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Marco Pereira: Brazilian Guitar Virtuoso

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PAGE 1

MARCO PEREIRA: BRAZILIAN GUITAR VIRTUOSOByBRENT LEE SWANSONA THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOLOF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENTOF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF MUSICUNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA2004

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Copyright 2004byBrent Lee Swanson

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To my parents, Craig and Charlene.

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ivACKNOWLEDGMENTSI would first and foremost like to thank God for the spiritual guidance needed tocomplete this work. I thank the School of Music and Dr. Larry Crook for introducing meto Brazilian music, helping me get an assistantship, mentoring me for over 8 years. Moreimportantly, for having the patience to deal with the various personal idiosyncrasies that Iam sure caused him grief over the years. I thank Foreign Language and Area Studies(FLAS) and the Center for Latin American Studies for the opportunity to learnPortuguese in Rio de Janeiro (especially Amanda Wolfe). I thank Dr. Welson Tremurafor introducing me to the Brazilian guitar, for mentoring me in all of my various studies,for yelling at me in rehearsals, for being a friend when I needed him, for letting me stayat his great house in So Jose do Rio Preto, and for all of the wonderful opportunities toplay Brazilian music. I thank Dr. Charles Perrone for his love of Brazilian popular music(and well, for being Charles). I thank Jeffrey Lightning Ladenheim for introducing meto jazz, for calling me Sheehan, for yelling at me in rehearsals, and for being a friendthrough all my troubles; for all the opportunities he has given me. I thank KevinCasseday for his patience, for all the great conversations in our lessons, and for allowingme learn the double bass the way I needed.I would like to thank all my family: Mom, Dad, Dawn, Jeff, Andrew, Booshie,Grammie, Grampie, Gloria, Robert and Carol, Mike and Laura, Michael, Annie, Craig,Steve, Ron, Gary, Tommy, Auntie Annie and Tom, Kathy and Pat, Cheryl and Jim, Markand Sue, Becky and Chris, Jamie, A.J., Ryan, Jenna, Allison, Sydney, Jason, Scott,

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vHeather, and Mia. I thank them for all of their support of my work, and for loving methrough difficult times.I thank my friends in the U.S. I thank Alex, Brian, and Kris for their honesty andclose friendship throughout the years. I thank Aaron Blacking Keebaugh formeditating on Philip Bohlman. I thank David Mason Goldblatt for his impressionsand for playing music with me in church. I thank Steve Bingham for all the great parties.I thank David Kenyan Honkey #1 Akombo for all the bad jokes (whats with all thenicknames?). I thank Sunni for the laughs and conversation in the backyard, and forintroducing me to Luciana. I thank Luciana for being such a cool guide in Rio, andhelping translate all of those books. I thank B.E., Beth, Billy, Mary, Ellen, Clay, Erik,Nolan and all those who prayed for me at Chapel House. I thank Ted and SusanGriswold for their unwavering support of my musical career. I thank Annie Johnson forteaching me how to be a worship leader. I thank Abby for letting me stay with her inMiami. I thank my godchild Clare, Larry Goble, Alex Farmer, and all those at St.Michaels. I thank Amy, Heather, Nahum, and all those at St. Andrews for all of theirprayers and support. I thank my princess Wendy for loving me as I am, and enduringtalking to a brick wall throughout this process.I thank Leslie Lambert, Pat Grunder, and all those at SFCC who were patient withme while completing my degree.I thank all of my Brazilian friends. I thank Maria, my Brazilian grandmother, forshowing me the best places to go in Rio, for introducing me to Beth Carvalho, and forletting me stay at her wonderful Copacabana palace. I thank Gui, Kiko, and Thais for allthe wonderful times playing music together in Rio. I thank Maestre Boca and Marco for

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viall the great times, for showing me how to play the pandeiro and tambourim, for all of thegreat jokes, and for calling me BRENNNNNTCHIE! I thank all of Welson and Renatasfamily in SJRP for being such wonderful hosts. I thank Hamilton de Holanda for all thegreat memories here in Gainesville, and for allowing me to play with the best mandolinistin the world! And most of all I thank Marco Pereira for all of his patience and kindness,allowing me to perform with him, and write this thesis about his wonderful contributionsto Brazilian popular music.

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vii TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ..............................................................................................iv LIST OF FIGURES........................................................................................................ix ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................xi CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE ............................................1 Prologue ...................................................................................................................1 Introductio n..............................................................................................................3 Review of th e Literat ure...........................................................................................9 2THE GUITAR IN BRAZIL: ORIGINS, PERFORMERS, AND INFLUENCES OF MARCO PEREIRA................................................................................................15 Introductio n............................................................................................................ 15 Origins...................................................................................................................16 The Guitar in th e Choro/Samb a..............................................................................34 Guitarists of th e Choro/Samb a................................................................................38 The Bossa Nova era................................................................................................57 Paulinho Nogu eira (1929-2002) ....................................................................... 61 Baden Pow ell (1937-2000) ..............................................................................67 Vocal Accomp anists ...............................................................................................77 International Influen ces ..........................................................................................79 Conclusion.............................................................................................................80 3THE LIFE AND MUSIC OF MARCO PEREIRA AND CONCLUSION ...............83 Introductio n............................................................................................................ 83 Biography ............................................................................................................... 84 Guitar St yle............................................................................................................95 Equipment............................................................................................................100 Compositional Style.............................................................................................102 Arranging Style....................................................................................................110 The Coltran e Waltz? ......................................................................................112 Conclusions..........................................................................................................117

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viii APPENDIXAGLOSSARY OF TERMS.....................................................................................121BGENERAL WEBSITES.......................................................................................123LIST OF REFERENCES.............................................................................................124DISCOGRAPHY........................................................................................................128BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................131

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ixLIST OF FIGURESFigure page 2-1Afro-Brazilian rhythm..........................................................................................232-2Excerpt from Vitorioso by Ernesto Nazar........................................................272-3Schottisch guitar style..........................................................................................362-4Polca guitar style.................................................................................................372-5Maxixe guitar style...............................................................................................372-6Valsa guitar style..................................................................................................372-7Tutes baixaria performance with Grupo Carioca on No Sei by Jos Pereirada Silva................................................................................................................412-8 Transcription of Dino 7 Cordas performance on As Rosas No Falam............462-9Excerpt from Dengoso by Joo Pernoambuco...................................................502-10Examples of non-classical guitar techniques employed by many guitarists ofBrazilian popular music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries............................522-11Excerpt from Lamentos do Morro by Garoto....................................................532-12Photo of Gianini craviola taken by Frank Ford.....................................................632-13Excerpt from Bachianinha no. 1 by Paulinho Nogueira.....................................642-14Excerpt from Reflexes em 2 por 4. by Paulinho Nogueira...............................662-15Photo of Baden Powell at the 1967 Berlin Jazz Festival taken by Frank Bender...712-16Excerpt from Consolao by Baden Powell.......................................................732-17Excerpts of the A and B sections of Tempo Feliz by Baden Powell...................762-18Transcription of guitar intro. riff from Gils Expresso 2222..............................782-19Transcription of Boscos playing on Incompatibilidade de Genios....................79

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x 3-1Slap bass section of Tio Boros by Marco Pereira..............................................973-2Transcription of frevo rhythm...............................................................................983-3Excerpt of Seu Tonica Na Ladeira as performed by Marco Pereira onOriginal...............................................................................................................993-4First section of Tio Boros as performed on Original.......................................1043-5Second section of Tio Boros as performed on Original...................................1053-6Coda of Tio Boros as performed on Original..................................................1063-7Excerpt of Bate-Coxa as performed in Original..............................................1083-8Excerpt from Num Pagode Em Planaltina as performed on Original...............1093-9Excerpt from written out section of Valsa Negra.............................................1113-10Excerpt from improvised section of Valsa Negra............................................1113-11Plainte as recorded on Valsas Brasilerias........................................................115

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xi Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Schoolof the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of theRequirements for the Degree of Master of MusicMARCO PEREIRA: BRAZILIAN GUITAR VIRTUOSOByBrent Lee SwansonAugust 2004Chair: Larry CrookMajor Department: MusicThis study traces the history of the guitar in Brazil and explores the life and artistryof Brazilian guitar virtuoso Marco Pereira. Marco Pereira is well known throughoutBrazil as a consummate performer, arranger, and composer; he is considered by many tobe one of Brazils most important contemporary guitarists. Mr. Pereira has worked withvirtually every major contributor to Brazilian popular music during his time. Anexamination of his biography, compositions, musical influences, and technique willilluminate his Brazilian guitar style. The goals of this work are 1) to provide first a briefhistory of the Brazilian guitar and the primary guitarists who have influenced the life andwork of Marco Pereira, 2) to explore his biography, and 3) to analyze his contributions toBrazilian musical culture.The thesis highlights the importance of the guitar and guitarists in craftingBrazilian musical identity. From the introduction of guitar-like instruments into Brazilianterritories by the Portuguese and other Europeans, to the international spread of virtuosic

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xii techniques developed by the countrys top performers, performance practices on theguitar have undergone transformations. My study outlines the major transformations inBrazilian guitar playing over the course of the twentieth century, and attempts to codifythe Brazilian guitar style. In addition to illuminating the idiosyncrasies of Brazilian guitar style, I also focuson the guitarists (consciously or subconsciously) who were most influential to themusical development of Marco Pereira, and how these musicians contribute to Brazilianidentity in the international arena. Just as the samba became the national music of Brazil,the guitar has emerged as a symbol of Brazils national musical identity. My studyexplores the guitars role as mediator between lowerand upperclass Brazilians, andexplores Brazilian popular and art music. I demonstrate how the hybrid role of theBrazilian guitar is representative of Brazils densely mixed culture. I conclude thatMarco Pereiras hybrid guitar style is also representative of Brazilian musical identity.

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1 CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW OF LITERATUREPrologueMy introduction to Brazilian music was in 1993, when I was a burgeoning youngstudent of jazz. First as a pianist and guitarist, and later as a bassist, I discovered thebossa novas of Jobim, Bonf, and others in my studies of The Real Book (unpublishedillegal version). I had not listened to much Brazilian music other than my Best of BossaNova CD by Compact Jazz and various butchered versions of Tico-Tico No Fuba thatsounded more like salsa than choro, and much of my education of samba came from therhythmic example in Essential Styles: For the Drummer and Bassist (Book I). As far as Iwas concerned, my retort after getting lost in the guitarists fourth chorus of solo onMeditation was Blame it on the Bossa Nova.This medicated introduction to Brazilian music distorted my view of thecountrys musical culture. This changed when I came to the University of Florida (UF)in 1996, to study ethnomusicology with Dr. Larry Crook. In my first semester, Iperformed with his university ensemble Jacar Brazil (Gator Brazil), in which I had thehonor of working with one of Brazils most famous bloco-afro groups from Bahia,Olodum. Through Jacar Brazil (8 years and counting) I learned first-hand a diversity ofBrazilian musical styles, including samba do rio, samba-reggae, maracat, cco, baio,frevo, embolada, msica caipira, choro, bossa nova, MPB, Brazilian jazz, and variousother Brazilian musical genres and styles. I have had the privilege of working with someof Brazils finest musicians and dancers, including Tote Gixa, Jelon Vieina, Mestre Boca,

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2 Ney Rosaro, Joo do Pife, Carlos Malta, and most recently Hamilton de Holanda andMarco Pereira. Through these experiences I learned many things about Brazilian music.It was out of my initial work with to Marco Pereira and introduction to his music that Iformulated this thesis.I first met Marco Pereira in May 2003 when he came to UFs Brazilian MusicInstitute to conduct a weeklong clinic on the Brazilian guitar. This was not my firstexposure to Brazilian-style guitar playing. However, I was not prepared for what Iexperienced that week. The level of his virtuosity intimidated, yet inspired me tounderstand the world of Brazilian guitar on a much deeper level. In many senses, Ireverted back to the infatuation of my teenage years when I listened to electric guitarvirtuosos Steve Vai, Joe Satriani, and Eric Johnson (to name a few). But this time, Iheard the same intensity, not from a heavily amplified and effected electric guitar, butfrom an acoustic nylon-string (or classical) guitar.I have always thought of the nylon-string guitar as a subtle yet passive instrumentplayed by classical musicians, by Spanish performers, or by Brazilian musicians toaccompany a bossa nova, samba, or choro piece. I always knew that this nylon-stringguitar could be used in a fairly intense way, but I had not realized that it could equal thetumultuous experience of a loud rock guitar. On one hand, I had listened to Brazilianvirtuosos such as Baden Powell, the Assad Brothers, and even recordings of Pereira; butthere was something different about seeing and hearing Pereira live that changed myview of the instrument altogether. The classical guitar was no longer a passiveinstrument to me, but one that could equally emote the sensations I feel when listening toJimi Hendrix, John Coltrane, or Muddy Waters.

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3 After becoming hooked on Brazils musical culture while living in the UnitedStates, I received the opportunity to visit the country through a Foreign Language andArea Studies (FLAS) grant administered through the Center for Latin American Studiesat UF. This grant allowed me to stay in Rio de Janeiro to study Portuguese and Brazilianculture for 6 weeks, and to see and hear various concerts. This was also the first time Iwas able to hear Pereira and his partner, the famous mandolinist Hamilton de Holanda,perform selections from their new CD Luz das Cordas at SESC (a small theatre inCopacabana). This was an amazing display of technical virtuosity, as well as one of thegreatest concerts I saw in Rio. Hearing Pereira in his own environment assured me thathe is one of the greatest guitarists in Brazil, and one of the greatest Brazilian guitaristswho ever lived. These experiences gave me a new love for the Brazilian guitar, and theinspiration to research and write this thesis.IntroductionThe term Violo Brasileiro (Brazilian guitar) is a complex designation, yet there issomething distinct about the nylon-stringed acoustic guitar in Brazil. Through the yearsit has undergone various physical transformations: from the roots of plucked lute and ten-stringed double-coursed viola, to six steel strings, to six nylon-strings; and since the early20th century, to seven or eight nylon-strings. There is virtually no difference betweenphysical construction of the Brazilian guitar and the typical nylon-stringed classicalguitar (except that the wood is often all Brazilian, although this is also true of some non-Brazilian guitars). Rather, it is the performance practice in the various genres ofBrazilian music that defines the instrument as Brazilian. The guitar music of Brazil cangenerally be divided into two broad categories: Msica Erudta (Western Art/Classical

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4Music), and Msica Popular Brasileira or Brazilian Popular Music. However, there aremultifarious subcategories of these genres, and the lines between them are often blurred.My study focuses on the guitar styles of performers generally classified within thecategory of Brazilian Popular Music, but at the same time respects the fact that Brazilianmusicians often blur boundaries.For the purposes of my study, Brazilian Popular Music (MPB)1 is defined as thosegenres or styles that are generally excluded from the more elite Msica Erudta, andincludes choro, samba, baio, frevo, msica sertaneja, bossa nova, tropiclia, sambafunk, samba novo/msica instrumental brasileira contemporanea/msicaimprovisada/jazz-samba/hard-bossa or any other style that can be classified as Brazilianjazz.2 The musical differences in these styles are based primarily on the various rhythmsthat define them. However, many styles (like tropiclia) do not necessarily have musicalidiosyncrasies that distinguish them from other genres, but are defined in terms of theirassociation with social movements of various epochs. Thus, it is difficult to categorizeBrazilian popular music, and the term MPB can be ambiguous, to say the least. Whilemany genres/styles are covered under the blanket term MPB, almost all of these stylesinclude the guitar in the instrumentation. This association has helped shape the identityof the Brazilian guitar, and therefore it shares somewhat of a symbiotic relationship to 1 This is not to be confused with the post-bossa nova musical designation of MPB, which is morespecifically associated with the music of Edu Lobo, Gilberto Gil, Caetano Veloso, etc. This became a kindof everything but classification to distinguish this kind of Brazilian popular music production from rockand other foreign-associated popular music styles. However, I will refer to this type of MPB whendiscussing the tropicalist movement and Marco Pereiras musical style, and I will note this at theappropriate times.2 These classifications come from Andrew Mark Connells doctoral dissertation Jazz Brasileiro? MsicaInstrumental Brasileira and the Representation of Identity (2002).

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5MPB. On one hand, the Brazilian guitar is defined by its performance practice, yet on theother hand the instrument is also a definitive aspect of the broader musical culture itself.The guitar has become a symbol of Brazils national cultural identity, andperforming MPB without a guitar is almost unimaginable. It is true that Brazilian musicis rooted in the rhythmic syncretism of African and European (and sometimesAmerindian) musical cultures initially spread throughout the country. The guitar becamea vital aspect of the mediation of those cultures, and of distinct social classes in Brazil.In her article Hybridity and Segregation in the Guitar Cultures of Brazil, Suzel AnaReily points out that the guitar is one of the only musical instruments that was foundsimultaneously among all classes in Brazils highly segregated (socially and racially),colonial society, and was placed at the very crossroads of the tensions generated by thetwo opposing forces of syncretism and segregation (Reily 2001). Following this line ofinvestigation, the guitar can be conceptualized as a cultural ambassador or mediator ofthe various social and racial groups comprising the complex hybridized Brazilianmusical culture. Today, the hybrid nature of Brazilian guitar cultures is even more complex withthe influence of various international styles of guitar playing and the adoptionAmerican/European style steel-string electric and acoustic instruments. However, theBrazilian guitar(s) that Marco Pereira uses are sixand eight-string guitars with nylonstrings handcrafted by Brazilian and German luthiers. This thesis focuses on this type ofguitar, and the music that Pereira plays upon them. The nylon-string guitar is the mostcommon type of guitar used in Brazil, and is the type most closely associated with guitarbrasilidade or Brazilianness (Brazilian identity). In fact, the nylon-stringed guitar is an

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6intrinsic aspect of musical brasilidade, which is not only found in the guitar MarcoPereira plays, but also his playing style. Pereiras musical identity is closely related tohis own mixed background of classical training, popular music performance, and theblending of techniques from those realms to compose and perform in a variety of musicalstyles.Mixing is a central to the concept of brasilidade, which stems from the modernistmovement of the 1920s. The individual contributors (Gilberto Freyre, Oswald deAndrade, and others) of this movement illuminated Brazils history of racialmiscegenation and highlighted the idea that cultural mixing defined Brazilian identity.This idea of a positive nature of cultural and racial miscegenation was firstconceptualized by Gilberto Freyre in his master treatise The Masters and the Slaves. Thiswork discusses all three factions of Brazils racial identities (European, African, andAmerindian), and how each contributed to Brazils cultural makeup.Another key element in the concept of brasilidade is element of confusion, or asFred Moehn statesThere is another aspect to the discourse of miscegenation in Brazil that isreferenced in the colloquial to be mixed up, defined here as confused orconfounded. . Although they seldom described this feeling as confusion per se,they often emphasized that this uncertainty) alternatively, flexibility is, in fact, theprincipal marker of brasilidade. . (Moehn 2001: 5)Therefore, in Brazilian culture, it is not necessary for one homogenous racial identity toserve as a marker to define the rest, but that a diverse racial identity is perfectlyacceptable. In addition to suggesting confusion, mixing also can connote combiningingredients, relating to cooking or eating (Moehn 2001: 6). Oswald de AndradesRevista da Antropofagia (Journal of Anthropophagy or Cannibalist Manifesto) from the

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7late 1920s introduced the concept of cultural cannibalism, which states that Braziliansshould consume and digest select aspects of other cultures in order to make them partof their own culture. This concept was influenced by the belief that some Amerindiancultures (Tupinamb) had practiced cannibalism as a way of consuming the power oftheir enemies. Inspired by this indigenous notion, Andrade proposed that Braziliansshould incorporate aspects of European culture (technology, art, etc.) and mix them withlocal culture to create a new style of art that was worthy of export3 to the First World(Moehn 2001:6). These concepts were an integral part of the Semana da Arte Moderno(The Week of Modern Art) held in 1922 in So Paulo. Brazils leading artists, includingHeitor Villa-Lobos, attended this three-day event, which featured exhibits, performances,and other happenings. The work of the modernists was an integral part of shaping theintellectual framework of Brazilian identity, as well as all aspects of its national culture.In the 1960s, artists like Gilberto Gil, Caetano Veloso, Rita Lee, and others adoptedthe modernist ideals, as they consumed elements of British and North Americanpopular culture to create a new movement of Brazilian music called tropiclia. Theyincorporated electric guitars and rock style guitar licks and riffs, as well as the visualimage of rock groups like the Beatles. They mixed this with a variety of regional andnational Brazilian styles (samba, baio, bossa nova, etc.) to create their own uniquemusical identity. This eclectic freedom is the same concept that Marco Pereira applies tohis own musical style. While he does not force these concepts into his playing style, he isundoubtedly influenced (consciously and subconsciously) by the work of the modernistsand tropicalists, as their ideas are an integral aspect of Brazilian culture and identity. 3 The use of export was a take on how Brazils economy had been based on exported goods (Brazilwood,Sugar, Coffee, etc) since the colonial period.

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8Pereira also cites the direct influence of Gilberto Gil, who was a cofounder of thismovement.Pereiras own playing style is derived from a long line of Brazilian and otherinternationally known guitarists, who have not only influenced Pereira, but Brazilianmusic as a whole. According to Pereira, the domestic and foreign guitarists mostinfluential in the development of Brazilian guitar performance practice include:BraziliansJoo Pernambuco, Garoto, Dino cordas, Baden Powell, PaulinhoNogueira, Joo Gilberto, Gilberto Gil, and Joo Bosco; AmericanWes Montgomery;and Australian John Williams, as well as many other internationally known musicians. Ibelieve that Marco Pereira represents a synthesis of all these guitarists, and is exemplaryof the history of the Brazilian guitar at its finest.As I mentioned, Pereiras playing style places him in an interesting border zonebetween the popular and classical worlds in Brazil. On one hand he is an instrumentalist,which makes him almost invisible,4 or as he states, In Brazil, instrumentalists do notexist.5 What he meant is that singers tend to overshadow instrumentalists, and theimportance of instrumentalists is rarely recognized. On the other hand, because heperforms popular music genres (samba, baio, etc.) he is not generally accepted intoclassical guitar society. It is this hybridity of his playing style that reflects Brazilianmusical culture and the history of the Brazilian guitar itself.This thesis is divided into two sections; the first delineates the history of theBrazilian guitar emphasizing the guitarists that served as Marco Pereiras primary 4 Brazilian culture, like many other cultures, tends to recognize only vocalists, thus disregardinginstrumentalists.5 Personal communication. March 18, 2004

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9influences. I begin with a short history of the guitar in Brazil and hypothesize that theinstrument eventually became a national symbol due to the hybridized cultural roles itassumed. I discuss the guitars original identity as an instrument of vagabonds and low-class culture, and how through various musicians like Catulo de Paixo Cearense andHeitor Villa-Lobos, as well as various social changes throughout Brazil, it eventuallybecame an acceptable instrument in elite society as well. The guitars association withsamba, Brazils national music, as well as various other styles of Brazilian music,brought it to the forefront of Brazilian culture where it remains a symbol of nationalidentity. I then examine the histories of some of the main guitarists who inspired MarcoPereiras playing style. This section includes short biographies of these musicians,descriptions of their contributions to Brazilian guitar style, and analyses of their music.In the second section, I focus directly on Marco Pereira, his compositions, and hisperformance style. Additionally I illustrate how his hybrid musical style reflects the coreof Brazilian identity.Review of the LiteratureLiterature on the Brazilian guitar comes from several sources including: scholarlyand popular press publications (books, journals, songbooks, etc.), liner notes torecordings, doctoral dissertations, websites, personal interviews, and sound recordingsthemselves. Sifting through this literature has been a most interesting, yet frustratingexperience, and it is through doing this research that I now realize the lacunae inscholarly writings about the history of the Brazilian guitar. Though I could easily blamemy nascent Portuguese language skills for my misfortunes, they are mostly caused by thelack of reliable sources available on the subject. Those sources that are available

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10generally do not discuss the guitars importance in Brazils society, nor do they detailmusical contributions by many of the countrys most important guitarists.Despite my problems in finding adequate sources, I am blessed to have found avariety of materials that have made invaluable contributions to this work. First andforemost is Suzel Ana Reilys article from the book Guitar Cultures, which has been themost straightforward and informative history of the Brazilian guitar written. This is afundamental work in describing the hybridized nature of the instrument in Brazil. Reilyexamines the guitars history from its origins to the role it now plays in contemporaryBrazilian society. Through this history she reveals how the guitar mediated high and lowclass musical cultures in Brazil through various individuals, who were accepted into bothcultures. Another scholarly article that is imperative to this thesis is Gerard BehguesBiblioteca da Ajuda (Libson) MSS 1595/1596: Two Eighteenth-Century AnonymousCollections of Modinhas published in the Yearbook of the Inter-American Institute forMusical Research, which showcases the differences between the Portuguese andBrazilian modinhas and documents important historical aspects of the viola itself.Charles Perrone and Christopher Dunns Brazilian Popular Music and Globalization isalso central to this thesis and is an excellent source about Brazilian popular music. Theessays in the book cover everything from tropiclia to the mangue bit sounds of ChicoScience and Nao Zumbi.In addition to these articles, various doctoral dissertations have discussed the guitarand important guitarists in their discourses on different styles of Brazilian popular music.The three key dissertations are Thomas George Caracas Garcias work The BrazilianChoro: Music, Politics, and Performance (1997), Andrew Mark Connells Jazz

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11Brasileiro? Msica Instrumental Brasileira and the Representation of Identity (2002),and Fredrick Moehns Mixing MPB: Cannibals and Cosmopolitans in Brazilian PopularMusic (2001). Garcias dissertation is a general history, description, and musical analysisof the Brazilian choro. It traces the history of the form from the modinha and lundu tothe present, and discusses the various origin theories of the genres name. This work hasexcellent biographical information on many famous composers and performers of choro,as well as extensive musical transcriptions of their works. The Connell dissertation offersinsight into the world of contemporary Brazilian instrumental music, and has excellentcoverage of the musical category known as Msica Instrumental Brasileiro, sometimesknown as Brazilian jazz. This style encompasses semi-erudite instrumental music inBrazil that is not necessarily considered msica erudta. Connells dissertationspecifically covers music by Hermeto Pascoal, Aquarela Carioca, and the ItiberOrquestra Famlia. While Marco Pereiras style is usually more traditional harmonicallythan these avant-garde groups, Brazilian jazz is the term Pereira uses to categorize thismusic. Connell also successfully synthesizes anthropological research conducted onBrazilian culture, relating it well to his study. Most notably Connell summarizes theconcept and history of brasilidade, and its relations to race and social class. FredrickMoehns dissertation also discusses brasilidade, but focuses on post-bossa nova MPB(Msica Popular Brasileira), and how the work of the modernists and tropicalists wascrucial in defining this diverse musical category. He thoroughly explores the Brazilianconcept of mixing, and how it applies to the musical culture. In addition to this, Moehngives a concise history of the modernist movement and how it cut across culture and thearts in Brazil. Another significant dissertation is Tamara Livingstons Choro And Music

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12Revivalism in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 1973-1995 (1999). Livingston focuses on the socio-cultural aspects of the choro, and relates the choro revivals to similar movements thathave occurred internationally.There are various non-scholarly writings (usually about the history of the choro)that highlight important historical moments and figures of the Brazilian guitar, but noneof these present a complete picture of the instrument. The book with the most pertinentinformation to the subject at hand is Henrique Cazess Choro: Do Quintal Ao Municipal,which is an insiders6 view of the history of the choro and includes a chapter entitled Oviolo brasileiro devoted to the archetypal guitarists of choro performance practice.Despite the promising title of the chapter, the information tends to be anecdotal and isillustrated more like a grandfathers childhood stories than an actual history of the guitar.As Connell states, Surprisingly, given Cazes musical expertise, there is little musicaldescription in his book. . (Connell 2002: 11-12). In other words, Cazes merely statesbiographical information about important musicians, but does not explain their musicalimportance or provide musical examples. I agree with Connells assertion that Cazeslikely assumed that his readers were familiar with the genre, and overlooked the musicelements of the choro.A similar omission of important material (though this time biographical) appears inAlexandre Gonalvess book O Choro: Reminiscenias dos Chores Antigos, whichcompletely overlooks the famous and seminal figure Pixinguinha. However, regardlessof its brevity, this work has a significant amount of biographical information on variousmusicians (both obscure and well-known), which is valuable to this thesis. Ruy Castros 6 Cazes is a famous choro cavaquinhista (performer of cavaquinho)

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13Chega de Saudade: A Histria E As Histrias Da Bossa Nova is the least scholarly of allthese books, but has excellent insight into the lives of bossa nova greats Tom Jobim,Baden Powell, Vinicius de Moraes, Joo Gilberto, and many others. Other books that arereferenced for information, but not necessarily cited about early Brazilian guitarists areHenrique Foreiss No Tempo de Noel Rosa, Irati Antnios 1982 book Garoto: Sinal dosTempos, and Almanaque do choro:!a histria do chorinho, o que ouvir, o que ler, ondecurtir by Andr Diniz.In terms of sheet music about the guitarists of Brazil, there are two excellent booksthat cover many of the works of Joo Pernambuco and Garoto. First is a nice collectionentitled Joo Pernambuco: 11 Famous Choros Brasileiros Vol. 1, which is edited byvarious guitarists. However, as Pernambuco never notated his own music, it is difficultto judge the authenticity of the transcriptions. Recordings and attending liveperformances are always the best source of understanding any type of musical style orgenre, however I find this collection acceptable to use, as the scores closely resemblePernambucos performance style.7 Second is an excellent and historically accurate two-volume compilation by Paulo Bellinati titled The Guitar Works of Garoto, in which thetranscriber listened to rare recordings and reviewed extant manuscripts to analyzeGarotos performance practice before he ever notated the music. There are some minoredits to Garotos original manuscripts to make the reading easier (apparently Garotonever used any key signatures), but Bellinati is very transparent about these alterations.This collection also includes notes about Garotos performance practice, guitar setup(e.g., low action, nylon-strings), and biographical detail. I also find useful the 7 This opinion is based on listening to several recordings of Pernambuco now available on the MemriasMusicais collection.

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14transcriptions from Tonos Darmstadts Songbooks on Baden Powell, Nelson Farias TheBrazilian Guitar Book, Luis Otvio Bragas Violo de Sete Cordas: Teoria e Prtica, aswell as Almir Chediaks Songbook: Gilberto Gil.Other information was gathered from publications like Guitar Player (bothAmerican and Brazilian versions) and internet resources about certain guitarists that donot have much written about them (e.g., Paulinho Nogueira, Baden Powell).Additionally, I have used liner notes from CDs by the guitarists mentioned in this thesis.One great source of information came from the set of historical recordings MemriasMusicais, which is an anthology of early Brazilian popular music beginning with the firstrecordings of the Corpo de Bombeiros/Banda da Casa Edison in 1902 (see Chapter 2).This compilation, which is digitally re-mastered, offers excellent insight into theperformance practice of the early chores and contains previously unpublishedrecordings. I gained a great deal of historical information about relevant to thedevelopment of Brazilian popular music through these various sources. However, themajority of information I received about Pereira was through my personal interviews withhim (both formally and informally) while he was in residence at the University of Floridaat Gainesville in March 2004. During that time we had many conversations over dinnerand while traveling by bus to various performance venues. I also conducted with Pereiratwo formal interviews in person, four telephone interviews, and frequent emailcorrespondences.

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15 CHAPTER 2GUITAR IN BRAZIL: ORIGINS, PERFORMERS, AND INFLUENCES OF MARCOPEREIRAIntroductionThis chapter covers the history of the Brazilian guitar in two sections. The firstsection outlines the origins of the instrument itself, the genres of music it spawned, andits hybrid role as a symbol of national identity in Brazilian culture. The second sectiondiscusses the main guitarists who have shaped Brazilian popular music, and have beeninfluential in Marco Pereiras musical development. I include a brief biography anddiscuss important musical accomplishments for each guitarist, as well as providerepresentative examples of each guitarists performance practice. Additionally, I discusssome of the musical characteristics of important musical genres, and provide musicalexamples highlighting stylistic idiosyncrasies.This summary is by no means a complete history of the Brazilian guitar world, butrather a history of guitarists who have influenced Marco Pereira. However, I believe thatthe selected list of guitarists is an excellent representation of the history of Brazilianguitar styles. Guitarists selected are those people Marco Pereira felt were important tohim, and secondly additional guitarists Pereira did not mention, but upon discussing theirimportance with him, agreed they should be included. Following Pereiras own concepts,these guitarists are divided into two different categories: soloists/accompanists ofprimarily instrumental music and vocal accompanists who accompany themselves on

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16guitar and have a unique and somewhat virtuosic style.8 The instrumentalsoloists/accompanists are: Arthur de Souza Nascimento or Tute, Joo Pernambuco,Garoto, and Horondino Silva (Dino Sete Cordas) representing the Brazilian choro andsamba; and Baden Powell and Paulinho Nogueira representing the samba/bossa nova eraof the 1950s and beyond. The vocal accompanists include: Joo Gilberto representingbossa nova; Gilberto Gil and Joo Bosco representing modern MPB.This chapter will also discuss foreign guitarists, who have had a great impact onPereiras career: Wes Montgomery representing American jazz; John Williams andJulian Bream representing art music, and Cacho Tirao representing Argentinean tango.All of these guitarists have helped shape Pereiras playing, compositional style, andoverall musicianship, and are excellent representatives of the world of guitarperformance.OriginsDiscovering the origins of the guitar in Brazil can be as elusive as trying to finddetailed documents of Brazilian slavery.9 As Suzel Ana Reily points outRecords from the colonial period tend to be rather imprecise in their references toguitar-like instruments used in Brazil, and this has hindered the study of theirhistorical trajectories in the country. (Reily 2001: 159)These records were most likely not kept because it was an instrument of commoners, andnot of the elite. According to Reily the modern guitar in Brazil most likely originatedfrom four different Iberian prototypes. These are: the viola de mo (hand viola) orsimply viola; the lute; the machete (also known as the descante); and the guitarra (Reily 8 These categories are based on interviews with Marco Pereira, in which he suggested two schools of theBrazilian guitar: soloists and those that accompanied themselves vocally.9 The Brazilian Government destroyed most records of slavery after they abolished the slave trade in 1888.

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172001: 159). The viola is known to be of Portuguese origin, and in the 13th century was atwelve stringed instrument (six double-coursed) much like the American twelve-stringguitar. Today the Brazilian viola is a five-string double-coursed instrument with a muchsmaller body that is often used to accompany various folk and popular musics with theirfoundations in the rural interior of Brazil: namely the moda de viola, improvisatorypoetry of repentista singers, and the duplas (paired singers) of msica sertaneja. In thelate 20th century it was also transformed into a solo instrument through a new generationof players, which is most famously demonstrated in the work of Roberto Correa. Themachete was a small-bodied four-string instrument that is considered the antecedent ofthe modern cavaquinho, which is found in various folk and popular music ensembles.10The guitarra is the predecessor of the modern violo, and was a six-string instrumentwith a body similar to the Spanish classical guitar.Of all of these instruments, the viola is most frequently referenced in records due toits popularity among the Portuguese nobility. The guitarra was essentially ousted fromthe Portuguese court due to its association with the lower class. The viola was alsowidely used by the Jesuits while they were in Brazil attempting to proselytize variousAmerindian cultures, and was even thought of as a catalyst to help convert them toChristianity. Reily statesmany felt that popular instruments such as violas, bagpipes, drums andtambourines were particularly well suited to the enterprise of conversion; likeAmerindian ritual life, the Portuguese folk traditions in which the popularinstruments were employed were marked by a participatory ethos, such that thenatives seemed more readily inclined to engage with them. (2001: 159) 10 More information about the machete can be found in Ralph C. Waddeys Viola de Samba and Sambade Viola in the Reconcavo of Bahia (Brazil) from Latin American Music Review Vol. 1 No. 2 (Autumn-Winter, 1980, 196-212).

