<%BANNER%>

Multi-Wavelength Observations of Barred, Flocculent Galaxies

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PAGE 1

MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF BARRED, FLOCCULENT GALAXIES By DOUGLAS LEE RATAY A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2004

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Copyright 2004 by Douglas L. Ratay

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To Carlos, Debbie, Dave, Kell y, Rob, and unoffici ally, Joanna.

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iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS From the moment I was born, I have ha d the amazing fortune of being surrounded by amazing, wonderful, loving, and caring people. The more that I have done, the more I have realized that I have done nothing on my own. I live in the most incredible village. My parents are the best ever. They have loved and supported me beyond my wildest dreams. No child could imagine bett er parents. My su ccess as a person is a testament to their love. I thank Martha Reese, my high school chemistry teacher, for giving me the encouragement to become a scientist, even wi thout saying the words. This dissertation is a direct result of spending two years in her class. He r devotion to learning and knowledge still continues to guide me. I am incredibly lucky to have known so many wonderful professo rs at Connecticut College. It has been a pleasure to know and work with my advisor, Leslie Brown. I am honored to be her first Ph.D. from Conn. Catrina Hamilton, newly Dr. Hamilton, has been an incredible teacher and always a true friend. I owe a deep debt of gratitude to John B eckman (at the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias) for allowing me to spend several m onths at the IAC working with his group. The time I spent at the IAC was very important in my life, and this thesis would not be possible without his support. My Ph.D. advisor, Stephen Gottesman, ha s been a fixture in my life since 1998 when I started at the University of Florida. I could not ask for a better advisor. He has

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v given me the space to find my own interests in education and government, while at the same time keeping me focused on the work of my dissertation. Many advisors are able to work with students who are their mirror imag es. The best advisors, however, have the wisdom to shape, guide, and encourage stude nts who choose to take a different course. I would like to thank Jessica, Katie, and Ronald for bei ng my favorite editors in the world. As I look forward to beginning the re st of my life, I am put at ease by knowing how much we've been through and how much strength we have shown. I am looking forward to our journey together. I would be wrong to not also thank Matt, Adam, Bill, the Conn Labor Day Squad, Abby, the residents of Ramsay Hall, Matt, Karen, William Wyuke, Judd, Emma, Veera, Andrew, Kate, and all my other friends and classmates for their love and support through the years. I hold Joanna Levine and David Dahari in a special place in my heart. They have been my friends throughout graduate school and I could not imagine how empty the world would be if I did not know them. Without the support of Catherine Garland, I would not have completed this dissertation. I will always be in her debt. Finally, I must thank all of the funding agen cies and data sources that made this project possible. This dissertation relies heavily on data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), the Ohio State University Bright Spiral Galaxy Survey (OSUBSGS), the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS), and the NAS A Extragalactic Database (NED). The 2MASS database is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, funded by NASA and the NSF. The OSUBSGS was

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vi funded by grants from the NSF and the Ohio State University. The DSS was produced at the Space Telescope Science Institute unde r U.S. Government Grant NAG W-2166. My stipend during part of this project was funded by a NASA Florida Space Grant Fellowship. Travel to the as tronomical facilities in the Ca nary Islands was funded by the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canari as and the University of Florida.

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vii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES.............................................................................................................xi LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................xiii ABSTRACT..................................................................................................................xxvii CHAPTER 1 PROJECT DESCRIPTION..........................................................................................1 Galaxy Sample..............................................................................................................2 Observations...............................................................................................................18 Neutral Hydrogen................................................................................................18 Optical.................................................................................................................18 Near-Infrared.......................................................................................................19 Data Analysis..............................................................................................................19 2 INTRODUCTION TO BARRED FLOCCULENT GALAXIES..............................20 The Meaning of Flocculence......................................................................................20 Flocculent Galaxies with U nderlying Spiral Structure...............................................21 Spiral Structure Create d By Galactic Bars.................................................................23 Spiral Structure Created By Extra-Galactic Companions..........................................24 Implications to Smaller Scales....................................................................................26 3 OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED OBSERVATIONS OF BARRED, FLOCCULENT GALAXIES.....................................................................................28 Observations...............................................................................................................28 NGC 1784...................................................................................................................29 NGC 2500...................................................................................................................31 NGC 2793...................................................................................................................33 NGC 3055...................................................................................................................35 NGC 3246...................................................................................................................38 NGC 3687...................................................................................................................40 NGC 3887...................................................................................................................42 NGC 3930...................................................................................................................44

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viii NGC 4793...................................................................................................................47 NGC 4900...................................................................................................................49 NGC 4904...................................................................................................................53 NGC 5147...................................................................................................................57 NGC 5300...................................................................................................................59 NGC 5645...................................................................................................................62 NGC 5783...................................................................................................................64 NGC 6012...................................................................................................................66 Analysis of Optical Bar and Disk Properties..............................................................70 4 DESCRIPTION OF NEUTRAL HYDROGEN OBSERVATIONS..........................76 Twenty-One Centimeter Hydrogen Emission............................................................76 Fundamentals of Interferometry.................................................................................78 Calibration and Imaging Neutral Hydrogen Data.......................................................81 5 NEUTRAL HYDROGEN OBSERV ATIONS OF NGC 1784..................................84 Observations...............................................................................................................84 Neutral Hydrogen Morphology..................................................................................86 Continuum...........................................................................................................89 Low Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Distribution.................................................89 High Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Distribution................................................90 Global Neutral Hydrogen Properties...................................................................92 Neutral Hydrogen Kinematics....................................................................................93 Global Position-Velocity Plots............................................................................95 Local Low-Density Region Position-Velocity Plots.........................................100 Rotation Curves.................................................................................................104 Model Disks, Velocity Re siduals, and Corrotation...........................................107 The Neutral Hydrogen Rings....................................................................................109 Summary...................................................................................................................112 6 NEUTRAL HYDROGEN OBSERV ATIONS OF NGC 3055................................114 Observations.............................................................................................................114 Neutral Hydrogen Morphology................................................................................116 Low Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Morphology..............................................116 High Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Morphology..............................................119 Global Neutral Hydrogen Properties.................................................................121 Neutral Hydrogen Kinematics..................................................................................122 Position-Velocity Plots......................................................................................123 Rotation Curves and Model Disks.....................................................................126 Neutral Hydrogen Companions................................................................................132 Summary...................................................................................................................136

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ix 7 NEUTRAL HYDROGEN OBSERV ATIONS OF NGC 3930................................138 Observations.............................................................................................................138 Neutral Hydrogen Morphology................................................................................139 Low Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Morphology..............................................142 High Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Morphology..............................................143 Global Neutral Hydrogen Properties.................................................................145 Neutral Hydrogen Kinematics..................................................................................146 Position Velocity Plots......................................................................................149 Rotation Curves and Model Disks.....................................................................151 Summary...................................................................................................................159 8 NEUTRAL HYDROGEN OBSERV ATIONS OF NGC 4900................................160 Observations.............................................................................................................160 Neutral Hydrogen Morphology................................................................................162 Low Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Morphology..............................................162 High Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Morphology..............................................169 Global Neutral Hydrogen Properties.................................................................170 Neutral Hydrogen Kinematics..................................................................................172 Position-Velocity Plots......................................................................................174 Rotation Curves and Model Disks.....................................................................178 Neutral Hydrogen Ring.............................................................................................181 Summary...................................................................................................................185 9 NEUTRAL HYDROGEN OBSERV ATIONS OF NGC 4904................................186 Observations.............................................................................................................186 Neutral Hydrogen Morphology................................................................................188 Low Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Morphology..............................................188 High Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Morphology..............................................192 Global Neutral Hydrogen Properties.................................................................193 Neutral Hydrogen Kinematics..................................................................................196 Position-Velocity Plots......................................................................................199 Rotation Curves and Model Disks.....................................................................203 Summary...................................................................................................................207 10 NEUTRAL HYDROGEN OBSERV ATIONS OF NGC 5300................................208 Observations.............................................................................................................208 Neutral Hydrogen Morphology................................................................................210 Low Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Morphology..............................................210 High Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Morphology..............................................214 Global Neutral Hydrogen Properties.................................................................216 Neutral Hydrogen Kinematics..................................................................................217 Position-Velocity Plots......................................................................................220 Rotation Curves and Model Disks.....................................................................222

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x Summary...................................................................................................................225 11 NEUTRAL HYDROGEN OBSERV ATIONS OF NGC 6012................................228 Observations.............................................................................................................228 Neutral Hydrogen Morphology................................................................................230 Low Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Morphology..............................................230 High Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Morphology..............................................233 Global Neutral Hydrogen Properties.................................................................236 Neutral Hydrogen Kinematics..................................................................................237 Position-Velocity Plots......................................................................................240 High Resolution Small Scale P-V Plots............................................................242 Rotation Curves and Model Disks.....................................................................243 Summary...................................................................................................................250 12 ANALYSIS, SUMMARY, AND FUTURE WORK...............................................253 Are Elmegreen & Elmegreen's (1982) Arm Structure Classifications Valid For Our Sample Galaxies?..........................................................................................253 Do the Galaxies in the Sample Posse ss Near Infrared Spiral Structure?..................254 Does the Sample of Optically Barred Ga laxies Possess Near Infrared Bars?..........255 What are the Nature of the Optical and Near-Infrared Bars?...................................255 Are The Mass Distributions Of Galaxies Similar?...................................................260 Does the Sample of Optically Barred, Flocculent Galaxies Possess Similar Neutral Hydrogen Mass Ratios and Morphologies?............................................262 Do the Optically Barred, Flocculent Galaxies Possess HI Companions?................267 What are the Physical and Orbital Properties of the HI Companions?.....................268 Are Barred, Flocculent Galaxies Diff erent Than the Average Galaxy?...................269 Summary...................................................................................................................271 Future Work..............................................................................................................273 LIST OF REFERENCES.................................................................................................277 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................282

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xi LIST OF TABLES Table page 1-1. NGC 1784: Previously observed properties...............................................................4 1-2. NGC 2500: Previously observed properties...............................................................4 1-3. NGC 2793: Previously observed properties...............................................................5 1-4. NGC 3055: Previously observed properties...............................................................5 1-5. NGC 3246: Previously observed properties...............................................................6 1-6. NGC 3687: Previously observed properties...............................................................6 1-7. NGC 3887: Previously observed properties...............................................................7 1-8. NGC 3930: Previously observed properties...............................................................7 1-9. NGC 4793: Previously observed properties...............................................................8 1-10. NGC 4900: Previously observed properties.............................................................8 1-11. NGC 4904: Previously observed properties.............................................................9 1-12. NGC 5147: Previously observed properties.............................................................9 1-13. NGC 5300: Previously observed properties.............................................................9 1-14. NGC 5645: Previously observed properties...........................................................10 1-15. NGC 5783: Previously observed properties...........................................................10 1-16. NGC 6012: Previously observed properties...........................................................11 5-1. Parameters of VLA HI observations of NGC 1784...................................................85 5-2. Characteristics of Naturall y Weighted CLEANed Channel Maps............................86 6-1. Parameters of VLA HI observations of NGC 3055.................................................115 6-2. Characteristics of Naturall y Weighted CLEANed Channel Maps..........................115

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xii 7-1. Parameters of VLA HI observations of NGC 3930.................................................138 7-2. Characteristics of Naturall y Weighted CLEANed Channel Maps..........................139 8-1. Parameters of VLA HI observations of NGC 4900.................................................161 8-2. Characteristics of Naturall y Weighted CLEANed Channel Maps..........................161 9-1. Parameters of VLA HI observations of NGC 4904.................................................187 9-2. Characteristics of Naturall y Weighted CLEANed Channel Maps..........................187 10-1: Parameters of VLA HI observations of NGC 5300...............................................209 10-2. Characteristics of Naturall y Weighted CLEANed Channel Maps........................209 11-1. Parameters of VLA HI observations of NGC 6012...............................................229 11-2. Characteristics of Naturall y Weighted CLEANed Channel Maps........................229

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xiii LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1. Distribution of Hubble Type within our galaxy sample. This distribution does not take into account bar (B or AB) status...............................................................13 1-2. Hubble bar classification di stribution of the galaxy sample......................................14 1-3. Elmegreen arm class dist ribution of the galaxy sample............................................14 1-4. Distribution of Hubble Classification and Elmegreen arm classification. The stripes across the bars represent the numb er of galaxies of a particular arm class (labeled at right) in that Hubble Type.............................................................15 1-5. Distribution of Bar Cla ssification and Elmegreen arm classification. The stripes across the bars represent the number of galaxies of a particular arm class (labeled at right) in that Hubble Type......................................................................15 1-6. Radial velocity distribution of the gala xy sample. Velocity bins are separated by 500 km s-1, corresponding to 7 Mpc, where Ho=70 km s-1 Mpc-1............................16 1-7. Angular size distribution of galaxy sample...............................................................16 1-8. Apparent magnitude dist ribution of the galaxy sample.............................................17 1-9. Distribution of previously measured HI spectrum asymmetry measure in sample galaxies.....................................................................................................................17 3-1. Optical R-band DSS image of NGC 1784.................................................................30 3-2. R-band DSS image of NGC 2500..............................................................................32 3-3. 2-MASS K-band image of NGC 2500......................................................................32 3-4. R-band image of NGC 2793 from IAC80.................................................................34 3-5. K-band image of NGC 2793 from 2MASS. This image is rotated 180 and reflected relative to the y-axis with re spect to our IAC80 image in Figure 3-6.......34 3-6. Optical R-band image of NGC 3055, taken at the IAC80 telescope.........................36 3-7. Optical B-band image of NGC 3055 taken with the IAC80 telescope......................37

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xiv 3-8. Near-Infrared K-band image of NGC 3055, taken with the TCS..............................37 3-9. R-band image of NGC 3246 from IAC80.................................................................39 3-10. K-band image of NGC 3246 from 2-MASS............................................................39 3-11. R-band image of NGC 3687 from IAC80...............................................................41 3-12. B-band image of NGC 3687 from IAC80...............................................................41 3-13. K-band image of NGC 3687 from 2-MASS............................................................42 3-14. R-band image of NGC 3887 from IAC80...............................................................43 3-15. K-band image of NGC 3887 from 2-MASS............................................................44 3-16. Optical R-band image of NGC 3930 taken with IAC80 telescope..........................45 3-17. Optical B-band image of NGC 3930.......................................................................46 3-18. B-R color map of NGC 3930. Light graysc ale regions are blue in color. Darker grayscale regions correspond to red colors..............................................................46 3-19. R-band image of NGC 4793 from IAC80...............................................................48 3-20. K-band image of NGC 4793 from 2MASS. This image is rotated 180 and flipped along the y-axis relative to the R-band IAC 80 image in Figure 3-19..........49 3-21. Optical R-band image of NGC 4900 taken with the IAC 80 telescope...................51 3-22. Optical B-band image of NGC 4900 taken at the IAC80 telescope........................51 3-23. B-R color map of NGC 4900. Light graysc ale regions are blue in color. Darker grayscale regions correspond to red colors..............................................................52 3-24. H-band image of NGC 4900 from Ohio State.........................................................53 3-25. Optical R-band image of NGC 4904 taken with IAC80 telescope..........................55 3-26. Optical B-band image of NGC 4904 taken with IAC 80........................................55 3-27. B-R color map of NGC 4904. Light graysc ale regions are blue in color. Darker grayscale regions correspond to red colors..............................................................56 3-28. K-band image of NGC 4904 taken at TCS..............................................................56 3-29. R-band image of NGC 5147 from DSS...................................................................58 3-30. K-band image of NGC 5147 from 2-MASS............................................................58

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xv 3-31. Optical R-band image of NGC 5300 taken at IAC80..............................................59 3-32. Optical B-band image of NGC 5300 taken with IAC80.........................................60 3-33. B-R color map of NGC 5300. Light graysc ale regions are blue in color. Darker grayscale regions correspond to red colors..............................................................61 3-34. R-band image of NGC 5645 from IAC80...............................................................63 3-35. B-band image of NGC 5645 from IAC80...............................................................63 3-36. K-band image of NGC 5645 from 2MASS. This image is rotated 180 and flipped along the y-axis relative to the R-band IAC 80 image in Figure 3-35..........64 3-37. R-band image of NGC 5783 from IAC80...............................................................65 3-38. K-band image of NGC 5783 from 2-MASS............................................................66 3-39. Optical R-band image of NGC 6012.......................................................................68 3-40. Optical B-band image of NGC 6012.......................................................................69 3-41. B-R color map of NGC 5300. Light graysc ale regions are blue in color. Darker grayscale regions correspond to red colors..............................................................69 3-42. K-band image of NGC 6012 taken at TCS..............................................................70 3-43. Distribution of the optical diameters of galaxies in the sample set. The strips across the columns represent the amount of galaxies from particular Elmegreen arm class (labeled at right) within that size bin........................................................73 3-44. Distribution of the optical semi-major ax is length in the sample set. The strips across the columns represent the Hubble ba r class of that ga laxy (labeled at right) within the par ticular size bin..........................................................................73 3-45. Distribution of the bar axis ratio for the sample set. The strips across the columns represent the Hubble bar class of the galaxies (labeled at right) within the particular bar axis ratio bin.....................................................................74 3-46. Distribution of the bar axis ratio for the sample set. The strips across the columns represent the Elmegreen arm class of the galaxies (labeled at right) with in the particular bar axis ratio bin....................................................................74 3-47. Distribution of the bar length to gala xy radius ratio for the sample set. The strips across the columns represent the amount of galaxies from particular Elmegreen arm class (labeled at right) within that bar length ratio bin...................75

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xvi 3-48. Comparison of bar axis ratio to bar/ galaxy length ratio. Strips across the columns represent the number of galaxies within a range of bar axis ratio with respect to the bar length bin.............................................................................75 5-1. The individual, naturally weighte d, CLEANed channel images of the low resolution data. ........................................................................................................87 5-2. The individual, naturally weighte d, CLEANed channel images of the low resolution data. .......................................................................................................88 5-3. Grayscale with contours of the total HI surface density from the low resolution data set......................................................................................................................8 9 5-4. High Resolution HI surface density maps. ..............................................................91 5-5. The HI flux density versus velocity for the low resolution data set. .......................93 5-6. The HI radial density profiles from the low resolution data set (circles) and the high resolution data set (triangles).....................................................................94 5-7. Intensity-weighted radi al velocity contours of the low resolution data. ..................94 5-8. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the high resolution data set. ...........95 5-9. A set of P-V slices pa rallel to and along the majo r axis of NGC 1784. The contours are at 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 25 The inner ring feature is labeled with "IN" in the plot along the major axis The central velocity is at 2.308 x 106 m s-1.......................................................................................................97 5-10. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the minor axis of NGC 1784. The contours are at 2, 3, 5, 0, 15, 20, and 25 The systemic velocity of the system is at 2.308 x 106 m s-1...............................................................................................98 5-11. Thick P-V slices of NGC 1784. .............................................................................99 5-12. A P-V slice through low density re gion A. Contours are at 2, 3, 5, and 10 .......102 5-13. A P-V slice through low density re gion B. Contours are at 2, 3, 5, and 10 .......103 5-14. A P-V slice through low density re gion C. Contours are at 2, 3, 5, and 10 .......103 5-15. A P-V slice through object D. Contours are at 2, 3, 5, and 10 ...........................104 5-16. Rotation curve of NGC 1784 from the high resolution data set. Stars represent the approaching half of the galaxy. Tria ngles represent the r eceding half of the galaxy. Circles represent the average of both.......................................................105

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xvii 5-17. Kinematic position angle of NGC 1784 as a function of radius. Stars represent the approaching half of the galaxy. Tr iangles represent the receding half of the galaxy. Circles repres ent the average of both..................................................106 5-18. Inclination angle of NGC 1784 as a function of radius. Stars represent the approaching half of the galaxy. Triangle s represent the reced ing half of the galaxy. Circles represent the average of both.......................................................107 5-19. Model velocity and residual ve locity fields for NGC 1784. ................................108 5-20. The HI flux versus velocity for the HI rings using the low reso lution data set. The velocity resolution here is 20 km s-1. The peak at roughly 2350 km s-1 represents the inner ring. Th e peak at roughly 2450 km s-1 represents the outer ring................................................................................................................111 6-1. Individual, naturally we ighted, CLEANed channel imag es of the low resolution data. ......................................................................................................................11 7 6-2. Individual, naturally we ighted, CLEANed channel images of the high resolution data. ......................................................................................................................11 8 6-3. Grayscale with contours of the total HI surface density from the low resolution data set. .................................................................................................................119 6-4. Grayscale and contours of the total HI surface density from the high resolution data set....................................................................................................................120 6-5. Contours of the high resolution data set overlaid on a DSS image of NGC 3055. The peak flux and contours are the same as in Figure 6-4. The synthesized beam is shown at the bottom left............................................................................120 6-6. The HI flux density versus velocity for the low resolution data set. The velocity resolution here is 10 km s-1. The spectrum is largely symmetric..........................122 6-7. The HI radial density profiles from th e low resolution data set (closed circles) and the high resolution data set (open circles).......................................................123 6-8. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the lo w resolution data. Contours are separated by 20 km s-1. Motion toward the observer (the western side of the galaxy) is displayed with black contours and lighter grayscales. The central velocity is 1832 km s-1...........................................................................................124 6-9. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the high resolution data set. Contours are separated by 10 km s-1. Darker grayscales (t he eastern side of the galaxy) correspond to motion away from the observer....................................125

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xviii 6-10. Intensity-weighted radi al velocity contours of th e high resolution data set overlaid on an optical DSS image of the galaxy. Contours are the same as in Figure 6-9...............................................................................................................125 6-11. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the major axis of NGC 3055. The contours are at 2, 3, 5, 10, and 25 The central velocity of the system is at 1.832 x 106 m s-1.....................................................................................................127 6-12. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the minor axis of NGC 3055. The contours are at 2, 3, 5, 10, and 20 The central velocity of the system is at 1.832 x 106 m s-1.....................................................................................................128 6-13. Rotation curve of NGC 3055 from the high resolution data set. Plotted data is the average of both sides of the galaxy...............................................................129 6-14. Kinematic position angle of NGC 3055 as a function of radius............................129 6-15. Inclination angle of NGC 3055 as a function of radius.........................................131 6-16. Model velocity field constructed from kinematical data in Figures 6-13, 6-14, and 6-15. Light grayscales repr esent approachin g velocities................................131 6-17. Residual velocity field made from m odel in A. Light grayscales represent approaching residuals (contours separated by 5 km s-1).........................................132 6-18. The HI flux density versus velocity for the "A" HI satelli te. The velocity resolution is 10 km s-1............................................................................................133 6-19. The HI flux density versus velocity for the "B" satellite The velocity resolution is 10 km s-1............................................................................................133 6-20. Contours of HI surface density overl aid on an optical DSS image of the "A" satellite. The contours are th e same as in Figure 6-3............................................134 6-21. Contours of HI surface density overl aid on an optical DSS image of the "B" satellite. The contours are th e same as in Figure 6-3............................................135 7-1. Individual, naturally we ighted, CLEANed channel imag es of the low resolution data.........................................................................................................................14 0 7-2. Individual, naturally we ighted, CLEANed channel images of the high resolution data. ......................................................................................................................14 1 7-3. Grayscale with contours of the total HI surface density from the low resolution data set. .................................................................................................................142 7-4. Grayscale with contours of the total HI surface density from the low resolution data set. Contours and resolution are the same as in Figure 7-3...........................143

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xix 7-5. Grayscale and contours of the total HI surface density from the high resolution data set. The peak flux corresponds to 5.8 x 1021 cm-2. Contours are at 1 (the 2 flux level), 2, 5,10, 15, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 95% of the peak flux. The synthesized beam (37" x 34") is shown at the bottom left.....................................144 7-6. Contours of the high resolution HI su rface density over a grayscale image of NGC 3930. Contours and resolution ar e the same as in Figure 7-5......................145 7-8. The HI radial density profiles from th e low resolution data set (closed circles) and the high resolution data set (open circles).......................................................147 7-9. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the lo w resolution data. Contours are separated by 10 km s-1. Motion toward the observer is displayed with black contours and lighter grayscales. The sy stemic velocity of the galaxy is 919 km s-1. The synthesized beam (59" x 58") is displayed in the lower left.......148 7-10. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the high resolution data set. Contours are separated by 10 km s-1. Darker grayscales correspond to motion away from the observer. The synthesized beam (37" x 34") is displayed in the lower left hand corner............................................................................................148 7-11. Intensity-weighted radi al velocity contours of th e high resolution data set overlaid on an optical DSS image of NGC 3930. Contours are the same as in Figure 7-10.............................................................................................................149 7-12. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the major axis of NGC 3930. The contours are at 3, 5, 10, 20, 45, and 50 The resolution is denoted by a cross in the lower left corner of the bottom left panel.....................................................150 7-13. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the minor axis of NGC 3930. The contours are at 3, 5, 10, 20, 45, 50 The resolution function is shown as a cross in the lower left corner of the bottom left panel............................................152 7-14. Rotation curve of NGC 3930 from the hi gh resolution data set. Open squares represent the appro aching half of the galaxy. Op en circles represent the receding half of the galaxy. Filled ci rcles represent the average of both..............153 7-15. Expansion velocity as a function of radius for NGC 3930. Symbols are the same as in Figure 7-14...........................................................................................154 7-16. Kinematic position angle of NGC 3930 as a function of radius. Symbols are the same as in Figure 7-14......................................................................................155 7-17. Inclination angle of NGC 6012 as a f unction of radius. Symbols are the same as in Figure 7-14....................................................................................................155 7-18. Model velocity field constructed from kinematical data in Figures 7-14, 7-16, and 7-17. Light grayscales repr esent approachin g velocities................................157

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xx 7-19. Residual velocity field made from model in Figure 7-18. Light grayscales represent approaching residuals. Contours are separated by 5 km s-1...................157 7-20. Model velocity field including values for expansion velocity and with all values smoothed at large radii................................................................................158 7-21. Residual velocity field made with the model from 7-20. Light grayscales indicate motion towards the observer. Contours are separated by 5 km s-1..........158 8-1. Individual, naturally we ighted, CLEANed channel imag es of the low resolution data. ......................................................................................................................16 3 8-2. Individual, naturally we ighted, CLEANed channel imag es of the low resolution data. The resolution and contour leve ls are the same as in Figure 8-1..................164 8-3. Individual, naturally we ighted, CLEANed channel images of the high resolution data. ......................................................................................................................16 5 8-4. Individual, naturally we ighted, CLEANed channel images of the high resolution data. The resolution and contour leve ls are the same as in Figure 8-3..................166 8-5. Grayscale with contours of the total HI surface density from the low resolution data set. .................................................................................................................167 8-6. Contours of the total HI surface density from the low resolution data set overlaid on an optical DSS image of NGC 4900. C ontour levels are the same as in Figure 8-5...............................................................................................................168 8-7. Grayscale and contours of the total HI surface density from the high resolution data set. .................................................................................................................169 8-8. Contours of the total HI surface dens ity from the high resolution data set overlaid on an optical DSS image of NGC 4900. Contours are at the same levels as in Figure 8-7............................................................................................170 8-9. The HI flux density versus velocity for the low resolution data set. The velocity resolution here is 10 km s-1. The spectrum does not show the typical galactic double horned pattern...............................................................................171 8-10. The HI radial density profiles from th e low resolution data set (closed circles) and the high resolution data set (open circles).......................................................172 8-11. Intensity-weighted radi al velocity contours of th e low resolution data. Contours are separated by 10 km s-1. Motion toward the obs erver is displayed with lighter grayscales. The central velocity contour is at 969 km s-1. The synthesized beam (68" x 57") is displayed in the lower left..................................173

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xxi 8-12. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the high resolution data set. Contours are separated by 10 km s-1. Darker grayscales correspond to motion away from the observer..........................................................................................174 8-13. Intensity-weighted radi al velocity contours of th e high resolution data set overlaid on an optical DSS image. Cont ours are the same as in Figure 8-12.......175 8-14. A set of P-V slices para llel to and along the major ax is of the inner portion of NGC 4900. The contours are at 3, 5, 10, 20, and 40 ...........................................176 8-15. A set of P-V slices pa rallel to and along the supposed major axis of the outer regions of NGC 4900. The contours are at 3, 5, 10, 20, and 40 .........................177 8-16. A set of P-V slices para llel to and along the minor axis of the inner regions of NGC 4900. The contours are at 3, 5, 10, 20, and 40 ...........................................178 8-17. Rotation curve of NGC 1784 from the hi gh resolution data set. Data points represent the averag e of both the receding and appr oaching sides of the galaxy..179 8-18. Expansion velocity as a f unction of radius in NGC 4900.....................................182 8-19. Kinematic position angle of NGC 4900 as a function of radius............................182 8-20. Inclination angle of NGC 4900 as a function of radius.........................................183 8-21. Model velocity field constructed fr om kinematical data of both the inner regions of NGC 4900 and the supposed ring.........................................................183 9-1. Individual, naturally we ighted, CLEANed channel imag es of the low resolution data. ......................................................................................................................18 9 9-2. Individual, naturally we ighted, CLEANed channel images of the high resolution data. ......................................................................................................................19 0 9-3. Grayscale with contours of the total HI surface density from the low resolution data set. .................................................................................................................191 9-4. Contours of the total HI surface density from the low resolution data set over an optical DSS image of NGC 4904. Resolu tion and contour levels are the same as Figure 9-3..................................................................................................191 9-5. Grayscale and contours of the total HI surface density from the high resolution data set. The peak flux corresponds to 1.7 x 1021 cm-2. Contours are at 1 (the 2 flux level), 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 95% of the peak flux. The synthesized beam (21" x 19") is shown at the bottom left.....................................194

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xxii 9-6. Contours of the total HI surface density from the high resolution data set overlaid on an optical DSS image of NGC 4904. Resolution and contour levels are the same as Figure 9-5..................................................................................................195 9-7. The HI flux density versus velocity for the low resolution data set. The velocity resolution here is 10 km s-1....................................................................................195 9-8. The HI radial density profiles from th e high resolution data set (closed circles) and the low resolution data set (open circles)........................................................196 9-9. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the lo w resolution data. Contours are separated by 10 km s-1. Motion toward the observ er is displayed with lighter grayscales. The central velocity contour is at 1169 km s-1........................197 9-10. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the high resolution data set. Contours are separated by 10 km s-1. Darker grayscales correspond to motion away from the observer..........................................................................................198 9-11. Intensity-weighted radi al velocity contours of th e high resolution data set o verlaid on an optical DSS image of the galaxy. Contours are the same as in Figure 9-10.............................................................................................................198 9-12. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the major axis of NGC 4904. The contours are at 3, 5, 10, 20, and 30 ......................................................................200 9-13. P-V plots along and parall el to the position angle of the outer ring. Contours are at 3, 5, 10, 20, and 30 .....................................................................................201 9-14. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the minor axis of NGC 4904. The contours are at 3, 5, 10, 20, and 30 ......................................................................202 9-15. Rotation curve of NGC 1784 from the hi gh resolution data set. Data points represent the averag e of both the approaching and receding sides of the galaxy..204 9-16. Kinematic position angle of NGC 1784 as a function of radius............................204 9-17. Inclination angle of NGC 1784 as a function of radius.........................................205 9-18. Model velocity field constructed from kinematical data in Figures 9-15, 9-16, and 9-17. Light grayscales repr esent approachin g velocities................................206 9-19. Model disk velocity field for NGC 4904 with tilted outer ring. Light grayscales represent ap proaching velocities...........................................................206 10-1. Individual, naturally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the low resolution data. .....................................................................................................211

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xxiii 10-2. Individual, naturally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the high resolution data. .....................................................................................................212 10-3. Grayscale with contours of the to tal HI surface density from the low resolution data set. ................................................................................................213 10-4. Contours of the total HI surface density from the low resolution data set overlaid on an optical DSS image of NGC 5300. Contours and resolution are the same as in Figure 10-3................................................................................214 10-5. Grayscale and contours of the total HI surface density from the high resolution data set. .................................................................................................................215 10-6. Contours of the high resolution data set overlaid on a DSS image of NGC 5300. Contours and resolution are the same as in Figure 10-5.............................216 10-7. The HI flux density versus velocity for the low resolution data set. The velocity resolution here is 10 km s-1.......................................................................217 10-8. The HI radial density profiles from th e low resolution data set (closed circles) and the high resolution data set (open circles).......................................................218 10-9. Intensity-weighted radi al velocity contours of th e low resolution data. Contours are separated by 10 km s-1......................................................................219 10-10. Intensity-weighted radial velocity cont ours of the high re solution data set. Contours are separated by 10 km s-1. ...................................................................219 10-11. Intensity-weighted radial velocity co ntours of the high resolution data set overlaid on an optical DSS image of NGC 5300. Contours are the same as in Figure 10-10...........................................................................................................220 10-12. A set of P-V slices parallel to a nd along the major axis of NGC 5300. The contours are at 3, 5, 10, 20 ...................................................................................221 10-13. A set of P-V slices parallel to a nd along the minor axis of NGC 5300. The contours are at 3, 5, 10, and 20 ............................................................................222 10-14. Rotation curve of NGC 5300 from the high resolution data set. Data points represent the averag e of both the receding and appr oaching sides of the galaxy..223 10-15. Expansion velocity versus as a function of radius for NGC 5300.......................223 10-16. Kinematic position angle of NGC 5300 as a function of radius..........................225 10-17. Inclination angle of NGC 5300 as a function of radius.......................................226

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xxiv 10-18. Model velocity field constructed fr om kinematical data in Figures 10-14, 10-15, and 10-16, and 10-17. Light gr ayscales represent approaching velocities.................................................................................................................227 11-1. Individual, naturally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the low resolution data. .....................................................................................................231 11-2. Individual, naturally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the high resolution data. .....................................................................................................232 11-3. Grayscale with contours of the total HI surface density from the low resolution data set. .................................................................................................................234 11-4. Contours of the total HI surface de nsity from the low resolution data set overlaid on an optical DSS image of the galaxy. Resolution and contour levels are the same as in Figure 11-3................................................................................234 11-5. Grayscale and contours of the total HI surface density from the high resolution data set. .................................................................................................................235 11-6. Contours of the high resolution data set overlaid on a DSS image of NGC 6012. The peak flux and contours are the same as in Figure 11-5. The synthesized beam is shown at the bottom left............................................................................236 11-7. The HI flux density versus velocity for the low resolution data set. The velocity resolution here is 10 km s-1.......................................................................237 11-8. The HI radial density profiles from th e low resolution data set (closed circles) and the high resolution data set (open circles).......................................................238 11-9. Intensity-weighted radi al velocity contours of th e low resolution data. Contours are separated by 10 km s-1. Motion toward the observer is displayed with lighter grayscales. The central velocity contour is at 1854 km s-1................239 11-10. Intensity-weighted radial velocity cont ours of the high re solution data set. Contours are separated by 10 km s-1. Darker grayscales correspond to motion away from the observer..........................................................................................239 11-11. Intensity-weighted radial velocity co ntours of the high resolution data set overlaid on an optical DSS image of NGC 6012. Contours and resolution are the same as in Figure 11-10....................................................................................240 11-12. A set of P-V slices parallel to a nd along the major axis of NGC 6012. The contours are at 3, 5, 10, 20, and 40 ......................................................................241 11-13. A set of P-V slices parallel to a nd along the minor axis of NGC 6012. The contours are at 3, 5, 10, 20, and 40 ......................................................................243

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xxv 11-14. Small scale P-V plots made through HI holes found in Figure 11-5. The slices on the left are parallel to the major kinematic axis of NGC 6012. The slices on the left are made parallel to the minor axis of NGC 6012.....................................244 11-15. Rotation curve of NGC 6012 from the high resolution data set. Data points represent the average of values from both the approaching and receding sides of the galaxy...........................................................................................................245 11-16. Expansion velocity as a f unction of radius for NGC 6012..................................246 11-17: Kinematic position angle of NGC 6012 as a function of radius..........................246 11-18. Inclination angle of NGC 6012 as a function of radius.......................................247 11-19. Model velocity field constructed fr om kinematical data in Figures 11-16, 11-17, 11-18, and 11-19. Light grayscales represent approaching velocities.......247 11-20. Residual velocity field made from model in Figure 11-20. Light grayscales represent approaching residuals. Contours are separated by 5 km s-1. Concentric circles at the center of the galaxy denote where azimuthal profiles were made for later figures.....................................................................................248 11-21. Azimuthal plot of NGC 6012's residual velocity field made at a radius of 20"..251 11-22. Azimuthal plot of NGC 6012's residual velocity field made at a radius of 40"..251 11-23. Azimuthal plot of NGC 6012's residual velocity field made at a radius of 80"..252 11-24. Azimuthal plot of NGC 6012's residual velocity field made at a radius of 120"252 12-1. Distribution of the bar axis ratio for the sample set. The strips across the columns represent the Elmegreen arm class of the galaxies (labeled at right) with in the particular bar axis ratio bin..................................................................256 12-2. Distribution of the bar length to gala xy radius ratio for the sample set. The strips across the columns represent the amount of galaxies from particular Elmegreen arm class (labeled at right) within that bar length ratio bin.................256 12-3. Comparison of bar axis ratio to bar/ galaxy length ratio. Strips across the columns represent the number of galaxies within a range of bar axis ratio with respect to the bar length bin...................................................................................257 12-4. Distribution of bar symmetries for th e sample set. Strips across the columns represent the different Elmegreen arm classes.......................................................258 12-5. Distribution of bar length to galaxy ra dius ratio in the sample set. Strips across the columns represent the symmetry status of the bar................................259

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xxvi 12-6. Distribution of HI Rotation curve shapes within the sample set. Strips across the columns represent the different Elme green arm classifications. We did not observe in HI any galaxies that were in Elmegreen arm class "1".........................261 12-7. Distribution of Bar length to galaxy ra dius ratio in galaxies observed in HI. Strips across the columns represen t the shape of th e rotation curve......................261 12-8. Distribution of HI diameters in the sample set......................................................263 12-9. Distribution of HI to Op tical Diameter Ratios within the sample set. Strips across the columns correspond to the sy mmetry of the HI distribution.................263 12-10. Distribution of HI to optical diameter ratios. Strips across the bar represent the bar to galaxy length ratio..................................................................................264 12-11. Distribution of HI masses in the sample set........................................................265 12-12. Distribution of HI Mass fraction for th e sample set. The strips across the columns represent the distribution of HI to optical diameter ratios.......................266 12-13. Distribution of HI Mass fraction for th e sample set. The strips across the columns represent the Elmegreen arm classification of the set.............................266 12-14. Distribution of Elmegreen arm cl asses in the control sample set........................274 12-15. Distribution of Hubble Types in the co ntrol sample set. Strips across the columns represent the Elmgreen arm classes within the group.............................275 12-16. Bar classification dist ribution of the control sample. Strips across the column indicate the Elmegreen ar m class of the control set..................................275

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xxvii Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF BARRED, FLOCCULENT GALAXIES By Douglas Lee Ratay August 2004 Chair: Dr. Stephen Gottesman Major Department: Astronomy Although it is generally accepte d that large galaxies form through the assemblage of smaller objects, an explanation for the mo rphology of galaxies is not available. Any complete theory of galaxy morphology mu st include production and dissolution mechanisms for galactic bars, rings, nuclear bars, spiral arms, and companions. This theory does not exist because of the lack of detailed data fr om many types of galaxies in different environments. We have defined a new sample of gala xies which are simultaneously flocculent, barred, and isolated. We have performe d optical, near-infrared, and radio (HI) observations of the galaxies in this sample. We measured properties of our galaxies including bar length, bar axis ratio, HI diameter, HI mass, and dynamical mass. We found that our sample group is heterogeneous, and compares well to a sta ndard samples of galaxies. We found two of our galaxies to possess companions, and tw o others to show evidence of current

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xxviii interactions. This is consistent with othe r observations indicating that local isolated galaxies do not possess a larg e number of small companions We cannot rule out the possibility of very small companions. We find that as a group our sample is slightly less luminous than normal galaxies and may be more likely to be involved in interactions. We conclude that the bar and spiral arm features in our sample are due to processes internal to the galaxies, likely involving th e interaction between th e galactic disk and halo. We defined a control sample of barre d, grand design galaxies to further determine the acceptability of barred, fl occulent galaxies as a physic ally meaningful subset of galaxies.

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1 CHAPTER 1 PROJECT DESCRIPTION Recent advances in observational technol ogy have greatly opened the study of extragalactic astronomy. Observations in th e near-IR by Block & Pu erari (1999) of grand design and flocculent, disk galaxies have th rown a new level of complexity into the previous optical arm classi fication scheme of Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982). This near-infrared work possibly shows the exis tence of two decoupled dynamical systems, one composed of Population I stars and gas, and the other composed of Population II stars, cohabitating in the same galaxy. Gala xies have been found to be grand design in one system while flocculent in the othe r (Cepa et al. 1988; Elmegreen et al. 1996; Thornley 1996; Block & Puerari 1999). There is no clear understanding as to why a galaxy is either flocculent (possesses no discernable spiral structur e), grand design (possesses tw o strong spiral arms), or somewhere in between. Block & Puerari (1999 ) go even farther saying that even if we know the arm morphology of a galaxy in one wa ve length regime, we cannot predict the arm morphology of the galaxy in the other. This is a re sult of presumed dynamical decoupling. Still, it has been assumed in the past that the pr esence of a bar or a companion is correlated w ith spiral density waves (Kormendy & Norman 1979; Elmegreen & Elmegreen 1982; Elmegreen & Elmegreen 1983; Elmegreen & Elmegreen 1985; Seigar & James 1998a,b). A sizable minority of galaxies exist th at are flocculent in the optical while possessing bars and possibly companions (E lmegreen & Elmegreen 1982; Elmegreen &

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2 Elmegreen 1987; Haynes et al. 1998). Our st udy examined that popul ation. Flocculent galaxies with bars have not been critically examined in the past. Only 2 of the 15 galaxies in our sample have been observed in the spectral line mode of the Very Large Array. Our study aimed to extend the work of Block & Puerari (1999) by choosing our sample differently (only flo cculent, barred) and by exte nding wavelength coverage (21 cm, near-IR, and optical). We hoped to provide answers to the following questions: Are Elmegreen & Elmegreen's (1982) arm classifications valid? Do the galaxies in our sample posse ss near-infrared spiral structure? Does the sample of optically barred flo cculent galaxies possess near-infrared bars? What is the nature (relative size, surface brightness distribution) of the optical and near-infrared bars? Does the sample of optically barred, fl occulent galaxies possess similar neutral hydrogen mass ratios and morphologies? How many of these optically barred flo cculent galaxies possess HI companions? Of the galaxies that possess companions, wh at are the physical a nd orbital properties of the companions? Are the properties similar? If there are similar characteristics of optically flocculent, barred galaxies, are these properties similar to or different from fl occulent non-barred galaxies and optically grand design galaxies? Galaxy Sample This project is the first to define barred, flocculent gala xies as a distinct class for study. The galaxies selected fo r this work were taken from the original research, that classified galaxies as flocculent or gr and design, by Elemgreen & Elmegreen (1982). Objects were selected from Elmegreen & Elme green's (1982) list if the met the following criteria: bar type of SAB or SB; flocculent arm classification (<4); Hubble Type later than Sa and no later than Sd; classified as isolated by Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982).

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3 The bar classification criteria pr ovide us with galaxies that show any type of bar feature or oval distortion. The arm classi fication criteria give all galaxi es classified as flocculent. Although arm classification is done primarily by eye on blue images (leading to some uncertainty), all other papers in the liter ature use the Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) scheme, so we adopted it also. The Hubble Cl assification criteria we re used to include only "regular" spiral galaxies. It is assume d that smaller Magellenic type galaxies or peculiar and irregular galaxies may have other processes operating on their morphology (which would not allow data gained from th em to be compared easily to other large galaxies). Also, we wanted to observe galaxies large enough to determine detail with normal 21 cm observations. Isolation criteria were used to eliminate galaxies with obviously interacting large companions, or those in groups. Dynamics of such interactions and effects on the morphologi es of constituent galaxies are poorly understood. We looked solely at the possible effects of bars on the disk of a galaxy. The galaxies selected for our study have not been previously we ll studied. Of the 15 in the sample, only 2 were previously observed for any amount of time in the HI spectral line mode of the Ve ry Large Array (VLA). Near infrared observations are essentially non-existent for the sample. Tabl es 1 through 16 present relevant data for all objects in the sample.

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4 Table 1-1. NGC 1784: Prev iously observed properties Property of NGC 1784 Value Reference Right ascension (2000) 05h 05m 27.1s de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Declination (2000) -11 52' 17.5" de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Vradial 2308 km s-1 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Hubble classification SB(r)c de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Galaxy size 4.0' x 2.5' de Va ucouluers et al. (1991) Arm classification 3 Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) Position angle 105 Tully (1988) Inclination 55 Tully (1988) Bar semi-major axis 34" Martin (1995) Bar semi-minor axis 14" Martin (1995) Blue magnitude 12.44 de Va ucouluers et al. (1991) Table 1-2. NGC 2500: Prev iously observed properties Property of NGC 2500 Value Reference Right ascension (2000) 08h 01m 53.1s de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Declination (2000) +50 44' 15" de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Distance 12.0 Mpc Grosbol (1985) Vradial 514 km s-1 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Hubble classification SB(rs)d de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Angular size 2.9' x 2.6' de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Arm classification 1 Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) Inclination 25 Grosbol (1985) Position angle 58 Grosbol (1985) D25 125" Martin (1995) Bar length 21" Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1985) Bar to galaxy length ratio 0.24 Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1985) Bar light profile Exponential Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1985) Bar ellipticity class 6 Martin (1995) HI flux 33.61 Jy km s-1 Haynes et al. (1998) HI line width 100 km s-1 Haynes et al. (1998) HI asymmetry measure 1.04 Haynes et al. (1998) Apparent magnitude 12.20 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) MB -17.96 Elmegreen & Salzer (1999) H luminosity 2.75 x 1040 erg s-1 Elmegreen & Salzer (1999) May possess a nuclear bar van den Bergh (1995) Shows nuclear emission of H Ho et al. (1995) Classified as having an HII nucleus Ho et al. (1995) Bar shows no twists in near -IR Elmegreen et al. (1996) Bar may be shorter in NIR than in optical Elmegreen et al. (1996)

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5 Table 1-3. NGC 2793: Previ ously observed properties Property of NGC 2793 Value Reference Right ascension (2000) 09h 16m 47.2s de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Declination (2000) +34 25' 48" de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Vradial 1687 km s-1 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Hubble class SB(s)d de Va ucouluers et al. (1991) Arm classification 1 Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) Angular size 1.3' x 1.1 de Va ucouluers et al. (1991) Apparent magnitude 13.58 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Classified as a ring galaxy Thompson (1977) Not in the projected nearby cluster Thompson (1977) Involved in a head on encounter with a companion Mazzei (1995) Currently in a starburst phase Mazzei (1995) Table 1-4. NGC 3055: Previ ously observed properties Property of NGC 3055 Value Reference Right ascension (2000) 09h 55m 18.1s de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Declination (2000) +4 16m 12s de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Distance 23.4 Mpc Marquez & Moles (1996) Vradial 1832 km s-1 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Hubble classification SAB(s)c de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Arm classification 4 Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) Mtotal 3 x 1010 M Marquez & Moles (1996) Angular size 2.1' x 1.3' de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) D25 125" Martin (1995) Inclination 24 Martin (1995) Position angle 63 Martin (1995) Bar length 7" Martin (1995) Bar width 3" Martin (1995) Bar ellipticity class 6 Martin (1995) Bar/galaxy length ratio 0.11 Martin (1995) Apparent magnitude 12.7 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) EWH 597 Romanishin (1990) log F H 11.68 Romanishin (1990) Not classified as a starburst galaxy Devereux (1989) Possesses a rising rotation curve th rough 40" Sperandio et al. (1995) Mass distribution does not fall into norm al classes Sperandio et al. (1995) NGC 3055 is an isolated spir al Marquez & Moles (1996)

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6 Table 1-5. NGC 3246: Previ ously observed properties Property of NGC 3246 Value Reference Right ascension (2000) 10h 26m 41.8s de Vauc ouluers et al. (1991) Declination(2000) +3 51' 43" de Vauc ouluers et al. (1991) Vradial 2150 km s-1 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Hubble classification SABd de Vaucoulue rs et al. (1991) Arm classification 1 Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) D25 2.3' Warmels (1988) Mtotal 1.2 x 1011 M Pisano & Wilcots (1999) Apparent magnitude 13.2 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Inclination 54 Warmels (1988) HI flux 21.5 Jy km s-1 Warmels (1988) DHI 4.2' Warmels (1988) HI line width 266 km s-1 Pisano & Wilcots (1999) MHI 5.6 x 109 M Pisano & Wilcots (1999) Posesses an asymmetric HI spectrum Warmels (1988) Shows an asymmetric HI morphology Pisano & Wilcots (1999) Table 1-6. NGC 3687: Prev iously observed properties Property of NGC 3687 Value Reference Right ascension (2000) 11h 28m 00.5s de Vauc ouluers et al. (1991) Declination (2000) +29 30m 39s de Vauc ouluers et al. (1991) Vradial 2507 km s-1 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Hubble classification (R')SAB(r)bc de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Arm classification 4 Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) Angular size 1.9' x 1.9' de Vaucoul uers et al. (1991) HI line width 190 km s-1 Lewis (1987) HI flux 8.1 Jy km s-1 Lewis (1987) MHI 5 x 109 M Lewis (1987) Apparent magnitude 12.82 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) EWH 17 4 Romanishin (1990) log FH 12.29 Romanishin (1990) Also known as Markarian 736 Possesses a symmetric HI spectrum Lewis (1987)

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7 Table 1-7. NGC 3887: Prev iously observed properties Property of NGC 3887 Value Reference Right ascension (2000) 11h 47m 4.6s de Vaucoul uers et al. (1991) Declination (2000) -16 51' 16" de Vauc ouluers et al. (1991) Distance 14.8 Mpc Jungwiert et al. (1997) Vradial 1208 km s-1 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Hubble classification SB(r)bc de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Arm classification 2 Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) D25 3.3' Haynes et al. (1998) Angular size 3.3' x 2.5' de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Inclination 30 Martin (1995) Bar length 23" Martin (1995) Bar width 11" Martin (1995) Bar to galaxy ratio 0.23 Maritn (1995) Bar ellipticity class 5 Martin (1995) HI flux 46.26 Jy km s-1 Haynes et al. (1998) HI line width 236 km s-1 Haynes et al. (1998) HI asymmetry measure 1.03 Haynes et al. (1998) Apparent magnitude 11.41 Haynes et al. (1998) LFIR 2.0 x 1043 erg s-1 David et al. (1992) LB 3.3 x 1043 erg s-1 David et al. (1992) LXray 6.5 x 1039 erg s-1 David et al. (1992) Not classified as active or starburst David et al. (1992) Shows a strong bar and low star formati on rate. Martinet & Friedeli (1997) Possesses a NIR twist in its bar Jungwiert et al. (1997) Table 1-8. NGC 3930: Prev iously observed properties Property of NGC 3930 Value Reference Right ascension (2000) 11h 51m 46.0s de Vauc ouluers et al. (1991) Declination (2000) +38 00' 54" de Vauc ouluers et al. (1991) Vradial 919 km s-1 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Hubble classification SAB(s)c de Vaucoul uers et al. (1991) Arm classification 4 Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) D25 3.2' Haynes et al. (1998) Angular size 3.2' x 2.4' de Vaucoul uers et al. (1991) HI flux 28.78 Jy km s-1 Haynes et al. (1998) HI line width 152 km s-1 Haynes et al. (1998) HI asymmetry measure 1.14 Haynes et al. (1998) Apparent magnitude 13.1 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) EWH 24 5 Romanishin (1990) log FH 12.57 Romanishin (1990)

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8 Table 1-9. NGC 4793: Prev iously observed properties Property of NGC 4793 Value Reference Right ascension (2000) 12h 54m 40.7s de Vauc ouluers et al. (1991) Declination (2000) +28 56' 19" de Vaucoul uers et al. (1991) Distance 49.2 Mpc Condon et al. (1991) Vradial 2484 km s-1 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Hubble classification SAB(rs)c de Vaucoul uers et al. (1991) Arm classification 1 Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) Angular size 2.8' x 1.5' de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) HI line width 204 km s-1 Sanders et al. (1991) Apparent magnitude 12.3 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) EWH 54 2 Romanishin (1990) log FH 11.55 Romanishin (1990) MB -21.2 Condon et al. (1991) log MH2 9.38 M Sanders et al. (1991) log Mdust 7.11 M Sanders et al. (1991) log LFIR 10.76 L Sanders et al. (1991) Not classified as a starburst galaxy. Devereux (1989) Primary energy source at 4.8 GHz is stars Condon et al. (1991) NGC 4793 is a luminous IR galaxy Sanders et al. (1991) Luminous CO source, due to an in teraction Sanders et al. (1991) Table 1-10. NGC 4900: Prev iously observed properties Property of NGC 4900 Value Reference Right ascension (2000) 13h 00m 39.1s de Vauc ouluers et al. (1991) Declination (2000) +2 30' 05" de Vauc ouluers et al. (1991) Vradial 969 km s-1 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Hubble classification SB(rs)c de Vaucoul uers et al. (1991) Arm classification 3 Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) Angular size 2.2' x 2.1' de Vaucoul uers et al. (1991) Apparent magnitude 11.90 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) B V .55 Belfort et al. (1987) log EWH 1.48 Belfort et al. (1987) LIR / LB 1.1 (Normal) Belfort et al. (1987) log LFIR 9.69 L Ashby et al. (1995) log OIII / H -0.89 Ashby et al. (1995) log NII / H -0.41 Ashby et al. (1995) log SII / H -0.7 Ashby et al. (1995) log H / H 0.41 Ashby et al. (1995) Not classified as a starburst galaxy Devereux (1989) Not deficient in HI Giraud (1986) Not detected in 20 cm continuum Puxley et al. (1988) The FIR emission in NGC 4900 is due to stars Ashby et al. (1995)

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9 Table 1-11. NGC 4904: Prev iously observed properties Property of NGC 4904 Value Reference Right ascension (2000) 13h 00m 58.9s de Vauc ouluers et al. (1991) Declination (2000) -00 01' 42" de Vauc ouluers et al. (1991) Vradial 1169 km s-1 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Hubble classification SB(s)cd de Vaucoul uers et al. (1991) Arm classification 2 Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) Angular size 2.2' x 1.4' de Vaucoul uers et al. (1991) Inclination 47.7 Chapelon et al. (1999) Bar length 16.4" Chapelon et al. (1999) Bar ellipticity (b/a) 0.32 Chapelon et al. (1999) Bar to galaxy ratio 0.35 Chapelon et al. (1999) HI line width 200 km s-1 Lewis et al. (1985) HI asymmetry measure 1.04 Lewis et al. (1985) HI flux 10.76 Jy km s-1 Lewis et al. (1985) HI mass 1.28 x 109 M Lewis et al. (1985) Apparent magnitude 12.6 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) LFIR/LB 1.36 Mazzarella et al. (1991) log LFIR 9.04 Chapelon et al. (1999) Not deficient in HI Giraud (1986) Also known as Markarian 1341 Table 1-12. NGC 5147: Prev iously observed properties Property of NGC 5147 Value Reference Right ascension (J2000) 13h 26m 19.6s de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Declination (J2000) 2 06' 02" de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Vradial 1088 km s-1 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Hubble classification SB(s)dm de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Arm classification 2 Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) Angular size 1.9' x 1.5' de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Apparent magnitude 12.29 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Table 1-13. NGC 5300: Prev iously observed properties Property of NGC 5300 Value Reference Right ascension (J2000) 13h 48m 15.9s de Vauc ouluers et al. (1991) Declination (J2000) +3 57' 03" de Vauc ouluers et al. (1991) Vradial 1171 km s-1 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Hubble classification SAB(r)c de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Arm classification 2 Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) log Mass 10.22 Xu et al. (1994) Angular size 3.9' x 2.6' de Vaucoul uers et al. (1991) D25 3.8' Marzuez & Moles (1992) Apparent magnitude 12.11 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) EWH 22 4 Romanishin (1990) log FH 11.94 Romanishin (1990) H-band magnitude 10.38 Xu et al. (1994)

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10 Table 1-14. NGC 5645: Prev iously observed properties Property of NGC 5645 Value Reference Right ascension (J2000) 14h 30m 39.5s de Vauc ouluers et al. (1991) Declination (J2000) 7 16' 29" de Vaucoul uers et al. (1991) Vradial 1370 km s-1 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Hubble classification SB(s)d de Vaucoul uers et al. (1991) Arm classification 1 Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) D25 2.4' Haynes et al. (1998) Angular size 2.4' x 1.5' de Vaucoul uers et al. (1991) HI flux 19.45 Jy km s-1 Haynes et al. (1998) HI line width 181 km s-1 Haynes et la. (1998) HI asymmetry measure 1.35 Haynes et al. (1998) Apparent magnitude 13.0 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Possesses a nuclear bar Van den Bergh (1995) Lies near a background continuum s ource Corbelli & Schneider (1990) Table 1-15. NGC 5783: Prev iously observed properties Property of NGC 5783 Value Reference Right ascension (J2000) 14h 53m 28.2s de Vauc ouluers et al. (1991) Declination (J2000) +52 4' 34" de Vauc ouluers et al. (1991) Distance 36.6 Mpc Rhee & van Albada (1996) Vradial 2337 km s-1 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Hubble classification SAB(s)c de Vaucoul uers et al. (1991) Arm classification 2 Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) D25 2.8' Rhee & van Albada (1996) Total mass 1.13 x 1011 M Rhee & van Albada (1996) Inclination 53 Rhee & van Albada (1996) HI line width 270 km s-1 Rhee & van Albada (1996) HI line flux 20 Jy km s-1 Rhee & van Albada (1996) HI mass 6.39 x 109 M Rhee & van Albada (1996) EWH 20 4 A Romanishin (1990) log FH 12.28 Romanishin (1990) B magnitude 13.0 Rhee & van Albada (1996)

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11 Table 1-16. NGC 6012: Prev iously observed properties Property of NGC 6012 Value Reference Right ascension (J2000) 15h 54m 13.9s de Vauc ouluers et al. (1991) Declination (J2000) +14 36' 04" de Vauc ouluers et al. (1991) Vradial 1854 km s-1 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Hubble classification (R)SB(r)ab de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Arm classification 3 Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) Angular size 2.1' x 1.5' de Vaucoul uers et al. (1991) HI line width 177 km s-1 van den Bergh (1985) HI flux 12.1 Jy km s-1 van den Bergh (1985) HI mass 4.87 x 109 M van den Bergh (1985) HI asymmetry measure 1.08 van den Bergh(1985) Apparent magnitude 12.69 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) Shows a mostly normal HI profile van den Bergh (1985) Figures 1-1 through 1-7 summar ize several of the major properties of the sample set, so that a global sense of the sample is possible. Figure 1-1 s hows the distribution of Hubble Type (Vaucouluers et al.1991) for our sa mple set. Most of our galaxies are late type; however, there are spirals of all types in the sample. There is likely a bias for flocculent galaxies to be classified as late t ypes, since the pitch angle of the spiral arms of a galaxy is considered in gi ving a galaxy a Hubble type. Where arms are not present, particularly strong, or chaotic looking, a bias toward classify ing them as late type will most likely be introduced. Having most of the galaxies be late type, however, also means that most galaxies in the sample do not show opt ical bulges. This may indicate either that the optical bars in the galaxy sample are young enough not to have dissipated significantly, or that there were not earlier ge nerations of bars present in the galaxies. Figure 1-2 shows that there are roughly e qual numbers of AB and B type bars in our sample. In a similar manner, Figure 1-3 sh ows that there is an even distribution of Elmegreen arm class distributions in our samp le. This shows that there is not a bias toward a certain type (one-armed or particul arly chaotic) of arm structure when choosing

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12 a sample of barred, flocculent galaxies. Figure 1-4 again shows the distribution of Hubble types (Figure 1-1) within the sample but is further modified by the Elmegreen arm class. Our most populous Hubble type (S_c), does not show a bias toward one Hubble type. Earlier galaxies do tend towa rd the less chaotic arm classes, but the numbers of galaxies in these bins (3), are very small. It is unclear whether this would be a trend in a larger sample. Our latest type galaxies (S_d), do show a trend toward the more chaotic arm classes. This is most likely evidence of the bias mentioned before, whereby galaxies with chaotic arms are by definition going to be given later Hubble types. Care must be taken in the study of ba rred, flocculent galaxies, to ensure that these galaxies (chaotic armed, and late type) are of a similar nature to the earlier typed galaxies in the sample. Figure 1-5 shows this same an alysis done on the bar type of the galaxies. There do not seem to be any systematic differences among bar types in the Elmegreen arm classes. Figures 1-6, 1-7, and 1-8 show some of the other diagnos tic features of the galaxy sample set. The distribution of radial veloci ties in Figure 1-6 shows that galaxies in the sample are evenly distributed in the local uni verse. The nearest galaxy has a recessional velocity of 514 km s-1, and the most distant has a recessional velocity of 2507 km s-1. Figure 1-7 shows that the typical galaxy in th e sample has an angular size on the order of 2' 3'. Physical units of diameter are disc ussed in later chapters. Figure 1-8 shows that the average apparent magnitude of the sample is about 12.5. Overall, these three figures show that the sample is (on average) made of relatively nearby and smallish galaxies of moderate brightness.

