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The Relationship between Consumer Role Socialization and Nostalgia Sport Tourism: A Symbolic Interactionist Perspective


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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONSUM ER ROLE SOCIALIZATION AND NOSTALGIA SPORT TOURISM: A SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE By AMANDA LEA WILSON A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN RECREATIONAL STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2004

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Copyright 2004 by Amanda Lea Wilson

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I would like to dedicate this project to my parents, Ji m and Lou Ann Wilson, who have made it possible for me to be here and ha ve supported me throughout my educational career.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS As I sit in front of a computer I have spent so many hours staring at and wondering how I was ever going to get everything done before the many deadlines I faced, I also think about all of those people that have helped me realize that it really was possible. There may have been a few late nights that turned into early mornings, but there was always someone there that I knew I could contact no matter what time it was or what I needed. This is when I realized how important all of my relationships have been in helping me to get through the past two years of graduate school. Not just those people I might consider my core group of friends, but also those people who did minor things along the way that might have made the difference between a mental breakdown and the realization that I might be capable of doing more than I thought. I wish that I could thank all of them individually, but they will have to trust that if they spent any time listening to me when I needed someone that they were an important part of the successful completion of this project. There are several people that I have to personally express my thanks to because without them I would not be here to acknowledge anyone. I especially have to credit my parents for somehow knowing when they needed to call me and tell me that things would work out just when I was starting to wonder if they would. And, even though my sister might not be the best person at keeping in touch, she also somehow knew when I needed the advice and support that only a sister can give. iv

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Academically, my chair and my mentor, Heather Gibson, has taught me more than I thought possible in the two years that she has spent helping me expand my knowledge within the field and develop my writing skills. I have never had a professor who has been able to make time for so many people and still give them each the attention they needed to take that next step. I hope that this thesis is a reflection of what she has taught me, and I can only hope that I have the chance to work with her again in the future. My committee members have been impressively patient with me and have provided me with the insight from different viewpoints that I needed to tie everything together. Lori Pennington-Gray has been very supportive of me throughout my career here and has been great to work with on this thesis and as my graduate assistant supervisor. Gregg Bennett has a unique talent of making everyone feel like he/she is the most intelligent person in the room and has provided me with the encouragement I needed. The rest of the professors in the department have also been instrumental, as each of them has helped me in some way since I have been here. I could not have asked for a better team of professors to learn about the field and help me solidify my belief that leisure and academics can work together. Finally, I have to thank my support group that I have been lucky enough to have here in Florida. I would first like to thank Carol for helping me make the copies I needed and get everything organized on a college students budget. Charlie Lane was my technical and also emotional support as I prepared the last minute details for my defense. Dr. Kgr. has been my lifeline more times than I can count. I am glad that I met someone who is awake when the rest of the world is sleeping so I had someone to talk to and even help me with academic questions in the wee hours of the morning. I hope that I have v

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made her time here more entertaining just as she has done for me. I am also glad that I met someone here who liked the Cubs as much I do and was able to change the conversation from the stress of my thesis to something more pleasant like the game we were at when the Cubs won the division. At the same time, I should also thank those fans of rival teams whose occasional banter helped me remain focused on the purpose of my study and not just on the Cubs. I do have to thank the Chicago Cubs organization for allowing me to come and collect data for this thesis. I got to experience first hand why Wrigley Field has become known as The Friendly Confines and I hope to make many return visits. I am an optimistic fan: Eamus Catuli! AC000000. Finally, one would think I would avoid the discussion of any subject covered within my thesis in the acknowledgements, but I cannot tell express how many times I have put a particular song or CD in that helped me recall a time when I was spending time with a family member or friend and nothing seemed to matter except that we were doing nothing or something together. The nostalgic feelings evoked by these songs not only helped me to understand how past experiences can lead to symbolic meaning, but also helped me to realize that I would look back on this thesis as a memorable experience. Thanks to everyone who has been a part of it. vi

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES.............................................................................................................ix ABSTRACT.......................................................................................................................xi CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 Statement of Problem...................................................................................................4 Purpose of the Study.....................................................................................................7 Theoretical Rationale....................................................................................................7 Research Questions.....................................................................................................11 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE............................................................................12 Socialization...............................................................................................................12 Gender-Role Socialization..........................................................................................14 Sport....................................................................................................................14 Tourism................................................................................................................15 Sport and Social Theory.............................................................................................16 Sport Consumption.....................................................................................................19 Sport Tourism.............................................................................................................21 Nostalgia.....................................................................................................................22 Nostalgia Sport Tourism.............................................................................................25 3 METHODS.................................................................................................................31 Site Description..........................................................................................................31 Data Collection...........................................................................................................33 Participants.................................................................................................................34 Instrument...................................................................................................................38 Data Analysis..............................................................................................................43 4 RESULTS...................................................................................................................45 Motivations of Nostalgia Sport Tourists.....................................................................45 Nostalgia as a Motivation...........................................................................................49 vii

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Behavioral Consumer Role Socialization While Growing Up...................................54 Role Model Socialization While Growing Up............................................................56 Cognitive Consumer Role Socialization While Growing Up.....................................60 Summary.....................................................................................................................61 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION........................................................................63 Socialization...............................................................................................................63 Motivations and Nostalgia..........................................................................................67 Implications................................................................................................................72 Recommendations for Further Research....................................................................75 Limitations..................................................................................................................78 Delimitations...............................................................................................................79 Conclusion..................................................................................................................79 APPENDIX A SURVEY INSTRUMENT..........................................................................................81 B WRIGLEY FIELD TOUR PICTURES......................................................................91 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................92 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................101 viii

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1 Tourist Profile for Wrigley Field Ballpark Tours....................................................35 3-2 Group Composition of Respondents........................................................................36 3-3 Trip Information and Influence on Respondents Decision to Take Wrigley Field Tour..........................................................................................................................37 3-4 Exploratory Factor Analysis Results of Evoked Nostalgia Scale............................39 3-5 Exploratory Factor Analysis Results of Behavioral Consumer Role Socialization Scale.........................................................................................................................40 3-6 Exploratory Factor Analysis Results of Role Model Socialization Statements.......41 3-7 Exploratory Factor Analysis Results of Cognitive Consumer Role Socialization Statements................................................................................................................42 4-1 Motivations of Participants to Tour Wrigley Field..................................................46 4-2 Independent Samples t-test Results of Motivations by Gender...............................47 4-3 Mean Scores of Evoked Nostalgia Scale (NOST) Items..........................................50 4-4 Independent Samples t-test Results of Evoked Nostalgia Scale Items by Gender...51 4-5 Paired Samples t-test Results of Motivations by Mean Evoked Nostalgia Scale Score.........................................................................................................................52 4-6 Paired Samples t-test Results of Motivations by Mean Evoked Nostalgia Scale Score by Gender.......................................................................................................53 4-7 Mean Scores of Behavior Consumer Role Socialization Items...............................55 4-8 Independent Samples t-test Results of Behavioral Consumer Role Socialization by Gender.................................................................................................................56 4-9 Mean Scores of Role Model Socialization Items.....................................................57 4-10 Independent Samples t-test Results of Role Model Socialization by Gender..........59 ix

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4-11 Mean Scores of Cognitive Consumer Role Socialization Items..............................61 4-12 Independent Samples t-test Results of Cognitive Consumer Role Socialization by Gender.................................................................................................................62 x

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Recreational Studies THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONSUMER ROLE SOCIALIZATION AND NOSTALGIA SPORT TOURISM: A SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE By Amanda Lea Wilson August 2004 Chair: Heather Gibson Major Department: Recreation, Parks, and Tourism Limited research exists on nostalgia sport tourists, and consequently, there is little empirical evidence to support the contention that nostalgia is a primary motivation of this type of travel. Based on its traditional, intimate atmosphere and historic background, the nostalgic sport venue chosen for this study was Wrigley Field, home of the Chicago Cubs since 1914. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between socialization into and through sport (consumer role socialization) and participation in nostalgia sport tourism among male and female participants of Wrigley Field Stadium tours from a symbolic interactionist perspective. Nostalgia sport tourists were defined as those who had traveled outside of their home community to take a 90-minute tour of Wrigley Field. A total of 357 questionnaires measuring tourist motivation, nostalgia, consumer role socialization, and demographics were collected from non-residents on three different tour dates (July 19, 20, 26, 2003) and used for analysis. Consumer role socialization was divided into three xi

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types: behavioral consumer role socialization, role model socialization and cognitive consumer role socialization. Frequencies and independent and paired t-tests were the primary analysis tools. Content analysis was used to reveal patterns in the open-ended questions. The results revealed that nostalgia was not the main factor in the decision of participants to take a tour of Wrigley Field. Novelty, enhancement of kinship relationships, prestige, facilitation of social interaction and relaxation were all more important motives to come on the tour. Although nostalgia was not a primary motive, there was evidence that it was a meaningful part of the experience for many of the participants. A gender comparison of motivations revealed that men were more likely to report that the tour took them back to their childhood while females were more likely than males to feel that spending time with family/friends was more important. The nostalgia sport tourists in this study reported a higher degree of socialization into passive rather than active sport consumption. This study is the first to investigate nostalgia sport tourism using quantitative methods. As such, the findings provide support for the contention that nostalgia does motivate these tourists; however, it is not the primary motivator of such travel. Further, childhood socialization into sport appears to be related to adult patterns of sport consumption and the proclivity to engage in nostalgia sport tourism. Regarding the practical applications of this study, it is important for sport managers and markets to understand the background and motives of these tourists so that they can better address their needs and attract others who are interested in travel to nostalgic venues such as Wrigley Field. xii

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Consider for a moment what life would be like without sport. This might be difficult to do because in todays society there are very few individuals who do not, directly or indirectly, encounter elements of sport in their daily lives. Some people may be actively involved as an athlete on a team, or a participant in some other physical activity. Those who do not physically engage in sport may be spectators at sports events, consume sport through the mass media or travel to famous sport-related attractions such as halls of fame. Still others may volunteer to work as coaches, referees or members of sports organizations. Even those who are not particularly interested in sport often find that it is in some way a part of their lives through things such as news coverage or conversation in family and work settings. Regardless of the level of contact an individual has with sport, it is clear that such contact has significant direct and indirect influences on the lives of most children and adults throughout the United States, and in most other countries. As a result of this widespread involvement in sport, researchers have become increasingly interested in the social dimensions of sport. One research line has been concerned with how individuals learn sport roles and at what stages in their lives (Giuliano, Popp & Knight, 2000; McPherson, Curtis & Loy, 1989; Prochaska, Rodgers & Sallis, 2002). A consistent finding in this research is that there is a positive relationship between the amount of social support received from significant others and the degree of participation in sport roles (McPherson et al., 1989). For example, if children are socialized into sport so that 1

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2 participation or consumption becomes an integral part of their lifestyles, this will likely persist into adolescence and throughout their adult years. As such, socialization plays a major part in the maintenance of sport as a social institution and might be useful as an important predictor of direct and indirect sport involvement throughout life (McPherson et al., 1989). Socialization, as it is used here, refers to the process in which individuals learn the norms and values of their society. It is a dynamic process and the lessons learned vary according to gender, age, ethnicity, race and social class. McPherson (1972) coined the term consumer role socialization to describe the process whereby individuals are socialized into sport. In his definitions, he identified three types of consumer role socialization: 1) behavioral consumer role socialization, which refers to the extent to which an individual has been introduced to attendance at sport events, reading, viewing and listening to and discussing sport; 2) affective consumer role socialization, or what will be called role model socialization in this study, which refers to the extent to which an individual has become ego and emotionally involved in the role of sport consumer; and 3) cognitive consumer role socialization, which refers to an individuals knowledge about sport. The term role model socialization was used instead of affective consumer role socialization in this study because McPhersons original method of measurement did not translate well into the current time period and purpose of the study. More specifically, this study was focused more on the influence of a significant other or role model in the socialization of an individual into sport. Thus, only part of McPhersons affective consumer role socialization scale was used in this study (Appendix A).

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3 Recently the combination of both active and passive sport participation as vacation activities has also evolved as a topic of research (DeKnop, 1990; Gibson, 1998a; Gibson, 1998b; Gibson, Willming & Holdnak, 2003). Historically, people have taken sport-related trips for centuries, but sport tourism has only recently surfaced as an area of study. A particular group of sport consumers that can be examined are those who participate in themed sport cruises or travel to halls of fame, sport museums or historic venues such as Wrigley Field in Chicago (Gibson, 1998c). The term nostalgia sport tourism has been used to describe this type of travel behavior. Fairley (2003) states the things identified as being the focus of nostalgia sport tourism are physical entities to which society is said to attribute special meaning (or multiple meanings), and which are associated with sport (p. 285). The nostalgic feeling that people link to a place or experience may be a major factor in their decision to travel to participate in these types of activities. Research has shown that sport consumption is a fundamentally social experience (Green & Chalip, 1998), and so it is reasonable to expect that sport nostalgia can derive from group (or social) experiences which themselves become the basis for tourism (Fairley, 2003). Therefore, it is also necessary to consider a persons past sport experiences and socialization into and through sport when trying to understand what may lead them to make a nostalgic connection to sport. Although research into sport tourism has grown rapidly over the past ten years, many of these studies have lacked a theoretical foundation (Gibson, 2002). A theoretical framework that is of particular use in developing an understanding of socialization in general and into sport in particular is symbolic interactionism. This theoretical

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4 perspective recognizes that individuals are capable of reflective behavior about objects, others and themselves. Therefore, this framework might be useful in examining the ways individuals define, reflect and make decisions related to sport. The process and emergent nature of socialization and sport make them appropriate phenomena to study from a symbolic interactionist perspective (Snyder, 1986). Despite an abundance of research on the sociology of sport, there has been little effort to link this literature with tourism. The aim of this study is to bridge the gap between these disciplines in order to formulate a more complete understanding of how the socialization process influences people to travel to consume sport. More specifically, the individuals that will be examined in this study are nostalgia sport tourists who traveled to a famous sport-related attraction. By grounding this study in symbolic interactionism, this will not only facilitate the interpretation of the findings but also help to link it to the wider body of knowledge in leisure, sport, and tourism studies as advocated by Gibson (2002). Statement of Problem A review of the literature indicates that there has been very little research on nostalgia sport tourism (Fairley, 2003; Gammon, 2002; Gibson, 1998b; Gibson, 2002). This study will contribute to the limited body of knowledge that exists regarding nostalgia sport tourism and assist in the understanding of the link between socialization into and through sport, and participation in nostalgia sport tourism. It will also explore any differences among males and females in their motivation to be nostalgia sport tourists and the relationship of socialization into and through sport on their choice to visit Wrigley Field. Overall, there is little insight into what motivates people to travel to famous, historic sport venues like Wrigley Field.

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5 Tourism studies have shown an increase in the amount of evidence that suggests some travelers are motivated by nostalgia (Dann, 1994). This is supported by the growth in the popularity of attractions that use themes based on the past to catch the attention of potential tourists (Dann, 1994; Urry, 1990). One aspect of the tourism industry that has tapped into the nostalgia theme is sport tourism. However, it appears that there is little empirical evidence that these sport tourists are motivated by nostalgia. In a study of Australian football fans on an annual bus trip to watch their team play, Fairley (2003) found evidence of nostalgia among the fans. Likewise, Gammon (2002) hypothesized that attendance at sports fantasy camps was motivated somewhat by nostalgia. As yet, however, researchers have not investigated the relationship between stadium tours and nostalgia. There is also debate over the origins of this sport-related nostalgia. Is it an outcome of the wider socialization process into sport, particularly in the family setting? In other words, is nostalgia related to childhood experiences in the family? Do individuals take trips to certain sporting venues to reminisce about their childhood or to socialize their own children into aspects of sporting heritage? Moreover, is an affiliation to a particular team or sport developed through early socialization into sport? That is, do individuals become sports fans as a result of their childhood experiences? Also, are male and female nostalgia sport tourists motivated differently as a result of the socialization process? It appears these questions remain unanswered and might help to explain nostalgia as a motivation for travel and perhaps indicate a link between socialization into and through sport to nostalgia sport tourism.

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6 In sport sociology, the idea of socialization into and through sport has received much attention, especially through the 1970s and 1980s (Kenyon & McPherson, 1976; McPherson et al., 1989; Nixon, 1981). Because the process of socialization changes over time, it is necessary to continually study this phenomenon to determine how it impacts sport participation. Despite the fact that sport sociology literature is extensive, there remains a relative paucity of original research focusing on how the socialization process might influence people to travel to famous sporting attractions. As such, this study seeks to begin to fill a void in the existing literature. In practical terms, understanding the link between socialization and nostalgia sport tourism might be useful for sport managers and marketers. Sport marketers might be better able to determine what market they should target in an attempt to boost future sales and attendance at famous sport venues. Particularly, if there are consistencies within the behavior of nostalgia sport tourists based on their past socialization, this can allow marketers to predict their most susceptible crowd. For sport managers, especially those working at stadiums, the realization that stadium tours are a popular attraction might provide a source of additional revenue. Such tours may also reinforce fan loyalty and, particularly for teams who need to increase game attendance, loyal fans may be more likely to attend games especially when a team is not winning. The results of this study may also be useful in developing techniques to study the influence of socialization on attendance at other nostalgia sport tourism destinations. Despite a lack of research, there is considerable evidence to indicate that individuals who embark on nostalgia-based trips would provide a marketable tourist group. There is little doubt that the marketing techniques targeting this group could be

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7 improved upon with a better understanding of their background and behavior. Because many tourism advertising materials are based on nostalgic images in an attempt to sell the past to the future (Dann, 1994), it would be easier to cater to the needs of these tourists if their desires and motivations were more clearly understood. This would not only enhance their experience as tourists, but could also attract more people to the destination. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between socialization into and through sport (consumer role socialization) and participation in nostalgia sport tourism. In addition, this study sought to determine if there were any gender differences among the motivations, feelings of nostalgia and consumer role socialization of nostalgia sport tourists. Specifically, the study focused on nostalgia sport tourism related to stadium tours of Wrigley Field, home of the Chicago Cubs. Wrigley Field is known as one of the most historic ballparks within Major League Baseball. In fact, few would argue that it is among the most memorable, well-liked stadiums in any sport. For this reason, it satisfies the need for a nostalgic venue in this study. Theoretical Rationale Dann and Cohen (1996) point out no established approach to tourism has developed with its own unique blend of theory and method (p. 303). However, there are a growing number of researchers who have recognized tourism as a domain that requires sociological understanding and explanation. Due to the lack of powerful theoretical and analytical utilization, the sociology of tourism is still in its infancy. Gibson (2002) further emphasizes the need to adopt theoretical approaches in the study of sport tourism. To answer the need for conceptually grounded work, this study was grounded in a symbolic interactionist perspective.

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8 Herbert Blumer, who took George Herbert Meads ideas and developed them into a more systematic sociological approach, coined the term symbolic interaction in 1937 (Fine, 1986). The term symbolic interaction refers to: the peculiar and distinctive character of interaction as it takes place between human beings. The peculiarity consists in the fact that human beings interpret or define each others actions instead of merely reacting to each others actions. Their response is not made directly to the actions of one another but instead is based on the meaning which they attach to some actions. Thus, human interaction is mediated by the use of symbols, by interpretation, or by ascertaining the meaning of one anothers actions. (Blumer, 1978, p. 97) Blumer (1969) argued that three premises are crucial to symbolic interactionism and serve as the foundation of this perspective. The first is that human beings act toward things (people, objects, etc.) on the basis of meanings that these things have for them. Therefore, objects or actions have no a priori stimulus value. Second, the meanings of these stimuli emerge through social interaction. This social interaction over the life course serves as the link to the process of socialization. Third, and most important, these meanings are not static but are modified through an interpretive process. Therefore, this allows meanings to be altered based on interpersonal negotiation through time. Based on this assumption, the symbolic interactionist perspective orients itself to change. Another assumption is that social meanings are shared through communication, and, as a result, causes of action are not primarily biological and subconscious, but are social and conscious (Fine, 1986). Indeed, Kelly (1983) suggested that leisure socialization is more than taking up new and renewed activities throughout the life course for the individual. He stated, it is a development of self-definitions of investment and competence in activities that extend and test the self (p. 195). Thus, it is conceivable that socialization into and through sport, initially in the family, and then through other social institutions convey meanings associated with

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9 particular sports and teams. Children may be socialized into being a fan of a certain team or sport because one or both of their parents are also fans (James, 2002). The sport specific patterns of attendance at certain sports events by men and women suggests that there is still evidence of a gender-role socialization process that discourages females from becoming involved, either actively or passively, in certain sports (McPherson et al., 1989; Sargent, Zillman & Weaver, 1998). The gendered nature of socialization into and through sport might help to explain why Sargent et al. (1998) found that males are more partial to sports such as football, ice hockey, basketball, baseball and boxing, while females expressed more interest in things like gymnastics, skiing, diving and figure skating. Frey and Eitzen (1991) emphasized the need to study sport from a sociological perspective stating, the existence of sport must be explained in terms of something more than simply the needs of the social system or the production needs of a capitalist economy (p.505). Further, sport is created by people interacting, using their skills and interests to make sport into something that meets their interests and needs (Coakley, 1990). Wilson (1980) suggested that leisure is a form of symbolic interaction in which distinct meanings emerge and are displayed (p. 36). This personal meaning that people can develop for leisure and sport over time also supports the use of a symbolic interactionist perspective as an appropriate theoretical framework for this study. In the past, a symbolic interactionist framework has been used in the study of various aspects of sport. For example, Fine (1986) chose to use this perspective in the study of small groups and sport. This approach to the study allowed him to focus on the meanings created in team sport and on how these meanings influence play. Snyder

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10 (1986) also used a symbolic interaction perspective to investigate athletics in higher education. Specific areas of consideration included the meanings and definitions attached to sport, the construction and conservation of identity by players and coaches, and the way that interactionism clarifies the negotiated order of athletic organizations. Other sport studies have also discussed the meanings and symbols that people associate with sport. Trujillo and Krizek (1994) conducted interviews with fans and employees in attendance at the final series in two major league ballparks that were closing and found that many people expressed the importance of baseball in their lives and the places where it is played (p. 303). One fan interviewed at the old Comiskey Park in Chicago provided a strong testimony to the significance of ballpark memories: I drove all night from Philly to get here. I paid 50 bucks to get in and Im gonna drive all night to get back home. I want somethin to show for my time. I grew up over by the stockyards and used to come here a lot with my dad. I want somethin to remember this day by and remember my dad. Im gonna take this damn brick home to help me remember my father, thats why. (p.305) This particular fans reaction to the closing of Comiskey Park shows the strong connection that people develop for places that hold special meaning. From their interviews, Trujillo and Krizek realized: for fans and ballpark employees, major league baseball is not merely an industry; it is revered symbolically as our national pastime. The local franchise is not just another bank, department store, or amusement park; rather, it is experienced as a public trust that engenders a powerful sense of identification and identity for fans and franchise employees alike. (p. 305) Weiss (2001) supports the idea that sport is shaped by and derives symbolic significance from its close links with society (p. 393). Dimanche and Samdahl (1994) also point out that a common theme in the consumer behavior literature and traditional leisure theory is a focus on the symbolic meaning of an activity (p. 121). In addition, the nostalgic meanings that people attach to sport have been linked to the private and

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11 collective meanings that people associate with symbols such as artifacts, documents, relics and certain venues (Nauright, 1996; Slowikowski, 1991; Snyder, 1991). Despite this link of symbols to sport and nostalgia and the recognition of the impact of socialization on sport and tourism as separate entities, it appears that the application of symbolic interactionism has yet to be used in the study of sport tourism. However, as nostalgia sport tourism, in this instance a stadium tour, involves visiting a venue that may evoke special meanings for tourists, symbolic interactionism is deemed to be an appropriate foundation for this study. Research Questions The research questions to be addressed in this study will be: 1a. What motivates nostalgia sport tourists to take a tour of Wrigley Field? 1b. Are men and women motivated differently to tour Wrigley Field? 2a. What items of the evoked nostalgia scale (NOST) are most associated with taking a tour of Wrigley Field? 2b. Are there significant differences between gender and the feelings of nostalgia generated by taking a tour of Wrigley Field? 2c. Is nostalgia a primary motive to tour Wrigley Field? 2d. Are there gender differences in the primacy of nostalgia when compared to the other motivations? 3a. What aspects of behavioral consumer role socialization are associated with nostalgia sport tourists? 3b. Are there significant differences between the behavioral consumer role socialization of male and female nostalgia sport tourists? 4a. What aspects of role model socialization are associated with nostalgia sport tourists? 4b. Are there significant differences between the role model socialization of male and female nostalgia sport tourists? 5a. What aspects of cognitive consumer role socialization are associated with nostalgia sport tourists? 5b. Are there significant differences between the cognitive consumer role socialization of male and female nostalgia sport tourists?