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18The viola remained a vital part of colonial religious and secular life, and even spawned amusical genre of accompanied secular songs called modas de viola. Church composerseventually assimilated these songs, and set them to the contemporary chamberorchestration of the time. These modas de viola fell out of favor with church dueobjections of the violas carnavalesque and secular associations, but continued as a folksong genre (Reily 2001:161). Because of the churchs influence, the viola was oustedfrom liturgical music and used only in secular situations by both low and upper classBrazilians in the 16th and 17th centuries.In these secular settings the viola flourished, and spawned two of the first genres ofmusic that were considered Brazilian: the modinha (little song) and the lundu. Theformer of these musical genres became associated with the colonial upper class, while thelatter was initially identified with Afro-Brazilian culture. However, the socio-musicalsegregation of the two genres is somewhat clouded, which led to an interesting dialoguebetween the classes. To summarize this, Reily statesThe continuous encounter between socially and ethnically diverse sectors duringthe colonial era produced a highly hybrid cultural environment, but it was notperhaps until the late eighteenth century that particular music and dance formsbegan to be identified as distinctly colonial inventions. (2001: 161)As a favored accompaniment instrument, the viola aided in the birth of these songforms, and thus served to mediate between the two distinctly different cultures they camefrom. This early example of inter-ethnic dialogue was extremely important to Brazilianpopular music in general and these song forms would influence the development of thechoro and eventually the samba. As Gerard Bhague states there is no doubt that themodinha has an exceptional historical significance, for it is together with the lundu

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19the very foundation on which a large part of Brazilian popular music was built(1968:68).The Brazilian modinha was also being performed in the salons of Lisbon, Portugal,and its popularity can be attributed to the famous mulatto poet and priest DomingosCaldas Barbosa (1738-1800) (Bhague 1963: 46). Barbosa was born in Brazil, and wasa renowned viola player and poet. He traveled to Libson frequently and was a significantcontributor to the citys musical culture where he composed many modinhas and lundus.Because the viola was considered a vulgar instrument in Libson (as well as the modinhaitself), many of Barbosas modinhas were transcribed for piano or harpsichordaccompaniment. However, after examining several manuscripts of these songs, BhaguenotesThe catalogue for the Ajuda Library describes the whole collection as music forvoice and piano with Portuguese text, but for each individual entry a correctionhas been added with guitar (viola) accompaniment. Indeed the character of theaccompaniment (broken chord figures, occasional figured bass) suggests theoriginal guitar accompaniment rather than the more refined harpsichord or pianoaccompaniment of the printed modinhas. (Ibid., 59)This suggests that the viola was a central part of the compositional efforts of Barbosa,and likely many other composers of modinhas at this time (even in Portugal) (Tinhoro1974:41-5).In the eighteenth century there was a major influx of Portuguese immigrants whocame to Brazil in search of gold and diamonds. This influx of Europeans resulted in ageneral increase in European cultural values that were disseminated throughout thecountry. Because the viola was associated with low-class values by the European culturalelite, the early colonizers were forced to conceal the hybrid elements of their localculture (Reily 2001: 163). Therefore, it was at this time that the viola fell out of favor

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20with Brazilian elite. The coffee boom in the late eighteenth century, the subsequentarrival of the Portuguese crown in 1808, as well as the move of the capital from Salvador,Bahia to Rio de Janeiro would help solidify this Eurocentric shift in cultural values.Eventually the viola would be replaced by a more culturally acceptable instrument: thepiano.In the mid to late nineteenth-century the piano became the instrument of choiceamong Brazilian cultural elite, while the viola/violo,11 considered a vulgar instrument,was relegated to lower-class culture. This does not mean that these instrumentscompletely disappeared from the salon culture, but rather that their use severelydiminished (Vianna 1999: 25). While the colonial society became increasinglysegregated along class and racial lines, the modinha remained a symbol of culturalhybridity. In the 1840s, the popularity of art music and the modinha bourgeoned amongthe carioca12 elite, who began to privately fund exclusive clubs and societies, due tothe lack of funding by emperor Dom Pedro II (Reily 2001: 165). With the advent ofthese bourgeois clubs, composers and performers of the modinha adopted Italian belcanto vocal performance practices. The piano remained the preferred instrument foraccompaniment, and thus the salon modinha began to sound increasingly like an Italianaria. At the same time, however, these aria-like modinhas were being performed with 11 Harvey Turnbull and Paul Sparks state in the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians that thetransformation from the five-course to a six single strings took place over a period of time between thesecond half of the 18th century and the first decades of the 19th century in Spain, France, and Italy. Bythe late 18th century, most guitarists favored the single coursed guitar over the double coursed modelbecause it was easier to tune, attack cleanly, and avoid ambiguous bass notes. (Ibid 2001: 563) Iunfortunately could not gather any information that distinguishes the differences of use between the violaand the violo during this epoch in Brazils musical history. However, it is likely that the replacement ofthe viola by the violo was due to the increase of European immigration, which brought more of the singlecoursed instrument to Brazil.12 Carioca refers to an inhabitant of Rio de Janeiro

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21rhythms that were influenced by Afro-Brazilian music, which gave them a distinctlyBrazilian flavor.While the piano was the instrument of choice among the elites, the violo wasquickly becoming the instrument of choice for the common people of Brazil. This waslikely due to its low cost and portability, as pianos could only be afforded by the upperclass. It is also possible that because of this, the violo was also becomingconceptualized as the true Brazilian instrument. Lima Baretto, who was an early 20thcentury Brazilian nationalist, notes the social status of the guitar in his novel The Sad Endof Policarpo Quaresma (1915). As Hermano Vianna points outLima Barretos novel The Sad End of Policarpo Quaresma (1915). . beginswith a chapter titled The Guitar Lesson. The hero of the novel is MajorPolicarpo, a respectable amateur scholar of middling social status. Policarposreading of historians, chroniclers, and philosophers has convinced him thatthe modinha with guitar accompaniment is the poetic and musical expressioncharacteristic of the national spirit of Brazil. (1999: 26)The continuation of this passage also illustrates how the Limas novel depicted the socialstatus of the violo:The patriotic scholar therefore takes guitar lessons from a Troubadour, RicardoCorao dos Outrous. Policarpos neighbors vigorously reject the idea and declarehim mad: A guitar in such a respectable house! they exclaim. A serious maninvolved in low-life stuff like that! Policarpo defends himself on nationalistgrounds: It is prejudice to supposed that every man who plays the guitar lackssocial decency. The modinha is the most genuine expression of our nationalpoetry, and the guitar is the instrument that it requires. (Ibid., 26)Thus the violo, was in the middle of a complex struggle for defining national identity;on one side were the carioca elites, who had a stronghold on defining what wasacceptable culture, and on the other was the rest of Brazil, who considered the violo tobe part of their national heritage.

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22While the social and racial lines were clearly delineated at this time, there were afew individuals, like Policarpo in Barretos novel, who crossed the social boundaries.Catulo da Paixo de Cearense, 13 was raised in the northeast interior (serto), but came toRio with his father at the age of seventeen. Though he came from a working-classbackground, he was invited to sing modinhas at the homes of many of the carioca elite,and networked with politicians, writers, and millionaires (Vianna 1999:24-5). With arenewed interest in his country sertanejo roots, Catulo began mixing elements of folksongs from the northeast with the more Eurocentric/urban style modinha, and performingthem on the violo for various elite gatherings, and even performed at the Presidentspalace. He most likely got this sertanejo influence from Joo Pernambuco, a soon-to-beimportant guitarist from the northeastern state of Pernambuco, whose significance will bediscussed later. Because he introduced of the violo in the courts of the cariocabourgeoisie, Catulo is considered one of the instruments great ambassadors, and thusrepresents the cultural countercurrents that were happening at that time. He is also anexample of hybridity in Brazilian culture. Music of the northeast was not the only musicCatulo was synthesizing; various other musical genres began to pervade the country,which created a cultural incubator for fostering the choro and eventually the nationalmusic of Brazil: the samba.After the abolition of slavery in 1888, there was a mass immigration of workingclass European culture into Brazil. Slave labor was no longer a competition, as it waspreviously so inexpensive that there was no incentive to import European labor by elitelandowners. Therefore, Europeans could now compete for low-wage jobs with freed 13 He took the name Cearense because he was a native of the state of Cear.

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23slaves. Brazilian elites also saw this as an opportunity to re-Europeanize a populationthat comprised a mixed majority.14 With this influx of European immigrants also cametheir cultural idiosyncrasies, and consequently, the polka, tango, habanera, schottisch,waltz, and various other musical/dance forms were initiated into Brazilian culture.Composers and musicians would mix these genres with the Brazilian modinha and lunduto create a montage of subsequent hybrid genres.The maxixe was a stylistic term that applied to various genres using the particularrhythm associated with Afro-Brazilian slave culture. Just like the modinhas before, theAfro-Brazilian rhythm was applied to the performance of the polka to createthe maxixe style (figure 2-2). Bhague notes an example of this rhythm as used in theintroduction of the accompaniment of Modinha no. 8 Quem ama para agravar from theAjuda Library MS1595: Figure 2-1. Afro-Brazilian rhythm.The writer of this manuscript noted that Esta acompanhamento devese tocar pela Bahia(This accompaniment must be played around Bahia) (Bhague 1963:61-2). This samerhythmic figure was also used in the performance practice of the international genres andnew subgenres that were created. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, these newsubgenres were as mixed musically as their names indicated (tango-maxixe, polca-maxixe, tango-brasileiro, etc).Once again there was a dialogue between social classes, and much like the modinhaand lundu, these new forms were performed simultaneously by low and upper-class 14 The mixed majority comprised mostly mulattos (Afro-European mix) and caboclos (Euro-Amerindianmix). (Skidmore 1974:64-69).

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24musicians. Along with this dialogue between classes, there was an equal dialoguebetween professional and amateur or trained and non-trained musicians. Thiscommunication developed into a symbiotic relationship: the amateur musicians wouldmix these new styles together, which would then inspire professional musicians tocompose music that was acceptable to the cultural elite. Composers like JoaquimAntnio Silvia Calado, Anacleto de Madeiros, Ernesto Nazar, and later Heitor Villa-Lobos helped formalize these genres due to their background of European musicaltraining, which enabled them to write down this music. Many of the contributions ofthese trained composers and performers helped shift the emphases of these musical stylesfrom vocal to instrumental, which ultimately lead to a new form of popular music calledchoro.Joaquim Antnio da Silva Calado (1848-1880) was one of the greatest flautists andcomposers of his time. Though he studied composition and conducting from the greatBrazilian composer Henrique Alves de Mesquita and found success as a composer andconcert flautist, Calado preferred the new popular music that came very naturally tohim (Garcia 1997:161). Historians credit Calado with formalizing the instrumentationof the terno (two guitars, cavaquinho, and flute, or whatever lead instrument wasavailable). However, this type of instrumental ensemble had been around for many years.Garcia notesWhile it is easy to assume that Calado was responsible for the development of theoriginal choro instrumental combination, this was undoubtedly not the case. Thisinstrumental combination had been around for some time before Calado in themodinha and seresta, as well as msica de barbeiros and the fazenda band. . .Calados biggest contribution was combining two musical forces, each verypopular European dances and the instruments of the msica de barbeiros and thechoromeleiro. (1997:164-5)

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25The msica de barbeiros, fazenda (farm) bands and choromeleiros15 are threeperformance groups from the early colonial period usually comprised of semi-trainedAfro-Brazilian musicians. These groups influenced Calado when he formed a similargroup known as Choro Carioca made up of the terno, (Livingston 1999: 73). And whilehe was not the originator of the terno, his compositions for this instrumentationundoubtedly influenced a new generation of musicians. Furthermore, due to his classicaltraining, he infused his own musical ideas into traditional European dances. Hiscompositions contained: fast melody(ies) and chromaticism, embellishment, wide leaps,rhythmic interest and syncopation, (and) strong emphasis on the beat. These musicalcontributions would serve as a bridge between the choro style and genre (Garcia 1997:165).Anacleto de Madeiros (1886-1907) was the son of a freed slave and receivedEuropean musical training at an early age. In 1875, he began his formal musical trainingin the Companhia de Menores do Arsenal de Guerra band (Rio de Janeiro, RJ). In 1884he became an apprentice at the Imprensa Nacional (National Press) and the same yearenrolled at the Conservatrio de Msica, where he concentrated on flute and clarinet(Garcia 1997: 174). Madeiros is best remembered as one of the founders and firstconductors of Rios premiere military bands Bando do Corpo de Bombeiros (Band of theFiremen Corps). He was also the first to write down arrangements of pieces to be playedby other musicians for this type of ensemble (reminiscent of the fazenda bands). These 15 In Garcias translation of Ary Vasconceloss Carinhoso, Etc.: Histria e Inventrio do Choro (1984: 17),he notes: The choromeleiros did not (only) play the charamela, but other wind instruments as well. Forthe people, naturally all instrumental ensembles would end up being called choromeleiros, an expression,for simplification, ended up being shortened to the choro (1997:75).

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26bands became very famous and were an intrinsic part of the annual Carnival celebrationsof the time, where they would play all of the popular dance-based compositions of thetime including waltzes, polkas, maxixes, tangos, etc. Madeiros composed many of thepieces himself, but also performed works of the famous composers of that time (e.g.,Antnio Calado, Ernesto Nazar, Chiquinha Gonzaga, etc.). The popularity of his bandhelped promote these newly formed styles among the masses as well as the elite, and wasanother step in solidifying future stylistic performance practice.In addition to his work with the military bands, Madeiros also was a member of thelocal roda de choros, which were local performing groups that would gather together andplay these new mixed styles with elements of improvisation. Garcia notesImprovisation has always been a part of the choro tradition, but it is improvisationof accompaniment and arrangement, not the spontaneous composition of a melodyaround a chord progression of American jazz. The choro has always includedmusicians playing guitars and cavaquinhos who could not read music. Many couldread chord symbols, and lead-sheet type scores (e.g. chord progressions, with nonotation) were often prepared for their use.Often the choro in the roda was a popular tune, which everybody knew in anagreed upon key, melody on one instrument and the accompaniment in the others.(1997: 111-2)The particular roda de choro in which Madeiros played was held at the Cavaquinho deOuro, which was a music store in downtown Rio de Janeiro. Madeiros was often joinedby the most accomplished and well known chores (choro musicians) of the dayincluding: Quincas Laranjeiras, Lus de Sousa, Juca Kalut, Flisberto Marques, Catulo daPaixo Cearense, Lus Gonzaga da Hora, Z Cavaquinho, and Irineu de Almeida (Garcia1997: 177). Heitor Villa-Lobos, who would later become one of Brazils most celebratedcomposers, would often also sit in on violo at these sessions. All of these musiciansmade important contributions Brazilian popular music history, and they and Madeiros

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27undoubtedly played a significant role in shaping the future of Brazilian music as a whole.Additionally, Madeiros had a great influence on young artists like Pixinguinha, hisbrother China, Aurtur Souza de Nascimento Tute, among others, many of whomplayed in the Corpo de Bombeiros, and would later become pillars of Brazilian popularmusic.16Ernesto Nazar (1863-1937) was a pianist who wrote various pieces for theinstrument, which he usually labeled tango-brasileiro (Garcia 1997: 209). However, hiscompositions often resembled the maxixe, which was a bit faster and had less lyrical,instrumental-style melodies. Nazar most likely associated them with the tango due tothe lack of acceptance of maxixe among the Brazilian elite, for whom he was composing(Garcia 1997: 56). 17 These characteristics can be seen in the piece Vitorioso, shownbelow. Figure 2-2. Excerpt from Vitorioso by Ernesto Nazar. Public Domain.One can easily see the Afro-Brazilian rhythm in both the accompaniment andmelody. Also, the sixteenth note runs in the melody are further proof that this piece is 16 The music of Anacletos bands can be heard on compilation Memrias Musicais, which were recordedby Casa Edison in 1904.17 It is likely that the tango-brasileiro and maxixe did not differ musically very much at this time. Garciastates that The maxixe and the tango differed most greatly in the choreography: the tango is a relativelyslow and sensual partner dance. The maxixe was a fast-stepped partner dance most noted for the franticpace of its footwork. (1997: 56)

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28more of a maxixe than a tango, a quality also reminiscent of Calados musicalcontributions. While Nazar did not associate himself directly with the chores of hisday, he undoubtedly influenced their music as much as they influenced his. His music isstill performed and recorded widely today by various musicians (including MarcoPereira).Heitor Villa-Lobos (1887-1959) is probably the most influential of all of thesecomposers, as he was a guitarist himself, and participated in the popular music circles ofhis day. At an early age Villa-Lobos learned to play cello from his father Rul, which helater performed at some of the most popular theatres in Rio. Through his employment atthese theatres he met some of the most important composers of his day including Nazarand Medeiros. However, he also concurrently learned to play the guitar, and performedwith various lower-class popular music circles.All of these musical endeavors would later influence his many compositions,especially those for the guitar. Villa-Lobos wrote Choro no. 1 for the guitar because hewished to make the guitar an acceptable instrument in Brazil. Many of his compositions(e.g., Bachianas Brasileiras, Choros, and Suite Popular Brasileira) introduced the worldto the sounds of Brazilian popular music, as well as influence many of Brazils greatcomposers both art and popular alike. While he is not a forefather of choro as were theaforementioned composers, he is undoubtedly its greatest proponent (as well as achampion of the guitar) in the art-music world, and is undoubtedly one of Brazils mostimportant composers (Bhague 2001: 613-19).These four representative composers forever changed the face of Brazilian music,as well as the role of the guitar. The blending of their erudite studies in music with their

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29passion for and firsthand knowledge of popular culture created a unique place for theguitar among the elite of Brazil through the new music called choro. It is through choro,and later samba that the guitar found itself at the forefront of Brazilian culture andbecame the symbol of national identity. As we will discover in the following pages, thechoro was Brazils first musical genre that greatly narrowed the gap between art andpopular music, and enabled musicians from all social classes to participate in a music thatsatisfied both the trained and untrained (or semi-trained) artist. And the hybridity ofthese musicians, much like Catulo da Paixo Cearense, helped transform Brazil from asegregated individualistic musical culture into the nationalistic musical culture that itbecame.18During and after the time of these four great composers, various types of ensemblesbegan to emerge out of the rodas de choro. One ensemble type was called the conjuntoregional (regional group). These regionais (plural for regional) were usually made up oflower middle-class musicians civil servants, especially officers of the customs, therailway system, the exchequer; the mint, the post, and municipal government publicservants working in the local police force, the power plant, etc. (Taborda 2002: 12).This was due mostly to the fact that before the emergence Brazils first recordingcompany Casa Edison, there was little money to be made solely as a musician. However,with the emergence of recording companies and subsequently the advent national radio inthe 1920s, many of these working class musicians performed on recordings andbroadcasts. Regional groups served as accompanists for artists on the radio, and were 18 Brazil is still highly segregated socially as well as racially, but I am strictly talking about the musicalaspects of the culture in this statement. However, it was through the music of Carnaval, which wasinfluenced by these composers, that social lines were blurred, and roles were reversed (Vianna 1999).

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30required to improvise filler music when vocal performers arrived late. The conjuntos alsohad their own regionalized way of playing choro and samba, which contributed to thename regionais. Some of the most famous groups of the 1920s and 1930s were TuranasPernambucanos and Voz do Serto;19 Os Passos do Choro, Luiz Americano, and Os OitoBatutas from the urban south (Cazes 1999: 85-6). The latter of these groups, wasfounded by Pixinguinha, and is considered the most famous of the regional groups.These conjuntos regionais comprised all the greatest chores of this epoch, and helpeddevelop a standard repertoire for all choro musicians to follow.Though the regional groups were an important musical influence, the memberscould not support themselves or their families, and the leaders of the groups often haddifferent players depending on the situation. Therefore, it is difficult to attribute certainstylistic idiosyncrasies to one particular performer, and it is through this melting pot ofvarious musicians that various new styles were born. In the early 20th century, manycandombl houses (Afro-Brazilian religious centers) of Rio were also centers wheremany of these regional musicians would gather. The most famous of these houses wasrun by Tia Ciata and was where Pixinguinha, Donga, Sinho, and many other of the greatchores of the day helped contribute to Brazils soon to be national music: the samba.Thus, it is fitting that working-class musicians along with upper-class composers, usingthe guitar as the central instrument of accompaniment, helped develop modern Brazilsnational identity.At the same time that these regional musicians gathered together to create samba inthe 1920s, a young anthropologist from Pernambuco named Gilberto Freyre was just 19 The names of these groups imply an association with the northeast of Brazil.

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31beginning the research for his influential treatise The Masters and the Slaves (1933).Freyre had traveled to the United States, and was heavily influenced by the concepts ofAmerican anthropologist Franz Boas. Boas refuted the European influenced thought thatracial mixing was detrimental to genetic prosperity, and proved that these theories weremerely unscientific generalities used for racist agendas. Freyre took Boass principlesand applied them to Brazilian society, which had an unusually high rate ofmiscegenation. In his masterwork, Freyre, like Boas, rebuffs traditional concepts ofwhitening by stating that Brazils true identity is found in its racial and cultural mixing.Scholars consider Freyres treatise to be foundational to the creation of brasilidade in the1930s, which at the same time helped samba become the national music of Brazil. AsHermano Vianna states, Freyres success on the intellectual scene and the simultaneousbroadening of interest in samba, conceived as a musical blending of white and blackculture, constituted parallel manifestations of the new interest in things Brazilian(1999:12).This new interest in things Brazilian bourgeoned out of the modernist movement,which was formally launched in 1922 during the Modern Art Week in So Paulo. Whilethis conglomeration of writers, visual artists, and composers had different aestheticemphases, they were concerned foremost with articulating a project of culturalnationalism (Dunn 2001: 13-14). Writers Oswald de Andrade and Mrio de Andrademet with artists and composers like Heitor Villa-Lobos, and agreed to reinvent Brazilshistorically European dominated identity through their art.This interest in nationalizing Brazilian culture greatly influenced Freyre, andundoubtedly inspired his agenda to re-define Brazilian views on the countrys racial

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32identity. In addition to the nationalistic ideals of the modernismo movement, Viannasuggests that Freyre was also heavily inspired by an encounter between himself; popularmusicians Patrcio, Donga, Pixinguinha; composer Villa-Lobos; historian Srgio Buarqueda Holanda; and Rio district attorney and journalist Prudente (Pedro Duantas Prudentede Moraes Netto) in 1926 for an evening of guitar music and cachaa (cane liquor).Vianna statesThis encounter thus brought together members of two very distinct social groups:on one hand, intellectuals and practitioners of the fine arts, all sons of goodwhite families,. . and on the other hand, musicians of black and mixed racebelonging to the poorest class of Rio society. Here were young Gilberto Freyre andSrgio Buarque de Holanda, just beginning the research that resulted, a few yearslater, in their influential books. . fundamental to the definition of modern Brazilianidentity. And face-to-face with the anthropologist and historian stood Donga,Pixinguinha, and Patrcio, whose music would come to stand for what was mostBrazilian in Brazil during those same years. The written testimony of the eliteparticipants seems to indicate that they took such a gathering for granted and thatboth sides felt at ease, as they might in a Brazil supposedly characterized (inFreyres influential book) by racial mixing and (in Buarque da Holandasinterpretation) by cordial social relations. (1999: 2)It was shortly after this meeting that Freyre wrote an article for a Pernambuco newspaperforwarding ideas he would later develop in The Masters and the Slaves. These ideas,reminiscent of Euclides da Cunhas Os sertes (Rebellion in the Backlands), declaredofficial Brazil a phony and ridiculous Europhile version that hid the real Brazil,personified for him by black musicians (Ibid., 9). Vianna also comments that Freyre,who wanted to meet members of Os Oito Batutas, specially arranged this meeting. Hisfriends drew on a tangle of personal connections to fulfill his wish, as Prudente was afriend of Donga (Ibid., 2). Therefore this purposeful meeting could serve as an allegoryfor what was to happen in the near future: intentionally reinventing Brazilian culture byglorifying its racially mixed roots, and using samba to represent and define Brazilscultural and racial hybridity (Ibid., 2).

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33The reinvention of Brazils racial identity and the emergence of samba as Brazilsnational music became solidified under the Getlio Vargas regime in the 1930s. In 1930,Vargas led an uprising that succeeded in overthrowing the fractured Republicangovernment of Washington Luis. The Vargas revolution received broad support,including that from the coffee planters who were reeling from the effects of the worldeconomic crisis of 1929 (Dunn 2001: 25). The regime institutionalized the concepts ofthe modernists, and promoted Freyres idea of racial mixing as the new Brazilian racialidentity. The Vargas regime, which abolished party politics in 1937 and instituted theauthoritarian Estado Novo (New State), implemented various types of propaganda topromote a new Brazilian identity (Ibid., 26) The most influential of the propaganda toolswas the implementation of national radio, which employed many of the abovementionedregional musicians. Samba was widely broadcast on the radio because the Vargas regimefelt its mix of African and European styles represented the new racial identity they weretrying to promote. Due to the intent of the regime to create a new national character,many samba composers like Ary Barroso began writing nationalistic songs, which wouldbe labeled samba-exaltao. Barrosos Aquarela do Brasil (Brazil), which celebratesBrazils beauty, still exists today as an important musical marker of national pride andidentity.In the midst of this newly created national fervor, the guitar was also thrust toforefront due to its inseparable association with samba. Within the span of a decade, theguitar mysteriously emerged from the instrument of vagabonds to being a musicalsymbol of Brazils newfound national identity. However, the guitar was not merely aninnocent bystander that rode the samba to stardom. Villa-Lobos, following his modernist

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34ideologies, intentionally wrote music for the guitar. Therefore the guitar, bothconsequentially and intentionally, became a symbol of national identity. This can evenbe seen in the meeting in 1926 between Freyre and the famous chores/sambistas, as theyarranged a special evening of guitar music. Due to the purposeful nature of thatmeeting I do not find it a coincidence that the participants were listening to guitar music.While there is no historical support of this theory, I do find it interesting that Freyrechose guitar music instead of a more popular vocal music as the backdrop for theirmeeting. As this holds true with the samba, I believe it is no mystery that the guitarbecame an unofficial symbol of Brazilian musical identity.While the samba was key in shaping the popularity of the guitar, the roots of theBrazilian guitar are more deeply entrenched in choro. The next section deals with theperformance practice of the guitar in choro, which is similar to the manner in whichguitarists played samba. Because the regional groups played both styles of music, theperformance practice often transcends these musical designations.The Guitar in the Choro/SambaAs composers in the late 19th century (both trained and untrained) began to developthis new style of music called choro, the guitar was the most prevalent instrument used toaccompany the lead instrument (usually a flute). Garcia remarks that writers AryVasconcelos, Pinto, and Jos Tinhoro all found that guitarists comprised the greatestnumber of all of the chores they studied (1997:145).As an accompaniment instrument in choro,20 the guitar has two roles: 1) to provideboth the harmonic accompaniment by playing chords and 2) to outline the harmony with 20 However, there is also a solo guitar style of playing choro that I will discuss later in the chapter.

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35a melodic bass-line called the baixaria. The baixaria is usually improvised like jazz basslines, but unlike a typical jazz bass line the baixaria plays an integral part in developingcountermelodies.21 Therefore the performance of the baixaria more often resembles animprovised contrapuntal baroque style bass line, and is one of the most important aspectsof guitar style in choro. One of the guitarists who helped develop the baixaria style wasQuincas Laranjeiras (1873-1935), who is considered the grandfather of the modernguitar (Cazes 1998: 47). Laranjeirass fast thumb-style technique was one of the mostadvanced of his time, and according to Cazes, influenced the great samba composer NoelRosa to write Valsa dos Peidos (Waltz of the Farts) because he was so fast it soundedlike flatulent noise (Cazes 1998: 48). Laranjeiras was also one of Villa-Lobossinfluences on the guitar. One of the rare recordings of Laranjeirass playing style can befound on Memrias Musicais CD-6 performing No Tens Corao (You Have NoHeart).The baixaria part can be performed on any style of violo, but is most often foundon the violo sete cordas (seven-stringed guitar). This type of violo is tuned B(low)-E-A-D-G-B-E,22 and utilizes the lower B string to approximate the range of the upperstrings of a double bass. Modern Brazilian guitarists generally performed on nylonstrings, but the guitarists during this era of choro (late 19th and early 20th centuries) usedsteel strings. This is because there were no amplifiers at this time, and steel strings werea way to achieve a fuller sound. In addition to this, Paulo Bellinati, one of Brazils great 21 For example, the performer of the baixaria usually plays various rhythms that tend to fill space ratherthan the steady walking bass-line often found in jazz/swing.22 A guitarist will often tune the low B to a C, as choro pieces are often in keys with less than three sharpsor four flats. This frees the guitarists fretting hand to explore other areas of the neck; without being tieddown to playing the first fret on the low B string when playing a chord with a C in the bass.

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36guitarists and a researcher on Garotos music, states that nylon strings were not availablein Brazil until figures like Isaias Svio brought them in the 1930s and 1940s (Boukas2000:3).The performance practice of the guitar in choro depends on the genre of music theguitarist is performing. The rhythms of these pieces were all different, and it was up tothe guitar and cavaquinho to mark these rhythmic changes. As previously stated, the roleof the guitar was to outline the harmony by playing chords as well as to provide thebaixaria. In order to understand how the guitar balances these two functions I haveincluded selections from Luiz Otvio Bragas book O Violo de 7 Cordas: Teoria ePrtica, which illustrates the differences in performance practice of most of the musicalstyles in choro.Figure 2-3. Schottisch guitar style. (Source: Braga, Luiz Otvio. 2002. O Violo de SeteCordas: Teoria e Prtica. Rio de Janeiro: Luminar Editora. pp. 14. Usedwith permission).The guitars part in the schottisch is often augmented by the cavaquinho by playinga type of rhythm. The polca is one of the most widely useddance styles in choro and is often performed in the following manner: baixaria

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37 Figure 2-4. Polca guitar style. (Source: Braga, Luiz Otvio. 2002. O Violo de SeteCordas: Teoria e Prtica. Rio de Janeiro: Lumiar Editora. pp. 14. Used withpermission).As previously stated, the maxixe was much like the tango and was designated astango-brasileiro by various composers: Figure 2-5. Maxixe guitar style. (Source: Braga, Luiz Otvio. 2002. O Violo de SeteCordas: Teoria e Prtica. Rio de Janeiro: Lumiar Editora. pp. 15. Used withpermission).The valsa or waltz differs from the other genres as it is in triple meter, however thebaixaria is still active. The example below shows six different rhythmic ways to play avalsa on guitar, as the baixaria would still be used to fill in spaces wherever theperformer felt: Figure 2-6. Valsa guitar style. (Source: Braga, Luiz Otvio. 2002. O Violo de SeteCordas: Teoria e Prtica. Rio de Janeiro: Lumiar Editora. pp. 14. Used withpermission).

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38As these examples illustrate, the rhythmic differences between these musical genresdictate the performance practice of the guitar. This is also true of virtually all Brazilianmusic, as many of the different musical genres are largely defined through the rhythmicalcharacteristics. This may derive from the fact that most Brazilian music is rooted inAfrican rhythmic ideas. Indeed, the term rtmo (rhythm) is a synonym for msicas(musical genres). This also applied to the choro, as the performance practice wasdesignated by which rtmo they were performing.Guitarists of the Choro/SambaAmong the many guitarists who shaped the performance practice of the earlychoro: Tute (Aurtur de Souza Nascimento), Dino Cordas (Horondino Jos da Silva),Joo Pernambuco (Joo Texeira Guimares), and Garoto (Annibal Augusto Sardinha) areconsidered as the most important guitarists of choro and samba. Tute and Dino wereaccompanists who helped develop the style of the violo sete cordas, whereasPernambuco and Garoto emphasized the solo style of playing choro, and developed theperformance practice on the violo (six-string).Aurtur de Souza Nascimento (1886-1957) was the first to record on the violo setecordas, and is considered the true innovator of this instrument. Tute, as he was popularlycalled, originally played the bombo (bass drum) and pratos (cymbals) in Anacleto deMadeiross Banda Corpo de Bombeiros. Tute also often visited Pixinguinhas house as ayoung musician, and it was through Pixinguinha that he received his first professional jobplaying the guitar in the Orquestra do Teatro Rio Branco (Orchestra of the White RiverTheatre). He was a guitarist in many of the popular groups of the day including: LuperceMiranda, Chiquinha Gonzaga, Guarda Velha de Pixinguinha, Orquestra Copacabana,

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39and Grupo Carioca. According to Henrique Cazes, Tute never received credit for hiswork on many projects, but one could distinguish him by the low bass notes of the violosete cordas. Cazes statesSeu estillo caracterstico era muito bem-definido pelo bandolinista LuperceMiranda, que o teve acompanhador durante quize anos, de 1929 at 1944. Luperceo chamava violonista p-de-boi, ou seja, aquele que deixava qualquer solistaseguro, tranqillo. Por isso mesmo, Tute foi gravando com muita gente, e mesmono havendo ficha tcnica nos discos daquela poca seu violo reconhecvelprincipalmente pela stima corda.His unique style was best defined by mandolinist Luperce Miranda, who had himas an accompanist for fifteen years, from 1929 to 1944. Luperce called him abulls foot guitarist, or rather that he made any soloist feel comfortable and calm.For this reason, Tute recorded with many artists, and even though credits were notgiven on records during that era, his guitar is recognizable mainly because of itsseventh string.23 (1998: 50)It is possible that he appeared anonymously on many recordings, as Tute was the studioguitarist for many of the famous groups of the day. Because of this, Tute served as anarchetype for many future guitarists who would listen to his recordings.Tutes style was much like earlier guitarists, as he played the basic choroaccompaniment within traditional harmonic frameworks. However, he created inversionsof chords in his bass-lines, which departed from the typical roots and thirds otherguitarists played. From the recordings available, it appears that Tute played many eighthnote passages and utilized more chromaticism than his contemporaries.24 Tutes baixariaplaying on the polca No Sei recorded by Grupo Carioca reveals these abnormalities(figure 2-7). The form of the piece (ABACAB) is also unusual,25 and I have included the 23 Authors transcription.24 However, this is only based on recordings I have heard of other guitarists (Q. Laranjeiras, China, etc.),from Memorias Msicais, and it could be that other guitarists were also performing these same patterns.25 In reviewing Thomas Garcias analysis of forms in several choros, ABACAB is not typical. However,ABACA is common (Garcia 1997: 108).

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40entire performance in order to demonstrate Tutes variations over the section repeats.The harmonic structure is quite simple, however Tutes playing adds inversions thatchange the harmonic structure. The harmonic structure without inversions is as follows26A / Db: V7 I vi ii V7 I V727 V7/vi vi IV I V7 I/B / Bbm: i V7/V V7 i v V7/V V7 i V7/V V7 i iv v V7/V V7 i28/C / Db: I ii V7/V VV7 I ii vii/iii I V7/ii ii CT vii I V7/ii V7/V V7 I/Here is the harmonic progression with Tutes bass-line29A / Db: V7 I6 vi ii V7 I6 V7 V7/vi6 vi IV I6 V74 V7 I/B / Bbm: i V7/V6 V430 i6 i i6 v6 V4/V V7/V V7 i V7/V6 V4 i6 iv6 v V4/V V76 i/C / Db: I ii6 V7/V V V6 I ii vii/iii I6 V7/ii ii vii6/V I6 V7/ii V7/V V7 I/ 26 It is impossible for me to determine if this progression already had marked inversions because I have notseen any written score for this piece.27 In reviewing other recordings of this piece, the V7 does not exist, as well as it is never used again in therest of the recording. Therefore it is possible that it was a mistake.28 The harmonic progression changes slightly in the B section when it repeats, but this is not consistent withother recordings I have heard.29 These inversions change in the section repeats, but I have condensed the most common uses.30 This could also be a iv6, but it was too difficult to decipher in the recording. He does resolve the 4correctly by going to the third of the i, so I assumed it was the V chord.

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41 Figure 2-7. Tutes baixaria performance with Grupo Carioca on No Sei by JosPereira da Silva. (Source: 2002. Memrias Musicais CD-2. Fino Biscoito.Authors transcription).

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42 Figure 2-7 continued.

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43 Figure 2-7 continued.

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44Such inversions had been common in European art-music for more than 200 years.However, considering that Tute was not trained in the conservatory, it is remarkable thathe had such command while improvising this baixaria.31 All of the inversions followtypical resolution procedures of the Baroque/Classical style. In addition to the handlingof these inversions, it is interesting to note Tutes use of chromatic eighth-note passagesin measures 60, 139, 159, 170-2, which are harmonically daring for this time in choro.Tutes use of chromaticism and unusual inversions were well ahead of the standardperformance practice for guitar in choro at this time, and paved the way for the future ofthe baixaria style, which was standardized by Dino Sete Cordas.Horondino Jos da Silva, a.k.a Dino Sete Cordas (Dino seven strings), was bornin Rio de Janeiro in 1918. Along with Tute and Raphael Rabello, he is considered one ofthe three masters of the violo sete cordas and took the instrument to new heights as anaccompanist for innumerable groups and star soloists including: Carmen Miranda,Francisco Alves, Orlando Silva, and poca de Ouro (w/Jacob do Bandolim). Out of hisrespect for the founding father of the instrument, Dino is reported to have only begunplaying the violo sete cordas after the death of Tute (Cazes 1999: 50). Dinos style ismuch like Tutes, but he tends to explore the harmony even further, and usually playslonger, more chromatic eighth, sixteenth, and sometimes thirty-second note passages inthe baixaria. He still performs today at the age of 86, and has created the standard forplaying the violo sete cordas in the choro. To represent Dinos achievements andcommand of the instrument, I have chosen the piece As Rosas No Falam. (figure 2-8). 31 The normal performance practice of guitarists was to improvise the baixaria, and I assume Tuteimprovised his part. However, this is not certain as I do not have any additional information about thisperformance in particular.

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45This piece is designated samba-cano (samba-song), which emerged as acommercial genre designation in the 1930s. This samba-cano resembles the rhythm ofthe maxixe style, but is much slower in tempo, which explains the thirty-second note runsby Dino (measures 5, 15, 16, etc.). The harmony is surprisingly simple given the typicalharmonic complexity of the samba-cano, which had a strong influence from Americanjazz. The song features the typical thirty-two bar standard form (not normal in choro),and modal mixture gives the harmony interesting color. The harmonic progression is asfollowsIntroduction-Dm: / i i4 V4/V iv6#4 V7/V iv6#4 V7 V6 /Dm: / i i4 iv6#4 VI6 V7/V V6 V7 i V6/V V i i4 V4/V V4 /V iv6#4 V7 V6 i vii/iv iv ii7 i V4/V V4/V V7 i i4 iv6 iv4 V7/V V6 i V6 V/The influence of jazz on Dinos playing is apparent in the chromatic passages and bopscales32 (measures 8, 13, 19), and the outlining of the Vb9 chord (e.g., m. 37) when it ismerely labeled E7.As one can see from this piece, Dinos playing is much more advanced than Tutessimpler style. Dino expanded the role of the violo sete cordas from an accompanimentinstrument to one that played a more active role in choro. 32 A traditional bop scale is an octatonic scale based on the major scale, played in descending scale withboth raised and flattened seventh degrees (e.g., C, B, Bb, A, G, F, E, D, C).

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46 Figure 2-8. Transcription of Dino 7 Cordas performance on As Rosas No Falam.(Source: Braga, Luiz Otvio. 2002. O Violo de Sete Cordas: Teoria ePrtica. Rio de Janeiro:Luminar Editora. pp.110-11. Used with permission).

