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Population Assessment of the Gulf of Mexico Sturgeon in the Yellow River, Florida


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POPULATION ASSESSMENT OF THE GULF OF MEXICO STURGEON IN THE YELLOW RIVER, FLORIDA By JAMES JOSEPH BERG A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2004

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Copyright 2004 by James Joseph Berg

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iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to extend my gratitude to Dr Mike Allen for serving as my advisor and committee chair, and helping me every step of the way. His dedication and guidance throughout the course of this st udy are greatly appreciated. I w ould also like to thank Dr. Chuck Cichra and Dr. Debra Murie for their guidance and for serving as members of my committee. I would like to thank my friend, Dr. Ken Sulak, for serving as committee cochair and for his dedicated time, expertise and guida nce in my research. Over the course of this three-year study, he was able to expe rience first hand the power and ferocity of Yellow River sturgeon, a different beast than the wimpy sturgeon found in the Suwannee River. He gave me the opportunity to expe rience RoV, manned submersibles, research cruises, Lophelia and many wonderful research end eavors, although I did teach him (and the rest of the CEC people) how to fish, so I guess we are even. I would like to thank the United States Fi sh and Wildlife Service for funding this project. The Panama City field office, sp ecifically Frank Parauka, was a huge help and offered advice and field services throughout the th ree-year study. I would like to thank the United States Geol ogical Survey in Gainesville, Florida, for providing office space, field gear, boats computers, field sampling help, and of course my salary, as well as numerous trips to meetings worldwide. Over the course of three years, th e following people have offered advice, participated in field work, gear maintenan ce, and anything and ever ything regarding the

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iv project that I needed. Without the followi ng people from CEC, the project would not have run so smoothly. I thank Cliff Bennett, Dr. Allen Brooks, Dr. George Dennis, Bill Harden, Mike Randall, Jason Rochelo, Andr ew Quaid, Dr. Phil Stevens, and George Yeargin. I would like to thank Dr. Bill Pine and Dr Rob Bennetts who helped me with the analysis and understanding MARK. Without B ill, I would still be trying to figure out what the models were trying to tell me. The following people made significant contri butions to the data collection and field work: M. Anderson, T. Bonvechio, P. Coone y, M. Friedman, S. Gooch, S. Keitzer, J. Russell, S. Stahl, B. Tate, and K. Tugend. The Northwest Florida Aquatic Preserves Office in Milton, Florida, has been a huge help, lending us gear, people, and anything it had available that we needed. I would like to thank everyone involved who helped us along the way including N. Craft, R. Hinote, D. Holland, C. Jabaly, J. Jarrett, and B. Russell.

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v TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iii LIST OF TABLES..............................................................................................................vi LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................................... vii ABSTRACT......................................................................................................................viii CHAPTER 1 LIFE HISTORY OF THE GU LF OF MEXICO STURGEON....................................1 2 POPULATION SIZE, GROWTH AND MORTALITY ESTIMATES FOR THE YELLOW RIVER GULF STURGEON POPULATION.............................................4 Introduction................................................................................................................... 4 Methods........................................................................................................................ 5 Study Site...............................................................................................................5 Fish Collection.......................................................................................................6 Aging.....................................................................................................................8 Analyses......................................................................................................................1 0 Population Size Estimation..................................................................................10 Tag Loss Estimates..............................................................................................12 Mortality Estimates.............................................................................................13 Results........................................................................................................................ .15 Discussion...................................................................................................................18 Management Implications..........................................................................................28 Future Research..........................................................................................................29 APPENDIX CATCH DATA FOR THE YELLOW AND BLACKWATER RIVERS (2001-2003)................................................................................................................45 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................69 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................77

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vi LIST OF TABLES Table page 1 Reported total annual mortality rates for sturgeon species......................................31 2 A summary table for the Yellow River, Florida, Gulf sturgeon population estimate including capture probability and number of fish captured.......................32 3 An age-length key created for the Yellow River age and catch data.......................33 4 A table of all Gulf sturgeon that were captured in the Yellow or Blackwater rivers, Florida, that were initia lly tagged in a different river...................................34 A-1 Catch data for the yellow and blackwater rivers (2001-2003).................................46

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vii LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 A map of the northern Gulf of Mexico with rivers inhabited by Gulf sturgeon highlighted................................................................................................................36 2 A map and aerial photographs represen ting the Yellow River and Blackwater River, Florida, including the major sampling sites..................................................37 3 Photograph of the two tag types used during this study. A T-bar tag is shown on top with a PIT tag underneath..................................................................................38 4 An age bias plot of pairwise age co mparisons between two agers for 92 fish.........39 5 Catch curve for Yellow River Gulf sturge on based on number-at-age data collected during the summer and fall of 2001.........................................................................40 6 The top chart is a length frequency hist ogram for Gulf sturgeon captured in the Yellow River, Florida, during 2001-2002, a nd the bottom is a percent frequency histogram of Gulf sturgeon captured in the Suwannee River, Florida during 2001-2002.................................................................................................................41 7 Von Bertalanffy growth model fit to obser ved length-at-age data for Yellow River, Florida, Gulf sturgeon, fall and summ er 2001, and a von Bertalanffy growth model fit to observed length-at-age da ta for Suwannee River, Florida Gulf sturgeon....................................................................................................................42 8 Photograph of a 26.1-cm FL Gulf sturgeon captured in the Yellow River, Florida, approximately 3.5 km upriver of the Highway 90 bridge........................................42 9 A length frequency histogra m for Yellow River, Florida, Gulf sturgeon captured during 2001..............................................................................................................43 10 A length frequency histogra m for Yellow River, Florida, Gulf sturgeon captured during 2002..............................................................................................................43 11 A length frequency histogra m for Yellow River, Florida, Gulf sturgeon captured during 2003..............................................................................................................44 12 A 61.8 cm TL Gulf sturgeon captured on a fi shermans catfish trot-line in Coopers Basin on the Blackwater River, found a nd released by my research team..............44

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viii Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science POPULATION ASSESSMENT OF THE GULF OF MEXICO STURGEON IN THE YELLOW RIVER, FLORIDA By James Joseph Berg August 2004 Chair: Micheal S. Allen Cochair: Kenneth J. Sulak Major Department: Fisher ies and Aquatic Sciences The Gulf of Mexico sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi, is an anadramous species listed as threaten ed under the Endangered Species Act in 1991. The Gulf of Mexico sturgeon is a subspecies of the Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, and is found in coastal ri vers of the Gulf of Mexi co ranging from the Pearl River, Louisiana, to the west and Suwannee River, Florida, to the east. I conducted a three-year tagging study to estimate popul ation size, growth, mortality and age composition for sturgeon in the Yellow Rive r. Capture probabili ties and population size were estimated using Program MARK and a Cormack-Jolly-Seber model. Total mortality of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon wa s estimated using a Beverton-Holt mortality equation and a catch curve. Growth rate was determined from annuli on the marginal pectoral fin-ray. A total of 522 Gulf sturgeon captures we re made, and 3 99 individual fish were tagged. The population estimates fo r the Gulf sturgeon over three years ranged from 500 911 fish, making the Yellow River population estimate th e second largest for

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ix Gulf sturgeon. The age structure of the population suggests successful recruitment and a viable population. Estimates of total annual mortality ranged from 8.5% to 12.5%. Growth rate for the Yellow River population was comparable to ot her populations of Gulf sturgeon. My data s uggest that Yellow River Gulf sturgeon population is a dynamic population based upon consistent age classes as an indicator of successful recruitment, a large population size, and estimates of mortality below the reported range for the species.

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1 CHAPTER 1 LIFE HISTORY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO STURGEON Sturgeons are modern fishes descended fr om an ancient lineage, and fossil records of sturgeon date back 200 million years. There are 25 species of sturgeon worldwide. Of the nine species of sturgeon native to the Unite d States, six have been given threatened or endangered status by the Federal government. Sturgeon populations have declined due to overfishing, habitat loss, and habitat manipulation. Vladykov (1955) separated Acipenser oxyrinchus into Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus (Atlantic sturgeon) and Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi (Gulf of Mexico sturgeon) Atlantic sturgeon are found along the Atlantic coast of the United States and Cana da, whereas Gulf sturgeon occur in the Gulf of Mexico and associated rivers. The onl y morphological difference between Atlantic sturgeon and Gulf sturgeon is the relative le ngth of the spleen (Wooley 1985). Genetic work has reinforced that the Gulf sturgeon is genetically distinct from the Atlantic sturgeon (Avise 1992; Lubinski et al. 1999; King et al. 2001). The Gulf sturgeon is a federally threaten ed, anadromous species, listed under the Endangered Species Act in 1991. Drastic decl ines in sturgeon populations caused the State of Florida to prohibit commercial fishing for Gulf sturgeon in 1984 (Odenkirk 1991). Given low population abundances and marg inal habitat quality in some systems, assessment of Gulf sturgeon population characteri stics is critical to recovery efforts. According to the Gulf sturgeon Recovery Management Plan (USFWS, GSFC and NMFS 1995), estimates of Gulf stur geon life history parameters (e.g., sex ratio, mortality,

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2 recruitment, population size, and critical ha bitat parameters) are required for each population so that informed management policies can be enacted. Adult Gulf sturgeon migrate from the Gulf of Mexico into coastal rivers ranging from the Pearl River, Louisiana, to the west and the Suwannee River, Florida, to the east during early spring to spawn (Huff 1975; Chapman and Carr 1995; Sulak and Clugston 1998, 1999; Fox et al. 2000). There appears to be strong natal homing tendency, with a minimum of four distinct sub-populations among rivers within the ra nge of Gulf sturgeon (Stabile et al. 1996). The four identified popul ations are the Pearl and Pascagoula rivers, Escambia and Yellow rivers, Choctawhatchee River, and the Apalachicola, Ochlockonee, and Suwannee rivers. Access to spawning grounds and protection of native riverine habitats is vital to Gu lf sturgeon populations. Gulf sturgeon spawn on gravel substrate und erlain by a light layer of sand and silt (Sulak and Clugston 1998, 1999; Fox et al. 2000). Reproducing female sturgeon spawn once every 2 to 4 years, though males spawn annually (Huff 1975). Spawning occurs in early spring when females and males migrate up river after overwinter ing in the Gulf of Mexico. Sulak and Clugston (1999) estimat ed only 30 to 90 females a year were spawning out of a total net-vu lnerable population of 7,650 sub-a dult and adult fish in the Suwannee River, only 0.40% to 1.2% of the total population. Thus, Gulf sturgeon population viability is highly sensitive to changes in adult female mortality and abundance (Boreman 1997; Tringali and Bert 1998; Pine et al. 2001). Post-spawning adults, subadults, and juveni le Gulf sturgeon remain in the rivers throughout the summer months. During their stay in the rive r, Gulf sturgeon do not feed and continue to lose weight (Mason and Clugsto n 1993; Gu et al. 2001). In the fall, Gulf

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3 sturgeon are cued by unknown environmental fact ors and begin the fall emigration from the river, which may occur over a two-m onth period (Carr et al. 1996b; Foster and Clugston 1997). Although the cue is unknown, it seems not to be a single parameter, but a combination of cues (e.g., moon phase, temperat ure, water flow). In the estuaries, Gulf sturgeon feed intensively around mudflats and oyster bars on benthic prey (Mason and Clugston 1993; Sulak and Clugston 1998; Harri s 2003). Gulf sturgeon have been located aggregating in the areas on the backside of co astal barrier islands and estuaries, in high salinity Gulf waters (Edwards et al. 2003; Harris 2003).

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4 CHAPTER 2 POPULATION SIZE, GROWTH AND MORTALITY ESTIMATES FOR THE YELLOW RIVER GULF STURGEON POPULATION Introduction The Yellow River is located in the we stern Panhandle region of Florida, approximately 40 km east of Pensacola (Figure 1). Minimal research effort has been conducted on the Yellow River Gulf sturgeon p opulation, and as a resu lt, little is known about the population of sturgeon inhabiting the river. To properly manage the population and to ensure informed management decisions, all aspects of Gulf st urgeon life history in the Yellow River need to be examined. Population models are useful to examine trends and derive estimates of population size. However, population size alone does not yield information on basic life history parameters such as age structure, mortality, recruitment, and growth rates, all of which are needed to fully understand the status of the population. Population models have been used to estimate Gulf sturgeon population size and viability in th e Suwannee River (Carr et al. 1996a; Chapman et al. 1997; Pine et al. 2001), the Apalachicola River (Zehfuss et al. 1999), and the Pearl River (Morrow et al. 1998) (Figure 1). Th e use of models to estimate recruitment and mortality rates is necessary due to limited data from few years of collection. Simulations show that Gulf sturgeon populations are sensitive to changes in mortality and the percentage of females spawning annually (Boreman 1997; Pine et al. 2001; Tate and Allen 2002).

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5 Individual growth and mortality rate estimates allow for comparisons among populations, and are good indicators of popula tion viability. A high mortality rate and low growth rate indicate the population may not be viable. Ha bitat alteration, in the form of anthropogenic disturbance of spawning site access with the possibility of a dam on the Yellow River in the vicinity of 9 km upstream of the Highway 90 bridge, may be a serious threat to the stur geon population. Dams and low-le vel sills have impeded the passage of Gulf sturgeon in other coastal Gulf rivers including the Apalachicola, Pearl and Ochlocknee rivers. My objectives were to 1. obtain an estimate of popul ation size for Gulf sturgeon >88.1-cm FL in the Yellow River; 2. examine age structure of the population; and 3. determine the rates of growth and mortality for the population. Methods Study Site The Yellow River originates above Conec uh National Forest, Alabama, and flows southwest into Blackwater Bay, near Robinson Po int, Florida (Figure 2). The river basin drains approximately 3,133 km2 (Florida Rivers Assessment 1989) and has a length of 196 km, of which 148 km are in Florida. The Yellow River is the fi fth largest river in Florida, with a mean annual discharge of 62 m3/sec (Florida Rivers Assessment 1989). The Yellow River forms the northern border of Eglin Air Force Base across much of Santa Rosa and Okaloosa counties and is cl assified as a Clas s III river (recreation, propagation, and maintenance of healthy, well -balanced population of fish and wildlife) by the Florida Department of Environmen tal Protection (DEP) (Florida Rivers Assessment 1989). Current velocity in the Ye llow River is faster than in many other

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6 Florida rivers because it drains the state's hi ghest elevations (Florida Rivers Assessment 1989). Upstream, large portions of the rive r are bordered by hardwood forest and high sandy banks. These upriver sections are narro w, sandy bottom areas w ith high levels of fallen timber and debris. Occasional lime rock outcroppings can also be found throughout the upper reaches of the river. Do wnriver sections of the river are bordered by cypress swamps that inundate and drain with changes in river st age during the wet and dry seasons. Downriver, temperatures ra nge from 14.06 to 27.41 degrees Celsius with pH values of 6.39 to 7.78 throughout the year (USGS unpublished data). The Yellow River joins the Blackwater Bay in four locations The mouth of the river is constricted by shallow grass flats and large fallen tr ees, alternate access to Blackwater Bay is available through Weaver Creek, Sk im Lake or Lindsey Pass. Fish Collection Sampling consisted of multiple tagging events throughout the summers of 2001, 2002, and 2003, and major recapture events duri ng each of the fall emigrations of 2001, 2002, and 2003. Fishing was conducted using sinking gill nets, drift nets, or set nets as applicable. Gulf sturgeon r ecruit to the nets used in th is study at 88.1 cm fork length (FL). The majority of the summer sampling was conducted using 45.72 m x 3.6 m multifilament gill nets with a 0.1-m bar me sh or 45.7 m x 4.87 m nets with 0.1-m bar mesh. Where necessary, a 91.4 m x 6.09 m w ith 0.17-m bar mesh multifilament gill net was used as a set net. The majority of summer collection (> 90%) was conducted using drift nets. Drift netting allowed for active fi shing and spatially locat ing sturgeon in their summer areas. During the fall of each year, Gulf sturgeon em igrate from the river, into the nearby estuary and bay. Fall recapture events (fall census) were conducted during the

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7 temperature range (17 -23 C) associated with the fall migration (Foster and Clugston 1997; Sulak and Clugston 1999). Two nets we re utilized, a 91.4 m x 4.87 m with 0.1-m bar mesh or a 91.4 m x 3.6 m with 0.1-m ba r mesh multifilament gill net depending on river stage and depth. Fall census nets were anchored from shoreline to shoreline except for a small passage for boats navigating the rive r (near the shoreline). Fall census netting was conducted at Cat Island Slough during 2001 (Figure 2). The 2002 collection event utilized Cat Island Slough and a downriver site, Pine Bluff, as the set net areas, and the 2003 census location was the Pine Bluff site only (Figure 2). The fall census netting site was moved due to shifting sand bars and cha nging depth in the river among years. During the 2001 fall census, netting was conducted continuously 24 hours a day. A multifilament gill net was set across the river as described above, and checked every hour, only being pulled from the river on one occasion because of severe weather. During the fall census in 2002 and 2003, nets were not soaked continuously for 24 hours but instead were set between the hours of 1700 hours and 0800 hours Eastern Standard Time based upon catch results from 2001, and checked at least once per hour. During the summers of 2002 and 2003, samp ling was conducted in the Blackwater River using multifilament set nets to assess sturgeon migration between the Yellow River and the Blackwater River. A 45.7-m x 3.6m x 0.1-m or 45.7-m x 4.87-m x 0.1-m or 91.4-m x 6.09-m x 0.17-m multifilament gill net was used for collection. Captured Gulf sturgeon were measured to the nearest 2-mm for fork length (FL) and total length (TL) and weighed to the near est 50 g. Gulf sturgeon were tagged once in each pectoral fin with a T-bar style Fl oy tag (FD-9H, 25.4-mm m ono Long-T) containing a unique identification number for future r ecognition (Figure 3). Passive Integrated

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8 Transponders (PIT) tags were injected into th e dorsal musculature of each fish (Biomark TX1405L, 14mm, 125 kHz) at the posterior dorsa l fin base. After processing, all Gulf sturgeon were immediately released alive. Aging During the summer and fall of 2001, subsampl ed fish had small sections of their leading pectoral fin ray removed with a fi ne tooth saw (Cuerrier 1951; Cuerrier and Roussow 1951) 15% of the total distance away fr om the point of articulation. Fish were selected for fin-ray removal based on their size, and the number of fish of that size already sampled. I kept the proportion of fish sampled for aging similar to the proportion of fish from each size class to the overall population. This ensured the size and number of fish selected for fin-ray removal would reflect the actual length -frequency distribution of the sampled population. The sections were placed into labeled vi als and returned to the laboratory where they were allowed to dry in open air. Fi n samples were cleaned of excess epidermal tissue under a dissecting microscope and thre e 0.25-0.45 mm transverse sections were cut using a low-speed Isomet saw with a 12.7-cm diamond wafering blade to ensure at least one would be readable. Sections made with th e Isomet saw were stored in air, in labeled vials, and read using a dissecting microsc ope (Olympus SZX 12) and transmitted light (Cuerrier 1951) under va riable magnification (8-20x). A lthough never validated for Gulf sturgeon, formation of a pair of opaque and tr anslucent growth rings were assumed to be formed annually based on other sturgeon species (Brennan 1988, Brennan and Cailliet 1991; Rossiter et al. 1995; Stevenson 1997; Stevenson and Secor 1999). Translucent areas were read as annual growth ri ngs (Brennan and Cailliet 1989; Rien and Beamsderfer 1994). Two independent reader s estimated ages from fin ray samples

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9 collected during 2001 (n=92) by counting rings along the radius of the section as described by Roussow (1957) and Dadswell (1979). Huff (1975) and Stevenson and Secor (1999), found that a completely formed marginal annulus was completely formed in the fall for Gulf and Atlantic sturgeon. Based on these findings fin rays collected in the summer with partial marginal annulus formation were assigned an age assuming the partial annulus was complete. Fin rays collect ed in the fall were not advanced based on marginal annulus formation. Ages were recorded by each reader and were only accepted when there was reader agreement. A third independent reader was used to evaluate discrepancies. If there was no consensus fr om the third reader, then the fin ray was removed from the sample. Precision estimates were calculated using th e coefficient of vari ation (CV) as per Chang (1982): j R i j ij jX R X X CV 1 21 100 (1) where Xij is the i th age determination of the j th fish, Xj is the mean age of the j th fish, and R is the number of times each fish is aged. The results of the coefficient of variation were averaged across fish to produce a mean CV. Age bias plots were constructed between readers to examine the potential for systematic differences in the age readings (Campana et al. 1995)

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10 Analyses Population Size Estimation The most predominantly used capture-re capture model to study survival and abundance is the Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) model (Cormack 1964; Jolly 1965; Seber 1965). The model estimates apparent survival (i) and recapture probability (i). Apparent survival indicates loss of fish e ither to emigration or death (Williams et al. 2002). The CJS model assumes that all emigration from the study site is permanent. Capture probabilities model the probability th at an animal present in the study area at time t is captured, and apparent survivability mode ls the probability that an animal alive at time t is still alive at t +1. There are six assumptions of the CJS model (Williams et al. 2002): 1) marks are never lost or misidentifie d; 2) animals are rele ased after the sample, and samples are of short durati on; 3) individual capture events are independent between individuals and capture times; 4) every individual has th e same probability of being caught, whether it is marked or unmarked; 5) every marked individual has the same probability of surviving from the tth to the ( t +1)st sample; and 6) changes in the population occur only between the capture occasions. I used a CJS-open-population capture-recaptu re model for estimating Gulf sturgeon ( 88.1 cm FL) apparent survival (i) and capture probabilities (pi) for summer and fall sampling occasions (six sampling occasions) in 2001-2003. This model allows for population changes (increases and decreases) due to emigration, immi gration, births and deaths between each sampling occasion. All models were created and run in Program MARK (White and Burnham 1999). Cormack-Jolly-Seber models in Program MARK use data constructed as capture

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11 histories. Capture histories were inputte d using a binary (0 or 1) coding system constructed for each fish. The first “1” in a capture history indicates the fish was captured and tagged, and any subsequent “1” in dicates the fish was recaptured on another occasion. A “0” indicates the fish was not captured. A capture history of “010010” would indicate that this fish was not captured during the summer 2001 occasion, was initially captured during the fall 2001 occas ion, was not captured during the summer 2002 or fall 2002 occasions, was recaptured during the summer 2003 sampling occasion, and was not recaptured during the fall 2003 o ccasion. For the purposes of my study, all fish captured for the first time during this st udy were considered unmarked regardless of previous tagging by other researchers. Model selection was based on Akai ke’s Information Criterion (AICc)(Akaike 1973; Shibata 1989) in conjunction with k nowledge of biological and life history characteristics. The AICc values were adjusted for small sample sizes and over dispersion (QAICc) (Akaike 1973; Burnham and Anderson 1998; Dreitz 2000). The AICc term is a measure of deviation between the data and the model and therefore, the model with the lowest AICc value represents the model that best fit the data. The lowest AICc value does not mean that model is always the best model (makes the most biological sense). It is the m odel within the set of run mode ls that has the best support, given the data, and therefore, it is important to consider biological characteristics and knowledge of the species in question when you are considering model selection. A variety of models were run th at allowed apparent survival and capture probability to remain constant, vary between seasons, or vary through time. Models that estimated parameters between season grouped the su mmer 2001-2003 occasions under one set of

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12 parameter estimates, and the fall 2001-2003 unde r another set of parameter estimates. Based on estimates of mortality for the Yello w River from my study, apparent survival was also fixed at 0.88 for some models. In total, 13 models were constructed and run using Yellow River capture histories. Captur e probabilities were the biggest concern for this study, because capture probabilities are us ed on conjunction with the number of fish captured for each sampling occasion to estima te population size. Biological and life history characteristics were c onsidered during final model se lection to ensure selected models did not report unrealistic estimates fo r capture probability and survival (i. e., capture probability of 100% or survival estimates of 10%). I used reported mortality rates for sturgeon for comparison against th e models (Table 1). Models reporting mortality and capture probability rates that we re unrealistic were not considered for final model selection. Population estimates ( Ni) for Gulf sturgeon in the Yellow River were obtained using the recapture probabilities (pi) estimated by the model, and the total number of fish captured in each sampling occasion ( Ci). N C pi i i (2) where Ni is the population estimate for sampling occasion i Variance around these estimates were calculated using Equation 1 with the reported 95% confidence intervals for capture probabilities supplied by Program MARK. Tag Loss Estimates Tag loss is important to understand when mark and recapture data are used to estimate population size (Robson and Regier 1966; Clugston 1996). To determine tag loss for Gulf sturgeon in the Yellow River, I examined individual fi sh capture-recapture

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13 data for the loss of one of the two T-bar tags over time in relation to presence of the PIT tag. Recaptured fish with one missing Floy tag were recorded and their time-at-large was noted. Studies have shown that loss of T-bar tags in sturgeon is directly related to time at large (Clugston 1996). Tag loss was related to time-at-large using a logistic regression (Miranda et al. 1997; SAS 2000; Henry 2002). logit( l ) = a + b1 (time), (3) where logit( l ) is the probability of tag loss, a is the intercept estimate, b1 is the parameter estimate and (time) is the number of days-at-la rge. The logistic re gression was weighted for fish with multiple recaptures. Fish that were recaptured multiple times were entered into the regression each time they were recaptured. Mortality Estimates Total mortality estimates were derived for Gulf sturgeon 88.1-cm FL in the Yellow River. A von Bertalanffy growth curv e was fit to the agelength data using nonlinear regression (SAS 2000) as: Lt = L (1-ek ( t-to )), (4) where Lt is the fork length of the fish at time t L is the asymptotic length, k is the Brody growth coefficient, t is age in years, and to is the age in years at length equal to zero if the fish had always grown according to the von Bertalanffy growth equation. The resulting equation was used in conjunction with a Beverton-Holt instantaneous mortality equation to estimate instantaneous total mortality (Z) (Gulland 1983, cited in Pine et al. 2001) as: Z = Lc Lx Lx L k ) ( (5) where Lx is the mean fork length at capture, and Lc is the minimum fork length at which Gulf sturgeon were vulnerable to capture.

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14 The age data were also used to create an age-length key. An age-length key assigns ages to fish of a certain size class, base d upon the proportion of ages in the same size class from the age data. The number of fish at each age over all sizes was summed to get a total number of fish at each age. The re sulting age-length key was used to assign an age to each sturgeon that was measured but no t aged directly, and create a catch curve. The instantaneous total mortality was estimat ed by the slope of th e descending limb of the catch curve (Ricker 1975). Sturgeon were grouped into 4-cm size groups for analysis with an age-length key and catch curve. Four centimeters was selected out of convenience, due to the maximum FL of Gulf sturgeon and in an attempt to ensure each size group contained age samples because of a lo w sample size. Ages 0, 1, 2 and 3 were eliminated because these ages were not fully recruited to the sa mpling gear (Dadswell 1979). Calculated instantaneous total mortality (Z) from the Von Bertalanffy growth equation and catch curve were used to calculate percent to tal annual mortality (A) for each method using the equation: A = 1-e-Z (6) I compared the size composition data from the Yellow River (2001 – 2002) to data available for the Suwannee River for the same years (UF and USGS unpublished data). To do so, I used a Chi-Square test to test fo r differences in the proportion of fish in three size groups. The size groups were 85 – 134. 9 cm, 135 – 179.9 cm, and 180 – 225 cm FL. I used an alpha ( ) value of 0.05 for the test.

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15 To compare the growth equations of the two populations, I used a likelihood ratio test as described by Haddon (2001) to determine if the parameters in the von Bertalanffy growth equations differed for each popul ation at an alpha 0.05. Results There were 13 sampling days during the summer of 2001, 13 in 2002, and 18 in 2003. The fall census period varied in length from September to October with 25 days in 2001, 22 in 2002, and 13 in 2003. A total of 52 2 Gulf sturgeon captures/recaptures were made. Of these, 399 unique fish were captu red and tagged, and 123 were recaptures. The number of fish captured during each samp ling period ranged from 40 to 101 (Table 2). There were 11 sampling days in the Bl ackwater River during the summers of 2002 and 2003 in an attempt to quantify emigrati on (exchange between the Yellow River and Blackwater River). Seventy-f our captures of 69 unique Gulf sturgeon were recorded in the Blackwater River. In the summer of 2002 a total of 48 Gulf sturgeon captures were recorded, with 41 first captures, and seven recaptures of Yellow River fish. The 2003 sampling resulted in 19 first captures, and tw o recaptures, one of a Yellow River fish. Five within season captures of Gulf sturgeon were made between the 2002 and 2003 sampling seasons. The most parsimonious model, using a Cormack-Jolly-Seber in Program MARK based upon the best fit AICc values, was the (.) (t) model. This model represented constant survival [ (.)] and a time-dependent catch probability [ (t)], with an AICc value of 684.4. The two models with the 2nd and 3rd lowest AICc values were the [ (t) p(t)] and the [ (.) p(.)] models. These models returned corresponding AICc values of 688.4 and 689.4 respectively. For comparison, the [ (.) p(t)] model with apparent survival fixed at

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16 0.88 returned an AICc value of 5647.2, the highest AICc value of all considered models. Examination of the parameter estimates for the [ (t) p(t)] and [ (.) p(.)] models eliminated them as adequate models, because the [ (t) p(t)] model returned capture probabilities of 96%, which was unrealistic fo r this study or this species, and the [ (.) p(.)] model only allowed for one estimate of capture probability for the entire study, which is unrealistic given the data. The mode l with the lowest AICc value did not report unrealistic parameter estimates. Capture probabilities ranged from 0.05-0.17 between sampling periods (Table 2). Population estimates, for each occasion based upon the capture probabilities, ranged from 500 to 911 across time periods (Table 2). To correct estimates for tag loss, logistic regression was used to determine the rate of tag loss based upon time-at-large, but the relationship between tag loss and time-atlarge was not significant. I r ecorded only 16 instances of fi sh losing one T-bar tag and 4 instances of fish losing both T-bar tags. Th ree fish were recaptured during the study with missing PIT tags. However, in all cases of T-bar tag loss, fish retained their PIT tags. Therefore, I did not correct for tag loss in my analysis. I do not believe any fish lost all three tags, because we did not capture fish th at showed signs of previous tagging without having one tag still present. Sections of the leading edge of the pect oral fin-ray were removed from 92 Gulf sturgeon during the summer and fall of 2001 for aging back at the laboratory. Fish ranged in size from 80.5 cm FL to 184.4 cm FL, and 2 to 20 years in age. However, because I effectively captured fish only 88.1 cm FL, fish less than 88.1 cm FL were not used in the age analysis. Precision of between reader age estimates was calculated to be 3.357% using the coefficient of variation. Th e age bias plot shows that slight age under

PAGE 26

17 estimation bias is present (Figure 4). For analysis, 87 fish were used, ranging in age from 3 to 20 years. A von Bertalanffy growth cu rve was fit to data for the Yellow River population of Gulf sturgeon (Figure 7): Lt=180.3 (1-e-0.1681(t+1.5711)) (7) Estimates of instantaneous total mort ality (Z) based on a Beverton and Holt mortality equation using data from Eqn (5), based on Eqn (7) was -0.126 and the estimate of percent total annual mortality (A) was 11.88%. The von Bertalanffy growth equation was used for the Suwannee River as reported by Pine et al. (2001): Lt=222.2 (1-e-0.08142(t+2.18)) (8) Results of the age-length key can be seen in Table 3. Instantaneous total mortality (Z) from the catch curve (slope of the regres sion) was -0.089 (Figure 5) and the resulting total annual mortality rate was 8.5%. Number-at-age data were used from the age-length key for catch curve analysis, but lengths were variable at any given age, and some ages were under-represented (Table 3). The proportions of fish in each size class differed (X2=23.16, df =2, p=0.001) between the Yellow River and Suwannee Rive r populations. In the Suwannee River, 56.4% of fish were 85-134.9 cm FL, 41.6% were 135-179.9 cm FL, and 1.8% were 180225 cm FL (Figure 6). The proportions of each size group in the Yellow River were 40.8%, 52.3%, and 6.9%, respectively (Figure 6) The likelihood ratio test showed that there was a significant difference between the von Bertalanffy growth equations for the Yellow River and Suwannee River populations of Gulf sturgeon (X2=54.15, df =3, p=0.001) (Figure 7). There were significant differences between the growth coefficients