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13 Finally, Figure 1-9 shows the distribution of previously determined HI asymmetry measures of the galaxy sample. The HI asy mmetry measure, typically made from single dish observations of galaxies, is a measure of how well a galaxy's HI spectrum resembles the typical two-horned pattern of differential rotation. A high measure of asymmetry indicates that either a galaxy possesses an unusual morphology or has a significant amount of gas at non-circular velocities. Th e HI asymmetry measure is often used to search for galaxies that may be undergoi ng an interaction. Haynes et al. (1998) performed a recent large survey of spiral ga laxies examining this measure. In our sample, we find that a plurality of galaxies have low asymmetry measures, but a few do have rather high values (1.35 in one case), indicating that these galaxies may be very interesting when studied with an interferometer. 1 2 8 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S_aS_bS_cS_d Galaxy Hubble TypeNumber of Galaxies Figure 1-1. Distributi on of Hubble Type within our ga laxy sample. This distribution does not take into account bar (B or AB) status.

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14 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 BAB Hubble Bar ClassificationNumber of Galaxies Figure 1-2. Hubble bar cl assification distribution of the galaxy sample 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1234 Elmegreen Arm ClassificationNumber of Galaxies Figure 1-3. Elmegreen arm class di stribution of the galaxy sample

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15 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 S_aS_bS_cS_d Hubble ClassificationNumber of Galaxies 4 3 2 1 Figure 1-4. Distributi on of Hubble Classification and El megreen arm classification. The stripes across the bars represent the nu mber of galaxies of a particular arm class (labeled at right ) in that Hubble Type. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 BAB Bar ClassificationNumber of Galaxies 4 3 2 1 Figure 1-5. Distribution of Bar Classification and Elmegr een arm classification. The stripes across the bars represent the nu mber of galaxies of a particular arm class (labeled at right ) in that Hubble Type.

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16 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 <10001000 15001500 2000>2000 Radial Velocity of Galaxies in km/sNumber of Galaxies Figure 1-6. Radial velocity distribution of the galaxy sample. Velocity bins are separated by 500 km s-1, corresponding to 7 Mpc, where Ho=70 km s-1 Mpc-1. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 <2'2' 3'>3' Angular Size of GalaxyNumber of Galaxies Figure 1-7. Angular size dist ribution of galaxy sample

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17 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 <12.012.013.0>13.0 Apparent MagnitudeNumber of Galaxies Figure 1-8. Apparent magnitude di stribution of the galaxy sample 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 <1.051.05 1.10>1.10 HI Spectrum Asymmetry MeasureNumber of Galaxies Figure 1-9. Distribution of previously measured HI spectrum asymmetry measure in sample galaxies

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18 Observations Our study used multi-wavelength observations of flocculent, barred galaxies. Other studies attempting to unde rstand the nature of floccule nce or bars have only looked at one or perhaps two wavelength regime s (Elmegreen & Elmegreen 1982; Grosbol & Patsis 1998; Block & Puerari 1999). We attempted to observe our sample in three dynamically important wavelength regimes (HI, near-infrared, and optical). Neutral Hydrogen We have obtained HI obser vations from the Very Large Array in D (60" resolution), C (20" resolution) and B (7" resolution) confi gurations for half of our sample galaxies. HI has traditionally been overlooked in studies of flocculent galaxies. However, it is important to consider galaxies in this wavelength regime. HI traces the recent history of the galaxy. It is estimated that 1 to 5 M of pristine HI falls onto the disk of the Milky Way per year. This infall most likely occurs in a lumpy fashion in the form of 107 M clouds (Casuso & Beckman 2001). The manner in which clouds of this size fall on the galaxy could potentially in fluence the optical morphology of star formation within the galaxy. Because HI is a dissipative medium, the effects of galactic cannibalism on a galaxy's HI distribution are not long-lasting. T hus, a disturbed HI morphology can act like a clock on recent interactions. Optical We obtained optical B, R, and I band im ages of our sample galaxies. These observations show the distributi on and magnitude of star forma tion within these galaxies. We are interested in the size and mor phology of the galaxy, size and morphology of optical bars, and location and amount of star formation. These observations serve as a

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19 bridge to the HI observations as the cold neutral gas will be associated with star formation in many cases. Near-Infrared We have obtained near-infrared K-band imag es of four galaxies in our sample. These observations show the distribution of low mass dwarf stars within the galaxy. Some light at K-band is due to higher mass giant stars. Howe ver, pushing farther out into the infrared eliminates the effect of these st ars. About 20% of th e integrated galactic light in K-band is due to giant stars. These stars form the true stellar potential (Frogel et al. 1996). Since stars in a galaxy make up a coll isionless fluid, the potential they form is long lasting and not greatly a ffected by minor mergers. Fr om these observations we can get a sense of the galaxy's history over a long time scale. Data Analysis The focus of our study rests primarily on neutral hydrogen observations of the barred, flocculent galaxies. Near-infrared and optical observations are primarily used in a qualitative way to examine global features of the galaxies, such as the presence and number of spiral arms, stellar bars, star formation regions, surface brightness, and galactic size. Other than in these qualita tive ways, we did not compare our optical and near-infrared observations with our neutral hydrogen observations.

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20 CHAPTER 2 INTRODUCTION TO BARRED, FLOCCULENT GALAXIES The Meaning of Flocculence Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) provided us with the first large scale classification scheme for disk galaxy arm structure. They divided all disk ga laxies into 12 groups based on the strength of their spiral arms. Groups one through four ar e called flocculent; five through nine are called multi-armed; te n through twelve are called grand design. A grand design galaxy is defined to have two long, prominent symmetric arms. In further work with the same data se t, Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1985) found that the minor spiral arms present in flocculent galaxies are blue rela tive to the surrounding interarm region, even if the region is not signifi cantly brighter than th e rest of the galaxy. Arm-interarm contrasts are as great as 2 magnitudes in both optical B and I bands for grand design galaxies. Arm-interarm contrast s are much less in flocculent galaxies and only appear in the optical B band (Elmegr een et al. 1996). Grand design spirals are dominated by a spiral density wave that triggers star form ation, while star formation in flocculent galaxies is dominated by a stoi chastic self-propogating star formation. Differences in arm shape between flocculent ga laxies are due to diffe rent shear rates in different galaxies (Elmegreen & Thomasson 1993; Gerritsen & Icke 1997). Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1985) also found that azimuthal lig ht profiles in the optical B and I bands were chaotic looking for flocculent galaxies. Other studies have found structural differe nces between optically flocculent and grand design galaxies. Roma nishin (1985) found that grand design spirals are bluer than

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21 flocculent galaxies, but the atomic hydrogen co ntent is similar between classes. Cepa & Beckman (1990) found that grand design galaxies have longer scale lengths and are more massive in both stars and gas than flocculent galaxies. They note, however, that the mass surface density of the stars and gas does not vary between arm class. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1987) also found that grand de sign galaxies were larger in optical wavelengths than flocculents, but ther e was no correlation between arm class and diameter of the atomic hydrogen content of the galaxy. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1990) found that grand design galaxies generally have falling rotation curves at their extremities, while flocculent and multi-armed galaxies have flat or rising rotation curves. Presumably, this is an indication that grand de sign galaxies have relatively more mass in their disk than flocculent galaxies (C epa & Beckman 1990; Elmegreen & Elmegreen 1990; Elmegreen & Thomason 1993). Models by Rautiainen & Salo (2001) show that galaxies with more massive halos compared to their disk masses, form flocculent spiral structure more readily than those with mo re massive disks. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1990) note that the middle class of multi-arme d spirals have rotation curves similar to flocculent galaxies, when naively one would assume the presence of spiral density waves in the multi-armed galaxies should give rotation curves like those of grand design galaxies. Molecular line studies of flocculent galaxies, such as Sakamoto (1996) seem to indicate that non-barred, flocculent ga laxies may have central CO holes. Flocculent Galaxies with Underlying Spiral Structure Within the last decade, improvements in near-infrared detectors have allowed a new look at galactic structure. Optical images are able to reveal where young stars are located in the galactic disk. However, galaxi es are optically thick at visible wavelengths (Block & Puerari 1999). This means that the old stellar popu lation is not imaged in the

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22 optical. Since the young, population I stars only compose about 5% of the dynamical mass of a galaxy, we miss a great deal of the available information in a galaxy by only observing it in the optical (Puerari et al. 2000). Near-infrared observations of flocculent gala xies give an interesting twist to what we would expect of galaxies as seen in th e optical. Cepa et al. (1988) found that the flocculent galaxy NGC 2403 displays grand de sign structure in J, H, and K bands. Thornley (1996) repeated this result for NGC 2403 and added three more galaxies to the list of optical flocculents with near-infrare d grand design spiral st ructure. Grosbol & Patsis (1998), Elmegreen et al (1996), and Puerari et al. (2 000) added 10 more galaxies to this list. Thornley & Mundy (1997) found that CO and HI were enhanced along the near-infrared arms of one of these galaxies, NGC 5055. The conclusion drawn by Block & Puerari (1999) based on the mounting observational evidence for flocculent spirals having near-infrared grand design structure is that there are two separate dynamical system s at work in a galaxy. The first system is the gas dominated population I disk. The s econd is the stellar do minated population II disk. Bertin & Lin (1996) show theoretical ly that two different morphologies can exist within one disk. The global mode of a ga laxy is composed of spiral wave packets traveling radially inward and outward (i.e ., a standing wave). The wave packets are trapped between the corotation circle and th e bulge. The Inner Lindblad Resonance can serve to interrupt the wave p ackets in the stellar disk. The Inner Lindblad Resonance will not be as strong in the gaseous disk, thus allo wing the standing wave to exist. In this situation, the galaxy could have two different morphologies at different observational wavelengths.

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23 Spiral Structure Created By Galactic Bars The ability of bars to create structure in galaxies has been a debatable topic for some time. There is evidence to suggest that barred spirals are correlated with grand design structure. From their original wor k, Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) find that in a large sample, barred spirals tend to be grand design. They find that for field galaxies, three fourths of barred spirals have grand desi gn structure. Conversely, they find that for field galaxies without bars only 30% are grand design. Modeling done by Sellwood & Sparke (1988), on the other hand, found that a realistic bar-oval potential has a fairly weak effect on spiral arms within a disk. They found that a strong bar is necessary to produce a spiral response in the disk at large radii. In addition to this, they found th at the pattern speed of the sp iral arms and the bars were different. Sellwood (1993) pointed out th at two prototypical barred, grand design galaxies (NGC 1300 and NGC 3992) have spiral patterns that are not bar driven. They concluded that spirals and bars are independent patterns except in the cases where the bar is very large. Infrared observations by Se igar & James (1998a,b) seem to show that at best, bars only weekly drive spiral structure. Other authors seem to believe that triaxial buldges may be able to drive the weak near-IR spiral waves of some optically flocculent galaxies (Block et al. 1996; Elmegreen et al. 1996). Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1989) raise the issue that bars may not be so simple an animal. They find that there may actually be two different types of bars, one for early type disk galaxies, the other for late type. Early type bars tend to emit a higher fraction of the galaxy's light and are uniform in thei r light distribution. They are also longer relative to their host ga laxy. This finding is also supported by the work of Martin (1995). Early type bars are strongly associated with grand design structure. Late type bars are

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24 generally not associated with grand design structure. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1989) suggest that the bars in early type galaxies extend to corota tion, while late type bars do not. Bars that extend to corotation may have mo re influence in drivi ng a spiral pattern far out in the disk. It has also been observed th at early type bars have flat light profiles, while late type bars have exponential profiles (Elmegreen et al. 1996). Flat profiles in early type galaxies result from excess old and young stars piling up at the bar's end near the 4:1 ultraharmonic resonance. The bar in an early type galaxy e nds because of orbital resonance scattering beyond the 4: 1 resonance. In early type galaxies, the bar corotates with the spiral pattern (Elmegreen et al. 1996). The different types of bars are also associated with ga lactic activity. Chapelon et al. (1999) suggests that galaxi es with long bars are mostly active. Shocks along the leading edges of bars cause gas to fall to wards the center of the galaxy (Athanassoula 1992; Patsis & Athanassoula 2001). Active late type galaxies have strong, long bars, while early type galaxy bars all tend to be strong. They suggest that the difference between late type and early type bars arises from different formation mechanisms. Late type bars possibly form slowly from instabilities, while early type bars form quickly from interactions. This leads to an evolution scen ario, where late type galaxies develop bars, which then grow and dissipate to become bulge s in early type galaxies (Chapelon et al. 1999). Bars should not form more than once in the life of a galaxy. Destruction of a bar leaves the disk too hot to form another ba r unless an enormous amount of cold gas is dumped on the galaxy (Debattista & Sellwood 2000). Spiral Structure Created By Extra-Galactic Companions Companions have also been thought to be a cause of grand design structure in galaxies. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) found that disk galaxies in either binary

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25 systems or groups were more likely to have grand design structure than field galaxies, regardless of their bar classifi cation. Looking more closely at the group galaxies in their original study, Elmegreen & Elmegreen ( 1983) found that interactions between a flocculent galaxy and either multiple companions or a group potential could be responsible for the number of grand design stru cture galaxies seen in groups. They found that group density was the most important factor in determining the fraction of nonbarred spirals with grand design structure. They also found that grand design structure would last for many galactic rotations. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1987) found that groups with small crossing rates have statistical ly more flocculent galaxies. Interactions may not only create, but also enhance weak spiral density waves already present (Elmegreen & Elmegreen 1990; Thornley & Mundy 1997). However, it seems that having a companion may not be a necessary a nd sufficient condition for the existence of spiral density waves (Elmegreen et al. 1996). Computer simulations have also shown th at interactions can create grand design structure within galaxies (Byrd & Howard 1992) Their simulations lead them to claim that a grazing 1% mass ratio interaction will create grand design structure. Also, they propose that 80 99% of galaxies have gra nd design structure because of interactions with companions. Their simulations show that structure will wo rk inward during the course of an interaction. Simulations by Mihos & Hernquist (1994) show that infalling satellites will create an m=2 mode in the large galaxy. Retrograd e encounters seem to affect a disk less than prograde encounters due to the shorter timescale of interaction (Andersen 1996). Gas will also be driven to the center of the large galaxy. Laine &

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26 Heller (1999) were able to successfully mode l a long tidal arm resulting from a minor interaction in a simulation of NGC 7479. Beyond just creating structure, it is thought that interactions with companions may induce bars. In their modeling of NGC 7479, Laine & Heller (1999) found that the interaction also created an observed bar in the main galaxy. They found that the companion galaxy only needed to be 10% of the main galaxy mass for this to occur. Andersen (1996) found that barred spirals are found preferentially closer to the center of the Virgo Cluster. Andersen (1996) concluded that interac tion with the cluster potential is probably mostly responsible for this effect. Again, it is also possible that interactions with companions may destroy structure in a disk galaxy. Sellwood (1993) as well as De battista & Sellwood ( 2000) state that an interaction with a minor companion may destroy a bar in a disk galaxy, but not necessarily the disk. Accretion events could also create asymmetries in galaxy disks. These asymmetries may be amplified into the m=1 mode (Pisano et al. 1998). Implications to Smaller Scales Despite the fact that there may be la rge scale physical di fferences between flocculent and grand design ga laxies, it seems that many of their smaller scale properties are similar. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1985) and Romanishin (1985) found that the star formation rates of flocculent and grand desi gn galaxies are approximately the same over a Hubble Time. Romanishin (1985 ) suggests that there may be a slightly different initial stellar mass function (IMF) ope rating in the two galaxies. If grand design galaxies produce about two times more massive stars, their bluer colors can be explained. Romanishin (1985) does not s uggest why the two different morphological types would possess different IMF's. Other properties rela ted to star formation such as CO surface

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27 brightness, percentage of H emission in HII complexes and far infrared emission, seem to be similar between the galaxy classes (Sta rk et al. 1987; Elmegreen & Salzer 1999). Bars do seem to have an effect on the star fo rmation rates of galaxies however. Martinet & Friedli (1997) found that bars which are relatively bright and long relative to the galaxy's radius have higher star formation ra tes. Barred galaxies in general have higher star formation rates (Kandalyan et al. 2000; Roussel et al. 2001). Bar ellipticity may be correlated with global star fo rmation rate (Aguerri 1999). Late type bars seem to have higher star formation rates, but the cause is uncertain (Martin & Friedli 1999). Most of the star formation in the bar o ccurs at the time of bar form ation. No simple relationship exists between bulge/disk ratio, bar classificat ion, and the starburst properties of a galaxy (Roussel et al. 2001). HII regions in bars do not seem to be different than in spirals (Martin & Friedli 1999). A definite link betw een bars, star formation, and Hubble Type is still unclear (Martinet & Friedli 1997).

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28 CHAPTER 3 OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED OBSERVATIONS OF BARRED, FLOCCULENT GALAXIES In this chapter, we review the optical and near-infrared observations made of the sample galaxies. These observations were ma de in order to study the bar and spiral arm properties of the galaxy sample in different wavelength regimes. Observations Optical observations for this chapter were obtained in May 2002 at the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias 80 cm (IAC80) telescope, an f/13.5 Cassegrain reflecting telescope at the Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife. We used a 1056 x 1024 pixel CCD with a plate scale of 0.4325"/pixel, yielding a fi eld of view of about 7' x 7'. We obtained B and R images for our sample. The average seeing was on the order of 2". Near Infrared observations of the sample galaxies were obtained in May 2002 at the 1.5 m Telescopio Carlos Sanchez (TCS), an f/13.8 Cassegrain reflecti ng telescope at the Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife. We used the 256 x 256 pixel CAIN-II camera with the wide field of view setting (pla te scale of 1"/pixel), yielding a field of view of about 4' x 4'. We observed our sample galaxies in the Ks filter ( = 2.25 m). Our seeing was on the order of 3" for these observations. Data reduction for both the optical and n ear infrared data was preformed using IRAF. Optical data reduction followed th e typical procedure of dark and bias subtraction, flat field corr ection, and image combination. Many of the galaxy fields contained bright stars which re quired us to take a number of short exposure time images

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29 that were later combined. Data reduction for near-infrared data invol ved subtracting dark images from both an on-source and off-source image and then subtracting the off-source image from the on-source image. These sky subtracted images were then flat field corrected and combined with other images of the same galaxy field. Problems including thick clouds and paint on the secondary mirro r of the TCS prevented us from obtaining Ks images of better quality. This chapter also relies heavily on optical images from the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) and near infrared images from the 2 Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and the Ohio State University Bright Spir al Galaxy Survey (Eskridge 2002) NGC 1784 As seen in Chapter 1 (Table 1-1), NGC 1784 is one of our most distant galaxies (33 Mpc) and is the physically largest (D25 of 49kpc) in the sample. Optical observations of the galaxy show that it is flocculent, but not because of a lack of star formation. Figure 3-1, an optical DSS image of the galaxy s hows a prominent bar and inner ring. Two small arms seem to begin off of the ends of the bar, but dissipate quickly. The outer regions of the galaxy seem to be dominated by many little armlets, rather than by some overall 2-armed pattern. Elmegreen & Elmegreen 's (1982) classification of this galaxy in to arm category "3" seems appropriate. The ga laxy does show some spiral structure, but not on a large scale. Martin (1995) observed the propertie s of the bar in NGC 1784 and found the bar to have a semi-major axis leng th of 34" (5.4 kpc) and a semi-minor axis length of 7" (1.1 kpc). The ratio of the bar semi-major axis to the semi-minor axis is 0.21. The ratio of the bar length to the diamet er of the galaxy is 0.20. Within the sample, we define increasing bar strength to be re lative to the increasing size of the bar with respect to the galaxy diameter. NGC 1784 posse sses a particularly large value within the

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30 sample for this diagnostic. Longer bars with respect to the galaxy diameter will possess more mass and presumably have more dynamical influence on the galaxy. We also define the bar strength to go as inversely to th e bar axis ratio. These values are similar to Martin's (1995) bar ellipticity class where r ound, SAB galaxies typi cally fall into class "1", and narrow, long bars are placed into cla ss "6". The optical bar and disk properties of all galaxies will be summarized at the end of the chapter. We find the bar to be asymmetric. The eas tern edge of the bar is flat, while the western edge is more pointed. The bar l ooks like the head of a ball-peen hammer. However, neither Elmegreen et al. (1996) nor Jungweirt et al. (1997) found twists in the bar. Even still, this type of bar structure ma y be indicative of some type of interaction or dynamical instability, even though the majority of the optical galaxy does not show any large disturbances. Figure 3-1. Optical R-band DSS image of NGC 1784

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31 NGC 2500 Optical images of NGC 2500 (Figure 3-2) are dominated by the central bar and a few short chaotic spiral arms appearing to originate from this bar. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) place this galaxy into arm classification bin "1", meaning that it is among the galaxies with the w eakest arms. NGC 2500 clearly pr esents itself differently than does NGC 1784 which seem to have weak arms that stretch to the edge of the galaxy. In NGC 2500, there only appears to be a disk of stars beyond about half of the radius of the galaxy. NGC 2500 has a reasonable angul ar size for observations (D25 of 135"), but has a small physical diameter of 7.8 kpc. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1985) give the semi-major axis of the optical bar as 21", corresponding to a physical length of 1.2 kpc. From the DSS image below, we calculate a bar semi-min or axis of 4", a physical length of 0.2 kpc. We find a bar axis ratio of 0.19, and Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1985) give a bar to galaxy ratio of 0.24. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1985) give the light profile of the bar as exponential, which is consistent with NGC 2500 being a late type galaxy (SBd). Ks-band observations of NGC 2500 from th e 2-MASS survey are presented in Figure 3-3. The sensitivity is very low in th is image, but we do again see the bar is the most prominent feature of the galaxy. The bar region appears to be somewhat smaller than in the optical image, but this effect is more likely due to low signal. The near infrared bar is aligned with the optical bar. There does not appear to be any spiral structure in the near infrared disk of the galaxy, but again low sensitivity prevents us from commenting in detail

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32 Figure 3-2. R-band DSS image of NGC 2500 Figure 3-3. 2-MASS K-ba nd image of NGC 2500

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33 NGC 2793 Compared to the other galaxies in this sample, NGC 2793 is unique, because it is the only one that appears in the optical to have been in an interaction (Figure 3-4). It is unclear if the small galaxy present to the southwest of NGC 2793 is responsible for the interaction. Previous author s do not comment on this object and there have not been HI observations of either galaxy. Thompson ( 1977) and Mazzei (1995) note that the galaxy is a typical ring galaxy and is currently undergoi ng a starburst because of this interaction. The galaxy is small with an angular size of 1.3', corresponding to a physical diameter of 9 kpc. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) give this galaxy an arm classification of "1". Our optical image shows nothing resembling optical sp iral structure. The features prominent in the image are a bright bar and a ring of st ar formation to the sout heast of the galaxy. We calculate the bar semi-major axis to be 7", corresponding to a physical length of 0.8 kpc. We calculate a bar semi-minor axis of 2", corresponding to a physical length of 0.2 kpc. The bar axis ratio for NGC 2793 is 0.28 an d the bar to galaxy length ratio is 0.17. Figure 3-5 shows a Ks-band near infrared image of NGC 2793 from the 2-MASS survey. The only structure present in this image is the bar, due to low sensitivity. We find that the near infrared bar is aligned similarly to the opti cal bar, and is on the order of the same length. There does not appear to be any signal from the disk region, so it is impossible to comment on the structure of the ring in the older star population.

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34 Figure 3-4. R-band image of NGC 2793 from IAC80 Figure 3-5. K-band image of NGC 2793 from 2-MASS. This image is rotated 180 and reflected relative to the y-axis with re spect to our IAC80 image in Figure 3-6.

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35 NGC 3055 From Table 1-4, we see that NGC 3055 is both a distant and small galaxy within our sample. It was found to have an optical diameter of 125" (14 kpc ) by Martin (1995). Optical R and B band images of NGC 3055 (F igures 3-6 and 3-7) show a relatively undisturbed smooth stellar disk with a somewhat oblong bar. We agree with Elmegreen & Elmegreen's (1982) classification of this gala xy as belonging to arm class "3". A one armed structure along the southe rn side of the galaxy is th e prominent stru cture in the disk of the galaxy. The outer regions seem to be too smooth in intensity. Martin (1995) found the bar to have a semi-major axis of 7" (0.8 kpc) and a semi-minor axis of 3" (0.3 kpc). Our B band image shows a similar result for the size of the bar. We calculate a ratio of the semi-major axis of the bar to the radius of the galaxy to be 0.11. The B band image seems to indicate a one ar m structure originating on the southern midpoint of the bar, curving westward thr ough a large HII region a nd around to the north of the galaxy. The HII region is unusually large given the size of the galaxy. We calculate a diameter for the region to be 5" (0.6 kpc). The size of this object is near to the seeing limit of our observations, and may have undergone some beam smearing. There must be a significant amount of star form ation occurring within this region, enough perhaps, to influence the gas dynamics of other areas in the galaxy. The B band image shows other regions of heightened star form ation regions, notably along the inner parts of the one-arm structure, and a few diffuse regi ons on the eastern side of the galaxy. The scattered and separated nature of the star formation in this galaxy may be a result of the stochastic star formation processes theorized for flocculent galaxies. The observed one armed feature may be a si gnature of an inter action, but there are no other asymmetric features associated w ith the optical morphology of the galaxy. We

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36 produced a B-R color map for NGC 3055, but poor seeing at the time of observation and bad resolution did not allow us to produce a reasonable image. Our Ks-band image (Figure 3-8) of NGC 3055 shows the prominent bar region of the galaxy, the large HII region, and hints at th e one-armed feature circling the galaxy to the north. Given the re solution limits on our Ks observations, we calculate the same bar size in the infrared as the optical. We also observe the same disk structure present in the infrared as the optical. Deeper images would be necessary to probe further into the disk. Figure 3-6. Optical R-band image of NG C 3055, taken at the IAC80 telescope

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37 Figure 3-7. Optical B-band image of NG C 3055 taken with the IAC80 telescope Figure 3-8. Near-Infrared K-band im age of NGC 3055, taken with the TCS

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38 NGC 3246 NGC 3246 is another galaxy that falls into the Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) arm class "1", indicating its extremely weak spiral arms. An optical DSS image (Figure 3-9) shows that the galaxy consists of an oval bar w ith the hint of one spiral arm leading off to the west of the galaxy. There is little othe r structure present in the disk beyond a few chaotic star forming regions. The galaxy a ppears to be squeezed in the north-south direction, more than what would be expected from typical inclinati on effects. In HI observations, Pisano & Wilcots (1999) found th at the HI morphology of the galaxy was disturbed and that there was evidence for a unresolved HI companion very near to the galaxy. Knowing this, the optic al presentation of the galaxy is not out of line with an interaction. Even though there appear to several galaxies in the optical image, Pisano & Wilcots (1999) found that NGC 3246 was is olated in their HI observations. Warmels (1988) calculated an optical D25 of 2.3' for this ga laxy, corresponding to a physical diameter of 22 kpc, maki ng this one of the larger ga laxies in the sample. We calculate a bar semi-major axis of 10" corr esponding to a physical le ngth of 1.6 kpc and a bar semi-minor axis of 5", corresponding to a physical length of 0.8 kpc. We find the bar axis ratio to be 0.5 and the bar to galaxy le ngth ratio to be 0.14. NGC 3246 has one of the more round bars in the sample, but it is on the high side of the sa mple in terms of the bar to galaxy length ratio. The Ks-band image of NGC 3246 from the 2-MA SS survey shows almost no signal from NGC 3246 except from the bar region. We find that the near infrared bar of NGC 3246 is aligned with the optical bar, and is a bout the same size. Unfortunately, we cannot comment on the disk structure of the galaxy, howe ver. It would be interesting to examine

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39 the morphology of the old stars in this gala xy given the likelihood of an interaction from Pisano & Wilcot's (1999) observations. Figure 3-9. R-band image of NGC 3246 from IAC80 Figure 3-10. K-band imag e of NGC 3246 from 2-MASS

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40 NGC 3687 NGC 3687 is the most distant galaxy in our sample with a recessional velocity of 2507 km s-1, corresponding to a distance of 35.8 Mpc (Ho = 70 km s-1 Mpc-1) (de Vaucouluers et al. 1991). Due to its large di stance, its small optical angular size (1.9') corresponds to a reasonably, for the sample large 19.7 kpc physical size. Our R-band IAC80 image (Figure 3-11) of NGC 3687 shows that the galaxy has a prominent bar and regular, but dim, spiral arms. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) give this galaxy an arm class of "4", meaning it is among the floccule nts with the most structure. The underlying spiral structure is more apparent in the B-band image of the galaxy in Figure 3-12. The arms do seem to bifurcate in the outer regions of the galaxy and there does not seem to be a two-armed pattern, but rather a many-armed pattern. Given this arm pattern and the relative dimness of the arms compared to the op tical bar, the classification of "4" for this galaxy seems appropriate. In the B-band image there appears to be a ring of stars at about half of the galaxy radius. We calculate at bar semi-major axis of 7" from the R-band image of NGC 3687. This corresponds to a physical bar length of 1.2 kpc. We calcu late a bar semi-minor axis of 5", corresponding to a physical length of 0.9 kpc. The bar is very round, having a bar axis ratio of 0.71, and not particularly long compared to the galaxy, having a bar to galaxy radius ratio of 0.12. There is reason to believe that the bar is longer than this measurement. There seems to be the slight est hint of a connecti on between the bar and the star forming ring in the B-band image. Further dynamical study of this galaxy would be necessary to determine whether this opti cal emission was related to the bar or small spiral arms linking the bar to the ring.

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41 Figure 3-11. R-band imag e of NGC 3687 from IAC80 Figure 3-12. B-band imag e of NGC 3687 from IAC80

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42 The Ks-band image of NGC 3687 from the 2-MA SS survey shows that the optical bar present in the R-band image may not ex ist at infrared wavelengths. This low sensitivity image shows an almost circular feature at the center of the galaxy. Deeper images are necessary to determine if an oval pattern emerges outside of this feature at a lower surface brightness. Further dynami cal study of the galaxy would also be interesting to determine the propert ies of this circular feature. Figure 3-13. K-band imag e of NGC 3687 from 2-MASS NGC 3887 NGC 3887 is given an arm classification of "2" by Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982). The galaxy possesses a bright oval bar and limited spiral stru cture in an optical R-band image (Figure 3-14). There appear to be spiral arms originating from the ends of the bar, but the spiral that continues to the east of the galaxy is the only one that exists for an appreciable distance. The arms quickly bifu rcate near the outer edge of the galaxy and

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43 dissipate into an even disk of stars. Ther e also appear to be knots of star formation throughout the disk. Some appear to be asso ciated with spiral arms, while others are isolated in the disk. NGC 3887 has an angular size of 3.3', corre sponding to a physical diameter of 16.5 kpc (Haynes et al. 1998). Mart in (1995) calculated a bar semi -major axis length of 11.5" and a semi-minor axis length of 5.5". These values correspond to phys ical distances of 1 kpc and 0.5 kpc, respectively. From these valu es, we find a bar axis ratio of 0.5 and a bar to galaxy radius ratio of 0.12. Figure 3-14. R-band imag e of NGC 3887 from IAC80 Figure 3-15 shows a Ks-band image of NGC 3887 from the 2-MASS survey. Here we again see the bar regions of the galaxy a nd evidence of the inne r spiral arms. The near infrared bar appears to be a bit shorter than the optical bar, he re looking to have a semi-major axis of 5". However, without str ong signal in this imag e, it is impossible to be confident in this value. We see near infr ared counterparts of the inner spiral arms seen

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44 in the optical image, but no evidence for spir al structure further out into the disk. Jungwiert et al. (1997) reported twisted isophotes in the bar of NGC 3887, often a signature of previous interac tions. We see no evidence of that here, however, our data does not possess the same re solution or sensitivity. Figure 3-15. K-band imag e of NGC 3887 from 2-MASS NGC 3930 NGC 3930 presents the most optically gra nd design structure in the entire galaxy sample. However, it is the asymmetry in strength between its two arms that causes Elmegreen & Elmegreen to place it into arm class 4, and call it flocculent. In Figure 316, a R-band image of NGC 3930 taken at the IA C80, and especially in Figure 3-17, a Bband image of NGC 3930, we see that the sout hern arm of the gala xy is much longer and stronger than the northern. In the B-band image, the southern arm extends almost all the way to the edge of the optical emission, while the northern arm extends to only about 1/2

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45 of the radius of the galaxy. Ha ynes et al. (1998) calculated a D25 for NGC 3930 of 3.2' (12 kpc) meaning that the southern arm is so mewhat longer than this distance, while the northern arm is on the order of 8 kpc. Onearmed spirals have been associated with interactions, and this is ce rtainly possible in this case but we see no other large asymmetries in the op tical image of NGC 3930. NGC 3930 does not possess a particularly prom inent bar. It is classified by de Vaucouluers et al. (1991) as an SAB galaxy. Our optical images show that there is not much of a bar region, but more of an oval ar ea where the two inner spiral arms connect. We calculate a semi-major axis of 12" (0.8 kpc ) and a semi-minor axis of 5" (0.3 kpc). The ratio of the bar semi-major axis to the galaxy radius is 0.06 for NGC 3930. Figure 3-16. Optical R-band image of NGC 3930 taken with IAC80 telescope

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46 Figure 3-17. Optical B-band image of NGC 3930 Figure 3-18. B-R color map of NGC 3930. Light grayscale regions are blue in color. Darker grayscale regions co rrespond to red colors.

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47 Figure 3-18 shows a B-R color map of NG C 3930. This map does not show much structure in the disk of NGC 3930. The low re solution of this image may be smearing out color effects of the spiral arms, but it seems that they are not particularly blue. The region immediately south of the bar appears to be bluer than the bar itself, indicating star formation in this region. This region may co incide with the sout hern spiral arm. However, the sensitivity a nd resolution are again not high enough to comment in detail on the processes active in this region. NGC 4793 NGC 4793 possesses an interesting optical morphology. Figure 3-19 shows an Rband image of the galaxy taken with the IAC80 telescope. NGC 4793 possess a very bright central bar region that ap pears to be connected to several spiral arms in the south. These spiral arms appear to be dotted with large star forming regions, and one curves along most of the southern edge of the ga laxy. The northern end of the bar does not appear to have any spiral structure. There is one isolated, large star forming region in the northern region of the galaxy. Elmegreen & El megreen (1982) classify this galaxy as a "1" due to its overall lack of spiral structur e. To the west and north of the galaxy, there are several knots of optical emission forming an arc about the galaxy. These regions may form a tidal tail produced by a previous in teraction. Overall, the galaxy does appear disturbed, which is consistent with Sanders et al. (1991) CO observations. The angular size of the galaxy is 2.8', co rresponding to a physi cal size of 28.9 kpc, making this the second largest galaxy in th e sample. Condon et al (1991) quotes the distance to the galaxy as 49 Mpc, however, this was made with a Ho value of 50 km s-1 Mpc-1. We adopt a more rea listic value of 70 km s-1 Mpc-1 for Ho and thus calculate a distance of 35.5 Mpc. We calculate the bar in NGC 4793 to have an angular semi-major

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48 axis of 10" and a semi-minor axis length of 4". These values correspond to physical distances of 1.7 kpc and 0.7 kpc, respectively. Th e bar axis ratio is 0.4 and the bar length to galaxy radius ratio is 0.06. It is particularly difficult to de termine the bar length in this galaxy as some of the spiral arm features sout h of the bar can easily blend into the bar at the right isophote levels. We believe that th ese objects should not be considered part of the bar, and from this get a small valu e for the bar semi-major axis length. Figure 3-19. R-band imag e of NGC 4793 from IAC80 Figure 3-20 shows a Ks-band image of NGC 4793 from the 2-MASS survey. Here we see the spiral arm structures south of th e bar are unresolved into a general region of near infrared emission (this image is flippe d and rotated, so the previously southern features are now in the north). The bright bar region may be slightly smaller in the near infrared than in the optical, but at this resoluti on it is difficult to tell. The near infrared and optical bars are aligned similarly. Beyond the unresolved spiral arms south of the

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49 bar, we do not see any other evidence of spiral structure in the near infrared disk of NGC 4793. Figure 3-20. K-band image of NGC 4793 from 2-MASS. This image is rotated 180 and flipped along the y-axis relative to the R-band IAC80 image in Figure 3-19. NGC 4900 Optical images of NGC 4900 show obvious signs of disturbance. Figure 3-21 shows an R-band image of NGC 4900 taken with the IAC80. We see a bright, prominent bar surrounded by small star forming regions w ith no discernable structure present in the disk. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) place NGC 4900 in arm class "3". This is perhaps an overstatement of the structure present in the galaxy, as it seems th at there is no overall spiral pattern in this galaxy. The very bright point source at the s outheastern limit of the galaxy is a foreground star and not associated with the galaxy. The galaxy itself is very small, having an optical diameter of 2.2' (9 kpc). We calculate a bar semi-major axis of 10" (0.7 kpc ) and a semi-minor axis of 5" (0.4 kpc).

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50 The value for semi-major axis does not include the wispy region north of the bar. It is unclear if this region is a low surface bright ness extension of the bar, or simply star forming regions in the disk. Higher resolution observations would be necessary to determine this. We calculate a value of 0.08 for the ratio of bar semi-major axis to galaxy radius. Figure 3-22 shows a B-band optical imag e of NGC 4900 taken with the IAC80 telescope. Again, we see the bright bar surr ounded by chaotic star forming regions. The B-band image seems to show more arc like st ructures joining the star forming regions, but there is nothing approaching grand design spiral structures. The individual star forming regions are point sources in our obser vations, having a diam eter on the order of 2" 3" (0.1 0.2 kpc). The overall distribu tion of these star forming regions, and the strength of the bar seems to indicate that NGC 4900 has been involved in some type of recent interaction. However, there does not a ppear to be any optical emission outside of the optical disk of the galaxy associat ed with any companion galaxies. Figure 3-23 is an optical B-R color map of NGC 4900. We find that the center of the bar is blue relative to the edges, indica ting that there is star formation occurring within the bar and that the edges are obscu red by dust. Both Devereaux (1989) and Ashby et al. (1995) do not classify the galaxy as starburst or active, so the color must come from normal star formation processes a nd not an AGN. We also see that several of the star forming regions mentioned above app ear blue in the color map, indicating their status as HII regions. Again, there does not appear to be any gl obal spiral structure pattern in the color map.

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51 Figure 3-21. Optical R-band image of NG C 4900 taken with the IAC 80 telescope Figure 3-22. Optical B-band image of NGC 4900 taken at the IAC80 telescope

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52 Figure 3-23. B-R color map of NGC 4900. Light grayscale regions are blue in color. Darker grayscale regions co rrespond to red colors. Figure 3-24 is an H-band near infrared image of NGC 4900 from the Ohio State Bright Galaxy Survey (Eskridge 2002). The reso lution here is less than with the optical images above, but we see largely the same features in the near infrared. There is a bright bar surrounded by arcs of star forming regions. In this image, there may be slightly more coherence to the arcs of star formation, but they do not appear to orig inate with the bar as typical spiral arms do. The bar is larger in this image compared to the optical images above. The wispy northern end of the bar in the R and B-band im ages is filled in the near infrared. This could be due to the dyna mic range of the H-band observations, or the stellar make up of the northern end of the ba r is different and c ontains more old, low mass stars than the central parts of the bar.

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53 Figure 3-24. H-band image of NGC 4900 from Ohio State NGC 4904 NGC 4904 is another galaxy that appears to s how signs of disturba nce in its optical emission. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) pl ace the galaxy in arm class "2" making it among the most flocculent in our sample. Fi gure 3-25 is an R-band optical image of the galaxy taken with the IAC80 Telescope. NGC 4904 possesses a very large bar relative to the galaxy itself and diffuse emission outside of the bar. There appears to be one arm emanating from the southeastern end of th e bar, and another arm and loop of emission related to the northwestern end of the bar. The galaxy has an angular size of 2.2' co rresponding to a physical diameter of 10.4 kpc, making this another small galaxy. The bar was measured by Chapelon et al. (1999) to have a semi-major axis of 16" (1.1 kpc) a nd a semi-minor axis of 7" (0.5 kpc). The bar semi-major axis to galaxy radius ratio is 0.2.

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54 Figure 3-26, a B-band optical IAC80 image of NGC 4904 shows that the bar itself has some interesting structure. The bar appe ars to be shaped like a bent peanut. Where the central region the bar was the thickest in the R-band image, the middle of the bar is narrow in B-band image. Overall, the bar is skinnier in the B-band image as well. There is a faint hint of 3-armed stru cture in the galaxy in the B-ba nd image. As with 1-armed structure in NGC 3055 and NGC 3930, 3-armed structure in galaxies has also been associated with interactions. We do not find any optical emission external to the galaxy related to any satellites. Figure 3-27 is a B-R color map of NGC 4904 made with data from the IAC80 telescope. We observe a very strong dust lane through the center of the bar region of the galaxy. Both long edges of the bar appear blue in this image, but the center of the bar is red. A dust lane such as this is typical of a bar in the process of forming stars. This indicates that the bar is most likely young, and could have been produced by a recent interaction, the same interaction that presum ably disturbed the disk of NGC 4904. There is structure inside of the bar region, as there is a prominent red area at the northern end of the bar. This could potentially be a large, dust obscured HII region that was not observed in the broadband optical images. The arm regi ons in the south of the galaxy appear to be red. That would indicate that the arms in NG C 4904 are either made of older stars, have a significant quantity of dust within them or are vigorously producing stars. Figure 3-28 shows the Ks image taken of NGC 4904 with the TCS. The sensitivity of this image is very low. The prominent feat ure of the galaxy in the infrared is the bar. Within the resolution of the image, the bar is similar in size and shape to the bar seen in

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55 the optical images of the galaxy. We do not s ee any real indication of spiral arms in the near infrared image of NGC 4904, but this may be due to the low sensitivity of the image. Figure 3-25. Optical R-band image of NGC 4904 taken with IAC80 telescope Figure 3-26. Optical B-band imag e of NGC 4904 taken with IAC 80

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56 Figure 3-27. B-R color map of NGC 4904. Light grayscale regions are blue in color. Darker grayscale regions co rrespond to red colors. Figure 3-28. K-band image of NGC 4904 taken at TCS

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57 NGC 5147 There has been little previous study of NGC 5147. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) place this galaxy in arm class "2". The op tical image of NGC 5147 shown in Figure 3-29 shows a galaxy with a not particularly st rong bar surrounded by seemingly chaotic star formation. A few arcs of star formation appear to be in the south of the galaxy, but there is little overall structure. This galaxy app ears to be similar in disk structure to NGC 4900, but without the str ong bar at its center. The galaxy has an optical angular diamet er of 1.9', corresponding to a physical diameter of 8.6 kpc, making it similar in si ze to NGC 4900 as well. The bar in this galaxy appears to be very sky and misali gned with the morphological position angle of the overall galaxy. The bar appears to be twisted, or at least thicker at the southern end. We calculate a semi-major bar axis length of 5" and a semi-minor bar axis length of 2". These values correspond to physical distan ces of 0.4 kpc and 0.1 kpc, respectively. The bar axis ratio is 0.2 and th e bar to galaxy radius ratio is 0.09. Deeper and higher resolution study of this galaxy is necessary to determine its bar structure and properties. Figure 3-30 shows a Ks-band image of NGC 5147 from the 2-MASS survey. The resolution in this image is poor compared to the size of the galaxy. It is difficult to determine the bar properties of the galaxy in this image. In fact, it's difficult to determine if there is a bar at all. The ar cs of star formation to the south of the galaxy are apparent in this image as well.

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58 Figure 3-29. R-band imag e of NGC 5147 from DSS Figure 3-30. K-band imag e of NGC 5147 from 2-MASS

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59 NGC 5300 NGC 5300 lies at a distance of 17 Mpc, and has an angular diameter of 3.8', corresponding to a physical size of 18kpc. Compared to the ot her galaxies in the sample, NGC 5300, is probably the most 'normal' of th e set. The R-band IAC80 image (Figure 331) shows that the galaxy does not possess a ny large scale asymmetries. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) place the galaxy into arm cl ass "2" indicating that it does not have a global spiral arm structure. We see a similar habitus in our images. There appears to be small armlets in the central pa rt of the galaxy, and then chao tic star forming arcs in the outer regions. The spiral density waves that may exist in the inne r parts of the galaxy do not continue far out into the disk. A one-arm ed structure begins off of the northern end of the bar region and curls around to the east, but this feature ends fairly quickly, within 1' (5 kpc). We do not detect any evidence of optical satellites associ ated with this galaxy. Figure 3-31. Optical R-band imag e of NGC 5300 taken at IAC80

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60 The bar region of NGC 5300 is not well formed. It is difficult to define the bar in either the R-band or B-band image (Figure 332) of this galaxy. We measure a semimajor axis of 8" (0.7 kpc) and a semi-minor axis of 6" (0.5 kpc) for the bar in NGC 5300 for the R-band image. The ratio of bar semi-major axis to galaxy radius is 0.08. The Bband image of NGC 5300 may indicate that the optical bar is slightly misaligned from the position angle of the galaxy, and th e starting points of the armlets emanating from it. We see more evidence for small arms in the B-band image, where the northern one-armed feature is de-emphasized and possibly a total of three armlets are originating off of the bar. The B-band image shows that the ar ms are very knotty, and broken up into HII regions that are on the order of the resolution of the imag e, 2" 3" (0.2 0.3 kpc). Figure 3-32. Optical B-band imag e of NGC 5300 taken with IAC80 Figure 3-33 shows a B-R optical color map made with data from the IAC80. We do not observe a great deal of st ructure in this image. The central regions of the galaxy

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61 appear to be redder than th e outside regions, indicating th at the bar is not producing a great deal of stars. This is consistent with the bar being so small relative to the size of the galaxy. We do not observe evidence of the spir al arms or HII regions in the color map. This is either due to the limited spatial resolu tion of our observations, or the fact that the small spiral arms are not particularly bl uer than the inter-arm regions, typical for flocculent galaxies. The outer regions of th e galaxy appear to have a blue color relative to the center. This effect is due to the rela tive sensitivities of the R and B images used to make Figure 3-33. More sensitive observations w ith a larger telescope will be needed to determine the colors of the spiral arms in this galaxy. Figure 3-33. B-R color map of NGC 5300. Light grayscale regions are blue in color. Darker grayscale regions co rrespond to red colors.

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62 NGC 5645 NGC 5645 is a small galaxy with a bright elli ptical bar. The galaxy is classified by Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) as a "1" with a lmost no appreciable spiral structure. In Figure 3-34, a R-band IAC80 image of NGC 5645, we see that there is star formation and some spiral arcs associated with the southe rn end of the bar. This is similar in appearance to NGC 4793. Also similar to NGC 4793 is a small patch of optical emission separated from the northeast of the galaxy. This object may be part of a tidal arm or a satellite galaxy. Haynes et al. (1998) found that NGC 5645's HI spectrum was rather asymmetric, and indicates that the galaxy may ha ve been involved in a recent interaction. The B-band image of the galaxy in Figure 3-35 shows a similar morphology, but the bar appears to be smaller and more twisted, again indicative of a possible interaction. The angular size of NGC 5645 was measured by Haynes et al. (1998) to be 2.4', corresponding to a physical diameter of 13.7 kpc. We measure a bar semi-major axis length of 9" and a semi-minor axis length of 3". These values correspond to physical distances of 0.9 kpc and 0.3 kpc, respectively. Th e bar axis ratio is then 0.3, and the bar to galaxy radius ratio is 0.13. Figure 3-36 shows a Ks-band image of NGC 5645 from the 2-MASS survey. This image shows the bar (rotated and flipped fr om the IAC80 image in Figures 3-34 and 335) to be the same size and orientation as in the optical images. The bar appears to be peanut shaped and twisted in the infrar ed, indicating again, that this galaxy has undergone some type of recent interaction. B ecause of the low sensitivity in this image, we do not see near infrared emission from the disk of NGC 5645, and can not comment on the arm structure in this wavelength regime.

