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Examination of the Lemures and the Lemuria

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PAGE 1

EXAMINATION OF THE LEMURES AND THE LEMURIA By JARROD LUX A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2004

PAGE 2

For my past present and future teachers and students who continue to inspire and to challenge me to dream

PAGE 3

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my family, particularly my parents and brother, for their continuous and generous support over the years, especially the last two. I would also like to thank my close friend and fellow warrior, Rebecca, whose patience and wisdom rescued me from many of my mischievous adventures. Finally, I would like to thank the professors and staff of the Classics Departments (both at the University of Florida and at Xavier University) whose guidance and knowledge made this thesis possible. iii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS..iii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS.vi ABSTRACT...ix CHAPTER 1 LEMURIA, DEATH, AND THE DEAD.. 2 TERMINOLOGY OF THE DEAD..8 Modern Scholarship.........9 Ancient Scholarship...........12 3 OVIDS REMUS: A GHOST STORY..25 4 RITE OF THE LEMURIA..44 The Time....44 Barefoot and Binding.46 The Averting Gesture.47 Water..48 Beans, Redemption, and the Number Nine....49 Temesean Bronze.......53 The Right Thing to Say......55 5 EVOLUTION OF THE LEMURES...8 APPENDIX A PASSAGES ON THE LEMURIA AND THE LEMURES.......60 B PASSAGES ON REMUS AND THE REMURIA...64 INDEX OF PASSAGES CITED... iv

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v LIST OF REFERENCES... BIOGRAPHICAL SKETC H .....72

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS Greek and Latin Authors A. Aeschylus Pers. Persae Apul. Lucius Apuleius Apol. Apology Met. Metamorphoses Soc. De Deo Socratis A.R. Apollonius Rhodius (Argonautica) Arist. Aristotle EN Nichomachean Ethics De Som. De Somniis August. Augustine of Hippo C.D. Civitas Dei Cic. Marcus Tullius Cicero Att. Epistulae ad Atticum Div. De Divinatione Leg. De Legibus Pis. In Pisonem Top. Topica Fest. Sextus Pompeius Festus (De verborum significatu) Flor. Lucius Annaeus Florus (Rerum Romanarum Epitome) Hom. Homer Il. Iliad Ody. Odyssey Hes. Hesiod Th. Theogony Hor. Quintus Horatius Flaccus Ep. Epistles S. Satires Liv. Titus Livius (Ab Urbe Condita) Luc. Marcus Annaeus Lucanus Phars. Pharsalia (Belli Civilis Libri) Lucian. Lucian Nec. Necyomantia Philops. Philopseudes Lucr. Titus Lucretius Carus (De Rerum Natura) Macr. Aurelius Macrobius (Saturnalia) vi

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OGR Origo Gentis Romanae Ov. Publius Ovidius Naso Fast. Fasti Met. Metamorphoses Paus. Pausanias ( ) Pers. Persius Flaccus (Saturae) Petr. Titus Petronius Arbiter (Satyricon) Philostr. Philostratus VA Vita Apollonii Pl. Plato Phd. Phaedo Pl. Titus Maccius Plautus Cas. Casina Men. Menaechmi Mos. Mostellaria Plg. Plegon Mir. Mirablia Plin. Gaius Plinius Secundus Nat. Naturalis Historia Plot. Plotinus Enn. Enneads Plut. Plutarch Cim. Cimon Cleom. Cleomenes Quaest. Rom. Quaestiones Romanae Rom. Romulus Symp. Symposia Plb. Polybius () Por. Porphryio Pris. Priscianus Prop. Sextus Propertius (Carmina) Sen. Lucius Annaeus Seneca Apoc. Apocolocyntosis Serv. Servius Danielis (Commentarii in Vergilium) Sil. Silius Italicus (Punica) Stat. Papinius Statius Theb. Thebaid Stesich. Stesichorus Suet. Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus Cal. Caligula Nero. Nero Otho. Otho Tac. Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Ann. Annals Tert. Tertullian De Anim. De Anima vii

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viii Ulp. Ulpian dig Digest Verg. Publius Vergilius Maro A Aeneid Other Abreviations AJA American Journal of Archaeology AJPh American Journal of Philology ARW Archiv fr Religionswissenschaft CGL Corpus Glossariorum Latinorum CPh Classical Philology CR Classical Review CQ Classical Quarterly DA Daremberg, C., E. Saglio, and E. Pottier, eds. Dictionnaire des antiquits grecques et romaines daprs les textes et les monumentes 5 vols. in 10. Paris: Hachette, 1875-1919. GLOTTA Glotta : Zeitschrift fr die grieschische und lateinische Sprache JHS Journal of Hellenic Studies OLD Oxford Latin Dictionary RE Wissowa, G. et al., eds. Paulys Real-Encyclopdie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft 34 vols. and 15 supplemental vols. Stuttgart: J. B. Metzler, 18931978. TLL Thesaurus Linguae Latinae

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts EXAMINATION OF THE LEMURES AND THE LEMURIA By Jarrod Lux May 2004 Chair: Hans-Friedrich Mueller Major Department: Classics Treatment of the dead is one of the fundamental acts that separate human beings from other creatures. Human beings, at least since the time of the Neanderthals, have put a great deal of effort and energy into the burial of the dead and remembering and honoring them. Humans treat the dead as though the dead were in some way still alive by establishing and adorning cemeteries, offering gifts, saying prayers, and participating in funerals and holidays; while the remainder of the creatures on earth want nothing to do with their dead. This treatment is not socially inscribed but rather something innate stating that human life ought to be cherished, and that death is not the end. All cultures have different ways of treating the dead, but the most common forms of treatment tend to be funerals/burial rites and holidays. Ancient Rome was no exception. The Romans honored the dead with great monuments in cemeteries and along roads. They held elaborate funeral processions that ended in extravagant burial rites. They also had several festivals for the dead, during which special libations and sacrifices ix

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x were offered, and during which people would pl ace gifts on graves. Some festivals had components that were not so much for honori ng the dead, but rather for protecting one from them, since there were some dead who would haunt and sometimes kill the living. The Lemuria was a Roman festival, in which the dead were both honored and guarded against, and it occurred on May 9 th 11 th and 13 th The best description of the festival comes from Ovids Fasti in which he explains that that Romulus established the Lemuria at the request of his dead brother Remus. During this festival, lemures (or ghosts) are said to run amuck throughout the la nd. There has been debate as to whether the lemures and their counterpart larvae are mischievous, sinister spirits of the dead whose goal is to wreak havoc on the living; or if they are the protective, beneficial spirits of the dead, whose goal is to as sist the living. There is also a third group of spirits of the dead, the manes ; and it is difficult to see whether manes lemures, and larvae are interchangeable names, or if there ar e distinct differences among them. According to the Roman calendar, the days of the Lemuria are considered dies nefasti which means that no marriages can take place, businesses and temples are closed, and the government is not in session. The fe stival ends at midnight on the last night, when the pater familias goes through the house performing the ritual necessary to expel any lingering ghosts. This thesis examined the Lemuria in the surrounding cont exts of the dead at Rome, such as funeral and burial rites, religi ous and philosophical views of the afterlife, and necromancy. An attempt was made to di stinguish the three type s of spirits of the dead. It is hoped that this thesis will add to the continual discussion and further exploration into the sacredness of life and death.

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CHAPTER 1 LEMURIA, DEATH, AND THE DEAD The Lemuria is a Roman festival of the dead held on May 9 th 11 th and 13 th The primary source for the Lemuria is Ovids Fasti, which describes a rite handed down by the ancestors to expel ghosts, attempts an historical explanation of the festival by writing a ghost story starring Remus, and ends by mentioning the superstitions that govern these days. Lemures, the ghosts who are exorcised from the household, are only attested as far back as Horace. The Lemuria itself can be dated to somewhere between 84 and 46 B.C.E. (it is recorded in the calendar Fasti Antiates Maiores, the oldest calendar of the Roman Republic that has survived). 1 The calendar works like this. There were three days that one particularly needed to remember: the Kalendae, the Nones, and the Ides. 2 The Kalends was the first day of the month, the Nones were the fifth day, and the Ides were the thirteenth. During certain months (March, May, July, and October), the Nones occurred on the seventh day while the Ides happened on the fifteenth. On the Kalends, the people assembled at the Curia Calabra on the Capitoline Hill to hear when the Nones would be. They needed to know this because they would have to return on the Nones to hear when the festivals for the month would be celebrated. Finally, there were also the nundinae (days during which 1 Scullard 47. 2 The following information on the calendar comes primarily from Scullard pp. 41-48. See also Boyle & Woodard xxxii-xxxv, Hallam xx-xxii, and Sidgwick 10-12. For an alternative understanding of the nundinae and their relation to the calendar, see Johnson 133-149. For a thorough study of the Roman calendar, see Michels, A. The Calendar of the Roman Republic. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 1967. 1

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2 farmers could sell their produce) which occurr ed every eighth day and were labeled with the letters A-H. By the first century B.C.E., the nundinae and fasti became synonymous, though comitia and contiones could not be held. The Roma ns tried to ensure that the nundinae never fell on the first Kalends of any year, or on the Nones of any month, lest they be cursed. In addition to the nundinae there were also the holidays/festivals ( feriae) and games ( ludi ). 3 The ludi originally served as an offering for Jupiter Optimus Maximus from a successful general having returned fr om his victory. However, over time, more and more games came to be established for various reasons. 4 Ludi but not feriae could be celebrated before the Nones of the month. Thus, this makes the Lemuria, a festival for the dead, the first festival the Romans would celebrate in the month of May, which makes sense, since May is arguably one of the months for the ancestors ( maiores ). Feriae were subdivided into feriae privatae (holidays observed by individual families) and feriae publicae (holidays provided by the State). The feriae publicae were further divided into three categories: stativae, conceptivae and imperativae Feriae stativae were holidays whose date remained fixed on the calendar, like modern Halloween. Feriae conceptivae were holidays celebrated an nually, but their date was assigned by priests or magistrates, similar to modern Easter. Feriae imperativae were impromptu holidays given in honor of a victory or during times of crisis. Since the Lemuria was always on May 9 th 11 th and 13 th it was considered one of the ferias stativas. 3 The following information on the feriae and ludi is from Scullard pp. 38-41. For a more detailed discussion on feriae see Michels, pp. 69-83. 4 Scullard reports that the Ludi Apollinares (212 B.C.E.), Ludi Megalenses (204 B.C.E.), and Ludi Ceriales (202 B.C.E.) were used to increase public morale during the wars with Hannibal, p. 40.

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3 Every odd day in the Roman calendar had a label ( F C N NP EN ) that proscribed what could or c ould not be done on that day. 5 Some even-numbered days had this as well, but little was done on these days, since they were considered unlucky. The letter F stood for dies fasti days on which one could carry on legal business. During the dies comitiales (marked with a C ), the Senate or the People could be assembled. During the dies nefasti ( N ) no legal business could occur, and comitia could not be enacted. Days designated EN endotercissus (interrupted days) were days on which the morning and evening fell under the guidelines of the nefasti while the middle of the day was governed by the rules of the fasti No one knows for certain what NP marked. In addition, some days were labeled dies religiosi and atri though they were not marked these terms in the calendars. These days were considered extremely unlucky, and no one should begin anything on them or do anyt hing unnecessary. Some festivals were celebrated on these days, but it seems that le gal business was either not performed or was shied away from. During dies atri (the days after the Kalends Nones and Ides) not even the State cults could perform ceremonies. The Lemuria labeled as nefastus and dies religiosi, shared in the superstitions for these appellations. Ovid me ntions a couple of these, such as the fact that temples were closed ( fana tamen veteres illis clausere diebus / ut nunc ferali tempore operta vides ; Ov. Fast 5.485-86) and that no one ought to be married then. If a marriage took place, the woman would not live much longer ( nec viduae taedis eadem nec virginis apta / tempora: quae nupsit non diuturna fuit. Ov. Fast 5.487-88). 5 For a more thorough discussion of these labels, see Michels, dies fasti and comitales pp. 36-60, nefasti pp. 61-83.

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4 The purpose of this thesis is to examine and attempt to ascertain what the Lemuria is. To do so, one must inspect th ree characteristics that govern the Lemuria The first is that the Lemuria is a festival to expel ghosts from th e home (at least in the private rite we have no knowledge of the public rite, let alone if there was one). On encountering this fact, one is faced with a dilemma of te rminology there is more than one term for ghost in the Latin language, and Ovid uses at least four ( umbra imago, manes and lemures). The common assumption among both ancient and modern scholars is that each term denotes a different class, quality, or cat egory of the dead. Confusion ensues because each term can still be used in the same manne r despite its possible di fferentiation. That is, when the pater familias performs the rite, is he e xorcising his grandparents, unruly chthonic phantoms, or the spirits of the unt imely dead? Thus, I attempted first to discover what the lemures are by examining the terminol ogy and interpretation found in the primary (ancient) and secondary (modern) sources. Next I examined Ovids story of Remu s apparition and its connection to the Lemuria (Ov. Fast 5.451-480). Ovid claims that the Lemuria is actually the Remuria, a festival held in honor of Remus; however, no such festival by that name ( Remuria) exists. Instead, the Remuria is tied in with the story of Remus death and the foundation of Rome as a possible alternate position for Ro mes establishment, a place where Remus was ritualistically sacrificed and buried, and as the headquarters for plebeian interests. Analysis of Ovids ghost story (the only auth or to write a ghost story regarding Remus) helps to determine the types of ghosts deal t with during the festival (thereby possibly better defining the Lemuria).

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5 Finally, I give a brief commentary on the r ite itself, which exudes an archaic and superstitious quality. The rite is chthonic in that it occurs at night deals with the dead, and includes several items asso ciated with chthonic rites (f ountain water, a gesture that wards off the evil eye, beans, etc.). Asse ssment of the rite reveals more about the characteristic of the ghosts of the Lemuria and perhaps leads to a better insight into how an ancient Roman dealt with the dead. The Lemuria is a festival regarding the dead, and as such deals with the fundamental mystery of human life death. D eath is the one constant for all mortals in this reality. It has long b een the belief, however, (among various tribes, nations, and peoples, both ancient and modern ) that death is not the end. There is an existence for us after this one, a different reality, a different pl ace; perhaps better or worse than this one. On account of this, death represents the greate st transition a human will ever experience. At the same time it should be noted that those who are left behind in this realm experience the second greatest transition humans make (that is, continuing to live despite the loss of a loved one). Is there any greater pain, any greater shoc k to the human psyche than the passing of a loved one? The anci ent Greeks and Romans conscious of these transitions took great care by creating methods to handle their grief, and we today still use their models and have added some of our own, such as counseling. It is important to remember that their solutions (although they physically, mentally, a nd spiritually appear as though they are for the dead) psychologically are for the living. Hence, since this is the only existence a human can have knowledge of, the methods presuppose an afterlife existence similar to this one.

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6 The primary method of dealing with the dead for the ancients was the burial rite. Great effort was made to ensure that th e ceremony, rituals, and interment and/or cremation happened accordingly so that the dead person could have an easy journey to the next realm of existence. 6 The slightest mistake could in jure or hinder that persons journey, causing them to remain in this real m (where that person was not supposed still to be). Thus, if burial did not take place, a person was stuck in this dimension (a most uncomfortable and painful situation for that pers on). The burial, at the same time, is the beginning of the grieving process, and offers the chance for those left behind one last moment to take care of, to honor, and to say good-bye to the deceased. However, the ancients were aware that on ce the funeral is over, the grief does not end. Thus, there were special days set aside for the dead. On these days, the dead were permitted to return to visit the living, and the living were encourag ed to visit the dead. 7 For this reason, these days had the same liminal tone as the time of burial, and, th erefore, superstitions regarding them arose, causing gr eat caution to be taken during them as mentioned above. When the dead pass from the other world to this realm, creatures from that world, harmful to humans, could potentially follow behind, or even the dead themselves could possibly injure the living. He nce, there was a general fear of these days, but it was coupled with a solemn time for dealing with grief and reminiscing lost loved ones. Visiting the tombs of the ancestors, moreover, is a way of keeping a connection with them, and this connection was reinforced by the ancients through offering gifts to the 6 For further discussion regarding ancient and modern perspectives on death and burial, see Davies Death Burial and Rebirth in the Religions of Antiquity Dennings Hauntings: Real-Life Encounters with Troubled Spirits Kbler-Ross Death: The Final Stage of Growth and Pecks Denial of the Soul 7 Such days and festivals would include the (for the Greeks) Agriania Nemesia Genesia and Anthesteria (for the Romans) Lemuria Parentalia Larentalia and the mundus patet

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7 dead, such as flowers and food, things which one would normally do if the dead person were alive. While the Lemuria may originally have not been a festival regarding the dead, it had, by Ovids time, acquired this perception. Thus, one must remember that we are dealing with ghosts, with the living dead, creatures that have existed in our minds since we have been conscious of ourselves. Ghosts are not limited by culture, time, or society, and serve as a testament that the human race will not give up hope on a life after death. Ghosts and spirits, however, if such beings exist, belong to a realm science has yet to penetrate. Our scientific instrume nts still measure only according to a quantitative analysis, and our reasoning is li mited to interpretation of only tangible evidence. Thus, we can only examine accurately the beliefs and the views of the Romans and other peoples regarding the dead. Investigating these beliefs can only lead to a better comprehension of them in our own lives. Thus it remains that a life after this can only be proven by faith and revelation But if the frustration of the lack of knowledge has not put you off, read on. Una enim quid significet hum anum esse porro inveniamus

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CHAPTER 2 TERMINOLOGY OF THE DEAD Anyone knows that when trying to name the religion of the Romans they will fail since the Romans ascribed to many forms of various religions and philosophies. The same can be said about their belief regarding the afterlife and the dead. As the Roman Empire spread, it assimilated the beliefs about the dead into its pre-existing understanding. Thus, the Latin terms for ghosts or spirits or souls, like in English, multiply over time and acquire new meaning as the Romans met other cultures. The words for spirit or ghost include animus, anima, imago, simulacrum, effigies, lemures, manes, larvae, and umbra. Each of these words is used by respective authors to denote ghosts. The focus of this study will be primarily on the lemures in an attempt to figure out what type of dead they are. The terms manes and larvae in particular are associated with the lemures to the extent that there is confusion as to what each term means. This is explicitly seen in Ovids version of the Lemuria, a festival in May to honor the lemures, in which the terms manes, lemures, imago, and umbra appear as if there is no difference between each term. On account of this, scholars can be at a loss as to the original Roman concept of the dead and how other contact groups, such as Etruscans and the Greeks, changed that concept. Thus, this section is dedicated to seeking an understanding of the lemures versus the manes and larvae by examining the occurrence of the term in literature and scholarship. Modern scholarship will be examined first followed by the various ancient literary references. 8

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9 Modern Scholarship Many scholars, both ancient and modern, have commented on the confusion of the terms for the dead. Dumezil writes the disjunction of the lemures and manes as necessary to fit meter and in terprets, the ghosts of the Lemuria as stealing the living back to Hades if the rites were not performed. 1 He claims that the term manes is ancient, since it is always found in the plural, even when Dii Manes become synonymous with the individual soul of a person through the influence of the Greek understanding of daimones. 2 Dumezil also says that many believe the term manes is derived from the word manis meaning good. Hence, the manes or the Dii Manes are the Good Gods. 3 Rose believed that the confusion of manes and lemures was just a blunder on Ovids part. 4 He indicates, moreover, that no word which would define a persons individual soul/spirit exists before the Augustan era since the formula dis manibus can only be traced to the time of Augustus. 5 He says further that a ghost for early Italians was an animated corpse, citing the fact that larva can mean phantom and skeleton while manes can mean ghost or corpse. 6 1 Dumezil 367. 2 Dumezil 365. Examples where manes is used as ones individual ghost include Liv. 3.58.11, Prop. 3.1.1, quin et facto per Magos sacro evocare Manes et exorare temptavit Suet. Nero 34, and ante lectum iacens per omnia piaculorum genera Manes Galbae a quo deturbari expellique se viderat propitiare temptasse Suet. Otho 7. It is interesting to note that Suetonius uses manes for the ghost of Neros mother and of Galba, but he uses umbra for Caligulas ghost haunting the Lamian gardens. 3 Dumezil 365. 4 Latte 99 n. 2. 5 Rose (1930) claims that it is likely that the early Italian believed he had three indwelling forces: breath, shadow, and blood, p. 129. Cumont also mentions this idea but says that it is an influence of the Egyptian religion on the Alexandrian Pythagoreans. He gives the following key for the terms: soul anima ; shade , umbra, simulacrum ; body corpus p. 167. 6 Rose (1930) 133. Moderns classify the tales of reve nants (reanimated corpses) as ghost stories. Lawson disagrees with this and says further that the Greeks recognized a difference between revenants and ghosts, p. 412. Haining claims that the origin al meaning of revenant was that of any being that came back from the dead, p. 207. Both Lawson and Haining are citations in Felton p. 108, who points out that tales of revenants have different characteristics from the stories of unsubstantial apparitions, p. 26.

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10 Knight renders manes as the good people pointing out that the belief of the dead as an endless throng pre cedes the beliefs of the dead in Egypt and Sumer. 7 To show this, he offers the example of how, in Pre-Roman times, after the dead were cremated, they were placed in urns that we re deposited in urn-fields pos itioned outside the settlement as a defense against enemies. Individuality begins to be allotte d to the dead around 1000 B.C.E. indicated by the graves in the Forum. Knight feels that these conditions could have provided for a soul cult, though evidence for this is lacking. 8 Knight demonstrates how the process of individualization of the term manes (with the plural being retained) did not completely alter its meaning but added to it quoting Cicero, to assuage the spirits of the dead conspirators ( coniuratorum manes mortuorum expiare Cic. Pis. 16), Propertius, O spirit of Callimachus (Callimachi manes Prop. 3.1.1), and Livy, the ghost of Verginia ( Verginiae manes Liv. 3.58.11). 9 Wissowa suggests that the term lemures came from the Lemuria as a poetic possibility for ghosts. 10 From the ancient sources, Fo wler felt Nonius and Porphyrio (besides Ovid) were the most authoritative on the lemures, while Apuleius and Martianus Capella were the least trustwor thy. He notes that while the Lemuria was marked nefasti, another Roman festival for the dead, the Feralia which was included within the Parentalia was labeled fasti. This may indicate th at the dead of the Lemuria are specifically of a hostile nature. Fowler also th inks that either Ovid was mistaken or that the final address ( manes exite paterni) could be a polite and courteous way to speak to such spirits. From these facts, he interpreted the lemures as a horde of demons, part of a 7 Knight 108. 8 Knight 108-09. 9 Ibid. 110. 10 Wissowa 1931-33.

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11 primitive culture that predated a civilized Rome, yet nevertheless remained in civilized Rome despite their triviality. 11 Frazer believed that Ovid was correct and that the lemures were family dead, while Bmer disagreed, thinking that Ovid was modeling his formula after the Athenian Anthesteria 12 Cumont says that the lemures and manes were shades of the dead who lived underground in a throng indistinguishable from those that roamed around the tomb. Both groups along with the larvae were feared and looked upon as being evil since they endeavor to tear the living from the earth and draw them to themselves. 13 Latte thinks that there was a distinction between lemures and manes and that Ovid is to blame for confusi ng later scholars through mixing the terms. 14 Wright says that the lemures are the terrifying and malicious larvae appeased by beans. The manes likewise, were terrifying but immense. 15 Fay offers linguistic information on manes stating that its root in Sanskrit mag forms in Greek and Magh in Sanskrit, the Indo-European name of the month equivalent to the Roman Maius, also dedicated to the dead. 16 Thaniel says that since lemures and larvae are sinister spirits 11 Fowler 106-09. 12 Frazer 424. Bmer supplement I of ARW as cited by Dumezil, p. 365. The Anthesteria was a Dionysian festival in Athens held on the 11 th 12 th and 13 th of the month Anthesterion (February) to welcome the spring. On the third day, called Chytroi an offering of plankarpia made of mixed fruits, was offered to Chthonic Hermes. Ghosts, having arrived the night before, were roamed the lands. The festival ended by commanding the ghosts to leave, with the wo rds Leave, Keres, Anthesteria is over ( ). The phrase, like the Ovidian manes exite paterni has also caused much debate among both ancient and modern scholars in that it is not agreed what the keres are. Some think they are slaves, while others believe they are ghosts. 13 Cumont 63-64, 72. Both Cumont and Frazer describe the dead for all peoples as sensitive beings who must be taken care of lest they become angry and injure the living (C umont 63, Frazer 425). 14 Latte 100, as quoted by Dumezil 364. 15 Wright 156. Wright quotes only from Nonius Marcellus. Regarding the manes he says that the adjective immanis describes them perfectly and that it was hoped that by using the term manes their character would not be so horrific. 16 Fay 13-14. The word for ancestor in Sanskrit is pit mah -s which Fay identifies as manes p. 12.

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12 during the Augustan age and that they are not found in higher poetry, it must have been the case that to writ e of them was taboo. 17 Ancient Scholarship The evidence from the ancients does little to solve the prob lem and if anything has only confused modern scholars more. Lemures do not occur in epitaphs or higher poetry, and the first instance of them is found in Horace ( nocturnos lemures portentaque Thessala rides Hor. Ep 2.2.209). The Horatian passage does not explain what the lemures are, merely calling them nocturnos, but it does group them with things that inspire fear such as Thessalian portents. 18 Strangely enough another satirist, Persius, has a very similar line calling the lemures black ( tum nigri lemures ovaque rupto Pers. 5.185). The context for both authors is stating how one should live free of care. They both list superstitions that obstruct ones happ iness in life, and the belief in the lemures is one of those hindrances. This could be in terpreted in two ways: either the lemures exist, but they cannot harm anyone, or the lemures simply do not exist. Thus, the only things one can learn from these authors are that the lemures belong to the realm of superstitions, that they were feared, and th at they were black. Being described as nocturni and nigri is not necessarily saying that the lemures were evil. It indicates, rath er, that they were associated with chthonic powers. Chthonic powers themselves are not always bad, but they do have the connotation of being connected with impure and frightful things and, therefore, they are labeled evil. 19 There 17 Thaniel 187. For additional references to lemures larvae manes and lares see Anthon 724, 730; Daremberg 950-53, 1100-01,1571-76; Ernout 342, 351, 383; Latte 99-100; Lempriere 320-21,325, 351; Smith 30; Wissowa 878-79, 806-14; CGL v. 6. 626, 635, 676; TLL v. 7. 977-80, 1137-39, v. 8. 293-99. 18 It should be noted that Ovid uses the same adjective to describe the Lemuria ( nocturna Lemuria Ov. Fast 5.421). 19 Regarding black and the dead, Winkler writes, It is no t simply black skin colour which is frightening in ominous circumstances but other visible features unkempt hair, squalor, a ferocious look, p. 162.

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13 may be more information acquired from the disc ussion of color of the dead than realized. In antiquity, there were three primary wa ys to paint the dead: black, white, and transparent. The shadowlike usually appeared in low lighting or dr eams, while black and white describe physical ghosts. Winklers article has tr eated this phenomenon in depth, noting some amazing conclusions. All of the black ghost stories he cited are late, reach ing even into the noncanonical gospels such as the Acts of Peter and the Acts of Thomas. 20 Even the explanation that the dead appear black due to cremation from Statius and Silius Italicus is late. 21 Winkler, however, notes two important observations: a) lemures are commonly described as black, and b) there are no Gr eek texts that contain instances of the Underworld or its residents as white. 22 Such an observation could support Roses theory that a ghost for the Romans was an animat ed corpse. This could further support the notion that the lemures are not spirits of the dead but rather merely chthonic spirits. There is evidence of black ghosts, particularly on st age, for the Romans but this is after the effects of Hellenization. 23 Hence, by looking at just these authors, Horace and Persius, one can only judge the lemures as sinister via assimilation. Only thei r commentators have made the case that they were evil and, moreover, that they were a certain type of evil. Porphyrio, writing on the Horatian passage, claims that the lemures roamed at night, had died untimely deaths, and ought to be feared ( umbras vagantes hominum ante diem mortuorum et ideo 20 Ghosts, as in there is a specific reference to a pers on who is dead. Thus, there is no vague term like umbra or manes used to describe them but rather something like niger vir 21 Sil. 13.447, Stat. Theb 8.5. Statius marks the beginning of the Silver Age, while Silius is dated to 25101 C.E. 22 Winkler 162. Felton disagrees citing Lucian. Philops 25 and Plin. Nat 7.27.13, p. 16. 23 Winkler 164.

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14 metuendas). 24 Acro in the scholia for the Horatian passage defines them as the terrible shades of those who suffered violent death ( umbras terribiles biothanatorum ). 25 The scholia on Persius only obscures the terminology further claiming that the lemures were the manes which the Greeks call guardian spirits, being certain sh ades that have the gift of prophecy ( Lemures dicuntur dii manes quos Graeci vocant velut umbras quasdam divinitatem habentes Lemuria autem dicuntur dies, quando manes placantur ). 26 It should be noted that all three commentators have described the lemures using either Greek terms or Greek imagery. The cla ss of spirits that died before their time was called and they often preyed upon the living, jealous of their lost opportunities. The a subcategory of were soldiers, murder victims, suicides, and executed criminals. 27 Pliny notes that nothing is more pleasant than a timely death ( ex omnibus bonis quae homini tribuit natura nullum melius esse tempestiva morte Plin. Nat 28.2.9). Thus, for both the ancient and the modern Greek and Roman, few things are scarier and more frustrating than an untimely death. The are trapped in this realm clinging and desiring to a life in a world that despite all their hopes and wishes, they can never possess. Their desperate desire for this and their refusal to accept their fate separates them from the Underw orld as well. All they know is fear, anger, and self-pity, and the only way they can channel these emoti ons is by killing others, that is, by creating more Johnston explains this well when discussing the stating: 24 This is the way Wissowa cites it, although he writes in (= ) after mortuorum (1932). 25 Wissowa 1932. 26 Ibid. 1932. 27 See Felton p. 25 and Ogden (2002) p. 146. For an in depth discussion including ancient references, see Rohdes appenidices 6 and 7, pp. 590-95. Johnston notes that throughout most of antiquity, was used to denote either male or female untimely dead, but, later, a specifically feminine form came into existence and is found especially in magical papyri, pp. 164-65.

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15 It exiles the ar not only from the upper world, as all deaths do, but also from the Underworld, leaving her strande d betwixt the two. For, bereft of the only sort of honor that women could normally earn the honor of having successfully borne a nd nurtured children the ar is excluded from the society of the dead just as is the warrior who is treacherously slaughtered instead of dying nobly on the battlefield, or the murder victim whose relatives have not avenged him. Like these biaiothanatoi the ar can only wander between the worlds of the living and the dead causing trouble. 28 The terribleness of the untimely death is that one does not get to fulfill ones role in life. For women, this is primarily limited to ma rriage and bearing children as expressed by Polyxena before she is condemned to such an existence ( Eur. Hec 416). 29 Hence, will often kill newly-born children or a wife in the pangs of childbirth or young girls before their marriage. Sometimes deities or the women themselves will rende r their untimely death because they have performed something unfit according to their role in society. Often th e act is sexual in nature, either rape or consensual. If fe males were limited to marriage and childbirth, masculine roles included everything else. Th e first and primary duty a male had was to the State, true for both Greeks and Romans. This would include politics, military service, business, religious rites, and others, and their goals are pers onal glory and glory for the State. For the male, however, the military was the most common form of life and the 28 Johnston 175. 29 Archaeological evidence reveals that these females we re buried with items, such as spindles and the doll a woman dedicates before marriage, that symbolize the feminine role they could never acquire, MartinKilcher p. 70-3. Whether these items were thought to be used in the afterlife or if they are just tokens belonging to the person is unclear. Several amulets have been discovered in these graves, and there is a debate whether they are there to protect the living fr om the dead. Priscianus may be mentioning these amulets when he tells of how the lack of jasper caused a place to be haunted ( regio quaedam generat malos lemures quod pellit munus iaspim nocturni manes fugitant quam membra tuentem Pris. periheg 691). Martin-Kilcher thinks that it is highly improbable th at these amulets were em ployed as protection from the dead, but she offers no argument, p. 73. The idea is not as far-fetched as it sounds. Other cultures bury the dead in ways that the dead cannot escape to ha rm the living. For example, the African tribe Ovambo cut off the head and limbs of the dead to ensure that there are not too many spirits flitting about in this realm, according to Mascetti, p. 196.