PAGE 27

18 (k) (X2=6.02, df =1, p=0.014) and to (X2=5.38, df =1, p=0.020), a nd slight significance in asymptotic length (X2=3.41, df =1, p=0.065). Discussion My estimates of the Gulf sturgeon population size for fish 100 cm TL were greater than or equal to 500 individual fish for each samp ling period and each estimate was within the confidence intervals of a ll other estimates, except for the summer 2002 sample and the fall 2003 sample. The summ er 2002 sample had an upper confidence limit of 816 while the lower limit for the fall 200 3 sample was 550 (Table 2). In general, the estimates for each sampling period increa sed over the three years. This increase resulted due to recaptures of fish that we re at large since ini tial tagging in 2001. I recaptured multiple fish during the summ er and fall of 2003 that had not been encountered since they were initially tagged in the summer and fall of 2001. The resulting capture histories for these fish cau sed the model to recognize that they had not necessarily died, but simply had not been recaptured. My data suggest that the Yellow River supports the second largest population of Gulf sturgeon (319-1,550). Population estimat es for Gulf sturgeon ar e only available for the Suwannee, Apalachicola, and Pearl river systems, and the estimates from the Apalachicola River only estimate the population below the Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam. Zehfuss et al. (1999) estimated the population of Gulf sturgeon in the Apalachicola River to be 62-218 individuals. The Pearl River was estimated to have 292 individuals, over age three (Morrow et al. 1998). Estimates fo r the Suwannee River net-vulnerable (>100 cm TL) subadult/adult population are much higher and have been conducted on four occasions. Carr et al. (1996b) estimated th e population to be between 1,504 and 3,066 fish. Chapman et al. (1997) presented a highe r estimate of 2,097 to 5,312 fish. Sulak and

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19 Clugston (1999) estimated the population at 7,650 total individuals, and Pine et al. (2001) estimated the population at 5,500. The larg e variation among population estimates on the Suwannee River are due to the manner of samp ling in each study. Carr et al. (1996b) and Chapman et al. (1997) sampled the returning adult and sub-adult populations each spring, and had few recapture data. Sulak and Clugs ton (1999) had a large number of recaptures, encompassing a longer time frame and a broader range of mesh sizes. The assumption that emigration is permanent during sampling occasions was violated during the course of this study. Gulf sturgeon immigration and emigration in the Yellow River was apparent over the three-y ear study. Natal homing capabilities have been extensively studied for salmonid species. The range of natility in salmon is 80100%, and percentage of fish st raying for most populations is believed to be 2-5% based on hatchery fish (Hasler and Scholz 1983). Ear lier work in the Yellow River showed that Gulf sturgeon tagged in the Yellow River we re sometimes relocated in the Blackwater River system and as far away as Louisiana (Craft et al. 2001). Sampling in the Blackwater River was conducted to assess th e amount of emigration from the Yellow River into the Blackwater River. Eight fish, tagged in the Yellow River during this study, were recaptured in the Blackwater River, and 23 instances of immigration into or emigration from the Yellow River were documented over the three-year study, not including seven fish of unknown origin (Table 4). Data from USFWS also shows that fish tagged in the Yellow River with acoustic tags have been relocated in other river systems (Frank Parauka, USFWS, personal comm unication). River in terchange has been documented by other researchers throughout the Gulf of Mexico (Car r et al. 1996b; Craft

PAGE 29

20 et al. 2001; Fox and Hightower 1998; D ugo 2003; Frank Parauka, USFWS, personal communication; Ken Sulak, USGS personal communication). One problem associated with interchange between river systems is determining the sturgeon’s true natal river. River transfer data from my study suggests that sturgeon move between rivers. A fish tagged initiall y in the Choctawhatchee River and relocated in the Yellow River may actually be a fish spawned in the Yellow River which happened to be captured for the first time in the Choctawhatchee River system. The amount of inter-river exchange documented in the Yello w River over three year s may indicate fish in the Panhandle (i.e., Choctawhatchee River to Pearl River) act as one large population. However, Stabile et al. (1996) and Dugo ( 2003) report that the C hoctawhatchee River, Escambia River, and Yellow River populations of Gulf sturgeon are genetically distinct from one another. Relatively high rates of interchange between th e Blackwater River and Yellow River, as well as their close proximity, suggests that Gulf sturgeon in these two rivers may regularly interbreed. Limited sampling has been conducted on the Escambia River but ongoing tagging studies by the US FWS will shed light on the role of the Escambia River in relation to the Yellow River. Tag-recapture data from this study, as well as telemetry data from Craft et al. (2001), show that some fish moving upriver during the spring spawning migration drop downs tream and relocate to different rivers later during the same spring or summer. Gulf sturgeon in this ar ea may have the option of changing rivers during the spring if spawni ng conditions are not suitable in their target river. Temporary emigration can have a large im pact on the estimates from population models (Burnham 1993). The population es timates for the Yellow River may be

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21 positively biased (overestimated) if the system experiences high rates of temporary emigration. Zeufuss et al. (1999) conducte d simulations to determine the impact of temporary emigration on their estimates in the Apalachicola River system. In situations with random temporary emigration wher e capture probabilit ies were high ( 0.50), they showed that population size could be estimat ed with no bias. However, low capture probabilities resulted in underestimates of population size when Markovian emigration (fish remember they have left the study area) was occuring. Tag loss was to be accounted for in each of the sampling occasions based on timeat-large for each captured fish because high ra tes of tag loss would have an impact on the population estimates due to the inability of th e researchers or the model to recognize the actual identity of fish with lost tags. If tag loss was occurring, tagged fish would not be recognized as previously being tagged and woul d be counted as new or virgin fish. This decrease in apparent recaptures would result in a decrease in survival estimates, and may result in an overestimate of population size. Studies have shown PIT tag retention rates to be 90-100% (Jenkins and Smith 1990; Pren tice et al. 1990; Smith et al. 1990; Clugston 1996) and T-bar tag loss has been shown to be related to time-at-la rge (Clugston 1996). Tag loss was examined in this study using logistic regression, but the relationship between T-bar tag loss and time at large was not significant. One explanation may be the combination of small sample size and low number of recaptures. It was unlikely that sturgeon tagged during this study would lose all three ta gs, and thus, tag loss was considered insignificant. The total annual mortality estimates for Gulf sturgeon in the Yellow River were lower than the reported range for this speci es, and within the re ported range for other

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22 species of sturgeon (Miller 1972a; Huff 1975; Kohlhorst 1980; Dads well 1979; Devore et al. 1995; Beamesderfer et al. 1995; Steven son 1997; Bruch 1999; Sulak and Clugston 1999; Pine et al. 2001) (Table 1). Due to the commercial fishing ban in 1984 for Gulf sturgeon in Florida, my mort ality estimates for the Yellow River should only be dealing with natural mortality. The catch curve resu lted in an estimate of 8.5% total annual mortality (Figure 5). This mortality rate is lower than the mortality estimate from the Beverton and Holt equation of 11.8%. Due to a low sample size, under-represented (< 5 fish) age classes were present, but had to be included in the catch curve. I have less confidence in the catch curve estimate due to low sample size, missing year classes and high variation in length-at-age data (Table 3). The high variation in length-at-age for Gulf sturgeon makes them a poor candidate for estimating age structure with an agelength key. For example, fish ranging in size from 172-175.9 cm FL ranged in age from 10-20 years in age (Table 3). The age bias plots between readers shows that there was slight bias present, most likely due to the difficulty in assigning ages to older fish. The major problem encountered in older fish wa s crowding of annuli, which is not uncommon for long-lived species (Huff 1975; Dovel and Berggren 1983; Brennan and Cailliet 1989; Rien and Beamesderfer 1994, Laura Jenkins, USFWS, personal communication). Age precision (CV) for Yellow River Gulf sturgeon pector al fin rays was 3.357% between readers. This is lower than reported by Stevenson a nd Secor (1999) for Atlantic sturgeon (4.5%), and by Rien and Beamesderfer (1994) for white sturgeon (7.8%), although, it is within the range of reported values for other speci es (Rien and Beamesderfer 1994; Stevenson and Secor 1999). However, Stevenson and Secor (1999) and Rien and Beamesderfer

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23 (1994) were dealing with l onger-lived sturgeon species a nd increased ages may be responsible for less preci se age estimates. Inaccurate age estimates for any species including Gulf sturgeon can cause problems for resource managers (Archibald et al. 1983; Leaman and Nagtegaal 1987; Rien and Beamesderfer 1994; Pine et al. 2001; Tate and Allen 2002) because underestimating the age of stur geon can affect estimates of life history parameters and population dynamics. Fin ray sections in this study were removed at 15% from the point of articulation, resulting in some loss of annuli. Underestimating the ages of Gulf sturgeon could result in over-es timates of mortality and growth for the population. In white sturgeon, ages determined from pectoral fin rays underestimate the true age of large fish (Rien and Beamesderfer 1994; Paragami an and Beamesderfer 2003). Management decisions regarding sturgeon ar e in part influenced by esti mates of population parameters (ie., size, mortality, growth) supplied by researchers (Dadswell 1979; Smith 1984; Smith and Clugston 1997), and care must be exercised. Based on the number of large sturgeon in the river, the estimates of population size over three years, and the capture of ag e-0 sturgeon, the Yellow River Gulf sturgeon population seems to be a viable (i.e., regul arly reproducing) populat ion. The population produces offspring with the capability of reproducing, and the population seems to be stable under the present conditions, although three years may not be sufficient to recognize changes in population size. The catch data were skewed towards larger fish, which is most likely not attributable to gear bias because the mesh size used in this study effectively captures any fish over 88.1 cm FL. Although our ne ts were not targeting fish smaller than 100 cm TL, we captured 15 fish in the Yellow River <100 cm TL, the

PAGE 33

24 smallest being only 80 cm TL. However, a 30.5-cm (young-of-the-year) Gulf sturgeon was collected by USGS using an electrofishing boat. Thus, age 0-1 fish were present, indicating successful reproduction at some level. However, attempts to capture eggs at probable spawning locations in the Yellow Ri ver through use of egg pads have been unsuccessful to date (USGS unpublished data). The Yellow River experiences a great variation in springtime river c onditions which makes it difficult to sample for eggs. High water and fast currents do not allow for eas y access and maneuverability in the upriver sections of the river where spawning most lik ely occurs. High water is often followed by extreme low water creating log jams and e xposing the river bottom making navigation impossible. Nevertheless, three age-0 Gulf sturgeon have been collected on the Yellow River (Philip Kilpatrich, Alabama Game and Fi sh, personal communication, USGS unpublished data). Two of the collected fish were ~ 15.0 cm TL and were captured near “Dripping Rock” in Alabama. Fish of this size were undoubtedly spawned in the Yellow River, since larvae and juveniles of mo st sturgeon species are intolera nt of salt water (Jenkins et al. 1993; McCabe and Tracy 1994; Kynard 1997; Sulak and Clugston 1999). It is highly unlikely these age-0 fish were spawned in a nearby river and traversed Blackwater Bay to reach the Yellow River. In November of 2003, another age-0 sturgeon measuring 26.1 cm FL was collected by USGS ~ 3.5 km upriver of the Highway 90 bridge (Figure 8). This approximately 7 month ol d fish offers the first phot ographic proof that spawning occurs in the Yellow River. Although there is an apparent difference in Gulf sturgeon length frequencies between the Suwannee River and the Yello w River, the maximum TL (~225 cm)

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25 reported for other rivers (F ox and Hightower 1998; Morrow et al. 1998; Slack and Ross 1998; Slack et al. 1999; Fox et al. 2000), including the Su wannee (Sulak and Clugston 1999; Sulak and Randall 2002), is the same as the Yellow River. Reasons for the differences in size may be related to one of three possibilities: 1) selective adaptation due to selective harvest; 2) differences in popul ation parameters (i.e., mortality, growth, recruitment, sex ratio); or 3) mix of successf ul year classes for poi nt-in-time snapshots of the respective rive r populations. Differences in commercial fishing efforts between rivers may have contributed to differences in size structure between popul ations. The Suwannee River was fished commercially for nearly 100 years (Hoover 2002). During the period of commercial fishing, effort was concentrated during the spring when Gulf sturgeon were migrating into the river to spawn. A century of co mmercial fishing, and the removal of large breeding males and females, may be responsible for genetically selecting for smaller fish. While 100 years of fishing would only allow fo r four generations of large breeding males and females, impacts of selective harvest have been shown for other fish species in fewer generations. In salmon hatcheries, where natura l selection is relaxed, the overall size of salmon eggs has rapidly decreased, and sma ller egg sizes are found in wild populations heavily supplemented by hatcheries (Heath et al. 2003). Multiple st udies have noted the reduction of length-at-age, lengt h-at-maturity, age-at-maturity, and growth rates for fish species exposed to size-sele ctive harvest (Harris and Mc Govern 1997; Heino 1998; Chen and Mello 1999; Haugen and Vollestad 2001). In some cases, after se lective harvest was ended, some of these life history parameters began to increase. However, Conover and

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26 Munch (2002) warn that genetic changes in a population from selective harvest may be irreversible. Differences in population parameters may be responsible for the greater numbers of large fish found in the Yellow River. Th e reported mortality rates for the Suwannee River Gulf sturgeon (ages 4 to 25) are 1617% (Sulak and Clugst on 1999; Pine et al. 2001). These estimates are considerably higher than the mortality estimates found in the Yellow River (11.8%). Yellow River Gulf sturgeon experience fast er growth between the ages of 3 to 15, based on the likelihood rati o test, and there are fe wer older fish in the Suwannee River population. Lower mortality and faster growth in the Yellow River, may be responsible for the larger fish size. Sex ratio is an important dynamic of the population to consider when making comparisons between different populations. The sex ratio for the Suwannee River population is reported as 50:50 (Huff 1975). Mi nimal data has been gathered on the sex of fish in the Yellow River, and was not ex amined during this study. A higher ratio of females to males in the Yellow River may e xplain the differences in the proportions of large fish in the Yellow River compared to the Suwannee River, due to sexual dimorphic growth. If the Yellow River population is composed of a high proportion of large, reproductive females, it would have significan t management implications. I did not measure the fecundity or sex ratios for the Yellow River population, but the proportion of large fish in the population indi cates potential for increased re productive capacity relative to the Suwannee River population, which warrants further investigation. A third alternate explanation is that the length/age frequency observed in the Yellow River during each year is simply an instantaneous picture of population

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27 dynamics. Years of successful and unsuccessf ul recruitment can create modes in the length/age frequency structure of a populati on. In the Suwannee River, Sulak and Clugston (1999) showed that length/age fre quency structure in any given year was controlled by strong and weak year classes. Over time, as those year classes grew, they progressively changed the lengt h/age frequency structure of the population. Therefore, it could be hypothesized that the higher proportions of large fish in the Yellow River during this 3-year study period was due to successful year classes dominating the population in the years sampled. On average, fish in th e Yellow River live longer than fish in the Suwannee River. However, except for one o ccasion, fish in both populations reach a maximum age of ~ 25 years (Huff 1975; Su lak and Clugston 1999; Pine et al. 2001; Sulak and Randall 2002). Sampling during 2001 yielded a length/age structure indicating a subadult/adult population with two dominant modes (Figure 9), one at ca 135 140 cm FL (= ca 7 8 years old) and another at ca 160 – 170 cm FL (= ca 12 17 years old). A valley exists at ca 150 cm FL (= ca 10 years old), indicating weak recruitment. Examination of the catch data for 2002 (Figure 10) and 2003 (Figure 11) shows a similar pattern of two major dominating modes and corresponding valleys. The valleys and peaks are not signs of population growth or decline, but of relative strength of recruitment to the year-classes contributing to them. The Gulf sturgeon populations dominated by widely spaced dominate year-classes seem typical for bot h the Suwannee and Yellow rivers (Sulak and Clugston 1999). The Yellow River Gulf sturgeon population seems to be a dynamic population impacted by years of successful and unsuccessf ul recruitment, transl ating into strong and

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28 weak year classes. These year classes are the driving force behind the length/age structure of the population and may change dras tically from year to year. Size and age structure of the population may change as strong year classe s move through the population and are replaced by weaker year clas ses. Years of high numbers of large fish dominating the population may be followed by years when the population is dominated by smaller subadult and adult fish. Management Implications The Yellow River is critical habitat for Gulf sturgeon (Federal Register 2003). That is, the Yellow River is a geographic area that is essent ial for the conservation of a threatened species that may require special ma nagement consideration or protection. The Yellow River Gulf sturgeon populat ion appears to be a fairly large, viable population. Poor management decisions regarding the Ye llow River Gulf sturgeon, or the critical habitat for the species, may have long-term detrimental effects on the population in the Yellow River and on the entire Gulf of Mexi co population. Sufficient spawning habitat and access to this habitat are the most important aspects of sturgeon li fe history and in the continued survival of the species. In the nearby Escambia River, Gulf sturgeon spawning occurs only at rkms 161 and 170 in Alabama. Si milarly, allcases of age-0 fish collection in the Yellow River have been in Alabama (Craft et al. 2001; Philip Kilpatrich, Alabama Game and Fish, personal communication) ex cept for one fish collected by USGS. Two young-of-the-year fish have been collected a bove the proposed dam site for the Yellow River, and the third just downstream. Large fi sh have been tracked far upriver near the border using sonic and radio tags, and fish ha ve been collected in side Conecuh National Forest (USGS unpublished data). Impeding th e passage of Gulf sturgeon to upriver

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29 spawning locations, through dams and other ma n-made structures would have long-term detrimental effects, and would likely great ly reduce or eliminat e the population. Gulf sturgeon are modern fish descended from an ancient lineage, with fossil records dating back 200 million years. Base d on current population estimates, it seems the Yellow River supports the s econd largest population of Gu lf sturgeon. Protection and preservation of this natural resource for futu re generations should be a high priority for public, state, and federal officials. Future Research Throughout the three years of research I conducted on the Yellow River, I observed patterns of habitat use as well as other aspect s of sturgeon behavior that may be worthy of future study. Gulf sturgeon in the Yellow River do not follow the same “holding” strategies which are common in other river sy stems. Typically during the summer, Gulf sturgeon in other river systems are found in “holding areas” usually characterized as a deep river area and a shallow sandy secti on (Wooley and Crateau 1985; Foster and Clugston 1997; Sulak and Clugston 1999; Sulak and Randall 2002). Sturgeon were captured in deep areas of the Yellow River, described as holdi ng areas (e.g., Sturgeon Lake) by Craft et al. 2001 duri ng the spring. Sturgeon Lake is an oxbow in the Yellow River virtually cutoff from the main stem The deeper Sturgeon Lake (5-9 m) experiences little current as co mpared to the rapid, shallow (1-2 m) main channel. However, after the spring migration upriver was complete, fish were no longer captured in these deep areas. Sturgeon were captured in shallow water straight-aways during all sampling seasons. During the three-year study, 44 fish were captured in Sturgeon Lake (Figure 2) and other deep holes, whereas 104 fish were captured in shallow straightaways. The fish captured in Sturgeon Lake were captured up until June 14th, afterwhich

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30 no fish were ever captured in Sturgeon Lake. Fish may be using Sturgeon Lake as a staging area to rest, out of sw ift currents, before continuing their upriver migration to the spawning areas. Fishing in the shallow straight-aways was successful during all sampling periods until the sturgeon emig rated to the bay in the fall. The possibility of tagging response is anot her aspect of sturge on behavior that may be worthy of future consideration, especia lly when dealing with population estimates. There may be a positive bias in my estimates related to a tagging response in the fish which caused fish to leave the tagging ar ea after being captured and tagged. The increased number of fish never recapture d after first releas e suggests permanent emigration. Telemetry studies could be im plemented to determine if a tagging response occurs, and to what degree. If Gulf stur geon display a tagging re sponse, it would be important to quantify the response when estimating population size and survival. In the Blackwater River, we observed a juvenile sturgeon hooke d on a trot-line set for catfish. This may be a considerable s ource of juvenile mortality (Figure 12). Although juvenile mortality was not examined in this study, small increases in juvenile Gulf sturgeon mortality rates can have negative impacts on the viability of the population and should be examined in great er detail (Tate and Allen 2002).

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31 Table 1. Reported total annual mo rtality rates for sturgeon species. Species Location Percent Total Annual Mortality Explanation Source Acipenser brevirostrum Saint John River New Brunswick 11.3-13.9 Dadswell 1979 Acipenser fulvescens Lake Winnebago, Wisconsin 16.7 17.3 Males Females Bruch 1999 Moose River, Ontario 12.1 Ages 8-28 Threader and Brousseau 1986 Saint-Laurent River 22.9 Lamoureux and LaForce 1991 Aciepenser oxyrinchus desotoi Suwannee River, Florida 46 Huff 1975 Pearl River, Mississippi 33.6 Morrow et al. 1998 Suwannee River, Florida 16 Ages 2-25 Sulak and Clugston 1999 Suwannee River, Florida 16-17 Pine et al. 2001 Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus Hudson River, New York 16 4 Females Males Stevenson 1997 Acipenser transmontanus Sacramento-San Joaquin Estuary, California 13.9 Miller 1972a Lower Columbia River 46 Ages 12-17 Devore et al. 1995 SacramentoSan Joaquin Estuary, California 12-16 Kohlhorst 1980 Columbia River, OregonWashington 24 18 Two different populations Beamesderfer et al. 1995

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32 Table 2. A summary table for the Yello w River, Florida, Gulf sturgeon population estimate including capture probability and number of fish captured. Sampling Occasion Number of First Captures Number of Recaptures Capture Probability Population Estimate Confidence Interval Summer 2001 101 N/A N/A N/A N/A Fall 2001 82 16 0.173 566 378-943 Summer 2002 48 23 0.142 500 319-816 Fall 2002 29 11 0.053 754 408-1428 Summer 2003 75 26 0.120 841 487-1507 Fall 2003 59 29 0.102 911 550-1550

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33Table 3. An age-length key created for th e Yellow River age and catch data. The num bers in the table correspond to the number of fish at a given age for each size group. Age in Years FL(cm) 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 88.1-91.9 92-95.9 4 96-99.9 100-103.9 3 2 104-107.9 1 2 108-111.9 3 112-115.9 2 116-119.9 5 1 2 120-123.9 2 2 2 124-127.9 3 1 128-131.9 1 3 3 2 1 132-135.9 3 2 1 2 136-139.9 4 3 2 140-143.9 1 3 1 2 144-147.9 2 1 148-151.9 2 2 1 4 4 152-155.9 156-159.9 1 1 3 2 160-163.9 3 5 1 164-167.9 4 2 4 168-171.9 4 4 2 5 4 172-175.9 2 2 3 176-179.9 5 180-183.9 5 184-187.9 4 4

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34Table 4. A table of all Gulf sturgeon that were captured in the Yellow or Blackwater rivers, Florida, that were initially tagge d in a different river. This does not include fish located in ot her rivers via sonic tags. In Tagging Agency, the following organizations are noted: Northwest Florid a Aquatic Preserves (NWFAP), United St ates Geological Survey (USGS), United States Fish and Wildlife Servi ce (USFWS), and University of Southern Mississippi (USM). Fish Number Recapture River Recapture Date Pit Tag Number Tagging Agency River Tagged Date Tagged 10,022 Blackwater 7/10/2002 4229011E5E USGS Yellow 6/12/2001 10,024 Blackwater 5/31/2002 422616447D USGS Yellow 6/12/2001 10,028 Yellow 6/12/2001 4179327266 USM Pascagoula 6/14/2000 10,044 Blackwater 7/10/2002 417928165A USGS Yellow 6/14/2000 10,051 Blackwater 5/29/2003 41794D401D USGS Yellow 6/19/2001 10,064 Blackwater 7/10/2002 422067637B USGS Yellow 7/25/2001 10,069 Yellow 7/26/2001 4179506F76 NWFAP Escambia 9/14/2000 10,077 Blackwater 6/19/2002 522067637B USGS Yellow 7/26/2001 10,133 Yellow 10/9/2001 42354B1D68 Unknown Unknown Unknown 10,150 Blackwater 8/2/2002 423558254C USGS Yellow 10/15/2001 10,184 Blackwater 6/19/2002 423A64213 USGS Yellow 10/23/2001 10,193 Yellow 5/6/2002 000-328-628 Unknown Unknown Unknown 10,231 Yellow 9/30/2002 422E1D2F78 Unknown Unknown Unknown 10,256 Yellow 6/18/2002 420A783F47 USFWS Choctawhatchee 10/30/1999 10,257 Yellow 5/29/2002 4204083037 USFWS Choctawhatchee 10/23/1999 10,259 Yellow 10/16/2002 4238062155 Unknown Unknown Unknown 10,260 Yellow 10/16/2002 422F4C727D USFWS Choctawhatchee 10/15/2000 10,274 Yellow 5/30/2003 4203786A17 USFWS Choctawhatchee 10/25/1999 10,330 Yellow 6/19/2002 42304E5C12 USFWS Choctawhatchee 11/8/2001 10,332 Yellow 7/10/2002 422F35137D USFWS Choctawhatchee 11/11/2000 10,334 Yellow 7/10/2002 422E145240 Unknown Unknown Unknown 10,336 Yellow 7/10/2002 420B10024F Unknown Unknown Unknown 10,337 Yellow 7/10/2002 7F7D377924 Unknown Unknown Unknown 10,341 Yellow 6/19/2002 7F7E6B3F5E USFWS Escambia 6/29/1995 10,343 Yellow 7/21/2003 423050085F USFWS Choctawhatchee 10/18/2001

PAGE 44

35Table 4. Continued. Fish Number Recapture River Recapture Date Pit Tag Number Tagging Agency River Tagged Date Tagged 10,355 Yellow 7/22/2003 420B215C00 USFWS Choctawhatchee 10/25/1999 10,356 Yellow 7/22/2003 422F2B7E28 USFWS Escambia 6/19/2002 10,361 Yellow 7/22/2003 42304A1D44 USFWS Choctawhatchee 10/22/2000 10,373 Yellow 7/31/2003 42286F2D1A USFWS Escambia 6/12/2002 10,392 Yellow 8/21/2003 422F4F0878 USFWS Escambia 6/20/2002

PAGE 45

36 Figure 1. A map of the northern Gulf of Me xico with rivers inhabited by Gulf sturgeon highlighted.

PAGE 46

37 Figure 2. A map and aerial photographs representing the Yellow River and Blackwater River, Florida, including the major sampling sites.

PAGE 47

38 Figure 3. Photograph of the two tag types us ed during this study. A T-bar tag is shown on top with a PIT tag underneath.

PAGE 48

39 Figure 4. An age bias plot of pairwise ag e comparisons between two agers for 92 fish. The errors bars represent the 95% co nfidence interval about the mean age assigned by ager 2 for all fish at a given age, aged by ager 1. The 1:1 reference line is also plotted for comparison.

PAGE 49

40 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 0510152025 Age in Yearsln Number of Fish Figure 5. Catch curve for Yellow River Gu lf sturgeon based on number-at-age data collected during the summer and fall of 2001. Ages with no fish were not included in the catch curve.

PAGE 50

41 Figure 6. The top chart is a length frequenc y histogram for Gulf sturgeon captured in the Yellow River, Florida, during 2 001-2002, and the bottom is a percent frequency histogram of Gulf sturge on captured in the Suwannee River, Florida during 2001-2002. N=2470 2 4 6 8 10 128 5 9 5 105 115 125 135 145 1 55 1 65 1 75 185 195 >205Fork Length (cm)Percent Frequency N=395 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 1485 9 5 105 115 12 5 135 145 155 1 6 5 175 1 8 5 1 9 5 >205Fork Length (cm)Percent Frequency9

PAGE 51

42 Figure 7. Von Bertalanffy growth model fit to observed length-at-age data for Yellow River, Florida, Gulf sturgeon, fall and summer 2001, and a von Bertalanffy growth model fit to observed length-at-age data for Suwannee River, Florida Gulf sturgeon. Figure 8. Photograph of a 26.1-cm FL Gu lf sturgeon captured in the Yellow River, Florida, approximately 3.5 km upr iver of the Highway 90 bridge.

PAGE 52

43 N=175 0 5 10 15 20 258 5 95 105 115 125 135 1 45 1 55 1 65 1 75 1 85 1 9 5 MoreFork Length (cm)Number of Fish Figure 9. A length frequency histogram for Yellow River, Florida, Gulf sturgeon captured during 2001. N=72 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1085 95 1 05 115 1 2 5 1 35 1 4 5 1 55 165 1 7 5 1 85 195 M o reFork Length (cm)Number of Fish Figure 10. A length frequency histogram for Yellow River, Florida, Gulf sturgeon captured during 2002.

PAGE 53

44 N=129 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1685 95 1 05 1 1 5 1 2 5 135 1 4 5 155 1 6 5 1 7 5 185 1 95 MoreFork Length (cm)Number of Fish Figure 11. A length frequency histogram for Yellow River, Florida, Gulf sturgeon captured during 2003. Figure 12. A 61.8 cm TL Gulf sturgeon capture d on a fisherman’s catfish trot-line in Coopers Basin on the Blackwater River, found and released by my research team.