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47 Figure 2-8 continued.While the violo sete cordas (since the early 20th century) has historically been anintrinsically imperative instrument in choro, Dinos playing creates more of a duet withthe soloist, thus showcasing its importance, and adding to its acceptance in Brazilianmusic.The guitar in Brazil is generally used as an accompaniment instrument in popularmusic, but there have been many solo guitarists that have flourished as well. One of theearliest and best known of these solo guitarists is Joo Texeira Guimares (JooPernambuco). Joo Pernambuco (1883-1947) was born in the dry northeast interiorcalled the serto, but due to droughts and famine coupled with the death of his father hisfamily moved to the city of Recife (state of Pernambuco) in 1891 (Crook 2003:5). InRecife, Joo learned how to play both the viola (at this time a five-string double-coursedinstrument) and the six-string violo, as well as many of the folk and popular musicalstyles of the northeast (cco, embolada, frevo, and maracatu). In 1904 Joo moved toRio de Janeiro to become an ironworker, but also involved himself with various rodas dechoro. It was in these musical circles that he met Villa-Lobos, Pixinguinha, Donga, andCatulo da Paixo Cearense, and he even began performing with many of them. Due totheir common northeastern roots, Joo and Catulo, connected musically and performed at

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48the houses of Rios social elite. Catulo also wrote words to Joos songs and it isunknown whether they co-wrote Catulos biggest hit Luar do Serto (1915), whichCatulo claimed as his own. In the late 1910s, Joo Pernambuco also became a fixture inPixinguinhas group Os Oito Batutas, which was the premiere group of the day.Joo Pernambuco was considered one of the best guitarists in all of Brazil. Hecontributed to the guitar not only as a performer, but as a teacher and composer as well.According to GarciaPernambucos greatest contributions to the choro tradition were both hiscompositions and his guitar technique. . He did things which no one had thoughtof until that point, and his legacy was continued through other great guitarists suchas Augustn Bairros, Dilermando Reis, and Garoto. (1997: 221-2)Pernambuco composed in many of the popular and folk genres of that time including:modinha, choro, samba, toada, jongo, etc., and even developed an etude study for guitar.All of his compositions were influenced by his unique technique, which was not thetraditional classical guitar technique made famous by Trrega and Segovia. Hesometimes played only with his left hand (striking only the fretboard to make a soundwithout aid of the opposite hand), made use of chord planing (striking a chord formationand sliding up and down the neck in the same position), moved the thumb in an up anddown motion like a plectrum, and sometimes used all five fingers in the right hand(picking or strumming hand)(figure 2-10).33 These techniques can be heard in many ofhis compositions/arrangements including: Brasilerinho, Interregando, and Dengosoto name a few.34 33 In order to use the fifth finger (small finger or pinky) the guitar must be held at a more severe angle(10-25 degrees more acute) than the standard classical position.34 Thomas Garcia gives excellent examples of some of these techniques in his dissertation 267-285

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49One of the major distinctions between the early solo and accompanimental choroguitar style is the absence of the baixaria in the former. This absence can be seen inPernambucos Dengoso, (figure 2-9) which is an excellent example of a solo guitarchoro of that time period. While there are still solo bass parts, they are much simpler andare usually not played while the melody is prominent. In Dengoso, we can also see theuse of the maxixe rhythm frequently throughout. The piece is fairly simple harmonically,which was common in the works of that epoch.While Pernambucos solo style is analogous to Tutes accompanimental style,Annibal Augusto Sardinha (Garoto) (1915-1955) could be described as the Dino SeteCordas of the solo guitar choro. However, he transcended the limits of choro, andbecame much more influential than Dino due his dual role as composer and performer.He was one of the first guitarists, along with Dilermando Reis, to introduce a classicalguitar technique into the popular Brazilian guitar style. In addition, he was a multi-instrumentalist who played cavaquinho, banjo, tenor guitar, and viola among otherstringed instruments.Garoto was born in So Paulo, and began studying the banjo at age eleven. Heexcelled at the instrument and began performing with the regional Irmos Armani do SoPaulo in the same year. Through his musical endeavors with this group, as well asothers, he became known as the moleque do banjo (street urchin of the banjo), but laterbecame simply Garoto (the kid) (Garcia 1997: 255). By the age of fourteen he wasplaying choro on guitar with some of the greatest musicians in Brazil includingParaguass (an accomplished guitarist who helped foster Garotos guitar playing). Over

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50the next ten years, Garoto gained a great deal of fame in Brazil due to his performanceson several recordings. Figure 2-9. Excerpt from Dengoso by Joo Pernoambuco. (Source: Santos, Turbio,ed. 1992. Pernambuco (Joo Texeira Guimares): 11 Famous Chros.Heidleberg:Chantarelle. Used with Permission.Shortly after moving to Rio de Janeiro in 1938, Garoto toured the United Stateswhile working with Carmen Mirandas band Bando da Lua. However, he was not merelyan accompanist as his guitar playing was a significant part of the show. Garcia states

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51Garoto often played introductions to sambas and choros on the tenor guitar,assuming the same role as the flute or clarinet in the regional. Several of theseperformances can be heard in Mirandas early Hollywood movies, e.g., The GangsAll Here and Springtime in the Rockies. In stage shows Garoto would be theopening act for Carmen, and would close shows either playing solo or accompaniedby the band. (Garcia 1997: 239)At this time jazz artists like Duke Ellington and Art Tatum heard Garoto, andinvited him to jam sessions or what Garoto termed rodas de jazz. It was through Garotoand Miranda that Brazilian music was first popularized in the United States. But thisinfluence was a two-way street, as Garoto also brought back jazz style harmonies toBrazil.Garotos most important contributions to the guitar in Brazil, as well as Brazilianmusic in general, was how he mixed sophisticated harmonies and classical technique (thestyle of Trrega and Segovia) with the styles of the chores and jazz musicians heencountered. Marco Pereira also credits Garoto with being the first popular musicguitarist to use nylon strings. While this distinction is subject to debate, we know thatGaroto used both nylon and steel strings depending on the situation and he is undoubtedlyone of the most influential guitarists of his era (Bellinati 1991:7; Boukas 2000:3). I donot believe it is a coincidence that Garotos work is considered one of the principalinfluences on the bossa nova era, and guitarists of that later time all used nylon strings.To illustrate Garotos unique musical and technical contributions to the Brazilianguitar and popular music, I have selected various excerpts from Paulo Bellinatistranscriptions of the master guitarists works. The first series of these examplesdemonstrates Garotos use of popular/folk style technique in his compositions, and thesecond is a transcription of Lamentos do Morro (Sounds of the Hillside Slums).

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52 Figure 2-10. Examples of non-classical guitar techniques employed by many guitarists ofBrazilian popular music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. (Source:Bellinati, Paulo. 1991. The Guitar Works of Garoto vol. 1. San Francisco:GSP. pp. 7-8. Used with permission).In the example of Crossing Barre, one can also see the technique of planing between thelast chord of the first bar and the first chord of the last bar, as they move in descendingparallel motion. As I mentioned above, Joo Pernambuco also used the five-finger andplectrum techniques.

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53 Figure 2-11. Excerpt from Lamentos do Morro by Garoto. (Source: Bellinati, Paulo.1991. The Guitar Works of Garoto vol. 1. San Francisco: GSP. pp. 18-20.Used with permission). A Introduction

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54 Figure 2-11 continued. B

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55 Figure 2-11 continued.

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56The introduction begins in E minor with a sixteenth-note bass pedal tonealternating between E and D, which implies or evokes the sound of a pandeiro (Braziliantambourine typically used in choro). This passage utilizes the up and down thumbtechnique as shown above. The first half of the A section (measures 12-19) contains aninteresting harmonic sequence of half-diminished chords over a D pedal tone. This isharmonically a prolongation of the dominant chord, and prepares the next section in Gmajor. However, a descending bass line from C to A briefly interrupts the D pedal beforeit then returns to the original D. The progression is as followsG:(over D pedal) / vi (ii in D) V7 vi V7 bIII7 vii/IV iii7/G: (over C pedal) / iv7 ii / G: (over Bb pedal) / bIII7 bVI7 /G: (over A pedal) / iv iv9 V7sus4/iv iv7 ii V9 /As the D pedal returns in measure 28, jazz influence is most apparent. Garoto firstuses a progression of augmented modal chords (Bb augmented and Ab augmented) in thismeasures 28-9, which can also function as tritone substitutions of the IV and V chordswith a raised fifth degree (e.g., Bb augmented can be respelled as Gb augmented). Theharmony is resolved somewhat diatonically to a iv9(#7) V9 iii7 vii/iii iii7 IV7 V7. The B section then commences, and contains much of the same harmony found intraditional tin-pan-alley tunes. According to Bellinati, this section is a tribute to AryBarroso, composer of the big-band jazz/crooner influenced samba-cano period from

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57the late 1940s to the 1950s. Barroso is most famous for the songs Aquarela do Brasiland Na Baixa da Sepateiro (Bahia).It is also interesting to note Garotos use of the left hand, which does more thanplay quarter notes. In measure 36, the eighth notes in beat two simulate the surdo (bassdrum) found in samba ensembles. Garoto also uses a technically challenging baixariastyle (measures 53-5 and 76), which is not found in the guitar style of Joo Pernambuco.Throughout this piece it is easy to see Garotos technical capabilities as well as hisharmonic complexity.These guitarists, Tute, Dino 7 Cordas, Joo Pernambuco, and Garoto, are four ofthe most influential guitarists of their time, and set the standard for Brazilian guitarperformance practice of the future. Along with many other musicians who helpedpopularize samba, they are responsible for the acceptance of the guitar in Brazil. Equallyimportant was their role as cultural mediators, as their music was influential to both theupper and lower classes of their day. While Tute and Dino are solely associated with thechoro style, Pernambuco and Garoto transcended choro into samba and jazz. And assamba emerged in the first decades of the 20th century, Pernambuco and Garotomaintained a technical excellence while other guitarists preferred the simpler style ofaccompanying samba singers. They are the foundation of the solo Brazilian guitar, anddirectly influenced Marco Pereiras playing style.These are, of course, not all of the important guitarists of this era, but justrepresentatives of a world of Brazilian guitar that was being created at this time. Othernotable solo guitarists of the era are: Dillermando Reis, whose style is similar to

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58Pernambucos but with more classical influence; Augustn Barrios; and AmricoJacomino Canhoto.The Bossa Nova eraIn the 1940s and 1950s, American big band jazz, along with crooner style singershighly influenced the now highly popular samba. This ultimately resulted in the samba-cano (samba song), which was a middle-class commercial version of samba.Composers like Ary Barroso, and singers Dick Farney and Johnny Alf created a soundthat changed Brazilian popular music from the vocal, guitar, and percussion based samba,to a more grandiose and smooth sound that included string sections and jazz harmony.Along with these musical changes, social changes also were taking place in themid-1950s. It was during this time that industrialization was taking over, and many ofthe rural power bases were loosing ground to major corporations (Reily 1996: 5). Inaddition to this, many members of the newly formed urban middle-class were reaping thebenefits of the new industrialized Brazil. The upper and lower classes became spatiallyisolated from each other, and Brazil created its first generation where the poor and richdid not interact socially with each other (Reily 1996: 5). Political change wasrevolutionary as well with Juscelino Kubitscheck being elected president in 1955. Withthe political slogan fifty years in five (referring to fifty years of progress in five years)Kubitscheck began bankrolling the nations wealth to promote a modernized Brazil.Kubitscheck also created a new capital of the country in Braslia, a newly constructed andhighly modernized city located in central interior of Brazil. Due to the new presidency,industrialization, and winning its first world cup of soccer in 1958, Brazil had reached aheightened state of national pride. And it was in this euphoria that the urban middle-class

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59youth celebrated their carefree lives, and were ripe for a new musical sound to definetheir generation.This was the backdrop for the new samba style that would be termed bossa nova; itwould be through this movement that the guitar would be fully solidified as the nationalinstrument of Brazil. The historic tale of bossa nova generally asserts that thecombination of the unique contributions of poet Vincius de Morais, pianist/composerAntnio Carlos Jobim, and guitarist Joo Gilberto fostered the new musical style.Moraiss simple yet witty lyrics, Jobims jazz/French impressionism influencedcompositional style, and Joo Gilbertos simple guitar and breath-like vocal timbre werethe foundations of this new thing. However, it was Joo Gilbertos voice and guitarthat fully realized the bossa nova sound, and this new simplified (instrumentationallyspeaking) version of samba would resound around the world. The goal of these artistswas to create a style that was more tranquil and sophisticated (lyrically and harmonically)than the commercialized samba at that time. This new style of samba communicatedvery well to the emerging middle class, and the popularity of bossa nova influenced manyburgeoning young musicians to study the soft sounds of Gilbertos nylon-string guitar.As Reily states, With the emergence of bossa nova the guitar became the instrument tocross-cut the social divisions of the country. It could be heard from the poorest and darkquarters to the richest and the whitest, in both rural and urban contexts (2001: 172). Theultimate global popularity of bossa nova would solidify the nylon-string guitar as theBrazilian guitar internationally. (Bhague 1973; Castro 1991)Another factor in the internationalization of bossa nova and the assent of theBrazilian guitar as a national symbol was the international popularity of the film Orfeu

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60Negro (Black Orpheus) by French director Michel Camus in 1959. The film, which wasa modern Brazilian setting of the classic Greek play Orpheus and Eurydice, was anoffshoot of the hit play Orfeu da Conceio that featured songs co-written by Morais deMoraes and Tom Jobim. While history highlights the global popularity of the soundtrackto Orfeu Negro, which thrust this new style of samba (later to be called bossa nova) intothe international music scene with famous songs such as A felicidade (Jobim/Moraes)and Manha da Carnaval (Bonf), the role of the guitar in the film is equally assignificant. First and foremost, the films protagonist, Orfeu, plays a nylon-stringedguitar, which is substituted for the Greek characters powerful harp. In the film, theneighborhoods poor children believe that Orfeus guitar has powers that can cause thesun to rise each morning, and Orfeus guitar is highlighted throughout the film in variousscenes. While the guitar is not capable of bringing Eurydice back to life as Orpheussharp did, the final scene is of a young boy (the new Orfeu) playing the guitar to make thesun rise while the other children are dancing to his new samba. The purposeful use of theguitar and this new style of samba in the film to represent Brazilian musical identitypainted a new picture for the world, and helped bossa nova become a global success. Thefilm, and its soundtrack, helped change Brazils image from Carmen Mirandasflamboyant dancing while wearing a fruity hat to a man quietly playing his guitar.While Joo Gilberto is credited with defining the main framework of the bossanova guitar style, he was not the only guitarist to contribute to this new way of playingsamba. Guitarists Luiz Bonf, Carlos Lyra, Paulinho Nogueira, and later Baden Powell,also helped lay the foundations of the bossa nova. The latter two of these guitarists are

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61Marco Pereiras greatest influences,35 and furthered the line of Brazilian solo guitaristsfounded by Pernambuco and Garoto. Nogueira and Powell, like Garoto, were classicallytrained and used nylon strings on their guitars. They brought the guitar to a newtechnical level, and continued to mix new styles as their predecessors.Paulinho Nogueira (1929-2002)Paulo (Paulinho) Mendes Pupo Nogueira was born August 8, 1929 in Campinas,So Paulo. He first learned classical guitar from his father and two brothers at the age ofeleven, and in 1952 moved to So Paulo city to pursue a professional career as a guitarist.In 1958, amidst the euphoria happening throughout Brazil, Nogueira released his first LPA Voz do Violo, for which he gained critical acclaim as one of the great guitarists in thecountry. In 1965, his fame was broadened, as he became regular guitarist on Brazilspopular television show O Fino da Bossa, which was hosted by Elis Regina and JairRodrigues. The show featured some of the greatest musical talent in Brazil as guestartists including: Baden Powell, Tom Jobim, Dorival Caymmi, Edu Lobo, and others.After enjoying the success of the early 1960s bossa nova craze, performingopportunities diminished for bossa nova guitarists with the onset of the more musicallysimple Jovem Guarda movement led by Roberto Carlos in the second half of the decade.Due to the spiraling popularity of bossa nova and the lack of venues to perform in,Nogueira turned to teaching guitar lessons (1964) and writing pedagogical material forthe instrument. In 1967 he wrote a harmony method book entitled Paulinho NogueiraMethod for Guitar and Other Harmonic Insturments, which is still a best seller after 35 This is not to say that Joo Gilberto was not a great influence on Pereiras playing, but that PaulinhoNogueira and Baden Powell by their instrumental style are more similar to Pereiras playing than thesinger/guitarist.

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62twenty reprints (Paschoito 1998: 6). One of his students at this time was the now famousToquinho, who went on to work with Vincius de Morais, Tom Jobim, and many others.In addition to composing and teaching, Nogueira also designed an instrumentcalled the craviola (figure 2-12), which was eventually made by his luthier friendGianini. The guitar is a cross between a cravo (harpsichord) and a viola, and has a largeteardrop shaped body and six double-coursed strings. It was a great seller for thecompany, and is still exported around the world.Nogueiras style was much more classical than the other guitarists of his day, andmuch less influenced by American jazz. He played with very short to no fingernails (likeGaroto), which is part of Nogueiras trademark soft sound. As a composer he is greatlyinfluenced by Bach, Villa-Lobos, and Garoto, but is also an excellent songwriter.Ironically, Nogueiras biggest hit was his 1970 song Menina, which he sang himself.However, it is his compositions and arrangements for the guitar that have secured hisplace in Brazils popular music history. His first and most famous composition for guitaris Bachianinha no. 1 (Little Bachiana no. 1) (figure 2-13), 36which he originallyrecorded on his second album under the name Samba no Cu (Samba in Heaven) in1960. He changed the name after realizing the influence of Bach on the piece. The nameof the piece is also a reflection of Villa-Loboss influence on his style. This piece hasbeen recorded by various guitarists around the world, and is considered a standard in theBrazilian guitar repertoire. The rhythm, melody, and harmony of this piece are baroquein style, but also contain distinctly Brazilian elements. First, it was written solely for theguitar, and closely resembles the Bachianas Brasileiras no. 5 by Villa-Lobos. 36 This piece was originally written for one guitar, and the second guitar is optional (Paschoito 1998: 6).

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63 Figure 2-12. Photo of Gianini craviola taken by Frank Ford. (Source:http://www.frets.com/FRETSPages/Museum/Guitar/Giannini/Craviola/CraviolaViews/craviola06.jpg. Last accessed on July 13, 2004).

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64 Figure 2-13. Excerpt from Bachianinha no. 1 by Paulinho Nogueira. (Source:Paschoito, Ivan and Santos, Lus Santos. 1998. The Guitar Works of PaulinhoNogueira: Volume 1 9 Pieces. San Francisco: GSP. pp. 7-8. Used withpermission).

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65 Figure 2-13 continued.

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66The subtle use of the Afro-Brazilian rhythm in the inner voices (e.g., measure 11) alsoadds a Brazilian touch. The harmony is fairly simple, and follows the cycle of fifthsprogression as found in Corelli, Scarlatti, Bach, Handel, and other baroque composers.While Nogueira was an important figure in the bossa nova era, he did not composemany pieces until the late 1970s and early 1980s. In contrast to the Bachianinha, healso composed many non-traditional bossa nova inspired works. An example of this isReflexes em 2 por 4 (Reflections in 2/4), which is based upon the Joo Gilbertosrhythmic bossa nova pattern:37 Figure 2-14. Excerpt from Reflexes em 2 por 4. by Paulinho Nogueira. (Source:Paschoito, Ivan and Santos, Lus Santos. 1998. The Guitar Works of PaulinhoNogueira: Volume 1 9 Pieces. San Francisco: GSP. p. 25. Used withpermission).The harmony and rhythm in this piece contains a much greater influence of the bossanova era than Bachianinha no. 1. The opening harmonic sequence is I9-bVII-V7/V37 Bhague (1973:222) and Reily (1996:5) also transcribed this rhythm.

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67bVII-I9-etc., which is in sharp contrast to the traditional baroque harmony he used in theBachianinha.Paulinho Nogueiras mixed his classical background with the soft sounds of bossanova to create a new style of solo guitar repertoire. While his playing is not highlyvirtuosic, he broadened the school of solo guitar compositionally, pedagogically, andeven technically. In a country where it is difficult for an instrumentalist to gain criticalacclaim, as well as earn a sufficient income, Nogueira remained committed toinstrumental guitar music. He exuded a great influence on young guitarists who arelearning the instrument, and are intimidated by the virtuosic classical styles, as well asBaden Powells acrobatic guitar work. Paulinho Nogueiras hybrid musical style is anexcellent representation of the Brazilian guitar, and has made him a permanent fixture inBrazilian music history.Baden Powell (1937-2000)I would say that familiarity with Powell was the reason I never attempted to learn to play the guitar.Pels friend cannot play soccer. Baden Powell was the Pel of the guitar.-Mrio Telles, singer and composer. (Espinosa 2000)There are not many guitarists, let alone musicians in general, in Brazil that are aslegendary as Baden Powell. Powell is the culmination of all guitarists that preceded him,and influenced everyone who has come after. He can be considered the greatestambassador of the Brazilian guitar to the rest of the world, and his playing defines theinstrument we know today. Baden Powells playing expresses the identity of theBrazilian guitar: technical excellence and a rich acoustic sound mixed with the energy ofthe rhythmic musical culture of Brazil.

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68Roberto Baden Powell de Aquino was born on August 6, 1937 in a small town inthe state of Rio de Janeiro called Varre-Sai (about 220 miles from Rio de Janeiro). Hisfather was a Boy-Scout leader and named him Baden Powell after the founder of theorganization (Sir Robert Stephenson Smyth Powell-Powell). Powells family moved tothe city of Rio de Janeiro when he was three months old, and lived in the poorneighborhoods of So Cristvo and Villa-Isabel. These neighborhoods were also oncehomes to great musicians like Pixinguinha and Donga, who often visited Powells home.He began playing guitar at the age of seven when his father arranged classical guitarlessons from Jaime Florence, who was a prominent guitarist of that time in Rio. When hewas nine, he won an amateur radio contest for an unaccompanied guitar piece, and beganplaying professionally a year later. One of his earliest jobs was as an accompanist forvocalists performing on the Rdio Nacional (National Radio) in the late 1940s.Powell began playing in Rios nightclubs when he was 18, where he met AntonioCarlos Jobim. In 1956, he recorded his first hit Samba-Triste, which contained lyricswritten by Billy Blanco. He was introduced to Vincius de Morais through a mutualfriend (Nilo Queiroz) in 1962, and began collaborating with him shortly afterwards(Castro 1990: 305). The two musicians worked for ninety days straight in Moraissapartment, and composed over twenty-five songs. It was during his collaboration withMorais that he created a new guitar sound heavily influenced by the polyrhythmic soundsof Afro-Brazilian religious music.38 He called this new style Afro-samba, blending theserhythms with his own classical and popular music background. As Vincius de Moraisstates 38 Powell spent six-months in Bahia (a state in the Northeast of Brazil with a predominantly Afro-Brazilianpopulation) in 1964 where he frequented various candombl houses.

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69From that same period is Canto de Yemanj in which, it is my opinion, Powellreached a beauty rarely attained. . Powell's musical antennae to Bahia and, in afinal stretch, to Africa, allowed him to put together this new syncretism, adding a'carioca' taste, within the spirit of modern samba, to the Afro-Brazilian candombl,giving it a more universal dimension. (Luft 1997)This sound can be heard in the song cycle Os Afro Sambas, originally recorded in 1966,but re-recorded in 1990 because Powell was unhappy with the earlier recording quality.The album is structured as a candombl ritual39 beginning with Abertura (Opening)and proceeding through a cycle of songs that have associations with certain deities (e.g.,Canto de Xang, Canto da Iemanj/Yemanj). Many of the songs are in complextriple meter (12/8 or 6/8), which reflect the typical rhythms of candombl rituals. OtherAfro-Brazilian elements in the songs are the various refrains and responsorial chorusesfeaturing the female group Quarteto en Cy (Quartet in C). However, he also mixes thesesounds with his bossa nova background in Tristeza E Solido, but uses a gourd rattle asa substitute for the hi-hat sixteenth-note rhythm. This instrumental addition gives thepiece an Afro-Brazilian flavor.In addition to this album, Powell and Morais also composed songs that representedother aspects of Afro-Brazilian culture. In the famous Berimbau, which appears on there-recording of Os Afros Sambas, Powell imitates the Afro-Brazilian musical bow oftenfound in capoeira (a Brazilian martial-arts style where the participants avoid hitting eachother). He does this by playing both single notes and chords up and down a major secondin the typical berimbau rhythm: Another song that included the Afro39 Participants in candombl rituals usually sing a sequence of songs devoted to the Orixa deities.

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70Brazilian theme was Samba da Beno, which was later used in the soundtrack of theFrench film Un Homme et Une Femme (A Man and A Woman).In addition to the new Afro-samba sound, Powell was also greatly influenced byAmerican jazz, and even performed in the United States with saxophonist Stan Getz in1966. He also traveled to Europe (mostly France and Germany) in the 1960s andperformed at various jazz festivals there including the Berlin Jazz Festival. WhileBrazilian guitarists before him were only subtly influenced by jazz harmony in theirplaying, Baden Powell went much further and recorded jazz standards like TheloniusMonks Round Midnight, Miles Daviss Stella By Starlight, and All The ThingsYou Are. However, he usually performs the pieces in a bossa nova style, and theysound similar to the solo guitar playing of Jim Hall, Joe Pass, and Wes Montgomery.Some of these jazz standards he performed on solo guitar, but others with a trio or quartetof bass, drums, and the occasional solo instrument (usually a flute).Powells playing style is highly virtuosic, and attained a level never heard in Brazilbefore his time. He was capable of playing fast melodic passages, as well as soundinglike two guitarists at once in his solo pieces (playing difficult parts in the bass and uppervoices at the same time). Some of his fastest playing is on the recording of PixinguinhasCarinhoso from the album Personalidade. His sound is fairly brash and he tended tohit the strings very hard with his right hand closer to the bridge than a typical classicalguitarist (figure 2-15). However, he could also contrast this playing with the light touchof a bossa nova and classical guitarist. He could also play modal and chromatic melodiclines like a jazz musician, or keep within the diatonic scale. Essentially, Powell couldplay in any style while maintaining his own distinct sound.

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71 Figure 2-15. Photo of Baden Powell at the 1967 Berlin Jazz Festival taken by FrankBender. (Source: http://www.brazil-on-guitar.de/gallery/frame/gallery.html.Last accessed June 12, 2004).Powells compositions range widely from fast sambas to subtle bossa novas andgentle preludes, and often mixed many styles in one piece. He also composed songs likePaulinho Nogueira, and even sang many of the Afro-sambas that he co-wrote withMorais. Unlike Garotos and Nogueiras pieces, Powells compositions were not alwaysguitar specific, meaning that the melodies could stand for themselves without the use ofthe guitar. This is not to say that Powell did not compose for the guitar, but that histhinking was like a pianist, as he treated all voices equally. However, he did use some of

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72the same techniques as Garoto, such as the five-finger technique, chord planing and barrecrossing. To summarize, Powell was a complete player, who was not limited by hisinstruments capabilities, but revolutionized the Brazilian guitar.To exemplify Powells compositions and playing style, I have chosen twocontrasting pieces: Consolao and Tempo Feliz. Consolao (figure 2-16) is afast-samba with Afro-samba characteristics. While the rhythm for this piece is a typicalsamba rhythm, it is in a minor key like most of his other Afro-sambas. In the release ofthis piece on Poema On Guitar (1967), the middle section switches to a polyrhythmicpattern in triple meter (12/8) with African style percussion (double bell, atabaque-sounding membranophones) pervading the mix while Powell improvises. ErbhardWeber, who is famous for his performances with Gary Burton and Pat Metheny, alsoaccompanies him on bass. The transcription I have listed here comes from the albumTempo Feliz (1966), and is only accompanied by drums (played by Chico Batera). Thisversion is less improvisatory, but demonstrates Powells capabilities as a solo guitarist.40The compositional qualities of Afro-samba are found in the use of minor pentatonicharmonies throughout the piece, as well as vocal-like call and response sections betweenthe bass and soprano voices (e.g., measures 1-34 and more prominently in measures 58-77). 41 Powell also plays some flattened fifths in his pentatonic scale runs, thus giving 40 This assumption is based on the absence of a solo section, which shortens the piece by almost fourminutes.41 I have marked these places in bold on the score, which are not part of the original transcription.

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73 Figure 2-16. Excerpt from Consolao by Baden Powell. (Source: Darmstadt, Tonos.1976. Baden Powell Songbook Vol. 1. Hozhofallee: TONOS Musikverlags.pp. 6-7. Used with permission). Intro. A

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74 Figure 2-16 continued. 58

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75the melodic lines an American blues-like sound. Also interesting to note is the use ofthe inner voices while the bass and soprano are playing melodic lines.In Tempo Feliz, (figure 2-17) Powell showcases his softer bossa nova style andhis classical guitar training. He begins the piece in a romantic rubato style, whichcontains a fairly simple harmony like that found in the choro and early samba (though itdoes contain various upper extensions of the harmony like 11ths and 13ths). This alsoshowcases his attention to the inner voice accompaniment (eg., measure 20). Powell thencommences in fairly strict time in the B section, where he plays a bossa nova/slowsamba-like rhythm. He also plays melodic content while keeping in this rhythm, but themelody is often hard to distinguish because he often does not hold down the notes longenough to bring out the melody. However, this piece demonstrates Powells ability toplay many parts at one time. Powell also disguises the Afro-Brazilian rhythm by holdingchords over the bar, which is a common technique of samba and bossa nova guitarists.Baden Powell is the embodiment of the Brazilian guitar, and set the standard for thefuture guitarists with his virtuosic technical abilities and unique compositional style. Heis considered one of Brazils greatest guitarists in its rich musical history, and isundoubtedly the most influential. His impact is much like Miles Daviss influence on theAmerican jazz trumpet, as virtually every guitarist that followed him has copied his stylein one way or another. Marco Pereira considers Baden Powell his greatest influence, andthe guitarist he listened to the most as a burgeoning young musician. He is the Pel ofthe guitar, and symbolizes the identity of the Brazilian guitar much like the great soccermaster epitomized his sport.

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76 Figure 2-17. Excerpts of the A and B sections of Tempo Feliz by Baden Powell.(Source: Darmstadt, Tonos. 1976. Baden Powell Songbook Vol. 2.Hozhofallee: TONOS Musikverlags. pp. 10-1 Used with permission). A B

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77Both Paulinho Nogueira and Baden Powells mixing of popular and erudite musicalstyles further contributed to the acceptance of the Brazilian guitar in popular and eliteclasses of society. It was through their contributions, along with other bossa novaguitarists, that the guitar was solidified as a symbol of national identity. Baden Powellsvirtuosity and expression of Afro-Brazilian culture not only transcended the countrysclass divisions, but its racial lines as well. And Paulinho Nogueiras more classical styleinspired young guitarists to embrace Brazils European musical heritage equally with theAfro-Brazilian rhythmic influence in popular music. Their influence fostered a newgeneration of guitar virtuosos like Egberto Gismonti, Ulysses Rocha, Paulo Bellinati,Marco Pereira, and Yamand Costa. They also inspired young new vocalist/guitarists tobroaden their horizons beyond the mere accompaniment style of Joo Gilberto.Guitarists like Gilberto Gil, Djavan, and Joo Bosco began playing more complex partson their guitars while accompanying themselves vocally. Nogueira and Powell are thefounders of the modern Brazilian guitar style, and their impact forever changed the faceof the guitar in Brazil.Vocal AccompanistsIn addition to all of these great guitarists influence on Marco Pereiras style, thereare also many vocal accompanists who have inspired him. Three of these vocalaccompanists are Joo Gilberto, Gilberto Gil, and Joo Bosco. While they are notvirtuosos comparable to Baden Powell, Marco Pereira considers them three of hisgreatest influences. According to Pereira, each had his own unique style, whichcontributed to the world of the Brazilian guitar.

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78Joo Gilberto is historically noted as one of the fathers of bossa nova, and helpedrealize the new way of playing samba. At that time, Brazilian popular guitarists mainlyimprovised rhythms on the guitar in a variety of styles. Joo Gilberto essentially unifiedthese styles by simplifying the rhythm (modeling it after the tamborim and surdo rhythmsalone) (Connell 2002: 72-4). While his guitar playing is considered the definitive way toplay bossa nova, it was his placement of the lyrics on the beat and rhythmic variationsthat Marco Pereira claims was most influential. For two years Pereira studied how JooGilberto rhythmically placed lyrics on the beat, and that he was intrigued by Gilbertosrhythmic variations. This study refuted his belief that Gilberto sang freely with rubatowhile keeping a steady guitar rhythm and revealed that every word was placed precisely.Gilberto Gils unique way of playing guitar left an indelible mark on Pereirasplaying as well. Pereira recalls listening to Gilberto Gil, and being intrigued by the guitarstyle of Expresso 2222 (figure 2-18). Later, Gil told Pereira he was trying to emulatethe accordion sounds of the forr or baio groups found in the Northeast. Pereira wouldeventually record the only solo guitar version of this song on Almir Chediaks Songbook-Gilberto Gil CD (1992), which accompanied the book itself. Figure 2-18. Transcription of guitar intro. riff from Gils Expresso 2222. (Chediak,Almir. 1992. Songbook-Gilberto Gil. Rio de Janeiro: Lumiar Editora. Usedwith permission).Of the vocal accompanists, Joo Bosco influenced Pereira the most. He has uniquevocal improvisatory style and a Baden Powell approach to playing samba. He uses a lot

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79of rhythmic variation in his playing, as well as executing melodic lines while playingchords and bass notes (like Baden). One of Boscos trademark techniques is his specialright hand pattern where he alternates between high and low voices in a chordprogression. This can be seen in his Incompatabilidade de Genios from the albumGalos de Brigak. Figure 2-19. Transcription of Boscos playing on Incompatibilidade de Genios.(Source: Faria, Nelson. 1995. The Brazilian Guitar Book: Samba, BossaNova, and Other Brazilian Styles. Petaluna: Sher Music Co. p. 34. Used withpermission).Bosco is famous for his use of partido alto on guitar, which is the rhythmic pattern in theexample above.International InfluencesIn addition to these domestic musicians, various international artists have alsomade an impact on Pereiras playing style. Four important influences are: WesMontgomery, Cacho Tirao, John Williams, and Julian Bream. Pereira has said that heoften gets his phrasing ideas (improvising) from Wes Montgomery. While he does notoften play the octaves that were a trademark of Montgomery, he did copy his finger-styleplaying.Cacho Tirao is an Argentinean guitarist who has played with Astor Piazzola andmany other Tango musicians. Tirao is much like the Baden Powell of the tango, as hewas classically trained, but played popular solo guitar music as well. He is known for his

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80clear articulation of notes and Pereira remembers wanting to play just like him afterhearing him in Paris in 1977. The sound of his guitar is very similar to Marco Pereirassound with a full-bodied and smooth tone. Both guitarists exhibit an equal technicalcommand of the instrument. The similarities can best be heard on Cacho Tirao-The Storyof Tango vol. 7.Both John Williams (Australia) and the Julian Bream (U.K.) are classical guitarists,who Pereira admires greatly, but for different reasons. Pereira considers John Williamsstechnique flawless, and he aspired to emulate his hand position and perfect articulation.In contrast to Williams perfect technique, Julian Bream, with whom he studied with inEurope, influenced Pereira with his musical interpretations and repertoire. Breamrecorded many more contemporary composers (e.g., Benjamin Britten) than otherguitarists at that time and would even give the composers suggestions on how they couldre-write their works to better suit the guitar. In addition, Pereira found favor in theinterpretations of these pieces, as well as the rich sound of his guitar.ConclusionThe Brazilian guitar has gone through various transformations. From viola toviolo the guitar has been a symbol of hybridity with all the musicians and composersthat have used it. As we look through the Brazilian guitars history two things arecertain: 1) the guitar helped narrow the gap between social classes in Brazil, and 2) theinstrument blurred the strict lines of art and popular music. Musicologists, tend tolean towards codifying genres of music into discrete units to be presented to the world.However, this is almost impossible to do this with the guitar music of Brazil. Often thereis no objective distinction between art and popular, and we are forced to merely

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81accept the guitar in Brazil for what it is: the Brazilian guitar. It is not the classicalguitar, nor the fingerstyle guitar; it is merely an entity within itself. It is true that theBrazilian guitar has many faces due to its multifarious historical influences, but I do notbelieve it is necessary to classify it as an art, popular, or folk instrument.It is also unnecessary to classify any of the remarkable musicians who have definedthe Brazilian guitar. How can one classify Garoto, Paulinho Nogueira, and BadenPowell? Are they popular or classical musicians? The truth is that it is impossible tocodify these musicians in any category other than Brazilian guitar style. As stated inchapter one, mixture and confusion are integral concepts of brasilidade and were centralto the philosophies of the Brazilian modernists. As these concepts were institutionalizedby the Vargas regime in the 1930s, Brazilians (other than the thinkers/artists) began toadopt/accept a new national identity based on diversity and mixing. Brazilians guitaristsand composers had been mixing musical genres since the late 19th century, and thisinstitutionalization of brasilidade only perpetuated what had been happening for years.Therefore, these concepts of Brazilian identity must be inclusive in the process ofcodifying the Brazilian guitar style. Much like the trinity of Brazilian racial identity(African, European, and Amerindian), Brazilian guitarists mixed folk, popular, and artmusic together and created something distinctly Brazilian. The Brazilian guitar styleincludes all of these categories, and this confusion is perfectly acceptable.Through my illustrations of the lives, performance practices, and compositions ofthese artists, I have attempted to illustrate a basic understanding of the Brazilian guitar.However, there is much more research that needs to done about this instrument and eachof these musicians are worthy of independent study. From Tute to Baden Powell, these

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82guitarists have added unique contributions to Brazilian guitar culture and given it aspecial place in music history. All of the guitarists mentioned have played a part inmaking the guitar a national symbol in Brazil due to their hybridized musical styles,which defines the Brazilian guitar.The hybridized styles of the guitarists mentioned in this chapter have served asmediators between Brazilian popular and elite cultures. Their message inspired youngguitarists of all classes to explore all aspects of their countrys musical heritage. Theyhave also created a school of Brazilian guitar, and because the guitar is a relativelyinexpensive instrument, this school has many disciples worldwide. One of these disciplesis the subject of this thesis: Marco Pereira. In this chapter, I painted a musical backdrop of Marco Pereiras influences todemonstrate how he approaches the instrument. However, in the next section of mystudy I will present Pereiras biography and musical characteristics. While Pereira has awide range of international influences, he closely maintains his identity as a Brazilianguitarist. He is an excellent archetype of the Brazilian guitar style with his hybridplaying style (mixing classical and popular music), and represents a new generation ofBrazilian guitarists, who have helped further established the unique identity of theBrazilian guitar.