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16 most familiar form of death. Hence, males tended to be more having died on the battlefield. Thus, while female s provided the legitimate instruments for civilization to exist, males ensured that civilization existed Therefore, anything that damaged the chance for such glory to be obtai ned, anything that damaged the order of civilization as the ancients knew it was the most heinous an d unimaginable thing. Thus, one can understand the force and power be hind the fear of the untimely dead. Why would the Romans have a festival to celebrate these classes of ghosts? The usual answer is that the ghosts needed to be propitiated lest they do harm to the city or other humans. Roman law, however, interced ed on behalf of citizen ghosts as long as they did not get in the way. 30 The foreign dead were not feared, nor were they respected or recognized as legitimate by Roman author ity, and, therefore, no Roman citizen had to fear or observe the foreign dead. 31 While Roman law may not have protected against all it did protect against executed criminals, murder victims, and soldiers. Soldiers, even if the body was not recovered, were gi ven a proper burial (the burial of a Roman citizen). 32 Criminals who were executed could not be citizens to begin with. Also, anyone who committed suicide was not given burial, and, therefore, like the rest of these, had no authorized permission of the state to haunt! 33 Thus, the dead still fell under the statutes of Roman law and had no voice with which to defend themselves. Hence, it does not seem likely that the Romans would have ce lebrated a festival fo r these creatures and, therefore, that the lemures must be another class of being. 30 Rose (1930) 135. 31 Ibid. (1930) 135. 32 Dig 3.2.25, as cited by Rose (1930) p. 135. 33 Serv. A. 12.603, as cited by Rose (1930) p. 135.

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17 In Fasti 5. 444, Ovid sings the formula, manes exite paterni which has caused uncertainty regarding the cl assification of ghosts since the festival is for the lemures. Ovids song is even more confusing in that he states that the dead in general are called lemures, whereas this is often how one defines manes ( mox etiam lemures animas dixere silentum : Ov. Fast 5.483). This understanding w ould extradite Ovid from the manes / lemures issue since it implies they are the same. He adds that obsequies are brought to the graves of ancestors at this time ( illam qua positis iusta feruntur avis Ov. Fast 5.480). This would imply that these ghosts lie in peace and return only during the Lemuria and the other festivals of the dead and, therefore, cannot be or as other authors have suggested. In fact, the only implication from Ovid that these dead could be or is the fact that he uses Remus, who died an untimely death, as an example. Another reference to the lemures comes from Varro who says that the lemures are the same as the larvae and that beans are thrown to them during the Lemuria ( quibus temporibus in sacris fabam iactant ac dicunt se lemurios domo extra ianuam eicere Var. fr. 18 De Vita Populi Romani ). Paulus also remarks that beans are thrown to the larvae during the Lemuria ( nam et Lemuralibus ( faba) iacitur larvis ). 34 Nonius Marcellus also defines lemures by calling them larvae ( larvae nocturnae et terrificationes imaginum et bestiarum ). Nonius identifies them as nightly, as Horace does, but he also calls them imagines. Cicero, Vergil, and Ovid util ize this term for ghost as well. 35 Its usage should come as no surprise since imagines is the term employed for death masks at a Roman 34 Wissowa 1931. 35 Ille autem : Tua me genitor tua tristis imago Verg. A 6.695; itaque eis occurrunt plerumque imagines mortuorum Cic. Div 1.63; nunc sum elapsa rogi flammis et inanis imago : Ov. Fast 5.463.

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18 funeral. These masks, likenesses of previous family members, were usually set up in the atrium, but during a funeral, they were displayed alongside a mask for the recently deceased. Often these masks were worn by actors or mimes, some of which were employed to study and impersonate the charact eristics of the person whose mask they were wearing. 36 Nonius also describes lemures as bestias, a term found with no other description of lemures. Although there are modern ghost stories of animals, there are next to none in the ancient world. Instead, there are storie s in which ghosts transform into various animals, particularly dogs and snakes since these two creatures had chthonic associations. 37 The notion of the ghost in these storie s, however, is more a description of a demon from Neo-platonic philosophy, such as found in Plotinus. Plotinus, unlike other Neo-platonic philosophers believ ed in metempsychosis. Plot inus, however, mentions that the souls of those who have committed sins are those that inhabit animals. Thus, animals do not necessarily always have their own souls which may indicate the lack of animal ghosts. Also, the fact that souls can be reborn as anim als may imply one reason why ghosts can transform into animals. The passages from Varro, Paulus, and Nonius correspond to Ovids ritual of beanthrowing during the Lemuria to exorcise ghosts; however, it causes a new problem since it introduces a different cl ass of spirits that the lemures are, that is, larvae Unlike lemures and manes the term larva includes adjectival, participial, and verbal forms 36 See Plb. 6.53-54 for Roman funerals and imagines 37 For dogs, see Philostr. VA 4.10, Luc. Philops 22-24, 30-31. Hecate, godd ess of the dead, was often accompanied by dogs. Dover claims that dogs were speci al to Hecate because they were sacrificed to her citing Sophron fr. 8, p. 102 n. 12. See also Rohdes discussion on this, pp. 589-90. Furthermore, within the first five lines of the earliest au thor in Greek literature, Homer, there is already a connection between dogs and the dead (Hom. Il 1.3-4). When Canidia and Sagana raise the souls of the dead, both snakes and dogs are swarming about (Hor. S 1.8). For snakes, see Plu. Cleom 39, Plin. Nat. 10.56, and Serv. A. 5.95.

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19 ( larvalis resembling an evil spirit, specter-like, deathly; larvatus possessed by evil spirits, demented; larvare to possess with evil spirits, bewitch). 38 Larva is the term for the skeleton set up during a Roman banquet ( Potantibus ergo nobis et accuratissime lautitias mirantibus larvam argenteam attulit servus sic aptatam Petr. 34.8). Larva can also mean a ghostly theater mask, though it is not clear when this usage came into being. 39 In addition, larva is used in the singular which contradicts the belief that the Romans believed only in the dead en masse Plautus uses the term to refer to evil spirits who infect men with mental illness and as a creature, unwanted and unwelcome, that lingers. 40 Winkler notes that larvae are generally described as being white. 41 If Roses animated corpse notion is correct, this observation on color could imply that larvae are the spirits of the dead. In Seneca, however, the larvae are separated from the dead as tormentors of souls (almost Furies). 42 Perhaps this is an earlier meaning of larva since there is no record of any ghosts whose role it is to torture the dead, or it could be an attempt at Romanizing the Greek creatures called keres 43 Thus, there is nothing conclusive about the larvae as yet other than that they are harmful and chthonic. They could be either spirits of the dead, follo wing Roses reasoning and Winklers color observation, or they could be underworld spirits, not necessarily the dead, who are 38 OLD. svv. 39 nil illi larva aut tragicis opus esse cothurnis Hor. S 1.5.64. It should be noted that an alternate reading for larva in this passage is barba 40 quid esse illi morbi dixeras ? narra senex / num larvatust aut cerritus ? fac sciam Pl. Men 888-9; Viso huc amator si a foro rediit domum / qui me atque uxorem ludifcatust larva Pl. Cas 591-2. 41 Winkler 162. 42 eum dedi Larvis et proximo munere inter novos auctoratos ferulis vapulare placet Sen. Apoc 9.3. The line directly says nothing about the larvae but it is inferred from the commen ts on gladiators that they are punishers. There is a derogatory sense in this line as well. Another instance where larva is used insultingly and with a reference to men in contests is in Petronius ( similia sicilia interiores et larvas sic istos percolopabant Petr. 44.5). Rouse notes that interiores are racers who try to hold the inner position of a curving track, p. 85. 43 Ker is a Greek goddess of death often mixed with the Erinyes and the Fates. Keres are the daughters of Nyx in Hesiod ( Th 211-12). Paus. 5.19.6 is responsible for giving the Keres their descriptions of being fanged and taloned. Such a description lends aid to their function as bringers of death.

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20 released at certain times upon the world. Th ey can inflict damage which is why they would need a festival for protection from a nd for propitiation. They do not fall under the authority of the Roman law and therefore must be dealt with in such a magical manner. Both Ovid and the scholia of Pe rsius, however, indicate that the lemures and manes are the same, making no mention of the larvae It is Apuleius who differentiates the three terms, remarking that lemures is an archaic term for the dead in general. When such dead watch over and protect th eir descendants, they are called lares If they lived a life of evil, conversely, th ey are evil in the afte rlife as well and called larvae When ones fate is uncertain, the term manes is used. 44 Apuleius mentions the lemures two other times, once in The Golden Ass and once in The Apology In The Golden Ass, he describes thieves as dressing up like lemures in order to scare any travelers ( et ecce nocte promota latrones expergiti castra commovent instructique varie partim gladiis armati partim in lemures reformati concito se gradu proripiunt Apul. Met. 4.22). Later on, however, when the robbers capture Charite at the crossroads, they do not use the term lemures but rather manes and larvae ( quorsum istam festinanti vestigio lucubratis viam nec noctis intempestae manes larvasque formidatis ? Apul. Met. 6.30). Apuleius has been influenced by a thoroughly hellenized Roma n culture, and he himself is called The Platonist, being well versed in Greek philosophy. He is consistent in what he writes in 44 Hunc vetere Latina lingua reperio Lemurem dictitatum Ex hisce ergo Lemuribus qui posterorum suorum curam sortitus placato et quieto numine domum possidet Lar dicitur familiaris ; qui vero ob adversa vitae merita nullis ( bonis ) sedibus incerta vagatione ceu quodam exilio punitur inane terriculamentum bonis hominibus ceterum malis noxium id genus plerique Larvas perhibent Cum vero incertum est quae cuique eorum sortitio evenerit utrum Lar sit an Larva nomine Manem deum nuncupant Apul. Soc 15. Martianus Capella says something somewhat similar, except that he notes that lemures are spirits specifically who have remained in their bodies after death only to be changed into lares larvas and manias later ( manes . cum his ( corporibus defunctis ) manentes appellati lemures postea et in lares et in larvas ac manias conversi Mart. Cap. 2.162).

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21 that his fiction reflects his factual writings on the dead, though his re putation as a novelist makes him untrustworthy. Thus, with each successive author, a new class of spir its arises, or a different understanding is attached to an older class. If one assumes that origin ally the dead for the Romans were a general mass, then with th e further influence of Greek culture, which could not live without classi fication, more elaborate expl anations arose and reflect influence from the Greeks. Thus, it is easy to see why scholars today are so confused on the subject of classification of the dead si nce the ancients themselves were confused about it, and they confused it themselves. 45 Apuleius argument, particularly about the good lemures as lares however, may not be far from the mark. There is evidence that the lares were seen as spirits of the dead, particularly family dead, and there is a fu rther connection with the dead through their mother, the goddess Mania. 46 Based on the types of sacr ifices given to her, the Mater Larum appears to be an earth godd ess, making her children, the lares chthonic spirits. 47 During the Compitalia images of Mania were hung at the cro ssroad shrines and on the house doors (Macr. 1.7.34-35), and Festus claims th at the term was used to scare children into behaving better (Fest. p. 115 L). 48 Martianus Capella claims that the lares were benevolent spirits and that th ey hold a natural position in the Arval brotherhood whose rituals purpose was to make the fields fertile. 49 A sacrifice was offered to Mania during 45 For example, Augustine misinterpreted Apuleius ghostly distinctions claiming that lemures and larvae are evil ( Dicit quidem et animas hominum daemonas esse et ex hominibus fieri lares si boni meriti sunt ; lemures si mali seu larvas ; manes autem deos dici si incertum est bonorum eos seu malorum esse meritorum August. C D 9.11). 46 Powell claims that the word lares is derived from the Etruscan word for spirit of the dead and that their role was to protect the household, p. 645. 47 Taylor 300. 48 Taylor 301. 49 Ibid. 301.

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22 the Lemuria on May 11 th but Ovid makes no mention of it. 50 It seems odd that Ovid would make no mention of Mania or her sacrifice during a time when it would be so appropriate to do so. If one examines, however, Mania one may find that Ovid actually does mention her. Ovid called Mania Lara and said she mothered the lares via Mercury (Ov. Fast 2.583-616). 51 Mania was honored at the Larentalia under the name Acca Larentia, and she was also associated with the Junii family who honored their ancestors during the Larentalia instead of the Parentalia 52 The connection came through Junius Brutus, who, while consul, deleted th e human sacrifices in honor of Mania during the Compitalia 53 More importantly, perhaps, Acca Larentia, having been associated with Mania through the Arval brotherhood, made he r the foster mother of Romulus and Remus. 54 Thus, Ovid does mention Mania during the Lemuria, not as a goddess but a dutiful wife who with her husband performs the proper burial ceremonies for their son Remus. As a result of their parentage, Romulus and Remus are sometimes regarded as the lares, and since their mother is a goddess of the dead, this makes them chthonic deities as well. Thus, the significance of Mania is that she is a goddess of death, the mother of the lares and also the mother (or foster mother) of Romulus and Remus. Since both lares and Romulus and Remus are revered by the Romans and on account of the benevolent nature of the lares it is not difficult to see how a belief that the favorable dead became lares 50 It is possible that the inscription could read that the sacrifice goes to someone other than Mania such as the manes themselves as the TLL offers ma ( an ma ? ) (1130). The ma is the abbreviation found on the calendar ( Fasti Antiates Maiores ). Scullard lists the other possibilities but believes it to be Mania p.119. 51 The lares were born to Mania and Mercury as he led her to Hades. 52 Plu. Quaest Rom 34; Cic. Leg 2.54 as cited by Taylor, p. 302. 53 Macr. 1.7.35 as cited by Taylor, p. 302. 54 Taylor 302. Mania was also construed with Maia and the Bona Dea as goddesses of the Underworld, see Macr. 1.12.23, 1.12.20-1.

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23 Having examined the terminology of the dead, the following things should be noted. The first is the number of the terms, (if the term is singular like umbra or plural like lemures ). It has been noted that the plural forms indicate older ideas. This would imply a quasi-evolution for the understanding of the dead from communal to individual to communal (though with a small amount of individuality recognized within the community). 55 This is not surprising since this mirrors the evolution of living humans, that is, humans begin to survive by livi ng in a communal environment. Once a communal environment is established, the ch aracteristic of in dependence through the understanding that each person has a unique role to play within the community arises among the members. Each member, however cannot exist without the community, and, thus, a coexistence is established betw een the community and its individuals. 56 Thus, under this notion, the terms manes and lemures seem more archaic than the terms that are singular such as larva and umbra The dead have also been described as nightly, though they are not bound to the night alone. This description implies th e color black, which along with white and transparent, are the colors that befit a ghost. Ghosts are also black through the association of ashes after crem ation. But even before cremation, they are black because they are dirty from living in a dark place (earth ). Their food is not the normal food of the living but the rotten scraps left behind and even dirt itself. Black is also the fitting color for the dead since it is a colo r that denotes a sinister morality. While not all ghosts are sinister, there was the idea that they brought death and were often used for mischievous 55 It should be noted that this evolution is not as linear as it is described here. The process of the creation of an afterlife is on going, even today, as various cultu res and religions interact and share their beliefs and ideas. In the West, the common formula has been the general to the more specific and then a combination of both. 56 Clarke 7a.

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24 purposes. Black, furthermore, is the color of impenetrability and immensity. The dead, as already noted, are a huge group, and, as a rule cannot be penetrated, or at least are not supposed to be, that is, once one crosses the Great River, one stays. The mixing of the realms of the dead and the living would only bring chaos to the cherished order of the world. White, on the other hand, is the color of the dead on account of bones. White often has the connotation of goodness and purity, and, hence, it is found as the color of angels and other higher beings. On the othe r hand, white, as Winkler pointed out, is the color associated with the menacing larvae The transparent is simple to interpret if one understands or believes that th e ghost is a copy of the real person, and such a belief for the Romans might have come from thei r funereal practice of death masks. While Roses animated corpse idea has merit for an original understanding of the dead, it seems based on flimsy evidence and wo rk better as a general notion of what the dead looked like. As Winkler points out white cannot be a description of the lemures since they are black. Thus, we can say with assurance that lemures are black chthonic creatures, perhaps the dead, which feed on either humans or beans.

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CHAPTER 3 OVIDS REMUS: A GHOST STORY The following discussion will focus on Ovids tale of Remus as a ghost story and how this may or may not contribute to the understanding of the lemures. In order to do this, it is necessary to have a grasp of the myth of Remus. 1 While today a historian would be unorthodox to incorporate a ghost story as part of an historical account, in ancient times it was perfectly normal. Thus, it should be noted that no ancient historian ever discusses or mentions Remus apparition or any rites dedicated to him. It, therefore, seems that either Ovid made up the story; or the tradition was known, and Ovid wrote it in the form of the ghost story genre. While the ancients did not classify genres as moderns do, there were certain motifs for the ancient ghost story that include the terminology used to describe ghosts, the context of the ghosts appearance, and the reason for their return. According to Ovid, the Lemuria comes from the fact that Remus, after his death, requested a festival in his honor. Romulus granted the request and established the Remuria. Over time the r in Remuria became an l making it the Lemuria (aspera mutata est in lenem tempore longo / littera, quae toto nomine prima fuit. Ov. Fast. 5.481-2). If one attempts to find Remuria in other works, one will encounter Remoria instead. The Remoria was either the Aventine hill itself, or it was the spot where Remus 1 To date, Wisemans study is the most thorough, though his arguments barely mention the festival of the Lemuria. 25

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26 wanted the city built where Romulus later buried him. 2 This allowed some scholars to think that Remoria was a nearby settlement the Romans conquered. 3 The Remoria shares in the same derivation as Remus name (from remorari ). Remus was called so because he possessed tarditas and, thus, people who had this were called remores according to the OGR 4 One could further interpret remores as those delayed (those who having died are still trapped in this realm). 5 The story of the Remuria is a ghost story, and Ovid sets the stage by calling upon Mercury. Mercury is an a ppropriate choice for the invocation since he is the psychopompos that is, the one who esco rts the dead to the Underw orld. He is the correct one to inspire Ovid with the ta le since he is familiar with the underworld, visiting it on a regular basis ( saepe tibi est Styg ii regia visa Iovis Ov. Fast 5.448). He also would have escorted Remus at his deat h to the underworld. Mercury has other associations with Remus. Augustus had the temple of Quirinus rebuilt and dedicated in 16 B.C.E. after it had been destroyed by lightening during the war between Caesar and Pompey. The pediment sculpture contains a series of doors in the central position above which are birds that fly to the left. On the left is seated 2 D.H. 1.85.6; D.H. 1.86.2; D.H. 1.87.3; Festus (Paulus) 345L; Plu. Rom 11.1; OGR 23.1 as cited by Wiseman p. 203 n. 53, 54. 3 Wiseman cites Niebuhrs Lectures on Roman History p. 40. 4 Wiseman 102 and 110, and he also cites OGR 21.5. 5 Kretschmer 294, as cited in Wiseman p. 174 n. 81, indicates that the archaic spelling of lemures is lemores to which Wiseman adds (from remores ?); visible ghosts, especially of murder victims, might be thought of as delaying ( remorantes ) in this world because not yet received into the next (Plautus Mostellaria 498-503).

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27 Romulus with four deities standing near him, all facing him: a goddess holding a cornucopia, Jupiter, Mars, and Victory. On th e right is Remus, but in his line is Mercury, Hercules, Bona Dea (possibly), and Murcia goddess of slowness a nd cessation, the only one facing Remus. 6 There is also the possible altern ative story in which Mercury is the father of the twins. Within this tradition, Romulus and Remus become the Lares Since the father of the Lares is Mercury, and their mother is Lara, Mercury an d Lara become the parents of Romulus and Remus, 7 giving the twins chthonic qualities. Remus' ghost is described as a transparen t image of him at death just as many ghosts are. 8 The terms used were umbra and imago. Both terms seem to be interchangeable since they denote a transparent entity. 9 There is also a strong support for an alternate reading in the textual tran smission in which Remus calls himself a manes The alternate reading occu rs in line 472, replacing in mea fata with manibus ille. 10 This would then indicate that imago, umbra manes and lemures are interchangeable for a transparent spook, and, therefore, imply similar ity, if not equality. To further emphasize Remus insubstantiality, Ovid describes his voice as speaking in a low whisper ( exiguo murmure ). More importantly he is a ghost that appears as he did when he died ( cruenta). Many ghosts had who died violent deaths were often seen as they appeared when they died, as if the violence surr ounding their death was so horrific, so incredible, it could 6 Wiseman 147-8. 7 Wiseman 128, 139. 8 umbra cruenta Remi visa est assistere lecto / atque haec exiguo murmure verba loqui, Ov Fast. 5.457-58; lubrica prensantes effugit umbra manus, Ov Fast. 5.476. 9 Felton 24. She notes that Pliny used umbra imago simulacrum effigies and manes (Plin. Nat 7.27.511), while Vergil used simulacrum umbra and imago (Verg. A 2.772-3,793). Lucretius used umbra manes and animas when he was discussing the ridiculousness of believing in ghosts (Lucr. 4.37-40, 6.76266) but used simulacrum and imago to explain what they actually were (Lucr.4.29-53). Cicero used manes when explaining the three parts of equality, one pertaining to men, the other to gods, and the third to the dead (Cic. Top 90.8). Manes occurs only one other time in Cicero, that being in a letter to Atticus (Cic. Att 5.13.3). 10 Alton cites the following in the Teubner: || 472 in mea fata : manibus ille U ob 422 ||, p. 128.

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28 never be taken away. For example, Sychaeus appeared to Dido revealing his battered body ( ora modis attollens pallida miris ; / crudelis aras trajectaque pectora ferro nudavit Verg. A 1.354-55) and, later in the Aeneid a mutilated Hector visits Aeneas in a dream ( raptatus bigis ut quondam aterque cruento / pulvere perque pedes trajectus lora tumentis Verg. A 2.272-73). Dido appeared to Anna with a gory figure ( squalenti Dido sanguinulenta coma Ov. Fast 3.639), and Tlepolemus visite d his wife in a dream ( umbra illa misere trucidati Tlepolemi sanie cruentam et pallore deformem Apul. Met. 8.8). 11 The unifying elements of these stories are that every one of these characters died violent deaths, that the ghosts appeared in dreams, and that gh osts are insubstantial, just like Remus. Because they died violent deaths they are regarded as having died prematurely. How the equation of violent, premature death equals insubstantial shade visiting only in dream came about is not clea r. Under this observation, however, one could argue that since Remus falls into this category of ghosts, the fe stival celebrates this particular category of ghosts. Porphyrio s commentary on Horace would confirm this notion: Et putant lemores esse dictos quasi Re mulos a Remo, cuius occisi umbras frater Romulus cum placare vellet, Lemuri a instituit, id est Parentalia, quae mense Maio per triduum celebrari so lent, ante additum anno mensem Februarium. (Por. Hor. Ep 2.2.209) And they think that lemures are called Remulos from Remus somewhat, When his brother Romulus wanted to appease his unfortunate shades, he established the Lemuria, that is the Parentalia which they are accustomed to celebrate in the month of May fo r three days, before the month of February was added to the year. A clue to understanding the equation may come from a fragment of Plotinus in which he begins his discussion by quoting the Chaldaean Oracles, You will not dismiss your Soul 11 These examples are all taken from Felton.

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29 lest it go forth taking something with it (Plot. Enn 1.9). 12 The understanding seems to be that a) humans have control over their death and b) if one permits himself to die by a violent means (murder, suicide, war) the soul will carry away some form of corporealness (evil) with it. 13 Plato has Socrates say something si milar in that souls, impure on account of evil behavior in life, are st ill attached to corporeal things and, therefore, still remain flitting about in this realm: , , , , , (Pl. Phd. 30c-d). It is necessary, friend, to think that the [corporeal] is heavy, earth-like, and visible. Such a soul as this is burd ened and enticed again into the visible realm, by fear of both the incorporeal a nd of Hades, as they say, lingering around the monuments and tombs, where the insubstantial phantoms of souls have been observed, the sort of images that are souls which were not released in a pure manner, but maintain something of the visible, causing them to be seen. The problem with both of these understandings is regarding morality. Not every person who dies an untimely death led an evil life One may argue that souls become impure because they experience an untimely death and then must suffer the fate of the untimely dead, however, Socrates seems to be arguing that evil people suffer the same fate as the untimely dead. Thus, is Plato in corporating a cultural belief in to his statements, or is he modifying it to explain his moral philosophy? 12 The translation comes from Mackennas edition. According to him, Michael Psellus identified the line from the Chaldeaen Oracles p. 71. 13 The interpretation comes from Mackenna, p. 71.

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30 Additional evidence for Remus being an comes from the observations of Wiseman, who, in the course of his book, mentions the pos sibility that Remus was a sacrificial victim for the sake of defending the walls of Rome. 14 Wiseman argues that the stories preserved by Propertius and Florus contain the orig inal version of the Romulus and Remus myth, a story created in 296 B.C. E. as a way to assuage the guilt of the Romans for performing a human sacrifice in that year. 15 A human sacrifice in the ancient world was interpreted in two primary ways: a) as a necessary death for the protection and survival of others and b) as a murder. It can be seen in the fact that those who performed the ritual had to be spiritually cleansed, al most punished afterwards. Human sacrifices, moreover, are offered to the gods below ( parentare in Latin, in Greek). 16 As such, their rites are different from the sacrif ices to the gods above. Rohde explains the rites well, saying: Sacrifice was made to the gods in broad daylight, to Heroes towards evening or at night; and not on raised altars, but on low, and sometimes hollow, sacrificial hear ths close to the ground. For them were slain animals of black colour and male sex, and in sacrificing, the heads of the animals were not turned upwards towa rds heaven as they were when offered to the gods, but were bent do wn to the ground. The blood of these animals was allowed to run down into the ground or into the sacrificial hearth, that the Heroes might have their appeasement of blood. The carcass was completely burnt, for no living man might taste of it. 17 In the ancient world, there is one huma n sacrifice that often comes to mind, Iphigenia. Iphigenia is sacrificed by her father Agamemnon in order to appease Artemis or in accordance with the will of Zeus or both. Most know that some versions hold that 14 Wiseman 125. 15 caesio moenis firma Remo (Prop. 3.9.50); prima certe victima fuit munitionemque urbis novae sanguine suo consecravit (Flor. 1.1.8) as cited by Wiseman p. 208 n. 116. 16 Hardie 44. While there is no one specifically menti oned, Iphigenia is sacrificed in a chthonic manner. Polyxena is sacrificed to Achilles, and he roes are appeased thro ugh chthonic rites. 17 Rohde 116. See also Hardie pp. 44-45.

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31 Iphigenia died or that she was saved by Arte mis and then became her priestess. There was another tradition, however, which stated that upon being sacrificed, Artemis changed Iphigenia into the goddess Hecate, the goddess of witches, crossroads, and the patroness of the dead, particularly the untimely dead. 18 Iphigenia as the prototypical / became the leader of such beings If Remus was also sacrificed, that would make him an or and possibly, a leader similar to Hecate. No such tradition, conversely, is ever established around the figure of Remus as there was with Iphigenia and Hecate. Instea d, he is passed over and almost forgotten. Why does Iphigenia as Hecate become the patr oness of the dead, while Remus remains a silent shade? The answer may lie in an argument based upon information from Wiseman. The Romans looked down upon human sacrif ice, but knew there were certain times, particularly in a crisis, when it became necessary, as Livy indicated: Interim ex fatalibus libris sacrificia a liquot extraordinaria facta; inter quae Gallus et Galla, Graecus et Graeca in fo ro bovario sub terram vivi demissi sunt in locum saxo consaeptum, iam ante hostiis humanis, minime Romano sacro, imbutum. (Liv. 22.57.6) 19 From those fatal books several extraord inary sacrifices were performed; among which a Gallic male and female, a Greek male and female were sent alive under the earth in the forum bovarium in a place enclosed by a rock, tainted with human enemies by th at least Roman of customs. The Romans did not outlaw human sacrifice until 97 B.C.E. (DCLVII demum anno urbis Cn Cornelio Lentulo P Licinio Crasso cos senatus consultum factum est ne homo immolaretur Plin. Nat 30.3.12). The sacrifice of 296 B. C.E. was to help the Romans achieve victory over an alliance between the Sa mnites, Etruscans, and Gauls. To justify and offer proof for the success of the sacrif ice, the foundation story, which incorporated 18 Stesich. fr. 215 PMG as cited by Johnston p. 241. 19 Wiseman 125. The information in the following two paragraphs comes from Wiseman, pp. 124-126.

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32 Remus as a sacrifice for the pr otection of the city, was created. Due to both the passage of time and the disgust towards the act, the myth was rewritten into the current forms. The moral behind the original myth (safety of the city) is retained in them, but the methodology is different. Although this argument is (rather) conjectu ral, it does provide an excellent connection between Remus and the lemures as defined as 20 The story could also be supported by a line of Ennius who has Remus on Mt. Murcus offer himself to the gods below ( Remus se devovet) during the augury contest. 21 Since the Remoria is believed to be the place where Remus was buried and is associated either with the Aventine, then perhaps the Remoria was the spot where Remus was believed to be sacrificed. The Remuria could then be the festival set up to honor the sacrificed Remus. Over time, the day became associated with all those who were murdered or died untimely deaths ( remores ), and eventually the term remores included all the dead. This may even indica te a possible starting point for the Lemuria (c.a. 296 B.C.E.). Remus appears after Faustulus and Acca have laid down to sleep which is a common occurrence in many ghost stories as me ntioned above. Sleep was seen as a time when the soul could connect with the spiritual realm. 22 Cicero discusses the potency of the soul at death and in sleep in De Divinatione, saying the following: Cum ergo est somno sevocatus animus a societate et a contagione corporis, tum meminit praeteritorum, praesentia cernit, futuro praevidet; iacet enim corpus dormientis ut mortui, viget au tem et vivit animus. Quod multo magis faciet post mortem, cum omnino corpore ex cesserit (Cic. Div 1.63). 20 Wiseman 119. 21 Ibid. 13. 22 Felton 19.

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33 When therefore during sleep the soul is separated from the association and contamination of the body, then it recalls the past, perceives the present, and foretells the future; for though th e body lies sleeping as if dead, the soul flourishes nevertheless and lives. It will do after death, when it will have departed entirely from the body. Felton notes that ghosts who appear in dreams are often the spirits of the recently deceased. 23 The terminology used to describe Remus appearance coincides with the terminology used in dreams and with ghosts including those ghosts who appear to people awake ( adsisto ). 24 Aristotle discussed briefly why people witness what they experience in dreams in De Somniis. According to him, apparitions often appear during sleep or around sleep because the mind is in a depressed state of consciousness. In such a state, the mind does not have the ability to distinguish between true and false impressions. Residual impre ssions, impressions which remain in the sense organs, furthermore, can appear causing one to believe one is witn essing an actual person or object. Thus, while asleep, the mind cannot accurately interp ret the impressions, causing hallucinations or dreams. 25 People returned from the dead for several reasons. 26 They return to seek revenge for their death just as Verginias ghost w ould not rest till her mu rderers were punished ( manesque Verginiae, mortuae quam vivae felicioris per tot domos ad petendas poenas vagati nullo relicto sonte tandem quieverunt Liv. 3.58.11). In Euripides Hecuba, Achilles ghost would not permit the army to leave Troy until Polyxena was sacrificed upon his grave ( / 23 Felton 19. The examples noted above from Vergil, Ovid, and Apuleius would support this. 24 Felton 19; cf. assistere in footnote 8. Felton also cites Plin. Nat 3.5; Lucian. Philops 25, 30-31; Plg. Mir 2. 25 Ar. De Som 461b5-10, 25-30, 462a10-15 as found in his Parva Naturalia 26 Felton outlines three primary reasons for the dead to return: warning and revenge, comfort and reward, and burial, Felton pp. 8-12. This discussion will focu s on the first and the third reasons, and will repeat some of her examples as well as use stories that appear in other parts of her book that fit these categories.