PAGE 54

APPENDIX CATCH DATA FOR THE YELLOW AND BLACKWATER RIVERS (2001-2003)

PAGE 55

46Table A-1. Catch data for the ye llow and blackwater rivers (2001-2003) Number Obs Capture Date River St atus T-bar Left T-bar Right Pit Tag TL(mm) FL(mm) Wt(gm) Age 10,001 0 10/14/2002 Yellow V 9503 9504 420B2C1470 1482 1316 17750 10,002 0 6/9/2001 Yellow V G1082 G1083 4179454169 1426 1256 18000 10,003 0 6/9/2001 Yellow V G1085 G1084 4179466A48 1604 1412 30500 9 10,003 1 6/27/2003 Yellow R G1085 G1084 4179466A48 1650 1450 30750 10,004 0 6/9/2001 Yellow V G1087 G1086 4179123959 1450 1266 18000 7 10,005 0 6/9/2001 Yellow V G1089 G1088 4179541738 1788 1570 40000 10 10,006 0 6/9/2001 Yellow V G1091 G1092 422637085B 1921 1736 50000 10 10,006 1 8/21/2002 Yellow R G1091 G1092 422637085B 1919 1732 40000 10,006 2 7/31/2003 Yellow R G1091 G1082 422637085B 1962 1772 50500 10,007 0 6/9/2001 Yellow V G1093 G1094 4179291A12 1000 888 5500 10,007 1 10/7/2001 Yellow R G1093 G1094 4179291A12 1002 898 5500 10,007 2 5/6/2002 Yellow R G1093 G1094 4179291A12 1098 976 9000 10,007 3 10/10/2002 Yellow R G1093 G1094 4179291A12 1096 974 7000 10,008 0 6/9/2001 Yellow V G1096 G1095 41790E0913 1424 1240 18300 6 10,008 1 10/11/2001 Yellow R G1096 G1095 41790E0913 1450 1264 18500 10,009 0 6/9/2001 Yellow V G1098 G1097 4179475F18 1540 1374 21250 8 10,009 1 7/26/2001 Yellow R G1098 G1097 4179475F18 1538 1370 19500 10,010 0 6/10/2001 Yellow V G1076 G1077 41793A6158 1818 1622 45000 10 10,011 0 6/10/2001 Yellow V G1079 G1078 4179335E2D 1874 1650 47000 10 10,012 0 6/10/2001 Yellow V G1080 G1081 41791D5828 1264 1090 11750 10,012 1 10/12/2003 Yellow R G2963 G1081 41791D5828 1520 1310 22500 10,013 0 6/11/2001 Yellow V G1002 G1001 422G0F2111 1478 1340 23250 10,013 1 10/5/2001 Yellow R G1002 G1001 42260F2111 1486 1335 22250 10,014 0 6/11/2001 Yellow V G1004 G1005 4226185056 1970 1760 53000 10,015 0 6/11/2001 Yellow V G1022 G1023 42261F6058 1546 1378 26250 10,016 0 6/11/2001 Yellow V G1024 G1025 4228722B17 1812 1636 47500 10 10,017 0 6/11/2001 Yellow V G1452 G1451 41792F6621 1640 1482 27750 16

PAGE 56

47Table A-1. Continued. Number Obs Capture Date River St atus T-bar Left T-bar Right Pit Tag TL(mm) FL(mm) Wt(gm) Age 10,017 1 7/22/2003 Yellow R G1452 G1451 41792F6621 1638 1472 24250 10,018 0 6/11/2001 Yellow V G1454 G1453 4226381C17 1232 1040 11000 10,018 1 10/6/2001 Yellow R G1454 G1453 4226381C17 1232 1102 10750 10,019 0 6/11/2001 Yellow V G1455 G1456 41791B7D79 1162 1034 11000 3 10,019 1 7/26/2001 Yellow R G1455 G1456 41791B7D79 1160 1103 7600 10,019 2 6/18/2002 Yellow R G1455 G1456 41791B7D79 1274 1126 13000 10,019 3 10/12/2003 Yellow R G1455 G1456 41791B7D79 1490 1331 17800 10,020 0 6/11/2001 Yellow V G1457 G1458 4179086821 2052 1840 62200 18 10,020 1 7/31/2003 Yellow R G1457 G1458 4179086821 2050 1837 60900 10,021 0 6/12/2001 Yellow V 8595 G1461 7F7D353B7B 1788 1590 41000 8 10,022 0 6/12/2001 Yellow V G1007 G1006 4229011E5E 1758 1540 39000 10,022 1 7/10/2002 Blackwater R G1007 G1379 4229011E5E 1831 1600 32500 10,022 2 8/2/2002 Blackwater R G1007 G1379 4229011E5E 1830 1610 41500 10,023 0 6/12/2001 Yellow V G1008 G1009 42257A1C02 1430 1250 17000 10,023 1 7/27/2001 Yellow R G1008 G1009 42257A1C02 1414 1250 15000 10,024 0 6/12/2001 Yellow V G1010 G1011 422616447D 1630 1450 30000 8 10,024 1 5/31/2002 Blackwater R G1010 G1011 422616447D 1700 1510 32500 10,025 0 6/12/2001 Yellow V G1012 G1013 42261D6A32 1670 1480 30500 12 10,026 0 6/12/2001 Yellow V G1014 G1015 42287E4067 1780 1580 41000 9 10,027 0 6/12/2001 Yellow V G1016 G1017 4226116064 910 810 4100 10,027 1 10/17/2001 Yellow R G1016 G1017 42376F7E69 938 832 4500 3 10,027 2 10/10/2003 Yellow R G1016 G1017 42376F7E69 1172 1032 9000 10,028 0 6/12/2001 Yellow V G1460 G1459 4179327266 1820 1644 41250 9 10,029 0 6/12/2001 Yellow V G1462 G1463 4179345614 1888 1690 51500 14 10,029 1 8/21/2002 Yellow R G1462 G1825 4179345616 1880 1676 47500 10,030 0 6/12/2001 Yellow V G1465 G1464 4179424950 1016 892 5750 10,030 1 10/8/2001 Yellow R G1465 G1464 4179424950 1032 907 5750

PAGE 57

48Table A-1. Continued. Number Obs Capture Date River St atus T-bar Left T-bar Right Pit Tag TL(mm) FL(mm) Wt(gm) Age 10,031 0 6/12/2001 Yellow V G1466 G1467 41794F407A 1514 1362 21250 7 10,032 0 6/12/2001 Yellow V G1468 G1469 41792F0910 1616 1447 28250 10,033 0 6/12/2001 Yellow V G1470 G1471 4179541873 2024 1844 56500 14 10,034 0 6/13/2001 Yellow V G1019 G1018 42286D3652 1160 1080 9800 10,035 0 6/13/2001 Yellow V G1177 G1178 4179243721 1906 1714 49000 12 10,036 0 6/13/2001 Yellow V G1179 G1180 4179535E5B 1768 1596 43500 9 10,037 0 6/13/2001 Yellow V G1252 G1251 4229073349 1096 952 7600 10,038 0 6/13/2001 Yellow V G1253 G1254 42286E5241 1880 1680 46000 10 10,038 1 7/22/2003 Yellow R G1253 G1254 4313120D60 1924 1722 45000 10,039 0 6/13/2001 Yellow V G1255 G1256 4226034F58 1820 1680 45000 10 10,039 1 6/18/2002 Yellow R G1255 G1256 4226034F58 1834 1622 43500 10,039 2 5/28/2003 Yellow R G2877 G1256 4226034F58 1848 1632 46000 10,039 3 7/31/2003 Yellow R G2827 G1256 4226034F58 1842 1636 40900 10,040 0 6/13/2001 Yellow V G1474 G1473 4179067B74 1226 1074 10500 10,040 1 10/17/2001 Yellow R G1474 G1473 4179067B74 1248 1092 11000 10,040 2 10/22/2002 Yellow R G1474 G1473 4179067B74 1290 1130 11000 10,041 0 6/13/2001 Yellow V G1475 G1176 4179443757 1349 1188 14000 10,041 1 10/6/2001 Yellow R G1475 G1176 4179443757 1360 1200 13250 10,042 0 6/14/2001 Yellow V G1181 9542 42034F5F57 1966 1828 59750 12 10,043 0 6/14/2001 Yellow V G1182 G1183 4179113455 1458 1286 17500 10,044 0 6/14/2001 Yellow V G1184 G1185 417928165A 2000 1778 51000 11 10,044 1 7/10/2002 Blackwater R G1184 G1185 417928165A 2006 1780 55000 10,045 0 6/14/2001 Yellow V G1186 G1187 41792B3709 1568 1390 27500 10,046 0 6/14/2001 Yellow V G1188 G1189 4179410506 1476 1318 18750 10,047 0 6/14/2001 Yellow V G1190 G1191 41792F5246 1782 1606 41000 10,048 0 6/14/2001 Yellow V G1257 G1258 422571315A 1560 1360 24000 10,048 1 10/16/2001 Yellow R G1257 G1258 422571315A 1568 1372 24250

PAGE 58

49Table A-1. Continued. Number Obs Capture Date River St atus T-bar Left T-bar Right Pit Tag TL(mm) FL(mm) Wt(gm) Age 10,049 0 6/14/2001 Yellow V G1259 G1260 417923202D 1410 1290 21000 8 10,049 1 7/25/2001 Yellow R G1259 G1260 417923202D 1404 1293 20250 10,049 2 10/9/2003 Yellow R G1260 G1261 4232676F5B 1335 1190 13500 10,050 0 6/14/2001 Yellow V G1262 G1261 42256C4753 1420 1250 18000 10,051 0 6/19/2001 Yellow V G1028 G1029 41794D401D 1498 1308 19958 6 10,051 1 10/6/2001 Yellow R G1028 G1029 41794D401D 1482 1306 19500 10,051 2 5/3/2002 Yellow R G1028 G1029 41794D401D 1568 1380 25500 10,051 3 5/29/2003 Blackwater R G1028 G1029 41794D401D 1620 1428 30000 10,051 4 6/26/2003 Blackwater R G1028 G1029 41794D401D 1600 1480 27000 10,052 0 6/19/2001 Yellow V G1031 G1030 4179526757 1505 1346 18938 11 10,053 0 6/19/2001 Yellow V G1033 G1032 41793BDE7D 1359 1181 12701 5 10,054 0 6/19/2001 Yellow V G1035 G1034 4179440F6C 1397 1257 16551 6 10,054 1 10/8/2003 Yellow R G2673 G2674 4179440F6C 1222 1386 15500 10,055 0 7/24/2001 Yellow V 9533 G1482 41792D063C 1791 1592 44750 10,055 1 6/18/2002 Yellow R G1828 G1482 41792D063C 1802 1600 41000 10,056 0 7/24/2001 Yellow V G1244 G1245 42287D1409 1040 920 11000 4 10,057 0 7/24/2001 Yellow V G1248 N/A 4226304635 1085 1040 16500 4 10,058 0 7/24/2001 Yellow V G1250 G1249 4225676E11 955 835 7500 2 10,058 1 10/27/2001 Yellow R G1250 G1249 4225676E11 996 870 4000 10,059 0 7/24/2001 Yellow V G1477 G1476 41790A370A 1270 1200 12000 4 10,060 0 7/24/2001 Yellow V G1478 G1479 41794A4062 1319 1064 13000 5 10,061 0 7/24/2001 Yellow V G1481 G1480 4179623E4E 1857 1684 46000 10,062 0 7/24/2001 Yellow V G1483 G1484 41791F0F45 1368 1200 15000 7 10,063 0 7/24/2001 Yellow V G1485 G1486 41790A5544 1878 1702 51500 10,063 1 5/3/2002 Yellow R G1485 G1486 41790A5544 1892 1702 57000 10,064 0 7/25/2001 Yellow V G1238 G1239 422067637B 1774 1568 34500 7 10,064 1 7/10/2002 Blackwater R G1238 G1239 422067637B 1812 1600 37000

PAGE 59

50Table A-1. Continued. Number Obs Capture Date River St atus T-bar Left T-bar Right Pit Tag TL(mm) FL(mm) Wt(gm) Age 10,064 2 8/2/2002 Blackwater R G1238 G1239 423A4E380F 1806 1590 35400 10,065 0 7/25/2001 Yellow V G1240 G1241 42256D0A41 1510 1330 21000 6 10,066 0 7/25/2001 Yellow V G1242 G1243 41791D1A65 1558 1352 24250 7 10,067 0 7/25/2001 Yellow V G1487 G1488 41790A4120 1350 1218 15250 7 10,067 1 8/21/2003 Yellow R G1750 G1550 41790A4120 1355 1220 14500 10,067 2 10/3/2003 Yellow R G1550 G1750 41790A4120 1336 1230 15200 10,068 0 7/25/2001 Yellow V G1490 G1489 4179287C52 1759 1648 38000 9 10,069 0 7/26/2001 Yellow V 10055 10056 4179506F76 1800 1588 33500 10,070 0 7/26/2001 Yellow V G1152 G1153 41792A2A1C 1886 1678 41000 10,070 1 10/18/2001 Yellow R G1152 G1153 41792A2A1C 1884 1672 40000 10,071 0 7/26/2001 Yellow V G1155 G1154 417916727D 1490 1310 21000 10,072 0 7/26/2001 Yellow V G1156 G1157 4179194D63 2058 1827 51000 10,073 0 7/26/2001 Yellow V G1158 G1159 4179207A2B 1574 1394 25600 10,073 1 6/25/2003 Yellow R G1158 G1159 4179207A2B 1650 1464 30000 10,074 0 7/26/2001 Yellow V G1230 G1231 4179214E58 1810 1622 41200 10,075 0 7/26/2001 Yellow V G1232 G1233 4229122B05 1102 960 5750 3 10,076 0 7/26/2001 Yellow V G1234 G1235 4179293F28 1530 1342 22750 6 10,076 1 10/6/2001 Yellow R G1234 G1051 4179293F28 1538 1350 24500 10,077 0 7/26/2001 Yellow V G1236 G1237 41790E0D09 1198 1050 8000 3 10,077 1 10/13/2001 Yellow R G1236 G1790 41790E0D09 1212 1060 9500 10,077 2 6/19/2002 Blackwater R G1236 G1239 522067637B 1812 1600 37500 10,078 0 7/26/2001 Yellow V G1491 G1493 4179565431 1668 1464 29000 7 10,079 0 7/26/2001 Yellow V G1495 G1494 41792B024D 1123 1000 8500 3 10,079 1 6/27/2003 Yellow R G1495 G1494 41792B024D 1370 1216 16800 10,080 0 7/26/2001 Yellow V G1497 G1496 417918196A 968 865 5500 3 10,081 0 7/26/2001 Yellow V G1499 G1498 41792D7222 1326 1182 13000 4 10,081 1 8/20/2002 Yellow R G1499 G1498 41792D7222 1449 1292 16000

PAGE 60

51Table A-1. Continued. Number Obs Capture Date River St atus T-bar Left T-bar Right Pit Tag TL(mm) FL(mm) Wt(gm) Age 10,082 0 7/26/2001 Yellow V G1500 G1151 41790E1705 1510 1310 18750 7 10,083 0 7/27/2001 Yellow V G1160 G1161 4179560E44 2010 1800 52750 10,083 1 10/11/2003 Yellow R G1160 G1161 4179560E44 2014 1860 50500 10,084 0 7/27/2001 Yellow V G1163 G1162 41793B190E 1132 1032 8750 4 10,085 0 7/27/2001 Yellow V G1165 G1164 4226306B49 1541 1358 22500 8 10,086 0 7/27/2001 Yellow V G1166 G1167 41791D5640 1492 1316 18750 6 10,086 1 4/18/2003 Yellow R G2886 G2885 41791D5640 1510 1340 22750 10,086 2 10/12/2003 Yellow R G2886 G2885 41791D5640 1514 1340 18000 10,087 0 7/27/2001 Yellow V G1168 G1169 41793F3250 1778 1580 36750 10,088 0 7/27/2001 Yellow V G1226 G1227 4179401261 1511 1340 18500 10,089 0 7/27/2001 Yellow V G1229 G1228 4226376067 1780 1590 40750 10,089 1 10/7/2001 Yellow R G1229 G1275 4226376067 1496 1770 41000 10,090 0 9/10/2001 Yellow V G1171 G1170 7F7D381668 1480 1308 12000 11 10,090 1 6/18/2002 Yellow R G1171 G1170 7F7D381668 1310 1488 16000 10,091 0 9/10/2001 Yellow V G1172 G1173 7F7D41520F 1438 1296 17000 5 10,091 1 8/20/2002 Yellow R G1172 G1173 4232077715 1520 1368 22500 10,092 0 9/10/2001 Yellow V G1174 G1175 42304D0614 1880 1680 45000 10,093 0 9/10/2001 Yellow V G1770 G1771 7F7D364D7B 1450 1300 18000 7 10,094 0 9/10/2001 Yellow V G1772 G1773 7F7D264B7B 1295 1130 11000 4 10,095 0 9/10/2001 Yellow V G1775 G1774 7F7D365B06 1585 1405 21000 9 10,096 0 9/12/2001 Yellow V G1759 G1758 7F7D37181A 1258 1110 9000 5 10,097 0 9/12/2001 Yellow V G1760 G1761 7F7D354245 1900 1710 46000 11 10,098 0 9/12/2001 Yellow V G1763 G1762 41793D170D 1912 1680 42750 9 10,099 0 9/12/2001 Yellow V G1765 G1764 4179481B53 1320 1164 11000 4 10,099 1 10/9/2002 Yellow R G1765 G1764 4179481B53 1402 1230 15000 10,100 0 9/12/2001 Yellow V G1766 G1767 42261F0938 1410 1220 13500 6 10,100 1 5/4/2002 Yellow R G1767 G1766 42261F0938 1454 1270 19000

PAGE 61

52Table A-1. Continued. Number Obs Capture Date River St atus T-bar Left T-bar Right Pit Tag TL(mm) FL(mm) Wt(gm) Age 10,100 2 8/21/2002 Yellow R G1766 G1767 42261F0938 1482 1296 16750 10,101 0 9/12/2001 Yellow V G1769 G1768 417921461E 1680 1500 24000 7 10,101 1 5/4/2002 Yellow R G1769 G1768 417921461E 1750 1560 30500 10,101 2 10/17/2002 Yellow R G1769 G1768 417921461E 1726 1536 27500 10,101 3 10/7/2003 Yellow R G1769 G1768 417921461E 1792 1600 31000 10,102 0 10/4/2001 Yellow V G1072 G1073 7F7D35307B 1272 1178 11500 10,102 1 5/8/2002 Yellow R G1072 G1073 7F7D35307B 1286 1148 11500 10,102 2 8/21/2002 Yellow R G1072 G1073 7F7D35307B 1276 1142 11250 10,103 0 10/4/2001 Yellow V G1075 G1074 5221121414 1532 1364 21500 10,104 0 10/5/2001 Yellow V G1055 G1056 420B402614 1814 1632 40500 10,104 1 6/18/2002 Yellow R G1055 G1056 420B402614 1840 1652 52500 10,105 0 10/5/2001 Yellow V G1057 G1058 4233697C6A 2002 1828 53250 10,106 0 10/5/2001 Yellow V G1060 G1059 4235435423 1480 1309 19500 10,107 0 10/5/2001 Yellow V G1061 G1062 4433631E14 1476 1318 20000 10,108 0 10/5/2001 Yellow V G1067 G1063 423372715D 1864 1662 40000 10,108 1 4/18/2003 Yellow R G1067 G1063 423372715D 1912 1706 54000 10,109 0 10/5/2001 Yellow V G1069 G1068 42327D392E 1324 1155 13000 4 10,110 0 10/5/2001 Yellow V G1071 G1070 42353B7C2B 1532 1386 23000 10,111 0 10/6/2001 Yellow V G1052 9846 42033F0538 1917 1746 41250 10,112 0 10/6/2001 Yellow V G1053 G1054 423321553A 1515 1334 19500 10,113 0 10/6/2001 Yellow V G1264 G1263 4233076D7D 1596 1408 24500 10,114 0 10/6/2001 Yellow V G1266 G1265 42332D7756 1542 1366 20250 10,115 0 10/6/2001 Yellow V G1268 G1267 4232201A78 1602 1404 22750 10,115 1 10/5/2003 Yellow R G1268 G1267 4232201A78 1602 1410 23000 10,116 0 10/6/2001 Yellow V G1270 G1269 42355D6719 1542 1354 20000 10,117 0 10/6/2001 Yellow V G1271 G1272 4234003A47 1832 1630 45250 10,118 0 10/6/2001 Yellow V G1273 G1274 42336F3333 1660 1490 28500 12

PAGE 62

53Table A-1. Continued. Number Obs Capture Date River St atus T-bar Left T-bar Right Pit Tag TL(mm) FL(mm) Wt(gm) Age 10,119 0 10/7/2001 Yellow V G1291 G1291 423366647A 958 846 4750 10,120 0 10/7/2001 Yellow V G1293 G1294 42332A5D58 1510 1348 19500 10,121 0 10/7/2001 Yellow V G1296 G1295 42354F6D60 1672 1482 28000 10,121 1 5/28/2003 Yellow R G1296 G1768 417921461E 1790 1590 35000 10,122 0 10/7/2001 Yellow V G1297 G1298 4233294C76 1774 1584 36500 10,122 1 5/3/2002 Yellow R G1297 G1298 4233294C76 1806 1614 37000 9 10,122 2 7/22/2003 Yellow R G1297 G1298 4233294C76 1802 1610 39250 10,123 0 10/7/2001 Yellow V G1300 G1299 423321191F 1400 1298 18000 10,123 1 6/18/2002 Yellow R G1300 G1299 423321191F 1318 1480 21000 10,124 0 10/8/2001 Yellow V G1281 G1280 4232676F5B 1141 1021 8000 10,124 1 6/18/2002 Yellow R G1281 G1280 4232676F58 1100 1210 11000 10,125 0 10/8/2001 Yellow V G1284 G1282 423321407D 1980 1850 42750 10,126 0 10/8/2001 Yellow V G1288 G1287 42340A0078 1656 1477 24750 10,126 1 8/20/2002 Yellow R G1288 G1287 42340A0078 1654 1476 24000 10,126 2 8/21/2003 Yellow R G1288 G1287 42340A0078 1662 1480 24500 10,127 0 10/8/2001 Yellow V G1290 G1289 4238032640 1444 1302 19250 10,128 0 10/9/2001 Yellow V G10070 G1756 421C042507 1942 1720 46000 10,128 1 4/9/2003 Yellow R G2896 G2897 421C042507 1978 1758 64000 10,129 0 10/9/2001 Yellow V G1194 G1193 4233186A34 1716 1554 31250 10,130 0 10/9/2001 Yellow V G1276 G1277 4235460105 812 725 3500 10,130 1 10/7/2003 Yellow R G1276 G1277 4235460105 1042 932 6500 10,131 0 10/9/2001 Yellow V G1278 G1757 42332E1266 1758 1570 36500 10,132 0 10/9/2001 Yellow V G1753 G1752 42327B7443 1018 895 5900 10,133 0 10/9/2001 Yellow V G1755 G1754 42354B1D68 1574 1409 25750 10,134 0 10/10/2001 Yellow V G1196 G1195 4233314A63 1920 1696 45000 10,135 0 10/10/2001 Yellow V G1198 G1197 42321C410E 1896 1704 53500 10,136 0 10/10/2001 Yellow V G1199 G1200 42332F466F 1355 1176 13750

PAGE 63

54Table A-1. Continued. Number Obs Capture Date River St atus T-bar Left T-bar Right Pit Tag TL(mm) FL(mm) Wt(gm) Age 10,136 1 7/31/2003 Yellow R G1509 G1200 42332F466F 1392 1210 14000 10,137 0 10/10/2001 Yellow V G1776 G1777 42321E6D36 1904 1706 45000 10,138 0 10/10/2001 Yellow V G1779 G1778 423559547F 1900 1686 44500 10,138 1 9/20/2002 Yellow R G1779 G1570 -----1914 1705 41250 10,139 0 10/11/2001 Yellow V G1780 G1781 42353D701C 1236 1010 10500 4 10,140 0 10/11/2001 Yellow V G1783 G1782 4237786642 798 698 3250 10,141 0 10/11/2001 Yellow V G1785 G1784 423409231F 1428 1268 17500 10,141 1 10/4/2003 Yellow R G1785 G1784 423409231F 1490 1312 19000 10,142 0 10/11/2001 Yellow V G1786 G1787 4232746621 1452 1286 17000 7 10,142 1 7/31/2003 Yellow R G1786 G1787 4232746621 1478 1310 16500 10,143 0 10/12/2001 Yellow V G1788 G1789 4232303065 1811 1605 40500 11 10,144 0 10/14/2001 Yellow V G1792 G1791 42326F1354 1882 1680 44000 10,145 0 10/14/2001 Yellow V G1793 G1794 42335F617B 1644 1449 27500 10,146 0 10/14/2001 Yellow V G1795 G1796 4233142147 1582 1414 24500 14 10,147 0 10/15/2001 Yellow V G1797 G1798 4235642342 1618 1438 28000 10,148 0 10/15/2001 Yellow V G1800 G1799 42331A6102 1772 1580 37000 10,149 0 10/15/2001 Yellow V G1963 G1964 4232084D32 1534 1404 21500 11 10,150 0 10/15/2001 Yellow V G1966 G1967 423558254C 1888 1704 44250 9 10,150 1 8/21/2003 Yellow R G1966 G1967 423558254C 1920 1726 46500 10,150 1 8/2/2002 Blackwater R G1967 423558254C 1880 1710 47500 10,151 0 10/15/2001 Yellow V G1969 G1968 423331037F 1884 1660 45000 10,151 1 10/18/2002 Yellow R G1969 G1968 423331037F 1905 1685 44500 10,151 2 8/21/2003 Yellow R G1969 G1741 423331037F 1918 1695 46660 10,152 0 10/15/2001 Yellow V G1970 G1971 4232740F3E 1608 1420 21000 6 10,153 0 10/15/2001 Yellow V G1973 G1972 4233200010 1544 1362 23000 7 10,154 0 10/15/2001 Yellow V G1975 G1974 4234072A46 1440 1296 19000 10,154 1 8/20/2002 Yellow R G1975 G1974 4234072A46 1440 1294 18000

PAGE 64

55Table A-1. Continued. Number Obs Capture Date River St atus T-bar Left T-bar Right Pit Tag TL(mm) FL(mm) Wt(gm) Age 10,155 0 10/16/2001 Yellow V G1953 G1952 42330F002F 1481 1322 19250 10,156 0 10/16/2001 Yellow V G1955 G1954 42337E6178 1322 1150 13500 4 10,157 0 10/16/2001 Yellow V G1957 G1956 42355F5414 1540 1362 18500 9 10,158 0 10/16/2001 Yellow V G1958 G1959 42325E4E43 1168 1022 9500 3 10,159 0 10/16/2001 Yellow V G1961 G1960 4233220F3C 1790 1610 39500 10,160 0 10/16/2001 Yellow V G1977 G1951 4234062D5F 1942 1722 53000 11 10,160 1 5/6/2002 Yellow R G1977 G1951 4234062D5F 1978 1766 70750 10,160 2 8/21/2003 Yellow R G1977 G1951 4234062D5F 2006 1782 55500 10,161 0 10/16/2001 Yellow V G1978 G1979 4233323371 1351 1198 16000 6 10,161 1 10/3/2003 Yellow R G1532 G1531 4233323371 1370 1268 16500 10,162 0 10/16/2001 Yellow V G1980 G1981 4233264002 1748 1620 35500 10,162 1 5/30/2002 Yellow R G1980 G1981 4233264002 1762 1630 38000 10,163 0 10/16/2001 Yellow V G1984 G1982 4233206E02 1834 1631 40250 10,164 0 10/16/2001 Yellow V G1985 G1986 42326E086F 1356 1264 17250 10,165 0 10/17/2002 Yellow R 8439 G2000 4233143400 1426 1270 16000 10,165 0 10/17/2001 Yellow V 8439 G2000 4233143400 1436 1274 17500 10,166 0 10/17/2001 Yellow V G1874 G1875 4232071B33 920 805 4500 3 10,167 0 10/17/2001 Yellow V G1988 G1987 4232111E0D 1716 1518 35500 10,168 0 10/17/2001 Yellow V G1989 G1990 4235556C1F 1150 1000 7750 10,169 0 10/17/2001 Yellow V G1992 G1993 4235447920 1052 928 6750 10,170 0 10/17/2001 Yellow V G1994 G1995 423050B01 1366 1220 14000 10,171 0 10/17/2001 Yellow V G1996 G1997 4233301315 1480 1314 18500 10,172 0 10/17/2001 Yellow V G1998 G1999 42355F3E1C 1501 1334 21500 10,173 0 10/18/2001 Yellow V G1870 G1871 4232621969 868 774 4200 10,174 0 10/18/2001 Yellow V G1873 G1872 423275747F 1026 1010 4250 10,175 0 10/19/2001 Yellow V G1865 G1866 42354D3E17 1528 1354 19000 10,176 0 10/20/2001 Yellow V G1864 G1863 4232716851 1272 1120 11500

PAGE 65

56Table A-1. Continued. Number Obs Capture Date River St atus T-bar Left T-bar Right Pit Tag TL(mm) FL(mm) Wt(gm) Age 10,176 1 8/21/2002 Yellow R G1864 G1863 4232716851 1276 1124 12000 10,177 0 10/21/2001 Yellow V G1862 G1861 4202750B65 2000 1790 58500 10,178 0 10/23/2001 Yellow V G1860 G1859 4232184867 1378 1200 16600 10,179 0 10/24/2001 Yellow V G1855 G1858 42355C024E 1486 1317 20250 8 10,180 0 10/25/2001 Yellow V G1853 G1854 4235621043 1090 950 7000 4 10,180 1 10/12/2003 Yellow R G2997 G1854 4235621043 1244 1006 11500 10,181 0 10/27/2001 Yellow V G1851 G1852 4232670644 1505 1330 20000 10,182 0 10/29/2001 Yellow V G1897 G1898 4233134255 1662 1498 29000 10,183 0 10/29/2001 Yellow V G1899 G1900 42376E125B 2244 2046 71500 10,184 0 5/2/2002 Yellow V G1877 G1876 423A642133 1802 1598 41250 10,184 1 6/19/2002 Blackwater R G1877 G1876 423A642133 1802 1694 39500 10,185 0 5/3/2002 Yellow V G1101 G1102 421E551219 1912 1797 55000 10,186 0 5/3/2002 Yellow V G1879 G1878 423A764061 2010 1810 72000 10,187 0 5/3/2002 Yellow V G1880 G1881 42352A2F43 1550 1374 23500 10,188 0 5/3/2002 Yellow V G1882 G1883 422E15755A 1536 1376 26000 10,189 0 5/4/2002 Yellow V G1884 G1885 42380E3F14 1308 1160 10,190 0 5/4/2002 Yellow V G1886 G1887 423B6B3A50 1172 1044 10750 10,191 0 5/4/2002 Yellow V G1889 G1888 000-373-832 1608 1440 27750 10,192 0 5/4/2002 Yellow V G1890 G1891 423A6C2273 1759 1570 49500 10,193 0 5/6/2002 Yellow V G1892 G1893 000-328-628 1820 1636 41500 9 10,194 0 5/6/2002 Yellow V G1895 G1894 423364670A 1790 1604 48250 10,195 0 5/6/2002 Yellow V G1947 G1948 423317390C 1910 1722 66000 20 10,196 0 5/6/2002 Yellow V G1950 G1949 423B70252D 1672 1494 40250 11 10,196 1 4/9/2003 Yellow R G2898 G1949 423B70252D 1682 1502 42000 10,197 0 5/8/2002 Yellow V G1936 G1935 4238093337 1470 1302 19000 10,198 0 5/8/2002 Yellow V G1937 G1939 4235162A5A 1766 1578 48000 10,198 1 6/20/2002 Yellow R G1937 G1939 4235162A5A 1764 1578 46000

PAGE 66

57Table A-1. Continued. Number Obs Capture Date River St atus T-bar Left T-bar Right Pit Tag TL(mm) FL(mm) Wt(gm) Age 10,199 0 5/8/2002 Yellow V G1940 G1941 421F01404F 1842 1648 47500 17 10,200 0 5/8/2002 Yellow V G1942 G1944 4235360B6D 1278 1200 11750 4 10,200 1 10/23/2002 Yellow R G1942 G1944 4235360B6D 1264 1110 11000 10,200 2 10/12/2003 Yellow R G1942 G1944 4235360B6D 1400 1238 16000 10,201 0 5/8/2002 Yellow V G1945 G1946 4234462807 1260 1003 14500 7 10,201 1 10/9/2003 Yellow R G1946 G1945 4234462807 1342 1166 17000 10,202 0 5/29/2002 Yellow V 9842 9840 42037E431A 1878 1692 43250 10,202 1 6/18/2002 Yellow R 9840 9842 42037E431A 1874 1689 41500 10,203 0 5/29/2002 Yellow V G1201 G1204 000-792-776 1952 1754 60000 10,204 0 5/29/2002 Yellow V G1208 G1209 4238105E1D 1836 1610 38500 10,205 0 5/30/2002 Yellow V G1210 G1211 422E046251 1624 1438 34000 10,205 1 7/9/2002 Yellow R G1210 G1211 422E046251 1628 1441 31750 10,205 2 10/17/2002 Yellow R G1210 G1211 422E046251 1615 1430 30750 10,206 0 6/18/2002 Yellow V G1220 G1221 422E024C51 1806 1608 42000 10,206 1 10/17/2002 Yellow R G1220 G2689 422E024C51 1840 1660 38500 10,207 0 6/18/2002 Yellow V G1363 G1362 423A6B5731 1895 1700 47500 10,208 0 6/18/2002 Yellow V G1364 G1365 42351C2A6A 1896 1660 53000 10,208 1 8/21/2003 Yellow R G1364 G1365 42351C2A6A 1895 1662 47250 10,209 0 6/18/2002 Yellow V G1367 G1366 42343B425A 1872 1668 47000 10,210 0 6/18/2002 Yellow V G1369 G1368 421E7A6A64 1500 1340 21000 10,210 1 8/21/2002 Yellow R G1369 G1368 421E7A6A64 1524 1351 20500 10,210 2 6/25/2003 Yellow R G1369 G1368 421E7A6A64 1528 1356 23500 10,211 0 6/18/2002 Yellow V G1372 G1373 4233033B58 2022 1786 55000 10,211 1 8/20/2002 Yellow R G1372 G1373 4233033B58 2026 1786 51500 10,212 0 6/18/2002 Yellow V G1375 G1374 4234523671 1502 1358 20500 10,212 1 10/12/2003 Yellow R G1375 G1374 422E240626 1530 1380 20000 10,213 0 6/20/2002 Yellow V G1827 G1826 4179554331 1672 1476 30500

PAGE 67

58Table A-1. Continued. Number Obs Capture Date River St atus T-bar Left T-bar Right Pit Tag TL(mm) FL(mm) Wt(gm) Age 10,213 1 8/21/2003 Yellow R G1827 G1826 4179554331 1728 1532 32000 10,214 0 7/9/2002 Yellow V G1848 G1846 422E170F4B 1464 1292 20500 10,215 0 7/9/2002 Yellow V G1849 G1850 4179411B10 1562 1415 24250 10,216 0 7/25/2002 Yellow V G1385 G1386 4235366D39 1840 1650 42250 10,216 1 10/12/2002 Yellow R G2684 G1386 4235366D39 1820 1630 41000 10,217 0 8/20/2002 Yellow V G1802 G1801 423B5F6A20 1452 1288 17000 10,217 1 10/13/2003 Yellow R G1802 G1801 423B5F6A20 1460 1296 16000 10,218 0 8/20/2002 Yellow V G1803 G1804 4235230F03 1882 1700 42250 10,219 0 8/20/2002 Yellow V G1805 G1806 42336E4117 1427 1294 19000 10,220 0 8/20/2002 Yellow V G1807 G1808 422E1A4115 1832 1648 41500 10,221 0 8/20/2002 Yellow V G1809 G1810 422E194748 1550 1358 21500 10,222 0 8/20/2002 Yellow V G1812 G1811 42326B1742 1612 1430 27000 10,222 1 10/5/2003 Yellow R G1812 G1811 42326B1742 1635 1452 26500 10,223 0 8/20/2002 Yellow V G1814 G1813 423A6B3A34 1740 1528 34000 10,224 0 8/21/2002 Yellow V G1815 G1816 42351F7476 1412 1269 15250 10,225 0 8/21/2002 Yellow V G1818 G1817 4232726H16 1076 944 6000 10,225 1 10/7/2003 Yellow R G1916 G1817 422E18202B 2050 1840 74000 10,226 0 8/21/2002 Yellow V G1819 G1820 4235424F18 1382 1230 14000 10,227 0 8/21/2002 Yellow V G1822 G1821 4233132401 898 782 4000 10,228 0 8/21/2002 Yellow V G1824 G1823 4235470874 1052 922 6250 10,229 0 9/15/2002 Yellow V G1571 G1572 422E241C2A 878 774 3750 10,230 0 9/15/2002 Yellow V G1575 G1573 423A4B0C70 1544 1376 21000 10,231 0 9/30/2002 Yellow V G1568 G1569 422E1D2F78 1394 1248 14000 10,232 0 10/8/2002 Yellow V G1566 G1567 423A510070 1910 1719 40150 10,233 0 10/9/2002 Yellow V G1558 G1559 ----1930 1711 42000 10,233 1 10/24/2002 Yellow R G1559 G1558 423A573D19 1936 1720 43000 10,234 0 10/9/2002 Yellow V G1562 G1563 422E00490 1071 940 1250

