the control (area = 37.5 m 2 N = 70) was 0.20 kg. The yield from 250 m 2 can be expected to be = 0.20 kg 1800 = 363.6 kg / 250 m 2 The mean yield per plant (wet weight) from each block of the treatment (area = 37.5 m 2 N = 44) was 0.08 kg. The yield from 250 m 2 can be expected to be = 0.08 1440 = 120.96. This is the yield from 3 harvests. 21. Market price of $22 kg -1 for fresh cilantro was determined from informal surveys of St. Croix and St. John markets. 22. Cilantro is an annual that would require replanting in subsequent years. 23. Planting time required is 10 hours for the sole-crop and 8 hours for the intercrop. Moringa hedgerows require 1.5 hours to establish and replant. 24. Harvesting and bunching estimated to be 22.5 hours for cilantro (1800 plants / 4 plants per minute 3 cilantro harvests / 60 minutes = 22.5 hours) and 18 hours for the intercrop (1440 plants). Moringa harvesting and drying estimated to require 42.2 hours to process yield from 250 m2 per season. Cymbopogon citratus (Lemongrass) 25. The mean yield per plant (wet weight) from each block of the control (area = 37.5 m 2 N = 72) was 1.53 kg. The yield from 250 m 2 can be expected to be = 1.53 kg 600 = 918 kg / 250 m 2 The mean yield per plant (wet weight) from each block of the treatment (area = 37.5 m 2 N = 72) was 1.17 kg. The yield from 250 m 2 can be expected to be = 1.17 480 = 559.7 kg / 250 m 2 This is the yield from 4 harvests. 26. Market price of $20 kg -1 for fresh lemongrass was determined from informal surveys of St. Croix and St. John markets. 27. Lemongrass is a perennial that if managed properly, once established, would not require replanting. 28. Lemongrass planting time required is 5 hours for the sole-crop and 4 hours for the intercrop. Moringa hedgerows require 1.5 hours to establish and replant. 29. Harvesting and bunching estimated to be 40 hours for lemongrass (600 plants 1 minute 4 lemongrass harvests / 60 minutes = 40 hours) and 32 hours for the intercrop (480 plants). Moringa harvesting and drying estimated to require 42.2 hours to process yield from 250 m 2 per season.

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66 Ocimum basilicum (Basil) 30. The mean yield per plant (wet weight) from each block of the control (area = 37.5 m 2 N = 72) was 1.09 kg. A 250 m 2 field, 25 m long with 15 lines spaced 71 cm apart would have 40 plants on each 61 cm (24) drip line for a total of 600 plants (40 plants per line 15 lines = 600 plants). Therefore yield from 250 m 2 can be expected to be = 1.09 kg 600 = 656.4 kg / 250 m 2 The mean yield per plant (wet weight) from each block of the treatment (area = 37.5 m 2 N = 72) was 0.89 kg. A 250 m 2 field with two, five meter alleys and six lines in each, would have 480 plants (40 plants per line 12 lines = 480 plants) and the yield can be expected to be = 0.89 kg 480 = 429.3 kg / 250 m 2 31. Market price of $20 kg -1 for fresh basil was determined from informal surveys of St. Croix and St. John markets. 32. Basil was replanted once so 1200 plants are required for the sole-crop and 960 plants are required for the intercrop. 33. Planting time required for the sole-crop is estimated to be 10 hours (2 plants / minute 600 plants = 300 minutes / 60 = 5 hours two plantings). Planting time required for the intercrop is estimated to be 8 hours (480 plants). Moringa hedgerows require 1.5 hours to establish and replant (45 trees 2 minutes to plant / tree = 90 minutes). 34. Harvesting and bunching estimated to be 1 minute per plant per harvest, which equals 30 hours for the sole-crop (600 plants 1 minute 3 basil harvests / 60 minutes = 30 hours) and 24 hours for the 480 basil plants in the intercrop. Moringa harvesting and drying (15 hours required to harvest and process samples from 2 harvests, N = 8) = 15 / 16 = 0.94 hours per tree 45 trees = 42.2 hours to process yield from 250 m2 per season. Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (Worrywine) 35. The mean yield per plant (wet weight) from each block of the control (area = 37.5 m 2 N = 72) was 1.44 kg. The yield from 250 m 2 can be expected to be = 1.44 kg 600 = 865.2 kg / 250 m 2 The mean yield per plant (wet weight) from each block of the treatment (area = 37.5 m 2 N = 72) was 1.02 kg. The yield from 250 m 2 can be expected to be = 1.02 480 = 488.2 kg / 250 m 2 This is the yield from 3 harvests. 36. Market price of $20 kg -1 for fresh worrywine was determined from informal surveys of St. Croix and St. John markets. 37. Worrywine is an annul that would require replanting in subsequent years.

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67 38. Planting time required is 5 hours for the sole-crop and 4 hours for the intercrop. Moringa hedgerows require 1.5 hours to establish and replant. 39. Harvesting and bunching estimated to be 20 hours for worrywine control (600 plants 1 minute 2 worrywine harvests / 60 minutes = 20 hours) and 16 hours for the intercrop (480 plants). Moringa harvesting and drying estimated to require 42.2 hours to process yield from 250 m 2 per season. Verbesina alata (Inflammation Bush) 40. The mean yield per plant (wet weight) from each block of the control (area = 37.5 m 2 N = 53) was 0.20 kg. The yield from 250 m 2 can be expected to be = 0.20 kg 600 = 121.2 kg / 250 m 2 The mean yield per plant (wet weight) from each block of the treatment (area = 37.5 m 2 N = 50) was 0.13 kg. The yield from 250 m 2 can be expected to be = 0.13 kg 480 = 63.8 kg / 250 m 2 This is the yield from 3 harvests. 41. Market price of $20 per kilo for fresh inflammation bush was determined from informal surveys of St. Croix and St. John markets. 42. Inflammation bush is an annual, though if managed properly once established would not require replanting, since it produces numerous seeds which germinate rapidly. 43. Planting time required is 5 hours for the sole-crop (2 plants / minute 600 plants = 300 minutes / 60 = 5 hours) and 4 hours for the intercrop (480 plants). Moringa hedgerows require 1.5 hours to establish and replant. 44. Harvesting and bunching estimated to be 30 hours for inflammation bush sole-crop (600 plants 1 minute 3 inflammation bush harvests / 60 minutes = 30 hours) and 24 hours for the intercrop (480 plants). Moringa harvesting and drying estimated to require 42.2 hours to process yield from 250 m 2 per season.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Brian Becker was born into a military family living in Okinawa, Japan, in 1970. Returning to the United States with his family he lived in Louisiana, Georgia, Michigan, and Texas before settling in Kansas where he completed his bachelors degree in anthropology and wildlife biology with a secondary major in natural resources and environmental sciences at Kansas State University. His work with non-timber forest product management, including medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs), began with a Peace Corps assignment with Nepals Community Forest Program, and continued to include the United States Appalachian Mountains, southeastern costal plain and the US Virgin Islands. His research interests include the biometrics, management, production and marketing of non-timber forest products. He is currently a research coordinator with the School of Forest Resources and Conservations Phytoremediation and Short Rotation Woody Crops Program at the University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. 75


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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0007461/00001

Material Information

Title: Integration of Medicinal and Culinary Herbs in an Agroforestry Combination on St. Croix, United States Virgin Islands
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0007461:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0007461/00001

Material Information

Title: Integration of Medicinal and Culinary Herbs in an Agroforestry Combination on St. Croix, United States Virgin Islands
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0007461:00001


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INTEGRATION OF MEDICINAL AND CULINARY HERB S IN AN
AGROFORESTRY COMBINATION ON ST. CROIX, UNITED STATES VIRGIN
ISLANDS













By

BRIAN N. BECKER


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2004


































Copyright 2004

By

Brian N. Becker



























This document is dedicated to the small-scale farmers of St. Croix.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to take this opportunity to express my gratitude to my committee

members Dr. Janaki Alavalapati, Dr. Manuel Palada, and my chair Dr. P.K.R. Nair for

their guidance and support; and Marinela Capanu, Institute of Food and Agriculture

Sciences statistics department for her assistance with the statistical analysis. The

assistance of Jean-Marie Mitchell, Agricultural Experimental Station, University of the

Virgin Islands, for data collection and maintaining the research plots was greatly

appreciated, as were the efforts of Paulino Perez with the drip irrigation and setting the

layouts. I want to thank the faculty and staff at the Agricultural Experimental Station,

University of the Virgin Islands, for their invaluable assistance in establishing and

maintaining the research plots and sharing their knowledge of St. Croix with me. I also

wish to recognize my family for their love and support and my wife, Jensen, without

whom I might not have completed this.

Financial support for this research was through a research assistantship from

School of Forest Resources and Conservation/Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences

and an IFAFS Grant from the Center for Subtropical Agroforestry.















TABLE OF CONTENTS
page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ......... .................................................................................... iv

L IST O F T A B L E S ......... ...... ................................. .... ................ ... viii

LIST OF FIGURES ......... ......................... ...... ........ ............ ix

A B ST R A C T .......... ..... ...................................................................................... x

CHAPTER

1 IN TR OD U CTION ............................................... .. ......................... ..

H historical O v erview ............ ................................................................. ........ .. .. ....
Current State of the Econom y........................................................................
Environm ental Challenges........................................................................4
St. Croix A agriculture ........................................ ........................... ....
A W ay F orw ard ....................................................... 5

2 LITER A TU R E REV IEW ............................................................. ....................... 7

Culinary and M medicinal H erbs.................................. ...... ... .. .......................7
Medicinal and Aromatic Plants-High Value Products for Agroforestry .............8
Cultivation and Marketing of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants .............................9
A R ole for A groforestry .................................................... ................. ............... 11
G general Introduction to A groforestry .................................................................11
Introduction to A lley Cropping .................................. ............... ................... 11
Agroforestry Interaction and Competition .................................. ............... 12
E conom ic E valuation ......... .............................................................. ...... ...... .. 14

3 M ATERIALS AND M ETHOD S ........................................ ......................... 19

Site D description s .................................................................................... 19
L location and Clim ate .................................... ................. ......... 19
G eology and Soils............ ...................................... ................ .. .... ...... 20
V egetation and Land U se H history ............................................ ............... 21
Species D descriptions ..................................................... ... .. ........ .... 22
O rig in an d U ses .................................................. ................ 2 2
M oringa oleifera Lam ., M oringaceae .................................. ............... 22
Moringa stenopetala (Baker f.) Cufodontis, Moringaceae ........................23
Allium schoenoprasum L., Alliaceae.............................................. 23


v









Coriandrum sativum L., Apiaceae .................................... ............... 23
Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf, Poaceae.........................................24
Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl, Asteraceae.................. .....................24
Matricaria recutita L. syn. Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert,
A steraceae .................. .............. ............................................ 2 4
Mentha x piperita syn. M. nigricans., Lamiaceae............... ..............24
Ocimum basilicum L., Lamiaceae .................. ...........................................25
Origanum majorana L. syn. Majorana hortensis, Lamiaceae...................25
Rosmarinus officinalis L., Lamiaceae............. ....................................25
Salvia officinalis L., Lam iaceae ....................................... ............... 25
Stachytarphetajamaicensis (L.) Vahl, Verbenaceae .................................26
Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae......................................... ............... 26
Verbesina alata L., A steraceae ....................................... ............... 26
Provenances, Establishment and Management........................................26
E x p erim ental D esign ......................................................................... ................... 2 7
Data Collection and M measurements ...................................................................... 29
D ata A nalysis................................................... 30

4 R E S U L T S .............................................................................3 3

A gronom ic E v alu action .............................. ............................................................33
Estate Rattan Moringa-Herb Intercropping Trial ............................................33
Agriculture Experiment Station Moringa-Herb Intercropping Trial .................34
E conom ic E valuation ......... ................................................................ ..... ... .. 38
A llium schoenoprasum ............................................... ............................. 38
Coriandrum sativum ............................................................................ 39
Cymbopogon citratus ............. .... .................................... 40
Ocimum basilicum ......... ......... .......................... .... .... .. ............ 41
Stachytarphetajamaicensis ...................................................... ................. 42
Verbesina alata......... .... ..... .............. .. ............. ........ ..... 43

5 DISCUSSION .......... ..... ..... .......... ........ ............ .................45

Culinary and M edicinal H erbs......................................................... ............... 45
Moringa ............... ................................. ...............51

6 CON CLU SION S ........................................ .............. .. ............. 53

APPENDIX

A COSTS AND RETURN ESTIMATES ........................................ ............... 56

B ECONOMIC ANALYSIS VARIABLES ...................................... ............... 63

Allium schoenoprasum (Chives)...................................... ........................ 63
Coriandrum sativum (Cilantro) ........................................ ........ ............... 65
Cymbopogon citratus (Lemongrass) ....................................... ............... 65
Ocimum basilicum (Basil) ............................................................................66









Stachytarphetajamaicensis (Worrywine) ................................ .....................66
Verbesina alata (Inflammation Bush) ............................... ............. ...........67

L IST O F R E FE R E N C E S ......... .. ............... ................. ....................... ......................... 68

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E TCH ..................................................................... ..................75
















LIST OF TABLES


Table p

3-1. Rainfall and temperature throughout the Virgin Islands over a 30-year period, and
monthly potential evapotranspiration................ ............................. 20

4-1. Leaf yield of herbs sole-cropped and intercropped with Moringa oleifera and M.
stenopetala at Estate Rattan, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, during the 2002-2003
field season ............................................. ............................ 36

4-2. Leaf yield of herbs sole-cropped and intercropped with Moringa oleifera at the
AES, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, during the 2002-2003 field season ................37

5-1. Summary of actual and estimated yields and results of herbs sole-cropped and
intercropped with Moringa oleifera during the 2002-2003 field season, AES, St.
Croix, U .S. V irgin Islands. ............................................... ............................. 48















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

3-1. Moringa oleifera, M. stenopetala and culinary and medicinal herb intercropping
trial layout at Estate Rattan, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, during the 2002-2003
field season. ................................................................ .......... ......... 31

3-2. Moringa oleifera and culinary and medicinal herb intercropping trial layout at the
AES, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, during the 2002-2003 field season. ...............32

4-1. NPV sensitivity analysis ofAllium schoenoprasum sole-cropped and intercropped
with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands.......................................39

4-2. NPV sensitivity analysis of Coriandrum sativum sole-cropped and intercropped
with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands...................................40

4-3. NPV sensitivity analysis of Cymbopogon citratus sole-cropped and intercropped
with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands...................................41

4-4. NPV sensitivity analysis of Ocimum basilicum sole-cropped and intercropped with
Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands ..............................................42

4-5. NPV sensitivity analysis of Stachytarphetajamaicensis sole-cropped and
intercropped with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands ..................43

4-6. NPV sensitivity analysis of Verbesina alata sole-cropped and intercropped with
Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands ..............................................44









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

INTEGRATION OF MEDICINAL AND CULINARY HERBS IN AN
AGROFORESTRY COMBINATION ON ST. CROIX,
UNITED STATES VIRGIN ISLANDS
By

Brian N. Becker

August 2004

Chair: Dr. P.K.R. Nair
Major Department: Forest Resources and Conservation

Farmers in the United States Virgin Islands (USVI) may find economic advantages

by diversifying their agricultural systems with lesser-known crops. Bush teas derived

from culinary and medicinal herbs are a part of the local culture of the Virgin Islands that

can be adapted for internal and export markets. This study examined the production of

high value culinary and medicinal herbs intercropped with Moringa oleifera, a small

multipurpose tree, on St. Croix, USVI. The objective of the study was to assess the

productivity and economic costs and benefits of selected herbs when intercropped with

Moringa compared to their sole-crop yields. The study, conducted on farm and at the

Agricultural Experimental Station (AES), University of the Virgin Islands, included

thirteen species of herbs along with Moringa. Herb intercropping and Moringa

hedgerows were established with drip irrigation in strip-split plot designs with

randomized subplots. Yields were determined from harvests and inputs were totaled for

calculating economic returns. Herbs were ranked according to their sensitivity to

intercropping and Net Present Value (NPV), Benefit/Cost Ratio (BCR) and Relative Net

Return (RNR) criteria were employed for comparison of the profitability of the various









sole and intercrop systems. Sensitivity analyses were conducted with four different

discount rates and five different market prices for herb intercrops.

Yields of all intercropped herbs were lower than their sole-crops. On-farm yields

were not statistically different between treatments while the yields at the AES

demonstrated statistical differences among treatments. Between species comparisons

indicated that Cymbopogon citratus and Stachytarphetajamaicensis performed similarly

with the highest yields, Cymbopogon yields being slightly higher. Economic analysis

indicates that Cymbopogon provided the greatest economic return, NPV and BCR, while

Ocimum basilicum had the greatest RNR. Comparison of results from this research to

previous AES enterprise budgets suggests that even one of the lowest yielding systems

tested, the Allium schoenoprasum sole-crop, will provide greater economic return than

the same unit area of conventional tomato. Suboptimal densities and invading Moringa

roots likely affected intercrop herb yields as much as shading did. Future research on

herb culture and planting density on yields is warranted.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Agriculture has figured prominently in the history of St. Croix. One of the three

principal islands of the United States Virgin Islands (USVI), St. Croix, in the eastern

Caribbean, developed during the heydays of the colonial era to become, by the eve of the

American Revolution, the sixth leading producer of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)

in the West Indies. The loss of cheap labor after the abolition of slavery followed by

shifts in global markets led to a decline in plantation agriculture and, finally, the closing

of the last sugar factory in 1966. After Castro's Cuba became off-limits to American

tourists, the USVI redefined themselves as popular tourist destinations (Dookhan 1994).