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CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Socialization Individuals do not function as independent entities in society; rather they interact with other people (Blumer, 1969; Crompton, 1981). Socialization is a complex developmental learning process that teaches the knowledge, values, and norms essential to participation in social life. It is through socialization that we learn all types of social roles, among these are roles related to sport and leisure participation (McPherson et al., 1989). In focusing on leisure socialization, an emphasis is placed on the processes through which a child acquires basic knowledge about leisure and recreation, forms fundamental attitudes and values associated with them, and learns various leisure skills and motives. Past research indicates that childhood play provides the foundation for leisure and recreation behavior later in life (Giuliano et al., 2000; Iso-Ahola, 1980). In other words, Iso-Ahola suggested that limited opportunities for play in childhood tends to impair cognitive and behavioral flexibility in adult leisure pursuits. Much of the learning that takes place in childhood occurs through imitation, modeling, and identification with the behavior of others. Therefore, Iso-Ahola suggests that the socialization agents in an individuals life play an important role in transmitting behavioral patterns and basic values relating to leisure. For example, consider the number of images in the popular press that portray small children in the bleachers sitting among their friends and families. Some of them might even be too young to understand 12

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13 the rules, but the experience still has the potential to influence their future leisure pursuits. To illustrate this, popular author and journalist Bill Bryson (1999) in discussing why his heart belongs to baseball today wrote: Its what I grew up with, what I played as a boy, and that of course is vital to any meaningful appreciation of a sport (p. 24). The family is the primary socialization agent in the early years of life (Greendorfer, 1983; McPherson et al., 1989). Greendorfer argues that all other institutions depend on contributions and learning that are initiated in, and through, this basic social unit. She further states that although other social institutions, such as the school and peer group, shape individual development, these institutions merely reinforce what has been initiated within the family. Prochaska et al. (2002) support the contention that the nuclear family serves as the most important behavioral role model. However, they also suggest that as children age, the role of peer influence becomes more apparent even though parents continue to influence adolescents leisure behavior. They found that parent and peer support significantly correlated with adolescent self-reported physical activity, with peer support being the strongest correlate. While Prochaska et al. examined active physical participation, their findings suggest that an examination of family and peer influence on childhood socialization might lead to interest in passive sport activities such as being a sports fan and nostalgia sport tourism. It must be pointed out that these patterns of learning may vary due to individual differences such as gender (McPherson, 1983). While monumental political developments such as Title IX have noticeably expanded the opportunities for women in sport, there are still many people who discourage girls from playing sports. To illustrate

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14 this point, a study of popularity among elementary school boys and girls found that boys achieved high status based on things like athletic ability, coolness and toughness. On the other hand, girls gained popularity because of characteristics such as their parents socioeconomic status, physical appearance and academic success (Adler, Kless & Adler, 1992). So even though sport may be integrative at the higher political levels, it has not necessarily been the case at the interpersonal level of gendered expectations (Frey & Eitzen, 1991) and may account for some differences in later tendencies to consume sport. Gender-Role Socialization Sport Some of the gender differences in the personal meaning that males and females associate with sport may be a result of socialization. Historically women have been perceived as inferior to men and have not been given equal opportunities in many social institutions, including sport (McPherson et al., 1989; Theberge & Birrell, 1994). While the involvement of women in sport has progressed from no involvement to passive involvement as specators to increasing involvement as participants and leaders, gender equity is still lacking in most aspects of sport (McPherson et al., 1989). It has been argued that the female who makes the decision to compete in sport must decide whether to accept her socially sanctioned, ascribed role of as a female or ignore these norms to achieve her full potential as an athlete (Boutilier & SanGiovanni, 1983; McPherson et al., 1989). In the past, people believed that the ideal woman should perform her patriotic duties of attracting a mate, bearing and rearing children and serving her husband. Although society has become much more liberal, women, especially those with young children, report a conflict between extensive personal involvement in sport and their perceived duties to be good mothers and wives (Fasting & Sisjord, 1985;

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15 Boutilier & SanGiovanni, 1983; McPherson et al., 1989). Specifically, women who choose to play less socially sanctioned sports such as softball, volleyball, field hockey, track and field and basketball report more role conflict than those who participate in more socially approved sports such as tennis, golf, swimming and gymnastics (McPherson et al., 1989). A study of the differences between male and female college students with regard to their sport fanship and sport fan behavior also revealed the likelihood of females to place more emphasis on the social interaction involved in sport consumption. (Dietz-Uhler, Harrick, End & Jacquemotte, 2000). They found that although males and females equally considered themselves to be sport fans, females seemed more likely than males to be a sport fan for social reasons such as watching and spending time with friend and family. Specifically, they found that while females reported being a sport fan because they go to games, enjoy cheering for their team, and like to watch sports with family and friends, males reported being a sport fan because they themselves play sports, like sports in general, and appear to enjoy learning about sports by doing things such as reading the sports page. Tourism The emphasis that women place on relationships in their decision to participate in a leisure activity is also evident in the tourism literature. For example, Davidson (1996) examined the holiday experiences of women with young children and found that women chose a particular holiday location because it allowed the role of mother, partner or self to be achieved rather than because a particular activity was available (p. 98). These women also said that relationships with significant others (p. 96) were the best part of their holiday or what they looked forward to the most.

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16 McGehee, Loker-Murphy and Uysal (1996) also discovered that women were more likely to choose a travel destination that provided a chance for a cultural experience, an opportunity for family and kinship, and prestige. On the other hand, men felt that sport and adventure were the more important parts of a vacation. This difference in the tourism motivations of males and females reflects the norms and values that still exist in society, and may be a product of socialization. While there is little argument that numerous socializing agents (family, peers, etc.) play a part in the socialization process of both males and females, there is some discrepancy about how to measure this concept. For this reason, it is important for each study to clearly define socialization and state how it will be operationalized. In addition, these studies should be grounded in a theoretical framework in order to make connections that will allow for the comparison of results among different studies and across disciplines. Sport and Social Theory Because of the interdisciplinary, eclectic approach to the study of socialization, and its multifaceted nature, McPherson (1986) argues that it is unlikely that any one theoretical perspective will ever adequately explain the process or the end product. However, Dawe (1970) points out that in general there are two sociologies that have been used by researchers to examine the process of socialization. These sociologies are known as the normative approach and the interpretive approach. In the normative approach, deviance is viewed as nonconforming and incomplete socialization, explains Dawe. An example of a theoretical framework using this approach would be social imitation. This concept argues that an individual is more or less passive

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17 and learns by observing and modeling the behavior and perceived values, beliefs, and norms displayed by socialization agents (McPherson et al., 1989). The competing approach, known as the interpretive approach, states that the individual seeks to gain control or mastery over his or her situation, relationships and institutions. Dawe explains, in this approach, the focus of study is on such elements of the process as the definition of the situation, presentation of the self, and negotiation with others. This more recent approach to the study of socialization has been prevalent within sociology as a result of three interrelated developments (McPherson, 1986). The first is that an adequate explanation or theory must account for both the transmission of culture and for the development of autonomous human beings (McPherson, 1986, p. 114). In other words, there are two interacting levels of analysis for which different theoretical approaches are most appropriate. At the macro-level, more universal outcomes occur and learning is more generalized from one situation to another making the process more predictable. At this level, social learning theory, role theory, reference group theory, and cognitive and social development theories are most likely to be powerful explanatory frameworks. At the micro-level, the focus is on individual learning and situation-specific outcomes. As a result, the process is less predictable because it depends more on the active involvement of the person being socialized to determine the outcome. Therefore at this level, McPherson suggests theories that account for interpersonal interaction and negotiation are more useful. For example, the symbolic interactionist perspective views socialization as an active rather than a passive process. In other words, this perspective

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18 recognizes that new and novel meanings and definitions can be created out of the process (Mortimer & Simmons, 1978). A second development that promotes the greater use of micro-level theories has been, as McPherson suggests, a general realization that socialization continues throughout an individuals life. As a result, there has been greater research interest in socialization during the middle and later years. In addition, social scientists have recognized that the use of one perspective is not likely to account for the life-long process of socialization, and that the use of particular theoretical perspectives may be most appropriate at different stages in the life cycle. To illustrate this idea, Dowd (1980) and George (1980) discussed the use of theory in relationship to the life span. They each agreed that during infancy and early childhood, the functionalist perspective using social and cognitive development theories might be the most appropriate. However, during adolescence and throughout adulthood, it is possible that the exchange or symbolic interaction perspective would better capture the socialization process. The third, and perhaps the most influential, factor leading to an increased use of the interpretive approach was the debate concerning whether the analyses have viewed people as over or under socialized (McPherson, 1986). In the oversocialized approach, it is assumed that the individuals behavior is completely determined by society. Conversely, the undersocialized approach assumes that individuals act totally independently regardless of their past experiences (Dautenhahn & Edmonds, 2002). The optimum situation is the compromise of these two views in which people interpret meanings based on their experience.

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19 Yaels and Karp (1978) argued that the use of the symbolic interactionist perspective could be used in response to this debate. Boldt (1979) also suggested that the concern regarding over or under socialization could be alleviated by a greater emphasis on symbolic interactionism because it shifts the focus from social structure and the outcome of conformity to the process of negotiated interaction, personal meaning, and nonconforming outcomes. Sport Consumption Over the years, researchers have conducted numerous studies of sport consumers and the role socialization plays in forming sport consumers (Hunt, Bristol & Bashaw, 1999; Green, 2001). McPherson et al. (1989) define sport consumers as people who at any time consume sport, either directly through attending an event, or indirectly, through exposure to some sort of mass media (p. 11). The main focus of the present study will be on the nostalgia sport tourist, which is a form of indirect sport consumption. However, it is important to recognize both dimensions of this definition because both active and passive sport consumption are integrally related to the socialization process. Although more recent studies on sport consumption have been conducted, the early work of McPherson cannot be overlooked in the study of socialization and sport consumption. In fact, it appears that no recent scale of measurement focuses on socialization in as much detail necessary for the purpose of this study. His 1972 dissertation formulated and tested a theoretical model designed to explain the social factors that were hypothesized to account for individuals learning a leisure role, namely, that of a sport consumer (McPherson, 1972). Several studies have also examined the motives that drive people to become indirect sport consumers in the role of sports fans. Wann, Schrader and Wilson (1999)

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20 developed the Sport Fan Motivation Scale (SFMS), which is an instrument designed to measure eight different motives of sport fans. Based on an examination of previous work by researchers that attempted to identify the motivations of sport fans and spectators, they felt that there were eight common motives. These included eustress, self-esteem, escape, entertainment, economic, aesthetic, group affiliation, and family. More recently, Trail and James (2002) developed the Motivation Scale for Sport Consumption (MSCC) to measure the motivations behind sport spectator consumption behavior. They felt that previous efforts to develop scales to measure spectator motives demonstrated weaknesses in content, criterion and construct validity. Specifically, they argued that the SFMS scale presented by Wann et al. had problems in the areas of content validity, discriminant validity, criterion validity and to some extent convergent validity. The MSSC was developed from a review of the literature and from the evaluation of previous scales and administered to Major League Baseball season ticket holders. The motives were based on the sport sociology literature and were consistent with those identified in previous research. Items were generated for the nine motives, which included achievement, acquisition of knowledge, aesthetics, drama/eustress, escape, family, physical attractiveness of participants, the quality of the physical skill of the participants and social interaction. The results showed that the MSCC demonstrated the best psychometric properties overall to accurately and reliably measure motivations of sport spectator consumption behavior. James and Ridinger (2002) later used this same scale to expand upon the knowledge of sports fans and determine if the motives for being a fan of a specific team were similar or different for females and males. However, at the request of the university

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21 at which the study was conducted, the physical attractiveness item was omitted from this study. Participants were asked to fill out a survey to determine whether they were fans of sport in general and fans of the womens or mens basketball teams specifically, and to express their reasons for following a particular team. Inconsistent with earlier findings, females did not rate the opportunity to spend time with family or social interaction higher than males. Further, females and males disagreed with the idea that basketball games were good opportunities to spend time with family members. This is of particular interest in the discussion of the socialization process in which literature has revealed a difference among genders in value orientation and behaviors related to sport (Greendorfer, 1983; McPherson et al. 1989). Many more studies have investigated various aspects of fandom, including the meanings and identities associated with being a fan (eg., Anderson, 1979; Laverie & Arnett, 2000; Wann & Branscombe, 1993), fan behavior (eg. Greenberg, 1979; Kerstetter & Kovich, 1997), and team loyalty (eg. Cialdini, Border, Thorne, Walker, Freeman & Sloan, 1976; Wann & Branscombe, 1990). However, few studies have investigated the role of socialization in becoming a fan. Moreover, the meanings associated with being a fan have not been investigated in relation to the decisions to travel to sports related attractions. In other words, while these studies have examined the motives of individuals to become sports fans, few researchers have examined the sports fan or sports consumer in the context of sport tourism (Gibson et al., 2003; Weed, 2001; Weed, 2002). Sport Tourism Although the study of sport socialization is not a new concept, there has been little effort to examine how it might relate to tourism. In fact, the study of sport tourism, although steadily expanding, has been a part of the literature for no more than thirty

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22 years. As Glyptis (1991) points out, while sport and tourism are closely linked in the minds of participants, they have traditionally been treated as separate entities in research. Despite the lack of connection of sport to tourism, there is tangible evidence of the similarities that exist between them. When a comparison is made, one can see that all of the elements that make up the tourism industry, including things such as transportation, accommodation, food, entertainment, are also an integral part of organizing a sporting event (Loverseed, 2001). Getz (1998) examined sport-event tourism through a model of the supply-demand system and argued that a more comprehensive evaluation of the sport-event tourist is necessary to improve management strategies. The lack of knowledge about this potential marketable population further emphasizes the need for future research. Due to the lack of consistency in the literature, it is important to recognize how the concept of sport tourism has been defined. For the purpose of this study, the working definition, which Gibson (1998b) proposed, will be used. This definition recognized sport tourism as leisure-based travel that takes individuals temporarily outside of their home communities to play, watch physical activities, or venerate attractions associated with these activities (p. 108). Based on this definition, she also identified three major types of sport tourism: active sport tourism, event sport tourism, and nostalgia sport tourism. Nostalgia The special meaning that people attach to specific places can be a result of a connection they make to some past time. In a world of increasing change and instability, people often look to this past to escape the present or questionable future. Social and cultural norms are also experiencing change, leaving us anxious and lost amongst what

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23 was once familiar (Davis, 1979). The term often used to describe this yearning for an either real or imaginary past is nostalgia. In other words, nostalgia indicates an individuals desire to regain some control over their lives in an uncertain time (Aden, 1995). Historically, the word nostalgia was used as a medical term to explain the physiological and psychological symptoms associated with homesickness. A more recent interpretation of nostalgia has altered from its original definition to take on a more sociological meaning. From a sociological perspective, nostalgia allows human beings to maintain their identity in the face of major transitions, which serve as discontinuities in the life cycle (Havlena & Holak, 1991). Today the public culture contains many powerful symbols of the past. Wilson (1999) believes that these symbols become more personal, as we, in some ways, construct our identities from that which is available to us culturally (p. 297). It is these symbols that people attach meaning to based on their past experiences. However, to claim that nostalgic material derives from a personally experienced past is not to claim that the past causes or even explains current nostalgia. What causes us to feel nostalgia must also reside in the present, regardless of how much the ensuing nostalgic experience may draw its meaning from our memory of the past (Davis, 1979). Davis suggests nostalgia is one of the means we employ in the continuous aim of constructing, maintaining, and reconstructing our identities. Wilson suggests in order to maintain these identities, there is often a need to actively reconstruct the past. Although not necessary, this active reconstruction often involves travel to a destination that evokes

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24 certain memories. This travel may include those people socialized into fandom that travel to the shrine associated with their favorite team or favorite sport. Marketers and advertisers have recognized the use of nostalgia in some of their promotion schemes. In todays marketplace we see many firms using nostalgia to address a growing desire by consumers to recapture part of the past (Holak & Havlena, 1998; Pascal, Sprott & Muehling, 2002). For instance, Coca Cola has reintroduced the distinctively shaped green-tinted coke bottle. Likewise, Burger King has used classic 1960s and 1970s music in TV commercials in an attempt to separate themselves from the cluttered fast food environment (Pascal et al.). Pascal et al. developed a ten-item evoked nostalgia scale (NOST) in order to assess the potential nostalgic feelings stimulated by such focal marketing stimuli. The items used were created based on the conceptualization of nostalgia presented by Holbrook and Schindler (1991). Respondents were asked to fill out a questionnaire containing these items after viewing a group of advertisements. The results indicated that evoked nostalgia was a significant predictor of a more positive attitude toward the advertisement for two companies, namely Kodak and Toshiba. In addition, they found that the more nostalgia evoked by an advertisement, the greater the brand purchase likelihood (Pascal et al.). Studies of music, motion pictures, movie stars and fashion products have also shown that styles popular during a consumers youth can influence the consumers lifelong preferences. As an illustrative example, Schindler and Holbrook (2003) investigated the effects of early experience on consumer preferences for automobile styles. They found an age-related preference peak in which there was a favorite style

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25 found among car models popular during ones youth and typically no longer commonly available or widely circulated. In addition, they found that nostagic tendencies had a moderating effect on this peak in preference for a certain style of car. Specifically, they suggested that a psychographic variable, namely attitude toward the past or nostalgia proneness, is associated with individual differences in early-experience effects. Dannefer (1981) also identified a small group of old-car enthusiasts who traced their own interest back to childhood experiences and suggested that this may have wider applicability in studying leisure activity and social participation. These findings can also be expanded to study sport and how previous exposure to certain aspects of sport early in life might influence future involvement. In addition, the individual differences found in the respondents nostalgic tendencies further supports the use of a symbolic interactionist framework in that individuals construct their own meanings related to what they consider nostalgia to be. Nostalgia Sport Tourism Until recently, there was a geographical divide in relation to what behaviors constituted sport tourism. In Europe sport tourists were largely regarded as active participants (DeKnop, 1990; Glyptis, 1991). In the United States, much of the research in the realm of sport tourism was limited to large sporting events that draw spectators to an area (Ritchie, 1984). Redmond (1991) recognized that, in addition to event spectators, active sport participants and visitors to famous sport attractions such as museums, halls of fame and famous stadiums also constituted sport tourists. Taking a lead from Redmonds discussion about people who visit sport related attractions, Gibson (1998a) identified those sport tourists who were interested in visiting sports halls of fame or famous stadiums as nostalgia sport tourists.

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26 Sport is a good indicator of change, and when combined with a nostalgically driven media, it can also be a strong reminder of the past and the way things used to be (Gammon, 2002). It is the visiting and, perhaps, paying homage aspect of sport tourist behavior that Gibson (1998b) termed nostalgia sport tourism (p. 49). Although it is still in the early stages of development as an area of research, visiting sports halls of fame, sports museums, and famous sporting venues has become an increasingly popular tourist attraction. For example, in 1991 the growing demand for baseball research material and archival resources forced The National Baseball Hall of Fame Library in Cooperstown, NY to expand the building to make room for the influx of baseball books, periodicals, trivia questions and motion pictures (National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum, n.d.). Gammon also pointed out that nearly 400,000 people come to the National Baseball Hall of Fame each year to pay tribute to the great baseball heroes of the past. However, there has been little research that has investigated why people become nostalgia sport tourists. Gibson suggested that an examination of theoretical approaches from anthropological and sociological understandings of pilgrimage could reveal some insight into this question. One idea that has emerged from these disciplines is that sport is a new religion and that stadiums and sport museums have become sacred sites within our culture (Erickson, 2001; Gammon, 2002; Newman, 2001; Trujillo & Krizek, 1994). It is no surprise that baseball, the national pastime, has received much of the attention related to nostalgia. Indeed, our vocabulary is filled with references that relate baseball and the places it is played to religion and religious practice (Erickson, 2001; Redmond, 1973). For instance, Newman (2001) points out that the great, old ballparks,

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27 both those still standing and those of historic teams, are spoken of with the awe generally reserved for the great cathedrals of Europe (p. 46). In her discussion of the National Baseball Hall of Fame, Newman states that just as droves of pilgrims flock to the holy sites of their religions, so too do they flock to Cooperstown, to observe the relics of baseballs saints and martyrs (p.47). Visiting nostalgic venues, such as halls of fame and museums, is a form of socialization in which artifacts and the memories people attach to them symbolically convey the values and norms of a society (Snyder, 1991). Segrave (2000) believes that these so-called cathedrals of sport allow us to connect with a larger, more social sense of who we are both as individuals and as members of a culture (p.63). Sports then do not just take place anywhere; they become culturally significant places that are celebrated as repositories of history, folklore and sentiment. Baseball, as the saying goes, is Americas game. Recently, however, individuals seem more interested in baseballs past than in its present. Movies such as The Natural, The Babe, Bull Durham, Eight Men Out, A League of Their Own and Field of Dreams are just a few of examples of how baseball can be used to provide people with a trip down memory lane so to speak (Aden, 1995; Altherr, 2001; Mosher, 1991). Legends games featuring stars of the past are also played prior to contemporary baseball games. Many of the same legend players also attract, often frustrated, middle-aged men to fantasy baseball games (Aden, 1995). In addition, new ballparks such as Camden Yards in Baltimore have sought to capitalize on nostalgia by creating a more traditional look and feel to their ballparks. However, these new ballparks have not escaped the criticism of die-hard fans who argue

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28 that nothing new can replace an old stadium (Altherr, 2001). Bryson (1999) emphasizes the significance of the feeling that is attached to historic ballparks: Call me eccentric, call me fastidious, but I truly believe that baseball should only be watched in an old stadium In fairness it must be said that the new ballparks of the 1990s, as opposed to the multipurpose arenas built in the previous thirty years, do strive to keep the character and intimacy of old ballparks sometimes even improve on them but they have one inescapable, irremediable flaw. They are new. They have no history, no connection with a glorious and continuous past A day game at Wrigley Field is one of the great American experiences. (pp. 26-27) Theme parks such as Disney and hotels such as the Raffles Hotel in Singapore spend millions of dollars on renovations in order to create a nostalgic atmosphere. In fact, the Raffles relies almost entirely on its nostalgic links with the past to promote their hotel (Dann, 1994). While these attractions are forced to invest large sums of money to construct a nostalgic feel, old stadiums like Wrigley Field only need to worry about regular maintenance repairs and minor changes. Before nostalgia sport tourism was ever introduced into the literature, the space upon which sporting action is played out was discussed by Bale (1989). In terms of baseball, the playing field itself has been viewed as a vestige of the frontier. Ross (1973) explains the symbolic comparison of the stadium to an America of the past, separating the diamond as the urban core, infield as the supporting hinterland and outfield as the frontier. Bale emphasized that this spatial analogy between baseball and America itself is argued by some to be a major source of attraction to the game (p.14). For instance, the physical environment of baseball can bring back memories of a lost pastoral world and at the same time be related to the day-to-day work of an individual with division of labor, specialization of roles and limited independence. Much like tourism, two journeys are often made in nostalgically driven sport tourism including the journey made to the attraction or event and the imagined journey

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29 that takes place once there. Springwood (1996) raises the following question: Why do people load themselves into their cars and vans and traverse miles of state country road to arrive in these bucolic locales of baseballs celestial sights, sounds, and smells? (p. 171). The answer is of course not a simple one, but it is one that deserves the attention of researchers. There has also been sense of wishful thinking in some cases that baseball has served to smooth over generational differences and tensions. Poet Donald Hall (1985) touched on this theme in the following passage: Baseball connects American males with each other, not only through bleacher friendships and neighbor loyalties, not only through barroom fights but, most importantly, through generations. When you are small, you may not discuss politics or union dues or profit margins with your fathers cigar-smoking friends when your father has gone out for a six-pack, but you may discuss baseball. (pp. 49-50) Trujillo and Krizek (1994) also discussed the generational continuity of ballpark fans (p. 307). One fan accompanied by his father, brother and son at Comiskey Park discussed their attendance at one of the last games played in the stadium: Thats why I thought it would be kind of sentimental to have three different generations of the family. My dads been coming here for 70 years, Ive been coming here for 35 years, hes (my brother) about the same, just a little bit longer, and Adam (my son) now for 3 years. What better of a way to celebrate our relationships? (p. 307) These are just two of many examples of how books and movies have reinforced the therapeutic connection in which the game of catch can help people of different generations transcend their differences. Further, as Trujillo and Krizek point out: As the ballpark brings together these generations of families and friends, it also becomes a place where older people experience their own youth vicariously as they interact with and observe the children and grandchildren of their own family and of other families. (p. 307)

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30 This also sheds some light on how early childhood socialization is connected to both nostalgia and sport. So, although there have been some hypotheses about how nostalgic imagery and memory is related to sport, the answer to why people engage in this sort of sport tourism remains unanswered. Perhaps the process of socialization into and through sport that was examined in this study will reveal some of the underpinnings of nostalgia motivated sport tourism.

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CHAPTER 3 METHODS Survey research was the primary method used in this exploratory and descriptive study. The data for this study were collected on-site at Wrigley Field with a self-administered questionnaire. Permission was received from the Chicago Cubs organization before data collection began. Site Description Wrigley field, located in northern Chicago, Illinois, was built in 1914, and is the second-oldest ballpark in Major League Baseball behind Bostons Fenway Park, which was built in 1912. The first major league game took place at the ballpark April 23, 1914 and the first National League game was played nearly two years later on April 20, 1916. Todays home of the Chicago Cubs was originally known as Weeghman Park, and it was not until 1926 that it was named Wrigley Field in honor of William Wrigley Jr., the club's owner. Despite numerous renovations, several historic pieces of the park remain intact. For example, the scoreboard constructed in 1937 is used to post the score-by-innings and the pitchers numbers, which are still changed manually. In addition, the ivy that runs along the outfield wall remains a trademark of the field. The original vines, including 350 Japanese bittersweet plants and 200 Boston ivy plants, were purchased and planted in September 1937. These physical features depict only a small portion of the nostalgia that fills Wrigley Field for the fans that walk through the gates. It goes without saying that the 31

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32 field has also been the home of many historic baseball moments as well. Among the most memorable was Babe Ruths called shot during Game three of the 1932 World Series (Wrigley Field: Ballpark History, n.d.). It is things like the rich history of this ballpark that makes it an appropriate venue to study the effects of socialization on nostalgia-related sport tourism. Known to many as The Friendly Confines, Wrigley field is also one of the most beloved stadiums in baseball history. In fact, while interviewing people in Dyersville, Iowa, site of the Field of Dreams, the first question Mosher (1991) asked respondents was, What is your favorite Major League park? (p. 274). Not surprisingly, Wrigley Field was the most often mentioned. During the summer of 1982, a fan who had never visited Wrigley Field before looked out upon the crowd and remarked, This place is baseball heaven If the game of baseball ever needed a museum in the year 2050, they ought to keep Wrigley Field and its fans in mind. This is what the game is all about (Ibach & Colletti, 1983, p. 1). Tours are offered to provide people with an insiders look at over 85 years of history in this legendary ballpark. The tour guides place a strong emphasis on the origin of the field and the club as well as many of the historic events that have occurred in the ballpark. The emphasis of these tours separates those people who came to take a tour from those event sport tourists who come to Wrigley Field for a baseball game as spectators. People come from all over the United States and the world to take these tours. These tour participants are nostalgia sport tourists and constituted the participants for this study.