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63 Figure 3-34. R-band imag e of NGC 5645 from IAC80 Figure 3-35. B-band imag e of NGC 5645 from IAC80

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64 Figure 3-36. K-band image of NGC 5645 from 2-MASS. This image is rotated 180 and flipped along the y-axis relative to the R-band IAC80 image in Figure 3-35. NGC 5783 As with the other galaxies in the sample that exhibit a one-armed influenced spiral structure, NGC 5783 is placed by Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) into arm class "4". Figure 3-37, an R-band image of the galaxy, shows the one main arm of NGC 5783 leaves the central regions of the galaxy towards the north and then curves around to the east. This arm stretches retains its structure to nearly the end of the optical galaxy. The corresponding arm on the opposite side of the gala xy is not as bright and only reaches to about half of the radius of the galaxy. NGC 5783 does not appear to possess an appreciable bar, and resembles the centra l structure of NGC's 3930 and 5300. Several smaller galaxies are in the field of view, but previous single dish HI observations of the region by Rhee & Albada (1996) showed NGC 5783 to be isolated.

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65 Rhee & Albada (1996) give the D25 angular size of the galaxy to be 2.8'. Using a Ho of 70 km s-1 Mpc-1, we calculate a distance to the galaxy of 33.4 Mpc. We calculate the physical diameter of the galaxy to be 27.2 kpc, making this a sizable galaxy in our sample. Given the close linkage between the bar and the stronger arm, it is difficult to calculate a bar length for this galaxy. We estimate a bar semi-major axis length of 6" and a semi-minor axis length of 5". These corr espond to physical sizes of 1 kpc and 0.8 kpc, respectively. We calculate a bar axis ratio of 0.8 and a bar to galaxy radius ratio of 0.07. Figure 3-38 shows a Ks-band image of NGC 5783 from the 2-MASS survey. This image, although lacking in sensitivity, show s that this galaxy does not possess an elliptical bar. The central bright region is ci rcular within the resolution constraints of this image. We do not find evidence for near infrar ed spiral structure in this galaxy, however, there is not enough signal present to comment on that finding. Figure 3-37. R-band imag e of NGC 5783 from IAC80

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66 Figure 3-38. K-band imag e of NGC 5783 from 2-MASS NGC 6012 Our R-band image of NGC 6012 (Figure 3-39) shows a galaxy that is primarily composed of a large, strong, and bright bar surrounded by low levels of optical emission. The galaxy itself is not particularly larg e on the sky, having an angular size of 2.1', corresponding to a physical diameter of 15 kpc. We find very little evidence for spiral structure in the R-band image except at the ex tremes of the galaxy. There appears to be emission leading to the east of the northern e nd of the bar and to the west at the southern edge of the bar, but these ar e at the limits of our sensit ivity. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) place NGC 6012 in arm class "3". The galaxy is certainly flocculent, but may be even more so than this classification. There does not appear to be star formation

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67 anywhere outside of the bar in the R-band image, nor does there appear to be any evidence for optical companions. We measure the bar of NGC 6012 to have a semi-major axis of 25" (3.1 kpc) and a semi-minor axis of 5" (0.6 kpc), making this one of the most elliptical bars in the sample. The ratio of the bar axes is 0.2 and the ratio of bar semi-major axis to galaxy radius is 0.4, the largest in the sample. In the R-band image, the bar appears to have some structure. The central region is the brightest, and the emission diminishes until the north and south tips. In the north, there seems to be a brig ht region of star formation approximately 3" (0.4 kpc) in diameter. In the south of the bar, there is a loop of emission surrounding a region of approximately the same size. In the B-band image (Figure 3-40), we see th e same structure in the bar. We also see the presence of a ring around the bar, with most of its emission concentrated in the north. Rings are typically associated with re sonances. A ring at this location may be a result of either the 4:1 ultraharmonic resona nce, or corotation. Higher resolution studies as well as velocity information would be n eeded to determine which. Again, there does not appear to be evidence of spiral struct ure or companion galaxies in this image. Figure 3-41 shows a B-R color map of NG C 6012 made from IAC80 images. We again see the very distinctive structure in the bar. The star forming region appears to be blue relative to the rest of the bar. We c onclude that this region is a large HII region due to its color, and stars are actively forming at the bar's northern edge. The center of the bar appears to be red. Either this is du e to a large dust lane obscuring the young, blue stars, or this region of the bar has evolved in to something more similar to a stellar bulge which is no longer forming stars. The sout hern tip of the bar again shows the loop

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68 structure present in the B and R-band images. The loop itself is bl ue while the central region is more red. We conclude that the southern tip of the bar is similar to the northern, but the central HII region is obscured by dust. This leads us to beli eve that the southern end of the bar is inclined away from us, as the blue light from this HII region has to pass through a longer path length of dust to reach us. Our images did not possess enough sensitivity to examine the colors of the disk region of NGC 6012. Figure 3-42 shows our Kshort image of NGC 6012 taken with the TCS. Here we see a similar structure to the optical images of th is galaxy. There is a large bar, with little optical emission outside of it. We see no evid ence for spiral structure in near infrared emission from this galaxy, but do see a very similar bar. The bar does not appear to posses the loop structure on its southe rn end, presumably because the Kshort band light is able to penetrate most of the obscuring light We do not see evidence for companions at this wavelength regime either. Deeper and higher resolution observa tions would allow us to determine better the structure of the ba r and the presence of any possible spiral features. Figure 3-39. Optical R-band image of NGC 6012

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69 Figure 3-40. Optical B-band image of NGC 6012 Figure 3-41. B-R color map of NGC 5300. Light grayscale regions are blue in color. Darker grayscale regions co rrespond to red colors.

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70 Figure 3-42. K-band image of NGC 6012 taken at TCS Analysis of Optical Ba r and Disk Properties Figures 3-43 through 3-48 summarize severa l diagnostics of the optical and near infrared images. In Figure 3-43 we plot the distribution of optic al diameters in the sample set. This is further compared with the Elmegreen arm class with respect to the optical diameter. We find that the majority of galaxies fall into the 10 20 kpc range. The smallest galaxy is NGC 2500 at a diamet er of 7.8 kpc, while the largest is NGC 1784 at 49 kpc. At the low end of the size spectrum, there is a continuous distribution of sizes. NGC 1784, on the other hand is significantly bigger (20 kpc) than the second largest galaxy, NGC 4793. The large difference in size may mean that NGC 1784 has undergone different formation processes. We examine the masses of galaxies in later chapters. We find that there does not appear to be a selection of Elmegreen arm classes among the different sized galaxies. One might na ively expect the smalle st galaxies to fall

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71 in the lowest arm class, since they may not possess the disk mass to drive even small spiral density waves. We do not see this, howev er, as the smallest galaxies in our sample show examples of all the Elmegreen arm classes. It is actually the larger galaxies with diameters between 20 and 30 kpc that show pr eferentially low arm classes. We must keep in mind our small sample size, how ever, when examining these trends. Figure 3-44 shows the distribution of the opti cal bar semi-major axis length of our sample galaxies. Again, th e largest bar is from NGC 1784 (~5 kpc) and is significantly larger than the next largest bar, NGC 6012 (~3 kpc). We find an even distribution of bar lengths with the majority of bars at about 1 kpc in length. Only one bar was found to be shorter than 0.5 kpc, belonging to NGC 5147. Fi gure 3-44 also compares the bar length to the Hubble bar classification from de Vaucoul uers et al. (1991). We find that the bar classes are distributed evenly over bar lengt h. This is to be expected as the bar classification is based more on the shape and intensity of the bar as opposed to solely length. We plot the distribution of bar axis rati on, found from the optical images, in Figure 3-45. We find an even distribution, where a majo rity of galaxies have a bar axis ratio of around 0.5. This means that the average bar in ou r sample is not particularly elliptical. We do find, however, that 4 of the galaxies do have very skinny bars (<0.25). These skinny bars are associated with galaxies classified as SB, meaning that their bars are prominent and intense. Overall, we find that the skinnier bars are more likely to be classified as SB and rounder bars are classified as SAB. Th is shows that our sample of barred, flocculent galaxies is not different than the general galaxy population in its bar classifications.

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72 Figure 3-46 shows the same plot, but this ti me the distribution of bar axis ratios is compared with Elmegreen arm classes. We do not find an overall trend between arm classification and bar type within our barred, flocculent sample set. We believe that this plot indicates that there are not similar phys ical properties among the sample driving both the bar and disk structure simultaneously. It is likely that the sample must be broken down further to find galaxies underg oing similar physical processes. In Figure 3-47 we plot the distribution of the ratio of bar semi-major axis length and galaxy radius. We find a bimodal trend in this plot where the majority of galaxies have a radius length ratio of around 0.1, but some galaxies show a value of approximately .2 or higher. NGC 6012 has a ratio of 0.4, which is the largest in the sample, and almost two times greater than the nearest value. We compare these radius length ratios to Elmegreen arm classes in this plot, and find no overall trend to this data. The Elmegreen arm classes seem to be independent of the relative size of the bar. We find a different result when we plot the same distribution in Figure 3-48 but compare it to the bar semi-major / semi-minor axis ratio. Here we find that skinny bars (with low axis ratio values) are preferentially long compared to the size of the galaxy. The main outlier from this trend is NGC 5147, which has a skinny, 0.2, but short, .09, bar. The measurements for this galaxy s hould be taken with caution, however, because of the disturbed morphology of this system. It was difficult to define the exact nature of the bar in the R-band image of the galaxy. It is very likely that another measurement of the bar length in this galaxy could push it up to a higher bin. We find that since long bars are typically thin, there must be a physical connection be tween these two properties.

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73 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 <10 kpc10 20 kpc20 30 kpc>40 kpc Optical Diameter of GalaxyNumber of Galaxies 4 3 2 1 Figure 3-43. Distribution of th e optical diameters of galaxies in the sample set. The strips across the columns represent the amount of galaxies from particular Elmegreen arm class (labeled at right) within that size bin. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 <0.50.5 1.01.0 1.51.5 2.0>2.0 Semi-Major Axis Length of Optical Bar (kpc)Number of Galaxies SB SAB Figure 3-44. Distribution of th e optical semi-major axis leng th in the sample set. The strips across the columns represent the Hubble bar class of that galaxy (labeled at right) within the particular size bin.

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74 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 <0.250.25 0.50.5 0.75>0.75 Bar Axis RatioNumber of Galaxies SB SAB Figure 3-45. Distribution of th e bar axis ratio for the sample set. The strips across the columns represent the Hubble bar class of the galaxies (labeled at right) within the particular bar axis ratio bin. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 <0.250.25 0.50.5 0.75>0.75 Bar Axis RatioNumber of Galaxies 4 3 2 1 Figure 3-46. Distribution of th e bar axis ratio for the sample set. The strips across the columns represent the Elmegreen arm class of the galaxies (labeled at right) with in the particular bar axis ratio bin.

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75 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 <0.080.08 0.120.12 0.160.16 0.20.2 0.24>0.24 Bar Length to Galaxy Radius RatioNumber of Galaxies 4 3 2 1 Figure 3-47. Distribution of the bar length to galaxy radius ratio for the sample set. The strips across the columns represent the amount of galaxies from particular Elmegreen arm class (labeled at right) within that bar length ratio bin. 0 1 2 3 4 5 <0.080.08 0.120.12 0.160.16 0.20.2 0.24>0.24 Ratio of Bar Length to Galaxy RadiusNumber of Galaxies >0.75 0.5 0.75 0.25 0.5 <0.25 Figure 3-48. Comparison of bar axis ratio to bar/galaxy length ratio. Strips across the columns represent the number of galaxies within a range of bar axis ratio with respect to the bar length bin.

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76 CHAPTER 4 DESCRIPTION OF NEUTRAL HYDROGEN OBSERVATIONS This chapter provides a brief summary of 21cm Hydrogen emission and the process by which it is observed. All radio observations for this study were obtained at the Very Large Array (VLA) using the B, C, and D configurations. The VLA is run by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by Associated Universities, Inc, under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. For a more detailed description of 21cm emission, please see Mihalas & Binney (1981). For a more detailed description of the principles of radio interferometry, please see Florkowski (1980), Christiansen & Hogbom (1985), or England (1986). Twenty-One Centimeter Hydrogen Emission Typical electronic transitions in hydrogen have energies on the order of 1 eV. These transitions release photons in the visi ble, UV, and infrared. Hydrogen also possesses a transition between th e hyperfine levels associat ed with the magnetic dipole moments of the electron and pr oton. When the spin of both the electron and proton are in the same sense (orthohydrogen), the atom is in a higher energy state then when they are in the opposite sense (parahydrogen). The ener gy difference between these two states is 6 x 10-6 eV, corresponding to a photon w ith a wavelength of 21.1 cm. Spontaneous spin-flip transitions (as thes e hyperfine transitions are described) are very rare, however. The Einste in probability coefficient, A21, for a radiative transition is 2.8689 x 10-15 s-1, corresponding to an average transition time of 1.1 x 107 years (Rohlfs

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77 1990). Collisional deexitation of an excited hydrogen atom is much more common, and will occur once every 102 or 103 years at normal conditions in the interstellar medium. The high likelihood of collisional deexitati on, allows us to assume a state of approximate thermodynamic equilibrium. With the collisional probabilities, C12, and C21, we have: 21 21 2 12 1A C n C n Since A21 is small, with typical ISM conditions, n2A21 will disappear, and we have: 21 2 12 1C n C n We can relate the populations of the states through the Boltzman Equation skT he g g n n1 2 1 2 For hydrogen, g2 = 3 and g1 = 1 because of the degeneracy of the upper state. The typical spin temperature (Ts) of an HI cloud is on the order of 100K. Thus, 1 skT he We get finally, that 31 2 n n Therefore, even though coll isional deexitation is a much more common process than radiative deexitiation, a sizable fraction of the HI gas will remain in the excited state. Given the high quantities of HI in galaxies, the 21cm line becomes one of the most easily observed spectral lines in the Universe. To determine the column density of HI, we integrate the spin temperature of the HI over all frequencies:

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78 d T NS HI 1410 88 3 where is the optical depth. Changing spin temperature to the observed brightness temperature, we get: e T TS B1 We assume that the HI content of a ga laxy is optically thin, implying that TB ~ Ts. Our column density becomes: dv T NB HI 10 88 314 Where we have introduced the observable quantities of position ( ) and velocity (v). Further, we can rewrite column density in terms of flux in Janskys to be: 2 2 2110 4888 2 dv S x NHI where is the wavelength of the observation, S is the flux density in Janskys, and is the angular resolution of the obs ervations (beam size). The mass of an HI region can be found by integrating over the angular size of the source and incorporating the distance to the object: dv v S D MHI 2 510 356 2 where D is the distance in Mpc, v is the velocity in km s-1, and MHI is expressed in solar masses. Fundamentals of Interferometry Because of the long wavelengths involved in radio observations, single dish telescopes are not practical for high resolu tion work. Radio astronomers must utilize interferometers to reach reso lutions necessary to map the hydrogen content of galaxies.

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79 This section will provide a very brief overview of several of the principles involved in interferometric observations. The voltages resultant from N elements of an interferometer go as: t V t VN i The total power is proportional to the time averaged voltage: k iV V P This is the sum of the products of all the indi vidual voltages from all the possible pairs of elements. A large aperture could be simu lated by a large number of smaller apertures filling out the shape of that la rger aperture (such as with the proposed Square Kilometer Array). The VLA, however, does not physically fill in all the space of its synthesized aperture, but uses the rotation of the Earth to simulate this effect over time. This process is known as Earth-rotatio n aperture synthesis. Interferometers correlate signals of seve ral separated antenna e observing the same source. These antennae observe the intensity distribution of the source, composed of the superposition of many components of an elect ro-magnetic field wave. The output of the interferometer is this superposition furthe r weighted with the r eception pattern of the interferometer elements (the beam pattern). The brightness distribution of the target source is the Fourier Transform of the interferometer pattern. The signal from the interferometer is: dxdy e y x I v u Vvy ux i obs obs 2, where Vobs is the observed complex visibility function, Iobs is the observed brightness distribution, x and y are east and north distances from the pointing center in the sky

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80 plane, and u and v are the east and north sp acings of the projected baselines. The complex visibility corresponds to a particular baseline measuring a single Fourier component of the observed bright ness distribution (England 1986). We can invert the Fourier Transform to obtain the bri ghtness distribution of the source: dudv e v u V y x Ivy ux i obs obs 2, However, as mentioned above, Iobs contains both the sour ce brightness distribution weighted by synthesized beam pattern: y x B y x I y x Itrue obs, , where B(x,y) is the synthesized be am, and denotes a convolution. Spectral line observations are made by obs erving several independent, narrow band channels. These channels are produced by introducing a time delay, j, into the signal path which destroys the coherence of the si gnal except for a specified range centered on a given frequency, j. We find: d e v u V v u Vi obs 2, , The relation ship for the complex visibility and observed intensity integrated over the entire bandwidth becomes: dxdyd e F y x I v u Vvy ux i obs obs 2 2, , where F( ) is the frequency dependant bandpa ss function (Hjellming & Bignell 1982; England 1986). Taking the Fourie r transform of the real part of this equation with respect to and then we get: dxdy e F y x I d e v u Vvy ux i obs i obs 2 2, , Re

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81 This visibility function contai ns all of the necessary information to map the source at frequency, (Hjellming & Bignell 1982). The bandpass function, F( ) can be determined by observing a strong continuum source, for which the flux density is constant across the frequencies that determine the band pass. Calibration and Imaging Neutral Hydrogen Data In order to produce images from the co mplex visibility func tion, the visibilities must be calibrated for instrumental effects and then Fourier transf ormed onto the image plane. In addition, the s ynthesized beam must be deconvolved from the brightness distribution of the target source. This is accomplished through a process known as CLEANing. Along with the target object, every observi ng run at the VLA contains observations of a primary calibrator and a s econdary (phase) calibrator. Primary calibrators are very bright sources (~10 Jy), with a well determin ed, stable flux. Phase calibrators are known continuum sources with well determined fluxe s and positions. Phase calibrators need not be as bright as flux calibrators. A flux calib rator is typically observed once or twice for several minutes during a several hour observi ng run. Phase calibra tors are observed for several minute stretches about once ever y 30 minutes. The frequency of phase calibration observations depends on the conf iguration of the VLA, with the higher resolution B configuration requiring more frequent calibrations. The initial phases of calibration are perf ormed on "channel zero" data, which is a pseudo-continuum channel consisting of the i nner 75% of the bandwidth. This "channel zero" has high signal to noi se than individual narrow -band channels, and makes calibration easier. Data from the target sour ce, flux, and phase calibrators are first edited

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82 for interference. This is done by eliminating visibilities that are well outside of the 3 limits of the data. The flux of the primary calibrator is obtained from a well determined relationship for that calibrator between flux density and fr equency. The antenna gain solutions for the array with respect to time are determined from the equation: ij t t i j i ijj ie t a t a t G where a(t) is an antenna based amp litude correction normalized so that ai(t) = 1, (t) is an antenna based phase correction normalized so that i(t) = 0, and ij are the closure erros (Martin 1995; Fomalont & Perely 1989). The values of ij should be minimized to ensure the best approximation of Gij(t). To continue the calibration process, the fl ux densities of the phase calibrators are determined using the flux calibrator. Then the calibration is applied to the target source using a box car average over all observation tim es. The solutions determined from the calibration process must then be transferred from the "channel zero" data to the narrow bandwidth channels. Finally, the flux calibra tor is used to correct for any changes in instrumental response as a function of fr equency across the bandwidth. Continuum sources, often not related to the target source can also be subtracted from the dataset at this point. A map, or image, of the target source's brightness distribution can be made by taking the Fourier transform of the calibrated da ta. The procedures associated with data from the VLA use a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to accomplish this task. An FFT is used as opposed to a Direct Fourier Transfor m (DFT) because of the large volume of data associated with VLA observations. The visibil ity data is first smoothed and then gridded

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83 into an Nx by Ny complex array, where Nx and Ny are powers of two. A cell (or pixel) size (measured in arcseconds) is assigned to the data so that there are approximately three or four cells per beam width (H jellming & Bignell 1982; England 1986). The Fourier transformed data set become s an image cube with axes of right ascension, declination, and freque ncy/velocity. The initial tr ansform produces a "dirty" image of the data, meaning that the source intensity is still convolved with the dirty beam, where the dirty beam is the Fourier tr ansform of the sampling function. To correct for the dirty beam, the image is "cleaned" by using a Clark CLEAN algorithm (England 1986). This algorithm operates by centering th e dirty beam pattern on the peak emission point in an image, convolving the beam with a point source at 10% of the peak emission, and subtracting the result from the image. This is performed as an iterative process until the peak residual emission decreases to at least 2 level of the image. The model of a point source is then convolved with the "clean" beam (an ellip tical Gaussian fitted to the dirty beam) and added back into the image. At this point, the data is ready for analys is. A total intensity (zeroth moment of the data), temperature weighted velocity field (first moment), and temperature weighted velocity dispersion field (second moment) can be easily obtained. The data cube can be analyzed by velocity channel or flipped on its si de to be viewed as slices in declination (referred to as a Position-Velocity plot). A ll of these techniques will be utilized in the following chapters to examine the HI mor phology and kinematics of barred, flocculent galaxies.

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84 CHAPTER 5 NEUTRAL HYDROGEN OBSERV ATIONS OF NGC 1784 NGC 1784 was originally selected for HI observations because the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) shows it to be a large, optic ally undisturbed, barre d spiral galaxy. NGC 1784 has a strong bar and weak spiral arms. Our intention in these observations was to gain an understanding of how bar dynamics a ffect the gaseous component of the outer disk. Optical images do not show NGC 1784 to be involved in any interaction. NGC 1784 is classified as an SB(R)c galaxy and is at a distance of 33 Mpc (Ho = 70, Vsys = 2308 km s-1) (de Vaucouluers et al. 1991). It is a fairly large galaxy, with a D25 of 240" (49 kpc), it possesses a strong bar with a de projected bar axis ratio of 0.58, and a ring located at the end of the ba r (de Vaucouluers et al. 1991; Martin 1995). The galaxy is inclined at 55, making it very su itable for HI observations (Tully 1988). The limited previous observations of NGC 1784 have shown it to be a quiescent galaxy. Rush et al. (1993) determined NGC 1784 not to be active. Both Elmegreen et al. (1996) and Jungwiert et al. (1997) found no twisted isophotes in the bar of NGC 1784 in near-infrared light. In the following sect ions, we discuss the kinematics and morphology of NGC 1784 employing high and lo w resolution HI observations. Observations Observations of NGC 1784 were obtained at the Very Large Array in February 1992, February 1993, April 2001, and November 2001 using the DnC, C, B, and D configurations, respectively. The DnC conf iguration is a hybrid between the more compact D and extended C configurations. This hybrid with the long arm stretching

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85 toward the north allows for higher resolution observations of southern sources, such as NGC 1784. The spectrometer was composed of 32 Hanning Smoothed channels with a 20.9 km s-1. The observing parameters for the various runs are summarized in Table 5-1. Table 5-1. Parameters of VL A HI observations of NGC 1784 Configuration B C DnC D Number of antennae 27 26 27 27 Vsys (km s-1) 2308 2308 2308 2308 Phase calibrator 0503+020 0503+020 0503+020 0503+020 Flux calibrator 0137+331 0137+331 0137+331 0137+331 Time on source 17.3 7.0 3.7 9.2 Each of the individual data sets were edited, calibrated, and continuum subtracted using the typical procedures of the Astronomical Image Processing System (AIPS) package. We combined the B, C, DnC, a nd D data sets using the AIPS task DBCON. The combined data sets were imaged twice using the AIPS task IMAGR to provide with two image cubes ( v) reflecting the maximum range of spatial resolution and sensitivity that our data would allow. We created a low resolution/high sensitivity cube by using a natural weighting scheme and multiplying the data in the u-v plane with a narrow Gaussian (FWHM 5 kilo). This method was somewhat better than displaying only the imaged D + DnC da ta cube because it included the short baselines present particularly in the C configuration data. A high resolution data cube was created by imaging the data using a natural weighting scheme without a convolution. A lthough we were able to obtain higher resolution by imaging with a uniform weightin g scheme, they were not sensitive to low surface brightness features. They will prove to be most useful in comparing HI with H in future work.

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86 The high and low resolution data cubes were CLEANed in AIPS down to an rms level of 0.33 and 0.17 mJy beam-1 for the low resolution a nd high resolution images, respectively. Details of the statistics for thes e two data cubes can be seen in Table 5-2. Analysis on completed and CLEANed image cubes was conducted using the Gronigen Image Processing System (GIPSY) packages. Table 5-2. Characteristics of Natura lly Weighted CLEANed Channel Maps Parameter Low Resolution High Resolution FWHP synthesized beam (") 50.3" x 40.1" 10.4" x 9.3" FWHP synthesized beam (kpc) 9.0 x 7.2 1.8 x 1.6 Theoretical rms noise (mJy beam-1) 0.28 0.16 Observed rms noise (mJy beam-1) 0.33 0.17 Rms noise (K) 0.10 0.51 Peak temperature (K) 22.8 46.8 Peak S/N 230 92 In addition, we created a middle resolution data cube (20"x 20") by convolving the high resolution image in the image plane. This data cube was used in the construction of Position-Velocity diagrams. Neutral Hydrogen Morphology The channel maps shown in Figures 5-1 a nd 5-2 were used in a moment analysis to obtain the global density and temperature weighted radial velocity images of the neutral hydrogen. Moment maps were constr ucted with the AIPS task MOMNT. A flux cut off of two times the rms noise level ( ) of the unsmoothed data was used. The naturally weighted global dist ribution of the neut ral hydrogen in NGC 1784 from the low resolution data is shown in grayscale in Fi gure 5-3 and overlaid on an optical image in Figure 5-4. The high resolution data is shown in grayscale in Figure 5-5 and overlaid on an optical image in Figure 5-6. The lowest contours are drawn at the 2 level.

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87 Figure 5-1. The individual, naturally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the low resolution data. Channel velocities are given in the lower left hand corner of each panel in km s-1. The synthesized beam (50" x 40") is shown above the velocity information in the upper right hand panel. Contours are at 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 25 times the 3 flux level, corresponding to 8.8 x 1018 cm-2.

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88 Figure 5-2. The individual, naturally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the low resolution data. Channel velocities are given in the lower left hand corner of each panel in km s-1. The synthesized beam (10" x 9") is shown at the bottom right of the lower left hand channel ma. Contours are at 1, 2, and 5 times the 3 flux level, corresponding to 1.5 x 1020 cm -2.

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89 Figure 5-3. Grayscale with contours of th e total HI surface density from the low resolution data set. The peak flux co rresponds to a column density of 1.2 x 1021 cm-2. Contours are at 1 (the 2 flux level), 2, 3, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 95% of the peak flux. The synthesi zed beam (50" x 40") is shown at the bottom left. "A" and "B" denote the inner and outer rings (see text). Continuum One continuum point source is located at a position correspo nding to the optical center of the galaxy. Another continuum source is located 4' north of the center of the galaxy. It is unlikely that th is source is associated w ith NGC 1784. A search at the coordinates of this point in the NASA Extra Galactic Database (N ED) did not result in any coincidences. Low Resolution Neutra l Hydrogen Distribution Figure 5-3 shows the low resolution total HI surface density map. The most striking dysmorphic features of this map ar e the two partial HI rings (visible most prominently to the northeast of the gala xy) encircling NGC 1784, and the extended HI

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90 emission south of the galaxy. Excluding HI em ission from the features that are obviously part of the partial ring systems, we fi nd the HI diameter of NGC 1784 to be 8' (corresponding to 85 kpc) at the 2 (1.2 x 1019 cm-2) level. Assuming that there are two separate rings (a later section), the inner, more complete (labeled "A"), ring has a projected radius of 4' (42 kpc), while the outer ring (labeled "B") has a projected radius of 8' (85 kpc) assuming circularity. The peak brig htness in these patchy rings is similar, and corresponds to a column density of 4.8 x 1019 cm-2. The inner regions of the galaxy also a ppear to be somewhat asymmetric. The peak brightness of the system, corresponding to a column density of 1.2 x 1021 cm-2, is located in the western half of the galaxy in a large ar ea of high flux that has no counterpart on the eastern side of the galaxy. It is likely that th is feature is the result of a warp in the inner disk of NGC 1784. High Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Distribution Figure 5-4a shows the high resolution to tal HI surface density map. Figure 5-6 shows this map overlaid on an optical DSS image of NGC 1784. The physical extent of the HI gas, down to a level of 1.2 x 1020 cm-2, is similar to the optical size of the galaxy, about 4' x 2'. The areas with the highest HI emission in these maps correspond to an oval ring that lies on top of the outer most regions of star formation in NGC 1784. In NGC 3319, a barred, flocculent galaxy similar to NGC 1784, Moore & Gottesman (1998) found a close correlation between areas of star formation in the optical image and HI column densities higher than 1.5 x 1020 cm-2. Figure 5-4b shows that we broadly find the same result in NGC 1784. However, the two regions with the highest HI

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91 column densities (co rresponding to 2.4 x 1021 cm-2) do not correlate with obvious star formation. Figure 5-4. High Resolution HI surface density maps. A) Grayscale and contours of the total HI surface density from the high resolution data set. The peak flux corresponds to 2.4 x 1021 cm-2. Contours are at 5 (the 2 flux level), 10, 15, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 95% of the peak flux. Th e synthesized beam (10" x 9") is shown at the bottom left. B) Contours of the high resolution data set overlaid on a DSS image of NGC 1784. The peak flux and contours are the same as in A. The synthesized beam is shown at the bottom left. There is a central hole in the HI emissi on which corresponds to the bar zone. The hole seems to follow the shape of the bar mo re closely on its southern edge than the northern. An HI hole associated with a bar is ty pical of early type disk galaxies. A bar in these galaxies will sweep HI into the central regions of the galaxy where it is consumed by star formation (Hunter & Gottesman 1996; Laine & Gottesman 1998). Other smaller holes in the HI distribution ar e apparent on the eastern side of the galaxy. These holes were examined for the presence of expanding gas, as in Moore & Gottesman (1998). South of the galaxy, the larg e expanse of HI emission vi sible in the low resolution image breaks up into a number of smalle r HI clumps, which have typical hydrogen

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92 masses on the order of 107 M. The velocity of these objec ts as determined through the channel maps in Figure 5-1 is consistent w ith them being part of the galaxy. These features are associated with the highly distur bed outer region of the galaxy. Some of them may be associated with a family of object s falling back into the plane of NGC 1784 with low velocity, on the order of 10 km s-1. Global Neutral Hydrogen Properties Figure 5-5 shows the HI spectrum of NGC 1784 created with the data from the low resolution data cube. The spectrum is decidedly asymmetric, and shows a middle horn instead of the two horns present in typical disk gala xies. This is caused by significant HI gas at forbi dden velocities, as we show in later sections. Figure 5-6 shows the radial HI distri bution made with both the high and low resolution data sets. This profile is similar to observations of other disk galaxies (Knapen 1997; Laine & Gottesman 1998; Moore & Gottes man 1998), and is consistent with the work of Maloney (1993) who postulated a sharp edge to HI disks owing to the intergalactic UV radiation field. Maloney ( 1993) cites an HI column density of ~ 5 x 1019 cm-2 as the expected value of this cut off density. Our 2 value for NHI of 1.2 x 1019 cm-2 is slightly below, but still of the same order. Jrster & va n Moorsel (1995) find a similar result from deep observations of NGC 1365. We calculate the total HI flux of NGC 1784 to be 60.4 0.5 Jy km s-1, which corresponds to an HI mass of (1.55 0.03) x 1010 M. This value compares with other published single dish measurements of the HI flux from NGC 1784, which fall in the range of 60 2 Jy km s-1 (Huchtmeier & Richter 1989). From our spectrum of NGC 1784, we calculate a 3 HI flux level of 0.006 Jy. This corresponds to a conservative

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93 minimum mass detectio n level of 4.6 x 107 M for an isolated HI cloud, assuming that it appears in 3 continuous channels. Figure 5-5. The HI flux density versus veloc ity for the low resolution data set. The velocity resolution here is 20 km s-1. The spectrum is very asymmetric. More of the total flux comes from the recedi ng side of the galaxy. The central spike is most likely due to extra HI found south east of the galaxy in Figure 5-3. Neutral Hydrogen Kinematics The velocity field created with the low resolution data is shown in Figure 5-7. The velocity field created with the high resolu tion data is shown in Figure 5-8. The disk shows significant evidence of warping at its edges. At both the eastern and western extremes of the galaxy, the iso-velocity curv es take a pronounced 90 turn to the north and south, respectively.

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94 Figure 5-6. The HI radial dens ity profiles from the low resolution data set (circles) and the high resolution data set (triangles) Figure 5-7. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the low resolution data. Contours are separated by 20 km s-1. Motion toward the observer is displayed with black contours and light er grayscales. The cent ral velocity contour (2308 km s-1) is labeled above the galaxy. The synthesized beam (50" x 40") is displayed in the lower left.

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95 Along the northern half of the disk, the is o-velocity curves be gin at a constant position angle. After passing through a bump about midway through the disk, the isovelocity curves turn consistently towards the west. The bump is likely due to some type of streaming motion associated with weak spir al arms in the system. The same process occurs, but in the opposite sense for iso-veloc ity curves along the southern half of the disk. Figure 5-8. Intensity-weighted ra dial velocity contours of th e high resolution data set. Contours are separated by 20 km s-1. Every other contour is labeled with its corresponding velocity in km s-1. Darker grayscales correspond to motion away from the observer. The synthesized beam (10" x 9") is displayed in the lower left hand corner. Global Position-Velocity Plots Figure 5-9 shows Position-Velo city (P-V) plots of the high resolution image cube smoothed to 20" resolution. The slices have been made parallel to the major axis and separated by 20". The lowest contour is drawn at the 2 level (0.6 mJy beam-1) in order

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96 to emphasize possible gas at forbidden veloc ities. We searched for evidence of gas associated with the thick disk of NGC 1784 as Fraternali et al. (2002) did with NGC 2403. We did not find significant "bearding in the same manner as in NGC 2403. However, this may be caused by observational constraints. Frater nali et al. (2002) possessed 40+ hours of C configuration observati ons. Our data, although similar in total time on-source, contained a significant amount of B configuration observations. This reduced our relative si gnal to noise ratio. In addi tion, our velocity resolution was significantly broader (20 km s-1 compared to 5 km s-1). We did find evidence of gas at non-circular ve locities both at the edge of the optical disk and beyond. All declination cuts parallel to or at the ma jor axis show a tail at low column densities that falls faster in velocity than a Keplerian curve. In Figure 5-10, cuts parallel to the minor axis from the same data set as Figure 5-9 show similar features. On the north (left) sides of the plots, the HI velocities always deviate from the global trend toward blue velocities within the disk of NGC 1784. The commencement point of this deviation coincides with the twis t in the iso-velocity curves on Figure 5-8. To the south (right side of the galaxy in Figure 5-8), we see extended emission in all slices at velocities near the systemic velocity. This gas is associated with the southern HI extension seen in Figure 5-3. In all cases, the gas as sociated with these non-circular velocity trends seems to flow smoothly from gas corresponding to circular ve locities in the disk. This continuity implies that the gas in non-circular motion is primarily associated with the main body of NGC 1784. Only in the case of th e inner ring (labeled with "I N" in the major axis slice of Figure 5-9), do we see gas that is obvi ously separated from the main body of NGC

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97 1784 in both column density and velocity. The non-circular tails on both the major and minor axis P-V plots indicate a warped dis k. Assuming that NGC 1784 has trailing arms, the velocity field (Figure 5-7) implies that the north side of NGC 1784 is pointing toward the observer. The P-V plots show that ga s on the north and west sides of NGC 1784 is moving toward the observer, while gas on the south and east is moving away. The column densities of the warped gas are much higher and physically closer to the galaxy center on the north si de of the galaxy. Figure 5-9. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the major axis of NGC 1784. The contours are at 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 25 The inner ring feature is labeled with "IN" in the plot along the major axis. The central velocity is at 2.308 x 106 m s-1.

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98 Figure 5-10. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the minor axis of NGC 1784. The contours are at 2, 3, 5, 0, 15, 20, and 25 The systemic velocity of the system is at 2.308 x 106 m s-1. In order to probe more deeply some of the velocity characteristics of the gas, in Figure 5-11 we produced P-V plots with 1' thick slices as op posed to the 1" slices in Figures 5-9 and 5-10. Figure 5-11a shows a 1' th ick slice centered on the major axis. Here we see the tail of the receding side of the galaxy extends almost beyond the systemic velocity (the lo west contour is at the 2 or 0.4 mJy level). We also see a double peaked spectrum, as this gas at non-circular velo cities is at the same RA offset as a small extension of gas that continue s a flat rotation curve beyond -2'. As the non-circular tail and flat rotation extension have roughly the same physical extent (at a radius just shy of -

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99 4'), we conclude that this gas has been pu lled out of circular ve locities as opposed to being of external origin. On the other si de of the galaxy, we s ee a similar strong noncircular tail, as well as the signature of the inner ring. Throughout the image, we see 2 and 3 signals of gas at forbidden velocities. If these signals are r eal, they would speak to the disturbance of the system in the outer disk. Figure 5-11. Thick P-V slices of NGC 1784. A) 1' thick P-V slice along the major axis. Contours are at 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 B) A 1' thick P-V slice 40" northwest and parallel to the major axis. The contours are the same as in A. C) A 1' thick P-V slice along the minor axis. The contours are the same as in A. The resolution function is denoted by a cross in the lower left hand corner of C. The central veloci ty of all plots is 2.308 x 106 m s-1. Figure 5-11b shows a 1' thick slick taken 40" northeast of but parallel to the major axis. This figure was constructed to examin e with higher signal to noise ratio a figure that looked to be an expanding bubble in the corresponding 1" wide slice in Figure 5-11.

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100 This structure shows up in Figure 5-11b at +2' and slightly below the systemic velocity as a finger stretching downward to the right of th e non-circular HI tail Although the finger of gas does not posses extremely large column densities, its 1' length (11 kpc) spread over 70 km s-1 indicates that a great deal of energy, on the order of 1054 ergs must have been required to create it. This feature is too energetic to be the result of a single supernova. However, features this large c ould be caused by the passage of a small HI cloud through the plane of the galaxy (Brinks & Bajaja 1986; van der Hulst & Sancisi 1988). Unfortunately, because of the low colu mn densities involved, we were unable to find additional evidence of this feature in other analysis techniques. Another possible example of an expandi ng bubble or disrupted cloud or satellite can be seen in the 1' thick minor axis plot (Figure 5-11c). In this plot, we see a 2 3 signal of a large arc of gas stretching from 5' south of the galaxy to the galactic center at velocities blue-ward of the systemic value. Local Low-Density Region Position-Velocity Plots In Figure 5-4, we noted the presence of se veral low-density HI regions (or holes), labeled A, B, and C as well as the presence of one anomalous region in the bar, labeled D. Holes in the HI distribution of a disk ga laxy have been studied in some detail in the past and are thought, depending on th eir size, to be either due to supernovae, stellar winds resultant from OB associations, or HVC's passing through a galactic disk (Brinks & Bajaja 1986; Tenorio-Tagle & Bodenheimer 1988; van der Hulst & Sancisi 1988). The holes that we examined in NGC 1784 are on th e order of a beam size, or 1 to 2 kpc in diameter. The gas densities in these regions fall below our 2 column densities (1 x 1020 cm-2) at their centers. The energy associat ed with moving this much gas (over 1054 ergs)

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101 is beyond the capabilities of a simple supernov ae process. Typically, HI holes coincident with OB associations are smaller than 300pc (Brinks & Bajaja 1986). We explore these regions with localized PV plots in order to search for evidence of expanding gas. Figure 5-12 presents 40" (7 kpc) long slices on and near to hole "A" in Figure 5-4. These slices, and a ll other localized slices are ta ken from our high resolution data cube. Figure 5-13 shows 40" long slices on and near ho le "B". Figure 5-14 shows 40" long slices on and near hole "C". All slices were made from west to east across the galaxy. The slices around each hole are separated by 7" in declination. Only in the low density region labeled A (Figure 5-12), were we able to find anything resembling the expansion si gnatures shown in NGC 3319 by Moore & Gottesman (1998). We note that the hole is sk ewed, but lack the velocity resolution to comment in detail. This hol e is at the position where the iso-velocity curves change direction into the warp on the north side of the galaxy (Figure 5-8). Thus, it is interesting that we see a shift in the ve locity of the gas across the hole and some bubbling in Figure 5-14. The other two holes appear to be just that. They are low density regions with no difference in velocity structure from the gas around them. Lastly, we examined the object labeled "D" in Figure 5-4. This is the only HI that appeared within the bar region in our total HI intensity map. It also showed a slightly different velocity from the gas around it (Fig ure 5-8). We investig ated object "D" to determine if it was associated with the galaxy or possibly in falling material. Figure 5-15, a slice made in the same manner as the other localized slices, shows that object "D" is most likely associated with the galaxy, as it lies on the trend of HI from other slices. This object probably represents a sm all HI region that has not b een completely destroyed by

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102 processes within the bar. Th e plot through the cente r of feature "D" s hows an object that is isolated both in angle and in velocity fr om the main gas of the galaxy. The parallel slices show its size is small, and the total HI mass is on the order of 107 M. While we cannot preclude that this object is not an HVC that has fallen into the center, the energy of such a collision make it unlikely that the cloud could retain such a well ordered structure. The kinetic energy of the infalling object is about 103 times larger than the probable binding energy of the cloud. Figure 5-12. A P-V slice through low density region A. Contours are at 2, 3, 5, and 10

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103 Figure 5-13. A P-V slice through low density region B. Contours are at 2, 3, 5, and 10 Figure 5-14. A P-V slice through low density region C. Contours are at 2, 3, 5, and 10

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104 Figure 5-15. A P-V slice through object D. Contours are at 2, 3, 5, and 10 Rotation Curves We used the GIPSY task 'reswri' to cal culate a rotation curve by fitting tilted rings to the velocity field of NGC 1784. To crea te our rotation curve, we used our high resolution data set. We fit rotational velocities to radii ranging from 20" to 160" in 10" wide annuli. We used the high resolution data to prevent beam smearing, which causes underestimation of the velocities in the inner regions of the galaxy. Our values at the center of the galaxy possess higher uncertainties because of the lower flux density values in the bar. It was impossible to fit a rotationa l velocity inside of 20" owing to the lack of flux. In order to fit the rotation curve, we he ld fixed the values for the position of the kinematic center and systemic velocity. We allowed the rotational velocity, position angle, and inclination to be free parameters. We fit cu rves to the receding and

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105 approaching sides of the galaxy, as well as calcu lated an average. The plot of rotational velocity versus radius is shown in Figure 5-16. The plot of position angle versus radius is shown in Figure 5-17. The plot of inclinati on versus radius is shown in figure 5-18. Figure 5-16. Rotation curve of NGC 1784 from the high resolution data set. Stars represent the appro aching half of the galaxy. Tr iangles represent the receding half of the galaxy. Circles represent the average of both. The averaged data shows that NGC 1784 has a flat rotation curve out to 160". This is consistent with other flocculent galaxies, and has been theorized to represent a greater relative abundance of dark ma tter in flocculents compared to grand design galaxies (Elmegreen & Elmegreen 1990). The curve for the approaching side of the galaxy mimics the average curve, but with lower velocities. The curve for the receding side is falling throughout and carries highe r uncertainties. This is likely caused by the warp (i.e. the twisting of iso-velocity curves) being more pronounced on the receding (east) side of the galaxy.

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106 Figure 5-17. Kinematic position angle of NGC 1784 as a function of radius. Stars represent the appro aching half of the galaxy. Tr iangles represent the receding half of the galaxy. Circles represent the average of both. Using the final data point of the rotation curve, we calculated a value for the total mass of NGC 1784 interior to 160 ". Using a Keplerian, M = V2RG-1, to model the disk and halo, where R = 160" = 28 kpc and V(28 kpc) = 215 km s-1, we find M(R) 3.06 0.28 x 1011 M. Comparing this with the HI mass found above, we find an MHI / M(R) ratio of 5% for NGC 1784. This value is in line with other typical barred spirals (Moore & Gottesman 1998). The warp is most evident in the position a ngle and inclination pl ots. In the inner parts of the galaxy, the position angle and the in clination of both halves of the galaxy are different. The two values both trend lower at the outer limits of the optical disk, but it is apparent that this trend is complicated. Not only is the disk of the galaxy bent like the brim of a hat, it is also twisted along a second axis.

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107 Figure 5-18. Inclination angle of NGC 1784 as a function of radius. Stars represent the approaching half of the galaxy. Triang les represent the re ceding half of the galaxy. Circles represent the average of both. Model Disks, Velocity Residuals, and Corrotation The rotational velocities shown in Figure 5-18 were fit with a model rotation curve using the GIPSY task 'fit'. This model curve was then turned into a model disk with the GIPSY task 'velfi'. The model disk wa s then subtracted from our observed, high resolution velocity field, to create a map of residual velocities. The model disk is shown in Figure 5-19a, and the residual field is shown in Figure 5-19c. The residual map reflects the trends we reported in the P-V di agrams in a previous section, where the gas deviates significantly from a nave model at th e edge of the optical disk. Here we see the contours pile up rapidly at the edge of the optical galaxy. The pattern of the residuals resembles one receding/approaching pair of spir als. Canzian (1993) shows that for a first

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108 order density-wave analysis, the corotation point of a galaxy can be found to be where this one pair of approaching/receding spiral s turns into tree pairs. There is no clear evidence of this in Figure 5-19c. Figure 5-19. Model velocity and residual velocity fields for NGC 1784. A) Model velocity field constructed from kinema tical data in Figures 17, 18, and 19. Light grayscales represent approaching ve locities. B) Model velocity field constructed from rotation curve data in Figures 17, 18, 19, and extended to larger radii. Light gray scales represent approachi ng velocity. C) Residual velocity field made from model in A. Light grayscales re present approaching residuals (max = 30 km s-1). D) Residual velocity field made from model in B. Light grayscales represent ap proaching residuals (max = 30 km s-1). To explore the possibility of finding the corotation point, we increased the range of our model curve to 240", created a new model disk, and subtracted this model from our low resolution velocity field. The model velocity field is shown in Figure 5-19b, and the residual velocity field from this proce ss is shown in Figure 5-19d. Here, outside the optical extent of the galaxy, we do find three approaching/receding pair s. This would put

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109 the corotation radius at well over twice the bar radius (about 20 kpc). This is significantly beyond the location of corotation reported in othe r galaxies (Aguerri et al. 2001). Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1990) suggest that corotation in late-type galaxies could lie at a radius of two times the bar ra dius. However, owing to the fact that the position angle and inclination ch ange of the length of the di sk in NGC 1784, our models must be treated with caution. Warner et al (1973) point to system atic offsets in the residual map when using incorrect values of position angle. Owing to the uncertainty, this value for the corotation radius must be compared with others obtained from methods such as abundance gradients in the disk and Fourier analysis (Zaritsky et al. 1994; Aguerri et al. 2001). NGC 1784 does seem to be an excellent candida te for detailed study of its corotation parameter owing to its large bar and lack of consistent spiral structure. The Neutral Hydrogen Rings In this section we will discuss the HI rings seen in Figure 5-1, which have been so far ignored in deference to the disk of NG C 1784. Figure 5-3 shows three large clumps of HI (about 2' in length) northeast of the galaxy, forming an outer arc around NGC 1784. There is a more complete arc of gas, some 8' long, closer in to the body of NGC 1784 on the northwest side. Finally, there are several clumps of HI on the southwest side of the galaxy which appear to be part of these ring systems as well. Figures 5-1, 5-7, and 5-9 the low resolution channel maps, velocity field, and major axis P-V plots, show that these rings are in apparent counter rotation to the disk. The two ring arcs on the western side of the galaxy show receding velocities more a ppropriate to the eastern side of the galaxy's main body. While the few clumps southeast of the galaxy show an approaching velocity more appropriate to the wester n side of the galaxy's main body. Although these rings are likely inclined to the plane of NGC 1784, they w ould have to be in an almost polar orbit

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110 in order to be moving in a prograde sense. The more probable description is of a retrograde orbit. The channel maps indicate that, besides being at forbidden velocities, the gas in these rings has a narrow velocity width. A spectrum of the area cont aining both the inner and outer ring arcs on the eastern side of the galaxy is shown in Figure 5-20. The peak at lower velocity (and higher signal) is due to the inner ring, while the second peak is due to the outer three clumps. We calculate an HI mass for both rings in total to be 5 x 108 M, with the inner ring comprising tw o thirds of that value. The average HI mass of the 3 clumps in the outer ring is 6 x 107 M. From the channel maps, it seems that most of the gas that is obviously involved in the rings is on the east side of the galaxy. We determine an upper limit on the total HI mass of the rings to be 1 x 109 M. We estimate a total mass of the central clump in the outer ring to be on the order of 2 x 109 M from a simple Keplerian calculation where v = 30 km s-1 and Rclump = 10 kpc. This value leads to an MHI / Mtot value of 60% of the value fo r NGC 1784 itself. This is probably an upper limit, as the clump is sign ificantly elongated. Since the velocity width of the clump is narrow, it is unlikely that the object is great ly extended out of the orbital plane, but observations with higher velocity resolution woul d be helpful in determining its structure and whether it is rotationally supported. The large HI rings around NGC 1784 are mo st likely caused by past interactions with a reasonable sized companion galaxy (Mtot = 1010 M). We can not determine if both rings are the result of a long term intera ction with one cloud spir aling into the galaxy or the result of two separate interactions. However, a r ough calculation sh ows the tidal disruption radius of NGC 1784 is on the orde r of 50kpc; we assume the mass density of

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111 the companion is similar to NGC 1784 and adopt a radius of 21 kpc for NGC 1784. The outer ring has a projected radius of 62 kpc, close to the distance at which we would expect a satellite to begin breaki ng up as it spirals in. This is similar to an analysis of the orbit of the LMC about the Mil ky Way (Binney & Tremaine 1987). Figure 5-20. The HI flux versus velocity fo r the HI rings using the low resolution data set. The velocity resolution here is 20 km s-1. The peak at roughly 2350 km s-1 represents the inner ring. The peak at roughly 2450 km s-1 represents the outer ring. If the rings are the result of the tidal dissipation of a smaller companion, we can calculate an approximate timescale for the interaction. Using Eq 7-27 from Binney & Tremaine (1987) and assuming that the rotati on curve of NGC 1784 is flat out to 63 kpc, as Binney & Tremaine (1987) do for the Mil ky Way, we find the decay time for NGC 1784's satellite to be 7 x 109 years. This timescale is l ong, on the order of 30 rotation periods, and is consistent with the other features present in NGC 1784. For example,

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112 owing to the lack of HI gas, the bar in NGC 1784 is most likely an old bar similar to the one present in the flocculent system, NGC 3319 (Moore & Gottesman 1998). However, optical and near infrared studi es of the stellar population w ould be necessary to confirm this. The length of the bar is also indicativ e of its old age. According to Athanassoula (1992), angular momentum transfer from the i nner disk to outer disk and halo is the primary aging process of the bar. As the bar transfers angular momentum outward, it becomes longer, thinner, and stronger. The narrowness and length of this bar indicates that it is long lived. Modeling will be necessary to determine both the orbit of the possible satellite and the dynamical response of the disk (the warp ). Galactic warps are also believed to be long lasting phenomenon (GarcaRuiz, I.; Kuijken, K.; Dubinski, J.-Ruiz et al. 2002a). Recent work appears to indicate that ga lactic warps are more likely caused by interactions with a field of numerous small clouds as opposed to interactions with larger companions (Castro-Rodriguez et al. 2002; Garca-Ruiz, I. ; Kuijken, K.; Dubinski, J.Ruiz et al. 2002b; Lopez-Corre doira et al. 2002). However, in the case of NGC 1784, the most plausible explanation for the warp is an interaction with an LMC type system, the remnants of which we see in the rings. The marginal objects and f eatures discussed with regards to figure 5-4 may be detritus of fragments produced by this interaction. Summary We have presented deep HI observations of the flocculent, barred spiral, NGC 1784. We have found the presence of two an omalous HI rings about the galaxy, and a distorted HI disk, in contrast to the inner optical structur e of the galaxy, which is quite regular. We find that the rings are in appare nt counter rota tion. We argue that they are the result of the tidal break up of a 1010 M cloud several 109 years ago. We further

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113 argue that a close passage of this cloud is the cause of a significant warp in the HI of NGC 1784's outer disk. We fi nd that NGC 1784 possesses a flat rotation curve similar to other flocculent galaxies. Our observations of NGC 1784 and the discovery of anomalous HI features imply that often moderately distant, well ordere d, spiral galaxies are understudied in HI emission. A simple VLA snaps hot observation of this system would have never revealed its rich dynamic properties. With deep obs ervations, we have uncovered an object which can provide us with more knowledge of how in tergalactic gas influenc es the structure of large galaxies.