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34 Eur. Hec 40-1). Neros mother, after he had her killed, haunted him to such an extent that he summoned the magi to have himself exorcised ( quin et facto per Magos sacro evocare Manes et exorare temptavit. Suet. Nero 34), just as Galba would not let his assassin, Ot ho, sleep, keeping him up through the night ( ante lectum iacens per omnia piaculorum genera Manes Galbae a quo deturbari expellique se viderat propitiare temptasse Suet. Otho 7). Plutarch tells how Pausanias accidentally killed the maiden Cleonice who haunt ed him almost until he died ( Plu. Cim 6.6) The dead return to warn or advise the liv ing. Tlepolemus returns to warn his wife to stay away from Thrasyllus ( modo ne in Thrasylli manum sacrilegam convenias Apul. Met. 8.8). The ghost of a father returns to his daughter to warn her that her stepmother committed the crime ( eique totum novercae scelus aperuit Apul. Met. 9.31). There were also oracles of the dead, places thought to be closer to the underworld and therefore more opportune for contact with the dead. Ogden recognizes three types of such oracles. The first consists of places one goes to have someone conjure the dead. 27 The second consisted of oracles of dead heroes. The th ird were places that led to the Underworld such as caves or birdless lakes. Like other oracles, messages were often acquired through incubation performed by eith er the priest or the pilgrim. 28 Ironically, the message from the dead may have been thought to have been more down to earth and less open to interpretation in comparison to th e other oracles such as Delphi as indicated 27 Ogden (2001) feels that the Romans received thes e from the Greeks and name s the four major ones: Acheron in Thesprotia, Avernus in Campania, Heraclei a Pontica near the Black S ea, and Tainaron on the Mani peninsula, p. 17. Pausanias summoned the spirit of Cleonice at Heracleia in the story above (Plu. Cim 6.5-6) 28 Ogden (2001) 23-28.

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35 by Lucans Erictho ( Tripodas vatesque deorum / sors obscura decet : certus discedat, ab umbris / quisque vera petit duraeque oracula mortis / fortis adit Luc. Phars 6.770-73). One, however, need not travel far to consult the dead since the local necromancer could reanimate a corpse with its spirit or could summon a spirit itself. The most popular reason for ghosts to return is to request proper burial. 29 Burial and funerary rites were among the most important religious rituals in the ancient world. He who was left unburied or was buried but di d not have the necessa ry funerary rites could not enter or rest in the af terlife. As such, he was stuck in this life as an abnormality, a glitch in the matrix, as it were. Th e earliest Greco-Roman example is in the Iliad where Patroclus asks Achilles to get over his death and bury him since he cannot cross into the afterlife until his funerary rites are carried out ( / , / / Hom. Il.23.71-4). The sibyl explains to Ae neas that souls whose bones rest in the tomb rest in the Underworld, while souls whose bodies are left unburied roam the shores of the Styx for a hundred years un til they are finally permitted to cross ( Haec omnis quam cernis inops inhumataque turba est; / portitor ille Charon ; hi quos vehit unda, sepulti ; / nec ripas datur horrendas et rauca fluenta / transportare prius quam sedibus ossa quierunt Verg. A 6.325-30). Caligula haunted the Lamian gardens until his sisters buried him ( satis constat prius quam id fieret, hortorum custodies umbris inquietatos ; in ea quoque domo in qua occubuerit nullam noctem sine aliquot terrore transactam donec ipsa domus incendio consumpta sit Suet. Cal 59). Plautus 29 Felton 9.

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36 Mostellaria tells of a ghost, Diapontius, who was killed by his host and was buried beneath the house which he now haunts (TR. ego transmarinus hospes sum Diapontius / hic habito haec mihi dedita est habitatio / nam me Acheruntem recipere Orcus noluit / quia praemature vita careo . . Pl. Mos. 497-500). Plinys At henodorus figures out that a house is haunted because someones body was hidden below the house. Once the bones were discovered and properly buried, the haunting ceased (Pl. Nat 7.27.5-11). Likewise, Arignotus, one of Lucians philosophers in the Philopseudes, exorcised a haunted house by having a body that was disc overed below it properly buried (Lucian. Philops. 30-31). The act of burial rites says something about being a living human being and that beings struggle with death. The German philosopher Hans-Georg Gadamer captures this well stating: This special human dimension is the in-built capacity of man to think beyond his own life in the world, to thi nk about death. This is why the burial of the dead is perhaps the fundamental phenomenon of becoming human. Burial does not refer to a rapi d hiding of the dead, a swift clearing away of the shocking impression made by one suddenly stuck fast in a leaden and lasting sleep. On the cont rary, by a remarkable expenditure of human labor and sacrifice th ere is sought an abiding with the dead, indeed a holding fast of the dead among the living. 30 Thus, since burial is so vital to the human char acter (perhaps more so for the ancient than the modern?) it should come as no surprise th at there is so great a fear about not being buried. This fear is a deep psychological one in that at leas t in life one could do something to help oneself should one find onese lf in a bad situation, but, in death, one had to completely rely on who was left behind to ensure ones security and happiness. In the Nicomachean Ethics Aristotle mentions the belief that the behavior of ones 30 Gadamer 75.

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37 descendants could affect the stat e of happiness of the dead. He argues, however, that it is ludicrous to believe that the be havior of the living affects the dead to such an extent, but, at the same time, it is just as ridiculous to believe that the behavior of the living has no affect on the dead. Thus, Aristotle concludes that the happiness of the dead, like the unconscious living, can be enhan ced or hindered by the fortunes of their descendants, but their happiness or unhappiness can never be transformed by the learning of these things. 31 In addition, like the ignorant living, there exists a tradi tion in literature that the dead are unaware of the present, yet familiar with both past and future. 32 Aristotle also seems to imply that the dead suffer ( Arist. EN 1101a30). He, however, never offers any explanations as to what the sufferings of the d ead are since that would be irrelevant to the topic at hand, but, for the living, he later in th is section states that death is the greatest fear for th e brave man to endure. The Romans had elaborate funerals that had proper imagery and symbolism for the Roman funereal agenda. The funeral in a ny culture is supposed to do two things: a) reveal how the person lived a meaningful life an d b) reveal how death is not the end (the person lives on either through memories, monu ments, religious beliefs, etc.). The 31 Arist. EN 1100a-1101b. An example of unconscious living would be if someone went on a trip, and while away, there was a death in a family. That someone is ignorant of the death until the voyage back. According to Pritzl, there are severa l different interpretations on this passage, though most agree that Aristotle himself did not believe this but was using it as an example to discourse on happiness, pp. 101-03. 32 When Odysseus consults Tiresias, he encounters se veral other shades, among whom is Achilles who asks him how Peleus, Neoptolemus, and the other Myrmidons are ( / / / Hom. Od 11.494-97). Pritzl offers this example from Pindars Odes 14, in which Asopichos wants his dead father to know of his victory. The translation, he says, comes from Bowra. Go now Echo to the black walls / Of Persephonas house / And bring the fine news to his father ; / See Kleodamos and tell him / How his son / In the famous valleys of Pytho / Has crowned his young hair / With the wings of a glorious triumph p. 107.

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38 Roman funeral consisting of th e display of death masks ( imagines ) and the recitation of the deeds of both the recently deceased a nd the previously deceased fulfill these characteristics. The Roman funeral, mo reover, not only is a celebration of the immortality and the exploits of the indivi dual Roman himself but also of Rome in general. As Polybius further notes, the ritu al can only inspire the future generations of Romans to aspire to the same glory ( ; ; Plb. 6.53). Hence, anything that would rob one of the opportunity for such glory not only robs individual life but also the life of Rome, its fu ture, and the future of every Roman. 33 Thus, one can see the importance of burial and fune real rites for the upper-class Romans. Remus has received burial and funereal r ites, but, for whatever reason, this time it is not enough. Remus request is more in tune with a divinity, although Remus is described as a shade not a god. There is no mention of his deification and nothing suggests he retains immortality or the glory that comes with immortality and deification. 34 When Augustus first was elected to the consulship, he identified himself with both Romulus and Remus, enabling Remus the possibility to acquire a glorious status. 35 Augustus gradually became identified with Quirinus, while his friend, Marcus Agrippa, on the other hand, may have become identified with Remus. Both mens personal histories resembled the stories regard ing Romulus and Remus. In fact, Servius 33 For further information on Roman burial and fu nerals, see Granger & Fowler. Roman Burial. CR 11 (1897) 32-35; Halliday. Roman Burial. CR 35 (1921) 1 54-55; Rose. Orientation of the Dead in Greece and Italy. CR 34 (1920) 141-146; Rose. Nocturnal Funerals in Rome. CQ 17 (1923) 191-4. Walker, S Memorials to the Roman Dead London: British Museum Publications. 1985. 34 The information contained in this paragraph comes from Wiseman, pp. 144-150. 35 D. C. 46.2-3, as cited by Wiseman p. 215 n. 89.

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39 claims that the prophecy in the Aeneid refers to them as such ( vera tamen hoc habet ratio Quirinum Augustum esse Remum vero pro Agrippa positum, Serv. A 1.292-3). 36 Several poets during this peri od, like Vergil and Propertius, sp eak of Remus as symbolic of Rome itself, never mentioning the murder but going to the extent of claiming that Romulus and Remus ruled together. The fu lfillment of the prophecy came crashing to a halt when Agrippa died in 12 B.C.E. At this point, the mention of Remus began to cease, and if he was mentioned, it was never in th e blissful manner that occurred in early Augustan propaganda. Unlike Romulus, Mars does not swoop down and take Remus back to Heaven by the process of apotheosis. Remus even says, Alas, where is my father Mars? ( heu ubi Mars pater est ? Ov. Fast 5.465). This is more significant than one may realize. The change of the escort indicates the importa nce of status, that is, Mercury comes for ordinary people, while the Sun, or in th is case Mars, takes heroes to heaven. 37 Thus, by invoking Mercury, Ovid reveals that Remus ne ver acquired any status of glory and is therefore not someone for a Roman to emulate. Rather, a true Roman will take Romulus as his model and hopes someday to be take n to heaven in his own chariot. Ovid tells us that Romulus consented to Remus request out of loyalty ( pietas ) for his brother. Remus recognizes that Romulus never meant hi m to be killed. The fault rests on Celer. Celer, whose name means swift, killed Remus with a spade when Remus jumped over the wall (or a trench in some stories) to pr ove that it was an unsuitable defense. Depending on the author, either Celer was bei ng too arrogant and hasty or Remus was, and some versions ha ve Romulus himself doing the deed. After 36 As cited by Wiseman p. 215 n. 96. The line is cana Fides et Vesta Remo cum fratre Quirinus / iura dabant ; Ver. Aen 1. 292-3. 37 Cumont 164.

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40 Celer killed Remus, he either went to Erturia or was awarded the title tribunus celerum who acted as the personal guards of the king. 38 The fact that Celer kills Remus with a digging instrument and the fact that the wall was built too low or the trench not dug deep enough in the ground suggests a chthonic quality to Remus death. Celers name and the fact that Remus was murdered mark Remus as someone who died before his time (an or ). As such, he can be enslaved by a magus and/or has the ability to become a horrific haunting creature to both Celer and other Roman citizens. Remus would surely want to haunt Celer, and based upon other ghost stories, one would expect him to do so. Remus, however, choos es a better, more fitting revenge for his killer by cursing him to suffer the same fate, Fierce Celer, through wounds may you give up your cruel spirit, and just like me, may you being bl ood-stricken travel to the realm below ( saeve Celer crudelem animam per volnera reddas / utque ego sub terras sanguinulentus eas. Ov. Fast 5.469-70). In a sense, Remus curse is etiological in nature in that celeres the guardians of the emperor, the essence of Rome, give their lives to ensure the emperors safety. In addition, the curse also tells where Remus resided after his death (the underworld). Why is Remus never given a celestial abode and why is he never deified? One possible explanation comes from York who argues that Romulus and Remus represent the divine duality co ncept found in the divine twins, a notion which transcends IndoEuropean cultures. Romulus represents the celestial while Remus represents the terrestrial. He states: But the connection of Remus with the Av entine in the canonical version of Romes founding suggests the Aventine as the physical symbol of the 38 Wiseman 9.

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41 other world hidden and contained w ithin the manifest Rome of this world. In essence, Rome is founded by both Romulus and Remus: the city represents the union or juncture of the visibl e world with the timeless and invisible otherworld. 39 York feels that this fact is significant, not that one twin killed the other, but that one of the twins is associated with the netherworld, a common motif of the divine duality throughout Indo-European cultures. 40 A different explanation is that Romulus and Remus are symbolic of the struggles between the patricians and th e plebeians. For example, the decision about who should rule Rome reflects such the struggle for re presentation in government. Each twin climbed one of the seven hills and waited for th e birds to determine who should be ruler. Romulus went to the Palatine, headquarters of the patricians, while Remus stood on the Aventine, headquarters of the plebeians. Romulus saw twelve birds, whereas Remus saw six, and, thus, Romulus claimed the throne (Ov. Fast 4.807-818). This explanation comes from Wiseman who states that the my th of both Romulus and Remus establishing Rome indicates the existen ce of a double community in which both units share equal status. 41 As so often noted, however, history can only be written by the victors, and, thus, Wiseman points out that the myth can hold power only once the plebeians achieved their political victories between 367 and 342 B.C.E. Thus, just as Remus was slow in achieving prominence, so were the plebeians. 42 If the lives of Romulus and Remus are sym bolic of the lives of the patricians and the plebeians, then it follows that the post mortem existence of Romulus and Remus 39 York 241. 40 York 242. Wiseman devotes an entire chapter as to why Romulus and Remus are not to be characterized as a divine duality like the Dioscuri and Asvins pp. 18-30. 41 Wiseman 126. 42 Wiseman 126.

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42 should reflect the post mortem existence of the patricians and plebeians. This can be seen in contrasting Romulus post mortem apparition with Remus post mortem apparition. Romulus returns to Proclus inform ing him that he is now the god Quirinus. The description of Romulus is not a transpar ent shade but a larger than life human. There is no cruentum no exiguus murmur but rather a solid, firm entity dressed in a purple toga ( trabeaque decorus Ov. Fast 2.503). His description ( humano major ) is a common description of deities and of certa in phantoms. These phantoms are often women who appear duri ng times of crisis. 43 In Latin, they are called species muliebris as in Tacitus ( species muliebris ultra modum humanum Tac. Ann. 11.21), or they are referred to as larger than normal such as in Vergil ( nota major imago Verg. A 2.773), which resembles the Greek 44 Romulus appeared while Proclus was walking on a road, Remus appeared in a dream. Both appeared at night; Remus in the middle of th e night, Romulus with the moon shining (Ov. Fast 2.500) Remus merely stands by th e bed and does not move until Acca and Faustulus grab for him. There is more movement in Romulus account, and the movement is not qualified by such words as subito motu adesse, and evanuit as with Remus ( fugiens or effugit ). Remus curses Celer and requests the celebration of the Lemuria. Romulus message commands the people not to mourn his death but celebrate his divinity as Quirinus. While Remus iden tifies himself as an empty shade, Romulus indicates his greatness as a god. Remus messa ge is borne to Romulus, while Romulus message is taken to the Roman people. The Lemuria is established for Remus, while temples, rites, and a hill were dedicated to Romulus. It is quite obvious which story is 43 Felton 24. Vergil also, in this case, calls Creusa simulacrum and umbra (Verg. A 2.772) 44 Felton 24, 31.

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43 the one considered by the Romans to be more glorious and more positive. While Remus is Roman, he is not as Roman as Romulus. The irony is that a lthough, these stories are about the dead, they say more about the livi ng especially about the qualities that make up a good Roman. A Roman ought to be larger than life. Other cultures are secondary. A Roman is quick to act because speed implie s decisiveness necessary for survival. A Roman acquires glory for Rome and her people. The opposite of thes e characteristics is the way in which patricians vi ewed plebeians. Plebeians should not hold as much power as patricians. Plebeians were slow to come to power, and all plebeians want is more power for themselves. Having examined Ovids rendition of Remus apparition, there are some important things to mention. The Remoria refers to a place sacr ed to both Remus and the plebeians. It is possible that this place is regarded as the spot on which Remus was sacrificed for the defense of the city or where he was buried or both. Remus possessed the characteristics of a and the only irregularity of his return was that he asked for a festival to be celebrated for him. Based on these observations, one may conclude that the Remuria may well have been a festiv al to honor Remus and other

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CHAPTER 4 RITE OF THE LEMURIA It is the purpose of this section to examine the rite during the Lemuria to ascertain whether it can reveal anything about the nature of the ghosts that are expelled during it. 1 The rite performed during the Lemuria could be seen as a quasi-exorcism. If an exorcisms purpose is to repel ghosts, then a necromantic ritual would be its opposite. Yet, often both exorcisms and necromantic ceremonies have similarities. This is so because a necromancer must protect himself from the spirits, and, thus, those same things that protect a necromancer can be used to protect an exorcist and can repel ghosts. Hence, there are certain tools of the trade that enable one to handle, repel, and control the dead. The Time nox ubi iam media est somnoque silentia praebet, et canis et variae conticuistis aves (5.429-30) The rite during the Lemuria is old according to Ovid and is handed down by the ancestors (qui partem prisci nunc quoque moris habet Ov. Fast. 5.428), occurring in the dead of night. The middle of the night is the appropriate time for the dead to be active since the rest of creation, as Ovid points out, is asleep, itself in a state of quasi-death. There are other times appropriate for the appearance of the dead. One time is the opposite of media nocte, that is, medio die. Both Pliny and Tacitus write of ghosts that appear at this time as well as Lucian, Phlegon, and Apuleius. 2 In Greek culture, the 1 Ov. Fast. 5. 429-444. 2 Felton cites Plin. Nat. 7.27.2, Tac. Ann. 11.21, Luc. Philops. 22, Plg. Mir. 3.4, Apul. Met. 9.29-30, p. 6. 44

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45 Empousa and the heroes (both chthonic entities) rise at this tim e to acquire the sacrifices due to them. 3 Furthermore, midnight and noon were, a nd still are, regarded as temporal thresholds during which creatures, such as ghosts, may cross over into opposing or adjacent realms. Another possible time when th e dead appear is not so much a time but an aspect of the setting, that is, dim light. For the ancients, this would be lamp light, candle light, moonlight, or the setting sun. This would make sense if one considers the description of ghosts as white, black, and transparent. During full light, the transparent would barely be visible. During comple te darkness only the white might possibly be seen. However, in dim light all three are vi sible. Felton notes that often, whenever a ghost appeared, there was a lamp nearby or the area was dimly lit. 4 The process of putting lamps in graves in Greece increased in the fifth century B.C.E. when cremation increased. 5 A burning lamp reflected an eternal spir it and lit the way to the Underworld. Even when Vestal Virgins were caught di sobeying their laws and punished by being buried alive, they were bu ried with a lighted lamp. 6 Hecate, the goddess of witchcraft and the dead, furthermore, was us ually pictured carrying torches. 7 Thus, since it is the middle of the night and Ovid claims that the ghosts are visible during the Lemuria, one must assume that the celebrant, in order to see to perform the ritual, walks about holding a candle or lamp, or has a servant hold it. 8 3 Rohde 593. 4 Felton 55. Both Plinys Athenodorus and Lucians Arignotus read and write by lamplight in haunted houses (Pliny Nat. 7.27.5-11, Lucian. Philops 30-31). 5 Felton 55. 6 Powell 631. 7 Felton 14. 8 This is not so difficult an image to imagine because of finger lamps. Finger lamps would be small and easy enough to handle while trying to deal with everyt hing else. To see a possible example of such a lamp, see Knopf, p. 162.

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46 Barefoot and Binding habent gemini vincula nulla pedes (5.432) The concept of binding is prevalent in both ancient and modern magical practices. By binding someone, that person is under your control. There is a tremendous amount of evidence for binding since there have been so many curse tablets found. So many have been discovered because once a spell is cast (often in lead), it must be hidden lest someone attempt to undo it. Also, from the amount found, curse tablets seem to have been a very ordinary part of ancient life. Fritz divided them into the various categories: defixiones iudicare (judicial spells), defixiones amatoriae (erotic spells), defixiones agonisticae (agonistic spells), and defixiones against economic competitors. 9 Gager divides up the way in which the spells ar e pronounced: direct binding (I bind X!), prayer formulas (Restrain X! ), and persuasive analogies ( As this lead is cold and useless, so may X be cold and useless!). 10 As one may notice, rarely are curse tablets employed to kill another person. The associa tion with the dead, however, along with the few instances where murder actually was sought made them a sinister force, a taboo for the Romans (hence the expulsion of ma gicians from Rome several times). 11 On the other hand, being bound is a way to protect someone from outside forces. Thus, by being unbound, one opens oneself to all possibilities of the universe. In all sacred rites nothing can be bound. 12 The flamen dialis could have no knots on him and could not even wear a 9 Fritz 120-1. 10 Gager 13. 11 The story that probably ensured the taboo was not forgotten is the one found in Tacitus Annals regarding the death of Germanicus. ( saevam vim morbid augebat persuasio veneni a Pisone accepti ; et reperiebantur solo ac parietibus erutae humanorum corporum reliquiae carmina et devotiones et nomen Germanici plumbeis tabulis insculptum semusti cineres ac tabo obliti aliaque malefica quis creditur animas numinibus infernis sacrari simul missi a Pisone incusabantur ut valitudinis adversa rimantes Tac. Ann 69). 12 Serv. A. 4.518 as cited by Burriss, p. 158.

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47 ring unless it was broken or without a stone. 13 Helenus removed his fillets to receive the full inspiration of Apollo when he went to Apollos temple (Verg. A 3.370). Also, a pregnant woman could not even bind her hair or cross her legs or fingers lest she block the child from birth. 14 Thus, since the celebrant of the Lemuria cannot be bound, he must perform the rite barefoot. Going barefoot is a common pr actice for any ancient spiritualist, for those who are considered positive such as Apollonius those considered sinister such as Medea, as well as the normal, average, everyday magician. 15 By going completely unbound, the celebrant enables himself to perceive and handle the spirits of the dead. The Averting Gesture signaque dat digitis medio cum police iunctis occurrat tacito ne levis umbra sibi (5.433-34) The celebrant makes a symbol with his hand to ward off ghosts. Frazer calls this the fig from the Italian la fica or mano fica to avert the evil eye. 16 The bulla worn by the Roman child was used to ward off the evil eye. 17 Medea killed Talos with the evil eye (A.R. 4.1635-90). 13 Gellius 10.15.6 as cited by Burriss, pp. 157-58. 14 Burriss 157. 15 For Apollonius and the average magician see Fritz, pp. 114-115. Canidia walked and performed her sinister rites barefoot ( Canidiam pedibus nudis passoque capillo Hor. S 1.8.24). Before Dido begins her ritual to kill herself, she takes off a sandal and loosens her robe ( unum exuta pedem vinclis in vesta recincta Verg. A 4.518). 16 Frazer 292. Pliny claims that the statue of an unnamed goddess was set up on the Capitoline as protection against the evil eye ( cur effascinationibus adoratione peculiari occurrimus alii Graecam Nemesin invocantes cuius ob id Romae simulacrum in Capitolio est quamvis Latinum nomen non sit ? Plin. Nat. 28.5.22). 17 Burriss 153.

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48 Water cumque manus puras fontana perluit unda (5.435) Water is one of the ingredients comm on to Greek, Roman, and Near Eastern religious and necromantic practices. The ironi c thing about water is that although it is the source for life, it is chthonic in nature. 18 According to Aeschylus, certain liquids were chosen for a necromantic rite since they we re calming and propitiating, while Euripides claimed they were used because they could summon the dead. 19 The ancients actually recognized two forms of water (rain and earthly water). Rain water would be used in celebrations for celestial deit ies, while earthly water w ould be used for chthonic worship. 20 The chthonic quality of water affect ed the Romans in a humorous way as it made the baths become haunted since they were fed by underground water sources. Hence, the water used in the rite for the Lemuria comes from a spring ( fontana). Water is also the substance for purification. Purity implies a sense of order, a sense that something exists as it ought to exist. 21 Hence, that which is impure is deformed. All sorts of things can render someone or something impure, such as dirt, blood, or corpses. Because humans value purity to such an extent, it is necessary to guard it, cherish it, and attempt to transform anything impure into something pure. While it is mans desire that all be always pure this does not happen. Pure people and pure objects, however, become impure, sometimes purposefully sometimes accidentally, and thus, certain rituals a nd ceremonies have been created to nullify the impurity and restore 18 Odgen (2001) 170. For further discussion of water as chthonic, see Ninck pp. 1-46, as cited by Ogden (2001), p. 170 n. 23. 19 A. Pers. 609-10. Eur. IT 159-66, as cited by Ogden (2001), p. 169 n. 20. 20 Ogden (2001) 192. 21 The following discussion on purification is a brief summary from Redfield p. 161. See also Rohdes appendix 5, pp. 588-90.

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49 order. There was a major purity issue with corpses in ancient times. Burial sites were labeled religiosa, that is, they were to be avoided except during the proper times, such as the Parentalia 22 The flamen dialis was not permitted near graves or corpses. 23 The Pontifex Maximus avoided houses that had cypre ss trees outside since th is signified that a member of the house had died. 24 Old women applied spit us ing their middle finger on the forehead and lips of children on their day of purification ( dies lustricus). 25 Similarly, after a Roman funeral, the attend ees were sprinkled with water. 26 Any magician intending to cast a spell would have to purify himself with water either through a sprinkling or a bath. For example, Mithro barzanes requires Menippus to bathe for 28 days in the Euphrates and then once in the Ti gris before he begins his journey to the Underworld (Lucian. Nec 7). Thus, it is no t surprising that the pater familias washes his hands during the rite particularly when he is about to handle an impure substance (black beans). Nor is it surprising that he must wa sh his hands again near the end of the rite, right before the vocal exorcism. Beans, Redemption, and the Number Nine sed dum iacit haec ego mitto his inquit redimo meque meosque fabis. (5.437-38) Then he takes up the black beans and with his face averted, never looking back, he hurls them saying nine times, These I cast! With these beans I redeem me and mine. Ovid claims that the shade is thought to collect the beans and to follow the celebrant 22 Cic. Leg 2.57, Ulp. dig 11.7.2.5, Paul. dig 11.7.44, as cited by Burriss, p. 157. 23 Gellius 10.15, as cited by Burriss, p. 157. 24 Serv. A 3.64, as cited by Burriss, p. 157. 25 Burriss 152. 26 Fest. 2, as cited by Burriss, p. 156.

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50 without being seen. 27 The common items used to assuage the dead are milk, water, honey, wine, and blood. These items can be found in any of the other chthonic rites, yet water is the only one of them found during the Lemuria. Ovid includes wine but also adds a few others such as bread and salt that appease the dead during the Parentalia ( tegula porrectis satis est velata coronis / et sparsae fruges parcaque mica salis, / inque mero mollita Ceres violaeque solutae: Ov. Fast 2.537-39). Vergil adds lilies which is in line with the twice a year ritual in which Romans laid fl owers on the graves, such as roses during the Rosalia ( Manibus date lilia plenis / purpureos spargam flores, Verg. A 6.883-84). Yet, suddenly, here in May, beans are the gifts ghos ts want. Why? Many know that a taboo on beans, particularly black beans, existe d, but no one knows for certain as to why. Cicero claims that the Pythagoreans did not eat beans because of the gastric problems they cause the body. A soul must have a s ound body in order to function properly (Cic. Div 1.62). 28 The Flamen Dialis was not permitted to touch any beans. 29 Beans are also mentioned during the Parentalia The beans, however, are no t given to ghosts. Instead, an old woman in performing the rites for Tacita chews seven beans while roasting a fish (Ov. Fast 2.576-78). Here again, there is nothing in the ritual, itself one of protection, that would indicate why she must chew the beans or how the beans affect the ritual. In addition, the Romans threw beans into graves so that the dead would not bother them. 30 27 Varro and Paulus both mention the beans during the Lemuria Varro: quibus temporibus in sacris fabam iactant ac dicunt se lemurios domo extra ianuam eicere Paulus: nam et Lemuralibus ( faba ) iacitur larvis 28 See also Plut. Sypos 9.10, Plin. Nat. 18.12, and Tert. De Anim 48. 29 Frazer 424. Wright offers the following explanation: So derives from to be pregnant, and the meaning given by Pollux, the swelling of the breasts w ith milk, traces back to its original sense. bean, is properly the thing big with life; and anyone who has watched the rapid and mysterious pushing forth of the young bean from the parent womb will understand why the bean was a symbol of sexual fertility . . pp. 154-55. A few lines later, Wright states that it should be obvious from the above observation why a ghost would want a bean. If he had only incorporated the obvious! 30 Frazer 424.

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51 To redeem something means to buy it back from whomever it was sold. It would seem that the celebrant was bargaining with the ghosts, and therefore, one must ask how the ghost came to own the pater and his family every year and why the pater must buy himself and the family back. Hallam merely states that the celebrant must redeem himself from the power of the ghosts. 31 Frazer says that the ghost would have carried away the family members if they did not receive the beans. 32 What is more likely, particularly if these are family dead, is that the beans are an offering for protection for the rest of the year until the next Lemuria or they are to free the household from the powers of the previous year. The fact that the celebrant cannot look at the shade s eems odd. One must assume that if he did, he would perish. This assumption, however, is not in sync with the appearance of other ghosts. In fact, there is no record of anyone dying because one saw a ghost. If someone dies in the presence of a ghost, it is du e to an injury inflicted upon them by the ghost. Thus, either the assumpti on is wrong, or there is a special reason why seeing the dead at this time is deadly. Along similar lines is the notion that ghosts do not like to be seen. Philinnion fled when her parents saw her. 33 One must turn oneself around after offering a meal to a vengeful ghost according to Selinus. 34 Jason could not turn around to confront Hecates as she rose from the pit. 35 Statius, in a humorous fashi on, has Tiresias, the blind prophet, look at Laius ghost. 36 Ogden places the ghosts of the Lemuria in this category, but I 31 Hallam 295. 32 Frazer 424. 33 Plg. Mir. 1, as cited by Ogden (2001), p. 172. 34 Ogden (2001) cites this as the lex sacra p. 172. 35 A.R. 1036-41, as cited by Ogden (2001), p. 173. 36 Stat. Theb. 4.619-20, as cited by Ogden (2001), p. 173.

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52 believe he is wrong in doing so. 37 There is no evidence that lemures do not wish to be seen or that they will disapp ear once seen. If looking at them could make them go away, there would be no purpose in having beans, bronz e, or any other part of the ritual. One, moreover, should notice that the act of looking back ( respicit ) after the final command signifies the completion of the ritual. The celebrant has no fear because he knows that the rites have been performed properly ( respicit et pure sa cra peracta putat Ov. Fast 5.444). This is actually not as typical an ending as it may seem. Often such rites end with the celebrant or magician walkin g backwards to his next destination. 38 Mennipus, after his last bath, had to walk home backwards ( , Lucian. Nec 7). Three is the perfect number for almost al l ancient civilizations. Odd numbers in particular to the Romans were seen as being more potent ( cur inpares numeros ad omnia vehementiores credimus idque in febribus dierum observatione intellegitur ? Plin. Nat 28.5.23). Many prayers and incantations are recited in sets of threes. The Lemuria itself is a three day festival. Lease lists pages upon pages of instances of the number three, such as trinities of deities, a triple offe ring of honey, milk, and wine for the dead, and sacrifices three da ys after a funeral. 39 Trowbridge notes the following examples of foretelling death with the num ber three: three trees falli ng, a dying woman calling ones name out three times, a vision three days before the event itself. 40 During the Lemuria, the celebrant commands the ghosts nine times to leave. The power of nine is that it is 37 Ogden (2001) 172-73 n. 31. 38 Fritz explains, saying, Walking backward could be the sign the magician has definitely left the human norm . . p. 115. He cites the following examples from the Greek magical papyrus of Paris in his footnote: PGM IV, 26-51; 2442-95; XXXVI, 264-74, p. 271. 39 Lease, E. The Number Three, Mysterious, Mystic, Magic. CP 14 (1919) 56-73. 40 Trowbridge 85. She cites the following from the Scriptores Historiae Augustae : Alex. 60.4, Maxim. 31.1, Pert. 14.1.