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33 Data Collection Contact with the Chicago Cubs organization was made in March 2003. The message sent to the organization was forwarded to the Community Relations Intern who organized the tours. This intern became the primary liaison with the organization during the planning and data collection phases that followed. The purpose of the study was explained and the researcher was given permission to survey tour participants during summer 2003. As part of the negotiation process, the Chicago Cubs organization requested that question 10 was included in the questionnaire (Appendix A). Specifically, this question asked respondents, Do you know what charity will benefit from the money you paid to take part in todays tour? The information gathered from this question was pertinent to the Chicago Cubs organization, rather than the purpose of this study. Prior to each tour of Wrigley Field (July 19, 20 and 26, 2003), participants were informed about the study and asked if they would be willing to complete a questionnaire at the conclusion of the 90-minute tour. Tour stops included the Cubs clubhouse, the visitors clubhouse, dugouts, mezzanine suites, press box, bleachers, playing field and security headquarters. Pictures showing stops along this tour are included in Appendix B. Due to the logistics of this study, non-random sampling procedures were used to select participants. Everyone over the age of 18 on the tour was considered a potential respondent. It is estimated that each tour group contained between 30 and 40 people. Exact numbers were not provided by the organization. On each of the data collection days, fourteen tours were conducted. A standardized protocol of administering the questionnaires was used. The researcher was introduced to the group at the beginning of each tour. She gave a brief explanation of the study and asked for volunteers. An

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34 estimated 48% of those people who took a tour over the three days of data collection, including Chicago residents, took time to fill out the questionnaire. Questionnaires were administered to those who agreed to take part in the study and the researcher remained in the area to answer any questions the participants had. Upon completion, the researcher personally collected the questionnaires from each respondent and thanked him or her for taking the time to assist in the study. The estimated average time taken to complete the questionnaire was between 10 and 15 minutes. Participants Of the 702 total completed questionnaires, 357 were non-residents of metro Chicago. As this study was focused on nostalgia sport tourists, only the responses from the non-residents or tourists were analyzed and reported. Due to the exploratory nature of this study, the profile of the participants was an important part of this study and will be discussed in detail. The following characteristics apply only to the non-residents, or tourists that took part in this study. The data from the residents will be analyzed at a future point. Of the 346 non-resident nostalgia sport tourists who reported their gender, 62.7% (n = 217) were male and 37.3% (n = 129) were female. They ranged in age from 18-89 with a mean age of 38.5 years. The majority of participants had completed a bachelors degree (44.4%), followed by 19.4% who had completed a Masters Degree. Almost 60% (n = 193) of the participants reported annual household incomes below $100,001 with a median income falling in the range of $75,001$100,000. An overwhelming percentage of the respondents (95.6%) were white, and based on observation this number seems to

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35 be consistent with the actual composition of the crowd that toured Wrigley Field on the data collection days. A more detailed demographic profile is presented in Table 3-1. Table 3-1. Tourist Profile for Wrigley Field Ballpark Tours Socio-Demographic Characteristics Frequency Valid Percent Gender (N =346) Male 217 62.7 Female 129 37.3 Race and Ethnicity (N=344) White 329 95.6 Hispanic/Latino 6 1.7 Native American 4 1.2 Asian 3 0.9 Black 1 0.3 Other 1 0.3 Education (N=340) Less than high school 16 4.7 High school graduate 47 13.8 Associate or technical degree 49 14.4 Bachelors degree 151 44.4 Masters degree 66 19.4 Doctoral degree 11 3.2 Annual Household Income (N=318) $25,000 or less 35 11.0 $25,001 $50,000 48 15.1 $50,001 $75,000 49 14.4 $75,001 $100,000 61 19.2 $100,001 $125,000 42 13.2 $125,001 $150,000 23 7.2 $150,001 or more 35 11.0 Age Range (N = 344) 18-29 118 34.3 30-39 60 17.4 40-55 121 35.2 56-65 38 11.0 66 and older 7 2.0 The number (N) may vary due to missing values or responses Participants in the study were also asked to describe the composition of their group (Table 3-2). Almost 34% (n = 116) of participants reported that they came to the

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36 tour with one companion. This was the most frequently reported group composition. Overall, only 29.9% (n = 102) of the people on the tour who responded to the questionnaire came in groups of five or more people. A majority (69.0%) of these people did not bring any children under the age of 18 on the tour. Table 3-2. Group Composition of Respondents Number of People in Group Frequency Valid Percent 1 (alone) 20 5.8 2 116 33.9 3 53 15.5 4 51 14.9 5 25 7.3 6 26 7.6 7 22 6.4 8 or more 29 8.6 When asked approximately how many miles they had traveled to take the tour, 30.3% (n = 105) said they had traveled 51-100 miles (Table 3-3). In contrast, 24.6% (n = 85) of the respondents had traveled over 1000 miles. The median number of miles traveled was between 201-500 miles and the mode was 51-100 miles. When asked about the primary purpose of their trip, 34.8% (n = 124) reported that visiting Wrigley Field was their primary purpose (Table 3-3). A majority (48%) of all of the nostalgia sport tourists on the tour also reported that visiting Wrigley Field was very important to their overall trip. For 44.3% (n = 158) of the respondents, the tour marked their first ever visit to Wrigley Field and only 10.9% (n = 39) indicated they had been there more than 10 or more times prior to the tour. When asked who had the most influence on their decision to take the tour, 33.1% (n = 118) claimed that it was their own decision. A list of other influences and their level of importance is shown in Table 3-3.

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37 Table 3-3. Trip Information and Influence on Respondents Decision to Take Wrigley Field Tour Frequency Valid Percentage Miles Traveled (N = 346) 51-100 105 30.3 101-200 28 8.1 201-500 62 17.9 501-1000 66 19.1 Over 1000 85 24.6 Trip Purpose (N = 356) Visit Wrigley Field 124 34.8 Vacation 108 30.3 Visiting Friends/Family 74 20.8 Business 17 4.8 Day Trip 19 5.3 Convention 3 .8 Other 11 3.1 Most Influence (N = 356) Yourself 118 33.1 Spouse/Partner 69 19.4 Friend 55 15.4 Children 44 12.4 Other Relative 44 12.4 Parent(s) 18 5.1 Other 8 2.2 The number (N) may vary due to missing values or responses While in Chicago, only 36.8% of the participants planned to attend a game at Wrigley Field when the Cubs played in town. However, it should be noted that ballpark tours are only offered on weekends when the club is out of town so there were no games scheduled at Wrigley Field several days before and after the tour dates. For example, one male respondent stated that the reason he came on the tour was because there were no games so [the] tour was the next best thing. Another male respondent said there was no game in town, but you cannot come to Chicago without visiting Wrigley Field. A majority of the participants (87.3%) claimed to be baseball fans in general. Of these baseball fans, 26.4% said that they were Cubs fans.

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38 Instrument The questionnaire (Appendix A) used in this study consisted of four parts. The first part asked respondents about their motivations for going on a tour of Wrigley Field. Seven motives were measured on a Likert-type scale (1 = Strongly Disagree to 5 = Strongly Agree) and were based on those identified by Crompton (1979), such as escape, relax, family, etc. An additional motive addressing nostalgia was also included in this section, making a total of eight items. Part one also contained the ten-item evoked nostalgia scale (NOST) developed by Pascal et al. (2002). This scale was used to further examine the extent to which taking the tour was motivated by nostalgia. The reported Cronbachs alpha for the ten items in the NOST scale was .96. Cronbachs alpha for the NOST scale in the current study was identical to the original scale ( = .96). An exploratory factor analysis revealed that the NOST scale consisted of the ten constructs identified by Pascal et al. and explained 76.0% of the variance (Table 3-4). The second part of the questionnaire asked respondents to recall their degree of consumer role socialization. McPhersons (1972) work provided the basis for the operationalization of consumer role socialization. The three levels of consumer role socialization are: behavioral, role model and cognitive. Behavioral consumer role socialization examined the extent to which an individual had been introduced to attending sports events, reading, viewing and listening to and discussing sport while growing up. Role model socialization which McPherson referred to as affective socialization, measured the extent to which an individual has become emotionally involved in the role of sport consumer due to the behavior of a

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39 Table 3-4. Exploratory Factor Analysis Results of Evoked Nostalgia Scale Evoked Nostalgia Statements Factor It brought back memories of good times from the past .93 It reminded me of good times in the past .91 It evoked fond memories .90 It was a pleasant reminder of the past .90 It helped me recall pleasant memories .89 It made me reminisce about a previous time .87 It made me think about when I was younger .86 It reminded me of the good old days .84 It reminded me of the past .82 It made me feel nostalgic .79 Eigenvalue 7.60 Cronbachs Alpha .96 Factor Mean1 3.64 Percentage of variance explained 76.0 1 Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Strongly disagree and 5 = Strongly agree primary socialization agent growing up as identified by the respondent. Finally, cognitive socialization measured the extent to which an individual has learned and retained facts and concepts related to sport while growing up. Each socialization scale was measured using a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from either 1 = never to 5 = frequently or 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree. Nine items were used to measure behavioral consumer role socialization. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that this scale was unidimensional, accounting for 58.8% of the variance (Table 3-5). Cronbachs alpha ( = .91) showed that this scale had high internal consistency. In order to measure role model socialization, respondents were asked to list who they felt was their most significant influence into sport. In reference to the person identified, 12 role model socialization questions were asked. An exploratory factor analysis revealed two different factors (or domains) with eigenvalues greater than 1.0 that

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40 Table 3-5. Exploratory Factor Analysis Results of Behavioral Consumer Role Socialization Scale Behavioral Consumer Role Socialization Statements Factor 1 I discussed sports with others .93 I read about sports (e.g. newspaper, magazines, books, etc.) .86 I listened to sports on the radio .79 I collected sports memorabilia (e.g. players cards, hats, jerseys, etc.) .79 I attended sports events (e.g. high school, college, professional, etc.) .76 I played pick-up games .75 I played organized sport (e.g. team, league, etc.) .67 I watched sports on TV .67 I visited a Hall of Fame or sport museum .49 Eigenvalue 5.29 Cronbachs Alpha .91 Factor Mean1 3.68 Percentage of variance explained 58.8 1 Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Never and 5 = Frequently accounted for 54.9% of the total variance. Items with loadings of at least .40 were used as the cutoff point to determine which factor they were associated with. Nine of the 12 role model socialization items loaded on one of the two factors (Table 3-6). Based on the nature of the items that loaded on Factor 1, it was labeled Passive Sport Involvement. The role model socialization items included in this factor were: he/she had a favorite sport, he/she had a favorite sports team, he/she talked about and/or watched sports frequently, he/she had a favorite player, he/she got very emotional when watching sports and because him/her I have a favorite player. The second factor was labeled Active Sport Involvement because the items included in this domain are suggestive of the participants actual participation in sport and attendance at sports events. These items include: He/she used to watch me play

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41 sports, he/she encouraged me to play sports and he/she used to take me to sporting events. Table 3-6. Exploratory Factor Analysis Results of Role Model Socialization Statements Role Model Socialization Statements Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 1 Passive Sport Involvement He/she had a favorite sport .78 .03 He/she had a favorite sports team .77 .10 He/she talked about and/or watched sports frequently .76 .04 He/she had a favorite player .71 .05 He/she got very emotional when watching sports (cheered, yelled, booed, applauded) .60 .11 Because of him/her I have a favorite player .51 .36 Factor 2 Active Sport Involvement He/she used to watch me play sports -.04 .86 He/she encouraged me to play sports -.08 .86 He/she used to take me to sporting events .17 .71 Eigenvalues 3.62 2.97 Cronbachs Alpha .80 .81 Factor Means1 3.86 3.83 Percentage of variance explained 30.1 24.7 Cumulative variance explained 30.1 54.9 1 Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Strongly disagree and 5 = Strongly agree The remaining three statements not included in either domain were: I owe my interest in sport to him/her, because of him/her I follow the same team and because of him/her I have a favorite sport. These statements had loadings above .40 for both domains and could not be clearly distinguished as belonging to either factor and therefore were eliminated from future analysis. Finally, cognitive socialization was measured using five items. An exploratory factor analysis confirmed that each of these items was a part of a unidimensional scale (Table 3-7). The results showed that, as expected, this scale had only one construct and it

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42 explained 74.7% of the variance. A high Cronbachs alpha ( = .91) showed that this scale was also internally consistent. The third part of the questionnaire measured the individuals current participation and cognitive awareness about sport. The same items used in the second part of the Table 3-7. Exploratory Factor Analysis Results of Cognitive Consumer Role Socialization Statements Cognitive Consumer Role Socialization Statements Factor 1 I knew the players on the roster for one or more teams .91 I knew what teams were in each league for one or more sports .91 I followed the progress of teams in one or more sports .90 I kept track of players statistics in one or more sports .86 I was taught about the rules and strategies of one or more sports .73 Eigenvalues 3.73 Cronbachs Alpha .91 Factor Mean1 3.87 Percentage of variance explained 74.7 1 Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Strongly disagree and 5 = Strongly agree questionnaire were used to measure behavioral and cognitive socialization, but respondents were asked to answer the questions according to their current behavior. These questions could be used to measure the correlation between past and present sport behavior, but will not be the focus of this study and will be used only as a recommendation for future research. The final part of the questionnaire consisted of nine demographic questions such as age, gender, annual household income and education as well as an open-ended question where respondents were given a chance to share any additional comments about the tour or this study. The responses from this section were used to generate a general profile of the participants in this study and to understand their responses.

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43 Face validity of the instrument was established using a pilot test by a group of sport tourism graduate students who were familiar with questionnaire design and nostalgia sport tourism during Spring 2003. Their input was used to clarify the wording and format of the questionnaire. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was used to establish the construct validity of the NOST and the consumer role socialization scales. Data Analysis The data were analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, Version 11.5). Descriptive statistics were run for all questions to generate the frequencies, means, modes and standard deviations. These statistics were used to determine the demographics of the sample, check for coding errors and create a profile of the nostalgia sport tourist that chose to take a tour of Wrigley Field. Mean scores were used to determine the motivations of participants to take a tour of Wrigley Field and to identify what components of consumer role socialization are associated with the nostalgia sport tourist. Independent samples t-tests were then used to answer the five research questions for this study and determine if there were any significant gender differences among each individual item in the scales. The mean score for the NOST scale, behavioral consumer role socialization, role model socialization and cognitive consumer role socialization was also computed. An independent samples t-test was also used to determine if there were any significant difference between men and women for the entire scale. In addition, the mean score for each factor of role model socialization (Passive and Active Sport Involvement) was also computed and analyzed separately using an independent samples t-test to determine if there were any significant gender differences. A paired samples t-test was then used to

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44 compare the computed mean NOST scale with each individual motivation statement for the entire sample as well as for each gender. Finally, a thematic analysis was used to group open-ended comments according to similarity in response and will be used to supplement statistical findings for the appropriate research questions.

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CHAPTER 4 RESULTS The data collected at Wrigley Field provided many insights into the motivations of nostalgia sport tourists, what aspects of socialization were prominent among these visitors, and if any statistically significant gender differences related to these characteristics existed. In addition, a primary purpose of this study was to find out if nostalgia really was a primary motivator of these tourists, or if it served as a less significant reason for taking part in the tour. Although over 700 useable surveys were collected, only the tourists were analyzed because the focus of this study was to understand the motivations and socialization patterns of nostalgia sport tourists on a trip to Wrigley Field. Where appropriate, responses from open-ended questions were also used to supplement statistical findings. Because there is a limited understanding about the profile of nostalgia sport tourists, the socio-demographic information presented in Chapter 3 provided valuable information about the basic characteristics of this sample. This profile will continue to be developed as the research questions are answered in this chapter. Motivations of Nostalgia Sport Tourists Research Question #1 1a. What motivates nostalgia sport tourists to take a tour of Wrigley Field? 1b. Are men and women motivated differently to tour Wrigley Field? When asked about their decision to visit Wrigley Field, the motivational statement that respondents agreed with the most was, It was a chance to see something new and 45

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46 different (M = 4.50, SD = .74) (Table 4-1). This statement reflected the novelty motive that Crompton (1979) identified in his discussion of motivations to take pleasure vacations. The second most important motive was, It gave me a chance to share something special with family/friends (M = 4.48, SD = .82). This item was used to express Cromptons idea of the enhancement of kinship relationships. Respondents also indicated that, It will give me something to talk about when I get home (M = 4.41, SD = .78) was an important motive. Cromptons idea of prestige was the basis of this statement. Finally, respondents also agreed that, It was a chance to spend time with family/friends (M = 4.15, SD = .99), which was used to represent Cromptons facilitation of social interaction. Table 4-1. Motivations of Participants to Tour Wrigley Field Motivation Statements N1 Mean2 SD It was a chance to see something new and different 347 4.50 .74 It gave me a chance to share something special with family/friends 352 4.48 .82 It will give something unique to talk about when I get home 353 4.41 .78 It was a chance to spend time with family/friends 351 4.15 .99 It was a chance to relax 350 3.82 .96 It was an escape from routine 351 3.61 1.24 It took me back to my childhood 345 3.02 1.29 It was a chance to get to know myself better 346 2.30 1.14 1The number (N) may vary due to missing values or responses 2 Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Strongly disagree and 5 = Strongly agree The only motivational statement that respondents disagreed with was, It was a chance to get to know myself better (M = 2.30, SD = 1.14), which was based on Cromptons exploration and evaluation of self motive. The statement used to address the motive nostalgia (It took me back to my childhood (M = 3.02, SD = 1.29)) ranked

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47 above only this item. So, although the tour participants were considered nostalgia sport tourists for this study, nostalgia was not a primary motivation to take the tour. Individual items are listed in Table 4-1 from highest to lowest mean. An independent samples t-test was used to determine if there were any significant differences in the motivations of males and females (Table 4-2). Men were more likely to agree that the tour took them back to their childhood (t = 2.64, p < .01, df = 332). On the other hand, females were more likely to agree that the tour gave them a chance to spend time with family/friends (t = -3.13, p < .01, df = 338). Table 4-2. Independent Samples t-test Results of Motivations by Gender Motivation Statements Males Females Mean1 SD Mean1 SD df t It was a chance to see something new and different 4.46 .76 4.55 .73 334 -1.04 It gave me a chance to share something special with family/friends 4.43 .85 4.57 .72 339 -1.47 It will give something unique to talk about when I get home 4.40 .77 4.40 .80 340 -.02 It was a chance to spend time with family/friends 4.02 1.02 4.37 .89 338 -3.13* It was a chance to relax 3.90 .85 3.70 1.06 216.06a 1.80 It was an escape from routine 3.61 1.17 3.58 1.35 232.62a .23 It took me back to my childhood 3.18 1.27 2.80 1.26 332 2.64* It was a chance to get to know myself better 2.33 1.11 2.25 1.16 333 .58 1Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Strongly disagree and 5 = Strongly agree aEqual variances not assumed *p < .01 There were no other significant differences between the motives of males and females, but women were more likely to agree that they came on the tour because it gave them a chance to share something special with family/friends (M = 4.57, SD = .72).

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48 More females than males also felt that it was a chance to see something new and different (M = 4.55, SD = .73). On the other hand, males were more motivated by a chance to relax (M = 3.90, SD = .85), escape from routine (M = 3.61, SD = 1.17) and have the opportunity to get to know themselves better (M = 2.33, SD = 1.11). Males and females were equally motivated to take the tour so that they would have something unique to talk about when they got home (M = 4.40). Several open-ended comments made by females regarding the primary purpose of their trip support the statistically significant difference among men and women regarding the importance of spending time with family and friends: husband and son are sports enthusiasts thought it would be interesting to learn baseball trivia accompany boyfriend for fun activity father, sister and friend wanted to come family outing my husband is a HUGE Cubs fan bring out the family husband wanted to tour the field dad wanted to see the field for my husband and boys husband and son wanted to tour I just went along The females who shared these comments ranged in age from 22-49 (M = 36.7) and came in groups of between two and nine people (M = 4.11). A gender comparison of the person who had the most influence on their decision to take the tour also supports these statements. While only 12.5% (n = 27) of males said that a spouse or partner had the most influence on their decision, 30.2% (n = 39) of females said they came on the tour because of a significant other. On the other hand, 42.1% (n = 91) of males said that their decision to come on the tour was personal, while only 19.4% (n = 25) of females reported they decided to come on the tour for themselves.

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49 Nostalgia as a Motivation Research Question #2 2a. What items of the evoked nostalgia scale (NOST) were most associated with taking a tour of Wrigley Field? 2b. Are there significant differences between gender and the feelings of nostalgia generated by taking a tour of Wrigley Field? 2c. Is nostalgia a primary motive to tour Wrigley Field? 2d. Are there gender differences in the primacy of nostalgia when compared to the other motivations? The mean scores for the statements on the NOST scale used to measure nostalgia ranged between 3.35 and 3.91 on a five point Likert-type scale (Table 4-3), indicating that participants responded between neutral and agree for each item. The overall mean of this scale was 3.64. Although there was not much variance among the means for the items in the NOST scale, the two statements that people were more likely to agree with were: It made me feel nostalgic (M = 3.91, SD = 1.10) and It was a pleasant reminder of the past (M = 3.75, SD = 1.13). Respondents were more likely to disagree that it made them think about when they were younger (M = 3.35, SD = 1.23), but this mean was still above neutral (i.e. a score of 3 on the Likert-type scale). The compute variable function in SPSS 11.0 was used to calculate the mean score for the entire NOST scale. More specifically, the MEAN function was used to enter each item and derive a composite score. The composite mean NOST score and the individual scale item means were then tested for gender differences. An independent samples t-test showed that there was no significant difference between males and females in relation to the overall NOST mean score (t = 1.74, df = 340). Although this difference

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50 Table 4-3. Mean Scores of Evoked Nostalgia Scale (NOST) Items Nostalgia Statements N1 Mean2 SD It made me feel nostalgic 352 3.91 1.10 It was a pleasant reminder of the past 350 3.75 1.13 It made me reminisce about a previous time 350 3.68 1.19 It reminded me of the past 352 3.67 1.12 It helped me recall pleasant memories 351 3.67 1.16 It evoked fond memories 349 3.64 1.14 It brought back memories of good times from the past 352 3.61 1.18 It reminded me of good times in the past 350 3.60 1.14 It reminded me of the good old days 348 3.57 1.18 It made me think about when I was younger 351 3.35 1.23 1The number (N) may vary due to missing values or responses 2 Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Strongly disagree and 5 = Strongly agree was not statistically significant, the mean for males (M = 3.73) was higher than the mean for females (M = 3.55). However, there were significant differences between males and females for two of the individual items within the scale (Table 4-4). Males were more likely than females to agree that the tour reminded them of the past (t = 2.93, p < .01. df = 339) and helped them recall pleasant memories (t = 1.95, p < .05, df = 338). Although there were no other statistically significant gender differences, males had the higher mean score for every item in the scale. A paired-samples t-test was also used to determine statistically significant (p .05) differences between the individual tourism motives and the mean score of the NOST scale (Table 4-5). It took me back to my childhood was not used for this comparison since this item was used to measure the same concept as the NOST scale. An exploratory factor analysis with the ten items in the NOST scale and the additional nostalgia item from the motivation scale was run to confirm this relationship. The results indicated that this item did in fact load into the same factor as those in the NOST scale.

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51 Table 4-4. Independent Samples t-test Results of Evoked Nostalgia Scale Items by Gender Nostalgia Statements Males Females Mean1 SD Mean1 SD df t It made me feel nostalgic 3.99 1.06 3.80 1.09 339 1.57 It was a pleasant reminder of the past 3.84 1.06 3.64 1.17 239.90a 1.55 It made me reminisce about a previous time 3.78 1.15 3.58 1.20 337 1.46 It reminded me of the past 3.82 1.06 3.46 1.14 339 2.93** It helped me recall pleasant memories 3.78 1.11 3.53 1.18 338 1.95* It evoked fond memories 3.69 1.10 3.61 1.16 336 .61 It brought back memories of good times from the past 3.66 1.13 3.57 1.22 339 .68 It reminded me of good times in the past 3.69 1.09 3.52 1.15 337 1.37 It reminded me of the good old days 3.67 1.16 3.47 1.13 335 1.49 It made me think about when I was younger 3.47 1.18 3.21 1.26 338 1.92 1Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Strongly disagree and 5 = Strongly agree aEqual variances not assumed *p .05; **p < .01 When compared with the remaining seven motives, five of the items were significantly more important motivators than nostalgia. These items included: It gave me a chance to share something special with family/friends (t = 13.95, p < .001, df = 350), It was a chance to see something new and different (t = 13.12, p < .001, df = 345), It will give me something unique to talk about when I get home (t = 12.15, p < .001, df = 352), It was a chance to spend time with family/friends (t = 7.32, p < .001, df = 349) and It was a chance to relax (t = 2.91, p < .01, df = 348). The only significantly weaker motive was It was a chance to get to know myself better (t = -19.56, p < .001, df = 345).

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52 Even though nostalgia was not the main motive to travel to Wrigley Field, some responses to the open-ended question about trip purpose did reveal the importance of history in their decision to take the tour. When asked to list the primary purpose of their visit to Wrigley Field, a content analysis revealed that 24.9% (n = 89) of the respondents indicated it was for the historic, nostalgic or traditional value of the ballpark. Table 4-5. Paired Samples t-test Results of Motivations by Mean Evoked Nostalgia Scale Score Motives1 Mean Mean Difference SD df t It was a chance to spend time with family/friends 4.15 .50 1.29 349 7.32** It was an escape from routine 3.61 -.03 1.45 350 -.42 It was a chance to get to know myself better 2.30 -1.35 1.28 345 -19.56** It was a chance to relax 3.82 .18 1.17 348 2.91* It was a chance to see something new and different 4.50 .86 1.23 345 13.12** It will give me something unique to talk about when I get home 4.41 .76 1.17 352 12.15** It gave me a chance to share something special with family/friends 4.48 .83 1.12 350 13.95** 1Each motive was paired with the mean NOST scale score (M = 3.64) *p < .01; **p < .001 In order to determine if there were any gender differences in the primacy of nostalgia when compared to the other motivations, another series of paired samples t-tests was used. Cases were separated by gender using the select cases function in SPSS and individual paired t-tests were run on males and then females to see if there were any variances in the significant differences. The results of the paired t-tests for males revealed the same significant differences between the motive items and the mean NOST score as the entire sample as discussed

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53 above. In other words, five of the seven items were significantly stronger motives for men than nostalgia and one item (It was a chance to get to know myself better (t = -16.58, p < .001, df = 211)) was a significantly weaker motive (Table 4-6). Table 4-6. Paired Samples t-test Results of Motivations by Mean Evoked Nostalgia Scale Score by Gender Motives1 Mean Mean Difference SD df t Males2 It was a chance to spend time with family/friends 4.02 .29 1.26 213 3.35** It was an escape from routine 3.61 -.12 1.33 213 -1.36 It was a chance to get to know myself better 2.33 -1.41 1.24 211 -16.58** It was a chance to relax 3.90 .16 1.13 213 2.08* It was a chance to see something new and different 4.46 .73 1.20 212 8.88** It will give me something unique to talk about when I get home 4.40 .66 1.18 214 8.21** It gave me a chance to share something special with family/friends 4.43 .70 1.08 213 9.45** Females3 It was a chance to spend time with family/friends 4.37 .83 1.22 124 7.63** It was an escape from routine 3.58 .04 1.64 125 .27 It was a chance to get to know myself better 2.25 -1.28 1.36 122 -10.41** It was a chance to relax 3.70 .17 1.22 123 1.54 It was a chance to see something new and different 4.55 1.04 1.21 121 9.50** It will give me something unique to talk about when I get home 4.40 .85 1.08 126 8.95** It gave me a chance to share something special with family/friends 4.57 1.03 1.06 125 10.91** 1Each motive was paired with the mean NOST scale score 2Mean NOST scale score for males = 3.73 3Mean NOST scale score for females = 3.55 *p < .05; **p .001

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54 However, only four of the seven items were significantly stronger motives than nostalgia for women. Unlike the overall sample and the male sub-sample, females did not feel that It was a chance to relax (t = 1.54, df = 123) was a significantly more important motive than nostalgia. The remainder of the significant differences was the same for males and females as shown in Table 4-6. Behavioral Consumer Role Socialization While Growing Up Research Question #3 3a. What aspects of behavioral consumer role socialization are associated with nostalgia sport tourists? 3b. Are there significant differences between the behavioral consumer role socialization of male and female nostalgia sport tourists? The two aspects of behavioral consumer role socialization that were most associated with the nostalgia sport tourists in this study were watching sports on TV (M = 4.22, SD = 1.02) and attending sports events (M = 4.19, SD = .98) while growing up (Table 4-7). The aspect of behavioral consumer role socialization least associated with the nostalgia sport tourists was, I visited a Hall of Fame or sport museum (M = 2.29, SD = 1.39). The composite mean score for this scale for the entire sample was 3.68. The mean score of the entire behavioral consumer role socialization was calculated using the compute variable function in SPSS 11.0 as described previously. Levenes test for equality of variances was significant (F = 10.96, p .001) so the null hypothesis was rejected and equal variances were not assumed for this t-test. Results of an independent samples t-test showed a large significant difference (t = 9.90, p < .001, df = 227.99) between males and females. The mean score for males (M = 4.05) was much higher than that of females (M = 3.09), which means they participated in the activities

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55 Table 4-7. Mean Scores of Behavior Consumer Role Socialization Items Behavioral Socialization Statements N1 Mean2 SD I watched sports on TV 355 4.22 1.02 I attended sports events (eg. high school, college, professional, etc.) 356 4.19 .98 I discussed sports with others 356 3.95 1.21 I played organized sport (team, league, etc.) 357 3.83 1.38 I read about sports (eg. newspaper, magazines, books, etc.) 357 3.81 1.30 I played pick-up games 352 3.72 1.43 I listened to sports on the radio 356 3.70 1.31 I collected sports memorabilia (eg. players cards, hats, jerseys, etc.) 357 3.38 1.42 I visited a Hall of Fame or sport museum 356 2.29 1.39 1The number (N) may vary due to missing values or responses 2 Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Never and 5 = Frequently associated with behavioral consumer role socialization more frequently than females while growing up. A comparison of individual items also showed that there were significant differences between males and females for eight of the nine items (Table 4-8). The only mean that was not significantly different was, I attended sports events (t = 1.11, df = 343). The means for males were significantly higher than females while growing up for the remainder of the items as listed: I watched sports on TV (t = 6.08, p < .001. df = 206.15), I discussed sports with others (t = 8.93, p < .001, df = 203.11), I played organized sport (t = 6.59. p < .001, df = 204.04), I read about sports (t = 9.36, p < .001, df = 222.75), I played pick-up games (t = 9.50, p < .001, df = 198.22), I listened to sports on the radio (t = 7.23, p < .001, df = 219.93), I collected sports memorabilia (t = 9.17, p < .001. df = 247.02) and I visited a Hall of Fame or sport museum (t = 4.22, p <.001, df = 319.30).