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83 CHAPTER 3THE LIFE AND MUSIC OF MARCO PEREIRA AND CONCLUSIONIntroductionMarco Pereira is one of Brazils great guitar virtuosos who belongs to a newgeneration that has revolutionized guitar playing in Brazil. Much like Baden Powellbefore him, Pereira has successfully synthesized the art and popular music of Brazil in hisown unique way. Pereira undoubtedly owes a great debt to his predecessors (Garoto,Baden Powell, Paulinho Nogueira, etc.), but he has a greater amount of classical trainingthan any of his mentors. This extended classical training has given him the ability totranscend earlier guitarists and has made him historically one of the greatest guitarists ofhis generation.Though he considers himself primarily a performer, Pereira has also excelled in thefields of musicology, theory/composition, choral conducting, arranging, and teaching.He founded the guitar program at the University of Braslia, has been invited to play atBrazils finest music festivals, and has recorded and performed along with Brazils bestmusicians. This not so short list includes: Zlia Duncan, Edu Lobo, Cssia Eller, ZRenato, Gilberto Gil, Gal Costa, Wagner Tiso, Daniela Mercury, Zizi Possi, Rildo Hora,Paulinho da Viola, Tom Jobim, Milton Nascimento, Z Nogueira, Toninho Carrasqueira,Leandro Braga Virginia Rosa Leila Pinheiro, Rosana, Ftima Guedes, Nelson Gonalves,Hamilton de Holanda, and many others. As this list of performers indicates, Pereira is avery diverse musician. In his own words

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84I have a very wide range of influences. . I can listen to everything. I can go toan opera and enjoy that. . I can cry like a fool if I go and see Verdi at a theatre. .and if I listen to Joo Gilberto, I can cry the same.42In this chapter I will highlight Pereiras diversity as a performer, composer,teacher, and arranger. I will begin with a brief look at his life, followed by analyses of hisperformance and compositional style. I will also briefly discuss Pereiras place inBrazilian musical culture, in an attempt to codify his style. However, my intent is toreveal that Marco Pereiras work is so diverse that it is impossible to effectively label itinto one category. The hybridity of his style (e.g., that he crosses the genres of popularand art music) makes Pereira an excellent example of Brazilian hybrid identity in thefield of music.BiographyMarco Pereira was born September 25, 1950 in So Paulo city into a family of non-musicians. His first musical exposure was through the music his mother listened to whilehe was young. She played records of Francisco Alves, Carmen Miranda, Orlando Silva,Garoto, and Jacob do Bandolim, as well as artists of Argentinean tango. Pereira recallsthat there were no labels on the instrumental and vocal music at this time, and everythingseemed much more balanced than it is today. His first exposure to the guitar was throughhis cousin, whom he would visit on holidays. His cousin was learning to play the guitar(mainly chords for accompanying vocal music), and Pereira would watch her play. Healso studied her songbooks and learned the chords himself. Pereira remembers thatlearning the guitar was quite easy for him, and after some time he asked his father for aguitar. His father bought him his first nylon stringed acoustic guitar at age ten, which 42 Unless otherwise indicated, quotations in this biography are from my personal interviews with Pereirabetween March and June of 2004.

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85Pereira thought was a very bad one. His fathers friend subsequently taught him someold waltzes by Dillermando Reis and Canhoto.While Pereiras first musical lessons mostly comprised South American styles, hecould not avoid the influence of American rock n roll. He remembers listening to PaulAnka and Elvis Presley. His sister even had pictures of these artists, as well as NeilSedaka, on the walls of her room. He purchased his first electric guitar at the age offourteen, and subsequently started a band. Pereira states that his band copied the musicof The Fenders,43 which was an instrumental (two guitars, bass, and drums) rock group atthat time. Pereiras band often played at balls and formal gatherings, and was a showcasefor his burgeoning talent on the guitar.After playing in this band for a few years, his mother began to notice his giftedguitar playing and suggested he go to the local music academy to take private lessons. So,at the age of sixteen, Pereira took his mothers advice and enrolled in the conservatory inLapa, So Paulo. His first teacher was actually a pianist who learned to play guitar inorder to make extra money teaching. 44 Pereira had an hour lesson each week where hestudied classical pedagogical material by Trrega and other classical guitarists. Heremembers that he easily learned the material, and would perform the exercisesflawlessly each week. This took about fifteen minutes of lesson time and they wouldhave an extra forty-five minutes left. At first his teacher would send him home early, buteventually he started performing additional music for him. It was at this time that Pereirareceived his first exposure to Bach, Mozart, Chopin, and other art music composers. 43 I could not find any information on an instrumental group called The Fenders. I asked Pereira if he hadmeant the Ventures, but he insisted it was the aforementioned group.44 Pereira could only remember that the teachers first name was David.

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86Shortly after his introduction to art music, Pereira immersed himself in this newmusical world. He would go to the local library, which had a remarkable collection of artmusic records and scores, and listen to the classical masters (e.g., Beethoven, Schubert,Schumann, etc.). Pereira spent four to five hours daily in this library listening, studying,and falling in love with art music. A few years after he began taking lessons and firstexposure to art music, David suggested he go to study at the So Paulo conservatory.The Conservatory of Theater and Music in the School of Communication and Art atSo Paulo University (USP) was one of the first schools in Brazil to offer anundergraduate degree in music and garnered some of Brazils finest players. After takinga series of tests Pereira received a scholarship to study at the conservatory and begun hisstudies in guitar with Isaias Svio45 (a famous Uruguayan master of guitar). He alsostudied music theory. The repertory he studied was classical, and Svio used his ownmethod books.46 However, Pereira remembers that his studies were flexible, and he alsohad time to study the music of Baden Powell, Paulinho Nogueira, Garoto, DillermandoReis, and Joo Pernambuco. As written scores were not readily available (except for themusic of Dillermando Reis), he listened to the albums and transcribed the pieces himself.Pereira recallsThis [transcribing is something I did my whole life. I didnt start this after [hebegan taking lessons]. . We didnt have video classes [instructional videos] backthen, . and even method books and sheet music were not easy to find . . If youwanted to do [transcribe] something it was better to just get it from the records. 45 Isaias Svio taught many of Brazils top guitarists including Paulo Bellinati and Carlos Barbosa-Lima.46 His Cenas Brasileiras is still used today, and has recently been re-transcribed and published by GSPpublications.

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87Pereira believes this lack of guitar scores helped him develop his ear, and made him abetter musician.During the years that he was in the conservatory (1969-1973), Pereira also learnedto play both the acoustic and electric bass, which he played in the youth orchestra(acoustic) and small sporadic gigs playing popular music (electric). He also earned agood deal of income through teaching private students and performing concerts on guitar.One series of concerts he recalls most vividly is his performance of Romancero Gitano47for choir and guitar by the Italian-Iberian composer Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco.48 Hewas invited by choir director Walter Loureno to play a series of twenty-five concertsthat paid very well. From the income he earned from these concerts he ordered his firstprofessional handcrafted instrument by Walter Vogt guitars in Germany, which he stillplays today.One year after graduating from the So Paulo Conservatory, Pereira bought an openplane ticket to Europe. He first traveled to Germany to pick up his guitar and study at theCologne University. After Germany, he planned on visiting various other European citiesincluding Paris, Madrid, and Lisbon. However, when he arrived in Germany, he did notlike the atmosphere at the conservatory. He had originally planned on staying for twoyears, but after four or five days he decided to leave. Pereira then traveled to othercountries and cities (London, Brussels, etc.), and even studied with Julian Bream brieflybefore arriving in Paris. 47 This piece is based on a series of poems by Garcia Lorca called Poemas del Cante Jondo48 Castronuovo-Tedesco is one of the premiere composers for the guitar, and wrote a great deal of materialfor the instrument. Pereira states that this was because Andres Segvia asked him to write for the guitar.

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88When Pereira came to Paris in December of 1974, he did not want to travelanymore, and decided return to Brazil. However, after calling his mother in the airport totell her he would be returning, Pereira left his ticket in the phone booth. After speakingwith a representative from Varig airlines (one of Brazils international carriers), helearned it would take forty days to receive another ticket. To make matters worse, he losthis passport two days later in the same airport. After a week, at the suggestion of hisfriend, Pereira decided to look in the lost and found of the airport for his passport.49Much to his amazement, it was there, but he still had to wait for his plane ticket.In order to survive in Paris, Pereira gave private lessons and performed in thesubway stations. By the time he finally received his ticket he had found a girlfriend anddid not want to leave. Pereira thinks that he subconsciously lost his passport and ticket:I threw all of this stuff away. . I mean unconsciously [subconsciously], I justthrew everything out. I wanted to stay but I didnt have [the] cojones [balls] to sayI dont have money, but Im going to stay here.After deciding to stay in Paris, he continued teaching and playing, but also studiedtheory and composition for many hours a day. Upon the suggestion of his friend, hedecided to apply for a scholarship from the Brazilian government to study guitar in Paris.He received this scholarship, and subsequently began his studies at the UniversitMusicale Internationale de Paris with scar Cceres, another Uruguayan guitar master.In Paris he learned to perform the great masterworks of the guitar, and learned virtuallyall of the most advanced pieces composed for the instrument. 49 Pereira had originally given up on the passport because he knew they were worth a great deal of moneyon the black market. This was because Brazils passports had no laminate protection and were easy toforge.

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89Shortly after receiving his masters degree in guitar performance, Pereira appliedand received another scholarship from the French government to study musicology at theUniversit de Paris-Sorbonne. It was here that Pereira wrote a masters thesis entitledHeitor Villa-Lobos, Sua Obra Para Violo (The Music for Guitar by Heitor Villa-Lobos).While in Paris he also met a musicologist who was a friend of Villa-Lobos, who helpedhim understand the composer more deeply. Pereira felt that this musicologist was histrue advisor, as his advisor at the Sorbonne didnt know a great deal about Villa-Loboss work. However, Pereira recalls that he did not enjoy writing his thesis verymuch because he did not have an affinity for musicology. He statesI never had this plan to go to the Sorbonne and get my masters. What I wanted todo my whole life was to know about music and play well I dont have a feeling for[musicology]. .; especially when you write a thesis, and there are so many details.. and formatting and such. . We had a special course for a year, just about that.. . It was like hell for me to go to this [class]. . .Despite this, Pereira was proud of his work because many guitarists found it quite usefulto interpret Villa-Lobos odd markings on his scores (e.g., the harmonics). While hedidnt feel it was his best work, he is glad to have completed. Pereira remarks on a scalefrom 1-10, I got a 7.8. He subsequently graduated with his masters of musicology in1979 after spending five years in Paris.Classical guitar literature was not the only music Pereira studied in Paris; he alsodiscovered a love for jazz. He had listened to jazz previously at his friends house in SoPaulo, but this had been a passive experience. In Paris, met a good deal of jazzmusicians, and coincidentally he had a friend from So Paulo who moved to Paris tostudy French philosophy and play jazz. This friend also had an incredible recordcollection, and Pereira would go to his house and listen to all of his albums. One of the

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90main artists he heard was Wes Montgomery. He also discovered the music of JohnColtrane, Bill Evans, Charles Mingus, Chic Corea, and Charlie Parker. Pereiraespecially fell in love with the pianists, and has always tried to approach the guitar like apianist approaches the piano. He remembers attempting to incorporate some of thephrases of these jazz musicians (from their recordings) into his own playing. While therewere a few scores of this music available, Pereira learned it mostly by ear.In addition to jazz, Pereira also was introduced to other music from other areas ofSouth America for the first time. Due to dictatorships in Brazil (1964-1985) and Chile,Uruguay, and Paraguay, Pereira had never learned much about other South Americanmusical cultures. The agenda of most dictatorships in South America was to promotenationalism, and lessen foreign influence. Therefore, cultures from these countries inSouth America did not have much interaction. He remembers going to the universityrestaurant everyday for lunch or dinner and meeting refugees from all around the world.He then discovered that people from South America had many things in common, andthey all had a certain South American Way50 due to their similar pasts. Pereira evenco-conducted a choir that performed all South American music (folk, art, and populararranged for choir). In addition to these experiences he also received the opportunity tohear one of his longtime guitar idols: Cacho Tirao. After hearing the Argentineanguitarist at a concert in Paris he decided that he wanted to be the same type of player asCacho. Pereira states, it was something that I really wanted to accomplish at that timeto be a guitarist like Cacho was. Cacho Tirao would ultimately inspire Pereira to be thehybrid guitarist that he is today. 50 These are my words, and the pun referring to Carmen Mirandas song is intended.

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91At this time he toured Europe, Canada, and the United States. He played variousconcerts and festivals, making many connections worldwide. He even won twoimportant international guitar competitions: "Concurso Andres Segovia" (Palma deMallorca) and "Concurso Francisco Trrega" (Valencia). However, Pereiras experiencesat this time made him question his future as a classical guitarist. His first three years inParis were devoted to studying only classical music, but the jazz he listened to andstudied influenced him to go in a different artistic direction. He had grown weary of theguitars limited role in art music, and didnt like the restrictions of the art music world.Pereira recallsIn jazz you could do your own stuff and do whatever you wanted, and thisparticular aspect I fell in love with. . It bothered me a little bit to just play aloneand be alone. . Classical [guitar] wasnt at that time accepted by the classicalsociety; you couldnt play with an orchestra; you didnt have much literature forchamber music. . As a classical guitarist you are always like the poorest cousinamong the richest that are the cellists and pianists, etc. . I was a little bit sick ofthe life of a classical musician, especially as a guitar player. . there is lots ofprejudice. . .Deciding that he had nothing left to learn in Paris, Pereira returned to Brazil.When Pereira returned to Brazil in April of 1980, he spent eight months in SoPaulo deciding what he wanted to do with his career as a guitarist. He knew that he didnot want to be solely a classical guitarist but wanted to fuse all of his influences into hisown style of Brazilian music. Pereira recalls that this was very dark time for him becausehe was not quite sure how he would realize his dreams. He did not have an official jobat that time, but he played sporadically to support himself. He already had somenotoriety from his previous work in So Paulo and played some festivals and concertsaround Brazil.

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92One place in particular he played was a concert in Braslia. At that time he caughtthe ear of an important Brazilian composer named Claudio Santoro, who coincidentallywas the director of music at the University of Braslia. Santoro then invited Pereira toteach an annual summer course in guitar in Braslia in 1981. Santoro wanted to start aguitar program at the university, and offered Pereira a job to begin the guitar programthere, as well as teach other courses in harmony and conduct the choir. As Pereira statesthey worked me like a dog. The guitar program he created was based on classicalmethods because he had not yet developed pedagogical material to incorporate jazz andpopular music. Pereira spent six years in Braslia teaching, but ultimately decided that hedid not want to teach the guitar until he could create a method that expressed what hebelieved musically.The time in Braslia was very important for Pereira, as he spent his tenure therefiguring out his own particular style. He played in various concerts and recorded his firsttwo albums for So Paulos Som da Gente label: Violo Popular BrasileiroContemporneo (Contemporary Popular Brazilian Guitar) and two years later Crculo dasCordas (Circle of Chords). Pereira recalls, It was a kind of dream to record on that labelat that time. For the first time in his life, he had found his musical identity, which was afusion of all his interests and influences.With his new musical identity, Pereira felt it would be best if he moved to Rio tobroaden his career possibilities as a guitarist. In 1988 he moved to Rio de Janeiro and gota job teaching functional harmony at the Universidade Federal (Federal University) inRio. At that time, Pereira played various gigs throughout the city, but he was not amember of the elite musical circles in Rio because no one really knew about him. His

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93first recognition in Rio came when he formed a duo with virtuoso bassist NicoAssumpo. As both of the performers were virtuosos, musicians began to recognizePereiras talent, and subsequently invited him in to Rios vibrant musical scene.One of the guitarists who took notice of Pereira was Joo Bosco. Boscosubsequently befriended Pereira and invited him to his house for various parties andsocial gatherings. It was through his connection with Joo Bosco that he met many of themost popular recording artists in Brazil. Pereira soon began working with and metanother great Brazilian musician, pianist Cristvo Bastos. Bastos and Pereira co-produced and arranged Gal Costas Gal album (1992), and subsequently performed withthe singer for several weeks at the Caneco theater in Rio. Artistic accolades were soonto follow. In 1993 Pereira received a Prmio Sharp award (Brazils equivalent to theGrammy awards) in the category of best arranger for that project. One year later herecorded Bons Encontramos (Good Meetings) with Bastos, subsequently won a Sharpaward in the category Best Instrumental Album. Shortly after working with Gal Costahe began working with Edu Lobo as a guitarist and musical director. He spent a total ofsix years working with Lobo, and recorded Meia Noite with him. Pereira also performedwith him in concerts throughout Brazil as well as Rios elite Free Jazz Festival.Through his connection with Edu Lobo Pereira met Almir Chediak, a producer andmusician who had begun publishing Brazilian songbooks in 1988. Chediaks songbooksare now an intrinsic part of Brazilian popular music culture, as he has producedsongbooks for virtually every major artist of MPB. Along with the books, Chediak alsoproduced recordings for each book he published. He invited Pereira to perform on manyof these recordings, which is where he met and worked with many of the musicians

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94included in his resume. Pereira has performed on virtually every Songbook recordingsince he first participated in the CD for Noel Rosa. Pereira thoroughly enjoyedperforming on these CDs because he was artistically free to do musically whatever hepleased. However, as Pereira states jokingly guitar and voice were just perfect for him[Chediak]. Of course, Chediak would intervene if someone wanted to use an orchestra,but this was rarely the case.During the 1990s, Pereira performed and recorded with an innumerable amount ofpopular music artists. In 1991, he recorded guitar for the tracks Serafim and Sina onGilberto Gils Parabolicamara. He recorded four songs with Milton Nascimento on thealbum Crooner (1999), which is a Sinatra-like jazz album complete with stringorchestrations. In 1993, Pereira was also part of a project called Brasil Msical producedby Tom Brasil and CCBB (Central Cultural Banco do Brasil). He also recorded three ofhis own albums (two solo and one collaborative) at this time: Elegia (1990/ChannelClassics); Dana dos Quarto Ventos with friends (1994/GHA); and Valsas Brasileiras(1998/Ncleo Contemporneo). In 1996, Pereira performed with his lifelong idol BadenPowell and Vicente Amigo in the XXeme Carrefour Mondile de la Guitare in Martinique.On a more grandiose scale, Pereira premiered his piece Luz das Cordas written for guitar,mandolin, and string orchestra in 1999 with the Braslia Symphony Orchestra. He alsoperformed Castelnuovo-Tedescos Concerto no. 1 for guitar and orchestra at the sameconcert.Today, Pereira is still performing and recording with many artists, but mostrecently he formed a duo with Brazils finest mandolinist, Hamilton de Holanda. Theyrecorded their first CD Luz das Cordas independently of a record label in 2000, and are

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95still touring in support of this album. Pereira also frequently joins Holanda, MarceloBahia (drums/percussion), and Gabriel Gossi (harmonica) in accompanying vocalist ZliaDuncan.51 They have recently recorded her latest CD Eu Me Transformo Em Outros (Itransform myself in others). He also often travels to the United States, where he recordedhis latest solo album titled Original (2003/GSP) featuring his own compositions. In2000, he performed with American guitarist Ralph Towner at the International GuitarNight, and in 2003 came to the University of Floridas Brazilian Music Institute for aweeklong clinic on guitar. His latest travel to the United States was a return to theUniversity of Florida in 2004 with Hamilton de Holanda to perform with Jacar Brazildirected by Larry Crook and Welson Tremura.Guitar StyleMarco Pereiras guitar style is a mixture of polished classical technique infusedinto Brazilian guitar styles, with a touch of jazz improvisation, or as Pereira states jazzspices. Reflecting his classical training, he uses a footstool like a classical guitarist tomaintain correct posture, but he will also informally play the guitar on his lap. He attacksthe strings cleanly and with force much like John Williams, but is not as brash as BadenPowell. Pereiras sound is a warm, full-bodied, and overall achieves an even tone thathas neither too much nail nor too little definition. The sound of his guitar is bestcompared to Cacho Tirao and Paulo Bellinati, who similarly studied with Isaias Svio inSo Paulo and in Europe.While Pereiras technique derives mostly from classical guitar, he often performs ina way that is not typically classical. When playing live, especially with Hamilton de 51 Pereira plays his violo oito cordas (8 string guitar tuned F#, B, E, A, D, G, B, E) in this group to substitute for the lack of a bassist.

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96Holanda, he will often make use of a harsh rasgueado (strumming) style. In addition, hesometimes plays his guitar like a bassist using a slap-bass technique with the thumb andother fingers (usually the index, but others can be used). This can be heard in his liveperformances of Baden Powells Berimbau, which he uses his thumb to slap the stringlike an electric bassist would. This technique can also be seen in his Tio Boros (seefigure 22) from the album Original, which is a tribute to bassist Boror. The piece is amixture of Brazilian street samba and baio, and uses the partido alto rhythm in thebass notes. Pereiras liner notes to the CD reveal his thinking:In the pieces middle section the slap technique is used. This technique consistsof striking the 6th string with the thumb of the right hand followed by pizzicato allaBartok, done with the index or middle finger of the right hand. The pizzicato allaBartok technique consists of pulling the 3rd or 4th string, vertically, so that it strikesagainst the guitars fingerboard, resulting in a percussive slapping sound. . .(2003)The slap bass technique is illustrated at the top of the page in the score listed below.The parts with rhythmic notation denote the thumb slapping, whereas the bulls-eyenotation with the circle around them marks the pulling with the index or middle finger.Another interesting aspect of this section is what I believe to be the influence of JooBosco. While Pereira did not mention this in his liner notes, the partido alto guitarrhythm is a trademark of Boscos playing and the overall sound of this section is verysimilar to the sound of Boscos vocal improvisations.52 This piece also showcasesPereiras virtuosic technical ability as he plays sixteenth notes flawlessly at the speed of145 beats per minute (quarter note), as well as his rasgueado technique beginning on 52 Pereira pays homage to this vocal style in his Num Pagode em Planaltina (figure 25).

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97measure 115.53 Another interesting aspect of his playing on this piece is his subtlety oftone in the bass notes. He will often change tone (from less to more attack) in the bass togive variation. Figure 3-1.54 Slap bass section of Tio Boros by Marco Pereira. Copyright 2001 MarcoPereira. Used with permission.In addition to these styles, Pereira also plays many different styles of Brazilianmusic that are not usually found in solo guitar repertoire. While baio and samba arecommon genres used in solo guitar repertoire in Brazil, frevo is rarely used. Pereirascomposition Seu Tonico Na Ladeira (figure 3-3) is an excellent example of frevo stylefor solo guitar. Pereira discusses this piece in his liner notes to Original:Frevo is usually played by a frevo group, which is composed of wind instrumentsand percussion. The frevo group is a traveling group that goes out in the streets,especially in Olinda during Carnaval, dragging the people from their homes to thestreets for the party. . All musical compositions based on the frevo rhythm havea great degree of difficulty, due to its fast pace.This piece showcases the frevo rhythm (figure 3-2), of which the guitartraditionally simulates only the surdo or zabumba (bass drum) and caixa (snare) pattern. 53 This is only audible in the recording, and is not marked in the score.54 All of the musical excerpts in this chapter come from Marco Pereiras personal manuscripts unlessotherwise noted.

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98However, in this piece Pereira successfully emulates an entire frevo band. Due to someof the technical complexities of representing a complete frevo band, it is difficult to seethe basic rhythm in the score, and the rhythm is split between the bass, melody, andharmony. Nonetheless, Pereiras incredible effort effectively depicts the frevo band,which can be better heard than seen. Figure 3-2. Transcription of frevo rhythm. (Source: Faria, Nelson. 1995. The BrazilianGuitar Book: Samba, Bossa Nova, and Other Brazilian Styles. Petaluna: SherMusic Co. p. 104. Used with permission).While Marco Pereiras style is full of dazzling effects, and stimulating melodic runs, he isalso an expert at subtle lyrical pieces, such as ballads and waltzes. These subtleties canbest be heard in Valsas Brasileiras, an album I will discuss in depth later in this chapter.Pieces like Tom Jobims Eu Te Amo for three guitars showcase Pereiras command ofsoft legato technique that equals his other virtuosic skills.In addition to his soft lyrical touch, Pereira is also an excellent improviser.Improvisation and taking risks are an intrinsic aspect of Pereiras performance practice.When playing live, Pereira will often begin a piece with a basic improvisation over themelodic and harmonic content. It is at this time that Pereiras jazz influence becomesapparent. An excellent, yet brief, example of this can be found on Pereira and CristvoBastoss version of Ary Barrosos Aquarella do Brasil from their CD BonsEncontramos. They begin with a slow introduction, as they each take a turn atimprovising over D: iii Vb13/ii (Bastos) V9/V V13(#9) (Pereira). Pereira utilizes his

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99jazz influence from the bebop school by playing an arpeggio based on the A octatonic ordiminished scale over the V (A) chord, which is a common scale substitution in bebop. Figure 3-3. Excerpt of Seu Tonica Na Ladeira as performed by Marco Pereira onOriginal. Copyright 1999 Marco Pereira. Used with permission.

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100Wes Montgomerys influence also surfaces in the opening measures of the melody orhead, as Pereira plays the melody in Montgomerys trademark octave style. Otherexamples of his recorded improvisations are found throughout this album, but also in thetitle track to Luz das Cordas. Pereira will also often improvise over the middle section ofa song in this same style. This can be heard in the middle section of Garotos Lamentosdo Morro, also on the Luz das Cordas album.EquipmentIntrinsic to his style is Pereiras choice of guitars. Marco Pereira plays threedifferent brands of guitars, though they are all nylon stringed instruments. His primarysix-string guitar is the aforementioned Walter Vogt guitar, which is a Germanhandcrafted guitar made from jacarand wood. This guitar also has a pickup(transducer), which he plugs into a Fishman preamp. He also plays sixand eight-stringguitars made by Sughyiama, a Japanese/Brazilian luthier living in So Paulo. Theseguitars are made from pau-brasil (Brazilwood) as Jaracand is now illegal to cut downdue to its endangered status. In addition to these instruments, Pereira also sometimesplays a Requinto seven-string guitar, which is showcased on the cover of Luz das Cordas.Pereira pays a great deal of attention to external equipment he uses. Though henever plays from a personal amplifier he does use the Fishman system to send a directsignal to the mixing console when he plays live. He also uses an AKG C414 BUL/ULSlarge diaphragm condenser microphone in conjunction with the Fishman system, whichhe then likes to blend with the direct line out to achieve his desired sound. To exemplify

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101how Pereira achieves the sound he demands, I will describe one of his performances inthe Gainesville area.When Pereira came to perform a concert at Santa Fe Community College (where Iteach Sound Recording) in 2003, I had the privilege of operating the mixing console. Wespent a great deal of time getting the proper mix between the Fishman and themicrophone during sound check, and I now realize that a full sound is very important toPereira when performing. In addition to this, Pereira also informs the listener in his linernotes, which microphone was used to record his guitar. The amount of time Marcospends deciding which equipment to use when recording and amplifying his acousticguitar indicates his interest in technology, as well as attention to detail. Pereira also likesa heavy amount of reverb on his guitar when he performs. I believe this is to emulate thesound of playing in a large hall, but this is still unusual for a guitarist who has had a greatdeal of classical training. Though many guitarists have resigned to the fact that they mustuse some sort of amplification to be heard in a large room, rarely do they take the time tochoose a specific microphone, let alone ask the engineer to manipulate the sound in orderto achieve an optimum sound quality. His incorporation of technology and other foreignaspects are reminiscent of the ideals of the modernist movement, and further evidence ofPereiras association with modernist/tropicalist concept of mixing (either consciously orsubconsciously).55 The use of technology is a key element in Pereiras hybrid playingstyle, which gives him a unique musical identity in the Brazilian guitar style. 55 Pereira was vague in answering my questions about his associations with the tropiclia movement, as hewished to merely be associated with post-bossa nova MPB. However, these concepts and post-bossa novaMPB are almost inseparable, and Pereira acknowledges Gilberto Gil and Caetano Veloso as some of hisfavorite artists.

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102Compositional StyleAs I have demonstrated in my analysis of his compositions, Pereira has a diversecompositional style. Pereira composes highly virtuosic pieces as well as soft legatoworks. Because of this chameleon-like skill, I cannot personally determine which stylehe composes the best. Another unique characteristic of his compositions is a symbioticrelationship between oral and written music traditions. Much like the Brazilian guitaristsbefore him (Pernambuco, Garoto, Powell), Pereiras performance and compositional styleare inseparable. When I asked Pereira how he composes, he told me that he composesboth ways: either by playing or by pen or both at the same time. However, he sometimeswill find himself in trouble if he writes music for guitar first by pen (e.g. by computerassisted software). Such was the case with Seu Tonico Na Ladeira, as he found whathe had written was too difficult to play on guitar.Pereiras style of composition is generally tonal, which is no surprise consideringhe teaches functional harmony at the federal university in Rio. While his harmony istraditional, it is far from boring, as he often uses altered upper extensions of triads andsuspended chords in his compositions. However, he is not an avant-garde composer, nordoes he aspire to be. One of his most harmonically interesting compositions is TioBoros, which I have previously shown.As mentioned, Tio Boros is interesting composition due to its mixture ofBrazilian rhythms: samba, baio, and partido alto. While these rhythms are related toeach other, it is very rare to find them combined within the same composition.Additionally, the harmony departs radically from what you would traditionally find inthese genres, which showcases Pereiras unique contribution to the genres. However, this

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103piece is not merely an art composers interpretation of these genres like Villa-LobosChoro no. 5, which only vaguely resembles the choro genre. Tio Boros sounds likethe percussive roots of these genres, at least rhythmically, and despite the foreignharmony the basic sound of the traditions remain.Tio Boros is in E major and is divided into three sections plus a Coda. The firstsection (figure 3-4) is set rhythmically as a mixture between the samba and baio, andthe groove alternates between both. This can be seen in various places throughout thesection in the bass line playing much like a surdo pattern of q ee However this can alsobe found in the baio, though the rhythm of this style is characterized by dotted quarter sixteenth note bass and chord changes on the second half of the measure carried over thebar. The harmonic progression of the first few bars in both Roman numeral and chordnotation of this section is as follows:56E: I13sus2b7 (E13sus) bVI11b7 (C11) V13sus2 (B13sus) IV11b7 (A11) bVIIb7#11 (G7#11) I9(Iadd9) bVI11b7 (C11) V13sus2 (B13sus)The chord progression itself is simple, but the upper extensions tend to blur theharmony, thus obscuring the basic dominant to tonic feeling one tends to hear in muchtonal music. These colors of chord extensions are similar to that often found in the musicof Chic Corea, Herbie Hancock, and Gary Burton. While the style carries the rhythmicalinfluence of Baden Powell, the harmony is well beyond Badens scope. The next section(figure 3-5) contrasts with more legato melodic lines, as it comprises mostly arpeggiated 56 To avoid confusion, I have not included inversions in the Roman numeral analysis.

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104chords and simple melody in the soprano. It is also contrasting harmonically, as thechords have less suspensions and upper extensions. Figure 3-4. First section of Tio Boros as performed on Original. Copyright 2001Marco Pereira. Used with permission.

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105 Figure 3-5. Second section of Tio Boros as performed on Original. Copyright 2001Marco Pereira. Used with permission.

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106 Figure 3-6. Coda of Tio Boros as performed on Original. Copyright 2001 MarcoPereira. Used with permission.The harmonic progression of measures 37-44 is as follows:C#m: i7 (C#m7) bII4 2 (D7/C) III4 3 (Emaj7/B) viiL7/VII (A# L7) VI9 (Aadd9) VIb7 (A7) ii (D#) V7 (G#7).

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107 Pereira disguises the minor clich57 of a chromatic descending bass line over thetonic minor chord by changing the harmony for each measure. However, the overallcolor of the progression remains, and this lyric section serves as a nice contrast to theexplosive first section. The third section (figure 3-1), features the slap-bass techniqueas previously discussed, and the color of the harmony recalls the first section. This isalso where the partido alto rhythm is most prevalent. After a brief return of the firstsection, Pereira takes us through a Coda (figure 3-6) based on the rhythms of the firstsection. The harmony is slightly different than the first section, but much like the slap-bass section, the color stays the same with only slightly more dissonance employed tocreate tension before the end of the piece.Examples of slightly more traditional baies can be found in Baio Cansado, andBate-Coxa, which have a slightly simpler harmony and steady groove. 58 Bate-Coxais also an excellent representative of Pereiras ability to fuse his jazz and classicalinfluenced harmonic knowledge into a traditional Brazilian rhythm while still keeping theessence of the style at the forefront of the composition. As we can see below (figure 3-7), the harmony does not contain as many upper extensions, but at the same time hassome harmonically interesting aspects (e.g., measures 10-13 and the use of modalmixture).Another aspect of Pereiras unique compositional/performance style (as they areinseparable) is his use of the voice. This is due to his influence from Joo Bosco, and can 57 This can be heard in the beginning of Ellingtons In a Sentimental Mood and Led Zepplins Stairwayto Heaven.58 There are still some sections that contain complex harmony, but are simpler in general. The openingsection of Baio Cansado sounds like a traditional baio.

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108be heard in Num Pagode Em Planaltina (figure 3-8). While this does not denselypervade his compositions, he often uses this technique in live performance. Figure 3-7. Excerpt of Bate-Coxa as performed in Original. Copyright 1988 MarcoPereira.Pereira discusses this fast samba in his liner notes:Originally, pagode was a party that brought musicians, singers, and samba loverstogether. It used to be a typical event in Rio, and the kind of samba played at thoseparties is what inspired me to write this piece. . The theme is dedicated to thesinger and composer Joo Bosco. In its introduction there is some scat singing,which pays homage to Boscos style. (Pereira 2003)

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109Pereira also states that this piece was the first to use the slap technique, which we saw inTio Boros above. In addition, his heavy partido alto rhythmic groove (not shown)closely resembles Boscos style of guitar playing. Figure 3-8. Excerpt from Num Pagode Em Planaltina as performed on Original.Copyright 1988 Marco Pereira. Used with Permission.These few examples represent Marco Pereiras compositional diversity and multi-influenced background. Pereira also has composed various waltzes, American blues-influenced pieces like Vadiagem on Orignal, as well as many other more Braziliangenres like choro and seresta. As I have illustrated, Pereira has the ability to add his owndistinctive style to Brazilian forms, but still maintain the overall feeling that the rhythmicgenres emote. His style is not avant-garde, yet he uses many modern harmonicalterations in pieces that are based on traditional harmony. And while Pereira does notconsider himself a composer, he has furthered the school of the Brazilian guitarcomposition to another level. His harmonic vocabulary is well beyond that of Baden

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110Powell, Garoto, and Paulinho Nogueira. At the same time, he emotes the energy andexcitement of Baden and Garoto, in addition to the subtle softness of Paulinho Nogueira.Arranging StylePereira also does not really consider himself to be an arranger, but he has receivedsome of his greatest recognition as an arranger. As mentioned, he received the Sharpaward for his arrangements on Gal, and has arranged for various media including choir,orchestra, guitar ensembles, wind and brass ensembles, and many other instrumentalcombinations. Pereiras arranging style is much like his compositional style in that hefully exploits both his oral and written skills. If it is a piece for a large ensemble,especially orchestral instruments, he will meticulously write out every note. However,for smaller combos he tends provide lead sheets, supplemented by a few written outpassages. Pereira feels that it is better to not write too much with certain musicians--likeguitarists, bassists, mandolinists, percussionists, and others that are skilled inimprovisation--in order not to hinder the creativity of their playing. Much like DukeEllington, as Pereira gets to know a certain musicians idiosyncrasies, he will alsoarrange a piece with an individual performing style in mind. This gives musicians thefreedom to be themselves, yet fit in to the direction he wishes to go.Much like his own performance practice, solo improvisation is an important aspectof Pereiras arranging style. Depending on the piece at hand, Pereira typically dedicatesten to twenty percent of an arrangement to improvised sections. This can be seen inmany of his compositions and arrangements, but I believe that Valsa Negra by LeandroBraga from Valsas Brasileiras is an excellent example of his arrangement style. ValsaNegra was originally written for piano, but this version is for four guitars, one of which

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111is for seven or eight string guitar. At the end of the original piece there was anaccelerando section, which Pereira found to be perfect for improvisation. Thearrangement has sixteen bars open for solo improvisation that can be repeated as manytimes as desired. Selected sections of the piece are listed below to illustrate this concept. Figure 3-9. Excerpt from written out section of Valsa Negra. (Source: Pereira, Marco.1999. Valsas Brasileiras. Rio de Janeiro:Independent. p. 45. Used withpermission). Figure 3-10. Excerpt from improvised section of Valsa Negra. (Source: Pereira,Marco. 1999. Valsas Brasileiras. Rio de Janeiro:Independent. [Sheet MusicBook] p. 45. Used with permission).Pereiras arranging style is linked to his compositional and performing style in thathe tends to blends all of his influences together. He is not a strict classical arranger

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112who must write out everything, nor is he like a jazz musician who leaves the arrangementup to the performing group. Pereira once again displays his ability to transcend genresand styles to come up with his own original way of arranging. While he does not attemptto identify himself as an arranger, his work has caught the attention of many musiciansworldwide.The Coltrane Waltz?One of Pereiras special contributions to the world of the Brazilian guitar is hisphenomenal work on the album Valsas Brasileiras. The idea of Valsas Brasileiras beganwhen Pereira was in Paris and first listened to jazz, and heard the album Ballads by JohnColtrane for the first time. Pereira statesI was still living in Paris and I was a student, and then one day I got a record byJohn Coltrane. . called Ballads. . I fell in love with this album. . In thisalbum especially he can play with a beautiful and lyrical sound. . playing justballads. . I said to myself one day I would like to make a record. . with thisfeeling.However, the ballad was not a native Brazilian expression, and Pereira wanted to producethe same feeling while at the same time remaining true to a Brazilian context. After yearsof thinking and searching, Pereira decided that Brazilian musicians tend to emit the sameexpression when they play a waltz. He explainsAfter years I realized that ballad is something that belongs to jazz. . We donthave ballads in Brazil. . I then realized that waltzes in Brazil, especially modernwaltzes. . had this particular feeling. . where you can express something lyricaland beautiful and quiet. . .It was upon this foundation that Valsas Brasileiras was built, but some importantresearch had to first be done.Pereira began the project with three purposes: 1) to successfully express theemotions as he experienced on Ballads, 2) to perform pieces that had not been yet

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113recorded, and 3) to perform modern waltzes with complex harmonic characteristics.Pereira studied the history of the waltz in Brazil, which he writes in the prologue of thescore publication of Valsas Brasileiras by GSP, and believes that the history of Brazilianmusic in terms of harmonic development can be seen through the waltzs history. Pereirabegan with over fifty waltzes, and filtered them based on their capabilities of fulfilling hisgoals for the album.The album can be divided into three different categories. The first is what Pereiraterms old style waltzes, which are represented by Garotos Desvairada, andCanhotos Manhs De Sol. Desvairada was chosen because of its fast tempo to balanceout the album, and Manhs De Sol was selected because it had not been recorded.59The second division features waltzes that were not labeled as such, but had a peculiarwaltz-like sentiment. Three of these pieces are Tom Jobims Luiza, Jobim and ChicoBuarques Eu Te Amo, and Edu Lobos Beatriz. Pereira remembers Tom Jobimonce stating that Luiza was inspired by a French waltz, and Edu Lobo revealed that hewas thinking in a waltz style while composing Beatriz. The final category is of hisown waltz-style compositions, which are exemplified by Marta and Plainte.The selection of the waltzes seemed complete, but after Pereira had finishedrecording, mixing, and mastering the CD, he played some of the waltzes for his parents.His family did not care for the waltz by Cristvo Bastos, which they thought was a littletoo strange for their taste. Subsequently, Pereira decided to drop this waltz along withanother, and decided to record Valsa Negra, which we explored previously. Thus, asPereira states jokingly You see, I really did research the popular opinion. . . He also 59 The concept of selecting pieces that had never been recorded came out of a cultural research project bySESC that he participated in two years earlier. This was also the last piece that Canhoto had ever written.