PAGE 68

59Table A-1. Continued. Number Obs Capture Date River St atus T-bar Left T-bar Right Pit Tag TL(mm) FL(mm) Wt(gm) Age 10,235 0 10/9/2002 Yellow V G1829 G1830 42352B513B 1142 1010 7100 10,235 1 10/12/2002 Yellow R G1829 G1830 42352B513B 1142 1010 7000 10,236 0 10/9/2002 Yellow V G2676 G2677 4232794926 1510 1338 19500 10,237 0 10/10/2002 Yellow V G2678 G2679 423A531B38 1524 1342 19500 10,237 1 10/21/2002 Yellow R G2678 G2679 423A531B38 1620 1360 19000 10,238 0 10/10/2002 Yellow V G2681 G2680 423224736B 888 870 3500 10,238 1 10/4/2003 Yellow R G2681 G2681 423224736B 1500 960 6100 10,239 0 10/10/2002 Yellow V G2682 G2683 42332C2571 960 810 3750 10,240 0 10/12/2002 Yellow V G2686 G2685 422E06207B 1386 1238 15000 10,240 1 10/12/2003 Yellow R G2686 G2685 422E06207B 1382 1224 16500 10,241 0 10/17/2002 Yellow V G2691 G2690 422E105462 1552 1396 24000 10,242 0 10/17/2002 Yellow V G2692 G2693 4238153639 1440 1274 17500 10,242 1 10/11/2003 Yellow R G2692 G2693 4238153639 1460 1329 19500 10,243 0 10/17/2002 Yellow V G2695 G2694 4235112B06 1380 1256 17000 10,244 0 10/17/2002 Yellow V G2697 G2696 423B700639 1840 1642 40250 10,244 1 7/22/2003 Yellow R G2697 G2698 423B700639 1852 1666 51500 10,245 0 10/17/2002 Yellow V G2699 G2698 42354411213 1508 1360 20250 10,246 0 10/17/2002 Yellow V G2700 G2950 4237710F1E 1562 1744 39000 10,247 0 10/18/2002 Yellow V G2346 G2347 4235355048 1460 1312 20000 10,248 0 10/18/2002 Yellow V G2948 G2949 423B085A2F 1910 1714 43000 10,248 1 5/28/2003 Yellow R G2948 G1588 423B085A2F 1940 1739 52000 10,249 0 10/19/2002 Yellow V G2943 G2942 422E130F47 1060 932 5500 10,250 0 10/19/2002 Yellow V G2944 G2945 423A627D03 962 847 5000 10,250 1 10/13/2003 Yellow R G2344 G2845 423A627D03 1136 1000 9000 10,251 0 10/20/2002 Yellow V G2941 G2940 42330B051A 1032 926 6000 10,252 0 10/23/2002 Yellow V G2937 G2936 4235156438 1220 1064 9000 10,253 0 10/23/2002 Yellow V G2939 G2938 4238083323 1620 1412 24000

PAGE 69

60Table A-1. Continued. Number Obs Capture Date River St atus T-bar Left T-bar Right Pit Tag TL(mm) FL(mm) Wt(gm) Age 10,254 0 10/24/2002 Yellow V G2935 G2934 42380A0339 1852 1646 40000 10,255 0 6/9/2001 Yellow V G1100 8492 41791D7259 1682 1490 33500 8 10,255 1 10/9/2001 Yellow R G1100 8492 41791D7259 1680 1490 31000 10,256 0 6/18/2002 Yellow V 8370 8369 420A783F47 1638 1470 29500 10,257 0 5/29/2002 Yellow V G1205 G1206 4204083037 1611 1432 28250 10,258 0 6/18/2002 Yellow V G1370 G1371 000-620-100 2110 1910 74000 10,259 0 10/16/2002 Yellow V G1392 G1391 4238062155 1990 1770 50250 10,260 0 10/16/2002 Yellow V G2688 G2687 422F4C727D 1668 1486 28000 10,261 0 3/17/2003 Yellow V G2899 G2900 42353A6F56 1480 1380 24000 10,262 0 4/9/2003 Yellow V G2894 G2895 423777003E 1338 1260 20500 10,263 0 4/11/2003 Yellow V G2893 G2892 4233243A13 1764 1560 40000 10,264 0 4/18/2003 Yellow V G2890 G2889 42376D0824 1988 1770 57000 10,264 1 6/25/2003 Yellow R G2890 G2889 42376D0824 2000 1786 43900 10,265 0 4/18/2003 Yellow V G2887 G2888 4234235605 1608 1424 29500 10,266 0 4/29/2003 Yellow V G2881 G2880 420270367F 45750 10,267 0 5/28/2003 Yellow V G2878 G2879 423B124368 1000 876 7250 10,268 0 5/28/2003 Yellow V G2876 G1576 4233770256 1824 1640 43500 10,269 0 5/28/2003 Yellow V G1578 G1577 423271714A 1906 1742 61000 10,270 0 5/28/2003 Yellow V G1580 G1579 423A691335 1446 1320 21500 10,271 0 5/28/2003 Yellow V G1582 G1581 4234092B59 1424 1276 19500 10,272 0 5/28/2003 Yellow V G1583 G1584 42343F0716 1092 965 9500 10,273 0 5/28/2003 Yellow V G1585 G1586 422E216767 1668 1494 34750 10,274 0 5/30/2003 Yellow V 3960 G2856 4203786A17 1998 1881 59000 10,275 0 5/30/2003 Yellow V G2857 G2858 42380D0C0D 1330 1192 17500 10,276 0 5/30/2003 Yellow V G2859 G2860 422D795D21 1294 1140 14000 10,277 0 5/30/2003 Yellow V G2861 G2862 4235362F74 1465 1365 24000 10,277 1 6/25/2003 Yellow R G2861 G2862 4235362F74 1452 1356 21500

PAGE 70

61Table A-1. Continued. Number Obs Capture Date River St atus T-bar Left T-bar Right Pit Tag TL(mm) FL(mm) Wt(gm) Age 10,278 0 5/30/2003 Yellow V G2863 G2864 423A5F3D4E 1881 1720 57250 10,279 0 5/30/2003 Yellow V G2865 G2866 423A585034 1328 1180 18250 10,280 0 6/25/2003 Yellow V G2867 G2868 4235186477 1832 1650 49000 10,281 0 6/25/2003 Yellow V G2869 G2870 423275601B 1610 1430 24500 10,282 0 6/25/2003 Yellow V G2872 G2871 41794D1F51 1974 1782 58000 10,283 0 4/18/2003 Yellow V G2882 G2883 423A6D3948 1424 1265 20500 10,284 0 5/31/2002 Blackwater V G1213 G1212 423A583E26 1806 1628 43500 10,285 0 5/31/2002 Blackwater V G1215 G1214 7F7D322522 1676 1488 30500 10,286 0 5/31/2002 Blackwater V G1216 G1217 423B5D6035 1938 1734 50000 10,287 0 5/31/2002 Blackwater V G1219 G1218 423A693E49 2022 1826 69500 10,288 0 6/19/2002 Blackwater V G1351 G1222 423320190B 1362 1186 16500 10,289 0 6/19/2002 Blackwater V G1353 G1352 423A545B3E 1634 1444 26000 10,290 0 6/19/2002 Blackwater V G1355 G1354 7F7D35232A 2120 1930 72000 10,291 0 6/19/2002 Blackwater V G1357 G1356 423513692C 1760 1608 42500 10,291 1 7/10/2002 Blackwater R G1357 G1356 423513692C 1760 1606 41250 10,292 0 6/19/2002 Blackwater V G1359 G1358 4235106E52 1820 1634 49500 10,293 0 6/19/2002 Blackwater V G1360 G1361 422E222B31 1610 1794 42750 10,293 1 7/10/2002 Blackwater R G1360 G1361 422E222B31 1784 1600 42000 10,294 0 7/10/2002 Blackwater V G1378 G1377 423534672C 1731 1534 35500 10,295 0 7/10/2002 Blackwater V G1381 G1380 4235453E40 1800 1651 47250 10,296 0 7/10/2002 Blackwater V G1384 G1383 4234042047 1944 1756 54750 10,297 0 8/2/2002 Blackwater V G1388 G1387 422D0E3D 1510 1350 22000 10,298 0 8/2/2002 Blackwater V G1390 G1389 42351C6F2A 1740 1560 34000 10,299 0 8/2/2002 Blackwater V G1392 G1391 4238062155 1970 1755 53000 10,300 0 8/2/2002 Blackwater V G1394 G1393 4235386654 1790 1590 39500 10,301 0 7/10/2002 Blackwater V G1832 G1376 42377A1A7D 1691 1476 33000 10,302 0 7/10/2002 Blackwater V G1834 G1833 7F7D403E42 1876 1682 54500

PAGE 71

62Table A-1. Continued. Number Obs Capture Date River St atus T-bar Left T-bar Right Pit Tag TL(mm) FL(mm) Wt(gm) Age 10,303 0 7/10/2002 Blackwater V G1840 G1839 4235254E32 1655 1476 30500 10,304 0 7/10/2002 Blackwater V G1842 G1843 7F7D36426C 1716 1542 36250 10,305 0 7/10/2002 Blackwater V G1844 G1845 42351F6408 1610 1439 27500 10,306 0 6/19/2002 Blackwater V G1903 G1904 42380A6759 1724 1540 36000 10,307 0 6/19/2002 Blackwater V G1907 G1906 4235303727 1532 1344 24000 10,308 0 6/19/2002 Blackwater V G1909 G1908 42354B6013 2070 1890 63000 10,309 0 6/19/2002 Blackwater V G1910 G1911/G1912 522104331D 1614 1420 30500 10,310 0 6/19/2002 Blackwater V G1914 G1913 41793E2A7C 1818 1614 41500 10,311 0 6/19/2002 Blackwater V G1915 G1223 5220607F26 1796 1582 42500 10,312 0 6/19/2002 Blackwater V G1916 G1917 422E18202B 2052 1840 65250 10,312 1 6/26/2003 Blackwater R G1916 G1917 422E18202B 2064 1850 65000 10,313 0 6/19/2002 Blackwater V G1918 G1224 42352A5238 1806 1624 41500 10,314 0 6/19/2002 Blackwater V G1920 G1919 42380F1452 1694 1490 32250 10,315 0 6/19/2002 Blackwater V G1922 G1921 4237711E43 1732 1580 38000 10,316 0 6/19/2002 Blackwater V G1924 G1923 4179540451 1612 1422 29000 10,317 0 5/29/2003 Blackwater V G1590 G1587 4233044468 1769 1559 37000 10,318 0 5/29/2003 Blackwater V G1591 G1592 423B202637 1868 1672 45500 10,319 0 5/29/2003 Blackwater V G1593 G1594 4235371D29 1604 1410 25000 10,320 0 5/29/2003 Blackwater V G1595 G1596 42320B320E 1802 1622 42000 10,321 0 5/29/2003 Blackwater V G1598 G1597 42326A5B73 1956 1750 61000 10,322 0 5/29/2003 Blackwater V G1600 G1599 42353C177F 1746 1529 36250 10,323 0 5/29/2003 Blackwater V G2855 G2852 4235255729 1706 1529 37500 10,324 0 6/26/2003 Blackwater V G2873 G2874 4179387375 1875 1652 45500 10,325 0 6/26/2003 Blackwater V G1703 G1701 423B336E17 2000 1794 54500 10,326 0 6/26/2003 Blackwater V G1705 G1704 422D7F692D 1466 1325 18000 10,327 0 6/26/2003 Blackwater V G1706 G1707 42327A2A38 1780 1565 43000 10,328 0 6/26/2003 Blackwater V G1708 G1709 423B65497F 1785 1590 40500

PAGE 72

63Table A-1. Continued. Number Obs Capture Date River St atus T-bar Left T-bar Right Pit Tag TL(mm) FL(mm) Wt(gm) Age 10,329 0 6/26/2003 Blackwater V G1710 G1711 4235233873 1910 1695 57000 10,330 0 6/19/2002 Blackwater R/V 05764 05763 42304E5C12 1928 1736 53000 10,331 0 6/26/2003 Blackwater V G1714 G1713 423B726D75 1580 1392 25900 10,332 0 7/10/2002 Blackwater R/V 08587 G1838 422F35137D 1582 1402 26000 10,333 0 6/19/2002 Blackwater R/V 10147 G1905 4226205704 1550 1474 30500 10,334 0 7/10/2002 Blackwater R/V A1161 A1162 422E145240 1600 1448 29000 10,335 0 7/10/2002 Blackwater R/V G1382 9838 420B3E4903 1523 1334 22500 10,335 1 8/21/2003 Yellow R/V G1832 9838 420B3E4903 1619 1421 24500 10,336 0 7/10/2002 Blackwater R/V G1837 G1835 420B10024F 1776 1586 43750 10,337 0 7/10/2002 Blackwater R/V G1841 8636 7F7D377924 1952 1774 54000 10,338 0 6/27/2003 Yellow V G1715 G1716 423B3F451E 1820 1635 41500 10,339 0 6/27/2003 Yellow V G1717 G1718 4237793C23 1488 1315 18500 10,340 0 6/27/2003 Yellow V 9238 8486 4233030C28 1981 1794 52000 10,341 0 7/19/2003 Yellow V G1719 G1720 435F7E5C66 n/a 1280 10,342 0 7/21/2003 Yellow V G1721 G1722 43103D427E 1950 1788 50250 10,343 0 7/21/2003 Yellow V G1724 G1725 423050085F 1876 1670 46100 10,344 0 7/21/2003 Yellow V G1676 G1677 42355E522E 1638 1446 25100 10,345 0 7/21/2003 Yellow V G1679 G1678 42377B5D1D 1902 1740 55000 10,346 0 7/21/2003 Yellow V G1681 G1680 43132B4A26 1826 1640 41000 10,347 0 7/21/2003 Yellow V G1682 G1683 4235423263 1430 1278 17900 10,348 0 7/22/2003 Yellow V G1685 G1684 4311051E6D 1836 1646 42500 10,349 0 7/22/2003 Yellow V G1686 G1687 430E722838 1800 1616 34500 10,350 0 7/22/2003 Yellow V G1688 G1689 431072515E 1944 1738 51100 10,351 0 7/22/2003 Yellow V G1690 G1692 4310466460 1964 1732 48750 10,351 1 8/21/2003 Yellow R G1690 G1692 431046646D 1960 1732 48500 10,352 0 7/22/2003 Yellow V G1695 G1693 42354C1A1A 1946 1740 48900 10,353 0 7/22/2003 Yellow V G1697 G1696 423797203D 1683 1542 28000

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64Table A-1. Continued. Number Obs Capture Date River St atus T-bar Left T-bar Right Pit Tag TL(mm) FL(mm) Wt(gm) Age 10,354 0 7/22/2003 Yellow V G1698 G1699 430E762F39 1874 1742 43250 10,355 0 7/22/2003 Yellow V 3648 G1700 420B215C00 54250 10,356 0 7/22/2003 Yellow V G1675 G1674 422F2B7E28 2046 1858 63000 10,357 0 7/22/2003 Yellow V G1672 G1673 430E6ADE2E 1370 1220 15000 10,358 0 7/22/2003 Yellow V G1670 G1671 422E0C2746 1896 1688 40500 10,359 0 7/22/2003 Yellow V G1668 G1669 42380B4277 1738 1540 33000 10,359 1 10/11/2003 Yellow R G1668 G2980 42380B4277 1756 1557 32500 10,360 0 7/22/2003 Yellow V G1667 G1666 4315453502 1710 1510 32250 10,361 0 7/22/2003 Yellow V G1665 G1664 42304A1D44 1766 1578 38500 10,362 0 7/22/2003 Yellow V G1662 G1663 4310435854 1788 1582 38000 10,363 0 7/22/2003 Yellow V G1661 G1660 4313103231 1820 1624 43250 10,363 1 10/2/2003 Yellow R G1661 G1660 4313103231 1800 1664 41000 10,364 0 7/22/2003 Blackwater V G1658 G1659 423A67122A 1986 1818 46500 10,365 0 7/22/2003 Blackwater V G1656 G1657 42351D512B 1738 1554 34500 10,366 0 7/22/2003 Blackwater R G1655 G1654 42261F6D58 1574 1406 24500 10,367 0 7/30/2003 Blackwater V G1652 G1653 423B6D380F 1676 1530 29500 10,368 0 7/30/2003 Blackwater V G1651 G1501 42286D2002 1742 1512 30000 10,369 0 7/31/2003 Yellow V G1503 G1502 430E67284C 1835 1666 42200 10,370 0 7/31/2003 Yellow V G1504 G1505 42355F3832 1482 1310 18750 10,370 1 10/10/2003 Yellow R G1504 G1505 42355F3832 1480 1310 20000 10,371 0 7/31/2003 Yellow V G1506 G1507 4235260816 1742 1548 35500 10,371 1 10/11/2003 Yellow R G1506 G1507 4235260816 1816 1618 36000 10,372 0 7/31/2003 Yellow V G1510 G1511 43132D4201 1480 1310 21500 10,373 0 7/31/2003 Yellow R/V G1513 G1512 42286F2D1A 1412 22200 10,374 0 7/31/2003 Yellow V G1514 G1515 43132A742D 1504 1332 21000 10,374 1 10/12/2003 Yellow R G1514 G1515 43132A742D 1540 1362 22000 10,375 0 7/31/2003 Yellow V G1517 G1516 43131A7662 1804 54000

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65Table A-1. Continued. Number Obs Capture Date River St atus T-bar Left T-bar Right Pit Tag TL(mm) FL(mm) Wt(gm) Age 10,376 0 7/31/2003 Yellow V G1518 G1519 43103F0E3C 1754 1560 34000 10,377 0 7/31/2003 Yellow V G1521 G1520 423B47063D 1585 1408 23500 10,378 0 7/31/2003 Yellow R/V G1522 8436 423802207A 1654 1472 24500 10,379 0 7/31/2003 Yellow V G1523 G1524 423B5E587D 1999 1880 68750 10,380 0 7/31/2003 Yellow V G1726 G1525 4232637B33 1576 1390 23900 10,381 0 7/31/2003 Yellow V G1728 G1727 423A6C1420 1847 1618 38000 10,382 0 8/21/2003 Yellow V G1729 G1730 431307006B 2010 1810 56250 10,383 0 8/21/2003 Yellow V G1731 G1732 43130C2929 1876 1648 37000 10,384 0 8/21/2003 Yellow V G1733 G1734 4315674A3D 1834 1632 40000 10,385 0 8/21/2003 Yellow V G1736 G1735 4310595D31 1786 1575 40000 10,386 0 8/21/2003 Yellow V G1738 G1737 4312723BF3B 1795 1590 33333 10,387 0 8/21/2003 Yellow V G1740 G1739 436010547A 1608 1430 24000 10,388 0 8/21/2003 Yellow V G1743 G1742 4310436D10 2062 1848 52500 10,389 0 8/21/2003 Yellow V G1744 G1745 43106249DA 1955 1745 44500 10,390 0 8/21/2003 Yellow V G1747 G1746 43153A400D 1746 1535 31500 10,391 0 8/21/2003 Yellow V G1549 G1548 43112E2E23 1945 1710 44000 10,392 0 8/21/2003 Yellow R/V G1546 G1547 422F4F0878 1698 1522 31000 10,393 0 8/21/2003 Yellow V G1544 G1545 4233161838 1792 1600 38750 10,394 0 10/10/2003 Yellow V G2807 G2806 42337A2868 1554 1380 19500 10,394 0 6/19/2002 Blackwater R/V G1902 G1901 7F7E6B3F5E 1800 1590 43000 10,395 0 10/10/2003 Yellow V G2805 G2804 423332455B 1350 1290 14250 10,396 0 10/10/2003 Yellow V G2803 G2802 423364D78 1424 1259 17000 10,397 0 10/10/2003 Yellow R/V 9240 G2801 42331C1359 1993 1766 54500 10,398 0 10/10/2003 Yellow V G2976 G2977 4232677557 1160 990 7000 10,399 0 10/11/2003 Yellow R/V G2978 G2979 42286F564F 1550 1378 21000 10,400 0 10/11/2003 Yellow V G2982 G2981 423310352F 1941 1718 49000 10,401 0 10/11/2003 Yellow V G2984 G2983 4238140464 950 934 5000

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66Table A-1. Continued. Number Obs Capture Date River St atus T-bar Left T-bar Right Pit Tag TL(mm) FL(mm) Wt(gm) Age 10,402 0 10/11/2003 Yellow V G2986 G2985 42337F6358 1452 1276 19000 10,403 0 10/11/2003 Yellow V G2988 G2987 42321A1041 1449 1286 18500 10,404 0 10/11/2003 Yellow V G2990 G2989 4232710768 1774 1580 37100 10,405 0 10/11/2003 Yellow V G2991 G2992 42327B3945 1026 910 6000 10,406 0 10/11/2003 Yellow V G2993 G2994 4238025F35 1362 1239 15800 10,407 0 10/11/2003 Yellow V G2954 G2952 423409796A 1647 1502 29500 10,408 0 10/11/2003 Yellow V G2956 G2955 42355C2540 45000 10,409 0 10/11/2003 Yellow V G2958 G2957 423775672E 1170 1046 10000 10,410 0 10/12/2003 Yellow V G2960 G2959 42327D3A39 1590 1420 24000 10,411 0 10/12/2003 Yellow V G2962 G2967 42355C6E68 1480 1332 20000 10,412 0 10/12/2003 Yellow V G2964 G2965 423369561B 1729 1530 34000 10,413 0 10/12/2003 Yellow V G2968 G2967 42355C4C5F 1592 1420 24250 10,414 0 10/12/2003 Yellow V G2970 G2969 4234056727 1658 1420 27600 10,415 0 10/12/2003 Yellow V G2995 G2996 423452551C 1429 1272 17500 10,416 0 10/12/2003 Yellow V G2999 G2998 4233036C52 1502 1370 21000 10,417 0 10/12/2003 Yellow V G3000 G2971 4233323145 1674 1470 28000 10,418 0 10/12/2003 Yellow V G2828 G2827 42353A6524 1852 1704 46000 10,419 0 10/12/2003 Yellow R/V G2829 G2830 4233706253 1785 1594 37000 10,420 0 10/12/2003 Yellow V G2831 G2832 4233134E09 1550 1385 22500 10,421 0 10/12/2003 Yellow V G2833 G2834 42327B5D25 1034 920 6800 10,422 0 10/12/2003 Yellow R/V G2972 G2973 42303D7D5B 1948 1732 44000 10,423 0 10/13/2003 Yellow R/V G2974 G2975 422F3F6D21 1716 1612 43000 10,424 0 10/13/2003 Yellow V G2836 G2835 42355F1659 1922 1750 49000 10,425 0 10/13/2003 Yellow V G2838 G2837 4234082979 1742 1588 38500 10,426 0 10/13/2003 Yellow V G2840 G2839 42331F0B12 980 866 5750 10,427 0 10/13/2003 Yellow R/V 06942 06943 42354B4856 1296 1140 12000 10,428 0 10/13/2003 Yellow V G2842 G2841 4233793334 1000 880 5750

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67Table A-1. Continued. Number Obs Capture Date River St atus T-bar Left T-bar Right Pit Tag TL(mm) FL(mm) Wt(gm) Age 10,429 0 10/13/2003 Yellow V G2844 G2843 4235491915 1525 1326 21500 10,430 0 10/2/2003 Yellow V G1643 G1642 422E115761 990 880 5000 10,431 0 10/2/2003 Yellow V G1541 G1540 42380F380D 2000 1796 56500 10,432 0 10/2/2003 Yellow R/V G1539 9230 7F7D37492A 1810 1616 35000 10,433 0 10/2/2003 Yellow V G1538 G1537 42331F266E 1100 978 7500 10,434 0 10/3/2003 Yellow V G1536 G1535 42327C4B06 1278 1126 10200 10,435 0 10/3/2003 Yellow V G2653 G2652 4233647B28 1474 1336 1800 10,436 0 10/3/2003 Yellow V G1533 G1534 42330B393B 1260 1009 11000 10,437 0 10/4/2003 Yellow V G2655 G2654 423770257B 1520 1390 21500 10,438 0 10/4/2003 Yellow V G2657 G2656 42322E4A43 1784 1610 45000 10,439 0 10/4/2003 Yellow V G1529 G1530 43131B2752 1846 1650 44000 10,440 0 10/4/2003 Yellow V G2659 G2658 423406134A 1534 1366 22000 10,441 0 10/4/2003 Yellow V G2660 G2661 42336A4038 1520 1444 24000 10,442 0 10/5/2003 Yellow V G2663 G2662 4233081339 1880 1701 40000 10,443 0 10/5/2003 Yellow V G2664 G2665 43103F0A26 1620 1420 22500 10,444 0 10/5/2003 Yellow V G2666 G2667 423A585A46 1618 1460 27000 10,445 0 10/6/2003 Yellow V G1528 G1527 4233641845 1638 1466 26000 10,446 0 10/6/2003 Yellow V G1526 G2668 42321B3F1D 1845 1662 43500 10,447 0 10/6/2003 Yellow V G2670 G2669 4233742E7A 838 730 2000 10,448 0 10/6/2003 Yellow V G2672 G2671 423379593C 1588 1412 23500 10,449 0 10/7/2003 Yellow V G2824 G2825 423320740E 1382 1204 16000 10,450 0 10/7/2003 Yellow V G2822 G2823 43127E244F 1558 1430 24500 10,451 0 10/7/2003 Yellow V G2821 G2820 4235585A03 1356 1220 14750 10,452 0 10/7/2003 Yellow V G2819 G1818 4238007D65 1026 912 5250 10,453 0 10/7/2003 Yellow V G2817 G2816 4233102B39 1482 1314 19500 10,454 0 10/7/2003 Yellow V G2815 G2814 42332C5F07 900 800 5000 10,455 0 10/9/2003 Yellow V G2812 G2813 4232673A65 1980 1788 58000

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68Table A-1. Continued. Number Obs Capture Date River St atus T-bar Left T-bar Right Pit Tag TL(mm) FL(mm) Wt(gm) Age 10,456 0 10/9/2003 Yellow V G2810 G2811 4233033704 1444 1310 19250 10,457 0 10/10/2003 Yellow V G2809 G2808 430E471826 1292 1162 8500

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70 Burnham, K. P. 1993. A theory for combined analysis of ring recovery and recapture data. Pages 199 – 213 in J.D. Lebreton and P.M. North, (editors). Marked individuals in the study of bi rd population. Birkhauser Verlag, Basel, Switzerland. Burnham, K. P., and D. R. Anderson. 1998. Model selection and inference: a practical information theoretic approach. Springer-Verlag, New York. Campana, S. C., M. C. Annand, and J. I. McMillan. 1995. Gra phical and Statistical Methods for Determining the Consistency of Age Determinations. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 124:131-138. Carr, S. H., T. Carr, and F. A. Chapman. 1996a. First observations of young-of-the-year Gulf of Mexico sturgeon ( Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi ) in the Suwannee River, Florida. Gulf of Mexico Science 14:44-46. Carr, S. H., F. Tatman, and F. A. Chapman. 1996b. Observations on the natural history of the Gulf of Mexico sturgeon ( Acipenser oxyrinchus de sotoi Vladykov 1955) in the Suwannee River, southeastern United States. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 5:169-174. Chang, W. Y. B. 1982. A statistical met hod for evaluating the reproducibility of age determination. Canadian Journal of Fi sheries and Aquatic Sciences 39:1208-1210. Chapman, F. A., and S. H. Carr. 1995. Impli cations of early life st ages in the natural History of the Gulf of Mexico sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi Environmental Biology of Fishes 43:407-413. Chapman, F. A., C. S. Hartless, and S. H. Carr. 1997. Population size estimates of sturgeon in the Suwannee River, Florida, U.S. A. Gulf of Mexico Science 2:88–91. Chen, Y. and L. G. S. Mello. 1999. Growth and maturation of cod ( Gadus morhua ) of different year classes in the Northwest A tlantic, NAFO subdivision 3Ps. Fisheries Research 42: (1-2) 87–101. Chugunov, N. L. 1925. On the methods of age determination in sturgeon. (From Asov Scientific Industrial Expedition) Bulle tin of Fisheries Economy 11. 33pp. Conover, D. O. and S. B. Munch. 2002. Su staining fisheries yields over evolutionary time scales. Science. 297(5578): 94. Cormack, R. M. 1964. Estimates of surviv al from the sighting of marked animals. Biometrika 5:429–438. Craft, N. M., B. Russell, and S. Travis. 2001. Identification of Gulf sturgeon spawning Habitats and migratory patterns in the Ye llow and Escambia River systems. Final Report to the Florida Marine Research Institute, Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Tallahassee, Florida.

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71 Cuerrier, J. P. 1951. The use of pectoral fin rays for determining age of sturgeon and other species of fish. The Cana dian Fish Culturist 11:1-9. Cuerrier, J. P., and G. Roussow. 1951. Age and growth of lake sturgeon from Lake St. Francis, St. Lawrence River. Report on Ma terial Collected in 1947. The Canadian Fish Culturist 10:17-29. Dadswell, M. J. 1979. Biology and population ch aracteristics of the shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum LeSueur 1818 (Osteichythyes:Acip enseridae), in the Saint John River Estuary, New Brunswick, Cana da. Canadian Journal of Zoology 57:2186-2210. Devore, J. D., B. W. James, C. A. Tracy, and D. A. Hale. 1995. Dynamics and potential production of white sturgeon in the unimpounded lower Columbia River. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 124:845–856. Dovel, W. L., and T. J. Berggren. 1983. Atlantic sturgeon of th e Hudson estuary, New York. New York Fish and Game Journal 30:140-172. Dreitz, V. J. 2000. The influence of envir onmental variation on the snail kite population of Florida. Doctoral diss ertation. University of Miami, Miami, Florida. Dugo, M. 2003. Population structure of Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi as inferred from microsatellite markers, with emphasis on fine-scale population structure in the Pascagoula River draina ge, Mississippi. Mast er’s thesis. The University of Southern Mississippi. Hattesburg, Mississippi. Edwards, R. E., K. J. Sulak, M. T. Randall, and C. B. Grimes. 2003. Movements of Gulf sturgeon ( Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi ) in nearshore habitat as determined by acoustic telemetry. Gulf of Mexico Science. 21:59-70. Florida Department of Natural Resources. 1989. Florida Rivers Assessment. Division of Recreation and Parks, Bureau of Park Pl anning, Tallahassee, Fl orida. 452pp. Foster, A. M., and J. P. Clugston. 19 97. Seasonal migration of Gulf sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi in the Suwannee River, Florida. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 126:302-308. Fox, D. A., and J. E. Hightower. 1998. Gu lf sturgeon estuarine and nearshore marine habitat use in Choctawhatchee Bay, Fl orida. Annual Report 1998 to National Marine Fisheries Service. North Caro lina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina. Fox, D. A., J. E. Hightower, and F. M. Parauka. 2000. Gulf sturgeon spawning migration and habitat in the Choctawhat chee River system, Alabama-Florida. Transactions of the American Fi sheries Society 129:811-826.