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56 Table 4-8. Independent Samples t-test Results of Behavioral Consumer Role Socialization by Gender Behavioral Socialization Statements Males Females Mean1 SD Mean1 SD df t I watched sports on TV 4.50 .83 3.79 1.15 206.15a 6.08* I attended sports events (eg. high school, college, professional, etc.) 4.23 .94 4.11 1.11 343 1.11 I discussed sports with others 4.40 .91 3.25 1.28 203.11a 8.93* I played organized sport (team, league, etc.) 4.22 1.10 3.19 1.56 204.04a 6.59* I read about sports (eg. newspaper, magazines, books, etc.) 4.29 1.03 3.04 1.30 222.75a 9.36* I played pick-up games 4.27 1.06 2.83 1.49 198.22a 9.50* I listened to sports on the radio 4.09 1.09 3.05 1.40 219.93a 7.23* I collected sports memorabilia (eg. players cards, hats, jerseys, etc.) 3.88 1.21 2.56 1.35 247.02a 9.17* I visited a Hall of Fame or sport museum 2.53 1.47 1.94 1.14 319.30a 4.22* 1Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Never and 5 = Frequently aEqual variances not assumed *p < .001 Role Model Socialization While Growing Up Research Question #4 4a. What aspects of role model socialization are associated with nostalgia sport tourists? 4b. Are there significant differences between the role model socialization of male and female nostalgia sport tourists? In order to determine the nostalgia sport tourists degree of role model socialization while growing up, respondents were first asked to identify the person or people who they considered to be the most influential in their introduction to sport in general. Some respondents did not feel that there was a particular individual who was more influential,

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57 so these people did not answer this group of questions. Therefore, the sample size for these items was slightly lower than the other scales, but still suitable for analysis (N = 304 311). The aspects of role model socialization that had the highest means were all related to the past behavior of the role model as shown in Table 4-9. These items include: He/she had a favorite sports team (M = 4.24, SD = .85), He/she had a favorite sport (M = 4.21, SD = .80) and He/she talked about and/or watched sports frequently (M = 4.06, SD = .93). Respondents did not disagree with any of the statements, but because of him or her I have a favorite player (M = 3.16, SD = 1.05) had the lowest mean of the items used to measure role model socialization. The composite mean score for the entire scale was 3.82. Table 4-9. Mean Scores of Role Model Socialization Items Role Model Socialization Statements N1 Mean2 SD He/she had a favorite sports team 309 4.24 .85 He/she had a favorite sport 311 4.21 .80 He/she talked about and/or watched sports frequently 307 4.06 .93 I owe my interest in sport to him/her 309 3.90 1.00 He/she encouraged me to play sports 304 3.84 1.13 He/she used to take me to sporting events 304 3.83 1.12 He/she used to watch me play sports 304 3.82 1.22 He/she got very emotional when watching sports (cheered, yelled, booed, applauded) 308 3.82 1.08 Because of him/her I have a favorite sport 310 3.75 1.04 He/she had a favorite player 304 3.66 1.01 Because of him/her I follow the same team 309 3.55 1.25 Because of him/her I have a favorite player 307 3.16 1.05 1The number (N) may vary due to missing values or responses and not all participants identified a role model 2 Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Strongly disagree and 5 = Strongly agree There was no significant difference (t = .30, df = 303) between males and females in regard to the composite mean score for the role model socialization. However, an

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58 exploratory factor analysis revealed that this scale contained two constructs: Passive Sport Involvement and Active Sport Involvement (see Chapter 3). An independent samples t-test revealed a significant difference (t = 3.24, p .001, df = 195.18) between the Active Sport Involvement mean of males and females. Levenes test for equality of variances was significant (F = 9.99, p < .01) so the null hypothesis was rejected and equal variances were not assumed for this t-test. The mean score for males (M = 3.97) was higher than the mean score for females (M = 3.57), which indicates that males were more likely to have had a role model who encouraged their active involvement in sport. In contrast, females had a higher mean score (M = 3.92) than males (M = 3.84) on Passive Sport Involvement, which indicates that while growing up they received more encouragement in this domain. The role model socialization items were also analyzed individually to determine more specific significant differences between males and females. The results of an independent samples t-test suggested that men and women differ significantly on four of the 12 items (Table 4-10). Females were more likely to report that the role model they identified had a favorite sport (t = -2.95, p < .01, df = 303) and that because of him/her they now follow the same team as their role model did (t = -2.44, p < .05, df = 301). On the other hand, males were more likely to say that their role model encouraged them to play sports (t = 4.38, p < .001, df = 172.51) and also came to watch them play sports (t = 3.11, p < .001. df = 183.59). These results support those of the factor scores, which revealed that women were more likely to be socialized into passive in sport involvement compared with males who received more encouragement to be actively engaged in sport.

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59 Table 4-10. Independent Samples t-test Results of Role Model Socialization by Gender Role Model Socialization Statements Males Females Mean1 SD Mean1 SD df t He/she had a favorite sports team 4.20 .83 4.33 .88 302 -1.34 He/she had a favorite sport 4.12 .82 4.39 .73 303 -2.95** He/she talked about and/or watched sports frequently 4.03 .87 4.12 1.02 300 -.80 I owe my interest in sport to him/her 3.89 .97 3.92 1.07 302 -.27 He/she encouraged me to play sports 4.07 .92 3.44 1.33 172.51a 4.38*** He/she used to take me to sporting events 3.86 1.08 3.77 1.20 298 .64 He/she used to watch me play sports 3.99 1.06 3.51 1.41 183.59a 3.11*** He/she got very emotional when watching sports (cheered, yelled, booed, applauded) 3.77 1.06 3.93 1.08 301 -1.28 Because of him/her I have a favorite sport 3.78 .97 3.70 1.14 208.77a .60 He/she had a favorite player 3.68 .98 3.65 1.04 297 .26 Because of him/her I follow the same team 3.41 1.26 3.77 1.22 301 -2.44* Because of him/her I have a favorite player 3.17 1.03 3.12 1.07 300 .44 1Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Strongly Disagree and 5 = Strongly Agree aEqual variances not assumed *p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001 When asked to share the primary purpose of their trip, some of the open-ended responses also reflected the concept of role model socialization and the desire of the nostalgia sport tourists in this study to pass on a piece of history to future generations. The following statements illustrate this point and are responses to the question, What is the primary purpose of your visit to Wrigley Field?: bring the kids to see some history culture and have my daughter appreciate history enjoy tour with grandson

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60 my boys and I enjoy touring baseball parks so my grandchildren can see it to bring kids and wife to the park where I came as a kid to share some baseball history with my sons to show my 14-yr old nephew take my son on the tour of Wrigley a visit to Wrigley Field with grandchildren The nostalgia sport tourists who shared these comments were males and females who ranged in age from 35-63 (M = 47.8) and had between one and four children with them. Cognitive Consumer Role Socialization While Growing Up Research Question # 5 5a. What aspects of cognitive consumer role socialization are associated with nostalgia sport tourists? 5b. Are there significant differences between the cognitive consumer role socialization of male and female nostalgia sport tourists? Respondents reported that while growing up, they were taught about the rules and strategies of one or more sports (M = 4.21, SD = .90) and they followed the progress of teams in one or more sports (M = 4.14, SD = 1.03). The least important aspect of cognitive consumer role socialization among these participants was: I kept track of players statistics in one or more sports (M = 3.35, SD = 1.32). Table 4-11 shows the means and standard deviations for each of the five items in the scale. The composite mean score for all of the items combined in this scale was 3.87. An independent samples t-test revealed that men and women differed significantly in their overall level of cognitive consumer role socialization (t = 8.38, p < .001, df = 191.92 (equal variances not assumed)). Specifically, the composite mean score for this scale was used to compare gender, and males reported that they had a high level of sport

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61 Table 4-11. Mean Scores of Cognitive Consumer Role Socialization Items Cognitive Consumer Role Socialization Statements N1 Mean2 SD I was taught about the rules and strategies of one or more sports 339 4.21 .90 I followed the progress of teams in one or more sports 338 4.14 1.03 I knew what teams were in each league for one or more sports 336 3.92 1.25 I knew the players on the roster for one or more teams 337 3.75 1.27 I kept track of players statistics in one or more sports 337 3.35 1.32 1The number (N) may vary due to missing values or responses 2 Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Strongly disagree and 5 = Strongly agree related knowledge (M = 4.21) growing up, while females reported knowing less (M = 3.23) than the males about sport as a child. A comparison of the individual items in the cognitive consumer role model socialization scale revealed that males had significantly higher means than females for each of the five items used to measure cognitive consumer role socialization (Table 4-12). These five items included: I was taught about the rules and strategies of one or more sports (t = 3.88, p < .001, df = 180.49), I followed the progress of teams in one or more sports (t = 5.53, p < .001, df = 176.10), I knew what teams were in each league for one or more sports (t = 8.62, p < .001, df = 175.89), I knew the players on the roster for one or more teams (t = 7.68, p < .001, df = 201.23) and I kept track of players statistics in one or more sports (t = 9.65, p < .001, df = 328). Summary These results provide an interesting insight into the motivations and socialization patterns of nostalgia sport tourists. Although nostalgia was not a primary

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62 Table 4-12. Independent Samples t-test Results of Cognitive Consumer Role Socialization by Gender Cognitive Consumer Role Socialization Statements Males Females Mean1 SD Mean1 SD df t I was taught about the rules and strategies of one or more sports 4.36 .73 121 3.93 180.49a 3.88* I followed the progress of teams in one or more sports 4.39 .80 120 3.69 176.10a 5.53* I knew what teams were in each league for one or more sports 4.35 .90 119 3.13 175.89a 8.62* I knew the players on the roster for one or more teams 4.12 1.05 120 3.09 201.23a 7.68* I kept track of players statistics in one or more sports 3.82 1.11 119 2.54 328 9.65* 1Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Strongly Disagree and 5 = Strongly Agree aEqual variances not assumed *p < .001 motivation of respondents to travel to Wrigley Field for a ballpark tour, analysis of the NOST scale and open-ended responses about trip purpose revealed that feelings of nostalgia were evoked by the visit. The socialization scales were used to determine the relationship between consumer role socialization and nostalgia sport tourism and reveal that these sport tourists were socialized into various aspects of sport while growing up. Overall, the research questions addressed in this chapter have been used to develop a general understanding of why people decide to travel to nostalgic sport places and how their past might influence this decision.

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CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between socialization into and through sport and participation in nostalgia sport tourism. Gender differences in motivations, feelings of nostalgia and consumer role socialization were also explored. Based on the history of Wrigley Field and the focus of the ballpark tours offered, tourists who traveled to take a tour of this venue were considered to be nostalgia sport tourists. This chapter will discuss the findings of this study as they relate to the profile of these nostalgia sport tourists, their motivations, including nostalgia, and their socialization into sport. Socialization Socialization is a process that evolves over a persons life, making it a difficult concept to study and measure. As the symbolic interactionist perspective points out, people are also capable of interpreting or defining each others actions rather than just reacting to another persons actions (Blumer, 1978). This means that it is impossible to say that if a person is socialized heavily into sport, he or she will always participate in sport later in life. However, research supports the contention that childhood play does influence future leisure and recreation behavior (Giuliano et al., 2000; Iso-Ahola, 1980). In fact, James (2001) demonstrated that children form preferences for sports teams early in life and they are capable of forming a commitment to a sports team as young as age five. 63

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64 Using the dimensions of consumer role socialization identified by McPherson (1972), three socialization scales were developed to measure this complex concept. The purpose of these socialization scales was to determine if there was a relationship and to what degree the nostalgia sport tourists were socialized into sport while growing up so that inferences could be drawn about the effect of socialization on nostalgia sport tourism. The results show that the participants reported a higher degree of socialization into passive rather than active sport consumption. The highest composite score for the consumer role socialization scales was cognitive consumer role socialization, followed by passive sport involvement, active sport involvement and behavioral consumer role socialization. In other words, participants were more likely to learn about sports or have a role model who was ego or emotionally involved in sports while growing up than they were to actively participate in sport as a child. This makes sense because the tour was focused on the history and background of the ballpark and not on participation in sport. The participants in this study were typically well educated and many people even reported that the main reason they came on the tour was to learn. The positive influence of pleasure vacations on the education of children was also reported as a motivation for parents by Crompton (1979, 1981) and in some cases even reported as the main consideration in destination selection, so it is not surprising that this theme emerged. Passive involvement in sport also reflects the capacity in which the majority of society, particularly in the United States, is involved in sport. For example, it is reported that overall active participation rates in sport decline after childhood (Malina, 1996; McPherson et al., 1989; Participation U.S. Research Menu: Total Participation By Age Group, By Sport, n.d.) and more people often turn to passive sport consumption (i.e.

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65 watching sports on television, becoming a spectator at sports events) (McPherson et al., 1989). Perhaps there would have been more evidence of socialization into active sport involvement if the data had been collected at a fantasy camp or at a nostalgia sport tourism event where active participation was the focus. In fact, in his discussion of a fantasy baseball camp with an assortment of players from the 1969 Cubs, Roy Blount, Jr. (1985) talked about his and other old boys over the age of thirty-five living out their childhood baseball dreams to play Major League Baseball. The gender differences found in this study support the contention that socialization has some effect on nostalgia sport tourism. Overall, males reported significantly higher levels of behavioral consumer role socialization, cognitive consumer role socialization and active sport involvement than females. The only domain of socialization which females reported a higher level in was passive sport involvement. These results are supported by other studies that have found men more likely to be socialized into sport to a higher degree than women (Gantz & Wenner, 1991) and are more likely to consider it a part of their identity (Adler et al., 1992; Dietz-Uhler et al., 2000). Dietz-Uhler et al. also found a similar gender difference between active and passive sport involvement, as well as behavioral and cognitive socialization. Specifically, women reported that they considered themselves a fan because they attended games, cheered for their team and enjoyed watching sports with their friends and family, while males reported being a fan because they personally played sports, liked sports in general and enjoyed learning about sports.

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66 The ratio of males to females who participated in this study alone reveals that socialization might have an effect on a persons desire to participate in nostalgia sport tourism. In other words, the sample consisted of a higher percentage of males than females. Although this could have been simply because more males volunteered to take part in the study, in actuality this sample seems to be representative of the actual tour group composition based on the researchers observation. While the highest percentage of participants felt that their decision to come on the tour was a personal one, several of the females who responded were more likely than males to report that they came on the trip because their spouse or partner wanted to come and not to fulfill personal goals or desires. Again, this goes back to the higher level of importance and emphasis placed on relationships and family in the socialization of females into sport (Iso-Ahola, 1980; McPherson, 1983) and in their reasons for taking vacations (Crompton, 1981). It is through socialization that the knowledge, values and norms that lead to the development of social roles, including those related to sport and leisure participation, are developed (McPherson et al., 1989). Over time, a person attaches their own personal meaning to the knowledge, values and norms that have been passed on to them and they act toward this based on the meanings that these things (sports, baseball, Wrigley Field, etc.) have for them (Blumer, 1969). As Wilson (1999) suggests, it is sometimes necessary to actively reconstruct this past in order to reminisce about a personal past, more vividly recall historical events that have occurred during ones life or even to better understand history that one was not yet born to witness. This might involve travel to a personally sacred site for some individuals. People from as far away as Australia, New Zealand and Puerto Rico journeyed to Wrigley Field, but many of the participants

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67 traveled within 51-100 miles. Davis suggests the pilgimmage to somewhere that evokes feeling of nostalgia may be one of the most effective ways to construct, maintain and even reconstruct our identity (Davis, 1979). This illustrates the link between symbolic interaction, socialization and nostalgia and offers support for the findings of this study. Due to the interpretive nature of socialization (Blumer, 1969), it is impossible to say that it did or did not have a critical effect on each individuals decision to travel to Wrigley Field. However, it is evident that socialization played a key role in the meaning that the nostalgia sport tourists attached to their experience and was an important part of the nostalgic feelings that the tour brought about. Motivations and Nostalgia Tourists who travel to historical venues and halls of fame are called nostalgia sport tourists (Gibson, 1998a, 1998b, 1998c; Redmond, 1991), but there is little empirical evidence to suggest that nostalgia is actually a motivation to participate in this form of tourism. This study sought to determine if nostalgia was indeed the major factor in a persons desire to travel to Wrigley Field for a tour, or if more general motivations for pleasure vacations such as those presented by Crompton (1979) were more important. The results indicated that nostalgia was not in fact the main factor in peoples decision to come on a tour of Wrigley Field. The following motivations for pleasure vacation identified by Crompton were all significantly more important motives: novelty, enhancement of kinship relationships, prestige, facilitation of social interaction and relaxation. The number one motive reported by participants was novelty, which is consistent with previous studies that have reported novelty seeking as a key motive in pleasure vacations (Cohen, 1974; Cohen, 1979; Crompton, 1979; Dann, 1981; Dimanche & Havitz, 1994; Goossens, 2000). In fact, Cohen (1974) even

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68 recognized the importance of novelty in the following definition of tourist he proposed: A tourist is a voluntary, temporary traveler, traveling in the expectation of pleasure from the novelty and change experienced (p. 533). Although it was not a primary motive of these tourists, this does not discount the importance of the nostalgic and historic aspect of the experience. In fact, nearly a quarter of the participants said that the main purpose of their visit to Wrigley Field was because of its historic, traditional and nostalgic features. The responses to the open-ended questions revealed the personal meanings they attached to the experience. Males in their twenties in particular provided many comments that demonstrate the nostalgia associated with their visit. It is possible that some of the younger males in this study who reported feelings of nostalgia had recently completed their competitive baseball careers and the memories of those days were still fresh in their minds. Interestingly, of those adults who responded to the questionnaire, few of them (less than 15%) were even over 56 years old. While one might think that these younger people are not old enough to reflect upon their past, Gammon (2002) pointed out that nostalgia is no longer reserved for the middle aged and beyond. Recent monumental developments in technology and terrorist attacks have abruptly changed society and have even young people reminiscing about a different time. Davis (1979) suggested that historical discontinuities and transitions like war, depression and natural catastrophes promote a nostalgic perspective that could serve to minimize the jolts of rapid historical change. During such uncertain, hectic times, Wilson (1999) theorized that the exercise of nostalgia might serve as forced downtime or a chance to escape and/or relax. This might provide some insight into why the

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69 motivation statements related to relaxation, escape and nostalgia in this study ranked so closely to one another as motives to travel to Wrigley Field for a ballpark tour. The tourism industry has taken advantage of this expanded market yearning for the past by targeting this group through advertising and in some cases even spending large sums of money on renovations to recreate a nostalgic atmosphere (Dann, 1994). Fortunately, Wrigley Field does not need to spend large amounts of money to reconstruct the past, but they do make reference to historic Wrigley Field and advertise ballpark tours that offer an insiders look at over 90 years of history in a legendary ballpark (Wrigley Field Tours, n.d.). Recent trends in the entertainment industry also reflect the increase in peoples desire to revisit things such as music and sport from different eras. Entire classic channels show re-runs of time-honored sports events and allow even people who might not have been alive for games to see them broadcast as they happened (Gammon, 2002). Consumer literature has shown that the use of nostalgia can have a positive effect on brand image and willingness to purchase (Pascal et al., 2002), but findings also suggest that nostalgia might also be a difficult reaction for marketers to predict (Holak & Havlena, 1998). In other comments, the nostalgic appeal of the tour was apparent both in reliving earlier memories for themselves or in sharing them with friends and family, particularly children and grandchildren. There were many young children on the tour, but only participants over the age of 18 were asked to participate. One of the primary assumptions inherent in symbolic interactionism is that meanings are constructed and shared among individuals (Blumer, 1969). Certainly, in this study affiliation needs were reported as important reasons for taking the trip. Less than 6% of the participants came alone on the

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70 tour, and all others were in groups. However, a closer examination of the NOST scale and the open-ended responses revealed that for men in particular, there was a sense of pilgrimage (Bale, 1989) associated with visiting Wrigley Field as well as the need to share this experience with family and friends. Sharing special places that have special meaning is consistent with studies about Cooperstown, home of the National Baseball Hall of Fame, where a large proportion of visitors are fathers and grandfathers sharing the nostalgia of the sport with their sons and grandsons (Newman, 2001; Snyder, 1991). Even though many of the participants may have just been tourists to Chicago who decided to go on a ballpark tour because Wrigley Field is viewed as a landmark in the city, the link between nostalgia and Wrigley cannot be ignored. So although the motives of these tourists were found to be similar to those who go on pleasure vacations in general, there is a deeper meaning associated with certain nostalgic destinations such as Wrigley Field that separates them from other cultural or heritage tourist attractions. Therefore, even though the results of this study indicate that nostalgia might not be as important as a motive as originally thought, it was an important part of the experience for many of the people who took the tour and nostalgia should not be disregarded as a potential motive underlying visits to sports themed locations. The gender differences found in the motivations are also consistent with the literature and possibly reflect the effect of socialization on nostalgia sport tourists. Females were significantly more likely than males to report that the tour was a chance to spend time with family and friends. This is related to general gender patterns in tourism and leisure in which women are more relationship-oriented and place more emphasis on the family than men in their travel choices (Crompton, 1981; Davidson, 1996; Giuliano et

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71 al., 2000; Iso-Ahola, 1980; McGehee et al., 1996). This finding is also consistent with the results of Dietz-Uhler et al.s (2000) study of male and female college student fans, in which females were more likely to report being a sport fan for social reasons, such as watching and spending time with friends and family. Males on the other hand, were more likely to report that the tour took them back to their childhood. Although the difference in the overall NOST scale was not significant, males also reported that the tour made them feel more nostalgic than females. This may be in part due to the fact that males in this study had been socialized into sport more extensively than females. According to symbolic interactionism, the meanings of things (such as a tour of Wrigley Field) emerge through social interaction over the life course (Blumer, 1969; Fine, 1986). Therefore, males might have felt a stronger symbolic connection to the things they experienced during the tour than the females due to their higher level of socialization into and through sport (Adler et al., 1992; Frey & Eitzen, 1991; McPherson, 1983). However, symbolic interactionism also recognizes that these meanings are not static but are modified through an interpretive process (Blumer, 1969). This might help to explain why the difference between the mean NOST scale scores was not significant among men and women. Perhaps some of the females may have been increasingly exposed to sport as they interacted with people outside of their immediate family and as a result could have developed more meaning and a stronger affiliation for sport than they reported during their childhood (Gibson, Willming & Holdnak, 2002). The researcher also made observations that indicated the tour participants attached special meanings to some of the objects or symbols encountered during their experience

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72 at Wrigley Field. Following the tour, fathers and sons put on their gloves and played catch on the infield dirt. This supports Snyders (1991) finding that visits to Cooperstown were a special bonding time for fathers and sons. Families gathered and asked the tour guide to take a picture with the scoreboard and ivy covered walls in the background. One group expressed that there were four generations of family in the picture. This is similar to findings in the mainstream tourism literature where the importance of taking family photographs for future reminiscence about the vacation has been discussed (Redfoot, 1984; Urry, 1990) as a significant part of the immediate tourism experience. Tour participants who were lucky enough to be allowed on the outfield grass were told numerous times that they were not to go past the warning track to keep them from trying to take an ivy leaf home with them. Even as they were being warned about this while sitting in the bleachers, several tour members leaned down over the wall in the bleachers and tried to reach even a leaf of the plants to take home for a keepsake. Some just settled for putting a handful of dirt in their pocket as they walked off the field. This is analogous to the fan who took the brick home from Comiskey Park to remember his father when it was going to be torn down (Trujillo & Krizek, 1994). It is also suggestive of sign value in leisure consumer behavior, which poses that there is a symbolic nature to leisure purchases (Dimanche & Samdahl, 1994), such as souvenirs, and that the consumer controls a substantial amount of the symbolic meaning attributed to that object (Hirschman, 1986). Implications Because there is still very little known about the demographics and background of nostalgia sport tourists, this study provides a good overview of this potentially

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73 marketable group. In a time particularly ridden with uncertainty, change and instability, many people are looking to escape back to a childhood that seemed simpler and less intimidating (Davis, 1979). Nostalgia sport tourism has the chance to offer the escape to the past that people are looking for and can do so in various ways. For example, this study offers hope for authentically nostalgic venues that might be able to attract visitors based on historic value alone. While recreations of the past have been successful at marketing a nostalgic feel (Gammon, 2002), some individuals are not satisfied with this staged authenticity and seek out a more realistic traditional experience (MacCannell, 1976; Redfoot, 1984). Without investing large sums of money to recreate the past as many businesses have done, these venues have the potential to create revenue, but also offer nostalgic experiences at an affordable price. The venue chosen for this study provides a good example of how this might be possible. The tour guides for Wrigley Field were all volunteers so this kept prices at a reasonable $15, which was actually used to fund a charity known as Cubs Care. The participants in this study reported diverse levels of annual household income, which indicates the tours were not limited to only those families with high incomes even though over a quarter of them reported annual household incomes greater than $100,000. Volunteers to lead tours can be enticed with preferred seating or other benefits that do not cost the organization anything, but make it worthwhile for them to dedicate their time. Even though the money from the tours did not go directly to the Cubs budget, it was probably more valuable in terms of portraying a positive image of Wrigley Field and creating a more intimate feeling of attachment for those who took the tour. This is similar to the finding that people show a stronger place attachment to places where they

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74 have had a previous positive experience (Williams, Patterson, Roggenbuck & Watson, 1992). Providing ballpark tours could also be a good idea for venues that do not necessarily have the historical background like Wrigley Field and have trouble attracting crowds to support their team. A place does not have to be old for people to feel nostalgic about it, so sport marketers might want to consider placing more emphasis on promoting ballpark tours to families. Certainly, there is evidence of interest among baseball fans to tour newer ballparks such as Coors Field, home of the Colorado Rockies, which was built in 1995 and hosts a team that has only been in Major League Baseball since 1993 (Coors Field Tours, n.d.). While baseball has only been played in the Cincinnati Reds Great American Ballpark for one year, people also travel to tour the facility (Great American Ballpark Tours, n.d.) and observe the intimacy and a sense of history that the architect tried to incorporate into the design at the request of fans (Erardi, 2003). During these tours, it might also be beneficial to offer children special privileges that would make the experience more memorable to build upon the socialization and symbolic connection to the ballpark (Williams et al., 1992). In fact, research on various entertainment products has revealed that a consumers early experience plays a significant role in forming lifelong attachments and determining brand favorites (Schindler & Holbrook, 2003). So, this could not only give the parents a good impression of the venue, but might also lay a potential foundation for the future generation of paying supporters. The findings of Pascal et al. (2002) support that advertisements evoking nostalgic feelings are capable of creating more favorable

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75 perceptions of an advertisement and advertised brand resulting in a higher likelihood of purchase. Recommendations for Further Research One of the goals of this study was to contribute to the limited empirical understanding of nostalgia sport tourism in the academic literature. Because the focus of this study was on those people who had traveled outside of their home community to take a Wrigley Field tour, only the tourists or non-residents of Chicago were analyzed in this study. However, the researcher did not screen out residents or metro-Chicago when conducting the survey so that they can be used for future analysis. It is suggested that comparisons be made between the tourists and residents using this data. Information regarding current sport participation was also collected so a comparison of past and current sport behavior could also be made and might shed further understanding of the relationship between active and passive sport consumption and participation in nostalgia sport tourism. Another future analysis of these data could break down the purpose of the trip by nostalgia and other motivations. A comparison of the nostalgia and motivations of those people who said that sport or visiting Wrigley Field was the primary purpose of their trip to Chicago might differ from those people who reported that their primary purpose was something other than sport such as vacation, visiting friends/family, business, convention, etc. This might reveal a difference between sport tourism and tourism sport or between those tourists who journey to a sport venue specifically to see and experience that place and those who are just traveling and decide to take a tour or participate in sport as a side trip (Gammon & Robinson, 2003).