Today, St. Croix seeks to rebuild her economy with an eclectic mix of industries such as

petroleum refining and casino gambling.

Despite challenges, small-scale farming persists on St. Croix for domestic

consumption and local markets. Like small-scale producers throughout the world, St.

Croix farmers face competition from industrially produced imported products. One

viable strategy for small-scale farmers is to produce specialty products for niche markets.

In almost any farm, home- or patio-garden in the USVI culinary and/or medicinal herbs

can be found, grown for seasoning dishes or brewing up 'bush tea'. This investigation

examines the potential for small-scale farmers to produce culinary and medicinal herbs

on a commercial scale.









Historical Overview

The Virgin Islands usually generate images of tropical paradise. These popular

tourist destinations have been well visited beginning in the 3rd century B.C. when the

Taino (Ciboneys) followed by the Arawaks and Caribs indigenous groups settled the

islands in successive waves, traveling up the Lesser Antilles island chain from South

America. On his second voyage in 1493, Christopher Columbus named what is now the

island chain of British and US Virgin Islands after St. Ursula and her pilgriming virgins.

A long period of intermittent European settlements ensued from the 16th to the 18th

century during which time the Spanish, Dutch, English, French, Knights of Malta, and

Danish flags flew over the Virgin Islands. The strategic location of the islands along the

Anegada Passage, a key sailing route, attracted pirates and buccaneers, who preyed upon

Spanish galleons loaded with South American silver. By the mid-eighteenth century,

plantations producing cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and sugarcane with African slave

labor were the basis of the economy. The loss of cheap labor after emancipation of the

slaves on St. Croix in 1848 and competition from sugar beets (Beta vulgaris) grown in

Europe spelled an end to the plantation era by end of the nineteenth century. Since the

early twentieth century the United States of America has maintained sovereignty over the

Virgin Islands of St. Croix, St. Johns and St. Thomas (Dookhan 1994).

Current State of the Economy

Historically dominated by plantation economies for export markets, many

Caribbean islands like the USVI have diversified through industry and tourism. Changes

in the global economy and environmental challenges have meant that some islands have

enjoyed only a precarious prosperity. Of the three principal islands of the USVI, St.

Johns and St. Thomas offer tourists azure waters lapping palm-lined white sand beaches,









a national park and a natural deep-water port that can provide safe harbor for the largest

of cruise ships. Capitalizing on her natural harbor, St. Thomas has prospered since the

colonial era as a free trade port. In 2002, over two million tourists (BER 2003) shopped

for duty-free jewelry in the markets of Charlotte Amalie, the port city on St. Thomas and

capital of the territory of the USVI.

St. Croix, in contrast, hosted fewer than 250,000 tourists during 2002 (BER 2003),

despite her natural attractions such as scuba diving 'The Wall' at Cane Bay, a nine

hundred fifty meter coral-encrusted drop-off just a short swim from shore, and the Buck

Island Reef National Monument, a three and half square kilometer underwater preserve.

Created by upliftment rather than volcanism like St. Thomas and St. Johns, St. Croix

bears a mostly rocky coastline with no natural deep-water harbor, limiting her ability to

capitalize on tourism. Instead this larger island has relied on agriculture and industry.

While the USVI overall are still heavily dependent on tourism, which comprise

seventy percent of the economy, manufacturing and one of the worlds largest petroleum

refineries on St. Croix accounts for another twenty percent. Today, agriculture

contributes to less than ten percent of the USVI economy and employs only one percent

of the labor force (CIA 2003). As of January of 2003, the overall unemployment rate in

the territory stood at 9.6 percent. Illuminating the unemployment and underemployment

disproportionably felt on St. Croix, her 12.0 percent unemployment rate is nearly double

the 7.6 percent rate of St. Thomas and St. John (Mills 2003). Civil unrest in Venezuela

during the summer of 2002 cut off the supply of crude oil to St. Croix's refinery,

resulting in the layoff of 300 employees. Nervousness amongst tourists over terrorism

has been attributed to an 8.2 percent decline in tourist arrivals in 2002 (BER 2003).









Environmental Challenges

Ecological challenges also abound in the Virgin Islands. St. Croix is routinely hit

by hurricanes, experiencing four major storms in the past 15 years, hurricanes "Hugo"

(1989), "Marilyn" (1995), "Georges" (1998) and "Lenny" (1999). Before the plantation

era began, St. Croix was covered in thicket vegetation from the arid east side gradually

transitioning into forests in the wetter west end. St. Croix's geographic isolation, even

during the Ice Ages, permitted the evolution of a number of endemic species (Wiley and

Vilella 1998). Drastic alterations of the island's vegetation composition began during the

Danish era when most of the arable land on St. Croix was converted to cotton and

sugarcane plantations (Dookhan 1994). In the early 20th century the shrubby nitrogen-

fixing 'tan-tan' (Leucaena leucocephala syn. glauca) was introduced as a goat browse.

The plant readily naturalized and now aggressively dominates open areas, displacing St.

Croix's indigenous vegetation and requiring fields used for agriculture to be plowed and

pastures burned to keep them open. The centuries of deforestation for timber and

agriculture have stripped St. Croix's soil of most of its water-retaining humus layer. The

lack of tree cover, continually blowing easterly winds and the low relief of the island

have left St. Croix semiarid with no naturally occurring surface water or perennial

streams. When rain does fall, rapid runoff carries sediment and rubbish from bare

agriculture fields, overgrazed pastures, streets, parking lots and construction sites directly

into the ocean, threatening St. Croix's coral reefs.

St. Croix Agriculture

The most recent soil survey of the USVI (Davis 2000) estimated that approximately

sixteen percent of the surface area of the islands is devoted to agricultural purposes.

Seventy-eight percent of this land is used for grazing or pasture and the majority of it is









located on St. Croix. Censuses of the agriculture sector for the USVI (USDA 1995;

1998) dating back to 1987 indicate that after contracting through the mid-nineties

following the destruction of Hurricanes Hugo (1989) and Marilyn (1995), the agriculture

sector has begun to expand again. Especially noteworthy is the increase in sales of

horticulture specialties products. As a small market on the far end of a distant marketing

chain, the prices of inputs such as fertilizer, pesticide, irrigation and other farming

equipment generally place Virgin Island farmers at a competitive disadvantage against

imported produce and commodities. Unique and indigenously produced specialty

products, however, may be suitable for lucrative niche markets (Palada et al. 2000).

Culinary and medicinal herbs are specialty products that Virgin Island farmers

produce for a steady local market. The consumption of herbal teas (rather than green or

black tea, Camellia sinensis) for their culinary and medicinal properties in the Virgin

Islands is a legacy of the synthesis of African and European healing traditions blended on

the islands during the plantation days (Kuby 1979). Commonly referred to as 'bush

medicine' or 'bush tea' throughout the West Indies, these teas are consumed on a daily

basis by Virgin Islanders for their medicinal effects or simply as culinary refreshments.

Herb production is usually small-scale and sales are mostly in farmers' markets and

roadside stands. Herbs are important to the diet of locals and tourists alike, and their

economic significance to small-scale farmers provides the justification for research on

USVI herb horticulture and the potential for their commercial production for export

markets (Palada et al. 2000).

A Way Forward

The Agricultural Experimental Station (AES), University of the Virgin Islands

(UVI), in cooperation with the Center for Subtropical Agroforestry (CSTAF), University









of Florida, has been investigating agroforestry1 as a means to address some of the social,

economic and environmental issues prevalent on St. Croix. Researchers at the AES on

St. Croix are investigating combinations of agroforestry systems that will permit farmers

to produce economically viable crops while maintaining a cover of useful or native trees

that will conserve the soil resource, contribute to improvements in the water quality and

quanity and enhance the natural beauty of the island (CSTAF 2003). Drawing upon the

indigenous wealth of knowledge and traditions related to medicinal and culinary herbs in

the Virgin Islands, the following research investigates the potential economic viability of

incorporating herbs in an agroforestry combination utilizing a multipurpose tree on St.

Croix. This study evaluates the physical yields and economic cost and benefits of

establishing and producing the desired products in alleys of the multipurpose tree

Moringa oleifera versus in sole stands. The specific objectives of the study are to

compare the productivity of culinary and medicinal herbs produced in alleys of Moringa

oleifera versus in sole stands; and to determine the direct economic costs and benefits of

establishing and producing culinary and medicinal herbs in alleys of Moringa oleifera by

small-scale farmers on St. Croix, United States Virgin Islands.














1 Agroforestry is the deliberate combination and interaction between trees and crops and/or animals in
sustainable systems that can maintain or increase the productivity and conserve the soil resource base in a
technology or arrangement that is acceptable to local farmers (Nair 1993).














CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

St. Croix, like many Caribbean islands, has sought to diversify her agricultural

economy with non-traditional crops. Environmental sustainability has been recognized

as a requirement for successful intensification of the island agriculture (Davis 1993).

Export diversification through horticultural products, particularly fruit tree, herb and

botanical products, can prove lucrative for countries that have suitable growing sites if

quality standards can be met (Wainwright 1994). Plantation design and maintenance as

well as marketing have long been recognized as important areas requiring attention for

Caribbean horticulture (Pinchinat et al. 1981). Diversification with lesser-known fruits

such as barbados cherry (Malpighia glabra), breadfruit (Artocarpus communis),

carambola (Averrhoa carambola), cashew (Anacardium occidentale), guava (Psidium

guajava), lychee (Litchi chinensis), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), mangosteen (Garcinia

mangostana), papaya (Caricapapaya), passion fruit (PassiJlora edulis) and soursop

(Annona muricata) and in combination with vertical integration of producers, processors

and marketing operations is recommended for tropical products originating far from

consumers (Marte 1988). This chapter reviews relevant literature on culinary and

medicinal plant production, the agroforestry practice of alley cropping and economic

evaluation techniques that can be utilized to value this production system.

Culinary and Medicinal Herbs

The USVI has a suitable climate for the production of tropical herbals and

botanicals for domestic and export markets (Palada et al. 2000). Increasing popularity in









the domestic and international markets and well suited for cultivation in both small

corners of homegardens and out in the fields, the development of the botanical and

medicinals sector is becoming increasingly attractive. Research into herbs at the USVI

Agriculture Experiment Station, University of the Virgin Islands on St. Croix, has

examined a variety of mulches for weed control and irrigation methods for improved

production. Disease and pest resistance of various cultivars, fertilizer response, optimal

spacing and minimum water requirements have also been investigated (Collingwood

1991a; 1991b; Palada et al. 1993; 1995a; 1995b; 2000).

Medicinal and Aromatic Plants-High Value Products for Agroforestry

Agroforestry has been evolving since the 1970's as a mechanism for poverty

alleviation and a tool for local and regional development (Mercer and Miller 1998). The

domestication of lesser known, yet locally popular, multipurpose trees and shrubs is one

avenue to achieve these objectives (Leakey and Tomich 1999). The popularity of

culinary and medicinal plants, many of which are annuals, makes them attractive

potential products for land temporarily out of production as agroforestry systems mature.

It is also more desirable for small-scale producers to have agroforests that provide a year-

round supply of products from a number of different species (Leakey and Simons 1998).

Commercialization, however, should be considered in tandem, as regional household-

level use is an insufficient motivation or justification for farmers and/or researchers to

undertake the intensive and expensive domestication process (Leakey and Izac 1996).

Agroforests, intermediaries between natural forests and plantations, are suitable for

production of both herbal medicines and natural products for national and international

niche markets (Michon and de Foresta 1996). Reliable markets can also be found close









to production sites among relocated city dwellers for whom cultural attachment to herbal

remedies still persists (Waterman 1992).

Cultivation and Marketing of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

Cultivation is increasingly being promoted to meet market demands, stem the

overexploitation and erosion of the genetic base, and as a potential foundation for

enterprise and community development. Cultivated materials can assuage market

fluctuations, improve quality control, ensure botanical identification and reduce the

potential adulteration of the plant material, provide an arena for genetic improvement and

agronomic manipulation and facilitate post-harvest handling (Palevitch 1991). For many

popular aromatic, culinary and medicinal herbs field production techniques are well

developed. Many species, such as basil (Ocimum basilicum), are either started from

broadcast seeds or transplants set out at four to six weeks in rows 30 to 60 cm apart.

Basil can have in-row spacing of 20 to 40 cm, and should be pinched at 12 cm to

encourage branching (Simon 1985; Putievsky and Galambosi 1999). Higher density

increases competition between plants, producing higher oil and dry herb production.

Lower density planting (15 to 17 versus 8 to 14 plants per m2) is better for fresh herb

production (Putievsky and Galambosi 1999). In tropical regions three to five harvests

can be expected per year, where plants are harvested prior to flower appearance for fresh

or dried leaves (Simon 1985). For essential oils, plants are harvested from just prior to

flower appearance up to the time when 50% of the seeds have ripened (Putievsky and

Galambosi 1999).

Research continues on crops lesser known in the United States (US). Five volumes

of the proceedings of the national New Crops symposiums (Janick and Simon 1990;

1993; Janick 1996; 1999; Janick and Whipkey 2002) have been released providing









information on new crops for marketers, researchers and US growers. Meanwhile,

research is well established in countries like India where many aromatic, culinary and

medicinal herbs unfamiliar to the US are commonplace. For example, in two recent

studies from India, Singh et al. (1998) concluded that pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan)

intercropped with palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini) in Lucknow competed more for light

than for water or nutrients due to differential rooting patterns, while Singh (1999)

identified the moisture regime and fertilizer application required for the optimal yield of

East Indian lemongrass (Cymbopogonflexuosus) biomass grown in Bangalore but

concluded that neither had an effect on the quality or content of essential oil.

Cultivation of medicinal and aromatic herbs can provide a steady supply for which

sound marketing plans can be developed. Plantations geared towards market booms,

however, may overwhelm benefits that can be captured by small-scale producers (Leakey

and Izac 1996). The development of high yielding domesticated medicinal plants, the

product of research efforts for plantation production, will mostly benefit elites with

access to capital and just as the high-yielding grains of the green revolution. Small

holders will be hit with the double-whammy of not being able to afford capital intensive

'improved' stock then face the market price drop for their 'unimproved' products as a

result of the output of highly productive plantations. Agroforestry practices such as alley

cropping or forest farming may be utilized as an alternative to plantation agriculture, as is

the case with American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius). Limited supply, seasonality and

genetic variety of undomesticated species are disadvantages when seeking larger markets

because the products will lack the market appeal to encourage greater commercial

interest. Therefore, small-scale producers like the farmers on St. Croix, who cannot









compete with commercial production, should focus their efforts on lesser known products

and cultivate niche markets.

A Role for Agroforestry

General Introduction to Agroforestry

Agroforestry is a name for land use systems and practices that spatially and

temporally combine woody perennials with agricultural crops and/or livestock. An

agroforestry system is a specific local example, variations of which can be grouped into

agroforestry practices alley cropping, forest farming or silvopasture (Nair 1993). The

science of agroforestry includes the ecological and economic interactions between the

components of the systems. These potential interactions between trees and crops in an

intercropped system can be commensalistic, where there is a positive effect on one

species and no observable effect on the second, amensalistic where there is a negative

effect on one and no observable effect on the second species, inhibitory where there is a

negative effect on both species, or synergistic interaction where there is a positive effect

on both species (Nair 1993). Key characteristics of agroforestry systems are that trees

recycle nutrients and regenerate soil fertility, shading helps in weed suppression and

hedgerows provide in situ mulch and green manure. Nitrogen-fixing tree species can

increase the supply of nutrients by biological N2 fixation, retrieval of nutrients from

below the rooting zone of crops and reduction of erosion and nutrient loss from leaching

(Kang 1997).

Introduction to Alley Cropping

Alley cropping or hedgerow intercropping should be particularly suitable

technologies for the conditions present on St. Croix, potentially reducing soil erosion,

increasing soil fertility positively influencing yields and reducing disease and insect









infestations. In the tropical alley cropping system, the trees are periodically pruned and

the leaves, if not used for other purposes, are either placed on the surface as mulch or

incorporated into the soil as a green manure. Incorporated prunings and root turnover

affecting the physical and chemical nature of the soil as mentioned, are an integral part in

the management of the nutrients cycle of the system (Nair 1993). Benefits of alley

cropping depend on the site, component selection, age of the system and management.

While the soil fertility improvements take time to develop, the sometimes less obvious

but more pressing soil erosion control effect can be immediate (Haggar 1994). Tropical

alley cropping and hedgerow intercropping research conducted in sub-Saharan Africa,

south Asia and southeast Asia (Paningbatan et al. 1995; Presbitero et al. 1995; Craswell

et al. 1998; Narain et al. 1998) attributes decreased soil erosion and increased soil fertility

to a combination of rainfall interception by mulches from pruning, contours and

hedgerows that intercept water runoff and encourage soil deposition and a fallow effect

resulting from having trees present, particularly when they are nitrogen fixers. The

underlying principle is that fast-growing, preferably N2-fixing trees and shrubs will create

soil-improving conditions (recycling nutrients, suppressing weeds, and controlling

erosion on sloping lands) similar to the fallow phase of shifting cultivation (Nair et al.