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72 Gu, B., D. M. Schell, T. Frazer, M. Hoyer, and F. A. Chapman. 2001. Stable carbon isotope evidence for reduced feeding of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon during their prolonged river residence period. Estuar ine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 53:275280. Gulland, J. A. 1983. Fish stock assessmen t: a manual of basic methods. FAO (United Nations Food and Agriculture Organi zation)/Wiley Series on Food and Agriculture, volume 1. John Wiley & Sons, New York. Haddon, M. 2001. Modelling and Quantitati ve Methods in Fisheries. Chapman and Hall, London, England. 400pp. Harris, J. E. 2003. Distributi on of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon ( Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi ) in relation to environmental parame ters and the distribution of benthic invertebrates in the Suwannee River Estuar y, Florida. Master’s Thesis. The University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. Harris, P. J. and J. C. McGovern. 1997. Changes in the life history of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus from the southeastern United States, 1972 – 1994. Fishery Bulletin 95:732–747. Hasler, A. D., and A. T. Scholz. 1983. Olfactory Imprinting and Homing in Salmon. Springer-Verlag, New York, New York. 134pp. Haugen, T. O. and L. A. Vollestad. 2001. A century of life-history evolution in grayling. Genetica 112: 475-491. Heath D. D., J. W. Heath, C. A. Bryden, R. M. Johnson, and C. W. Fox. 2003. Rapid evolution of egg size in captive sa lmon. Science. 299: (5613) 1738–1740. Heino, M. 1998. Management of evolving fi sh stocks. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 55: 1971–1982. Henry, K. R. 2002. Evaluation of largem outh bass exploitation and potential harvest restrictions at Rodman Rese rvoir, Florida. Master’s thesis. The University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. Hoover, A. 2002. A century of sturgeon: the hi story, biology and future of the Gulf of Mexico sturgeon in Florida. Master’s Project. The University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. Huff, J. A. 1975. Life history of the Gulf of Mexico sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi in the Suwannee River, Florida. Flor ida Department of Natural Resources, Marine Resources Publication 16, St. Petersburg, Florida. 32pp. Jenkins, W. E., and T. I. J. Smith. 1990. Use of PIT tags to individually identify striped Bass and red drum brood. American Fi sheries Society Symposium 7:341-345.

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73 Jenkins, W. E., T. I. J. Smith, L. D. Heywar d, and D. M. Knott. 1993. Tolerance of shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum to different salinity and dissolved oxygen concentrations. Proceed ings of the Annual Conferen ce of the Southeastern Association of Fish and W ildlife Agencies 47:476–484. Jolly, G. M. 1965. Explicit estimates from capture-recapture data with both death and immigration in a stochastic model. Biometrika 52:225–247. King, T. L., B. A. Lubinski, and A. P. Spid le. 2001. Microsatellite DNA variation in Atlantic sturgeon ( Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus ) and cross-species amplifications in the Ac ipenseridae. Conserva tion Genetics 2:103-119. Kohlhorst, D. W. 1980. Recent trends in the white sturgeon population in California’s Sacramento-San Joaquin Estuary. California Fish and Game 66:210–219. Kynard, B. 1997. Life history, latitudinal patte rns, and status of the shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum Environmental Biology of Fishes 48:319-334. Laeman, B. M., and D. A. Nagtegaal. 1987. Age validation and revised natural mortality rate for yellowtail rockfish. Transacti ons of the American Fisheries Society 116:171-175 Lamoureux, P., and G. Laforce. 1991. Analyse des captures et caracteristiques biologiques de l’ esturgeon jaune ( Acipenser fulvescens ) dans le coloir fluvial du Saint-Laurent det 1985 a 1989, Pages 315-336, in P. Williot (editor). Acipenser, Actes du Premier Collogue International su r l’Esturgeon. October 3-6, 1999. Bordeaux, France. Lubinski, B. A., T. L. King, and I. I. Wirg in. 1999. High resolution of Gulf sturgeon population structure with multilocus micros atellite DNA genotypes. From Abstract No. 544 (p 214) of Paper presented at 129 Annual Meeting of the American Fisheries Society, Charlotte, North Carolina. Mason, W. T., Jr., and J. P. Clugston. 1993. Foods of the Gulf sturgeon in the Suwannee River, Florida. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 122:378-385. McCabe G. T. Jr., and C. A. Tracy. 1994. Spawning and early life history of white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus in the lower Columbia River. Fishery Bulletin 92:760-772. Miller, L. W. 1972a. White sturgeon populatio n characteristics in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Estuary. Californi a Fish and Game 58:94–101. Miranda, L. E., R. E. Brock, and B. S. Dorr. 1997. Growth, fishing and natural mortality of crappies in Mississippi. Pages 56 – 70 in Miranda, L.E., M.S. Allen, R.E. Brock, K.M. Cash, B.S. Dorr, L.C. Issak, a nd M.S. Schorr (editors). Evaluation of Regulations restrictive of crappie harves t. Mississippi Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit. Mississipp i State University, Starkville.

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74 Morrow, J. V., Jr., J. P. Kirk, K. J. Killgore, H. Rogillio, and C. Knight. 1998. Status and recovery potential of Gulf sturgeon in the Pearl River system, LouisianaMississippi. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 18:797-808. Odenkirk, J. S. 1991. Movements of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon in the Apalachicola River, Florida. Proceedings of the Annual Conf erence of Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies. 43:230-238. Paragamian, V. L. and R. C. Beamesderfer. 2003. Growth estimates from tagged white sturgeon suggest that ages from fin rays underestimate true age in the Kootenai River, USA and Canada. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 132:895903. Pine, W. E., M. S. Allen, and V. Drietz. 2001. Population viability of the Gulf of Mexico sturgeon: inferences from captur e-recapture and age-structured models. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 130:1164-1174. Prentice, E. F., T. A. Flagg, and C. S. McCutcheon. 1990. Feasibility of using implantable passive integrated transponde r (PIT) tags in salmonids. American Fisheries Society Symposium 7:317-322. Ricker, W. E. 1975. Computation and interp retation of biological statistics in fish populations. Bulletin 191 of the Fisherie s Research Board of Canada. Ottawa, Canada. Rien, T. A. and R. C. Beamesderfer. 1994. Accuracy and precision of white sturgeon age estimates from pectoral fin rays. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 123:255-265. Robson, D. S. and H. A. Regier. 1966. Estim ates of tag loss from recoveries of fish tagged and permanently marked. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 95:56-59. Rossiter, A., D. L. G. Noakes, and F. W. H. Beamish. 1995. Validation of Age Estimation for Lake Sturgeon. Transactio ns of the American Fisheries Society 124:777-781. Roussow, G. 1957. Some considerations concerning sturgeon sp awning periodicity. Journal of Fishery Research Board Canada. 14: 553-572. SAS Institute. 2000. Statistical Analysis So ftware. Version 8. SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina. Seber, G. A. F. 1965. A note on the multip le recapture census. Biometrika 52:249–259. Shibata, R. 1989. Statistical aspe cts of model selection. Pages 215–240, in J.C. Williams (editor)., From data to model. Springer – Verlag, New York.

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76 Threader, R. W., and C. S. Brosseau. 1986. Biology and management of the lake sturgeon the Moose River, Ontario. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 6:383-390. Tringali, M. D., and T. M. Bert. 1998. Ri sk to genetic effectiv e population size should be an important consideration in fish st ock-enhancement programs. Bulletin of Marine Science 62:641–659. Vladykov, V. D. 1955. A comparison of Atla ntic sea sturgeon with a new subspecies from the Gulf of Mexico ( Acipenser oxyrhynchus desotoi ). Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 12:754-761. White, G. C., and K. P. Burnham. 1999. Program MARK: survival estimation from populations of marked animals. Bird Study 46(Supplement):120–138. Williams, B. K., J. D. Nichols, and M. J. C onroy. 2002. Analysis and management of animal populations: modeling, estimation, and decision making. Academic Press, San Diego, California. Wooley, C. M. 1985. Evaluation of mor phometric characters used in taxonomic separation of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrynchus desotoi Pages 97103 in F.P. Binkowski and S.I. Doroshov, (editors). North American sturgeons: biology and Aquaculture Potential. Deve lopments in Environmental Biology of Fishes 6. Junk, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 163 pp. Wooley, C. M., and E. J. Crateau. 1985. Movement, microhabitat, exploitation, and management of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon, Apalachicola River, Florida. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 5:590–605. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, and National Marine Fish eries Service. 1995. Gulf sturgeon ( Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi ) recovery/management plan. Atlanta, Georgia. 170pp. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Nationa l Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2003. Endangered and Threatened Wildlif e and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Gulf Sturgeon; Final Rule Federal Register 68:53(13370-13495). Zehfuss, K. P., J. E. Hightower, and K. H. Pollock. 1999. Abundance of Gulf sturgeon in the Apalachicola River, Florida. Tr ansactions of the Am erican Fisheries Society 128:130–143.

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77 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Jim Berg was born on December 21, 1978, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of William and Donna Berg. He was raised in Reeders, a small town in the Pocono Mountains of Pennsylvania. His love of th e aquatic environment and particularly the ocean stems from growing up on a small lake in the Poconos and yearly trips to the Atlantic coast with his family. After high school, he entered Long Island UniversitySouthampton College in the fall of 1996, a nd graduated in May of 2000 with a B.S. in marine biology. After graduation, he moved to Gainesville, Florida, to work with the United States Geological Survey. In the fall of 2001, he began his gr aduate work in the Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences at the University of Florida. He will graduate with a Master of Science degree in May 2004. He plans on moving back to the Northeast to pursue a career as a research bi ologist working with marine or anadramous fisheries.


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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0005481/00001

Material Information

Title: Population Assessment of the Gulf of Mexico Sturgeon in the Yellow River, Florida
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0005481:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0005481/00001

Material Information

Title: Population Assessment of the Gulf of Mexico Sturgeon in the Yellow River, Florida
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0005481:00001


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Full Text












POPULATION ASSESSMENT OF THE GULF OF MEXICO STURGEON IN THE
YELLOW RIVER, FLORIDA
















By

JAMES JOSEPH BERG


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2004

































Copyright 2004

by

James Joseph Berg















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to extend my gratitude to Dr. Mike Allen for serving as my advisor

and committee chair, and helping me every step of the way. His dedication and guidance

throughout the course of this study are greatly appreciated. I would also like to thank Dr.

Chuck Cichra and Dr. Debra Murie for their guidance and for serving as members of my

committee.

I would like to thank my friend, Dr. Ken Sulak, for serving as committee cochair

and for his dedicated time, expertise and guidance in my research. Over the course of

this three-year study, he was able to experience first hand the power and ferocity of

Yellow River sturgeon, a different beast than the wimpy sturgeon found in the Suwannee

River. He gave me the opportunity to experience RoV, manned submersibles, research

cruises, Lophelia, and many wonderful research endeavors, although I did teach him (and

the rest of the CEC people) how to fish, so I guess we are even.

I would like to thank the United States Fish and Wildlife Service for funding this

project. The Panama City field office, specifically Frank Parauka, was a huge help and

offered advice and field services throughout the three-year study.

I would like to thank the United States Geological Survey in Gainesville, Florida,

for providing office space, field gear, boats, computers, field sampling help, and of

course my salary, as well as numerous trips to meetings worldwide.

Over the course of three years, the following people have offered advice,

participated in field work, gear maintenance, and anything and everything regarding the









project that I needed. Without the following people from CEC, the project would not

have run so smoothly. I thank Cliff Bennett, Dr. Allen Brooks, Dr. George Dennis, Bill

Harden, Mike Randall, Jason Rochelo, Andrew Quaid, Dr. Phil Stevens, and George

Yeargin.

I would like to thank Dr. Bill Pine and Dr. Rob Bennetts who helped me with the

analysis and understanding MARK. Without Bill, I would still be trying to figure out

what the models were trying to tell me.

The following people made significant contributions to the data collection and field

work: M. Anderson, T. Bonvechio, P. Cooney, M. Friedman, S. Gooch, S. Keitzer, J.

Russell, S. Stahl, B. Tate, and K. Tugend.

The Northwest Florida Aquatic Preserves Office in Milton, Florida, has been a

huge help, lending us gear, people, and anything it had available that we needed. I would

like to thank everyone involved who helped us along the way including N. Craft, R.

Hinote, D. Holland, C. Jabaly, J. Jarrett, and B. Russell.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L ED G M EN T S ......... ................................................... ............................... iii

LIST OF TABLES ........ ...................... ..... .... ............ ............ .............. vi

LIST OF FIGURE S ......... ..................................... ........... vii

A B STRA C T ............ ......................................... .............................. viii

CHAPTER

1 LIFE HISTORY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO STURGEON ....................................1

2 POPULATION SIZE, GROWTH AND MORTALITY ESTIMATES FOR THE
YELLOW RIVER GULF STURGEON POPULATION ......................................

Introdu action ...................................... .................................. .......... .... .. 4
M eth od s ........................................................................... . 5
Study Site...................................................................................... .5
F ish C collection ............................................. 6
A going ............................................................. .8
A n aly ses.............................................................. 10
Population Size Estim ation .................................................................. ....... 10
T ag L o ss E stim ates ......................................................................................... 12
M o rtality E stim ates ....................................................................................... 13
R e su lts ...........................................................................................1 5
D isc u ssio n ............................................................................................................. 1 8
M anagem ent Im plications ............................................................. 28
F utu re R research ................................................................2 9

APPENDIX CATCH DATA FOR THE YELLOW AND BLACKWATER RIVERS
(2 0 0 1-2 0 0 3 ) ................................................................4 5

LIST OF REFERENCES ..................................... .............. ....................69

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H ....................................................................................... 77
















LIST OF TABLES


Table pge

1 Reported total annual mortality rates for sturgeon species. ....................................31

2 A summary table for the Yellow River, Florida, Gulf sturgeon population
estimate including capture probability and number of fish captured.....................32

3 An age-length key created for the Yellow River age and catch data .....................33

4 A table of all Gulf sturgeon that were captured in the Yellow or Blackwater
rivers, Florida, that were initially tagged in a different river ..............................34

A-i Catch data for the yellow and blackwater rivers (2001-2003)...............................46
















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure pge

1 A map of the northern Gulf of Mexico with rivers inhabited by Gulf sturgeon
highlighted................................... ................................ ........... 36

2 A map and aerial photographs representing the Yellow River and Blackwater
River, Florida, including the major sampling sites. ............................. ............... 37

3 Photograph of the two tag types used during this study. A T-bar tag is shown on
top w ith a PIT tag underneath. ..... ...................................................................... 38

4 An age bias plot of pairwise age comparisons between two agers for 92 fish.........39

5 Catch curve for Yellow River Gulf sturgeon based on number-at-age data collected
during the summ er and fall of 2001 ........................................................... ........ 40

6 The top chart is a length frequency histogram for Gulf sturgeon captured in the
Yellow River, Florida, during 2001-2002, and the bottom is a percent frequency
histogram of Gulf sturgeon captured in the Suwannee River, Florida during
2001-2002..................................... .......................... .... ..... ......... 4 1

7 Von Bertalanffy growth model fit to observed length-at-age data for Yellow River,
Florida, Gulf sturgeon, fall and summer 2001, and a von Bertalanffy growth
model fit to observed length-at-age data for Suwannee River, Florida Gulf
stu rg eo n .......................................................... ................ 4 2

8 Photograph of a 26.1-cm FL Gulf sturgeon captured in the Yellow River, Florida,
approximately 3.5 km upriver of the Highway 90 bridge ...................................... 42

9 A length frequency histogram for Yellow River, Florida, Gulf sturgeon captured
during 200 1. ...........................................................................43

10 A length frequency histogram for Yellow River, Florida, Gulf sturgeon captured
du ring 2 002 ....................................................... ................. 4 3

11 A length frequency histogram for Yellow River, Florida, Gulf sturgeon captured
during 2003 ........................................................................................................ .44

12 A 61.8 cm TL Gulf sturgeon captured on a fisherman's catfish trot-line in Coopers
Basin on the Blackwater River, found and released by my research team. ............44















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

POPULATION ASSESSMENT OF THE GULF OF MEXICO STURGEON IN THE
YELLOW RIVER, FLORIDA

By

James Joseph Berg

August 2004

Chair: Micheal S. Allen
Cochair: Kenneth J. Sulak
Major Department: Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

The Gulf of Mexico sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi, is an anadramous

species listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1991. The Gulf of

Mexico sturgeon is a subspecies of the Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus

oxyrinchus, and is found in coastal rivers of the Gulf of Mexico ranging from the Pearl

River, Louisiana, to the west and Suwannee River, Florida, to the east. I conducted a

three-year tagging study to estimate population size, growth, mortality and age

composition for sturgeon in the Yellow River. Capture probabilities and population size

were estimated using Program MARK and a Cormack-Jolly-Seber model. Total

mortality of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon was estimated using a Beverton-Holt mortality

equation and a catch curve. Growth rate was determined from annuli on the marginal

pectoral fin-ray. A total of 522 Gulf sturgeon captures were made, and 399 individual

fish were tagged. The population estimates for the Gulf sturgeon over three years ranged

from 500 911 fish, making the Yellow River population estimate the second largest for









Gulf sturgeon. The age structure of the population suggests successful recruitment and a

viable population. Estimates of total annual mortality ranged from 8.5% to 12.5%.

Growth rate for the Yellow River population was comparable to other populations of

Gulf sturgeon. My data suggest that Yellow River Gulf sturgeon population is a dynamic

population based upon consistent age classes as an indicator of successful recruitment, a

large population size, and estimates of mortality below the reported range for the species.














CHAPTER 1
LIFE HISTORY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO STURGEON

Sturgeons are modem fishes descended from an ancient lineage, and fossil records

of sturgeon date back 200 million years. There are 25 species of sturgeon worldwide. Of

the nine species of sturgeon native to the United States, six have been given threatened or

endangered status by the Federal government. Sturgeon populations have declined due to

overfishing, habitat loss, and habitat manipulation. Vladykov (1955) separated Acipenser

oxyrinchus into Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus (Atlantic sturgeon) and Acipenser

oxyrinchus desotoi (Gulf of Mexico sturgeon). Atlantic sturgeon are found along the

Atlantic coast of the United States and Canada, whereas Gulf sturgeon occur in the Gulf

of Mexico and associated rivers. The only morphological difference between Atlantic

sturgeon and Gulf sturgeon is the relative length of the spleen (Wooley 1985). Genetic

work has reinforced that the Gulf sturgeon is genetically distinct from the Atlantic

sturgeon (Avise 1992; Lubinski et al. 1999; King et al. 2001).

The Gulf sturgeon is a federally threatened, anadromous species, listed under the

Endangered Species Act in 1991. Drastic declines in sturgeon populations caused the

State of Florida to prohibit commercial fishing for Gulf sturgeon in 1984 (Odenkirk

1991). Given low population abundances and marginal habitat quality in some systems,

assessment of Gulf sturgeon population characteristics is critical to recovery efforts.

According to the Gulf sturgeon Recovery Management Plan (USFWS, GSFC and NMFS

1995), estimates of Gulf sturgeon life history parameters (e.g., sex ratio, mortality,









recruitment, population size, and critical habitat parameters) are required for each

population so that informed management policies can be enacted.

Adult Gulf sturgeon migrate from the Gulf of Mexico into coastal rivers ranging

from the Pearl River, Louisiana, to the west and the Suwannee River, Florida, to the east

during early spring to spawn (Huff 1975; Chapman and Carr 1995; Sulak and Clugston

1998, 1999; Fox et al. 2000). There appears to be strong natal homing tendency, with a

minimum of four distinct sub-populations among rivers within the range of Gulf sturgeon

(Stabile et al. 1996). The four identified populations are the Pearl and Pascagoula rivers,

Escambia and Yellow rivers, Choctawhatchee River, and the Apalachicola, Ochlockonee,

and Suwannee rivers. Access to spawning grounds and protection of native riverine

habitats is vital to Gulf sturgeon populations.

Gulf sturgeon spawn on gravel substrate underlain by a light layer of sand and silt

(Sulak and Clugston 1998, 1999; Fox et al. 2000). Reproducing female sturgeon spawn

once every 2 to 4 years, though males spawn annually (Huff 1975). Spawning occurs in

early spring when females and males migrate upriver after overwintering in the Gulf of

Mexico. Sulak and Clugston (1999) estimated only 30 to 90 females a year were

spawning out of a total net-vulnerable population of 7,650 sub-adult and adult fish in the

Suwannee River, only 0.40% to 1.2% of the total population. Thus, Gulf sturgeon

population viability is highly sensitive to changes in adult female mortality and

abundance (Boreman 1997; Tringali and Bert 1998; Pine et al. 2001).

Post-spawning adults, subadults, and juvenile Gulf sturgeon remain in the rivers

throughout the summer months. During their stay in the river, Gulf sturgeon do not feed

and continue to lose weight (Mason and Clugston 1993; Gu et al. 2001). In the fall, Gulf









sturgeon are cued by unknown environmental factors and begin the fall emigration from

the river, which may occur over a two-month period (Carr et al. 1996b; Foster and

Clugston 1997). Although the cue is unknown, it seems not to be a single parameter, but

a combination of cues (e.g., moon phase, temperature, water flow). In the estuaries, Gulf

sturgeon feed intensively around mudflats and oyster bars on benthic prey (Mason and

Clugston 1993; Sulak and Clugston 1998; Harris 2003). Gulf sturgeon have been located

aggregating in the areas on the backside of coastal barrier islands and estuaries, in high

salinity Gulf waters (Edwards et al. 2003; Harris 2003).














CHAPTER 2
POPULATION SIZE, GROWTH AND MORTALITY ESTIMATES FOR THE
YELLOW RIVER GULF STURGEON POPULATION

Introduction

The Yellow River is located in the western Panhandle region of Florida,

approximately 40 km east of Pensacola (Figure 1). Minimal research effort has been

conducted on the Yellow River Gulf sturgeon population, and as a result, little is known

about the population of sturgeon inhabiting the river. To properly manage the population

and to ensure informed management decisions, all aspects of Gulf sturgeon life history in

the Yellow River need to be examined.

Population models are useful to examine trends and derive estimates of population

size. However, population size alone does not yield information on basic life history

parameters such as age structure, mortality, recruitment, and growth rates, all of which

are needed to fully understand the status of the population. Population models have been

used to estimate Gulf sturgeon population size and viability in the Suwannee River (Carr

et al. 1996a; Chapman et al. 1997; Pine et al. 2001), the Apalachicola River (Zehfuss et

al. 1999), and the Pearl River (Morrow et al. 1998) (Figure 1). The use of models to

estimate recruitment and mortality rates is necessary due to limited data from few years

of collection. Simulations show that Gulf sturgeon populations are sensitive to changes

in mortality and the percentage of females spawning annually (Boreman 1997; Pine et al.

2001; Tate and Allen 2002).









Individual growth and mortality rate estimates allow for comparisons among

populations, and are good indicators of population viability. A high mortality rate and

low growth rate indicate the population may not be viable. Habitat alteration, in the form

of anthropogenic disturbance of spawning site access with the possibility of a dam on the

Yellow River in the vicinity of 9 km upstream of the Highway 90 bridge, may be a

serious threat to the sturgeon population. Dams and low-level sills have impeded the

passage of Gulf sturgeon in other coastal Gulf rivers including the Apalachicola, Pearl

and Ochlocknee rivers. My objectives were to

1. obtain an estimate of population size for Gulf sturgeon >88.1-cm FL in the Yellow
River;

2. examine age structure of the population; and

3. determine the rates of growth and mortality for the population.

Methods

Study Site

The Yellow River originates above Conecuh National Forest, Alabama, and flows

southwest into Blackwater Bay, near Robinson Point, Florida (Figure 2). The river basin

drains approximately 3,133 km2 (Florida Rivers Assessment 1989) and has a length of

196 km, of which 148 km are in Florida. The Yellow River is the fifth largest river in

Florida, with a mean annual discharge of 62 m3/sec (Florida Rivers Assessment 1989).

The Yellow River forms the northern border of Eglin Air Force Base across much of

Santa Rosa and Okaloosa counties and is classified as a Class III river (recreation,

propagation, and maintenance of healthy, well-balanced population of fish and wildlife)

by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) (Florida Rivers

Assessment 1989). Current velocity in the Yellow River is faster than in many other









Florida rivers because it drains the state's highest elevations (Florida Rivers Assessment

1989). Upstream, large portions of the river are bordered by hardwood forest and high

sandy banks. These upriver sections are narrow, sandy bottom areas with high levels of

fallen timber and debris. Occasional lime rock outcroppings can also be found

throughout the upper reaches of the river. Downriver sections of the river are bordered

by cypress swamps that inundate and drain with changes in river stage during the wet and

dry seasons. Downriver, temperatures range from 14.06 to 27.41 degrees Celsius with

pH values of 6.39 to 7.78 throughout the year (USGS unpublished data). The Yellow

River joins the Blackwater Bay in four locations. The mouth of the river is constricted

by shallow grass flats and large fallen trees, alternate access to Blackwater Bay is

available through Weaver Creek, Skim Lake or Lindsey Pass.

Fish Collection

Sampling consisted of multiple tagging events throughout the summers of 2001,

2002, and 2003, and major recapture events during each of the fall emigrations of 2001,

2002, and 2003. Fishing was conducted using sinking gill nets, drift nets, or set nets as

applicable. Gulf sturgeon recruit to the nets used in this study at 88.1 cm fork length

(FL). The majority of the summer sampling was conducted using 45.72 m x 3.6 m

multifilament gill nets with a 0.1-m bar mesh or 45.7 mx 4.87 m nets with 0.1-m bar

mesh. Where necessary, a 91.4 m x 6.09 m with 0.17-m bar mesh multifilament gill net

was used as a set net. The majority of summer collection (>90%) was conducted using

drift nets. Drift netting allowed for active fishing and spatially locating sturgeon in their

summer areas.

During the fall of each year, Gulf sturgeon emigrate from the river, into the nearby

estuary and bay. Fall recapture events (fall census) were conducted during the









temperature range (170-23 C) associated with the fall migration (Foster and Clugston

1997; Sulak and Clugston 1999). Two nets were utilized, a 91.4 m x 4.87 m with 0.1-m

bar mesh or a 91.4 m x 3.6 m with 0.1-m bar mesh multifilament gill net depending on

river stage and depth. Fall census nets were anchored from shoreline to shoreline except

for a small passage for boats navigating the river (near the shoreline). Fall census netting

was conducted at Cat Island Slough during 2001 (Figure 2). The 2002 collection event

utilized Cat Island Slough and a downriver site, Pine Bluff, as the set net areas, and the

2003 census location was the Pine Bluff site only (Figure 2). The fall census netting site

was moved due to shifting sand bars and changing depth in the river among years.

During the 2001 fall census, netting was conducted continuously 24 hours a day. A

multifilament gill net was set across the river as described above, and checked every

hour, only being pulled from the river on one occasion because of severe weather.

During the fall census in 2002 and 2003, nets were not soaked continuously for 24 hours

but instead were set between the hours of 1700 hours and 0800 hours Eastern Standard

Time based upon catch results from 2001, and checked at least once per hour.

During the summers of 2002 and 2003, sampling was conducted in the Blackwater

River using multifilament set nets to assess sturgeon migration between the Yellow River

and the Blackwater River. A 45.7-m x 3.6-m x 0.1-m or 45.7-m x 4.87-m x 0.1-m or

91.4-m x 6.09-m x 0.17-m multifilament gill net was used for collection.

Captured Gulf sturgeon were measured to the nearest 2-mm for fork length (FL)

and total length (TL) and weighed to the nearest 50 g. Gulf sturgeon were tagged once in

each pectoral fin with a T-bar style Floy tag (FD-9H, 25.4-mm mono Long-T) containing

a unique identification number for future recognition (Figure 3). Passive Integrated









Transponders (PIT) tags were injected into the dorsal musculature of each fish (Biomark

TX1405L, 14mm, 125 kHz) at the posterior dorsal fin base. After processing, all Gulf

sturgeon were immediately released alive.

Aging

During the summer and fall of 2001, subsampled fish had small sections of their

leading pectoral fin ray removed with a fine tooth saw (Cuerrier 1951; Cuerrier and

Roussow 1951) 15% of the total distance away from the point of articulation. Fish were

selected for fin-ray removal based on their size, and the number of fish of that size

already sampled. I kept the proportion of fish sampled for aging similar to the proportion

of fish from each size class to the overall population. This ensured the size and number

of fish selected for fin-ray removal would reflect the actual length-frequency distribution

of the sampled population.

The sections were placed into labeled vials and returned to the laboratory where

they were allowed to dry in open air. Fin samples were cleaned of excess epidermal

tissue under a dissecting microscope and three 0.25-0.45 mm transverse sections were cut

using a low-speed Isomet saw with a 12.7-cm diamond watering blade to ensure at least

one would be readable. Sections made with the Isomet saw were stored in air, in labeled

vials, and read using a dissecting microscope (Olympus SZX 12) and transmitted light

(Cuerrier 1951) under variable magnification (8-20x). Although never validated for Gulf

sturgeon, formation of a pair of opaque and translucent growth rings were assumed to be

formed annually based on other sturgeon species (Brennan 1988, Brennan and Cailliet

1991; Rossiter et al. 1995; Stevenson 1997; Stevenson and Secor 1999). Translucent

areas were read as annual growth rings (Brennan and Cailliet 1989; Rien and

Beamsderfer 1994). Two independent readers estimated ages from fin ray samples








collected during 2001 (n=92) by counting rings along the radius of the section as

described by Roussow (1957) and Dadswell (1979). Huff (1975) and Stevenson and

Secor (1999), found that a completely formed marginal annulus was completely formed

in the fall for Gulf and Atlantic sturgeon. Based on these findings fin rays collected in

the summer with partial marginal annulus formation were assigned an age assuming the

partial annulus was complete. Fin rays collected in the fall were not advanced based on

marginal annulus formation. Ages were recorded by each reader and were only accepted

when there was reader agreement. A third independent reader was used to evaluate

discrepancies. If there was no consensus from the third reader, then the fin ray was

removed from the sample.

Precision estimates were calculated using the coefficient of variation (CV) as per

Chang (1982):

-
X R -1 X
CVj = 100 x '= R-1
Xj (1)


where Xj is the ith age determination of thejth fish, Xj is the mean age of thejth fish, and

R is the number of times each fish is aged. The results of the coefficient of variation

were averaged across fish to produce a mean CV. Age bias plots were constructed

between readers to examine the potential for systematic differences in the age readings

(Campana et al. 1995)









Analyses

Population Size Estimation

The most predominantly used capture-recapture model to study survival and

abundance is the Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) model (Cormack 1964; Jolly 1965; Seber

1965). The model estimates apparent survival (,) and recapture probability (p,).

Apparent survival indicates loss of fish either to emigration or death (Williams et al.

2002). The CJS model assumes that all emigration from the study site is permanent.

Capture probabilities model the probability that an animal present in the study area at

time t is captured, and apparent survivability models the probability that an animal alive

at time t is still alive at t +1. There are six assumptions of the CJS model (Williams et al.

2002): 1) marks are never lost or misidentified; 2) animals are released after the sample,

and samples are of short duration; 3) individual capture events are independent between

individuals and capture times; 4) every individual has the same probability of being

caught, whether it is marked or unmarked; 5) every marked individual has the same

probability of surviving from the tth to the (t+l)st sample; and 6) changes in the

population occur only between the capture occasions.

I used a CJS-open-population capture-recapture model for estimating Gulf sturgeon

(> 88.1 cm FL) apparent survival (,) and capture probabilities (p,) for summer and fall

sampling occasions (six sampling occasions) in 2001-2003. This model allows for

population changes (increases and decreases) due to emigration, immigration, births and

deaths between each sampling occasion.

All models were created and run in Program MARK (White and Burnham 1999).

Cormack-Jolly-Seber models in Program MARK use data constructed as capture









histories. Capture histories were inputted using a binary (0 or 1) coding system

constructed for each fish. The first "1" in a capture history indicates the fish was

captured and tagged, and any subsequent "1" indicates the fish was recaptured on another

occasion. A "0" indicates the fish was not captured. A capture history of "010010"

would indicate that this fish was not captured during the summer 2001 occasion, was

initially captured during the fall 2001 occasion, was not captured during the summer

2002 or fall 2002 occasions, was recaptured during the summer 2003 sampling occasion,

and was not recaptured during the fall 2003 occasion. For the purposes of my study, all

fish captured for the first time during this study were considered unmarked regardless of

previous tagging by other researchers.

Model selection was based on Akaike's Information Criterion (AICc)(Akaike 1973;

Shibata 1989) in conjunction with knowledge of biological and life history

characteristics. The AIC, values were adjusted for small sample sizes and over

dispersion (QAICc) (Akaike 1973; Burnham and Anderson 1998; Dreitz 2000). The

AIC, term is a measure of deviation between the data and the model and therefore, the

model with the lowest AIC, value represents the model that best fit the data. The lowest

AIC, value does not mean that model is always the best model (makes the most

biological sense). It is the model within the set of run models that has the best support,

given the data, and therefore, it is important to consider biological characteristics and

knowledge of the species in question when you are considering model selection. A

variety of models were run that allowed apparent survival and capture probability to

remain constant, vary between seasons, or vary through time. Models that estimated

parameters between season grouped the summer 2001-2003 occasions under one set of









parameter estimates, and the fall 2001-2003 under another set of parameter estimates.