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76 It is especially recommended that this study be replicated at other baseball ballpark tours across the country and even internationally to determine if the age or setting of the venue has an impact on the motivations of people who travel to take a stadium tour. For example, the motivations (including nostalgia) and socialization of tourists who traveled to an old stadium such as Wrigley Field could be compared to those people who traveled to a more modern stadium like the Astrodome in Houston, Texas. This might provide researchers with a better idea as to what brings about feelings of nostalgia. Is it the history and aura of the stadium that evokes these feelings or can a person feel nostalgic about a place based on personal experience and memories they associate with a place? Fairley (2003) found that the feelings of nostalgia people experienced were more associated with social interaction, so this suggests that special nostalgic meanings might not only be attached to physical locations, but to social groupings as well. Redfoot (1984) and Gammon (2002) suggest the search for authentic nostalgic experiences are rooted deep in society and may become more prominent in our fast-paced, technologically driven society. Certainly, Dann (1994) documents the growth of the use of nostalgia in mainstream tourism marketing and development. A similar questionnaire could be implemented to study venues for other sports such as football, basketball and hockey. This would allow researchers to determine if the type of sport has any influence on the motivations and socialization of the tourists that travel to participate in tours of these stadiums. For example, is nostalgia associated more with baseball than other sports? Brandmeyer and Alexander (1986) suggest that baseball has been surpassed as the "nation's pastime" by football as baseball is more reminiscent

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77 of an earlier era when the pace of society in the United States was slower, more people worked or lived in rural areas and there was a heightened sense of community. In contrast, football is a better reflection of today's high paced technologically driven society. As a result, nostalgia for a previous era might be more heightened with regards to baseball than other sports. Thus, studies of the stadium tours of other sports would be one way of expanding this present study. In addition, studies of other 'nostalgia sport venues of such as halls of fame, fantasy camps, and so forth is recommended to probe more deeply into this idea of nostalgia for both baseball and other sports. Although this study did not discuss place attachment as a theoretical framework, a connection between nostalgia, history and place attachment emerged throughout the discussion of the results. Despite the differences among these concepts, they can be linked together through socialization. For example, the nostalgic feelings a person develops for a certain place might be based on its history. The historic value of a place, which might be specific to a certain person or a part of society as a whole, is passed down through generations via socialization and can create special meaning for individuals. This might also help in understanding how the nostalgia associated with a particular place is passed on over time and may serve as a link in explaining how meanings are developed for a place like Wrigley Field over the life course. So, although place attachment has been more commonly used as a framework in outdoor recreation studies (Bricker & Kerstetter, 2000, 2002; Kyle, Absher & Graefe, 2003; Moore & Graefe, 1994), it might serve as a good foundation for the study of nostalgia sport tourists and should be considered as a better understanding of nostalgia sport tourists is pursued. Certainly,

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78 referring to a similar concept, Bale (1989) writes of the place identity associated with sports venues around the world. Finally, a qualitative study involving nostalgia sport tourists, such as Fairleys (2003) study of a group of traveling Australian Football League fans, could also provide a more in depth understanding of the patterns evident in the quantitative data collected in this study. The open-ended responses in this study suggested nostalgia was an important part of their trip, so personal interviews of ballpark tour participants could also provide a more in-depth understanding of an individuals nostalgia and socialization into and through sport. Limitations There were several limitations of this study. There was some evidence of participant fatigue or respondents experiencing difficulty in understanding the wording of some of the questions. This may have been a result of the length of the questionnaire or the nature of the questions. This was controlled for as much as possible by the wording and pre-coding of responses to enhance the ease of filling out the questionnaire. The person administering the questionnaire was also present at the time of the survey to answer any questions. Another limitation of this study involved the section of the questionnaire that asked people to recall past experiences in order to gather information about socialization. Whenever asking a person to recall earlier events there is always the possibility of a memory lapse that might result in an inaccurate recollection of the past. Although a longitudinal design might be more accurate in the depiction the complete process of socialization, this was the beyond the scope of this study.

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79 Delimitations The primary delimitation of this study was that only those individuals who took a tour on the three specified tour dates were eligible to participate in the survey. This limits the generalizability of the results to people who take tours of Wrigley Field. Because the method of random selection was not used in this study, any generalizability of the findings should be made with caution. However, the profile of this sample was similar to that reported in other fan studies (Gladden & Funk, 2002; James, 2001; James & Ridinger, 2002; Tripp, 2003), so this supports the contention that the sample was probably representative of the entire population. There was also some difference in the sub-sample sizes of males and females used for comparison. However, from observing the general make-up of the tour groups, this is thought to be representative of the average profile of the nostalgia sport tourist that came to Wrigley Field for a ballpark tour as well as other sports fans in general (James, 2001; James & Ridinger, 2002; Tripp, 2003). This is also consistent with the characteristics of the typical active sport tourist revealed by Gibson (1998a). She found that the people who engaged in active sport tourism represented a minority of the US population and were mostly white, male, affluent and well educated. Due to the exploratory nature of this study, these delimitations were tolerated, as it was more important to establish some baseline data about nostalgia sport tourism related to stadium tours than it was to generalize the findings to a wider population. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that nostalgia sport tourism is similar to other types of tourism, in that things such as novelty and family were primary motivations to travel, and that a secondary level of motivation may be nostalgia. Also, if you look at

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80 what constitutes nostalgia, looking backwards to the past, then a connection can be made among the concepts of socialization, sentimentality and something to share with the family that have tied together the results of this study. While this study can only draw inferences about the influence of socialization on the motivations of nostalgia sport tourists, it has provided an even deeper look into a sport that has offered a link between the past and the present. Baseball is a phenomenon that has evolved, reflected the best and worst of our society, and baffled generations of writers and scholars. In closing, Peter V. Ueberroth (1985) discusses what he feels baseball means and what might help to capture the essence of this study in his foreword to The Complete Armchair Book of Baseball: From Damn Yankees to The Natural, the magic of baseball is elusive and impossible to explain. Perhaps this is one reason that it has captured the hearts of Americans for generations, that the countrys greatest writers have turned on their creative juices to try to unlock its secrets. It is a game full of paradoxes: as old as the horse and buggy, yet as modern as the Concorde; as slow as a sweltering summer afternoon, yet as swift as a thunderbolt; as simple as a hand-held calculator, yet as complex as calculus. How has this game managed to bridge time and space? How does one explain Americas fascination with its tradition and voluminous statistics? Baseball is a realm of fairness and order where imagery, mysticism, and alchemy in the confines of the baseball diamond tickle the little boy or girl in all of us (p. xiii-xiv).

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APPENDIX A SURVEY INSTRUMENT The entire questionnaire was 6 pages and appears differently here in accordance with the University of Florida Graduate School Thesis guidelines. Department of Recreation, Parks and Tourism Summer 2003 University of Florida Subject ID:__________ Wrigley Field Stadium Tour Survey Introduction: If you agree to participate, the following questions will ask you about your past sport experience and motivations to go on todays tour of Wrigley Field. Your time and assistance is greatly appreciated in this study! Consent Statement: This questionnaire will take only 10-15 minutes to complete. You do not have to answer any question you do not wish to answer, and you are free to discontinue participation at anytime without consequence. No compensation will be awarded. If you choose to fill out this questionnaire, you agree to participate in this study. PART A: Motivations: This section of the survey will examine your motivations to take todays tour. 1. Are you a resident of metro Chicago? 1 = Yes 2 = No 2. The primary purpose of my trip to Chicago is (please circle ONE): 1 = Vacation 4 = Visiting friends/family 7= Visit Wrigley Field 2 = Business 5 = Day trip 8 = Other _______________ 3 = Convention 6 = I live in Chicago (please specify) 81

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82 3. How important is visiting Wrigley Field to your overall trip to Chicago? 1 2 3 4 5 Not Important -------------------Somewhat Important-------------------Very Important 4. What is the primary purpose of your visit to Wrigley Field? ___________________________________________________________________________ 5. Not including todays visit, how many times have you been to Wrigley Field before? (Please circle ONE) 1 = Never 3 = 5-10 times 2 = Less than 5 times 4 = Im a regular 6. If you have been to Wrigley Field before, who was with you on your first visit? (List ALL that apply) ___________________________________________________________________________ (e.g. father, brother, friend etc.) 7. Who had the most influence on your decision to take todays tour? (Please circle ONE) 1 = Yourself 4 = Children 6 = Friend 2 = Spouse / Partner 5 = Parent(s) 7 = Grandparent(s) 3 = Other relative ___________ 8 = Other ___________ (please specify) (please specify) 8. While in Chicago I plan to attend a Cubs game: 1 = Yes 2 = No 9. Do you consider yourself a baseball fan? 1 = Yes 2 = No 10. Do you know what charity will benefit from the money you paid to take part in todays tour? 1 = Yes (please name)_________________ 2 = No

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83 11. Please rate the following reasons in your decision to visit Wrigley Field today: Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree It was a chance to spend time with family/friends 1 2 3 4 5 It was an escape from routine 1 2 3 4 5 It was a chance to get to know myself better 1 2 3 4 5 It was a chance to relax 1 2 3 4 5 It took me back to my childhood 1 2 3 4 5 It was a chance to see something new and different 1 2 3 4 5 It will give me something unique to talk about when I get home 1 2 3 4 5 It gave me a chance to share something special with family/friends 1 2 3 4 5

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84 12. In thinking about your trip today, please rate the following: Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree It reminded me of the past 1 2 3 4 5 It helped me recall pleasant memories 1 2 3 4 5 It made me feel nostalgic 1 2 3 4 5 It made me reminisce about a previous time 1 2 3 4 5 It made me think about when I was younger 1 2 3 4 5 It evoked fond memories 1 2 3 4 5 It was a pleasant reminder of the past 1 2 3 4 5 It brought back memories of good times from the past 1 2 3 4 5 It reminded me of the good old days 1 2 3 4 5 It reminded me of good times in the past 1 2 3 4 5

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85 PART B: Past Sport Experience: Please tell me about your sport experience while growing up. 13. WHEN YOU WERE GROWING UP, how often did you participate in the following activities? Never Rarely Sometimes Often Frequently I played organized sport (e.g. team, league, etc.) 1 2 3 4 5 I played pick-up games. 1 2 3 4 5 I attended sports events (e.g. high school, college, professional, etc.) 1 2 3 4 5 I watched sports on TV 1 2 3 4 5 I listened to sports on the radio 1 2 3 4 5 I discussed sports with others 1 2 3 4 5 I read about sports (e.g. newspaper, magazines, books, etc.) 1 2 3 4 5 I collected sports memorabilia (e.g. players cards, hats, jerseys, etc.) 1 2 3 4 5 I visited a Hall of Fame or sport museum 1 2 3 4 5 14. Thinking about the activities listed above (Question 13), was there one person(s) who most often encouraged you to participate in these activities? If so, please identify this person(s). _________________________________________________________________ (e.g. father, brother, friend etc.) 15. Who do you consider to be the most influential person(s) in your introduction to sport (in general)? _________________________________________________________________ (e.g. father, brother, friend etc.)

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86 16. In reference to the person you identified in question 15, please answer the following: Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree He/she had a favorite sport 1 2 3 4 5 Because of him/her I have a favorite sport 1 2 3 4 5 He/she had a favorite sports team 1 2 3 4 5 Because of him/her I follow the same team 1 2 3 4 5 He/she had a favorite player 1 2 3 4 5 Because of him/her I have a favorite player 1 2 3 4 5 He/she got very emotional when watching sports (e.g. cheered, yelled, booed, applauded) 1 2 3 4 5 He/she talked about and/or watched sports frequently 1 2 3 4 5 I owe my interest in sport to him/her 1 2 3 4 5 He/she used to take me to sporting events 1 2 3 4 5 He/she encouraged me to play sports 1 2 3 4 5 He/she used to watch me play sports 1 2 3 4 5 16. What was your favorite sports team growing up? _______________________________ (please specify) a. Circle the number that indicates your level of commitment to that team? 1 2 3 4 5 Low Interest -------------------Moderate Interest-------------------High Interest

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87 17. WHILE YOU WERE GROWING UP: Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree I was taught about the rules and strategies of one or more sports 1 2 3 4 5 I followed the progress of teams in one or more sports 1 2 3 4 5 I kept track of players statistics in one or more sports 1 2 3 4 5 I knew the players on the roster for one or more teams 1 2 3 4 5 I knew what teams were in each league for one or more sports 1 2 3 4 5 PART C: Current Sport-related Behavior: Please tell me about your current level of interest in sport. 18. Please indicate how often you CURRENTLY participate in the following: Never Rarely Sometimes Often Frequently I play organized sport 1 2 3 4 5 I play pick-up games 1 2 3 4 5 I attend sports events (e.g. high school, college, professional, etc.) 1 2 3 4 5 I watch sports on TV 1 2 3 4 5 I listen to sports on the radio 1 2 3 4 5 I discuss sports with others 1 2 3 4 5 I read about sports (e.g. newspaper, magazines, books, etc.) 1 2 3 4 5 I collect sports memorabilia (e.g. players cards, hats, jerseys, etc.) 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 I visit Halls of Fame or sport museums

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88 19. Please indicate your CURRENT level of sport-related knowledge: Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree I know the rules and strategies of one or more sports 1 2 3 4 5 I follow the progress of the teams in one or more sports 1 2 3 4 5 I keep track of players statistics in one or more sports 1 2 3 4 5 I pay attention to what teams players are on in one or more sports 1 2 3 4 5 I know the players on the roster for one or more teams 1 2 3 4 5 20. What is/are your favorite team(s) now? _________________ _________________ _________________ 21. What is your current level of commitment as a sports fan ? 1 2 3 4 5 Low Interest -------------------Moderate Interest-------------------High Interest

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89 PART D: Demographics & Additional Comments: Finally, please tell me a little bit about yourself and your experience on todays tour of Wrigley Field. 22. Circle the number that indicates approximately how many miles you traveled to come on todays tour? 1 = 0-50 3 = 101-200 5 = 501-1,000 2 = 51-100 4 = 201-500 6 = Over 1,000 23. What country/state do you live in? 24. How many people are in your group? 25. How many children under the age of 18 are with you today? 26. What is your age? 27. Are you: 1 = Male 2 = Female 28. Which best describes your racial or ethnic background? 1 = Native American 5 = White 2 = Asian 6 = Hawaiian 3 = Black 7 = Other ___________ 4 = Hispanic/Latino ___________ (please specify) (specify group) 29. Which statement best describes your TOTAL 2002 annual household income? (Please circle ONE) 1 = $25,000 or less 5 = $100,001 $125,000 2 = $25,001 $50,000 6 = $125,001 $150,000 3 = $50,001 $75,000 7 = $150,001 or more 4 = $75,001 $100,000 30. What is the highest level of education you have obtained? (Please circle ONE) 1 = Less than high school 4 = Bachelors degree 2 = High school graduate 5 = Masters degree 3 = Associate or technical degree 6 = Doctoral degree

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90 31. Please share any additional comments about your visit to Wrigley Field today: Thank you for taking the time to fill out this questionnaire! Whom to contact if you have any questions concerning this study: Amanda Wilson, The University of Florida, Department of Recreation, Parks and Tourism, 320 Florida Gym, PO Box 118208, Gainesville, FL 32611, phone (352) 392-4042 x1301, email: awilson@hhp.ufl.edu Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in this study: UFIRB Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250, phone (352) 392-0433

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APPENDIX B WRIGLEY FIELD TOUR PICTURES A view from the press box during a ballpark tour on July 26, 2003. The author waits for another tour group to finish and volunteer to fill out a questionnaire. 91

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Amanda Wilson was born on October 21, 1979, in Lewistown, Pennsylvania. Sport has played a significant part in her decisions throughout life. After running cross country and playing basketball and softball in high school, she attended Gettysburg College to pursue a degree in health and exercise sciences and continue playing basketball and softball competitively. Following her junior year at Gettysburg, she chose to study abroad in Wollongong, Australia, where she experienced the educational benefits of travel and discovered a personal desire to meet and converse with people who have different perspectives on life. While her undergraduate degree provided her with an understanding of the physical aspects of sport and exercise, she decided to attend the University of Florida to learn more about the social benefits of leisure in the Department of Recreation, Parks and Tourism. She continued her involvement in athletics by organizing and playing on several intramural teams and continued to compete competitively on the universitys club rugby team. Amanda is now graduating with her Master of Science in Recreational Studies degree from the Department of Recreation, Parks and Tourism, with an emphasis in sport tourism. 101


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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONSUMER ROLE SOCIALIZATION AND
NOSTALGIA SPORT TOURISM:
A SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE











By

AMANDA LEA WILSON


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE IN RECREATIONAL STUDIES

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2004

































Copyright 2004

by

Amanda Lea Wilson




































I would like to dedicate this project to my parents, Jim and Lou Ann Wilson, who have
made it possible for me to be here and have supported me throughout my educational
career.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

As I sit in front of a computer I have spent so many hours staring at and wondering

how I was ever going to get everything done before the many deadlines I faced, I also

think about all of those people that have helped me realize that it really was possible.

There may have been a few late nights that turned into early mornings, but there was

always someone there that I knew I could contact no matter what time it was or what I

needed. This is when I realized how important all of my relationships have been in

helping me to get through the past two years of graduate school. Not just those people I

might consider my "core group of friends," but also those people who did minor things

along the way that might have made the difference between a mental breakdown and the

realization that I might be capable of doing more than I thought. I wish that I could thank

all of them individually, but they will have to trust that if they spent any time listening to

me when I needed someone that they were an important part of the successful completion

of this project.

There are several people that I have to personally express my thanks to because

without them I would not be here to acknowledge anyone. I especially have to credit my

parents for somehow knowing when they needed to call me and tell me that things would

work out just when I was starting to wonder if they would. And, even though my sister

might not be the best person at keeping in touch, she also somehow knew when I needed

the advice and support that only a sister can give.









Academically, my chair and my mentor, Heather Gibson, has taught me more than

I thought possible in the two years that she has spent helping me expand my knowledge

within the field and develop my writing skills. I have never had a professor who has been

able to make time for so many people and still give them each the attention they needed

to take that next step. I hope that this thesis is a reflection of what she has taught me, and

I can only hope that I have the chance to work with her again in the future.

My committee members have been impressively patient with me and have provided

me with the insight from different viewpoints that I needed to tie everything together.

Lori Pennington-Gray has been very supportive of me throughout my career here and has

been great to work with on this thesis and as my graduate assistant supervisor. Gregg

Bennett has a unique talent of making everyone feel like he/she is the most intelligent

person in the room and has provided me with the encouragement I needed. The rest of

the professors in the department have also been instrumental, as each of them has helped

me in some way since I have been here. I could not have asked for a better team of

professors to learn about the field and help me solidify my belief that leisure and

academics can work together.

Finally, I have to thank my support group that I have been lucky enough to have

here in Florida. I would first like to thank Carol for helping me make the copies I needed

and get everything organized on a college student's budget. Charlie Lane was my

technical and also emotional support as I prepared the last minute details for my defense.

Dr. Kgr. has been my lifeline more times than I can count. I am glad that I met someone

who is awake when the rest of the world is sleeping so I had someone to talk to and even

help me with academic questions in the wee hours of the morning. I hope that I have









made her time here more entertaining just as she has done for me. I am also glad that I

met someone here who liked the Cubs as much I do and was able to change the

conversation from the stress of my thesis to something more pleasant like the game we

were at when the Cubs won the division. At the same time, I should also thank those fans

of rival teams whose occasional banter helped me remain focused on the purpose of my

study and not just on the Cubs.

I do have to thank the Chicago Cubs organization for allowing me to come and

collect data for this thesis. I got to experience first hand why Wrigley Field has become

known as "The Friendly Confines" and I hope to make many return visits. I am an

optimistic fan: Eamus Catuli! AC00000.

Finally, one would think I would avoid the discussion of any subject covered

within my thesis in the acknowledgements, but I cannot tell express how many times I

have put a particular song or CD in that helped me recall a time when I was spending

time with a family member or friend and nothing seemed to matter except that we were

doing nothing or something together. The 'nostalgic' feelings evoked by these songs not

only helped me to understand how past experiences can lead to symbolic meaning, but

also helped me to realize that I would look back on this thesis as a memorable

experience. Thanks to everyone who has been a part of it.















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

ACKNOW LEDGM ENTS ........................................ iv

LIST OF TABLES ................ ....... ........ .. .. ..................... ix

ABSTRACT.................. .................. xi

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ................... .................. .............. .... ......... .......

State ent of Problem .................. ................ ...... ..... .......... ........ .4
Purpose of the Study ................... .............................. .......... ...... ... ..... .. 7
Theoretical Rationale ................. ..................................................... 7
R research Q questions ................... ............ ................................... .....11

2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE .....................................................................12

Socialization ........................................ ........ 12
Gender-Role Socialization........................ .......... .......... 14
Sport ............................................. ........14
Tourism ....................................................................................... 15
S p ort an d S o cial T h eory ........................................................................................ 16
Sport Consum option .................. ................ ...... .... ......... .. ......... 19
Sport Tourism ........................................................21
N nostalgia ............... ........... ........................... ........................... 22
N ostalgia Sport Tourism ................................................... 25

3 METHODS ......................................................... .........................31

Site Description ................................................31
Data Collection ................................................33
Participants ................................................34
Instrument ......................................................... ................38
Data Analysis........................................43

4 RESULTS .................................................45

Motivations of Nostalgia Sport Tourists................................45
Nostalgia as a Motivation ...................................... ........... ........49


............................................................................. 3 8
D ata A nalysis................................................... 43

4 R E S U L T S .............................................................................4 5

Motivations of Nostalgia Sport Tourists............................ .... ...............45
N ostalgia as a M otiv ation ........................................ ............................................49









Behavioral Consumer Role Socialization While Growing Up............................. 54
Role M odel Socialization W while Growing Up...................................... ...................56
Cognitive Consumer Role Socialization While Growing Up..................................60
S u m m ary ...................... .. .. ......... .. .. ................................................. 6 1

5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION ............................................. ............... 63

S o c ia liz atio n ............................................................................................................... 6 3
M otivations and N ostalgia................................................. ............................. 67
Implications .................................................... 72
Recom m endations for Further R research ........................................ .....................75
L im itatio n s ...................... .. .. ......... .. .. ................................................ 7 8
D elim station s...................... .. .. ......... .. .. ......... ....................................79
C o n clu sio n ...................... .. .. ......... .. .. ................................................. 7 9

APPENDIX

A SU RVEY IN STRUM EN T................................................. ............................. 81

B WRIGLEY FIELD TOUR PICTURES ............... ........................................91

L IST O F R EFE R EN C E S ....................................................................................... 92

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ............................................. 101
















LIST OF TABLES


Table page

3-1 Tourist Profile for Wrigley Field Ballpark Tours ......................................... 35

3-2 Group Com position of Respondents ................................. ............ ................... 36

3-3 Trip Information and Influence on Respondent's Decision to Take Wrigley Field
T o u r ...............................................................................................3 7

3-4 Exploratory Factor Analysis Results of Evoked Nostalgia Scale ............................39

3-5 Exploratory Factor Analysis Results of Behavioral Consumer Role Socialization
S c a le ............................................................................. 4 0

3-6 Exploratory Factor Analysis Results of Role Model Socialization Statements.......41

3-7 Exploratory Factor Analysis Results of Cognitive Consumer Role Socialization
State ents ........................................................................... 4 2

4-1 Motivations of Participants to Tour Wrigley Field ........................................46

4-2 Independent Samples t-test Results of Motivations by Gender ............................47

4-3 Mean Scores of Evoked Nostalgia Scale (NOST) Items .......................................50

4-4 Independent Samples t-test Results of Evoked Nostalgia Scale Items by Gender...51

4-5 Paired Samples t-test Results of Motivations by Mean Evoked Nostalgia Scale
Score .................. ................ ............................................52

4-6 Paired Samples t-test Results of Motivations by Mean Evoked Nostalgia Scale
Score by Gender ................... ............................ 53

4-7 Mean Scores of Behavior Consumer Role Socialization Items ............................55

4-8 Independent Samples t-test Results of Behavioral Consumer Role Socialization
by G ender ........................ ........... ............... ............. .. ............. 56

4-9 M ean Scores of Role M odel Socialization Items............................. ... ................ 57

4-10 Independent Samples t-test Results of Role Model Socialization by Gender..........59









4-11 Mean Scores of Cognitive Consumer Role Socialization Items ...........................61

4-12 Independent Samples t-test Results of Cognitive Consumer Role Socialization
b y G e n d e r ..................................................................... ................ 6 2















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Recreational Studies

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONSUMER ROLE SOCIALIZATION AND
NOSTALGIA SPORT TOURISM: A SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE
By

Amanda Lea Wilson

August 2004

Chair: Heather Gibson
Major Department: Recreation, Parks, and Tourism

Limited research exists on nostalgia sport tourists, and consequently, there is little

empirical evidence to support the contention that nostalgia is a primary motivation of this

type of travel. Based on its traditional, intimate atmosphere and historic background, the

nostalgic sport venue chosen for this study was Wrigley Field, home of the Chicago Cubs

since 1914. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between

socialization into and through sport (consumer role socialization) and participation in

nostalgia sport tourism among male and female participants of Wrigley Field Stadium

tours from a symbolic interactionist perspective.

Nostalgia sport tourists were defined as those who had traveled outside of their

home community to take a 90-minute tour of Wrigley Field. A total of 357

questionnaires measuring tourist motivation, nostalgia, consumer role socialization, and

demographics were collected from non-residents on three different tour dates (July 19,

20, 26, 2003) and used for analysis. Consumer role socialization was divided into three









types: behavioral consumer role socialization, role model socialization and cognitive

consumer role socialization. Frequencies and independent and paired t-tests were the

primary analysis tools. Content analysis was used to reveal patterns in the open-ended

questions.