1999).

Agroforestry Interaction and Competition

Before agroforestry can be announced as a panacea, it is warranted to be clear

about what takes place (Sanchez 1995). While facilitative effects are evidenced from the

interaction between trees and crops, competition is also present. Facilitative effects

include hydraulically lifted water by deeper roots of trees becoming available to

herbaceous companion plants (Richards and Caldwell 1987; Caldwell et al. 1998) and the









potential for translocation of nutrients such as phosphorus as was observed with

kacholam (Kaempferia galangal) intercropped with coconut (Cocos nucifera) in humid

southern India (Kumar et al. 1999). Competitive effects can be more pronounced,

however, as was observed in an experiment in the Phu Wiang watershed, northeastern

Thailand, where the yields of cassava (Manihot esculenta) and mungbean (Vigna radiata)

rowcrops, intercropped with Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Leucaena leucocephala and

Acacia auriculiformis grown for charcoal production, declined significantly after two

years (Wannawong et al. 1991). Eucalyptus grown for timber provided some benefits as

shelterbelts, but the overall effect in semiarid northern India was a steadily increasing

crop loss attributed to shading of the intercrop as the trees aged (Ahmed 1989). And

hedgerow intercropping research with Leucaena, pigeonpea and sorghum (Sorghum

bicolor) in semi-arid southern India utilizing 4 to 5 m alleys had severe yield reductions

after the first year due to tree competition for water (Rao et al. 1990).

It is misleading to generalize about hedgerow intercropping; system performance is

location specific and sensitive to management (Nair et al. 1999). Sanchez (1995)

concluded that the fundamental principles of agroforestry are that competition and

complexity determine profitability and sustainability. The objective is to develop designs

that maximize the facilitation while minimizing the competition. While early research

into alley cropping was overly optimistic, it will work on sites that are naturally fertile

with ample rainfall. Sanchez (1995) recognized that agroforestry practices will not likely

meet 100% of the nutrient requirements for maximum yields of most agronomic crops,

though nutrients from the available organic material subsidizes the requirements for

inorganic fertilizer. Additionally, Sanchez (1995) noted that agroforestry must come to









terms with the paradox that while what is profitable is not necessarily sustainable in

agronomic, ecological, or social terms, agroforestry must be profitable if adoption is to be

expected.

Economic Evaluation

Economics is a critical factor in producers' adoption of new crops and

technologies. Aspects of economic benefits of agroforestry include 1) maintenance or

restoration of the productivity of land or the provision of low cost alternatives to fertilizer

and soil conditioners, 2) direct economic benefits to farmers by the addition of products

or the diversification of the range of farm outputs, 3) introduction of trees into

agricultural lands leads to a reduction in labor per unit area of land required for the trees

compared to traditional agricultural crops, freeing up or reducing labor loads, 4) products

provided by trees that normally would be bought, and 5) capital reserves in the form of

trees that accrue value over time and can be harvested as needed (Arnold 1983).

A basic assumption of agroforestry is that benefits to farmers and the community

will increase with agroforestry. A comparison of systems 'with' (treatment) and

'without' (control) a particular agroforestry technology is the basis of comparative

research. The comparison of 'with' and 'without' is distinguished from a 'before and

after' comparison because conditions change over time and benefits and costs unrelated

to the agroforestry practice under investigation may manifest (Gittinger 1982). In

addition to the science of testing the biophysical characteristics of the basic assumptions,

economic analysis is required to determine the most practical and appropriate allocation

of scarce resources.

The cost-benefit analysis can be used to determine which of a combination of

systems is the most efficient. The three principal components of a cost-benefit analysis









are the determination of Net Present Value (NPV), the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and

the Benefit/Cost ratio (B/C ratio). The NPV of a system is the sum of the discounted

benefits (goods and services) minus the costs (excluding intangibles) generated over a

period of time. If the NPV is greater then zero then the system will have a net economic

benefit over the time evaluated. This provides insight into the magnitude of the value of

a system, and can be used as a basis for comparison between mutually exclusive systems

i.e. either/or comparisons (Gittinger 1982). This is particularly important for agroforestry

systems where various products will mature at different times during the lifetime of a

system.

The IRR is the internal rate of return on the investment, the amount of interest that

is generated by the investment. Looked at another way, it is the maximum amount of

interest that can be paid for the project to still break even. A higher IRR is preferred

when comparing alternatives (Wojtkowski 1998).

The B/C ratio, simply the ratio of benefits to costs currently being incurred by an

enterprise modified by an estimator that discounts the ratio over time, provides a snapshot

of the present value of the system. The B/C ratio allows a simple comparison of the costs

and benefits, a ratio greater than one indicating a net benefit. The B/C ratio can be used

as a basis for comparison between alternative systems, when the same discount rate is

applied. The discount rate at which the B/C ratio is equal to one is the IRR2.



2 All three indicators, NPV, B/C ratio and IRR are used in an economic analysis; however, they may not
necessarily lead to the same conclusion. The B/C ratio is a comparison of the sum of benefits and costs,
without regard to magnitude while the NPV considers the magnitude of the sum of benefits to costs, but
may hide particular costs that may be unacceptable. For example, the B/C ratio of a project with $5 dollars
of costs and $10 dollars of benefits would be the same as a project with $500 dollars costs and $1000
benefits, while they would have very different NPV's. Conclusions based solely on IRR would be based on
economic criteria without regard to the quality or quantity of actual benefits or costs incurred.









Discounting is required because not all the benefits and costs incurred during the

lifespan of a project can be directly compared. While direct comparisons are not

possible, discounting theoretically permits comparisons of monetary value across time.

Money invested in a project now has an opportunity cost the potential interest on the

money if it had been invested instead of spent. Discounting projects the value of an

investment at maturity in today's value, the opposite of compounding3.

For economic comparisons between alternative systems to be valid, the same

discount rate must be applied to each. Discount rates also carry an inherent bias. High

discount rates distort the evaluation of projects that might have the majority of the costs

up front and the benefits further down the line. This is because the costs would be valued

in or near today's values while the benefits would be valued at discounted rates,

deemphasizing the true benefits. When selecting a discount rate, one can use the

investor's best alternative investment (equity), the current interest rate of borrowed

capital (loan debt) or a mixture of equity and debt. Subsistence farmers without access to

credit require a social discount rate that is based on farmers' time preference. A high

time preference for a return on their investment requires a higher discount rate. IRR can

alleviate this problem of searching for a proper discount rate by determining the discount

rate where NPV = 0 (Betters 1988).








3 Discounting attempts to accommodate the time value of money, considering that money available today is
worth more to an individual than the same amount available at a future date. A high time preference
indicates placing greater weight on current rather than future consumption, requiring a higher discount
(interest) rate when determining the present value of a future benefit.









Another way of comparing two systems (i.e. a sole-crop and an intercrop) is by

determining the relative net return:

RNR = [(Pa + Pbb)(Db)y a) (eq. 2.1)


where Pa and Pb = price of crops a and b; Y,a and Yb = yields of intercropped crops

a and b; Dab = differential cost of cultivation of crops combination ab compared to the

sole-crop of a; and Y,ma = the yield of sole-crop a (Singh et al. 1998).

There are numerous recent examples of economic return studies of alley cropping:

Tonye and Titi-Newl (1995) analyzed maize/groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea)

intercropped with Leucaena sp. in Cameroon; Akyeampong and Hitimana (1996)

conducted a partial budget, comparing only what was different with and without a maize

(Zea mays) and Leucaena diversifolia alley cropping system on an acid soil in the

highlands of Burundi; maize alley cropped with Gliricidia sepium in the Philippines was

examined by Nelson and Cramb (1998) and Nelson et al. (1998); and Countryman and

Murrow (2000) investigated a variety of hardwoods intercropped with maize and

soybeans (Glycine max) in Iowa to name just a few.

The objectives of maximum or sustainable production are not necessarily

compatible with optimum production or conservation. Externalities occur when costs or

benefits to others are generated for which the farmer is not compensated or charged

(Filius 1982). Failure to account for externalities and market fluctuations can have

unintended consequences. In a Eucalyptus and Leucaena fuelwood project in northwest

India that was initiated without preliminary market research and infrastructure

development prices collapsed locally from over supply while the country continued to

face a wood shortage (Saxena 1991). Marz (1992) conducted an ex-ante economic









potential of neem (Azadirachta indica) intercropping with white sorghum, safflowers

(Carthamus tinctorius), and millet (Pennisetum glaucum). He predicted increases in farm

income from fruit and wood sales but noted that fruit harvesting conflicted with

agriculture activities resulting in decreased food security during harvesting years.

Additionally, increased labor would be required for the processing of fruits and wood.

He acknowledged that his long term projection of an increased income of 7% was

dependent on market prices for the products. Considering fluctuations in market prices,

Dunn et al. (1990) preformed a sensitivity analysis of the management of Alder in

Ecuador for fuelwood, using multiple prices for labor, transportation and market prices of

fuelwood.

The production of culinary and medicinal herbs in diverse agroforestry systems

may provide small-scale farmers on St. Croix competitively priced products for local and

potential export markets. Agroforestry benefits include soil improvements, microclimate

amelioration and soil erosion control. Proper economic evaluation facilitates research by

directing allocation of scarce resources. Determination of appropriate discount rates and

costs and benefits also provides a basis upon which sound marketing plans can be

developed. This study is an initial attempt to provide concrete information for

researchers and farmers on St. Croix.














CHAPTER 3
MATERIALS AND METHODS

Site Descriptions

This investigation was conducted on-farm at the private Estate Rattan and at the

Agricultural Experimental Station, University of the Virgin Islands, on St. Croix, United

States Virgin Islands.

Location and Climate

St. Croix, USVI, is located in the eastern Caribbean (17045'N, 64045'W) about 200

kilometers southeast of Puerto Rico. The approximately 218 km2 island (21,788.8 ha) is

nearly 45 km long and no more then 13 km at its widest point. The climate is maritime

tropical characterized by fair skies, steady winds and slight seasonal and diurnal

fluctuations in temperature. Daily highs during the warmest months, August and

September, average 31 C while nighttime temperatures average a balmy 240 C. The

coolest months, January and February, experience days and evenings in the mid and low

20's (C) respectively (Davis 2000). St. Croix's eastern side has low rolling hills while

the central and southern sections are low lying with a broad central valley. The northern

and northwestern side is punctuated with steeply rising hills, peaking in the west-central

at Mt. Eagle (355 m.a.s.l.). Annual rainfall ranges from 500 to 750 mm on the east to

1270 mm on the northwestern side of the island (Davis 2000). While there is no well

defined dry season, September through November tend to be the wettest months while

January through June are the driest. The nearly continuously blowing easterly trade

winds and high temperatures have a drying effect on the island and evapotranspiration









exceeds rainfall (Table 3-1). While tropical storms and hurricanes occasionally affect the

island, destroying vegetation cover and eroding soil during periods of intense rainfall,

they do not contribute significantly to the annual rainfall budgets.

Table 3-1. Rainfall and temperature throughout the Virgin Islands over a 30-year period,
and monthly potential evapotranspiration.
h Mean monthly Mean monthly air dMonthly potential
rainfall temperature evapotranspiration
mm 0C mm
January 66 24.6 99
February 47 24.6 93
March 53 24.9 113
April 73 25.6 126
May 116 26.3 151
June 75 27.2 159
July 81 27.8 166
August 116 27.8 163
September 144 27.2 149
October 148 26.9 145
November 154 25.8 125
December 96 24.9 109
Total 1169 --- 1598

@ Potential evapotranspiration estimated by the Thornthwaite formula from open-pan
measurements.
Source: Adapted from Davis 2000.
Geology and Soils

The geological history of the island of St. Croix includes periods spent as shallow

ocean floor and episodes of active volcanism. The volcanism has long since ceased and

the island's sea level appears to have remained roughly the same since the Pleistocene.

The parent materials of today's soils of St. Croix are a combination of calcareous marine

sediment or volcanic rock. The soils of Estate Rattan and the AES are described as Typic

Haplustolls and Typic Calciustolls respectively. Except where calcareous patches erupt

to the surface (locally known as 'caliche' and avoided for agricultural purposes) these









soils are considered naturally fertile with available water being the major limitation

(Davis 2000).

The Rattan site has shallow, stony, well-drained soil on a west-facing slope

(-10%), weathered from soft limestone bedrock. Permeability is slow, available water

capacity is very low and the bulk density of the soil is 1.3 to 1.4 g cc-1 (Davis 2000).

Analysis of soil samples conducted by A & L Southern Agriculture Laboratories, Inc.

(2003), taken from the site before establishment indicate that average organic matter

content is moderate to high (3.6% to 4.3%), pH is alkaline (7.7 to 7.8) and the CEC was

determined to be between 36.0 to 39.8 cmol kg1.

The soil at the AES is a very deep, well-drained coarse-loamy soil formed on

alkaline marine deposits on the floor of the broad central valley. The site has a slope of

less then 5% and is rarely flooded. Davis (2000) describes the soil as light, with a bulk

density of 1.15 to 1.30 g cc-1, permeability as rapid in the rooting zone though restricted

in the substratum and the available water capacity declines from high in the rooting zone

to dipping below permanent wilting point below 40 cm. Soil samples taken before

establishment, analyzed by A & L Southern Agriculture Laboratories, Inc. (2003) had

organic matter content between 2.2 and 2.9%, an alkaline soil pH between 7.8 and 8.1,

and a high rooting zone CEC, measured between 60.9 and 70.1 cmol kg-1, though Davis

(2000) reported that substratum CEC is very low (3.5 to 6.4 cmol kg-1).

Vegetation and Land Use History

The indigenous vegetation of St. Croix, while different from and less diverse as that

found on neighboring Puerto Rico, St. Thomas and St. Johns, is typical of the Eastern

Caribbean. Since evapotranspiration exceeds annual rainfall in all but the wettest sites on

the island, native vegetation on the island generally consists of drought-tolerant types.









Vegetation on St. Croix transitions from cacti and drought-tolerant scrub thicket on the

east side to moist forest in the wetter west end. Both the Rattan site and the AES had

historically been part of sugarcane plantations. The Rattan site had been fallow under

Leucaena bush for at least 15 years before the onset of this research. The AES site was

originally obtained by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) for creation

of a Federal Experiment Station. The University of the Virgin Islands AES was

established in 1972 and began conducting agricultural research on about eight hectares of

the USDA Federal Experiment Station a year later (USDA 2002). The field used for this

trial had been fallowed for six months under lab-lab bean (Lablab purpureus) and grass

prior to initiation of research.

Species Descriptions

Origin and Uses

The multipurpose trees Moringa oleifera and M. stenopetala and thirteen species of

herbs (Allium schoenoprasum, Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon citratus, Eupatorium

triplinerve, Matricaria recutita, Menthax piperita, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum

majorana, Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Stachytarphetajamaicensis, Thymus

vulgaris and Verbesina alata) with culinary and medicinal uses were selected for the

study. All of the herbs selected except forM recutita are already grown on the islands

and have traditional uses as 'bush teas' and local markets or international markets for

their oils and teas. The following section contains brief introductions to each species.

Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae

This small multipurpose tree, hear after referred to as moringa, originally a native

of South and Southeast Asia is now distributed throughout the tropics but has only

recently been introduced to St. Croix. Elsewhere, moringa is commonly planted as an









ornamental and in fencerows or hedges, on account of its rapid growth and vigorous

coppicing ability. The leaves, flowers, pods, seeds and roots are edible. The tree is

commonly called 'drumstick' on account of the long, green seedpods that can be eaten as

a vegetable, and the root that can be ground into a spicy condiment, earns it the

alternative name 'horseradish-tree'. The fresh leaves are popular in Asia, prepared as a

spinach-like green (Morton 1991, Palada 1996). Dried into powder, the leaves provide a

highly nutritive food supplement (Fuglie 2001). Ben oil, extracted from the seeds, is

used as a lubricant for watches, a base for perfumes and has medicinal attributes.

Crushed seeds are a natural flocculent, used to purify drinking water (Morton 1991,

Palada 1996). The flowers, present nearly year round, are an excellent nectar-source for

bees (Little and Wadsworth 1989; Bown 2001; Fuglie 2001).

Moringa stenopetala (Baker f.) Cufodontis, Moringaceae

M. stenopetala, native to east Africa, shares many of the same properties and uses

as M oleifera, including edibility and flocculating properties. M. stenopetala belongs to

the 'bottle' group of the Moringa family, characterized by bloated, water storing stems.

(Fuglie 2001).

Allium schoenoprasum L., Alliaceae

Chives are a popular perennial, clump-forming culinary herb usually consumed

fresh in a variety of soups and salads, with cheeses, potatoes and eggs (Bown 2001).

Coriandrum sativum L., Apiaceae

Coriander is an annual, culinary herb grown for its foliage on St. Croix, commonly

found in the farmers markets. Coriander oil, distilled from the leaves and seeds, is

fungicidal and bactericidal, used for flavoring gin, vermouth and other liqueurs and is

valued in the perfume industry (Bown 2001).









Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf, Poaceae

Lemongrass, native to South Asia, has been introduced throughout the tropics. A

perennial grass with a distinctive lemon odor, lemongrass is used on St. Croix in bush

teas both for flavor and medicinally to treat fevers (Kuby 1979). Lemongrass is used

internationally in food flavorings, aromatherapy and the perfume industry (Bown 2001).

Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl, Asteraceae

Known in the Virgin Islands as "Japana", this perennial herb can commonly be

found growing in home gardens. Japana is native to the Atlantic coast of South America

and has naturalized on St. Croix. It is utilized in bush tea as a refreshing "cooling"

beverage and for treatment of coughs and colds (Thomas 1997).

Matricaria recutita L. syn. Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert, Asteraceae

German chamomile is an annual or short-lived perennial native to Eurasia. Along

with Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile), a popular sedative tea is made from the

flowers. German chamomile contains anti-inflammatory and analgesic compounds that

are effective in healing burns and preventing infections and ulceration. Numerous

commercial products utilize chamomile in everything from cosmetics and hair products

to food flavorings (Bown 2001).

Mentha x piperita syn. M. ngricans., Lamiaceae

Peppermint is an aromatic, perennial herb hybrid between M aquatica and M

spicata. Fresh and dried leaves are popularly consumed in teas to settle the stomach.

One of the world's most popular flavorings, peppermint oil is used in products ranging

from perfumes, toiletries, oral hygiene and medicines, to liqueurs such as creme de

menthe and candies (Bown 2001).









Ocimum basilicum L., Lamiaceae

Basil is an aromatic annual or short-lived perennial herbaceous plant native to

tropical Asia. A popular culinary and medicinal herb, it has been distributed worldwide.

Numerous varieties have developed with varying combinations of volatile oils,

ornamental foliage and adaptations to local conditions (Bown 2001). In the Virgin Islands

basil, known locally as "mint", "garden balsam" or "mosquito balsam", is cultivated for

use as a cooking herb and in beverage and medicinal bush teas. A bush tea made from

the leaves is used to treat stomachaches (Kuby 1979).

Origanum majorana L. syn. Majorana hortensis, Lamiaceae

Sweet marjoram is an annual or perennial sub-shrub native to the eastern

Mediterranean. It is an annual in the Virgin Islands. It is a popular culinary herb and is

used commercially in body care products and food flavorings (Bown 2001).

Rosmarinus officinalis L., Lamiaceae

Rosemary is a woody perennial shrub native to rocky woodlands, scrub and coastal

areas of the Mediterranean. Rosemary contains anti-inflammatory and antiseptic

flavonoids, phenolic acids and volatile oils. A popular culinary and medicinal herb, it is

used dried in meat dishes and internally for digestive and nervous disorders (Bown 2001).

Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae

Common sage is an annual or perennial shrub native to the Mediterranean. Sage is

a copious nectar producer making it good honeybee forage. Common sage is a popular

culinary herb for meat dishes and teas. Common sage contains camphoraceous oil that is

used medicinally to suppress perspiration, improve liver function and digestion and has

anti-inflammatory and anti-depressant effects (Bown 2001).









Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl, Verbenaceae

Native throughout the Caribbean, the genus is commonly known as "Porterweed"

or "Vervain". This plant can be found on St. Croix growing along roadsides and on

disturbed sites, where it is locally known as "Worrywine". The fresh leaves are

consumed in bush tea as a "cooling" tonic and blood cleanser, to treat "asthma" and

"ulcerated stomachs" (Kuby 1979; Thomas 1997).

Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae

Thyme species are small, perennial, aromatic herbs and subshrubs native to

Eurasia. Thyme species are ideally suited for St. Croix, preferring stony and rocky

neutral to alkaline soils. Thyme is a popular culinary herb for meat and soups and

stuffings. Dried thyme leaves are used in potpourris and thyme oil is used in toothpastes

and mouthwashes. Thyme also make excellent honeybee forage (Bown 2001).

Verbesina alata L., Asteraceae

Native to parts of the eastern and southern Caribbean, this plant can be found

growing wild on disturbed sites. Commonly cultivated in home gardens, it is known as

"Inflammation Bush" in the Virgin Islands. It is consumed in bush tea as a cleansing

tonic and a treatment for coughs, colds, and bruises (Kuby 1979; Thomas 1997).

Provenances, Establishment and Management

Ripe moringa seedpods were collected from trees growing on the AES. Without

any pretreatment the seeds were direct sown, three to a hole, in the field at the Rattan site

in late May and at the AES in mid-August, 2002. After planting the moringa seedlings

were drip irrigated with 1.27 cm (/2") polyhose lines. After two weeks the moringa was

thinned to one tree per hole and supplemental water was discontinued after four weeks.









The Matricaria, Mentha, Origanum, Salvia, and Thymus transplants were started

from Richter seeds in Premier Pro-mix 'BX' in 72 cell styrofoam trays. Locally

obtained Cymbopogon culms, Rosmarinus cuttings and Ocimum seed were obtained for

producing plant for this study. The Stachytarpheta and Verbesina were started from

locally collected seed and the Eupatorium was started from cuttings collected on St.

Thomas the first week of June 2002. Seeds and cuttings for all the trials were started in

the greenhouse in June and July then transplanted out after 6 weeks. Local Allium slips

and Richter Coriandrum seeds were planted directly in the field.

The Rattan site was first cleared with a bulldozer and bush hog to remove the

existing vegetation, and then plowed to prepare the field for planting. The site was

cleaned with rakes and hoes and drip irrigation lines were laid out before the trees seeds

were planted. Powdered cow manure was incorporated into the soil at a rate of about 6 t

ha-1 with rakes before planting the herb intercrops. Herb intercrops were planted out with

drip tape and were mulched with straw once they reached approximately 30 cm in height.

To prepare the site at the AES, the grass and lab-lab fallow was plowed under. After

several weeks the field was rototilled twice. Herbs were planted with drip irrigation

similar to the Rattan site. Both sites were weeded as necessary and fertigated with a

soluble fertilizer (20-20-20).

Experimental Design

The Rattan site was a strip-split plot with two plots (treatments: herbs alley cropped

between moringa hedgerows and herb sole cropped) and 10 subplots (10 herb species). A

stone terrace wall had been constructed along the contour of the slope prior to the onset

of the research, dissecting the field into an upper and lower section. The moringa seeds

were sown in two rows along the contour, 1.5 m in row spacing with 25 trees per row, M.









stenopetala along the upper side of the terrace and M oleifera in the second about 5 m

further up the slope. The upper section was selected for the alley and the area below the

wall was selected for the control of no alleys. To make efficient use of drip irrigation a

single main line was run down the slope along the north end of the field and alternating

lines of drip tape with 20.3 cm (8") and 60.9 cm (24") emitters spacing, 37.5 m long

(120'), were run off it every meter, four lines per alley for a total of eight lines. Four

plants of Cymbopogon, Eupatorium, Ocimum, Stachytarpheta and Verbesina were

planted at randomly assigned positions in each block along the 61 cm lines. Ten plants of

Matricaria, Origanum, Rosmarinus, Salvia and Thymus were planted at randomly

assigned positions in each block along the 20 cm lines. Each species was planted on both

of the alternating upper and lower lines in each block (Figure 3-1). The length of the

field permitted only three replications. A total of 120 plants of each variety on the 20 cm

lines (10 plants per line x 4 lines x 3 replications) and 48 plants of each variety on the 61

cm lines (4 plants per line x 4 lines x 3 replications) were required.

The AES experiment was similar to the Rattan design with modifications.

Sufficient area was available at the AES for four replications and a split-plot design. The

site had two treatments, herbs alley cropped between moringa hedgerows, and sole-

cropped herbs, with four replications in 10 m by 8.75 m plots. The length of the field

required that each block be shortened, which was compensated for by increasing the

number of rows. The three hedgerows were planted five m apart, with trees within rows

spaced at 1.75 m for a total of 18 trees per block (3 rows x 6 plants/row). Alley width

was 5 m with two alleys per plot. Seventy-two Moringa oleifera trees (18 trees x 4 reps)

were established by direct seeding at 10 cm depth. There were twelve rows of herbs









intercrop per plot, six per alley spaced at 0.71 meters (28") between rows. A main line

was run along the western end of the field and six lines of drip tape with 20.32 cm (8")

emitter spacing and six lines of drip tape with 61 cm (24") emitter spacing, each 41

meters long (134.5'), were run off of it the length of the field (Figure 3-2). Each plot of

Cymbopogon, Eupatorium, Ocimum, Stachytarpheta and Verbesina consisted of three

plants along each of the six adjacent lines, for 18 plants per plot, at randomly assigned

positions in each block along the 61 cm lines. Each plot ofAllium, Coriandrum, Mentha,

Origanum and Thymus consisted of seven plants of each species planted along each of the

six adjacent lines, for 42 plants per plot, at randomly assigned positions in each block

along the 20 cm lines. A total of 336 plants of each variety on the 20 cm lines (7 plants

per line x 6 lines x 2 treatments x 4 replications) and 144 plants of each variety on the 61

cm lines (3 plants per line x 6 lines x 2 treatments x 4 replications) were required.

Data Collection and Measurements

The trees and intercrops in this experiment were monitored separately. The

following variables were monitored for the trees: height, number and length of leaves,

onset of flowering and fruiting, number of fruits, and biomass (fresh and oven dried

weight) of fruits, foliage, and woody material. Heights and leaf lengths were measured in

the field with a 2-meter ruler. Fresh weights were determined in the field to the nearest

decagram. One hundred gram sub samples of leaf and stem material were oven dried at

900 C for 24 hours and dry weights were determined to the nearest gram.

The following variables were monitored for the intercrops: height, number of

stems, and biomass (fresh and oven dried weight) of foliage and stems at each harvest.

While all plants at the AES were sampled, at the Rattan site only the middle two plants of

each species in each block on each 61 cm line and the middle six plants on each 20 cm









line were sampled. Randomly selected plants of each species from each row in each

block were oven dried at 900 C for 24 hours and dry weights were determined to the

nearest 0.1 gram.

Input values for the economic analysis were obtained from the AES trial data,

previous AES enterprise budgets, informal surveys of local markets and World Wide

Web searches.

Data Analysis

Total yields were summed from each harvest. Mean fresh and dry weight yields of

the sole-crop and intercrops herbs were averaged for each species, by treatment and block

in a Microsoft Excel XPTM spreadsheet. Total yields for each species were compared

with a mixed linear model (PROC MIXED) in SASTM for Windows 8e, utilizing the

Tukey-Kramer adjustment of means. Yields of fresh herb sole and intercrops and dried

Moringa (powdered dried leaves) were then extrapolated for an area of 250 m2 (1/16th

acre) for the purpose of making them comparable with previous AES enterprise budgets.

The economic analysis included the determination of break-even cost for each intercrop,

the net present value (NPV) for a 20-year production of the system4, and a benefit/cost

(B/C) ratio, which can be used as a basis of comparison between alternative systems

when the same discount rate is applied. A sensitivity analysis was performed utilizing

multiple discount rates (3, 5, 7 and 9%) and several different market values, reflecting a

decline in price as markets become saturated by increased production. The relative net

return, calculated with the yields extrapolated for the 250 m2, was used to determine the

relative productivity of the different species of herbs.


4 20 years is the length of a typical lease on agriculture land from the Virgin Islands Department of
Agriculture.

























Rattan Monnga Intercropping Trial Layout
Estate Rattan, St Croix
Date of Establishment Summer 2002
Block I Block II Block III
X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

(8) Rosemary Sage Maroram Thyme Chamomile Chamomile Thyme Maroram Sage Rosemary Chamomile Thyme Rosemary Maroram Sage
2,) Japana Basil Worrywine Inflamation Bush Lemongrass Inflamation Bush Lemongrass Basil Japana Worrywine Lemongrass Inflamation Bush Basil Worrywne Japana
), Rosemary Saae Maroram Thyme Chamomile Chamomile Thyme Maroram Saae Rosemary Chamomile Thyme Rosemary Maroram Saae
Japana Basil Worrvwine Inflamation Bush Lemonqrass Inflamation Bush Lemonqrass Basil Japana Worrywlne Lemongrass Inflamation Bush Basil Worrywlne Japana
24")
X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

(8) Rosemary Sage Maroram Thyme Chamomile Chamomile Thyme Maroram Sage Rosemary Chamomile Thyme Rosemary Maroram Sage

24,) Japana Basil Worrvwine Inflamation Bush Lemonarass Inflamation Bush Lemonarass Basil Japana Worrvwlne Lemonqrass Inflamation Bush Basil Worrvwlne Japana
(8) Rosemary Sage Maroram Thyme Chamomile Chamomile Thyme Marloram Sage Rosemary Chamomile Thyme Rosemary Marloram Sage
24", Japana Basil Worrvwne Inflamation Bush Lemongrass Inflamation Bush Lemongrass Basil Japana Worrvwne Lemongrass Inflamation Bush Basil Worrywne Japana

Alternating i 8nes of 8" and 24" drip tape, 118 in length N
10 plants of each species on each of the 8" line and 4 plants of each species on each of the 24" lines in each block
X = Monnga hedgrows
SStiple = Terrace wall


Figure 3-1. Moringa oleifera, M. stenopetala and culinary and medicinal herb intercropping trial layout at Estate Rattan, St. Croix,

U.S. Virgin Islands, during the 2002-2003 field season.


1m












I m


(W












AES Moringa Intercropping Trial Layout
Agricultural Experiment Station, St. Croix
Date of Establishment: Summer, 2002


(East)


Sole Crop Plots
<----- 10 m ----->
24" lines 8" lines

Basil Mint

Japana Marjoram

Worrywine Thyme

Inflammation Bush Chives

Lemongrass Cilantro


Alley Plots
<-- 5 m ----> <----- 5 m ----->

Basil Thyme

Japana Marjoram

Lemongrass Cilantro

Worrywine Mint

Inflammation Bush Chives


Alley Plots
<-- 5 m ----> <----- 5 m ----->

Japana Chives

Worrywine Marjoram

Lemongrass Thyme

Inflammation Bush Mint

Basil Cilantro


Sole Crop Plots
<----- 10 m ----->

Worrywine Chives

Inflammation Bush Marjoram

Lemongrass Mint

Basil Thyme

Japana Cilantro


<----- 10 m ----->


< 2 m >


< 2 m >


Alley Plots
<-- 5 m ----> <----- 5 m ----->
24" lines 8" lines

Worrywine Chives

Basil Mint

Japana Marjoram

Inflammation Bush Thyme

Lemongrass Cilantro


Sole Crop Plots
<----- 10 m ----->

Inflammation Bush Mint

Lemongrass Chives

Worrywine Marjoram

Japana Cilantro

Basil Thyme


Sole Crop Plots
<----- 10 m ----->

Japana Thyme

Basil Mint

Lemongrass Chives

Inflammation Bush Cilantro

Worrywine Marjoram


Alley Plots
<-- 5 m ----> <----- 5 m ----->

Basil Chives

Inflammation Bush Mint

Lemongrass Thyme

Worrywine Marjoram

Japana Cilantro

<----- 10 m ----->


Figure 3-2. Moringa oleifera and culinary and medicinal herb intercropping trial layout
at the AES, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, during the 2002-2003 field season.


Rep 1














Rep 2






N <-----







Rep 3














Rep 4


(West)













CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

The following sections present the results of the first year trials at Estate Rattan and

the AES sites. The agronomic yields from Estate Rattan and the AES trials are presented

first. After the agronomic data, economic analysis of each system sole- cropped and

intercropped for each species is presented. Included are the breakeven points,

benefit/cost (B/C) ratio, a net present value (NPV) sensitivity analysis, and the relative

net return (RNR) for each species.

Agronomic Evaluation

The agronomic yields are presented as mean yields per harvest, total yields per area

and average yield per plant. Yields from moringa pruning are presented as total yield per

area and average yield per plant. Statistical comparisons of yields between treatments

and species are made for each planting density utilizing a Tukey-pairwise comparison.

Estate Rattan Moringa-Herb Intercropping Trial

At the Estate Rattan Stachytarpheta and Verbesina produced four harvests,

Ocimum three and Cymbopogon, Origanum and Salvia only one harvest each. Regrowth

after initial harvest of the last three species did not permit additional harvests.

Establishment and subsequent growth of Eupatorium, Matricaria, Rosmarinus and

Thymus was extremely poor and of the four species only a partial harvest of the Thymus

was possible (Table 4-1). Between the sole-cropped and intercropped treatments, none of

the species showed statistical differences in their yields (P > 0.05). Between species, the

difference between the mean yields of the sole-cropped Cymbopogon and Ocimum,









Cymbopogon and Verbesina, Ocimum and Stachytarpheta and between Origanum and

Salvia were not significant (P > 0.05) while Cymbopogon and Stachytarpheta, Ocimum

and Verbesina and Stachytarpheta and Verbesina were highly significant (P < 0.01). The

difference in mean yields between intercropped Cymbopogon, Stachytarpheta and

Verbesina, between Cymbopogon and Ocimum and between Ocimum and Verbesina were

all highly significant (P < 0.01), while the difference between the mean yields of

intercropped Origanum, Salvia and Thymus were not statistically significant (P > 0.05).