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114choose this waltz because of its explosiveness and fast pace, much like Desvairada byGaroto. Pereira states this in Bruce Gillmans interview for brazzil.com:You know, it was difficult to make the Valsas Brasileiras CD. Overall, it's verycool and calm. It's a CD that your heart feels more than your feet, which was myoriginal intention. But when I started the project, even though I had very, very goodpieces, I was thinking, "Damn, the same 3/4 all the time might get boring."Waltzes, of course, can be played faster or slower, and by phrasing two bars of 3/4together, you create 6/8, which is a kind of African rhythm, but I needed tunes thatwere a bit more virtuosic, just to "cook." (2001).In addition to this, Pereira also overdubs all-four guitar parts himself, which is somethinghighly unusual for either classical or jazz guitarists to do.Pereiras composition Plainte (figure 3-11) also has an interesting story, as it wasrecorded previously on his Dana dos Quarto Ventos disk. Pereira recallsI don't think of myself as a composer, but sometimes I need something to play rightaway, and I don't have it in hand. I'll look for the right piece, but if I still can't findit, I'll just write exactly what I'm looking for. When I was recording Dana dosQuatro Ventos, I felt that there was something missing. I needed a piece that wouldbring a kind of closure to the CD. So I wrote "Plainte" the night before the lastrecording session. It took me about five or six hours. After the recording session, Iwas a little unsettled about the second part. But it had already been recorded, andthere was nothing more I could do with it. Then when I was recording the ValsasBrasileiras project, the piece came to mind, and I put "Plainte" on my possibilitylist, you know? When I played it through, however, the second part was stillbothering me, so I rewrote it. Now the B section is more aesthetic, more connectedto the first part. The version on Valsas Brasileiras is, for me, the final version.Now "Plainte" is complete. (Gillman 2001)Plainte is a French word for lament, and this piece is an excellent example of Pereirassoft and expressive side that he wished to emote on this record. This piece is not by anymeans a traditional waltz, as Pereira creates a hemiola effect of two against three in theway he plays the melody against the bass (on beat). This gives the piece an Afro-Brazilian flavor, reminiscent of Baden Powells work.

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115 Figure 3-11. Plainte as recorded on Valsas Brasilerias (1999/Idependent) (Source:Pereira, Marco. 1999. Valsas Brasileiras. Rio de Janeiro:Independent [SheetMusic Book]. p. 45. Used with permission).

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116 Figure 3-11 continued.

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117ConclusionsPereiras role in modern Brazil is a somewhat difficult to fully express. On onehand, he is one of Brazils greatest guitarists. On the other hand, he must often traveloutside of his own country to receive the recognition he deserves. I believe Pereirasstatement in Bruce Gillmans interview exemplifies his musical acceptance into modernBrazilian culture. After being asked whether a major label might fund one of his soloprojects, Pereira respondedLet me explain a little about this. The kind of music I'm making is not like thepagode fad that is happening right now in Brazil and generating enormous profits.You know, there are many pagode groups that have only recorded one CD andnothing more because pagode is a kind of wave. Big record labels are penny wise.They have monster pop acts making hundreds of millions of dollars, but won'tspend an inconsequential amount to record Brazilian instrumental music, which isenduring. They're only interested in the bottom line, in maximizing profits (Ibid.2001).Pereiras artistic diversity has given him strengths as a performer, but has also hinderedhis acceptance into modern Brazilian popular commercial culture. The hybridized natureof the Brazilian guitar is a primary reason it has attained the status as a national symboltoday. However, because of its synonymous association with low and high-class culture,guitarists often find themselves caught in the middle of a social struggle. This is the casewith Marco Pereiras guitar style, as he often finds himself alienated from both cultures.Mass culture tends to ignore him due to his musical complexity, and high-class culturetends to shun him because he plays popular music. However, Pereira is uncompromisingin his beliefs, which is why he tends to record independently.As mentioned in chapter one, instrumental musicians dont exist in Brazil.Marco Pereira is a good example of this. In fact, a 1993 review of Gal Costas Galalbum, for which he won the Sharp award, there was no mention of Pereira or Cristvo

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118Bastos, nor any other musician that played on the album. While this could have merelybeen a fluke, its hard to imagine this happening in 1993. In a world where copyrightlawsuits happen daily, it is dumbfounding how one of Brazils premiere musicians couldbe forgotten on one of his most visible musical accomplishments.Pereiras role in higher education is also difficult, as he finds himself unable toteach guitar at the university where he is a professor of functional harmony. Pereiraexplained to me that some students had petitioned for him to be able to teach, and gainedthe required signatures. However, the faculty in the guitar program vetoed this power,and Pereira was subsequently unable to participate in the guitar curriculum. WhilePereira likes to teach in a group setting and does not have a great desire to teachprivately, I find it abhorrent that he was denied the opportunity to choose. As Pereiramentioned previously, musicians who perform classical guitar tend to be alone, and alsoare often filled with prejudice against other styles. While other performers of art musichave accepted popular music in performance practice, the classical guitar world is farbehind.Regardless of these problems, Pereira is resilient, and continues to perform andrecord in Brazil. He has not lost his Brazilian identity despite his peculiar place inBrazilian culture, and is not discouraged by what he experiences. Pereira has only onewish, and that is to perform his style of Brazilian music on the guitar. As long as he isable to do this, he will not complain about the musical inequalities that exist in hisculture.Marco Pereira is one of the many musicians who comprise the future of Brazilianinstrumental music, as well as the world of the Brazilian guitar. It is my purpose in this

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119thesis to demonstrate Pereiras importance in Brazilian music history, and how Pereirasmusical accomplishments, as well as the Brazilian guitar itself, represent the mediationbetween elite and popular culture. Pereira follows a long line of guitarists from thebeginnings of the vagabond viola to the stylized violo of Tute, Dino 7 Cordas, Garoto,and Baden Powell. While many of the guitarists before him tended to specialize in one ortwo styles, Pereiras eclecticism extends to virtually all aspects of Brazilian music.Pereira has no prejudice against any style of music, as long as he is not required to play itrepetitiously.While Brazils culture is extremely diverse, Pereiras desire to maintain Brazilianidentity in all of his music represents a typical Brazils characteristic. This can ultimatelybe viewed in the yearly carnival celebration, as the entire country participates in the pre-Lenten festival. Pereira is no doubt a product of this culture, which is why he hasremained focused on his Brazilian roots throughout his world travels. This is also true ofthe adversities he has encountered in performing music that is not extremely popular withthe masses. Therefore, Pereira represents Brazilian musical identity, and through hismusic we can experience a good portion of Brazils musical culture. I am not attemptingto be profound, as any one Brazilian can be a representation of Brazilian identity.However, Pereiras diversity and ability to consume different musical worlds andsynthesize them with his own culture, and then subsequently create something uniqueclearly defines Brazilian culture. As we explored in chapter one, mixing is itself anintegral concept in Brazilian culture. The tropicalists of the 1960s furthered themodernist movement by consuming foreign instruments and styles, and then blending

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120them with their own musical idiosyncrasies. These concepts link to Pereiras hybridmusical style, which makes it unique and very Brazilian.In this study, I have consistently illustrated how the Brazilian guitar mediatesbetween the poor and elite classes, as well as popular and art music in Brazil. Everyviolist and guitarist I have showcased in this work has lived this role of culturalambassador in some shape or form. Pereira, in addition to being an incredible guitarist,has also mediated these cultures through his unique musical contributions. I find it ironicthat the record label Pereira recorded his first album with was called Som Da Gente,which is translated Our Sound, but could also be translated Sound of the People.Whether modern Brazilian culture recognizes this or not, Pereira is the sound of theBrazilian people. Pereira is not only a mediator between the erudite and the layman, heand his musical endeavors comprise them.

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121 APPENDIX AGLOSSARY OF TERMSAntropofagia Brazilian modernist concept of cultural cannibalism. Emerged in the1920s within a nationalist context as a discourse that called for the combinationof local cultural practices with imported technology and formal models in thecreation of culture for export.Baio A rhythm and genre associated with the Brazilian northeast. Typically playedwith accordian, triangle, zabumba, and sometimes pandeiro, featuring vocals.In the 1940s Luiz Gonzaga created nation recognition for the baio singer.Bateria Battery. Can mean either drum corps, as in samba, or drum kit.Batucada A generic name for a number of varieties of samba thought to be closer toAfro-Brazilian TraditionsBombo Bass drum used in the 19th and 20th century military bands. It is also can referto a kick drum of a kit.Caixa Snare drum used in samba schools. Made of inexpensive alloys such as tin, withplastic heads.Candombl Afro-Brazilian religious ceremony involving drumming, dancing, singing,and spirit possession.Cco Afro-Brazilian music genre from the northeast with a characteristic dance stepthought to have an indigenous influence.Embolada A northeastern genre of improvised sung poetry. Generally performed tothe cco rhythm, accompanied by a pandeiro. The danced variety featuresstanza-refrain structure, with the refrain predetermined and the versesimprovised around it.Favela SlumForr A modern variation of the baio, but also a generic term for several northeasterndanced music styles. The dance is featured in the June Festivals (FestasJuninas) found throughout the country, but prominent in the Northeast.Frevo A fast paced march music and dance found in the northeast of Brazil (Recife). Itgenerally consists of a percussion and wind ensemble, and accompanies afrenetic dance.

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122Mangue beat (Mangue bit) A musical movement of the 1990s based in Recife,Pernambuco. It is mixture of rock, maracatu, and hip-hop, and cco and is bestexemplified by the Chico Science and his band Nao Zumbi.Maracatu Refers to two varieties of percussion-based music genres fromPernambucos carnival, in the northeast of Brazil. The two varieties aremaracatu de baque solto, and maracatu de baque virado.Morro Hill. In urban areas, refers to hillside favelas.Msica Caipira Country music. The term caipira, is often used derogatively byurban dwellers to refer to backward country folk.Msica Sertaneja A music industry term for Brazilian country music from SouthCentral Brazil. A sertanejo is one who lives in the serto, or the backlands.Pagode Traditionally, an informal gathering centered on samba. Today it refers to ahighly popular commercialized romantic form of samba that generally has lesssyncopation and fewer polyrhythms than more tradition forms of samba.Surdo A deep bass drum used in samba, and other musical styles.Toada A generic term for a stanza-refrain song of a romantic or comical nature.Zabumba Double-headed bass drum used in northeastern styles. It is shallower thanthe surdo, and played one side with a soft mallet and the other with a thin stick.

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123 APPENDIX BGENERAL WEBSITESGil, Gilbertohttp://www.gilbertogil.com.brPowell, Badenhttp://www.brazil-on-guitar.de/http://www.tigertail.org/baden.htmlPereira, Marcohttp://www.Pereirapereira.com.brNogueira, Paulinhohttp://www.multconnect.com.br/Paulinho_Nogueira/pag2.htmhttp://www.trama.com.br/paulinho_nogueira/http://www.brazilianjazz.com/artists/paulinhonogueira/bio.html

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124 LIST OF REFERENCESAlbin, Ricardo Cravo. 2002. Dicionrio Cravo Albin da Msica Populara Brasileira.(http://www.dicionariompb.com.br. Last accessed June 4, 2004).Antnio, Irati. 1982. Garoto, sinal dos tempos. Rio de Janeiro: Edio FUNARTE.Bhague, Gerard. 1968. "Biblioteca da Ajuda (Lisbon) Mss 1595 / 1596: TwoEighteenth-Century Anonymous Collections of Modinhas." Annuario vol. 4: 44-81______. 1973. Bossa and Bossas: Recent Changes in Brazilian Urban Popular Music.Ethnomusicology, Vol. 17(2): 209-233______. 1979. Music in Latin America: An Introduction. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey:Prentice-Hall.______. 2002. "Villa-Lobos, Heitor" In New Grove II Encyclopedia of Music andMusicians, ed. Stanley Sadie. New York: Oxford University Press.Bellinati, Paulo. 1991. "The Guitar Works of Garoto vol. 1. San Francisco: GSP.Boukas, Richard. 1999. "O Chro Part II: Epoca de Ouro And Beyond." Just JazzGuitar. (http://www.boukas.com/jjgarticles/jjg1199.html. Last accesed July 10,2004.) ______. 2000. "Brazilian Guitar Masters: Paulo Bellinati" Just Jazz Guitar and(http://www.boukas.com/jjgarticles/jjgbellinati.html. Last accessed June 12, 2004).Braga, Luiz Otvio. 2002. O Violo de Sete Cordas: Teoria e Prtica. Rio de Janeiro:Luminar Editora.Cabral, Srgio. 1997. Pixinguinha: Vida e Obra. Rio de Janeiro: Lumiar Editora.Castro, Ruy. 1990. Chega de Saudade: A Histria e as Histrias da Bossa Nova. SoPaulo: Companhia das Letras.Cazes, Henrique. 1999. Choro : do quintal ao Municipal. So Paulo: Editora 34.Chediak, Almir. 1 992. Songbook-Gilberto Gil. Rio de Janeiro: Lumiar Editora.Connell, Andrew Mark. .2002. "Jazz Brasileiro? Msica Instrumental Brasileira and theRepresentation of Identity in Rio de Janeiro." Ph.D. Dissertation, UCLA.

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125Crook, Larry. 2004. "North by Northeast: Brazil's Popular Music in the Early 20thCentury." School of Music, University of Florida. Photocopy.Darmstadt, Tonos. 1976. Baden Powell Songbook vol. 1. Hozhofallee: TONOSMusikverlags.______. 1976. Baden Powell Songbook vol. 2. Hozhofallee: TONOS Musikverlags.Diniz, Andr. 2003. Almanaque do Choro: A histria do chorinho, o que ouvir, o que ler,onde curtir. Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar Editor Ltd.Dunn, Christopher. 2001. Tropiclia and the Emergence of a Brazilian Counterculture.Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press.Espinoza Rudolfo. 2000. "Goodbye Song." Brazzil(http://www.brazzil.com/p08nov00.htm. Last accessed May 23, 2004).Faria, Nelson. (1995) The Brazilian Guitar Book: Samba, Bossa Nova, and OtherBrazilian Styles. Petaluna: Sher Music Co.Foreis, Henrique. 1977. No tempo de Noel Rosa. Rio de Janeiro: Livaria F. AlvesEditora.Freyre, Gilberto. 1963. The Masters and the Slaves (Casa Grande & Senzala). Translatedby Samuel Putnam. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Garcia, Thomas George Caracas. 1997. "The Brazilian Choro: Music, Politics andPerformance." Ph.D. Dissertation, Duke University.Gillman, Bruce. .2001. Acoustic Insurance. Brazzil(http://www.brazzil.com/musjan01.htm. Last accessed May 15, 2004).Houghtan, Steve and Tom Warrington. 1992. Essential Styles for the Drummer andBassist: Book 1. Van Nuys:Alfred Publishing.Livingston, Tamara E. 1999. "Choro and Music Revialism in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil:1973-1995." Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Illinois Champagne-Urbana.Luft, Mary. ed. 1997. "Baden Powell -A short Biography."(http://www.tigertail.org/baden.html. Last accessed June 12, 2004).McGowan, Chris and Ricardo Pessanha. 1991. The Brazilian Sound: Samba, BossaNova, and the Popular Music of Brazil. New York: Billboard Books.Moehn, Fredrick. 2001, "Mixing MPB: Cannibals and Cosmopolitans in BrazilianPopular Music." Ph.D. Dissertation, New York University.Paschoito, Ivan and Santos, Lus Santos. 1998. The Guitar Works of Paulinho Nogueira:Volume 1 9 Pieces. San Francisco: GSP.

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126Perrone, Charles A. 1989. Masters of Contemporary Brazilian Song: MPB 1965-1985.Austin: The University of Texas Press.Perrone, Charles. A. and Christopher Dunn ed. 2001. Brazilian Popular Music andGlobalization. Gainesville: University Press of FloridaPereira, Marco. 1999. Valsas Brasileiras. Rio de Janeiro. [Independent sheet musicbook].Pinto, Alexandre Gonalves. 1978. O Choro: Rimsencias dos Chores Antigos. Rio deJaneiro: Edo FUNARTE.Reily, Suzel Ana. 1996. Tom Jobim and the Bossa Nova Era. Popular Music, 15(1): 1-16______. 2001. Hybridity and Segregation in the Guitar Cultures of Brazil. In GuitarCultures, eds. Andy Benett and Kevin Dawe. New York: Berg.Sandorini, Carlos. 2001. Festio Decente: Transformaes do samba no Rio de Janeiro(1917-1933). Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar Editora/Editora UFRJSantos, Turbio, ed. 1992. Pernambuco (Joo Texeira Guimares): 11 Famous Chros.Heidleberg, Chantarelle.Sparks, Paul and Turnbull, Harvey. 2002. "Guitar." In The New Grove II Encyclopediaof Music and Musicians, Stanlie Sadie gen. ed. New York Oxford UniversityPress.Skidmore, Thomas E. 1974. Black Into White: Race and Nationality in BrazilianThought. New York: Oxford University Press.Taborda, Mrcia. 2002. "The Birth of Choro." Soundboard 29(2): 9-15. ______.2002a. O Violo Brasileiro em 78 RPM Associao de Violo do Rio.(http://www.av-rio.org.br/artigos/dezembro2002/marcia.htm. Last accessed May 4,2004).______.2002b. Dino Sete Cordas: a genial criatividade de um accompanhador.Associao de Violo do Rio. (http://www.av-rio.org.br/artigos/julho2002/dino7cordas.html. Last accessed May 12, 2004).Tinhoro, J. R. 1974. Pequena Histria da Msica Popular: da modinha cano deprotesto. So Paulo: Art Editora.Treece, David. 1997. Guns and Roses: Bossa Nova and Brazil's Music of PopularProtest, 1958-68. Popular Music 16, (1): 1-29.

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127Vianna, Hermano. 1999. The Mystery of Samba: Popular Music and National Identity inBrazil. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Waddey, Ralph C. 1980. "Viola de Samba and Samba de Viola in the Reconcavo ofBahia (Brazil)." Latin American Music Review, 1(2): 196-212.

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128 DISCOGRAPHYBosco, Joo. 1997. D Licena Meu Senhor. Sony._____. 1999. Caa Raposa. BMG._____. 1999a. Galos de Briga. BMG.Coltrane, John. Ballads. 1995 [1962]. GRP Records._____. 1995a [1962]. Duke Ellington and John Coltrane. GRP Records.Costa, Gal. 1991. Gal. BMG.Duncan, Zila. 2004. Eu Me Transformo Em Outros. Universal.Garoto-Anbal Agusto Sardinha. 1993. Viva Garoto -Gravaes Originais. NcleoContemporneo.Getz, Stan & Joo Gilberto. 1963. Getz/Gilberto. Verve.Gil, Gilberto. 1984. Quilombo Trilha. Phantom.______. 1991. Parabolicamar. WEA.______. 1994. Acoustic. Atlantic.______. 2001. So Joo Vivo. WEA.Jobim, Antnio Carlos, and Elis Regina. 1990 [1974]. Elis & Tom. Polygram Records.Lobo, Edu. 1995. Meia Noite. Velas.Led Zepplin. 1971. Led Zepplin IV. Atlantic.Nascimento, Milton. 1999. Crooner. WEA.Nogueira, Paulinho. 1999. Corao Violo. Movie.Nogueira, Z. 1995. Disfara e Chora. MP.B.Pereira, Marco. 1985. Violo Popular Brasileiro Contemporneo. Som da Gente._____. 1987. Crculo das Cordas. Som da Gente.

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129_____. 1990. Elegia. Channel Classics._____. 1994. Dana dos Quarto Ventos. GHA._____. 1995. Brasil Instrumental. Tom Brasil._____. 1995a. Brasil Musical. Tom Brasil._____. 1998. Valsas Brasileiras. Ncleo Contemporneo._____. 2003. Original. Independent.Pereira, Marco and Cristvo Bastos. 1992. Bons Encontros. Caju.Pereira, Marco and Hamilton de Holanda. 2000. Luz Das Cordas. Independent.Possi, Zizi. 1998. Per Amore. PolyGram.Powell, Baden. 1993. Personalidade. Verve.______. 1993a. Three Originals. MPS.______. 2000 [1990]. Os Afro Sambas. Iris records.______. 2002. Gold. Universal.Renato, Z. 1994. Arranha Cu. Velas._____. 1996. Natural do Rio de Janeiro. MP&B.Santos, Paulo Srgio. 1994. Segura Ele. Kuarup.Tirao, Cacho. 2000. The Story of Tango vol. 7. Mariposa.Tiso, Wagner. 1991. ProfissoMsica. PolyGram.Tropiclia. 1993 [1968]. Ou panis et circensis. Phillips.Various. 1988. Compact Jazz: Best of Bossa Nova. Verve._____. 1992. Songbook Gilberto Gil. Lumiar._____. 1992a. Songbook Noel Rosa. Lumiar._____. 1994. Songbook Dorival Caymmi. Lumiar._____. 1995. Raros e Inditos. SESC._____. 1995a. Songbook Ary Barroso. Lumiar.

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130_____. 1995b. Songbook Braguinha. Lumiar._____. 1995c. Songbook Edu Lobo. Lumiar._____. 1996. Songbook Antnio Carlos Jobim. Lumiar._____. 1997. Songbook Djavan. Lumiar._____. 1998. Violes. Ncleo Contemporneo._____. 2002. Memrias Musicais. Biscoito Fino.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHBrent Swanson graduated from Buchholz High School in Gainesville, FL, in 1993.He has an A.A. in Music from Santa Fe Community College, a B.F.A in MusicHistory/Ethnomusicology from the University of Florida, and an M.M. inEthnomusicology also from the University of Florida. He is currently teaching music andsound recording at Santa Fe Community College, where he has twice received theQuarterly Employee Award; and is in the 2004 Whos Who Among American Teachers.He is also the music director of Chapel House ministries, and leads worship at variousother churches in Gainesville, FL. Brent is a vocalist; plays piano, guitar, acoustic andelectric bass, and plays some Brazilian percussion instruments. He enjoys performingvarious styles of music including: all Brazilian musics, jazz, rock, r&b, gospel, andothers. 131


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MARCO PEREIRA: BRAZILIAN GUITAR VIRTUOSO


By

BRENT LEE SWANSON













A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF MUSIC

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2004


































Copyright 2004

by

Brent Lee Swanson

































To my parents, Craig and Charlene.
















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would first and foremost like to thank God for the spiritual guidance needed to

complete this work. I thank the School of Music and Dr. Larry Crook for introducing me

to Brazilian music, helping me get an assistantship, mentoring me for over 8 years. More

importantly, for having the patience to deal with the various personal idiosyncrasies that I

am sure caused him grief over the years. I thank Foreign Language and Area Studies

(FLAS) and the Center for Latin American Studies for the opportunity to learn

Portuguese in Rio de Janeiro (especially Amanda Wolfe). I thank Dr. Welson Tremura

for introducing me to the Brazilian guitar, for mentoring me in all of my various studies,

for yelling at me in rehearsals, for being a friend when I needed him, for letting me stay

at his great house in Sao Jose do Rio Preto, and for all of the wonderful opportunities to

play Brazilian music. I thank Dr. Charles Perrone for his love of Brazilian popular music

(and well, for being Charles). I thank Jeffrey "Lightning" Ladenheim for introducing me

to jazz, for calling me Sheehan, for yelling at me in rehearsals, and for being a friend

through all my troubles; for all the opportunities he has given me. I thank Kevin

Casseday for his patience, for all the great conversations in our lessons, and for allowing

me learn the double bass the way I needed.

I would like to thank all my family: Mom, Dad, Dawn, Jeff, Andrew, Booshie,

Grammie, Grampie, Gloria, Robert and Carol, Mike and Laura, Michael, Annie, Craig,

Steve, Ron, Gary, Tommy, Auntie Annie and Tom, Kathy and Pat, Cheryl and Jim, Mark

and Sue, Becky and Chris, Jamie, A.J., Ryan, Jenna, Allison, Sydney, Jason, Scott,









Heather, and Mia. I thank them for all of their support of my work, and for loving me

through difficult times.

I thank my friends in the U.S. I thank Alex, Brian, and Kris for their honesty and

close friendship throughout the years. I thank Aaron "Blacking" Keebaugh for

"meditating" on Philip Bohlman. I thank David "Mason" Goldblatt for his impressions

and for playing music with me in church. I thank Steve Bingham for all the great parties.

I thank David "Kenyan Honkey #1" Akombo for all the bad jokes (what's with all the

nicknames?). I thank Sunni for the laughs and conversation in the backyard, and for

introducing me to Luciana. I thank Luciana for being such a cool guide in Rio, and

helping translate all of those books. I thank B.E., Beth, Billy, Mary, Ellen, Clay, Erik,

Nolan and all those who prayed for me at Chapel House. I thank Ted and Susan

Griswold for their unwavering support of my musical career. I thank Annie Johnson for

teaching me how to be a worship leader. I thank Abby for letting me stay with her in

Miami. I thank my godchild Clare, Larry Goble, Alex Farmer, and all those at St.

Michael's. I thank Amy, Heather, Nahum, and all those at St. Andrews for all of their

prayers and support. I thank my princess Wendy for loving me as I am, and enduring

talking to a brick wall throughout this process.

I thank Leslie Lambert, Pat Grunder, and all those at SFCC who were patient with

me while completing my degree.

I thank all of my Brazilian friends. I thank Maria, my Brazilian grandmother, for

showing me the best places to go in Rio, for introducing me to Beth Carvalho, and for

letting me stay at her wonderful Copacabana palace. I thank Gui, Kiko, and Thais for all

the wonderful times playing music together in Rio. I thank Maestre Boca and Marco for









all the great times, for showing me how to play the pandeiro and tambourim, for all of the

great jokes, and for calling me BRENNNNNTCHIE! I thank all of Welson and Renata's

family in SJRP for being such wonderful hosts. I thank Hamilton de Holanda for all the

great memories here in Gainesville, and for allowing me to play with the best mandolinist

in the world! And most of all I thank Marco Pereira for all of his patience and kindness,

allowing me to perform with him, and write this thesis about his wonderful contributions

to Brazilian popular music.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M EN T S ........................ ...............................................................iv

LIST OF FIGU RE S ............. ........................................................... ..................... ix

A B S T R A C T ....................... ... ............. ... ...............................................x i

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE ............................................ 1

P ro lo g u e ...................................... ..................................... ............... 1
In tro du ctio n ...................................... .................................. ............... 3
R eview of the L literature ........................................................... ... .............. 9

2 THE GUITAR IN BRAZIL: ORIGINS, PERFORMERS, AND INFLUENCES OF
M ARCO PEREIRA ...... ............................................................. .............. 15

Introduction ................................................................ .. ..... ......... 15
O origins ........................................ ....................... .... ...... ......... 16
The G uitar in the Choro/Sam ba ...................... ................................ .............. 34
Guitarists of the Choro/Sam ba............................................. ........................... 38
The Bossa Nova era....................................................... .............. 57
Paulinho N ogueira (1929-2002)............................................... ................. 61
B aden Pow ell (1937-2000) .......................................................... ........ 67
V ocal A ccom panists .................................. .................................. ........... 77
International Influences ........................................ ............ ........ ......... ...... 79
C conclusion ............................................................................. ........ 80

3 THE LIFE AND MUSIC OF MARCO PEREIRA AND CONCLUSION.............. 83

In tro d u ctio n ..................................................... ............... 8 3
B biography ................................................ ....... .......... ..... 84
G uitar Style ................. ......... ......... ........... ............................ 95
E quipm ent .................... ......... .... .......... ................ ......... ..... 100
Compositional Style ........................ ....................................... 102
A ranging Style .................. ...... ..... .................. .......... 110
The Coltrane Waltz? .............. ......... ...................... ............. 112
Conclusions ............... ............... ............. ......... .................. ........ 117









APPENDIX

A GLO SSARY OF TERM S............ .......... .......... ......................... ............. 121

B G EN ER A L W EB SITE S ................................................................................ ....... 123

LIST OF REFERENCES... ........................................ 124

D ISCO GRA PH Y .................. ......................................................... ..... 128

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ............................................................... ............. 131
















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

2-1 A fro-Brazilian rhythm ........... ............... ................... ..... ....................... 23

2-2 Excerpt from "Vitorioso" by Ernesto Nazare.............................. ............. 27

2-3 Schottisch guitar style .............. .. ... ......... .. ........................ 36

2-4 Polca guitar style ....... ......... ......... .......... ......... 37

2-5 Maxixe guitar style ................ .... ......... ........ .........37

2-6 Valsa guitar style................................................. ............... 37

2-7 Tute's baixaria performance with Grupo Carioca on "Ndo Sei" by Jose Pereira
da Silv a ...................................................................................................... 4 1

2-8 Transcription of Dino 7 Cordas' performance on "As Rosas Ndo Falam" ..............46

2-9 Excerpt from "Dengoso" by Jodo Pernoambuco ............................. .............. 50

2-10 Examples of non-classical guitar techniques employed by many guitarists of
Brazilian popular music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries......................... 52

2-11 Excerpt from "Lamentos do Morro" by Garoto ....... ................................ 53

2-12 Photo of Gianini craviola taken by Frank Ford ........... ..... ............. 63

2-13 Excerpt from "Bachianinha no. 1" by Paulinho Nogueira ............................ 64

2-14 Excerpt from "Reflex.es em 2 por 4." by Paulinho Nogueira ............................ 66

2-15 Photo of Baden Powell at the 1967 Berlin Jazz Festival taken by Frank Bender. 71

2-16 Excerpt from "ConsolaCgo" by Baden Powell.................................. 73

2-17 Excerpts of the A and B sections of "Tempo Feliz" by Baden Powell ................... 76

2-18 Transcription of guitar intro. riff from Gil's "Expresso 2222" ........................ 78

2-19 Transcription of Bosco's playing on "Incompatibilidade de Genios"....................... 79









3-1 Slap bass section of "Tio Boros" by Marco Pereira ............ ........................97

3-2 Transcription offrevo rhythm ..................................................... ... .. .............. 98

3-3 Excerpt of"Seu Tonica Na Ladeira" as performed by Marco Pereira on
O original ........................................................................ ............... 99

3-4 First section of"Tio Boros" as performed on Original................................. 104

3-5 Second section of"Tio Boros" as performed on Original .............................. 105

3-6 Coda of"Tio Boros" as performed on Original............................................... 106

3-7 Excerpt of"Bate-Coxa" as performed in Original............................................. 108

3-8 Excerpt from "Num Pagode Em Planaltina" as performed on Original............. 109

3-9 Excerpt from written out section of "Valsa Negra".............. .... .......... 111

3-10 Excerpt from improvised section of "Valsa Negra" ............ ............... 111

3-11 "Plainte" as recorded on Valsas Brasilerias..................... .... ......... .... 115
















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Music

MARCO PEREIRA: BRAZILIAN GUITAR VIRTUOSO

By

Brent Lee Swanson

August 2004

Chair: Larry Crook
Major Department: Music

This study traces the history of the guitar in Brazil and explores the life and artistry

of Brazilian guitar virtuoso Marco Pereira. Marco Pereira is well known throughout

Brazil as a consummate performer, arranger, and composer; he is considered by many to

be one of Brazil's most important contemporary guitarists. Mr. Pereira has worked with

virtually every major contributor to Brazilian popular music during his time. An

examination of his biography, compositions, musical influences, and technique will

illuminate his Brazilian guitar style. The goals of this work are 1) to provide first a brief

history of the Brazilian guitar and the primary guitarists who have influenced the life and

work of Marco Pereira, 2) to explore his biography, and 3) to analyze his contributions to

Brazilian musical culture.

The thesis highlights the importance of the guitar and guitarists in crafting

Brazilian musical identity. From the introduction of guitar-like instruments into Brazilian

territories by the Portuguese and other Europeans, to the international spread of virtuosic









techniques developed by the country's top performers, performance practices on the

guitar have undergone transformations. My study outlines the major transformations in

Brazilian guitar playing over the course of the twentieth century, and attempts to codify

the Brazilian guitar style.

In addition to illuminating the idiosyncrasies of Brazilian guitar style, I also focus

on the guitarists (consciously or subconsciously) who were most influential to the

musical development of Marco Pereira, and how these musicians contribute to Brazilian

identity in the international arena. Just as the samba became the national music of Brazil,

the guitar has emerged as a symbol of Brazil's national musical identity. My study

explores the guitar's role as mediator between lower- and upper- class Brazilians, and

explores Brazilian popular and art music. I demonstrate how the hybrid role of the

Brazilian guitar is representative of Brazil's densely mixed culture. I conclude that

Marco Pereira's hybrid guitar style is also representative of Brazilian musical identity.















CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Prologue

My introduction to Brazilian music was in 1993, when I was a burgeoning young

student of jazz. First as a pianist and guitarist, and later as a bassist, I discovered the

bossa novas of Jobim, Bonfi, and others in my studies of The Real Book (unpublished

illegal version). I had not listened to much Brazilian music other than my Best of Bossa

Nova CD by Compact Jazz and various butchered versions of "Tico-Tico No Fuba" that

sounded more like salsa than choro, and much of my education of samba came from the

rhythmic example in Essential Styles: For the Drummer and Bassist (Book I). As far as I

was concerned, my retort after getting lost in the guitarist's fourth chorus of solo on

"Meditation" was "Blame it on the Bossa Nova."

This "medicated" introduction to Brazilian music distorted my view of the

country's musical culture. This changed when I came to the University of Florida (UF)

in 1996, to study ethnomusicology with Dr. Larry Crook. In my first semester, I

performed with his university ensemble Jacare Brazil (Gator Brazil), in which I had the

honor of working with one of Brazil's most famous bloco-afro groups from Bahia,

Olodum. Through Jacare Brazil (8 years and counting) I learned first-hand a diversity of

Brazilian musical styles, including samba do rio, samba-reggae, maracatt, coco, baido,

frevo, embolada, mtisica caipira, choro, bossa nova, MPB, Brazilian jazz, and various

other Brazilian musical genres and styles. I have had the privilege of working with some

of Brazil's finest musicians and dancers, including Tote Gixa, Jelon Vieina, Mestre Boca,









Ney Rosaro, Joao do Pife, Carlos Malta, and most recently Hamilton de Holanda and

Marco Pereira. Through these experiences I learned many things about Brazilian music.

It was out of my initial work with to Marco Pereira and introduction to his music that I

formulated this thesis.

I first met Marco Pereira in May 2003 when he came to UF's Brazilian Music

Institute to conduct a weeklong clinic on the Brazilian guitar. This was not my first

exposure to Brazilian-style guitar playing. However, I was not prepared for what I

experienced that week. The level of his virtuosity intimidated, yet inspired me to

understand the world of Brazilian guitar on a much deeper level. In many senses, I

reverted back to the infatuation of my teenage years when I listened to electric guitar

virtuosos Steve Vai, Joe Satriani, and Eric Johnson (to name a few). But this time, I

heard the same intensity, not from a heavily amplified and effected electric guitar, but

from an acoustic nylon-string (or classical) guitar.

I have always thought of the nylon-string guitar as a subtle yet passive instrument

played by classical musicians, by Spanish performers, or by Brazilian musicians to

accompany a bossa nova, samba, or choro piece. I always knew that this nylon-string

guitar could be used in a fairly intense way, but I had not realized that it could equal the

tumultuous experience of a loud rock guitar. On one hand, I had listened to Brazilian

virtuosos such as Baden Powell, the Assad Brothers, and even recordings of Pereira; but

there was something different about seeing and hearing Pereira live that changed my

view of the instrument altogether. The classical guitar was no longer a passive

instrument to me, but one that could equally emote the sensations I feel when listening to

Jimi Hendrix, John Coltrane, or Muddy Waters.









After becoming hooked on Brazil's musical culture while living in the United

States, I received the opportunity to visit the country through a Foreign Language and

Area Studies (FLAS) grant administered through the Center for Latin American Studies

at UF. This grant allowed me to stay in Rio de Janeiro to study Portuguese and Brazilian

culture for 6 weeks, and to see and hear various concerts. This was also the first time I

was able to hear Pereira and his partner, the famous mandolinist Hamilton de Holanda,

perform selections from their new CD Luz das Cordas at SESC (a small theatre in

Copacabana). This was an amazing display of technical virtuosity, as well as one of the

greatest concerts I saw in Rio. Hearing Pereira in his own environment assured me that

he is one of the greatest guitarists in Brazil, and one of the greatest Brazilian guitarists

who ever lived. These experiences gave me a new love for the Brazilian guitar, and the

inspiration to research and write this thesis.

Introduction

The term Violdo Brasileiro (Brazilian guitar) is a complex designation, yet there is

something distinct about the nylon-stringed acoustic guitar in Brazil. Through the years

it has undergone various physical transformations: from the roots of plucked lute and ten-

stringed double-coursed viola, to six steel strings, to six nylon-strings; and since the early

20th century, to seven or eight nylon-strings. There is virtually no difference between

physical construction of the Brazilian guitar and the typical nylon-stringed classical

guitar (except that the wood is often all Brazilian, although this is also true of some non-

Brazilian guitars). Rather, it is the performance practice in the various genres of

Brazilian music that defines the instrument as Brazilian. The guitar music of Brazil can

generally be divided into two broad categories: Misica Erudita (Western Art/Classical










Music), and Mtisica Popular Brasileira or Brazilian Popular Music. However, there are

multifarious subcategories of these genres, and the lines between them are often blurred.

My study focuses on the guitar styles of performers generally classified within the

category of Brazilian Popular Music, but at the same time respects the fact that Brazilian

musicians often blur boundaries.