The results revealed that nostalgia was not the main factor in the decision of

participants to take a tour of Wrigley Field. Novelty, enhancement of kinship

relationships, prestige, facilitation of social interaction and relaxation were all more

important motives to come on the tour. Although nostalgia was not a primary motive,

there was evidence that it was a meaningful part of the experience for many of the

participants. A gender comparison of motivations revealed that men were more likely to

report that the tour took them back to their childhood while females were more likely

than males to feel that spending time with family/friends was more important. The

nostalgia sport tourists in this study reported a higher degree of socialization into passive

rather than active sport consumption.

This study is the first to investigate nostalgia sport tourism using quantitative

methods. As such, the findings provide support for the contention that nostalgia does

motivate these tourists; however, it is not the primary motivator of such travel. Further,

childhood socialization into sport appears to be related to adult patterns of sport

consumption and the proclivity to engage in nostalgia sport tourism. Regarding the

practical applications of this study, it is important for sport managers and markets to

understand the background and motives of these tourists so that they can better address

their needs and attract others who are interested in travel to "nostalgic" venues such as

Wrigley Field.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Consider for a moment what life would be like without sport. This might be

difficult to do because in today's society there are very few individuals who do not,

directly or indirectly, encounter elements of sport in their daily lives. Some people may

be actively involved as an athlete on a team, or a participant in some other physical

activity. Those who do not physically engage in sport may be spectators at sports events,

consume sport through the mass media or travel to famous sport-related attractions such

as halls of fame. Still others may volunteer to work as coaches, referees or members of

sports organizations. Even those who are not particularly interested in sport often find

that it is in some way a part of their lives through things such as news coverage or

conversation in family and work settings.

Regardless of the level of contact an individual has with sport, it is clear that such

contact has significant direct and indirect influences on the lives of most children and

adults throughout the United States, and in most other countries. As a result of this

widespread involvement in sport, researchers have become increasingly interested in the

social dimensions of sport. One research line has been concerned with how individuals

learn sport roles and at what stages in their lives (Giuliano, Popp & Knight, 2000;

McPherson, Curtis & Loy, 1989; Prochaska, Rodgers & Sallis, 2002). A consistent

finding in this research is that there is a positive relationship between the amount of

social support received from significant others and the degree of participation in sport

roles (McPherson et al., 1989). For example, if children are socialized into sport so that









participation or consumption becomes an integral part of their lifestyles, this will likely

persist into adolescence and throughout their adult years. As such, socialization plays a

major part in the maintenance of sport as a social institution and might be useful as an

important predictor of direct and indirect sport involvement throughout life (McPherson

et al., 1989). Socialization, as it is used here, refers to the process in which individuals

learn the norms and values of their society. It is a dynamic process and the lessons

learned vary according to gender, age, ethnicity, race and social class.

McPherson (1972) coined the term consumer role socialization to describe the

process whereby individuals are socialized into sport. In his definitions, he identified

three types of consumer role socialization: 1) behavioral consumer role socialization,

which refers to the extent to which an individual has been introduced to attendance at

sport events, reading, viewing and listening to and discussing sport; 2) affective

consumer role socialization, or what will be called role model socialization in this study,

which refers to the extent to which an individual has become ego and emotionally

involved in the role of sport consumer; and 3) cognitive consumer role socialization,

which refers to an individual's knowledge about sport.

The term role model socialization was used instead of affective consumer role

socialization in this study because McPherson's original method of measurement did not

translate well into the current time period and purpose of the study. More specifically,

this study was focused more on the influence of a significant other or role model in the

socialization of an individual into sport. Thus, only part of McPherson's affective

consumer role socialization scale was used in this study (Appendix A).









Recently the combination of both active and passive sport participation as vacation

activities has also evolved as a topic of research (DeKnop, 1990; Gibson, 1998a; Gibson,

1998b; Gibson, Willming & Holdnak, 2003). Historically, people have taken sport-

related trips for centuries, but sport tourism has only recently surfaced as an area of

study. A particular group of sport consumers that can be examined are those who

participate in themed sport cruises or travel to halls of fame, sport museums or historic

venues such as Wrigley Field in Chicago (Gibson, 1998c). The term nostalgia sport

tourism has been used to describe this type of travel behavior. Fairley (2003) states the

things "identified as being the focus of nostalgia sport tourism are physical entities to

which society is said to attribute special meaning (or multiple meanings), and which are

associated with sport" (p. 285).

The nostalgic feeling that people link to a place or experience may be a major

factor in their decision to travel to participate in these types of activities. Research has

shown that sport consumption is a fundamentally social experience (Green & Chalip,

1998), and so it is reasonable to expect that sport nostalgia can derive from group (or

social) experiences which themselves become the basis for tourism (Fairley, 2003).

Therefore, it is also necessary to consider a person's past sport experiences and

socialization into and through sport when trying to understand what may lead them to

make a nostalgic connection to sport.

Although research into sport tourism has grown rapidly over the past ten years,

many of these studies have lacked a theoretical foundation (Gibson, 2002). A theoretical

framework that is of particular use in developing an understanding of socialization in

general and into sport in particular is symbolic interactionism. This theoretical









perspective recognizes that individuals are capable of reflective behavior about objects,

others and themselves. Therefore, this framework might be useful in examining the ways

individuals define, reflect and make decisions related to sport. The process and emergent

nature of socialization and sport make them appropriate phenomena to study from a

symbolic interactionist perspective (Snyder, 1986).

Despite an abundance of research on the sociology of sport, there has been little

effort to link this literature with tourism. The aim of this study is to bridge the gap

between these disciplines in order to formulate a more complete understanding of how

the socialization process influences people to travel to consume sport. More specifically,

the individuals that will be examined in this study are nostalgia sport tourists who

traveled to a famous sport-related attraction. By grounding this study in symbolic

interactionism, this will not only facilitate the interpretation of the findings but also help

to link it to the wider body of knowledge in leisure, sport, and tourism studies as

advocated by Gibson (2002).

Statement of Problem

A review of the literature indicates that there has been very little research on

nostalgia sport tourism (Fairley, 2003; Gammon, 2002; Gibson, 1998b; Gibson, 2002).

This study will contribute to the limited body of knowledge that exists regarding

nostalgia sport tourism and assist in the understanding of the link between socialization

into and through sport, and participation in nostalgia sport tourism. It will also explore

any differences among males and females in their motivation to be nostalgia sport tourists

and the relationship of socialization into and through sport on their choice to visit

Wrigley Field. Overall, there is little insight into what motivates people to travel to

famous, historic sport venues like Wrigley Field.









Tourism studies have shown an increase in the amount of evidence that suggests

some travelers are motivated by nostalgia (Dann, 1994). This is supported by the growth

in the popularity of attractions that use themes based on the past to catch the attention of

potential tourists (Dann, 1994; Urry, 1990). One aspect of the tourism industry that has

tapped into the nostalgia theme is sport tourism. However, it appears that there is little

empirical evidence that these sport tourists are motivated by nostalgia. In a study of

Australian football fans on an annual bus trip to watch their team play, Fairley (2003)

found evidence of nostalgia among the fans. Likewise, Gammon (2002) hypothesized

that attendance at sports fantasy camps was motivated somewhat by nostalgia. As yet,

however, researchers have not investigated the relationship between stadium tours and

nostalgia.

There is also debate over the origins of this sport-related nostalgia. Is it an

outcome of the wider socialization process into sport, particularly in the family setting?

In other words, is nostalgia related to childhood experiences in the family? Do

individuals take trips to certain sporting venues to reminisce about their childhood or to

socialize their own children into aspects of sporting heritage? Moreover, is an affiliation

to a particular team or sport developed through early socialization into sport? That is, do

individuals become sports fans as a result of their childhood experiences? Also, are male

and female nostalgia sport tourists motivated differently as a result of the socialization

process? It appears these questions remain unanswered and might help to explain

nostalgia as a motivation for travel and perhaps indicate a link between socialization into

and through sport to nostalgia sport tourism.









In sport sociology, the idea of socialization into and through sport has received

much attention, especially through the 1970's and 1980's (Kenyon & McPherson, 1976;

McPherson et al., 1989; Nixon, 1981). Because the process of socialization changes over

time, it is necessary to continually study this phenomenon to determine how it impacts

sport participation. Despite the fact that sport sociology literature is extensive, there

remains a relative paucity of original research focusing on how the socialization process

might influence people to travel to famous sporting attractions. As such, this study seeks

to begin to fill a void in the existing literature.

In practical terms, understanding the link between socialization and nostalgia

sport tourism might be useful for sport managers and marketers. Sport marketers might

be better able to determine what market they should target in an attempt to boost future

sales and attendance at famous sport venues. Particularly, if there are consistencies

within the behavior of nostalgia sport tourists based on their past socialization, this can

allow marketers to predict their most susceptible crowd. For sport managers, especially

those working at stadiums, the realization that stadium tours are a popular attraction

might provide a source of additional revenue. Such tours may also reinforce fan loyalty

and, particularly for teams who need to increase game attendance, loyal fans may be

more likely to attend games especially when a team is not winning. The results of this

study may also be useful in developing techniques to study the influence of socialization

on attendance at other nostalgia sport tourism destinations.

Despite a lack of research, there is considerable evidence to indicate that

individuals who embark on nostalgia-based trips would provide a marketable tourist

group. There is little doubt that the marketing techniques targeting this group could be









improved upon with a better understanding of their background and behavior. Because

many tourism advertising materials are based on nostalgic images in an attempt to sell the

past to the future (Dann, 1994), it would be easier to cater to the needs of these tourists if

their desires and motivations were more clearly understood. This would not only

enhance their experience as tourists, but could also attract more people to the destination.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between socialization into

and through sport (consumer role socialization) and participation in nostalgia sport

tourism. In addition, this study sought to determine if there were any gender differences

among the motivations, feelings of nostalgia and consumer role socialization of nostalgia

sport tourists. Specifically, the study focused on nostalgia sport tourism related to

stadium tours of Wrigley Field, home of the Chicago Cubs. Wrigley Field is known as

one of the most historic ballparks within Major League Baseball. In fact, few would

argue that it is among the most memorable, well-liked stadiums in any sport. For this

reason, it satisfies the need for a nostalgic venue in this study.

Theoretical Rationale

Dann and Cohen (1996) point out "no established approach to tourism has

developed with its own unique blend of theory and method" (p. 303). However, there are

a growing number of researchers who have recognized tourism as a domain that requires

sociological understanding and explanation. Due to the lack of powerful theoretical and

analytical utilization, the "sociology of tourism" is still in its infancy. Gibson (2002)

further emphasizes the need to adopt theoretical approaches in the study of sport tourism.

To answer the need for conceptually grounded work, this study was grounded in a

symbolic interactionist perspective.









Herbert Blumer, who took George Herbert Mead's ideas and developed them into

a more systematic sociological approach, coined the term symbolic interaction in 1937

(Fine, 1986). The term "symbolic interaction" refers to:

the peculiar and distinctive character of interaction as it takes place between human
beings. The peculiarity consists in the fact that human beings interpret or "define"
each other's actions instead of merely reacting to each other's actions. Their
"response" is not made directly to the actions of one another but instead is based on
the meaning which they attach to some actions. Thus, human interaction is
mediated by the use of symbols, by interpretation, or by ascertaining the meaning
of one another's actions. (Blumer, 1978, p. 97)

Blumer (1969) argued that three premises are crucial to symbolic interactionism

and serve as the foundation of this perspective. The first is that human beings act toward

things (people, objects, etc.) on the basis of meanings that these 'things' have for them.

Therefore, objects or actions have no a priori stimulus value. Second, the meanings of

these stimuli emerge through social interaction. This social interaction over the life

course serves as the link to the process of socialization. Third, and most important, these

meanings are not static but are modified through an interpretive process. Therefore, this

allows meanings to be altered based on interpersonal negotiation through time.

Based on this assumption, the symbolic interactionist perspective orients itself to

change. Another assumption is that social meanings are shared through communication,

and, as a result, causes of action are not primarily biological and subconscious, but are

social and conscious (Fine, 1986). Indeed, Kelly (1983) suggested that leisure

socialization is more than taking up new and renewed activities throughout the life course

for the individual. He stated, "it is a development of self-definitions of investment and

competence in activities that extend and test the self' (p. 195).

Thus, it is conceivable that socialization into and through sport, initially in the

family, and then through other social institutions convey meanings associated with









particular sports and teams. Children may be socialized into being a fan of a certain team

or sport because one or both of their parents are also fans (James, 2002). The sport

specific patterns of attendance at certain sports events by men and women suggests that

there is still evidence of a gender-role socialization process that discourages females from

becoming involved, either actively or passively, in certain sports (McPherson et al., 1989;

Sargent, Zillman & Weaver, 1998). The gendered nature of socialization into and

through sport might help to explain why Sargent et al. (1998) found that males are more

partial to sports such as football, ice hockey, basketball, baseball and boxing, while

females expressed more interest in things like gymnastics, skiing, diving and figure

skating.

Frey and Eitzen (1991) emphasized the need to study sport from a sociological

perspective stating, "the existence of sport must be explained in terms of something more

than simply the needs of the social system or the production needs of a capitalist

economy" (p.505). Further, sport is created by people interacting, using their skills and

interests to make sport into something that meets their interests and needs (Coakley,

1990). Wilson (1980) suggested that leisure is "a form of symbolic interaction in which

distinct meanings emerge and are displayed" (p. 36). This personal meaning that people

can develop for leisure and sport over time also supports the use of a symbolic

interactionist perspective as an appropriate theoretical framework for this study.

In the past, a symbolic interactionist framework has been used in the study of

various aspects of sport. For example, Fine (1986) chose to use this perspective in the

study of small groups and sport. This approach to the study allowed him to focus on the

meanings created in team sport and on how these meanings influence play. Snyder









(1986) also used a symbolic interaction perspective to investigate athletics in higher

education. Specific areas of consideration included the meanings and definitions attached

to sport, the construction and conservation of identity by players and coaches, and the

way that interactionism clarifies the negotiated order of athletic organizations.

Other sport studies have also discussed the meanings and symbols that people

associate with sport. Trujillo and Krizek (1994) conducted interviews with fans and

employees in attendance at the final series in two major league ballparks that were

closing and found that many people expressed "the importance of baseball in their lives

and the places where it is played" (p. 303). One fan interviewed at the old Comiskey

Park in Chicago provided a strong testimony to the significance of ballpark memories:

I drove all night from Philly to get here. I paid 50 bucks to get in and I'm gonna
drive all night to get back home. I want something' to show for my time. I grew up
over by the stockyards and used to come here a lot with my dad. I want something'
to remember this day by and remember my dad. I'm gonna take this damn brick
home to help me remember my father, that's why. (p.305)

This particular fan's reaction to the closing of Comiskey Park shows the strong

connection that people develop for places that hold special meaning. From their

interviews, Trujillo and Krizek realized:

for fans and ballpark employees, major league baseball is not merely an industry; it
is revered symbolically as our "national pastime". The local franchise is not just
another bank, department store, or amusement park; rather, it is experienced as a
public trust that engenders a powerful sense of identification and identity for fans
and franchise employees alike. (p. 305)

Weiss (2001) supports the idea that "sport is shaped by and derives symbolic

significance from its close links with society" (p. 393). Dimanche and Samdahl (1994)

also point out that "a common theme in the consumer behavior literature and traditional

leisure theory is a focus on the symbolic meaning of an activity" (p. 121). In addition,

the nostalgic meanings that people attach to sport have been linked to the private and









collective meanings that people associate with symbols such as artifacts, documents,

relics and certain venues (Nauright, 1996; Slowikowski, 1991; Snyder, 1991).

Despite this link of symbols to sport and nostalgia and the recognition of the impact

of socialization on sport and tourism as separate entities, it appears that the application of

symbolic interactionism has yet to be used in the study of sport tourism. However, as

nostalgia sport tourism, in this instance a stadium tour, involves visiting a venue that may

evoke special meanings for tourists, symbolic interactionism is deemed to be an

appropriate foundation for this study.

Research Questions

The research questions to be addressed in this study will be:

la. What motivates nostalgia sport tourists to take a tour of Wrigley Field?
lb. Are men and women motivated differently to tour Wrigley Field?

2a. What items of the evoked nostalgia scale (NOST) are most associated with taking
a tour of Wrigley Field?
2b. Are there significant differences between gender and the feelings of nostalgia
generated by taking a tour of Wrigley Field?
2c. Is nostalgia a primary motive to tour Wrigley Field?
2d. Are there gender differences in the primacy of nostalgia when compared to the
other motivations?

3a. What aspects of behavioral consumer role socialization are associated with
nostalgia sport tourists?
3b. Are there significant differences between the behavioral consumer role
socialization of male and female nostalgia sport tourists?

4a. What aspects of role model socialization are associated with nostalgia sport
tourists?
4b. Are there significant differences between the role model socialization of male and
female nostalgia sport tourists?

5a. What aspects of cognitive consumer role socialization are associated with
nostalgia sport tourists?
5b. Are there significant differences between the cognitive consumer role
socialization of male and female nostalgia sport tourists?














CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

Socialization

Individuals do not function as independent entities in society; rather they interact

with other people (Blumer, 1969; Crompton, 1981). Socialization is a complex

developmental learning process that teaches the knowledge, values, and norms essential

to participation in social life. It is through socialization that we learn all types of social

roles, among these are roles related to sport and leisure participation (McPherson et al.,

1989).

In focusing on leisure socialization, an emphasis is placed on the processes through

which a child acquires basic knowledge about leisure and recreation, forms fundamental

attitudes and values associated with them, and learns various leisure skills and motives.

Past research indicates that childhood play provides the foundation for leisure and

recreation behavior later in life (Giuliano et al., 2000; Iso-Ahola, 1980). In other words,

Iso-Ahola suggested that limited opportunities for play in childhood tends to impair

cognitive and behavioral flexibility in adult leisure pursuits.

Much of the learning that takes place in childhood occurs through imitation,

modeling, and identification with the behavior of others. Therefore, Iso-Ahola suggests

that the socialization agents in an individual's life play an important role in transmitting

behavioral patterns and basic values relating to leisure. For example, consider the

number of images in the popular press that portray small children in the bleachers sitting

among their friends and families. Some of them might even be too young to understand









the rules, but the experience still has the potential to influence their future leisure

pursuits. To illustrate this, popular author and journalist Bill Bryson (1999) in discussing

why his heart belongs to baseball today wrote: "It's what I grew up with, what I played as

a boy, and that of course is vital to any meaningful appreciation of a sport" (p. 24).

The family is the primary socialization agent in the early years of life (Greendorfer,

1983; McPherson et al., 1989). Greendorfer argues that all other institutions depend on

contributions and learning that are initiated in, and through, this basic social unit. She

further states that although other social institutions, such as the school and peer group,

shape individual development, these institutions merely reinforce what has been initiated

within the family.

Prochaska et al. (2002) support the contention that the nuclear family serves as the

most important behavioral role model. However, they also suggest that as children age,

the role of peer influence becomes more apparent even though parents continue to

influence adolescents' leisure behavior. They found that parent and peer support

significantly correlated with adolescent self-reported physical activity, with peer support

being the strongest correlate. While Prochaska et al. examined active physical

participation, their findings suggest that an examination of family and peer influence on

childhood socialization might lead to interest in passive sport activities such as being a

sports fan and nostalgia sport tourism.

It must be pointed out that these patterns of learning may vary due to individual

differences such as gender (McPherson, 1983). While monumental political

developments such as Title IX have noticeably expanded the opportunities for women in

sport, there are still many people who discourage girls from playing sports. To illustrate









this point, a study of popularity among elementary school boys and girls found that boys

achieved high status based on things like athletic ability, coolness and toughness. On the

other hand, girls gained popularity because of characteristics such as their parents'

socioeconomic status, physical appearance and academic success (Adler, Kless & Adler,

1992). So even though sport may be integrative at the higher political levels, it has not

necessarily been the case at the interpersonal level of gendered expectations (Frey &

Eitzen, 1991) and may account for some differences in later tendencies to consume sport.

Gender-Role Socialization

Sport

Some of the gender differences in the personal meaning that males and females

associate with sport may be a result of socialization. Historically women have been

perceived as inferior to men and have not been given equal opportunities in many social

institutions, including sport (McPherson et al., 1989; Theberge & Birrell, 1994). While

the involvement of women in sport has progressed from no involvement to passive

involvement as spectators to increasing involvement as participants and leaders, gender

equity is still lacking in most aspects of sport (McPherson et al., 1989).

It has been argued that the female who makes the decision to compete in sport

must decide whether to accept her socially sanctioned, ascribed role of as a female or

ignore these norms to achieve her full potential as an athlete (Boutilier & SanGiovanni,

1983; McPherson et al., 1989). In the past, people believed that the ideal woman should

perform her patriotic duties of attracting a mate, bearing and rearing children and serving

her husband. Although society has become much more liberal, women, especially those

with young children, report a conflict between extensive personal involvement in sport

and their perceived duties to be good mothers and wives (Fasting & Sisjord, 1985;









Boutilier & SanGiovanni, 1983; McPherson et al., 1989). Specifically, women who

choose to play less socially sanctioned sports such as softball, volleyball, field hockey,

track and field and basketball report more role conflict than those who participate in more

socially approved sports such as tennis, golf, swimming and gymnastics (McPherson et

al., 1989).

A study of the differences between male and female college students with regard

to their sport fanship and sport fan behavior also revealed the likelihood of females to

place more emphasis on the social interaction involved in sport consumption. (Dietz-

Uhler, Harrick, End & Jacquemotte, 2000). They found that although males and females

equally considered themselves to be sport fans, females seemed more likely than males to

be a sport fan for "social" reasons such as watching and spending time with friend and

family. Specifically, they found that while females reported being a sport fan because

they go to games, enjoy cheering for their team, and like to watch sports with family and

friends, males reported being a sport fan because they themselves play sports, like sports

in general, and appear to enjoy learning about sports by doing things such as reading the

sports page.

Tourism

The emphasis that women place on relationships in their decision to participate in a

leisure activity is also evident in the tourism literature. For example, Davidson (1996)

examined the holiday experiences of women with young children and found that women

chose a particular holiday location because "it allowed the role of mother, partner or self

to be achieved rather than because a particular activity was available" (p. 98). These

women also said that 'relationships with significant others' (p. 96) were the best part of

their holiday or what they looked forward to the most.









McGehee, Loker-Murphy and Uysal (1996) also discovered that women were more

likely to choose a travel destination that provided a chance for a cultural experience, an

opportunity for family and kinship, and prestige. On the other hand, men felt that sport

and adventure were the more important parts of a vacation. This difference in the tourism

motivations of males and females reflects the norms and values that still exist in society,

and may be a product of socialization.

While there is little argument that numerous socializing agents (family, peers, etc.)

play a part in the socialization process of both males and females, there is some

discrepancy about how to measure this concept. For this reason, it is important for each

study to clearly define socialization and state how it will be operationalized. In addition,

these studies should be grounded in a theoretical framework in order to make connections

that will allow for the comparison of results among different studies and across

disciplines.

Sport and Social Theory

Because of the interdisciplinary, eclectic approach to the study of socialization, and

its multifaceted nature, McPherson (1986) argues that it is unlikely that any one

theoretical perspective will ever adequately explain the process or the end product.

However, Dawe (1970) points out that in general there are "two sociologies" that have

been used by researchers to examine the process of socialization. These "sociologies" are

known as the normative approach and the interpretive approach.

In the normative approach, deviance is viewed as nonconforming and incomplete

socialization, explains Dawe. An example of a theoretical framework using this approach

would be social imitation. This concept argues that an individual is more or less passive









and learns by observing and modeling the behavior and perceived values, beliefs, and

norms displayed by socialization agents (McPherson et al., 1989).

The competing approach, known as the interpretive approach, states that the

individual seeks to gain control or mastery over his or her situation, relationships and

institutions. Dawe explains, in this approach, the focus of study is on such elements of

the process as the definition of the situation, presentation of the self, and negotiation with

others. This more recent approach to the study of socialization has been prevalent within

sociology as a result of three interrelated developments (McPherson, 1986).

The first is that "an adequate explanation or theory must account for both the

transmission of culture and for the development of autonomous human beings"

(McPherson, 1986, p. 114). In other words, there are two interacting levels of analysis

for which different theoretical approaches are most appropriate. At the macro-level,

more universal outcomes occur and learning is more generalized from one situation to

another making the process more predictable. At this level, social learning theory, role

theory, reference group theory, and cognitive and social development theories are most

likely to be powerful explanatory frameworks.

At the micro-level, the focus is on individual learning and situation-specific

outcomes. As a result, the process is less predictable because it depends more on the

active involvement of the person being socialized to determine the outcome. Therefore at

this level, McPherson suggests theories that account for interpersonal interaction and

negotiation are more useful. For example, the symbolic interactionist perspective views

socialization as an active rather than a passive process. In other words, this perspective









recognizes that new and novel meanings and definitions can be created out of the process

(Mortimer & Simmons, 1978).

A second development that promotes the greater use of micro-level theories has

been, as McPherson suggests, a general realization that socialization continues

throughout an individual's life. As a result, there has been greater research interest in

socialization during the middle and later years. In addition, social scientists have

recognized that the use of one perspective is not likely to account for the life-long process

of socialization, and that the use of particular theoretical perspectives may be most

appropriate at different stages in the life cycle.

To illustrate this idea, Dowd (1980) and George (1980) discussed the use of theory

in relationship to the life span. They each agreed that during infancy and early

childhood, the functionalist perspective using social and cognitive development theories

might be the most appropriate. However, during adolescence and throughout adulthood,

it is possible that the exchange or symbolic interaction perspective would better capture

the socialization process.

The third, and perhaps the most influential, factor leading to an increased use of the

interpretive approach was the debate concerning whether the analyses have viewed

people as "over" or "under" socialized (McPherson, 1986). In the 'oversocialized

approach', it is assumed that the individual's behavior is completely determined by

society. Conversely, the 'undersocialized approach' assumes that individuals act totally

independently regardless of their past experiences (Dautenhahn & Edmonds, 2002). The

optimum situation is the compromise of these two views in which people interpret

meanings based on their experience.









Yaels and Karp (1978) argued that the use of the symbolic interactionist

perspective could be used in response to this debate. Boldt (1979) also suggested that the

concern regarding "over" or "under" socialization could be alleviated by a greater

emphasis on symbolic interactionism because it shifts the focus from social structure and

the outcome of conformity to the process of negotiated interaction, personal meaning, and

nonconforming outcomes.

Sport Consumption

Over the years, researchers have conducted numerous studies of sport consumers

and the role socialization plays in 'forming' sport consumers (Hunt, Bristol & Bashaw,

1999; Green, 2001). McPherson et al. (1989) define sport consumers as "people who at

any time consume sport, either directly through attending an event, or indirectly, through

exposure to some sort of mass media (p. 11)." The main focus of the present study will

be on the nostalgia sport tourist, which is a form of indirect sport consumption.

However, it is important to recognize both dimensions of this definition because both

active and passive sport consumption are integrally related to the socialization process.

Although more recent studies on sport consumption have been conducted, the early

work of McPherson cannot be overlooked in the study of socialization and sport

consumption. In fact, it appears that no recent scale of measurement focuses on

socialization in as much detail necessary for the purpose of this study. His 1972

dissertation formulated and tested a theoretical model designed to explain the social

factors that were hypothesized to account for individuals learning a leisure role, namely,

that of a sport consumer (McPherson, 1972).