The average height of the Moringa oleifera six months after planting from seed was

427 cm while the M. stenopetala averaged 299 cm. The mean wet weight yield of M

oleifera prunings was 4.3 kg tree-1 and M stenopetala prunings were 3.1 kg tree-1, 73%

of the M oleifera yield. M. oleifera prunings averaged 25.4% dry matter after oven

drying, the mean yield of dry leaf matter was 356 g tree-'. M. stenopetala dry matter after

oven drying averaged 24.9%, the mean yield of dry leaf matter was 299 g tree-', 84% of

the M oleifera yield. M. oleifera yielded 8.9 kg dry leaf matter from 90 m2, equaling 99

g m-2 or 0.989 Mg ha-l. M. stenopetala yielded 7.475 kg dry leaf matter from 90 m2,

equaling 83 g m-2 or 0.831 Mg ha1.

Agriculture Experiment Station Moringa-Herb Intercropping Trial

While Allium, Coriandrum, Cymbopogon, Ocimum and Stachytarpheta grew well

at the AES, the Verbesina provided three very small yields, and the Eupatorium, Mentha,

Origanum and Thymus grew slowly and could only be harvested once each (Table 4-2).

Between the sole-crop and intercrop treatments, mean yield differences were significant

for Ocimum (P = .0197) and highly significant for Allium, Coriandrum, Cymbopogon and

Stachytarpheta (P < 0.01). Between species, the differences between mean yields of

sole-cropped Cymbopogon and Stachytarpheta, Eupatorium and Verbesina, and between









Mentha, Origanum and Thymus were not statistically different (P > 0.05), while the

difference between the mean yields of Cymbopogon and Eupatorium, Ocimum and

Verbesina, between Eupatorium and both Ocimum and Stachytarpheta, between Ocimum

and both Stachytarpheta and Verbesina and between Allium and Coriandrum both

between each other and with Mentha, Origanum and Thymus were highly significant (P <

0.01). The difference in mean yields between intercropped Cymbopogon and both

Eupatorium and Verbesina, Eupatorium and both Ocimum and Stachytarpheta, and

between Verbesina and both Ocimum and Stachytarpheta were highly significant (P <

0.01), between Cymbopogon and Ocimum were significant (P < 0.01), while the

difference between mean yields of Eupatorium and Verbesina, between Stachytarpheta

and both Cymbopogon and Ocimum and between Allium, Coriandrum, Mentha,

Origanum and Thymus were not significant (P > 0.05).

At the time of the first pruning, four months after planting from seeds, the moringa

trees averaged 275 cm in height. Lopped at 1.5 m, they averaged 337 cm three months

later at the time of the second pruning. Average wet weight yield of the prunings was 6.4

kg. Leaf wet weight was 2.8 kg, yielding 30.5% after oven drying, for an average dry

leaf matter yield of 767 g tree-'. Total yield for the 410 m2 areas was 55.224 kg,

equivalent to 0.135 kg m-2 or 1.35 Mg ha1.















Table 4-1. Leaf yield of herbs sole-cropped and intercropped with Moringa oleifera and M stenopetala at Estate Rattan, St. Croix,
U.S. Virgin Islands, during the 2002-2003 field season.
Fresh weights (kg) of leaves harvested during the season


Species


Area (m2)


Cymbopogon citratus
Eupatorium triplinerve
Matricaria recutita
Ocimum basilicum
Origanum majorana
Rosmarinus officinalis
Salvia officinalis
Stachytarphetajamaicensis
Thymus vulgaris
Verbesina alata


Sole-crop
n Harvests
1 2 3 4
12 6.77
12


4.30 4.16


24 0.97
12 1.24 1.19 1.39 8.80
36
12 0.34 0.43 0.79 1.91


Total
1
6.77ac 12 5.50
*** 12


*** 36
0.95ab 12
1.24d 24
*** 36


Intercrop
Harvests
2 3


2.96 5.53


0.97" 24 0.78
12.61b 12 1.15 1.27 1.32 6.73
*** 16 0.68
3.47C 12 0.21 0.30 0.29 1.04


Total

5.50
***
***
9.73a
1.15b
***
0.78b
10.47a
0.68b
1.83


Letters indicate species with total yields with no statistical difference (P > 0.05), Tukey-Kramer Means Adjustment.
*** = Incomplete harvests.














Table 4-2. Leaf yield of herbs sole-cropped and intercropped withMoringa oleifera at the AES, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, during
the 2002-2003 field season.
Fresh weights (kg) of leaves harvested during the season


Species


Allium schoenoprasum
Coriandrum sativum
Cymbopogon citratus
Eupatorium triplinerve
Mentha xpiperita
Ocimum basilicum
Origanum majorana
Stachytarphetajamaicensis
Thymus vulgaris
Verbesina alata


Area (m2) N


Sole-crop
Harvests
1 2 3


9.4 157 9.79 10.77


4.16
24.66
4.87
5.16
37.99
1.19
45.94
1.17
4.55


4.86 5.10
27.87 20.56



20.85 19.93

57.89

4.72 1.45


Total


20.56** 155 4.30


14.13** 44
37.10 110.18a** 72
4.87b 72
*** 168
78.77 72
*** 168
103.83a** 72
*** 168
10.71b 50


0.89
26.65
2.69
1.83
40.25
0.94
40.50
0.20
3.80


Intercrop
Harvests
2 3 4
5.18
1.32 1.45
20.59 13.84 22.8



11.70 12.46

32.75

1.58 1.26


Total


9.48**
3.65**
(6 83.94a**
2.69b
***
64.4c
.**
73.25ac""**
***


Letters indicate species with total yields with no statistical difference (P > 0.05), Tukey-Kramer Means Adjustment.
** = Significant difference between treatments (P < 0.05).
*** = Incomplete harvests.









Economic Evaluation

Due to incomplete records of inputs the economic analyses were based upon data

collected from research plots at the AES. Allium, Coriandrum, Cymbopogon, Ocimum,

Stachytarpheta and Verbesina were selected for further analysis. Estimated cost and

returns with break-even points (see appendix A), NPV and B/C ratios were determined

for each species in sole-crop and intercropped with moringa production systems. A

sensitivity analysis was conducted for each species to examine the effect of price and

discount rates on each system. The RNR for each species is also presented.

Allium schoenoprasum

Sole-cropped chive yields of 235.8 kg ha-1 yr-1 at current market prices gross $3,350

pre tax. With a 5% discount rate the estimated twenty-year NPV of the system is

$41,743. Sensitivity analysis of market prices and discount rates (Figure 4-1) indicate

that the system remains profitable until chive market prices dip below $7.80 kg-.

Intercropped chive yields of 87.8 kg ha-1 yr-1 and moringa powder yields of 34.25 kg ha-1

yr- gross only $139 pre tax. The twenty-year NPV with a 5% discount rate is $1,905.

Sensitivity analysis of market prices and discount rates indicate that the system is only

profitable at the current chive market price of $22 kg-1 due to the additional income from

the moringa yield. The B/C ratio of the sole-crop is 2.82 while the intercrop B/C ratio is

1.08. The RNR of the intercrop compared to the sole-crop is 38%.











Sensitivity to market prices of the 20-year NPV of Allium schoenprasum in sole stands
and intercropped with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands
$60,000 3% Sole

$45,000 --5% Sole

$30,000 7% Sole
> 9% Sole
a. $15,000
z $- -3% Intercrop
$0 /" ---.5% Intercrop

-$15,000 & : "'L -7% Intercrop

-$30,000 -- - 9% Intercrop
$2.00 $4.00 $8.00 $14.00 $22.00
Market Price

Figure 4-1. NPV sensitivity analysis of Allium schoenoprasum sole-cropped and
intercropped with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands




Coriandrum sativum

Yield of sole-cropped cilantro of 363.6 kg ha-1 yr1 at current market prices grosses

$6,111 pre tax. With a 5% discount rate the estimated twenty-year NPV of the system is

$76,162. Sensitivity analysis of market prices and discount rates (Figure 4-2) indicate

that the system remains profitable until market prices dips below $5.19 kg1.

Intercropped cilantro yields of 121.0 kg ha- yr- and moringa powder yields of 34.25 kg

ha- yr1 gross $828 pre tax. The twenty-year NPV with a 5% discount rate is $10,490.

Sensitivity analysis of market prices and discount rates indicate that the system remains

profitable until cilantro market prices dip below $17.23 kg1-. The B/C ratio of the sole-

crop is 4.24 and the intercrop B/C ratio is 1.41. The RNR of the intercrop compared to

the sole-crop is 34%.











Sensitivity to market prices of the 20-year NPV of Coriandrum sativum in sole stands
and intercropped with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands
$120,000
---3% Sole

$90,000 --5% Sole
7% Sole
$60,000
> 0 9% Sole
a-
z $30,000 -- -3% Intercrop
S -5% Intercrop
$0 f '***' A -7% Intercrop

-$30,000 0- 9% Intercrop
-$30,000
$2.00 $4.00 $8.00 $14.00 $22.00
Market Price

Figure 4-2. NPV sensitivity analysis of Coriandrum sativum sole-cropped and
intercropped with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands.




Cymbopogon citratus

Sole-cropped lemongrass yields of 918.0 kg ha-1 yr1 at current market prices gross

$16,580 pre tax. With a 5% discount rate the estimated twenty-year NPV of the system is

$208,077. Sensitivity analysis of market prices and discount rates (Figure 4-3) indicate

that the break-even point of the lemongrass system is $1.94 kg-. Intercropped

lemongrass yields of 559.7 kg ha-1 yr- and moringa powder yields of 34.25 kg ha-1 yr 1

gross $9,447 pre tax. The twenty-year NPV with a 5% discount rate is $119,087. A

sensitivity analysis of market prices and discount rates indicate that the system remains

profitable until lemongrass market prices dip below $3.57 kg-1. The B/C ratio of the sole-

crop is 11.04 while the intercrop B/C ratio is 6.06. The RNR of the intercrop compared

to the sole-crop is 61%.











Sensitivity to market prices of the 20-year NPV of Cymbopogon citratus in sole stands
and intercropped with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands
$250,000
3-3% Sole
$200,000 5% Sole

$150,000 7% Sole
> X -9% Sole
0- $100,000
z .- --3% Intercrop
$50,000 --5% Intercrop

$0 -- -7% Intercrop
-9% Intercrop
-$50,000
$2.00 $3.00 $5.00 $10.00 $20.00
Market Price

Figure 4-3. NPV sensitivity analysis of Cymbopogon citratus sole-cropped and
intercropped with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands.




Ocimum basilicum

Yield of sole-cropped basil of 656.4 kg ha-1 yr1 at current market prices grosses

$11,286 pre tax. With a 5% discount rate the estimated twenty-year NPV of the system is

$140,648. Sensitivity analysis of market prices and discount rates (Figure 4-4) indicate

that the break-even point of the basil production system is $2.81 kg-. Intercropped basil

yields of 429.3 kg ha- yr- and moringa powder yields of 34.25 kg ha- yr- gross $6,790

pre tax. The twenty-year NPV with a 5% discount rate is $84,793. Sensitivity analysis

of market prices and discount rates suggest that the system remains profitable until basil

market prices dip below $4.77 kg1-. The B/C ratio of the sole-crop is 7.13 while the

intercrop system is 4.35. The RNR of the intercrop compared to the sole-crop is 66%.











Sensitivity to market prices of the 20-year NPV of Ocimum basilicum in sole stands
and intercropped with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands
$175,000

$150,000 3'

$125,000 -5'

$100,000 7
.'A 9
$75,000 ..
..'.o -3
$50,000
^*"- -57
$0 .i --0-- 9
$25,000
si --6- -7
W- s I --O---9
-$25,000


$2.00


$3.00


$5.00
Market Price


% Sole
% Sole
% Sole
% Sole
% Intercrop
% Intercrop
% Intercrop
% Intercrop


$10.00 $20.00


Figure 4-4. NPV sensitivity analysis of Ocimum basilicum sole-cropped and
intercropped with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands.




Stachytarpheta jamaicensis

Sole-cropped worrywine yields of 865.2 kg ha-1 yr1 at current market prices gross

$15,657 pre tax. With a 5% discount rate the estimated twenty-year NPV of the system is

$195,117. Sensitivity analysis of market prices and discount rates (Figure 4-5) indicate

that the break-even point of the worrywine production system is $1.90 kg-. Intercropped

worrywine yields of 488.2 kg ha- yr- and moringa powder yields of 34.25 kg ha- yr-

gross $8,123 pre tax. The twenty-year NPV with a 5% discount rate is $101,395. A

sensitivity analysis of market prices and discount rates indicate that the system remains

profitable until worrywine market prices dip below $3.88 kg1-. The B/C ratio of the sole-

crop is 10.5 and the B/C ratio of the intercrop is 5.33. The RNR of the intercrop

compared to the sole-crop is 56%.











Sensitivity to market prices of the 20-year N PV of Stachytarphetajamaicensis in sole
stands and intercropped with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands
$250,000
S -3% Sole
$200,000 -t--/5% Sole

$150,000 7% Sole
>/ .a 9% Sole
a- $100,000
z ......3% Intercrop
$50,000 =-J ..:.-.-.- - 5% Intercrop
A ---A--- 7% Intercrop
........ 9% Intercrop
-$50,000
$2.00 $3.00 $5.00 $10.00 $20.00
Market Price

Figure 4-5. NPV sensitivity analysis of Stachytarphetajamaicensis sole-cropped and
intercropped with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands.




Verbesina alata

Yield of sole-cropped inflammation bush of 121.2 kg ha-1 yr1 at current market

prices grosses $1,316 pre tax. With a 5% discount rate the estimated twenty-year NPV of

the system is $17,857. Sensitivity analysis of market prices and discount rates (Figure 4-

6) indicate that the break-even point of the inflammation bush production system is

$14.14 kg-'. Intercropped inflammation bush yields of 63.8 kg ha- yr- and moringa

powder yields of 34.25 kg ha-1 yr gross, at current market prices, -$98 pre tax. The

twenty-year NPV with a 5% discount rate is only $140. Sensitivity analysis of market

prices and discount rates indicate that the system is not profitable at current market

prices. The B/C ratio of the sole-crop system is 1.9 while the intercrop system is only

1.01. The RNR of the intercrop system compared to the sole-crop system is 53%.












Sensitivity to market prices of the 20-year NPV of Verbesina alata in sole stands
and intercropped with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands
$22,500

$15,000 3% Sole
-- 5% Sole
$7,500 7% Sole

> 9% Sole
a. $0
z -' ~," .- *3% Intercrop

-$7,500 -- J- 5% Intercrop
--- 7% Intercrop
-$15,000 .- --
O* 9% Intercrop

-$22,500
$10.00 $12.00 $15.00 $20.00 $25.00
Market Price


Figure 4-6. NPV sensitivity analysis of Verbesina alata sole-cropped and intercropped
with Moringa oleifera on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands.














CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION

This investigation examined thirteen different species of herbs intercropped with

moringa. The apparent yield reductions evident in the intercropped systems at both sites

failed to demonstrate statistical significance for most species. This lack of statistical

significance with the yields is attributed to the variability in the data magnified by the

split-plot treatment of the data. Data variability is a consideration with the design of

agroforestry experiments with large plot sizes, since the area is large and the land may be

more variable, in addition to the excessive strain on labor, which likely affected the

reliability of data collected (Nair 1993). Greater confidence is therefore held in the

validity of the results of the on-station trials, where greater control over and records of

inputs and harvests were kept, then the on-farm trial, where weeding, watering and

harvesting was not consistent or recorded.

Culinary and Medicinal Herbs

The herb intercropping trial on the private Estate Rattan did not result in significant

differences between control and intercropped plots. Droughty conditions, poor quality

and survival of Eupatorium, Rosmarinus, and Thymus planting material, overzealous

harvesting of Cymbopogon, Origanum and Salvia and their poor subsequent regrowth

contributed to the wide variability in the yields between blocks that were responsible for

the statistical results. Matricaria in particular failed to establish on the arid and alkaline

site. Stachytarpheta and Verbesina, both native species commonly present on disturbed

sites, did well at the Estate Rattan site. The performance of the Eupatorium is attributed









to the poor quality of the planting material derived from material purchased in local

farmers markets and the straw mulch, applied after planting for weed control and

moisture retention, which interfered with the rooting of runners. The sensitivity of the

selected herbs to intercropping ranked accordingly from the least sensitive to the most as:

Basil -- Marjoram -- Worrywine -- Lemongrass/Sage -- Inflammation Bush.

The herb intercropping trial on the AES demonstrated significant differences

between the control and intercropped plots in the species that performed well overall, i.e.

Allium, Coriandrum, Cymbopogon, Ocimum, and Stachytarpheta, while the species that

preformed poorly overall, i.e. Eupatorium, Mentha, Origanum, Thymus, and Verbesina

did not. The sensitivity of the selected herbs to intercropping ranked accordingly from

the least sensitive to the most as: Basil -- Marjoram -- Lemongrass -- Worrywine --

Inflammation Bush -- Japana -- Chive -- Mint -- Cilantro -- Thyme.