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53 thrice three, that is, it is the perfect number perfected. By repeating the command nine times, one can rest even more assured than if one had said it three or six times, that the desired wish will come true. 41 Temesean Bronze rursus aquam tangit Temesaeaque concrepat aera (5.441) The celebrant washes again, clangs Teme sean bronze, and commands the spirits to depart from the house repeating the words manes exite paterni nine times. What is significant about Temesean bronze, let alone bronze itself, and what are the bronze instruments being clanged? Temesa is a to wn in southern Italy known for its copper mines. It has no supernatural significance except for a ghost/werewo lf story which takes place there. 42 Bronze was preferred for ceremonial purposes on account of its pristine nature. Bronze first became prevalent in Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilization during the third millennium B.C.E. and slowly worked its way into the West around the beginning of the second millennium B.C.E. 43 Etruscans only used bronze plowshares, and, later, the Romans harnessed a white cow and a white ox to a bronze ploughshare when they established a colony or city. Th e Sabine priests of the Etruscans could only use a bronze razor, and, likewise, the Flamen Dialis had his hair and nails cut with bronze. 44 It would have been the only metal around when Lemuria s rites began, if what Ovid tells us is factual. Al so, since the beings that one is exorcising are themselves old, it follows that they would have to be dealt wi th by archaic means. Bronze may also have 41 Lease agrees, but states that this idea was late and found primarily in magic, p. 73. 42 According to Pausanias in the Description of Greece a daemon haunted this town. The townspeople offered a virgin to him every year until Euthymus, a famous boxer, happened to visit Temesa and fall in love with the intended virgin. He wrestled with the daemon, won, and marri ed the girl. The daemon jumped into the sea never to be seen again (Paus. 6.6). 43 Derry & Williams 7,14. 44 Burriss 159-160.

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54 been preferred due to its composition, since ce rtain stones had particular powers. Pliny claims that there were four types of bronze made from different all oys: white, silver, gold, and liverish. 45 In addition, there was a taboo on iron. Burriss argues Frazers belief that the conservative nature of religion with its fear of new things provided the taboo on iron. It is more likely, however, that iron had a late start (c.a. 1200 B.C.E. in the West) because the only iron used originally came from me teorites and because iron was so difficult to handle. 46 Iron began to be employed first fo r decoration, and then became used for weapons and finally tools. 47 The Arval Brothers were forbidden to engrave with iron and would have to perform a piaculum if they had to do such an engraving. A piaculum also had to be performed when the ir on was extracted from its source. 48 The instruments that are beaten seem to be swords. Swords generally, despite their tangibility, were still believed to be able to ward off the dead. Both Odysseus and Aeneas protect themselves using a sword when surrounded by ghosts. There is a debate as to whether their swords are bronze or iron. What is most likely is that bronze was the original metal used during the time in which the stories of Odysseus and Aeneas are set, but as time went on and iron became easier to handle, it became used more often, gradually loosing its taboo. As it began to be used more often, authors would not distinguish nor feel the need to distinguish the bronze from the iron, unless there was a 45 Eius tria genera : candidum argento nitore quam proxime accedens in quo illa mixture praevaluit ; alterum in quo auri fulva natura ; tertium in quo aequalis omnium temperies fuit Praeter haec est cuius ratio non potest reddi quamquam hominis manu est ; at fortuna temperature in simulacris signisque illud suo colore pretiosum ad iocineris imaginem vergens quod ideo hepatizon appellant procul a Corinthio longe tamen ante Aegineticum atque Deliacum quae diu optinuere principatum Plin. Nat. 34.3.8. 46 Derry & Williams 121. 47 Ibid. 121. 48 Burriss 159.

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55 unique reason to do so, such as to emphasize the archaic quality of something. Thus, Odysseus, Aeneas, and the celebrant of the Lemuria all wield bronze swords. The Right Thing to Say cum dixit novies manes exite paterni (5.443) Numbers again play a role here in that the command consists of three words, and it is said nine times. The command has a para llel, as already stated above with the Greek Anthesteria Nevertheless, there is no evidence that the Lemuria is a Romanized Anthesteria for several reasons. First, the Anthesteria is a Dionysian festival to welcome the spring. Each individual day of the festiv al had a name which coincided with certain rituals that went on that day. 49 Any elements of the dead do not appear (possibly) until the evening of the second day. 50 There is no evidence that any particular god was attached to the Lemuria or that any individual rituals of this sort happened during the Lemuria. Second, it is uncertain whether Kares (or Keres ) are ghosts or Karian slaves, stemming from the debate as to whether the word is spelled with an alpha or an eta. 51 Also, if they are ghosts, the Greeks merely try to defend themselv es, by the smearing of pitch on the doors and the chewing of buckthorn. Furthermore, there is no concept of 49 The first day was called the Pithoigia during which wine was drunk out of jars called pithoi and libations were poured to Dionysus. The second day is called the Choes which consisted of a public drinking contest in which one drank a jug of unmixed wine in silence. Buckthorn was chewed and pitch was smeared on the doors as defenses against ghosts. It is unclear, however, whether this was done during this day or the falling day. The third day was called Chytroi during which an offering of plankarpia a mixture of fruits, to Chthonic Hermes. Honey cakes were thrown in to a cleft in the earth in the temple of Ge Olympia A third offering, eudeysnos was made to Erigone an girl who died an untimely death. In addition to these offerings during this day, temples and businesses closed. The festival ended with the dismissal command, though there is no indication what time of day this to ok place nor is there any specification as to who said the words. 50 According to Hamilton, the term Anthesteria is not found in the sources until the second century B.C.E. Beforehand, each day is referred to individually, p. 5. This may indicate that the days were celebrated individually at first only to be grouped collectively later as the official festival for the month Anthesterion 51 Farnell p. 221 does not see how it was possible for Karians to be in Attica, while Pickard-Cambridge does not believe that the festival was for the expulsion of ghosts, p. 14. Parke, however, does not think that it makes sense to expel slaves from the household, p. 117.

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56 redemption with a substance like beans in the Anthesteria as there is in the Lemuria. Third, the Anthesteria is a festival that last s three subsequent days, Anthesterion 11 th 12 th and 13 th the equivalent to February. If a cultu re assimilates a festival or a holiday, it stays in the same season and on or close to th e same days. Hence, if the Romans were trying to assimilate the Anthesteria it would be more logi cal to argue that the Parentalia is the Anthesteria, not the Lemuria. While it is true that there is a dismissal command at the end of the Anthesteria that corresponds to the Lemurias, through similar reasoning, one may inquire if such a thing occurs elsewhere. One such place to look is curse tablets and binding spells. Upon examining the curse tablets in Lucks a nd Gagers books, one will find that the most common way to end the spell is to command th e daemons to go now quickly. From the spells in Gagers book, the spells that end in this way most often are spells used in the circus. 52 While the command itself is similar, it is not repeated any number of times. If any portion of the spell is repeated, it is the invocation of the gods or the daemons. 53 Hence, the dismissal of the Lemuria seems unique to itself. The rite of the Lemuria can be described as archaic, chthonic, and magical. It is archaic in that bronze is the metal of choice. Whether the festival itself actually was archaic makes little difference. The fact that the Romans of Ovids era believed that the 52 Let him perish and fall, just as you lie (here) pr ematurely dead. Now, now, quickly, quickly, because they drive them off, the T yphonic Daimones! (Gager 64-65 ). I invoke y ou. . so that they may not reach victory tomorrow in the circus. Now, now, quickly, quickly, p. 67. Let him not come from behind and pass but instead let him collapse, let him be bound, let him be broken up, and let him drag behind by your power. Both in the early races and in the later ones. Now, now! Quickly, quickly! p. 74. From a picture of one of the curse tablets, one can make out: / p. 66. 53 Proserpina Salvia, I give over to you the head of Plotius. / Proserpina Salvia, I give over to you the forehead of Plotius. / Proserpina Salvia, I give over to you the eyebrows of Plotius. / Proserpina Salvia, I give over to you the eyelids of Plotius. / Proserpina Salvia, I give over to you the pupils of Plotius. / Prosperina Salvia, I give over to you the nostrils, ears, nose, tongue and teeth of Plotius. . . (Gager 24142).

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57 rite was archaic on account of the bronze is the important fact. The rite is chthonic in that it is performed at night, fountain water is used, and the dead are commanded. There is nothing to indicate that a part icular group of the dead was controlled. One might be inclined to argue that since the dead were controlled, then the class of dead must be since only they could be controlled. However, one must remember that all the dead were released at various times throughout the year such as during the opening of the mundus to roam the lands for a few days. The rite is magical on account of the celebrants dress, gesture, the beans, and the repetition of terms. It is important, however, to remember that water and bronze also fit the category of magical ingredients and that many of these items can be of a religious nature. Thus, the n ecessary qualities for handling the dead (archaic, chthonic, and magical) all exist in the rite of the Lemuria, and, maybe even more importantly, it must be conten ded that the examination of the rite alone can only yield a conclusion that it is unknown what type of d ead (if they are the dead) roam about during the Lemuria.

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CHAPTER 5 EVOLUTION OF THE LEMURES Lemures are older than Ovid realizes, evident from the ritual used to expel them, and they most likely predate the founding of Rome and, therefore, the mythology of Romulus and Remus. It does not seem that they were originally the dead but rather chthonic spirits along with the larvae. Manes must have been the original and appropriate term for the dead in general as indicated by its use in literature and especially on tombstones. The primary reason for this judgment is that the lemures are pacified by beans, not by the normal offerings for the dead, and, moreover, the use of beans indicates a notion of redemption not inherent in dealing with the dead in any other festivals or necromantic rites. While the dead can and do threaten during such festivals and rites, normal means (water, prayers, etc.) satisfy them. 1 As Rome became established and encountered the Greeks and other cultures, the lemures acquired the additional definition of daemons. Since daemons could be the dead, the lemures likewise came to be known as the dead, specifically the untimely dead. By this time the distinction between lemures and larvae had been forgotten and each became a synonym for the other, as seen in the definitions given by various ancient commentators. Also, since the lemures were now identified with the dead, manes, imago, and the other words for ghost could be applied to them. At the same time as or shortly after the lemures acquired these characteristics, the patricians and the plebeians began to struggle over power and control. The lemures then 1 Compare Ovids version of the Parentalia, where once the Parentalia was neglected, and the dead burned the city (Ov. Fast. 2.547-556). 58

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59 had the story of Remus grafted into their mythology such as it may have been. The false etymology of Lemuria from Remuria came with the assimilation. Since the original story had Remus as a human sacrifice and, th erefore, dying an untimely death, the lemures were further emphasized as daemons of the untimely dead. But, because of the tragic and divisive associations of Remus story, the lemures may rarely have been mentioned and in later times, consequentiall y, virtually forgotten. They were not completely forgotten, however, since some of their characteristics remained in various European cultural notions of the vampire. If the lemures still exist, they can be found in the dark places of psyche. They are perhaps the sins we fear to confess, the fears we fear to face, the skeletons in our closets. It will take more than beans to bargain for ourselves with such bei ngs and more than bronze to battle them, but the one fact that has never changed about the lemures after all this time is that if we do not exorcise them from our lives the cost will be our souls.

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APPENDIX A PASSAGES ON THE LEMURIA AND THE LEMURES Ovid Fasti 5. 419-92 Hinc ubi protulerit formosa ter Hesperos ora, ter dederint Phoebo sidera victa locum, ritus erit veteris, nocturna Lemuria, sacri: inferias tacitis manibus illa dabunt. annus erat brevior, nec adhuc pia februa norant, nec tu dux mensum, Iane biformis, eras: iam tamen exstincto cineri sua dona ferebant, 425 compositique nepos busta piabat avi. mensis erat Maius, maiorum nomine dictus, qui partem prisci nunc quoque moris habet. nox ubi iam media est somnoque silentia praebet, et canis et variae conticuistis aves, 430 ille memor veteris ritus timidusque deorum surgit (habent gemini vincula nulla pedes), signaque dat digitis medio cum pollice iunctis, occurrat tacito ne levis umbra sibi. cumque manus puras fontana perluit unda, 435 vertitur et nigras accipit ante fabas, aversusque iacit; sed dum iacit, 'haec ego mitto, his' inquit 'redimo meque meosque fabis.' hoc novies dicit nec respicit: umbra putatur colligere et nullo terga vidente sequi. 440 rursus aquam tangit, Temesaeaque concrepat aera, et rogat ut tectis exeat umbra suis. cum dixit novies 'manes exite paterni' respicit, et pure sacra peracta putat. dicta sit unde dies, quae nominis exstet origo 445 me fugit: ex aliquo est invenienda deo. Pliade nate, mone, virga venerande potenti: saepe tibi est Stygii regia visa Iovis. venit adoratus Caducifer. accipe causam nominis: ex ipso est cognita causa deo. 450 Romulus ut tumulo fraternas condidit umbras, et male veloci iusta soluta Remo, Faustulus infelix et passis Acca capillis 60

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61 spargebant lacrimis ossa perusta suis; inde domum redeunt sub prima crepuscula maesti, 455 utque erat, in duro procubuere toro. umbra cruenta Remi visa est adsistere lecto, atque haec exiguo murmure verba loqui: 'en ego dimidium vestri parsque altera voti, cernite sim qualis, qui modo qualis eram! 460 qui modo, si volucres habuissem regna iubentes, in populo potui maximus esse meo, nunc sum elapsa rogi flammis et inanis imago: haec est ex illo forma relicta Remo. heu ubi Mars pater est? si vos modo vera locuti, 465 uberaque expositis ille ferina dedit. quem lupa servavit, manus hunc temeraria civis perdidit. o quanto mitior illa fuit! saeve Celer, crudelem animam per volnera reddas, utque ego, sub terras sanguinulentus eas. 470 noluit hoc frater, pietas aequalis in illo est: quod potuit, lacrimas in mea fata dedit. hunc vos per lacrimas, per vestra alimenta rogate ut celebrem nostro signet honore diem.' mandantem amplecti cupiunt et bracchia tendunt: 475 lubrica prensantes effugit umbra manus. ut secum fugiens somnos abduxit imago, ad regem voces fratris uterque ferunt. Romulus obsequitur, lucemque Remuria dicit illam, qua positis iusta feruntur avis. 480 aspera mutata est in lenem tempore longo littera, quae toto nomine prima fuit; mox etiam lemures animas dixere silentum: hic sensus verbi, vis ea vocis erat. fana tamen veteres illis clausere diebus, 485 ut nunc ferali tempore operta vides; nec viduae taedis eadem nec virginis apta tempora: quae nupsit, non diuturna fuit. hac quoque de causa, si te proverbia tangunt, mense malas Maio nubere volgus ait. 490 sed tamen haec tria sunt sub eodem tempore festa inter se nulla continuata die. Horace Epodes 2.2.208-09 Somnia, terrores magicos, miracula, sagas, nocturnos lemures portentaque Thessala rides?

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62 Porphryio on Horace Umbras vagantes hominum ante diem mortuorum et ideo metuendas; et putant lemures esse dictos quasi remulos a Remo, cuius occisi umbras frater Romulus cum placare vellet, Lemuria instituit, id est Parentalia. Persius Satires 5.185-88 tum nigri lemures ouoque pericula rupto, 185 tum grandes galli et cum sistro lusca sacerdos incussere deos inflantis corpora, si non praedictum ter mane caput gustaueris ali. Scholia on Persius Lemures deos manes dicit, quos Graeci daemonas vocant quasi umbras quondam habentes divinitatem; Lemuria autem dicuntur dies, quando manes placantur. Apuleius De Deo Socratis 15 Est et secundo significatus species daemonum animus humanus emeritis stipendiis vitae corpore suo abiurans. Hunc vetere Latina lingua reperio Lemurem dictitatum. Ex hisce ergo Lemuribus qui posterorum suorum curam sortitus placato et quieto numine domum possidet, Lar dicitur familiaris; qui vero ob adversa vitae merita nullis (bonis) sedibus incerta vagatione ceu quodam exilio punitur, inane terriculamentum bonis hominibus, ceterum malis noxium, id genus plerique Larvas perhibent. Cum vero incertum est, quae cuique eorum sortitio evenerit, utrum Lar sit an Larva, nomine Manem deum nuncupant: scilicet et honoris gratia dei vocabulum additum est; quippe tantum eos deos appellant, qui ex eodem numero iuste ac prudenter curriculo vitae gubernato pro numine postea ab hominibus praediti fanis et caerimoniis vulgo advertuntur, ut in Boeotia Amphiaraus, in Africa Mopsus, in Aegypto Osiris, alius alibi gentium, Aesculapius ubique. Apuleius Apology 64 At tibi, Aemiliane, pro isto mendacio duit deus iste superum et inferum commeator utrorumque deorum malam gratiam semperque obuias species mortuorum, quidquid umbrarum est usquam, quidquid lemurum, quidquid manium, quidquid larvarum.

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63 Apuleius Metamorphoses 4.22.5 et ecce nocte promota latrones expergiti castra commovent instructique varie, partim gladiis armati, partim in lemures reformati concito se gradu proripiunt. Augustine City of God 9.11 Dicit quidem et animas hominum daemones e sse et ex hominibus fieri lares, si boni meriti sunt; lemures, si mali, seu laruas; manes autem deos dici, si incertum est bonorum eos seu malorum esse meritorum. In qua opi nione quantam uoraginem aperiant sectandis perditis moribus, quis non uideat, si uel paululum adtendat? Quando quidem quamlibet nequam homines fuerint, uel laruas se fier i dum opinantur, uel dum manes deos, tanto peiores fiunt, quanto sunt no cendi cupidiores, ut etiam quibusdam sacrificiis tamquam diuinis honoribus post mortem se inuitari opinentur, ut noceant. Laruas quippe dicit esse noxios daemones ex hominibus factos. Sed hinc alia quaestio est. Inde autem perhibet appellari Graece beatos. eudaimonas, quod boni sint animi, hoc est boni daemones, animos quoque hominum daemones esse confirmans. Martianus Capella 2.162 manes . cum his (corporibus defunctis) manent es appellati lemures postea et in lares et in larvas ac manias converse. Varro frg. Non. p. 135.16 in sacris fabam iactant noctu ac dicunt se lemures domo extra ianuam eicere. Nonius on lemures Larvae nocturnae et terrificatione s imaginum et bestiarum. Paulus p. 87M Nam et Lemuralibus (faba) iacitur larvis. Priscianus 691 regio quaedam generat malos lemures quod pellit munus, iaspim, nocturni manes fugitant quam membra tuentem,

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APPENDIX B PASSAGES ON REMUS AND THE REMURIA Propertius 3.9.50 caesio moenis firma Remo Florus 1.1.7-8 Remus montem Aventinum, hic Palatinum occupat. Prius ille sex vulturios, hic postea, sed duodecim videt. Sic victor augurio urbem excitat, plenus spei bellatricem fore; id adsuetae sanguine et praeda aves pollicebantur. Ad tutelam novae urbis sufficere vallum videbantur, cuius dum angustias Remus increpat saltu, dubium an iussu fratris, occisus est: prima certe victima fuit munitionemque urbis novae sanguine suo consecravit. Dionysius of Halicarnassus 1.85.6 Dionysius of Halicarnassus 1.86.2 Dionysius of Halicarnassus 1.87.3 Plutarch Romulus 11.1 64

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INDEX OF PASSAGES CITED Aeschylus, Persae 609-10 Gellius, 10.15.6 Apollonius Rhodius, 3.1036-41, 4.1635-90 Hesiod, Theogany 211-12 Apuleius Homer Apology 64 Iliad 1.3-4, 23.71-4 De Deo Socratis 15 Odyssey 11.488-537 Metamorphoses 4.22, 6.30, 8.8, 9.29-31 Horace Aristotle Epistles 2.2.209 De Somniis 461b5-10, 25-30, 462a10-15 Satires 1.5.64, 1.8, 1.8.24 Nichomachean Ethics 1100a-1101b Livy, 3.58.11, 22.57.6 Augustine, Civitas Dei 11.9 Lucan, Pharsalia 6.770-73 Cicero De Legibus 2.54, 2.57 Lucian De Divinatione 1.62-63 Necyomantia 7 Epistulae ad Atticum 5.13.3 Philopseudes 22-24, 25, 30-1 In Pisonem 16 Topica 90.8 Lucretius, 4.29-53, 6.762-66 Digest 3.2.255 Macrobius, 1.7.34-35, 12.20-23 Dio Cassius, 46.2-3 Martianus Capella, 2.162 Dionysius of Halicanarsis, 1.85.6, 1.86.2, Origo Gentis Romanae 21.5, 23.1 1.87.3 Ovid, Fasti 2.500, 2.503, 2.537-39, Euripides 2.547-56, 2.576-78, 2.583-616, Hecuba 40-1, 319-20, 416 3.639, 4.807-18, 5.419-492 Iphegenia in Tauro 159-66 Paulus, Digest 11.7.44 Festus, 2, p. 115 L, 345 L Pausanias, Description of Greece Florus, 1.1.7-8, 1.18 5.19.6, 6.6 Persius, 5.185 65

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66 Petronius, 34.8, 44.5 Servius, Aeneid 1.292-3, 3.64, 4.518, 5.95, 12.603 Philostratus, Life of Apollonius 4.10 Silius Italicus, 13.447 Pindar, Odes 14 Sophron fr. 8 Plato, Phaedo 30c-d Statius, Thebaid 4.619-20, 8.5 Plautus Casina 591-2 Stesichorus fr. 215 PMG Menaechmi 888-9 Mostellaria 497-500, 498-503 Suetonius Caligula 59 Plegon, Mirablia 1, 2, 3.4 Nero 34 Otho 7 Pliny, Natural History 3.5, 7.27.2, 7.27.5-11, 7.27.13, 10.56, 18.12, 28.2.9, 28.5.22, Tacitus, Annals 11.21, 69 28.5.23, 30.3.12, 34.3.8 Tertullian, De Anima 48 Plotinus, Ennead 1.9 Ulpian Dig. 11.7.2.5, 11.7.44 Plutarch Cimon 6.4-6 Varro De Vita Populi fr. 18 Cleomes 39 Quaestiones Romanae 34 Vergil, Aeneid 1.292-3, 1.354-55, Romulus 9.4, 11.1 2.270, 2.772-3, 2.793, 3.370, 4.518, Symposium 9.10 6.325-30, 6.883-84, 6.695 Polybius, Histories 6.53-54 Porphryio, 2.2.209 Priscianus, 691 Propertius, 3.1.1, 3.9.50 Scriptores Historiae Augustae Alex 60.4 Maxim 31.1 Pert 14.1 Seneca, Apocolcyntosis 9.3

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LIST OF REFERENCES Alton, E. Ovid : Fastorum Libri Sex Lipsia: Teubner. 1997. Anthon, C. Classical Dictionary New York: Harper Bros. 1888. Bmer. Archiv fr Religionswissenschaft Leipzig: Teubner. 1904-41. Boyle, A. & Woodard, R. Ovid : Fasti London: Penguin Books. 2000. Burial Society and Context in the Roman World Ed. John Pearce, Ma rtin Millett, & Manuela Struck. Buriss, E. The Nature of Taboo a nd Its Survival in Roman Life. CPh 24 (1929) 142163. Burkert, W. Greek Religion Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 2001. Clark, N. The Human Person : A Philosophical Exploration 1995. Corpus Glossariorum Latinorum Rec. G. Goetz. v. 6. Amsterdam: Verlag Adolf M. Hakkert. 1965. Cumont, F. After Life in Roman Paganism New York: Dover. 1922. Daremberg, [C.], Larva. DA 3 (1877) 950-53. Daremberg, [C.], Lemures. DA 3 (1877) 1100-01. Daremberg, [C.], Manes. DA 3 (1877) 1571-76. Davies, J. Death Burial and Rebirth in the Re ligions of Antiquity London: Routledge. 1999. Denning, H. Hauntings Real-Life Encounters with Troubled Spirits New York: Barnes & Noble Books. 1996. Derry, T. & Williams, T. A Short History of Technology Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1960.

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68 Dover, K. Theocritus : Select Poems Wauconda: Bolchazy-Carducci. 1994. Dumezil, G. Archaic Roman Religion Trans. Philip Krapp. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1970. Ernout, A. & Meillet, A. Dictionnaire Etymologique de la Langue Latine Paris: Librairie C. Klincksieck. 1959. Farnell, L. The Cults of Greek States. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1909. Fay, E. Contested Etymologies. CR 11 (1897) 12-15. Felton, D. Haunted Greece and Rome Austin: University of Texas. 1999. Fowler, W. The Roman Festivals New York: Kennikat Press. 1969. Frazer, J. Ovid : Fasti London: Harvard University Press. 1951. Fritz, G. Magic in the Ancient World Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 2000. Gadamer, H. Reason in the Age of Science Cambridge: MIT Press. 1998. Gager, J. Curse Tablets and Binding Spells from the Ancient World Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1992. Granger, F. & Fowler, W. Roman Burial. CR 11 (1897) 32-35. Haining, P. A Dictionary of Ghosts London: Robert Hale. 1982. Hallam, G. Ovid : Fasti London: Macmillan Co. 1929. Halliday,W. Roman Burial. CR 35 (1921) 154-55. Hamilton, R. Choes and Anthesteria: Athenian Iconography and Ritual Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 1995. Hardie, W. Lectures on Classical Subjects London: Macmillan and Co., Limited. 1903. Heseltine, M. Petronius: Satyricon London: Harvard University Press. 1997. Johnson, V. The Superstitions of the Nundinae. AJPh 80 (1959) 133-49. Johnston, S. Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece Berkeley: University of California Press. 1999. Knight, J. Elysion London: Rider & Co. 1970.

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69 Knopf, A. Pompeii Boston: Burzoi Books. 1978. Kretscher, P. Remus und Romulus. Glotta 1 (1909) 288-303. Kbler-Ross, E. Death : The Final Stage of Growth New York: Simon & Schuster. 1986. Latte, K. Rmische Religionsgeschichte Munich: C.H. Becksche Verlagsbuchhandlung. 1960. Lawson, J. Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion New York: University Books. 1964. Lease, E. The Number Three, Mysterious, Mystic, Magic. CPh 14 (1919) 56-73. Lempriere, J. Lemprieres Classical Dictionary of Proper Names Mentioned in Ancient Authors London, 1948. Luck, G. Arcana Mundi Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press. 1985. Mackenna, S. Plotinus : The Enneads. London: Penguin Books. 1991. Mascetti, M. Vampire : The Complete Guide to the World of the Undead New York: Viking Studio Books. 1994. Martin-Kilcher, S. Mors Immatura in the Roman World A Mirror of Society and Tradition. Burial Society and Context in the Roman World Ed. John Pearce. Oxford: Oxbow Books. 2001. Michels, A. The Calendar of the Roman Republic Princeton: Princeton University Press. 1967. Niebhur, B. Lectures on Roman History London, 1849. Ninck, M. Die Bedeutung des Wassers im Kult und Leben der Atlen Darmstadt: Wissenschaftlieche Buchgesellschaft. 1960. Ogden, D. Greek and Roman Necromancy. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 2001. Ogden, D. Magic, Witcraft, and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman Worlds Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2002. Oxford Latin Dictionary Ed. P.G.W. Glare. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1982. Parke, H. Festivals of the Athenians Ithaca: Cornell University Press. 1977.

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70 Peck, M. Denial of the Soul: Spiritual and Medical Persp ectives on Euthanasia and Mortality. New York: Harmony Books. 1997. Pickard-Cambridge, A. The Dramatic Festivals of Athens Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1988. Powell, B. Classical Myth Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall Inc. 1995. Pritzl, K. Aristotle an d Happiness After Death: Nicomachean Ethics 1.10-11. CPh 78 (1983) 101-14. Redfield, J. Nature and Culture in the Iliad. Durham: Duke University Press. 1994. Rohde, E. Psyche: The Cult of Souls and Belief in Immortality among the Greeks New York: Books for Libraries Press. 1972. Rose, H. Ancient Italian Be liefs Concerning the Soul. CQ 24 (1930) 129-35. Rose, H. Orientation of the Dead in Greece and Italy. CR 34 (1920) 141-146. Rose, H. Nocturnal Funerals in Rome. CQ 17 (1923) 191-4. Rouse, W. Seneca : Apocolocyntosis London: Harvard University Press. 1997. Scullard, H. Festivals and Ceremonies of the Roman Republic Ithaca: Cornell University Press. 1981. Sidgwick, A. Ovid : Fastorum Liber VI Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1921. Smith, W. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities v. 2. London, 1891. Taylor, L. The Mother of the Lares. AJA 29 (1925) 299-313. Thaniel, G. Lemures and Larvae. AJPH 94 (1973) 182-87. Thesaurus Linguae Latinae Editus iussu et auctoritate consili ab academiis societatibusque diversarum nationum electi v. 7-8. Leipzig: Lipsiae in aedibus B.G. Teubneri. 1956-79. Trowbridge, M. Folklore in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae. CPh 33 (1938) 69-88. Walker, S Memorials to the Roman Dead. London: British Museum Publications. 1985. Winkler, J. Lollianos and Desperadoes. JHS 100 (1980) 155-81.

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71 Wiseman, T. Remus : A Roman Myth Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1995. Wissowa, [G.], Lares. RE 12.2 (1925) 806-14. Wissowa, [G.], Larvae. RE 12.2 (1925) 878-9. Wissowa, [G.], Lemuria. RE. 12.2 (1925) 1931-33. Wissowa, [G.], Lemuria. RE 12.2 (1925) 1931. Wissowa, [G.], Lemuria. RE 12.2 (1925) 1932. Wright, F. Quaestiones Romanae. CR 35 (1921) 155-56. York, M. The Divine Versus the Asurian : An Interpretation of Indo-European Cult and Myth Bethesda: Intern ational Scholars P ublications. 1995.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH The author was born to Jerry and Carol Lux and grew up in Union, Kentucky. He has a younger brother, Jason, who is one of the best baseball players ever to live (next to his father). The author attended Xavier University in Cincinnati, Ohio where he received an Honors Bachelors of Arts degree in Classics and Philosophy. His personal legend is to assist others in discovering their own personal legends, and he feels that he can best do this by teaching classics at the secondary level. He also desires to write fictional tales that inspire people to further their understanding of love and that encourage people to explore the sacredness of life and death. 72


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EXAMINATION OF THE LEMURES AND THE LEMURIA


By

JARROD LUX


















A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2004


































For my past, present, and future teachers and students,
who continue to inspire and to challenge me to dream
















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank my family, particularly my parents and brother, for their

continuous and generous support over the years, especially the last two. I would also like

to thank my close friend and fellow warrior, Rebecca, whose patience and wisdom

rescued me from many of my mischievous adventures. Finally, I would like to thank the

professors and staff of the Classics Departments (both at the University of Florida and at

Xavier University) whose guidance and knowledge made this thesis possible.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ACKN OW LEDGM ENTS................... ................................................... iii

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS...................................... ................... ......... vi

ABSTRACT.................................. .......................... ix

CHAPTER

1 LEMURIA, DEATH, AND THE DEAD............................................ 1

2 TERMINOLOGY OF THE DEAD...................................................8

M odem Scholarship............. ....................................................... 9
A ancient Scholarship............ ...... ................................ .......... 12

3 OVID'S REMUS: A GHOST STORY..............................................25

4 RITE OF THE LEM URIA ................................. ........... .................44

The Tim e ............. ............................. ................... .... ......... 44
Barefoot and Binding............ ... ................................ ...........46
The Averting Gesture........... .................................... ...........47
W ater................................. ..... ............................. 48
Beans, Redemption, and the Number Nine........... ............................49
Temesean Bronze...................................................... ........... 53
The Right Thing to Say.................................. .............. .... ..... 55

5 EVOLUTION OF THE LEMURES....................... ........................58

APPENDIX

A PASSAGES ON THE LEMURIA AND THE LEMURES ..............................60

B PASSAGES ON REMUS AND THE REMURIA ................................... 64

INDEX OF PASSAGES CITED................ ................ ........................ 65



iv











LIST OF REFERENCES ....... .... ............. ........................... 67

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH............................. ..................... .. .......... 72

























































v

















LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

Greek and Latin Authors


Pers.
Apul.
Apol.
Met.
Soc.
A.R.
Arist.
EN
De Som.
August.
C.D.
Cic.
Att.
Div.
Leg.
Pis.
Top.