Several studies have also examined the motives that drive people to become

indirect sport consumers in the role of sports fans. Wann, Schrader and Wilson (1999)









developed the Sport Fan Motivation Scale (SFMS), which is an instrument designed to

measure eight different motives of sport fans. Based on an examination of previous work

by researchers that attempted to identify the motivations of sport fans and spectators, they

felt that there were eight common motives. These included eustress, self-esteem, escape,

entertainment, economic, aesthetic, group affiliation, and family.

More recently, Trail and James (2002) developed the Motivation Scale for Sport

Consumption (MSCC) to measure the motivations behind sport spectator consumption

behavior. They felt that previous efforts to develop scales to measure spectator motives

demonstrated weaknesses in content, criterion and construct validity. Specifically, they

argued that the SFMS scale presented by Wann et al. had problems in the areas of content

validity, discriminant validity, criterion validity and to some extent convergent validity.

The MSSC was developed from a review of the literature and from the evaluation

of previous scales and administered to Major League Baseball season ticket holders. The

motives were based on the sport sociology literature and were consistent with those

identified in previous research. Items were generated for the nine motives, which

included achievement, acquisition of knowledge, aesthetics, drama/eustress, escape,

family, physical attractiveness of participants, the quality of the physical skill of the

participants and social interaction. The results showed that the MSCC demonstrated the

best psychometric properties overall to accurately and reliably measure motivations of

sport spectator consumption behavior.

James and Ridinger (2002) later used this same scale to expand upon the

knowledge of sports fans and determine if the motives for being a fan of a specific team

were similar or different for females and males. However, at the request of the university









at which the study was conducted, the physical attractiveness item was omitted from this

study. Participants were asked to fill out a survey to determine whether they were fans

of sport in general and fans of the women's or men's basketball teams specifically, and to

express their reasons for following a particular team.

Inconsistent with earlier findings, females did not rate the opportunity to spend

time with family or social interaction higher than males. Further, females and males

disagreed with the idea that basketball games were good opportunities to spend time with

family members. This is of particular interest in the discussion of the socialization

process in which literature has revealed a difference among genders in value orientation

and behaviors related to sport (Greendorfer, 1983; McPherson et al. 1989).

Many more studies have investigated various aspects of fandom, including the

meanings and identities associated with being a fan (eg., Anderson, 1979; Laverie &

Arnett, 2000; Wann & Branscombe, 1993), fan behavior (eg. Greenberg, 1979; Kerstetter

& Kovich, 1997), and team loyalty (eg. Cialdini, Border, Thorne, Walker, Freeman &

Sloan, 1976; Wann & Branscombe, 1990). However, few studies have investigated the

role of socialization in becoming a fan. Moreover, the meanings associated with being a

fan have not been investigated in relation to the decisions to travel to sports related

attractions. In other words, while these studies have examined the motives of individuals

to become sports fans, few researchers have examined the sports fan or sports consumer

in the context of sport tourism (Gibson et al., 2003; Weed, 2001; Weed, 2002).

Sport Tourism

Although the study of sport socialization is not a new concept, there has been little

effort to examine how it might relate to tourism. In fact, the study of sport tourism,

although steadily expanding, has been a part of the literature for no more than thirty









years. As Glyptis (1991) points out, while sport and tourism are closely linked in the

minds of participants, they have traditionally been treated as separate entities in research.

Despite the lack of connection of sport to tourism, there is tangible evidence of the

similarities that exist between them. When a comparison is made, one can see that all of

the elements that make up the tourism industry, including things such as transportation,

accommodation, food, entertainment, are also an integral part of organizing a sporting

event (Loverseed, 2001). Getz (1998) examined sport-event tourism through a model of

the supply-demand system and argued that a more comprehensive evaluation of the sport-

event tourist is necessary to improve management strategies. The lack of knowledge

about this potential marketable population further emphasizes the need for future

research.

Due to the lack of consistency in the literature, it is important to recognize how the

concept of sport tourism has been defined. For the purpose of this study, the working

definition, which Gibson (1998b) proposed, will be used. This definition recognized

sport tourism as "leisure-based travel that takes individuals temporarily outside of their

home communities to play, watch physical activities, or venerate attractions associated

with these activities" (p. 108). Based on this definition, she also identified three major

types of sport tourism: active sport tourism, event sport tourism, and nostalgia sport

tourism.

Nostalgia

The special meaning that people attach to specific places can be a result of a

connection they make to some past time. In a world of increasing change and instability,

people often look to this past to escape the present or questionable future. Social and

cultural norms are also experiencing change, leaving us anxious and lost amongst what









was once familiar (Davis, 1979). The term often used to describe this yearning for an

either real or imaginary past is nostalgia. In other words, nostalgia indicates an

individuals' desire to regain some control over their lives in an uncertain time (Aden,

1995).

Historically, the word nostalgia was used as a medical term to explain the

physiological and psychological symptoms associated with homesickness. A more recent

interpretation of nostalgia has altered from its original definition to take on a more

sociological meaning. From a sociological perspective, nostalgia allows human beings to

maintain their identity in the face of major transitions, which serve as discontinuities in

the life cycle (Havlena & Holak, 1991).

Today the public culture contains many powerful symbols of the past. Wilson

(1999) believes that "these symbols become more personal, as we, in some ways,

construct our identities from that which is available to us culturally" (p. 297). It is these

symbols that people attach meaning to based on their past experiences. However, to

claim that nostalgic material derives from a personally experienced past is not to claim

that the past "causes" or even "explains" current nostalgia. What causes us to feel

nostalgia must also reside in the present, regardless of how much the ensuing nostalgic

experience may draw its meaning from our memory of the past (Davis, 1979).

Davis suggests nostalgia is one of the means we employ in the continuous aim of

constructing, maintaining, and reconstructing our identities. Wilson suggests in order to

maintain these identities, there is often a need to actively reconstruct the past. Although

not necessary, this active reconstruction often involves travel to a destination that evokes









certain memories. This travel may include those people socialized into fandom that

travel to the 'shrine' associated with their favorite team or favorite sport.

Marketers and advertisers have recognized the use of nostalgia in some of their

promotion schemes. In today's marketplace we see many firms using nostalgia to

address a growing desire by consumers to recapture part of the past (Holak & Havlena,

1998; Pascal, Sprott & Muehling, 2002). For instance, Coca Cola has reintroduced the

distinctively shaped green-tinted coke bottle. Likewise, Burger King has used classic

1960s and 1970s music in TV commercials in an attempt to separate themselves from the

cluttered fast food environment (Pascal et al).

Pascal et al. developed a ten-item evoked nostalgia scale (NOST) in order to assess

the potential nostalgic feelings stimulated by such focal marketing stimuli. The items

used were created based on the conceptualization of nostalgia presented by Holbrook and

Schindler (1991). Respondents were asked to fill out a questionnaire containing these

items after viewing a group of advertisements. The results indicated that evoked

nostalgia was a significant predictor of a more positive attitude toward the advertisement

for two companies, namely Kodak and Toshiba. In addition, they found that the more

nostalgia evoked by an advertisement, the greater the brand purchase likelihood (Pascal

et al.).

Studies of music, motion pictures, movie stars and fashion products have also

shown that styles popular during a consumer's youth can influence the consumer's

lifelong preferences. As an illustrative example, Schindler and Holbrook (2003)

investigated the effects of early experience on consumer preferences for automobile

styles. They found an age-related preference peak in which there was a favorite style









found among car models popular during one's youth and typically no longer commonly

available or widely circulated. In addition, they found that nostagic tendencies had a

moderating effect on this peak in preference for a certain style of car. Specifically, they

suggested that a 'psychographic variable', namely attitude toward the past or nostalgia

proneness, is associated with individual differences in early-experience effects. Dannefer

(1981) also identified a small group of old-car enthusiasts who traced their own interest

back to childhood experiences and suggested that this may have wider applicability in

studying leisure activity and social participation.

These findings can also be expanded to study sport and how previous exposure to

certain aspects of sport early in life might influence future involvement. In addition, the

individual differences found in the respondents' nostalgic tendencies further supports the

use of a symbolic interactionist framework in that individuals construct their own

meanings related to what they consider nostalgia to be.

Nostalgia Sport Tourism

Until recently, there was a geographical divide in relation to what behaviors

constituted sport tourism. In Europe sport tourists were largely regarded as active

participants (DeKnop, 1990; Glyptis, 1991). In the United States, much of the research in

the realm of sport tourism was limited to large sporting events that draw spectators to an

area (Ritchie, 1984). Redmond (1991) recognized that, in addition to event spectators,

active sport participants and visitors to famous sport attractions such as museums, halls of

fame and famous stadiums also constituted sport tourists. Taking a lead from Redmond's

discussion about people who visit sport related attractions, Gibson (1998a) identified

those sport tourists who were interested in visiting sports halls of fame or famous

stadiums as nostalgia sport tourists.









Sport is a good indicator of change, and when combined with a nostalgically driven

media, it can also be a strong reminder of the past and the way things used to be

(Gammon, 2002). It is the "visiting and, perhaps, paying homage" aspect of sport tourist

behavior that Gibson (1998b) termed nostalgia sport tourism (p. 49). Although it is still

in the early stages of development as an area of research, visiting sports halls of fame,

sports museums, and famous sporting venues has become an increasingly popular tourist

attraction.

For example, in 1991 the growing demand for baseball research material and

archival resources forced The National Baseball Hall of Fame Library in Cooperstown,

NY to expand the building to make room for the influx of baseball books, periodicals,

trivia questions and motion pictures ("National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum",

n.d.). Gammon also pointed out that nearly 400,000 people come to the National

Baseball Hall of Fame each year to pay tribute to the great baseball heroes of the past.

However, there has been little research that has investigated why people become

nostalgia sport tourists. Gibson suggested that an examination of theoretical approaches

from anthropological and sociological understandings of pilgrimage could reveal some

insight into this question. One idea that has emerged from these disciplines is that sport

is a new religion and that stadiums and sport museums have become sacred sites within

our culture (Erickson, 2001; Gammon, 2002; Newman, 2001; Trujillo & Krizek, 1994).

It is no surprise that baseball, the national pastime, has received much of the

attention related to nostalgia. Indeed, our vocabulary is filled with references that relate

baseball and the places it is played to religion and religious practice (Erickson, 2001;

Redmond, 1973). For instance, Newman (2001) points out that the great, old ballparks,









both those still standing and those of historic teams, "are spoken of with the awe

generally reserved for the great cathedrals of Europe" (p. 46). In her discussion of the

National Baseball Hall of Fame, Newman states that "just as droves of pilgrims flock to

the holy sites of their religions, so too do they flock to Cooperstown, to observe the relics

of baseball's saints and martyrs" (p.47).

Visiting nostalgic venues, such as halls of fame and museums, is a form of

socialization in which artifacts and the memories people attach to them symbolically

convey the values and norms of a society (Snyder, 1991). Segrave (2000) believes that

these so-called 'cathedrals' of sport "allow us to connect with a larger, more social sense

of who we are both as individuals and as members of a culture" (p.63). Sports then do

not just take place anywhere; they become culturally significant places that are celebrated

as repositories of history, folklore and sentiment.

Baseball, as the saying goes, is America's game. Recently, however, individuals

seem more interested in baseball's past than in its present. Movies such as The Natural,

The Babe, Bull Durham, Eight Men Out, A League of Their Own and Field ofDreams are

just a few of examples of how baseball can be used to provide people with a 'trip down

memory lane' so to speak (Aden, 1995; Altherr, 2001; Mosher, 1991). "Legends" games

featuring stars of the past are also played prior to contemporary baseball games. Many of

the same 'legend' players also attract, often frustrated, middle-aged men to fantasy

baseball games (Aden, 1995).

In addition, new ballparks such as Camden Yards in Baltimore have sought to

capitalize on nostalgia by creating a more traditional look and feel to their ballparks.

However, these new ballparks have not escaped the criticism of die-hard fans who argue









that nothing new can replace an old stadium (Altherr, 2001). Bryson (1999) emphasizes

the significance of the feeling that is attached to historic ballparks:

Call me eccentric, call me fastidious, but I truly believe that baseball should only
be watched in an old stadium... In fairness it must be said that the new ballparks of
the 1990's, as opposed to the multipurpose arenas built in the previous thirty years,
do strive to keep the character and intimacy of old ballparks sometimes even
improve on them but they have one inescapable, irremediable flaw. They are
new. They have no history, no connection with a glorious and continuous past... A
day game at Wrigley Field is one of the great American experiences. (pp. 26-27)

Theme parks such as Disney and hotels such as the Raffles Hotel in Singapore

spend millions of dollars on renovations in order to create a 'nostalgic' atmosphere. In

fact, the Raffles relies almost entirely on its nostalgic links with the past to promote their

hotel (Dann, 1994). While these attractions are forced to invest large sums of money to

construct a nostalgic feel, old stadiums like Wrigley Field only need to worry about

regular maintenance repairs and minor changes.

Before nostalgia sport tourism was ever introduced into the literature, the space

upon which sporting action is played out was discussed by Bale (1989). In terms of

baseball, the playing field itself has been viewed as a vestige of the frontier. Ross (1973)

explains the symbolic comparison of the stadium to an America of the past, separating

the diamond as the urban core, infield as the supporting hinterland and outfield as the

frontier. Bale emphasized that this "spatial analogy between baseball and America itself

is argued by some to be a major source of attraction to the game" (p.14). For instance,

the physical environment of baseball can bring back memories of a lost pastoral world

and at the same time be related to the day-to-day work of an individual with division of

labor, specialization of roles and limited independence.

Much like tourism, two journeys are often made in nostalgically driven sport

tourism including the journey made to the attraction or event and the imagined journey









that takes place once there. Springwood (1996) raises the following question: "Why do

people load themselves into their cars and vans... and traverse miles of state country road

to arrive in these bucolic locales of baseball's celestial sights, sounds, and smells?" (p.

171). The answer is of course not a simple one, but it is one that deserves the attention of

researchers.

There has also been sense of wishful thinking in some cases that baseball has

served to smooth over generational differences and tensions. Poet Donald Hall (1985)

touched on this theme in the following passage:

Baseball connects American males with each other, not only through bleacher
friendships and neighbor loyalties, not only through barroom fights but, most
importantly, through generations. When you are small, you may not discuss
politics or union dues or profit margins with your father's cigar-smoking friends
when your father has gone out for a six-pack, but you may discuss baseball. (pp.
49-50)

Trujillo and Krizek (1994) also discussed the "generational continuity of ballpark

fans" (p. 307). One fan accompanied by his father, brother and son at Comiskey Park

discussed their attendance at one of the last games played in the stadium:

... That's why I thought it would be kind of sentimental to have three different
generations of the family. My dad's been coming here for 70 years, I've been
coming here for 35 years, he's (my brother) about the same, just a little bit longer,
and Adam (my son) now for 3 years. What better of a way to celebrate our
relationships? (p. 307)

These are just two of many examples of how books and movies have reinforced the

therapeutic connection in which the game of catch can help people of different

generations transcend their differences. Further, as Trujillo and Krizek point out:

As the ballpark brings together these generations of families and friends, it also
becomes a place where older people experience their own youth vicariously as they
interact with and observe the children and grandchildren of their own family and of
other families. (p. 307)






30


This also sheds some light on how early childhood socialization is connected to both

nostalgia and sport.

So, although there have been some hypotheses about how nostalgic imagery and

memory is related to sport, the answer to why people engage in this sort of sport tourism

remains unanswered. Perhaps the process of socialization into and through sport that was

examined in this study will reveal some of the underpinnings of nostalgia motivated sport

tourism.















CHAPTER 3
METHODS

Survey research was the primary method used in this exploratory and descriptive

study. The data for this study were collected on-site at Wrigley Field with a self-

administered questionnaire. Permission was received from the Chicago Cubs

organization before data collection began.

Site Description

Wrigley field, located in northern Chicago, Illinois, was built in 1914, and is the

second-oldest ballpark in Major League Baseball behind Boston's Fenway Park, which

was built in 1912. The first major league game took place at the ballpark April 23, 1914

and the first National League game was played nearly two years later on April 20, 1916.

Today's home of the Chicago Cubs was originally known as Weeghman Park, and it was

not until 1926 that it was named Wrigley Field in honor of William Wrigley Jr., the club's

owner.

Despite numerous renovations, several historic pieces of the park remain intact.

For example, the scoreboard constructed in 1937 is used to post the score-by-innings and

the pitchers' numbers, which are still changed manually. In addition, the ivy that runs

along the outfield wall remains a trademark of the field. The original vines, including

350 Japanese bittersweet plants and 200 Boston ivy plants, were purchased and planted in

September 1937.

These physical features depict only a small portion of the nostalgia that fills

Wrigley Field for the fans that walk through the gates. It goes without saying that the









field has also been the home of many historic baseball moments as well. Among the

most memorable was Babe Ruth's "called shot" during Game three of the 1932 World

Series ("Wrigley Field: Ballpark History", n.d.). It is things like the rich history of this

ballpark that makes it an appropriate venue to study the effects of socialization on

nostalgia-related sport tourism.

Known to many as "The Friendly Confines", Wrigley field is also one of the most

beloved stadiums in baseball history. In fact, while interviewing people in Dyersville,

Iowa, site of the Field ofDreams, the first question Mosher (1991) asked respondents

was, "What is your favorite Major League park?" (p. 274). Not surprisingly, Wrigley

Field was the most often mentioned.

During the summer of 1982, a fan who had never visited Wrigley Field before

looked out upon the crowd and remarked, "This place is baseball 'heaven'... If the game

of baseball ever needed a museum in the year 2050, they ought to keep Wrigley Field and

its fans in mind. This is what the game is all about" (Ibach & Colletti, 1983, p. 1).

Tours are offered to provide people with an insider's look at over 85 years of

history in this legendary ballpark. The tour guides place a strong emphasis on the origin

of the field and the club as well as many of the historic events that have occurred in the

ballpark. The emphasis of these tours separates those people who came to take a tour

from those event sport tourists who come to Wrigley Field for a baseball game as

spectators. People come from all over the United States and the world to take these tours.

These tour participants are nostalgia sport tourists and constituted the participants for this

study.









Data Collection

Contact with the Chicago Cubs organization was made in March 2003. The

message sent to the organization was forwarded to the Community Relations Intern who

organized the tours. This intern became the primary liaison with the organization during

the planning and data collection phases that followed. The purpose of the study was

explained and the researcher was given permission to survey tour participants during

summer 2003. As part of the negotiation process, the Chicago Cubs organization

requested that question 10 was included in the questionnaire (Appendix A). Specifically,

this question asked respondents, "Do you know what charity will benefit from the money

you paid to take part in today's tour?" The information gathered from this question was

pertinent to the Chicago Cubs organization, rather than the purpose of this study.

Prior to each tour of Wrigley Field (July 19, 20 and 26, 2003), participants were

informed about the study and asked if they would be willing to complete a questionnaire

at the conclusion of the 90-minute tour. Tour stops included the Cubs' clubhouse, the

visitors' clubhouse, dugouts, mezzanine suites, press box, bleachers, playing field and

security headquarters. Pictures showing stops along this tour are included in Appendix

B.

Due to the logistics of this study, non-random sampling procedures were used to

select participants. Everyone over the age of 18 on the tour was considered a potential

respondent. It is estimated that each tour group contained between 30 and 40 people.

Exact numbers were not provided by the organization. On each of the data collection

days, fourteen tours were conducted. A standardized protocol of administering the

questionnaires was used. The researcher was introduced to the group at the beginning of

each tour. She gave a brief explanation of the study and asked for volunteers. An









estimated 48% of those people who took a tour over the three days of data collection,

including Chicago residents, took time to fill out the questionnaire.

Questionnaires were administered to those who agreed to take part in the study

and the researcher remained in the area to answer any questions the participants had.

Upon completion, the researcher personally collected the questionnaires from each

respondent and thanked him or her for taking the time to assist in the study. The

estimated average time taken to complete the questionnaire was between 10 and 15

minutes.

Participants

Of the 702 total completed questionnaires, 357 were non-residents of metro

Chicago. As this study was focused on nostalgia sport tourists, only the responses from

the non-residents or tourists were analyzed and reported. Due to the exploratory nature

of this study, the profile of the participants was an important part of this study and will be

discussed in detail. The following characteristics apply only to the non-residents, or

'tourists' that took part in this study. The data from the residents will be analyzed at a

future point.

Of the 346 non-resident nostalgia sport tourists who reported their gender, 62.7%

(n = 217) were male and 37.3% (n = 129) were female. They ranged in age from 18-89

with a mean age of 38.5 years. The majority of participants had completed a bachelor's

degree (44.4%), followed by 19.4% who had completed a Master's Degree. Almost 60%

(n = 193) of the participants reported annual household incomes below $100,001 with a

median income falling in the range of $75,001- $100,000. An overwhelming percentage

of the respondents (95.6%) were white, and based on observation this number seems to









be consistent with the actual composition of the crowd that toured Wrigley Field on the

data collection days. A more detailed demographic profile is presented in Table 3-1.

Table 3-1. Tourist Profile for Wrigley Field Ballpark Tours
Socio-Demographic Characteristics Frequency Valid Percent

Gender (N =346)
Male 217 62.7
Female 129 37.3

Race and Ethnicity (N=344)
White 329 95.6
Hispanic/Latino 6 1.7
Native American 4 1.2
Asian 3 0.9
Black 1 0.3
Other 1 0.3

Education (N=340)
Less than high school 16 4.7
High school graduate 47 13.8
Associate or technical degree 49 14.4
Bachelor's degree 151 44.4
Master's degree 66 19.4
Doctoral degree 11 3.2

Annual Household Income (N=318)
$25,000 or less 35 11.0
$25,001 $50,000 48 15.1
$50,001 $75,000 49 14.4
$75,001 $100,000 61 19.2
$100,001- $125,000 42 13.2
$125,001- $150,000 23 7.2
$150,001 or more 35 11.0

Age Range (N = 344)
18-29 118 34.3
30-39 60 17.4
40-55 121 35.2
56-65 38 11.0
66 and older 7 2.0
The number (N) may vary due to missing values or responses

Participants in the study were also asked to describe the composition of their

group (Table 3-2). Almost 34% (n = 116) of participants reported that they came to the









tour with one companion. This was the most frequently reported group composition.

Overall, only 29.9% (n = 102) of the people on the tour who responded to the

questionnaire came in groups of five or more people. A majority (69.0%) of these people

did not bring any children under the age of 18 on the tour.

Table 3-2. Group Composition of Respondents


Number of People in Group Frequency Valid Percent
1 (alone) 20 5.8
2 116 33.9
3 53 15.5
4 51 14.9
5 25 7.3
6 26 7.6
7 22 6.4
8 or more 29 8.6

When asked approximately how many miles they had traveled to take the tour,

30.3% (n = 105) said they had traveled 51-100 miles (Table 3-3). In contrast, 24.6% (n =

85) of the respondents had traveled over 1000 miles. The median number of miles

traveled was between 201-500 miles and the mode was 51-100 miles. When asked about

the primary purpose of their trip, 34.8% (n = 124) reported that visiting Wrigley Field

was their primary purpose (Table 3-3). A majority (48%) of all of the nostalgia sport

tourists on the tour also reported that visiting Wrigley Field was 'very important' to their

overall trip.

For 44.3% (n = 158) of the respondents, the tour marked their first ever visit to

Wrigley Field and only 10.9% (n = 39) indicated they had been there more than 10 or

more times prior to the tour. When asked who had the most influence on their decision to

take the tour, 33.1% (n = 118) claimed that it was their own decision. A list of other

influences and their level of importance is shown in Table 3-3.









Table 3-3. Trip Information and Influence on Respondent's Decision to Take Wrigley
Field Tour
Frequency Valid Percentage
Miles Traveled (N = 346)
51-100 105 30.3
101-200 28 8.1
201-500 62 17.9
501-1000 66 19.1
Over 1000 85 24.6

Trip Purpose (N = 356)
Visit Wrigley Field 124 34.8
Vacation 108 30.3
Visiting Friends/Family 74 20.8
Business 17 4.8
Day Trip 19 5.3
Convention 3 .8
Other 11 3.1

Most Influence (N= 356)
Yourself 118 33.1
Spouse/Partner 69 19.4
Friend 55 15.4
Children 44 12.4
Other Relative 44 12.4
Parents) 18 5.1
Other 8 2.2
The number (N) may vary due to missing values or responses

While in Chicago, only 36.8% of the participants planned to attend a game at

Wrigley Field when the Cubs played in town. However, it should be noted that ballpark

tours are only offered on weekends when the club is out of town so there were no games

scheduled at Wrigley Field several days before and after the tour dates. For example, one

male respondent stated that the reason he came on the tour was because there were "no

games so [the] tour was the next best thing." Another male respondent said there was

"no game in town, but you cannot come to Chicago without visiting Wrigley Field". A

majority of the participants (87.3%) claimed to be baseball fans in general. Of these

baseball fans, 26.4% said that they were Cubs fans.










Instrument

The questionnaire (Appendix A) used in this study consisted of four parts. The

first part asked respondents about their motivations for going on a tour of Wrigley Field.

Seven motives were measured on a Likert-type scale (1 = 'Strongly Disagree' to 5 =

'Strongly Agree') and were based on those identified by Crompton (1979), such as

escape, relax, family, etc. An additional motive addressing nostalgia was also included in

this section, making a total of eight items.

Part one also contained the ten-item evoked nostalgia scale (NOST) developed by

Pascal et al. (2002). This scale was used to further examine the extent to which taking

the tour was motivated by nostalgia. The reported Cronbach's alpha for the ten items in

the NOST scale was .96. Cronbach's alpha for the NOST scale in the current study was

identical to the original scale (c = .96). An exploratory factor analysis revealed that the

NOST scale consisted of the ten constructs identified by Pascal et al. and explained

76.0% of the variance (Table 3-4).

The second part of the questionnaire asked respondents to recall their degree of

consumer role socialization. McPherson's (1972) work provided the basis for the

operationalization of consumer role socialization. The three levels of consumer role

socialization are: behavioral, role model and cognitive.

Behavioral consumer role socialization examined the extent to which an

individual had been introduced to attending sports events, reading, viewing and listening

to and discussing sport while growing up. Role model socialization, which McPherson

referred to as affective socialization, measured the extent to which an individual has

become emotionally involved in the role of sport consumer due to the behavior of a









Table 3-4. Exploratory Factor Analysis Results of Evoked Nostalgia Scale
Evoked Nostalgia Statements Factor
It brought back memories of good times from the past .93
It reminded me of good times in the past .91
It evoked fond memories .90
It was a pleasant reminder of the past .90
It helped me recall pleasant memories .89
It made me reminisce about a previous time .87
It made me think about when I was younger .86
It reminded me of the good old days .84
It reminded me of the past .82
It made me feel nostalgic .79

Eigenvalue 7.60
Cronbach's Alpha .96
Factor Mean' 3.64
Percentage of variance explained 76.0
1 Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Strongly disagree and
5 = Strongly agree

primary socialization agent growing up as identified by the respondent. Finally,

cognitive socialization measured the extent to which an individual has learned and

retained facts and concepts related to sport while growing up.