AES control plot Ocimum yields of 656.4 kg (26.3 Mg ha-1) from this research

were similar to earlier research station yields of 29.7 Mg ha-1 (Collingwood et al. 1991a).

Of the highest yielding systems, estimated single year returns from the yields of fresh

Cymbopogon and Stachytarpheta sole-crops, while statistically equivalent, varied

financially by more then $900 (Table 5-1). Likewise, the estimated single year return

from fresh Cymbopogon intercrop was financially more lucrative than Stachytarpheta by

over $1000. Estimated single year fresh weight yields of Ocimum sole-crop and

intercrop, while not statistically different, varied by nearly $4500 or 40%, highlighting

the difference between statistical significance and practical differences. Of the systems

selected for economic analysis, Cymbopogon sole-crop had the greatest twenty-year 5%

NPV of $208,077 and a B/C of 11.04 while the Verbesina-moringa intercrop had the









lowest of $140 and 1.01 respectively (Table 5-1). The RNR of the Ocimum systems was

the highest at 66% and the Coriandrum system was the lowest at 34%.

This study's single year estimated Allium return of 235.8 kg for 250 m2 is slightly

higher than the 218.2 kg for 250 m2 obtained in a 1999 mulch and irrigation study of

organic chives, organic tomatoes and conventional tomatoes conducted at the AES

(anonymous, unpublished). The 1999 adjusted returns of $3780 from 250 m2, which did

not include the cost of slips, irrigation equipment, or the particular insecticides used

during this study, are similar to the estimated sole-crop returns from this study of $3350

for 250 m2. Both the 1999 study and the results from this trial conclude that sole-cropped

Allium, one of the lowest producing herbs in this study, offers producers higher returns

then the adjusted estimated returns of $2,970 for 250 m2 of conventional tomatoes.

The use of the current market prices when determining the profitability of the

systems could be misleading. St. Croix is small market comprising fewer than 55,000

people (US Census 2000). The introduction of the produce of even a single 250 m2 field

into the St. Croix fresh herb market will certainly drive down prices. Therefore, five

different prices were selected when determining the profitability of each system to

examine the impact of falling prices on profitability. During an examination of the listing

price of over 80 parcels of land one hectare or less on St. Croix in June, 2004 the average

price per hectare was over $217,000. At one half the current market prices, only the

Cymbopogon system would provide an economic return sufficient to equal the land value.

Several factors likely contributed to the reduced yields and economic returns from

the intercrop systems. Resource competition, lower herb plant densities in the intercrops

and the differential production costs between sole-crop and intercrop systems appear













Table 5-1. Summary of actual and estimated yields and results of herbs sole-cropped and intercropped with Moringa oleifera during
the 2002-2003 field season, AES, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Herbs are presented ranked according to their actual
yields and estimated 20-year NPV.


Sole-crop


Intercrop


Species
1. Cymbopogon citratus
2. .. 'jamace
3. Ocimum basilicum
4. Cornandrum sativum
5. Album schoenoprasum
6. Verbesna alata


nsis


Estimated
Actual Yield Eimed
Yield
(kg/ 9.4 m2) (kg / 250 m2)
110.18 918.0
103.83 865.2
78.77 656.4
14.13 363.6
20.56 235.8


Estimated
Returns
($/ha/yr)
16,580
15,657
11,286
6,111
3,350
1,316


Estimated
NPV
($)
208,077
195,117
140,648
76,162
41,743


Actual Yield
B/C
(kg/ 9.4 m2)


11.04
10.5
7.13
4.24
2.82


17,857 1.9


83.94
73.25
64.4
3.65
9.48
6.64


Estimated
Yield
(kg /250 m2)
559.7
488.2
429.3
121.0
87.8
63.8


Estimated
Returns
($/ha/yr)

9,447
8,123
6,790
828
139
-98


Estimated
NPV
($)
119,087
101,395
84,793
10,490
1,905


B/C


140 1.01 53%









obvious. Both the sole-crop and intercrop herbs and moringa hedgerows received

fertilization and drip irrigation. Assuming that nutrient and water requirements were

sufficiently and equally met for both the sole-crop and intercrops, then yield reductions

were likely due to light interception by hedgerows. The sole-crop yields in the AES trials

were also possibly reduced somewhat, compared to earlier research, by invading moringa

roots competing for below ground nutrients. Tree roots invading control plots are a

common problem with alley-cropping research (Coe 1994).

It is evident that intercrop planting densities requires further investigation. Farmers

in the Virgin Islands typically plant herbs in small, informal gardens and at a much closer

spacing than might be expected for field trials. Shalaby and Razin (1992) concluded that

increased height of Thymus in dense planting was due to light competition, with shorter

plants from less dense plantings that permitted the growth of laterals resulting in overall

greater yield per plant. Denser plantings however, despite the smaller plants, produced

greater yield per area. Some herbs, such as Allium, Coriandrum, Eupatorium, and

Verbesina might also produce greater yields at a higher density then was utilized in this

study.

Of the herb species selected, the culture is well established for all but three of the

local herbs, Eupatorium, Stachytarpheta, and Verbesina, of which little is known. The

local Cymbopogon and Stachytarpheta preformed the best, producing the most biomass.

An advantage of Cymbopogon is that it is a perennial grass that once established requires

only occasional weeding and harvesting. Additionally, culms can be readily separated for

new planting material. The local Stachytarpheta is a low, sprawling shrub that endured

heavy harvesting and regrew quite readily. On sub-tropical St. Croix, Stachytarpheta is









an annual or short-lived perennial that requires periodic replanting. Stachytarpheta can

be a prolific seed producer and dense shrubberies could be established in a field along a

drip line, requiring little attention aside from periodic harvesting. Verbesina is another

local annual or perennial. Harvested once flowering begins, it endured severe pruning

back to the base of the plant and recovered with vigor. Verbesina is also a prolific seed

producer that could easily produce dense shrubberies in a field setting along a drip line.

Some of the weeds in the research plots removed by periodic hoeing were in fact

Verbesina seedlings. The Eupatorium used for this research was derived from cuttings

purchased in the local farmers markets. The cuttings were rooted in water and planted in

pots before being transplanted to the field. Eupatorium is a low, perennial herb that roots

from the nodes of its creeping stems. The poor performance of this herb is attributed to

the poor quality (not very fresh) of cuttings derived from market purchased material and

the straw mulch that prevented the Eupatorium stems from rooting readily. Until

established, Eupatorium did not appear to be very tolerant of heavy pruning.

The culture of the common aromatic culinary herb Ocimum is well worked out

(Simon et al. 1999). Ocimum is an annual that will provide multiple harvests throughout

the year when managed properly. The requirement for replanting during the course of

this research was due to over harvesting of the plants, which should only be cut back to a

basal node, just above a pair of leaves. Allium preformed well from sets and Coriandrum

from seeds. Mentha, Origanum, and Thymus apparently are less suitable to field

cultivation under the conditions present at the AES on St. Croix. Desiccating winds,

intense sub-tropical sun, and drought conditions followed by flooding from periodic,

intense rains all contributed to their poor performance. At the Estate Rattan, the same









conditions applied. Origanum, Salvia and Thymus may have been particularly adversely

affected by over harvesting. While Rosmarinus does well on the island, the failure to

establish during this trial is attributed to the poor quality of the material planted. Finally,

the Matricaria, which is not commonly grown on St. Croix, may have failed to establish

due to the high pH of the soils (7.7), as Matricaria prefers acidic soils.

Moringa

Moringa preformed very well on the alkaline soils of St. Croix. At the Estate

Rattan, planted from seed and provided supplemental water for only one month,

hedgerow trees averaged four and quarter meters after six months despite the drought

conditions of the 2002 fall season. At the AES, moringa established under the same

techniques as the hedges at Estate Rattan reached an average of two and three-fourths

meters in four months and grew an additional one and three-fourths meters in the

following four months after pruning.

It is apparent that at the planting density used for moringa in this study and the

current estimated market price for moringa powder, the intercrop systems will not be

profitable. A higher density of herb, moringa or further value-addition might increase the

profitability of a moringa-herb intercropping system on St. Croix. A higher moringa

density could also offset the low price for the moringa product in this experiment.

Double row hedgerows might accomplish this, as well as closer in line spacing or

narrower alleys. An additional shortcoming of this research was the lack of a moringa

sole-crop. Unfortunately, the lack of a sole tree control is all too common a problem in

alley-cropping experiments (Coe 1994). Without the sole-crop moringa yield data a









LER5 calculation was not possible. Finally, the IRR could not be calculated because this

study treated the Moringa as an annual crop. Without a return discounted over time, the

internal rate of return is essentially the single year return.

Though moringa was selected for research based on its potential for multiple uses,

this may reflect the researcher's bias. The low price used in this study for moringa

powder as a food supplement reflects the lack of demand in the Virgin Islands, where

malnutrition not undernourishment is a common problem. Other moringa products may

find market niches though. South Asian communities in North American are a potential

market for the fresh young seed pods, which are a component of the diet of South Indian

cuisine. The water purifying capabilities of the crushed seeds requires scientific

investigation, as there may be spin-off products and markets for related products. Value

added requires consideration as the tree itself in the systems studied does not appear to be

a viable economic option for small-scale farmers on St. Croix.



















5 Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) = (Yb /Y ) + (Y /Yb ), where Ya and Yb are the sole crop yields of
species a and b respectively, Yab is the yield of species a when intercropped with species b, and Yba is the
yield of species b when intercropped with species a.














CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSIONS

St. Croix, USVI is faced with historical, environmental, and economic challenges.

Virgin Island farmers can find lucrative market opportunities by diversifying their

agricultural systems with lesser-known crops. Bush teas derived from culinary and

medicinal herbs are a part of the local culture and can be adapted for internal and export

markets. This study examined the production of high value culinary and medicinal herbs

intercropped with moringa on St. Croix, USVI. The objective was to determine the

productivity and economic costs and benefits of selected herbs when intercropped with

moringa compared to sole-crop yields. Specifically, the study determined whether the

physical yields and economic benefits were greater for the selected herb-moringa

intercrop system or the respective herb sole-crop.

This study was conducted at two locations at a private estate and at the

agricultural experimental station. Both sites, while considered fertile, are semi-arid.

Thirteen species of herbs were selected for investigation along with moringa. Herb

intercropping and moringa hedgerows were established with drip irrigation in strip-split

plot designs with randomized subplots. Yields were determined from harvests and inputs

were totaled for calculating economic returns. Net Present Value (NPV), Benefit/Cost

Ratio (B/C) and Relative Net Return (RNR) were employed for comparison of the

various sole and intercrop systems. A sensitivity analysis was included with four

different discount rates and five different market prices.









Yields of all intercropped herbs were lower than their sole-crops. Yields at Estate

Rattan were not statistically different while the yields between treatments at the AES

were. Between species comparisons show that Cymbopogon and Stachytarpheta

preformed similarly with the highest yields, Cymbopogon yields being slightly higher.

Economic analysis indicates that Cymbopogon provides the greatest economic return,

NPV and B/C while Ocimum had the greatest RNR.

Statistical results may have been confounded by the split-plot design, which

magnifies variation in data from subplots. Comparison of results from this research to

previous AES enterprise budgets suggests that even the lowest yielding system tested, the

Allium moringa intercrop, will provide a greater economic return from the same area as

that of a conventional tomato crop. Suboptimal densities and invading moringa roots

likely affected yields as much as shading did. Future research of herb culture,

particularly of Eupatorium, is warranted.

A fruitful avenue for future research is in examining the effects of planting

densities and culture on aromatic, culinary and medicinal herbs. Traditional herb gardens

in the Virgin Islands are typically small, compact and in close association with stones

used to delineate herb beds. While a trade-off can be expected with high densities

producing lower yielding plants, the optimal density for overall herb yields should be

determined. Working with drip irrigation lines, a proposed method to optimize densities

might be to have two parallel drip lines set apart equal to their spacing, with three plants,

two on the outside of the lines and one in the middle. The effect of density and culture,

including whether stones lining herb beds regulate diurnal temperature fluctuations, on

the yield of active ingredients and essential oils, requires investigation.









Serious marketing is required before the prospects of the Virgin Islands becoming a

supplier of aromatic, culinary or medicinal herb to North American markets can be

realized. Developing viable large-scale production requires vertical integration of the

production and marketing infrastructure: suppliers, processors, buyers, quantity and

quality control. While the value of moringa is appreciated in many parts of Asia, Africa,

and the Caribbean, it does not yet appear to have gained a following in the Virgin Islands.

Other native trees may hold greater potential for agroforestry systems in the Virgin

Islands. Soursop (Annona muricata) and sugar apple (Annona squamosa) are two

common, native trees for which a steady markets exists for both the edible fruit and

medicinal leaves. Alley cropping with aromatic, culinary, and medicinal herbs might

also be particularly suitable for guavaberry (Myrciariafloribunda), a slow growing fruit

tree for which there is a great demand when in season, but few landowners plant due to

the 12 year maturation period.

Rocheleau (1999) describes the formal research model with initial trials on-station

with the "winners" moved to on-farm later and farmer "participatory" input restricted to

"problem diagnosis" during first phase and "adaptive research" during the final stage.

This limits the capacity of farmers and researchers to jointly innovate and experiment to

fixed times and places. The paradigm of parallel line of research, as described by

Rocheleau, with on-station and on-farm simultaneously, with researchers and farmers

exchanging ideas, material and evaluation of the experiments is apparent in this study.

Continued AES research along the lines of this project can produce viable agroforestry

systems based on aromatic, culinary, and medicinal herbs that will benefit small-scale

farmers on St. Croix.















APPENDIX A
COSTS AND RETURN ESTIMATES

This appendix contains the estimated costs and returns for a 250 m2 sole-crop and

intercrop of each herb, based on yield data collected from the AES, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin

Islands, during the 2002-2003 field seasons. Explanations for values can be found in

Appendix B.




















Estimated Costs and Returns at Current Market Prices, St. Croix, USVI, 2002-2003
Allium Sole-crop Allium Moringa Intercrop
025 hectare unit 025 hectare unit


kg 2358 $2200 $5,188
$0
$5,188


Seedlings plants 1800 $015 $270
Fertilizer (20 20 20) bags 07 $2360 $16
Herbicide and Insecticides (AzetinTM, DipelTM, and MpedeTM) package 1 $24515 $245
Drip irrigation lines layout 1 $300 00 $300
Water m3 120 $449 $54
Labor (a) irrigation (set-up & repair) hours 93 $6 25 $58
(b) planting hours 100 $625 $63
(c) fertigating and weeding hours 834 $6 25 $521
(d) harvesting (including weighting & bunching) hours 150 $625 $94
Machinery (a) plowing hectare 0025 $15444 $4
(b) harrowing hectare 0025 $38 61 $1
(c) tilling hectare 0025 $38 61 $1
Interest on operating capital $ 6% $1,626 $98
Total Operating Cost $1,724
FIXED COSTS
Land lease hectare 0025 $49 42 $1
Interest on avg investment (excl land) $ 1000% 1041 67 $104
Depreciation (a) irrigation equipment hectare 0025 $257 40 $6
(b) other equipment hectare 0025 $1287 $0
(c) well hectare 0 025 $72 08 $2
(d) other hectare 0025 $515 $0
Total Fixed Cost $114
PRE-TAX RETURNS (total revenue total operating costs fixed cost) $3,350


BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM = $7.80

(at current production level) = ([total fixed costs I kgs sold] + [operating cost per kilogram])

NET PRESENT VALUE (PRE-TAX) OF A 20-YEAR LEASE UNDER THIS PRODUCTION $41743
SYSTEM (AT 5%): 41,

Assumptions
1 Total revenue and costs are rounded off to the nearest dollar

Data Source
1 Input and yield data UVI-AES experimental plots, production data are for 2002/2003
2 Depreciation rates Previous UVI-CES enterprise budgets
3 Selected costs and prices VI Dept of Agriculture and previous UVI-CES enterprise budgets
4 Output price Informal survey of local growers, farmers market and supermarket Moringa powder price from WWW search


Item Unit Qty Price ($) Amt


SALES
Sale of fresh chives from 025 ha
Moringa Powder sales

OPERATING COSTS


Total Revenue


kg 878 $22 00 $1,932
kg 3425 $733 $251
$2,183


Seedlings plants 1440 $015 $216
Fertilizer (20 20 20) bags 07 $2360 $16
Herbicide and Insecticides (AzetinTM, DipelTM, and MpedeT) package 1 $245 15 $245
Drip irrigation lines layout 1 $300 00 $300
Water m3 135 $449 $61
Labor (a) irrigation (set-up & repair) hours 93 $6 25 $58
(b) planting hours 95 $6 25 $59
(c) fertigating and weeding hours 83 4 $6 25 $521
(d) harvesting (including weighting & bunching) hours 542 $6 25 $339
Machinery (a) plowing hectare 0025 $15444 $4
(b) harrowng hectare 0025 $38 61 $1
(c) tilling hectare 0025 $3861 $1
Interest on operating capital $ 6% $1,821 $109
Total Operating Cost $1,930
FIXED COSTS
Land lease hectare 0025 $49 42 $1
Interest on avg investment (excl land) $ 1000% 1041 67 $104
Depreciation (a) irrigation equipment hectare 0025 $257 40 $6
(b) other equipment hectare 0025 $1287 $0
(c) well hectare 0025 $72 08 $2
(d) other hectare 0025 $515 $0
Total Fixed Cost $114
PRE-TAX RETURNS (total revenue total operating costs fixed cost) $139


BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM (Chive) = $23.27
BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM (Moringa) = $59.70
(at current production level) = ([total fixed costs I kgs sold] + [operating cost per kilogram])
NET PRESENT VALUE (PRE-TAX) OF A 20-YEAR LEASE UNDER THIS PRODUCTION $1734
SYSTEM (AT 5%): $1


SALES
Sale of fresh chives from 025 ha
Other sales

OPERATING COSTS


Item Unit Qty Price ($) Amt


Total Revenue



















Estimated Costs and Returns at Current Market Prices, St. Croix, USVI, 2002-2003
Coriandrum Sole-crop Coriandrum Moringa Intercrop
025 hectare unit 025 hectare unit


Item Unit Qty Price ($) Amt
SALES
Sale of fresh cilantro from 025 ha kg 363 6 $22 00 $7,999
Other sales $0
Total Revenue $7,999
OPERATING COSTS
Seedlings plants 1800 $015 $270
Fertilizer (20 20 20) bags 07 $2360 $16
Herbicide and Insecticides (AzetinTM, DipelTM, and MpedeTM) package 1 $24515 $245
Drip irrigation lines layout 1 $300 00 $300
Water m3 120 $449 $54
Labor (a) irrigation (set-up & repair) hours 93 $6 25 $58
(b) planting hours 100 $625 $63
(c) fertigating and weeding hours 834 $6 25 $521
(d) harvesting (including weighting & bunching) hours 225 $625 $141
Machinery (a) plowing hectare 0025 $15444 $4
(b) harrowing hectare 0025 $38 61 $1
(c) tilling hectare 0025 $38 61 $1
Interest on operating capital $ 6% $1,673 $100
Total Operating Cost $1,774
FIXED COSTS
Land lease hectare 0025 $49 42 $1
Interest on avg investment (excl land) $ 1000% 1041 67 $104
Depreciation (a) irrigation equipment hectare 0025 $257 40 $6
(b) other equipment hectare 0025 $1287 $0
(c) well hectare 0 025 $72 08 $2
(d) other hectare 0025 $515 $0
Total Fixed Cost $114
PRE-TAX RETURNS (total revenue total operating costs fixed cost) $6111

BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM = $5.19

(at current production level) = ([total fixed costs I kgs sold] + [operating cost per kilogram])

NET PRESENT VALUE (PRE-TAX) OF A 20-YEAR LEASE UNDER THIS PRODUCTION $76 162
SYSTEM (AT 5%): $ ,1

Assumptions
1 Total revenue and costs are rounded off to the nearest dollar

Data Source
1 Input and yield data UVI-AES experimental plots, production data are for 2002/2003
2 Depreciation rates Previous UVI-CES enterprise budgets
3 Selected costs and prices VI Dept of Agriculture and previous UVI-CES enterprise budgets
4 Output price Informal survey of local growers, farmers market and supermarket Moringa powder price from WWW search


Item Unit Qty Price ($) Amt
SALES
Sale of fresh cilantro from 025 ha kg 121 0 $2200 $2,661
Moringa Powder sales kg 34 25 $7 33 $251
Total Revenue $2,912
OPERATING COSTS
Seedlings plants 1440 $015 $216
Fertilizer (20 20 20) bags 07 $2360 $16
Herbicide and Insecticides (AzetinTM, DipelTM, and MpedeT) package 1 $245 15 $245
Drip irrigation lines layout 1 $300 00 $300
Water m3 135 $449 $61
Labor (a) irrigation (set-up & repair) hours 93 $6 25 $58
(b) planting hours 95 $6 25 $59
(c) fertigating and weeding hours 83 4 $6 25 $521
(d) harvesting (including weighting & bunching) hours 602 $6 25 $376
Machinery (a) plowing hectare 0025 $15444 $4
(b) harrowng hectare 0025 $38 61 $1
(c) tilling hectare 0025 $3861 $1
Interest on operating capital $ 6% $1,858 $112
Total Operating Cost $1,970
FIXED COSTS
Land lease hectare 0025 $49 42 $1
Interest on avg investment (excl land) $ 1000% 1041 67 $104
Depreciation (a) irrigation equipment hectare 0025 $257 40 $6
(b) other equipment hectare 0025 $1287 $0
(c) well hectare 0025 $72 08 $2
(d) other hectare 0025 $515 $0
Total Fixed Cost $114
PRE-TAX RETURNS (total revenue total operating costs fixed cost) $828

BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM (Cilantro) = $17.23
BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM (Moringa) = $60.86
(at current production level) = ([total fixed costs I kgs sold] + [operating cost per kilogram])
NET PRESENT VALUE (PRE-TAX) OF A 20-YEAR LEASE UNDER THIS PRODUCTION $ 31
SYSTEM (AT 5%): $10,319




















Estimated Costs and Returns at Current Market Prices, St. Croix, USVI, 2002-2003
Cymbopogon Sole-crop Cymbopogon Moringa Intercrop
025 hectare unit 025 hectare unit


kg 9180 $2000 $18,360
$0
$18,360


Seedlings plants 600 $0 15 $90
Fertilizer (20 20 20) bags 07 $2360 $16
Herbicide and Insecticides (AzetinTM, DipelTM, and MpedeT) package 1 $24515 $245
Drip irrigation lines layout 1 $300 00 $300
Water m3 120 $449 $54
Labor (a) irrigation (set-up & repair) hours 93 $6 25 $58
(b) planting hours 50 $6 25 $31
(c) fertigating and weeding hours 834 $6 25 $521
(d) harvesting (including weighting & bunching) hours 40 0 $6 25 $250
Machinery (a) plowng hectare 0025 $15444 $4
(b) harrowng hectare 0025 $38 61 $1
(c) tilling hectare 0025 $3861 $1
Interest on operating capital $ 6% $1,571 $94
Total Operating Cost $1,666
FIXED COSTS
Land lease hectare 0025 $49 42 $1
Interest on avg investment (excl land) $ 1000% 1041 67 $104
Depreciation (a) irrigation equipment hectare 0025 $257 40 $6
(b) other equipment hectare 0025 $1287 $0
(c) well hectare 0025 $72 08 $2
(d) other hectare 0025 $515 $0
Total Fixed Cost $114
PRE-TAX RETURNS (total revenue total operating costs fixed cost) $16,580

BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM = $1.94

(at current production level) = ([total fixed costs I kgs sold] + [operating cost per kilogram])

NET PRESENT VALUE (PRE-TAX) OF A 20-YEAR LEASE UNDER THIS PRODUCTION $206 626
SYSTEM (AT 5%): $26,

Assumptions
1 Total revenue and costs are rounded off to the nearest dollar
2 Replanting not required due to natural regeneration

Data Source
1 Input and yield data UVI-AES experimental plots, production data are for 2002/2003
2 Depreciation rates Previous UVI-CES enterprise budgets
3 Selected costs and prices VI Dept of Agriculture and previous UVI-CES enterprise budgets
4 Output price Informal survey of local growers, farmers market and supermarket Moringa powder price from WWW search


Item Unit Qty Price ($) Amt


SALES
Sale of fresh lemongrass from 025 ha
Moringa Powder sales

OPERATING COSTS


Total Revenue


kg 5597 $2000 $11,194
kg 3425 $733 $251
$11,445


Seedlings plants 480 $015 $72
Fertilizer (20 20 20) bags 07 $2360 $16
Herbicide and Insecticides (AzetinTM, DipelTM, and MpedeT) package 1 $24515 $245
Drip irrigation lines layout 1 $300 00 $300
Water m3 135 $449 $61
Labor (a) irrigation (set-up & repair) hours 93 $6 25 $58
(b) planting hours 5 5 $6 25 $34
(c) fertigating and weeding hours 834 $6 25 $521
(d) harvesting (including weighting & bunching) hours 742 $6 25 $464
Machinery (a) plowing hectare 0025 $15444 $4
(b) harrowing hectare 0025 $38 61 $1
(c) tilling hectare 0025 $3861 $1
Interest on operating capital $ 6% $1,777 $107
Total Operating Cost $1,884
FIXED COSTS
Land lease hectare 0025 $49 42 $1
Interest on avg investment(excl land) $ 1000% 1041 67 $104
Depreciation (a) irrigation equipment hectare 0025 $257 40 $6
(b) other equipment hectare 0025 $1287 $0
(c) well hectare 0025 $72 08 $2
(d) other hectare 0025 $515 $0
Total Fixed Cost $114
PRE-TAX RETURNS (total revenue total operating costs fixed cost) $9,447

BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM (Lemongrass) = $3.57
BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM (Moringa) = $58.34
(at current production level) = ([total fixed costs I kgs sold] + [operating cost per kilogram])
NET PRESENT VALUE (PRE-TAX) OF A 20-YEAR LEASE UNDER THIS PRODUCTION $117730
SYSTEM (AT 5%): $11


SALES
Sale of fresh lemongrass from 025 ha
Other sales

OPERATING COSTS


Item Unit Qty Price ($) Amt


Total Revenue



















Estimated Costs and Returns at Current Market Prices, St. Croix, USVI, 2002-2003
Ocimum Sole-crop Ocimum Moringa Intercrop
025 hectare unit 025 hectare unit


Item Unit Qty Price ($) Amt
SALES
Sale of fresh basil from 025 ha kg 6564 $2000 $13,128
Other sales $0
Total Revenue $13,128
OPERATING COSTS
Seedlings plants 1200 $015 $180
Fertilizer (20 20 20) bags 07 $2360 $16
Herbicide and Insecticides (AzetinTM, DipelTM, and MpedeT) package 1 $24515 $245
Drip irrigation lines layout 1 $300 00 $300
Water m3 120 $449 $54
Labor (a) irrigation (set-up & repair) hours 9 3 $6 25 $58
(b) planting hours 100 $625 $63
(c) fertigating and weeding hours 834 $6 25 $521
(d) harvesting (including weighting & bunching) hours 300 $625 $188
Machinery (a) plowing hectare 0025 $15444 $4
(b) harrowing hectare 0025 $38 61 $1
(c) tilling hectare 0025 $38 61 $1
Interest on operating capital $ 6% $1,630 $98
Total Operating Cost $1,728
FIXED COSTS
Land lease hectare 0025 $49 42 $1
Interest on avg investment (excl land) $ 1000% 1041 67 $104
Depreciation (a) irrigation equipment hectare 0025 $257 40 $6
(b) other equipment hectare 0025 $1287 $0
(c) well hectare 0025 $7208 $2
(d) other hectare 0025 $515 $0
Total Fixed Cost $114
PRE-TAX RETURNS (total revenue total operating costs fixed cost) $11,286

BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM = $2.81

(at current production level) = ([total fixed costs I kgs sold] + [operating cost per kilogram])

NET PRESENT VALUE (PRE-TAX) OF A 20-YEAR LEASE UNDER THIS PRODUCTION $140,648
SYSTEM (AT 5%):$140,648

Assumptions
1 Total revenue and costs are rounded off to the nearest dollar
2 Two plantings

Data Source
1 Input and yield data UVI-AES experimental plots, production data are for 2002/2003
2 Depreciation rates Previous UVI-CES enterprise budgets
3 Selected costs and prices VI Dept of Agriculture and previous UVI-CES enterprise budgets
4 Output price Informal survey of local growers, farmers market and supermarket Moringa powder price from WWW search


Item Unit Qty Price ($) Amt
SALES
Sale of fresh basil from 025 ha kg 429 3 $20 00 $8,587
Moringa Powder sales kg 34 25 $7 33 $251
Total Revenue $8,838
OPERATING COSTS
Seedlings plants 960 $0 15 $144
Fertilizer (20 20 20) bags 07 $2360 $16
Herbicide and Insecticides (AzetinTM, DipelTM, and MpedeTM) package 1 $24515 $245
Drip irrigation lines layout 1 $300 00 $300
Water m3 135 $449 $61
_abor (a) irrigation (set-up & repair) hours 93 $6 25 $58
(b) planting hours 95 $6 25 $59
(c) fertigating and weeding hours 834 $6 25 $521
(d) harvesting (including weighting & bunching) hours 662 $625 $414
Vachinery (a) plowing hectare 0025 $15444 $4
(b) harrowng hectare 0 025 $38 61 $1
(c) tilling hectare 0025 $3861 $1
interest on operating capital $ 6% $1,824 $109
Total Operating Cost $1,933
=IXED COSTS
_and lease hectare 0025 $49 42 $1
interest on avg investment (excl land) $ 1000% 1041 67 $104
Depreciation (a) irrigation equipment hectare 0025 $257 40 $6
(b) other equipment hectare 0025 $1287 $0
(c) well hectare 0 025 $72 08 $2
(d) other hectare 0025 $515 $0
Total Fixed Cost $114
PRE-TAX RETURNS (total revenue total operating costs fixed cost) $6,790

BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM (Basil) = $4.77
BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM (Moringa) = $59.79
(at current production level) = ([total fixed costs I kgs sold] + [operating cost per kilogram])
NET PRESENT VALUE (PRE-TAX) OF A 20-YEAR LEASE UNDER THIS PRODUCTION $84622
SYSTEM (AT 5%): $4,




















Estimated Costs and Returns at Current Market Prices, St. Croix, USVI, 2002-2003
Stachytarpheta Sole-crop Stachytarpheta Moringa Intercrop
025 hectare unit 025 hectare unit


Item Unit Qty Price ($) Amt
SALES


Sale of fresh worrywine from 025 ha kg 8652 $2000 $17,304
Other sales $0
Total Revenue $17,304
OPERATING COSTS
Seedlings plants 600 $015 $90
Fertilizer (20 20 20) bags 07 $2360 $16
Herbicide and Insecticides (AzetinTM, DipelTM, and MpedeTM) package 1 $24515 $245
Drip irrigation lines layout 1 $300 00 $300
Water m3 120 $449 $54
Labor (a) irrigation (set-up & repair) hours 93 $6 25 $58
(b) planting hours 5 0 $6 25 $31
(c) fertigating and weeding hours 83 4 $6 25 $521
(d) harvesting (including weighting & bunching) hours 200 $625 $125
Machinery (a) plowing hectare 0025 $15444 $4
(b) harrowing hectare 0 025 $38 61 $1
(c) tilling hectare 0025 $3861 $1
Interest on operating capital $ 6% $1,446 $87
Total Operating Cost $1,533
FIXED COSTS
Land lease hectare 0025 $49 42 $1


Interest on avg i
Depreciation (a)
(b) c
(c)
(d) c


investment (excl land) $ 1000% 1041 67 $104
irrigation equipment hectare 0025 $257 40 $6
other equipment hectare 0025 $1287 $0
well hectare 0025 $72 08 $2
other hectare 0025 $515 $0
Total Fixed Cost $114
PRE-TAX RETURNS (total revenue total operating costs fixed cost) $15,657
$15,657


BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM = $1.90

(at current production level) = ([total fixed costs I kgs sold] + [operating cost per kilogram])

NET PRESENT VALUE (PRE-TAX) OF A 20-YEAR LEASE UNDER THIS PRODUCTION $195117
SYSTEM (AT 5%): 1 ,11

Assumptions
1 Total revenue and costs are rounded off to the nearest dollar

Data Source
1 Input and yield data UVI-AES experimental plots, production data are for 2002/2003
2 Depreciation rates Previous UVI-CES enterprise budgets
3 Selected costs and prices VI Dept of Agriculture and previous UVI-CES enterprise budgets
4 Output price Informal survey of local growers, farmers market and supermarket Moringa powder price from WWW search


Item Unit Qty Price ($) Amt


SALES
Sale of fresh worrywne from 025 ha
Moringa Powder sales

OPERATING COSTS


La



Mn


Int


Total Revenue


kg 4882 $2000 $9,763
kg 34 25 $7 33 $251
$10,014


Seedlings plants 480 $015 $72
Fertilizer (20 20 20) bags 07 $2360 $16
Herbicide and Insecticides (AzetinTM, DipelTM, and MpedeTM) package 1 $24515 $245
Drip irrigation lines layout 1 $300 00 $300
Water m3 135 $449 $61
bor (a) irrigation (set-up & repair) hours 93 $6 25 $58
(b) planting hours 55 $6 25 $34
(c) fertigating and weeding hours 83 4 $6 25 $521
(d) harvesting (including weighting & bunching) hours 582 $6 25 $364
achinery (a) plowing hectare 0025 $15444 $4
(b) harrowing hectare 0025 $38 61 $1
(c) tilling hectare 0025 $3861 $1
terest on operating capital $ 6% $1,677 $101
Total Operating Cost $1,778


FIXED COSTS


Land lease
Interest on avg I
Depreciation (a)
(b) o
(c) w
(d) c


hectare 0025 $49 42 $1
investment (excl land) $ 1000% 1041 67 $104
irrigation equipment hectare 0025 $257 40 $6
their equipment hectare 0025 $1287 $0
vell hectare 0025 $72 08 $2
other hectare 0025 $515 $0
Total Fixed Cost $114
PRE-TAX RETURNS (total revenue total operating costs fixed cost) $8,123
$o,12o


BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM (Worrywine) = $3.88
BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM (Moringa) = $55.24
(at current production level) = ([total fixed costs I kgs sold] + [operating cost per kilogram])
NET PRESENT VALUE (PRE-TAX) OF A 20-YEAR LEASE UNDER THIS PRODUCTION $101,225
SYSTEM (AT 5%): $10



















Estimated Costs and Returns at Current Market Prices, St. Croix, USVI, 2002-2003


Verbesina Sole-crop
025 hectare unit


Verbesina -Moringa Intercrop
025 hectare unit


Item Unit Qty Price ($) Amt
SALES
Sale of fresh inflammation bush from 025 ha kg 121 2 $2500 $3,030
Other sales $0
Total Revenue $3,030
OPERATING COSTS
Seedlings plants 600 $0 15 $90
Fertilizer (20 20 20) bags 07 $2360 $16
Herbicide and Insecticides (AzetinTM, DipelTM, and MpedeTM) package 1 $24515 $245
Drip irrigation lines layout 1 $300 00 $300
Water m3 120 $449 $54
Labor (a) irrigation (set-up & repair) hours 93 $6 25 $58
(b) planting hours 5 0 $6 25 $31
(c) fertigating and weeding hours 834 $6 25 $521
(d) harvesting (including weighting & bunching) hours 300 $625 $188
Machinery (a) plowing hectare 0025 $15444 $4
(b) harrowing hectare 0 025 $38 61 $1
(c) tilling hectare 0025 $3861 $1
Interest on operating capital $ 6% $1,509 $91
Total Operating Cost $1,599
FIXED COSTS
Land lease hectare 0 025 $49 42 $1
Interest on avg investment (excl land) $ 1000% 1041 67 $104
Depreciation (a) irrigation equipment hectare 0 025 $257 40 $6
(b) other equipment hectare 0025 $1287 $0
(c) well hectare 0025 $72 08 $2
(d) other hectare 0025 $515 $0
Total Fixed Cost $114
PRE-TAX RETURNS (total revenue total operating costs fixed cost) $1,316

BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM = $14.14

(at current production level) = ([total fixed costs/ kgs sold] + [operating cost per kilogram])

NET PRESENT VALUE (PRE-TAX) OF A 20-YEAR LEASE UNDER THIS PRODUCTION $16 406
SYSTEM (AT 5%):

Assumptions
1 Total revenue and costs are rounded off to the nearest dollar
2 Replanting not required due to natural regeneration

Data Source
1 Input and yield data UVI-AES experimental plots, production data are for 2002/2003
2 Depreciation rates Prevous UVI-CES enterprise budgets
3 Selected costs and prices VI Dept of Agriculture and previous UVI-CES enterprise budgets
4 Output price Informal survey of local growers, farmers market and supermarket Moringa powder price from WWW search


Item Unit Qty Pnce ($) Amt
SALES
Sale of fresh inflammation bush from 025 ha kg 638 $2500 $1,596
Moringa Powder sales kg 34 25 $7 33 $251
Total Revenue $1,847
OPERATING COSTS
Seedlings plants 480 $0 15 $72
Fertilizer (20 20 20) bags 07 $2360 $16
Herbicide and Insecticides (AzetinTM, DipelTM, and MpedeT) package 1 $24515 $245
Drip irrigation lines layout 1 $300 00 $300
Water m3 135 $4 49 $61
Labor (a) irrigation (set-up & repair) hours 93 $6 25 $58
(b) planting hours 5 5 $6 25 $34
(c) fertigating and weeding hours 834 $6 25 $521
(d) harvesting (including weighting & bunching) hours 662 $6 25 $414
Machinery (a) plowing hectare 0025 $15444 $4
(b) harrowing hectare 0025 $38 61 $1
(c) tilling hectare 0025 $38 61 $1
Interest on operating capital $ 6% $1,727 $104
Total Operating Cost $1,831
FIXED COSTS
Land lease hectare 0025 $49 42 $1
Interest on avg investment (excl land) $ 1000% 1041 67 $104
Depreciation (a) irrigation equipment hectare 0 025 $257 40 $6
(b) other equipment hectare 0025 $1287 $0
(c) well hectare 0025 $72 08 $2
(d) other hectare 0025 $515 $0
Total Fixed Cost $114
PRE-TAX RETURNS (total revenue total operating costs fixed cost) -$98

BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM (Inflammation Bush) = $30.46
BREAK-EVEN PRICE PER KILOGRAM (Moringa) = $56.79
(at current production level) = ([total fixed costs/ kgssold] + [operating cost per kilogram])

NET PRESENT VALUE (PRE-TAX) OF A 20-YEAR LEASE UNDER THIS PRODUCTION $1217
SYSTEM (AT 5%): -$1















APPENDIX B
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS VARIABLES

Allium schoenoprasum (Chives)

1. The mean yield per plant (wet weight) from each block of the control (area = 37.5
m2, N = 157) was 0.13 kg. In 250 m2 there would be 1800 plants on 20.3 cm (8")
drip line (120 plants per line 15 lines), therefore yield from 250 m2 can be
expected to be = 0.13 kg 1800 = 235.8 kg / 250 m2. The mean yield per plant
(wet weight) from each block of the treatment (area = 37.5 m2, N = 155) was 0.06
kg. In 250 m2 intercrop there would be 1440 plants on 20.3 cm (8") drip line (120
plants per line 12 lines), therefore the yield from 250 m2 can be expected to be
0.06 1440 = 87.8. This is the yield from 2 harvests.

2. Market price of $22 kg-1 for fresh chives was determined from previous AES
enterprise budgets and informal surveys of St. Croix and St. John markets.

3. Average yield (wet weight) of Moringa cuttings from harvest 1 was 0.64 kg. Dry
weight equaled 35.8%. Average yield dry Moringa powder per tree from harvest 1
was therefore 0.64 kg 0.36 = 0.23 kg. Average yield (wet weight) of Moringa
cuttings from harvest 2 was 2.13 kg. Dry weight equaled 25.1%. Average yield
dry Moringa power per tree from harvest two was therefore 2.13 kg 0.25 = 0.53
kg. In three, 25-meter long alleys with in-row spacing of 1.75 meters, there would
be 15 trees per row, for 45 trees total. Total Moringa powder yield for 250 m2
would be 45 trees 0.23 + 45 trees 0.53 = 34.25 kg.

4. Moringa powder was estimated to be $7.33 per kg based on web searches for
Moringa powder products, which yielded a minimum retail price of $22 per kg
(Moringa Farms, 2003), assuming farmers could capture 33% of this price.

5. Chives are an annual that require replanting in subsequent years. $0.15 per plant is
the price per seedling from the Virgin Islands, Department of Agriculture,
Kingshill, St. Croix.

6. Fertilizer (20-20-20) used for the research field (370 m2) was one bag, at $23.60.
One species occupied 37 m2 so fertilizer required per species is one bag / 10 6.67
(250 m2 / 37 m2 = 6.67) = 0.67 bags for 250 m2.

7. Herbicide and insecticides used were Azatin ($174.75 per quart), Dipel ($15.60
per bag), and Mpede ($54.80 per 2.5 gallon bottle). Precise amounts were not
available, so price per unit is used.









8. Drip irrigation for a sole-crop covering 250 m2 would require 375 meters (15 lines
x 25 m = 375 m or 1200 feet) drip tape at $0.80 per meters, 45 meters of polyhose
at $0.32 per meter, 15 "T's" at $1.25 each and 15 endcaps at $0.85 each. Drip
irrigation for the intercrop covering 250 m2 would require 300 meters (960 feet)
drip tape, 116 meters of polyhose, 15 "T's", 15 endcaps, 45 emitters at $0.75 each
and one emitter hole punch at $10.

9. 12 m3 of water at the UVI rate of $4.49 / m3. Basil water usage of 12 m3 was
determined by dividing total gallons (4773.4 for each 24" species) by 10 (2
treatments and 5 species) and multiplying by 6.67 (for 250 m2) then converting
from gallons to m3 (3.79 m3 / 1000 gallons). Moringa water usage was 1.49 m3
(295.2 gallons / 5 6.67 = 393.62 gallons).

10. Going rate of labor on St. Croix is $6.25 per hour.

11. Irrigation setup and repair was 9.3 hours per species per treatment for the season
(14 hrs / 10 6.67 = 9.3 hours).

12. Planting time required for the sole-crop is 10 hours (3 plants / minute 1800 plants
= 600 minutes / 60 = 10 hours) and 8 hours for the intercrop (1440 plants).
Moringa hedgerows require 1.5 hours to establish and replant.

13. Fertigating and weeding was 83.4 hours (125 hours / 10 6.67 = 83.38).

14. Harvesting and bunching estimated to be 4 plants per minute per harvest, which
equals 15 hours for the 1800 chive plants in the sole-crop (1800 plants / 4 plants
per minute 2 chive harvests / 60 minutes = 15 hours) and 12 hours for the
intercrop (1440 plants). Moringa harvesting and drying estimated to require 42.2
hours to process yield from 250 m2 per season.

15. Plowing is estimated to be $154.44 per ha ($60 / ac from 1999, adjusted by *
1.04167, the rate of inflation, to $62.50 2.471 ac / ha = $154.44). Harrowing and
tilling were estimated to be $38.61 per ha ($15 / ac from 1999, adjusted by *
1.04167 to $15.63 2.471 ac /ha = $38.61).

16. Interest on operating capital equal to 1% per month.

17. Land lease from the Virgin Islands Department of Agriculture = $20 / acre 2.471
acre / ha = $49.42 / ha.

18. Interest on average investment (excluding land) = $1000 (1999 rate) adjusted by
1.04167 to $1041.67.

19. Depreciation on irrigation = $100 1.04167 = $104.17 2.471 acres/ha = $257.40;
on other equipment = $5 1.04167 = $5.21 2.471 acres/ha = $12.87; on well =
$28 1.04167 =$29.17 2.471 acres/ha = $72.08; on other = $2 1.04167=
$2.08 2.471 =$5.15.









Coriandrum sativum (Cilantro)

20. The mean yield per plant (wet weight) from each block of the control (area = 37.5
m2, N = 70) was 0.20 kg. The yield from 250 m2 can be expected to be = 0.20 kg *
1800 = 363.6 kg / 250 m2. The mean yield per plant (wet weight) from each block
of the treatment (area = 37.5 m2, N = 44) was 0.08 kg. The yield from 250 m2 can
be expected to be = 0.08 1440 = 120.96. This is the yield from 3 harvests.

21. Market price of $22 kg-1 for fresh cilantro was determined from informal surveys of
St. Croix and St. John markets.

22. Cilantro is an annual that would require replanting in subsequent years.

23. Planting time required is 10 hours for the sole-crop and 8 hours for the intercrop.
Moringa hedgerows require 1.5 hours to establish and replant.

24. Harvesting and bunching estimated to be 22.5 hours for cilantro (1800 plants / 4
plants per minute 3 cilantro harvests / 60 minutes = 22.5 hours) and 18 hours for
the intercrop (1440 plants). Moringa harvesting and drying estimated to require
42.2 hours to process yield from 250 m2 per season.



Cymbopogon citratus (Lemongrass)

25. The mean yield per plant (wet weight) from each block of the control (area = 37.5
m2, N = 72) was 1.53 kg. The yield from 250 m2 can be expected to be = 1.53 kg *
600 = 918 kg / 250 m2. The mean yield per plant (wet weight) from each block of
the treatment (area = 37.5 m2, N = 72) was 1.17 kg. The yield from 250 m2 can be
expected to be = 1.17 480 = 559.7 kg / 250 m2. This is the yield from 4 harvests.

26. Market price of $20 kg- for fresh lemongrass was determined from informal
surveys of St. Croix and St. John markets.

27. Lemongrass is a perennial that if managed properly, once established, would not
require replanting.

28. Lemongrass planting time required is 5 hours for the sole-crop and 4 hours for the
intercrop. Moringa hedgerows require 1.5 hours to establish and replant.

29. Harvesting and bunching estimated to be 40 hours for lemongrass (600 plants 1
minute 4 lemongrass harvests / 60 minutes = 40 hours) and 32 hours for the
intercrop (480 plants). Moringa harvesting and drying estimated to require 42.2
hours to process yield from 250 m2 per season.









Ocimum basilicum (Basil)

30. The mean yield per plant (wet weight) from each block of the control (area = 37.5
m2, N = 72) was 1.09 kg. A 250 m2 field, 25 m long with 15 lines spaced 71 cm
apart would have 40 plants on each 61 cm (24") drip line for a total of 600 plants
(40 plants per line 15 lines = 600 plants). Therefore yield from 250 m2 can be
expected to be = 1.09 kg 600 = 656.4 kg / 250 m2. The mean yield per plant (wet
weight) from each block of the treatment (area = 37.5 m2, N = 72) was 0.89 kg. A
250 m2 field with two, five meter alleys and six lines in each, would have 480
plants (40 plants per line 12 lines = 480 plants) and the yield can be expected to
be = 0.89 kg 480 = 429.3 kg / 250 m2.

31. Market price of $20 kg-1 for fresh basil was determined from informal surveys of
St. Croix and St. John markets.

32. Basil was replanted once so 1200 plants are required for the sole-crop and 960
plants are required for the intercrop.

33. Planting time required for the sole-crop is estimated to be 10 hours (-2 plants /
minute 600 plants = 300 minutes / 60 = 5 hours two plantings). Planting time
required for the intercrop is estimated to be 8 hours (480 plants). Moringa
hedgerows require 1.5 hours to establish and replant (45 trees 2 minutes to plant /
tree = 90 minutes).

34. Harvesting and bunching estimated to be 1 minute per plant per harvest, which
equals 30 hours for the sole-crop (600 plants 1 minute 3 basil harvests / 60
minutes = 30 hours) and 24 hours for the 480 basil plants in the intercrop. Moringa
harvesting and drying (15 hours required to harvest and process samples from 2
harvests, N = 8) = 15 / 16 = 0.94 hours per tree 45 trees = 42.2 hours to process
yield from 250 m2 per season.



Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (Worrywine)

35. The mean yield per plant (wet weight) from each block of the control (area = 37.5
m2, N = 72) was 1.44 kg. The yield from 250 m2 can be expected to be = 1.44 kg *
600 = 865.2 kg / 250 m2. The mean yield per plant (wet weight) from each block
of the treatment (area = 37.5 m2, N = 72) was 1.02 kg. The yield from 250 m2 can
be expected to be = 1.02 480 = 488.2 kg / 250 m2. This is the yield from 3
harvests.

36. Market price of $20 kg- for fresh worrywine was determined from informal
surveys of St. Croix and St. John markets.

37. Worrywine is an annul that would require replanting in subsequent years.









38. Planting time required is 5 hours for the sole-crop and 4 hours for the intercrop.
Moringa hedgerows require 1.5 hours to establish and replant.

39. Harvesting and bunching estimated to be 20 hours for worrywine control (600
plants 1 minute 2 worrywine harvests / 60 minutes = 20 hours) and 16 hours for
the intercrop (480 plants). Moringa harvesting and drying estimated to require 42.2
hours to process yield from 250 m2 per season.



Verbesina alata (Inflammation Bush)

40. The mean yield per plant (wet weight) from each block of the control (area = 37.5
m2, N = 53) was 0.20 kg. The yield from 250 m2 can be expected to be = 0.20 kg *
600 = 121.2 kg / 250 m2. The mean yield per plant (wet weight) from each block
of the treatment (area = 37.5 m2, N = 50) was 0.13 kg. The yield from 250 m2 can
be expected to be = 0.13 kg 480 = 63.8 kg / 250 m2. This is the yield from 3
harvests.

41. Market price of $20 per kilo for fresh inflammation bush was determined from
informal surveys of St. Croix and St. John markets.

42. Inflammation bush is an annual, though if managed properly once established
would not require replanting, since it produces numerous seeds which germinate
rapidly.

43. Planting time required is 5 hours for the sole-crop (z2 plants / minute 600 plants
= 300 minutes / 60 = 5 hours) and 4 hours for the intercrop (480 plants). Moringa
hedgerows require 1.5 hours to establish and replant.

44. Harvesting and bunching estimated to be 30 hours for inflammation bush sole-crop
(600 plants 1 minute 3 inflammation bush harvests / 60 minutes = 30 hours) and
24 hours for the intercrop (480 plants). Moringa harvesting and drying estimated
to require 42.2 hours to process yield from 250 m2 per season.















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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Brian Becker was born into a military family living in Okinawa, Japan, in 1970.

Returning to the United States with his family he lived in Louisiana, Georgia, Michigan,

and Texas before settling in Kansas where he completed his bachelor's degree in

anthropology and wildlife biology with a secondary major in natural resources and

environmental sciences at Kansas State University. His work with non-timber forest

product management, including medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs), began with a

Peace Corps assignment with Nepal's Community Forest Program, and continued to

include the United States' Appalachian Mountains, southeastern costal plain and the US

Virgin Islands. His research interests include the biometrics, management, production

and marketing of non-timber forest products. He is currently a research coordinator with

the School of Forest Resources and Conservation's Phytoremediation and Short Rotation

Woody Crops Program at the University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.