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114 CHAPTER 6 NEUTRAL HYDROGEN OBSERV ATIONS OF NGC 3055 NGC 3055 is a small, isolated disk ga laxy (Marquez & Moles 1996). The optical diameter of NGC 3055 is 125", the smallest a ngular size in our study. It has a physical size of 14 kpc, making it somewhat bigger than several other gala xies in our study. Marquez & Moles (1996) found it to have a total mass of 3 x 1010 M. It is classified as an SAB(s)c late type galaxy a nd has a spiral arm classificatio n of "4" (meaning that it has a one armed appearance), placing it in the fl occulent range (Elmegreen & Elmegreen 1982; de Vaucouluers et al. 1991). NGC 3055 has a systemic recessional velocity of 1832 km s-1, corresponding to a distance of 23 Mpc, where Ho is 70 km s-1 Mpc-1. NGC 3055 is a good candidate for radio study b ecause of its proximity and favorable orientation. Unfortunately, however, its small si ze prevents us from learning a great deal about its gas/star interaction at typical radio wavelength resolutions. Previous optical observations have f ound it to be quiescent with a small bar (Devereux 1989; de Vaucouluers et al. 1991; Martin 1995). Sper andio et al. (1995) found a possibly unusual mass distribution using stellar velocities, but this was only out to a radius of 40". No othe r studies have included NGC 3055. Observations Radio observations of NGC 3055 were obtaine d at the Very Large Array in January and September of 2002 using the D and C conf igurations, respectivel y. The spectrometer was composed of 64 channels with a 10.5 km s-1 velocity resolution. The total band width

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115 was 3.125 MHz (640 km s-1), and the central heliocentr ic velocity was 1832 km s-1. The observing parameters for the two r uns are summarized in table 6-1. Table 6-1. Parameters of VL A HI observations of NGC 3055 Configuration C D Number of antennae 27 27 Vsys (km s-1) 1832 1832 Phase calibrator 0925+003 0925+003 Flux calibrator 0137+331 0137+331 Time on source 7.1 3.8 Table 6-2. Characteristics of Natura lly Weighted CLEANed Channel Maps Parameter Low Resolution High Resolution FWHP synthesized beam (") 52" x 42" 22" x 16" FWHP synthesized beam (kpc) 5.8 x 4.7 2.4 x 1.8 Theoretical rms noise (mJy beam-1) 0.37 0.37 Observed rms noise (mJy beam-1) 0.43 0.47 Rms noise (K) 0.11 1.11 Peak temperature (K) 5.7 5.2 Peak S/N 51 5 Both the C and D configuration data se ts were edited, calib rated and continuum subtracted using the typical procedures of the Astronomical Image Processing System (AIPS) package. We combined the C and D data sets into one using the AIPS task DBCON. The combined data set was imaged twice using the AIPS task IMAGR to provide us with two image cubes (a, d, v) reflecting the maximum range of spatial resolution and sensitivity that our data would allow. We cr eated a low resolution cube by using a natural weighting sche me and a high resolution data cube by imaging the data with a uniform weighting sche me. We CLEANed the data c ubes in AIPS down to an rms level of 0.43 and 0.47 mJy beam-1 for the low resolution a nd high resolution images, respectively. Further details of the statistics for each data cube are presented in Table 6-

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116 2. Analysis on the completed and CLE ANed image cubes was conducted using the Gronigen Image Processing System (GIPSY) package. Neutral Hydrogen Morphology The channel maps shown in Figures 6-1 and 6-2 were used in moment analyses to obtain global density and temper ature weighted radial velocity images of the neutral hydrogen in NGC 3055. Moment maps were co nstructed with the AIPS task MOMNT. A flux cut off of three times the rms noise level ( ) of the unsmoothed data was used. The naturally weighted global distribution of the neutral hydrogen in NGC 3055 is shown in grayscale in Figure 6-3. The uniformly weighted global distribution of the neutral hydrogen is shown in grayscale in Figure 65 and overlaid on an optical DSS image in Figure 6-6. The lowest c ontours are drawn at the 2 level. Low Resolution Neutra l Hydrogen Morphology Figure 6-3 shows the low resolution to tal HI surface density map of NGC 3055. NGC 3055 itself is fairly regular and symmetr ic in its HI distribution. The peak HI emission from the galaxy (correspon ding to a column density of 1.53 x 1021 cm-2) lies slightly off center. We find the HI diameter to be 3.5' (24kpc) at the 2 level, or 1.7 times the optical D25 of NGC 3055. Most notable in this image are two HI co mpanions located about 10' north and west of NGC 3055. For discussion in later sections we label the northernmost satellite "A", and the western satellite "B". Satellite "A is separated by 13.5' (92 kpc) to the northnortheast of NGC 3055. It has a p eak column density of 7.64 x 1019 cm-2 and an HI diameter of 1.5' (10 kpc). Satellite "B" is separated by 12.5' (85 kpc) to the the westnorthwest of NGC 3055. It has a peak column density of 1.53 x 1020 cm-2 and an HI

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117 diameter of 1.5' (10 kpc). Both satellite s are fairly circular and symmetric. The kinematics and optical properties of the sate llites will be discussed in a later section. Figure 6-1. Individual, natu rally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the low resolution data. Channel velocities are given in the lower left hand corner of each panel in km s-1. The synthesized beam (52" x 42") is shown above the velocity information in the upper right hand panel. Contours are at 3 (8.1 x 1018 cm-2), 5, 10, and 25 flux density levels.

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118 Figure 6-2. Individual, natu rally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the high resolution data. Channel velocities are given in the lower left hand corner of the each panel in km s-1. The synthesized beam (22" x 16") is shown at the bottom right of the lower left hand cha nnel map. Contours are at the 3 (3.8 x 1019 cm-2), 6, and 10 flux density levels.

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119 Figure 6-3. Grayscale with contours of th e total HI surface density from the low resolution data set. The peak flux co rresponds to a column density of 1.53 x 1021 cm-2. Contours are at 1 (the 2 flux level), 2, 3, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 95% of the peak flux. The synthesize d beam (52" x 42") is shown at the bottom left. High Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Morphology Figure 6-4 presents the high resolution total HI surface density map. Figure 6-5 shows this map overlaid on a DSS optical R-ba nd image of the galaxy. The extent of the gas, about 2' x 1' in diameter, down to the level of 1.36 x 1019 cm-2 is slightly larger than the optical galaxy. The area of highest emi ssion corresponds to the center of the bar region, and has a column density of 2.36x1021 cm-2. This is typical of late type galaxies, and probably indicates that the bar in NGC 3055 is young (Hunter & Gottesman 1996; Laine & Gottesman 1998). There has not been time for the bar to sweep the gas into the inner regions of the galaxy.

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120 Figure 6-4. Grayscale and contours of th e total HI surface density from the high resolution data set. The p eak flux corresponds to 2.36 x 1021 cm-2. Contours are at 5 (the 2 flux level), 10, 15, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 95% of the peak flux. The synthesized beam (22" x 16") is shown at the bottom left. Figure 6-5. Contours of the high resolution data set overl aid on a DSS image of NGC 3055. The peak flux and contours are the same as in Figure 6-4. The synthesized beam is shown at the bottom left.

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121 In other galaxies, star forming regions were found to be associated with HI column densities higher than 1.5 x 1021 cm-2 (Moore & Gottesman 1998). In NGC 3055, we do not see this strong correlation. The highest column density is associated with the center of the bar, and although optically the brightest feature in th e galaxy, our color maps show this region to be red. There is a large regi on of elevated HI column density near the bright HII region in the west of the galaxy. However, the HI peak lies some 10" (1 kpc) to the east of the HII region. This whole ar ea shows up as blue in our color map, so we conclude that the HI is associ ated with star formation, but pr ocesses such as stellar winds and conversion to H2 must have removed HI from the optical center of the HII region. Higher resolution HI and optical observations will be needed to examine these processes. No other HI peaks correspond to re gions of obvious star formation. Global Neutral Hydrogen Properties Figure 6-6 presents the HI spectrum of NGC 3055 made from our low resolution data cube. The spectrum is fairly symmet ric and follows a double horned pattern. There is a dip in the flux on the red side of the ga laxy, but we were not able to determine any unusual features in the corresponding channel map. We calculate the total HI flux of NGC 3055 to be 11.2 0.9 Jy km s-1, which corresponds to an HI mass of 1.45 0.12 x 109 M. This flux value is similar to published single dish measurements of the ma ss for this galaxy, such as in the RC3 (de Vaucouluers et al. 1991). Figure 6-7 is the radial HI profile from both the high and low resolution data set. This galaxy shows a similar pr ofile to other late type galaxies (Moore & Gottesman 1998). The total HI radius for NGC 3055 is about 2', making it smaller than the other

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122 galaxies in this sample. We find that th e HI emission cuts off at below the 1 x 1020 cm-2 level in accordance with the predictions of Maloney (1993). From our spectrum of NGC 3055, we calculate a 3 HI flux level of 0.009 Jy. This corresponds to a conservative minimum mass detectio n level of 4.3 x 107 M for an isolated HI cloud, assuming that it appears in 3 continuous channels. Figure 6-6. The HI flux density versus veloc ity for the low resolution data set. The velocity resolution here is 10 km s-1. The spectrum is largely symmetric. Neutral Hydrogen Kinematics Figure 6-8 shows the HI velocity fiel d of NGC 3055 created with the low resolution data set. Figure 6-9 shows th e HI velocity field for NGC 3055 constructed with the high resolution data set. Figure 610 shows this same velocity field overlaid on an optical R-band image of the galaxy. The high resolution velocity field shows a largely symmetric pattern. The only global asymmetry is that the velocity field closes on the west side of the galaxy but does not on the east. This reflects the slight asymmetry in the total HI distribution of the low resolution da ta (Figure 6-6). Otherwise, the only other

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123 notable feature is that there are kinks in the is o-velocity curves that seem to be associated with the faint optical arm on the north side of the galaxy. The velocity field does not seem to be affected on a large scale by eith er the bar or the larg e HII region on the west side of the galaxy. However, our resolution is not high enough to probe the small scale effects of these features. These velocity fi eld images do not seem to indicate significant warping in the disk. Figure 6-7. The HI radial de nsity profiles from the low resolution data set (closed circles) and the high resolution data set (open circles) Position-Velocity Plots Figure 6-11 shows Position-Velocity (P-V) plot s parallel to the major axis from the high resolution data set. The lowest contour is at the 3 level (1.2 mJy beam-1) to emphasize possible gas at non-circ ular velocities. We find some evidence of "bearding" and gas at non-circular veloci ties, most notably the finger of gas stretching upwards from the lower left the galaxy in th e bottom panels of figure 6-11. This feature could represent some type of disk warp, because of its si milarity to structures seen in NGC 1784.

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124 However, the amount of gas involved in this fe ature is substantially less. We calculate a mass for this region to be on the order of a couple 107 M, using the 3 flux value, an angular size corresponding to about 2 beam wi dths, and a velocity spread of 50 km s-1. This mass value is large enough to consider the possibility of the existence of tidal debris or a small companion located close to NGC 3055. An examination of the channel maps of corresponding to thes e velocities (~1880 km s-1) shows that the gas distribution is slightly more elongated than in channel map corresponding to the othe r side of the galaxy (~1780 km s-1). There does not appear to be any se parate structures of HI gas in these channel maps. We conclude then, that the t ongues present in the PV plots of Figure 6-11 are not the result of tidal debris, but of a small warp in the outer disk of NGC 3055. Figure 6-8. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the low resolution data. Contours are separated by 20 km s-1. Motion toward the observer (the western side of the galaxy) is displayed with black contours and lighter grayscales. The central velocity is 1832 km s-1.

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125 Figure 6-9. Intensity-weighted ra dial velocity contours of th e high resolution data set. Contours are separated by 10 km s-1. Darker grayscales (the eastern side of the galaxy) correspond to motion away from the observer. Figure 6-10. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the high resolution data set overlaid on an optical DSS image of the galaxy. Contours are the same as in Figure 6-9.

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126 The P-V plots shown in Figure 6-11 are somewhat asymmetric even beyond the feature described above. The column density of HI is much highe r on the eastern, higher velocity side of the galaxy. Also, the velocity trend of the gas on the eastern side of the galaxy becomes flat after 30", while the gas on the western side of the galaxy never quite achieves this trend. This is certainly associ ated with the overall asymmetry seen in the HI intensity map (Figure 6-4), and is likely associated with the warp mentioned above. These features may be related to the two comp anion galaxies, and this possibility will be explored in a later section. Figure 6-12 shows P-V plots of the high reso lution data made parallel to the minor axis of NGC 3055. These images are fairly re gular, but broad. The plot made along the minor axis may have a slight trend upwards and to the right, indica ting a possible radial expansion, but our resolution and sensitivity are not good enough to explore this further at this time. There do not appear to be any features indicative of tidal debris or companions. The global asymmetry mentioned a bove is not as apparent in these images since the asymmetry seems to be oriented along the major axis. Rotation Curves and Model Disks In order to make rotation curves and model disks of NGC 3055, we used the GIPSY task 'reswri' to fit tilted rings to the velocity field. We used our high resolution data set to create our rotation curve. We fit rotational velo cities at radii ranging from 10" to 80" in 10" wide annuli. We were able to fit our curve close to the center of the galaxy because of the presence of gas in the bar of NGC 3055. We held the position of the kinematic center of the galaxy and the sy stemic velocity of the galaxy as fixed parameters, and let the rotational velocity, posi tion angle, and inclinat ion be set by the fit. We took the average of both the receding a nd approaching sides of the galaxy for our

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127 plot. This was largely due to the small signal present from the gas at the outer edge of the galaxy at high resolution. We plot the rotation velocity ve rsus radius in Figure 6-13, position angle versus radius in Figure 6-14, a nd inclination versus ra dius in Figure 6-15. Figure 6-11. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the major axis of NGC 3055. The contours are at 2, 3, 5, 10, and 25 The central velocity of the system is at 1.832 x 106 m s-1. Figure 6-13 shows that NGC 3055 has a flat or falling curve beyond a radius of 70" (7 kpc). The last point has a large error bar because of the limited flux at this radius. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1990) found that floccule nt galaxies have fl at or rising rotation curves consistent with these galaxies havi ng a relatively less massive disk compared to the halo. Because of the lack of flux at the outer point in NGC 3055, it is impossible to comment on the extended dark matter structure of this galaxy. The quickness that HI

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128 column densities drop off in the outer reaches of the galaxy does make NGC 3055 different from others in this sample. Deep er, medium resolution images of this galaxy will allow us to fix the rotation curve. Figure 6-12. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the minor axis of NGC 3055. The contours are at 2, 3, 5, 10, and 20 The central velocity of the system is at 1.832 x 106 m s-1. Using the final data point of the rotation curve, we calculated a value for the total mass of NGC 1784 interior to 80 ". Using a Keplerian, M = V2RG-1, to model the disk and halo, where R = 80" (9 kpc) and V(9 kpc) = 150 km s-1, we find M(R) 4.77 0.51 x 1010 M. Comparing this with the HI mass calcula ted above, we find a value for the ratio MHI / M(R) of 3% for NGC 3055.

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129 Figure 6-13. Rotation curve of NGC 3055 from th e high resolution data set. Plotted data is the average of both sides of the galaxy. Figure 6-14. Kinematic position angle of NGC 3055 as a function of radius

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130 The position angle curve, shown in Figure 6-14, shows that NGC 3055 has a relatively constant position angle through much of its inner, optical disk. It is only at the very extremes of our measurements that we find deviation from this trend. The large deviation for the outer most posit ion angle point could be an ar tifact of there being little flux at this radius. However, this position angle change does occur at a similar radii to the warping effects (tongues) shown in the PV plots of the previous section. The trend of the position angle in Figure 6-14 is evid ence of a twist in th e disk of NGC 3055 at large radii. Twisting is apparent in the inclination curve of Figure 6-15, but this time in the inner regions of the galaxy. The inclination changes by nearly 20 over the inner 30" of the galaxy. The presence of the bar is the mo st likely explanation for this trend. We do not see a deviation in inclination at large rad ii as with position angle, indicating that the warp present in NGC 3055 is more of a twist and contained within the plane of the disk. We used the values of rotational veloc ity, position angle, and inclination to construct a model disk for NGC 3055 with the GIPSY task 'velfi'. The model disk is shown in Figure 6-16. We then subtracted this model field from our high resolution velocity field (Figure 6-9), to create a map of residual veloc ities. The residual velocity field is shown in Figure 6-17. The residual fi eld is complicated and largely shows a one arm spiral (m=2) pattern, although this is not as pronounced as in other galaxies such as NGC 1784. There is no indication of corrotation as in Canzian (1993). However this is not unexpected given the small size of the ga laxy and our comparatively low resolution.

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131 Figure 6-15. Inclination angle of NGC 3055 as a function of radius Figure 6-16. Model velocity field constructed from kinema tical data in Figures 6-13, 614, and 6-15. Light grayscales repr esent approaching velocities.

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132 Figure 6-17. Residual velocity field made from model in A. Light grayscales represent approaching residuals (contours separated by 5 km s-1). Neutral Hydrogen Companions Figure 6-3, the low resolution total HI intensity map, shows that NGC 3055 is accompanied by two satellite systems. Figure 6-8, the low resolution HI velocity field shows that the velocities of these two satellites are similar to that of NGC 3055, itself. The "A" satellite, north of NG C 3055, reflects the velocities of the eastern half of the galaxy, and the "B" sate llite, northwest of NGC 3055, refl ects the velocities of the west side of the galaxy. Even though both companions are of about the same angular size (RHI ~ 1' or 7 kpc), the "A" satellite is the less massive of the two. Figure 6-18 shows an HI spectrum of the satellite. The spectrum is weak a nd narrow, only having appr eciable signal in 3 channels (a velocity width of 30 km s-1). We calculate an HI mass of 6 x 107 M, and using a V2R calculation, a total mass of about 109 M.

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133 Figure 6-18. The HI flux density versus veloci ty for the "A" HI satellite. The velocity resolution is 10 km s-1. Figure 6-19. The HI flux density versus velo city for the "B" satellite. The velocity resolution is 10 km s-1.

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134 The "B" satellite has a broader HI spectr um (Figure 6-19), covering about 80 km s1. The iso-velocity curves for satellite "B" in Figure 6-8 are well ordered and are in a similar orientation to the isovelocity curves in NGC 3055. We calculate an HI mass of 108 M and a total mass of 1010 M. We searched DSS images (the field of vi ew for our IAC80 images was too small) in the location of the two satelli tes to determine if they had optical counterparts. Figures 6-20 and 6-21 show that these two HI compan ions do indeed have optical emission. The HI here is plotted in contours on top of th e DSS image. Satellite "A" even though having a lower gas and total mass has a significantly brighter optical counterpart. It seems to have a dense center and an elongated outer structure. Satellite "B" has a wispy, ellipsoidal optical counterpart. Further deep, multiple color observations of these satellites is warranted to determine their stellar ages with respect to NGC 3055. Figure 6-20. Contours of HI surface density ov erlaid on an optical DSS image of the "A" satellite. The contours are the same as in Figure 6-3.

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135 Figure 6-21. Contours of HI surface density ov erlaid on an optical DSS image of the "B" satellite. The contours are the same as in Figure 6-3. In the case of NGC 3055, with the satell ites' large separations (90 kpc), it is unlikely that they are having a particularly strong effect on the main galaxy itself. Other galaxies showing disturbances caused by small dwarf galaxies (NGC 1784, 3359, and 7749) either have the dwarf very close in, or have already cannibali zed the dwarf. We calculate a tidal disruption radius for NGC 3055 of 13 kpc, well inside the presumed orbits of these satellites. Further, the eviden ce points to the situation that these satellites are not bound to NGC 3055. A quick compar ison of the gravitati onal potential energy due to NGC 3055 at a radius of 90 kpc to the kinetic energy of the satellites relative to NGC 3055 (v ~ 50 km s-1), shows that the kinetic energy of the satellites is greater by a factor of 104. These satellites may have passed close to NGC 3055 once in the past, but are unlikely to do so again.

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136 Even if we accept that th e satellites are bound to NGC 3055, we calculate, using Eq. 7-27 from Binney & Tremaine ( 1987) a time of at least 5 x 109 years for the orbits of these satellites to decay. The time scale is a lower limit, because the equation was derived for satellite galaxies that exist in the extended halo of a main galaxy. It is unlikely that NGC 3055 possess a significant ha lo at 90 kpc. The only circumstance in which these satellites would f eel appreciable friction would be if they were on strongly plunging orbits. Certainly, this is possible, but in either case it is unlikely that these companions will be consumed by NGC 3055 within a Hubble Time. The slight asymmetry in NGC 3055's HI di stribution and velocity field could be due to a close pass of one of the satellites during the past few Gyrs. As previously mentioned, even a small satellite (5% of the mass of the main galaxy) can produce significant effects on a large ga laxy if in a close prograde or bit. We do not observe any HI trails connecting the satellites to the ma in galaxy, so it is not obvious if this is the case. We also can not rule out either a sma ll or somewhat old merger of a third satellite as the cause of GNC 3055's dys morphic features. It is al so possible that NGC 3055's asymmetry is due to internal pro cesses to the disk of the galaxy. Summary NGC 3055 is a relatively small but regular disk galaxy. It possesses am asymmetry in its HI distribution, but no other high ly unusual features. NGC 3055 most likely possesses a warp in its disk. We disc overed two HI companions in the NGC 3055 companions. These companions have regul ar appearing HI dist ributions and show optical, stellar, emission. One of these sa tellites appears to be large enough to be rotationally supported. The othe r appears to be supported by tu rbulence. It is unclear whether these satellite s are the cause of NGC 3055's asym metric HI distribution. They

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137 do possess masses similar to galaxies in othe r systems which have resulted in altered morphologies and kinematics. However, thei r current projected di stance from NGC 3055 of over 90 kpc, seems to indicate that right now their effect is very weak. We can not rule out a previous close passage of one of these sa tellites to NGC 3055.

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138 CHAPTER 7 NEUTRAL HYDROGEN OBSERV ATIONS OF NGC 3930 NGC 3930 is a rather non-descript optical galaxy that has not been previously studied in great detail by other authors. NGC 3930 has an optical diameter of 3.2' (12 kpc), giving it a large angular size relativ e to the sample, but a small physical size (Haynes et al. 1998). It is the closest of the galaxies in th e sample, having a recessional velocity of 919 km s-1 (13 Mpc, where Ho=70 km s-1 Mpc-1). Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) give this galaxy an arm classification of 4, because of its one armed structure. The southern optical arm appears to be longer, brighter, and associated with more star formation than its northern counterpart. Ha ynes et al. (1998) in si ngle dish observations found NGC 3930 to be not particularly bright in HI, have a fairly narrow spectrum, and to have a somewhat asymmetric HI profile (Table 1-8). Observations Radio observations of NGC 3930 were obtaine d at the Very Large Array in May of 2003 using the D configuration. The spectrome ter was composed of 64 channels with a 10.5 km s-1 velocity resolution. The total band width was 3.125 MHz (640 km s-1), and the central heliocentric velocity was 919 km s-1. The observing parameters for the observations are summarized in Table 7-1. Table 7-1. Parameters of VL A HI observations of NGC 3930 Configuration D Number of antennae 27 Vsys (km s-1) 919 Phase calibrator 1150+242 Flux calibrator 1331+305 Time on source 3.7

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139 The D configuration data set was edite d, calibrated and continuum subtracted using the typical procedures of the Astronomical Image Processing System (AIPS) package. The data set was then imaged twice using the AIPS task IMAGR to provide us with two image cubes ( , v) reflecting the maximum range of spatial resolution and sensitivity that our data would allow. We created a low resolution cube by using a natural weighting scheme and a high resoluti on data cube by imaging the data with a uniform weighting scheme. We CLEANed the data cubes in AIPS down to an rms level of 0.4 and 0.6 mJy beam-1 for the low resolution and high resolution images, respectively. Further details of the statistics for each data cube are presented in Table 7-2. Analysis on the completed and CLEANed image cubes was conducted using the Gronigen Image Processing System (GIPSY) package. Table 7-2. Characteristics of Natura lly Weighted CLEANed Channel Maps Parameter Low Resolution High Resolution FWHP synthesized beam (") 59" x 58" 37" x 34" FWHP synthesized beam (kpc) 3.7 x 3.6 2.3 x 2.1 Theoretical rms noise (mJy beam-1) 0.62 0.62 Observed rms noise (mJy beam-1) 0.65 0.67 Rms noise (K) 0.20 2.0 Peak temperature (K) 16.5 90.5 Peak S/N 83 45 Neutral Hydrogen Morphology The channel maps shown in Figures 7-1 and 7-2 were used in moment analyses to obtain global density and temper ature weighted radial velocity images of the neutral hydrogen in NGC 3930. Moment maps were co nstructed with the AIPS task MOMNT. A flux cut off of three times the rms noise level ( ) of the unsmoothed data was used. The low resolution, naturally weighted globa l distribution of the neutral hydrogen in NGC 3930 is shown in grayscale in Figure 7-3 and overlaid on an optical image of the

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140 galaxy in Figure 7-4. The high resolution, unif ormly weighted global distribution of the neutral hydrogen is shown in grayscale in Fi gure 7-5 and overlaid on an optical image of the galaxy in Figure 7-6. The lowe st contours are drawn at the 2 level. Figure 7-1. Individual, natu rally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the low resolution data. Channel velocities are given in the lower left hand corner of each panel in km s-1. The synthesized beam (59" x 58") is shown above the velocity information in the upper right hand panel. Contours are at the 3 (3.7 x 1018 cm-2), 10, 20, 40, and 80 flux level.

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141 Figure 7-2. Individual, natu rally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the high resolution data. Channel velocities are given in the lower left hand corner of each panel in km s-1. The synthesized beam (37" x 34") is shown at the bottom right of the lower left hand cha nnel map. Contours are at the 3 (1.7 x 1019 cm-2), 10, 20, and 40 flux level, corresponding to 1.5 x 1020 cm -2.

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142 Low Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Morphology The low resolution channel maps in Figur e 7-1 show a regular, well formed galaxy. There do not appear to be any rings, satellite s, or gas at forbidden velocities. This regularity is reflected in the global HI dist ribution shown in Figures 7-2 and 7-3. The outer contours are symmetric and regular. Only in the inner regions do we find an asymmetry, with the peak of the HI emission (NHI = 1.08 x 1021 cm-2) lying south of the center of the galaxy. Figure 7-4 shows that the peak corresponds to the stronger, southern spiral arm. We find the HI diamet er of the galaxy to be 7' (26 kpc) at the 2 level, or 2.2 times the optical D25 for the galaxy. Figure 7-3. Grayscale with contours of th e total HI surface density from the low resolution data set. The peak flux co rresponds to a column density of 1.08 x 1021 cm-2. Contours are at .5 (the 2 flux level), 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 95% of the peak flux. The synthesi zed beam (59" x 58") is shown at the bottom left.

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143 Figure 7-4. Grayscale with contours of th e total HI surface density from the low resolution data set. Contours and reso lution are the same as in Figure 7-3. High Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Morphology The channel maps in Figure 7-2 also s how a well ordered galaxy even at higher resolution. The global asymmetry shows up agai n in Figures 7-5 and 7-6 and the peak of HI emission is more clearly associated with th e spiral arm and star forming regions in the south of the galaxy. The peak HI column density region (NHI = 5.8 x 1021 cm-2) appears to be located on top of and adjacent to severa l star forming regions, and has an apparent surface density much higher than we have found in any other galaxy. This could be caused by HI surrounding a dense star forming re gion that is at the limits of our resolving power. Two other HI peaks circle around the bar region from the west to the north and also seem to be associated with regions of star formation. The HI distribution seems to track loosely the optical spiral arms, but la gs behind the rotational sense of the galaxy

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144 (assuming that the arms are trailing). Highe r resolution observati ons are necessary to determine the true spatial correlation of HI peaks and star forming regions. Figure 7-5. Grayscale and contours of th e total HI surface density from the high resolution data set. The p eak flux corresponds to 5.8 x 1021 cm-2. Contours are at 1 (the 2 flux level), 2, 5,10, 15, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 95% of the peak flux. The synthesized beam (37" x 34 ") is shown at the bottom left. HI does appear to be present in the ba r region of NGC 3930 at this resolution. However, this may be a beam smearing effect similar to what was seen in the low resolution images of NGC 1784. Higher resolu tion images of NGC 1784 revealed that the center of the galaxy had an HI depression, which closely followed the outline of the optical bar. Here we see that the HI is peaked on and near th e weak spiral arms. Overall, the 3 peaks at 80% of the maximum emission fo rm a partial circle around the bar region. The optical images of NGC 3930 revealed that the inner regions of the galaxy were blue relative to the rest of the galaxy, indicating that star forma tion is occurring. A deficiency in HI may either be due to ionization or mo lecule formation processes. Higher resolution

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145 observations in HI are required to determine th e presence and depth of an HI hole as well as its shape. H observations are also warranted to assess the fraction of ionized hydrogen present in the bar regi on of NGC 3930. Figure 7-6. Contours of the high resolution HI surface density over a grayscale image of NGC 3930. Contours and re solution are the same as in Figure 7-5. Global Neutral Hydrogen Properties Figure 7-7 shows the HI spectrum of NGC 3930 created from our low resolution data. It shows the typical galactic two-horne d pattern with the blue peak much brighter than the red. This is consistent with the asymmetry noted in Figure 7-3. We calculate the total HI flux of NGC 3930 to be 29.3 0.8 Jy km s-1 corresponding to an HI mass of 1.16 .13 x 109 M. This value is consistent with other single dish measurements such as Haynes et al. (1998) and de Va ucouluers et al. (1991). Fr om our spectrum of NGC 3930, we calculate a 3 HI flux level of 0.006 Jy. This corresponds to a conservative minimum

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146 mass detection level of 6.1 x 107 M for an isolated HI cloud, assuming that it appears in 3 continuous channels. Figure 7-7. The HI flux density versus veloc ity for the low resolution data set. The velocity resolution here is 10 km s-1. Figure 7-8 is the radial HI profile from both the high and low resolution data set. This galaxy shows a similar pr ofile to other late type galaxies (Moore & Gottesman 1998). We find that the HI emission cuts off at below the 1 x 1020 cm-2 level in accordance with the predictions of Maloney (1993). Neutral Hydrogen Kinematics Figure 7-9 shows the HI velocity fiel d for NGC 3930 created with our low resolution data set. Figure 7-10 shows the HI velocity field for NGC 3930 created with our high resolution data set. Figure 7-11 shows this same field overlaid on an optical DSS image of the galaxy. The contours in all three images are separated by 10.5 km s-1,

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147 and the central contour is at a systemic velocity of 919 km s-1. Both the low and high resolution velocity fields show a largely symm etric velocity field as would be expected given the channel maps of Figures 7-1 a nd 7-2. Our high resolution image does not possess enough detail to observe effects of the spiral arms on the HI velocity field. Figure 7-8. The HI radial de nsity profiles from the low resolution data set (closed circles) and the high resoluti on data set (open circles) In the high resolution velocity field, we see a kink at the outer edge of the galaxy. There is a slight hint of this in the lower resolution image, implying that the feature is real and not just an affect of low signal to noise in the high resolution image. However, the resolution is significantl y worse, so the details are lost. The kink appears to exist at larger radii than the optical spiral arms (Fi gure 7-11), so it is unlikely that it is due to streaming motions. A small warp may be presen t at large radii in the HI disk in this galaxy, even though no formation mechanism is obvious for this warp.

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148 Figure 7-9. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the low resolution data. Contours are separated by 10 km s-1. Motion toward the observer is displayed with black contours and li ghter grayscales. The sy stemic velocity of the galaxy is 919 km s-1. The synthesized beam (59" x 58") is displayed in the lower left. Figure 7-10. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of th e high resolution data set. Contours are separated by 10 km s-1. Darker grayscales correspond to motion away from the observer. The synthesized beam (37" x 34") is displayed in the lower left hand corner.

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149 Figure 7-11. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the high resolution data set overlaid on an optical DSS image of NGC 3930. Contours are the same as in Figure 7-10. Position Velocity Plots Figure 7-12 shows Position-Velocity (P-V) pl ots parallel to the major axis for NGC 3930 made with the high resolution data set. The lowest contour is drawn at the 3 (2 mJy beam-1) level. As with the channel maps a nd velocity fields, these plots show a fairly regular galaxy. There is confirmati on of the global HI asymmetry as the upper right hand of all the slices te nds to show a higher column de nsity than the lower left, but the difference is not as pronounced as in other sample galaxies. Two of the slices show small protrusions, meaning there may be some gas at non-circular velocities. However, these protrusions are only at the 3 level, are smaller than 1', and have a small velocity width (one or two channels). We would expe ct the masses of these regions to be on the order of 107 M, and not significant to the dynamics of the system. Further very deep observations at 20" resolution may be able to resolve these regions into separate high

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150 velocity clouds similar to those seen around ot her galaxies in this sample, such as NGC 1784. Figure 7-12. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the major axis of NGC 3930. The contours are at 3, 5, 10, 20, 45, and 50 The resolution is denoted by a cross in the lower left corner of the bottom left panel. At the extreme ends of several of the s lices (particularly 40" Northwest and 40" Southeast), we find further evidence of the warp in the disk of NGC 3930. At both +3' and -3', we see the velocity of the gas trendi ng back towards the systemic velocity instead of remaining flat. This effect is short in distance and occurs at low column densities. Very little mass is associated with this warp. We believe that this feature is a warp, and not simply a falling rotation curve, because it is more prominent on the slices away from the major axis. A falling rotation curve would affect all slices.

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151 Often, warps are associated w ith the close passage of a companion, such as in NGC 1784 or NGC 7479 (Laine & Gottesman 1998). Here we do not observe any HI or optical companions to NGC 3930. Casuso & Beckman (2001) have proposed a mechanism where large companions are not nece ssary for the creation of warps. Without obvious evidence for a companion, we conclude that warp in NGC 3930 is caused by processes within the disk and halo. Figure 7-13 shows P-V plots parallel to the minor axis of NGC 3930. These images do not show any outstanding features. The overall gas distri bution is skewed to the west. This is again consistent with the overall asymmetry seen in Figure 7-3. No satellites or gas at forbidde n velocities are apparent. Rotation Curves and Model Disks In order to make rotation curves and model disks of NGC 3930, we used the GIPSY task 'reswri' to fit tilted rings to the velocity field. We used our high resolution data set to create our parameter curves. We fit rotational velocities at radii ranging from 20" to 200" in 30" wide annuli. We held the position of the ki nematic center and the systemic velocity of the galaxy as fixe d parameters, while allowing the rotational velocity, expansion velocity, pos ition angle, and inclination to be set by the fit. We plot the results from the receding, approaching, and average of both sides of the galaxy. We plot the rotation velocity versus radius in Fi gure 7-14, expansion velocity versus radius in Figure 7-15, position angle versus radius in Fi gure 7-16, and inclination versus radius in Figure 7-17.

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152 Figure 7-13. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the minor axis of NGC 3930. The contours are at 3, 5, 10, 20, 45, 50 The resolution function is shown as a cross in the lower left corner of the bottom left panel. Figure 7-14 shows that NGC 3930 has a flat to rising rota tion curve through 150". This is consistent with the findings of Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1990) for flocculent galaxies. The outermost point is coincident with the warp mentioned in regards to the velocity fields and P-V plots. This point is further evid ence that some process is occurring at the outer edges of the galaxy. The actual value for this point is subject to concern, though, because of the limited flux at the edge of the galaxy. Other than this last point, we find a rather small value for th e maximum rotational ve locity of 95 km s-1, especially considering the average to large physical size of the galaxy.

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153 We calculated a value for the total mass of NGC 3930 interior to 170" (using the last point of the flat part of the rotation curv e, given our concerns about the warp exterior to this. Using a Keplerian, M = V2RG-1, to model the disk and halo, where R = 170" (10.5 kpc) and V(10 kpc) = 95 km s-1, we find M(R) 2.42 0.05 x 1010 M. Comparing this with the HI mass calculated above, we find a value for the ratio MHI / M(R) of 5% for NGC 3930. Figure 7-14. Rotation curve of NGC 3930 from the high resolution data set. Open squares represent the approaching half of the galaxy. Open circles represent the receding half of the galaxy. Filled circles represent th e average of both. The expansion velocity curve (Figure 7-15) is fairly flat, but offset to the positive values. This may be indicative of a slight error in the syst emic velocity of the system, however, the error ba rs of many of the points on this plot do include 0 km s-1, and their

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154 overall value is within our ve locity resolution of 10 km s-1. The outermost point at 200" shows a value of 0 km s-1, indicating that the warp does not seem to affect this parameter. The position angle curve (Figure 7-16) s hows a fairly flat, decreasing (about 10 ) trend out to 170". The last point, correspondi ng to the radius of the warp in our major axis P-V plots (Figure 7-12) is signi ficantly different, jumping by about 20 The inclination curve (Figure 7-17) shows a sim ilar trend, where most of the galaxy possesses a similar inclination, except for the very edge. Figure 7-15. Expansion velocity as a func tion of radius for NGC 3930. Symbols are the same as in Figure 7-14.

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155 Figure 7-16. Kinematic position angle of NGC 3930 as a function of radius. Symbols are the same as in Figure 7-14. Figure 7-17. Inclination angle of NGC 6012 as a function of radius. Symbols are the same as in Figure 7-14.

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156 The warp appears to be small (containing at most 1% of the HI mass of the galaxy), three dimensional (both twisted in the plane and out), not particular ly violent (position angle and inclination differences are only 20 ), and not associated with the star forming regions of the optical part of the galaxy. There is no obvi ous mechanism for the creation of this warp. Without ob vious evidence of a compani on nearby (<100 kpc) to NGC 3930, we must conclude that this warp is due to processes internal to the galaxy. Casuso & Beckman (2001) propose that the warp obs erved in the Milky Way is caused by the accretion of numerous 107 M clouds in a non-axisymmetric manner. Significantly deeper HI observations would be necessary to determine the presence of these objects. We used the values of rotational veloc ity, position angle, and inclination to construct a model disk for NGC 3930 with the GIPSY task 'velfi'. The model disk is shown in Figure 7-18. This model disk show s a rather significant warp. We then subtracted this model field from our high resolu tion velocity field (Fig ure 7-8), to create a map of residual velocities. The residual ve locity field is shown in Figure 7-19. The residual velocity field is largely bi-modal, with the western half of the galaxy having positive velocities and the eastern half having negative. This effect may be due to the slight positive offset in the expansion veloci ty. We constructed a second model velocity field, shown in Figure 7-20 where we have incl uded the expansion velocities. We also smoothed the last data point at 200" to a valu e more fitting with th e overall trend of the inner data. This velocity field looks much more like the observed velocity field in Figure 7-8. The subtraction of the two shows a good fit, but with very little structure. There is no indication of corrotation as in Canzian (1993), NGC 1784, or NGC 3055. However this is not unexpected given our comparatively low resolution.

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157 Figure 7-18. Model velocity field constructed from kinema tical data in Figures 7-14, 716, and 7-17. Light grayscales repr esent approaching velocities. Figure 7-19. Residual velocity field made fr om model in Figure 7-18. Light grayscales represent approaching residuals. Contours are separated by 5 km s-1.

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158 Figure 7-20. Model velocity field including va lues for expansion velocity and with all values smoothed at large radii Figure 7-21. Residual velocity field made w ith the model from 7-20. Light grayscales indicate motion towards the observer. Contours are separated by 5 km s-1.

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159 Summary NGC 3930 is a fairly regular, well form ed disk galaxy. Its HI morphology is asymmetric, with the peak of its HI distribution ali gned with the brighter of its two spiral arms. Also, NGC 3930 possesses a small warp in its outer disk. No large HI companions were found in our observations, nor is there direct evidence for a recent interaction / merger in this system. We conclude that th e most likely explanation for the warp in the HI disk is internal disk/h alo dynamical processes. Highe r resolution observations are necessary to determine the effects of the inte resting one-armed struct ure in this galaxy on the HI kinematics.

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160 CHAPTER 8 NEUTRAL HYDROGEN OBSERV ATIONS OF NGC 4900 NGC 4900 is a rather interesti ng optical galaxy. It is cl assified as having an arm class of "3" by Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) but in red images, there is really no coherent structure in the disk other than a larg e bar. The bar appears to be twisted in both the optical and near-infrared. Color maps s how that the bar is blue, surrounded by a red ring. There also appear to be several blue regions of star forma tion scattered throughout the disk. NGC 4900 is the second closest galaxy in our sample, having a recessional velocity of 969 km s-1 (14 Mpc, where Ho = 70 km s-1 Mpc-1). The galaxy has the smallest physical size in the sample, with an optical diameter of 2.2', corresponding to 9 kpc. Despite the galaxy's small size, it is fairly luminous and was not found to be deficient in HI in previous single dish observations (Gira ud 1986). The galaxy is projected to be in the Virgo Southern Complex, however it is physi cally in front of this structure and is an isolated galaxy. Observations Radio observations of NGC 4900 were obtaine d at the Very Large Array in May of 2003 using the D configuration. The spectrome ter was composed of 64 channels with a 10.5 km s-1 velocity resolution. The total band width was 3.125 MHz (640 km s-1), and the central heliocentric velocity was 969 km s-1. The observing parameters for the observations are summarized in Table 8-1.

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161 Table 8-1. Parameters of VL A HI observations of NGC 4900 Configuration D Number of antennae 27 Vsys (km s-1) 969 Phase calibrator 1311-222 Flux calibrator 1331+305 Time on source 3.8 The D configuration data set was edited, calibrated and continuum subtracted using the typical procedures of the Astronomical Image Processing System (AIPS) package. The data set was then imaged twice using th e AIPS task IMAGR to provide us with two image cubes ( , v) reflecting the maximum range of spatial resoluti on and sensitivity that our data would allow. We created a low resolution cube by using a natural weighting scheme and a high resolution data cube by im aging the data with a uniform weighting scheme. We CLEANed the data cubes in AIPS down to an rms level of 0.5 and 0.7 mJy beam-1 for the low resolution and high resolution images, respectively. Further details of the statistics for each data cube are presen ted in Table 8-2. Analysis on the completed and CLEANed image cubes was conducted us ing the Gronigen Image Processing System (GIPSY) package. Table 8-2. Characteristics of Natura lly Weighted CLEANed Channel Maps Parameter Low Resolution High Resolution FWHP synthesized beam (") 68" x 56" 43" x 39" FWHP synthesized beam (kpc) 4.6 x 3.8 2.9 x 2.6 Theoretical rms noise (mJy beam-1) 0.44 0.44 Observed rms noise (mJy beam-1) 0.5 0.66 Rms noise (K) 0.15 1.98 Peak temperature (K) 10.5 99 Peak S/N 70 50

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162 Neutral Hydrogen Morphology The channel maps shown in Figures 8-1, 82, 8-3, and 8-4 were used in moment analyses to obtain global densit y and temperature weighted radial velocity images of the neutral hydrogen in NGC 4900. Moment maps were constructed with the AIPS task MOMNT. A flux cut off of three times the rms noise level ( ) of the unsmoothed data was used. The low resolution, naturally we ighted global distribution of the neutral hydrogen in NGC 4900 is shown in grayscale in Figure 8-5 and overlaid on an optical image of the galaxy in Figure 8-6. The high resolution, uniformly weighted global distribution of the neutral hydr ogen is shown in grayscale in Figure 8-7 and overlaid on an optical image of the galaxy in Figure 88. The lowest contours are drawn at the 2 level. Low Resolution Neutra l Hydrogen Morphology The low resolution channel maps in Fi gure 8-1 and 8-2 show a significantly disturbed galaxy. We find two trends in the gas, as the observations move from high to low recessional velocity. One is the main body of the galaxy which starts in the channel with a velocity of 1062 km s-1. This gas moves from west to east with an apparent position angle of 90 as the observational velocity d ecreases. The second body of HI appears much earlier in the observa tions, at a velocity of 1093 km s-1. This body trends from the northwest to the southeast as the obs ervational velocity decreases. This second body of gas may represent an inclined ring around disk of NGC 4900. It appears that there is a significant amount of gas in this ring. We will discuss this ring in a later section.

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163 Figure 8-1. Individual, natu rally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the low resolution data. Channel velocities are given in the lower left hand corner of each panel in km s-1. The synthesized beam (68" x 56") is shown in the lower left hand panel. Contou rs are at the 3 (4.3 x 1018 cm-2), 5, 10, 20, and 40 flux level.

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164 Figure 8-2. Individual, natu rally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the low resolution data. The resolution and contour levels are the same as in Figure 81.

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165 Figure 8-3. Individual, natu rally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the high resolution data. Channel velocities are given in the lower right hand corner of each panel in km s-1. The synthesized beam (43" x 39") is shown at the bottom left of the lower left hand cha nnel map. Contours are at the 3 (1.3 x 1019 cm-2), 5, 10, 20, and 40 flux levels.

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166 Figure 8-4. Individual, natu rally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the high resolution data. The resolution and contour levels are the same as in Figure 83.

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167 Figure 8-5. Grayscale with contours of th e total HI surface density from the low resolution data set. The peak flux co rresponds to a column density of 1.4 x 1021 cm-2. Contours are at 0.5 (the 2 flux level), 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 95% of the peak flux. The synthesi zed beam (68" x 57") is shown at the bottom left. The morphology of the total HI intensity map (Figure 8-5) for NGC 4900 reflects the complex HI distribution in the channel ma ps discussed above. The overall shape of the HI distribution in NGC 4900 resembles an arrowhead pointed to the southeast. The contours at the center of the galaxy are close to being circular, even though the peak of the HI distribution (NHI = 1.4 x 1021 cm-2) seems to be somewhat off center. These contours are primarily associated with the main body of gas in NGC 4900. The arrowhead shape comes from second body of HI moving from northwest to southeast.

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168 Figure 8-6. Contours of the total HI surface density from the low resolution data set overlaid on an optical DSS image of NGC 4900. Contour levels are the same as in Figure 8-5. Figure 8-6 showing the low resolution tota l HI intensity overlaid on an optical DSS image of NGC 4900 shows that th e center, circular contours do lie slightly off center and to the west of the optical dist ribution of the galaxy. Consider ing just the circular contours (down to 10% of the peak emission), the HI diameter of the galaxy would be on the order of 4' (16 kpc), or nearly twice the optical di ameter. This value is typical for the other galaxies in our sample which do not show a si gnificant HI disturbance. The HI diameter of the entire HI arrowhead structure surroundi ng NGC 4900 is nearly 9' (37 kpc), or over four times the optical diameter. This scal e is on the order of the inner ring system surrounding NGC 1784, and also lie s at approximately the tidal radius of NGC 4900, leading us to believe that the extended HI emission in NGC 4900 is resultant from an external source.

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169 High Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Morphology In the high resolution HI images of NGC 4900 we see properties similar to the low resolution images. The channel maps in Fi gure 8-3 show the two systems involved in NGC 4900 implied by Figure 8-1. Here, though, we see the ring system separated from the main body of NGC 4900 because of the higher resolution. In the channel maps from 1083 through 1021 km s-1 we see the ring arcing around the north of the galaxy, as well as evidence of the ring system superimposed on the main galaxy in the images of 1052 and 1041 km s-1 In the channel corresponding to 959 km s-1 we see potentially both sides of the ring emanating from the northeast and southwest sides of the linear north-south main body of the galaxy. Again, as the em ission from the main body of NGC 4900 ends in the images around 897 km s-1, we see the ring wrapping around the south of the galaxy. Figure 8-7. Grayscale and contours of th e total HI surface density from the high resolution data set. The p eak flux corresponds to 1.5 x 1021 cm-2. Contours are at 2 (the 2 flux level), 5, 10, 15, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 95% of the peak flux. The synthesized beam (43" x 39") is shown at the bottom left.

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170 The high resolution HI total intensity map (Figure 8-7) shows the northern end of the ring to be somewhat separated from the body of NGC 4900, evidenced by the hole northwest of the galaxy. Again, in Figure 88, we find the peak of the HI distribution (NHI = 1.5 x 1021 cm-2) to be offset to the east of the center of the optical emission. We do not directly observe an HI hole associated with the bar in this galaxy, however, NGC 4900 shows a similar morphology to NGC 3930, where the HI peak curves around the bar. Higher resolution observations may re veal that the bar is deficient in HI. Figure 8-8. Contours of the total HI surface density from the high resolution data set overlaid on an optical DSS image of NGC 4900. Contours are at the same levels as in Figure 8-7. Global Neutral Hydrogen Properties Figure 8-9 shows the HI spectrum of NGC 4900 created with the low resolution data cube. This spectrum shows few of the t ypical features associated with a disk galaxy. There is no double horned pattern indicating di fferential rotation. The spectrum peaked around the central velocity and remains flat fo r two or three channels on either side.

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171 Outside of this flat central area, the spectru m has broad shoulders on both sides. Several small peaks on the lower velocity side are a result emission from the HI ring, as can be determined from the channel maps (Figure 8-1). We calculate a total HI flux of 23.1 .9 Jy km s-1. This corresponds to an HI mass of 1.07 0.15 x 109 M. This value is consistent with other single dish measurements as given by de Vaucouluers et al. (1991). It is difficult to determine a proper velocity width to the spectrum of NGC 4900 due to its broad shoulders. If we use the small peak at 910 km s-1 as one end of the main body of the galaxy, and the top of the shoulder at 1050 km s-1 as the other, we estimate a velocity width of 140 km s-1, which is similar to other galaxies in this sample. From our spectrum of NGC 4900, we calculate a 3 HI flux level of 0.033 Jy. This corresponds to a conservative minimum mass de tection level of 4.4 x 107 M for an isolated HI cloud, assuming that it appears in 3 continuous channels. Figure 8-9. The HI flux density versus veloc ity for the low resolution data set. The velocity resolution here is 10 km s-1. The spectrum does not show the typical galactic double horned pattern.

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172 Figure 8-10 is the radial HI profile from both the high and lo w resolution data set. This galaxy shows a similar prof ile to other galaxies in th e sample, despite the strange morphology and spectrum present in NGC 4900. This is likely because the HI ring does not possess a large amount of mass relative to the main galaxy. We find that the HI emission cuts off quickly below the 1 x 1020 cm-2 level in accordance with the predictions of Maloney (1993). Figure 8-10. The HI radial density profile s from the low resolution data set (closed circles) and the high resoluti on data set (open circles) Neutral Hydrogen Kinematics Figure 8-11 shows the HI velocity fi eld for NGC 4900 created with our low resolution data set. Figure 8-12 shows the HI velocity field for NGC 4900 created with our high resolution data set. Figure 8-13 shows this same field overlaid on an optical DSS image of the galaxy. The contours in all three images are separated by 10.5 km s-1, and the central contour is at a systemic velocity of 969 km s-1. The low resolution

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173 velocity field is similar in structure what was observed in the channel maps. There seem to be two different position angles for the iso-velocity contours in this galaxy. The contours at the center of the galaxy run north -south, while the cont ours in the southeast and northwest are closer to east-west. Through the middle of the galaxy, the contours possess an "S" like shape. This is likely due to a transition region between the central galaxy and the ring which ha s not been resolved. Figure 8-11. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the low resolution data. Contours are separated by 10 km s-1. Motion toward the observer is displayed with lighter grayscales. The central velocity contour is at 969 km s-1. The synthesized beam (68" x 57") is displayed in the lower left. The high resolution velocity field does seem to separate the ring out from the main galaxy. In Figure 8-12 there are two regions (one in the north and one in the south) where the iso-velocity curves stack up. This indicates a very steep gradient in velocity, and is similar to the region in the veloc ity field of NGC 1784 between the ring and galaxy. The steep gradient region in NGC 4900 surrounds a circular region where the

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174 iso-contours run north-south. In the high reso lution optical overlay (Figure 8-13), we do not find any optical emission associated with the regions with velo cities corresponding to the ring. Our resolution is not high enough to determine the impact of any spiral arms, star forming regions, or the bar on the HI velocity field. Figure 8-12. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of th e high resolution data set. Contours are separated by 10 km s-1. Darker grayscales correspond to motion away from the observer. Position-Velocity Plots In Figure 8-14, we show Position-Velocity (P-V) plots taken along the supposed major axis of the main body of NGC 4900 (PA = 90 ) using the high resolution data cube. This major axis was defined by the m odel disk calculation, described in a later section. These plots show in all slices, a lin ear trend in velocity from one side of the galaxy to the other. This is not typical for disk galaxies, which usually show a turn-over to a flat region of rotation. The rotation observed here is more akin to solid body

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175 rotation. The individual slices are very broad, and show significant bearding at their ends, even at this relatively low spatial reso lution. These regions ha ve a typical size of about 0.5' (2 kpc) and a velocity width of about 20 km s-1. The protrusions are in regions of low surface density (at 3 contours), but given their si ze may have dynamical masses of up to 107 M depending on their HI content. The slic es made at and north of the major axis seem to show a curve to higher velocities at high negative radii. This is the opposite of what would be expected from a normal rota tion curve. The slice made at 60" south of the major axis shows a second intensity peak at high positive radii. This second peak is associated with the ring ar ea south of the galaxy. Figure 8-13. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the high resolution data set overlaid on an optical DSS image. Contours are the same as in Figure 8-12.

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176 Figure 8-14. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the major axis of the inner portion of NGC 4900. The contours are at 3, 5, 10, 20, and 40 Figure 8-15 shows P-V plots made parallel to the major axis of the arrowhead feature (PA = 135 ). With these plots we attempted to determine the rotational properties of the ring feature. Similar to Figure 8-14, we found a very broad area of HI emission, again with many beards and protrusions. In th e slices made northeast of the major axis, we find a separated island of HI at high nega tive radii (northwest of the galaxy). As the slices move to the southwest of the galaxy, we find a new island at high positive radii (southeast of the galaxy). The major axis appears to show both islands. If we examine the bubble found in the slices made southwes t of the galaxy, we find that the bubble is about 1' (4 kpc) in diameter, ex tends over at least 1' of slices and has a velocity spread of

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177 approximately 40 km s-1. This island has higher column densities than the protrusions mentioned above in Figure 8-14. The center of the island reaches the 10 flux density level. This value is similar to the satell ite found in NGC 1784. We calculate a dynamical mass for the island on the southwest si de of the galaxy to be several 108 M, which is in line with it being a satellite galaxy. Figure 8-15. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the supposed major axis of the outer regions of NGC 4900. The contours are at 3, 5, 10, 20, and 40 Figure 8-16 shows P-V plots taken along the minor axis of the main galaxy (PA = 0 ) made with the high resolution data cube. Th e HI distribution in th e central regions of the galaxy is broad, but typical for a minor ax is plot. Outside of 1.5', however, we see islands of HI at non-circular velocities. These islands are for the most part separated

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178 from the main body of the galaxy, implying that the ring system is separate from the galaxy and not simply extended emission. The size of the islands in this image is similar to those in Figure 8-15, indicat ing our mass estimate, although nave, is not inappropriate. Figure 8-16. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the minor axis of the inner regions of NGC 4900. The contours are at 3, 5, 10, 20, and 40 Rotation Curves and Model Disks In order to make rotation curves and model disks of NGC 4900, we used the GIPSY task 'reswri' to fit tilted rings to the velocity field. We used our high resolution data set to create our parameter curves. We fit rotational velocities at radii ranging from 20" to 140" in 30" wide annuli. We held the position of the ki nematic center and the systemic velocity of the galaxy as fixe d parameters, while allowing the rotational

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179 velocity, expansion velocity, pos ition angle, and inclination to be set by the fit. Because of limited flux, we used an average of both the receding and approaching sides of the galaxy. We plot the rotation velocity versus radius in Figure 8-17, expansion velocity versus radius in Figure 8-18, position angle ve rsus radius in Figur e 8-19, and inclination versus radius in Figure 8-20. Figure 8-17. Rotation curve of NGC 1784 from th e high resolution data set. Data points represent the average of both the re ceding and approaching sides of the galaxy. Owing to the atypical charac teristics of NGC 4900's morphology and kinematics, our plot of rotational velocity versus radius in Figure 8-17 is very unusual for a disk galaxy. We find that the rotati onal velocity increases with ra dius in a manner reminiscent of an exponential curve. Ev en though it has been suggested by Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1990) that flocculent galaxies are more likely to have a rising rota tion curve, the rotation curves examined by Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1990) did have a turn over radius and

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180 remained somewhat flat at large radii. NGC 4900 does not reflect this. The most likely explanation for the appearance of the rotation curve in this galaxy is that the fitting program was confused by the close separation of the ring to the disk. With deeper and higher resolution observations, th e two components may be able to be separated, and a more accurate estimation of the rotation curve can be determined. Using this odd shaped rotation curve, we calculate a value for dynamical mass inside of 140" (9.5 kpc), using a Keplerian, M = V2RG-1, to model the disk and halo. We measure a radius, R, of 9.5 kpc and V at 9.5 kpc to be 110 km s-1, yielding M(R) = 2.94 0.05 x 1010 M. Comparing this with the HI mass calculated above, we find a value for the ratio MHI / M(R) of 4% for NGC 4900. In Figure 8-18 we see that the value for the expansion velocity stays very near to 0 km s-1 for the vast majority of the disk. Th e large value for the innermost point has a large error, and is likely due to poor sampling at the cente r of the galaxy. The position angle curve (Figure 8-19) s hows that the position angle changes by more than 50 over the length of the galaxy. The pos ition angle is nearly horizontal east-west in the center of NGC 4900, and shifts to a northwest-southeast or ientation at the outer edges. Similarly, the inclination angle (Figure 8-20) changes by more than 70 over the radius of the galaxy, from close to edge on to nearly face on in the outer regions. The implication in these plots that the position angle and inclin ation slowly change over the radius of the galaxy is unlikely. Our best resolution is 35". What we are observing in these plots is the effect of instrumental smoothing of emi ssion from the galaxy and ring. With higher resolution observations, we should be able to pick out both features and obtain the proper kinematical parameters for each.