For the purposes of my study, Brazilian Popular Music (MPB)1 is defined as those

genres or styles that are generally excluded from the more elite Mtisica Erudita, and

includes choro, samba, baido, frevo, mtisica sertaneja, bossa nova, tropicdlia, samba

funk, samba novo/mtisica instrumental brasileira contemporanea/mtisica

improvisada/jazz-samba/hard-bossa or any other style that can be classified as Brazilian

jazz.2 The musical differences in these styles are based primarily on the various rhythms

that define them. However, many styles (like tropicdlia) do not necessarily have musical

idiosyncrasies that distinguish them from other genres, but are defined in terms of their

association with social movements of various epochs. Thus, it is difficult to categorize

Brazilian popular music, and the term MPB can be ambiguous, to say the least. While

many genres/styles are covered under the blanket term MPB, almost all of these styles

include the guitar in the instrumentation. This association has helped shape the identity

of the Brazilian guitar, and therefore it shares somewhat of a symbiotic relationship to




1 This is not to be confused with the post-bossa nova musical designation of MPB, which is more
specifically associated with the music of Edu Lobo, Gilberto Gil, Caetano Veloso, etc. This became a kind
of "everything but" classification to distinguish this kind of Brazilian popular music production from rock
and other foreign-associated popular music styles. However, I will refer to this type of MPB when
discussing the tropicalist movement and Marco Pereira's musical style, and I will note this at the
appropriate times.

2 These classifications come from Andrew Mark Connell's doctoral dissertation Jazz Brasileiro? Musica
Instrumental Brasileira and the Representation of Identity 1 ,2I 121









MPB. On one hand, the Brazilian guitar is defined by its performance practice, yet on the

other hand the instrument is also a definitive aspect of the broader musical culture itself.

The guitar has become a symbol of Brazil's national cultural identity, and

performing MPB without a guitar is almost unimaginable. It is true that Brazilian music

is rooted in the rhythmic syncretism of African and European (and sometimes

Amerindian) musical cultures initially spread throughout the country. The guitar became

a vital aspect of the mediation of those cultures, and of distinct social classes in Brazil.

In her article "Hybridity and Segregation in the Guitar Cultures of Brazil," Suzel Ana

Reily points out that the guitar is one of the only musical instruments that was found

simultaneously among all classes in Brazil's highly segregated (socially and racially),

colonial society, and was placed "at the very crossroads of the tensions generated by the

two opposing forces of syncretism and segregation" (Reily 2001). Following this line of

investigation, the guitar can be conceptualized as a cultural ambassador or mediator of

the various social and racial groups comprising the complex "hybridized" Brazilian

musical culture.

Today, the hybrid nature of Brazilian guitar cultures is even more complex with

the influence of various international styles of guitar playing and the adoption

American/European style steel-string electric and acoustic instruments. However, the

Brazilian guitars) that Marco Pereira uses are six- and eight-string guitars with nylon

strings handcrafted by Brazilian and German luthiers. This thesis focuses on this type of

guitar, and the music that Pereira plays upon them. The nylon-string guitar is the most

common type of guitar used in Brazil, and is the type most closely associated with guitar

brasilidade or Brazilianness (Brazilian identity). In fact, the nylon-stringed guitar is an









intrinsic aspect of musical brasilidade, which is not only found in the guitar Marco

Pereira plays, but also his playing style. Pereira's musical identity is closely related to

his own mixed background of classical training, popular music performance, and the

blending of techniques from those realms to compose and perform in a variety of musical

styles.

Mixing is a central to the concept of brasilidade, which stems from the modernist

movement of the 1920s. The individual contributors (Gilberto Freyre, Oswald de

Andrade, and others) of this movement illuminated Brazil's history of racial

miscegenation and highlighted the idea that cultural mixing defined Brazilian identity.

This idea of a positive nature of cultural and racial miscegenation was first

conceptualized by Gilberto Freyre in his master treatise The Masters and the Slaves. This

work discusses all three factions of Brazil's racial identities (European, African, and

Amerindian), and how each contributed to Brazil's cultural makeup.

Another key element in the concept of brasilidade is element of confusion, or as

Fred Moehn states

There is another aspect to the discourse of miscegenation in Brazil that is
referenced in the colloquial "to be mixed up," defined here as confused or
confounded .... Although they seldom described this feeling as confusion per se,
they often emphasized that this uncertainty) alternatively, flexibility is, in fact, the
principal marker of brasilidade. (Moehn 2001: 5)

Therefore, in Brazilian culture, it is not necessary for one homogenous racial identity to

serve as a marker to define the "rest," but that a diverse racial identity is perfectly

acceptable. In addition to suggesting confusion, mixing also can connote "combining

ingredients," relating to cooking or eating (Moehn 2001: 6). Oswald de Andrade's

Revista da Antropofagia (Journal of Anthropophagy or Cannibalist Manifesto) from the









late 1920s introduced the concept of "cultural cannibalism," which states that Brazilians

should "consume" and "digest" select aspects of other cultures in order to make them part

of their own culture. This concept was influenced by the belief that some Amerindian

cultures (Tupinamba) had practiced cannibalism as a way of consuming the power of

their enemies. Inspired by this indigenous notion, Andrade proposed that Brazilians

should incorporate aspects of European culture (technology, art, etc.) and mix them with

local culture to create a new style of art that was "worthy of export3 to the First World"

(Moehn 2001:6). These concepts were an integral part of the Semana da Arte Moderno

(The Week of Modem Art) held in 1922 in Sdo Paulo. Brazil's leading artists, including

Heitor Villa-Lobos, attended this three-day event, which featured exhibits, performances,

and other happenings. The work of the modernists was an integral part of shaping the

intellectual framework of Brazilian identity, as well as all aspects of its national culture.

In the 1960s, artists like Gilberto Gil, Caetano Veloso, Rita Lee, and others adopted

the modernist ideals, as they "consumed" elements of British and North American

popular culture to create a new movement of Brazilian music called tropicdlia. They

incorporated electric guitars and rock style guitar "licks" and "riffs," as well as the visual

image of rock groups like the Beatles. They mixed this with a variety of regional and

national Brazilian styles (samba, baiao, bossa nova, etc.) to create their own unique

musical identity. This eclectic freedom is the same concept that Marco Pereira applies to

his own musical style. While he does not force these concepts into his playing style, he is

undoubtedly influenced (consciously and subconsciously) by the work of the modernists

and tropicalists, as their ideas are an integral aspect of Brazilian culture and identity.

3 The use of export was a take on how Brazil's economy had been based on exported goods (Brazilwood,
Sugar, Coffee, etc) since the colonial period.










Pereira also cites the direct influence of Gilberto Gil, who was a cofounder of this

movement.

Pereira's own playing style is derived from a long line of Brazilian and other

internationally known guitarists, who have not only influenced Pereira, but Brazilian

music as a whole. According to Pereira, the domestic and foreign guitarists most

influential in the development of Brazilian guitar performance practice include:

Brazilians- Joao Pernambuco, Garoto, Dino "7 cordas," Baden Powell, Paulinho

Nogueira, Joao Gilberto, Gilberto Gil, and Joao Bosco; American- Wes Montgomery;

and Australian John Williams, as well as many other internationally known musicians. I

believe that Marco Pereira represents a synthesis of all these guitarists, and is exemplary

of the history of the Brazilian guitar at its finest.

As I mentioned, Pereira's playing style places him in an interesting border zone

between the popular and classical worlds in Brazil. On one hand he is an instrumentalist,

which makes him almost invisible,4 or as he states, "In Brazil, instrumentalists do not

exist."5 What he meant is that singers tend to overshadow instrumentalists, and the

importance of instrumentalists is rarely recognized. On the other hand, because he

performs popular music genres (samba, baido, etc.) he is not generally accepted into

classical guitar society. It is this hybridity of his playing style that reflects Brazilian

musical culture and the history of the Brazilian guitar itself.

This thesis is divided into two sections; the first delineates the history of the

Brazilian guitar emphasizing the guitarists that served as Marco Pereira's primary


4 Brazilian culture, like many other cultures, tends to recognize only vocalists, thus disregarding
instrumentalists.

5 Personal communication. March 18, 2004









influences. I begin with a short history of the guitar in Brazil and hypothesize that the

instrument eventually became a national symbol due to the hybridized cultural roles it

assumed. I discuss the guitar's original identity as an instrument of vagabonds and low-

class culture, and how through various musicians like Catulo de Paixao Cearense and

Heitor Villa-Lobos, as well as various social changes throughout Brazil, it eventually

became an acceptable instrument in elite society as well. The guitar's association with

samba, Brazil's national music, as well as various other styles of Brazilian music,

brought it to the forefront of Brazilian culture where it remains a symbol of national

identity. I then examine the histories of some of the main guitarists who inspired Marco

Pereira's playing style. This section includes short biographies of these musicians,

descriptions of their contributions to Brazilian guitar style, and analyses of their music.

In the second section, I focus directly on Marco Pereira, his compositions, and his

performance style. Additionally I illustrate how his hybrid musical style reflects the core

of Brazilian identity.

Review of the Literature

Literature on the Brazilian guitar comes from several sources including: scholarly

and popular press publications (books, journals, songbooks, etc.), liner notes to

recordings, doctoral dissertations, websites, personal interviews, and sound recordings

themselves. Sifting through this literature has been a most interesting, yet frustrating

experience, and it is through doing this research that I now realize the lacunae in

scholarly writings about the history of the Brazilian guitar. Though I could easily blame

my nascent Portuguese language skills for my misfortunes, they are mostly caused by the

lack of reliable sources available on the subject. Those sources that are available









generally do not discuss the guitar's importance in Brazil's society, nor do they detail

musical contributions by many of the country's most important guitarists.

Despite my problems in finding adequate sources, I am blessed to have found a

variety of materials that have made invaluable contributions to this work. First and

foremost is Suzel Ana Reily's article from the book Guitar Cultures, which has been the

most straightforward and informative history of the Brazilian guitar written. This is a

fundamental work in describing the hybridized nature of the instrument in Brazil. Reily

examines the guitar's history from its origins to the role it now plays in contemporary

Brazilian society. Through this history she reveals how the guitar mediated high and low

class musical cultures in Brazil through various individuals, who were accepted into both

cultures. Another scholarly article that is imperative to this thesis is Gerard Behlgue's

Biblioteca da Ajuda (Libson) MSS 1595/1596: Two Eighilcculh-Century Anonymous

Collections ofModinhas published in the Yearbook of the Inter-American Institute for

Musical Research, which showcases the differences between the Portuguese and

Brazilian modinhas and documents important historical aspects of the viola itself.

Charles Perrone and Christopher Dunn's Brazilian Popular Music and Globalization is

also central to this thesis and is an excellent source about Brazilian popular music. The

essays in the book cover everything from tropicdlia to the mangue bit sounds of Chico

Science and Naqao Zumbi.

In addition to these articles, various doctoral dissertations have discussed the guitar

and important guitarists in their discourses on different styles of Brazilian popular music.

The three key dissertations are Thomas George Caracas Garcia's work The Brazilian

Choro: Music, Politics, and Performance (1997), Andrew Mark Connell's Jazz









Brasileiro? Mtisica Instrumental Brasileira and the Representation of Identity (2002),

and Fredrick Moehn's Mixing MPB: Cannibals and Cosmopolitans in Brazilian Popular

Music (2001). Garcia's dissertation is a general history, description, and musical analysis

of the Brazilian choro. It traces the history of the form from the modinha and lundu to

the present, and discusses the various origin theories of the genre's name. This work has

excellent biographical information on many famous composers and performers of choro,

as well as extensive musical transcriptions of their works. The Connell dissertation offers

insight into the world of contemporary Brazilian instrumental music, and has excellent

coverage of the musical category known as Mtisica Instrumental Brasileiro, sometimes

known as Brazilian jazz. This style encompasses semi-erudite instrumental music in

Brazil that is not necessarily considered mtisica erudita. Connell's dissertation

specifically covers music by Hermeto Pascoal, Aquarela Carioca, and the Itiber8

Orquestra Familia. While Marco Pereira's style is usually more traditional harmonically

than these avant-garde groups, Brazilian jazz is the term Pereira uses to categorize this

music. Connell also successfully synthesizes anthropological research conducted on

Brazilian culture, relating it well to his study. Most notably Connell summarizes the

concept and history of brasilidade, and its relations to race and social class. Fredrick

Moehn's dissertation also discusses brasilidade, but focuses on post-bossa nova MPB

(Mdsica Popular Brasileira), and how the work of the modernists and tropicalists was

crucial in defining this diverse musical category. He thoroughly explores the Brazilian

concept of mi\ing. and how it applies to the musical culture. In addition to this, Moehn

gives a concise history of the modernist movement and how it cut across culture and the

arts in Brazil. Another significant dissertation is Tamara Livingston's Choro And Music









Revivalism in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 1973-1995 (1999). Livingston focuses on the socio-

cultural aspects of the choro, and relates the choro revivals to similar movements that

have occurred internationally.

There are various non-scholarly writings (usually about the history of the choro)

that highlight important historical moments and figures of the Brazilian guitar, but none

of these present a complete picture of the instrument. The book with the most pertinent

information to the subject at hand is Henrique Cazes's Choro: Do Quintal Ao Municipal,

which is an insider's6 view of the history of the choro and includes a chapter entitled "O

violao brasileiro" devoted to the archetypal guitarists of choro performance practice.

Despite the promising title of the chapter, the information tends to be anecdotal and is

illustrated more like a grandfather's childhood stories than an actual history of the guitar.

As Connell states, "Surprisingly, given Cazes' musical expertise, there is little musical

description in his book. ." (Connell 2002: 11-12). In other words, Cazes merely states

biographical information about important musicians, but does not explain their musical

importance or provide musical examples. I agree with Connell's assertion that Cazes

likely assumed that his readers were familiar with the genre, and overlooked the music

elements of the choro.

A similar omission of important material (though this time biographical) appears in

Alexandre Gonqalves's book O Choro: Reminiscenias dos Cl 'r',c, Antigos, which

completely overlooks the famous and seminal figure Pixinguinha. However, regardless

of its brevity, this work has a significant amount of biographical information on various

musicians (both obscure and well-known), which is valuable to this thesis. Ruy Castro's


6 Cazes is a famous choro cavaquinhista (performer of cavaquinho)









Clihcg de Saudade: A Histdria E As Histdrias Da Bossa Nova is the least scholarly of all

these books, but has excellent insight into the lives of bossa nova greats Tom Jobim,

Baden Powell, Vinicius de Moraes, Joao Gilberto, and many others. Other books that are

referenced for information, but not necessarily cited about early Brazilian guitarists are

Henrique Foreis's No Tempo de Noel Rosa, Irati Ant6nio's 1982 book Garoto: Sinal dos

Tempos, and Almanaque do choro: a histdria do chorinho, o que ouvir, o que ler, onde

curtir by Andr6 Diniz.

In terms of sheet music about the guitarists of Brazil, there are two excellent books

that cover many of the works of Joao Pernambuco and Garoto. First is a nice collection

entitled Jodo Pernambuco: 11 Famous Choros Brasileiros Vol. 1, which is edited by

various guitarists. However, as Pernambuco never notated his own music, it is difficult

to judge the authenticity of the transcriptions. Recordings and attending live

performances are always the best source of understanding any type of musical style or

genre, however I find this collection acceptable to use, as the scores closely resemble

Pernambuco's performance style.7 Second is an excellent and historically accurate two-

volume compilation by Paulo Bellinati titled The Guitar Works of Garoto, in which the

transcriber listened to rare recordings and reviewed extant manuscripts to analyze

Garoto's performance practice before he ever notated the music. There are some minor

edits to Garoto's original manuscripts to make the reading easier (apparently Garoto

never used any key signatures), but Bellinati is very transparent about these alterations.

This collection also includes notes about Garoto's performance practice, guitar setup

(e.g., low action, nylon-strings), and biographical detail. I also find useful the

7 This opinion is based on listening to several recordings of Pernambuco now available on the Mem6rias
Musicais collection.









transcriptions from Tonos Darmstadt's Songbooks on Baden Powell, Nelson Faria's The

Brazilian Guitar Book, Luis OtLvio Braga's Violdo de Sete Cordas: Teoria e Prdtica, as

well as Almir Chediak's Songbook: Gilberto Gil.

Other information was gathered from publications like Guitar Player (both

American and Brazilian versions) and internet resources about certain guitarists that do

not have much written about them (e.g., Paulinho Nogueira, Baden Powell).

Additionally, I have used liner notes from CDs by the guitarists mentioned in this thesis.

One great source of information came from the set of historical recordings Memdrias

Musicals, which is an anthology of early Brazilian popular music beginning with the first

recordings of the Corpo de Bombeiros/Banda da Casa Edison in 1902 (see Chapter 2).

This compilation, which is digitally re-mastered, offers excellent insight into the

performance practice of the early chores and contains previously unpublished

recordings. I gained a great deal of historical information about relevant to the

development of Brazilian popular music through these various sources. However, the

majority of information I received about Pereira was through my personal interviews with

him (both formally and informally) while he was in residence at the University of Florida

at Gainesville in March 2004. During that time we had many conversations over dinner

and while traveling by bus to various performance venues. I also conducted with Pereira

two formal interviews in person, four telephone interviews, and frequent email

correspondences.















CHAPTER 2
GUITAR IN BRAZIL: ORIGINS, PERFORMERS, AND INFLUENCES OF MARCO
PEREIRA

Introduction

This chapter covers the history of the Brazilian guitar in two sections. The first

section outlines the origins of the instrument itself, the genres of music it spawned, and

its hybrid role as a symbol of national identity in Brazilian culture. The second section

discusses the main guitarists who have shaped Brazilian popular music, and have been

influential in Marco Pereira's musical development. I include a brief biography and

discuss important musical accomplishments for each guitarist, as well as provide

representative examples of each guitarist's performance practice. Additionally, I discuss

some of the musical characteristics of important musical genres, and provide musical

examples highlighting stylistic idiosyncrasies.

This summary is by no means a complete history of the Brazilian guitar world, but

rather a history of guitarists who have influenced Marco Pereira. However, I believe that

the selected list of guitarists is an excellent representation of the history of Brazilian

guitar styles. Guitarists selected are those people Marco Pereira felt were important to

him, and secondly additional guitarists Pereira did not mention, but upon discussing their

importance with him, agreed they should be included. Following Pereira's own concepts,

these guitarists are divided into two different categories: soloists/accompanists of

primarily instrumental music and vocal accompanists who accompany themselves on









guitar and have a unique and somewhat virtuosic style.8 The instrumental

soloists/accompanists are: Arthur de Souza Nascimento or "Tute," Joao Pemambuco,

Garoto, and Horondino Silva (Dino "Sete Cordas") representing the Brazilian choro and

samba; and Baden Powell and Paulinho Nogueira representing the \,uiinl, b, ,ss, nova era

of the 1950s and beyond. The vocal accompanists include: Joao Gilberto representing

bossa nova; Gilberto Gil and Joao Bosco representing modem MPB.

This chapter will also discuss foreign guitarists, who have had a great impact on

Pereira's career: Wes Montgomery representing American jazz; John Williams and

Julian Bream representing art music, and Cacho Tirao representing Argentinean tango.

All of these guitarists have helped shape Pereira's playing, compositional style, and

overall musicianship, and are excellent representatives of the world of guitar

performance.

Origins

Discovering the origins of the guitar in Brazil can be as elusive as trying to find

detailed documents of Brazilian slavery.9 As Suzel Ana Reily points out

Records from the colonial period tend to be rather imprecise in their references to
guitar-like instruments used in Brazil, and this has hindered the study of their
historical trajectories in the country. (Reily 2001: 159)

These records were most likely not kept because it was an instrument of commoners, and

not of the elite. According to Reily the modern guitar in Brazil most likely originated

from four different Iberian prototypes. These are: the viola de mao (hand viola) or

simply viola; the lute; the machete (also known as the descante); and the guitarra (Reily


8 These categories are based on interviews with Marco Pereira, in which he suggested two schools of the
Brazilian guitar: soloists and those that accompanied themselves vocally.

9 The Brazilian Government destroyed most records of slavery after they abolished the slave trade in 1888.









2001: 159). The viola is known to be of Portuguese origin, and in the 13th century was a

twelve stringed instrument (six double-coursed) much like the American twelve-string

guitar. Today the Brazilian viola is a five-string double-coursed instrument with a much

smaller body that is often used to accompany various folk and popular music with their

foundations in the rural interior of Brazil: namely the moda de viola, improvisatory

poetry of repentista singers, and the duplas (paired singers) of mfsica sertaneja. In the

late 20th century it was also transformed into a solo instrument through a new generation

of players, which is most famously demonstrated in the work of Roberto Correa. The

machete was a small-bodied four-string instrument that is considered the "antecedent" of

the modem cavaquinho, which is found in various folk and popular music ensembles.10

The guitarra is the predecessor of the modern violdo, and was a six-string instrument

with a body similar to the Spanish classical guitar.

Of all of these instruments, the viola is most frequently referenced in records due to

its popularity among the Portuguese nobility. The guitarra was essentially ousted from

the Portuguese court due to its association with the lower class. The viola was also

widely used by the Jesuits while they were in Brazil attempting to proselytize various

Amerindian cultures, and was even thought of as a catalyst to help convert them to

Christianity. Reily states

many felt that popular instruments such as violas, bagpipes, drums and
tambourines were particularly well suited to the enterprise of conversion; like
Amerindian ritual life, the Portuguese folk traditions in which the popular
instruments were employed were marked by a participatory ethos, such that the
natives seemed more readily inclined to engage with them. (2001: 159)



10 More information about the machete can be found in Ralph C. Waddey's "Viola de Samba" and "Samba
de Viola" in the Reconcavo ofBahia i. .,i) from Latin American Music Review Vol. 1 No. 2 (Autumn-
Winter, 1980, 196-212).









The viola remained a vital part of colonial religious and secular life, and even spawned a

musical genre of accompanied secular songs called modas de viola. Church composers

eventually assimilated these songs, and set them to the contemporary chamber

orchestration of the time. These modas de viola fell out of favor with church due

objections of the viola's "camavalesque and secular associations," but continued as a folk

song genre (Reily 2001:161). Because of the church's influence, the viola was ousted

from liturgical music and used only in secular situations by both low and upper class

Brazilians in the 16th and 17th centuries.

In these secular settings the viola flourished, and spawned two of the first genres of

music that were considered Brazilian: the modinha (little song) and the lundu. The

former of these musical genres became associated with the colonial upper class, while the

latter was initially identified with "Afro-Brazilian" culture. However, the socio-musical

segregation of the two genres is somewhat clouded, which led to an interesting dialogue

between the classes. To summarize this, Reily states

The continuous encounter between socially and ethnically diverse sectors during
the colonial era produced a highly hybrid cultural environment, but it was not
perhaps until the late eighteenth century that particular music and dance forms
began to be identified as distinctly colonial inventions. (2001: 161)

As a favored accompaniment instrument, the viola aided in the birth of these song

forms, and thus served to mediate between the two distinctly different cultures they came

from. This early example of inter-ethnic dialogue was extremely important to Brazilian

popular music in general and these song forms would influence the development of the

choro and eventually the samba. As Gerard B6hague states "there is no doubt that the

modinha has an exceptional historical significance, for it is together with the lundu -









the very foundation on which a large part of Brazilian popular music was built"

(1968:68).

The Brazilian modinha was also being performed in the salons of Lisbon, Portugal,

and its popularity can be attributed to the famous "mulatto poet and priest Domingos

Caldas Barbosa (1738-1800)" (B6hague 1963: 46). Barbosa was born in Brazil, and was

a renowned viola player and poet. He traveled to Libson frequently and was a significant

contributor to the city's musical culture where he composed many modinhas and lundus.

Because the viola was considered a vulgar instrument in Libson (as well as the modinha

itself), many of Barbosa's modinhas were transcribed for piano or harpsichord

accompaniment. However, after examining several manuscripts of these songs, B6hague

notes

The catalogue for the Ajuda Library describes the whole collection as "music for
voice and piano with Portuguese text," but for each individual entry a correction
has been added "with guitar (viola) accompaniment. Indeed the character of the
accompaniment (broken chord figures, occasional figured bass) suggests the
original guitar accompaniment rather than the more refined harpsichord or piano
accompaniment of the printed modinhas. (Ibid., 59)

This suggests that the viola was a central part of the compositional efforts of Barbosa,

and likely many other composers of modinhas at this time (even in Portugal) (Tinhordo

1974:41-5).

In the eighteenth century there was a major influx of Portuguese immigrants who

came to Brazil in search of gold and diamonds. This influx of Europeans resulted in a

general increase in European cultural values that were disseminated throughout the

country. Because the viola was associated with low-class values by the European cultural

elite, the early colonizers were forced "to conceal the hybrid elements of their local

culture" (Reily 2001: 163). Therefore, it was at this time that the viola fell out of favor










with Brazilian elite. The coffee boom in the late eighteenth century, the subsequent

arrival of the Portuguese crown in 1808, as well as the move of the capital from Salvador,

Bahia to Rio de Janeiro would help solidify this Eurocentric shift in cultural values.

Eventually the viola would be replaced by a more "culturally acceptable" instrument: the

piano.

In the mid to late nineteenth-century the piano became the instrument of choice

among Brazilian cultural elite, while the viola/violdo," considered a "vulgar" instrument,

was relegated to lower-class culture. This does not mean that these instruments

completely disappeared from the salon culture, but rather that their use severely

diminished (Vianna 1999: 25). While the colonial society became increasingly

segregated along class and racial lines, the modinha remained a symbol of cultural

hybridity. In the 1840s, the popularity of art music and the modinha bourgeoned among

the carioca12 elite, who began to privately fund "exclusive 'clubs' and 'societies'," due to

the lack of funding by emperor Dom Pedro II (Reily 2001: 165). With the advent of

these bourgeois clubs, composers and performers of the modinha adopted Italian bel

canto vocal performance practices. The piano remained the preferred instrument for

accompaniment, and thus the salon modinha began to sound increasingly like an Italian

aria. At the same time, however, these aria-like modinha's were being performed with


" Harvey Tumbull and Paul Sparks state in the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians that the
transformation from the five-course to a six single strings took place over a period of time between the
"second half of the 18th century and the first decades of the 19th century in Spain, France, and Italy." By
the late 18th century, most guitarists favored the single coursed guitar over the double coursed model
because it was easier to tune, attack cleanly, and avoid "ambiguous" bass notes. (Ibid 2001: 563) I
unfortunately could not gather any information that distinguishes the differences of use between the viola
and the violdo during this epoch in Brazil's musical history. However, it is likely that the replacement of
the viola by the violdo was due to the increase of European immigration, which brought more of the single
coursed instrument to Brazil.

12 Carioca refers to an inhabitant of Rio de Janeiro









rhythms that were influenced by Afro-Brazilian music, which gave them a distinctly

Brazilian flavor.

While the piano was the instrument of choice among the elites, the violdo was

quickly becoming the instrument of choice for the common people of Brazil. This was

likely due to its low cost and portability, as pianos could only be afforded by the upper

class. It is also possible that because of this, the violdo was also becoming

conceptualized as the "true" Brazilian instrument. Lima Baretto, who was an early 20th

century Brazilian nationalist, notes the social status of the guitar in his novel The Sad End

ofPolicarpo Quaresma (1915). As Hermano Vianna points out

Lima Barreto's novel The Sad End of Policarpo Quaresma (1915)... begins
with a chapter titled "The Guitar Lesson." The hero of the novel is Major
Policarpo, a respectable amateur scholar of middling social status. Policarpo's
reading of "historians, chroniclers, and philosophers" has convinced him that
the modinha with guitar accompaniment is "the poetic and musical expression
characteristic of the national spirit" of Brazil. (1999: 26)

The continuation of this passage also illustrates how the Lima's novel depicted the social

status of the violdo:

The patriotic scholar therefore takes guitar lessons from a Troubadour, Ricardo
CoraCdo dos Outrous. Policarpo's neighbors vigorously reject the idea and declare
him mad: "A guitar in such a respectable house!" they exclaim. "A serious man
involved in low-life stuff like that!" Policarpo defends himself on nationalist
grounds: "It is prejudice to supposed that every man who plays the guitar lacks
social decency. The modinha is the most genuine expression of our national
poetry, and the guitar is the instrument that it requires. (Ibid., 26)

Thus the violdo, was in the middle of a complex struggle for defining national identity;

on one side were the carioca elites, who had a stronghold on defining what was

"acceptable" culture, and on the other was the rest of Brazil, who considered the violdo to

be part of their national heritage.









While the social and racial lines were clearly delineated at this time, there were a

few individuals, like Policarpo in Barreto's novel, who crossed the social boundaries.

Catulo da Paixao de Cearense, 13 was raised in the northeast interior (sertao), but came to

Rio with his father at the age of seventeen. Though he came from a working-class

background, he was invited to sing modinhas at the homes of many of the carioca elite,

and networked with "politicians, writers, and millionaires" (Vianna 1999:24-5). With a

renewed interest in his country sertanejo roots, Catulo began mixing elements of folk

songs from the northeast with the more Eurocentric/urban style modinha, and performing

them on the violdo for various elite gatherings, and even performed at the President's

palace. He most likely got this sertanejo influence from Joao Pernambuco, a soon-to-be

important guitarist from the northeastern state of Pernambuco, whose significance will be

discussed later. Because he introduced of the violdo in the "courts" of the carioca

bourgeoisie, Catulo is considered one of the instrument's great ambassadors, and thus

represents the cultural countercurrents that were happening at that time. He is also an

example of hybridity in Brazilian culture. Music of the northeast was not the only music

Catulo was synthesizing; various other musical genres began to pervade the country,

which created a cultural incubator for fostering the choro and eventually the national

music of Brazil: the samba.

After the abolition of slavery in 1888, there was a mass immigration of working

class European culture into Brazil. Slave labor was no longer a competition, as it was

previously so inexpensive that there was no incentive to import European labor by elite

landowners. Therefore, Europeans could now compete for low-wage jobs with freed


13 He took the name Cearense because he was a native of the state of Ceara.









slaves. Brazilian elites also saw this as an opportunity to "re-Europeanize" a population

that comprised a mixed majority.14 With this influx of European immigrants also came

their cultural idiosyncrasies, and consequently, the polka, tango, habanera, schottisch,

waltz, and various other musical/dance forms were initiated into Brazilian culture.

Composers and musicians would mix these genres with the Brazilian modinha and lundu

to create a montage of subsequent hybrid genres.

The maxixe was a stylistic term that applied to various genres using the particular

rhythm associated with Afro-Brazilian slave culture. Just like the modinhas before, the

"Afro-Brazilian" I rhythm was applied to the performance of the polka to create

the maxixe style (figure 2-2). B6hague notes an example of this rhythm as used in the

introduction of the accompaniment of Modinha no. 8 "Quem ama para agravar" from the

Ajuda Library MS1595:


v r, rrIr I r1
Figure 2-1. Afro-Brazilian rhythm.

The writer of this manuscript noted that "Esta acompanhamento devese tocar pela Bahia

(This accompaniment must be played around Bahia)" (Behague 1963:61-2). This same

rhythmic figure was also used in the performance practice of the international genres and

new subgenres that were created. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, these new

subgenres were as mixed musically as their names indicated (tango-maxixe, polca-

maxixe, tango-brasileiro, etc).

Once again there was a dialogue between social classes, and much like the modinha

and lundu, these new forms were performed simultaneously by low and upper-class

14 The mixed majority comprised mostly mulattos (Afro-European mix) and caboclos (Euro-Amerindian
mix). (Skidmore 1974:64-69).









musicians. Along with this dialogue between classes, there was an equal dialogue

between professional and amateur or trained and non-trained musicians. This

communication developed into a symbiotic relationship: the amateur musicians would

mix these new styles together, which would then inspire professional musicians to

compose music that was "acceptable" to the cultural elite. Composers like Joaquim

Ant6nio Silvia Calado, Anacleto de Madeiros, Ernesto Nazar6, and later Heitor Villa-

Lobos helped "formalize" these genres due to their background of European musical

training, which enabled them to write down this music. Many of the contributions of

these trained composers and performers helped shift the emphases of these musical styles

from vocal to instrumental, which ultimately lead to a new form of popular music called

choro.

Joaquim Ant6nio da Silva Calado (1848-1880) was one of the greatest flautists and

composers of his time. Though he studied composition and conducting from the great

Brazilian composer Henrique Alves de Mesquita and found success as a composer and

concert flautist, Calado "preferred the new popular music that came very naturally to

him" (Garcia 1997:161). Historians credit Calado with formalizing the instrumentation

of the terno (two guitars, cavaquinho, and flute, or whatever lead instrument was

available). However, this type of instrumental ensemble had been around for many years.

Garcia notes

While it is easy to assume that Calado was responsible for the development of the
original choro instrumental combination, this was undoubtedly not the case. This
instrumental combination had been around for some time before Calado in the
modinha and seresta, as well as mufsica de barbeiros and thefazenda band ....
Calado's biggest contribution was combining two musical forces, each very
popular European dances and the instruments of the mufsica de barbeiros and the
choromeleiro. (1997:164-5)











The ntisica de barbeiros, fazenda (farm) bands and choromeleiros15 are three

performance groups from the early colonial period usually comprised of semi-trained

Afro-Brazilian musicians. These groups influenced Calado when he formed a similar

group known as Choro Carioca made up of the terno, (Livingston 1999: 73). And while

he was not the originator of the terno, his compositions for this instrumentation

undoubtedly influenced a new generation of musicians. Furthermore, due to his classical

training, he infused his own musical ideas into traditional European dances. His

compositions contained: "fast melody(ies) and chromaticism, embellishment, wide leaps,

rhythmic interest and syncopation, (and) strong emphasis on the beat." These musical

contributions would serve as a "bridge between the choro style and genre" (Garcia 1997:

165).

Anacleto de Madeiros (1886-1907) was the son of a freed slave and received

European musical training at an early age. In 1875, he began his formal musical training

in the Companhia de Menores do Arsenal de Guerra band (Rio de Janeiro, RJ). "In 1884

he became an apprentice at the Imprensa Nacional (National Press) and the same year

enrolled at the Conservatdrio de Mtisica, where he concentrated on flute and clarinet"

(Garcia 1997: 174). Madeiros is best remembered as one of the founders and first

conductors of Rio's premiere military bands Bando do Corpo de Bombeiros (Band of the

Firemen Corps). He was also the first to write down arrangements of pieces to be played

by other musicians for this type of ensemble (reminiscent of thefazenda bands). These



15 In Garcia's translation of Ary Vasconcelos's Carinhoso, Etc.: Hist6ria e Inventcrio do Choro (1984: 17),
he notes: "The choromeleiros did not (only) play the charamela, but other wind instruments as well. For
the people, naturally all instrumental ensembles would end up being called choromeleiros, an expression,
for simplification, ended up being shortened to the choro (1997:75).









bands became very famous and were an intrinsic part of the annual Carnival celebrations

of the time, where they would play all of the popular dance-based compositions of the

time including waltzes, polkas, maxixes, tangos, etc. Madeiros composed many of the

pieces himself, but also performed works of the famous composers of that time (e.g.,

Ant6nio Calado, Emesto Nazar6, Chiquinha Gonzaga, etc.). The popularity of his band

helped promote these newly formed styles among the masses as well as the elite, and was

another step in solidifying future stylistic performance practice.

In addition to his work with the military bands, Madeiros also was a member of the

local roda de chores, which were local performing groups that would gather together and

play these new mixed styles with elements of improvisation. Garcia notes

Improvisation has always been a part of the choro tradition, but it is improvisation
of accompaniment and arrangement, not the spontaneous composition of a melody
around a chord progression of American jazz. The choro has always included
musicians playing guitars and cavaquinhos who could not read music. Many could
read chord symbols, and lead-sheet type scores (e.g. chord progressions, with no
notation) were often prepared for their use.

Often the choro in the roda was a popular tune, which everybody knew in an
agreed upon key, melody on one instrument and the accompaniment in the others.
(1997: 111-2)

The particular roda de choro in which Madeiros played was held at the Cavaquinho de

Ouro, which was a music store in downtown Rio de Janeiro. Madeiros was often joined

by the most accomplished and well known chores (choro musicians) of the day

including: Quincas Laranjeiras, Luis de Sousa, Juca Kalut, Flisberto Marques, Catulo da

Paixdo Cearense, Luis Gonzaga da Hora, Ze Cavaquinho, and Irineu de Almeida (Garcia

1997: 177). Heitor Villa-Lobos, who would later become one of Brazil's most celebrated

composers, would often also sit in on violdo at these sessions. All of these musicians

made important contributions Brazilian popular music history, and they and Madeiros










undoubtedly played a significant role in shaping the future of Brazilian music as a whole.

Additionally, Madeiros had a great influence on young artists like Pixinguinha, his

brother "China," Aurtur Souza de Nascimento "Tute," among others, many of whom

played in the Corpo de Bombeiros, and would later become pillars of Brazilian popular

music.16

Emesto Nazar6 (1863-1937) was a pianist who wrote various pieces for the

instrument, which he usually labeled tango-brasileiro (Garcia 1997: 209). However, his

compositions often resembled the maxixe, which was a bit faster and had less lyrical,

instrumental-style melodies. Nazar6 most likely associated them with the tango due to

the lack of acceptance of maxixe among the Brazilian elite, for whom he was composing

(Garcia 1997: 56). 17 These characteristics can be seen in the piece "Vitorioso," shown

below.












Figure 2-2. Excerpt from "Vitorioso" by Eresto Nazare. Public Domain.

One can easily see the Afro-Brazilian rhythm in both the accompaniment and

melody. Also, the sixteenth note runs in the melody are further proof that this piece is


16 The music of Anacleto's bands can be heard on compilation Mem6rias Musicals, which were recorded
by Casa Edison in 1904.

1 It is likely that the tango-brasileiro and maxixe did not differ musically very much at this time. Garcia
states that "The maxixe and the tango differed most greatly in the choreography: the tango is a relatively
slow and sensual partner dance. The maxixe was a fast-stepped partner dance most noted for the frantic
pace of its footwork. (1997: 56)









more of a maxixe than a tango, a quality also reminiscent of Calado's musical

contributions. While Nazar6 did not associate himself directly with the chores of his

day, he undoubtedly influenced their music as much as they influenced his. His music is

still performed and recorded widely today by various musicians (including Marco

Pereira).