Based on estimates of mortality for the Yellow River from my study, apparent survival

was also fixed at 0.88 for some models. In total, 13 models were constructed and run

using Yellow River capture histories. Capture probabilities were the biggest concern for

this study, because capture probabilities are used on conjunction with the number of fish

captured for each sampling occasion to estimate population size. Biological and life

history characteristics were considered during final model selection to ensure selected

models did not report unrealistic estimates for capture probability and survival (i. e.,

capture probability of 100% or survival estimates of 10%). I used reported mortality

rates for sturgeon for comparison against the models (Table 1). Models reporting

mortality and capture probability rates that were unrealistic were not considered for final

model selection.

Population estimates (N,) for Gulf sturgeon in the Yellow River were obtained

using the recapture probabilities (p,) estimated by the model, and the total number of fish

captured in each sampling occasion (C,).

SC,
N, (2)


where N, is the population estimate for sampling occasion i. Variance around these

estimates were calculated using Equation 1 with the reported 95% confidence intervals

for capture probabilities supplied by Program MARK.

Tag Loss Estimates

Tag loss is important to understand when mark and recapture data are used to

estimate population size (Robson and Regier 1966; Clugston 1996). To determine tag

loss for Gulf sturgeon in the Yellow River, I examined individual fish capture-recapture









data for the loss of one of the two T-bar tags over time in relation to presence of the PIT

tag. Recaptured fish with one missing Floy tag were recorded and their time-at-large was

noted. Studies have shown that loss of T-bar tags in sturgeon is directly related to time at

large (Clugston 1996). Tag loss was related to time-at-large using a logistic regression

(Miranda et al. 1997; SAS 2000; Henry 2002).

logit() = a + bi (time), (3)

where logit(l) is the probability of tag loss, a is the intercept estimate, bl is the parameter

estimate and (time) is the number of days-at-large. The logistic regression was weighted

for fish with multiple recaptures. Fish that were recaptured multiple times were entered

into the regression each time they were recaptured.

Mortality Estimates

Total mortality estimates were derived for Gulf sturgeon >88.1-cm FL in the

Yellow River. A von Bertalanffy growth curve was fit to the age-length data using non-

linear regression (SAS 2000) as:

Lt = L (1-e-k(t-to)), (4)

where Lt is the fork length of the fish at time t, Le is the asymptotic length, k is the Brody

growth coefficient, t is age in years, and to is the age in years at length equal to zero if the

fish had always grown according to the von Bertalanffy growth equation. The resulting

equation was used in conjunction with a Beverton-Holt instantaneous mortality equation

to estimate instantaneous total mortality (Z) (Gulland 1983, cited in Pine et al. 2001) as:

Sk(L Lx)(5)
Lx -Lc

where Lx is the mean fork length at capture, and Lc is the minimum fork length at which

Gulf sturgeon were vulnerable to capture.









The age data were also used to create an age-length key. An age-length key assigns

ages to fish of a certain size class, based upon the proportion of ages in the same size

class from the age data. The number offish at each age over all sizes was summed to get

a total number of fish at each age. The resulting age-length key was used to assign an

age to each sturgeon that was measured but not aged directly, and create a catch curve.

The instantaneous total mortality was estimated by the slope of the descending limb of

the catch curve (Ricker 1975). Sturgeon were grouped into 4-cm size groups for analysis

with an age-length key and catch curve. Four centimeters was selected out of

convenience, due to the maximum FL of Gulf sturgeon and in an attempt to ensure each

size group contained age samples because of a low sample size. Ages 0, 1, 2 and 3 were

eliminated because these ages were not fully recruited to the sampling gear (Dadswell

1979).

Calculated instantaneous total mortality (Z) from the Von Bertalanffy growth

equation and catch curve were used to calculate percent total annual mortality (A) for

each method using the equation:

A =-e-z (6)

I compared the size composition data from the Yellow River (2001 2002) to data

available for the Suwannee River for the same years (UF and USGS unpublished data).

To do so, I used a Chi-Square test to test for differences in the proportion of fish in three

size groups. The size groups were 85 134.9 cm, 135 179.9 cm, and 180 225 cm FL.

I used an alpha (a) value of 0.05 for the test.









To compare the growth equations of the two populations, I used a likelihood ratio

test as described by Haddon (2001) to determine if the parameters in the von Bertalanffy

growth equations differed for each population at an alpha 0.05.

Results

There were 13 sampling days during the summer of 2001, 13 in 2002, and 18 in

2003. The fall census period varied in length from September to October with 25 days in

2001, 22 in 2002, and 13 in 2003. A total of 522 Gulf sturgeon captures/recaptures were

made. Of these, 399 unique fish were captured and tagged, and 123 were recaptures.

The number of fish captured during each sampling period ranged from 40 to 101 (Table

2).

There were 11 sampling days in the Blackwater River during the summers of 2002

and 2003 in an attempt to quantify emigration (exchange between the Yellow River and

Blackwater River). Seventy-four captures of 69 unique Gulf sturgeon were recorded in

the Blackwater River. In the summer of 2002 a total of 48 Gulf sturgeon captures were

recorded, with 41 first captures, and seven recaptures of Yellow River fish. The 2003

sampling resulted in 19 first captures, and two recaptures, one of a Yellow River fish.

Five within season captures of Gulf sturgeon were made between the 2002 and 2003

sampling seasons.

The most parsimonious model, using a Cormack-Jolly-Seber in Program MARK

based upon the best fit AIC, values, was the P(.) p(t) model. This model represented

constant survival [P(.)] and a time-dependent catch probability [p(t)], with an AIC, value

of 684.4. The two models with the 2nd and 3rd lowest AIC, values were the [P(t) p(t)] and

the [P(.) p(.)] models. These models returned corresponding AIC, values of 688.4 and

689.4 respectively. For comparison, the [P(.) p(t)] model with apparent survival fixed at









0.88 returned an AIC, value of 5647.2, the highest AIC, value of all considered models.

Examination of the parameter estimates for the [D(t) p(t)] and [P(.) p(.)] models

eliminated them as adequate models, because the [((t) p(t)] model returned capture

probabilities of 96%, which was unrealistic for this study or this species, and the [P(.)

p(.)] model only allowed for one estimate of capture probability for the entire study,

which is unrealistic given the data. The model with the lowest AICc value did not report

unrealistic parameter estimates. Capture probabilities ranged from 0.05-0.17 between

sampling periods (Table 2). Population estimates, for each occasion based upon the

capture probabilities, ranged from 500 to 911 across time periods (Table 2).

To correct estimates for tag loss, logistic regression was used to determine the rate

of tag loss based upon time-at-large, but the relationship between tag loss and time-at-

large was not significant. I recorded only 16 instances of fish losing one T-bar tag and 4

instances of fish losing both T-bar tags. Three fish were recaptured during the study with

missing PIT tags. However, in all cases of T-bar tag loss, fish retained their PIT tags.

Therefore, I did not correct for tag loss in my analysis. I do not believe any fish lost all

three tags, because we did not capture fish that showed signs of previous tagging without

having one tag still present.

Sections of the leading edge of the pectoral fin-ray were removed from 92 Gulf

sturgeon during the summer and fall of 2001 for aging back at the laboratory. Fish

ranged in size from 80.5 cm FL to 184.4 cm FL, and 2 to 20 years in age. However,

because I effectively captured fish only > 88.1 cm FL, fish less than 88.1 cm FL were not

used in the age analysis. Precision of between reader age estimates was calculated to be

3.357% using the coefficient of variation. The age bias plot shows that slight age under









estimation bias is present (Figure 4). For analysis, 87 fish were used, ranging in age from

3 to 20 years. A von Bertalanffy growth curve was fit to data for the Yellow River

population of Gulf sturgeon (Figure 7):

Lt=180.3 (1-e-0.1681(t+1.5711)) (7)

Estimates of instantaneous total mortality (Z) based on a Beverton and Holt

mortality equation using data from Eqn (5), based on Eqn (7) was -0.126 and the estimate

of percent total annual mortality (A) was 11.88%.

The von Bertalanffy growth equation was used for the Suwannee River as reported

by Pine et al. (2001):

Lt=222.2 (1-e-0.08142(t+218)) (8)

Results of the age-length key can be seen in Table 3. Instantaneous total mortality

(Z) from the catch curve (slope of the regression) was -0.089 (Figure 5) and the resulting

total annual mortality rate was 8.5%. Number-at-age data were used from the age-length

key for catch curve analysis, but lengths were variable at any given age, and some ages

were under-represented (Table 3).

The proportions of fish in each size class differed (X2=23.16, df =2, p=0.001)

between the Yellow River and Suwannee River populations. In the Suwannee River,

56.4% offish were 85-134.9 cm FL, 41.6% were 135-179.9 cm FL, and 1.8% were 180-

225 cm FL (Figure 6). The proportions of each size group in the Yellow River were

40.8%, 52.3%, and 6.9%, respectively (Figure 6). The likelihood ratio test showed that

there was a significant difference between the von Bertalanffy growth equations for the

Yellow River and Suwannee River populations of Gulf sturgeon (X2=54.15, df =3,

p=0.001) (Figure 7). There were significant differences between the growth coefficients









(k) (X2=6.02, df=l, p=0.014) and to (X2=5.38, df=l, p=0.020), and slight significance in

asymptotic length (X2=3.41, df =1, p=0.065).

Discussion

My estimates of the Gulf sturgeon population size for fish > 100 cm TL were

greater than or equal to 500 individual fish for each sampling period and each estimate

was within the confidence intervals of all other estimates, except for the summer 2002

sample and the fall 2003 sample. The summer 2002 sample had an upper confidence

limit of 816 while the lower limit for the fall 2003 sample was 550 (Table 2). In general,

the estimates for each sampling period increased over the three years. This increase

resulted due to recaptures of fish that were at large since initial tagging in 2001. I

recaptured multiple fish during the summer and fall of 2003 that had not been

encountered since they were initially tagged in the summer and fall of 2001. The

resulting capture histories for these fish caused the model to recognize that they had not

necessarily died, but simply had not been recaptured.

My data suggest that the Yellow River supports the second largest population of

Gulf sturgeon (319-1,550). Population estimates for Gulf sturgeon are only available for

the Suwannee, Apalachicola, and Pearl river systems, and the estimates from the

Apalachicola River only estimate the population below the Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam.

Zehfuss et al. (1999) estimated the population of Gulf sturgeon in the Apalachicola River

to be 62-218 individuals. The Pearl River was estimated to have 292 individuals, over

age three (Morrow et al. 1998). Estimates for the Suwannee River net-vulnerable (>100

cm TL) subadult/adult population are much higher and have been conducted on four

occasions. Carr et al. (1996b) estimated the population to be between 1,504 and 3,066

fish. Chapman et al. (1997) presented a higher estimate of 2,097 to 5,312 fish. Sulak and









Clugston (1999) estimated the population at 7,650 total individuals, and Pine et al. (2001)

estimated the population at 5,500. The large variation among population estimates on the

Suwannee River are due to the manner of sampling in each study. Carr et al. (1996b) and

Chapman et al. (1997) sampled the returning adult and sub-adult populations each spring,

and had few recapture data. Sulak and Clugston (1999) had a large number of recaptures,

encompassing a longer time frame and a broader range of mesh sizes.

The assumption that emigration is permanent during sampling occasions was

violated during the course of this study. Gulf sturgeon immigration and emigration in the

Yellow River was apparent over the three-year study. Natal homing capabilities have

been extensively studied for salmonid species. The range of natility in salmon is 80-

100%, and percentage of fish straying for most populations is believed to be 2-5% based

on hatchery fish (Hasler and Scholz 1983). Earlier work in the Yellow River showed that

Gulf sturgeon tagged in the Yellow River were sometimes relocated in the Blackwater

River system and as far away as Louisiana (Craft et al. 2001). Sampling in the

Blackwater River was conducted to assess the amount of emigration from the Yellow

River into the Blackwater River. Eight fish, tagged in the Yellow River during this study,

were recaptured in the Blackwater River, and 23 instances of immigration into or

emigration from the Yellow River were documented over the three-year study, not

including seven fish of unknown origin (Table 4). Data from USFWS also shows that

fish tagged in the Yellow River with acoustic tags have been relocated in other river

systems (Frank Parauka, USFWS, personal communication). River interchange has been

documented by other researchers throughout the Gulf of Mexico (Carr et al. 1996b; Craft









et al. 2001; Fox and Hightower 1998; Dugo 2003; Frank Parauka, USFWS, personal

communication; Ken Sulak, USGS, personal communication).

One problem associated with interchange between river systems is determining the

sturgeon's true natal river. River transfer data from my study suggests that sturgeon

move between rivers. A fish tagged initially in the Choctawhatchee River and relocated

in the Yellow River may actually be a fish spawned in the Yellow River which happened

to be captured for the first time in the Choctawhatchee River system. The amount of

inter-river exchange documented in the Yellow River over three years may indicate fish

in the Panhandle (i.e., Choctawhatchee River to Pearl River) act as one large population.

However, Stabile et al. (1996) and Dugo (2003) report that the Choctawhatchee River,

Escambia River, and Yellow River populations of Gulf sturgeon are genetically distinct

from one another. Relatively high rates of interchange between the Blackwater River and

Yellow River, as well as their close proximity, suggests that Gulf sturgeon in these two

rivers may regularly interbreed. Limited sampling has been conducted on the Escambia

River but ongoing tagging studies by the USFWS will shed light on the role of the

Escambia River in relation to the Yellow River. Tag-recapture data from this study, as

well as telemetry data from Craft et al. (2001), show that some fish moving upriver

during the spring spawning migration drop downstream and relocate to different rivers

later during the same spring or summer. Gulf sturgeon in this area may have the option

of changing rivers during the spring if spawning conditions are not suitable in their target

river.

Temporary emigration can have a large impact on the estimates from population

models (Burnham 1993). The population estimates for the Yellow River may be









positively biased (overestimated) if the system experiences high rates of temporary

emigration. Zeufuss et al. (1999) conducted simulations to determine the impact of

temporary emigration on their estimates in the Apalachicola River system. In situations

with random temporary emigration where capture probabilities were high (>0.50), they

showed that population size could be estimated with no bias. However, low capture

probabilities resulted in underestimates of population size when Markovian emigration

(fish remember they have left the study area) was occurring.

Tag loss was to be accounted for in each of the sampling occasions based on time-

at-large for each captured fish because high rates of tag loss would have an impact on the

population estimates due to the inability of the researchers or the model to recognize the

actual identity of fish with lost tags. If tag loss was occurring, tagged fish would not be

recognized as previously being tagged and would be counted as new or virgin fish. This

decrease in apparent recaptures would result in a decrease in survival estimates, and may

result in an overestimate of population size. Studies have shown PIT tag retention rates

to be 90-100% (Jenkins and Smith 1990; Prentice et al. 1990; Smith et al. 1990; Clugston

1996) and T-bar tag loss has been shown to be related to time-at-large (Clugston 1996).

Tag loss was examined in this study using logistic regression, but the relationship

between T-bar tag loss and time at large was not significant. One explanation may be the

combination of small sample size and low number of recaptures. It was unlikely that

sturgeon tagged during this study would lose all three tags, and thus, tag loss was

considered insignificant.

The total annual mortality estimates for Gulf sturgeon in the Yellow River were

lower than the reported range for this species, and within the reported range for other









species of sturgeon (Miller 1972a; Huff 1975; Kohlhorst 1980; Dadswell 1979; Devore et

al. 1995; Beamesderfer et al. 1995; Stevenson 1997; Bruch 1999; Sulak and Clugston

1999; Pine et al. 2001) (Table 1). Due to the commercial fishing ban in 1984 for Gulf

sturgeon in Florida, my mortality estimates for the Yellow River should only be dealing

with natural mortality. The catch curve resulted in an estimate of 8.5% total annual

mortality (Figure 5). This mortality rate is lower than the mortality estimate from the

Beverton and Holt equation of 11.8%. Due to a low sample size, under-represented (< 5

fish) age classes were present, but had to be included in the catch curve. I have less

confidence in the catch curve estimate due to low sample size, missing year classes and

high variation in length-at-age data (Table 3). The high variation in length-at-age for

Gulf sturgeon makes them a poor candidate for estimating age structure with an age-

length key. For example, fish ranging in size from 172-175.9 cm FL ranged in age from

10-20 years in age (Table 3).

The age bias plots between readers shows that there was slight bias present, most

likely due to the difficulty in assigning ages to older fish. The major problem

encountered in older fish was crowding of annuli, which is not uncommon for long-lived

species (Huff 1975; Dovel and Berggren 1983; Brennan and Cailliet 1989; Rien and

Beamesderfer 1994, Laura Jenkins, USFWS, personal communication). Age precision

(CV) for Yellow River Gulf sturgeon pectoral fin rays was 3.357% between readers.

This is lower than reported by Stevenson and Secor (1999) for Atlantic sturgeon (4.5%),

and by Rien and Beamesderfer (1994) for white sturgeon (7.8%), although, it is within

the range of reported values for other species (Rien and Beamesderfer 1994; Stevenson

and Secor 1999). However, Stevenson and Secor (1999) and Rien and Beamesderfer









(1994) were dealing with longer-lived sturgeon species and increased ages may be

responsible for less precise age estimates.

Inaccurate age estimates for any species, including Gulf sturgeon can cause

problems for resource managers (Archibald et al. 1983; Leaman and Nagtegaal 1987;

Rien and Beamesderfer 1994; Pine et al. 2001; Tate and Allen 2002) because

underestimating the age of sturgeon can affect estimates of life history parameters and

population dynamics. Fin ray sections in this study were removed at 15% from the point

of articulation, resulting in some loss of annuli. Underestimating the ages of Gulf

sturgeon could result in over-estimates of mortality and growth for the population. In

white sturgeon, ages determined from pectoral fin rays underestimate the true age of large

fish (Rien and Beamesderfer 1994; Paragamian and Beamesderfer 2003). Management

decisions regarding sturgeon are in part influenced by estimates of population parameters

(ie., size, mortality, growth) supplied by researchers (Dadswell 1979; Smith 1984; Smith

and Clugston 1997), and care must be exercised.

Based on the number of large sturgeon in the river, the estimates of population

size over three years, and the capture of age-0 sturgeon, the Yellow River Gulf sturgeon

population seems to be a viable (i.e., regularly reproducing) population. The population

produces offspring with the capability of reproducing, and the population seems to be

stable under the present conditions, although three years may not be sufficient to

recognize changes in population size. The catch data were skewed towards larger fish,

which is most likely not attributable to gear bias because the mesh size used in this study

effectively captures any fish over 88.1 cm FL. Although our nets were not targeting fish

smaller than 100 cm TL, we captured 15 fish in the Yellow River <100 cm TL, the









smallest being only 80 cm TL. However, a 30.5-cm (young-of-the-year) Gulf sturgeon

was collected by USGS using an electrofishing boat. Thus, age 0-1 fish were present,

indicating successful reproduction at some level. However, attempts to capture eggs at

probable spawning locations in the Yellow River through use of egg pads have been

unsuccessful to date (USGS unpublished data). The Yellow River experiences a great

variation in springtime river conditions which makes it difficult to sample for eggs. High

water and fast currents do not allow for easy access and maneuverability in the upriver

sections of the river where spawning most likely occurs. High water is often followed by

extreme low water creating log jams and exposing the river bottom making navigation

impossible.

Nevertheless, three age-0 Gulf sturgeon have been collected on the Yellow River

(Philip Kilpatrich, Alabama Game and Fish, personal communication, USGS unpublished

data). Two of the collected fish were 15.0 cm TL and were captured near "Dripping

Rock" in Alabama. Fish of this size were undoubtedly spawned in the Yellow River,

since larvae and juveniles of most sturgeon species are intolerant of salt water (Jenkins et

al. 1993; McCabe and Tracy 1994; Kynard 1997; Sulak and Clugston 1999). It is highly

unlikely these age-0 fish were spawned in a nearby river and traversed Blackwater Bay to

reach the Yellow River. In November of 2003, another age-0 sturgeon measuring 26.1

cm FL was collected by USGS 3.5 km upriver of the Highway 90 bridge (Figure 8).

This approximately 7 month old fish offers the first photographic proof that spawning

occurs in the Yellow River.

Although there is an apparent difference in Gulf sturgeon length frequencies

between the Suwannee River and the Yellow River, the maximum TL (-225 cm)









reported for other rivers (Fox and Hightower 1998; Morrow et al. 1998; Slack and Ross

1998; Slack et al. 1999; Fox et al. 2000), including the Suwannee (Sulak and Clugston

1999; Sulak and Randall 2002), is the same as the Yellow River. Reasons for the

differences in size may be related to one of three possibilities: 1) selective adaptation due

to selective harvest; 2) differences in population parameters (i.e., mortality, growth,

recruitment, sex ratio); or 3) mix of successful year classes for point-in-time snapshots of

the respective river populations.

Differences in commercial fishing efforts between rivers may have contributed to

differences in size structure between populations. The Suwannee River was fished

commercially for nearly 100 years (Hoover 2002). During the period of commercial

fishing, effort was concentrated during the spring when Gulf sturgeon were migrating

into the river to spawn. A century of commercial fishing, and the removal of large

breeding males and females, may be responsible for genetically selecting for smaller fish.

While 100 years of fishing would only allow for four generations of large breeding males

and females, impacts of selective harvest have been shown for other fish species in fewer

generations. In salmon hatcheries, where natural selection is relaxed, the overall size of

salmon eggs has rapidly decreased, and smaller egg sizes are found in wild populations

heavily supplemented by hatcheries (Heath et al. 2003). Multiple studies have noted the

reduction of length-at-age, length-at-maturity, age-at-maturity, and growth rates for fish

species exposed to size-selective harvest (Harris and McGovern 1997; Heino 1998; Chen

and Mello 1999; Haugen and Vollestad 2001). In some cases, after selective harvest was

ended, some of these life history parameters began to increase. However, Conover and









Munch (2002) warn that genetic changes in a population from selective harvest may be

irreversible.

Differences in population parameters may be responsible for the greater numbers of

large fish found in the Yellow River. The reported mortality rates for the Suwannee

River Gulf sturgeon (ages 4 to 25) are 16-17% (Sulak and Clugston 1999; Pine et al.

2001). These estimates are considerably higher than the mortality estimates found in the

Yellow River (11.8%). Yellow River Gulf sturgeon experience faster growth between

the ages of 3 to 15, based on the likelihood ratio test, and there are fewer older fish in the

Suwannee River population. Lower mortality and faster growth in the Yellow River,

may be responsible for the larger fish size.

Sex ratio is an important dynamic of the population to consider when making

comparisons between different populations. The sex ratio for the Suwannee River

population is reported as 50:50 (Huff 1975). Minimal data has been gathered on the sex

of fish in the Yellow River, and was not examined during this study. A higher ratio of

females to males in the Yellow River may explain the differences in the proportions of

large fish in the Yellow River compared to the Suwannee River, due to sexual dimorphic

growth. If the Yellow River population is composed of a high proportion of large,

reproductive females, it would have significant management implications. I did not

measure the fecundity or sex ratios for the Yellow River population, but the proportion of

large fish in the population indicates potential for increased reproductive capacity relative

to the Suwannee River population, which warrants further investigation.

A third alternate explanation is that the length/age frequency observed in the

Yellow River during each year is simply an instantaneous picture of population









dynamics. Years of successful and unsuccessful recruitment can create modes in the

length/age frequency structure of a population. In the Suwannee River, Sulak and

Clugston (1999) showed that length/age frequency structure in any given year was

controlled by strong and weak year classes. Over time, as those year classes grew, they

progressively changed the length/age frequency structure of the population. Therefore, it

could be hypothesized that the higher proportions of large fish in the Yellow River during

this 3-year study period was due to successful year classes dominating the population in

the years sampled. On average, fish in the Yellow River live longer than fish in the

Suwannee River. However, except for one occasion, fish in both populations reach a

maximum age of- 25 years (Huff 1975; Sulak and Clugston 1999; Pine et al. 2001;

Sulak and Randall 2002).

Sampling during 2001 yielded a length/age structure indicating a subadult/adult

population with two dominant modes (Figure 9), one at ca 135 140 cm FL (= ca 7 8

years old) and another at ca 160 170 cm FL (= ca 12 17 years old). A valley exists at

ca 150 cm FL (= ca 10 years old), indicating weak recruitment. Examination of the catch

data for 2002 (Figure 10) and 2003 (Figure 11) shows a similar pattern of two major

dominating modes and corresponding valleys. The valleys and peaks are not signs of

population growth or decline, but of relative strength of recruitment to the year-classes

contributing to them. The Gulf sturgeon populations dominated by widely spaced

dominate year-classes seem typical for both the Suwannee and Yellow rivers (Sulak and

Clugston 1999).

The Yellow River Gulf sturgeon population seems to be a dynamic population

impacted by years of successful and unsuccessful recruitment, translating into strong and









weak year classes. These year classes are the driving force behind the length/age

structure of the population and may change drastically from year to year. Size and age

structure of the population may change as strong year classes move through the

population and are replaced by weaker year classes. Years of high numbers of large fish

dominating the population may be followed by years when the population is dominated

by smaller subadult and adult fish.

Management Implications

The Yellow River is critical habitat for Gulf sturgeon (Federal Register 2003).

That is, the Yellow River is a geographic area that is essential for the conservation of a

threatened species that may require special management consideration or protection. The

Yellow River Gulf sturgeon population appears to be a fairly large, viable population.

Poor management decisions regarding the Yellow River Gulf sturgeon, or the critical

habitat for the species, may have long-term detrimental effects on the population in the

Yellow River and on the entire Gulf of Mexico population. Sufficient spawning habitat

and access to this habitat are the most important aspects of sturgeon life history and in the

continued survival of the species. In the nearby Escambia River, Gulf sturgeon spawning

occurs only at rkms 161 and 170 in Alabama. Similarly, allcases of age-0 fish collection

in the Yellow River have been in Alabama (Craft et al. 2001; Philip Kilpatrich, Alabama

Game and Fish, personal communication) except for one fish collected by USGS. Two

young-of-the-year fish have been collected above the proposed dam site for the Yellow

River, and the third just downstream. Large fish have been tracked far upriver near the

border using sonic and radio tags, and fish have been collected inside Conecuh National

Forest (USGS unpublished data). Impeding the passage of Gulf sturgeon to upriver









spawning locations, through dams and other man-made structures would have long-term

detrimental effects, and would likely greatly reduce or eliminate the population.

Gulf sturgeon are modern fish descended from an ancient lineage, with fossil

records dating back 200 million years. Based on current population estimates, it seems

the Yellow River supports the second largest population of Gulf sturgeon. Protection and

preservation of this natural resource for future generations should be a high priority for

public, state, and federal officials.

Future Research

Throughout the three years of research I conducted on the Yellow River, I observed

patterns of habitat use as well as other aspects of sturgeon behavior that may be worthy of

future study. Gulf sturgeon in the Yellow River do not follow the same "holding"

strategies which are common in other river systems. Typically during the summer, Gulf

sturgeon in other river systems are found in "holding areas" usually characterized as a

deep river area and a shallow sandy section (Wooley and Crateau 1985; Foster and

Clugston 1997; Sulak and Clugston 1999; Sulak and Randall 2002). Sturgeon were

captured in deep areas of the Yellow River, described as holding areas (e.g., Sturgeon

Lake) by Craft et al. 2001 during the spring. Sturgeon Lake is an oxbow in the Yellow

River virtually cutoff from the main stem. The deeper Sturgeon Lake (5-9 m)

experiences little current as compared to the rapid, shallow (1-2 m) main channel.

However, after the spring migration upriver was complete, fish were no longer captured

in these deep areas. Sturgeon were captured in shallow water straight-aways during all

sampling seasons. During the three-year study, 44 fish were captured in Sturgeon Lake

(Figure 2) and other deep holes, whereas 104 fish were captured in shallow straight-

aways. The fish captured in Sturgeon Lake were captured up until June 14th, afterwhich









no fish were ever captured in Sturgeon Lake. Fish may be using Sturgeon Lake as a

staging area to rest, out of swift currents, before continuing their upriver migration to the

spawning areas. Fishing in the shallow straight-aways was successful during all

sampling periods until the sturgeon emigrated to the bay in the fall.

The possibility of tagging response is another aspect of sturgeon behavior that may

be worthy of future consideration, especially when dealing with population estimates.

There may be a positive bias in my estimates related to a tagging response in the fish

which caused fish to leave the tagging area after being captured and tagged. The

increased number of fish never recaptured after first release suggests permanent

emigration. Telemetry studies could be implemented to determine if a tagging response

occurs, and to what degree. If Gulf sturgeon display a tagging response, it would be

important to quantify the response when estimating population size and survival.

In the Blackwater River, we observed a juvenile sturgeon hooked on a trot-line set

for catfish. This may be a considerable source of juvenile mortality (Figure 12).

Although juvenile mortality was not examined in this study, small increases in juvenile

Gulf sturgeon mortality rates can have negative impacts on the viability of the population

and should be examined in greater detail (Tate and Allen 2002).










Table 1. Reported total annual mortality rates for sturgeon species.
Species Location Percent Total Explanation Source
Annual
Mortality
Acipenser Saint John River 11.3-13.9 Dadswell 1979


brevirostrum


Acipenser
fulvescens


Aciepenser
oxyrinchus
desotoi


Acipenser
oxyrinchus
oxyrinchus

Acipenser
transmontanus


New Brunswick

Lake
Winnebago,
Wisconsin

Moose River,
Ontario

Saint-Laurent
River

Suwannee
River, Florida

Pearl River,
Mississippi

Suwannee
River, Florida

Suwannee
River, Florida

Hudson River,
New York


Sacramento-San
Joaquin Estuary,
California

Lower
Columbia River


16.7
17.3


Males
Females


Ages 8-28


22.9


Bruch 1999



Threader and
Brousseau 1986

Lamoureux and
LaForce 1991


Huff 1975


33.6


Ages 2-25


16-17


Females
Males


13.9


Ages 12-17


Morrow et al.
1998

Sulak and
Clugston 1999

Pine et al. 2001


Stevenson 1997


Miller 1972a


Devore et al.
1995


Sacramento-
San Joaquin
Estuary,
California


12-16


Kohlhorst 1980


Columbia River,
Oregon-
Washington


Two different
populations


Beamesderfer et
al. 1995









Table 2. A summary table for the Yellow River, Florida, Gulf sturgeon population
estimate including capture probability and number of fish captured.
Number of
Sampling Number of Capture Population Confidence
First
Occasion trs Recaptures Probability Estimate Interval
Captures
Summer
summer 101 N/A N/A N/A N/A
2001
Fall 2001 82 16 0.173 566 378-943
Summer
summer 48 23 0.142 500 319-816
2002
Fall 2002 29 11 0.053 754 408-1428
Summer
summer 75 26 0.120 841 487-1507
2003
Fall 2003 59 29 0.102 911 550-1550













Table 3. An age-length key created for the Yellow River age and catch data. The numbers in the table correspond to the number of
fish at a given age for each size group.
Age in Years
FL(cm) 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
88.1-91.9
92-95.9 4
96-99.9
100-103.9 3 2
104-107.9 1 2
108-111.9 3


1 2
2 2
3 1
1 3 3
3 2


2 2

1 1 3
3
4
4


1 4


2
5 1


112-115.9
116-119.9
120-123.9
124-127.9
128-131.9
132-135.9
136-139.9
140-143.9
144-147.9
148-151.9
152-155.9
156-159.9
160-163.9
164-167.9
168-171.9
172-175.9
176-179.9
180-183.9
184-187.9













Table 4. A table of all Gulf sturgeon that were captured in the Yellow or Blackwater rivers, Florida, that were initially tagged in a
different river. This does not include fish located in other rivers via sonic tags. In Tagging Agency, the following
organizations are noted: Northwest Florida Aquatic Preserves (NWFAP), United States Geological Survey (USGS), United
States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and University of Southern Mississippi (USM).
Fish Number Recapture River Recapture Date Pit Tag Number Tagging Agency River Date Tagged
Tagged


Blackwater
Blackwater
Yellow
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Yellow
Blackwater
Yellow
Blackwater
Blackwater
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow


7/10/2002
5/31/2002
6/12/2001
7/10/2002
5/29/2003
7/10/2002
7/26/2001
6/19/2002
10/9/2001
8/2/2002
6/19/2002
5/6/2002
9/30/2002
6/18/2002
5/29/2002
10/16/2002
10/16/2002
5/30/2003
6/19/2002
7/10/2002
7/10/2002
7/10/2002
7/10/2002
6/19/2002
7/21/2003


4229011E5E
422616447D
4179327266
417928165A
41794D401D
422067637B
4179506F76
522067637B
42354B1D68
423558254C
423A64213
000-328-628
422E1D2F78
420A783F47
4204083037
4238062155
422F4C727D
4203786A17
42304E5C12
422F35137D
422E145240
420B10024F
7F7D377924
7F7E6B3F5E
423050085F


USGS
USGS
USM
USGS
USGS
USGS
NWFAP
USGS
Unknown
USGS
USGS
Unknown
Unknown
USFWS
USFWS
Unknown
USFWS
USFWS
USFWS
USFWS
Unknown
Unknown
Unknown
USFWS
USFWS


Yellow
Yellow
Pascagoula
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Escambia
Yellow
Unknown
Yellow
Yellow
Unknown
Unknown
Choctawhatchee
Choctawhatchee
Unknown
Choctawhatchee
Choctawhatchee
Choctawhatchee
Choctawhatchee
Unknown
Unknown
Unknown
Escambia
Choctawhatchee


6/12/2001
6/12/2001
6/14/2000
6/14/2000
6/19/2001
7/25/2001
9/14/2000
7/26/2001
Unknown
10/15/2001
10/23/2001
Unknown
Unknown
10/30/1999
10/23/1999
Unknown
10/15/2000
10/25/1999
11/8/2001
11/11/2000
Unknown
Unknown
Unknown
6/29/1995
10/18/2001


10,022
10,024
10,028
10,044
10,051
10,064
10,069
10,077
10,133
10,150
10,184
10,193
10,231
10,256
10,257
10,259
10,260
10,274
10,330
10,332
10,334
10,336
10,337
10,341
10,343












Table 4. Continued.
Fish Number Recapture River Recapture Date Pit Tag Number Tagging Agency River Date Tagged
Tagged
10,355 Yellow 7/22/2003 420B215C00 USFWS Choctawhatchee 10/25/1999
10,356 Yellow 7/22/2003 422F2B7E28 USFWS Escambia 6/19/2002
10,361 Yellow 7/22/2003 42304A1D44 USFWS Choctawhatchee 10/22/2000
10,373 Yellow 7/31/2003 42286F2D1A USFWS Escambia 6/12/2002
10,392 Yellow 8/21/2003 422F4F0878 USFWS Escambia 6/20/2002



































1, Pearl River C ih.....M.'..l.iI,, .e Pr F er

2, Pascagoula R.i ai.;i''la Ri er
3. Escambia Ri cr 5 .chlc.lk..1ii' Fi .l

4 Blackwater Ri.e uar F.r.

5. Yellow River
O 50 100 15i0 j0i C i KTrr,


Figure 1. A map of the northern Gulf of Mexico with rivers inhabited by Gulf sturgeon
highlighted.





































nw River Florida


Figure 2. A map and aerial photographs representing the Yellow River and Blackwater
River, Florida, including the major sampling sites.