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181 Due to the unusual morphology and kinema tics of NGC 4900 we were unable to convert properly our rotational velocities, expansion velocities, position angle, and inclination from the previous figures into a m odel disk using the GIPSY task 'velfi'. We were able to, however, c onstruct a model reflecting the possible two component configuration in NGC 4900. This model is shown in Figure 8-21. Here we have the inner disk with a position angle of 90 and an inclination of 30 This region has a flat rotation curve extending out to a radius of 2'. External to this point, the position angle jumps to 135 and the inclination becomes 70 This outer region has a flat rotation curve as well. Expansion ve locities are held to 0 km s-1 throughout the whole model. This model in Figure 8-21 does an adequate job of imitating the real high resolution velocity field shown in Figures 8-12 and 813. We see the changing orientations of the two components, as well as the large velocity gradients at the north and south ends of the main galaxy. We are unable to create the twisting "S" shaped contours in the main galaxy seen in the real velocity field, but we interpret these to be resolution effects due to the superposition of ring material on the outer edges of the main galaxy. We are unable to determine the rotational ve locity structure of the ring, due to the limited flux in this region. Neutral Hydrogen Ring As mentioned in the previous secti ons, the most probable explanation for NGC 4900's disturbed morphology and kinematics is th e presence of an inclined HI ring about the main body of the galaxy. This ring is si milar to the one seen in NGC 1784, however, the overall system is less massive (galaxy + ring is 1 x 1010 M for NGC 4900 and a few 1011 M for NGC 1784), the ring is relatively more massive in NGC 4900 (10%

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182 compared to less than 5%), the sense of the ring's rotation is prograde, and the observations are not of as high quality as with NGC 1784. Figure 8-18. Expansion velocity as a function of radius in NGC 4900 Figure 8-19. Kinematic position angle of NGC 4900 as a function of radius

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183 Figure 8-20. Inclination angle of NGC 4900 as a function of radius Figure 8-21. Model velocity field constructed from kinema tical data of both the inner regions of NGC 4900 and the supposed ring

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184 As with NGC 1784, the most likely produc tion mechanism for this ring is an interaction with a small (109 M) satellite galaxy. The di sturbed optical morphology of NGC 4900 gives us the first clue that an interaction has occurred. Besides the bright bar, there does not appear to be any coherent st ructure in the disk of NGC 4900. Large knots of star formation are present, but no spiral pattern is obvious. Dist urbed optical disks are common in minor mergers / interactions, espe cially when the interaction is in the prograde sense. In the case of NGC 1784, there is evidence to believe that the interaction was retrograde, and this may explain why the optical disk is not greatly disturbed. NGC 4900's less massive disk (by an order of ma gnitude) and a prograde interaction could have contributed to its dist urbed optical appearance. From calculations shown in the P-V plot sec tion of this chapter, we believe that the ring contains up to 109 M of material. It is uncer tain if NGC 4900 has already cannibalized material from the past satellite. Assuming that the ring is mostly complete, the former satellite must have made at le ast one full orbit around NGC 4900. Given the small size of NGC 4900 and it's ring, this co uld have been accomplished in several 108 years. We conclude based on the brightness of the bar, lack of optical structure in the disk, and presence of gas within the bar regi on of NGC 4900, that th is interaction began very recently (~ 1 Gyr or less). The ring, with a maximum projected radius of 18 kpc, lies within the tidal radius of NGC 4900. Depending on the clumpiness of the ring (higher resolution observations will be necessary to determine this), we can expect material from the ring to slowly fall on to the disk of NGC 4900 over the next several 109 years. We do not observe any optical material associated with the ring.

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185 Summary NGC 4900 is a rather disturbed disk ga laxy system. NGC 4900 is potentially the richest in HI of our sample. We find an HI morphology that is most likely composed of two components, a galaxy disk and an inclin ed ring. Observations of the kinematics of NGC 4900 reinforce this picture, showing that the position angle of rotation for the disk is misaligned from the ring feature. We propose that the ring is the result of an interaction with a small (109 M) satellite galaxy in the not too distant past (< 1 Gyr). The satellite was most likely on an inclined, prograde orbit about NGC 4900 and passed very close to the disk, eviden ced by the optical dist urbance in the disk, and small radius of the ring. P-V slices through the disk of NGC 4900 show evidence of numerous small clouds (107 M) moving with non-circular velocities. These slices also show that the rotation of the disk may be solid body as opposed to differential. Further deep, highresolution (< 20") HI observations are neces sary to determine the properties of the interaction, and to study the manne r of disturbance in the disk.

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186 CHAPTER 9 NEUTRAL HYDROGEN OBSERV ATIONS OF NGC 4904 NGC 4904 is another galaxy in our samp le that shows a disturbed optical morphology. It is classified by Elmegreen & El megreen (1982) as having an arm class of "2". This puts it on the very flocculent end of the arm strength spectrum. A close examination of the optical images shows th at NGC 4904 has a very bright, but twisted bar, and a faint hint of three armed structur e. Typically, three ar med galaxies are found to be involved in interacti ons. Color maps of the galaxy show a strong dust lane along one side of the bar, with the galaxy disk being primarily red. NGC 4904 is at a middle distance in our sa mple, with a recessional velocity of 1169 km s-1 (17 Mpc, where Ho = 70 km s-1 Mpc-1). This is one of the smaller galaxies in our sample, with an angular diameter of 2.2', corresponding to a physical diameter of 10.4 kpc. Single dish observations of the ga laxy have been perfor med by Lewis et al. 1985, who found an HI flux of 10.76 Jy km s-1, an HI line width of 200 km s-1, and an HI mass of 1.28 x 109 M. Also, they found the HI spectra of NGC 4904 to be somewhat asymmetric. This galaxy, like NGC 4900, is pr ojected into the Virgo Southern Complex, but was classified as isolated by Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982). Observations Radio observations of NGC 4904 were obt ained at the Very Large Array in September of 2002 and May of 2003 using the C and D configuration, respectively. The spectrometer was composed of 64 channels with a 10.5 km s-1 velocity resolution. The total band width was 3.125 MHz (640 km s-1), and the central heliocentric velocity was

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187 1169 km s-1. The observing parameters for the obse rvations are summarized in Table 91. Table 9-1. Parameters of VL A HI observations of NGC 4904 Configuration C D Number of antennae 27 27 Vsys (km s-1) 1169 1169 Phase calibrator 1311-222 1311-222 Flux calibrator 1331+305 1331+305 Time on source 7.5 3.8 Table 9-2. Characteristics of Natura lly Weighted CLEANed Channel Maps Parameter Low Resolution High Resolution FWHP synthesized beam (") 67" x 54" 21" x 19" FWHP synthesized beam (kpc) 5.5 x 4.5 1.7 x 1.6 Theoretical rms noise (mJy beam-1) 0.25 0.25 Observed rms noise (mJy beam-1) 0.3 0.36 Rms noise (K) 0.09 1.08 Peak temperature (K) 6.9 34.6 Peak S/N 77 32 The C and D configuration data sets were edited, calibrated and continuum subtracted using the typical procedures of the Astronomical Image Processing System (AIPS) package. The data sets were co mbined using the AIPS task DBCON. The combined data set was then imaged twice us ing the AIPS task IMAGR to provide us with two image cubes ( , v) reflecting the maximum ra nge of spatial resolution and sensitivity that our data would allow. We created a low resolution cube by using a natural weighting scheme and a high resoluti on data cube by imaging the data with a uniform weighting scheme. We CLEANed the data cubes in AIPS down to an rms level of 0.3 and 0.4 mJy beam-1 for the low resolution and high resolution images, respectively. Further details of the statistics for each data cube are presented in Table 9-2. Analysis on

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188 the completed and CLEANed image cubes was conducted using the Gronigen Image Processing System (GIPSY) package. Neutral Hydrogen Morphology The channel maps shown in Figures 9-1 and 9-2 were used in moment analyses to obtain global density and temper ature weighted radial velocity images of the neutral hydrogen in NGC 4904. Moment maps were co nstructed with the AIPS task MOMNT. A flux cut off of three times the rms noise level ( ) of the unsmoothed data was used. The low resolution, naturally weighted globa l distribution of the neutral hydrogen in NGC 4904 is shown in grayscale in Figure 9-3 and overlaid on an optical image of the galaxy in Figure 9-4. The high resolution, unif ormly weighted global distribution of the neutral hydrogen is shown in grayscale in Fi gure 9-5 and overlaid on an optical image of the galaxy in Figure 9-6. The lowe st contours are drawn at the 2 level. Low Resolution Neutra l Hydrogen Morphology The low resolution channel maps of NGC 4904 (Figure 9-1) show a similar structure to those for NGC 4900. If we focu s only on the highest contours in the system, we find a fairly symmetric well formed ga laxy, where the gas moves bottom right to upper left as velocity decreases. In the lowe r contours, however, we see that the gas is stretched out along an east-wes t axis. In the channel maps corresponding to the highest recessional velocity (v = 1272 through 1231 km s-1), we see gas extending west and north of the main body of the galaxy. In the central few channels (v ~ 1169 km s-1) the hydrogen takes on an "S" like morphology. This morphology is typically due to a warp or gas outside of the plane of the galaxy, as in NGC 1784 and NGC 4900. Finally, at the lowest velocities (v = 1118 1067 km s-1), the galaxy's gas is extended to the east.

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189 Figure 9-1. Individual, natu rally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the low resolution data. Channel velocities are gi ven in the lower right corner of each panel in km s-1. The synthesized beam (67" x 54") is shown in the lower left hand corner of the bottom left pane l. Contours are at the 3 (2.7 x 1018 cm-2), 5, 10, 20, and 40 flux levels.

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190 Figure 9-2. Individual, natu rally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the high resolution data. Channel velocities are gi ven in the lower right corner of each panel in km s-1. The synthesized beam (21" x 19") is shown at the bottom left of the lower left hand channel map. Contours are at the 3 (3.0 x 1019 cm-2), 5, 10, 20, and 40 flux levels.

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191 Figure 9-3. Grayscale with contours of th e total HI surface density from the low resolution data set. The peak flux co rresponds to a column density of 1.2 x 1021 cm-2. Contours are at 0.5 (the 2 flux level), 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 95% of the peak flux. The synthesi zed beam (67" x 54") is shown at the bottom left. Figure 9-4. Contours of the total HI surface de nsity from the low resolution data set over an optical DSS image of NGC 4904. Re solution and contour levels are the same as Figure 9-3.

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192 The low resolution HI total intensity map (Figure 9-3) shows the same east-west stretching as the channel maps The highest contour levels are regular and concentric, while the lowest levels are pulled horizontall y, particularly towards the west. In fact, Figure 9-3 looks very similar to Figure 83 rotated clockwise one quarter turn. The object located at the eastern edge of the field is noise. Even though there is a 5 contour associated with it, a spectrum of the region shows that there is no emission outside of one channel. Without a detection in multiple cha nnels, we must conclude that the object is not real. Figure 9-4 shows that the central p eak of the HI distribu tion is not significantly offset from the center of the optical gala xy. We find the peak low resolution column density of gas in NGC 4904 to be 1.23 x 1021 cm-2. The HI diameter of NGC 4904 is 5', corresponding to 24 kpc. This extended diamet er is not quite as large as the potential ring system in NGC 4900. The HI diameter is slightly more than 2x the optical diameter. Considering just the more circular central HI contours, then the HI diameter would shrink to about 4', or 19 kpc. High Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Morphology Figure 9-2 shows the high resolution cha nnel maps for NGC 4904. Here we again see gas stretched along an east-west axis in the early and late channel maps (v ~ 1251 km s-1 and v ~ 1097 km s-1). The central channels show a distinctive "S" shape as in NGC 1784 and NGC 4900. In all cases, the gas stre tched out from the main body of the galaxy only reaches the 5 10 level, so it is unlikely that th ere is a significant amount of mass involved in any second system. Figure 9-6 shows that the overall high resolution morphology of NGC 4904 is twisted into an "S" like shape. The highe st, central contours ar e aligned north-south,

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193 while the outer contours follow more of an eas t-west pattern. Figure 9-6 shows that the peak HI column densities are aligned with th e bar and star forming regions of the western side of the galaxy. No significant area of st ar formation is associated with the highest column densities of HI. We also find that th e bar of NGC 4904 is rich in HI. As in NGC 4900, this may be an indication of the young age of the bar. We find the peak column density to be 1.69 x 1021 cm-2. Global Neutral Hydrogen Properties Figure 9-7 shows the HI spectrum of NGC 4904 created with the low resolution data set. We find a typical double horned spectr um that is skewed to higher velocities. This is consistent with Figure 9-3, showing th at the galaxy extends further to the west. We calculate a total HI flux of 11.5 .8 Jy km s-1. Our flux measurement is similar to Lewis et al. (1985). This flux co rresponds to an HI mass of 8.0 x 108 M.We measure a velocity width of 200 km s-1, similar to Lewis et al. (1985). A V2R calculation gives us a total mass for the galaxy of 2.8 x 1010 M. We calculate a MHI / Mtot ratio to be 3%. This value may be, in fact, a lower limit due to the extended nature of the HI morphology. If the outer edges of the low resolution HI map are associated with a separate structure rather th an the main galaxy, then it is possible that we have overestimated the radius of the galaxy for th is calculation. An downward adjustment of 1' in the angular radius of the galaxy woul d yield a reduction of 4 kpc in the physical radius of the galaxy. This change would push our mass ratio up nearer to 5%, which would be higher than most galaxies in this sample. From our spectrum of NGC 4904, we calculate a 3 HI flux level of 0.023 Jy. This corresponds to a conservative minimum

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194 mass detection level of 4.5 x 107 M for an isolated HI cloud, assuming that it appears in 3 continuous channels. Figure 9-8 is the radial HI profile from both the high and low resolution data set. This galaxy shows a similar prof ile to other galaxies in the sample. We find that the HI emission cuts off quickly below the 1 x 1020 cm-2 level in accordance with the predictions of Maloney (1993). Figure 9-5. Grayscale and contours of th e total HI surface density from the high resolution data set. The p eak flux corresponds to 1.7 x 1021 cm-2. Contours are at 1 (the 2 flux level), 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 95% of the peak flux. The synthesized beam (21" x 19 ") is shown at the bottom left.

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195 Figure 9-6. Contours of the total HI surface density from the high resolution data set overlaid on an optical DSS image of NGC 4904. Resolution and contour levels are the same as Figure 9-5. Figure 9-7. The HI flux density versus veloc ity for the low resolution data set. The velocity resolution here is 10 km s-1.

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196 Figure 9-8. The HI radial de nsity profiles from the high resolution data set (closed circles) and the low resolution data set (open circles) Neutral Hydrogen Kinematics Figure 9-9 shows the HI velocity fiel d for NGC 4904 created with our low resolution data set. Figure 9-10 shows the HI velocity field for NGC 4900 created with our high resolution data set. Figure 9-11 shows this same field overlaid on an optical DSS image of the galaxy. The contours in all three images are separated by 10.5 km s-1, and the central contour is at a systemic velocity of 1169 km s-1. The low resolution velocity field shows iso-velocity curves that are generally curved into an "S" pattern similar to the channel maps in Figures 9-1 a nd 9-2. The outer edges of the galaxy show a region of constant velocity that still seems to be twisted. The high resolution velocity field shows a much more interesting picture. The general sense of the inner part of the galaxy seems to be aligned from northeast to s outhwest. This is interesting, because the optical bar of the galaxy runs along the minor ax is of the velocity field. This can easily

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197 be seen in Figure 9-11. Further study at hi gher resolution (B configuration at the VLA) may allow us to determine radial motions of the gas in the bar. This has not been typically accomplished before. In Figure 9-11, we see the iso-velocity curves begin to twist outside of the optical galaxy. At the ed ge of the field, we see secondary peaks in the velocity, and the position angle of rotation is nearly east-west. We believe that the twist and secondary peak are due to a ring of gas similar to the one in NGC 1784 and NGC 4904. Figure 9-9. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the low resolution data. Contours are separated by 10 km s-1. Motion toward the observer is displayed with lighter grayscales. The central velocity contour is at 1169 km s-1.

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198 Figure 9-10. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of th e high resolution data set. Contours are separated by 10 km s-1. Darker grayscales correspond to motion away from the observer. Figure 9-11. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the high resolution data set overlaid on an optical DSS image of the galaxy. Contours are the same as in Figure 9-10.

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199 Position-Velocity Plots In Figure 9-12, we show Position-Velocity (P -V) slices taken parallel to the major axis of the inner part of NGC 4904 (PA = 45) made with the high resolution data cube. The major and minor axes of the inner parts of the galaxy were determined by examining the iso-velocity curves in the inner regions of the galaxy and initially determining by eye their position angle. These values were bootstrapped to th e values used here in the determination of our model disk s (later section). The positio n angle of the outer ring was determined by eye. The shape of the major ax is P-V plot is fairly typical, however, we do note that the negative RA edge of the galaxy is very broad in velocity. Overall, most of the plots show a trend back towards the centr al velocity at the outer RA edges. This effect is not as pronounced as in NGC 1784, but could still be indicativ e of a warp in the galaxy. In the cuts northwest of the major axis, we find a distur bed and broad positive RA edge of the galaxy. In both cuts we see a hole in the HI distribution. The 40" northwest cut shows a large tongue of gas exte nding below the hole. The cause of this hole is unclear. Perhaps this is eviden ce of the second compon ent (ring) about the galaxy. It is difficult to estimate the mass of the gas in this tongue because it only appears in one cut. All of the cuts, except for the major axis, seem to show significant bearding, most likely due to th e presence of numerous, small 107 M clouds. Figure 9-13 shows a set of PV plots parallel to the position angle of the outer edges of the HI field (PA = 90). Here we see similar features to the major-axis P-V slices, but overall the cuts are more dysmorphi c. In the cuts made 40" northwest and 40" southeast of the central slice, we see secondary peaks of HI emission. For the northwest cut, the secondary peak is at -2' RA. For the southeast cut, the secondary peak is at just less than +2' RA. These peaks are our best evidence for a secondary system (ring) of HI

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200 associated with NGC 4904. The regions around the peaks seem to exist for most of the slices, but at a very low emission level. It is unlikely that very mu ch mass is associated with any possible ring system in this galaxy. The secondary peaks only occur at the 510 level. At the largest, the ring system would have a total mass on the order of about 107 M. However, with a prograde orbit, a nd a close approach (10 15 kpc), an interacting satellite could cause signif icant upheaval in the main galaxy. Figure 9-12. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the major axis of NGC 4904. The contours are at 3, 5, 10, 20, and 30

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201 Figure 9-13. P-V plots along and parallel to the position angle of the outer ring. Contours are at 3, 5, 10, 20, and 30 In Figure 9-14, we show plots made parallel to the minor axis of the inner part of the galaxy, or along and parallel to the op tical galaxy. The cut along the minor axis shows a very broad velocity profile. This is in some sense probably due beam smearing combined with the small angular size of the ga laxy. However, it likely also represents a significant amount of gas either out of the plane of the galaxy or at non-circular velocities. We can not determine the motion of gas in the bar in this image due to the small angular size of the bar. Our resolution, even at its best, does not get down to this level. Cuts made north of the galaxy down to 20" southwest of the minor axis show the a finger of gas reaching to positive RA's. Cuts made south of the minor axis show a finger

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202 of gas reaching to negative RA's. In a simila r sense to Figure 9-13, this is gas associated with the ring. We even observe a secondary peak in the cut made 60" southwest of the minor galaxy. Unfortunately, we do not possess the resolution or sens itivity to separate this gas from the main body of the galaxy. Gi ven that the column densities of HI in the ring region do not appear to rise much above 5 x 1019 cm-2, and that the cross sectional area of the ring is about 0.5', we conclude that the HI mass of the ring shouldn't be more than a few 107 M and that the total mass should not be much more than 10 20 times that value, given typical values of MHI / Mdyn seen in other systems. Figure 9-14. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the minor axis of NGC 4904. The contours are at 3, 5, 10, 20, and 30

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203 Rotation Curves and Model Disks In order to make rotation curves and model disks of NGC 4904, we used the GIPSY task 'reswri' to fit tilted rings to the velocity field. We used our high resolution data set to create our parameter curves. We fit rotational velocities at radii ranging from 20" to 140" in 30" wide annuli. Because of limited flux, we used an average of both the receding and approaching sides of the galaxy. Unfortunately, due to the unusual nature of the velocity field in NGC 4904, 'reswri' coul d not converge to a meaningful result. In order to examine the dynamic properties of the disk, we 'bootstrapped' a rotation curve. We assumed a flat rotation curve and held th at fixed while the program calculated values for position angle and inclination. We then entered all of th ese values into the program and let the rotation velocity run free until the values for all parameters converged. We present the results for the 'bootstrapped' ro tation curve in Figure 9-15, the position angle in Figure 9-16, and the inclination angle in Fi gure 9-17. Since we assumed a flat rotation curve, the final curve in Figur e 9-15 is not significantly diffe rent. The position angle and inclination angle plots show that these values change abruptly from the inner parts of the galaxy to the outer. In these plots we do not really reach th e edges of the where the ring system may lie, since we used the high reso lution data cube. The position angle changes by about 40 degrees over the radius of the galaxy and the inclination angle changes by about 15 degrees. This implies that the ring sy stem may lie very near to the plane of the galaxy. Our values of inclination are cons istent with those found by Chapelon et al. (1999) who used optical measurements.

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204 Figure 9-15. Rotation curve of NGC 1784 from th e high resolution data set. Data points represent the average of both the ap proaching and receding sides of the galaxy. Figure 9-16. Kinematic position angle of NGC 1784 as a function of radius

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205 Figure 9-17. Inclination angle of NGC 1784 as a function of radius We formed a model disk, shown in Figur e 9-18, using the 'bootstrapped' data and the GIPSY task 'velfi'. This model disk doe s resemble the high resolution velocity field for NGC 4904 except for the disturbed mor phology. We created another model disk, shown in Figure 9-19, where we held the positio n and inclination angles constant in the inner regions of the disk and th en abruptly changed them at 2' radius. This model disk best represents what the veloci ty field of a slightly tilted misaligned ring would look like. Again, this velocity field is similar to th e real high resolution ve locity field for NGC 4904, and in many ways, particularly the i nner velocity peaks, better is a better representation than the first model.

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206 Figure 9-18. Model velocity field constructed from kinema tical data in Figures 9-15, 916, and 9-17. Light grayscales repr esent approaching velocities. Figure 9-19. Model disk velocity field fo r NGC 4904 with tilted outer ring. Light grayscales represent approaching velocities.

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207 Summary NGC 4904 presents many of the same f eatures as NGC 4900. Unfortunately, its small size prevents us from determining wit hout doubt many of its f eatures. We believe that the HI possesses two components. One component is the main disk of the galaxy having an HI mass of several 108 109 M. The second component is a partial or complete ring, the position angle of this is mi saligned to the disk. The ring is not highly inclined, and has an HI mass of one to a few 107 M. The radius of this ring is on the order of 10-15 kpc. The ring is in prograde motion and may have been formed by a close, prograde interaction with a small sa tellite. No optical or radio components external to the galaxy were found in these obs ervations. Other interactions with small satellites in this sample, NGC 1784, have been shown to cause significant disturbance to the HI disk of a galaxy. In this case, the optical disk is somewhat disturbed as well, showing a twisted bar and possibl e three-armed structure. Due to the small total mass of the galaxy, it would be very possible for the sa tellite that created th e ring to disturb the star forming regions of the galaxy as well. It is likely that the inte raction occurred in the recent past, possibly as recent as 108 years ago, given the optically disturbed bar and presence of HI in the bar region. Further high resolution HI observations of this galaxy are warranted. With higher resolution and higher signal observations, we may be able to separate the outer ring of the galaxy and determine its orbital properties. Also, because the bar lies along the minor axis of HI rotation, further study of the ga s motion in the bar region of NGC 4904 would help us learn more about the dynamics of these objects.

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208 CHAPTER 10 NEUTRAL HYDROGEN OBSERV ATIONS OF NGC 5300 Compared to NGC 4900 and NGC 4904, NGC 5300 appears to be a much calmer and well formed system. It is classified as having an arm class of "2" by Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982), meaning that it has very lit tle coherent spiral structure. Optical images of the galaxy show very little as ymmetry and few dysmorphic features. NGC 5300 has one of the shortest and roundest bars in the sample. Its bar could best be described as an oval distortion. One strong ar m originates from the northwest end of the bar, bends sharply to the north, and then disappears within a radi us of 30". Color maps of the galaxy indicate that the bar region is red. NGC 5300 is at a very similar distance as NGC 4904. It has a recessional velocity of 1171 km s-1, corresponding to a distance of 17 Mpc (Ho = 70). The optical galaxy is rather large in this sample, having a D25 of 3.8' (Marquez & Moles 1996). This corresponds to a physical size of 18kpc. There have been few previous studies of the galaxy. Xu et al. (1994) calcu lated a dynamical mass of 1.7 x 1010 M for NGC 5300 using near-infrared measurements. Observations Radio observations of NGC 5300 were obtaine d at the Very Large Array in May of 2003 using D configuration. The spectrometer was composed of 64 channels with a 10.5 km s-1 velocity resolution. The total band width was 3.125 MHz (640 km s-1), and the central heliocentric velocity was 1171 km s-1. The observing parameters for the observations are summarized in Table 10-1.

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209 Table 10-1: Parameters of VL A HI observations of NGC 5300 Configuration D Number of antennae 27 Vsys (km s-1) 1171 Phase calibrator 1353-021 Flux calibrator 1331+305 Time on source 3.6 The data set was edited, ca librated and continuum subt racted using the typical procedures of the Astronomical Image Processi ng System (AIPS) package. The data set was then imaged twice using the AIPS task IMAGR to provide us with two image cubes ( , v) reflecting the maximum range of spatia l resolution and sensit ivity that our data would allow. We created a low resolution c ube by using a natural weighting scheme and a high resolution data cube by imaging the da ta with a uniform we ighting scheme. We CLEANed the data cubes in AIPS down to an rms level of 0.4 and 0.9 mJy beam-1 for the low resolution and high resoluti on images, respectively. Furthe r details of the statistics for each data cube are presented in Ta ble 10-2. Analysis on the completed and CLEANed image cubes was conducted using the Gronigen Image Processing System (GIPSY) package. Table 10-2. Characteristics of Natura lly Weighted CLEANed Channel Maps Parameter Low Resolution High Resolution FWHP Synthesized Beam (") 68" x 57" 40" x 36" FWHP Synthesized Beam (kpc) 5.6 x 4.7 3.2 x 3.0 Theoretical rms Noise (mJy beam-1) 0.45 0.45 Observed rms Noise (mJy beam-1) 0.47 0.9 Rms Noise (K) 0.14 0.27 Peak Temperature (K) 11.5 8.4 Peak S/N 83 31

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210 Neutral Hydrogen Morphology The channel maps shown in Figures 10-1 a nd 10-2 were used in moment analyses to obtain global density and temperature weight ed radial velocity images of the neutral hydrogen in NGC 5300. Moment maps were co nstructed with the AIPS task MOMNT. A flux cut off of three times the rms noise level ( ) of the unsmoothed data was used. The low resolution, naturally weighted globa l distribution of the neutral hydrogen in NGC 5300 is shown in grayscale in Figure 103 and overlaid on an optical image of the galaxy in Figure 10-4. The high resolution, unif ormly weighted global distribution of the neutral hydrogen is shown in grayscale in Fi gure 10-5 and overlaid on an optical image of the galaxy in Figure 10-6. The lo west contours are drawn at the 2 level. Low Resolution Neutra l Hydrogen Morphology The low resolution channel maps of NGC 5300 are reminiscent of those for NGC 3930. Here we see a regular, symmetric dist ribution of HI moving from northwest to southeast as observational ve locity decreases. In seve ral of the channels (1212, 1202, 1191, 1130, 1119, and 1109 km s-1) we see small tongues of gas leading out from the main body of the galaxy. It is uncertain whethe r these regions are real or are noise. They appear only at the 3 level, and only in the case of 1130 and 1119 km s-1 do they appear in the same location in multiple channels. If real, these features are most likely small, 106 M (in HI) high velocity cl ouds that are unresolved.

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211 Figure10-1. Individual, natu rally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the low resolution data. Channel velocities are given in the lower right hand corner of each panel in km s-1. The synthesized beam (68" x 57") is shown in the lower left corner of the bottom left pane l. Contours are at the 3 (3.4 x 1018 cm-2), 5, 10, and 20 flux levels.

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212 Figure 10-2. Individual, na turally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the high resolution data. Channel velocities are given in the lower right hand corner of each panel in km s-1. The synthesized beam (40" x36") is shown at the bottom left of the lower left channel ma p. Contours are at the 3 (2.0 x 1019 cm-2), 5, 10, and 20 flux levels.

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213 Figure 10-3. Grayscale with contours of the total HI surface density from the low resolution data set. The peak flux co rresponds to a column density of 8.4 x 1020 cm-2. Contours are at 0.5 (the 2 flux level), 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 95% of the peak flux. The synthesi zed beam (68" x 57") is shown at the bottom left. The low resolution HI total intensity map (Figure 10-3) shows a similarly symmetric galaxy. The peak of the HI emission in the south of the galaxy is a bit broader than the one in the north, but only slightly s o. We calculate a peak column density of HI to be 8.4 x 1020 cm-2. We calculate an HI diameter for the galaxy of 5.5', corresponding to a physical diameter of 26 kpc. The ratio of HI diameter to optic al diameter is about 1.5. The optical overlay in Fi gure 10-4 shows that the peak HI emission lies on either end of NGC 5300's bar. The peak HI emissi on regions correspond to the arm feature in the northwest of the galaxy and other star form ing regions to the sout heast. It appears from these images that NGC 5300's bar is deficient in HI. There do not seem to be any companion or ring systems associated with this galaxy.

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214 Figure 10-4. Contours of the total HI surf ace density from the low resolution data set overlaid on an optical DSS image of NGC 5300. Contours and resolution are the same as in Figure 10-3. High Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Morphology The high resolution channel maps shown in Figure 10-2 are similar in nature to the low resolution maps of Figure 10-1. Since we only had D c onfiguration observations of this galaxy, our resolution did not improve markedly from the low to the high. In a couple of the channels, we see slight hints of asymmetries (e.g. 1233, 1191, and 1098 km s-1), but overall the channel maps are what one would expect for a normal, undisturbed galaxy. Higher resolution observations with high signal to noise would be needed to explore the physical causes behind the fe w channel maps with asymmetries. The high resolution total intensity map in Figures 10-5 and 10-6 shows that the central regions of NGC 5300 are deficient in HI compared to the areas at the immediate ends of the bar. The peaks of the HI dist ribution seem to curv e around the central bar

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215 region and follow the slight hints of spiral st ructure in the galaxy. We calculate a peak column density of HI to be 1.03 x 1021 cm-2 in this image. The peak HI column density corresponds to a region of star formation in the southeast of the galaxy. In this image, we see that the peak of the HI distribution at the northwestern end of the bar does not lie on top of the optical arm feature. A HI hole ex ists slightly south of the center of the bar region. The outer contours ar e fairly symmetric and follow the outline of the optical galaxy. Figure 10-5. Grayscale and contours of th e total HI surface density from the high resolution data set. The peak flux co rresponds to a column density of 1.0 x 1021 cm-2. Contours are at 0.5 (the 2 flux level), 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 95% of the peak flux. The synthesi zed beam (40" x 36") is shown at the bottom left.

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216 Figure 10-6. Contours of the high resoluti on data set overlaid on a DSS image of NGC 5300. Contours and resolution are the same as in Figure 10-5. Global Neutral Hydrogen Properties Figure 10-7 shows the HI spectrum of NG C 5300 made from the low resolution observations of the galaxy. The spectrum is not as bright as many of the others in our sample, but is symmetric. Beyond the typica l two horned pattern of the spectrum, the central channel appears to be more deficient in HI others around it. This is likely due to the HI hole at the center of the galaxy. We calculate an HI flux for the galaxy of 15.5 .9 Jy km s-1. This corresponds to an HI mass of 1.06 x 109 M. We calculate a velocity width of 210 km s-1. From our spectrum of NGC 5300, we calculate a 3 HI flux level of 0.059 Jy. This corresponds to a conservative minimum mass detection level of 1.16 x 108 M for an isolated HI cloud, assuming that it appears in 3 continuous channels.

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217 Figure 10-7. The HI flux density versus velo city for the low resolution data set. The velocity resolution here is 10 km s-1. Figure 10-8 is the radial HI profile from both the high and lo w resolution data sets. This galaxy shows a similar prof ile to other galaxies in the sample. We see evidence for the lack of HI in the center of the galaxy in the high resolution radi al profile, where the ring at 40" shows a greater column density than the interior ring. We find that the HI emission does not extend significantly below the 1 x 1020 cm-2 level in accordance with the predictions of Maloney (1993). Neutral Hydrogen Kinematics Figure 10-9 shows the HI velocity fi eld for NGC 5300 created with our low resolution data set. Figure 10-10 shows the HI velocity field for NGC 5300 created with our high resolution data set. Figure 10-11 s hows this same field overlaid on an optical DSS image of the galaxy. The contours in all three images are separated by 10.5 km s-1, and the central contour is at a systemic velocity of 1171 km s-1. The low resolution

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218 velocity field presents a very symmetric pa ttern. The central iso-velocity curves are straight, and have no indication of warps or "S" curves. The velocity field does not turn over at the ends of the major axis, as with other galaxies in this sample. The high resolution velocity field shows a very similar stru cture. There is a very slight twisting of the position angle at the ends of the major ax is, but otherwise the fi eld is symmetric. In this higher resolution image, we see the velocities reach a maximum on the northwest side of the galaxy. There is no corresponding maximum on the southeast side of the galaxy. Due to the low resolution of thes e observations compared to our optical observations, we do not see the effects of spiral structures or the bar on the HI velocity field. Figure 10-8. The HI radial density profile s from the low resolution data set (closed circles) and the high resoluti on data set (open circles)

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219 Figure 10-9. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the low resolution data. Contours are separated by 10 km s-1. Motion toward the observer is displayed with lighter grayscales. The central velocity contour is at 1171 km s-1. The synthesized beam (68" x 57") is displayed in the lower left. Figure 10-10. Intensity-weighted radial velocity cont ours of the high resolution data set. Contours are separated by 10 km s-1. Darker grayscales correspond to motion away from the observer. The synthesized beam (40" x 36") is displayed in the lower left hand corner.

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220 Figure 10-11. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the high resolution data set overlaid on an optical DSS image of NGC 5300. Contours are the same as in Figure 10-10. Position-Velocity Plots Figure 10-12 shows Position-Velocity (P-V) plots made parallel to the major axis of NGC 5300, made with our high resolution da ta set. In a similar way to NGC 3930, these plots show very little disturbance in this galaxy. The cut made along the major axis shows a decrease in the column density of HI at the center of the galaxy. There does not appear to be any large quantitie s of gas at forbidden velociti es in this galaxy. There are some small "beards" coming off the main body of gas. However, it is uncertain if these features are real or noise. Th ey exist only in one slice, typi cally, and are very narrow in their velocity range. If real, they may represent 106 M high velocity clouds.

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221 Figure 10-12. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the major axis of NGC 5300. The contours are at 3, 5, 10, 20 Figure 10-13 shows P-V plots made parall el to the minor axis of NGC 5300. Again, in these plots we do not see any unexp ected features. The cut along the minor axis shows a broad velocity spread, probabl y due to resolution effects, but no major asymmetries. The cut made 40" southeast of the minor axis does appear to be somewhat more asymmetric than any of the other plots. This likely reflects the slightly higher HI column densities to the south of the ga laxy, and is not of dynamical importance.

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222 Figure 10-13. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the minor axis of NGC 5300. The contours are at 3, 5, 10, and 20 Rotation Curves and Model Disks In order to make rotation curves and model disks of NGC 5300, we used the GIPSY task 'reswri' to fit tilted rings to the velocity field. We used our high resolution data set to create our parameter curves. We fit rotational velocities at radii ranging from 20" to 125" in 20" wide annuli. We held the position of the ki nematic center and the systemic velocity of the galaxy as fixe d parameters, while allowing the rotational velocity, expansion velocity, pos ition angle, and inclination to be set by the fit. We plot the results from the receding, approaching, and average of both sides of the galaxy. We plot the rotation velocity versus radius in Figure 10-14, expansion ve locity versus radius

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223 in Figure 10-15, position angle versus radius in Figure 10-16, and inclination versus radius in Figure 10-17. Figure 10-14. Rotation curve of NGC 5300 from the high resolution data set. Data points represent the average of both the receding and approaching sides of the galaxy. Figure 10-15. Expansion velocity versus as a function of radius for NGC 5300

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224 We find that NGC 5300 has a flat rotati on curve through its inner 50", and then shows a rising rotation curve through a radius of 120". This finding is consistent with the velocity fields shown in Figure 10-9 and 1010, where there are no closed iso-velocity contours. Rising rotation curves are thought to be associated with flocculent galaxies, and it is postulated that this is due to a lower disk to halo mass ratio (Elmegreen & Elmegreen 1990). Using the rotation curve, we can calcula te a value for the total mass of NGC 5300 interior to 140". With a Keplerian, M = V2RG-1, to model the disk and halo, where R = 11.2 kpc and V(11.2 kpc) = 160 km s-1, we find M(R) to be 7.34 0.05 x 1010 M. Comparing this with the HI mass calculate d above, we find a value for the ratio MHI / M(R) of 1% for NGC 5300, the lowest in the sample. The values of expansion velocity with respec t to radius all lie fairly near to 0 km s1. The largest divergences from this value are on the order of 10 km s-1 which is the limit of our velocity resolution. Figures 10-16 and 10-17 show that the position angle and inclination angle are cons tant across the radius of the galaxy to within 10 NGC 5300 possesses the most constant values for these measurements in our sample. As with the velocity fields and P-V plots, these measur ements indicate that if NGC 5300 possesses a warp, it is exceedingly small. We used the values of rotational veloc ity, expansion velocity, position angle, and inclination to construct a model disk for NGC 3930 with the GIPSY task 'velfi'. The model disk is shown in Figure 10-18. This model disk shows the same symmetry as the real velocity fields, along with the slight twisting at large radii. We then subtracted this model field from our high reso lution velocity field (Figure 10-10), to create a map of

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225 residual velocities. The residual velocity fi eld is shown in Figure 10-19. The residual velocity field is somewhat bi-modal at small radii, but then become s more confusing at larger radii. There is no indication of corro tation as in Canzian ( 1993). However this is not unexpected given our comparatively low resolution. Figure 10-16. Kinematic position angle of NGC 5300 as a function of radius Summary NGC 5300 is the most normal example of a disk galaxy in this sample. Its HI morphology is largely symmetric, with only a slig htly higher peak co lumn density in the southern end of the galaxy. NGC 5300 does not seem to possess any large scale warp. No large HI companions were found in our observations, but we can not rule out the presence of small mass (107 M) and angular size (<20") clouds. Because NGC 5300 possesses a red bar, is deficient in HI in its bar region, does not possess significant star forming regions, and does not possess a significa nt galactic warp, we conclude that NGC

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226 5300 has not been involved in any minor (10% mass ratio) mergers in the past several 109 years. Higher resolution obs ervations are necessary to de termine the properties of the interesting one-armed structure in the northwe st of the galaxy, and the effects of small armlets on the HI kinematics of the disk. Figure 10-17. Inclination angle of NGC 5300 as a function of radius

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227 Figure 10-18. Model velocity field constructed from kinemati cal data in Figures 10-14, 10-15, and 10-16, and 10-17. Light gr ayscales represent approaching velocities. Figure 10-19. Residual velocity field ma de from model in Figure 10-18. Light grayscales represent gas approaching the obs erver. Contours are separated by 5km s-1.

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228 CHAPTER 11 NEUTRAL HYDROGEN OBSERV ATIONS OF NGC 6012 NGC 6012 is the last and largest of our galaxies. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) give this galaxy a "3" for its arm classi fication. However, this probably is an overstatement of the strength of the galaxy's ar ms. A look at the optical image shows that the galaxy is dominated by a bright, long bar. There is a subtle ring of optical emission at the end of the bar. Outside of this, there is a large expanse of very low level optical emission. In fact, due to the presence of two, br ight foreground stars, it is difficult to tell exactly the size of the galaxy. De Voucelours et al. (1991) give the angular diameter of the galaxy as 2.1'. At a distance of 26Mpc (Vr = 1854 km s-1 and Ho = 70 km s-1 Mpc-1), this corresponds to a physical diameter of 15.2 kpc. NGC 6012 appears to be forming stars in it s bar region. The color map shows that one end of the bar has a large and blue HII region. There al so appears to be dust lanes down the length of the bar. Outside of the bar, however, there does not appear to be much star formation. Previous single dish neutral hydrogen observations of the galaxy found that it does not possess an ex tremely large HI flux, 12.1 Jy km s-1, but is quite massive in HI, 4.87 x 109 M (van den Bergh 1985). Van den Bergh (1985) found the galaxy to have a velocity width of 177 km s-1 and to have a slightly asymmetric HI spectrum. Observations Radio observations of NGC 6012 were obt ained at the Very Large Array in September of 2002 and May of 2003 using the C and D configurations, respectively. The

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229 spectrometer was composed of 64 channels with a 10.5 km s-1 velocity resolution. The total band width was 3.125 MHz (640 km s-1), and the central heliocentric velocity was 1171 km s-1. The observing parameters for the obse rvations are summarized in Table 111. Table 11-1. Parameters of VL A HI observations of NGC 6012 Configuration C D Number of antennae 27 27 Vsys (km s-1) 1854 1854 Phase calibrator 1602+334 1602+334 Flux calibrator 1331+305 1331+305 Time on source 7.5 3.7 Table 11-2. Characteristics of Natura lly Weighted CLEANed Channel Maps Parameter Low Resolution High Resolution FWHP synthesized beam (") 62" x 52" 16" x 16" FWHP synthesized beam (kpc) 7.8 x 6.6 2.0 x 2.0 Theoretical rms noise (mJy beam-1) 0.26 0.26 Observed rms noise (mJy beam-1) 0.37 1.5 Rms noise (K) 0.11 4.5 Peak temperature (K) 6.2 85.5 Peak S/N 57 19 The data set was edited, ca librated and continuum subt racted using the typical procedures of the Astronomical Image Processi ng System (AIPS) package. The data set was then imaged twice using the AIPS task IMAGR to provide us with two image cubes ( , v) reflecting the maximum range of spatia l resolution and sensit ivity that our data would allow. We created a low resolution c ube by using a natural weighting scheme and a high resolution data cube by imaging the da ta with a uniform we ighting scheme. We CLEANed the data cubes in AIPS down to an rms level of 0.3 and 0.5 mJy beam-1 for the low resolution and high resoluti on images, respectively. Furthe r details of the statistics for each data cube are presented in Ta ble 11-2. Analysis on the completed and

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230 CLEANed image cubes was conducted using the Gronigen Image Processing System (GIPSY) package. Neutral Hydrogen Morphology The channel maps shown in Figures 11-1 a nd 11-2 were used in moment analyses to obtain global density and temperature weight ed radial velocity images of the neutral hydrogen in NGC 6012. Moment maps were co nstructed with the AIPS task MOMNT. A flux cut off of three times the rms noise level ( ) of the unsmoothed data was used. The low resolution, naturally weighted globa l distribution of the neutral hydrogen in NGC 6012 is shown in grayscale in Figure 113 and overlaid on an optical image of the galaxy in Figure 11-4. The high resolution, unif ormly weighted global distribution of the neutral hydrogen is shown in grayscale in Fi gure 11-5 and overlaid on an optical image of the galaxy in Figure 11-6. The lo west contours are drawn at the 2 level. Low Resolution Neutra l Hydrogen Morphology The low resolution channel maps for NGC 6012 (Figure 11-1) ar e reminiscent of those for NGC 1784, but without the counter-ro tating ring. The inside regions of the galaxy appear to be well formed, without ma jor asymmetries. The outer regions of the galaxy appear to be stretched out and slight ly warped. The central channel at 1854 km s-1 shows some "S" like tw isting, indicating a warped disk. The emission on the eastern and southern side of the galaxy in th e channel correspondi ng to 1813 km s-1 is reminiscent of the large southern expanse of gas in NGC 1784. A small 3 object appears in two channels (1793 and 1783 km s-1) to the west of the galaxy. Due to the low signal, it is unclear if this object is some type of larg e High Velocity Cloud. If so, it would have a

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231 total mass on the order of 107 M. It is also unclear with th ese observations, if this object is gas intrinsic to the galaxy, or th e remnant of some ancient satellite. Figure 11-1. Individual, na turally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the low resolution data. Channel velocities are given in the lower right hand corner of each panel in km s-1. The synthesized beam (62" x 52") is shown in the lower left hand panel. Contou rs are at the 3 (3.7 x 1018 cm-2), 6, 15, 30, and 45 flux levels.

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232 Figure 11-2. Individual, na turally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the high resolution data. Channel velocities are given in the lower right hand corner of each panel in km s-1. The synthesized beam (16" x 16") is shown the lower left hand channel map. Contours are at the 3 (1.4 x 1020 cm-2), 5, and 10 flux level. The low resolution total intensity map of NGC 6012 (Figur e 11-3) shows the large scale of the gala xy. We measure an angular HI di ameter of 9', which corresponds to

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233 a physical diameter of 65kpc, larger than all other galaxies in the sample, except for NGC 1784. Even at low resolution, the HI morphol ogy of this galaxy is asymmetric. The position angle of the contours ro tates counter-clockwise with radius. Figure 11-4 shows that the inner contours are aligned with the ba r, with the peak of the HI emission lying just past the north end of the bar. This side of the bar is the one with the large, blue HII region. Figure 11-4 also shows the extreme size of the HI emission compared to the optical. We measure a ratio of HI diameter to optical diameter of over 4. This is again the largest in our sample. The outer cont ours of the HI emission appear to have protrusions on the northwest and so utheast sides. It is unclea r what causes these shapes. Possibly they are related to some underlying spiral structure. There are a few possible small companions external to the main body of HI. These appear only at the level of noise in this image, may correspond to clouds with HI masses on the order of 106 107 M. High Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Morphology In the high resolution channel maps (Figure 11-2), we focus on emission from the central regions of NGC 6012. Overall, there do not appear to be indications of large scale asymmetries or gas at forbidden velocities. However, there does appear to be evidence for a disk warp at this level. The central channel (1854 km s-1) shows a twist beyond a radius of 2' (~15 kpc) on both sides of the gala xy. In the lower veloci ty channels (< 1834 km s-1), there is a significant twist on the eas tern arm beyond 2 3' of radius. The channels at the velocity extremes in bot h directions show lumpy and fragmented emission. The channel corresponding to 1925 km s-1 even shows a hole in the HI emission. This hole does not appear to be due to a puncture, but rather some type of twisting.

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234 Figure 11-3. Grayscale with contours of the total HI surface density from the low resolution data set. The peak flux co rresponds to a column density of 6.9 x 1020 cm-2. Contours are at 1 (the 2 flux level), 2, 3, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 95% of the peak flux. The synthesize d beam (62" x 52") is shown at the bottom left. Figure 11-4. Contours of the total HI surf ace density from the low resolution data set overlaid on an optical DSS image of the galaxy. Resolution and contour levels are the same as in Figure 11-3.

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235 Figure 11-5. Grayscale and contours of th e total HI surface density from the high resolution data set. The p eak flux corresponds to 7.1 x 1020 cm-2. Contours are at 5 (the 2 flux level), 10, 15, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 95% of the peak flux. The synthesized beam (16" x 16") is shown at the bottom left. For later reference, hole "A" is 1' northeast (up and left) of the galactic center. Hole "B" is located at the galactic center. Hole "C" is 1' southwest (down and right) of the galactic center. Figure 11-5 shows the high re solution total intensity ma p for NGC 6012. Here we see emission resembling spiral structure. Comparing to the optical (Figure 11-6), the peak emission again lies just beyond the northern end of the bar. A slightly lower emission maximum lies just beyond the southern end of the bar. The regions of peak emission appear to wrap counter-clockwise ar ound the galaxy in a similar manner to the low resolution images. The center of the bar is deficient in HI, indi cating that the bar is old. The HI hole follows the shape of the ba r fairly well, as in NGC 1784. There are holes 1' northeast and southwest of the bar that are similar in structure to the one in the bar. Although these HI holes represent an area of low HI column density between the

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236 weak spiral arms, we examine them for the presence of gas at forbidden velocities in a later section. None of the peak HI emission regions appear to be associated with star formation outside of the bar. We calculate a peak column density of 7.1 x 1020 cm-2, in a region just beyond the north edge of the bar. Figure 11-6. Contours of the high resoluti on data set overlaid on a DSS image of NGC 6012. The peak flux and contours are the same as in Figure 11-5. The synthesized beam is shown at the bottom left. Global Neutral Hydrogen Properties Figure 11-7 shows the HI spectrum of NG C 6012 made from the low resolution observations of the galaxy. The spectrum is symmetric at first estimation, and shows a classic double horned pattern. We calc ulate an HI flux for the galaxy of 22.9 .9 Jy km s-1. This corresponds to an HI mass of 3.7 x 109 M. We calculate a velocity width of 180 km s-1. From our spectrum of NGC 6012, we calculate a 3 HI flux level of 0.027

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237 Jy. This corresponds to a conservative minimum mass detection level of 1.3 x 108 M for an isolated HI cloud, assuming that it appears in 3 continuous channels. Figure 11-7. The HI flux density versus velo city for the low resolution data set. The velocity resolution here is 10 km s-1. Figure 11-8 is the radial HI profile from both the high and lo w resolution data sets. This galaxy shows a similar prof ile to other galaxies in th e sample. The high resolution data shows significant evidence for the HI hole in the center of the galaxy, since the central ring has a column density less than half of the ring outside of it. We find that the HI emission cuts off quickly below the 1 x 1020 cm-2 level in accordance with the predictions of Maloney (1993). Neutral Hydrogen Kinematics Figure 11-9 shows the HI velocity fi eld for NGC 4904 created with our low resolution data set. Figure 11-10 shows the HI velocity field for NGC 4900 created with our high resolution data set. Figure 11-11 s hows this same field overlaid on an optical

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238 DSS image of the galaxy. The contours in all three images are separated by 10.5 km s-1, and the central contour is at a systemic velocity of 1854 km s-1. The low resolution velocity field shows signs of twisting and warp ing. The central iso-ve locity curve is bent into a slight "S" shape. It also appears that the kinema tic position angle changes with radius in the galaxy, particularly in the southern half. The high resolution velocity field shows a similar picture. Here we see, on bot h sides of the galaxy, multiple velocity peaks along the kinematic major axis. This effect is more pronounced in the northern half of the galaxy, and is likely due to warping of the disk. The ve locity field overlaid on the optical image shows that the bar lies very cl ose to the kinematic minor axis, similar to that in NGC 4904. Higher resolution observa tions may yield more information about radial flows within the bar. In fact, the multip le velocity peaks may be related to the bar, as the inner peaks are coinci dent with its outer edge. Figure 11-8. The HI radial density profile s from the low resolution data set (closed circles) and the high resoluti on data set (open circles)

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239 Figure 11-9. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the low resolution data. Contours are separated by 10 km s-1. Motion toward the observer is displayed with lighter grayscales. The central velocity contour is at 1854 km s-1. Figure 11-10. Intensity-weighted radial velocity cont ours of the high resolution data set. Contours are separated by 10 km s-1. Darker grayscales correspond to motion away from the observer.

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240 Figure 11-11. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the high resolution data set overlaid on an optical DSS image of NGC 6012. Contours and resolution are the same as in Figure 11-10. Position-Velocity Plots Figure 11-12 shows Position-Velocity (P-V ) plots made parallel to and along the major axis of NGC 6012 using the high resolutio n data set. At firs t glance, these plots are most similar to those of our sample 's more regular gala xies, NGC 3900 and NGC 3930. We see the large scale of NGC 6012 pres ent in these plots, as the gas emission stretches for nearly 8'. The plot made through the major axis is fair ly symmetric at large scales. It does, however, have some interesti ng smaller features. On the eastern side of the center of the galaxy, we see a small loop of gas. Typically feat ures like this are indicative of expanding gas (Moore & Gottesman 1998). Here, the diameter of this loop is 30', or on the order of 7 kpc. The column density of gas is low in this loop (only a 3 detection), however, the size of the feature i ndicates that a great de al of energy would be needed to push this much mass this far. It is highly unlikely that a single supernova

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241 would be the cause of this feat ure. More likely, it is the result of some small gas cloud passing through the disk of NGC 6012, similar to what was seen in NGC 1784 (Chapter 5). We measure the radius of the loop to be 3.5 kpc and the velocity width of the loop to be 30 km s-1. This yields a timescale for an inte raction to have occurred about 0.2 Gyr ago. Given the low column densities involve d, it is unclear whether this potential impactor would have had enough mass to create the warps seen in th e outer parts of the galaxy. Perhaps this impactor is one of a fa mily of small objects, creating the situation envisioned by Casuso & Beckman (2001). We al so observe in the major axis plot, a trail of gas leading upwards at the western edge of the galaxy to a small clump at a forbidden, counter-rotating velocity. Figure 11-12. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the major axis of NGC 6012. The contours are at 3, 5, 10, 20, and 40

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242 Figure 11-13 shows P-V plots made along a nd parallel to the minor axis of NGC 6012 using the high resolution data set. Here the warp in the disk of NGC 6012 is readily apparent. The minor axis plot shows a significa nt "S" shape outside of a radius of 2'. All of the other slices show a sim ilar structure and are lopsided one way or the other. As the contours become very narrow in velocity wi dth outside of the central region of the galaxy, it is possible that this gas was not initially extended this far. A small companion galaxy involved in an interaction with NGC 6012 at some time in the distant past could have pulled this gas out to these large radii. This would explain the seemingly regular central regions of the galaxy, and the more di sturbed outer region. The interaction could have been similar to the one in NGC 1784, but was not as violent and occurred in the more distant past. The minor-axis P-V plots of NGC 1784 and NGC 6012 look very similar and lead credibility to this argument. High Resolution Small Scale P-V Plots We created P-V plots for the three major ho les seen in the high resolution total HI intensity map (Figure 11-5). These plots ar e shown in Figure 11-14. Hole "A" is the HI depression located 1' northeast of the center of NGC 6012 in Figure 11-5. Hole "B" is the HI depression at the center of the galaxy. Ho le "C" is the depression located 1' southwest of the center of the galaxy. The convention we use here is that the plots on the left is parallel to the major kinematic axis of NG C 6012, and the plots on the right are parallel to the minor axis of the galaxy. None of th ese plots seem to show any gas at forbidden velocities, or any zones of expansion. We c onclude that these holes are simply the empty regions located between the weak spiral arms.