Fest.
Flor.
Hom.


Hes.


Aeschylus
Persae
Lucius Apuleius
Apology
Metamorphoses
De Deo Socratis
Apollonius Rhodius (Argonautica)
Aristotle
Nichomachean Ethics
De Somniis
Augustine of Hippo
Civitas Dei
Marcus Tullius Cicero
Epistulae adAtticum
De Divinatione
De Legibus
In Pisonem
Topica
Sextus Pompeius Festus (De verborum significatu)
Lucius Annaeus Florus (Rerum Romanarum Epitome)
Homer
Iliad
Odyssey
Hesiod
Theogony
Quintus Horatius Flaccus
Epistles
Satires
Titus Livius (Ab Urbe Condita)
Marcus Annaeus Lucanus
Pharsalia (Belli Civilis Libri)
Lucian
Necyomantia
Philopseudes
Titus Lucretius Cams (De Rerum Natura)
Aurelius Macrobius (Saturnalia)


Il.
Ody.


Th.
Hor.
Ep.
S.
Liv.
Luc.
Phars.
Lucian.
Nec.
Philops.
Lucr.
Macr.









OGR Origo Gentis Romanae
Ov. Publius Ovidius Naso
Fast. Fasti
Met. Metamorphoses
Paus. Pausanias (' EXX6opog 7rspitryriCtg)
Pers. Persius Flaccus (Saturae)
Petr. Titus Petronius Arbiter (Satyricon)
Philostr. Philostratus
VA Vita Apollonii
P1. Plato
Phd. Phaedo
P1. Titus Maccius Plautus
Cas. Casina
Men. Menaechmi
Mos. Mostellaria
Pig. Plegon
Mir. Mirablia
Plin. Gaius Plinius Secundus
Nat. Naturalis Historia
Plot. Plotinus
Enn. Enneads
Plut. Plutarch
Cim. Cimon
Cleom. Cleomenes
Quaest. Rom. Quaestiones Romanae
Rom. Romulus
Symp. Symposia
Plb. Polybius (' Io'opact)
Por. Porphryio
Pris. Priscianus
Prop. Sextus Propertius (Carmina)
Sen. Lucius Annaeus Seneca
Apoc. Apocolocyntosis
Serv. Servius Danielis (Commentarii in Vergilium)
Sil. Silius Italicus (Punica)
Stat. Papinius Statius
Theb. Thebaid
Stesich. Stesichorus
Suet. Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus
Cal. Caligula
Nero. Nero
Otho. Otho
Tac. Gaius Cornelius Tacitus
Ann. Annals
Tert. Tertullian
De Anim. De Anima










dig. Digest
Verg. Publius Vergilius Maro
A. Aeneid

Other Abreviations

AJA American Journal ofArchaeology
AJPh American Journal ofPhilology
ARW Archiv fir Religionswissenschaft
CGL Corpus Glossariorum Latinorum
CPh Classical Philology
CR Classical Review
CQ Classical Quarterly
DA Daremberg, C., E. Saglio, and E. Pottier, eds. Dictionnaire
des antiquities grecques et romaines d 'apres les
textes et les monumentes. 5 vols. in 10. Paris:
Hachette, 1875-1919.
GLOTTA Glotta: Zeitschrfit fir die grieschische und lateinische
Sprache
JHS Journal of Hellenic Studies
OLD Oxford Latin Dictionary
RE Wissowa, G. et al., eds. Paulys Real-Encycloptdie der
Classischen Altertumswissenschaft. 34 vols. and 15
supplemental vols. Stuttgart: J. B. Metzler, 1893-
1978.
TLL Thesaurus Linguae Latinae


Ulp.


Ulpian
















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts

EXAMINATION OF THE LEMURES AND THE LEMURIA

By

Jarrod Lux

May 2004

Chair: Hans-Friedrich Mueller
Major Department: Classics

Treatment of the dead is one of the fundamental acts that separate human beings

from other creatures. Human beings, at least since the time of the Neanderthals, have put

a great deal of effort and energy into the burial of the dead and remembering and

honoring them. Humans treat the dead as though the dead were in some way still alive by

establishing and adorning cemeteries, offering gifts, saying prayers, and participating in

funerals and holidays; while the remainder of the creatures on earth want nothing to do

with their dead. This treatment is not socially inscribed but rather something innate

stating that human life ought to be cherished, and that death is not the end.

All cultures have different ways of treating the dead, but the most common forms

of treatment tend to be funerals/burial rites and holidays. Ancient Rome was no

exception. The Romans honored the dead with great monuments in cemeteries and along

roads. They held elaborate funeral processions that ended in extravagant burial rites.

They also had several festivals for the dead, during which special libations and sacrifices









were offered, and during which people would place gifts on graves. Some festivals had

components that were not so much for honoring the dead, but rather for protecting one

from them, since there were some dead who would haunt and sometimes kill the living.

The Lemuria was a Roman festival, in which the dead were both honored and

guarded against, and it occurred on May 9th, 1th, and 13th. The best description of the

festival comes from Ovid's Fasti, in which he explains that that Romulus established the

Lemuria at the request of his dead brother Remus. During this festival, lemures (or

ghosts) are said to run amuck throughout the land. There has been debate as to whether

the lemures and their counterpart larvae are mischievous, sinister spirits of the dead

whose goal is to wreak havoc on the living; or if they are the protective, beneficial spirits

of the dead, whose goal is to assist the living. There is also a third group of spirits of the

dead, the manes; and it is difficult to see whether manes, lemures, and larvae are

interchangeable names, or if there are distinct differences among them.

According to the Roman calendar, the days of the Lemuria are considered dies

nefasti, which means that no marriages can take place, businesses and temples are closed,

and the government is not in session. The festival ends at midnight on the last night,

when the paterfamilias goes through the house performing the ritual necessary to expel

any lingering ghosts.

This thesis examined the Lemuria in the surrounding contexts of the dead at

Rome, such as funeral and burial rites, religious and philosophical views of the afterlife,

and necromancy. An attempt was made to distinguish the three types of spirits of the

dead. It is hoped that this thesis will add to the continual discussion and further

exploration into the sacredness of life and death.
















CHAPTER 1
LEMURIA, DEATH, AND THE DEAD

The Lemuria is a Roman festival of the dead held on May 9th, 11th, and 13th. The

primary source for the Lemuria is Ovid's Fasti, which describes a rite handed down by

the ancestors to expel ghosts, attempts an historical explanation of the festival by writing

a ghost story starring Remus, and ends by mentioning the superstitions that govern these

days. Lemures, the ghosts who are exorcised from the household, are only attested as far

back as Horace. The Lemuria itself can be dated to somewhere between 84 and 46 B.C.E.

(it is recorded in the calendar Fasti Antiates Maiores, the oldest calendar of the Roman

Republic that has survived).1

The calendar works like this. There were three days that one particularly needed

to remember: the Kalendae, the Nones, and the Ides.2 The Kalends was the first day of

the month, the Nones were the fifth day, and the Ides were the thirteenth. During certain

months (March, May, July, and October), the Nones occurred on the seventh day while

the Ides happened on the fifteenth. On the Kalends, the people assembled at the Curia

Calabra on the Capitoline Hill to hear when the Nones would be. They needed to know

this because they would have to return on the Nones to hear when the festivals for the

month would be celebrated. Finally, there were also the nundinae (days during which


1 Scullard 47.
2 The following information on the calendar comes primarily from Scullard pp. 41-48. See also Boyle &
Woodard xxxii-xxxv, Hallam xx-xxii, and Sidgwick 10-12. For an alternative understanding of the
nundinae and their relation to the calendar, see Johnson 133-149. For a thorough study of the Roman
calendar, see Michels, A. The Calendar of the Roman Republic. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
1967.






2


farmers could sell their produce) which occurred every eighth day and were labeled with

the letters A-H. By the first century B.C.E., the nundinae andfasti became synonymous,

though comitia and contiones could not be held. The Romans tried to ensure that the

nundinae never fell on the first Kalends of any year, or on the Nones of any month, lest

they be cursed.

In addition to the nundinae, there were also the holidays/festivals feriaee) and

games (ludi).3 The ludi originally served as an offering for Jupiter Optimus Maximus

from a successful general having returned from his victory. However, over time, more

and more games came to be established for various reasons.4 Ludi but notferiae could be

celebrated before the Nones of the month. Thus, this makes the Lemuria, a festival for

the dead, the first festival the Romans would celebrate in the month of May, which makes

sense, since May is arguably one of the months for the ancestors (maiores).

Feriae were subdivided intoferiae private (holidays observed by individual

families) andferiae publicae (holidays provided by the State). Theferiaepublicae were

further divided into three categories: stativae, conceptivae, and imperativae. Feriae

stativae were holidays whose date remained fixed on the calendar, like modem

Halloween. Feriae conceptivae were holidays celebrated annually, but their date was

assigned by priests or magistrates, similar to modem Easter. Feriae imperativae were

impromptu holidays given in honor of a victory or during times of crisis. Since the

Lemuria was always on May 9th, 1 th, and 13th, it was considered one of theferias

stativas.



3 The following information on theferiae and ludi is from Scullard pp. 38-41. For a more detailed
discussion onferiae, see Michels, pp. 69-83.
4 Scullard reports that the Ludi Apollinares (212 B.C.E.), Ludi Megalenses (204 B.C.E.), and Ludi Ceriales
(202 B.C.E.) were used to increase public morale during the wars with Hannibal, p. 40.









Every odd day in the Roman calendar had a label (F, C, N, NP, EN) that

proscribed what could or could not be done on that day.5 Some even-numbered days had

this as well, but little was done on these days, since they were considered unlucky. The

letter F stood for diesfasti, days on which one could carry on legal business. During the

dies comitiales (marked with a C), the Senate or the People could be assembled. During

the dies nefasti (N) no legal business could occur, and comitia could not be enacted.

Days designated EN, endotercissus, (interrupted days) were days on which the morning

and evening fell under the guidelines of the nefasti, while the middle of the day was

governed by the rules of the fasti. No one knows for certain what NP marked. In

addition, some days were labeled dies religiosi and atri, though they were not marked

these terms in the calendars. These days were considered extremely unlucky, and no one

should begin anything on them or do anything unnecessary. Some festivals were

celebrated on these days, but it seems that legal business was either not performed or was

shied away from. During dies atri (the days after the Kalends, Nones, and Ides) not even

the State cults could perform ceremonies. The Lemuria, labeled as nefastus and dies

religiosi, shared in the superstitions for these appellations. Ovid mentions a couple of

these, such as the fact that temples were closed (fana tamen veteres illis clausere diebus, /

ut nuncferali tempore operta vides; Ov. Fast. 5.485-86) and that no one ought to be

married then. If a marriage took place, the woman would not live much longer (nec

viduae taedis eadem nec virginis apta / tempora: quae nupsit, non diuturnafuit. Ov. Fast.

5.487-88).




5 For a more thorough discussion of these labels, see Michels, diesfasti and comitales, pp. 36-60, nefasti,
pp. 61-83.









The purpose of this thesis is to examine and attempt to ascertain what the Lemuria

is. To do so, one must inspect three characteristics that govern the Lemuria. The first is

that the Lemuria is a festival to expel ghosts from the home (at least in the private rite -

we have no knowledge of the public rite, let alone if there was one). On encountering

this fact, one is faced with a dilemma of terminology there is more than one term for

ghost in the Latin language, and Ovid uses at least four (umbra, imago, manes, and

lemures). The common assumption among both ancient and modern scholars is that each

term denotes a different class, quality, or category of the dead. Confusion ensues because

each term can still be used in the same manner despite its possible differentiation. That is,

when the paterfamilias performs the rite, is he exorcising his grandparents, unruly

chthonic phantoms, or the spirits of the untimely dead? Thus, I attempted first to

discover what the lemures are by examining the terminology and interpretation found in

the primary (ancient) and secondary (modern) sources.

Next I examined Ovid's story of Remus' apparition and its connection to the

Lemuria (Ov. Fast. 5.451-480). Ovid claims that the Lemuria is actually the Remuria, a

festival held in honor of Remus; however, no such festival by that name (Remuria) exists.

Instead, the Remuria is tied in with the story of Remus' death and the foundation of

Rome as a possible alternate position for Rome's establishment, a place where Remus

was ritualistically sacrificed and buried, and as the headquarters for plebeian interests.

Analysis of Ovid's ghost story (the only author to write a ghost story regarding Remus)

helps to determine the types of ghosts dealt with during the festival (thereby possibly

better defining the Lemuria).









Finally, I give a brief commentary on the rite itself, which exudes an archaic and

superstitious quality. The rite is chthonic in that it occurs at night, deals with the dead,

and includes several items associated with chthonic rites (fountain water, a gesture that

wards off the evil eye, beans, etc.). Assessment of the rite reveals more about the

characteristic of the ghosts of the Lemuria and perhaps leads to a better insight into how

an ancient Roman dealt with the dead.

The Lemuria is a festival regarding the dead, and as such deals with the

fundamental mystery of human life death. Death is the one constant for all mortals in

this reality. It has long been the belief, however, (among various tribes, nations, and

peoples, both ancient and modem) that death is not the end. There is an existence for us

after this one, a different reality, a different place; perhaps better or worse than this one.

On account of this, death represents the greatest transition a human will ever experience.

At the same time it should be noted that those who are left behind in this realm

experience the second greatest transition humans make (that is, continuing to live despite

the loss of a loved one). Is there any greater pain, any greater shock to the human psyche

than the passing of a loved one? The ancient Greeks and Romans conscious of these

transitions took great care by creating methods to handle their grief, and we today still

use their models and have added some of our own, such as counseling. It is important to

remember that their solutions (although they physically, mentally, and spiritually appear

as though they are for the dead) psychologically are for the living. Hence, since this is

the only existence a human can have knowledge of, the methods presuppose an afterlife

existence similar to this one.









The primary method of dealing with the dead for the ancients was the burial rite.

Great effort was made to ensure that the ceremony, rituals, and interment and/or

cremation happened accordingly so that the dead person could have an easy journey to

the next realm of existence.6 The slightest mistake could injure or hinder that person's

journey, causing them to remain in this realm (where that person was not supposed still to

be). Thus, if burial did not take place, a person was stuck in this dimension (a most

uncomfortable and painful situation for that person). The burial, at the same time, is the

beginning of the grieving process, and offers the chance for those left behind one last

moment to take care of, to honor, and to say good-bye to the deceased. However, the

ancients were aware that once the funeral is over, the grief does not end. Thus, there

were special days set aside for the dead. On these days, the dead were permitted to return

to visit the living, and the living were encouraged to visit the dead.7 For this reason,

these days had the same liminal tone as the time of burial, and, therefore, superstitions

regarding them arose, causing great caution to be taken during them as mentioned above.

When the dead pass from the other world to this realm, creatures from that world,

harmful to humans, could potentially follow behind, or even the dead themselves could

possibly injure the living. Hence, there was a general fear of these days, but it was

coupled with a solemn time for dealing with grief and reminiscing lost loved ones.

Visiting the tombs of the ancestors, moreover, is a way of keeping a connection with

them, and this connection was reinforced by the ancients through offering gifts to the




6 For further discussion regarding ancient and modem perspectives on death and burial, see Davies' Death,
Burial, and Rebirth in the Religions ofAntiquity, Denning's Iloii, i,,i:, Real-Life Encounters with
Troubled Spirits, Kiibler-Ross' Death: The Final Stage of Growth, and Peck's Denial of the Soul.
7 Such days and festivals would include the (for the Greeks) Agriania, Nemesia, Genesia, and Anthesteria,
(for the Romans) Lemuria, Parentalia, Larentalia, and the mundus patet.









dead, such as flowers and food, things which one would normally do if the dead person

were alive.

While the Lemuria may originally have not been a festival regarding the dead, it

had, by Ovid's time, acquired this perception. Thus, one must remember that we are

dealing with ghosts, with the living dead, creatures that have existed in our minds since

we have been conscious of ourselves. Ghosts are not limited by culture, time, or society,

and serve as a testament that the human race will not give up hope on a life after death.

Ghosts and spirits, however, if such beings exist, belong to a realm science has yet to

penetrate. Our scientific instruments still measure only according to a quantitative

analysis, and our reasoning is limited to interpretation of only tangible evidence. Thus,

we can only examine accurately the beliefs and the views of the Romans and other

peoples regarding the dead. Investigating these beliefs can only lead to a better

comprehension of them in our own lives. Thus, it remains that a life after this can only

be "proven" by faith and revelation. But if the frustration of the lack of knowledge has

not put you off, read on. Una enim quid significet humanum esse porro inveniamus.
















CHAPTER 2
TERMINOLOGY OF THE DEAD

Anyone knows that when trying to name the religion of the Romans they will fail

since the Romans ascribed to many forms of various religions and philosophies. The

same can be said about their belief regarding the afterlife and the dead. As the Roman

Empire spread, it assimilated the beliefs about the dead into its pre-existing

understanding. Thus, the Latin terms for ghosts or spirits or souls, like in English,

multiply over time and acquire new meaning as the Romans met other cultures. The

words for spirit or ghost include animus, anima, imago, simulacrum, effigies, lemures,

manes, larvae, and umbra. Each of these words is used by respective authors to denote

ghosts. The focus of this study will be primarily on the lemures in an attempt to figure

out what type of dead they are. The terms manes and larvae in particular are associated

with the lemures to the extent that there is confusion as to what each term means. This is

explicitly seen in Ovid's version of the Lemuria, a festival in May to honor the lemures,

in which the terms manes, lemures, imago, and umbra appear as if there is no difference

between each term. On account of this, scholars can be at a loss as to the original Roman

concept of the dead and how other contact groups, such as Etruscans and the Greeks,

changed that concept. Thus, this section is dedicated to seeking an understanding of the

lemures versus the manes and larvae by examining the occurrence of the term in

literature and scholarship. Modern scholarship will be examined first followed by the

various ancient literary references.










Modern Scholarship

Many scholars, both ancient and modern, have commented on the confusion of

the terms for the dead. Dumezil writes the disjunction of the lemures and manes as

necessary to fit meter and interprets, the ghosts of the Lemuria as stealing the living back

to Hades if the rites were not performed.1 He claims that the term manes is ancient, since

it is always found in the plural, even when Dii Manes become synonymous with the

individual soul of a person through the influence of the Greek understanding of

daimones.2 Dumezil also says that many believe the term manes is derived from the

word manis meaning "good." Hence, the manes or the Dii Manes are the "Good Gods."3

Rose believed that the confusion of manes and lemures was just a "blunder" on

Ovid's part.4 He indicates, moreover, that no word which would define a person's

individual soul/spirit exists before the Augustan era since the formula dis manibus can

only be traced to the time of Augustus.5 He says further that a ghost for early Italians

was an "animated corpse," citing the fact that larva can mean phantom and skeleton,

while manes can mean ghost or corpse.6




1 Dumezil 367.
2 Dumezil 365. Examples where manes is used as one's individual ghost include Liv. 3.58.11, Prop. 3.1.1,
quin etfacto per Magos sacro evocare Manes et exorare temptavit. Suet. Nero 34, and ante lectum iacens
per omnia piaculorum genera Manes Galbae, a quo deturbari expellique se viderat, propitiare temptasse.
Suet. Otho 7. It is interesting to note that Suetonius uses manes for the ghost of Nero's mother and of
Galba, but he uses umbra for Caligula's ghost haunting the Lamian gardens.
3 Dumezil 365.
4 Latte 99 n. 2.
5 Rose (1930) claims that it is likely that the early Italian believed he had three indwelling forces: breath,
shadow, and blood, p. 129. Cumont also mentions this idea but says that it is an influence of the Egyptian
religion on the Alexandrian Pythagoreans. He gives the following key for the terms: soul vuzxi, anima;
shade CTKt, eiSco)ov, umbra, simulacrum; body C76 oa, corpus, p. 167.
6 Rose (1930) 133. Modems classify the tales of revenants (reanimated corpses) as ghost stories. Lawson
disagrees with this and says further that the Greeks recognized a difference between revenants and ghosts, p.
412. Haining claims that the original meaning of revenant was that of any being that came back from the
dead, p. 207. Both Lawson and Haining are citations in Felton p. 108, who points out that tales of
revenants have different characteristics from the stories of "unsubstantial apparitions," p. 26.









Knight renders manes as "the good people" pointing out that the belief of the dead

as an endless throng precedes the beliefs of the dead in Egypt and Sumer.7 To show this,

he offers the example of how, in Pre-Roman times, after the dead were cremated, they

were placed in urns that were deposited in "urn-fields" positioned outside the settlement

as a defense against enemies. Individuality begins to be allotted to the dead around 1000

B.C.E. indicated by the graves in the Forum. Knight feels that these conditions could

have provided for a "soul cult," though evidence for this is lacking.8 Knight

demonstrates how the process of individualization of the term manes (with the plural

being retained) did not completely alter its meaning but added to it quoting Cicero, "to

assuage the spirits of the dead conspirators" (coniuratorum manes mortuorum expire

Cic. Pis. 16), Propertius, "0 spirit of Callimachus" (Callimachi manes Prop. 3.1.1), and

Livy, "the ghost of Verginia" (Verginiae manes Liv. 3.58.11).9

Wissowa suggests that the term lemures came from the Lemuria as a poetic

possibility for ghosts.10 From the ancient sources, Fowler felt Nonius and Porphyrio

(besides Ovid) were the most authoritative on the lemures, while Apuleius and Martianus

Capella were the least trustworthy. He notes that while the Lemuria was marked nefasti,

another Roman festival for the dead, the Feralia, which was included within the

Parentalia, was labeledfasti. This may indicate that the dead of the Lemuria are

specifically of a hostile nature. Fowler also thinks that either Ovid was mistaken or that

the final address (manes exitepaterni) could be a polite and courteous way to speak to

such spirits. From these facts, he interpreted the lemures as a horde of demons, part of a



7 Knight 108.
8 Knight 108-09.
9 Ibid. 110.
10 Wissowa 1931-33.










primitive culture that predated a civilized Rome, yet nevertheless remained in civilized

Rome despite their triviality.1l Frazer believed that Ovid was correct and that the

lemures were family dead, while Bomer disagreed, thinking that Ovid was modeling his

formula after the Athenian Anthesteria.12 Cumont says that the lemures and manes were

shades of the dead who lived underground in a throng indistinguishable from those that

roamed around the tomb. Both groups along with the larvae were feared and looked

upon as being evil since they "endeavor to tear the living from the earth and draw them to

themselves."13 Latte thinks that there was a distinction between lemures and manes and

that Ovid is to blame for confusing later scholars through mixing the terms.14 Wright

says that the lemures are the terrifying and malicious larvae appeased by beans. The

manes, likewise, were terrifying but immense.15 Fay offers linguistic information on

manes stating that its root in Sanskrit *magx- forms lt6Kaps6 in Greek and Magha in

Sanskrit, the Indo-European name of the month equivalent to the Roman Maius, also

dedicated to the dead.16 Thaniel says that since lemures and larvae are sinister spirits







1 Fowler 106-09.
12 Frazer 424. Bomer supplement I ofARWas cited by Dumezil, p. 365. The Anthesteria was a Dionysian
festival in Athens held on the 11th, 12th, and 13th of the month Anthesterion (February) to welcome the
spring. On the third day, called Chytroi, an offering ofplankarpia, made of mixed fruits, was offered to
Chthonic Hermes. Ghosts, having arrived the night before, were roamed the lands. The festival ended by
commanding the ghosts to leave, with the words "Leave, Keres, Anthesteria is over" (Q6pace Kfipeq,
O1K f AvOrsoTrpta). The phrase, like the Ovidian manes exite paterni, has also caused much debate
among both ancient and modem scholars in that it is not agreed what the keres are. Some think they are
slaves, while others believe they are ghosts.
13 Cumont 63-64, 72. Both Cumont and Frazer describe the dead for all peoples as sciiinsi\ c" beings who
must be taken care of lest they become angry and injure the living (Cumont 63, Frazer 425).
14 Latte 100, as quoted by Dumezil 364.
15 Wright 156. Wright quotes only from Nonius Marcellus. Regarding the manes, he says that the
adjective immanis describes them perfectly and that it was hoped that by using the term manes their
character would not be so horrific.
16 Fay 13-14. The word for ancestor in Sanskrit is pit5mah5-s, which Fay identifies as manes, p. 12.









during the Augustan age and that they are not found "in higher poetry," it must have been

the case that to write of them was taboo.17

Ancient Scholarship

The evidence from the ancients does little to solve the problem and if anything

has only confused modem scholars more. Lemures do not occur in epitaphs or higher

poetry, and the first instance of them is found in Horace (nocturnos lemuresportentaque

Thessala rides Hor. Ep. 2.2.209). The Horatian passage does not explain what the

lemures are, merely calling them nocturnos, but it does group them with things that

inspire fear such as Thessalian portents.18 Strangely enough another satirist, Persius, has

a very similar line calling the lemures black (turn nigri lemures ovaque rupto Pers. 5.185).

The context for both authors is stating how one should live free of care. They both list

superstitions that obstruct one's happiness in life, and the belief in the lemures is one of

those hindrances. This could be interpreted in two ways: either the lemures exist, but

they cannot harm anyone, or the lemures simply do not exist. Thus, the only things one

can learn from these authors are that the lemures belong to the realm of superstitions, that

they were feared, and that they were black.

Being described as nocturni and nigri is not necessarily saying that the lemures

were evil. It indicates, rather, that they were associated with chthonic powers. Chthonic

powers themselves are not always bad, but they do have the connotation of being

connected with impure and frightful things, and, therefore, they are labeled evil.19 There


17 Thaniel 187. For additional references to lemures, larvae, manes, and lares, see Anthon 724, 730;
Daremberg 950-53, 1100-01,1571-76; Ernout 342, 351, 383; Latte 99-100; Lempriere 320-21,325, 351;
Smith 30; Wissowa 878-79, 806-14; CGL. v. 6. 626, 635, 676; TLL. v. 7. 977-80, 1137-39, v. 8. 293-99.
18 It should be noted that Ovid uses the same adjective to describe the Lemuria (nocturna Lemuria Ov. Fast.
5.421).
19 Regarding black and the dead, Winkler writes, "It is not simply black skin colour which is frightening in
ominous circumstances but other visible features unkempt hair, squalor, a ferocious look," p. 162.









may be more information acquired from the discussion of color of the dead than realized.

In antiquity, there were three primary ways to "paint" the dead: black, white, and

transparent. The shadowlike usually appeared in low lighting or dreams, while black and

white describe physical ghosts.

Winkler's article has treated this phenomenon in depth, noting some amazing

conclusions. All of the black ghost stories he cited are late, reaching even into the non-

canonical gospels such as the Acts of Peter and the Acts of Thomas.20 Even the

explanation that the dead appear black due to cremation from Statius and Silius Italicus is

late.21 Winkler, however, notes two important observations: a) lemures are commonly

described as black, and b) there are no Greek texts that contain instances of the

Underworld or its residents as white.22 Such an observation could support Rose's theory

that a ghost for the Romans was an animated corpse. This could further support the

notion that the lemures are not spirits of the dead but rather merely chthonic spirits. There

is evidence of black ghosts, particularly on stage, for the Romans but this is after the

effects of Hellenization.23

Hence, by looking at just these authors, Horace and Persius, one can only judge

the lemures as sinister via assimilation. Only their commentators have made the case that

they were evil and, moreover, that they were a certain type of evil. Porphyrio, writing on

the Horatian passage, claims that the lemures roamed at night, had died untimely deaths,

and ought to be feared (umbras vagantes hominum ante diem mortuorum et ideo



20 Ghosts, as in there is a specific reference to a person who is dead. Thus, there is no vague term like
umbra or manes used to describe them but rather something like niger vir .
21 Sil. 13.447, Stat. Theb. 8.5. Statius marks the beginning of the Silver Age, while Silius is dated to 25-
101 C.E.
22 Winkler 162. Felton disagrees citing Lucian. Philops. 25 and Plin. Nat. 7.27.13, p. 16.
23 Winkler 164.









metuendas).24 Acro in the scholia for the Horatian passage defines them as the terrible

shades of those who suffered violent death (umbras terribiles biothanatorum).25 The

scholia on Persius only obscures the terminology further claiming that the lemures were

the manes, which the Greeks call guardian spirits, being certain shades that have the gift

of prophecy (Lemures dicuntur dii manes, quos Graeci 6aif ovu vocant, velut umbras

quasdam divinitatem habentes. Lemuria autem dicuntur dies, quando manes placantur).26

It should be noted that all three commentators have described the lemures using

either Greek terms or Greek imagery. The class of spirits that died before their time was

called &opot, and they often preyed upon the living, jealous of their lost opportunities.

The piatoOevarot, a subcategory of &opot, were soldiers, murder victims, suicides, and

executed criminals.27 Pliny notes that nothing is more pleasant than a timely death (ex

omnibus bonis quae homini tribuit natural nullum melius esse tempestiva morte, Plin. Nat.

28.2.9). Thus, for both the ancient and the modern Greek and Roman, few things are

scarier and more frustrating than an untimely death. The opot, are trapped in this realm

clinging and desiring to a life in a world that, despite all their hopes and wishes, they can

never possess. Their desperate desire for this and their refusal to accept their fate

separates them from the Underworld as well. All they know is fear, anger, and self-pity,

and the only way they can channel these emotions is by killing others, that is, by creating

more acpou;. Johnston explains this well when discussing the opot, stating:



24 This is the way Wissowa cites it, although he writes in (=&copot) after mortuorum (1932).
25 Wissowa 1932.
26 Ibid. 1932.
27 See Felton p. 25 and Ogden (2002) p. 146. For an in depth discussion including ancient references, see
Rohde's appenidices 6 and 7, pp. 590-95. Johnston notes that throughout most of antiquity, &ompog was
used to denote either male or female untimely dead, but, later, a specifically feminine form &opi came into
existence and is found especially in magical papyri, pp. 164-65.










It exiles the aore not only from the upper world, as all deaths do, but also
from the Underworld, leaving her stranded betwixt the two. For, bereft of
the only sort of honor that women could normally earn the honor of
having successfully borne and nurtured children the aorj is excluded
from the society of the dead just as is the warrior who is treacherously
slaughtered instead of dying nobly on the battlefield, or the murder victim
whose relatives have not avenged him. Like these biaiothanatoi, the aore
can only wander between the worlds of the living and the dead causing
trouble.28

The terribleness of the untimely death is that one does not get to fulfill one's role in life.