- ,I.LII





















IL OIU1316Y


WS VIM N3HN ISWLIAS-O




Figure 3. Photograph of the two tag types used during this study. A T-bar tag is shown
on top with a PIT tag underneath.


JJEiL.' "I
777-D


z












25



20



15



10



5

CV = 3.357%


0 5 10 15 20 25

Age estimated by Ager 1
Figure 4. An age bias plot of pairwise age comparisons between two agers for 92 fish.
The errors bars represent the 95% confidence interval about the mean age
assigned by ager 2 for all fish at a given age, aged by ager 1. The 1:1
reference line is also plotted for comparison.






40



S3.5

3

2.5
*a 2
02

S1.5

I 1

0.5

0
0 5 10 15 20 25

Age in Years
Figure 5. Catch curve for Yellow River Gulf sturgeon based on number-at-age data
collected during the summer and fall of 2001. Ages with no fish were not
included in the catch curve.














N=247


4 C^ \ 1\ \ \\ \^ ? 6


Fork Length (cm)


N=395


12

10

S8
= 6








Fork Length (cm)

Figure 6. The top chart is a length frequency histogram for Gulf sturgeon captured in
the Yellow River, Florida, during 2001-2002, and the bottom is a percent
frequency histogram of Gulf sturgeon captured in the Suwannee River,
Florida during 2001-2002.