Heitor Villa-Lobos (1887-1959) is probably the most influential of all of these

composers, as he was a guitarist himself, and participated in the popular music circles of

his day. At an early age Villa-Lobos learned to play cello from his father Raul, which he

later performed at some of the most popular theatres in Rio. Through his employment at

these theatres he met some of the most important composers of his day including Nazar6

and Medeiros. However, he also concurrently learned to play the guitar, and performed

with various lower-class popular music circles.

All of these musical endeavors would later influence his many compositions,

especially those for the guitar. Villa-Lobos wrote Choro no. 1 for the guitar because he

wished to make the guitar an acceptable instrument in Brazil. Many of his compositions

(e.g., Bachianas Brasileiras, Choros, and Suite Popular Brasileira) introduced the world

to the sounds of Brazilian popular music, as well as influence many of Brazil's great

composers both art and popular alike. While he is not a "forefather" of choro as were the

aforementioned composers, he is undoubtedly its greatest proponent (as well as a

champion of the guitar) in the art-music world, and is undoubtedly one of Brazil's most

important composers (B6hague 2001: 613-19).

These four representative composers forever changed the face of Brazilian music,

as well as the role of the guitar. The blending of their erudite studies in music with their









passion for and firsthand knowledge of popular culture created a unique place for the

guitar among the elite of Brazil through the new music called choro. It is through choro,

and later samba that the guitar found itself at the forefront of Brazilian culture and

became the symbol of national identity. As we will discover in the following pages, the

choro was Brazil's first musical genre that greatly narrowed the gap between art and

popular music, and enabled musicians from all social classes to participate in a music that

satisfied both the trained and untrained (or semi-trained) artist. And the hybridity of

these musicians, much like Catulo da Paixao Cearense, helped transform Brazil from a

segregated individualistic musical culture into the nationalistic musical culture that it

became. 1

During and after the time of these four great composers, various types of ensembles

began to emerge out of the rodas de choro. One ensemble type was called the conjunto

regional (regional group). These regionais (plural for regional) were usually made up of

lower middle-class musicians "civil servants, especially officers of the customs, the

railway system, the exchequer; the mint, the post, and municipal government public

servants working in the local police force, the power plant, etc." (Taborda 2002: 12).

This was due mostly to the fact that before the emergence Brazil's first recording

company Casa Edison, there was little money to be made solely as a musician. However,

with the emergence of recording companies and subsequently the advent national radio in

the 1920s, many of these working class musicians performed on recordings and

broadcasts. Regional groups served as accompanists for artists on the radio, and were



18 Brazil is still highly segregated socially as well as racially, but I am strictly talking about the musical
aspects of the culture in this statement. However, it was through the music of Carnaval, which was
influenced by these composers, that social lines were blurred, and roles were reversed (Vianna 1999).









required to improvise filler music when vocal performers arrived late. The conjuntos also

had their own "regionalized" way of playing choro and samba, which contributed to the

name regionais. Some of the most famous groups of the 1920s and 1930s were Turanas

Pernambucanos and Voz do Sertdo;19 Os Passos do Choro, Luiz Americano, and Os Oito

Batutas from the urban south (Cazes 1999: 85-6). The latter of these groups, was

founded by Pixinguinha, and is considered the most famous of the regional groups.

These conjuntos regionais comprised all the greatest chores of this epoch, and helped

develop a standard repertoire for all choro musicians to follow.

Though the regional groups were an important musical influence, the members

could not support themselves or their families, and the leaders of the groups often had

different players depending on the situation. Therefore, it is difficult to attribute certain

stylistic idiosyncrasies to one particular performer, and it is through this melting pot of

various musicians that various new styles were born. In the early 20th century, many

candomble houses (Afro-Brazilian religious centers) of Rio were also centers where

many of these regional musicians would gather. The most famous of these houses was

run by Tia Ciata and was where Pixinguinha, Donga, Sinho, and many other of the great

chores of the day helped contribute to Brazil's soon to be national music: the samba.

Thus, it is fitting that working-class musicians along with upper-class composers, using

the guitar as the central instrument of accompaniment, helped develop modern Brazil's

national identity.

At the same time that these regional musicians gathered together to create samba in

the 1920s, a young anthropologist from Pernambuco named Gilberto Freyre was just


19 The names of these groups imply an association with the northeast of Brazil.









beginning the research for his influential treatise The Masters and the Slaves (1933).

Freyre had traveled to the United States, and was heavily influenced by the concepts of

American anthropologist Franz Boas. Boas refuted the European influenced thought that

racial mixing was detrimental to genetic prosperity, and proved that these theories were

merely unscientific generalities used for racist agendas. Freyre took Boas's principles

and applied them to Brazilian society, which had an unusually high rate of

miscegenation. In his masterwork, Freyre, like Boas, rebuffs traditional concepts of

"whitening" by stating that Brazil's true identity is found in its racial and cultural mixing.

Scholars consider Freyre's treatise to be foundational to the creation of brasilidade in the

1930s, which at the same time helped samba become the national music of Brazil. As

Hermano Vianna states, "Freyre's success on the intellectual scene and the simultaneous

broadening of interest in samba, conceived as a musical blending of white and black

culture, constituted parallel manifestations of the new interest in "things Brazilian"

(1999:12).

This new interest in "things Brazilian" bourgeoned out of the modernist movement,

which was formally launched in 1922 during the Modern Art Week in Sao Paulo. While

this conglomeration of writers, visual artists, and composers had different aesthetic

emphases, they were "concerned foremost with articulating a project of cultural

nationalism" (Dunn 2001: 13-14). Writers Oswald de Andrade and Mario de Andrade

met with artists and composers like Heitor Villa-Lobos, and agreed to reinvent Brazil's

historically European dominated identity through their art.

This interest in nationalizing Brazilian culture greatly influenced Freyre, and

undoubtedly inspired his agenda to re-define Brazilian views on the country's racial









identity. In addition to the nationalistic ideals of the modernismo movement, Vianna

suggests that Freyre was also heavily inspired by an encounter between himself; popular

musicians Patrfcio, Donga, Pixinguinha; composer Villa-Lobos; historian S6rgio Buarque

da Holanda; and Rio district attorney and journalist "Prudente" (Pedro Duantas Prudente

de Moraes Netto) in 1926 for an evening of guitar music and cachaga (cane liquor).

Vianna states

This encounter thus brought together members of two very distinct social groups:
on one hand, intellectuals and practitioners of the "fine" arts, all sons of "good
white families,". and on the other hand, musicians of black and mixed race
belonging to the poorest class of Rio society. Here were young Gilberto Freyre and
Sergio Buarque de Holanda, just beginning the research that resulted, a few years
later, in their influential books. .. fundamental to the definition of modem Brazilian
identity. And face-to-face with the anthropologist and historian stood Donga,
Pixinguinha, and Patricio, whose music would come to stand for what was most
Brazilian in Brazil during those same years. The written testimony of the elite
participants seems to indicate that they took such a gathering for granted and that
both sides felt at ease, as they might in a Brazil supposedly characterized (in
Freyre's influential book) by racial mixing and (in Buarque da Holanda's
interpretation) by cordial social relations. (1999: 2)

It was shortly after this meeting that Freyre wrote an article for a Pemambuco newspaper

forwarding ideas he would later develop in The Masters and the Slaves. These ideas,

reminiscent of Euclides da Cunha's Os \e, ie,', (Rebellion in the Backlands), "declared

official Brazil a 'phony and ridiculous' Europhile version that 'hid' the real Brazil,

personified for him by black musicians" (Ibid., 9). Vianna also comments that Freyre,

who wanted to meet members of Os Oito Batutas, specially arranged this meeting. His

friends "drew on a tangle of personal connections to fulfill his wish," as "Prudente" was a

friend of Donga (Ibid., 2). Therefore this purposeful meeting could serve as an allegory

for what was to happen in the near future: intentionally reinventing Brazilian culture by

glorifying its racially mixed roots, and using "samba to represent and define Brazil's

cultural and racial hybridityy'" (Ibid., 2).









The reinvention of Brazil's racial identity and the emergence of samba as Brazil's

national music became solidified under the Getilio Vargas regime in the 1930s. In 1930,

Vargas led an "uprising that succeeded in overthrowing the fractured Republican

government of Washington Luis. The Vargas revolution received broad support,

including that from the coffee planters who were reeling from the effects of the world

economic crisis of 1929" (Dunn 2001: 25). The regime institutionalized the concepts of

the modernists, and promoted Freyre's idea of racial mixing as the new Brazilian racial

identity. The Vargas regime, which "abolished party politics in 1937 and instituted the

authoritarian Estado Novo (New State)," implemented various types of propaganda to

promote a new Brazilian identity (Ibid., 26) The most influential of the propaganda tools

was the implementation of national radio, which employed many of the abovementioned

regional musicians. Samba was widely broadcast on the radio because the Vargas regime

felt its mix of African and European styles represented the new racial identity they were

trying to promote. Due to the intent of the regime to create a new national character,

many samba composers like Ary Barroso began writing nationalistic songs, which would

be labeled samba-exaltagdo. Barroso's "Aquarela do Brasil" ("Brazil"), which celebrates

Brazil's beauty, still exists today as an important musical marker of national pride and

identity.

In the midst of this newly created national fervor, the guitar was also thrust to

forefront due to its inseparable association with samba. Within the span of a decade, the

guitar "mysteriously" emerged from the instrument of vagabonds to being a musical

symbol of Brazil's newfound national identity. However, the guitar was not merely an

innocent bystander that rode the samba to stardom. Villa-Lobos, following his modernist









ideologies, intentionally wrote music for the guitar. Therefore the guitar, both

consequentially and intentionally, became a symbol of national identity. This can even

be seen in the meeting in 1926 between Freyre and the famous choroes/sambistas, as they

arranged a special "evening of guitar music." Due to the purposeful nature of that

meeting I do not find it a coincidence that the participants were listening to guitar music.

While there is no historical support of this theory, I do find it interesting that Freyre

chose guitar music instead of a more popular vocal music as the backdrop for their

meeting. As this holds true with the samba, I believe it is no "mystery" that the guitar

became an "unofficial" symbol of Brazilian musical identity.

While the samba was key in shaping the popularity of the guitar, the roots of the

Brazilian guitar are more deeply entrenched in choro. The next section deals with the

performance practice of the guitar in choro, which is similar to the manner in which

guitarists played samba. Because the regional groups played both styles of music, the

performance practice often transcends these musical designations.

The Guitar in the Choro/Samba

As composers in the late 19th century (both trained and untrained) began to develop

this new style of music called choro, the guitar was the most prevalent instrument used to

accompany the lead instrument (usually a flute). Garcia remarks that writers Ary

Vasconcelos, Pinto, and Jos6 Tinhorao all found that guitarists comprised the greatest

number of all of the chores they studied (1997:145).

As an accompaniment instrument in choro,20 the guitar has two roles: 1) to provide

both the harmonic accompaniment by playing chords and 2) to outline the harmony with


20 However, there is also a solo guitar style of playing choro that I will discuss later in the chapter.









a melodic bass-line called the baixaria. The baixaria is usually improvised like jazz bass

lines, but unlike a typical jazz bass line the baixaria plays an integral part in developing

countermelodies.21 Therefore the performance of the baixaria more often resembles an

improvised contrapuntal baroque style bass line, and is one of the most important aspects

of guitar style in choro. One of the guitarists who helped develop the baixaria style was

Quincas Laranjeiras (1873-1935), who is considered the "grandfather of the modern

guitar" (Cazes 1998: 47). Laranjeiras's fast thumb-style technique was one of the most

advanced of his time, and according to Cazes, influenced the great samba composer Noel

Rosa to write "Valsa dos Peidos" ("Waltz of the Farts") because he was so fast it sounded

like flatulent noise (Cazes 1998: 48). Laranjeiras was also one of Villa-Lobos's

influences on the guitar. One of the rare recordings of Laranjeiras's playing style can be

found on Memdrias Musicais CD-6 performing "Nao Tens Coraqao" ("You Have No

Heart").

The baixaria part can be performed on any style of violdo, but is most often found

on the violdo sete cordas (seven-stringed guitar). This type of violdo is tuned B(low)-E-

A-D-G-B-E,22 and utilizes the lower B string to approximate the range of the upper

strings of a double bass. Modem Brazilian guitarists generally performed on nylon

strings, but the guitarists during this era of choro (late 19th and early 20th centuries) used

steel strings. This is because there were no amplifiers at this time, and steel strings were

a way to achieve a fuller sound. In addition to this, Paulo Bellinati, one of Brazil's great


21 For example, the performer of the baixaria usually plays various rhythms that tend to "fill space" rather
than the steady "walking" bass-line often found in jazz/swing.

22 A guitarist will often tune the low B to a C, as choro pieces are often in keys with less than three sharps
or four flats. This frees the guitarist's fretting hand to explore other areas of the neck; without being tied
down to playing the first fret on the low B string when playing a chord with a C in the bass.









guitarists and a researcher on Garoto's music, states that nylon strings were not available

in Brazil until figures like Isaias Savio brought them in the 1930s and 1940s (Boukas

2000:3).

The performance practice of the guitar in choro depends on the genre of music the

guitarist is performing. The rhythms of these pieces were all different, and it was up to

the guitar and cavaquinho to mark these rhythmic changes. As previously stated, the role

of the guitar was to outline the harmony by playing chords as well as to provide the

baixaria. In order to understand how the guitar balances these two functions I have

included selections from Luiz Otdvio Braga's book O Violdo de 7 Cordas: Teoria e

Prdtica, which illustrates the differences in performance practice of most of the musical

styles in choro.

Dm Gm A7 Dm
J r J J J

baixarta -

Gm E m7(I5) D i/F A 7/E D m


LLL rWD}~ frlj Wf r

Figure 2-3. Schottisch guitar style. (Source: Braga, Luiz Otavio. 2002. O Violdo de Sete
Cordas: Teoria e Prdtica. Rio de Janeiro: Luminar Editora. pp. 14. Used
with permission).

The guitar's part in the schottisch is often augmented by the cavaquinho by playing


a type of rhythm. The polca is one of the most widely used

dance styles in choro and is often performed in the following manner:









G 7 C G 7/1D C/E C/B

-4 I



F/A F m/A C/G A7 D7 G7 C



Sr r
Figure 2-4. Polca guitar style. (Source: Braga, Luiz Otavio. 2002. O Violdo de Sete
Cordas: Teoria e Prdtica. Rio de Janeiro: Lumiar Editora. pp. 14. Used with
permission).

As previously stated, the maxixe was much like the tango and was designated as

tango-brasileiro by various composers:







Figure 2-5. Maxixe guitar style. (Source: Braga, Luiz Otavio. 2002. O Violdo de Sete
Cordas: Teoria e Prdtica. Rio de Janeiro: Lumiar Editora. pp. 15. Used with
permission).

The valsa or waltz differs from the other genres as it is in triple meter, however the

baixaria is still active. The example below shows six different rhythmic ways to play a

valsa on guitar, as the baixaria would still be used to "fill" in spaces wherever the

performer felt:

C




Figure 2-6. Valsa guitar style. (Source: Braga, Luiz Otavio. 2002. O Violdo de Sete
Cordas: Teoria e Prdtica. Rio de Janeiro: Lumiar Editora. pp. 14. Used with
permission).









As these examples illustrate, the rhythmic differences between these musical genres

dictate the performance practice of the guitar. This is also true of virtually all Brazilian

music, as many of the different musical genres are largely defined through the rhythmical

characteristics. This may derive from the fact that most Brazilian music is rooted in

African rhythmic ideas. Indeed, the term rftmo (rhythm) is a synonym for mtisicas

(musical genres). This also applied to the choro, as the performance practice was

designated by which ritmo they were performing.

Guitarists of the Choro/Samba

Among the many guitarists who shaped the performance practice of the early

choro: Tute (Aurtur de Souza Nascimento)," Dino "7 Cordas" (Horondino Jos6 da Silva),

Joao Pernambuco (Joao Texeira Guimaraes), and Garoto (Annibal Augusto Sardinha) are

considered as the most important guitarists of choro and samba. Tute and Dino were

accompanists who helped develop the style of the violdo sete cordas, whereas

Pernambuco and Garoto emphasized the solo style of playing choro, and developed the

performance practice on the violdo (six-string).

Aurtur de Souza Nascimento (1886-1957) was the first to record on the violdo sete

cordas, and is considered the true innovator of this instrument. Tute, as he was popularly

called, originally played the bombo (bass drum) and pratos (cymbals) in Anacleto de

Madeiros's Banda Corpo de Bombeiros. Tute also often visited Pixinguinha's house as a

young musician, and it was through Pixinguinha that he received his first professional job

playing the guitar in the Orquestra do Teatro Rio Branco (Orchestra of the White River

Theatre). He was a guitarist in many of the popular groups of the day including: Luperce

Miranda, Chiquinha Gonzaga, Guarda Velha de Pixinguinha, Orquestra Copacabana,









and Grupo Carioca. According to Henrique Cazes, Tute never received credit for his

work on many projects, but one could distinguish him by the low bass notes of the violdo

sete cordas. Cazes states

Seu estillo caracteristico era muito bem-definido pelo bandolinista Luperce
Miranda, que o teve acompanhador durante quize anos, de 1929 ate 1944. Luperce
o chamava violonista "pe-de-boi", ou seja, aquele que deixava qualquer solista
seguro, tranqiillo. Por isso mesmo, Tute foi gravando com muita gente, e mesmo
nao havendo ficha tecnica nos discos daquela epoca seu violdo e reconhecivel
principalmente pela setima corda.

His unique style was best defined by mandolinist Luperce Miranda, who had him
as an accompanist for fifteen years, from 1929 to 1944. Luperce called him a
"bull's foot" guitarist, or rather that he made any soloist feel comfortable and calm.
For this reason, Tute recorded with many artists, and even though credits were not
given on records during that era, his guitar is recognizable mainly because of its
seventh string.23 (1998: 50)

It is possible that he appeared anonymously on many recordings, as Tute was the "studio"

guitarist for many of the famous groups of the day. Because of this, Tute served as an

archetype for many future guitarists who would listen to his recordings.

Tute's style was much like earlier guitarists, as he played the basic choro

accompaniment within traditional harmonic frameworks. However, he created inversions

of chords in his bass-lines, which departed from the typical roots and thirds other

guitarists played. From the recordings available, it appears that Tute played many eighth

note passages and utilized more chromaticism than his contemporaries.24 Tute's baixaria

playing on the polca "Nao Sei" recorded by Grupo Carioca reveals these abnormalities

(figure 2-7). The form of the piece (ABACAB) is also unusual,25 and I have included the


23 Author's transcription.

24 However, this is only based on recordings I have heard of other guitarists (Q. Laranjeiras, "China", etc.),
from Memorias Musicais, and it could be that other guitarists were also performing these same patterns.

25 In reviewing Thomas Garcia's analysis of forms in several choros, ABACAB is not typical. However,
ABACA is common (Garcia 1997: 108).










entire performance in order to demonstrate Tute's variations over the section repeats.

The harmonic structure is quite simple, however Tute's playing adds inversions that

change the harmonic structure. The harmonic structure without inversions is as follows26


A D: V7 vi ii V7 I V727 V/vi vi IV -I V III


B IIBm: i -Vt/V V7- i v V/V V7 i V7/V V7 i iv v V7/V -

V7 i281


C IDb: I ii V7/V -V-V7- I -ii vii/iii -I V7/ii ii CT vii I V-/ii -

V/V V7 III


Here is the harmonic progression with Tute's bass-line29


A Db: V I vi ii V7 I V7 -V7/vie -vi -IV- IG V74, V7 II


B IIBm: i V7/Ve V230" i i ii Ve/4 -V / V/V /V V7 i V7/Ve -

V4,, is ive v V4,iV V7,5 ill


C ID: I iiG VT/V V VG/5 I ii viio/iii I6 V7/ii ii vii0/V I/4 -

V7/ii V/V V7 III




26 It is impossible for me to determine if this progression already had marked inversions because I have not
seen any written score for this piece.

27 In reviewing other recordings of this piece, the V7 does not exist, as well as it is never used again in the
rest of the recording. Therefore it is possible that it was a mistake.

28 The harmonic progression changes slightly in the B section when it repeats, but this is not consistent with
other recordings I have heard.

29 These inversions change in the section repeats, but I have condensed the most common uses.

30 This could also be a ivc, but it was too difficult to decipher in the recording. He does resolve the v,
correctly by going to the third of the i, so I assumed it was the V chord.










A
S A 7 D B2 Elm A7 D Al7 F7
Guitar A 0


S Bn Gl Dl Ab7 Dl Dl Ab7 BEm Ebm




z_ Ab7 Dl F7 Bnm G D Ab7 D"




m Br Bm C7 F7 Blm Bkn Fm
0 L.



"'" C7 F7 B6n C7 F7




'd" F7 Bimr Em Fm C7 F7 BkI




0 L ..
6A Bm C7 Cm Al BE BE




S Fm C7 F7 Bkm C7






Figure 2-7. Tute's baixaria performance with Grupo Carioca on "Nao Sei" by Jose
Pereira da Silva. (Source: 2002. Mem6rias Musicais CD-2. Fino Biscoito.
Author's transcription).











a Cm Bi Elm Fm C7 F7 Bim




A
Bmn Ab7 Dl Ebm A47 Dl F7




C
E Bm G6 A47 DE Dh Em











"-, Dl D' Ehm Edim DB B77 EEm





. B.dim Db.Al __ D Bl' E'7 AB7 Dl Dl Ekn Edim





W D D Bh7 Eh- Ah7
A i i ro I i



D A7 D Em Edim D b7 EOm





S ~ Bbdim D.AlW B E 7 AL7 Dl
L F- F-


Figure 2-7 continued.
















IW Ab7 Db Bh Ebm Ab7 Db F7





'J BTn G( Dl Ab Db AL7 Dl Bim EIn Ab7




B
SD F7 Bm G D A Db Bbm


II


?o C7 F7 Bin Bkn Fm





2 C7 F7 BLm C7 F7(Cm)





Z. Bn E'm Fm C7 F7 BLb





A L,
SB6m Em F7 Bm C7





." F7 BIn C7





F7(Cm) BLn EL Fm C7 F7 BLn
I&c 6

ri i in


Figure 2-7 continued.









Such inversions had been common in European art-music for more than 200 years.

However, considering that Tute was not trained in the conservatory, it is remarkable that

he had such command while "improvising" this baixaria.31 All of the inversions follow

typical resolution procedures of the Baroque/Classical style. In addition to the handling

of these inversions, it is interesting to note Tute's use of chromatic eighth-note passages

in measures 60, 139, 159, 170-2, which are harmonically daring for this time in choro.

Tute's use of chromaticism and unusual inversions were well ahead of the standard

performance practice for guitar in choro at this time, and paved the way for the future of

the baixaria style, which was standardized by Dino "Sete Cordas."

Horondino Jos6 da Silva, a.k.a Dino "Sete Cordas" (Dino seven strings), was born

in Rio de Janeiro in 1918. Along with Tute and Raphael Rabello, he is considered one of

the three masters of the violdo sete cordas and took the instrument to new heights as an

accompanist for innumerable groups and star soloists including: Carmen Miranda,

Francisco Alves, Orlando Silva, and Epoca de Ouro (w/Jacob do Bandolim). Out of his

respect for the founding father of the instrument, Dino is reported to have only begun

playing the violdo sete cordas after the death of Tute (Cazes 1999: 50). Dino's style is

much like Tute's, but he tends to explore the harmony even further, and usually plays

longer, more chromatic eighth, sixteenth, and sometimes thirty-second note passages in

the baixaria. He still performs today at the age of 86, and has created the standard for

playing the violdo sete cordas in the choro. To represent Dino's achievements and

command of the instrument, I have chosen the piece "As Rosas Nao Falam." (figure 2-8).



31 The normal performance practice of guitarists was to improvise the baixaria, and I assume Tute
improvised his part. However, this is not certain as I do not have any additional information about this
performance in particular.









This piece is designated samba-cangdo (samba-song), which emerged as a

commercial genre designation in the 1930s. This samba-cancdo resembles the rhythm of

the maxixe style, but is much slower in tempo, which explains the thirty-second note runs

by Dino (measures 5, 15, 16, etc.). The harmony is surprisingly simple given the typical

harmonic complexity of the samba-cancdo, which had a strong influence from American

jazz. The song features the typical thirty-two bar standard form (not normal in choro),

and modal mixture gives the harmony interesting color. The harmonic progression is as

follows

Introduction-Dm: 1Ii i4/ Va/V iv#4 VT/V iv4 V7 Vg/511


Dm: Iii i_ iv#4 VIg- V,/V V,5- V, i V,/V V i i4 V,/V -

V4,1/V iv#4- V7 V ,5- i vii7/iv iv iiV i V4a/V V4/V V, i i,

ive iv4/ V/V V,5 i V/5 VII

The influence of jazz on Dino's playing is apparent in the chromatic passages and "bop"

scales32 (measures 8, 13, 19), and the outlining of the V4 chord (e.g., m. 37) when it is



merely labeled E7.

As one can see from this piece, Dino's playing is much more advanced than Tute's

simpler style. Dino expanded the role of the violdo sete cordas from an accompaniment

instrument to one that played a more active role in choro.





32 A traditional "bop" scale is an octatonic scale based on the major scale, played in descending scale with
both raised and flattened seventh degrees (e.g., C, B, Bb, A, G, F, E, D, C).




















A7 A 7/C Dm A7 Dini D m/C
6 7 7 Cnto




3


Gm6/Bk B4 E7 A7/C A7 Dnm
I1i






E 7/G A7 Dm D iWC E71B E/D
I16






Grn6/Bk A7 A7/C Dm FO Gm

217


40 40 4 rl di &


Em7(b5)


Dm D m/C


E7/B


E/D E7/GI


Figure 2-8. Transcription of Dino 7 Cordas' performance on "As Rosas Ndo Falam."
(Source: Braga, Luiz Otavio. 2002. O Violdo de Sete Cordas: Teoria e
Prdtica. Rio de Janeiro:Luminar Editora. pp. 110-11. Used with permission).










A7 Dn D m/C G m/B




3 3

G m/F E7 A 7/C Dmi A 7/C A 7





Figure 2-8 continued.

While the violdo sete cordas (since the early 20th century) has historically been an

intrinsically imperative instrument in choro, Dino's playing creates more of a duet with

the soloist, thus showcasing its importance, and adding to its acceptance in Brazilian

music.

The guitar in Brazil is generally used as an accompaniment instrument in popular

music, but there have been many solo guitarists that have flourished as well. One of the

earliest and best known of these solo guitarists is Joao Texeira Guimaraes (Joao

Pernambuco). Joao Pernambuco (1883-1947) was born in the dry northeast interior

called the %cr/lii, but due to droughts and famine coupled with the death of his father his

family moved to the city of Recife (state of Pernambuco) in 1891 (Crook 2003:5). In

Recife, Joao learned how to play both the viola (at this time a five-string double-coursed

instrument) and the six-string violdo, as well as many of the folk and popular musical

styles of the northeast (coco, embolada, frevo, and maracatu). In 1904 Joao moved to

Rio de Janeiro to become an ironworker, but also involved himself with various rodas de

choro. It was in these musical circles that he met Villa-Lobos, Pixinguinha, Donga, and

Catulo da Paixao Cearense, and he even began performing with many of them. Due to

their common northeastern roots, Joao and Catulo, connected musically and performed at









the houses of Rio's social elite. Catulo also wrote words to Joao's songs and it is

unknown whether they co-wrote Catulo's biggest hit "Luar do Sertao" (1915), which

Catulo claimed as his own. In the late 1910s, Joao Pernambuco also became a fixture in

Pixinguinha's group Os Oito Batutas, which was the premiere group of the day.

Joao Pernambuco was considered one of the best guitarists in all of Brazil. He

contributed to the guitar not only as a performer, but as a teacher and composer as well.

According to Garcia

Pernambuco's greatest contributions to the choro tradition were both his
compositions and his guitar technique. ... He did things which no one had thought
of until that point, and his legacy was continued through other great guitarists such
as Augustin Bairros, Dilermando Reis, and Garoto. (1997: 221-2)

Pernambuco composed in many of the popular and folk genres of that time including:

modinha, choro, samba, toada, jongo, etc., and even developed an etude study for guitar.

All of his compositions were influenced by his unique technique, which was not the

traditional classical guitar technique made famous by Tarrega and Segovia. He

sometimes played only with his left hand (striking only the fretboard to make a sound

without aid of the opposite hand), made use of chord planing (striking a chord formation

and sliding up and down the neck in the same position), moved the thumb in an up and

down motion like a plectrum, and sometimes used all five fingers in the right hand

(picking or strumming hand)(figure 2-10).33 These techniques can be heard in many of

his compositions/arrangements including: "Brasilerinho," "Interregando," and "Dengoso"

to name a few.34



33 In order to use the fifth finger (small finger or "pinky") the guitar must be held at a more severe angle
(10-25 degrees more acute) than the standard classical position.

34 Thomas Garcia gives excellent examples of some of these techniques in his dissertation 267-285









One of the major distinctions between the early solo and accompanimental choro

guitar style is the absence of the baixaria in the former. This absence can be seen in

Pernambuco's "Dengoso," (figure 2-9) which is an excellent example of a solo guitar

choro of that time period. While there are still solo bass parts, they are much simpler and

are usually not played while the melody is prominent. In "Dengoso," we can also see the

use of the maxixe rhythm frequently throughout. The piece is fairly simple harmonically,

which was common in the works of that epoch.

While Pernambuco's solo style is analogous to Tute's accompanimental style,

Annibal Augusto Sardinha (Garoto) (1915-1955) could be described as the Dino Sete

Cordas of the solo guitar choro. However, he transcended the limits of choro, and

became much more influential than Dino due his dual role as composer and performer.

He was one of the first guitarists, along with Dilermando Reis, to introduce a classical

guitar technique into the popular Brazilian guitar style. In addition, he was a multi-

instrumentalist who played cavaquinho, banjo, tenor guitar, and viola among other

stringed instruments.

Garoto was born in Sao Paulo, and began studying the banjo at age eleven. He

excelled at the instrument and began performing with the regional Irmdos Armani do Sdo

Paulo in the same year. Through his musical endeavors with this group, as well as

others, he became known as the moleque do banjo (street urchin of the banjo), but later

became simply Garoto (the kid) (Garcia 1997: 255). By the age of fourteen he was

playing choro on guitar with some of the greatest musicians in Brazil including

Paraguassd (an accomplished guitarist who helped foster Garoto's guitar playing). Over









the next ten years, Garoto gained a great deal of fame in Brazil due to his performances

on several recordings.


F- @I i`- -


Sto D


r


7 I


II ------







II 4--- -- V . . .


T r -
Figure 2-9. Excerpt from "Dengoso" by Joao Pernoambuco. (Source: Santos, Turbio,
ed. 1992. Pernambuco (Jodo Texeira G/li,/~ltil').: 11 Famous Ch6ros.
Heidleberg:Chantarelle. Used with Permission.

Shortly after moving to Rio de Janeiro in 1938, Garoto toured the United States

while working with Carmen Miranda's band Bando da Lua. However, he was not merely

an accompanist as his guitar playing was a significant part of the show. Garcia states


~ p ?q Y~C~T ~









Garoto often played introductions to sambas and choros on the tenor guitar,
assuming the same role as the flute or clarinet in the regional. Several of these
performances can be heard in Miranda's early Hollywood movies, e.g., The Gang's
All Here and Springtime in the Rockies. In stage shows Garoto would be the
opening act for Carmen, and would close shows either playing solo or accompanied
by the band. (Garcia 1997: 239)

At this time jazz artists like Duke Ellington and Art Tatum heard Garoto, and

invited him to jam sessions or what Garoto termed rodas de jazz. It was through Garoto

and Miranda that Brazilian music was first popularized in the United States. But this

influence was a two-way street, as Garoto also brought back jazz style harmonies to

Brazil.

Garoto's most important contributions to the guitar in Brazil, as well as Brazilian

music in general, was how he mixed sophisticated harmonies and classical technique (the

style of Tirrega and Segovia) with the styles of the chores and jazz musicians he

encountered. Marco Pereira also credits Garoto with being the first popular music

guitarist to use nylon strings. While this distinction is subject to debate, we know that

Garoto used both nylon and steel strings depending on the situation and he is undoubtedly

one of the most influential guitarists of his era (Bellinati 1991:7; Boukas 2000:3). I do

not believe it is a coincidence that Garoto's work is considered one of the principal

influences on the bossa nova era, and guitarists of that later time all used nylon strings.

To illustrate Garoto's unique musical and technical contributions to the Brazilian

guitar and popular music, I have selected various excerpts from Paulo Bellinati's

transcriptions of the master guitarist's works. The first series of these examples

demonstrates Garoto's use of popular/folk style technique in his compositions, and the

second is a transcription of "Lamentos do Morro" (Sounds of the Hillside Slums).












Partial Barre
Playing two or more strings with one finger of the left hand
(1 = index, 2 = middle, 3 = ring or 4 = little).

from "Duas Contas"





from "Choro Triste No. 2"







Crossing Barre
Playing with the 1st finger of the left hand; a barre crossing over a fret.


from "Enigma"





from "Um Rosto de Mulher"


Five-Note Chords
Use the five fingers of the right hand
(p = thumb, i = index, m = middle, a = ring and I = little).


from "Gracioso"







from "Sinai dos Tempos"








Thumb Like a Plectrum
Playing notes or chords by alternating the right-hand thumb downstroke/
upstroke, using it like a plectrum.


from "Lamentos do Morro"
p p p



P U P t


Figure 2-10. Examples of non-classical guitar techniques employed by many guitarists of
Brazilian popular music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. (Source:
Bellinati, Paulo. 1991. The Guitar Works ofGaroto vol. 1. San Francisco:
GSP. pp. 7-8. Used with permission).

In the example of Crossing Barre, one can also see the technique of planing between the


last chord of the first bar and the first chord of the last bar, as they move in descending


parallel motion. As I mentioned above, Joao Pernambuco also used the five-finger and


plectrum techniques.













Transcribed by
Paulo Bellinati

9= 90-


GAROTO
(Annibal Augusto Sardinha)


Introduction


_ _t tt f t ft


~L Ow w AM A


59


Figure 2-11. Excerpt from "Lamentos do Morro" by Garoto. (Source: Bellinati, Paulo.
1991. The Guitar Works of Garoto vol. 1. San Francisco: GSP. pp. 18-20.
Used with permission).


~-


~-






54






FM .. i- -


]


Figure 2-11 continued.


Figure 2-11 continued.


T r


F-7771- Fr 7


z
z






























I1.
A9 7-


ci -


U-


"LL~~-E~ at~ B ,~3


12. ci- -
60 r~ 3 3 .?


0


Figure 2-11 continued.


3 1
2
T


SD Ri I I WI


- K I


v

-f--~~--~-----E~ir~if-T


2

f









The introduction begins in E minor with a sixteenth-note bass pedal tone

alternating between E and D, which implies or evokes the sound of a pandeiro (Brazilian

tambourine typically used in choro). This passage utilizes the up and down thumb

technique as shown above. The first half of the A section (measures 12-19) contains an

interesting harmonic sequence of half-diminished chords over a D pedal tone. This is

harmonically a prolongation of the dominant chord, and prepares the next section in G

major. However, a descending bass line from C to A briefly interrupts the D pedal before

it then returns to the original D. The progression is as follows

G:(over D pedal) llviL (ii, in D) V7 vin V7 III7 vii //IV iii711


G: (over C pedal) Iiv7 ii~Ii G: (over Bb pedal) IbII7 bVI11i


G: (over A pedal) liiv iv9 Vvsus4/iv iv7 ii7 Vg91


As the D pedal returns in measure 28, jazz influence is most apparent. Garoto first

uses a progression of augmented modal chords (Bb augmented and Ab augmented) in this

measures 28-9, which can also function as tritone substitutions of the IV and V chords

with a raised fifth degree (e.g., Bb augmented can be respelled as Gb augmented). The

harmony is resolved somewhat diatonically to a iv9(#7) V9 iii7 vii 7/iii iii7 IV -



V7. The B section then commences, and contains much of the same harmony found in



traditional tin-pan-alley tunes. According to Bellinati, this section is a tribute to Ary

Barroso, composer of the big-band jazz/crooner influenced samba-cangdo period from









the late 1940s to the 1950s. Barroso is most famous for the songs "Aquarela do Brasil"

and "Na Baixa da Sepateiro" (Bahia).

It is also interesting to note Garoto's use of the left hand, which does more than

play quarter notes. In measure 36, the eighth notes in beat two simulate the surdo (bass

drum) found in samba ensembles. Garoto also uses a technically challenging baixaria

style (measures 53-5 and 76), which is not found in the guitar style of Joao Pernambuco.

Throughout this piece it is easy to see Garoto's technical capabilities as well as his

harmonic complexity.

These guitarists, Tute, Dino 7 Cordas, Joao Pernambuco, and Garoto, are four of

the most influential guitarists of their time, and set the standard for Brazilian guitar

performance practice of the future. Along with many other musicians who helped

popularize samba, they are responsible for the acceptance of the guitar in Brazil. Equally

important was their role as cultural mediators, as their music was influential to both the

upper and lower classes of their day. While Tute and Dino are solely associated with the

choro style, Pernambuco and Garoto transcended choro into samba and jazz. And as

samba emerged in the first decades of the 20th century, Pernambuco and Garoto

maintained a technical excellence while other guitarists preferred the simpler style of

accompanying samba singers. They are the foundation of the solo Brazilian guitar, and

directly influenced Marco Pereira's playing style.

These are, of course, not all of the important guitarists of this era, but just

representatives of a world of Brazilian guitar that was being created at this time. Other

notable solo guitarists of the era are: Dillermando Reis, whose style is similar to









Pernambuco's but with more classical influence; Augustfn Barrios; and Am6rico

Jacomino "Canhoto."

The Bossa Nova era

In the 1940s and 1950s, American big band jazz, along with crooner style singers

highly influenced the now highly popular samba. This ultimately resulted in the samba-

cangdo (samba song), which was a middle-class commercial version of samba.

Composers like Ary Barroso, and singers Dick Farney and Johnny Alf created a sound

that changed Brazilian popular music from the vocal, guitar, and percussion based samba,

to a more grandiose and smooth sound that included string sections and jazz harmony.