For women, this is primarily limited to marriage and bearing children as expressed by

Polyxena before she is condemned to such an existence (&vu[tlog &vuitvauoto

T(v tL' Xp#lv cuXEiv. Eur. Hec. 416).29 Hence, &copot will often kill newly-born children

or a wife in the pangs of childbirth or young girls before their marriage. Sometimes

deities or the women themselves will render their untimely death because they have

performed something unfit according to their role in society. Often the act is sexual in

nature, either rape or consensual. If females were limited to marriage and childbirth,

masculine roles included everything else. The first and primary duty a male had was to

the State, true for both Greeks and Romans. This would include politics, military service,

business, religious rites, and others, and their goals are personal glory and glory for the

State. For the male, however, the military was the most common form of life and the



28 Johnston 175.
29 Archaeological evidence reveals that these females were buried with items, such as spindles and the doll
a woman dedicates before marriage, that symbolize the feminine role they could never acquire, Martin-
Kilcher p. 70-3. Whether these items were thought to be used in the afterlife or if they are just tokens
belonging to the person is unclear. Several amulets have been discovered in these graves, and there is a
debate whether they are there to protect the living from the dead. Priscianus may be mentioning these
amulets when he tells of how the lack of jasper caused a place to be haunted regiono quaedam generate malos
lemures quodpellit munus, iaspim, nocturni manesfugitant quam membra tuentem, Pris. periheg. 691).
Martin-Kilcher thinks that it is "highly improbable" that these amulets were employed as protection from
the dead, but she offers no argument, p. 73. The idea is not as far-fetched as it sounds. Other cultures bury
the dead in ways that the dead cannot escape to harm the living. For example, the African tribe Ovambo
cut off the head and limbs of the dead to ensure that there are not too many spirits flitting about in this
realm, according to Mascetti, p. 196.









most familiar form of death. Hence, males tended to be more ptatoO0varot, having

died on the battlefield. Thus, while females provided the legitimate instruments for

civilization to exist, males ensured that civilization existed. Therefore, anything that

damaged the chance for such glory to be obtained, anything that damaged the "order" of

civilization as the ancients knew it was the most heinous and unimaginable thing. Thus,

one can understand the force and power behind the fear of the untimely dead.

Why would the Romans have a festival to celebrate these classes of ghosts? The

usual answer is that the ghosts needed to be propitiated lest they do harm to the city or

other humans. Roman law, however, interceded on behalf of citizen ghosts as long as

they did not get in the way.30 The foreign dead were not feared, nor were they respected

or recognized as legitimate by Roman authority, and, therefore, no Roman citizen had to

fear or observe the foreign dead.31 While Roman law may not have protected against all

&copot, it did protect against executed criminals, murder victims, and soldiers. Soldiers,

even if the body was not recovered, were given a proper burial (the burial of a Roman

citizen).32 Criminals who were executed could not be citizens to begin with. Also,

anyone who committed suicide was not given burial, and, therefore, like the rest of these,

had no authorized permission of the state to haunt!33 Thus, the dead still fell under the

statutes of Roman law and had no voice with which to defend themselves. Hence, it does

not seem likely that the Romans would have celebrated a festival for these creatures and,

therefore, that the lemures must be another class of being.




30 Rose (1930) 135.
31 Ibid. (1930) 135.
32 Dig. 3.2.25, as cited by Rose (1930) p. 135.
33 Serv. A. 12.603, as cited by Rose (1930) p. 135.









In Fasti 5. 444, Ovid sings the formula, manes exite paterni, which has caused

uncertainty regarding the classification of ghosts since the festival is for the lemures.

Ovid's song is even more confusing in that he states that the dead in general are called

lemures, whereas this is often how one defines manes (mox etiam lemures animals dixere

silentum: Ov. Fast. 5.483). This understanding would extradite Ovid from the

manes/lemures issue since it implies they are the same. He adds that obsequies are

brought to the graves of ancestors at this time (illam, quapositis iustaferuntur avis. Ov.

Fast. 5.480). This would imply that these ghosts lie in peace and return only during the

Lemuria and the other festivals of the dead and, therefore, cannot be &cpot or

ptatoOavarot, as other authors have suggested. In fact, the only implication from Ovid

that these dead could be &opot or ptatoOavarot is the fact that he uses Remus, who

died an untimely death, as an example.

Another reference to the lemures comes from Varro who says that the lemures are

the same as the larvae and that beans are thrown to them during the Lemuria (quibus

temporibus in sacrisfabam iactant ac dicunt se lemurios domo extra ianuam eicere. Var.

fr. 18 De Vita Populi Romani). Paulus also remarks that beans are thrown to the larvae

during the Lemuria (nam et Lemuralibus (faba) iacitur larvis).34 Nonius Marcellus also

defines lemures by calling them larvae (larvae nocturnae et terrificationes imaginum et

bestiarum). Nonius identifies them as nightly, as Horace does, but he also calls them

imagines. Cicero, Vergil, and Ovid utilize this term for ghost as well.35 Its usage should

come as no surprise since imagines is the term employed for "death masks" at a Roman



34 Wissowa 1931.
35 Ille autem: "Tua me, genitor, tua tristis imago Verg. A. 6.695; itaque eis occurruntplerumque imagines
mortuorum, Cic. Div. 1.63; nunc sum elapsa rogiflammis et inanis imago: Ov. Fast. 5.463.










funeral. These masks, likenesses of previous family members, were usually set up in the

atrium, but during a funeral, they were displayed alongside a mask for the recently

deceased. Often these masks were worn by actors or mimes, some of which were

employed to study and impersonate the characteristics of the person whose mask they

36
were wearing.3

Nonius also describes lemures as bestias, a term found with no other description

of lemures. Although there are modern ghost stories of animals, there are next to none in

the ancient world. Instead, there are stories in which ghosts transform into various

animals, particularly dogs and snakes since these two creatures had chthonic

associations.37 The notion of the ghost in these stories, however, is more a description of

a demon from Neo-platonic philosophy, such as found in Plotinus. Plotinus, unlike other

Neo-platonic philosophers believed in metempsychosis. Plotinus, however, mentions that

the souls of those who have committed sins are those that inhabit animals. Thus, animals

do not necessarily always have their own souls which may indicate the lack of animal

ghosts. Also, the fact that souls can be reborn as animals may imply one reason why

ghosts can transform into animals.

The passages from Varro, Paulus, and Nonius correspond to Ovid's ritual of bean-

throwing during the Lemuria to exorcise ghosts; however, it causes a new problem since

it introduces a different class of spirits that the lemures are, that is, larvae. Unlike

lemures and manes, the term larva includes adjectival, participial, and verbal forms


36 See Plb. 6.53-54 for Roman funerals and imagines.
7 For dogs, see Philostr. VA. 4.10, Luc. Philops. 22-24, 30-31. Hecate, goddess of the dead, was often
accompanied by dogs. Dover claims that dogs were special to Hecate because they were sacrificed to her
citing Sophron fr. 8, p. 102 n. 12. See also Rohde's discussion on this, pp. 589-90. Furthermore, within the
first five lines of the earliest author in Greek literature, Homer, there is already a connection between dogs
and the dead (Hom. II. 1.3-4). When Canidia and Sagana raise the souls of the dead, both snakes and dogs
are swarming about (Hor. S. 1.8). For snakes, see Plu. Cleom. 39, Plin. Nat. 10.56, and Serv.A. 5.95.










(larvalis resembling an evil spirit, specter-like, deathly; larvatus possessed by evil

spirits, demented; larvare to possess with evil spirits, bewitch).38 Larva is the term for

the skeleton set up during a Roman banquet (Potantibus ergo nobis et accuratissime

lautitias mirantibus larvam argenteam attulit servus sic aptatam, Petr. 34.8). Larva can

also mean a ghostly theater mask, though it is not clear when this usage came into

being.39 In addition, larva is used in the singular which contradicts the belief that the

Romans believed only in the dead en masse. Plautus uses the term to refer to evil spirits

who infect men with mental illness and as a creature, unwanted and unwelcome, that

lingers.40 Winkler notes that larvae are generally described as being white.41 If Rose's

animated corpse notion is correct, this observation on color could imply that larvae are

the spirits of the dead. In Seneca, however, the larvae are separated from the dead as

tormentors of souls (almost Furies).42 Perhaps this is an earlier meaning of larva since

there is no record of any ghosts whose role it is to torture the dead, or it could be an

attempt at Romanizing the Greek creatures called keres.43 Thus, there is nothing

conclusive about the larvae as yet other than that they are harmful and chthonic. They

could be either spirits of the dead, following Rose's reasoning and Winkler's color

observation, or they could be underworld spirits, not necessarily the dead, who are

38 OLD. sv.
39 nil illi larva aut tragicis opus esse cothurnis Hor. S. 1.5.64. It should be noted that an alternate reading
for larva in this passage is barba.
40quid esse illi morbi, dixeras? narra, senex. / num larvatust aut cerritus?fac sciam. Pl. Men. 888-9; Viso
huc, amator si aforo rediit domum / qui me atque uxorem ludifcatust, larva. Pl. Cas. 591-2.
41 Winkler 162.
42eum dedi Larvis etproximo munere inter novos auctoratos ferulis vapulare place. Sen. Apoc. 9.3. The
line directly says nothing about the larvae, but it is inferred from the comments on gladiators that they are
punishers. There is a derogatory sense in this line as well. Another instance where larva is used insultingly
and with a reference to men in contests is in Petronius (similia sicilia interiors et larvas sic istos
percolopabant Petr. 44.5). Rouse notes that interiors are "racers who try to hold the inner position of a
curving track," p. 85.
43 Ker is a Greek goddess of death often mixed with the Erinyes and the Fates. Keres are the daughters of
Nyx in Hesiod (Th. 211-12). Paus. 5.19.6 is responsible for giving the Keres their descriptions of being
fanged and taloned. Such a description lends aid to their function as bringers of death.










released at certain times upon the world. They can inflict damage which is why they

would need a festival for protection from and for propitiation. They do not fall under the

authority of the Roman law and therefore must be dealt with in such a magical manner.

Both Ovid and the scholia of Persius, however, indicate that the lemures and

manes are the same, making no mention of the larvae. It is Apuleius who differentiates

the three terms, remarking that lemures is an archaic term for the dead in general. When

such dead watch over and protect their descendants, they are called lares. If they lived a

life of evil, conversely, they are evil in the afterlife as well and called larvae. When

one's fate is uncertain, the term manes is used.44 Apuleius mentions the lemures two

other times, once in The Golden Ass and once in The Apology. In The Golden Ass, he

describes thieves as dressing up like lemures in order to scare any travelers (et ecce nocte

promote latrones expergiti castra commovent instructique varie, partim gladiis armati,

partim in lemures reformati concito se graduproripiunt. Apul. Met. 4.22). Later on,

however, when the robbers capture Charite at the crossroads, they do not use the term

lemures but rather manes and larvae (quorsum istam festinanti vestigio lucubratis viam

nec noctis intempestae manes larvasqueformidatis? Apul. Met. 6.30). Apuleius has been

influenced by a thoroughly hellenized Roman culture, and he himself is called "The

Platonist," being well versed in Greek philosophy. He is consistent in what he writes in





44 Hunc vetere Latina lingua reperio Lemurem dictitatum. Ex hisce ergo Lemuribus qui posterorum suorum
curam sortitus placato et quieto numine domum possidet, Lar diciturfamiliaris; qui vero ob adversa vitae
merita nullis (bonis) sedibus incerta iol i~,., i,.. ceu quodam exilio punitur, inane terriculamentum bonis
hominibus, ceterum malis noxium, id genus plerique Larvas perhibent. Cum vero incertum est, quae cuique
eorum sortitio evenerit, utrum Lar sit an Larva, nominee Manem deum nuncupant. Apul. Soc. 15.
Martianus Capella says something somewhat similar, except that he notes that lemures are spirits
specifically who have remained in their bodies after death only to be changed into lares, larvas, and manias
later (manes ... cum his (corporibus defunctis) manentes appellati lemures postea et in lares et in larvas
ac manias conversi. Mart. Cap. 2.162).









that his fiction reflects his factual writings on the dead, though his reputation as a novelist

makes him untrustworthy.

Thus, with each successive author, a new class of spirits arises, or a different

understanding is attached to an older class. If one assumes that originally the dead for the

Romans were a general mass, then with the further influence of Greek culture, which

could not live without classification, more elaborate explanations arose and reflect

influence from the Greeks. Thus, it is easy to see why scholars today are so confused on

the subject of classification of the dead since the ancients themselves were confused

about it, and they confused it themselves.45

Apuleius' argument, particularly about the good lemures as lares, however, may

not be far from the mark. There is evidence that the lares were seen as spirits of the dead,

particularly family dead, and there is a further connection with the dead through their

mother, the goddess Mania.46 Based on the types of sacrifices given to her, the Mater

Larum appears to be an earth goddess, making her children, the lares, chthonic spirits.47

During the Compitalia, images of Mania were hung at the crossroad shrines and on the

house doors (Macr. 1.7.34-35), and Festus claims that the term was used to scare children

into behaving better (Fest. p. 115 L).48 Martianus Capella claims that the lares were

benevolent spirits and that they hold a natural position in the Arval brotherhood whose

rituals' purpose was to make the fields fertile.49 A sacrifice was offered to Mania during



45 For example, Augustine misinterpreted Apuleius' ghostly distinctions claiming that lemures and larvae
are evil (Dicit quidem et animals hominum daemonas esse et ex hominibusfieri lares, si boni meriti sunt;
lemures, si mali seu larvas; manes autem deos dici, si incertum est bonorum eos seu malorum esse
meritorum. August. C.D. 9.11).
46 Powell claims that the word lares is derived from the Etruscan word for spirit of the dead and that their
role was to protect the household, p. 645.
47 Taylor 300.
48 Taylor 301.
49 Ibid. 301.









the Lemuria on May 11th, but Ovid makes no mention of it.50 It seems odd that Ovid

would make no mention of Mania or her sacrifice during a time when it would be so

appropriate to do so. If one examines, however, Mania, one may find that Ovid actually

does mention her. Ovid called Mania Lara and said she mothered the lares via Mercury

(Ov. Fast. 2.583-616).51 Mania was honored at the Larentalia under the name Acca

Larentia, and she was also associated with the Junii family who honored their ancestors

during the Larentalia instead of the Parentalia.52 The connection came through Junius

Brutus, who, while consul, deleted the human sacrifices in honor of Mania during the

Compitalia.53 More importantly, perhaps, Acca Larentia, having been associated with

Mania through the Arval brotherhood, made her the foster mother of Romulus and

Remus.54 Thus, Ovid does mention Mania during the Lemuria, not as a goddess but a

dutiful wife who with her husband performs the proper burial ceremonies for their son

Remus. As a result of their parentage, Romulus and Remus are sometimes regarded as

the lares, and since their mother is a goddess of the dead, this makes them chthonic

deities as well. Thus, the significance ofMania is that she is a goddess of death, the

mother of the lares, and also the mother (or foster mother) of Romulus and Remus. Since

both lares and Romulus and Remus are revered by the Romans and on account of the

benevolent nature of the lares, it is not difficult to see how a belief that the favorable

dead became lares.


50 It is possible that the inscription could read that the sacrifice goes to someone other than Mania, such as
the manes themselves as the TLL offers ma (an ma ?) (1130). The "ma" is the abbreviation
found on the calendar (FastiAntiatesMaiores). Scullard lists the other possibilities but believes it to be
Mania, p.119.
51 The lares were born to Mania and Mercury as he led her to Hades.
52 Plu. Quaest. Rom. 34; Cic. Leg. 2.54 as cited by Taylor, p. 302.
53 Macr. 1.7.35 as cited by Taylor, p. 302.
54 Taylor 302. Mania was also construed withMaia and the Bona Dea as goddesses of the Underworld, see
Macr. 1.12.23, 1.12.20-1.









Having examined the terminology of the dead, the following things should be

noted. The first is the number of the terms, (if the term is singular like umbra or plural

like lemures). It has been noted that the plural forms indicate older ideas. This would

imply a quasi-evolution for the understanding of the dead from communal to individual

to communal (though with a small amount of individuality recognized within the

community).5 This is not surprising since this mirrors the evolution of living humans,

that is, humans begin to survive by living in a communal environment. Once a

communal environment is established, the characteristic of independence through the

understanding that each person has a unique role to play within the community arises

among the members. Each member, however, cannot exist without the community, and,

thus, a coexistence is established between the community and its individuals.56 Thus,

under this notion, the terms manes and lemures seem more archaic than the terms that are

singular such as larva and umbra.

The dead have also been described as nightly, though they are not bound to the

night alone. This description implies the color black, which along with white and

transparent, are the colors that befit a ghost. Ghosts are also black through the

association of ashes after cremation. But even before cremation, they are black because

they are dirty from living in a dark place (earth). Their food is not the normal food of the

living but the rotten scraps left behind and even dirt itself. Black is also the fitting color

for the dead since it is a color that denotes a sinister morality. While not all ghosts are

sinister, there was the idea that they brought death and were often used for mischievous


55 It should be noted that this evolution is not as linear as it is described here. The process of the creation of
an afterlife is on going, even today, as various cultures and religions interact and share their beliefs and
ideas. In the West, the common formula has been the general to the more specific and then a combination
of both.
56 Clarke 7a.









purposes. Black, furthermore, is the color of impenetrability and immensity. The dead,

as already noted, are a huge group, and, as a rule, cannot be penetrated, or at least are not

supposed to be, that is, once one crosses the Great River, one stays. The mixing of the

realms of the dead and the living would only bring chaos to the cherished order of the

world.

White, on the other hand, is the color of the dead on account of bones. White

often has the connotation of goodness and purity, and, hence, it is found as the color of

angels and other higher beings. On the other hand, white, as Winkler pointed out, is the

color associated with the menacing larvae. The transparent is simple to interpret if one

understands or believes that the ghost is a copy of the real person, and such a belief for

the Romans might have come from their funereal practice of death masks.

While Rose's animated corpse idea has merit for an original understanding of the

dead, it seems based on flimsy evidence and work better as a general notion of what the

dead looked like. As Winkler points out, white cannot be a description of the lemures

since they are black. Thus, we can say with assurance that lemures are black chthonic

creatures, perhaps the dead, which feed on either humans or beans.
















CHAPTER 3
OVID'S REMUS: A GHOST STORY

The following discussion will focus on Ovid's tale of Remus as a ghost story and

how this may or may not contribute to the understanding of the lemures. In order to do

this, it is necessary to have a grasp of the myth of Remus.1 While today a historian would

be unorthodox to incorporate a ghost story as part of an historical account, in ancient

times it was perfectly normal. Thus, it should be noted that no ancient historian ever

discusses or mentions Remus' apparition or any rites dedicated to him. It, therefore,

seems that either Ovid made up the story; or the tradition was known, and Ovid wrote it

in the form of the ghost story genre. While the ancients did not classify genres as

moderns do, there were certain motifs for the ancient ghost story that include the

terminology used to describe ghosts, the context of the ghost's appearance, and the

reason for their return.

According to Ovid, the Lemuria comes from the fact that Remus, after his death,

requested a festival in his honor. Romulus granted the request and established the

Remuria. Over time the "r" in Remuria became an "1" making it the Lemuria (aspera

mutata est in lenem tempore long / litter, quae toto nominee primafuit. Ov. Fast.

5.481-2). If one attempts to find Remuria in other works, one will encounter Remoria

instead. The Remoria was either the Aventine hill itself, or it was the spot where Remus



1 To date, Wiseman's study is the most thorough, though his arguments barely mention the festival of the
Lemuria.










wanted the city built where Romulus later buried him.2 This allowed some scholars to

think that Remoria was a nearby settlement the Romans conquered.3 The Remoria shares

in the same derivation as Remus' name (from remorari). Remus was called so because

he possessed tarditas, and, thus, people who had this were called remores according to

the OGR.4 One could further interpret remores as "those delayed" (those who having

died are still trapped in this realm).5

The story of the Remuria is a ghost story, and Ovid sets the stage by calling upon

Mercury. Mercury is an appropriate choice for the invocation since he is the

psychopompos, that is, the one who escorts the dead to the Underworld. He is the correct

one to inspire Ovid with the tale since he is familiar with the underworld, visiting it on a

regular basis (saepe tibi est Stygii regia visa lovis. Ov. Fast. 5.448). He also would have

escorted Remus at his death to the underworld.

Mercury has other associations with Remus. Augustus had the temple of Quirinus

rebuilt and dedicated in 16 B.C.E. after it had been destroyed by lightening during the

war between Caesar and Pompey. The pediment sculpture contains a series of doors in

the central position above which are birds that fly to the left. On the left is seated


2 T6 ZcOpiov vOca e LErov i6Spuatv -iv rXV 76 oi Tr air6 c i6 pEO p Kto i pog. PcmpoiLou pitv yap rv
yv(6pJrI T6 ncaLLdvktov OiKiKfSV TOv Tr &a Xcv EvsKa Kai Trig T6TZrg Tor Td6nou, i T6 GC ooival ec
ao6TiO Ka i Tpa(i4rvat 7fapcZe 'PipFT6 65e 656Keit ZlV KaLOUpivrlv viv a~' iKAiVOU 'Peptopiav
oiKiE Vt. D.H. 1.85.6; rvv 6e 'Pco6jiiL iv oiovitozrptov, eveOa l iou trlv 7toitKi ta i6SpUoat, T6
HcOaL vtiov, 'PCp 6'56 6 7tpoCTeX iKEiV 1k6o og AEvZTivog KCakOgLvog, 6g 6e ZinvE iCT0opoUCTyV
i 'Pepopia D.H. 1.86.2; h&to0av6zog 6' iv zT p.dcX 'PCtpou ViKrTV OiKtiCrV 6 'Pmorliog d76 te
To &6eL)o Ka1i 71oltZKi &XriLOKTOviaaq a&vEk6avog T6v piv P6tov iv Ti- 'Peptopiafg 0d71t,
i71tei1 Kai 6Ov Toy Zoipiou zri KTziCTosc 7pteifero D.H. 1.87.3; Festus (Paulus) 345L; 6O
' Pcp.6Log iv zT Pep.opfa 0dVaqg Tzv 'TPOpov 6pou Kai TzOig zposeig OKtIS ZrIv 716kt, Plu.
Rom. 11.1; OGR 23.1 as cited by Wiseman p. 203 n. 53, 54.
3 Wiseman cites Niebuhr's Lectures on Roman History, p. 40.
4 Wiseman 102 and 110, and he also cites OGR 21.5.
5 Kretschmer 294, as cited in Wiseman p. 174 n. 81, indicates that the archaic spelling of lemures is
lemores to which Wiseman adds "(from remores?); visible ghosts, especially of murder victims, might be
thought of as 'delaying (remorantes) in this world because not yet received into the next (Plautus
Mostellaria 498-503)."









Romulus with four deities standing near him, all facing him: a goddess holding a

cornucopia, Jupiter, Mars, and Victory. On the right is Remus, but in his line is Mercury,

Hercules, Bona Dea (possibly), and Murcia, goddess of slowness and cessation, the only

one facing Remus.6 There is also the possible alternative story in which Mercury is the

father of the twins. Within this tradition, Romulus and Remus become the Lares. Since

the father of the Lares is Mercury, and their mother is Lara, Mercury and Lara become

the parents of Romulus and Remus,7 giving the twins chthonic qualities.

Remus' ghost is described as a transparent image of him at death just as many

ghosts are.8 The terms used were umbra and imago. Both terms seem to be

interchangeable since they denote a transparent entity.9 There is also a strong support for

an alternate reading in the textual transmission in which Remus calls himself a manes.

The alternate reading occurs in line 472, replacing in meafata with manibus ille.10 This

would then indicate that imago, umbra, manes, and lemures are interchangeable for a

transparent spook, and, therefore, imply similarity, if not equality. To further emphasize

Remus' insubstantiality, Ovid describes his voice as speaking in a low whisper (exiguo

murmure). More importantly he is a ghost that appears as he did when he died cruentaa).

Many ghosts had who died violent deaths were often seen as they appeared when they

died, as if the violence surrounding their death was so horrific, so incredible, it could


6 Wiseman 147-8.
SWiseman 128, 139.
8 umbra cruenta Remi visa est assistere lecto, / atque haec exiguo murmure verba loqui,Ov. Fast. 5.457-58;
lubrica prensantes ettirrit umbra manus, Ov. Fast. 5.476.
9 Felton 24. She notes that Pliny used umbra, imago, simulacrum, i. iir,.- and manes (Plin. Nat. 7.27.5-
11), while Vergil used simulacrum, umbra, and imago (Verg. A. 2.772-3,793). Lucretius used umbra,
manes, and animals when he was discussing the ridiculousness of believing in ghosts (Lucr. 4.37-40, 6.762-
66) but used simulacrum and imago to explain what they actually were (Lucr.4.29-53). Cicero used manes
when explaining the three parts of equality, one pertaining to men, the other to gods, and the third to the
dead (Cic. Top. 90.8). Manes occurs only one other time in Cicero, that being in a letter to Atticus (Cic. Att.
5.13.3).
10 Alton cites the following in the Teubner: 11 472 in mea fata Cc: manibus ille Uco ob 422 11, p. 128.









never be taken away. For example, Sychaeus appeared to Dido revealing his battered

body (ora modis attollens pallida miris; / crudelis aras trajectaque pectoraferro nudavit,

Verg. A. 1.354-55) and, later in the Aeneid, a mutilated Hector visits Aeneas in a dream

(raptatus bigis, ut quondam, aterque cruento / pulvere, perque pedes trajectus lora

tumentis Verg. A. 2.272-73). Dido appeared to Anna with a gory figure (squalenti Dido

sanguinulenta coma Ov. Fast. 3.639), and Tlepolemus visited his wife in a dream (umbra

illa misere trucidati Tlepolemi sanie cruentam etpallore deformem Apul. Met. 8.8).11

The unifying elements of these stories are that every one of these characters died

violent deaths, that the ghosts appeared in dreams, and that ghosts are insubstantial, just

like Remus. Because they died violent deaths they are regarded as having died

prematurely. How the equation of violent, premature death equals insubstantial shade

visiting only in dream came about is not clear. Under this observation, however, one

could argue that since Remus falls into this category of ghosts, the festival celebrates this

particular category of ghosts. Porphyrio's commentary on Horace would confirm this

notion:

Et putant lemores esse dictos quasi Remulos a Remo, cuius occisi umbras
frater Romulus cum placare vellet, Lemuria instituit, id est Parentalia, quae
mense Maio per triduum celebrari solent, ante additum anno mensem
Februarium. (Por. Hor. Ep. 2.2.209)

And they think that lemures are called Remulos from Remus somewhat,
When his brother Romulus wanted to appease his unfortunate shades, he
established the Lemuria, that is the Parentalia, which they are accustomed
to celebrate in the month of May for three days, before the month of
February was added to the year.

A clue to understanding the equation may come from a fragment of Plotinus in which he

begins his discussion by quoting the Chaldaean Oracles, "You will not dismiss your Soul


11 These examples are all taken from Felton.









lest it go forth taking something with it" (Plot. Enn. 1.9).12 The understanding seems to

be that a) humans have control over their death and b) if one permits himself to die by a

violent means (murder, suicide, war) the soul will carry away some form of corporealness

(evil) with it.13 Plato has Socrates say something similar in that souls, impure on account

of evil behavior in life, are still attached to corporeal things and, therefore, still remain

flitting about in this realm:

Ep3pti~ 6i9 y, 6 ifs, (s, Toi)To oisogac t Xp sJivat Kai p3apb Kai
ys66sc; Kai 6pa-c6v 8 6 1 Kac i ouoa T0 ota6Crwuqxi pap6vewra
-C Kai WiKsCat tcO^Iv sij 'WV 6pac6v c67tov, 4)6f3p toi) &si6oii$ C;
Kai "At6ou, 6oxTnSp ys'cCat, 7rspi -C L vvCtaz TS Kai -covb Tc6c0out)
KIAuiv6ou0eVrL, 7Trspi & 6r] Kai S)90r 6-C-Ca vuX jv CYKtioEsi6
4xav'c&Yta'cca, oia 7tapgeovr'at ai cotaicdat ic)uXai si'6o2a, ai [t]
KaOapiccq &tO touOiCoat &kk,& 'Coi 6opaucoi [s'czoutCat, 616 Kait
6pCvra't. (P1. Phd. 30c-d).

It is necessary, friend, to think that the [corporeal] is heavy, earth-like, and
visible. Such a soul as this is burdened and enticed again into the visible
realm, by fear of both the incorporeal and of Hades, as they say, lingering
around the monuments and tombs, where the insubstantial phantoms of
souls have been observed, the sort of images that are souls which were not
released in a pure manner, but maintain something of the visible, causing
them to be seen.

The problem with both of these understandings is regarding morality. Not every person

who dies an untimely death led an evil life. One may argue that souls become impure

because they experience an untimely death and then must suffer the fate of the untimely

dead, however, Socrates seems to be arguing that evil people suffer the same fate as the

untimely dead. Thus, is Plato incorporating a cultural belief into his statements, or is he

modifying it to explain his moral philosophy?




12 The translation comes from Mackenna's edition. According to him, Michael Psellus identified the line
from the Chaldeaen Oracles, p. 71.
13 The interpretation comes from Mackenna, p. 71.









Additional evidence for Remus being an &copog comes from the observations of

Wiseman, who, in the course of his book, mentions the possibility that Remus was a

sacrificial victim for the sake of defending the walls of Rome.14 Wiseman argues that the

stories preserved by Propertius and Florus contain the original version of the Romulus

and Remus myth, a story created in 296 B.C.E. as a way to assuage the guilt of the

Romans for performing a human sacrifice in that year.15 A human sacrifice in the ancient

world was interpreted in two primary ways: a) as a necessary death for the protection and

survival of others and b) as a murder. It can be seen in the fact that those who performed

the ritual had to be spiritually cleansed, almost punished afterwards. Human sacrifices,

moreover, are offered to the gods below (parentare in Latin, ivayiCtiv in Greek).16 As

such, their rites are different from the sacrifices to the gods above. Rohde explains the

rites well, saying:

Sacrifice was made to the gods in broad daylight, to Heroes towards
evening or at night; and not on raised altars, but on low, and sometimes
hollow, sacrificial hearths close to the ground. For them were slain
animals of black colour and male sex, and in sacrificing, the heads of the
animals were not turned upwards towards heaven as they were when
offered to the gods, but were bent down to the ground. The blood of these
animals was allowed to run down into the ground or into the sacrificial
hearth, that the Heroes might have their "appeasement of blood." The
carcass was completely burnt, for no living man might taste of it.17

In the ancient world, there is one human sacrifice that often comes to mind,

Iphigenia. Iphigenia is sacrificed by her father Agamemnon in order to appease Artemis

or in accordance with the will of Zeus or both. Most know that some versions hold that



14 Wiseman 125.
15 caesio moenisfirma Remo (Prop. 3.9.50); prima certe victimafuit munitionemque urbis novae sanguine
suo consecravit (Flor. 1.1.8) as cited by Wiseman p. 208 n. 116.
16 Hardie 44. While there is no one specifically mentioned, Iphigenia is sacrificed in a chthonic manner.
Polyxena is sacrificed to Achilles, and heroes are appeased through chthonic rites.
17 Rohde 116. See also Hardie pp. 44-45.









Iphigenia died or that she was saved by Artemis and then became her priestess. There

was another tradition, however, which stated that upon being sacrificed, Artemis changed

Iphigenia into the goddess Hecate, the goddess of witches, crossroads, and the patroness

of the dead, particularly the untimely dead.18 Iphigenia as the prototypical

ao pog/3tpatoO6va'co became the leader of such beings. If Remus was also sacrificed,

that would make him an &opog or ptatoO6vaccog and possibly, a leader similar to

Hecate. No such tradition, conversely, is ever established around the figure of Remus as

there was with Iphigenia and Hecate. Instead, he is passed over and almost forgotten.

Why does Iphigenia as Hecate become the patroness of the dead, while Remus remains a

silent shade? The answer may lie in an argument based upon information from Wiseman.

The Romans looked down upon human sacrifice, but knew there were certain

times, particularly in a crisis, when it became necessary, as Livy indicated:

Interim ex fatalibus libris sacrificia aliquot extraordinaria facta; inter quae
Gallus et Galla, Graecus et Graeca in foro bovario sub terram vivi demissi
sunt in locum saxo consaeptum, iam ante hostiis humans, minime Romano
sacro, imbutum. (Liv. 22.57.6) 19

From those fatal books several extraordinary sacrifices were performed;
among which a Gallic male and female, a Greek male and female were sent
alive under the earth in the forum bovarium in a place enclosed by a rock,
tainted with human enemies by that least Roman of customs.