1-1 1-


~~~i















200
0 0
180 -

160 -

-. 140 -
0
120 --

S100 o0


40
6 80



40 Lt=180.3 (1-e-0 681(1+1 571|) -Yelo\N River
0 Lt=222.2 (1 -e008042(+21 18)) Suwannee River
20 ..
0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Age (years)
Figure 7. Von Bertalanffy growth model fit to observed length-at-age data for Yellow
River, Florida, Gulf sturgeon, fall and summer 2001, and a von Bertalanffy
growth model fit to observed length-at-age data for Suwannee River, Florida
Gulf sturgeon.


Figure 8. Photograph of a 26.1-cm FL Gulf sturgeon captured in the Yellow River,
Florida, approximately 3.5 km upriver of the Highway 90 bridge.












N=175


Fork Length (cm)

Figure 9. A length frequency histogram for Yellow River, Florida, Gulf sturgeon
captured during 2001.



N=72


Fork Length (cm)


Figure 10. A length frequency histogram for Yellow River, Florida,
captured during 2002.


Gulf sturgeon


0^ ^ ^ <^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ C^ I














N=129


Fork Length (cm)


Fork Length (cm)


Figure 11. A length frequency histogram for Yellow River, Florida,
captured during 2003.


tE


Gulf sturgeon


I;


S.


S

pu


*-"7

^r




.Fu 1.



Figure 12.


' -. .. 7 *


e. o .
4t



". .,- .... *J _


A 61.8 cm TL Gulf sturgeon captured on a fisherman's catfish trot-line in
Coopers Basin on the Blackwater River, found and released by my research
team.


*.dm
-b,














APPENDIX
CATCH DATA FOR THE YELLOW AND BLACKWATER RIVERS (2001-2003)












Table A-1. Catch data for the yellow and blackwater rivers (2001-2003)


Number
10,001
10,002
10,003
10,003
10,004
10,005
10,006
10,006
10,006
10,007
10,007
10,007
S10,007
10,008
10,008
10,009
10,009
10,010
10,011
10,012
10,012
10,013
10,013
10,014
10,015
10,016
10,017


Obs
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
2
0
1
2
3
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0


Capture Date
10/14/2002
6/9/2001
6/9/2001
6/27/2003
6/9/2001
6/9/2001
6/9/2001
8/21/2002
7/31/2003
6/9/2001
10/7/2001
5/6/2002
10/10/2002
6/9/2001
10/11/2001
6/9/2001
7/26/2001
6/10/2001
6/10/2001
6/10/2001
10/12/2003
6/11/2001
10/5/2001
6/11/2001
6/11/2001
6/11/2001
6/11/2001


River
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow


Status
V
V
V
R
V
V
V
R
R
V
R
R
R
V
R
V
R
V
V
V
R
V
R
V
V
V
V


T-bar Left
9503
G1082
G1085
G1085
G1087
G1089
G1091
G1091
G1091
G1093
G1093
G1093
G1093
G1096
G1096
G1098
G1098
G1076
G1079
G1080
G2963
G1002
G1002
G1004
G1022
G1024
G1452


T-bar Right
9504
G1083
G1084
G1084
G1086
G1088
G1092
G1092
G1082
G1094
G1094
G1094
G1094
G1095
G1095
G1097
G1097
G1077
G1078
G1081
G1081
G1001
G1001
G1005
G1023
G1025
G1451


Pit Tag
420B2C1470
4179454169
4179466A48
4179466A48
4179123959
4179541738
422637085B
422637085B
422637085B
4179291A12
4179291A12
4179291A12
4179291A12
41790E0913
41790E0913
4179475F18
4179475F18
41793A6158
4179335E2D
41791D5828
41791D5828
422GOF2111
42260F2111
4226185056
42261F6058
4228722B17
41792F6621


TL(mm)
1482
1426
1604
1650
1450
1788
1921
1919
1962
1000
1002
1098
1096
1424
1450
1540
1538
1818
1874
1264
1520
1478
1486
1970
1546
1812
1640


FL(mm)
1316
1256
1412
1450
1266
1570
1736
1732
1772
888
898
976
974
1240
1264
1374
1370
1622
1650
1090
1310
1340
1335
1760
1378
1636
1482


Wt(gm)
17750
18000
30500
30750
18000
40000
50000
40000
50500
5500
5500
9000
7000
18300
18500
21250
19500
45000
47000
11750
22500
23250
22250
53000
26250
47500
27750


Age


9

7
10
10







6

8

10
10







10
16












Table A-1. Continued.


Number
10,017
10,018
10,018
10,019
10,019
10,019
10,019
10,020
10,020
10,021
10,022
10,022
10,022
10,023
10,023
10,024
10,024
10,025
10,026
10,027
10,027
10,027
10,028
10,029
10,029
10,030
10,030


Obs
1
0
1
0
1
2
3
0
1
0
0
1
2
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
2
0
0
1
0
1


Capture Date
7/22/2003
6/11/2001
10/6/2001
6/11/2001
7/26/2001
6/18/2002
10/12/2003
6/11/2001
7/31/2003
6/12/2001
6/12/2001
7/10/2002
8/2/2002
6/12/2001
7/27/2001
6/12/2001
5/31/2002
6/12/2001
6/12/2001
6/12/2001
10/17/2001
10/10/2003
6/12/2001
6/12/2001
8/21/2002
6/12/2001
10/8/2001


River
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Blackwater
Blackwater
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Blackwater
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow


Status
R
V
R
V
R
R
R
V
R
V
V
R
R
V
R
V
R
V
V
V
R
R
V
V
R
V
R


T-bar Left
G1452
G1454
G1454
G1455
G1455
G1455
G1455
G1457
G1457
8595
G1007
G1007
G1007
G1008
G1008
G1010
G1010
G1012
G1014
G1016
G1016
G1016
G1460
G1462
G1462
G1465
G1465


T-bar Right
G1451
G1453
G1453
G1456
G1456
G1456
G1456
G1458
G1458
G1461
G1006
G1379
G1379
G1009
G1009
G1011
G1011
G1013
G1015
G1017
G1017
G1017
G1459
G1463
G1825
G1464
G1464


Pit Tag
41792F6621
4226381C17
4226381C17
41791B7D79
41791B7D79
41791B7D79
41791B7D79
4179086821
4179086821
7F7D353B7B
4229011E5E
4229011E5E
4229011E5E
42257A1C02
42257A1C02
422616447D
422616447D
42261D6A32
42287E4067
4226116064
42376F7E69
42376F7E69
4179327266
4179345614
4179345616
4179424950
4179424950


TL(mm)
1638
1232
1232
1162
1160
1274
1490
2052
2050
1788
1758
1831
1830
1430
1414
1630
1700
1670
1780
910
938
1172
1820
1888
1880
1016
1032


FL(mm)
1472
1040
1102
1034
1103
1126
1331
1840
1837
1590
1540
1600
1610
1250
1250
1450
1510
1480
1580
810
832
1032
1644
1690
1676
892
907


Wt(gm)
24250
11000
10750
11000
7600
13000
17800
62200
60900
41000
39000
32500
41500
17000
15000
30000
32500
30500
41000
4100
4500
9000
41250
51500
47500
5750
5750


Age




3




18

8






8

12
9

3

9
14












Table A-1. Continued.


Number
10,031
10,032
10,033
10,034
10,035
10,036
10,037
10,038
10,038
10,039
10,039
10,039
10,039
10,040
10,040
10,040
10,041
10,041
10,042
10,043
10,044
10,044
10,045
10,046
10,047
10,048
10,048


Obs
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
2
3
0
1
2
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1


Capture Date
6/12/2001
6/12/2001
6/12/2001
6/13/2001
6/13/2001
6/13/2001
6/13/2001
6/13/2001
7/22/2003
6/13/2001
6/18/2002
5/28/2003
7/31/2003
6/13/2001
10/17/2001
10/22/2002
6/13/2001
10/6/2001
6/14/2001
6/14/2001
6/14/2001
7/10/2002
6/14/2001
6/14/2001
6/14/2001
6/14/2001
10/16/2001


River
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Blackwater
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow


Status
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
R
V
R
R
R
V
R
R
V
R
V
V
V
R
V
V
V
V
R


T-bar Left
G1466
G1468
G1470
G1019
G1177
G1179
G1252
G1253
G1253
G1255
G1255
G2877
G2827
G1474
G1474
G1474
G1475
G1475
G1181
G1182
G1184
G1184
G1186
G1188
G1190
G1257
G1257


T-bar Right
G1467
G1469
G1471
G1018
G1178
G1180
G1251
G1254
G1254
G1256
G1256
G1256
G1256
G1473
G1473
G1473
G1176
G1176
9542
G1183
G1185
G1185
G1187
G1189
Gl1191
G1258
G1258


FL(mm) Wt(gm) Age


Pit Tag
41794F407A
41792F0910
4179541873
42286D3652
4179243721
4179535E5B
4229073349
42286E5241
4313120D60
4226034F58
4226034F58
4226034F58
4226034F58
4179067B74
4179067B74
4179067B74
4179443757
4179443757
42034F5F57
4179113455
417928165A
417928165A
41792B3709
4179410506
41792F5246
422571315A
422571315A


TL(mm)
1514
1616
2024
1160
1906
1768
1096
1880
1924
1820
1834
1848
1842
1226
1248
1290
1349
1360
1966
1458
2000
2006
1568
1476
1782
1560
1568


1362
1447
1844
1080
1714
1596
952
1680
1722
1680
1622
1632
1636
1074
1092
1130
1188
1200
1828
1286
1778
1780
1390
1318
1606
1360
1372


21250
28250
56500
9800
49000
43500
7600
46000
45000
45000
43500
46000
40900
10500
11000
11000
14000
13250
59750
17500
51000
55000
27500
18750
41000
24000
24250












Table A-1. Continued.


Number
10,049
10,049
10,049
10,050
10,051
10,051
10,051
10,051
10,051
10,052
10,053
10,054
10,054
10,055
10,055
10,056
10,057
10,058
10,058
10,059
10,060
10,061
10,062
10,063
10,063
10,064
10,064


Obs
0
1
2
0
0
1
2
3
4
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1


Capture Date
6/14/2001
7/25/2001
10/9/2003
6/14/2001
6/19/2001
10/6/2001
5/3/2002
5/29/2003
6/26/2003
6/19/2001
6/19/2001
6/19/2001
10/8/2003
7/24/2001
6/18/2002
7/24/2001
7/24/2001
7/24/2001
10/27/2001
7/24/2001
7/24/2001
7/24/2001
7/24/2001
7/24/2001
5/3/2002
7/25/2001
7/10/2002


River
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Blackwater
Blackwater
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Blackwater


Status
V
R
R
V
V
R
R
R
R
V
V
V
R
V
R
V
V
V
R
V
V
V
V
V
R
V
R


T-bar Left
G1259
G1259
G1260
G1262
G1028
G1028
G1028
G1028
G1028
G1031
G1033
G1035
G2673
9533
G1828
G1244
G1248
G1250
G1250
G1477
G1478
G1481
G1483
G1485
G1485
G1238
G1238


T-bar Right
G1260
G1260
G1261
G1261
G1029
G1029
G1029
G1029
G1029
G1030
G1032
G1034
G2674
G1482
G1482
G1245
N/A
G1249
G1249
G1476
G1479
G1480
G1484
G1486
G1486
G1239
G1239


FL(mm) Wt(gm) Age


Pit Tag
417923202D
417923202D
4232676F5B
42256C4753
41794D401D
41794D401D
41794D401D
41794D401D
41794D401D
4179526757
41793BDE7D
4179440F6C
4179440F6C
41792D063C
41792D063C
42287D1409
4226304635
4225676E11
4225676E11
41790A370A
41794A4062
4179623E4E
41791FOF45
41790A5544
41790A5544
422067637B
422067637B


TL(mm)
1410
1404
1335
1420
1498
1482
1568
1620
1600
1505
1359
1397
1222
1791
1802
1040
1085
955
996
1270
1319
1857
1368
1878
1892
1774
1812


1290
1293
1190
1250
1308
1306
1380
1428
1480
1346
1181
1257
1386
1592
1600
920
1040
835
870
1200
1064
1684
1200
1702
1702
1568
1600


21000
20250
13500
18000
19958
19500
25500
30000
27000
18938
12701
16551
15500
44750
41000
11000
16500
7500
4000
12000
13000
46000
15000
51500
57000
34500
37000












Table A-1. Continued.


Number
10,064
10,065
10,066
10,067
10,067
10,067
10,068
10,069
10,070
10,070
10,071
10,072
10,073
10,073
10,074
10,075
10,076
10,076
10,077
10,077
10,077
10,078
10,079
10,079
10,080
10,081
10,081


Obs
2
0
0
0
1
2
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
2
0
0
1
0
0
1


Capture Date
8/2/2002
7/25/2001
7/25/2001
7/25/2001
8/21/2003
10/3/2003
7/25/2001
7/26/2001
7/26/2001
10/18/2001
7/26/2001
7/26/2001
7/26/2001
6/25/2003
7/26/2001
7/26/2001
7/26/2001
10/6/2001
7/26/2001
10/13/2001
6/19/2002
7/26/2001
7/26/2001
6/27/2003
7/26/2001
7/26/2001
8/20/2002


River
Blackwater
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Blackwater
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow


Status
R
V
V
V
R
R
V
V
V
R
V
V
V
R
V
V
V
R
V
R
R
V
V
R
V
V
R


T-bar Left
G1238
G1240
G1242
G1487
G1750
G1550
G1490
10055
G1152
G1152
G1155
G1156
G1158
G1158
G1230
G1232
G1234
G1234
G1236
G1236
G1236
G1491
G1495
G1495
G1497
G1499
G1499


T-bar Right
G1239
G1241
G1243
G1488
G1550
G1750
G1489
10056
G1153
G1153
G1154
G1157
G1159
G1159
G1231
G1233
G1235
G1051
G1237
G1790
G1239
G1493
G1494
G1494
G1496
G1498
G1498


FL(mm) Wt(gm) Age


Pit Tag
423A4E380F
42256D0A41
41791D1A65
41790A4120
41790A4120
41790A4120
4179287C52
4179506F76
41792A2A1C
41792A2A1C
417916727D
4179194D63
4179207A2B
4179207A2B
4179214E58
4229122B05
4179293F28
4179293F28
41790EOD09
41790EOD09
522067637B
4179565431
41792B024D
41792B024D
417918196A
41792D7222
41792D7222


TL(mm)
1806
1510
1558
1350
1355
1336
1759
1800
1886
1884
1490
2058
1574
1650
1810
1102
1530
1538
1198
1212
1812
1668
1123
1370
968
1326
1449


1590
1330
1352
1218
1220
1230
1648
1588
1678
1672
1310
1827
1394
1464
1622
960
1342
1350
1050
1060
1600
1464
1000
1216
865
1182
1292


35400
21000
24250
15250
14500
15200
38000
33500
41000
40000
21000
51000
25600
30000
41200
5750
22750
24500
8000
9500
37500
29000
8500
16800
5500
13000
16000












Table A-1. Continued.


Number
10,082
10,083
10,083
10,084
10,085
10,086
10,086
10,086
10,087
10,088
10,089
10,089
10,090
10,090
10,091
10,091
10,092
10,093
10,094
10,095
10,096
10,097
10,098
10,099
10,099
10,100
10,100


Obs
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
2
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1


Capture Date
7/26/2001
7/27/2001
10/11/2003
7/27/2001
7/27/2001
7/27/2001
4/18/2003
10/12/2003
7/27/2001
7/27/2001
7/27/2001
10/7/2001
9/10/2001
6/18/2002
9/10/2001
8/20/2002
9/10/2001
9/10/2001
9/10/2001
9/10/2001
9/12/2001
9/12/2001
9/12/2001
9/12/2001
10/9/2002
9/12/2001
5/4/2002


River
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow


Status
V
V
R
V
V
V
R
R
V
V
V
R
V
R
V
R
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
R
V
R


T-bar Left
G1500
G1160
G1160
G1163
G1165
G1166
G2886
G2886
G1168
G1226
G1229
G1229
G1171
G1171
G1172
G1172
G1174
G1770
G1772
G1775
G1759
G1760
G1763
G1765
G1765
G1766
G1767


T-bar Right
G1151
G1161
G1161
G1162
G1164
G1167
G2885
G2885
G1169
G1227
G1228
G1275
G1170
G1170
G1173
G1173
G1175
G1771
G1773
G1774
G1758
G1761
G1762
G1764
G1764
G1767
G1766


FL(mm) Wt(gm) Age


Pit Tag
41790E1705
4179560E44
4179560E44
41793B190E
4226306B49
41791D5640
41791D5640
41791D5640
41793F3250
4179401261
4226376067
4226376067
7F7D381668
7F7D381668
7F7D41520F
4232077715
42304D0614
7F7D364D7B
7F7D264B7B
7F7D365B06
7F7D37181A
7F7D354245
41793D170D
4179481B53
4179481B53
42261F0938
42261F0938


TL(mm)
1510
2010
2014
1132
1541
1492
1510
1514
1778
1511
1780
1496
1480
1310
1438
1520
1880
1450
1295
1585
1258
1900
1912
1320
1402
1410
1454


1310
1800
1860
1032
1358
1316
1340
1340
1580
1340
1590
1770
1308
1488
1296
1368
1680
1300
1130
1405
1110
1710
1680
1164
1230
1220
1270


18750
52750
50500
8750
22500
18750
22750
18000
36750
18500
40750
41000
12000
16000
17000
22500
45000
18000
11000
21000
9000
46000
42750
11000
15000
13500
19000












Table A-1. Continued.


Number
10,100
10,101
10,101
10,101
10,101
10,102
10,102
10,102
10,103
10,104
10,104
10,105
10,106
10,107
10,108
10,108
10,109
10,110
10,111
10,112
10,113
10,114
10,115
10,115
10,116
10,117
10,118


Obs
2
0
1
2
3
0
1
2
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0


Capture Date
8/21/2002
9/12/2001
5/4/2002
10/17/2002
10/7/2003
10/4/2001
5/8/2002
8/21/2002
10/4/2001
10/5/2001
6/18/2002
10/5/2001
10/5/2001
10/5/2001
10/5/2001
4/18/2003
10/5/2001
10/5/2001
10/6/2001
10/6/2001
10/6/2001
10/6/2001
10/6/2001
10/5/2003
10/6/2001
10/6/2001
10/6/2001


River
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow


Status
R
V
R
R
R
V
R
R
V
V
R
V
V
V
V
R
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
R
V
V
V


T-bar Left
G1766
G1769
G1769
G1769
G1769
G1072
G1072
G1072
G1075
G1055
G1055
G1057
G1060
G1061
G1067
G1067
G1069
G1071
G1052
G1053
G1264
G1266
G1268
G1268
G1270
G1271
G1273


T-bar Right
G1767
G1768
G1768
G1768
G1768
G1073
G1073
G1073
G1074
G1056
G1056
G1058
G1059
G1062
G1063
G1063
G1068
G1070
9846
G1054
G1263
G1265
G1267
G1267
G1269
G1272
G1274


Pit Tag
42261F0938
417921461E
417921461E
417921461E
417921461E
7F7D35307B
7F7D35307B
7F7D35307B
5221121414
420B402614
420B402614
4233697C6A
4235435423
4433631E14
423372715D
423372715D
42327D392E
42353B7C2B
42033F0538
423321553A
4233076D7D
42332D7756
4232201A78
4232201A78
42355D6719
4234003A47
42336F3333


TL(mm)
1482
1680
1750
1726
1792
1272
1286
1276
1532
1814
1840
2002
1480
1476
1864
1912
1324
1532
1917
1515
1596
1542
1602
1602
1542
1832
1660


FL(mm)
1296
1500
1560
1536
1600
1178
1148
1142
1364
1632
1652
1828
1309
1318
1662
1706
1155
1386
1746
1334
1408
1366
1404
1410
1354
1630
1490


Wt(gm)
16750
24000
30500
27500
31000
11500
11500
11250
21500
40500
52500
53250
19500
20000
40000
54000
13000
23000
41250
19500
24500
20250
22750
23000
20000
45250
28500


Age

7

















4











12












Table A-1. Continued.


Number
10,119
10,120
10,121
10,121
10,122
10,122
10,122
10,123
10,123
10,124
10,124
10,125
10,126
10,126
10,126
10,127
10,128
10,128
10,129
10,130
10,130
10,131
10,132
10,133
10,134
10,135
10,136


Obs
0
0
0
1
0
1
2
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
2
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0


Capture Date
10/7/2001
10/7/2001
10/7/2001
5/28/2003
10/7/2001
5/3/2002
7/22/2003
10/7/2001
6/18/2002
10/8/2001
6/18/2002
10/8/2001
10/8/2001
8/20/2002
8/21/2003
10/8/2001
10/9/2001
4/9/2003
10/9/2001
10/9/2001
10/7/2003
10/9/2001
10/9/2001
10/9/2001
10/10/2001
10/10/2001
10/10/2001


River
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow


Status
V
V
V
R
V
R
R
V
R
V
R
V
V
R
R
V
V
R
V
V
R
V
V
V
V
V
V


T-bar Left
G1291
G1293
G1296
G1296
G1297
G1297
G1297
G1300
G1300
G1281
G1281
G1284
G1288
G1288
G1288
G1290
G10070
G2896
G1194
G1276
G1276
G1278
G1753
G1755
G1196
G1198
G1199


Age






9


T-bar Right
G1291
G1294
G1295
G1768
G1298
G1298
G1298
G1299
G1299
G1280
G1280
G1282
G1287
G1287
G1287
G1289
G1756
G2897
G1193
G1277
G1277
G1757
G1752
G1754
G1195
G1197
G1200


Pit Tag
423366647A
42332A5D58
42354F6D60
417921461E
4233294C76
4233294C76
4233294C76
423321191F
423321191F
4232676F5B
4232676F58
423321407D
42340A0078
42340A0078
42340A0078
4238032640
421C042507
421C042507
4233186A34
4235460105
4235460105
42332E1266
42327B7443
42354B1D68
4233314A63
42321C410E
42332F466F


TL(mm)
958
1510
1672
1790
1774
1806
1802
1400
1318
1141
1100
1980
1656
1654
1662
1444
1942
1978
1716
812
1042
1758
1018
1574
1920
1896
1355


FL(mm)
846
1348
1482
1590
1584
1614
1610
1298
1480
1021
1210
1850
1477
1476
1480
1302
1720
1758
1554
725
932
1570
895
1409
1696
1704
1176


Wt(gm)
4750
19500
28000
35000
36500
37000
39250
18000
21000
8000
11000
42750
24750
24000
24500
19250
46000
64000
31250
3500
6500
36500
5900
25750
45000
53500
13750












Table A-1. Continued.


Number
10,136
10,137
10,138
10,138
10,139
10,140
10,141
10,141
10,142
10,142
10,143
10,144
10,145
10,146
10,147
10,148
10,149
10,150
10,150
10,150
10,151
10,151
10,151
10,152
10,153
10,154
10,154


Obs
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
2
0
0
0
1


Capture Date
7/31/2003
10/10/2001
10/10/2001
9/20/2002
10/11/2001
10/11/2001
10/11/2001
10/4/2003
10/11/2001
7/31/2003
10/12/2001
10/14/2001
10/14/2001
10/14/2001
10/15/2001
10/15/2001
10/15/2001
10/15/2001
8/21/2003
8/2/2002
10/15/2001
10/18/2002
8/21/2003
10/15/2001
10/15/2001
10/15/2001
8/20/2002


River
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Blackwater
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow


Status
R
V
V
R
V
V
V
R
V
R
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
R
R
V
R
R
V
V
V
R


T-bar Left
G1509
G1776
G1779
G1779
G1780
G1783
G1785
G1785
G1786
G1786
G1788
G1792
G1793
G1795
G1797
G1800
G1963
G1966
G1966

G1969
G1969
G1969
G1970
G1973
G1975
G1975


T-bar Right
G1200
G1777
G1778
G1570
G1781
G1782
G1784
G1784
G1787
G1787
G1789
G1791
G1794
G1796
G1798
G1799
G1964
G1967
G1967
G1967
G1968
G1968
G1741
G1971
G1972
G1974
G1974


FL(mm) Wt(gm) Age


Pit Tag
42332F466F
42321E6D36
423559547F

42353D701C
4237786642
423409231F
423409231F
4232746621
4232746621
4232303065
42326F1354
42335F617B
4233142147
4235642342
42331A6102
4232084D32
423558254C
423558254C
423558254C
423331037F
423331037F
423331037F
4232740F3E
4233200010
4234072A46
4234072A46


TL(mm)
1392
1904
1900
1914
1236
798
1428
1490
1452
1478
1811
1882
1644
1582
1618
1772
1534
1888
1920
1880
1884
1905
1918
1608
1544
1440
1440


1210
1706
1686
1705
1010
698
1268
1312
1286
1310
1605
1680
1449
1414
1438
1580
1404
1704
1726
1710
1660
1685
1695
1420
1362
1296
1294


14000
45000
44500
41250
10500
3250
17500
19000
17000
16500
40500
44000
27500
24500
28000
37000
21500
44250
46500
47500
45000
44500
46660
21000
23000
19000
18000












Table A-1. Continued.


Number
10,155
10,156
10,157
10,158
10,159
10,160
10,160
10,160
10,161
10,161
10,162
10,162
10,163
10,164
10,165
10,165
10,166
10,167
10,168
10,169
10,170
10,171
10,172
10,173
10,174
10,175
10,176


Obs
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
2
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


Capture Date
10/16/2001
10/16/2001
10/16/2001
10/16/2001
10/16/2001
10/16/2001
5/6/2002
8/21/2003
10/16/2001
10/3/2003
10/16/2001
5/30/2002
10/16/2001
10/16/2001
10/17/2002
10/17/2001
10/17/2001
10/17/2001
10/17/2001
10/17/2001
10/17/2001
10/17/2001
10/17/2001
10/18/2001
10/18/2001
10/19/2001
10/20/2001


River
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow


Status
V
V
V
V
V
V
R
R
V
R
V
R
V
V
R
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V


T-bar Left
G1953
G1955
G1957
G1958
G1961
G1977
G1977
G1977
G1978
G1532
G1980
G1980
G1984
G1985
8439
8439
G1874
G1988
G1989
G1992
G1994
G1996
G1998
G1870
G1873
G1865
G1864


T-bar Right
G1952
G1954
G1956
G1959
G1960
G1951
G1951
G1951
G1979
G1531
G1981
G1981
G1982
G1986
G2000
G2000
G1875
G1987
G1990
G1993
G1995
G1997
G1999
G1871
G1872
G1866
G1863


FL(mm) Wt(gm) Age


Pit Tag
42330F002F
42337E6178
42355F5414
42325E4E43
4233220F3C
4234062D5F
4234062D5F
4234062D5F
4233323371
4233323371
4233264002
4233264002
4233206E02
42326E086F
4233143400
4233143400
4232071B33
4232111EOD
4235556C1F
4235447920
423050B01
4233301315
42355F3E1C
4232621969
423275747F
42354D3E17
4232716851


TL(mm)
1481
1322
1540
1168
1790
1942
1978
2006
1351
1370
1748
1762
1834
1356
1426
1436
920
1716
1150
1052
1366
1480
1501
868
1026
1528
1272


1322
1150
1362
1022
1610
1722
1766
1782
1198
1268
1620
1630
1631
1264
1270
1274
805
1518
1000
928
1220
1314
1334
774
1010
1354
1120


19250
13500
18500
9500
39500
53000
70750
55500
16000
16500
35500
38000
40250
17250
16000
17500
4500
35500
7750
6750
14000
18500
21500
4200
4250
19000
11500












Table A-1. Continued.


Number
10,176
10,177
10,178
10,179
10,180
10,180
10,181
10,182
10,183
10,184
10,184
10,185
10,186
10,187
10,188
10,189
10,190
10,191
10,192
10,193
10,194
10,195
10,196
10,196
10,197
10,198
10,198


Obs
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1


Capture Date
8/21/2002
10/21/2001
10/23/2001
10/24/2001
10/25/2001
10/12/2003
10/27/2001
10/29/2001
10/29/2001
5/2/2002
6/19/2002
5/3/2002
5/3/2002
5/3/2002
5/3/2002
5/4/2002
5/4/2002
5/4/2002
5/4/2002
5/6/2002
5/6/2002
5/6/2002
5/6/2002
4/9/2003
5/8/2002
5/8/2002
6/20/2002


River
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Blackwater
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow


Status
R
V
V
V
V
R
V
V
V
V
R
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
R
V
V
R


T-bar Left
G1864
G1862
G1860
G1855
G1853
G2997
G1851
G1897
G1899
G1877
G1877
G1101
G1879
G1880
G1882
G1884
G1886
G1889
G1890
G1892
G1895
G1947
G1950
G2898
G1936
G1937
G1937


T-bar Right
G1863
G1861
G1859
G1858
G1854
G1854
G1852
G1898
G1900
G1876
G1876
G1102
G1878
G1881
G1883
G1885
G1887
G1888
G1891
G1893
G1894
G1948
G1949
G1949
G1935
G1939
G1939


Pit Tag
4232716851
4202750B65
4232184867
42355C024E
4235621043
4235621043
4232670644
4233134255
42376E125B
423A642133
423A642133
421E551219
423A764061
42352A2F43
422E15755A
42380E3F14
423B6B3A50
000-373-832
423A6C2273
000-328-628
423364670A
423317390C
423B70252D
423B70252D
4238093337
4235162A5A
4235162A5A


TL(mm)
1276
2000
1378
1486
1090
1244
1505
1662
2244
1802
1802
1912
2010
1550
1536
1308
1172
1608
1759
1820
1790
1910
1672
1682
1470
1766
1764


FL(mm)
1124
1790
1200
1317
950
1006
1330
1498
2046
1598
1694
1797
1810
1374
1376
1160
1044
1440
1570
1636
1604
1722
1494
1502
1302
1578
1578


Wt(gm)
12000
58500
16600
20250
7000
11500
20000
29000
71500
41250
39500
55000
72000
23500
26000

10750
27750
49500
41500
48250
66000
40250
42000
19000
48000
46000


Age




8
4

















9

20
11












Table A-1. Continued.


Number
10,199
10,200
10,200
10,200
10,201
10,201
10,202
10,202
10,203
10,204
10,205
10,205
10,205
10,206
10,206
10,207
10,208
10,208
10,209
10,210
10,210
10,210
10,211
10,211
10,212
10,212
10,213


Obs
0
0
1
2
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
2
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
2
0
1
0
1
0


Capture Date
5/8/2002
5/8/2002
10/23/2002
10/12/2003
5/8/2002
10/9/2003
5/29/2002
6/18/2002
5/29/2002
5/29/2002
5/30/2002
7/9/2002
10/17/2002
6/18/2002
10/17/2002
6/18/2002
6/18/2002
8/21/2003
6/18/2002
6/18/2002
8/21/2002
6/25/2003
6/18/2002
8/20/2002
6/18/2002
10/12/2003
6/20/2002


River
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow


Status
V
V
R
R
V
R
V
R
V
V
V
R
R
V
R
V
V
R
V
V
R
R
V
R
V
R
V


T-bar Left
G1940
G1942
G1942
G1942
G1945
G1946
9842
9840
G1201
G1208
G1210
G1210
G1210
G1220
G1220
G1363
G1364
G1364
G1367
G1369
G1369
G1369
G1372
G1372
G1375
G1375
G1827


Age
17
4


7


T-bar Right
G1941
G1944
G1944
G1944
G1946
G1945
9840
9842
G1204
G1209
G1211
G1211
G1211
G1221
G2689
G1362
G1365
G1365
G1366
G1368
G1368
G1368
G1373
G1373
G1374
G1374
G1826


Pit Tag
421F01404F
4235360B6D
4235360B6D
4235360B6D
4234462807
4234462807
42037E431A
42037E431A
000-792-776
4238105E1D
422E046251
422E046251
422E046251
422E024C51
422E024C51
423A6B5731
42351C2A6A
42351C2A6A
42343B425A
421E7A6A64
421E7A6A64
421E7A6A64
4233033B58
4233033B58
4234523671
422E240626
4179554331


TL(mm)
1842
1278
1264
1400
1260
1342
1878
1874
1952
1836
1624
1628
1615
1806
1840
1895
1896
1895
1872
1500
1524
1528
2022
2026
1502
1530
1672


FL(mm)
1648
1200
1110
1238
1003
1166
1692
1689
1754
1610
1438
1441
1430
1608
1660
1700
1660
1662
1668
1340
1351
1356
1786
1786
1358
1380
1476


Wt(gm)
47500
11750
11000
16000
14500
17000
43250
41500
60000
38500
34000
31750
30750
42000
38500
47500
53000
47250
47000
21000
20500
23500
55000
51500
20500
20000
30500












Table A-1. Continued.


Number
10,213
10,214
10,215
10,216
10,216
10,217
10,217
10,218
10,219
10,220
10,221
10,222
10,222
10,223
10,224
10,225
10,225
10,226
10,227
10,228
10,229
10,230
10,231
10,232
10,233
10,233
10,234


Obs
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0


Capture Date
8/21/2003
7/9/2002
7/9/2002
7/25/2002
10/12/2002
8/20/2002
10/13/2003
8/20/2002
8/20/2002
8/20/2002
8/20/2002
8/20/2002
10/5/2003
8/20/2002
8/21/2002
8/21/2002
10/7/2003
8/21/2002
8/21/2002
8/21/2002
9/15/2002
9/15/2002
9/30/2002
10/8/2002
10/9/2002
10/24/2002
10/9/2002


River
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow


Status
R
V
V
V
R
V
R
V
V
V
V
V
R
V
V
V
R
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
R
V


T-bar Left
G1827
G1848
G1849
G1385
G2684
G1802
G1802
G1803
G1805
G1807
G1809
G1812
G1812
G1814
G1815
G1818
G1916
G1819
G1822
G1824
G1571
G1575
G1568
G1566
G1558
G1559
G1562


Age


T-bar Right
G1826
G1846
G1850
G1386
G1386
G1801
G1801
G1804
G1806
G1808
G1810
G1811
G1811
G1813
G1816
G1817
G1817
G1820
G1821
G1823
G1572
G1573
G1569
G1567
G1559
G1558
G1563


Pit Tag
4179554331
422E170F4B
4179411B10
4235366D39
4235366D39
423B5F6A20
423B5F6A20
4235230F03
42336E4117
422E1A4115
422E194748
42326B1742
42326B1742
423A6B3A34
42351F7476
4232726H16
422E18202B
4235424F18
4233132401
4235470874
422E241C2A
423A4BOC70
422E1D2F78
423A510070

423A573D19
422E00490


TL(mm)
1728
1464
1562
1840
1820
1452
1460
1882
1427
1832
1550
1612
1635
1740
1412
1076
2050
1382
898
1052
878
1544
1394
1910
1930
1936
1071


FL(mm)
1532
1292
1415
1650
1630
1288
1296
1700
1294
1648
1358
1430
1452
1528
1269
944
1840
1230
782
922
774
1376
1248
1719
1711
1720
940


Wt(gm)
32000
20500
24250
42250
41000
17000
16000
42250
19000
41500
21500
27000
26500
34000
15250
6000
74000
14000
4000
6250
3750
21000
14000
40150
42000
43000
1250












Table A-1. Continued.


Number
10,235
10,235
10,236
10,237
10,237
10,238
10,238
10,239
10,240
10,240
10,241
10,242
10,242
10,243
10,244
10,244
10,245
10,246
10,247
10,248
10,248
10,249
10,250
10,250
10,251
10,252
10,253


Obs
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0


Capture Date
10/9/2002
10/12/2002
10/9/2002
10/10/2002
10/21/2002
10/10/2002
10/4/2003
10/10/2002
10/12/2002
10/12/2003
10/17/2002
10/17/2002
10/11/2003
10/17/2002
10/17/2002
7/22/2003
10/17/2002
10/17/2002
10/18/2002
10/18/2002
5/28/2003
10/19/2002
10/19/2002
10/13/2003
10/20/2002
10/23/2002
10/23/2002


River
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow


Status
V
R
V
V
R
V
R
V
V
R
V
V
R
V
V
R
V
V
V
V
R
V
V
R
V
V
V


T-bar Left
G1829
G1829
G2676
G2678
G2678
G2681
G2681
G2682
G2686
G2686
G2691
G2692
G2692
G2695
G2697
G2697
G2699
G2700
G2346
G2948
G2948
G2943
G2944
G2344
G2941
G2937
G2939


Age


T-bar Right
G1830
G1830
G2677
G2679
G2679
G2680
G2681
G2683
G2685
G2685
G2690
G2693
G2693
G2694
G2696
G2698
G2698
G2950
G2347
G2949
G1588
G2942
G2945
G2845
G2940
G2936
G293 8


Pit Tag
42352B513B
42352B513B
4232794926
423A531B38
423A531B38
423224736B
423224736B
42332C2571
422E06207B
422E06207B
422E105462
4238153639
4238153639
4235112B06
423B700639
423B700639
42354411213
4237710FIE
4235355048
423B085A2F
423B085A2F
422E130F47
423A627D03
423A627D03
42330B051A
4235156438
4238083323


TL(mm)
1142
1142
1510
1524
1620
888
1500
960
1386
1382
1552
1440
1460
1380
1840
1852
1508
1562
1460
1910
1940
1060
962
1136
1032
1220
1620


FL(mm)
1010
1010
1338
1342
1360
870
960
810
1238
1224
1396
1274
1329
1256
1642
1666
1360
1744
1312
1714
1739
932
847
1000
926
1064
1412


Wt(gm)
7100
7000
19500
19500
19000
3500
6100
3750
15000
16500
24000
17500
19500
17000
40250
51500
20250
39000
20000
43000
52000
5500
5000
9000
6000
9000
24000












Table A-1. Continued.


Number
10,254
10,255
10,255
10,256
10,257
10,258
10,259
10,260
10,261
10,262
10,263
10,264
10,264
10,265
10,266
10,267
10,268
10,269
10,270
10,271
10,272
10,273
10,274
10,275
10,276
10,277
10,277


Obs
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1


Capture Date
10/24/2002
6/9/2001
10/9/2001
6/18/2002
5/29/2002
6/18/2002
10/16/2002
10/16/2002
3/17/2003
4/9/2003
4/11/2003
4/18/2003
6/25/2003
4/18/2003
4/29/2003
5/28/2003
5/28/2003
5/28/2003
5/28/2003
5/28/2003
5/28/2003
5/28/2003
5/30/2003
5/30/2003
5/30/2003
5/30/2003
6/25/2003


River
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow


Status
V
V
R
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
R
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
R


T-bar Left
G2935
G1100
G1100
8370
G1205
G1370
G1392
G2688
G2899
G2894
G2893
G2890
G2890
G2887
G2881
G2878
G2876
G1578
G1580
G1582
G1583
G1585
3960
G2857
G2859
G2861
G2861


Age

8


T-bar Right
G2934
8492
8492
8369
G1206
G1371
G1391
G2687
G2900
G2895
G2892
G2889
G2889
G2888
G2880
G2879
G1576
G1577
G1579
G1581
G1584
G1586
G2856
G2858
G2860
G2862
G2862


Pit Tag
42380A0339
41791D7259
41791D7259
420A783F47
4204083037
000-620-100
4238062155
422F4C727D
42353A6F56
423777003E
4233243A13
42376D0824
42376D0824
4234235605
420270367F
423B124368
4233770256
423271714A
423A691335
4234092B59
42343F0716
422E216767
4203786A17
42380DOCOD
422D795D21
4235362F74
4235362F74


TL(mm)
1852
1682
1680
1638
1611
2110
1990
1668
1480
1338
1764
1988
2000
1608

1000
1824
1906
1446
1424
1092
1668
1998
1330
1294
1465
1452


FL(mm)
1646
1490
1490
1470
1432
1910
1770
1486
1380
1260
1560
1770
1786
1424

876
1640
1742
1320
1276
965
1494
1881
1192
1140
1365
1356


Wt(gm)
40000
33500
31000
29500
28250
74000
50250
28000
24000
20500
40000
57000
43900
29500
45750
7250
43500
61000
21500
19500
9500
34750
59000
17500
14000
24000
21500












Table A-1. Continued.


Number
10,278
10,279
10,280
10,281
10,282
10,283
10,284
10,285
10,286
10,287
10,288
10,289
10,290
10,291
10,291
10,292
10,293
10,293
10,294
10,295
10,296
10,297
10,298
10,299
10,300
10,301
10,302


Obs
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


Capture Date
5/30/2003
5/30/2003
6/25/2003
6/25/2003
6/25/2003
4/18/2003
5/31/2002
5/31/2002
5/31/2002
5/31/2002
6/19/2002
6/19/2002
6/19/2002
6/19/2002
7/10/2002
6/19/2002
6/19/2002
7/10/2002
7/10/2002
7/10/2002
7/10/2002
8/2/2002
8/2/2002
8/2/2002
8/2/2002
7/10/2002
7/10/2002


River
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater


Status
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
R
V
V
R
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V


T-bar Left
G2863
G2865
G2867
G2869
G2872
G2882
G1213
G1215
G1216
G1219
G1351
G1353
G1355
G1357
G1357
G1359
G1360
G1360
G1378
G1381
G1384
G1388
G1390
G1392
G1394
G1832
G1834


Age


T-bar Right
G2864
G2866
G2868
G2870
G2871
G2883
G1212
G1214
G1217
G1218
G1222
G1352
G1354
G1356
G1356
G1358
G1361
G1361
G1377
G1380
G1383
G1387
G1389
G1391
G1393
G1376
G1833


Pit Tag
423A5F3D4E
423A585034
4235186477
423275601B
41794D1F51
423A6D3948
423A583E26
7F7D322522
423B5D6035
423A693E49
423320190B
423A545B3E
7F7D35232A
423513692C
423513692C
4235106E52
422E222B31
422E222B31
423534672C
4235453E40
4234042047
422DOE3D
42351C6F2A
4238062155
4235386654
42377A1A7D
7F7D403E42


TL(mm)
1881
1328
1832
1610
1974
1424
1806
1676
1938
2022
1362
1634
2120
1760
1760
1820
1610
1784
1731
1800
1944
1510
1740
1970
1790
1691
1876


FL(mm)
1720
1180
1650
1430
1782
1265
1628
1488
1734
1826
1186
1444
1930
1608
1606
1634
1794
1600
1534
1651
1756
1350
1560
1755
1590
1476
1682


Wt(gm)
57250
18250
49000
24500
58000
20500
43500
30500
50000
69500
16500
26000
72000
42500
41250
49500
42750
42000
35500
47250
54750
22000
34000
53000
39500
33000
54500












Table A-1. Continued.


Number
10,303
10,304
10,305
10,306
10,307
10,308
10,309
10,310
10,311
10,312
10,312
10,313
10,314
10,315
10,316
10,317
10,318
10,319
10,320
10,321
10,322
10,323
10,324
10,325
10,326
10,327
10,328


Obs
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


Capture Date
7/10/2002
7/10/2002
7/10/2002
6/19/2002
6/19/2002
6/19/2002
6/19/2002
6/19/2002
6/19/2002
6/19/2002
6/26/2003
6/19/2002
6/19/2002
6/19/2002
6/19/2002
5/29/2003
5/29/2003
5/29/2003
5/29/2003
5/29/2003
5/29/2003
5/29/2003
6/26/2003
6/26/2003
6/26/2003
6/26/2003
6/26/2003


River
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater


Status
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
R
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V


T-bar Left
G1840
G1842
G1844
G1903
G1907
G1909
G1910
G1914
G1915
G1916
G1916
G1918
G1920
G1922
G1924
G1590
G1591
G1593
G1595
G1598
G1600
G2855
G2873
G1703
G1705
G1706
G1708


Age


T-bar Right
G1839
G1843
G1845
G1904
G1906
G1908
G1911/G1912
G1913
G1223
G1917
G1917
G1224
G1919
G1921
G1923
G1587
G1592
G1594
G1596
G1597
G1599
G2852
G2874
G1701
G1704
G1707
G1709


Pit Tag
4235254E32
7F7D36426C
42351F6408
42380A6759
4235303727
42354B6013
522104331D
41793E2A7C
5220607F26
422E18202B
422E18202B
42352A5238
42380F1452
4237711E43
4179540451
4233044468
423B202637
4235371D29
42320B320E
42326A5B73
42353C177F
4235255729
4179387375
423B336E17
422D7F692D
42327A2A38
423B65497F


TL(mm)
1655
1716
1610
1724
1532
2070
1614
1818
1796
2052
2064
1806
1694
1732
1612
1769
1868
1604
1802
1956
1746
1706
1875
2000
1466
1780
1785


FL(mm)
1476
1542
1439
1540
1344
1890
1420
1614
1582
1840
1850
1624
1490
1580
1422
1559
1672
1410
1622
1750
1529
1529
1652
1794
1325
1565
1590


Wt(gm)
30500
36250
27500
36000
24000
63000
30500
41500
42500
65250
65000
41500
32250
38000
29000
37000
45500
25000
42000
61000
36250
37500
45500
54500
18000
43000
40500












Table A-1. Continued.


Number
10,329
10,330
10,331
10,332
10,333
10,334
10,335
10,335
10,336
10,337
10,338
10,339
10,340
10,341
10,342
10,343
10,344
10,345
10,346
10,347
10,348
10,349
10,350
10,351
10,351
10,352
10,353


Obs
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0


Capture Date
6/26/2003
6/19/2002
6/26/2003
7/10/2002
6/19/2002
7/10/2002
7/10/2002
8/21/2003
7/10/2002
7/10/2002
6/27/2003
6/27/2003
6/27/2003
7/19/2003
7/21/2003
7/21/2003
7/21/2003
7/21/2003
7/21/2003
7/21/2003
7/22/2003
7/22/2003
7/22/2003
7/22/2003
8/21/2003
7/22/2003
7/22/2003


River
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Yellow
Blackwater
Blackwater
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow


Status
V
R/V
V
R/V
R/V
R/V
R/V
R/V
R/V
R/V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
R
V
V


T-bar Left
G1710
05764
G1714
08587
10147
Al1161
G1382
G1832
G1837
G1841
G1715
G1717
9238
G1719
G1721
G1724
G1676
G1679
G1681
G1682
G1685
G1686
G1688
G1690
G1690
G1695
G1697


Age


T-bar Right
G1711
05763
G1713
G1838
G1905
Al 162
9838
9838
G1835
8636
G1716
G1718
8486
G1720
G1722
G1725
G1677
G1678
G1680
G1683
G1684
G1687
G1689
G1692
G1692
G1693
G1696


Pit Tag
4235233873
42304E5C12
423B726D75
422F35137D
4226205704
422E145240
420B3E4903
420B3E4903
420B10024F
7F7D377924
423B3F451E
4237793C23
4233030C28
435F7E5C66
43103D427E
423050085F
42355E522E
42377B5D1D
43132B4A26
4235423263
4311051E6D
430E722838
431072515E
4310466460
431046646D
42354C1A1A
423797203D


TL(mm)
1910
1928
1580
1582
1550
1600
1523
1619
1776
1952
1820
1488
1981
n/a
1950
1876
1638
1902
1826
1430
1836
1800
1944
1964
1960
1946
1683


FL(mm)
1695
1736
1392
1402
1474
1448
1334
1421
1586
1774
1635
1315
1794
1280
1788
1670
1446
1740
1640
1278
1646
1616
1738
1732
1732
1740
1542


Wt(gm)
57000
53000
25900
26000
30500
29000
22500
24500
43750
54000
41500
18500
52000

50250
46100
25100
55000
41000
17900
42500
34500
51100
48750
48500
48900
28000












Table A-1. Continued.


Number
10,354
10,355
10,356
10,357
10,358
10,359
10,359
10,360
10,361
10,362
10,363
10,363
10,364
10,365
10,366
10,367
10,368
10,369
10,370
10,370
10,371
10,371
10,372
10,373
10,374
10,374
10,375


Obs
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0


Capture Date
7/22/2003
7/22/2003
7/22/2003
7/22/2003
7/22/2003
7/22/2003
10/11/2003
7/22/2003
7/22/2003
7/22/2003
7/22/2003
10/2/2003
7/22/2003
7/22/2003
7/22/2003
7/30/2003
7/30/2003
7/31/2003
7/31/2003
10/10/2003
7/31/2003
10/11/2003
7/31/2003
7/31/2003
7/31/2003
10/12/2003
7/31/2003


River
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Blackwater
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow


Status
V
V
V
V
V
V
R
V
V
V
V
R
V
V
R
V
V
V
V
R
V
R
V
R/V
V
R
V


T-bar Left
G1698
3648
G1675
G1672
G1670
G1668
G1668
G1667
G1665
G1662
G1661
G1661
G1658
G1656
G1655
G1652
G1651
G1503
G1504
G1504
G1506
G1506
G1510
G1513
G1514
G1514
G1517


Age


T-bar Right
G1699
G1700
G1674
G1673
G1671
G1669
G2980
G1666
G1664
G1663
G1660
G1660
G1659
G1657
G1654
G1653
G1501
G1502
G1505
G1505
G1507
G1507
G1511
G1512
G1515
G1515
G1516


Pit Tag
430E762F39
420B215C00
422F2B7E28
430E6ADE2E
422EOC2746
42380B4277
42380B4277
4315453502
42304AID44
4310435854
4313103231
4313103231
423A67122A
42351D512B
42261F6D58
423B6D380F
42286D2002
430E67284C
42355F3832
42355F3832
4235260816
4235260816
43132D4201
42286F2D1A
43132A742D
43132A742D
43131A7662


TL(mm)
1874

2046
1370
1896
1738
1756
1710
1766
1788
1820
1800
1986
1738
1574
1676
1742
1835
1482
1480
1742
1816
1480

1504
1540


FL(mm)
1742

1858
1220
1688
1540
1557
1510
1578
1582
1624
1664
1818
1554
1406
1530
1512
1666
1310
1310
1548
1618
1310
1412
1332
1362
1804


Wt(gm)
43250
54250
63000
15000
40500
33000
32500
32250
38500
38000
43250
41000
46500
34500
24500
29500
30000
42200
18750
20000
35500
36000
21500
22200
21000
22000
54000












Table A-1. Continued.


Number
10,376
10,377
10,378
10,379
10,380
10,381
10,382
10,383
10,384
10,385
10,386
10,387
10,388
10,389
10,390
10,391
10,392
10,393
10,394
10,394
10,395
10,396
10,397
10,398
10,399
10,400
10,401


Obs
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


Capture Date
7/31/2003
7/31/2003
7/31/2003
7/31/2003
7/31/2003
7/31/2003
8/21/2003
8/21/2003
8/21/2003
8/21/2003
8/21/2003
8/21/2003
8/21/2003
8/21/2003
8/21/2003
8/21/2003
8/21/2003
8/21/2003
10/10/2003
6/19/2002
10/10/2003
10/10/2003
10/10/2003
10/10/2003
10/11/2003
10/11/2003
10/11/2003


River
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Blackwater
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow


Status
V
V
R/V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
R/V
V
V
R/V
V
V
R/V
V
R/V
V
V


T-bar Left
G1518
G1521
G1522
G1523
G1726
G1728
G1729
G1731
G1733
G1736
G1738
G1740
G1743
G1744
G1747
G1549
G1546
G1544
G2807
G1902
G2805
G2803
9240
G2976
G2978
G2982
G2984


Age


T-bar Right
G1519
G1520
8436
G1524
G1525
G1727
G1730
G1732
G1734
G1735
G1737
G1739
G1742
G1745
G1746
G1548
G1547
G1545
G2806
G1901
G2804
G2802
G2801
G2977
G2979
G2981
G2983


Pit Tag
43103FOE3C
423B47063D
423802207A
423B5E587D
4232637B33
423A6C1420
431307006B
43130C2929
4315674A3D
4310595D31
4312723BF3B
436010547A
4310436D10
43106249DA
43153A400D
43112E2E23
422F4F0878
4233161838
42337A2868
7F7E6B3F5E
423332455B
423364D78
42331C1359
4232677557
42286F564F
423310352F
4238140464


TL(mm)
1754
1585
1654
1999
1576
1847
2010
1876
1834
1786
1795
1608
2062
1955
1746
1945
1698
1792
1554
1800
1350
1424
1993
1160
1550
1941
950


FL(mm)
1560
1408
1472
1880
1390
1618
1810
1648
1632
1575
1590
1430
1848
1745
1535
1710
1522
1600
1380
1590
1290
1259
1766
990
1378
1718
934


Wt(gm)
34000
23500
24500
68750
23900
38000
56250
37000
40000
40000
33333
24000
52500
44500
31500
44000
31000
38750
19500
43000
14250
17000
54500
7000
21000
49000
5000












Table A-1. Continued.


Number
10,402
10,403
10,404
10,405
10,406
10,407
10,408
10,409
10,410
10,411
10,412
10,413
10,414
10,415
10,416
10,417
10,418
10,419
10,420
10,421
10,422
10,423
10,424
10,425
10,426
10,427
10,428


Obs
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


Capture Date
10/11/2003
10/11/2003
10/11/2003
10/11/2003
10/11/2003
10/11/2003
10/11/2003
10/11/2003
10/12/2003
10/12/2003
10/12/2003
10/12/2003
10/12/2003
10/12/2003
10/12/2003
10/12/2003
10/12/2003
10/12/2003
10/12/2003
10/12/2003
10/12/2003
10/13/2003
10/13/2003
10/13/2003
10/13/2003
10/13/2003
10/13/2003


River
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow


Status
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
R/V
V
V
R/V
R/V
V
V
V
R/V
V


T-bar Left
G2986
G2988
G2990
G2991
G2993
G2954
G2956
G2958
G2960
G2962
G2964
G2968
G2970
G2995
G2999
G3000
G2828
G2829
G2831
G2833
G2972
G2974
G2836
G2838
G2840
06942
G2842


Age


T-bar Right
G2985
G2987
G2989
G2992
G2994
G2952
G2955
G2957
G2959
G2967
G2965
G2967
G2969
G2996
G2998
G2971
G2827
G2830
G2832
G2834
G2973
G2975
G2835
G2837
G2839
06943
G2841


Pit Tag
42337F6358
42321A1041
4232710768
42327B3945
4238025F35
423409796A
42355C2540
423775672E
42327D3A39
42355C6E68
423369561B
42355C4C5F
4234056727
423452551C
4233036C52
4233323145
42353A6524
4233706253
4233134E09
42327B5D25
42303D7D5B
422F3F6D21
42355F1659
4234082979
42331FOB12
42354B4856
4233793334


TL(mm)
1452
1449
1774
1026
1362
1647

1170
1590
1480
1729
1592
1658
1429
1502
1674
1852
1785
1550
1034
1948
1716
1922
1742
980
1296
1000


FL(mm)
1276
1286
1580
910
1239
1502

1046
1420
1332
1530
1420
1420
1272
1370
1470
1704
1594
1385
920
1732
1612
1750
1588
866
1140
880


Wt(gm)
19000
18500
37100
6000
15800
29500
45000
10000
24000
20000
34000
24250
27600
17500
21000
28000
46000
37000
22500
6800
44000
43000
49000
38500
5750
12000
5750












Table A-1. Continued.


Number
10,429
10,430
10,431
10,432
10,433
10,434
10,435
10,436
10,437
10,438
10,439
10,440
10,441
10,442
10,443
10,444
10,445
10,446
10,447
10,448
10,449
10,450
10,451
10,452
10,453
10,454
10,455


Obs
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


Capture Date
10/13/2003
10/2/2003
10/2/2003
10/2/2003
10/2/2003
10/3/2003
10/3/2003
10/3/2003
10/4/2003
10/4/2003
10/4/2003
10/4/2003
10/4/2003
10/5/2003
10/5/2003
10/5/2003
10/6/2003
10/6/2003
10/6/2003
10/6/2003
10/7/2003
10/7/2003
10/7/2003
10/7/2003
10/7/2003
10/7/2003
10/9/2003


River
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow
Yellow


Status
V
V
V
R/V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V


T-bar Left
G2844
G1643
G1541
G1539
G1538
G1536
G2653
G1533
G2655
G2657
G1529
G2659
G2660
G2663
G2664
G2666
G1528
G1526
G2670
G2672
G2824
G2822
G2821
G2819
G2817
G2815
G2812


Age


T-bar Right
G2843
G1642
G1540
9230
G1537
G1535
G2652
G1534
G2654
G2656
G1530
G2658
G2661
G2662
G2665
G2667
G1527
G2668
G2669
G2671
G2825
G2823
G2820
G1818
G2816
G2814
G2813


Pit Tag
4235491915
422E115761
42380F380D
7F7D37492A
42331F266E
42327C4B06
4233647B28
42330B393B
423770257B
42322E4A43
43131B2752
423406134A
42336A4038
4233081339
43103FOA26
423A585A46
4233641845
42321B3F1D
4233742E7A
423379593C
423320740E
43127E244F
4235585A03
4238007D65
4233102B39
42332C5F07
4232673A65


TL(mm)
1525
990
2000
1810
1100
1278
1474
1260
1520
1784
1846
1534
1520
1880
1620
1618
1638
1845
838
1588
1382
1558
1356
1026
1482
900
1980


FL(mm)
1326
880
1796
1616
978
1126
1336
1009
1390
1610
1650
1366
1444
1701
1420
1460
1466
1662
730
1412
1204
1430
1220
912
1314
800
1788


Wt(gm)
21500
5000
56500
35000
7500
10200
1800
11000
21500
45000
44000
22000
24000
40000
22500
27000
26000
43500
2000
23500
16000
24500
14750
5250
19500
5000
58000












Table A-1. Continued.
Number Obs Capture Date River
10,456 0 10/9/2003 Yellow
10,457 0 10/10/2003 Yellow


Status T-bar Left
V G2810
V G2809


T-bar Right
G2811
G2808


Pit Tag
4233033704
430E471826


TL(mm) FL(mm) Wt(gm) Age
1444 1310 19250
1292 1162 8500

















LIST OF REFERENCES


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principle. Pages 267-281 in B. Petrov and F. Cazakil (editors). Proceedings of the
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Hungary.

Archibald, C. P., D. Foumier, and B. M. Leaman. 1983. Reconstruction of stock history
and development of rehabilitation strategies for Pacific ocean perch in Queen
Charlotte Sound, Canada. North American Journal of Fisheries Management
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Avise, J. C. 1992. Molecular population structure and the biogeographic history of a
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Beamesderfer, R. C. P., T. A. Rein, and A. A. Nigro. 1995. Differences in the dynamics
and potential production of impounded and unimpounded white sturgeon
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Society 124:857-872.

Boreman, J. 1997. Sensitivity of North American surgeon and paddlefish populations to
fishing mortality. Environmental Biology of Fishes 48:399-405.

Brennan, J. S. 1988. Age determination and verification of California white sturgeon
(Acipenser transmontanus): a comparative analysis. Master's Thesis. San Jose
State University, San Jose, California.

Brennan, J. S., and G. M. Cailliet. 1989. Comparative age-determination techniques for
white sturgeon in California. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society
118:296-310.

Brennan, J. S., and G. M. Cailliet. 1991. Age determination and validation studies of
white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, in California. Pages 209-234 in P.
Williott, (editor). Proceedings on the First International Symposium on the
Sturgeon. October 3-6, 1989. Bordeau, France.

Bruch, R. M. 1999. Management of lake sturgeon on the Winnebago system: long term
impacts of harvest and regulations on population structure. Journal of Applied
Ichthyology 15:142-152.









Burnham, K. P. 1993. A theory for combined analysis of ring recovery and recapture
data. Pages 199 213 in J.D. Lebreton and P.M. North, (editors). Marked
individuals in the study of bird population. Birkhauser Verlag, Basel, Switzerland.

Burnham, K. P., and D. R. Anderson. 1998. Model selection and inference: a practical
information theoretic approach. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Campana, S. C., M. C. Annand, and J. I. McMillan. 1995. Graphical and Statistical
Methods for Determining the Consistency of Age Determinations. Transactions of
the American Fisheries Society 124:131-138.

Carr, S. H., T. Carr, and F. A. Chapman. 1996a. First observations of young-of-the-year
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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Jim Berg was born on December 21, 1978, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son

of William and Donna Berg. He was raised in Reeders, a small town in the Pocono

Mountains of Pennsylvania. His love of the aquatic environment and particularly the

ocean stems from growing up on a small lake in the Poconos and yearly trips to the

Atlantic coast with his family. After high school, he entered Long Island University-

Southampton College in the fall of 1996, and graduated in May of 2000 with a B.S. in

marine biology. After graduation, he moved to Gainesville, Florida, to work with the

United States Geological Survey. In the fall of 2001, he began his graduate work in the

Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences at the University of Florida. He will

graduate with a Master of Science degree in May 2004. He plans on moving back to the

Northeast to pursue a career as a research biologist working with marine or anadramous

fisheries.