Along with these musical changes, social changes also were taking place in the

mid-1950s. It was during this time that industrialization was taking over, and many of

the "rural power bases" were "loosing ground" to major corporations (Reily 1996: 5). In

addition to this, many members of the newly formed urban middle-class were reaping the

benefits of the new industrialized Brazil. The upper and lower classes became "spatially

isolated from each other," and Brazil created its first generation where the poor and rich

did not interact socially with each other (Reily 1996: 5). Political change was

revolutionary as well with Juscelino Kubitscheck being elected president in 1955. With

the political slogan "fifty years in five" (referring to fifty years of progress in five years)

Kubitscheck began bankrolling the nation's wealth to promote a "modernized" Brazil.

Kubitscheck also created a new capital of the country in Brasilia, a newly constructed and

highly modernized city located in central interior of Brazil. Due to the new presidency,

industrialization, and winning its first world cup of soccer in 1958, Brazil had reached a

heightened state of national pride. And it was in this euphoria that the urban middle-class









youth celebrated their carefree lives, and were ripe for a new musical sound to define

their generation.

This was the backdrop for the new samba style that would be termed bossa nova; it

would be through this movement that the guitar would be fully solidified as the national

instrument of Brazil. The historic tale of bossa nova generally asserts that the

combination of the unique contributions of poet Vinfcius de Morais, pianist/composer

Ant6nio Carlos Jobim, and guitarist Joao Gilberto fostered the new musical style.

Morais's simple yet witty lyrics, Jobim's jazz/French impressionism influenced

compositional style, and Joao Gilberto's simple guitar and breath-like vocal timbre were

the foundations of this "new thing." However, it was Joao Gilberto's voice and guitar

that fully realized the bossa nova sound, and this new simplified (instrumentationally

speaking) version of samba would resound around the world. The goal of these artists

was to create a style that was more tranquil and sophisticated (lyrically and harmonically)

than the commercialized samba at that time. This new style of samba communicated

very well to the emerging middle class, and the popularity of bossa nova influenced many

burgeoning young musicians to study the soft sounds of Gilberto's nylon-string guitar.

As Reily states, "With the emergence of bossa nova the guitar became the instrument to

cross-cut the social divisions of the country. It could be heard from the poorest and dark

quarters to the richest and the whitest, in both rural and urban contexts" (2001: 172). The

ultimate global popularity of bossa nova would solidify the nylon-string guitar as the

Brazilian guitar internationally. (B6hague 1973; Castro 1991)

Another factor in the internationalization of bossa nova and the assent of the

Brazilian guitar as a national symbol was the international popularity of the film Orfeu









Negro (Black Orpheus) by French director Michel Camus in 1959. The film, which was

a modem Brazilian setting of the classic Greek play Orpheus and Eurydice, was an

offshoot of the hit play Orfeu da Conceigdo that featured songs co-written by Morais de

Moraes and Tom Jobim. While history highlights the global popularity of the soundtrack

to Orfeu Negro, which thrust this new style of samba (later to be called bossa nova) into

the international music scene with famous songs such as "A felicidade" (Jobim/Moraes)

and "Manha da Camaval" (Bonfi), the role of the guitar in the film is equally as

significant. First and foremost, the film's protagonist, Orfeu, plays a nylon-stringed

guitar, which is substituted for the Greek character's powerful harp. In the film, the

neighborhood's poor children believe that Orfeu's guitar has powers that can cause the

sun to rise each morning, and Orfeu's guitar is highlighted throughout the film in various

scenes. While the guitar is not capable of bringing Eurydice back to life as Orpheus's

harp did, the final scene is of a young boy (the new Orfeu) playing the guitar to make the

sun rise while the other children are dancing to his new samba. The purposeful use of the

guitar and this new style of samba in the film to represent Brazilian musical identity

painted a new picture for the world, and helped bossa nova become a global success. The

film, and its soundtrack, helped change Brazil's image from Carmen Miranda's

flamboyant dancing while wearing a "fruity" hat to a man quietly playing his guitar.

While Joao Gilberto is credited with defining the main framework of the bossa

nova guitar style, he was not the only guitarist to contribute to this new way of playing

samba. Guitarists Luiz Bonfi, Carlos Lyra, Paulinho Nogueira, and later Baden Powell,

also helped lay the foundations of the bossa nova. The latter two of these guitarists are









Marco Pereira's greatest influences,35 and furthered the line of Brazilian solo guitarists

founded by Pernambuco and Garoto. Nogueira and Powell, like Garoto, were classically

trained and used nylon strings on their guitars. They brought the guitar to a new

technical level, and continued to mix new styles as their predecessors.

Paulinho Nogueira (1929-2002)

Paulo (Paulinho) Mendes Pupo Nogueira was born August 8, 1929 in Campinas,

Sao Paulo. He first learned classical guitar from his father and two brothers at the age of

eleven, and in 1952 moved to Sao Paulo city to pursue a professional career as a guitarist.

In 1958, amidst the euphoria happening throughout Brazil, Nogueira released his first LP

A Voz do Violdo, for which he gained critical acclaim as one of the great guitarists in the

country. In 1965, his fame was broadened, as he became regular guitarist on Brazil's

popular television show O Fino da Bossa, which was hosted by Elis Regina and Jair

Rodrigues. The show featured some of the greatest musical talent in Brazil as guest

artists including: Baden Powell, Tom Jobim, Dorival Caymmi, Edu Lobo, and others.

After enjoying the success of the early 1960s bossa nova craze, performing

opportunities diminished for bossa nova guitarists with the onset of the more musically

simple Jovem Guarda movement led by Roberto Carlos in the second half of the decade.

Due to the spiraling popularity of bossa nova and the lack of venues to perform in,

Nogueira turned to teaching guitar lessons (1964) and writing pedagogical material for

the instrument. In 1967 he wrote a harmony method book entitled Paulinho Nogueira

Method for Guitar and Other Harmonic Insturments, which is still a best seller after



35 This is not to say that JoAo Gilberto was not a great influence on Pereira's playing, but that Paulinho
Nogueira and Baden Powell by their instrumental style are more similar to Pereira's playing than the
singer/guitarist.









twenty reprints (Paschoito 1998: 6). One of his students at this time was the now famous

Toquinho, who went on to work with Vinfcius de Morais, Tom Jobim, and many others.

In addition to composing and teaching, Nogueira also designed an instrument

called the craviola (figure 2-12), which was eventually made by his luthier friend

Gianini. The guitar is a cross between a cravo (harpsichord) and a viola, and has a large

teardrop shaped body and six double-coursed strings. It was a great seller for the

company, and is still exported around the world.

Nogueira's style was much more classical than the other guitarists of his day, and

much less influenced by American jazz. He played with very short to no fingernails (like

Garoto), which is part of Nogueira's trademark "soft" sound. As a composer he is greatly

influenced by Bach, Villa-Lobos, and Garoto, but is also an excellent songwriter.

Ironically, Nogueira's biggest hit was his 1970 song "Menina," which he sang himself.

However, it is his compositions and arrangements for the guitar that have secured his

place in Brazil's popular music history. His first and most famous composition for guitar

is "Bachianinha no. 1" (Little Bachiana no. 1) (figure 2-13),36which he originally

recorded on his second album under the name "Samba no Ceu" (Samba in Heaven) in

1960. He changed the name after realizing the influence of Bach on the piece. The name

of the piece is also a reflection of Villa-Lobos's influence on his style. This piece has

been recorded by various guitarists around the world, and is considered a standard in the

Brazilian guitar repertoire. The rhythm, melody, and harmony of this piece are baroque

in style, but also contain distinctly Brazilian elements. First, it was written solely for the

guitar, and closely resembles the Bachianas Brasileiras no. 5 by Villa-Lobos.


36 This piece was originally written for one guitar, and the second guitar is optional (Paschoito 1998: 6).






















































Figure 2-12. Photo of Gianini craviola taken by Frank Ford. (Source:
http://www.frets.com/FRETSPages/Museum/Guitar/Giannini/Craviola/Cravio
laViews/craviola06.jpg. Last accessed on July 13, 2004).











Adagio (J = 72)
S0 0 0 0


CVmH


Figure 2-13. Excerpt from "Bachianinha no. 1" by Paulinho Nogueira. (Source:
Paschoito, Ivan and Santos, Luis Santos. 1998. The Guitar Works ofPaulinho
Nogueira: Volume 1 9 Pieces. San Francisco: GSP. pp. 7-8. Used with
permission).









cv_
17 4


rn 4 iJ


0 i ; r o .r r ..


27 2 07 0

c.....___oiv ,- c, r 2: i, i __.

C IV Vi C III IIr
21



00
III
' L .. -- -- -- r -,-
31^r .. rf-Ff 27


V 1 =


-oo3F


0 N I -


re 213 cnn

Figure 2-13 continued.









The subtle use of the Afro-Brazilian rhythm in the inner voices (e.g., measure 11) also

adds a Brazilian touch. The harmony is fairly simple, and follows the cycle of fifths

progression as found in Corelli, Scarlatti, Bach, Handel, and other baroque composers.

While Nogueira was an important figure in the bossa nova era, he did not compose

many pieces until the late 1970s and early 1980s. In contrast to the "Bachianinha," he

also composed many non-traditional bossa nova inspired works. An example of this is

"Reflexoes em 2 por 4" (Reflections in 2/4), which is based upon the Joao Gilberto's

rhythmic bossa nova pattern:37

Larghetto (J = 63)




bossa nova









Figure 2-14. Excerpt from "Reflex6es em 2 por 4." by Paulinho Nogueira. (Source:
Paschoito, Ivan and Santos, Luis Santos. 1998. The Guitar Works ofPaulinho
Nogueira: Volume 1 9 Pieces. San Francisco: GSP. p. 25. Used with
permission).

The harmony and rhythm in this piece contains a much greater influence of the bossa

nova era than "Bachianinha no. 1." The opening harmonic sequence is I9-VII-V7/V-


37 Behague (1973:222) and Reily (1996:5) also transcribed this rhythm.










bVII-Ig-etc., which is in sharp contrast to the traditional baroque harmony he used in the



Bachianinha.

Paulinho Nogueira's mixed his classical background with the soft sounds of bossa

nova to create a new style of solo guitar repertoire. While his playing is not highly

virtuosic, he broadened the school of solo guitar compositionally, pedagogically, and

even technically. In a country where it is difficult for an instrumentalist to gain critical

acclaim, as well as earn a sufficient income, Nogueira remained committed to

instrumental guitar music. He exuded a great influence on young guitarists who are

learning the instrument, and are intimidated by the virtuosic classical styles, as well as

Baden Powell's acrobatic guitar work. Paulinho Nogueira's hybrid musical style is an

excellent representation of the Brazilian guitar, and has made him a permanent fixture in

Brazilian music history.

Baden Powell (1937-2000)

I would say that familiarity with Powell was the reason I never attempted to learn to play the guitar.
Pele 's fiend cannot play soccer. Baden Powell was the Pele of the guitar.

-Mario Telles, singer and composer. (Espinosa 2000)

There are not many guitarists, let alone musicians in general, in Brazil that are as

legendary as Baden Powell. Powell is the culmination of all guitarists that preceded him,

and influenced everyone who has come after. He can be considered the greatest

ambassador of the Brazilian guitar to the rest of the world, and his playing defines the

instrument we know today. Baden Powell's playing expresses the identity of the

Brazilian guitar: technical excellence and a rich acoustic sound mixed with the energy of

the rhythmic musical culture of Brazil.









Roberto Baden Powell de Aquino was born on August 6, 1937 in a small town in

the state of Rio de Janeiro called Varre-Sai (about 220 miles from Rio de Janeiro). His

father was a Boy-Scout leader and named him Baden Powell after the founder of the

organization (Sir Robert Stephenson Smyth Powell-Powell). Powell's family moved to

the city of Rio de Janeiro when he was three months old, and lived in the poor

neighborhoods of Sao Cristivao and Villa-Isabel. These neighborhoods were also once

homes to great musicians like Pixinguinha and Donga, who often visited Powell's home.

He began playing guitar at the age of seven when his father arranged classical guitar

lessons from Jaime Florence, who was a prominent guitarist of that time in Rio. When he

was nine, he won an amateur radio contest for an unaccompanied guitar piece, and began

playing professionally a year later. One of his earliest jobs was as an accompanist for

vocalists performing on the Rddio Nacional (National Radio) in the late 1940s.

Powell began playing in Rio's nightclubs when he was 18, where he met Antonio

Carlos Jobim. In 1956, he recorded his first hit "Samba-Triste," which contained lyrics

written by Billy Blanco. He was introduced to Vinfcius de Morais through a mutual

friend (Nilo Queiroz) in 1962, and began collaborating with him shortly afterwards

(Castro 1990: 305). The two musicians worked for ninety days straight in Morais's

apartment, and composed over twenty-five songs. It was during his collaboration with

Morais that he created a new guitar sound heavily influenced by the polyrhythmic sounds

of Afro-Brazilian religious music.38 He called this new style Afro-samba, blending these

rhythms with his own classical and popular music background. As Vinfcius de Morais

states


38 Powell spent six-months in Bahia (a state in the Northeast of Brazil with a predominantly Afro-Brazilian
population) in 1964 where he frequented various candomble houses.









From that same period is "Canto de Yemanja" in which, it is my opinion, Powell
reached a beauty rarely attained. Powell's musical antennae to Bahia and, in a
final stretch, to Africa, allowed him to put together this new syncretism, adding a
cariocaa' taste, within the spirit of modern samba, to the Afro-Brazilian candomble,
giving it a more universal dimension. (Luft 1997)


This sound can be heard in the song cycle Os Afro Sambas, originally recorded in 1966,

but re-recorded in 1990 because Powell was unhappy with the earlier recording quality.

The album is structured as a candomblk ritual39 beginning with "Abertura" ("Opening")

and proceeding through a cycle of songs that have associations with certain deities (e.g.,

"Canto de Xang6," "Canto da lemanja/Yemanja"). Many of the songs are in complex

triple meter (12/8 or 6/8), which reflect the typical rhythms of candomblk rituals. Other

Afro-Brazilian elements in the songs are the various refrains and responsorial choruses

featuring the female group Quarteto en Cy (Quartet in C). However, he also mixes these

sounds with his bossa nova background in "Tristeza E Soliddo," but uses a gourd rattle as

a substitute for the hi-hat sixteenth-note rhythm. This instrumental addition gives the

piece an Afro-Brazilian flavor.

In addition to this album, Powell and Morais also composed songs that represented

other aspects of Afro-Brazilian culture. In the famous "Berimbau," which appears on the

re-recording of Os Afros Sambas, Powell imitates the Afro-Brazilian musical bow often

found in capoeira (a Brazilian martial-arts style where the participants avoid hitting each

other). He does this by playing both single notes and chords up and down a major second


in the typical berimbau rhythm: Another song that included the Afro-


39 Participants in candomble rituals usually sing a sequence of songs devoted to the Orixa deities.









Brazilian theme was "Samba da Benqao," which was later used in the soundtrack of the

French film Un Homme et Une Femme (A Man and A Woman).

In addition to the new Afro-samba sound, Powell was also greatly influenced by

American jazz, and even performed in the United States with saxophonist Stan Getz in

1966. He also traveled to Europe (mostly France and Germany) in the 1960s and

performed at various jazz festivals there including the Berlin Jazz Festival. While

Brazilian guitarists before him were only subtly influenced by jazz harmony in their

playing, Baden Powell went much further and recorded jazz standards like Thelonius

Monk's "'Round Midnight," Miles Davis's "Stella By Starlight," and "All The Things

You Are." However, he usually performs the pieces in a bossa nova style, and they

sound similar to the solo guitar playing of Jim Hall, Joe Pass, and Wes Montgomery.

Some of these jazz standards he performed on solo guitar, but others with a trio or quartet

of bass, drums, and the occasional solo instrument (usually a flute).

Powell's playing style is highly virtuosic, and attained a level never heard in Brazil

before his time. He was capable of playing fast melodic passages, as well as sounding

like two guitarists at once in his solo pieces (playing difficult parts in the bass and upper

voices at the same time). Some of his fastest playing is on the recording of Pixinguinha's

"Carinhoso" from the album Personalidade. His sound is fairly brash and he tended to

hit the strings very hard with his right hand closer to the bridge than a typical classical

guitarist (figure 2-15). However, he could also contrast this playing with the light touch

of a bossa nova and classical guitarist. He could also play modal and chromatic melodic

lines like a jazz musician, or keep within the diatonic scale. Essentially, Powell could

play in any style while maintaining his own distinct sound.










































Figure 2-15. Photo of Baden Powell at the 1967 Berlin Jazz Festival taken by Frank
Bender. (Source: http://www.brazil-on-guitar.de/gallery/frame/gallery.html.
Last accessed June 12, 2004).

Powell's compositions range widely from fast sambas to subtle bossa novas and

gentle preludes, and often mixed many styles in one piece. He also composed songs like

Paulinho Nogueira, and even sang many of the Afro-samba's that he co-wrote with

Morais. Unlike Garoto's and Nogueira's pieces, Powell's compositions were not always

guitar specific, meaning that the melodies could stand for themselves without the use of

the guitar. This is not to say that Powell did not compose for the guitar, but that his

thinking was like a pianist, as he treated all voices equally. However, he did use some of










the same techniques as Garoto, such as the five-finger technique, chord planing and barre

crossing. To summarize, Powell was a complete player, who was not limited by his

instruments capabilities, but revolutionized the Brazilian guitar.

To exemplify Powell's compositions and playing style, I have chosen two

contrasting pieces: "Consolacao" and "Tempo Feliz." "Consolacao" (figure 2-16) is a

fast-samba with Afro-samba characteristics. While the rhythm for this piece is a typical

samba rhythm, it is in a minor key like most of his other Afro-sambas. In the release of

this piece on Poema On Guitar (1967), the middle section switches to a polyrhythmic

pattern in triple meter (12/8) with African style percussion (double bell, atabaque-

sounding membranophones) pervading the mix while Powell improvises. Erbhard

Weber, who is famous for his performances with Gary Burton and Pat Metheny, also

accompanies him on bass. The transcription I have listed here comes from the album

Tempo Feliz (1966), and is only accompanied by drums (played by Chico Batera). This

version is less improvisatory, but demonstrates Powell's capabilities as a solo guitarist.4

The compositional qualities of Afro-samba are found in the use of minor pentatonic

harmonies throughout the piece, as well as vocal-like call and response sections between

the bass and soprano voices (e.g., measures 1-34 and more prominently in measures 58-

77). 41 Powell also plays some flattened fifths in his pentatonic scale runs, thus giving








40 This assumption is based on the absence of a "solo" section, which shortens the piece by almost four
minutes.

41I have marked these places in bold on the score, which are not part of the original transcription.







73


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Intro.
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Figure 2-16. Excerpt from "Consolagao" by Baden Powell. (Source: Darmstadt, Tonos.
1976. Baden Powell Songbook Vol. 1. Hozhofallee: TONOS Musikverlags.
pp. 6-7. Used with permission).


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the melodic lines an American "blues-like" sound. Also interesting to note is the use of

the inner voices while the bass and soprano are playing melodic lines.

In "Tempo Feliz," (figure 2-17) Powell showcases his "softer" bossa nova style and

his classical guitar training. He begins the piece in a romantic rubato style, which

contains a fairly simple harmony like that found in the choro and early samba (though it

does contain various upper extensions of the harmony like 1 1ths and 13ths). This also

showcases his attention to the inner voice accompaniment (eg., measure 20). Powell then

commences in fairly strict time in the B section, where he plays a bossa nova/slow

samba-like rhythm. He also plays melodic content while keeping in this rhythm, but the

melody is often hard to distinguish because he often does not hold down the notes long

enough to bring out the melody. However, this piece demonstrates Powell's ability to

play many parts at one time. Powell also disguises the Afro-Brazilian rhythm by holding

chords over the bar, which is a common technique of samba and bossa nova guitarists.

Baden Powell is the embodiment of the Brazilian guitar, and set the standard for the

future guitarists with his virtuosic technical abilities and unique compositional style. He

is considered one of Brazil's greatest guitarists in its rich musical history, and is

undoubtedly the most influential. His impact is much like Miles Davis's influence on the

American jazz trumpet, as virtually every guitarist that followed him has copied his style

in one way or another. Marco Pereira considers Baden Powell his greatest influence, and

the guitarist he listened to the most as a burgeoning young musician. He is the Pel6 of

the guitar, and symbolizes the identity of the Brazilian guitar much like the great soccer

master epitomized his sport.













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Figure 2-17. Excerpts of the A and B sections of "Tempo Feliz" by Baden Powell.
(Source: Darmstadt, Tonos. 1976. Baden Powell Songbook Vol. 2.
Hozhofallee: TONOS Musikverlags. pp. 10-1 Used with permission).


n


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Both Paulinho Nogueira and Baden Powell's mixing of popular and erudite musical

styles further contributed to the acceptance of the Brazilian guitar in popular and elite

classes of society. It was through their contributions, along with other bossa nova

guitarists, that the guitar was solidified as a symbol of national identity. Baden Powell's

virtuosity and expression of Afro-Brazilian culture not only transcended the country's

class divisions, but its racial lines as well. And Paulinho Nogueira's more classical style

inspired young guitarists to embrace Brazil's European musical heritage equally with the

Afro-Brazilian rhythmic influence in popular music. Their influence fostered a new

generation of guitar virtuosos like Egberto Gismonti, Ulysses Rocha, Paulo Bellinati,

Marco Pereira, and Yamandd Costa. They also inspired young new vocalist/guitarists to

broaden their horizons beyond the mere accompaniment style of Joao Gilberto.

Guitarists like Gilberto Gil, Djavan, and Joao Bosco began playing more complex parts

on their guitars while accompanying themselves vocally. Nogueira and Powell are the

founders of the modern Brazilian guitar style, and their impact forever changed the face

of the guitar in Brazil.

Vocal Accompanists

In addition to all of these great guitarists' influence on Marco Pereira's style, there

are also many vocal accompanists who have inspired him. Three of these vocal

accompanists are Joao Gilberto, Gilberto Gil, and Joao Bosco. While they are not

virtuosos comparable to Baden Powell, Marco Pereira considers them three of his

greatest influences. According to Pereira, each had his own unique style, which

contributed to the world of the Brazilian guitar.









Joao Gilberto is historically noted as one of the fathers of bossa nova, and helped

realize the new way of playing samba. At that time, Brazilian popular guitarists mainly

improvised rhythms on the guitar in a variety of styles. Joao Gilberto essentially unified

these styles by simplifying the rhythm (modeling it after the tamborim and surdo rhythms

alone) (Connell 2002: 72-4). While his guitar playing is considered the definitive way to

play bossa nova, it was his placement of the lyrics on the beat and rhythmic variations

that Marco Pereira claims was most influential. For two years Pereira studied how Joao

Gilberto rhythmically placed lyrics on the beat, and that he was intrigued by Gilberto's

rhythmic variations. This study refuted his belief that Gilberto sang freely with rubato

while keeping a steady guitar rhythm and revealed that every word was placed precisely.

Gilberto Gil's unique way of playing guitar left an indelible mark on Pereira's

playing as well. Pereira recalls listening to Gilberto Gil, and being intrigued by the guitar

style of "Expresso 2222" (figure 2-18). Later, Gil told Pereira he was trying to emulate

the accordion sounds of theforrd or baido groups found in the Northeast. Pereira would

eventually record the only solo guitar version of this song on Almir Chediak's Songbook-

Gilberto Gil CD (1992), which accompanied the book itself.

a a a mm m m
m m m ii i i i



ip ip i pip ip ip i p ip P p p p pi p i p

Figure 2-18. Transcription of guitar intro. riff from Gil's "Expresso 2222." (Chediak,
Almir. 1992. Songbook-Gilberto Gil. Rio de Janeiro: Lumiar Editora. Used
with permission).

Of the vocal accompanists, Joao Bosco influenced Pereira the most. He has unique

vocal improvisatory style and a Baden Powell approach to playing samba. He uses a lot









of rhythmic variation in his playing, as well as executing melodic lines while playing

chords and bass notes (like Baden). One of Bosco's trademark techniques is his special

right hand pattern where he alternates between high and low voices in a chord

progression. This can be seen in his "Incompatabilidade de Genios" from the album

Galos de Brigak.






r ; r 6 6 r


Figure 2-19. Transcription of Bosco's playing on "Incompatibilidade de Genios."
(Source: Faria, Nelson. 1995. The Brazilian Guitar Book: Samba, Bossa
Nova, and Other Brazilian Styles. Petaluna: Sher Music Co. p. 34. Used with
permission).

Bosco is famous for his use ofpartido alto on guitar, which is the rhythmic pattern in the

example above.

International Influences

In addition to these domestic musicians, various international artists have also

made an impact on Pereira's playing style. Four important influences are: Wes

Montgomery, Cacho Tirao, John Williams, and Julian Bream. Pereira has said that he

often gets his phrasing ideas (improvising) from Wes Montgomery. While he does not

often play the octaves that were a trademark of Montgomery, he did copy his finger-style

playing.

Cacho Tirao is an Argentinean guitarist who has played with Astor Piazzola and

many other Tango musicians. Tirao is much like the Baden Powell of the tango, as he

was classically trained, but played popular solo guitar music as well. He is known for his









clear articulation of notes and Pereira remembers wanting to play just like him after

hearing him in Paris in 1977. The sound of his guitar is very similar to Marco Pereira's

sound with a full-bodied and smooth tone. Both guitarists exhibit an equal technical

command of the instrument. The similarities can best be heard on Cacho Tirao-The Story

of Tango vol. 7.

Both John Williams (Australia) and the Julian Bream (U.K.) are classical guitarists,

who Pereira admires greatly, but for different reasons. Pereira considers John Williams's

technique flawless, and he aspired to emulate his hand position and perfect articulation.

In contrast to William's perfect technique, Julian Bream, with whom he studied with in

Europe, influenced Pereira with his musical interpretations and repertoire. Bream

recorded many more contemporary composers (e.g., Benjamin Britten) than other

guitarists at that time and would even give the composers suggestions on how they could

re-write their works to better suit the guitar. In addition, Pereira found favor in the

interpretations of these pieces, as well as the rich sound of his guitar.

Conclusion

The Brazilian guitar has gone through various transformations. From viola to

violdo the guitar has been a symbol of hybridity with all the musicians and composers

that have used it. As we look through the Brazilian guitar's history two things are

certain: 1) the guitar helped narrow the gap between social classes in Brazil, and 2) the

instrument blurred the strict lines of "art" and "popular" music. Musicologists, tend to

lean towards codifying genres of music into discrete units to be presented to the world.

However, this is almost impossible to do this with the guitar music of Brazil. Often there

is no objective distinction between "art" and "popular," and we are forced to merely









accept the guitar in Brazil for what it is: the Brazilian guitar. It is not the "classical"

guitar, nor the "fingerstyle" guitar; it is merely an entity within itself. It is true that the

Brazilian guitar has many faces due to its multifarious historical influences, but I do not

believe it is necessary to classify it as an "art," "popular," or "folk" instrument.

It is also unnecessary to classify any of the remarkable musicians who have defined

the Brazilian guitar. How can one classify Garoto, Paulinho Nogueira, and Baden

Powell? Are they popular or classical musicians? The truth is that it is impossible to

codify these musicians in any category other than Brazilian guitar style. As stated in

chapter one, mixture and confusion are integral concepts of brasilidade and were central

to the philosophies of the Brazilian modernists. As these concepts were institutionalized

by the Vargas regime in the 1930s, Brazilians (other than the thinkers/artists) began to

adopt/accept a new national identity based on diversity and mixing. Brazilians guitarists

and composers had been mixing musical genres since the late 19th century, and this

institutionalization of brasilidade only perpetuated what had been happening for years.

Therefore, these concepts of Brazilian identity must be inclusive in the process of

codifying the Brazilian guitar style. Much like the trinity of Brazilian racial identity

(African, European, and Amerindian), Brazilian guitarists mixed folk, popular, and art

music together and created something distinctly Brazilian. The Brazilian guitar style

includes all of these categories, and this confusion is perfectly acceptable.

Through my illustrations of the lives, performance practices, and compositions of

these artists, I have attempted to illustrate a basic understanding of the Brazilian guitar.

However, there is much more research that needs to done about this instrument and each

of these musicians are worthy of independent study. From Tute to Baden Powell, these









guitarists have added unique contributions to Brazilian guitar culture and given it a

special place in music history. All of the guitarists mentioned have played a part in

making the guitar a national symbol in Brazil due to their hybridized musical styles,

which defines the Brazilian guitar.

The hybridized styles of the guitarists mentioned in this chapter have served as

mediators between Brazilian popular and elite cultures. Their message inspired young

guitarists of all classes to explore all aspects of their country's musical heritage. They

have also created a "school" of Brazilian guitar, and because the guitar is a relatively

inexpensive instrument, this school has many disciples worldwide. One of these disciples

is the subject of this thesis: Marco Pereira.

In this chapter, I painted a musical backdrop of Marco Pereira's influences to

demonstrate how he approaches the instrument. However, in the next section of my

study I will present Pereira's biography and musical characteristics. While Pereira has a

wide range of international influences, he closely maintains his identity as a Brazilian

guitarist. He is an excellent archetype of the Brazilian guitar style with his hybrid

playing style (mixing classical and popular music), and represents a new generation of

Brazilian guitarists, who have helped further established the unique identity of the

Brazilian guitar.















CHAPTER 3
THE LIFE AND MUSIC OF MARCO PEREIRA AND CONCLUSION

Introduction

Marco Pereira is one of Brazil's great guitar virtuosos who belongs to a new

generation that has revolutionized guitar playing in Brazil. Much like Baden Powell

before him, Pereira has successfully synthesized the art and popular music of Brazil in his

own unique way. Pereira undoubtedly owes a great debt to his predecessors (Garoto,

Baden Powell, Paulinho Nogueira, etc.), but he has a greater amount of classical training

than any of his mentors. This extended classical training has given him the ability to

transcend earlier guitarists and has made him historically one of the greatest guitarists of

his generation.

Though he considers himself primarily a performer, Pereira has also excelled in the

fields of musicology, theory/composition, choral conducting, arranging, and teaching.

He founded the guitar program at the University of Brasilia, has been invited to play at

Brazil's finest music festivals, and has recorded and performed along with Brazil's best

musicians. This not so short list includes: Z61ia Duncan, Edu Lobo, Cissia Eller, Z6

Renato, Gilberto Gil, Gal Costa, Wagner Tiso, Daniela Mercury, Zizi Possi, Rildo Hora,

Paulinho da Viola, Tom Jobim, Milton Nascimento, Z6 Nogueira, Toninho Carrasqueira,

Leandro Braga Virginia Rosa Leila Pinheiro, Rosana, Fitima Guedes, Nelson Gonqalves,

Hamilton de Holanda, and many others. As this list of performers indicates, Pereira is a

very diverse musician. In his own words









I have a very wide range of influences. ... I can listen to everything. I can go to
an opera and enjoy that. ... I can cry like a fool if I go and see Verdi at a theatre. ..
and if I listen to Jodo Gilberto, I can cry the same.42

In this chapter I will highlight Pereira's diversity as a performer, composer,

teacher, and arranger. I will begin with a brief look at his life, followed by analyses of his

performance and compositional style. I will also briefly discuss Pereira's place in

Brazilian musical culture, in an attempt to codify his style. However, my intent is to

reveal that Marco Pereira's work is so diverse that it is impossible to effectively label it

into one category. The hybridity of his style (e.g., that he crosses the genres of popular

and art music) makes Pereira an excellent example of Brazilian hybrid identity in the

field of music.

Biography

Marco Pereira was born September 25, 1950 in Sao Paulo city into a family of non-

musicians. His first musical exposure was through the music his mother listened to while

he was young. She played records of Francisco Alves, Carmen Miranda, Orlando Silva,

Garoto, and Jacob do Bandolim, as well as artists of Argentinean tango. Pereira recalls

that there were no labels on the instrumental and vocal music at this time, and everything

seemed much more balanced than it is today. His first exposure to the guitar was through

his cousin, whom he would visit on holidays. His cousin was learning to play the guitar

(mainly chords for accompanying vocal music), and Pereira would watch her play. He

also studied her songbooks and learned the chords himself. Pereira remembers that

learning the guitar was quite easy for him, and after some time he asked his father for a

guitar. His father bought him his first nylon stringed acoustic guitar at age ten, which

42 Unless otherwise indicated, quotations in this biography are from my personal interviews with Pereira
between March and June of 2004.









Pereira thought "was a very bad one." His father's friend subsequently taught him some

old waltzes by Dillermando Reis and Canhoto.

While Pereira's first musical lessons mostly comprised South American styles, he

could not avoid the influence of American rock 'n' roll. He remembers listening to Paul

Anka and Elvis Presley. His sister even had pictures of these artists, as well as Neil

Sedaka, on the walls of her room. He purchased his first electric guitar at the age of

fourteen, and subsequently started a band. Pereira states that his band copied the music

of The Fenders,43 which was an instrumental (two guitars, bass, and drums) rock group at

that time. Pereira's band often played at balls and formal gatherings, and was a showcase

for his burgeoning talent on the guitar.

After playing in this band for a few years, his mother began to notice his gifted

guitar playing and suggested he go to the local music academy to take private lessons. So,

at the age of sixteen, Pereira took his mothers advice and enrolled in the conservatory in

Lapa, Sao Paulo. His first teacher was actually a pianist who learned to play guitar in

order to make extra money teaching. 44 Pereira had an hour lesson each week where he

studied classical pedagogical material by Tirrega and other classical guitarists. He

remembers that he easily learned the material, and would perform the exercises

flawlessly each week. This took about fifteen minutes of lesson time and they would

have an extra forty-five minutes left. At first his teacher would send him home early, but

eventually he started performing additional music for him. It was at this time that Pereira

received his first exposure to Bach, Mozart, Chopin, and other art music composers.


43 1 could not find any information on an instrumental group called The Fenders. I asked Pereira if he had
meant the Ventures, but he insisted it was the aforementioned group.

44 Pereira could only remember that the teacher's first name was David.









Shortly after his introduction to art music, Pereira immersed himself in this new

musical world. He would go to the local library, which had a remarkable collection of art

music records and scores, and listen to the classical masters (e.g., Beethoven, Schubert,

Schumann, etc.). Pereira spent four to five hours daily in this library listening, studying,

and falling in love with art music. A few years after he began taking lessons and first

exposure to art music, David suggested he go to study at the Sao Paulo conservatory.

The Conservatory of Theater and Music in the School of Communication and Art at

Sao Paulo University (USP) was one of the first schools in Brazil to offer an

undergraduate degree in music and garnered some of Brazil's finest players. After taking

a series of tests Pereira received a scholarship to study at the conservatory and begun his

studies in guitar with Isaias Sivio45 (a famous Uruguayan master of guitar). He also

studied music theory. The repertory he studied was classical, and Sivio used his own

method books.4 However, Pereira remembers that his studies were flexible, and he also

had time to study the music of Baden Powell, Paulinho Nogueira, Garoto, Dillermando

Reis, and Joao Pernambuco. As written scores were not readily available (except for the

music of Dillermando Reis), he listened to the albums and transcribed the pieces himself.

Pereira recalls

This [transcribing is something I did my whole life. I didn't start this after [he
began taking lessons]. We didn't have video classes [instructional videos] back
then, .. and even method books and sheet music were not easy to find .... If you
wanted to do [transcribe] something it was better to just get it from the records.





45 Isaias Savio taught many of Brazil's top guitarists including Paulo Bellinati and Carlos Barbosa-Lima.

46 His Cenas Brasileiras is still used today, and has recently been re-transcribed and published by GSP
publications.









Pereira believes this lack of guitar scores helped him develop his ear, and made him a

better musician.

During the years that he was in the conservatory (1969-1973), Pereira also learned

to play both the acoustic and electric bass, which he played in the youth orchestra

(acoustic) and small sporadic gigs playing popular music (electric). He also earned a

good deal of income through teaching private students and performing concerts on guitar.

One series of concerts he recalls most vividly is his performance of Romancero Gitano47

for choir and guitar by the Italian-Iberian composer Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco.48 He

was invited by choir director Walter Lourenqao to play a series of twenty-five concerts

that "paid very well." From the income he earned from these concerts he ordered his first

professional handcrafted instrument by Walter Vogt guitars in Germany, which he still

plays today.

One year after graduating from the Sao Paulo Conservatory, Pereira bought an open

plane ticket to Europe. He first traveled to Germany to pick up his guitar and study at the

Cologne University. After Germany, he planned on visiting various other European cities

including Paris, Madrid, and Lisbon. However, when he arrived in Germany, he did not

like the atmosphere at the conservatory. He had originally planned on staying for two

years, but after four or five days he decided to leave. Pereira then traveled to other

countries and cities (London, Brussels, etc.), and even studied with Julian Bream briefly

before arriving in Paris.




47 This piece is based on a series of poems by Garcia Lorca called Poemas del Cante Jondo

48 Castronuovo-Tedesco is one of the premiere composers for the guitar, and wrote a great deal of material
for the instrument. Pereira states that this was because Andres Segovia asked him to write for the guitar.









When Pereira came to Paris in December of 1974, he did not want to travel

anymore, and decided return to Brazil. However, after calling his mother in the airport to

tell her he would be returning, Pereira left his ticket in the phone booth. After speaking

with a representative from Varig airlines (one of Brazil's international carriers), he

learned it would take forty days to receive another ticket. To make matters worse, he lost

his passport two days later in the same airport. After a week, at the suggestion of his

friend, Pereira decided to look in the lost and found of the airport for his passport.49

Much to his amazement, it was there, but he still had to wait for his plane ticket.

In order to survive in Paris, Pereira gave private lessons and performed in the

subway stations. By the time he finally received his ticket he had found a girlfriend and

did not want to leave. Pereira thinks that he subconsciously lost his passport and ticket:

I threw all of this stuff away. ... I mean unconsciously [subconsciously], I just
threw everything out. I wanted to stay but I didn't have [the] cojones [balls] to say
I don't have money, but I'm going to stay here.

After deciding to stay in Paris, he continued teaching and playing, but also studied

theory and composition for many hours a day. Upon the suggestion of his friend, he

decided to apply for a scholarship from the Brazilian government to study guitar in Paris.

He received this scholarship, and subsequently began his studies at the Universite

Musicale Internationale de Paris with Oscar Caceres, another Uruguayan guitar master.

In Paris he learned to perform the great masterworks of the guitar, and learned virtually

all of the most advanced pieces composed for the instrument.





49 Pereira had originally given up on the passport because he knew they were worth a great deal of money
on the black market. This was because Brazil's passports had no laminate protection and were easy to
forge.