The Romans did not outlaw human sacrifice until 97 B.C.E. (DCLVII demum anno urbis

Cn. Cornelio Lentulo P. Licinio Crasso cos. senatus consultumfactum est ne homo

immolaretur, Plin. Nat. 30.3.12). The sacrifice of 296 B.C.E. was to help the Romans

achieve victory over an alliance between the Samnites, Etruscans, and Gauls. To justify

and offer proof for the success of the sacrifice, the foundation story, which incorporated


18 Stesich. fr. 215 PMG as cited by Johnston p. 241.
19 Wiseman 125. The information in the following two paragraphs comes from Wiseman, pp. 124-126.









Remus as a sacrifice for the protection of the city, was created. Due to both the passage

of time and the disgust towards the act, the myth was rewritten into the current forms.

The moral behind the original myth (safety of the city) is retained in them, but the

methodology is different. Although this argument is (rather) conjectural, it does provide

an excellent connection between Remus and the lemures as defined as ptatoOvaCrot.20

The story could also be supported by a line of Ennius who has Remus on Mt.

Murcus offer himself to the gods below (Remus se devovet) during the augury contest.21

Since the Remoria is believed to be the place where Remus was buried and is associated

either with the Aventine, then perhaps the Remoria was the spot where Remus was

believed to be sacrificed. The Remuria could then be the festival set up to honor the

sacrificed Remus. Over time, the day became associated with all those who were

murdered or died untimely deaths (remores), and eventually the term remores included

all the dead. This may even indicate a possible starting point for the Lemuria (c.a. 296

B.C.E.).

Remus appears after Faustulus and Acca have laid down to sleep which is a

common occurrence in many ghost stories as mentioned above. Sleep was seen as a time

when the soul could connect with the spiritual realm.22 Cicero discusses the potency of

the soul at death and in sleep in De Divinatione, saying the following:


Cum ergo est somno sevocatus animus a societate et a contagione corporis,
tum meminit praeteritorum, praesentia cernit, future praevidet; iacet enim
corpus dormientis ut mortui, viget autem et vivit animus. Quod multo
magis faciet post mortem, cum omnino corpore excesserit (Cic. Div. 1.63).



20 Wiseman 119.
21 Ibid. 13.
22 Felton 19.









When therefore during sleep the soul is separated from the association and
contamination of the body, then it recalls the past, perceives the present,
and foretells the future; for though the body lies sleeping as if dead, the
soul flourishes nevertheless and lives. It will do after death, when it will
have departed entirely from the body.

Felton notes that ghosts who appear in dreams are often the spirits of the recently

deceased.23 The terminology used to describe Remus' appearance coincides with the

terminology used in dreams and with ghosts, including those ghosts who appear to

people awake (adsisto, fioi TrYlt).24 Aristotle discussed briefly why people witness

what they experience in dreams in De Somniis. According to him, apparitions often

appear during sleep or around sleep because the mind is in a depressed state of

consciousness. In such a state, the mind does not have the ability to distinguish between

true and false impressions. Residual impressions, impressions which remain in the sense

organs, furthermore, can appear causing one to believe one is witnessing an actual person

or object. Thus, while asleep, the mind cannot accurately interpret the impressions,

causing hallucinations or dreams.25

People returned from the dead for several reasons.26 They return to seek revenge

for their death just as Verginia's ghost would not rest till her murderers were punished

(manesque Verginiae, mortuae quam vivaefelicioris, per tot domos ad petendas poenas

vagati nullo relicto sonte tandem quieverunt, Liv. 3.58.11). In Euripides' Hecuba,

Achilles' ghost would not permit the army to leave Troy until Polyxena was sacrificed

upon his grave (ai'si 6' &68Xs4il cilv T itV v HIo/uovrv / c6iptpq) iov


23 Felton 19. The examples noted above from Vergil, Ovid, and Apuleius would support this.
24 Felton 19; cf. assistere in footnote 8. Felton also cites Plin. Nat. 3.5; Lucian. Philops. 25, 30-31; Plg.
Mir. 2.
25 Ar. De Som. 461b5-10, 25-30, 462a10-15 as found in his Parva Naturalia.
26 Felton outlines three primary reasons for the dead to return: warning and revenge, comfort and reward,
and burial, Felton pp. 8-12. This discussion will focus on the first and the third reasons, and will repeat
some of her examples as well as use stories that appear in other parts of her book that fit these categories.









rTp6o aytca Kai yepaq Xapsiv. Eur. Hec. 40-1). Nero's mother, after he had her killed,

haunted him to such an extent that he summoned the magi to have himself exorcised

(quin etfacto per Magos sacro evocare Manes et exorare temptavit. Suet. Nero 34), just

as Galba would not let his assassin, Otho, sleep, keeping him up through the night (ante

lectum iacens per omniapiaculorum genera Manes Galbae, a quo deturbari expellique

se viderat, propitiare temptasse. Suet. Otho 7). Plutarch tells how Pausanias accidentally

killed the maiden Cleonice who haunted him almost until he died () 6' sig 6ytv

eOoiCUoa zaC6coX 7iira 6Ci uxCoocat zTCv KaK6i v ac 6zv ev Yi-7cpz'r ysv6tLgvov,

aivtzzot-vr zCt v TC~V i ouoav ag OIKSv ac)iT TsZ 'cU jv. Plu. Cim. 6.6)

The dead return to warn or advise the living. Tlepolemus returns to warn his wife

to stay away from Thrasyllus (modo ne in Thrasylli manum sacrilegam convenias, Apul.

Met. 8.8). The ghost of a father returns to his daughter to warn her that her stepmother

committed the crime (eique totum novercae scelus aperuit, Apul. Met. 9.31). There were

also oracles of the dead, places thought to be closer to the underworld and therefore more

opportune for contact with the dead. Ogden recognizes three types of such oracles. The

first consists of places one goes to have someone conjure the dead.27 The second

consisted of oracles of dead heroes. The third were places that led to the Underworld

such as caves or birdless lakes. Like other oracles, messages were often acquired

through incubation performed by either the priest or the pilgrim.28 Ironically, the

message from the dead may have been thought to have been more "down to earth" and

less open to interpretation in comparison to the other oracles such as Delphi as indicated

27 Ogden (2001) feels that the Romans received these from the Greeks and names the four major ones:
Acheron in Thesprotia, Avemus in Campania, Heracleia Pontica near the Black Sea, and Tainaron on the
Mani peninsula, p. 17. Pausanias summoned the spirit of Cleonice at Heracleia in the story above (Plu.
Cim. 6.5-6)
28 Ogden (2001) 23-28.









by Lucan's Erictho (Tripodas vatesque deorum / sors obscure decet: certus discedat, ab

umbris / quisque vera petit duraeque oracula mortis Ifortis adit. Luc. Phars. 6.770-73).

One, however, need not travel far to consult the dead since the local necromancer could

reanimate a corpse with its spirit or could summon a spirit itself.

The most popular reason for ghosts to return is to request proper burial.29 Burial

and funerary rites were among the most important religious rituals in the ancient world.

He who was left unburied or was buried but did not have the necessary funerary rites

could not enter or rest in the afterlife. As such, he was stuck in this life as an abnormality,

a "glitch in the matrix," as it were. The earliest Greco-Roman example is in the Iliad

where Patroclus asks Achilles to get over his death and bury him since he cannot cross

into the afterlife until his funerary rites are carried out (0 67TTs -ts 6nct C6Xtio'ca,

7ir6kac 'Ait6o 7rspilyco. / Tcflk ts si'pyoucyt vuxai, si'6oka Ko .ti6v'cov, / oi69

[Cg 7ito [tifYSCot 7 i t0 p 7To'cc!.toio 6Cyoiv, / &ak' a&6coc &kfrjlttait &v' spuiKtru2k

"A'6So 66b. Hom. 11.23.71-4). The sibyl explains to Aeneas that souls whose bones rest

in the tomb rest in the Underworld, while souls whose bodies are left unburied roam the

shores of the Styx for a hundred years until they are finally permitted to cross (Haec

omnis, quam cernis, inops inhumataque turba est; I portitor ille Charon; hi, quos vehit

unda, sepulti; / nec ripas datur horrendas et raucafluenta / transportare prius quam

sedibus ossa quierunt. Verg. A. 6.325-30). Caligula haunted the Lamian gardens until his

sisters buried him (satis constat, prius quam idfieret, hortorum custodies umbris

inquietatos; in ea quoque domo, in qua occubuerit, nullam noctem sine aliquot terrore

transactam, done ipsa domus incendio consumpta sit. Suet. Cal. 59). Plautus'


29 Felton 9.









Mostellaria tells of a ghost, Diapontius, who was killed by his host and was buried

beneath the house which he now haunts (TR. "ego transmarinus hospes sum Diapontius.

/ hic habito, haec mihi dedita est habitatio. / nam me Acheruntem recipere Orcus noluit, /

quiapraemature vita care ... ." P1. Mos. 497-500). Pliny's Athenodorus figures out

that a house is haunted because someone's body was hidden below the house. Once the

bones were discovered and properly buried, the haunting ceased (P1. Nat. 7.27.5-11).

Likewise, Arignotus, one of Lucian's philosophers in the Philopseudes, exorcised a

haunted house by having a body that was discovered below it properly buried (Lucian.

Philops. 30-31).

The act of burial rites says something about being a living human being and that

being's struggle with death. The German philosopher Hans-Georg Gadamer captures

this well stating:

This special human dimension is the in-built capacity of man to think
beyond his own life in the world, to think about death. This is why the
burial of the dead is perhaps the fundamental phenomenon of becoming
human. Burial does not refer to a rapid hiding of the dead, a swift clearing
away of the shocking impression made by one suddenly stuck fast in a
leaden and lasting sleep. On the contrary, by a remarkable expenditure of
human labor and sacrifice there is sought an abiding with the dead, indeed
a holding fast of the dead among the living.30

Thus, since burial is so vital to the human character (perhaps more so for the ancient than

the modern?) it should come as no surprise that there is so great a fear about not being

buried. This fear is a deep psychological one in that at least in life one could do

something to help oneself should one find oneself in a bad situation, but, in death, one

had to completely rely on who was left behind to ensure one's security and happiness. In

the Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle mentions the belief that the behavior of one's


30 Gadamer 75.










descendants could affect the state of happiness of the dead. He argues, however, that it is

ludicrous to believe that the behavior of the living affects the dead to such an extent, but,

at the same time, it is just as ridiculous to believe that the behavior of the living has no

affect on the dead. Thus, Aristotle concludes that the happiness of the dead, like the

unconscious living, can be enhanced or hindered by the fortunes of their descendants, but

their happiness or unhappiness can never be transformed by the learning of these

things.31 In addition, like the ignorant living, there exists a tradition in literature that the

dead are unaware of the present, yet familiar with both past and future.32 Aristotle also

seems to imply that the dead suffer (6Sti4psti 6& TCv 7rc006v EicCao rov 7rspi '6(vr-c f'

TssCuTzoavT-ca outl3paivitv oV Cjat&lXXov, Arist. EN 1101a30). He, however, never

offers any explanations as to what the sufferings of the dead are since that would be

irrelevant to the topic at hand, but, for the living, he later in this section states that death

is the greatest fear for the brave man to endure.

The Romans had elaborate funerals that had proper imagery and symbolism for

the Roman funereal agenda. The funeral in any culture is supposed to do two things: a)

reveal how the person lived a meaningful life and b) reveal how death is not the end (the

person lives on either through memories, monuments, religious beliefs, etc.). The



31 Arist. EN 1100a-1 10b. An example of unconscious living would be if someone went on a trip, and
while away, there was a death in a family. That someone is ignorant of the death until the voyage back.
According to Pritzl, there are several different interpretations on this passage, though most agree that
Aristotle himself did not believe this but was using it as an example to discourse on happiness, pp. 101-03.
32 When Odysseus consults Tiresias, he encounters several other shades, among whom is Achilles who asks
him how Peleus, Neoptolemus, and the other Myrmidons are (sir 6 p6 ot firoikfog a pjipovog,
re Zt n uucuatU / if tZ' ZErIt Ztilv ToLEcGtv Lt& MupJL6veccltv, /
1l p.tv (<,C ouGtv av'' EL S6ca Zr Of9irlv Zr / ovVEKd .iUv Kacr Y)Zpac tEi yEipti Z-re n66ac -re.
Hom. Od. 11.494-97). Pritzl offers this example from Pindar's Odes 14, in which Asopichos wants his
dead father to know of his victory. The translation, he says, comes from Bowra. Go now, Echo, to the
black walls / OfPersephona's house lAnd bring the fine news to his father; / See Kleodamos and tell him /
How his son / In the famous valleys ofPytho / Has crowned his young hair / With the wings of a glorious
triumph, p. 107.









Roman funeral consisting of the display of death masks (imagines) and the recitation of

the deeds of both the recently deceased and the previously deceased fulfill these

characteristics. The Roman funeral, moreover, not only is a celebration of the

immortality and the exploits of the individual Roman himself but also of Rome in

general. As Polybius further notes, the ritual can only inspire the future generations of

Romans to aspire to the same glory (c6 y&p "c&qg Tcv Et &psg'cz I 66oSuctvcov

&v6p6ov siK6vac i 6siv 6Loio 7caoaGc oiov gi C()oacg Kait rvusLevacg tv'

o0K av 7rapaCToCioat; z 6' av Kdlkltov Oacla Tcot'ou Qavsirl; Plb. 6.53). Hence,

anything that would rob one of the opportunity for such glory not only robs individual

life but also the life of Rome, its future, and the future of every Roman.33 Thus, one can

see the importance of burial and funereal rites for the upper-class Romans.

Remus has received burial and funereal rites, but, for whatever reason, this time it

is not enough. Remus' request is more in tune with a divinity, although Remus is

described as a shade, not a god. There is no mention of his deification and nothing

suggests he retains immortality or the glory that comes with immortality and

deification.34 When Augustus first was elected to the consulship, he identified himself

with both Romulus and Remus, enabling Remus the possibility to acquire a glorious

status.35 Augustus gradually became identified with Quirinus, while his friend, Marcus

Agrippa, on the other hand, may have become identified with Remus. Both men's

personal histories resembled the stories regarding Romulus and Remus. In fact, Servius



3 For further information on Roman burial and funerals, see Granger & Fowler. "Roman Burial." CR 11
(1897) 32-35; Halliday. "Roman Burial." CR 35 (1921) 154-55; Rose. "Orientation of the Dead in Greece
and Italy." CR 34 (1920) 141-146; Rose. "Nocturnal Funerals in Rome." CQ 17 (1923) 191-4. Walker, S.
Memorials to the Roman Dead. London: British Museum Publications. 1985.
34 The information contained in this paragraph comes from Wiseman, pp. 144-150.
35 D. C. 46.2-3, as cited by Wiseman p. 215 n. 89.









claims that the prophecy in the Aeneid refers to them as such (vera tamen hoc habet ratio,

Quirinum Augustum esse, Remum vero pro Agrippa positum, Serv. A. 1.292-3).36

Several poets during this period, like Vergil and Propertius, speak of Remus as symbolic

of Rome itself, never mentioning the murder, but going to the extent of claiming that

Romulus and Remus ruled together. The fulfillment of the prophecy came crashing to a

halt when Agrippa died in 12 B.C.E. At this point, the mention of Remus began to cease,

and if he was mentioned, it was never in the blissful manner that occurred in early

Augustan propaganda.

Unlike Romulus, Mars does not swoop down and take Remus back to Heaven by

the process of apotheosis. Remus even says, "Alas, where is my father Mars?" (heu ubi

Marspater est? Ov. Fast. 5.465). This is more significant than one may realize. The

change of the escort indicates the importance of status, that is, Mercury comes for

ordinary people, while the Sun, or in this case Mars, takes heroes to heaven.37 Thus, by

invoking Mercury, Ovid reveals that Remus never acquired any status of glory and is

therefore not someone for a Roman to emulate. Rather, a true Roman will take Romulus

as his model and hopes someday to be taken to heaven in his own chariot.

Ovid tells us that Romulus consented to Remus' request out of loyalty (pietas) for

his brother. Remus recognizes that Romulus never meant him to be killed. The fault

rests on Celer. Celer, whose name means "swift," killed Remus with a spade when

Remus jumped over the wall (or a trench in some stories) to prove that it was an

unsuitable defense. Depending on the author, either Celer was being too arrogant and

hasty or Remus was, and some versions have Romulus himself doing the deed. After

36 As cited by Wiseman p. 215 n. 96. The line is cana Fides et Vesta, Remo cumfratre Quirinus / iura
dabant; Ver. Aen. 1. 292-3.
37 Cumont 164.









Celer killed Remus, he either went to Erturia or was awarded the title tribunus celerum,

who acted as the personal guards of the king.38 The fact that Celer kills Remus with a

digging instrument and the fact that the wall was built too low or the trench not dug deep

enough in the ground suggests a chthonic quality to Remus' death. Celer's name and the

fact that Remus was murdered mark Remus as someone who died before his time (an

&copog or piatoO0varoto). As such, he can be enslaved by a magus and/or has the

ability to become a horrific haunting creature to both Celer and other Roman citizens.

Remus would surely want to haunt Celer, and based upon other ghost stories, one would

expect him to do so. Remus, however, chooses a better, more fitting revenge for his

killer by cursing him to suffer the same fate, "Fierce Celer, through wounds may you

give up your cruel spirit, and just like me, may you being blood-stricken travel to the

realm below (saeve Celer, crudelem animal per volnera reddas, / utque ego, sub terras

sanguinulentus eas. Ov. Fast. 5.469-70). In a sense, Remus' curse is etiological in

nature in that celeres, the guardians of the emperor, the essence of Rome, give their lives

to ensure the emperor's safety. In addition, the curse also tells where Remus resided

after his death (the underworld).

Why is Remus never given a celestial abode, and why is he never deified? One

possible explanation comes from York who argues that Romulus and Remus represent

the "divine duality" concept found in the divine twins, a notion which transcends Indo-

European cultures. Romulus represents the celestial while Remus represents the

terrestrial. He states:

But the connection of Remus with the Aventine in the canonical version of
Rome's founding suggests the Aventine as the physical symbol of the


38 Wiseman 9.









'other world' hidden and contained within the manifest Rome of 'this
world.' In essence, Rome is founded by both Romulus and Remus: the
city represents the union or juncture of the visible world with the timeless
and invisible otherworld.39

York feels that this fact is significant, not that one twin killed the other, but that one of

the twins is associated with the netherworld, a common motif of the divine duality

throughout Indo-European cultures.40

A different explanation is that Romulus and Remus are symbolic of the struggles

between the patricians and the plebeians. For example, the decision about who should

rule Rome reflects such the struggle for representation in government. Each twin

climbed one of the seven hills and waited for the birds to determine who should be ruler.

Romulus went to the Palatine, "headquarters" of the patricians, while Remus stood on the

Aventine, "headquarters" of the plebeians. Romulus saw twelve birds, whereas Remus

saw six, and, thus, Romulus claimed the throne (Ov. Fast. 4.807-818). This explanation

comes from Wiseman who states that the myth of both Romulus and Remus establishing

Rome indicates the existence of a 'double community' in which both units share equal

status.41 As so often noted, however, history can only be written by the victors, and, thus,

Wiseman points out that the myth can hold power only once the plebeians achieved their

political victories between 367 and 342 B.C.E. Thus, just as Remus was slow in

achieving prominence, so were the plebeians.42

If the lives of Romulus and Remus are symbolic of the lives of the patricians and

the plebeians, then it follows that the post mortem existence of Romulus and Remus



39 York 241.
40 York 242. Wiseman devotes an entire chapter as to why Romulus and Remus are not to be characterized
as a divine duality like the Dioscuri andAsvins, pp. 18-30.
41 Wiseman 126.
42 Wiseman 126.









should reflect the post mortem existence of the patricians and plebeians. This can be

seen in contrasting Romulus' post mortem apparition with Remus' post mortem

apparition. Romulus returns to Proclus informing him that he is now the god Quirinus.

The description of Romulus is not a transparent shade but a larger than life human.

There is no cruentum, no exiguus murmur but rather a solid, firm entity dressed in a

purple toga (trabeaque decorus Ov. Fast. 2.503). His description humano major) is a

common description of deities and of certain phantoms. These phantoms are often

women who appear during times of crisis.43 In Latin, they are called species muliebris as

in Tacitus (species muliebris ultra modum humanum Tac. Ann. 11.21), or they are

referred to as "larger than normal" such as in Vergil notaa major imago Verg. A. 2.773),

which resembles the Greek yuvil Ctig LiScov f~ Kica& &vep(0ou 6GlIV.44 Romulus

appeared while Proclus was walking on a road, Remus appeared in a dream. Both

appeared at night; Remus in the middle of the night, Romulus with the moon shining (Ov.

Fast. 2.500) Remus merely stands by the bed and does not move until Acca and

Faustulus grab for him. There is more movement in Romulus' account, and the

movement is not qualified by such words as subito motu, adesse, and evanuit as with

Remus (fugiens or effugit). Remus curses Celer and requests the celebration of the

Lemuria. Romulus' message commands the people not to mourn his death but celebrate

his divinity as Quirinus. While Remus identifies himself as an empty shade, Romulus

indicates his greatness as a god. Remus' message is borne to Romulus, while Romulus'

message is taken to the Roman people. The Lemuria is established for Remus, while

temples, rites, and a hill were dedicated to Romulus. It is quite obvious which story is


43 Felton 24. Vergil also, in this case, calls Creusa simulacrum and umbra (Verg. A. 2.772)
44 Felton 24, 31.









the one considered by the Romans to be more glorious and more positive. While Remus

is Roman, he is not as Roman as Romulus. The irony is that although, these stories are

about the dead, they say more about the living especially about the qualities that make up

a good Roman. A Roman ought to be larger than life. Other cultures are secondary. A

Roman is quick to act because speed implies decisiveness necessary for survival. A

Roman acquires glory for Rome and her people. The opposite of these characteristics is

the way in which patricians viewed plebeians. Plebeians should not hold as much power

as patricians. Plebeians were slow to come to power, and all plebeians want is more

power for themselves.

Having examined Ovid's rendition of Remus' apparition, there are some

important things to mention. The Remoria refers to a place sacred to both Remus and the

plebeians. It is possible that this place is regarded as the spot on which Remus was

sacrificed for the defense of the city or where he was buried or both. Remus possessed

the characteristics of a ptatoOvvarcog, and the only irregularity of his return was that he

asked for a festival to be celebrated for him. Based on these observations, one may

conclude that the Remuria may well have been a festival to honor Remus and other

ptatoO.vaUrot.
















CHAPTER 4
RITE OF THE LEMURIA

It is the purpose of this section to examine the rite during the Lemuria to ascertain

whether it can reveal anything about the nature of the ghosts that are expelled during it.'

The rite performed during the Lemuria could be seen as a quasi-exorcism. If an

exorcism's purpose is to repel ghosts, then a necromantic ritual would be its opposite.

Yet, often both exorcisms and necromantic ceremonies have similarities. This is so

because a necromancer must protect himself from the spirits, and, thus, those same things

that protect a necromancer can be used to protect an exorcist and can repel ghosts. Hence,

there are certain tools of the trade that enable one to handle, repel, and control the dead.

The Time

nox ubi iam media est somnoque silentiapraebet,
et canis et variae conticuistis aves (5.429-30)

The rite during the Lemuria is old according to Ovid and is handed down by the

ancestors (qui partem prisci nunc quoque moris habet Ov. Fast. 5.428), occurring in the

dead of night. The middle of the night is the appropriate time for the dead to be active

since the rest of creation, as Ovid points out, is asleep, itself in a state of quasi-death.

There are other times appropriate for the appearance of the dead. One time is the

opposite of media nocte, that is, medio die. Both Pliny and Tacitus write of ghosts that

appear at this time as well as Lucian, Phlegon, and Apuleius.2 In Greek culture, the


1 Ov. Fast. 5. 429-444.
2 Felton cites Plin. Nat. 7.27.2, Tac. Ann. 11.21, Luc. Philops. 22, Pig. Mir. 3.4, Apul. Met. 9.29-30, p. 6.









Empousa and the heroes (both chthonic entities) rise at this time to acquire the sacrifices

due to them.3 Furthermore, midnight and noon were, and still are, regarded as temporal

thresholds during which creatures, such as ghosts, may cross over into opposing or

adjacent realms. Another possible time when the dead appear is not so much a time but

an aspect of the setting, that is, dim light. For the ancients, this would be lamp light,

candle light, moonlight, or the setting sun. This would make sense if one considers the

description of ghosts as white, black, and transparent. During full light, the transparent

would barely be visible. During complete darkness only the white might possibly be

seen. However, in dim light all three are visible. Felton notes that often, whenever a

ghost appeared, there was a lamp nearby or the area was dimly lit.4 The process of

putting lamps in graves in Greece increased in the fifth century B.C.E. when cremation

increased.5 A burning lamp reflected an eternal spirit and lit the way to the Underworld.

Even when Vestal Virgins were caught disobeying their laws and punished by being

buried alive, they were buried with a lighted lamp.6 Hecate, the goddess of witchcraft

and the dead, furthermore, was usually pictured carrying torches.7 Thus, since it is the

middle of the night and Ovid claims that the ghosts are visible during the Lemuria, one

must assume that the celebrant, in order to see to perform the ritual, walks about holding

a candle or lamp, or has a servant hold it.8





SRohde 593.
4 Felton 55. Both Pliny's Athenodorus and Lucian's Arignotus read and write by lamplight in haunted
houses (Pliny Nat. 7.27.5-11, Lucian. Philops. 30-31).
5 Felton 55.
6 Powell 631.
SFelton 14.
8 This is not so difficult an image to imagine because of finger lamps. Finger lamps would be small and
easy enough to handle while trying to deal with everything else. To see a possible example of such a lamp,
see Knopf, p. 162.









Barefoot and Binding

habent gemini vincula nullapedes (5.432)

The concept of binding is prevalent in both ancient and modem magical practices.

By binding someone, that person is under your control. There is a tremendous amount of

evidence for binding since there have been so many curse tablets found. So many have

been discovered because once a spell is cast (often in lead), it must be hidden lest

someone attempt to undo it. Also, from the amount found, curse tablets seem to have

been a very ordinary part of ancient life. Fritz divided them into the various categories:

defixiones iudicare (judicial spells), defixiones amatoriae (erotic spells), defixiones

agonisticae (agonistic spells), and defixiones against economic competitors.9 Gager

divides up the way in which the spells are pronounced: direct binding ("I bind X!"),

prayer formulas ("Restrain X!"), and persuasive analogies ("As this lead is cold and

useless, so may X be cold and useless!").10 As one may notice, rarely are curse tablets

employed to kill another person. The association with the dead, however, along with the

few instances where murder actually was sought, made them a sinister force, a taboo for

the Romans (hence the expulsion of magicians from Rome several times).11 On the other

hand, being bound is a way to protect someone from outside forces. Thus, by being

unbound, one opens oneself to all possibilities of the universe. In all sacred rites nothing

can be bound.12 Theflamen dialis could have no knots on him and could not even wear a



9 Fritz 120-1.
10 Gager 13.
1 The story that probably ensured the taboo was not forgotten is the one found in Tacitus' Annals regarding
the death of Germanicus. (saevam vim morbid augebatpersuasio veneni a Pisone accept; et reperiebantur
solo ac parietibus erutae humanorum corporum reliquiae, carmina et devotiones et nomen Germanici
plumbeis tabulis insculptum, semusti cineres ac tabo obliti aliaque malefica, quis creditur animals
numinibus infernis sacrari. simul missi a Pisone incusabantur ut valitudinis adverse rimantes. Tac. Ann.
69).
12 Serv. A. 4.518 as cited by Burriss, p. 158.










ring unless it was broken or without a stone.13 Helenus removed his fillets to receive the

full inspiration of Apollo when he went to Apollo's temple (Verg. A. 3.370). Also, a

pregnant woman could not even bind her hair or cross her legs or fingers lest she block

the child from birth.14

Thus, since the celebrant of the Lemuria cannot be bound, he must perform the

rite barefoot. Going barefoot is a common practice for any ancient spiritualist, for those

who are considered positive such as Apollonius, those considered sinister such as Medea,

as well as the normal, average, everyday magician.15 By going completely unbound, the

celebrant enables himself to perceive and handle the spirits of the dead.

The Averting Gesture

signaque dat digitis medio cum police iunctis,
occurrat tacito ne levis umbra sibi (5.433-34)

The celebrant makes a symbol with his hand to ward off ghosts. Frazer calls this

"the fig" from the Italian lafica or manofica to avert the evil eye.16 The bulla worn by

the Roman child was used to ward off the evil eye.17 Medea killed Talos with the evil

eye (A.R. 4.1635-90).









13 Gellius 10.15.6 as cited by Burriss, pp. 157-58.
14 Burriss 157.
15 For Apollonius and the average magician see Fritz, pp. 114-115. Canidia walked and performed her
sinister rites barefoot (Canidiam, pedibus nudis passoque capillo, Hor. S. 1.8.24). Before Dido begins her
ritual to kill herself, she takes off a sandal and loosens her robe (unum exuta pedem vinclis, in vesta
recincta, Verg. A. 4.518).
16 Frazer 292. Pliny claims that the statue of an unnamed goddess was set up on the Capitoline as
protection against the evil eye (cur ett.\c inarionihu,. adoratione peculiar occurrimus, alii Graecam
Nemesin invocantes, cuius ob id Romae simulacrum in Capitolio est, quamvis Latinum nomen non sit? Plin.
Nat. 28.5.22).
17 Burriss 153.









Water

cumque manus puras fontana perluit unda (5.435)

Water is one of the ingredients common to Greek, Roman, and Near Eastern

religious and necromantic practices. The ironic thing about water is that although it is the

source for life, it is chthonic in nature.18 According to Aeschylus, certain liquids were

chosen for a necromantic rite since they were calming and propitiating, while Euripides

claimed they were used because they could summon the dead.19 The ancients actually

recognized two forms of water (rain and earthly water). Rain water would be used in

celebrations for celestial deities, while earthly water would be used for chthonic

worship.20 The chthonic quality of water affected the Romans in a humorous way as it

made the baths become haunted since they were fed by underground water sources.

Hence, the water used in the rite for the Lemuria comes from a spring (fontana).

Water is also the substance for purification. Purity implies a sense of order, a

sense that something exists as it ought to exist.21 Hence, that which is impure is

deformed. All sorts of things can render someone or something impure, such as dirt,

blood, or corpses. Because humans value purity to such an extent, it is necessary to

guard it, cherish it, and attempt to transform anything impure into something pure. While

it is man's desire that all be always pure, this does not happen. Pure people and pure

objects, however, become impure, sometimes purposefully sometimes accidentally, and

thus, certain rituals and ceremonies have been created to nullify the impurity and restore



18 Odgen (2001) 170. For further discussion of water as chthonic, see Ninck pp. 1-46, as cited by Ogden
(2001), p. 170 n. 23.
19 A. Pers. 609-10. Eur. IT 159-66, as cited by Ogden (2001), p. 169 n. 20.
20 Ogden (2001) 192.
21 The following discussion on purification is a brief summary from Redfield p. 161. See also Rohde's
appendix 5, pp. 588-90.









order. There was a major purity issue with corpses in ancient times. Burial sites were

labeled religiosa, that is, they were to be avoided except during the proper times, such as

the Parentalia.22 Theflamen dialis was not permitted near graves or corpses.23 The

Pontifex Maximus avoided houses that had cypress trees outside since this signified that a

member of the house had died.24 Old women applied spit using their middle finger on the

forehead and lips of children on their day of purification (dies lustricus).25 Similarly,

after a Roman funeral, the attendees were sprinkled with water.26 Any magician

intending to cast a spell would have to purify himself with water either through a

sprinkling or a bath. For example, Mithrobarzanes requires Menippus to bathe for 28

days in the Euphrates and then once in the Tigris before he begins his journey to the

Underworld (Lucian. Nec. 7). Thus, it is not surprising that the pater families washes his

hands during the rite particularly when he is about to handle an impure substance (black

beans). Nor is it surprising that he must wash his hands again near the end of the rite,

right before the vocal exorcism.