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243 Figure 11-13. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the minor axis of NGC 6012. The contours are at 3, 5, 10, 20, and 40 Rotation Curves and Model Disks In order to make rotation curves and model disks of NGC 6012, we used the GIPSY task 'reswri' to fit tilted rings to the velocity field. We used our high resolution data set to create our parameter curves. We fit rotational velocities at radii ranging from 20" to 250" in 30" wide annuli. We held the position of the ki nematic center and the systemic velocity of the galaxy as fixe d parameters, while allowing the rotational velocity, expansion velocity, pos ition angle, and inclination to be set by the fit. We plot the results from the average of both sides of the galaxy. We plot the rotation velocity versus radius in Figure 11-15, expansion velo city versus radius in Figure 11-16, position angle versus radius in Figure 11-17, and in clination versus radius in Figure 11-18.

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244 Figure 11-14. Small scale P-V plots made through HI holes found in Figure 11-5. The slices on the left are parallel to the major kinematic axis of NGC 6012. The slices on the left are made paralle l to the minor axis of NGC 6012. NGC 6012's rotation curve (Figure 11-16) appe ars to be generally flat to rising over its radius. This is consistent with other galaxi es in this sample and flocculent galaxies in general (Elmegreen & Elmegreen 1990). If the value of rotational velo city at 250" is to be believed, the rotation curve rises steeply in the extreme outer galaxy. We calculated a value for the total mass of NGC 6012 interior to 220". We ignore the last data point in the rotation curve, because it is in the zone affected by the warp. Using a Keplerian, M = V2RG-1, to model the disk and halo, where R = 30 kpc and V(30 kpc) = 145 km s-1, we find M(R) to be 2.42 0.05 x 1010 M. Comparing this with the HI mass calculated above, we find a value for the ratio MHI / M(R) of 2% for NGC 6012.

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245 The plot of expansion velocity versus radius for NGC 6012 (Figure 11-17) is unusual. Large sections of the galaxy do not show any expansion velocities, but two rings show large velocities in opposite directio ns. It is not clear why this would occur. Figure 11-15. Rotation curve of NGC 6012 from the high resolution data set. Data points represent the average of values from both the approaching and receding sides of the galaxy. The position angle of NGC 6012 is largely consistent across the galaxy (Figure 1118), with only deviations at th e center and outer edge of the galaxy. This plot shows that the warping seen in the channel maps and P-V pl ots is largely in the vertical direction and not a twisting of the disk. Figure 11-19, the inclination angle curve of the galaxy shows this trend, where the inclination changes 20 over the radius of the galaxy.

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246 Figure 11-16. Expansion velocity as a function of radius for NGC 6012 Figure 11-17: Kinematic position angle of NGC 6012 as a function of radius

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247 Figure 11-18. Inclination angle of NGC 6012 as a function of radius Figure 11-19. Model velocity field constructed from kinemati cal data in Figures 11-16, 11-17, 11-18, and 11-19. Light grayscales represent approaching velocities.

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248 We used the values of rotational veloc ity, expansion velocity, position angle, and inclination to construct a model disk for NGC 3930 with the GIPSY task 'velfi'. The model disk is shown in Figure 11-19. This model disk shows the same symmetry as the real velocity fields, along with the slight twisting at large radii. We then subtracted this model field from our high reso lution velocity field (Figure 11-10), to create a map of residual velocities. The residual veloc ity field is shown in Figure 11-20. Figure 11-20. Residual velocity field ma de from model in Figure 11-20. Light grayscales represent approaching residua ls. Contours are separated by 5 km s1. Concentric circles at the center of the galaxy denote where azimuthal profiles were made for later figures. The model velocity field does resemble th e real velocity field fairly well. However, the real velocity field shows twis ting iso-velocity curv es primarily in the southern half of the galaxy, where the model s hows them in both halves. This is a result of the 'velfi' task, which does not take in to account differences in the receding and approaching sides of the galaxy. The residua l field is complex, but shows interesting

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249 structure. Canzian (1993) postulated th at corrotation could be found in a galaxy's residual velocity field where the pattern of th e residuals switched from an m=1 system to an m=3. At middle radii in NGC 6012 we see clearly a 3-spoked patt ern. Closer to the center, although convoluted, there does appear to be a 2-sided patter n. To explore these features further, we made azimuthal plots of the residual velocity at 20, 40, 80, and 120" (the circles drawn on Figure 11-21 are the locati ons of these radii). The azimuthal plots are shown in Figures 11-22, 11-23, 11-24, and 11 -25. The plot at 20" (Figure 11-21) shows a distinctive one-up and one-down patter n. The residuals never go below 0 km s-1, but this is probably due to some systematic shift in the residual velocity and does not affect the shape of the plot. The plot at 40" (Figure 11-22) shows 3-ups and 3-downs, where one of the downs is si gnificantly stronger than the other two. The plot at 80" (Figure 11-23) shows a pattern of 3 definite ups and downs. The plot at 120" (Figure 1124) is very confusing, most lik ely because it is out in the warped region of the galaxy, and the kinematics are disturbed. We concl ude then, that the transition from the m=1 pattern to m=3 pattern occurs slightly inside of a radius of 40". Th is is consistent with the typical view of corrotation occurring just beyond the end of the optical bar. NGC 6012's bar has a radius of about 30" (7 kpc). It is likely that the ring seen in optical observations of the galaxy is associated with the corrotation radius. Higher resolution observations are necessary to pin down the ex act transition radius between the m=1 and m=3 regions, and the use of other methods fo r determining corrotati on, such as optical colors, would be necessary to confirm our findings. This is, however, an interesting result, since few other papers than Canzia n's (1993) original work have shown real galaxies making this transiti on at their corro tation radius.

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250 Summary NGC 6012 is an unusually large galaxy in HI distribution. It does not show large amounts of gas at forbidden ve locities, but does show signifi cant warping of its disk at large radii. We conclude that NGC 6012, like NGC 1784 was involved in an interaction with a small (109 M) companion in the somewhat distant past. The lack of HI gas in the bar region of the galaxy and lack of significant st ar formation in the di sk point to an older interaction, possibly a few 109 years ago. The satellite that presumably pulled gas from the central regions out into the large exte nded, warped disk shows no remnants today. There are a few minor clouds visible in the channel maps, total intensity maps, and P-V plots, but these are of low mass and uncertain origin. As opposed to the interaction in NGC 1784, this case may have seen a progr ade interaction where the companion was incorporated into the galaxy in a much shorter time scale. Potentially the companion could also have been ejected into intergalactic space. Large field total HI intensity maps did not find any companions, so we conclude that the satelli te was cannibalized. Further study of this galaxy is certainly warranted, due to this interesting in teraction scenario as well as the possible discovery of an HI measure of corrotation.

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251 Figure 11-21. Azimuthal plot of NGC 6012's re sidual velocity field made at a radius of 20" Figure 11-22. Azimuthal plot of NGC 6012's re sidual velocity field made at a radius of 40"

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252 Figure 11-23. Azimuthal plot of NGC 6012's re sidual velocity field made at a radius of 80" Figure 11-24. Azimuthal plot of NGC 6012's re sidual velocity field made at a radius of 120"

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253 CHAPTER 12 ANALYSIS, SUMMARY, AND FUTURE WORK This, final, chapter presents a analysis of the data collected in the optical, near infrared and radio studies of the sample gala xies. We perform this analysis by addressing the primary research questions laid out in Chapter 1. Are Elmegreen & Elmegreen's (1982) Arm Structure Classifications Valid For Our Sample Galaxies? We find that we agree with Elmegreen & Elmegreen's (1982) optical classification of our sample galaxies. None of the gala xies of which we possess optical observations show the typical features of grand design ga laxies. Granted, we did not perform a proper Fourier analysis on the optical emission of the galaxies, but neither did Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982). If we were to suggest a ny changes to the clas sifications, we would typically move the galaxies to a more flo cculent classification, su ch as with NGC 4900. We find that the bar classification of the ga laxies may be somewhat overstated, however. Although the galaxies do not fit in the grand design classification, we find it interesting that Elmegreen & Elmgreen (1982) included one arm systems into the flocculent side of the arm spectrum (arm class "4"), since they do no t fit the "even disk of stars" criteria of a typical flocculent. This group included NGC 3055 and NGC 3930. This group may be more rightly given its own arm classificat ion group. Further dynamical study of these objects should be performed to determine if th eir disk processes are different from other flocculents, or if their arm structure is the re sult of either minor or major interactions.

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254 NGC 3930, NGC 4793, and NGC 53 00 are classified as SAB galaxies. This classification is tenuous at best The bar region of NGC 3930 seems to be an oval area of stars where the arms join at the center of the ga laxy. It is unlikely th at this feature is the result of the same dynamical processes that created the bar in NGC 6012, for instance. The bar region in NGC 5300 is not very well de fined, and it is likely that another group classifying this object could list it as an S ga laxy. A detailed examin ation of this galaxy's bar isophotes is warranted. Do the Galaxies in the Sample Possess Near Infrared Spiral Structure? We find tenuous results within our sample for this research area. We find that the near infrared spiral structure NGC's 2500, 3055, 3887, 4900, 4904, and 6012 to be similar those galaxy's optical spiral structure. Im ages from the 2MASS survey did not possess enough sensitivity to determine the disk properties of the other galaxies in our sample. It is possible that our sample galaxies do possess stronger spir al structure in the near infrared, but our images were not particular ly deep (other than with NGC 3055 and NGC 6012) and were not of particularly high resolu tion. We find that a gr eat deal of observing time must be invested in order to see the disk structure of these galaxies in near infrared wavelengths. The galaxies are not particular ly bright, and do not po ssess a great deal of star formation in their disks. Large survey s, such as 2MASS, are inadequate for this work, since the observation time on any one particular galaxy is short. Assuming that we take our results at f ace value, (i.e. that none of our sample galaxies possessed stronger spiral structure in the near infrared than in optical) we conclude that barred, floccule nt galaxies have this morphol ogy in all populations of stars present in the galaxy. Floccule nce is the natural st ate of these galaxies and not just a transient feature of the young stars and gas. A theory of galaxy kinematics for these

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255 systems must be formulated to ensure that the motions of both th e old and young stars are not largely driven by large s cale spiral density waves. Does the Sample of Optically Barred Galaxies Possess Near Infrared Bars? In all cases, it appears that our sample galaxies with optical bars possess bars in the near infrared as well. Due to the resoluti on limits of our near infrared observations, we can not largely determine if the near infrared bars are of a different size or shape than the optical bars. In NGC 4904, it does appear that the near infrared bar is thicker and more symmetric than the B-band bar, but again, th is classification is at the limits of our resolution. As with the spiral structur e, since the stella r bars exist in bot h the young stars as well as the old stars, the bar is a property of the galaxy itself and not a transient feature of one population. This indicates that the bars in these galaxies are either very long lived, or must have been formed not only of new stars, bu t also of stars transfe rred into bar orbits. This may be an indication that the presence of a bar and lack of spir al structure in these galaxies is due to external forces, such as previous encounters with small companions, as opposed to internal disk dynamics. What are the Nature of the Optical and Near-Infrared Bars? We repeat here some of the discussion and figures from the last section of Chapter 3. For convenience, we repeat Figures 346 through 3-48 as Figures 12-1 through 12-3. These figures show the distribution of bar ax is ratio in the sample as a function of Elmegreen arm class, the distribution of bar le ngth to galaxy radius ratio in the sample as a function of Elmegreen arm class, and the di stribution of bar length to galaxy radius ratio in the sample as a function of bar axis ratio.

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256 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 <0.250.25 0.50.5 0.75>0.75 Bar Axis RatioNumber of Galaxies 4 3 2 1 Figure 12-1. Distribution of th e bar axis ratio for the sample set. The strips across the columns represent the Elmegreen arm class of the galaxies (labeled at right) with in the particular bar axis ratio bin. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 <0.080.08 0.120.12 0.160.16 0.20.2 0.24>0.24 Bar Length to Galaxy Radius RatioNumber of Galaxies 4 3 2 1 Figure 12-2. Distribution of the bar length to galaxy radius ratio for the sample set. The strips across the columns represent the amount of galaxies from particular Elmegreen arm class (labeled at right) within that bar length ratio bin.

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257 0 1 2 3 4 5 <0.080.08 0.120.12 0.160.16 0.20.2 0.24>0.24 Ratio of Bar Length to Galaxy RadiusNumber of Galaxies >0.75 0.5 0.75 0.25 0.5 <0.25 Figure 12-3. Comparison of bar axis ratio to bar/galaxy length ratio. Strips across the columns represent the number of galaxies within a range of bar axis ratio with respect to the bar length bin. These figures show that there does not appear to be a dependence of either bar axis ratio or bar length to galaxy radius ratio on the Elmegreen arm class. As an overall quality, the degree of floccule nce is independent of the ba r processes in our sample. Figure 12-3 shows that skinny ba rs are also long relative to the size of the galaxy. This has been seen in other studies, and these bars are typically referred to as strong. We find that several of the galaxies on the right side of this plot were also found or presumed to be in HI interactions (NGC's 1784, 4900, and 6012), where the majority of galaxies on the left side of the plot have not been found to be involved in interactions. We conclude that interactions have a strong effect on the relative size and shap e of galactic bars in this sample. Figure 12-4 shows the distribution of ba r symmetries in the sample set as a function of Elmegreen arm classes. Bar symm etries are determined by eye using the bar

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258 isophotes. The asymmetric categor y represents bars that are not twisted, but show some global difference from one side of the bar to th e other. For example, the two ends of the bar in NGC 1784 are different shapes. The obvi ously twisted category refers to the cases in NGC's 4904 and 5147 where there appears to be a strong kink in the center of the bar. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 SymmetricAsymmetricObvioius Twist Bar Symmetry ClassificationNumber of Galaxies 4 3 2 1 Figure 12-4. Distribution of bar symmetries for the sample set. Strips across the columns represent the different Elmegreen arm classes. We do not find an obvious trend in the Elmegreen classification of the bar symmetries. Although the two galaxies seen in the "Obvious Twist" ca tegory are in class "2", these are small numbers to draw a conclu sion from, particularly when several class "2' objects appear in the "symmetric" category as well. We continue this analysis in Figure 12-5, where we plot the galaxies in the same bar symm etry classifications versus the bar length to galaxy radius ratio. Here we see that ther e does not appear to be a correlation between the relative bar length a nd the symmetry of the bar. Naively, one might think that there might be a correlat ion here as both asy mmetric bars and long

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259 skinny bars (as shown above) are associated wi th galactic interactions. However, the processes appear to be more complex. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 <0.080.08 0.120.12 0.160.16 0.200.20 0.24>0.24 Bar Length to Galaxy Radius RatioNumber of Galaxies Obvious Twist Asymmetry Symmetric Figure 12-5. Distribution of bar length to galaxy radius ratio in the sample set. Strips across the columns represent the symmetry status of the bar. We conclude that the galact ic bars in our sample are a heterogeneous group. There do not appear to be similar characteristic s among the bars across the class of barred, flocculent galaxies. We are able to see some similarities in a few galaxies. We believe that the processes which created the bars in NGC 1784, NGC 4904, and NGC 6012 are similar. Since we observe HI companions, or highly asymmetric HI morphologies in all of these galaxies, we further conclude that the bars in these thr ee galaxies are created through the process of intera ction and merger. On the other hand, the smaller bars present in NGC's 3055, 3687, 3930, 5300, and 5783 are more likely to be due to internal processes of the disk. NGC 4900 likely is a middle ground. It was observed to have a highly asymmetric HI distribution most likely due to an interaction, but it's bar does not have the same size relative to the optic al galaxy as with NGC 1784, NGC 4904, and NGC

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260 6012. This may be due to the small overall size of NGC 4900, but the processes are uncertain. Are The Mass Distributions Of Galaxies Similar? We find that of the seven sample galaxies observed in HI, four galaxies show rising rotation curves, one shows a flat rotation cu rve, and one shows a flat/falling rotation curve. NGC 4904 was fit a priori to have a flat rotation curv e, so we do not consider it here. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1990) state that flocculent galaxies t ypically have flat to rising rotation curves, because their disk mass re lative to the halo mass is lower than for grand design galaxies. The relative importa nce of the halo mass in these galaxies prohibits the formation of spiral density wave s and the galaxies remain flocculent. We find a similar result, but a highe r number of our sample needs to be observed in HI in order to draw more conclusions. Figure 126 shows the distribution of Elmegreen arm classes within the sample set as a function of rotation curve shape. Figure 12-7 shows the distribution of bar length to galaxy ratio as a function of rotation curve shape. We find that the shape of the rotation cu rve is not related to the Elmegreen arm classification in Figure 12-6. Although our sample size of seven (six if NGC 4904 is discounted) is small, Figure 12-6 seems to i ndicate that a galaxy's degree of flocculence is not simply related to the ratio of halo to disk mass, as Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1990) suggest. It may be globally tr ue that flocculent galaxies ar e more likely to have rising rotation curves, but there must be other factors at work cont rolling the disk structure. The bar status of this sample may make th em different than flocculent galaxies in general. Figure 12-7 shows that there is no correlation between the relative bar length and the rotation curve shape. It is interesti ng to note that we selected no galaxies with

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261 middle relative bar lengths to observe in HI. In order to confirm our findings from these two figures, more of the sample must be observed in HI. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 RisingFlatFalling Rotation Curve ShapeNumber of Galaxies 4 3 2 1 Figure 12-6. Distribution of HI Rotation curve shapes within the sample set. Strips across the columns represent the differen t Elmegreen arm classifications. We did not observe in HI any galaxies th at were in Elmegreen arm class "1". 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 <0.080.08 0.120.12 0.16 0.16 0.200.20 0.24>0.24 Bar Length to Galaxy Radius RatioNumber of Galaxies Falling Flat Rising Figure 12-7. Distribution of Bar length to galaxy radius ratio in galaxies observed in HI. Strips across the columns represen t the shape of the rotation curve.

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262 Does the Sample of Optically Barred, Fl occulent Galaxies Possess Similar Neutral Hydrogen Mass Ratios and Morphologies? Of the seven galaxies in our sample that we observed in HI, we found that 6 of the galaxies possessed what could be classified as an HI asymmetry. NGC 5300 possessed no sizeable asymmetry. The asymmetrie s found in NGC 3055 and NGC 3930, however, were small, and only involved the distribution of the peak HI regions within the galaxy. NGC's 1784, 4900, 4904, and 6012 possessed sizeable asymmetries and warps. Pisano & Wilcots (1999) reported that another gala xy in our sample, NGC 3246, possessed an HI asymmetry. Mazzei (1995) categorizes NGC 2793 as a ring galaxy consistent with a head on encounter, so we also in clude it in our list of galaxies with HI asymmetries. In all asymmetric cases, 1 3% of the galaxy mass, if not more, was contained in warps, bubbles, or separate dynamical systems. We contend that the kinematics of the warps and asymmetries in these 4 galaxies are a result of interactions with small companions. We found in all cases that the HI diamet er of the galaxy was significantly bigger than the optical size of the ga laxy. Figure 12-8 shows the distribution of HI diameters in the sample set. Figure 12-9 shows the distri bution of optical to HI diameter ratio. We use the HI diameter of NGC 3246 found by Pisa no & Wilcots (1999) in this plot. The smallest HI to optical diameter ratio was in NGC 5300, which had a value of 1.4 (24 kpc / 14 kpc). The largest HI to optical diameter ratio was in NGC 6012, which had a value of 4.3 (65 kpc / 15 kpc). The average HI to opti cal diameter ratio was 2.5 for the sample. We find a trend that galaxies with signifi cantly more disturbed HI morphologies have large HI to optical diameter ratio values. NGC 6012 with the highest ratio has a large, extended warp region about the main body of the galaxy. Similarly, NGC 4900, with a diameter ratio of 4.1 probably possesses an HI ring due to an ongoing encounter. NGC

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263 5300, on the other hand, has the lowest diameter ratio, and does not s how any significant asymmetries. 0 1 2 3 4 5 <30 kpc30 60 kpc>60 kpc Galaxy Diameter Number of Galaxies Figure 12-8. Distribution of HI diameters in the sample set 0 1 2 3 4 5 <2.02.0 3.03.0 4.0>4.0 HI to Optical Diameter RatioNumber of Galaxies Strong Asymmetry Symmetric Figure 12-9. Distribution of HI to Optical Diam eter Ratios within the sample set. Strips across the columns correspond to the symmetry of the HI distribution. In Figure 12-10, we examine the length of th e bar relative to th e optical size of the galaxy versus the HI to optical diameter ra tio. Here, unlike previous graphs of the

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264 relative bar length, we only break the bar lengt h distribution into tw o bins. The plot seems to indicate that galaxies with smalle r HI to optical diameter ratios also have smaller bar to galaxy length ratios. NGC 1784 has one of the longer relative bars in the sample, but has a small HI to optical diameter ratio. However, with slightly lower HI resolution, we would measure th e HI diameter of NGC 1784 as almost two times higher. This is perhaps the case in NGC 4900 and NGC 4904. We conclude that the HI to optical diameter ratio is a good indicator of the intera ction state of a galaxy, as is a long, skinny bar. 0 1 2 3 4 5 <2.02.0 3.03.0 4.0>4.0 HI to Optical Diameter RatioNumber of Galaxies Bar ratio >0.2 Bar ratio <0.2 Figure 12-10. Distribution of HI to optical diameter ratios. St rips across the bar represent the bar to galaxy length ratio. Figure 12-11 shows the distribut ion of HI masses in the sample set. We calculate HI mass values for NGC's 3687, 3887, 5645, a nd 5783 from HI fluxes listed in the literature (Haynes et al 1998). Figure 12-12 show s the distribution of MHI to Mdyn ratios for the sample, including NGC 3246 from Pi sano & Wilcots (1999). Figure 12-13 shows this same distribution, but compared to th e sample's Elmegreen arm classifications.

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265 Galaxies in the literature which only had va lues of the HI line wi dth were not included for this plot, since our dynamical masses were derived from a rotation curve analysis. Our analysis eliminated the inclination term present in these other velocity width measurements. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 <1.01.0 5.05.0 10.0>10.0 HI Mass in Solar Units x 10^9Number of Galaxies Figure 12-11. Distribution of HI masses in the sample set We found the most massive galaxy in term s of HI to be NGC 3246, while the least massive was NGC 4904. NGC 3246 is some 20 times more massive in HI than NGC 4904. This result is not unexpected, given th e physical size difference between the two galaxies. NGC 3930 possessed an unusually hi gh peak column density of HI, on the order of 6 x 1021 cm-2, while none of the other galaxies reached above 2.5 x 1021 cm-2. It is unclear why the peak column de nsity was higher in this galaxy. In terms of the ratio of HI mass to the dynamical mass of the galaxy, we find that most of the galaxies cluster around the 35 % region, however, none are higher than 6% in the sample. We calculate an average mass ra tio of 3.8%. This is in line with what is found with other typical spiral galaxies. We also do not s ee a correlation with higher HI

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266 mass fraction and the HI diameter of the galaxy relative to the optical galaxy. Either the excess HI in the richer galaxies is center of the galaxy, or the optic al distribution extends out further to compensate in these galaxies. Figure 12-13 shows that there does not appe ar to be a correlation between the HI mass fraction and Elmegreen arm classification. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 2%2 4%4 6% HI Mass to Dynamical Mass RatioNumber of Galaxies >2.0 <2.0 Figure 12-12. Distribution of HI Mass fraction for the sample set. The strips across the columns represent the distribution of HI to optical diameter ratios. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 2%2 4%4 6% HI Mass to Dynamical Mass RatioNumber of Galaxies 4 3 2 1 Figure 12-13. Distribution of HI Mass fraction for the sample set. The strips across the columns represent the Elmegreen arm classification of the set.

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267 Do the Optically Barred, Flocculent Galaxies Possess HI Companions? Of the seven galaxies with HI observations in this project, we found that two, NGC 1784 and NGC 3055 possess direct evidence of HI companions. NGC 1784 possesses counter-rotating ring of HI around the galaxy that must be from an external source, and NGC 3055 possesses two small satellites at ra ther large radius (~ 90 kpc). NGC 1784's satellite system does not show any optical em ission, while both of NGC 3055's satellites do. We found two additional galaxies, NGC 4900 and NGC 4904, which show strong evidence that they are currently involved in interactions. Both ga laxies show velocity fields which have more than one kinematic position angles, and have channel maps that are indicative of an HI ri ng encircling these galaxies. Unfortunately, the angular resolution of our observations in both of th ese cases is insufficient to resolve out any possible companion system. Finally, NGC 6012 shows an asymmetry in its HI disk morphology that is likely a result of a prev ious interaction. NGC 6012 shows a warp and extended HI emission very similar to NGC 1784, a nd it is for this reason, that we feel it was involved in a similar interaction in the di stant past. In galaxies that we did not observe in HI ourselves, Pisano & Wilcots ( 1999) report that NGC 3246 is involved in an interaction, and Mazzei (1995) reports that NGC 2793 is also, due to its optical distribution. Overall, the number of companions positiv ely identified, 3, and even the number of presumed companions, 6 or 7, compared to th e number of galaxies in the HI sample, 15, is in line with the observational work of Pi sano & Wilcots (2003). They found that over a large sample of isolated galaxies, ther e were not as many small, non-stellar, HI companions as would be predicted by typical CDM models. They concluded that the

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268 epoch of galaxy formation is for the most part over, at least for isolated galaxies. We do not observe numerous small, intergalactic HI clouds around our sample galaxies, even though our observations are fairly deep for se veral galaxies. Wher e we do find small HI clouds, as in NGC 1784, it is more likely that these are the remn ants of one large interaction, as opposed to ma ny independent interactions. What are the Physical and Orbital Properties of the HI Companions? We do not find an overall pattern among the HI companions in this sample. The different galaxies show very different companions, or evidence of previous companions. The companion being cannibalized by NGC 1784 has a dynamical mass on the order of 1010 M and a MHI / Mtot value of 3 5%. It is an a pparently retrograd e orbit, although, there is a small chance that the orbit could be prograde if it is nearly polar. The interaction is probably a few 109 years old. We have not found an optical counterpart to NGC 1784's companion. The two companions to NGC 3055 are a b it smaller, with a dynamical mass of a few 109 M, and a similar MHI / Mtot value. It appears that they are on prograde orbits, since the companion's internal velocity fields reflect the side of NGC 3055 on which they lie. We did not discover any rings or arcs of HI gas linking the satellites to NGC 3055 or tracing th eir previous paths. It is hard to comment on the effect of these satellites on NGC 3055, since currently th ey reside at such a large distance. In addition, our discussion in Chapter 7 showed that it is unlikely th at the satellites are gravitationally bound to NGC 3055. A past closer encounter would be a good explanation for NGC 3055's one-armed op tical pattern and small HI asymmetry. Of the presumed companions, NGC 4900 and NGC 4904 seem to be in similar states. The best inte rpretation of our data is that bot h galaxies are currently surrounded

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269 by an HI ring of total mass, 109 M. These rings are the result of a satellite orbiting the galaxies and breaking up. The orbit of the sa tellite has a small radius and is prograde. In the case of NGC 6012, we assume that it has undergone an in teraction much like the one NGC 1784 is involved currently. The la rge extension of HI and its warp are both similar to NGC 1784's HI morphology and kinema tics. We might expect a similar sized satellite (~ 109 M) as in NGC 1784 would be all that wa s needed to cause these effects. If the interaction was somewhat older, by 109 years, and somewhat less energetic than in NGC 1784, the satellite may have already been consumed and large scale star formation may have already ended in NGC 6012. Are Barred, Flocculent Galaxies Di fferent Than the Average Galaxy? To assess the validity of our selection of a sample set, we must compare our results from above with surveys of similar prope rties of general ga laxy populations. To complete our study, we also must define a co ntrol set of barred, grand design galaxies. This set is discussed below in the Fu ture Work section of this paper. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) find that gra nd design galaxies are slightly brighter than flocculent galaxies. They find that gala xies of arm class '1' have a mean absolute blue magnitude of -20, where class '12' galaxi es have a mean absolute blue magnitude of -21. We find that our set has a mean absolu te blue magnitude of -19.1. This fits the trend, and may imply that barred, flocculent galaxies are dimmer still, although a larger sample set from both Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) and in our own sample set would be required to reduce scatter. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) also find that flocculent galaxies are preferentially late type galaxies. We find the sa me situation in our set, with the median galaxy being a Sc.

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270 Martin (1995) studies the op tical bar properties of a la rge sample of nearby, normal galaxies. This study found that the relative ba r length in early-type galaxies is about a factor of three larger than the bar length of late-type ga laxies. In Martin (1995) the relative bar length of late-type galaxies is less than 0.2 of the galaxy diameter. We find similar results in our sample, where NGC 6012 is the only galaxy with a relative bar length significantly longer than 0.2. It is significant that NGC 6012 is also the earliest galaxy in our sample. Martin (1995) finds no tr end for bar axis ratio across Hubble Type. This is similar to our results. Martin (1995) fi nds that the bar axis ra tio of active galaxies is particularly low, but shows no trend for qui escent galaxies. We find a similar result in that none of our sample is reported to be act ive, and the bar axis ratio of our sample shows no trend. Broeils & van Woerden (1994) studied the HI properties of regular, nearby spiral galaxies, and looked for galaxies with extende d HI emission. They f ound that the typical HI radius for these galaxies was 1.8 times the optical D25 for the galaxy. The HI radii for the galaxies in our sample are similar, but ma y be a bit larger due to the interactions in our sample. Half of our galaxies show HI ra dii less than or equal to the value in Broeils & van Woreden (1994), the other half are signifi cantly larger, and correspond to galaxies involved in interactions. Unfortunately, we po ssess measurements of HI radii for eight of our galaxies. Broeils & van Woreden (1994) also provide an average value for the HI masses in nearby spirals. Their mean value of 5.9 x 109 M falls within ou r range of 1 to 10 x 109 M. Similarly, Roberts & Haynes (1994) provide HI mass ranges for a variety of Hubble Types. Our values fall very much in line with the late type galaxies in that study. The work of Pisano & Wilcots (2003) show s that our galaxies are typical in their

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271 number of interactions and companions. Ou r sample does not appear to be undergoing an unusual number of interactions. It may still be that these galaxies are more likely to be involved in an interaction than grand design galaxies due to their large average HI radius, but we will have to wait until observations of our control group are complete. Through comparison with other large scale su rvey projects, we find that our sample is representative of normal galaxies. Ther e does not seem to be some unique property that is special to barred, flocculent galaxies. They may be slightly dimmer and larger in HI (possibly more likely to be involved in an interaction), than typi cal galaxies, but they are not globally different. We must conclude that the floccule nt and barred states of these galaxies are due to processe s which occur within the gala xy. Theories involving bar structure and the interaction between the galactic disk and halo may have important implications on the spiral structure of the disk as well. The fact th at we have found rising rotation curves in our sample seems to indicate this. Other theories, such as Casuso & Beckman's (2001) regarding the presence of numerous small (106 M) HI clouds influencing galactic disk warps may be impor tant as well. These types of clouds are below our sensitivity limits. If it is true th at these types of clouds can produce disk warps, then perhaps they can influence spiral structure as well. Additional, very deep observations of HI in isolated spiral galaxi es are warranted. We conclude that further dynamical study of galaxies with smaller and weaker bars is also necessary. Summary The overall picture we get of the sample ga laxies in our study is that they are a varied bunch. There are some trends among the galaxies that seem to be apparent. We believe that NGC 1784, NGC 6012, NGC 4904, and NGC 4900 are similar galaxies, but follow a trend of decreasing physical size and mass. All four of these galaxies show

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272 strong bars, evidence for star formation, disk warps, and either confirmed or possible companions. The interaction with a small companion seems to be the trigger for the optical and radio morphologies of these galaxi es. The timescale of presumed interaction is in line with the age of the bar. Th e seemingly older bars in NGC 6012 and NGC 1784 (assumed because of the large HI holes in the center of these galaxies) are associated with older or finished interactions. In NGC 4900 and NGC 4900 we see interactions that appear to be beginning coupled w ith bars that are still filled with HI and appear to be actively star forming. Similarl y, the lack of a strong inter action with a companion galaxy seems to be the reason for the regular HI morphology in NGC 3930 and NGC 5300. We draw the large conclusion that intera ctions, or the lack there of, are very important to the morphology of barred, flocculent galaxies. Left to themselves, all of the galaxies in this sample would most lik ely look like NGC 5300, flocculent and not strongly barred. In fact, Elmegreen & Elmegr een (1982) find that of isolated, unbarred galaxies the majority are flocculent. A lthough slightly barred, perhaps due to some internal disk processes, NGC 5300 fits this b ill well. When the galaxy is approached by a small companion galaxy, the morphology changes. Typically, galaxies with companions become grand design and grow bars (Elm egreen & Elmegreen 1982; Byrd & Howard 1992). However, the nature of the in teractions in NGC's 1784, 4900, 4904, and 6012 somehow prevented spiral arms from being fo rmed, but allowed the bar to grow. Perhaps in NGC 1784 this process is re lated to the retrograde nature of the interaction. Although this work must be done in the future with be tter near infrared images, a determination of the QB parameter will likely turn up that although the bar is st rong in these four galaxies,

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273 it does not control the processes in the outer disk, and that flocculence in these cases is a result of external factors. Future Work The future study of this group of galaxies i nvolves two thrusts. First of all, more and better observations of the barred, floccu lent galaxies need to be obtained. All 15 galaxies in the sample should be observed fo r a total of 10 to 15 hours at 21 cm using the D and C arrays of the VLA. This will allow us to image HI clouds down to 107 M at resolutions ranging from 1 to 10 kpc for the en tire sample. For the galaxies that are particularly bright, or wh ere high resolution observati ons are warranted (NGC 4900, NGC 4904, and NGC 6012), B c onfiguration observations should be made. The realization of the Enhanced VLA in the near fu ture should enable these observations to be made. With an increase of a factor of 10 in sensitivity, observing times could be reduced by a factor of 3 with the same sensitivity. Further optical and near in frared observations of the current galaxy sample should be performed as well. Better near infrared observations than the one s presented in this document are needed in order to perform the QB analysis devised by Block & Puerari (1999). The determination of this value would give us confirmation that the bars in even the most strongly barred systems in the sa mple are not strong enough to have a great effect on the spiral structure of the galactic disks. Further optical observations at higher resolution than 2" will be necessary in determ ining the star formation properties of these galaxies as well as tracing dynamical resonanc es. We believe that we have tentative evidence for the location of corotation in NGC 6012, but confirmation will require a second method of determination, such as th e B-R method put forth by Beckman (1991).

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274 Optical observations with a resolution of at l east 1" would be necessary for this determination. The second track of future work would be the determination of a control sample. A set of barred grand design galaxies of sim ilar sizes and masses has been selected from Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982). This control set contains NGC's 2776, 3344, 3891, 4051, 4500, 4999, 5127, 5248, 5652, 5735, 5921, and 6004. Figure 12-14 shows the distribution of Elmegreen arm classes for this set. Figure 12-15 show s the distribution of Hubble class for these objects. Figure 12-16 shows the bar classification for this set. These control galaxies should be observed in the same three wavelength regimes as the barred, flocculent galaxies to determine their properties. Close atte ntion should be paid to the number and types of HI companions possessed by these objects. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 891012 Elmegreen Arm ClassNumber of Galaxies Figure 12-14. Distribution of Elmegreen arm classes in the control sample set

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275 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 S_aS_bS_cS_d Hubble TypeNumber of Galaxies 12 10 9 8 Figure 12-15. Distribution of Hubble Types in the control sample set. Strips across the columns represent the Elmgreen arm classes with in the group. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ABB Bar ClassificationNumber of Galaxies 12 10 9 8 Figure 12-16. Bar classificati on distribution of the control sample. Strips across the column indicate the Elmegreen arm class of the control set. The study of galaxy morphology and dynamics although almost as old as modern astronomy itself, is still in ma ny ways in its infancy. The study of galactic dynamics has tended to focus on large bright galaxies or ac tive galaxies. It is reasonable to see why

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276 this is so, but in order for a true global theory of galactic formation and dynamics to exist the smaller, less exciting galaxies, such as th e ones in this project, must be examined as well. As we have discovered, many of these galaxies are very inte resting in their own right, even if they are a bit off of the beaten path. An understanding of the processes that cause galaxies to look and move the way that they do today, will constrain theories about the formation of the universe as well as the fo rmation of stars. This paper supports the study of all spiral galaxies re gardless of morphology, and incl udes that study in our future work.

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282 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Douglas L. Ratay was born on August 16, 1976, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He attended Washington Elementary, Pine Middl e, Richland High, and Pine-Richland High during his childhood in the north ern suburbs of Pittsburgh. In 1994, he began studies at Connecticut College in New London, Conn ecticut. During college, Doug spent a semester studying physics at University College London in London, England. He graduated with honors and dis tinction in May of 1998 from Connecticut College, with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Physics. He began graduate school at the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida in Septem ber of 1998, obtaining a Master of Science degree in Astronomy in May of 2000. In th e spring and summer of 2001, Doug studied astronomy at the Instituto de Astrofisica de Ca narias in Tenerife, Sp ain. Outside of the astronomical research world, Doug has been th e Science Education Director at O2BKids in Gainesville, Florida, an intern with th e Education Trust in Washington, D.C., and an active participant in as tronomy outreach programs in local sc hools. He also has served as the president of the Graduate Student Council and as a member of the Student Senate at the University of Florida. He received his Ph.D. in August of 2004 from the University of Florida. He plans to move to Washi ngton, D.C. to work in the field of science education policy and government.


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Title: Multi-Wavelength Observations of Barred, Flocculent Galaxies
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

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Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS
OF BARRED, FLOCCULENT GALAXIES













By

DOUGLAS LEE RATAY


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2004


































Copyright 2004

by

Douglas L. Ratay

































To Carlos, Debbie, Dave, Kelly, Rob, and unofficially, Joanna.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

From the moment I was born, I have had the amazing fortune of being surrounded

by amazing, wonderful, loving, and caring people. The more that I have done, the more I

have realized that I have done nothing on my own. I live in the most incredible village.

My parents are the best ever. They have loved and supported me beyond my

wildest dreams. No child could imagine better parents. My success as a person is a

testament to their love.

I thank Martha Reese, my high school chemistry teacher, for giving me the

encouragement to become a scientist, even without saying the words. This dissertation is

a direct result of spending two years in her class. Her devotion to learning and

knowledge still continues to guide me.

I am incredibly lucky to have known so many wonderful professors at Connecticut

College. It has been a pleasure to know and work with my advisor, Leslie Brown. I am

honored to be her first Ph.D. from Conn. Catrina Hamilton, newly Dr. Hamilton, has

been an incredible teacher and always a true friend.

I owe a deep debt of gratitude to John Beckman (at the Instituto de Astrofisica de

Canarias) for allowing me to spend several months at the IAC working with his group.

The time I spent at the IAC was very important in my life, and this thesis would not be

possible without his support.

My Ph.D. advisor, Stephen Gottesman, has been a fixture in my life since 1998

when I started at the University of Florida. I could not ask for a better advisor. He has









given me the space to find my own interests in education and government, while at the

same time keeping me focused on the work of my dissertation. Many advisors are able to

work with students who are their mirror images. The best advisors, however, have the

wisdom to shape, guide, and encourage students who choose to take a different course.

I would like to thank Jessica, Katie, and Ronald for being my favorite editors in the

world. As I look forward to beginning the rest of my life, I am put at ease by knowing

how much we've been through and how much strength we have shown. I am looking

forward to our journey together.

I would be wrong to not also thank Matt, Adam, Bill, the Conn Labor Day Squad,

Abby, the residents of Ramsay Hall, Matt, Karen, William Wyuke, Judd, Emma, Veera,

Andrew, Kate, and all my other friends and classmates for their love and support through

the years.

I hold Joanna Levine and David Dahari in a special place in my heart. They have

been my friends throughout graduate school, and I could not imagine how empty the

world would be if I did not know them.

Without the support of Catherine Garland, I would not have completed this

dissertation. I will always be in her debt.

Finally, I must thank all of the funding agencies and data sources that made this

project possible. This dissertation relies heavily on data from the Two Micron All Sky

Survey (2MASS), the Ohio State University Bright Spiral Galaxy Survey (OSUBSGS),

the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS), and the NASA Extragalactic Database (NED). The

2MASS database is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared

Processing and Analysis Center, funded by NASA and the NSF. The OSUBSGS was









funded by grants from the NSF and the Ohio State University. The DSS was produced at

the Space Telescope Science Institute under U.S. Government Grant NAG W-2166. My

stipend during part of this project was funded by a NASA Florida Space Grant

Fellowship. Travel to the astronomical facilities in the Canary Islands was funded by the

Institute de Astrofisica de Canarias and the University of Florida.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

LIST OF TABLES .............................................................. ........ xi

LIST OF FIGURES ................ .......................................... .. ............. xiii

ABSTRACT ................................... ..... .............. xxvii

CHAPTER

1 PR O JEC T D E SCR IPTIO N ........................................ .......................................

G alaxy Sam ple........................................................................................ 2
O b se rv a tio n s ..................................................................................................... 1 8
N eutral H ydrogen .................. .................................... .. ........ .... 18
O p tic a l ........................................................................................................... 1 8
N ear-Infrared .................................... ......... .................. 19
D ata A n aly sis ................................................................................ 19

2 INTRODUCTION TO BARRED, FLOCCULENT GALAXIES.............................20

T he M meaning of F locculence ......................................................................................20
Flocculent Galaxies with Underlying Spiral Structure ............................................21
Spiral Structure Created By G alactic B ars .................................................................23
Spiral Structure Created By Extra-Galactic Companions .......................................24
Im plications to Sm aller Scales....................................................................................26

3 OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED OBSERVATIONS OF BARRED,
FLOCCULENT GALAXIES .................................. ............................ 28

O b se rv a tio n s ...............................................................................................................2 8
N G C 1784 ..................................... .......................... .... ..... ......... 29
N G C 2 5 0 0 ...................................... ................................................. 3 1
N G C 2 7 9 3 .......................................................................... 3 3
N G C 3 0 5 5 ........................................................................... 3 5
N G C 3246 ................................... .................................. .......... 38
N G C 36 87 ...................................... ....................................................4 0
N G C 3887 ....................................................... ................... ......... ... 42
N G C 3 9 3 0 ...........................................................................4 4










N G C 4 7 9 3 .............................................................................4 7
NGC 4900 ............... ....................................49
NGC 4904 ............. .......... ..................... 53
NGC 5147 ............... ..................... ......................57
N G C 5300 ............................................................................ ........59
N G C 5 6 4 5 .............................................................................6 2
N G C 5 7 8 3 .............................................................................6 4
N G C 6 0 12 ............................................................................................................ 6 6
Analysis of Optical Bar and Disk Properties ...................... .................70

4 DESCRIPTION OF NEUTRAL HYDROGEN OBSERVATIONS ........................76

Twenty-One Centimeter Hydrogen Emission ........................................ ........... 76
Fundamentals of Interferometry ............... ............................. ............. ..............78
Calibration and Imaging Neutral Hydrogen Data.......................... ............... 81

5 NEUTRAL HYDROGEN OBSERVATIONS OF NGC 1784 ..................................84

O b se rv a tio n s ............................................................................................................... 8 4
Neutral Hydrogen M orphology ................. ................................86
Continuum ................................. ..........................89
Low Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Distribution ..............................................89
High Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Distribution .................................... 90
Global Neutral Hydrogen Properties ...................................... ......... 92
Neutral Hydrogen Kinematics ................. ...............................93
Global Position-Velocity Plots ...................... ..........95
Local Low-Density Region Position-Velocity Plots ....................................100
Rotation Curves ........................... .. ......................... ... ............... 104
Model Disks, Velocity Residuals, and Corrotation ............. ........... 107
The Neutral Hydrogen Rings ................................. ....................... .............109
S u m m a ry ............................................................................................................. 1 1 2

6 NEUTRAL HYDROGEN OBSERVATIONS OF NGC 3055 .............................114

O b servation s .............. ................114...........................
Neutral Hydrogen Morphology ............................... ............................116
Low Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Morphology ......................................116
High Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Morphology .............................119
Global Neutral Hydrogen Properties ................................121
N eutral H ydrogen K inem atics ................................................................................122
Position-Velocity Plots ................. .......................... .........123
Rotation Curves and M odel Disks............................. ............... 126
N eutral H ydrogen Com panions ........................................................... .................. 132
S u m m a ry ............................................................................................................. 1 3 6






viii









7 NEUTRAL HYDROGEN OBSERVATIONS OF NGC 3930 .............................138

O b servation s ................................13................... .........8
Neutral Hydrogen Morphology ...................................................... 139
Low Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Morphology ...........................................142
High Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Morphology......................................143
Global Neutral Hydrogen Properties .............. .......................................145
N eutral H ydrogen K inem atics ........................................................ ............... 146
P position V elocity Plots .............................................. ................. ............... 149
Rotation Curves and M odel D isks................................... ....... ............... 151
S u m m a ry ........................................................................ ............... 1 5 9

8 NEUTRAL HYDROGEN OBSERVATIONS OF NGC 4900 .............................160

O b serve atio n s .................................................................... 16 0
Neutral Hydrogen Morphology ...................................................... 162
Low Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Morphology ...........................................162
High Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Morphology.............................................169
Global Neutral Hydrogen Properties............................... ........................170
Neutral Hydrogen Kinematics ...................................................... ... ............... 172
Position-V elocity Plots ...................... .. .. ................................ ............... 174
Rotation Curves and M odel Disks................................... ....... ............... 178
N neutral H hydrogen R ing.................................................. ............................... 181
S u m m ary ...................... .. .. ......... .. .. .................................................18 5

9 NEUTRAL HYDROGEN OBSERVATIONS OF NGC 4904 .............................186

O b servation s .............. ................86.......... ...............
N eutral H ydrogen M orphology ..................................................... .....................188
Low Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Morphology ...........................................188
High Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Morphology.................... ..................192
Global Neutral Hydrogen Properties........................................................193
N eutral H ydrogen K inem atics ........................................................ ............... 196
Position-V elocity Plots ................................... ................................... 199
Rotation Curves and M odel Disks................................... ....... ............... 203
Sum m ary ................................ ... .................................. .......... 207

10 NEUTRAL HYDROGEN OBSERVATIONS OF NGC 5300 .............................208

O b se rv a tio n s ....................................................................................................... 2 0 8
Neutral Hydrogen Morphology ...................................................... 210
Low Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Morphology ...........................................210
High Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Morphology.............................................214
Global Neutral Hydrogen Properties...................... ....................216
N eutral Hydrogen Kinem atics ............................................................................ 217
Position-Velocity Plots ...................................... ......... .. ................. 220
Rotation Curves and M odel Disks................................... ....... ............... 222









Su m m ary ...................................... ................................. ................ 2 2 5

11 NEUTRAL HYDROGEN OBSERVATIONS OF NGC 6012.............................228

O b se rv a tio n s ....................................................................................................... 2 2 8
Neutral Hydrogen Morphology ...................................................... 230
Low Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Morphology ...........................................230
High Resolution Neutral Hydrogen Morphology.................... ..................233
Global Neutral Hydrogen Properties .................................... ..................236
N eutral Hydrogen Kinem atics ............................................................................ 237
Position-V elocity Plots .................................................._... ................. .... 240
High Resolution Small Scale P-V Plots ................................. ............... 242
Rotation Curves and M odel Disks................................... ....... ............... 243
S u m m ary ...................... .. .. ......... .. .. ................................................ 2 5 0

12 ANALYSIS, SUMMARY, AND FUTURE WORK ............................................253

Are Elmegreen & Elmegreen's (1982) Arm Structure Classifications Valid For
Our Sample Galaxies?.................. ..... ....... ....................... 253
Do the Galaxies in the Sample Possess Near Infrared Spiral Structure?................254
Does the Sample of Optically Barred Galaxies Possess Near Infrared Bars? ..........255
What are the Nature of the Optical and Near-Infrared Bars? ...............................255
Are The Mass Distributions Of Galaxies Similar? ..........................................260
Does the Sample of Optically Barred, Flocculent Galaxies Possess Similar
Neutral Hydrogen Mass Ratios and Morphologies? ................................... 262
Do the Optically Barred, Flocculent Galaxies Possess HI Companions? ................267
What are the Physical and Orbital Properties of the HI Companions?.....................268
Are Barred, Flocculent Galaxies Different Than the Average Galaxy?................. 269
S u m m a ry .....................................................................................................2 7 1
F future W ork ......................................................273

LIST OF REFEREN CES ........................................................... .. ............... 277

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H ........................................ ............................................282
















LIST OF TABLES


Table page

1-1. NGC 1784: Previously observed properties .................................... ...............

1-2. N G C 2500: Previously observed properties........................................ ....................4

1-3. N G C 2793: Previously observed properties........................................ ....................5

1-4. N G C 3055: Previously observed properties........................................ ....................5

1-5. N G C 3246: Previously observed properties........................................ ....................6

1-6. N G C 3687: Previously observed properties........................................ ....................6

1-7. N G C 3887: Previously observed properties........................................ ....................7

1-8. N G C 3930: Previously observed properties........................................ ....................7

1-9. N G C 4793: Previously observed properties........................................ ....................8

1-10. N G C 4900: Previously observed properties........................................ ..................8

1-11. N G C 4904: Previously observed properties........................................ ..................9

1-12. N G C 5147: Previously observed properties........................................ ..................9

1-13. N G C 5300: Previously observed properties........................................ ..................9

1-14. NGC 5645: Previously observed properties .................... ......................... 10

1-15. NGC 5783: Previously observed properties .................... ......................... 10

1-16. NGC 6012: Previously observed properties ............................................... 11

5-1. Parameters of VLA HI observations of NGC 1784................... ............................ 85

5-2. Characteristics of Naturally Weighted CLEANed Channel Maps ............................86

6-1. Parameters of VLA HI observations of NGC 3055.............................................. 115

6-2. Characteristics of Naturally Weighted CLEANed Channel Maps..........................115









7-1. Parameters of VLA HI observations of NGC 3930....................................... 138

7-2. Characteristics of Naturally Weighted CLEANed Channel Maps..........................139

8-1. Parameters of VLA HI observations of NGC 4900........................................... 161

8-2. Characteristics of Naturally Weighted CLEANed Channel Maps..........................161

9-1. Parameters of VLA HI observations of NGC 4904.......................................... 187

9-2. Characteristics of Naturally Weighted CLEANed Channel Maps..........................187

10-1: Parameters of VLA HI observations of NGC 5300 .................... ...... ............209

10-2. Characteristics of Naturally Weighted CLEANed Channel Maps......................209

11-1. Parameters of VLA HI observations of NGC 6012......................................... 229

11-2. Characteristics of Naturally Weighted CLEANed Channel Maps......................229















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure pge

1-1. Distribution of Hubble Type within our galaxy sample. This distribution does
not take into account bar (B or AB) status. .................................... ...............13

1-2. Hubble bar classification distribution of the galaxy sample...................................14

1-3. Elmegreen arm class distribution of the galaxy sample ........................................ 14

1-4. Distribution of Hubble Classification and Elmegreen arm classification. The
stripes across the bars represent the number of galaxies of a particular arm
class (labeled at right) in that Hubble Type. ................................. .................15

1-5. Distribution of Bar Classification and Elmegreen arm classification. The stripes
across the bars represent the number of galaxies of a particular arm class
(labeled at right) in that Hubble Type. ........................................ ............... 15

1-6. Radial velocity distribution of the galaxy sample. Velocity bins are separated by
500 km s-, corresponding to 7 Mpc, where Ho=70 km s-1 Mpc- ........................16

1-7. Angular size distribution of galaxy sample .............. ... ............ ............... .16

1-8. Apparent magnitude distribution of the galaxy sample................. ............... 17

1-9. Distribution of previously measured HI spectrum asymmetry measure in sample
galaxies ............ ........ ........... .. ....................................... 17

3-1. Optical R-band D SS image of N GC 1784.................................... ..................30

3-2. R-band D SS im age of N GC 2500....................................... ........................... 32

3-3. 2-M ASS K-band image of NGC 2500 ........................................... ............... 32

3-4. R-band image of NGC 2793 from IAC80 ...................................... ............... 34

3-5. K-band image of NGC 2793 from 2-MASS. This image is rotated 1800 and
reflected relative to the y-axis with respect to our IAC80 image in Figure 3-6.......34

3-6. Optical R-band image of NGC 3055, taken at the IAC80 telescope.........................36

3-7. Optical B-band image of NGC 3055 taken with the IAC80 telescope....................37









3-8. Near-Infrared K-band image of NGC 3055, taken with the TCS............................37

3-9. R-band image of NGC 3246 from IAC80 ...................................... ............... 39

3-10. K-band image of NGC 3246 from 2-M ASS................................. ............... 39

3-11. R-band image of NGC 3687 from IAC80 .................................... ............... 41

3-12. B-band image of NGC 3687 from IAC80 .................................... ............... 41

3-13. K-band image of NGC 3687 from 2-M ASS................................. ............... 42

3-14. R-band image of NGC 3887 from IAC80 .................................... ............... 43

3-15. K-band image of NGC 3887 from 2-M ASS................................. ............... 44

3-16. Optical R-band image of NGC 3930 taken with IAC80 telescope........................45

3-17. Optical B-band im age of N GC 3930 ............................................ ............... 46

3-18. B-R color map of NGC 3930. Light grayscale regions are blue in color. Darker
grayscale regions correspond to red colors. .................................. .................46

3-19. R-band image of NGC 4793 from IAC80 .................................... ............... 48

3-20. K-band image of NGC 4793 from 2-MASS. This image is rotated 1800 and
flipped along the y-axis relative to the R-band IAC80 image in Figure 3-19..........49

3-21. Optical R-band image of NGC 4900 taken with the IAC 80 telescope...................51

3-22. Optical B-band image of NGC 4900 taken at the IAC80 telescope.....................51

3-23. B-R color map of NGC 4900. Light grayscale regions are blue in color. Darker
grayscale regions correspond to red colors. .................................. .................52

3-24. H-band image of NGC 4900 from Ohio State............ ......................................53

3-25. Optical R-band image of NGC 4904 taken with IAC80 telescope........................55

3-26. Optical B-band image of NGC 4904 taken with IAC 80 .....................................55

3-27. B-R color map of NGC 4904. Light grayscale regions are blue in color. Darker
grayscale regions correspond to red colors. .................................. .................56

3-28. K-band image of NGC 4904 taken at TCS................................... .................56

3-29. R-band image of NGC 5147 from DSS........................................ ............... 58

3-30. K-band image of N GC 5147 from 2-M ASS.................................. .....................58









3-31. Optical R-band image of NGC 5300 taken at IAC80........................................59

3-32. Optical B-band image of NGC 5300 taken with IAC80 ......................................60

3-33. B-R color map of NGC 5300. Light grayscale regions are blue in color. Darker
grayscale regions correspond to red colors. .................................. .................61

3-34. R-band image of NGC 5645 from IAC80 .................................... ............... 63

3-35. B-band image of NGC 5645 from IAC80 .................................... ............... 63

3-36. K-band image of NGC 5645 from 2-MASS. This image is rotated 1800 and
flipped along the y-axis relative to the R-band IAC80 image in Figure 3-35..........64

3-37. R-band image of NGC 5783 from IAC80 .................................... ............... 65

3-38. K-band image of NGC 5783 from 2-M ASS................................. ............... 66

3-39. Optical R-band im age of N GC 6012 ............................................ ............... 68

3-40. Optical B-band im age of N GC 6012 ............................................ ............... 69

3-41. B-R color map of NGC 5300. Light grayscale regions are blue in color. Darker
grayscale regions correspond to red colors. .................................. .................69

3-42. K-band image of NGC 6012 taken at TCS................................... .................70

3-43. Distribution of the optical diameters of galaxies in the sample set. The strips
across the columns represent the amount of galaxies from particular Elmegreen
arm class (labeled at right) within that size bin....................................................73

3-44. Distribution of the optical semi-major axis length in the sample set. The strips
across the columns represent the Hubble bar class of that galaxy (labeled at
right) within the particular size bin. .............................................. ............... 73

3-45. Distribution of the bar axis ratio for the sample set. The strips across the
columns represent the Hubble bar class of the galaxies (labeled at right)
within the particular bar axis ratio bin. ........................................ ............... 74

3-46. Distribution of the bar axis ratio for the sample set. The strips across the
columns represent the Elmegreen arm class of the galaxies (labeled at right)
with in the particular bar axis ratio bin. ...................................... ............... 74

3-47. Distribution of the bar length to galaxy radius ratio for the sample set. The
strips across the columns represent the amount of galaxies from particular
Elmegreen arm class (labeled at right) within that bar length ratio bin ................75









3-48. Comparison of bar axis ratio to bar/galaxy length ratio. Strips across the
columns represent the number of galaxies within a range of bar axis ratio
with respect to the bar length bin. ........................................ ........................ 75

5-1. The individual, naturally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the low
resolution data. ............................................................................87

5-2. The individual, naturally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the low
resolution data. ............................................................................88

5-3. Grayscale with contours of the total HI surface density from the low resolution
d a ta se t ...................................... ................................... ................ 8 9

5-4. High Resolution HI surface density maps. ........... ........................ ...............91

5-5. The HI flux density versus velocity for the low resolution data set. .....................93

5-6. The HI radial density profiles from the low resolution data set (circles) and
the high resolution data set (triangles) ........................................ ............... 94

5-7. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the low resolution data. .................94

5-8. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the high resolution data set. ...........95

5-9. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the major axis of NGC 1784. The
contours are at 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 250. The inner ring feature is labeled with
"IN" in the plot along the major axis. The central velocity is at
2 .308 x 106 m s ............................................ ............................ 97

5-10. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the minor axis of NGC 1784. The
contours are at 2, 3, 5, 0, 15, 20, and 250. The systemic velocity of the system
is at 2 .308 x 106 m s-1 ............................................. ... .. ...... .... ........... 98

5-11. Thick P-V slices of N GC 1784. ................................ ................................... 99

5-12. A P-V slice through low density region A. Contours are at 2, 3, 5, and 10 0.......102

5-13. A P-V slice through low density region B. Contours are at 2, 3, 5, and 10........103

5-14. A P-V slice through low density region C. Contours are at 2, 3, 5, and 10........103

5-15. A P-V slice through object D. Contours are at 2, 3, 5, and 10 ........................104

5-16. Rotation curve of NGC 1784 from the high resolution data set. Stars represent
the approaching half of the galaxy. Triangles represent the receding half of the
galaxy. Circles represent the average of both. ................... ................... .......... 105









5-17. Kinematic position angle of NGC 1784 as a function of radius. Stars represent
the approaching half of the galaxy. Triangles represent the receding half of
the galaxy. Circles represent the average of both................ ....... ................ 106

5-18. Inclination angle of NGC 1784 as a function of radius. Stars represent the
approaching half of the galaxy. Triangles represent the receding half of the
galaxy. Circles represent the average of both. ........................... ...................107

5-19. Model velocity and residual velocity fields for NGC 1784. ..............................108

5-20. The HI flux versus velocity for the HI rings using the low resolution data set.
The velocity resolution here is 20 km s-1. The peak at roughly 2350 km s-1
represents the inner ring. The peak at roughly 2450 km s- represents the
outer ring. .................................. .......................... ................................ 111

6-1. Individual, naturally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the low resolution
d ata. ..................................................................................1 17

6-2. Individual, naturally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the high resolution
d ata. ..................................................................................1 18

6-3. Grayscale with contours of the total HI surface density from the low resolution
data set. ................................................................................119

6-4. Grayscale and contours of the total HI surface density from the high resolution
d ata set ........................................................................................12 0

6-5. Contours of the high resolution data set overlaid on a DSS image of NGC 3055.
The peak flux and contours are the same as in Figure 6-4. The synthesized
beam is shown at the bottom left ......... .. .... .. ....................... ............... 120

6-6. The HI flux density versus velocity for the low resolution data set. The velocity
resolution here is 10 km s-1. The spectrum is largely symmetric........................122

6-7. The HI radial density profiles from the low resolution data set (closed circles)
and the high resolution data set (open circles) ........... ........ ................. 123

6-8. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the low resolution data. Contours
are separated by 20 km s- Motion toward the observer (the western side of the
galaxy) is displayed with black contours and lighter grayscales. The central
velocity is 1832 km s-1. ..................... .............. .......................... 124

6-9. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the high resolution data set.
Contours are separated by 10 km s-1. Darker grayscales (the eastern side of
the galaxy) correspond to motion away from the observer..................................125









6-10. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the high resolution data set
overlaid on an optical DSS image of the galaxy. Contours are the same as in
F igu re 6 -9 ....................................................................... 12 5

6-11. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the major axis of NGC 3055. The
contours are at 2, 3, 5, 10, and 250. The central velocity of the system is at
1.832 x 10 m s 1..................................................................... 12 7

6-12. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the minor axis of NGC 3055. The
contours are at 2, 3, 5, 10, and 200. The central velocity of the system is at
1 .8 3 2 x 10 6 m s-1.......................................................................12 8

6-13. Rotation curve of NGC 3055 from the high resolution data set. Plotted data
is the average of both sides of the galaxy........................................ ..................129

6-14. Kinematic position angle of NGC 3055 as a function of radius .........................129

6-15. Inclination angle of NGC 3055 as a function of radius................. ............ ...131

6-16. Model velocity field constructed from kinematical data in Figures 6-13, 6-14,
and 6-15. Light grayscales represent approaching velocities.............................131

6-17. Residual velocity field made from model in A. Light grayscales represent
approaching residuals (contours separated by 5 km s-1)...................................132

6-18. The HI flux density versus velocity for the "A" HI satellite. The velocity
resolution is 10 km s-1. ......................... ......... .. .. .... ............... 133

6-19. The HI flux density versus velocity for the "B" satellite. The velocity
resolution is 10 km s-1. ......................... ......... .. .. .... ............... 133

6-20. Contours of HI surface density overlaid on an optical DSS image of the "A"
satellite. The contours are the same as in Figure 6-3 ...........................................134

6-21. Contours of HI surface density overlaid on an optical DSS image of the "B"
satellite. The contours are the same as in Figure 6-3 ...........................................135

7-1. Individual, naturally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the low resolution
d ata ............................................................................ 14 0

7-2. Individual, naturally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the high resolution
data. ............................................................................. 14 1

7-3. Grayscale with contours of the total HI surface density from the low resolution
data set. ...........................................................................142

7-4. Grayscale with contours of the total HI surface density from the low resolution
data set. Contours and resolution are the same as in Figure 7-3...........................143


xviii









7-5. Grayscale and contours of the total HI surface density from the high resolution
data set. The peak flux corresponds to 5.8 x 1021 cm-2. Contours are at 1
(the 20 flux level), 2, 5,10, 15, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 95% of the peak flux. The
synthesized beam (37" x 34") is shown at the bottom left...............................144

7-6. Contours of the high resolution HI surface density over a grayscale image of
NGC 3930. Contours and resolution are the same as in Figure 7-5..................145

7-8. The HI radial density profiles from the low resolution data set (closed circles)
and the high resolution data set (open circles) ....... .... ....................................... 147

7-9. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the low resolution data. Contours
are separated by 10 km s-1. Motion toward the observer is displayed with black
contours and lighter grayscales. The systemic velocity of the galaxy is
919 km s-1. The synthesized beam (59" x 58") is displayed in the lower left.......148

7-10. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the high resolution data set.
Contours are separated by 10 km s 1. Darker grayscales correspond to motion
away from the observer. The synthesized beam (37" x 34") is displayed in the
low er left hand corner. ............................... .... .......... ............... ............. 148

7-11. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the high resolution data set
overlaid on an optical DSS image of NGC 3930. Contours are the same as in
F igu re 7-10 ...................................................... ................. 14 9

7-12. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the major axis of NGC 3930. The
contours are at 3, 5, 10, 20, 45, and 500. The resolution is denoted by a cross
in the lower left cor er of the bottom left panel.................... ..........................150

7-13. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the minor axis of NGC 3930. The
contours are at 3, 5, 10, 20, 45, 500. The resolution function is shown as a
cross in the lower left corner of the bottom left panel........................... .........152

7-14. Rotation curve of NGC 3930 from the high resolution data set. Open squares
represent the approaching half of the galaxy. Open circles represent the
receding half of the galaxy. Filled circles represent the average of both............ 153

7-15. Expansion velocity as a function of radius for NGC 3930. Symbols are the
sam e as in Figure 7-14. .............................. ................ .............. .............. 54

7-16. Kinematic position angle of NGC 3930 as a function of radius. Symbols are
the sam e as in Figure 7-14............................................. ............................. 155

7-17. Inclination angle of NGC 6012 as a function of radius. Symbols are the same
as in F igu re 7-14 ...................................................................155

7-18. Model velocity field constructed from kinematical data in Figures 7-14, 7-16,
and 7-17. Light grayscales represent approaching velocities.............................157









7-19. Residual velocity field made from model in Figure 7-18. Light grayscales
represent approaching residuals. Contours are separated by 5 km s ...................157

7-20. Model velocity field including values for expansion velocity and with all
values sm oothed at large radii ...................................................... .............. 158

7-21. Residual velocity field made with the model from 7-20. Light grayscales
indicate motion towards the observer. Contours are separated by 5 km s-1..........158

8-1. Individual, naturally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the low resolution
d ata. ..................................................................................... 16 3

8-2. Individual, naturally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the low resolution
data. The resolution and contour levels are the same as in Figure 8-1................164

8-3. Individual, naturally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the high resolution
d ata. ..................................................................................... 16 5

8-4. Individual, naturally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the high resolution
data. The resolution and contour levels are the same as in Figure 8-3................166

8-5. Grayscale with contours of the total HI surface density from the low resolution
data set. ...........................................................................167

8-6. Contours of the total HI surface density from the low resolution data set overlaid
on an optical DSS image of NGC 4900. Contour levels are the same as in
F figure 8-5. ...........................................................................168

8-7. Grayscale and contours of the total HI surface density from the high resolution
data set. ...........................................................................169

8-8. Contours of the total HI surface density from the high resolution data set
overlaid on an optical DSS image of NGC 4900. Contours are at the same
levels as in Figure 8-7. ............................... ................ .............. .............. 170

8-9. The HI flux density versus velocity for the low resolution data set. The
velocity resolution here is 10 km s-1. The spectrum does not show the typical
galactic double hom ed pattern. ........................................ .......................... 171

8-10. The HI radial density profiles from the low resolution data set (closed circles)
and the high resolution data set (open circles) ....... _. ......................................172

8-11. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the low resolution data.
Contours are separated by 10 km s- Motion toward the observer is displayed
with lighter grayscales. The central velocity contour is at 969 km s-1. The
synthesized beam (68" x 57") is displayed in the lower left. ...............................173









8-12. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the high resolution data set.
Contours are separated by 10 km s 1. Darker grayscales correspond to motion
aw ay from the observer. ............................................. ...................................... 174

8-13. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the high resolution data set
overlaid on an optical DSS image. Contours are the same as in Figure 8-12......175

8-14. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the major axis of the inner portion of
NGC 4900. The contours are at 3, 5, 10, 20, and 40 ........................................ 176

8-15. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the supposed major axis of the outer
regions of NGC 4900. The contours are at 3, 5, 10, 20, and 40. .......................177

8-16. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the minor axis of the inner regions of
NGC 4900. The contours are at 3, 5, 10, 20, and 40 ........................................ 178

8-17. Rotation curve of NGC 1784 from the high resolution data set. Data points
represent the average of both the receding and approaching sides of the galaxy. .179

8-18. Expansion velocity as a function of radius in NGC 4900 ......................... 182

8-19. Kinematic position angle of NGC 4900 as a function of radius .........................182

8-20. Inclination angle of NGC 4900 as a function of radius...................................83

8-21. Model velocity field constructed from kinematical data of both the inner
regions of NGC 4900 and the supposed ring ............................... ............... .183

9-1. Individual, naturally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the low resolution
data. ............................................................................. 189

9-2. Individual, naturally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the high resolution
data. ............................................................................. 190

9-3. Grayscale with contours of the total HI surface density from the low resolution
data set. ...........................................................................19 1

9-4. Contours of the total HI surface density from the low resolution data set over an
optical DSS image of NGC 4904. Resolution and contour levels are the
sam e as Figure 9-3 ....... .. ........................... .......... ... ... .. .......... 191

9-5. Grayscale and contours of the total HI surface density from the high resolution
data set. The peak flux corresponds to 1.7 x 1021 cm-2. Contours are at 1 (the
2o flux level), 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 95% of the peak flux. The
synthesized beam (21" x 19") is shown at the bottom left................................194









9-6. Contours of the total HI surface density from the high resolution data set overlaid
on an optical DSS image of NGC 4904. Resolution and contour levels are the
same as Figure 9-5....................................................195

9-7. The HI flux density versus velocity for the low resolution data set. The velocity
resolution here is 10 km s ............................................................................ 195

9-8. The HI radial density profiles from the high resolution data set (closed circles)
and the low resolution data set (open circles) ............................. ...................196

9-9. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the low resolution data. Contours
are separated by 10 km s-1. Motion toward the observer is displayed with
lighter grayscales. The central velocity contour is at 1169 km s1. ......................197

9-10. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the high resolution data set.
Contours are separated by 10 km s- Darker grayscales correspond to motion
aw ay from the observer. ................................................ .............................. 198

9-11. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the high resolution data set o
verlaid on an optical DSS image of the galaxy. Contours are the same as in
F figure 9-10. ..........................................................................198

9-12. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the major axis of NGC 4904. The
contours are at 3, 5, 10, 20, and 30 ........................................ ............... 200

9-13. P-V plots along and parallel to the position angle of the outer ring. Contours
are at 3, 5, 10, 20, and 300. ..................... ........... ........................201

9-14. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the minor axis of NGC 4904. The
contours are at 3, 5, 10, 20, and 30 ........................................ ............... 202

9-15. Rotation curve of NGC 1784 from the high resolution data set. Data points
represent the average of both the approaching and receding sides of the galaxy. .204

9-16. Kinematic position angle of NGC 1784 as a function of radius............................204

9-17. Inclination angle of NGC 1784 as a function of radius .............. ... ...............205

9-18. Model velocity field constructed from kinematical data in Figures 9-15, 9-16,
and 9-17. Light grayscales represent approaching velocities.............................206

9-19. Model disk velocity field for NGC 4904 with tilted outer ring. Light
grayscales represent approaching velocities............................................. 206

10-1. Individual, naturally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the low
resolution data. ...........................................................................2 11









10-2. Individual, naturally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the high
resolution data. ...........................................................................2 12

10-3. Grayscale with contours of the total HI surface density from the low
resolution data set. .................... .................. ................. .... ....... 213

10-4. Contours of the total HI surface density from the low resolution data
set overlaid on an optical DSS image of NGC 5300. Contours and resolution
are the sam e as in Figure 10-3............................... .. ........... .... ............... 214

10-5. Grayscale and contours of the total HI surface density from the high resolution
data set. ...........................................................................2 15

10-6. Contours of the high resolution data set overlaid on a DSS image of NGC
5300. Contours and resolution are the same as in Figure 10-5. ..........................216

10-7. The HI flux density versus velocity for the low resolution data set. The
velocity resolution here is 10 km s ........................................... ............... 217

10-8. The HI radial density profiles from the low resolution data set (closed circles)
and the high resolution data set (open circles) ...................................................... 218

10-9. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the low resolution data.
Contours are separated by 10 km s ...................................................................219

10-10. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the high resolution data set.
Contours are separated by 10 km s ............................................... ...............219

10-11. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the high resolution data set
overlaid on an optical DSS image of NGC 5300. Contours are the same as in
F figure 10-10. .........................................................................220

10-12. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the major axis of NGC 5300. The
contours are at 3, 5, 10, 20 ..... ....................................................................... 221

10-13. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the minor axis of NGC 5300. The
contours are at 3, 5, 10, and 20 ........................................ ....................... 222

10-14. Rotation curve of NGC 5300 from the high resolution data set. Data points
represent the average of both the receding and approaching sides of the galaxy. .223

10-15. Expansion velocity versus as a function of radius for NGC 5300............. ......223

10-16. Kinematic position angle of NGC 5300 as a function of radius.......................225

10-17. Inclination angle of NGC 5300 as a function of radius ..............................226


xxiii









10-18. Model velocity field constructed from kinematical data in Figures 10-14,
10-15, and 10-16, and 10-17. Light grayscales represent approaching
v e lo c itie s ..................................................... ................ 2 2 7

11-1. Individual, naturally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the low
resolution data. .................................... ......................................231

11-2. Individual, naturally weighted, CLEANed channel images of the high
resolution data. ...........................................................................232

11-3. Grayscale with contours of the total HI surface density from the low resolution
data set. ...........................................................................234

11-4. Contours of the total HI surface density from the low resolution data set
overlaid on an optical DSS image of the galaxy. Resolution and contour levels
are the sam e as in Figure 11-3......................................... ........................... 234

11-5. Grayscale and contours of the total HI surface density from the high resolution
data set. ...........................................................................235

11-6. Contours of the high resolution data set overlaid on a DSS image of NGC 6012.
The peak flux and contours are the same as in Figure 11-5. The synthesized
beam is shown at the bottom left ......... .. .... .. ....................... ............... 236

11-7. The HI flux density versus velocity for the low resolution data set. The
velocity resolution here is 10 km s ..................................... ...... ............... 237

11-8. The HI radial density profiles from the low resolution data set (closed circles)
and the high resolution data set (open circles) ..................... ........ ......................... 238

11-9. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the low resolution data.
Contours are separated by 10 km s-1. Motion toward the observer is displayed
with lighter grayscales. The central velocity contour is at 1854 km s ................239

11-10. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the high resolution data set.
Contours are separated by 10 km s 1. Darker grayscales correspond to motion
aw ay from the observer. ............................................... ............................... 239

11-11. Intensity-weighted radial velocity contours of the high resolution data set
overlaid on an optical DSS image of NGC 6012. Contours and resolution are
the sam e as in Figure 11-10......................................................... ............... 240

11-12. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the major axis of NGC 6012. The
contours are at 3, 5, 10, 20, and 40 ........................................ ............... 241

11-13. A set of P-V slices parallel to and along the minor axis of NGC 6012. The
contours are at 3, 5, 10, 20, and 40 ........................................ ............... 243


xxiv









11-14. Small scale P-V plots made through HI holes found in Figure 11-5. The slices
on the left are parallel to the major kinematic axis of NGC 6012. The slices on
the left are made parallel to the minor axis of NGC 6012. ...................................244

11-15. Rotation curve of NGC 6012 from the high resolution data set. Data points
represent the average of values from both the approaching and receding sides
of th e g alaxy ........... ......... .. ........................................................ .. 24 5

11-16. Expansion velocity as a function of radius for NGC 6012...............................246

11-17: Kinematic position angle of NGC 6012 as a function of radius.......................246

11-18. Inclination angle of NGC 6012 as a function of radius......................................247

11-19. Model velocity field constructed from kinematical data in Figures 11-16,
11-17, 11-18, and 11-19. Light grayscales represent approaching velocities.......247

11-20. Residual velocity field made from model in Figure 11-20. Light grayscales
represent approaching residuals. Contours are separated by 5 km s-1
Concentric circles at the center of the galaxy denote where azimuthal profiles
w ere m ade for later figures.......................... ............................... ............... 248

11-21. Azimuthal plot of NGC 6012's residual velocity field made at a radius of 20" ..251

11-22. Azimuthal plot of NGC 6012's residual velocity field made at a radius of 40" ..251

11-23. Azimuthal plot of NGC 6012's residual velocity field made at a radius of 80" ..252

11-24. Azimuthal plot ofNGC 6012's residual velocity field made at a radius of 120" 252

12-1. Distribution of the bar axis ratio for the sample set. The strips across the
columns represent the Elmegreen arm class of the galaxies (labeled at right)
with in the particular bar axis ratio bin. ...................................... ............... 256

12-2. Distribution of the bar length to galaxy radius ratio for the sample set. The
strips across the columns represent the amount of galaxies from particular
Elmegreen arm class (labeled at right) within that bar length ratio bin ................256

12-3. Comparison of bar axis ratio to bar/galaxy length ratio. Strips across the
columns represent the number of galaxies within a range of bar axis ratio with
respect to the bar length bin. ............................................................................257

12-4. Distribution of bar symmetries for the sample set. Strips across the columns
represent the different Elmegreen arm classes. ...................................... ......... 258

12-5. Distribution of bar length to galaxy radius ratio in the sample set. Strips
across the columns represent the symmetry status of the bar. ............................259









12-6. Distribution of HI Rotation curve shapes within the sample set. Strips across
the columns represent the different Elmegreen arm classifications. We did not
observe in HI any galaxies that were in Elmegreen arm class "1"......................261

12-7. Distribution of Bar length to galaxy radius ratio in galaxies observed in HI.
Strips across the columns represent the shape of the rotation curve....................261

12-8. Distribution of HI diameters in the sample set...................................................263

12-9. Distribution of HI to Optical Diameter Ratios within the sample set. Strips
across the columns correspond to the symmetry of the HI distribution ................263

12-10. Distribution of HI to optical diameter ratios. Strips across the bar represent
the bar to galaxy length ratio ......... .................. ........ ....................... 264

12-11. Distribution of HI masses in the sample set ............................. ...................265

12-12. Distribution of HI Mass fraction for the sample set. The strips across the
columns represent the distribution of HI to optical diameter ratios.....................266

12-13. Distribution of HI Mass fraction for the sample set. The strips across the
columns represent the Elmegreen arm classification of the set. ..........................266

12-14. Distribution of Elmegreen arm classes in the control sample set.....................274

12-15. Distribution of Hubble Types in the control sample set. Strips across the
columns represent the Elmgreen arm classes within the group. ..........................275

12-16. Bar classification distribution of the control sample. Strips across the
column indicate the Elmegreen arm class of the control set...............................275


xxvi
















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS
OF BARRED, FLOCCULENT GALAXIES

By

Douglas Lee Ratay

August 2004

Chair: Dr. Stephen Gottesman
Major Department: Astronomy

Although it is generally accepted that large galaxies form through the assemblage

of smaller objects, an explanation for the morphology of galaxies is not available. Any

complete theory of galaxy morphology must include production and dissolution

mechanisms for galactic bars, rings, nuclear bars, spiral arms, and companions. This

theory does not exist because of the lack of detailed data from many types of galaxies in

different environments.

We have defined a new sample of galaxies which are simultaneously flocculent,

barred, and isolated. We have performed optical, near-infrared, and radio (HI)

observations of the galaxies in this sample.

We measured properties of our galaxies including bar length, bar axis ratio, HI

diameter, HI mass, and dynamical mass. We found that our sample group is

heterogeneous, and compares well to a standard samples of galaxies. We found two of

our galaxies to possess companions, and two others to show evidence of current


xxvii









interactions. This is consistent with other observations indicating that local isolated

galaxies do not possess a large number of small companions. We cannot rule out the

possibility of very small companions. We find that as a group our sample is slightly less

luminous than normal galaxies and may be more likely to be involved in interactions.

We conclude that the bar and spiral arm features in our sample are due to processes

internal to the galaxies, likely involving the interaction between the galactic disk and

halo. We defined a control sample of barred, grand design galaxies to further determine

the acceptability of barred, flocculent galaxies as a physically meaningful subset of

galaxies.


xxviii














CHAPTER 1
PROJECT DESCRIPTION

Recent advances in observational technology have greatly opened the study of

extragalactic astronomy. Observations in the near-IR by Block & Puerari (1999) of grand

design and flocculent, disk galaxies have thrown a new level of complexity into the

previous optical arm classification scheme of Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982). This

near-infrared work possibly shows the existence of two decoupled dynamical systems,

one composed of Population I stars and gas, and the other composed of Population II

stars, cohabitating in the same galaxy. Galaxies have been found to be grand design in

one system while flocculent in the other (Cepa et al. 1988; Elmegreen et al. 1996;

Thomley 1996; Block & Puerari 1999).

There is no clear understanding as to why a galaxy is either flocculent (possesses

no discernable spiral structure), grand design (possesses two strong spiral arms), or

somewhere in between. Block & Puerari (1999) go even farther saying that even if we

know the arm morphology of a galaxy in one wave length regime, we cannot predict the

arm morphology of the galaxy in the other. This is a result of presumed dynamical

decoupling. Still, it has been assumed in the past that the presence of a bar or a

companion is correlated with spiral density waves (Kormendy & Norman 1979;

Elmegreen & Elmegreen 1982; Elmegreen & Elmegreen 1983; Elmegreen & Elmegreen

1985; Seigar & James 1998a,b).

A sizable minority of galaxies exist that are flocculent in the optical while

possessing bars and possibly companions (Elmegreen & Elmegreen 1982; Elmegreen &









Elmegreen 1987; Haynes et al. 1998). Our study examined that population. Flocculent

galaxies with bars have not been critically examined in the past. Only 2 of the 15

galaxies in our sample have been observed in the spectral line mode of the Very Large

Array. Our study aimed to extend the work of Block & Puerari (1999) by choosing our

sample differently (only flocculent, barred) and by extending wavelength coverage (21

cm, near-IR, and optical). We hoped to provide answers to the following questions:

* Are Elmegreen & Elmegreen's (1982) arm classifications valid?

* Do the galaxies in our sample possess near-infrared spiral structure?

* Does the sample of optically barred flocculent galaxies possess near-infrared bars?

* What is the nature (relative size, surface brightness distribution) of the optical and
near-infrared bars?

* Does the sample of optically barred, flocculent galaxies possess similar neutral
hydrogen mass ratios and morphologies?

* How many of these optically barred flocculent galaxies possess HI companions?

* Of the galaxies that possess companions, what are the physical and orbital properties
of the companions? Are the properties similar?

* If there are similar characteristics of optically flocculent, barred galaxies, are these
properties similar to or different from flocculent non-barred galaxies and optically
grand design galaxies?

Galaxy Sample

This project is the first to define barred, flocculent galaxies as a distinct class for

study. The galaxies selected for this work were taken from the original research, that

classified galaxies as flocculent or grand design, by Elemgreen & Elmegreen (1982).

Objects were selected from Elmegreen & Elmegreen's (1982) list if the met the following

criteria: bar type of SAB or SB; flocculent arm classification (<4); Hubble Type later

than Sa and no later than Sd; classified as isolated by Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982).









The bar classification criteria provide us with galaxies that show any type of bar feature

or oval distortion. The arm classification criteria give all galaxies classified as flocculent.

Although arm classification is done primarily by eye on blue images (leading to some

uncertainty), all other papers in the literature use the Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982)

scheme, so we adopted it also. The Hubble Classification criteria were used to include

only "regular" spiral galaxies. It is assumed that smaller Magellenic type galaxies or

peculiar and irregular galaxies may have other processes operating on their morphology

(which would not allow data gained from them to be compared easily to other large

galaxies). Also, we wanted to observe galaxies large enough to determine detail with

normal 21 cm observations. Isolation criteria were used to eliminate galaxies with

obviously interacting large companions, or those in groups. Dynamics of such

interactions and effects on the morphologies of constituent galaxies are poorly

understood. We looked solely at the possible effects of bars on the disk of a galaxy.

The galaxies selected for our study have not been previously well studied. Of the

15 in the sample, only 2 were previously observed for any amount of time in the HI

spectral line mode of the Very Large Array (VLA). Near infrared observations are

essentially non-existent for the sample. Tables 1 through 16 present relevant data for all

objects in the sample.












Table 1-1. NGC 1784: Previously observed properties
Property of NGC 1784 Value Reference
Right ascension (2000) 05h 05m 27.1s de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Declination (2000) -11 52' 17.5" de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Vradial 2308 km s-1 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Hubble classification SB(r)c de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Galaxy size 4.0' x 2.5' de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Arm classification 3 Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982)
Position angle 1050 Tully (1988)
Inclination 550 Tully (1988)
Bar semi-major axis 34" Martin (1995)
Bar semi-minor axis 14" Martin (1995)
Blue magnitude 12.44 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)


Table 1-2. NGC 2500: Previously observed property
Property of NGC 2500 Value
Right ascension (2000) 08h 01m 53.1s
Declination (2000) +50 44' 15"
Distance 12.0 Mpc


Vradial 514 km s
Hubble classification SB(rs)d
Angular size 2.9' x 2.6
Arm classification 1
Inclination 25
Position angle 58
D25 125"
Bar length 21"
Bar to galaxy length ratio 0.24
Bar light profile Exponen
Bar ellipticity class 6
HI flux 33.61 Jy
HI line width 100 km s
HI asymmetry measure 1.04
Apparent magnitude 12.20
MB -17.96
Ha luminosity 2.75 x 1C
May possess a nuclear bar
Shows nuclear emission of Ha.
Classified as having an HII nucleus
Bar shows no twists in near-IR
Bar may be shorter in NIR than in optical


-1










tial

km s-1
-1



)40 erg s-1
erg s


es
Reference
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Grosbol (1985)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982)
Grosbol (1985)
Grosbol (1985)
Martin (1995)
Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1985)
Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1985)
Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1985)
Martin (1995)
Haynes et al. (1998)
Haynes et al. (1998)
Haynes et al. (1998)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Elmegreen & Salzer (1999)
Elmegreen & Salzer (1999)
van den Bergh (1995)
Ho et al. (1995)
Ho et al. (1995)
Elmegreen et al. (1996)
Elmegreen et al. (1996)











Table 1-3. NGC 2793: Previously observed properties


Value
09h 16m 47.2s
+34 25' 48"


Vradial 1687 km s-'
Hubble class SB(s)d
Arm classification 1
Angular size 1.3'x 1.1 '
Apparent magnitude 13.58
Classified as a ring galaxy
Not in the projected nearby cluster
Involved in a head on encounter with a companion
Currently in a starburst phase


Table 1-4. NGC 3055: Previously observed properties
Property of NGC 3055 Value Ri
Right ascension (2000) 09h 55m 18.1s de
Declination (2000) +4 16m 12s de
Distance 23.4 Mpc M
Vradial 1832 km s-1 de
Hubble classification SAB(s)c de
Arm classification 4 El
Mtotal 3 x 1010 Me M
Angular size 2.1'x 1.3' de
D25 125" M
Inclination 24 M
Position angle 63 M
Bar length 7" M
Bar width 3" M
Bar ellipticity class 6 M
Bar/galaxy length ratio 0.11 M
Apparent magnitude 12.7 de
EWHa 597 A R
log F Ha 11.68 R
Not classified as a starburst galaxy D
Possesses a rising rotation curve through 40" Sp
Mass distribution does not fall into normal classes Sp
NGC 3055 is an isolated spiral M


Reference
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Thompson (1977)
Thompson (1977)
Mazzei (1995)
Mazzei (1995)


reference
Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
arquez & Moles (1996)
Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
megreen & Elmegreen (1982)
arquez & Moles (1996)
Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
artin (1995)
artin (1995)
artin (1995)
artin (1995)
artin (1995)
artin (1995)
artin (1995)
Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
omanishin (1990)
omanishin (1990)
evereux (1989)
erandio et al. (1995)
erandio et al. (1995)
arquez & Moles (1996)


Property of NGC 2793
Right ascension (2000)
Declination (2000)









Table 1-5. NGC 3246: Previously observed properties


Property of NGC 3246 Value
Right ascension (2000) 10h 26m 41.8s
Declination(2000) +3 51' 43"
Vradial 2150 km s-1
Hubble classification SABd
Arm classification 1
D25 2.3'
Total 1.2 x 1011 Me
Apparent magnitude 13.2
Inclination 540
HI flux 21.5 Jy km s-1
DHI 4.2'
HI line width 266 km s-1
MHI 5.6 x 109 M,
Posesses an asymmetric HI spectrum
Shows an asymmetric HI morphology

Table 1-6. NGC 3687: Previously observed property
Property of NGC 3687 Value
Right ascension (2000) 1 Ih 28m 00.5s
Declination (2000) +29 30m 39s


Vradial
Hubble classification
Arm classification
Angular size
HI line width
HI flux


251
(R'
4
1.9
191
8.1


MHI 5x
Apparent magnitude 12.
EWH, 17
log FHu 12
Also known as Markarian 736
Possesses a symmetric HI spectrum


07 km s-1
)SAB(r)bc

' x 1.9'
0 km s-1
Jy km s-
109 M,
.82
+4A
.29


Reference
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982)
Warmels (1988)
Pisano & Wilcots (1999)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Warmels (1988)
Warmels (1988)
Warmels (1988)
Pisano & Wilcots (1999)
Pisano & Wilcots (1999)
Warmels (1988)
Pisano & Wilcots (1999)

es
Reference
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Lewis (1987)
Lewis (1987)
Lewis (1987)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Romanishin (1990)
Romanishin (1990)


Lewis (1987)









Table 1-7. NGC 3887: Previously observed properties


Property of NGC 3887
Right ascension (2000)
Declination (2000)
Distance
Vradial
Hubble classification
Arm classification
D25
Angular size
Inclination
Bar length
Bar width
Bar to galaxy ratio
Bar ellipticity class
HI flux
HI line width
HI asymmetry measure
Apparent magnitude
LFIR
LB
Lxray


Value
llh 47m 4.6s
-16 51' 16"
14.8 Mpc
1208 km s-1
SB(r)bc
2
3.3'
3.3' x 2.5'
300
23"
11"
0.23
5
46.26 Jy km s-1
236 km s-1
1.03
11.41
2.0 x 1043 erg s-1
3.3 x 1043 erg s-1
6.5 x 1039 erg s-1


Not classified as active or starburst
Shows a strong bar and low star formation rate.
Possesses a NIR twist in its bar

Table 1-8. NGC 3930: Previously observed property
Property of NGC 3930 Value
Right ascension (2000) 1 h 51m 46.0s
Declination (2000) +38 00' 54"


Vradial
Hubble classification
Arm classification
D25
Angular size
HI flux
HI line width
HI asymmetry measure
Apparent magnitude
EWHu
los FHr,


919 km s-1
SAB(s)c
4
3.2'
3.2'x 2.4'
28.78 Jy km s-1
152 km s1
1.14
13.1
24+5 A
12.57


Reference
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Jungwiert et al. (1997)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982)
Haynes et al. (1998)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Martin (1995)
Martin (1995)
Martin (1995)
Maritn (1995)
Martin (1995)
Haynes et al. (1998)
Haynes et al. (1998)
Haynes et al. (1998)
Haynes et al. (1998)
David et al. (1992)
David et al. (1992)
David et al. (1992)
David et al. (1992)
Martinet & Friedeli (1997)
Jungwiert et al. (1997)

es
Reference
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982)
Haynes et al. (1998)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Haynes et al. (1998)
Haynes et al. (1998)
Haynes et al. (1998)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Romanishin (1990)
Romanishin (1990)


V __I_









Table 1-9. NGC 4793: Previously observed properties


Property of NGC 4793 Value
Right ascension (2000) 12h 54m 40.7s
Declination (2000) +28 56' 19"
Distance 49.2 Mpc
Vradial 2484 km s-1
Hubble classification SAB(rs)c
Arm classification 1
Angular size 2.8'x 1.5'
HI line width 204 km s-1
Apparent magnitude 12.3
EWHu 54 + 2 A
log FHu 11.55
MB -21.2
log MH2 9.38 Me
log Mdust 7.11 Me
log LFIR 10.76 Le
Not classified as a starburst galaxy.
Primary energy source at 4.8 GHz is stars
NGC 4793 is a luminous IR galaxy
Luminous CO source, due to an interaction


Table 1-10. NGC 4900:
Property of NGC 4900
Right ascension (2000)
Declination (2000)
Vradial
Hubble classification
Arm classification
Angular size
Apparent magnitude
B-V
log EWHu
LIR / LB
log LFIR
log OIII / Hp
log NII / Ha
log SII / H
log H / Hp
Not classified as a starbu
Not deficient in HI
Not detected in 20 cm co
The FIR emission in NG(


Reference
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Condon et al. (1991)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Sanders et al. (1991)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Romanishin (1990)
Romanishin (1990)
Condon et al. (1991)
Sanders et al. (1991)
Sanders et al. (1991)
Sanders et al. (1991)
Devereux (1989)
Condon et al. (1991)
Sanders et al. (1991)
Sanders et al. (1991)


Previously observed properties
Value Reference
13h 00m 39. s de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
+2 30' 05" de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
969 km s-1 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
SB(rs)c de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
3 Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982)
2.2' x 2.1' de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
11.90 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
.55 Belfort et al. (1987)
1.48 Belfort et al. (1987)
1.1 (Normal) Belfort et al. (1987)
9.69 Le Ashby et al. (1995)
-0.89 Ashby et al. (1995)
-0.41 Ashby et al. (1995)
-0.7 Ashby et al. (1995)
0.41 Ashby et al. (1995)
rst galaxy Devereux (1989)
Giraud (1986)
ntinuum Puxley et al. (1988)
C 4900 is due to stars Ashby et al. (1995)









Table 1-11. NGC 4904: Previously observed properties
Property of NGC 4904 Value Reference
Right ascension (2000) 13h 00m 58.9s de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Declination (2000) -00 01' 42" de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Vradial 1169 km s-1 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Hubble classification SB(s)cd de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Arm classification 2 Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982)
Angular size 2.2' x 1.4' de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Inclination 47.70 Chapelon et al. (1999)
Bar length 16.4" Chapelon et al. (1999)
Bar ellipticity (b/a) 0.32 Chapelon et al. (1999)
Bar to galaxy ratio 0.35 Chapelon et al. (1999)
HI line width 200 km s-1 Lewis et al. (1985)
HI asymmetry measure 1.04 Lewis et al. (1985)
HI flux 10.76 Jy km s-1 Lewis et al. (1985)
HI mass 1.28 x 109 Me Lewis et al. (1985)
Apparent magnitude 12.6 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
LFIR/LB 1.36 Mazzarella et al. (1991)
log LFIR 9.04 Chapelon et al. (1999)
Not deficient in HI Giraud (1986)
Also known as Markarian 1341

Table 1-12. NGC 5147: Previously observed properties
Property of NGC 5147 Value Reference
Right ascension (J2000) 13h 26m 19.6s de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Declination (J2000) 2 06' 02" de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Vradial 1088 km s-1 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Hubble classification SB(s)dm de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Arm classification 2 Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982)
Angular size 1.9' x 1.5' de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Apparent magnitude 12.29 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)


Table 1-13. NGC 5300:
Property of NGC 5300
Right ascension (J2000)
Declination (J2000)
Vradial
Hubble classification
Arm classification
log Mass
Angular size
D25
Apparent magnitude
EWHu
log FHu
H-band magnitude


Previously observed properties
Value Reference
13h 48m 15.9s de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
+3 57' 03" de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
1171 km s-1 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
SAB(r)c de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
2 Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982)
10.22 Xu et al. (1994)
3.9' x 2.6' de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
3.8' Marzuez & Moles (1992)
12.11 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
22 + 4 A Romanishin (1990)
11.94 Romanishin (1990)
10.38 Xu et al. (1994)










Table 1-14. NGC 5645:
Property of NGC 5645
Right ascension (J2000)
Declination (J2000)
Vradial
Hubble classification
Arm classification
D25
Angular size
HI flux
HI line width
HI asymmetry measure
Apparent magnitude
Possesses a nuclear bar
Lies near a background c


Previously observed properties
Value Reference
14h 30m 39.5s de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
7 16' 29" de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
1370 km s-1 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
SB(s)d de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
1 Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982)
2.4' Haynes et al. (1998)
2.4' x 1.5' de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
19.45 Jy km s-1 Haynes et al. (1998)
181 km s-1 Haynes et la. (1998)
1.35 Haynes et al. (1998)
13.0 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Van den Bergh (1995)
ontinuum source Corbelli & Schneider (1990)


Table 1-15. NGC 5783: Previously observed properties


Property of NGC 5783
Right ascension (J2000)
Declination (J2000)
Distance
Vradial
Hubble classification
Arm classification
D25
Total mass
Inclination
HI line width
HI line flux
HI mass
EWHu
log FHuc
B magnitude


Value
14h 53m 28.2s
+52 4' 34"
36.6 Mpc
2337 km s-1
SAB(s)c
2
2.8'
1.13 x 1011 Me
530
270 km s-1
20 Jy km s-1
6.39 x 109 M0
20+4 A
12.28
13.0


Reference
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Rhee & van Albada (1996)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982)
Rhee & van Albada (1996)
Rhee & van Albada (1996)
Rhee & van Albada (1996)
Rhee & van Albada (1996)
Rhee & van Albada (1996)
Rhee & van Albada (1996)
Romanishin (1990)
Romanishin (1990)
Rhee & van Albada (1996)









Table 1-16. NGC 6012: Previously observed properties
Property of NGC 6012 Value Reference
Right ascension (J2000) 15h 54m 13.9s de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Declination (J2000) +14 36' 04" de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Vradial 1854 km s-1 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Hubble classification (R)SB(r)ab de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Arm classification 3 Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982)
Angular size 2.1' x 1.5' de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
HI line width 177 km s-1 van den Bergh (1985)
HI flux 12.1 Jy km s-1 van den Bergh (1985)
HI mass 4.87 x 109 Me van den Bergh (1985)
HI asymmetry measure 1.08 van den Bergh(1985)
Apparent magnitude 12.69 de Vaucouluers et al. (1991)
Shows a mostly normal HI profile van den Bergh (1985)


Figures 1-1 through 1-7 summarize several of the major properties of the sample

set, so that a global sense of the sample is possible. Figure 1-1 shows the distribution of

Hubble Type (Vaucouluers et al.1991) for our sample set. Most of our galaxies are late

type; however, there are spirals of all types in the sample. There is likely a bias for

flocculent galaxies to be classified as late types, since the pitch angle of the spiral arms of

a galaxy is considered in giving a galaxy a Hubble type. Where arms are not present,

particularly strong, or chaotic looking, a bias toward classifying them as late type will

most likely be introduced. Having most of the galaxies be late type, however, also means

that most galaxies in the sample do not show optical bulges. This may indicate either that

the optical bars in the galaxy sample are young enough not to have dissipated

significantly, or that there were not earlier generations of bars present in the galaxies.

Figure 1-2 shows that there are roughly equal numbers of AB and B type bars in

our sample. In a similar manner, Figure 1-3 shows that there is an even distribution of

Elmegreen arm class distributions in our sample. This shows that there is not a bias

toward a certain type (one-armed or particularly chaotic) of arm structure when choosing









a sample of barred, flocculent galaxies. Figure 1-4 again shows the distribution of

Hubble types (Figure 1-1) within the sample, but is further modified by the Elmegreen

arm class. Our most populous Hubble type (S_c), does not show a bias toward one

Hubble type. Earlier galaxies do tend toward the less chaotic arm classes, but the

numbers of galaxies in these bins (3), are very small. It is unclear whether this would be

a trend in a larger sample. Our latest type galaxies (S_d), do show a trend toward the

more chaotic arm classes. This is most likely evidence of the bias mentioned before,

whereby galaxies with chaotic arms are by definition going to be given later Hubble

types. Care must be taken in the study of barred, flocculent galaxies, to ensure that these

galaxies (chaotic armed, and late type) are of a similar nature to the earlier typed galaxies

in the sample. Figure 1-5 shows this same analysis done on the bar type of the galaxies.

There do not seem to be any systematic differences among bar types in the Elmegreen

arm classes.

Figures 1-6, 1-7, and 1-8 show some of the other diagnostic features of the galaxy

sample set. The distribution of radial velocities in Figure 1-6 shows that galaxies in the

sample are evenly distributed in the local universe. The nearest galaxy has a recessional

velocity of 514 km s-1, and the most distant has a recessional velocity of 2507 km s-1

Figure 1-7 shows that the typical galaxy in the sample has an angular size on the order of

2' 3'. Physical units of diameter are discussed in later chapters. Figure 1-8 shows that

the average apparent magnitude of the sample is about 12.5. Overall, these three figures

show that the sample is (on average) made of relatively nearby and smallish galaxies of

moderate brightness.






13


Finally, Figure 1-9 shows the distribution of previously determined HI asymmetry

measures of the galaxy sample. The HI asymmetry measure, typically made from single

dish observations of galaxies, is a measure of how well a galaxy's HI spectrum resembles

the typical two-homed pattern of differential rotation. A high measure of asymmetry

indicates that either a galaxy possesses an unusual morphology or has a significant

amount of gas at non-circular velocities. The HI asymmetry measure is often used to

search for galaxies that may be undergoing an interaction. Haynes et al. (1998)

performed a recent large survey of spiral galaxies examining this measure. In our

sample, we find that a plurality of galaxies have low asymmetry measures, but a few do

have rather high values (1.35 in one case), indicating that these galaxies may be very

interesting when studied with an interferometer.


9
8
8-
7
6 -
(5

24
3
2
2 -


0
Sa Sb Sc Sd
Galaxy Hubble Type


Figure 1-1. Distribution of Hubble Type within our galaxy sample. This distribution
does not take into account bar (B or AB) status.



























------------------^ ^ ^
B AB

Hubble Bar Classification


Figure 1-2. Hubble bar classification distribution of the galaxy sample


1 2 3

Elmegreen Arm Classification


Figure 1-3. Elmegreen arm class distribution of the galaxy sample










04
03
02
*1


R


Hubble Classification

Figure 1-4. Distribution of Hubble Classification and Elmegreen arm classification. The
stripes across the bars represent the number of galaxies of a particular arm
class (labeled at right) in that Hubble Type.


04
03
02
*1


Bar Classification

Figure 1-5. Distribution of Bar Classification and Elmegreen arm classification. The
stripes across the bars represent the number of galaxies of a particular arm
class (labeled at right) in that Hubble Type.


1-


n





























1000- 1500 1500-2000


>2000


Radial Velocity of Galaxies in km/s


Figure 1-6. Radial velocity distribution of the galaxy sample. Velocity bins are
separated by 500 km s-, corresponding to 7 Mpc, where Ho=70 km s-1 Mpc1.


I


- I- -


2' 3'


Angular Size of Galaxy


Figure 1-7. Angular size distribution of galaxy sample


6

5 -

4 -

3
S3




1 -


0 --


<1000
































Figure 1-8.









o
4Z
0

I
7


<12.0 12.0- 13.0
Apparent Magnitude


Apparent magnitude distribution of the galaxy sample


4.5
4-
3.5 -
3-
2.5 -
2-
1.5 -
1-
0.5 -


>13.0


<1.05 1.05- 1.10 >1.10
HI Spectrum Asymmetry Measure


Figure 1-9. Distribution of previously measured HI spectrum asymmetry measure in
sample galaxies









Observations

Our study used multi-wavelength observations of flocculent, barred galaxies.

Other studies attempting to understand the nature of flocculence or bars have only looked

at one or perhaps two wavelength regimes (Elmegreen & Elmegreen 1982; Grosbol &

Patsis 1998; Block & Puerari 1999). We attempted to observe our sample in three

dynamically important wavelength regimes (HI, near-infrared, and optical).

Neutral Hydrogen

We have obtained HI observations from the Very Large Array in D (60"

resolution), C (20" resolution), and B (7" resolution) configurations for half of our

sample galaxies. HI has traditionally been overlooked in studies of flocculent galaxies.

However, it is important to consider galaxies in this wavelength regime. HI traces the

recent history of the galaxy. It is estimated that 1 to 5 M. of pristine HI falls onto the

disk of the Milky Way per year. This infall most likely occurs in a lumpy fashion in the

form of 107 M0 clouds (Casuso & Beckman 2001). The manner in which clouds of this

size fall on the galaxy could potentially influence the optical morphology of star

formation within the galaxy. Because HI is a dissipative medium, the effects of galactic

cannibalism on a galaxy's HI distribution are not long-lasting. Thus, a disturbed HI

morphology can act like a clock on recent interactions.

Optical

We obtained optical B, R, and I band images of our sample galaxies. These

observations show the distribution and magnitude of star formation within these galaxies.

We are interested in the size and morphology of the galaxy, size and morphology of

optical bars, and location and amount of star formation. These observations serve as a









bridge to the HI observations as the cold neutral gas will be associated with star

formation in many cases.

Near-Infrared

We have obtained near-infrared K-band images of four galaxies in our sample.

These observations show the distribution of low mass dwarf stars within the galaxy.

Some light at K-band is due to higher mass giant stars. However, pushing farther out into

the infrared eliminates the effect of these stars. About 20% of the integrated galactic

light in K-band is due to giant stars. These stars form the true stellar potential (Frogel et

al. 1996). Since stars in a galaxy make up a collisionless fluid, the potential they form is

long lasting and not greatly affected by minor mergers. From these observations we can

get a sense of the galaxy's history over a long time scale.

Data Analysis

The focus of our study rests primarily on neutral hydrogen observations of the

barred, flocculent galaxies. Near-infrared and optical observations are primarily used in a

qualitative way to examine global features of the galaxies, such as the presence and

number of spiral arms, stellar bars, star formation regions, surface brightness, and

galactic size. Other than in these qualitative ways, we did not compare our optical and

near-infrared observations with our neutral hydrogen observations.














CHAPTER 2
INTRODUCTION TO BARRED, FLOCCULENT GALAXIES

The Meaning of Flocculence

Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) provided us with the first large scale classification

scheme for disk galaxy arm structure. They divided all disk galaxies into 12 groups

based on the strength of their spiral arms. Groups one through four are called flocculent;

five through nine are called multi-armed; ten through twelve are called grand design. A

grand design galaxy is defined to have two long, prominent symmetric arms.

In further work with the same data set, Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1985) found that

the minor spiral arms present in flocculent galaxies are blue relative to the surrounding

interarm region, even if the region is not significantly brighter than the rest of the galaxy.

Arm-interarm contrasts are as great as 2 magnitudes in both optical B and I bands for

grand design galaxies. Arm-interarm contrasts are much less in flocculent galaxies and

only appear in the optical B band (Elmegreen et al. 1996). Grand design spirals are

dominated by a spiral density wave that triggers star formation, while star formation in

flocculent galaxies is dominated by a stoichastic self-propogating star formation.

Differences in arm shape between flocculent galaxies are due to different shear rates in

different galaxies (Elmegreen & Thomasson 1993; Gerritsen & Icke 1997). Elmegreen &

Elmegreen (1985) also found that azimuthal light profiles in the optical B and I bands

were chaotic looking for flocculent galaxies.

Other studies have found structural differences between optically flocculent and

grand design galaxies. Romanishin (1985) found that grand design spirals are bluer than









flocculent galaxies, but the atomic hydrogen content is similar between classes. Cepa &

Beckman (1990) found that grand design galaxies have longer scale lengths and are more

massive in both stars and gas than flocculent galaxies. They note, however, that the mass

surface density of the stars and gas does not vary between arm class. Elmegreen &

Elmegreen (1987) also found that grand design galaxies were larger in optical

wavelengths than flocculents, but there was no correlation between arm class and

diameter of the atomic hydrogen content of the galaxy. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1990)

found that grand design galaxies generally have falling rotation curves at their

extremities, while flocculent and multi-armed galaxies have flat or rising rotation curves.

Presumably, this is an indication that grand design galaxies have relatively more mass in

their disk than flocculent galaxies (Cepa & Beckman 1990; Elmegreen & Elmegreen

1990; Elmegreen & Thomason 1993). Models by Rautiainen & Salo (2001) show that

galaxies with more massive halos compared to their disk masses, form flocculent spiral

structure more readily than those with more massive disks. Elmegreen & Elmegreen

(1990) note that the middle class of multi-armed spirals have rotation curves similar to

flocculent galaxies, when naively one would assume the presence of spiral density waves

in the multi-armed galaxies should give rotation curves like those of grand design

galaxies. Molecular line studies of flocculent galaxies, such as Sakamoto (1996) seem to

indicate that non-barred, flocculent galaxies may have central CO holes.

Flocculent Galaxies with Underlying Spiral Structure

Within the last decade, improvements in near-infrared detectors have allowed a

new look at galactic structure. Optical images are able to reveal where young stars are

located in the galactic disk. However, galaxies are optically thick at visible wavelengths

(Block & Puerari 1999). This means that the old stellar population is not imaged in the









optical. Since the young, population I stars only compose about 5% of the dynamical

mass of a galaxy, we miss a great deal of the available information in a galaxy by only

observing it in the optical (Puerari et al. 2000).