Beans, Redemption, and the Number Nine

sed dum iacit, 'haec ego mitto,
his' inquit 'redimo meque meosquefabis.' (5.437-38)

Then he takes up the black beans and with his face averted, never looking back,

he hurls them saying nine times, "These I cast! With these beans I redeem me and mine."

Ovid claims that the shade is thought to collect the beans and to follow the celebrant





22 Cic. Leg. 2.57, Ulp. dig. 11.7.2.5, Paul. dig. 11.7.44, as cited by Burriss, p. 157.
23 Gellius 10.15, as cited by Burriss, p. 157.
24 Serv. A. 3.64, as cited by Burriss, p. 157.
25 Burriss 152.
26 Fest. 2, as cited by Burriss, p. 156.










without being seen.27 The common items used to assuage the dead are milk, water, honey,

wine, and blood. These items can be found in any of the other chthonic rites, yet water is

the only one of them found during the Lemuria. Ovid includes wine but also adds a few

others such as bread and salt that appease the dead during the Parentalia (tegulaporrectis

satis est velata coronis / et sparsae fruges parcaque mica salis, / inque mero mollita

Ceres violaeque solutae: Ov. Fast. 2.537-39). Vergil adds lilies which is in line with the

twice a year ritual in which Romans laid flowers on the graves, such as roses during the

Rosalia (Manibus date liliaplenis / purpureos spargamflores, Verg. A. 6.883-84). Yet,

suddenly, here in May, beans are the gifts ghosts want. Why? Many know that a taboo

on beans, particularly black beans, existed, but no one knows for certain as to why.

Cicero claims that the Pythagoreans did not eat beans because of the gastric problems

they cause the body. A soul must have a sound body in order to function properly (Cic.

Div. 1.62).28 The Flamen Dialis was not permitted to touch any beans.29 Beans are also

mentioned during the Parentalia. The beans, however, are not given to ghosts. Instead,

an old woman in performing the rites for Tacita chews seven beans while roasting a fish

(Ov. Fast. 2.576-78). Here again, there is nothing in the ritual, itself one of protection,

that would indicate why she must chew the beans or how the beans affect the ritual. In

addition, the Romans threw beans into graves so that the dead would not bother them.30




27 Varro and Paulus both mention the beans during the Lemuria. Varro: quibus temporibus in sacrisfabam
iactant ac dicunt se lemurios domo extra ianuam eicere. Paulus: nam et Lemuralibus (faba) iacitur larvis.
28 See also Plut. Sypos. 9.10, Plin. Nat. 18.12, and Tert. De Anim. 48.
29 Frazer 424. Wright offers the following explanation: "So K6uacog derives from KUgco, to be pregnant,
and the meaning given by Pollux, 'the swelling of the breasts with milk,' traces back to its original sense.
K6uagog, bean, is properly 'the thing big with life'; and anyone who has watched the rapid and mysterious
pushing forth of the young bean from the parent womb will understand why the bean was a symbol of
sexual fertility .." pp. 154-55. A few lines later, Wright states that it should be obvious from the above
observation why a ghost would want a bean. If he had only incorporated the obvious!
30 Frazer 424.









To redeem something means to buy it back from whomever it was sold. It would

seem that the celebrant was bargaining with the ghosts, and therefore, one must ask how

the ghost came to own the pater and his family every year and why the pater must buy

himself and the family back. Hallam merely states that the celebrant must redeem

himself from "the power of the ghosts."31 Frazer says that the ghost would have carried

away the family members if they did not receive the beans.32 What is more likely,

particularly if these are family dead, is that the beans are an offering for protection for the

rest of the year until the next Lemuria, or they are to free the household from the powers

of the previous year.

The fact that the celebrant cannot look at the shade seems odd. One must assume

that if he did, he would perish. This assumption, however, is not in sync with the

appearance of other ghosts. In fact, there is no record of anyone dying because one saw a

ghost. If someone dies in the presence of a ghost, it is due to an injury inflicted upon

them by the ghost. Thus, either the assumption is wrong, or there is a special reason why

seeing the dead at this time is deadly.

Along similar lines is the notion that ghosts do not like to be seen. Philinnion fled

when her parents saw her.33 One must turn oneself around after offering a meal to a

vengeful ghost according to Selinus.34 Jason could not turn around to confront Hecates

as she rose from the pit.35 Statius, in a humorous fashion, has Tiresias, the blind prophet,

"look at" Laius' ghost.36 Ogden places the ghosts of the Lemuria in this category, but I



31 Hallam 295.
32 Frazer 424.
33 Pig. Mir. 1, as cited by Ogden (2001), p. 172.
34 Ogden (2001) cites this as the lex sacra, p. 172.
35 A.R. 1036-41, as cited by Ogden (2001), p. 173.
36 Stat. Theb. 4.619-20, as cited by Ogden (2001), p. 173.









believe he is wrong in doing so.37 There is no evidence that lemures do not wish to be

seen or that they will disappear once seen. If looking at them could make them go away,

there would be no purpose in having beans, bronze, or any other part of the ritual. One,

moreover, should notice that the act of looking back (respicit) after the final command

signifies the completion of the ritual. The celebrant has no fear because he knows that

the rites have been performed properly (respicit etpure sacraperactaputat. Ov. Fast.

5.444). This is actually not as typical an ending as it may seem. Often such rites end

with the celebrant or magician walking backwards to his next destination.38 Mennipus,

after his last bath, had to walk home backwards (tnrav6yst sig T'iv oiKcav, cg si;'ov,

&vanTo6ifov'ca Lucian. Nec. 7).

Three is the perfect number for almost all ancient civilizations. Odd numbers in

particular to the Romans were seen as being more potent (cur inpares numerous ad omnia

vehementiores credimus, idque infebribus dierum observation intellegitur? Plin. Nat.

28.5.23). Many prayers and incantations are recited in sets of threes. The Lemuria itself

is a three day festival. Lease lists pages upon pages of instances of the number three,

such as trinities of deities, a triple offering of honey, milk, and wine for the dead, and

sacrifices three days after a funeral.39 Trowbridge notes the following examples of

foretelling death with the number three: three trees falling, a dying woman calling one's

name out three times, a vision three days before the event itself.40 During the Lemuria,

the celebrant commands the ghosts nine times to leave. The power of nine is that it is


SOgden (2001) 172-73 n. 31.
38 Fritz explains, saying, "Walking backward could be the sign the magician has definitely left the human
norm ..." p. 115. He cites the following examples from the Greek magical papyrus of Paris in his footnote:
PGMIV, 26-51; 2442-95; XXXVI, 264-74, p. 271.
39 Lease, E. "The Number Three, Mysterious, Mystic, Magic." CP 14 (1919) 56-73.
40 Trowbridge 85. She cites the following from the Scriptores Historiae Augustae: Alex. 60.4, Maxim. 31.1,
Pert. 14.1.









thrice three, that is, it is the perfect number perfected. By repeating the command nine

times, one can rest even more assured than if one had said it three or six times, that the

desired wish will come true.41

Temesean Bronze

rursus aquam tangit, Temesaeaque concrepat aera (5.441)

The celebrant washes again, clangs Temesean bronze, and commands the spirits

to depart from the house repeating the words "manes exitepaterni" nine times. What is

significant about Temesean bronze, let alone bronze itself, and what are the bronze

instruments being clanged? Temesa is a town in southern Italy known for its copper

mines. It has no supernatural significance except for a ghost/werewolf story which takes

place there.42 Bronze was preferred for ceremonial purposes on account of its pristine

nature. Bronze first became prevalent in Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilization during

the third millennium B.C.E. and slowly worked its way into the West around the

beginning of the second millennium B.C.E.43 Etruscans only used bronze plowshares,

and, later, the Romans harnessed a white cow and a white ox to a bronze ploughshare

when they established a colony or city. The Sabine priests of the Etruscans could only

use a bronze razor, and, likewise, the Flamen Dialis had his hair and nails cut with

bronze.44 It would have been the only metal around when Lemuria's rites began, if what

Ovid tells us is factual. Also, since the beings that one is exorcising are themselves old, it

follows that they would have to be dealt with by archaic means. Bronze may also have


41 Lease agrees, but states that this idea was late and found primarily in magic, p. 73.
42 According to Pausanias in the Description of Greece, a daemon haunted this town. The townspeople
offered a virgin to him every year until Euthymus, a famous boxer, happened to visit Temesa and fall in
love with the intended virgin. He wrestled with the daemon, won, and married the girl. The daemon
jumped into the sea never to be seen again (Paus. 6.6).
43 Derry & Williams 7,14.
44 Burriss 159-160.









been preferred due to its composition, since certain stones had particular powers. Pliny

claims that there were four types of bronze made from different alloys: white, silver, gold,

and liverish.45

In addition, there was a taboo on iron. Burriss argues Frazer's belief that the

conservative nature of religion with its fear of new things provided the taboo on iron. It

is more likely, however, that iron had a late start (c.a. 1200 B.C.E. in the West) because

the only iron used originally came from meteorites and because iron was so difficult to

handle.46 Iron began to be employed first for decoration, and then became used for

weapons and finally tools.47 The Arval Brothers were forbidden to engrave with iron and

would have to perform apiaculum if they had to do such an engraving. Apiaculum also

had to be performed when the iron was extracted from its source.48

The instruments that are beaten seem to be swords. Swords generally, despite

their tangibility, were still believed to be able to ward off the dead. Both Odysseus and

Aeneas protect themselves using a sword when surrounded by ghosts. There is a debate

as to whether their swords are bronze or iron. What is most likely is that bronze was the

original metal used during the time in which the stories of Odysseus and Aeneas are set,

but as time went on and iron became easier to handle, it became used more often,

gradually loosing its taboo. As it began to be used more often, authors would not

distinguish nor feel the need to distinguish the bronze from the iron, unless there was a




45 Eius tria genera: candidum argento nitore quam proxime accedens, in quo illa mixture praevaluit;
alterum, in quo aurifulva natural; tertium, in quo aequalis omnium temperiesfuit. Praeter haec est cuius
ratio non potest reddi, quamquam hominis manu est; atfortuna temperature in simulacris signisque illud
suo colore pretiosum ad iocineris imagine vergens, quod ideo hepatizon appellant, procul a Corinthio,
long tamen ante .i, g ,. ii atque Deliacum, quae diu optinuere principatum. Plin. Nat. 34.3.8.
46 Derry & Williams 121.
47 Ibid. 121.
48 Burriss 159.










unique reason to do so, such as to emphasize the archaic quality of something. Thus,

Odysseus, Aeneas, and the celebrant of the Lemuria all wield bronze swords.

The Right Thing to Say

cum dixit novies 'manes exite paterni' (5.443)

Numbers again play a role here in that the command consists of three words, and

it is said nine times. The command has a parallel, as already stated above with the Greek

Anthesteria. Nevertheless, there is no evidence that the Lemuria is a Romanized

Anthesteria for several reasons. First, the Aini\iet ia is a Dionysian festival to welcome

the spring. Each individual day of the festival had a name which coincided with certain

rituals that went on that day.49 Any elements of the dead do not appear (possibly) until

the evening of the second day.50 There is no evidence that any particular god was

attached to the Lemuria or that any individual rituals of this sort happened during the

Lemuria. Second, it is uncertain whether Kares (or Keres) are ghosts or Karian slaves,

stemming from the debate as to whether the word is spelled with an alpha or an eta.51

Also, if they are ghosts, the Greeks merely try to defend themselves, by the smearing of

pitch on the doors and the chewing of buckthorn. Furthermore, there is no concept of



49 The first day was called the FTri,. ,,g,, during which wine was drunk out of jars called pithoi and libations
were poured to Dionysus. The second day is called the Choes which consisted of a public drinking contest
in which one drank a jug of unmixed wine in silence. Buckthorn was chewed and pitch was smeared on the
doors as defenses against ghosts. It is unclear, however, whether this was done during this day or the
falling day. The third day was called ( /j i,. ,, during which an offering of plankarpia, a mixture of fruits, to
Chthonic Hermes. Honey cakes were thrown into a cleft in the earth in the temple of Ge Olympia. A third
offering, eudeysnos, was made to Erigone, an girl who died an untimely death. In addition to these
offerings during this day, temples and businesses closed. The festival ended with the dismissal command,
though there is no indication what time of day this took place nor is there any specification as to who said
the words.
50 According to Hamilton, the term Anthesteria is not found in the sources until the second century B.C.E.
Beforehand, each day is referred to individually, p. 5. This may indicate that the days were celebrated
individually at first only to be grouped collectively later as the official festival for the monthAnthesterion.
51 Farnell p. 221 does not see how it was possible for Karians to be in Attica, while Pickard-Cambridge
does not believe that the festival was for the expulsion of ghosts, p. 14. Parke, however, does not think that
it makes sense to expel slaves from the household, p. 117.










redemption with a substance like beans in the Ainlih, it i, as there is in the Lemuria.

Third, the Anllhtei\ it is a festival that lasts three subsequent days, Anthesterion 11th, 12th

and 13th, the equivalent to February. If a culture assimilates a festival or a holiday, it

stays in the same season and on or close to the same days. Hence, if the Romans were

trying to assimilate the Anll/itei' it, it would be more logical to argue that the Parentalia

is the Ain/iteici it, not the Lemuria.

While it is true that there is a dismissal command at the end of the Anthesteria

that corresponds to the Lemuria's, through similar reasoning, one may inquire if such a

thing occurs elsewhere. One such place to look is curse tablets and binding spells. Upon

examining the curse tablets in Luck's and Gager's books, one will find that the most

common way to end the spell is to command the daemons to "go now quickly." From the

spells in Gager's book, the spells that end in this way most often are spells used in the

circus.52 While the command itself is similar, it is not repeated any number of times. If

any portion of the spell is repeated, it is the invocation of the gods or the daemons.53

Hence, the dismissal of the Lemuria seems unique to itself.

The rite of the Lemuria can be described as archaic, chthonic, and magical. It is

archaic in that bronze is the metal of choice. Whether the festival itself actually was

archaic makes little difference. The fact that the Romans of Ovid's era believed that the



52 "Let him perish and fall, just as you lie (here) prematurely dead. Now, now, quickly, quickly, because
they drive them off, the Typhonic Daimones!" (Gager 64-65). "I invoke you. .. so that they may not reach
victory tomorrow in the circus. Now, now, quickly, quickly," p. 67. "Let him not come from behind and
pass but instead let him collapse, let him be bound, let him be broken up, and let him drag behind by your
power. Both in the early races and in the later ones. Now, now! Quickly, quickly!" p. 74. From a picture
of one of the curse tablets, one can make out: HAHHAH / TAXYTA, p. 66.
53 "Proserpina Salvia, I give over to you the head of Plotius. / Proserpina Salvia, I give over to you the
forehead of Plotius. / Proserpina Salvia, I give over to you the eyebrows of Plotius. / Proserpina Salvia, I
give over to you the eyelids of Plotius. / Proserpina Salvia, I give over to you the pupils of Plotius. /
Prosperina Salvia, I give over to you the nostrils, ears, nose, tongue and teeth of Plotius. .. ." (Gager 241-
42).









rite was archaic on account of the bronze is the important fact. The rite is chthonic in that

it is performed at night, fountain water is used, and the dead are commanded. There is

nothing to indicate that a particular group of the dead was controlled. One might be

inclined to argue that since the dead were controlled, then the class of dead must be

p3atoOavarot since only they could be controlled. However, one must remember that

all the dead were released at various times throughout the year such as during the opening

of the mundus to roam the lands for a few days. The rite is magical on account of the

celebrant's dress, gesture, the beans, and the repetition of terms. It is important, however,

to remember that water and bronze also fit the category of magical ingredients and that

many of these items can be of a religious nature. Thus, the necessary qualities for

handling the dead (archaic, chthonic, and magical) all exist in the rite of the Lemuria, and,

maybe even more importantly, it must be contended that the examination of the rite alone

can only yield a conclusion that it is unknown what type of dead (if they are the dead)

roam about during the Lemuria.
















CHAPTER 5
EVOLUTION OF THE LEMURES

Lemures are older than Ovid realizes, evident from the ritual used to expel them,

and they most likely predate the founding of Rome and, therefore, the mythology of

Romulus and Remus. It does not seem that they were originally the dead but rather

chthonic spirits along with the larvae. Manes must have been the original and

appropriate term for the dead in general as indicated by its use in literature and especially

on tombstones. The primary reason for this judgment is that the lemures are pacified by

beans, not by the normal offerings for the dead, and, moreover, the use of beans indicates

a notion of redemption not inherent in dealing with the dead in any other festivals or

necromantic rites. While the dead can and do threaten during such festivals and rites,

"normal" means (water, prayers, etc.) satisfy them.1 As Rome became established and

encountered the Greeks and other cultures, the lemures acquired the additional definition

of daemons. Since daemons could be the dead, the lemures likewise came to be known

as the dead, specifically the untimely dead. By this time the distinction between lemures

and larvae had been forgotten and each became a synonym for the other, as seen in the

definitions given by various ancient commentators. Also, since the lemures were now

identified with the dead, manes, imago, and the other words for ghost could be applied to

them. At the same time as or shortly after the lemures acquired these characteristics, the

patricians and the plebeians began to struggle over power and control. The lemures then

1 Compare Ovid's version of the Parentalia, where once the Parentalia was neglected, and the dead burned
the city (Ov. Fast. 2.547-556).









had the story of Remus grafted into their mythology such as it may have been. The false

etymology of Lemuria from Remuria came with the assimilation. Since the original story

had Remus as a human sacrifice and, therefore, dying an untimely death, the lemures

were further emphasized as daemons of the untimely dead. But, because of the tragic and

divisive associations of Remus' story, the lemures may rarely have been mentioned and

in later times, consequentially, virtually forgotten.

They were not completely forgotten, however, since some of their characteristics

remained in various European cultural notions of the vampire. If the lemures still exist,

they can be found in the dark places of psyche. They are perhaps the sins we fear to

confess, the fears we fear to face, the skeletons in our closets. It will take more than

beans to bargain for ourselves with such beings and more than bronze to battle them, but

the one fact that has never changed about the lemures after all this time is that if we do

not exorcise them from our lives, the cost will be our souls.
















APPENDIX A
PASSAGES ON THE LEMURIA AND THE LEMURES

Ovid Fasti 5. 419-92

Hinc ubi protulerit formosa ter Hesperos ora,
ter dederint Phoebo sidera victa locum,
ritus erit veteris, nocturna Lemuria, sacri:
inferias tacitis manibus illa dabunt.
annus erat brevior, nec adhuc pia februa norant,
nec tu dux mensum, lane biformis, eras:
iam tamen exstincto cineri sua dona ferebant, 425
compositique nepos busta piabat avi.
mensis erat Maius, maiorum nominee dictus,
qui partem prisci nunc quoque moris habet.
nox ubi iam media est somnoque silentia praebet,
et canis et variae conticuistis aves, 430
ille memor veteris ritus timidusque deorum
surgit (habent gemini vincula nulla pedes),
signaque dat digitis medio cum police iunctis,
occurrat tacito ne levis umbra sibi.
cumque manus puras fontana perluit unda, 435
vertitur et nigras accipit ante fabas,
aversusque iacit; sed dum iacit, 'haec ego mitto,
his' inquit 'redimo meque meosque fabis.'
hoc novies dicit nec respicit: umbra putatur
colligere et nullo terga vidente sequi. 440
rursus aquam tangit, Temesaeaque concrepat aera,
et rogat ut tectis exeat umbra suis.
cum dixit novies 'manes exite paterni'
respicit, et pure sacra peracta putat.
dicta sit unde dies, quae nominis exstet origo 445
me fugit: ex aliquo est invenienda deo.
Pliade nate, mone, virga venerande potenti:
saepe tibi est Stygii regia visa lovis.
venit adoratus Caducifer. accipe causam
nominis: ex ipso est cognita causa deo. 450
Romulus ut tumulo fraternas condidit umbras,
et male veloci iusta soluta Remo,
Faustulus infelix et passis Acca capillis









spargebant lacrimis ossa perusta suis;
inde domum redeunt sub prima crepuscula maesti, 455
utque erat, in duro procubuere toro.
umbra cruenta Remi visa est adsistere lecto,
atque haec exiguo murmure verba loqui:
'en ego dimidium vestri parsque altera voti,
cernite sim qualis, qui modo qualis eram! 460
qui modo, si volucres habuissem regna iubentes,
in populo potui maximus esse meo,
nunc sum elapsa rogi flammis et inanis imago:
haec est ex illo forma relicta Remo.
heu ubi Mars pater est? si vos modo vera locuti, 465
uberaque expositis ille ferina dedit.
quem lupa servavit, manus hunc temeraria civis
perdidit. o quanto mitior illa fuit!
saeve Celer, crudelem animam per volnera reddas,
utque ego, sub terras sanguinulentus eas. 470
noluit hoc frater, pietas aequalis in illo est:
quod potuit, lacrimas in mea fata dedit.
hunc vos per lacrimas, per vestra alimenta rogate
ut celebrem nostro signet honore diem.'
mandantem amplecti cupiunt et bracchia tendunt: 475
lubrica prensantes effugit umbra manus.
ut secum fugiens somnos abduxit imago,
ad regem voces fratris uterque ferunt.
Romulus obsequitur, lucemque Remuria dicit
illam, qua positis iusta feruntur avis. 480
aspera mutata est in lenem tempore long
littera, quae toto nominee prima fuit;
mox etiam lemures animals dixere silentum:
hic sensus verbi, vis ea vocis erat.
fana tamen veteres illis clausere diebus, 485
ut nunc ferali tempore operta vides;
nec viduae taedis eadem nec virginis apta
tempora: quae nupsit, non diuturna fuit.
hac quoque de causa, si te proverbia tangunt,
mense malas Maio nubere volgus ait. 490
sed tamen haec tria sunt sub eodem tempore festa
inter se nulla continuata die.


Horace Epodes 2.2.208-09

Somnia, terrores magicos, miracula, sagas,
nocturnos lemures portentaque Thessala rides?









Porphryio on Horace

Umbras vagantes hominum ante diem mortuorum et ideo metuendas; et putant lemures
esse dictos quasi remulos a Remo, cuius occisi umbras frater Romulus cum placare vellet,
Lemuria instituit, id est Parentalia.


Persius Satires 5.185-88

tum nigri lemures ouoque pericula rupto, 185
tum grandes galli et cum sistro lusca sacerdos
incussere deos inflantis corpora, si non
praedictum ter mane caput gustaueris ali.


Scholia on Persius

Lemures deos manes dicit, quos Graeci daemonas vocant quasi umbras quondam
habentes divinitatem; Lemuria autem dicuntur dies, quando manes placantur.


Apuleius De Deo Socratis 15

Est et secundo significatus species daemonum animus humanus emeritis stipendiis vitae
corpore suo abiurans. Hunc vetere Latina lingua reperio Lemurem dictitatum. Ex hisce
ergo Lemuribus qui posterorum suorum curam sortitus placato et quieto numine domum
possidet, Lar dicitur familiaris; qui vero ob adversa vitae merita nullis (bonis) sedibus
incerta vagatione ceu quodam exilio punitur, inane terriculamentum bonis hominibus,
ceterum malis noxium, id genus plerique Larvas perhibent. Cum vero incertum est, quae
cuique eorum sortitio evenerit, utrum Lar sit an Larva, nominee Manem deum nuncupant:
scilicet et honors gratia dei vocabulum additum est; quippe tantum eos deos appellant,
qui ex eodem numero iuste ac prudenter curriculo vitae gubernato pro numine postea ab
hominibus praediti fanis et caerimoniis vulgo advertuntur, ut in Boeotia Amphiaraus, in
Africa Mopsus, in Aegypto Osiris, alius alibi gentium, Aesculapius ubique.

Apuleius Apology 64

At tibi, Aemiliane, pro isto mendacio duit deus iste superum et inferum commeator
utrorumque deorum malam gratiam semperque obuias species mortuorum, quidquid
umbrarum est usquam, quidquid lemurum, quidquid manium, quidquid larvarum.









Apuleius Metamorphoses 4.22.5

et ecce nocte promote latrones expergiti castra commovent instructique varie, partim
gladiis armati, partim in lemures reformati concito se gradu proripiunt.


Augustine City of God 9.11

Dicit quidem et animals hominum daemones esse et ex hominibus fieri lares, si boni
meriti sunt; lemures, si mali, seu laruas; manes autem deos dici, si incertum est bonorum
eos seu malorum esse meritorum. In qua opinion quantam uoraginem aperiant sectandis
perditis moribus, quis non uideat, si uel paululum adtendat? Quando quidem quamlibet
nequam homines fuerint, uel laruas se fieri dum opinantur, uel dum manes deos, tanto
peiores fiunt, quanto sunt nocendi cupidiores, ut etiam quibusdam sacrificiis tamquam
diuinis honoribus post mortem se inuitari opinentur, ut noceant. Laruas quippe dicit esse
noxios daemones ex hominibus factos. Sed hinc alia quaestio est. Inde autem perhibet
appellari Graece beatos. eudaimonas, quod boni sint animi, hoc est boni daemones,
animos quoque hominum daemones esse confirmans.


Martianus Capella 2.162

manes cum his (corporibus defunctis) manentes appellati lemures postea et in lares et
in larvas ac manias converse.


Varro frg. Non. p. 135.16

in sacris fabam iactant noctu ac dicunt se lemures domo extra ianuam eicere.


Nonius on lemures

Larvae nocturnae et terrificationes imaginum et bestiarum.


Paulus p. 87M

Nam et Lemuralibus (faba) iacitur larvis.


Priscianus 691

regio quaedam generate malos lemures quod pellit munus, iaspim, nocturni manes fugitant
quam membra tuentem,
















APPENDIX B
PASSAGES ON REMUS AND THE REMURIA

Propertius 3.9.50

caesio moenis firma Remo

Florus 1.1.7-8

Remus montem Aventinum, hic Palatinum occupat. Prius ille sex vulturios, hic postea,
sed duodecim videt. Sic victor augurio urbem excitat, plenus spei bellatricem fore; id
adsuetae sanguine et praeda aves pollicebantur. Ad tutelam novae urbis sufficere vallum
videbantur, cuius dum angustias Remus increpat saltu, dubium an iussu fratris, occisus
est: prima certe victim fuit munitionemque urbis novae sanguine suo consecravit.

Dionysius of Halicarnassus 1.85.6

Tc6 copfov evoa |ts ~ov i6pcystiv Tciv rT6tiv oi Tc aTo 6 psi'co ~iK'crpog.
' PomC6ou &etv yap Ijv yv(t)rl z6 Hnaldvztov oiKicStV Tz v CVSK &ov ~va Kai zr if
Tiz6T5 Tzoi z6ctou, q TO CComOvafi cS aczoig Kai zpaL(4vat rcapoXEs Ppcj)i 68 ~66Kst
zCiv KakLoubivrlv vuv &7r' EKciVou 'PELPopiav oiK(tIv.

Dionysius of Halicarnassus 1.86.2

rjv se 'PcWt6 lq |tjv oiovito']ptov, evca i ifou TCilv &rotiKiav i6picat, T6
Hnal Ivntov, 'Pjq) 6' 6 rpooCYgSlg ei;sivq) M6og Ai6gv'civo Kako5gavog, 6g 6e
ctvsg icozopoiCotv r Pegopia-

Dionysius of Halicarnassus 1.87.3

&7Toeav6Tog 6' ev Tci ClbXr, P)Loou vilcrv oiKctiorv 6 Porl6og &r76 Ts Tcg
&6sg)oi~ Kai 7io titKrig & krlkoKCoviac &vsg6stgvog zv t iv 'PiOtov v zT
'PEstopfi OdcuaCs, ie7ti6S Kai r (v TzoU ompfiou -cr Kz~CToSEO rsptsisXro


Plutarch Romulus 11.1

O 6 Pc l6kog &v '; Psaopi e 6O C6 'v PiJov 6[0toi Ka&i -obg TpoEsig KIt(s
Tziv T6kitv
















INDEX OF PASSAGES CITED

Aeschylus, Persae 609-10 Gellius, 10.15.6

Apollonius Rhodius, 3.1036-41, 4.1635-90 Hesiod, Theogany 211-12

Apuleius Homer


Apology 64
De Deo Socratis 15
Metamorphoses 4.22, 6.30, 8.8, 9.29-31

Aristotle
De Somniis 461b5-10, 25-30, 462a10-15
Nichomachean Ethics 1100a-110 1b

Augustine, Civitas Dei 11.9

Cicero
De Legibus 2.54, 2.57
De Divinatione 1.62-63
Epistulae adAtticum 5.13.3
InPisonem 16
Topica 90.8

Digest 3.2.255

Dio Cassius, 46.2-3

Dionysius of Halicanarsis, 1.85.6, 1.86.2,
1.87.3

Euripides
Hecuba 40-1, 319-20, 416
Iphegenia in Tauro 159-66

Festus, 2, p. 115 L, 345 L

Florus, 1.1.7-8, 1.18


Iliad 1.3-4, 23.71-4
Odyssey 11.488-537

Horace
Epistles 2.2.209
Satires 1.5.64, 1.8, 1.8.24

Livy, 3.58.11, 22.57.6

Lucan, Pharsalia 6.770-73

Lucian
Necyomantia 7
Philopseudes 22-24, 25, 30-1

Lucretius, 4.29-53, 6.762-66

Macrobius, 1.7.34-35, 12.20-23

Martianus Capella, 2.162

Origo Gentis Romanae 21.5, 23.1

Ovid, Fasti 2.500, 2.503, 2.537-39,
2.547-56, 2.576-78, 2.583-616,
3.639, 4.807-18, 5.419-492

Paulus, Digest 11.7.44

Pausanias, Description of Greece
5.19.6, 6.6

Persius, 5.185









Petronius, 34.8, 44.5

Philostratus, Life ofApollonius 4.10

Pindar, Odes 14

Plato, Phaedo 30c-d

Plautus
Casina 591-2
Menaechmi 888-9
Mostellaria 497-500, 498-503

Plegon, Mirablia 1, 2, 3.4

Pliny, Natural History 3.5, 7.27.2, 7.27.5-11,
7.27.13, 10.56, 18.12, 28.2.9, 28.5.22,
28.5.23, 30.3.12, 34.3.8

Plotinus, Ennead 1.9

Plutarch
Cimon 6.4-6
Cleomes 39
Quaestiones Romanae 34
Romulus 9.4, 11.1
Symposium 9.10

Polybius, Histories 6.53-54

Porphryio, 2.2.209

Priscianus, 691

Propertius, 3.1.1, 3.9.50

Scriptores Historiae Augustae
Alex 60.4
Maxim 31.1
Pert 14.1

Seneca, Apocolcyntosis 9.3


Servius, Aeneid 1.292-3, 3.64, 4.518,
5.95, 12.603

Silius Italicus, 13.447

Sophron fr. 8

Statius, Thebaid 4.619-20, 8.5

Stesichorus fr. 215 PMG

Suetonius
Caligula 59
Nero 34
Otho 7

Tacitus, Annals 11.21, 69

Tertullian, De Anima 48

Ulpian Dig. 11.7.2.5, 11.7.44

Varro De Vita Populi, fr. 18

Vergil, Aeneid 1.292-3, 1.354-55,
2.270, 2.772-3, 2.793, 3.370, 4.518,
6.325-30, 6.883-84, 6.695
















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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

The author was born to Jerry and Carol Lux and grew up in Union, Kentucky. He

has a younger brother, Jason, who is one of the best baseball players ever to live (next to

his father). The author attended Xavier University in Cincinnati, Ohio where he received

an Honors Bachelors of Arts degree in Classics and Philosophy. His personal legend is to

assist others in discovering their own personal legends, and he feels that he can best do

this by teaching classics at the secondary level. He also desires to write fictional tales

that inspire people to further their understanding of love and that encourage people to

explore the sacredness of life and death.