Near-infrared observations of flocculent galaxies give an interesting twist to what

we would expect of galaxies as seen in the optical. Cepa et al. (1988) found that the

flocculent galaxy NGC 2403 displays grand design structure in J, H, and K bands.

Thomley (1996) repeated this result for NGC 2403 and added three more galaxies to the

list of optical flocculents with near-infrared grand design spiral structure. Grosbol &

Patsis (1998), Elmegreen et al. (1996), and Puerari et al. (2000) added 10 more galaxies

to this list. Thornley & Mundy (1997) found that CO and HI were enhanced along the

near-infrared arms of one of these galaxies, NGC 5055.

The conclusion drawn by Block & Puerari (1999) based on the mounting

observational evidence for flocculent spirals having near-infrared grand design structure

is that there are two separate dynamical systems at work in a galaxy. The first system is

the gas dominated population I disk. The second is the stellar dominated population II

disk. Bertin & Lin (1996) show theoretically that two different morphologies can exist

within one disk. The global mode of a galaxy is composed of spiral wave packets

traveling radially inward and outward (i.e., a standing wave). The wave packets are

trapped between the corotation circle and the bulge. The Inner Lindblad Resonance can

serve to interrupt the wave packets in the stellar disk. The Inner Lindblad Resonance will

not be as strong in the gaseous disk, thus allowing the standing wave to exist. In this

situation, the galaxy could have two different morphologies at different observational

wavelengths.









Spiral Structure Created By Galactic Bars

The ability of bars to create structure in galaxies has been a debatable topic for

some time. There is evidence to suggest that barred spirals are correlated with grand

design structure. From their original work, Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) find that in a

large sample, barred spirals tend to be grand design. They find that for field galaxies,

three fourths of barred spirals have grand design structure. Conversely, they find that for

field galaxies without bars, only 30% are grand design.

Modeling done by Sellwood & Sparke (1988), on the other hand, found that a

realistic bar-oval potential has a fairly weak effect on spiral arms within a disk. They

found that a strong bar is necessary to produce a spiral response in the disk at large radii.

In addition to this, they found that the pattern speed of the spiral arms and the bars were

different. Sellwood (1993) pointed out that two prototypical barred, grand design

galaxies (NGC 1300 and NGC 3992) have spiral patterns that are not bar driven. They

concluded that spirals and bars are independent patterns except in the cases where the bar

is very large. Infrared observations by Seigar & James (1998a,b) seem to show that at

best, bars only weekly drive spiral structure. Other authors seem to believe that triaxial

buldges may be able to drive the weak near-IR spiral waves of some optically flocculent

galaxies (Block et al. 1996; Elmegreen et al. 1996).

Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1989) raise the issue that bars may not be so simple an

animal. They find that there may actually be two different types of bars, one for early

type disk galaxies, the other for late type. Early type bars tend to emit a higher fraction

of the galaxy's light and are uniform in their light distribution. They are also longer

relative to their host galaxy. This finding is also supported by the work of Martin (1995).

Early type bars are strongly associated with grand design structure. Late type bars are









generally not associated with grand design structure. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1989)

suggest that the bars in early type galaxies extend to corotation, while late type bars do

not. Bars that extend to corotation may have more influence in driving a spiral pattern far

out in the disk. It has also been observed that early type bars have flat light profiles,

while late type bars have exponential profiles (Elmegreen et al. 1996). Flat profiles in

early type galaxies result from excess old and young stars piling up at the bar's end near

the 4:1 ultraharmonic resonance. The bar in an early type galaxy ends because of orbital

resonance scattering beyond the 4:1 resonance. In early type galaxies, the bar corotates

with the spiral pattern (Elmegreen et al. 1996).

The different types of bars are also associated with galactic activity. Chapelon et

al. (1999) suggests that galaxies with long bars are mostly active. Shocks along the

leading edges of bars cause gas to fall towards the center of the galaxy (Athanassoula

1992; Patsis & Athanassoula 2001). Active late type galaxies have strong, long bars,

while early type galaxy bars all tend to be strong. They suggest that the difference

between late type and early type bars arises from different formation mechanisms. Late

type bars possibly form slowly from instabilities, while early type bars form quickly from

interactions. This leads to an evolution scenario, where late type galaxies develop bars,

which then grow and dissipate to become bulges in early type galaxies (Chapelon et al.

1999). Bars should not form more than once in the life of a galaxy. Destruction of a bar

leaves the disk too hot to form another bar unless an enormous amount of cold gas is

dumped on the galaxy (Debattista & Sellwood 2000).

Spiral Structure Created By Extra-Galactic Companions

Companions have also been thought to be a cause of grand design structure in

galaxies. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) found that disk galaxies in either binary









systems or groups were more likely to have grand design structure than field galaxies,

regardless of their bar classification. Looking more closely at the group galaxies in their

original study, Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1983) found that interactions between a

flocculent galaxy and either multiple companions or a group potential could be

responsible for the number of grand design structure galaxies seen in groups. They found

that group density was the most important factor in determining the fraction of non-

barred spirals with grand design structure. They also found that grand design structure

would last for many galactic rotations. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1987) found that

groups with small crossing rates have statistically more flocculent galaxies. Interactions

may not only create, but also enhance weak spiral density waves already present

(Elmegreen & Elmegreen 1990; Thornley & Mundy 1997). However, it seems that

having a companion may not be a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of

spiral density waves (Elmegreen et al. 1996).

Computer simulations have also shown that interactions can create grand design

structure within galaxies (Byrd & Howard 1992). Their simulations lead them to claim

that a grazing 1% mass ratio interaction will create grand design structure. Also, they

propose that 80 99% of galaxies have grand design structure because of interactions

with companions. Their simulations show that structure will work inward during the

course of an interaction. Simulations by Mihos & Hernquist (1994) show that infalling

satellites will create an m=2 mode in the large galaxy. Retrograde encounters seem to

affect a disk less than prograde encounters due to the shorter timescale of interaction

(Andersen 1996). Gas will also be driven to the center of the large galaxy. Laine &









Heller (1999) were able to successfully model a long tidal arm resulting from a minor

interaction in a simulation of NGC 7479.

Beyond just creating structure, it is thought that interactions with companions may

induce bars. In their modeling of NGC 7479, Laine & Heller (1999) found that the

interaction also created an observed bar in the main galaxy. They found that the

companion galaxy only needed to be 10% of the main galaxy mass for this to occur.

Andersen (1996) found that barred spirals are found preferentially closer to the center of

the Virgo Cluster. Andersen (1996) concluded that interaction with the cluster potential

is probably mostly responsible for this effect.

Again, it is also possible that interactions with companions may destroy structure in

a disk galaxy. Sellwood (1993) as well as Debattista & Sellwood (2000) state that an

interaction with a minor companion may destroy a bar in a disk galaxy, but not

necessarily the disk. Accretion events could also create asymmetries in galaxy disks.

These asymmetries may be amplified into the m=l mode (Pisano et al. 1998).

Implications to Smaller Scales

Despite the fact that there may be large scale physical differences between

flocculent and grand design galaxies, it seems that many of their smaller scale properties

are similar. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1985) and Romanishin (1985) found that the star

formation rates of flocculent and grand design galaxies are approximately the same over

a Hubble Time. Romanishin (1985) suggests that there may be a slightly different initial

stellar mass function (IMF) operating in the two galaxies. If grand design galaxies

produce about two times more massive stars, their bluer colors can be explained.

Romanishin (1985) does not suggest why the two different morphological types would

possess different IMF's. Other properties related to star formation such as CO surface









brightness, percentage of Hca emission in HII complexes and far infrared emission, seem

to be similar between the galaxy classes (Stark et al. 1987; Elmegreen & Salzer 1999).

Bars do seem to have an effect on the star formation rates of galaxies, however. Martinet

& Friedli (1997) found that bars which are relatively bright and long relative to the

galaxy's radius have higher star formation rates. Barred galaxies in general have higher

star formation rates (Kandalyan et al. 2000; Roussel et al. 2001). Bar ellipticity may be

correlated with global star formation rate (Aguerri 1999). Late type bars seem to have

higher star formation rates, but the cause is uncertain (Martin & Friedli 1999). Most of

the star formation in the bar occurs at the time of bar formation. No simple relationship

exists between bulge/disk ratio, bar classification, and the starburst properties of a galaxy

(Roussel et al. 2001). HII regions in bars do not seem to be different than in spirals

(Martin & Friedli 1999). A definite link between bars, star formation, and Hubble Type

is still unclear (Martinet & Friedli 1997).














CHAPTER 3
OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED OBSERVATIONS OF BARRED, FLOCCULENT
GALAXIES

In this chapter, we review the optical and near-infrared observations made of the

sample galaxies. These observations were made in order to study the bar and spiral arm

properties of the galaxy sample in different wavelength regimes.

Observations

Optical observations for this chapter were obtained in May 2002 at the Instituto de

Astrofisica de Canarias 80 cm (IAC80) telescope, an f/13.5 Cassegrain reflecting

telescope at the Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife. We used a 1056 x 1024 pixel CCD

with a plate scale of 0.4325"/pixel, yielding a field of view of about 7' x 7'. We obtained

B and R images for our sample. The average seeing was on the order of 2".

Near Infrared observations of the sample galaxies were obtained in May 2002 at the

1.5 m Telescopio Carlos Sanchez (TCS), an f/13.8 Cassegrain reflecting telescope at the

Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife. We used the 256 x 256 pixel CAIN-II camera with the

wide field of view setting (plate scale of 1 "/pixel), yielding a field of view of about 4' x

4'. We observed our sample galaxies in the Ks filter (X = 2.25[tm). Our seeing was on

the order of 3" for these observations.

Data reduction for both the optical and near infrared data was preformed using

IRAF. Optical data reduction followed the typical procedure of dark and bias

subtraction, flat field correction, and image combination. Many of the galaxy fields

contained bright stars which required us to take a number of short exposure time images









that were later combined. Data reduction for near-infrared data involved subtracting dark

images from both an on-source and off-source image and then subtracting the off-source

image from the on-source image. These sky subtracted images were then flat field

corrected and combined with other images of the same galaxy field. Problems including

thick clouds and paint on the secondary mirror of the TCS prevented us from obtaining

Ks images of better quality.

This chapter also relies heavily on optical images from the Digitized Sky Survey

(DSS) and near infrared images from the 2 Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and the

Ohio State University Bright Spiral Galaxy Survey (Eskridge 2002)

NGC 1784

As seen in Chapter 1 (Table 1-1), NGC 1784 is one of our most distant galaxies (33

Mpc) and is the physically largest (D25 of 49kpc) in the sample. Optical observations of

the galaxy show that it is flocculent, but not because of a lack of star formation. Figure

3-1, an optical DSS image of the galaxy shows a prominent bar and inner ring. Two

small arms seem to begin off of the ends of the bar, but dissipate quickly. The outer

regions of the galaxy seem to be dominated by many little armlets, rather than by some

overall 2-armed pattern. Elmegreen & Elmegreen's (1982) classification of this galaxy in

to arm category "3" seems appropriate. The galaxy does show some spiral structure, but

not on a large scale. Martin (1995) observed the properties of the bar in NGC 1784 and

found the bar to have a semi-major axis length of 34" (5.4 kpc) and a semi-minor axis

length of 7" (1.1 kpc). The ratio of the bar semi-major axis to the semi-minor axis is

0.21. The ratio of the bar length to the diameter of the galaxy is 0.20. Within the sample,

we define increasing bar strength to be relative to the increasing size of the bar with

respect to the galaxy diameter. NGC 1784 possesses a particularly large value within the










sample for this diagnostic. Longer bars with respect to the galaxy diameter will possess

more mass and presumably have more dynamical influence on the galaxy. We also

define the bar strength to go as inversely to the bar axis ratio. These values are similar to

Martin's (1995) bar ellipticity class where round, SAB galaxies typically fall into class

"1", and narrow, long bars are placed into class "6". The optical bar and disk properties of

all galaxies will be summarized at the end of the chapter.

We find the bar to be asymmetric. The eastern edge of the bar is flat, while the

western edge is more pointed. The bar looks like the head of a ball-peen hammer.

However, neither Elmegreen et al. (1996) nor Jungweirt et al. (1997) found twists in the

bar. Even still, this type of bar structure may be indicative of some type of interaction or

dynamical instability, even though the majority of the optical galaxy does not show any

large disturbances.







4'40' 5 -



o *












Right Ascen o (2000 0)
Figure 3-1. Optical R-band DSS image of NGC 1784









NGC 2500

Optical images of NGC 2500 (Figure 3-2) are dominated by the central bar and a

few short chaotic spiral arms appearing to originate from this bar. Elmegreen &

Elmegreen (1982) place this galaxy into arm classification bin "1", meaning that it is

among the galaxies with the weakest arms. NGC 2500 clearly presents itself differently

than does NGC 1784 which seem to have weak arms that stretch to the edge of the

galaxy. In NGC 2500, there only appears to be a disk of stars beyond about half of the

radius of the galaxy.

NGC 2500 has a reasonable angular size for observations (D25 of 135"), but has a

small physical diameter of 7.8 kpc. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1985) give the semi-major

axis of the optical bar as 21", corresponding to a physical length of 1.2 kpc. From the

DSS image below, we calculate a bar semi-minor axis of 4", a physical length of 0.2 kpc.

We find a bar axis ratio of 0.19, and Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1985) give a bar to galaxy

ratio of 0.24. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1985) give the light profile of the bar as

exponential, which is consistent with NGC 2500 being a late type galaxy (SBd).

Ks-band observations of NGC 2500 from the 2-MASS survey are presented in

Figure 3-3. The sensitivity is very low in this image, but we do again see the bar is the

most prominent feature of the galaxy. The bar region appears to be somewhat smaller

than in the optical image, but this effect is more likely due to low signal. The near

infrared bar is aligned with the optical bar. There does not appear to be any spiral

structure in the near infrared disk of the galaxy, but again low sensitivity prevents us

from commenting in detail











6 8 10 12


504630

00

4530
*
00- N

z 4430

0 -

4330-
S..
00 -

4230

00 -

080205 00 0155 50 45 40
RIGHT ASCENSION (81950)


Figure 3-2. R-band DSS image of NGC 2500

528 530 532 534


504630 .


h .jP :: r

:430 .. ,+ + : ', -
45 .' -
-P -6 L
O .'.t _.. ,
P r. -



I= .i. *,







S ,, ,. .
4230 *-, '- *








RIGHT ASCENSION (B1950l
Figure 3-3. 2-MASS K-band image ofNGC 2500
00.. .. ,.. '. f ,.
-I l I I

080205 00 0155 50 45 40
RIGHT ASCENSION 1B1950)
Figure 3-3. 2-MASS K-band image of NGC 2500









NGC 2793

Compared to the other galaxies in this sample, NGC 2793 is unique, because it is

the only one that appears in the optical to have been in an interaction (Figure 3-4). It is

unclear if the small galaxy present to the southwest of NGC 2793 is responsible for the

interaction. Previous authors do not comment on this object and there have not been HI

observations of either galaxy. Thompson (1977) and Mazzei (1995) note that the galaxy

is a typical ring galaxy and is currently undergoing a starburst because of this interaction.

The galaxy is small with an angular size of 1.3', corresponding to a physical diameter of 9

kpc. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) give this galaxy an arm classification of "1". Our

optical image shows nothing resembling optical spiral structure. The features prominent

in the image are a bright bar and a ring of star formation to the southeast of the galaxy.

We calculate the bar semi-major axis to be 7", corresponding to a physical length of 0.8

kpc. We calculate a bar semi-minor axis of 2", corresponding to a physical length of 0.2

kpc. The bar axis ratio for NGC 2793 is 0.28 and the bar to galaxy length ratio is 0.17.

Figure 3-5 shows a Ks-band near infrared image of NGC 2793 from the 2-MASS

survey. The only structure present in this image is the bar, due to low sensitivity. We

find that the near infrared bar is aligned similarly to the optical bar, and is on the order of

the same length. There does not appear to be any signal from the disk region, so it is

impossible to comment on the structure of the ring in the older star population.















342700


2630


00 -


2530 k


00k-


2430 -


Figure 3-4. R-ban


091642 44 46 48 50
RIGHT ASCENSION
d image of NGC 2793 from IAC80


290


295


342700 F-


2630 -


2530 -


2430


091654 52 50 48 46 44 42 40
RIGHT ASCENSION (81950)
Figure 3-5. K-band image of NGC 2793 from 2-MASS. This image is rotated 1800 and
reflected relative to the y-axis with respect to our IAC80 image in Figure 3-6.


I I I I I I I I


52 54 56



300


I I I I I I I







A -

U









0-






I I I I I I I


///~


I~


v-









NGC 3055

From Table 1-4, we see that NGC 3055 is both a distant and small galaxy within

our sample. It was found to have an optical diameter of 125" (14 kpc) by Martin (1995).

Optical R and B band images of NGC 3055 (Figures 3-6 and 3-7) show a relatively

undisturbed smooth stellar disk with a somewhat oblong bar. We agree with Elmegreen

& Elmegreen's (1982) classification of this galaxy as belonging to arm class "3". A one

armed structure along the southern side of the galaxy is the prominent structure in the

disk of the galaxy. The outer regions seem to be too smooth in intensity. Martin (1995)

found the bar to have a semi-major axis of 7" (0.8 kpc) and a semi-minor axis of 3" (0.3

kpc). Our B band image shows a similar result for the size of the bar. We calculate a

ratio of the semi-major axis of the bar to the radius of the galaxy to be 0.11.

The B band image seems to indicate a one arm structure originating on the southern

midpoint of the bar, curving westward through a large HII region and around to the north

of the galaxy. The HII region is unusually large given the size of the galaxy. We

calculate a diameter for the region to be 5" (0.6 kpc). The size of this object is near to the

seeing limit of our observations, and may have undergone some beam smearing. There

must be a significant amount of star formation occurring within this region, enough

perhaps, to influence the gas dynamics of other areas in the galaxy. The B band image

shows other regions of heightened star formation regions, notably along the inner parts of

the one-arm structure, and a few diffuse regions on the eastern side of the galaxy. The

scattered and separated nature of the star formation in this galaxy may be a result of the

stochastic star formation processes theorized for flocculent galaxies.

The observed one armed feature may be a signature of an interaction, but there are

no other asymmetric features associated with the optical morphology of the galaxy. We










produced a B-R color map for NGC 3055, but poor seeing at the time of observation and

bad resolution did not allow us to produce a reasonable image.

Our Ks-band image (Figure 3-8) of NGC 3055 shows the prominent bar region of

the galaxy, the large HII region, and hints at the one-armed feature circling the galaxy to

the north. Given the resolution limits on our Ks observations, we calculate the same bar

size in the infrared as the optical. We also observe the same disk structure present in the

infrared as the optical. Deeper images would be necessary to probe further into the disk.


25a 20s" 955-15" Io
Right Ascension (2000.0)

Figure 3-6. Optical R-band image of NGC 3055, taken at the IAC80 telescope

































U6












15' t wit t I




Ri~ht Aseension (200D.O)


Figure 3-7. Optical B-band image of NGC 3055 taken with the IAC80 telescope


1730








6 1640
o


z5, 320 gh55mls5
Right Ascension (2000.0)


Figure 3-8. Near-Infrared K-band image of NGC 3055, taken with the TCS









NGC 3246

NGC 3246 is another galaxy that falls into the Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) arm

class "1", indicating its extremely weak spiral arms. An optical DSS image (Figure 3-9)

shows that the galaxy consists of an oval bar with the hint of one spiral arm leading off to

the west of the galaxy. There is little other structure present in the disk beyond a few

chaotic star forming regions. The galaxy appears to be squeezed in the north-south

direction, more than what would be expected from typical inclination effects. In HI

observations, Pisano & Wilcots (1999) found that the HI morphology of the galaxy was

disturbed and that there was evidence for a unresolved HI companion very near to the

galaxy. Knowing this, the optical presentation of the galaxy is not out of line with an

interaction. Even though there appear to several galaxies in the optical image, Pisano &

Wilcots (1999) found that NGC 3246 was isolated in their HI observations.

Warmels (1988) calculated an optical D25 of 2.3' for this galaxy, corresponding to a

physical diameter of 22 kpc, making this one of the larger galaxies in the sample. We

calculate a bar semi-major axis of 10" corresponding to a physical length of 1.6 kpc and a

bar semi-minor axis of 5", corresponding to a physical length of 0.8 kpc. We find the bar

axis ratio to be 0.5 and the bar to galaxy length ratio to be 0.14. NGC 3246 has one of

the more round bars in the sample, but it is on the high side of the sample in terms of the

bar to galaxy length ratio.

The Ks-band image of NGC 3246 from the 2-MASS survey shows almost no signal

from NGC 3246 except from the bar region. We find that the near infrared bar of NGC

3246 is aligned with the optical bar, and is about the same size. Unfortunately, we cannot

comment on the disk structure of the galaxy, however. It would be interesting to examine












the morphology of the old stars in this galaxy given the likelihood of an interaction from


Pisano & Wilcot's (1999) observations.

6 8 10 12


035400 -

5330

00

5230

00

51 30 -

00

5030

00

4930


I









I 0





I I
\ i i i i i i i


102650 48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34
RIGHT ASCENSION (B1950)


Figure 3-9. R-band image of NGC 3246 from IAC80

570 572 574


-oo -1 A^ gdac b
035400 t 'io.

?? ..c-a
5330





*.. 9



51230 %
00


i-
aU 4r--&9s^


102650 48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32
RIGHT ASCENSION (B1950)
Figure 3-10. K-band image of NGC 3246 from 2-MASS









NGC 3687

NGC 3687 is the most distant galaxy in our sample with a recessional velocity of

2507 km s1, corresponding to a distance of 35.8 Mpc (Ho = 70 km s-1 Mpc-1) (de

Vaucouluers et al. 1991). Due to its large distance, its small optical angular size (1.9')

corresponds to a reasonably, for the sample, large 19.7 kpc physical size. Our R-band

IAC80 image (Figure 3-11) of NGC 3687 shows that the galaxy has a prominent bar and

regular, but dim, spiral arms. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) give this galaxy an arm

class of "4", meaning it is among the flocculents with the most structure. The underlying

spiral structure is more apparent in the B-band image of the galaxy in Figure 3-12. The

arms do seem to bifurcate in the outer regions of the galaxy and there does not seem to be

a two-armed pattern, but rather a many-armed pattern. Given this arm pattern and the

relative dimness of the arms compared to the optical bar, the classification of "4" for this

galaxy seems appropriate. In the B-band image there appears to be a ring of stars at

about half of the galaxy radius.

We calculate at bar semi-major axis of 7" from the R-band image of NGC 3687.

This corresponds to a physical bar length of 1.2 kpc. We calculate a bar semi-minor axis

of 5", corresponding to a physical length of 0.9 kpc. The bar is very round, having a bar

axis ratio of 0.71, and not particularly long compared to the galaxy, having a bar to

galaxy radius ratio of 0.12. There is reason to believe that the bar is longer than this

measurement. There seems to be the slightest hint of a connection between the bar and

the star forming ring in the B-band image. Further dynamical study of this galaxy would

be necessary to determine whether this optical emission was related to the bar or small

spiral arms linking the bar to the ring.


















293200



31 30



z 00
0




,dL 3030 49.



00



2930



00-


112754 56 58 2800 02
RIGHT ASCENSION
Figure 3-11. R-band image of NGC 3687 from IAC80

150 200




293200 -



31 30 -



00 -
0





00 -



2930



00



112754 56 58 2800 02
RIGHT ASCENSION
Figure 3-12. B-band image of NGC 3687 from IAC80


04 06 08




250































04 06 0O










The Ks-band image of NGC 3687 from the 2-MASS survey shows that the optical

bar present in the R-band image may not exist at infrared wavelengths. This low

sensitivity image shows an almost circular feature at the center of the galaxy. Deeper

images are necessary to determine if an oval pattern emerges outside of this feature at a

lower surface brightness. Further dynamical study of the galaxy would also be

interesting to determine the properties of this circular feature.

320 340 360



293200 -


31 30-




0


.J








00
2930 -



oo-0 I A I I I I I -
112808 06 04 02 00 2758 56 54
RIGHT ASCENSION (B1950)
Figure 3-13. K-band image of NGC 3687 from 2-MASS

NGC 3887

NGC 3887 is given an arm classification of "2" by Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982).

The galaxy possesses a bright oval bar and limited spiral structure in an optical R-band

image (Figure 3-14). There appear to be spiral arms originating from the ends of the bar,

but the spiral that continues to the east of the galaxy is the only one that exists for an

appreciable distance. The arms quickly bifurcate near the outer edge of the galaxy and











dissipate into an even disk of stars. There also appear to be knots of star formation

throughout the disk. Some appear to be associated with spiral arms, while others are

isolated in the disk.

NGC 3887 has an angular size of 3.3', corresponding to a physical diameter of 16.5

kpc (Haynes et al. 1998). Martin (1995) calculated a bar semi-major axis length of 11.5"

and a semi-minor axis length of 5.5". These values correspond to physical distances of 1

kpc and 0.5 kpc, respectively. From these values, we find a bar axis ratio of 0.5 and a bar

to galaxy radius ratio of 0.12.

600 800 1000

-164830 -

4900

30-

5000 -
*
o 30-

z 5100-


.uJ
5200 -
*
30

5300 -

30-

114655 4700 05 10 15
RIGHT ASCENSION
Figure 3-14. R-band image of NGC 3887 from IAC80

Figure 3-15 shows a Ks-band image of NGC 3887 from the 2-MASS survey. Here

we again see the bar regions of the galaxy and evidence of the inner spiral arms. The

near infrared bar appears to be a bit shorter than the optical bar, here looking to have a

semi-major axis of 5". However, without strong signal in this image, it is impossible to

be confident in this value. We see near infrared counterparts of the inner spiral arms seen











in the optical image, but no evidence for spiral structure further out into the disk.

Jungwiert et al. (1997) reported twisted isophotes in the bar of NGC 3887, often a

signature of previous interactions. We see no evidence of that here, however, our data

does not possess the same resolution or sensitivity.

690 700 710 720


-164900

30-

5000- *
0 *
i 30-

z 5100 -
0
30-

-U
5200 -




5300

30

114714 12 10 08 06 04 02 00 4658 56
RIGHT ASCENSION (B1950)
Figure 3-15. K-band image of NGC 3887 from 2-MASS

NGC 3930

NGC 3930 presents the most optically grand design structure in the entire galaxy

sample. However, it is the asymmetry in strength between its two arms that causes

Elmegreen & Elmegreen to place it into arm class 4, and call it flocculent. In Figure 3-

16, a R-band image of NGC 3930 taken at the IAC80, and especially in Figure 3-17, a B-

band image of NGC 3930, we see that the southern arm of the galaxy is much longer and

stronger than the northern. In the B-band image, the southern arm extends almost all the

way to the edge of the optical emission, while the northern arm extends to only about 1/2











of the radius of the galaxy. Haynes et al. (1998) calculated a D25 for NGC 3930 of 3.2'


(12 kpc) meaning that the southern arm is somewhat longer than this distance, while the


northern arm is on the order of 8 kpc. One-armed spirals have been associated with


interactions, and this is certainly possible in this case, but we see no other large


asymmetries in the optical image of NGC 3930.


NGC 3930 does not possess a particularly prominent bar. It is classified by de


Vaucouluers et al. (1991) as an SAB galaxy. Our optical images show that there is not


much of a bar region, but more of an oval area where the two inner spiral arms connect.


We calculate a semi-major axis of 12" (0.8 kpc) and a semi-minor axis of 5" (0.3 kpc).


The ratio of the bar semi-major axis to the galaxy radius is 0.06 for NGC 3930.


0
0
0
0



37B


IM DU 11 ZH 4U D1 JV
Right Ascension (2000.0)

Figure 3-16. Optical R-band image of NGC 3930 taken with IAC80 telescope









































I 1l51"40"


Night AscenAon (2000.0)

Figure 3-17. Optical B-band image of NGC 3930
















I *. ,,
..., ". ', .Z":-..,l


Right Aseension (200 0)
Figure 3-18. B-R color map of NGC 3930. Light grayscale regions are blue in color.
Darker grayscale regions correspond to red colors.









Figure 3-18 shows a B-R color map of NGC 3930. This map does not show much

structure in the disk of NGC 3930. The low resolution of this image may be smearing out

color effects of the spiral arms, but it seems that they are not particularly blue. The

region immediately south of the bar appears to be bluer than the bar itself, indicating star

formation in this region. This region may coincide with the southern spiral arm.

However, the sensitivity and resolution are again not high enough to comment in detail

on the processes active in this region.

NGC 4793

NGC 4793 possesses an interesting optical morphology. Figure 3-19 shows an R-

band image of the galaxy taken with the IAC80 telescope. NGC 4793 possess a very

bright central bar region that appears to be connected to several spiral arms in the south.

These spiral arms appear to be dotted with large star forming regions, and one curves

along most of the southern edge of the galaxy. The northern end of the bar does not

appear to have any spiral structure. There is one isolated, large star forming region in the

northern region of the galaxy. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) classify this galaxy as a

" 1" due to its overall lack of spiral structure. To the west and north of the galaxy, there

are several knots of optical emission forming an arc about the galaxy. These regions may

form a tidal tail produced by a previous interaction. Overall, the galaxy does appear

disturbed, which is consistent with Sanders et al. (1991) CO observations.

The angular size of the galaxy is 2.8', corresponding to a physical size of 28.9 kpc,

making this the second largest galaxy in the sample. Condon et al. (1991) quotes the

distance to the galaxy as 49 Mpc, however, this was made with a Ho value of 50 km s-1

Mpc-1. We adopt a more realistic value of 70 km s-1 Mpc-1 for Ho and thus calculate a

distance of 35.5 Mpc. We calculate the bar in NGC 4793 to have an angular semi-major










axis of 10" and a semi-minor axis length of4". These values correspond to physical

distances of 1.7 kpc and 0.7 kpc, respectively. The bar axis ratio is 0.4 and the bar length

to galaxy radius ratio is 0.06. It is particularly difficult to determine the bar length in this

galaxy as some of the spiral arm features south of the bar can easily blend into the bar at

the right isophote levels. We believe that these objects should not be considered part of

the bar, and from this get a small value for the bar semi-major axis length.

200 300 400









57
z


a 56-



55
*

54 -


125435 40 45 50 55
RIGHT ASCENSION
Figure 3-19. R-band image of NGC 4793 from IAC80

Figure 3-20 shows a Ks-band image of NGC 4793 from the 2-MASS survey. Here

we see the spiral arm structures south of the bar are unresolved into a general region of

near infrared emission (this image is flipped and rotated, so the previously southern

features are now in the north). The bright bar region may be slightly smaller in the near

infrared than in the optical, but at this resolution it is difficult to tell. The near infrared

and optical bars are aligned similarly. Beyond the unresolved spiral arms south of the










bar, we do not see any other evidence of spiral structure in the near infrared disk of NGC

4793.

360 380 400



285800 -

5730

00

z 5630 -

I I
00


5530 -

00 -

5430-

125450 48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32
RIGHT ASCENSION (B1950)
Figure 3-20. K-band image of NGC 4793 from 2-MASS. This image is rotated 1800 and
flipped along the y-axis relative to the R-band IAC80 image in Figure 3-19.

NGC 4900

Optical images of NGC 4900 show obvious signs of disturbance. Figure 3-21

shows an R-band image of NGC 4900 taken with the IAC80. We see a bright, prominent

bar surrounded by small star forming regions with no discernable structure present in the

disk. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) place NGC 4900 in arm class "3". This is perhaps

an overstatement of the structure present in the galaxy, as it seems that there is no overall

spiral pattern in this galaxy. The very bright point source at the southeastern limit of the

galaxy is a foreground star and not associated with the galaxy.

The galaxy itself is very small, having an optical diameter of 2.2' (9 kpc). We

calculate a bar semi-major axis of 10" (0.7 kpc) and a semi-minor axis of 5" (0.4 kpc).









The value for semi-major axis does not include the wispy region north of the bar. It is

unclear if this region is a low surface brightness extension of the bar, or simply star

forming regions in the disk. Higher resolution observations would be necessary to

determine this. We calculate a value of 0.08 for the ratio of bar semi-major axis to

galaxy radius.

Figure 3-22 shows a B-band optical image of NGC 4900 taken with the IAC80

telescope. Again, we see the bright bar surrounded by chaotic star forming regions. The

B-band image seems to show more arc like structures joining the star forming regions,

but there is nothing approaching grand design spiral structures. The individual star

forming regions are point sources in our observations, having a diameter on the order of

2" 3" (0.1 0.2 kpc). The overall distribution of these star forming regions, and the

strength of the bar seems to indicate that NGC 4900 has been involved in some type of

recent interaction. However, there does not appear to be any optical emission outside of

the optical disk of the galaxy associated with any companion galaxies.

Figure 3-23 is an optical B-R color map of NGC 4900. We find that the center of

the bar is blue relative to the edges, indicating that there is star formation occurring

within the bar and that the edges are obscured by dust. Both Devereaux (1989) and

Ashby et al. (1995) do not classify the galaxy as starburst or active, so the color must

come from normal star formation processes and not an AGN. We also see that several of

the star forming regions mentioned above appear blue in the color map, indicating their

status as HII regions. Again, there does not appear to be any global spiral structure

pattern in the color map.
















































40S
Right AacenJion (2000.0)


13 0(30'


Figure 3-21. Optical R-band image of NGC 4900 taken with the IAC 80 telescope


*


40
Right A-cen-on 12000.0)


is" oP30o


Figure 3-22. Optical B-band image of NGC 4900 taken at the IAC80 telescope







52







,y *. 4








-









45' 40 la o- 352 30'
Right Aacenion (2000.0)

Figure 3-23. B-R color map of NGC 4900. Light grayscale regions are blue in color.
Darker grayscale regions correspond to red colors.

Figure 3-24 is an H-band near infrared image of NGC 4900 from the Ohio State

Bright Galaxy Survey (Eskridge 2002). The resolution here is less than with the optical

images above, but we see largely the same features in the near infrared. There is a bright

bar surrounded by arcs of star forming regions. In this image, there may be slightly more

coherence to the arcs of star formation, but they do not appear to originate with the bar as

typical spiral arms do. The bar is larger in this image compared to the optical images

above. The wispy northern end of the bar in the R and B-band images is filled in the near

infrared. This could be due to the dynamic range of the H-band observations, or the

stellar make up of the northern end of the bar is different and contains more old, low

mass stars than the central parts of the bar.


























,S








45s40 1*i 51 30,
Right aacsnion (20000)
Figure 3-24. H-band image of NGC 4900 from Ohio State

NGC 4904

NGC 4904 is another galaxy that appears to show signs of disturbance in its optical

emission. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) place the galaxy in arm class "2" making it

among the most flocculent in our sample. Figure 3-25 is an R-band optical image of the

galaxy taken with the IAC80 Telescope. NGC 4904 possesses a very large bar relative to

the galaxy itself and diffuse emission outside of the bar. There appears to be one arm

emanating from the southeastern end of the bar, and another arm and loop of emission

related to the northwestern end of the bar.

The galaxy has an angular size of 2.2' corresponding to a physical diameter of 10.4

kpc, making this another small galaxy. The bar was measured by Chapelon et al. (1999)

to have a semi-major axis of 16" (1.1 kpc) and a semi-minor axis of 7" (0.5 kpc). The bar

semi-major axis to galaxy radius ratio is 0.2.


I I I I









Figure 3-26, a B-band optical IAC80 image of NGC 4904 shows that the bar itself

has some interesting structure. The bar appears to be shaped like a bent peanut. Where

the central region the bar was the thickest in the R-band image, the middle of the bar is

narrow in B-band image. Overall, the bar is skinnier in the B-band image as well. There

is a faint hint of 3-armed structure in the galaxy in the B-band image. As with 1-armed

structure in NGC 3055 and NGC 3930, 3-armed structure in galaxies has also been

associated with interactions. We do not find any optical emission external to the galaxy

related to any satellites.

Figure 3-27 is a B-R color map of NGC 4904 made with data from the IAC80

telescope. We observe a very strong dust lane through the center of the bar region of the

galaxy. Both long edges of the bar appear blue in this image, but the center of the bar is

red. A dust lane such as this is typical of a bar in the process of forming stars. This

indicates that the bar is most likely young, and could have been produced by a recent

interaction, the same interaction that presumably disturbed the disk of NGC 4904. There

is structure inside of the bar region, as there is a prominent red area at the northern end of

the bar. This could potentially be a large, dust obscured HII region that was not observed

in the broadband optical images. The arm regions in the south of the galaxy appear to be

red. That would indicate that the arms in NGC 4904 are either made of older stars, have

a significant quantity of dust within them, or are vigorously producing stars.

Figure 3-28 shows the Ks image taken of NGC 4904 with the TCS. The sensitivity

of this image is very low. The prominent feature of the galaxy in the infrared is the bar.

Within the resolution of the image, the bar is similar in size and shape to the bar seen in












the optical images of the galaxy. We do not see any real indication of spiral arms in the


near infrared image of NGC 4904, but this may be due to the low sensitivity of the image.


_09 li


i5" I' 10 55"
Right Aasendon (2000.0)

Figure 3-25. Optical R-band image of NGC 4904 taken with IAC80 telescope










o'so

0 5 0

ti C' 4,


5" 13i 05s5
Right Ascenson (2000.0)

Figure 3-26. Optical B-band image of NGC 4904 taken with IAC 80





























5" 1. L3 B_55"
j 4 .. .r:. ;...t












Right Ascension (3000.0)

Figure 3-27. B-R color map of NGC 4904. Light grayscale regions are blue in color.
Darker grayscale regions correspond to red colors.
1 ~ t3 0 55' ~r
gt e~o 00
Figure~ 3-2. -R olr ap f GC 90. igh rays~caergosrebuincl.
Dake rasal egos orepn toT red colrs


-0' 2'30'


1"
RIght Ascensdon (2000.0)

Figure 3-28. K-band image of NGC 4904 taken at TCS


13 1-55


,!









NGC 5147

There has been little previous study of NGC 5147. Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982)

place this galaxy in arm class "2". The optical image of NGC 5147 shown in Figure 3-29

shows a galaxy with a not particularly strong bar surrounded by seemingly chaotic star

formation. A few arcs of star formation appear to be in the south of the galaxy, but there

is little overall structure. This galaxy appears to be similar in disk structure to NGC

4900, but without the strong bar at its center.

The galaxy has an optical angular diameter of 1.9', corresponding to a physical

diameter of 8.6 kpc, making it similar in size to NGC 4900 as well. The bar in this

galaxy appears to be very sky and misaligned with the morphological position angle of

the overall galaxy. The bar appears to be twisted, or at least thicker at the southern end.

We calculate a semi-major bar axis length of 5" and a semi-minor bar axis length of 2".

These values correspond to physical distances of 0.4 kpc and 0.1 kpc, respectively. The

bar axis ratio is 0.2 and the bar to galaxy radius ratio is 0.09. Deeper and higher

resolution study of this galaxy is necessary to determine its bar structure and properties.

Figure 3-30 shows a Ks-band image of NGC 5147 from the 2-MASS survey. The

resolution in this image is poor compared to the size of the galaxy. It is difficult to

determine the bar properties of the galaxy in this image. In fact, it's difficult to determine

if there is a bar at all. The arcs of star formation to the south of the galaxy are apparent in

this image as well.







58


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Figure 3-29.


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R-band image of NGC 5147 from DSS


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132628 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12
RIGHT ASCENSION (B1950)
Figure 3-30. K-band image of NGC 5147 from 2-MASS
M 0530,- i m 0











NGC 5300

NGC 5300 lies at a distance of 17 Mpc, and has an angular diameter of 3.8',

corresponding to a physical size of 18kpc. Compared to the other galaxies in the sample,

NGC 5300, is probably the most 'normal' of the set. The R-band IAC80 image (Figure 3-

31) shows that the galaxy does not possess any large scale asymmetries. Elmegreen &

Elmegreen (1982) place the galaxy into arm class "2" indicating that it does not have a

global spiral arm structure. We see a similar habitus in our images. There appears to be

small armlets in the central part of the galaxy, and then chaotic star forming arcs in the

outer regions. The spiral density waves that may exist in the inner parts of the galaxy do

not continue far out into the disk. A one-armed structure begins off of the northern end

of the bar region and curls around to the east, but this feature ends fairly quickly, within

1' (5 kpc). We do not detect any evidence of optical satellites associated with this galaxy.




*59


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55'







25" 20" 13'48m15" 10"
Right Ascension (2000.0)

Figure 3-31. Optical R-band image of NGC 5300 taken at IAC80







60


The bar region ofNGC 5300 is not well formed. It is difficult to define the bar in

either the R-band or B-band image (Figure 3-32) of this galaxy. We measure a semi-

major axis of 8" (0.7 kpc) and a semi-minor axis of 6" (0.5 kpc) for the bar in NGC 5300

for the R-band image. The ratio of bar semi-major axis to galaxy radius is 0.08. The B-

band image of NGC 5300 may indicate that the optical bar is slightly misaligned from the

position angle of the galaxy, and the starting points of the armlets emanating from it. We

see more evidence for small arms in the B-band image, where the northern one-armed

feature is de-emphasized and possibly a total of three armlets are originating off of the

bar. The B-band image shows that the arms are very knotty, and broken up into HII

regions that are on the order of the resolution of the image, 2" 3" (0.2 0.3 kpc).









6
0 **' *





















25 20" 134 A t.5" 10O
Right Ascendon (2000.0)

Figure 3-32. Optical B-band image of NGC 5300 taken with IAC80

Figure 3-33 shows a B-R optical color map made with data from the IAC80. We

do not observe a great deal of structure in this image. The central regions of the galaxy










appear to be redder than the outside regions, indicating that the bar is not producing a

great deal of stars. This is consistent with the bar being so small relative to the size of the

galaxy. We do not observe evidence of the spiral arms or HII regions in the color map.

This is either due to the limited spatial resolution of our observations, or the fact that the

small spiral arms are not particularly bluer than the inter-arm regions, typical for

flocculent galaxies. The outer regions of the galaxy appear to have a blue color relative

to the center. This effect is due to the relative sensitivities of the R and B images used to

make Figure 3-33. More sensitive observations with a larger telescope will be needed to

determine the colors of the spiral arms in this galaxy.





59




58

















25" 20" 13 48e15" 10"
Right Ascenidon (20CO.0)
Figure 3-33. B-R color map of NGC 5300. Light grayscale regions are blue in color.
Darker grayscale regions correspond to red colors.









NGC 5645

NGC 5645 is a small galaxy with a bright elliptical bar. The galaxy is classified by

Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) as a "1" with almost no appreciable spiral structure. In

Figure 3-34, a R-band IAC80 image of NGC 5645, we see that there is star formation and

some spiral arcs associated with the southern end of the bar. This is similar in

appearance to NGC 4793. Also similar to NGC 4793 is a small patch of optical emission

separated from the northeast of the galaxy. This object may be part of a tidal arm or a

satellite galaxy. Haynes et al. (1998) found that NGC 5645's HI spectrum was rather

asymmetric, and indicates that the galaxy may have been involved in a recent interaction.

The B-band image of the galaxy in Figure 3-35 shows a similar morphology, but the bar

appears to be smaller and more twisted, again indicative of a possible interaction.

The angular size of NGC 5645 was measured by Haynes et al. (1998) to be 2.4',

corresponding to a physical diameter of 13.7 kpc. We measure a bar semi-major axis

length of 9" and a semi-minor axis length of 3". These values correspond to physical

distances of 0.9 kpc and 0.3 kpc, respectively. The bar axis ratio is then 0.3, and the bar

to galaxy radius ratio is 0.13.

Figure 3-36 shows a Ks-band image of NGC 5645 from the 2-MASS survey. This

image shows the bar (rotated and flipped from the IAC80 image in Figures 3-34 and 3-

35) to be the same size and orientation as in the optical images. The bar appears to be

peanut shaped and twisted in the infrared, indicating again, that this galaxy has

undergone some type of recent interaction. Because of the low sensitivity in this image,

we do not see near infrared emission from the disk of NGC 5645, and can not comment

on the arm structure in this wavelength regime.
















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00 .

1730-

z
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F -

S 1630

00- *


1530-

00

1430-

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143030 35 40 45 50
RIGHT ASCENSION
Figure 3-34. R-band image of NGC 5645 from IAC80

200 250 300


071900

1830

00-

1730




00




1530

00

1430

00

143030 35 40
RIGHT ASCENSION
Figure 3-35. B-band image of NGC 5645 from IAC80


*I
45 50










615 620 625 630


071800 -


1730-



I 1 30 "-
00 -

0
I 1630 -


00-


1530 -


00 -

143046 44 42 40 38 36 34
RIGHT ASCENSION (B1950)
Figure 3-36. K-band image of NGC 5645 from 2-MASS. This image is rotated 1800 and
flipped along the y-axis relative to the R-band IAC80 image in Figure 3-35.

NGC 5783

As with the other galaxies in the sample that exhibit a one-armed influenced spiral

structure, NGC 5783 is placed by Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1982) into arm class "4".

Figure 3-37, an R-band image of the galaxy, shows the one main arm of NGC 5783

leaves the central regions of the galaxy towards the north and then curves around to the

east. This arm stretches retains its structure to nearly the end of the optical galaxy. The

corresponding arm on the opposite side of the galaxy is not as bright and only reaches to

about half of the radius of the galaxy. NGC 5783 does not appear to possess an

appreciable bar, and resembles the central structure of NGC's 3930 and 5300. Several

smaller galaxies are in the field of view, but previous single dish HI observations of the

region by Rhee & Albada (1996) showed NGC 5783 to be isolated.










Rhee & Albada (1996) give the D25 angular size of the galaxy to be 2.8'. Using a

Ho of 70 km s-1 Mpc-1, we calculate a distance to the galaxy of 33.4 Mpc. We calculate

the physical diameter of the galaxy to be 27.2 kpc, making this a sizable galaxy in our

sample. Given the close linkage between the bar and the stronger arm, it is difficult to

calculate a bar length for this galaxy. We estimate a bar semi-major axis length of 6" and

a semi-minor axis length of 5". These correspond to physical sizes of 1 kpc and 0.8 kpc,

respectively. We calculate a bar axis ratio of 0.8 and a bar to galaxy radius ratio of 0.07.

Figure 3-38 shows a Ks-band image of NGC 5783 from the 2-MASS survey. This

image, although lacking in sensitivity, shows that this galaxy does not possess an

elliptical bar. The central bright region is circular within the resolution constraints of this

image. We do not find evidence for near infrared spiral structure in this galaxy, however,

there is not enough signal present to comment on that finding.

1500 1550 1600 1650


520630

oo0 -

0530

003
0 0430 -



Q 0330

00

0230 -

00

01 30-

145320 25 30 35
RIGHT ASCENSION
Figure 3-37. R-band image of NGC 5783 from IAC80










640 645 650



520600 -


0530



m 00 -


Z 0430 A
LU

00


0330


00 II
145335 30 25 20
RIGHT ASCENSION (B1950)

Figure 3-38. K-band image of NGC 5783 from 2-MASS

NGC 6012

Our R-band image of NGC 6012 (Figure 3-39) shows a galaxy that is primarily

composed of a large, strong, and bright bar surrounded by low levels of optical emission.

The galaxy itself is not particularly large on the sky, having an angular size of 2.1',

corresponding to a physical diameter of 15 kpc. We find very little evidence for spiral

structure in the R-band image except at the extremes of the galaxy. There appears to be

emission leading to the east of the northern end of the bar and to the west at the southern

edge of the bar, but these are at the limits of our sensitivity. Elmegreen & Elmegreen

(1982) place NGC 6012 in arm class "3". The galaxy is certainly flocculent, but may be

even more so than this classification. There does not appear to be star formation









anywhere outside of the bar in the R-band image, nor does there appear to be any

evidence for optical companions.

We measure the bar of NGC 6012 to have a semi-major axis of 25" (3.1 kpc) and a

semi-minor axis of 5" (0.6 kpc), making this one of the most elliptical bars in the sample.

The ratio of the bar axes is 0.2 and the ratio of bar semi-major axis to galaxy radius is 0.4,

the largest in the sample. In the R-band image, the bar appears to have some structure.

The central region is the brightest, and the emission diminishes until the north and south

tips. In the north, there seems to be a bright region of star formation approximately 3"

(0.4 kpc) in diameter. In the south of the bar, there is a loop of emission surrounding a

region of approximately the same size.

In the B-band image (Figure 3-40), we see the same structure in the bar. We also

see the presence of a ring around the bar, with most of its emission concentrated in the

north. Rings are typically associated with resonances. A ring at this location may be a

result of either the 4:1 ultraharmonic resonance, or corotation. Higher resolution studies

as well as velocity information would be needed to determine which. Again, there does

not appear to be evidence of spiral structure or companion galaxies in this image.

Figure 3-41 shows a B-R color map of NGC 6012 made from IAC80 images. We

again see the very distinctive structure in the bar. The star forming region appears to be

blue relative to the rest of the bar. We conclude that this region is a large HII region due

to its color, and stars are actively forming at the bar's northern edge. The center of the

bar appears to be red. Either this is due to a large dust lane obscuring the young, blue

stars, or this region of the bar has evolved into something more similar to a stellar bulge

which is no longer forming stars. The southern tip of the bar again shows the loop









structure present in the B and R-band images. The loop itself is blue while the central

region is more red. We conclude that the southern tip of the bar is similar to the northern,

but the central HII region is obscured by dust. This leads us to believe that the southern

end of the bar is inclined away from us, as the blue light from this HII region has to pass

through a longer path length of dust to reach us. Our images did not possess enough

sensitivity to examine the colors of the disk region of NGC 6012.

Figure 3-42 shows our Kshort image of NGC 6012 taken with the TCS. Here we see

a similar structure to the optical images of this galaxy. There is a large bar, with little

optical emission outside of it. We see no evidence for spiral structure in near infrared

emission from this galaxy, but do see a very similar bar. The bar does not appear to

posses the loop structure on its southern end, presumably because the Kshort band light is

able to penetrate most of the obscuring light. We do not see evidence for companions at

this wavelength regime either. Deeper and higher resolution observations would allow us

to determine better the structure of the bar and the presence of any possible spiral

features.









V
II





-M

Figure 3-39. Optical R-band image of NGC 6012



































1*i








F00 15 B15 54"m10" 5"
Rifht Ascensdon (2000 .0

Figure 3-40. Optical B-band image ofNGC 6012


3s 40










6
0"

^ ^SS

i4sss


RigM t Ascendon (2000.0)

Figure 3-41. B-R color map of NGC 5300. Light grayscale regions are blue in color.
Darker grayscale regions correspond to red colors.











*








0 Il





1435'





3410 a
20 15 15h54ml Os
Right Ascension (2000.0)

Figure 3-42. K-band image ofNGC 6012 taken at TCS

Analysis of Optical Bar and Disk Properties

Figures 3-43 through 3-48 summarize several diagnostics of the optical and near

infrared images. In Figure 3-43 we plot the distribution of optical diameters in the

sample set. This is further compared with the Elmegreen arm class with respect to the

optical diameter. We find that the majority of galaxies fall into the 10 20 kpc range.

The smallest galaxy is NGC 2500 at a diameter of 7.8 kpc, while the largest is NGC 1784

at 49 kpc. At the low end of the size spectrum, there is a continuous distribution of sizes.

NGC 1784, on the other hand is significantly bigger (20 kpc) than the second largest

galaxy, NGC 4793. The large difference in size may mean that NGC 1784 has

undergone different formation processes. We examine the masses of galaxies in later

chapters. We find that there does not appear to be a selection of Elmegreen arm classes

among the different sized galaxies. One might naively expect the smallest galaxies to fall









in the lowest arm class, since they may not possess the disk mass to drive even small

spiral density waves. We do not see this, however, as the smallest galaxies in our sample

show examples of all the Elmegreen arm classes. It is actually the larger galaxies with

diameters between 20 and 30 kpc that show preferentially low arm classes. We must

keep in mind our small sample size, however, when examining these trends.

Figure 3-44 shows the distribution of the optical bar semi-major axis length of our

sample galaxies. Again, the largest bar is from NGC 1784 (-5 kpc) and is significantly

larger than the next largest bar, NGC 6012 (-3 kpc). We find an even distribution of bar

lengths with the majority of bars at about 1 kpc in length. Only one bar was found to be

shorter than 0.5 kpc, belonging to NGC 5147. Figure 3-44 also compares the bar length

to the Hubble bar classification from de Vaucouluers et al. (1991). We find that the bar

classes are distributed evenly over bar length. This is to be expected as the bar

classification is based more on the shape and intensity of the bar as opposed to solely

length.

We plot the distribution of bar axis ration, found from the optical images, in Figure

3-45. We find an even distribution, where a majority of galaxies have a bar axis ratio of

around 0.5. This means that the average bar in our sample is not particularly elliptical.

We do find, however, that 4 of the galaxies do have very skinny bars (<0.25). These

skinny bars are associated with galaxies classified as SB, meaning that their bars are

prominent and intense. Overall, we find that the skinnier bars are more likely to be

classified as SB and rounder bars are classified as SAB. This shows that our sample of

barred, flocculent galaxies is not different than the general galaxy population in its bar

classifications.









Figure 3-46 shows the same plot, but this time the distribution of bar axis ratios is

compared with Elmegreen arm classes. We do not find an overall trend between arm

classification and bar type within our barred, flocculent sample set. We believe that this

plot indicates that there are not similar physical properties among the sample driving both

the bar and disk structure simultaneously. It is likely that the sample must be broken

down further to find galaxies undergoing similar physical processes.

In Figure 3-47 we plot the distribution of the ratio of bar semi-major axis length

and galaxy radius. We find a bimodal trend in this plot where the majority of galaxies

have a radius length ratio of around 0.1, but some galaxies show a value of approximately

.2 or higher. NGC 6012 has a ratio of 0.4, which is the largest in the sample, and almost

two times greater than the nearest value. We compare these radius length ratios to

Elmegreen arm classes in this plot, and find no overall trend to this data. The Elmegreen

arm classes seem to be independent of the relative size of the bar.

We find a different result when we plot the same distribution in Figure 3-48 but

compare it to the bar semi-major / semi-minor axis ratio. Here we find that skinny bars

(with low axis ratio values) are preferentially long compared to the size of the galaxy.

The main outlier from this trend is NGC 5147, which has a skinny, 0.2, but short, .09,

bar. The measurements for this galaxy should be taken with caution, however, because

of the disturbed morphology of this system. It was difficult to define the exact nature of

the bar in the R-band image of the galaxy. It is very likely that another measurement of

the bar length in this galaxy could push it up to a higher bin. We find that since long bars

are typically thin, there must be a physical connection between these two properties.