Each socialization scale was measured using a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging

from either 1 = 'never' to 5 = 'frequently' or 1 = 'strongly disagree' to 5 = 'strongly

agree'. Nine items were used to measure behavioral consumer role socialization. An

exploratory factor analysis revealed that this scale was unidimensional, accounting for

58.8% of the variance (Table 3-5). Cronbach's alpha (. = .91) showed that this scale had

high internal consistency.

In order to measure role model socialization, respondents were asked to list who

they felt was their most significant influence into sport. In reference to the person

identified, 12 role model socialization questions were asked. An exploratory factor

analysis revealed two different factors (or domains) with eigenvalues greater than 1.0 that









Table 3-5. Exploratory Factor Analysis Results of Behavioral Consumer Role
Socialization Scale
Behavioral Consumer Role Socialization Statements Factor 1
I discussed sports with others .93
I read about sports (e.g. newspaper, magazines, books, etc.) .86
I listened to sports on the radio .79
I collected sports memorabilia (e.g. player's cards, hats, jerseys, .79
etc.)
I attended sports events (e.g. high school, college, professional, .76
etc.)
I played pick-up games .75
I played organized sport (e.g. team, league, etc.) .67
I watched sports on TV .67
I visited a Hall of Fame or sport museum .49

Eigenvalue 5.29
Cronbach's Alpha .91
Factor Mean' 3.68
Percentage of variance explained 58.8
SMeasured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Never and 5 = Frequently

accounted for 54.9% of the total variance. Items with loadings of at least .40 were

used as the cutoff point to determine which factor they were associated with. Nine of the

12 role model socialization items loaded on one of the two factors (Table 3-6).

Based on the nature of the items that loaded on Factor 1, it was labeled "Passive

Sport Involvement". The role model socialization items included in this factor were:

"he/she had a favorite sport", "he/she had a favorite sports team", "he/she talked about

and/or watched sports frequently", "he/she had a favorite player", "he/she got very

emotional when watching sports" and "because him/her I have a favorite player".

The second factor was labeled "Active Sport Involvement" because the items

included in this domain are suggestive of the participants' actual participation in sport

and attendance at sports events. These items include: "He/she used to watch me play









sports", "he/she encouraged me to play sports" and "he/she used to take me to sporting

events".

Table 3-6. Exploratory Factor Analysis Results of Role Model Socialization Statements
Role Model Socialization Statements Factor 1 Factor 2

Factor 1 Passive Sport Involvement
He/she had a favorite sport .78 .03
He/she had a favorite sports team .77 .10
He/she talked about and/or watched sports frequently .76 .04
He/she had a favorite player .71 .05
He/she got very emotional when watching sports (cheered, yelled, .60 .11
"booed", applauded...)
Because of him/her I have a favorite player .51 .36

Factor 2 Active Sport Involvement
He/she used to watch me play sports -.04 .86
He/she encouraged me to play sports -.08 .86
He/she used to take me to sporting events .17 .71

Eigenvalues 3.62 2.97
Cronbach's Alpha .80 .81
Factor Means 3.86 3.83
Percentage of variance explained 30.1 24.7
Cumulative variance explained 30.1 54.9
SMeasured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Strongly disagree and 5 = Strongly agree

The remaining three statements not included in either domain were: "I owe my

interest in sport to him/her", "because of him/her I follow the same team" and "because

of him/her I have a favorite sport". These statements had loadings above .40 for both

domains and could not be clearly distinguished as belonging to either factor and therefore

were eliminated from future analysis.

Finally, cognitive socialization was measured using five items. An exploratory

factor analysis confirmed that each of these items was a part of a unidimensional scale

(Table 3-7). The results showed that, as expected, this scale had only one construct and it









explained 74.7% of the variance. A high Cronbach's alpha ( = .91) showed that this

scale was also internally consistent.

The third part of the questionnaire measured the individual's current participation

and cognitive awareness about sport. The same items used in the second part of the

Table 3-7. Exploratory Factor Analysis Results of Cognitive Consumer Role
Socialization Statements
Cognitive Consumer Role Socialization Statements Factor 1
I knew the players on the roster for one or more teams .91
I knew what teams were in each league for one or more sports .91
I followed the progress of teams in one or more sports .90
I kept track of player's statistics in one or more sports .86
I was taught about the rules and strategies of one or more sports .73

Eigenvalues 3.73
Cronbach's Alpha .91
Factor Mean 3.87
Percentage of variance explained 74.7
1 Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Strongly disagree and
5 = Strongly agree

questionnaire were used to measure behavioral and cognitive socialization, but

respondents were asked to answer the questions according to their current behavior.

These questions could be used to measure the correlation between past and present sport

behavior, but will not be the focus of this study and will be used only as a

recommendation for future research.

The final part of the questionnaire consisted of nine demographic questions such

as age, gender, annual household income and education as well as an open-ended

question where respondents were given a chance to share any additional comments about

the tour or this study. The responses from this section were used to generate a general

profile of the participants in this study and to understand their responses.










Face validity of the instrument was established using a pilot test by a group of

sport tourism graduate students who were familiar with questionnaire design and

nostalgia sport tourism during Spring 2003. Their input was used to clarify the wording

and format of the questionnaire. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was used

to establish the construct validity of the NOST and the consumer role socialization scales.

Data Analysis

The data were analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences,

Version 11.5). Descriptive statistics were run for all questions to generate the

frequencies, means, modes and standard deviations. These statistics were used to

determine the demographics of the sample, check for coding errors and create a profile of

the 'nostalgia sport tourist' that chose to take a tour of Wrigley Field.

Mean scores were used to determine the motivations of participants to take a tour

of Wrigley Field and to identify what components of consumer role socialization are

associated with the 'nostalgia sport tourist'. Independent samples t-tests were then used

to answer the five research questions for this study and determine if there were any

significant gender differences among each individual item in the scales.

The mean score for the NOST scale, behavioral consumer role socialization, role

model socialization and cognitive consumer role socialization was also computed. An

independent samples t-test was also used to determine if there were any significant

difference between men and women for the entire scale. In addition, the mean score for

each factor of role model socialization ('Passive and Active Sport Involvement') was also

computed and analyzed separately using an independent samples t-test to determine if

there were any significant gender differences. A paired samples t-test was then used to






44


compare the computed mean NOST scale with each individual motivation statement for

the entire sample as well as for each gender. Finally, a thematic analysis was used to

group open-ended comments according to similarity in response and will be used to

supplement statistical findings for the appropriate research questions.














CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

The data collected at Wrigley Field provided many insights into the motivations of

nostalgia sport tourists, what aspects of socialization were prominent among these

visitors, and if any statistically significant gender differences related to these

characteristics existed. In addition, a primary purpose of this study was to find out if

nostalgia really was a primary motivator of these tourists, or if it served as a less

significant reason for taking part in the tour.

Although over 700 useable surveys were collected, only the 'tourists' were

analyzed because the focus of this study was to understand the motivations and

socialization patterns of nostalgia sport tourists on a trip to Wrigley Field. Where

appropriate, responses from open-ended questions were also used to supplement

statistical findings. Because there is a limited understanding about the profile of

'nostalgia sport tourists', the socio-demographic information presented in Chapter 3

provided valuable information about the basic characteristics of this sample. This profile

will continue to be developed as the research questions are answered in this chapter.

Motivations of Nostalgia Sport Tourists

Research Question #1

la. What motivates nostalgia sport tourists to take a tour of Wrigley Field?

lb. Are men and women motivated differently to tour Wrigley Field?

When asked about their decision to visit Wrigley Field, the motivational statement

that respondents agreed with the most was, "It was a chance to see something new and









different" (M = 4.50, SD = .74) (Table 4-1). This statement reflected the 'novelty'

motive that Crompton (1979) identified in his discussion of motivations to take pleasure

vacations. The second most important motive was, "It gave me a chance to share

something special with family/friends" (M = 4.48, SD = .82). This item was used to

express Crompton's idea of the 'enhancement of kinship relationships'. Respondents

also indicated that, "It will give me something to talk about when I get home" (M = 4.41,

SD = .78) was an important motive. Crompton's idea of 'prestige' was the basis of this

statement. Finally, respondents also agreed that, "It was a chance to spend time with

family/friends" (M = 4.15, SD = .99), which was used to represent Crompton's

'facilitation of social interaction'.

Table 4-1. Motivations of Participants to Tour Wrigley Field
Motivation Statements
N1 Mean2 SD
It was a chance to see something new and 347 4.50 .74
different
It gave me a chance to share something special 352 4.48 .82
with family/friends
It will give something unique to talk about 353 4.41 .78
when I get home
It was a chance to spend time with 351 4.15 .99
family/friends
It was a chance to relax 350 3.82 .96
It was an escape from routine 351 3.61 1.24
It took me back to my childhood 345 3.02 1.29
It was a chance to get to know myself better 346 2.30 1.14
'The number (N) may vary due to missing values or responses
2 Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Strongly disagree and 5 = Strongly agree

The only motivational statement that respondents disagreed with was, "It was a

chance to get to know myself better" (M = 2.30, SD = 1.14), which was based on

Crompton's 'exploration and evaluation of self motive. The statement used to address

the motive nostalgia ("It took me back to my childhood" (M = 3.02, SD = 1.29)) ranked









above only this item. So, although the tour participants were considered nostalgia sport

tourists for this study, nostalgia was not a primary motivation to take the tour. Individual

items are listed in Table 4-1 from highest to lowest mean.

An independent samples t-test was used to determine if there were any significant

differences in the motivations of males and females (Table 4-2). Men were more likely

to agree that the tour "took them back to their childhood" (t = 2.64, p < .01, df = 332).

On the other hand, females were more likely to agree that the tour gave them "a chance to

spend time with family/friends" (t = -3.13, p < .01, df = 338).

Table 4-2. Independent Samples t-test Results of Motivations by Gender
Motivation Statements Males Females


It was a chance to see


Mean'
4.46


something new and
different
It gave me a chance to 4.43
share something special
with family/friends
It will give something 4.40
unique to talk about when
I get home
It was a chance to spend 4.02
time with family/friends
It was a chance to relax 3.90
It was an escape from 3.61
routine
It took me back to my 3.18
childhood
It was a chance to get to 2.33
know myself better
'Measured using a Likert-type format where
aEqual variances not assumed
*p< .01


SD Mean'
.76 4.55


4.57


.77 4.40


1.02 4.37 .89

.85 3.70 1.06
1.17 3.58 1.35

1.27 2.80 1.26

1.11 2.25 1.16

1 = Strongly disagree and 5 =


.73 334


.72 339


.80 340


338

216.06a
232.62a

332

333

Strongly agree


t
-1.04


-1.47


-.02


-3.13*

1.80
.23

2.64*

.58


There were no other significant differences between the motives of males and

females, but women were more likely to agree that they came on the tour because it gave

them a "chance to share something special with family/friends" (M = 4.57, SD = .72).









More females than males also felt that "it was a chance to see something new and

different" (M = 4.55, SD = .73). On the other hand, males were more motivated by "a

chance to relax" (M = 3.90, SD = .85), "escape from routine" (M = 3.61, SD = 1.17) and

have the opportunity to "get to know themselves better" (M = 2.33, SD = 1.11). Males

and females were equally motivated to take the tour so that they would have "something

unique to talk about when they got home" (M = 4.40).

Several open-ended comments made by females regarding the primary purpose of

their trip support the statistically significant difference among men and women regarding

the importance of spending time with family and friends:

"husband and son are sports enthusiasts thought it would be interesting to learn
baseball trivia"
"accompany boyfriend for fun activity"
"father, sister and friend wanted to come"
"family outing"
"my husband is a HUGE Cubs fan"
"bring out the family"
"husband wanted to tour the field"
"dad wanted to see the field"
"for my husband and boys"
"husband and son wanted to tour Ijust went along"

The females who shared these comments ranged in age from 22-49 (M = 36.7) and came

in groups of between two and nine people (M = 4.11). A gender comparison of the

person who had the most influence on their decision to take the tour also supports these

statements. While only 12.5% (n = 27) of males said that a spouse or partner had the

most influence on their decision, 30.2% (n = 39) of females said they came on the tour

because of a significant other. On the other hand, 42.1% (n = 91) of males said that their

decision to come on the tour was 'personal', while only 19.4% (n = 25) of females

reported they decided to come on the tour for themselves.









Nostalgia as a Motivation

Research Question #2

2a. What items of the evoked nostalgia scale (NOST) were most associated with
taking a tour of Wrigley Field?

2b. Are there significant differences between gender and the feelings of nostalgia
generated by taking a tour of Wrigley Field?

2c. Is nostalgia a primary motive to tour Wrigley Field?

2d. Are there gender differences in the primacy of nostalgia when compared to the
other motivations?

The mean scores for the statements on the NOST scale used to measure nostalgia

ranged between 3.35 and 3.91 on a five point Likert-type scale (Table 4-3), indicating

that participants responded between 'neutral' and 'agree' for each item. The overall

mean of this scale was 3.64. Although there was not much variance among the means for

the items in the NOST scale, the two statements that people were more likely to agree

with were: "It made me feel nostalgic" (M = 3.91, SD = 1.10) and "It was a pleasant

reminder of the past" (M = 3.75, SD = 1.13). Respondents were more likely to disagree

that it "made them think about when they were younger" (M = 3.35, SD = 1.23), but this

mean was still above 'neutral' (i.e. a score of 3 on the Likert-type scale).

The 'compute variable' function in SPSS 11.0 was used to calculate the mean score

for the entire NOST scale. More specifically, the 'MEAN' function was used to enter

each item and derive a composite score. The composite mean NOST score and the

individual scale item means were then tested for gender differences. An independent

samples t-test showed that there was no significant difference between males and females

in relation to the overall NOST mean score (t = 1.74, df = 340). Although this difference









Table 4-3. Mean Scores of Evoked Nostalgia Scale (NOST) Items
Nostalgia Statements
N1 Mean2 SD
It made me feel nostalgic 352 3.91 1.10
It was a pleasant reminder of the past 350 3.75 1.13
It made me reminisce about a previous time 350 3.68 1.19
It reminded me of the past 352 3.67 1.12
It helped me recall pleasant memories 351 3.67 1.16
It evoked fond memories 349 3.64 1.14
It brought back memories of good times from 352 3.61 1.18
the past
It reminded me of good times in the past 350 3.60 1.14
It reminded me of the good old days 348 3.57 1.18
It made me think about when I was younger 351 3.35 1.23
'The number (N) may vary due to missing values or responses
2 Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Strongly disagree and 5 = Strongly agree

was not statistically significant, the mean for males (M = 3.73) was higher than the mean

for females (M = 3.55).

However, there were significant differences between males and females for two of

the individual items within the scale (Table 4-4). Males were more likely than females to

agree that the tour "reminded them of the past" (t = 2.93, p < .01. df= 339) and "helped

them recall pleasant memories" (t = 1.95, p < .05, df = 338). Although there were no

other statistically significant gender differences, males had the higher mean score for

every item in the scale.

A paired-samples t-test was also used to determine statistically significant (p < .05)

differences between the individual tourism motives and the mean score of the NOST

scale (Table 4-5). "It took me back to my childhood" was not used for this comparison

since this item was used to measure the same concept as the NOST scale. An exploratory

factor analysis with the ten items in the NOST scale and the additional 'nostalgia' item

from the motivation scale was run to confirm this relationship. The results indicated that

this item did in fact load into the same factor as those in the NOST scale.









Table 4-4. Independent Samples t-test Results of Evoked Nostalgia Scale Items by
Gender


Nostalgia Statements

It made me feel nostalgic
It was a pleasant reminder
of the past
It made me reminisce
about a previous time
It reminded me of the past
It helped me recall
pleasant memories
It evoked fond memories
It brought back memories
of good times from the
past
It reminded me of good
times in the past
It reminded me of the good
old days
It made me think about


when I was younger


Males


Mean'
3.99
3.84

3.78

3.82
3.78

3.69
3.66


3.69

3.67

3.47


'Measured using a Likert-type format where
aEqual variances not assumed
*p < .05; **p <.01


SD
1.06
1.06

1.15

1.06
1.11

1.10
1.13


1.09

1.16

1.18


Females
Mean' SD
3.80 1.09
3.64 1.17

3.58 1.20

3.46 1.14
3.53 1.18

3.61 1.16
3.57 1.22


3.52

3.47

3.21


1.15

1.13

1.26


1 = Strongly disagree and 5 = Strongly agree


When compared with the remaining seven motives, five of the items were

significantly more important motivators than nostalgia. These items included: "It gave

me a chance to share something special with family/friends" (t = 13.95, p < .001, df=

350), "It was a chance to see something new and different" (t = 13.12, p < .001, df=

345), "It will give me something unique to talk about when I get home" (t = 12.15, p <

.001, df = 352), "It was a chance to spend time with family/friends" (t = 7.32, p < .001, df

= 349) and "It was a chance to relax" (t = 2.91, p < .01, df = 348). The only significantly

weaker motive was "It was a chance to get to know myself better" (t = -19.56, p < .001,

df= 345).


df
339
239.90a

337

339
338

336
339


337

335

338


t
1.57
1.55

1.46

2.93**
1.95*

.61
.68


1.37

1.49

1.92









Even though nostalgia was not the main motive to travel to Wrigley Field, some

responses to the open-ended question about trip purpose did reveal the importance of

history in their decision to take the tour. When asked to list the primary purpose of their

visit to Wrigley Field, a content analysis revealed that 24.9% (n = 89) of the respondents

indicated it was for the historic, nostalgic or traditional value of the ballpark.

Table 4-5. Paired Samples t-test Results of Motivations by Mean Evoked Nostalgia Scale
Score
Motives1
Mean Mean SD df t
Difference
It was a chance to spend time 4.15 .50 1.29 349 7.32**
with family/friends
It was an escape from routine 3.61 -.03 1.45 350 -.42
It was a chance to get to know 2.30 -1.35 1.28 345 -19.56**
myself better
It was a chance to relax 3.82 .18 1.17 348 2.91*
It was a chance to see 4.50 .86 1.23 345 13.12**
something new and different
It will give me something 4.41 .76 1.17 352 12.15**
unique to talk about when I
get home
It gave me a chance to share 4.48 .83 1.12 350 13.95**
something special with
family/friends
'Each motive was paired with the mean NOST scale score (M = 3.64)
*p <.01; **p < .001

In order to determine if there were any gender differences in the primacy of

nostalgia when compared to the other motivations, another series of paired samples t-tests

was used. Cases were separated by gender using the 'select cases' function in SPSS and

individual paired t-tests were run on males and then females to see if there were any

variances in the significant differences.

The results of the paired t-tests for males revealed the same significant differences

between the motive items and the mean NOST score as the entire sample as discussed









above. In other words, five of the seven items were significantly stronger motives for

men than nostalgia and one item ("It was a chance to get to know myself better" (t = -

16.58, p < .001, df = 211)) was a significantly weaker motive (Table 4-6).

Table 4-6. Paired Samples t-test Results of Motivations by Mean Evoked Nostalgia Scale
Score by Gender
Motives1
Mean Mean SD df t
Difference
Males2
It was a chance to spend time 4.02 .29 1.26 213 3.35**
with family/friends
It was an escape from routine 3.61 -.12 1.33 213 -1.36
It was a chance to get to know 2.33 -1.41 1.24 211 -16.58**
myself better
It was a chance to relax 3.90 .16 1.13 213 2.08*
It was a chance to see 4.46 .73 1.20 212 8.88**
something new and different
It will give me something 4.40 .66 1.18 214 8.21**
unique to talk about when I
get home
It gave me a chance to share 4.43 .70 1.08 213 9.45**
something special with
family/friends

Females3
It was a chance to spend time 4.37 .83 1.22 124 7.63**
with family/friends
It was an escape from routine 3.58 .04 1.64 125 .27
It was a chance to get to know 2.25 -1.28 1.36 122 -10.41**
myself better
It was a chance to relax 3.70 .17 1.22 123 1.54
It was a chance to see 4.55 1.04 1.21 121 9.50**
something new and different
It will give me something 4.40 .85 1.08 126 8.95**
unique to talk about when I
get home
It gave me a chance to share 4.57 1.03 1.06 125 10.91**
something special with
family/friends
'Each motive was paired with the mean NOST scale score
2Mean NOST scale score for males = 3.73
3Mean NOST scale score for females = 3.55
*p< .05; **p <.001









However, only four of the seven items were significantly stronger motives than

nostalgia for women. Unlike the overall sample and the male sub-sample, females did

not feel that "It was a chance to relax" (t = 1.54, df = 123) was a significantly more

important motive than nostalgia. The remainder of the significant differences was the

same for males and females as shown in Table 4-6.

Behavioral Consumer Role Socialization While Growing Up

Research Question #3

3a. What aspects of behavioral consumer role socialization are associated with
nostalgia sport tourists?

3b. Are there significant differences between the behavioral consumer role
socialization of male and female nostalgia sport tourists?

The two aspects of behavioral consumer role socialization that were most

associated with the nostalgia sport tourists in this study were "watching sports on TV" (M

= 4.22, SD = 1.02) and "attending sports events" (M = 4.19, SD = .98) while growing up

(Table 4-7). The aspect of behavioral consumer role socialization least associated with

the nostalgia sport tourists was, "I visited a Hall of Fame or sport museum" (M = 2.29,

SD = 1.39). The composite mean score for this scale for the entire sample was 3.68.

The mean score of the entire behavioral consumer role socialization was calculated

using the 'compute variable' function in SPSS 11.0 as described previously. Levene's

test for equality of variances was significant (F = 10.96, p < .001) so the null hypothesis

was rejected and equal variances were not assumed for this t-test. Results of an

independent samples t-test showed a large significant difference (t = 9.90, p < .001, df=

227.99) between males and females. The mean score for males (M = 4.05) was much

higher than that of females (M = 3.09), which means they participated in the activities









Table 4-7. Mean Scores of Behavior Consumer Role Socialization Items
Behavioral Socialization Statements
N1 Mean2 SD
I watched sports on TV 355 4.22 1.02
I attended sports events (eg. high school, 356 4.19 .98
college, professional, etc.)
I discussed sports with others 356 3.95 1.21
I played organized sport (team, league, etc.) 357 3.83 1.38
I read about sports (eg. newspaper, magazines, 357 3.81 1.30
books, etc.)
I played pick-up games 352 3.72 1.43
I listened to sports on the radio 356 3.70 1.31
I collected sports memorabilia (eg. player's 357 3.38 1.42
cards, hats, jerseys, etc.)
I visited a Hall of Fame or sport museum 356 2.29 1.39
'The number (N) may vary due to missing values or responses
2 Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Never and 5 = Frequently

associated with behavioral consumer role socialization more frequently than females

while growing up.

A comparison of individual items also showed that there were significant

differences between males and females for eight of the nine items (Table 4-8). The only

mean that was not significantly different was, "I attended sports events" (t = 1.11, df =

343). The means for males were significantly higher than females while growing up for

the remainder of the items as listed: "I watched sports on TV" (t = 6.08, p < .001. df=

206.15), "I discussed sports with others" (t = 8.93, p < .001, df = 203.11), "I played

organized sport" (t = 6.59. p < .001, df = 204.04), "I read about sports" (t = 9.36, p <

.001, df = 222.75), "I played pick-up games" (t = 9.50, p < .001, df = 198.22), "I listened

to sports on the radio" (t = 7.23, p < .001, df = 219.93), "I collected sports memorabilia"

(t = 9.17, p < .001. df = 247.02) and "I visited a Hall of Fame or sport museum" (t = 4.22,

p <.001, df= 319.30).









Table 4-8. Independent Samples t-test Results of Behavioral Consumer Role
Socialization by Gender
Behavioral Socialization Males Females
Statements
Mean' SD Mean' SD df t
I watched sports on TV 4.50 .83 3.79 1.15 206.15a 6.08*
I attended sports events 4.23 .94 4.11 1.11 343 1.11
(eg. high school, college,
professional, etc.)
I discussed sports with 4.40 .91 3.25 1.28 203.11a 8.93*
others
I played organized sport 4.22 1.10 3.19 1.56 204.04a 6.59*
(team, league, etc.)
I read about sports (eg. 4.29 1.03 3.04 1.30 222.75a 9.36*
newspaper, magazines,
books, etc.)
I played pick-up games 4.27 1.06 2.83 1.49 198.22a 9.50*
I listened to sports on the 4.09 1.09 3.05 1.40 219.93a 7.23*
radio
I collected sports 3.88 1.21 2.56 1.35 247.02a 9.17*
memorabilia (eg. player's
cards, hats, jerseys, etc.)
I visited a Hall of Fame or 2.53 1.47 1.94 1.14 319.30a 4.22*
sport museum


'Measured using a Likert-type format where
aEqual variances not assumed
*p<.001


1 = Never and 5 = Frequently


Role Model Socialization While Growing Up

Research Question #4

4a. What aspects of role model socialization are associated with nostalgia sport
tourists?


4b. Are there significant differences between the role model socialization of male and
female nostalgia sport tourists?

In order to determine the nostalgia sport tourists' degree of role model socialization

while growing up, respondents were first asked to identify the person or people who they

considered to be the most influential in their introduction to sport in general. Some

respondents did not feel that there was a particular individual who was more influential,









so these people did not answer this group of questions. Therefore, the sample size for

these items was slightly lower than the other scales, but still suitable for analysis (N=

304- 311).

The aspects of role model socialization that had the highest means were all related

to the past behavior of the role model as shown in Table 4-9. These items include:

"He/she had a favorite sports team" (M = 4.24, SD = .85), "He/she had a favorite sport"

(M = 4.21, SD = .80) and "He/she talked about and/or watched sports frequently" (M =

4.06, SD = .93). Respondents did not 'disagree' with any of the statements, but "because

of him or her I have a favorite player" (M = 3.16, SD = 1.05) had the lowest mean of the

items used to measure role model socialization. The composite mean score for the entire

scale was 3.82.

Table 4-9. Mean Scores of Role Model Socialization Items
Role Model Socialization Statements
N1 Mean2 SD
He/she had a favorite sports team 309 4.24 .85
He/she had a favorite sport 311 4.21 .80
He/she talked about and/or watched sports 307 4.06 .93
frequently
I owe my interest in sport to him/her 309 3.90 1.00
He/she encouraged me to play sports 304 3.84 1.13
He/she used to take me to sporting events 304 3.83 1.12
He/she used to watch me play sports 304 3.82 1.22
He/she got very emotional when watching 308 3.82 1.08
sports (cheered, yelled, "booed", applauded...)
Because of him/her I have a favorite sport 310 3.75 1.04
He/she had a favorite player 304 3.66 1.01
Because of him/her I follow the same team 309 3.55 1.25
Because of him/her I have a favorite player 307 3.16 1.05
'The number (N) may vary due to missing values or responses and not all participants identified a
role model
2 Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Strongly disagree and 5 = Strongly agree

There was no significant difference (t = .30, df = 303) between males and females

in regard to the composite mean score for the role model socialization. However, an









exploratory factor analysis revealed that this scale contained two constructs: "Passive

Sport Involvement" and "Active Sport Involvement" (see Chapter 3).

An independent samples t-test revealed a significant difference (t = 3.24, p < .001,

df = 195.18) between the "Active Sport Involvement" mean of males and females.

Levene's test for equality of variances was significant (F = 9.99, p < .01) so the null

hypothesis was rejected and equal variances were not assumed for this t-test. The mean

score for males (M = 3.97) was higher than the mean score for females (M = 3.57), which

indicates that males were more likely to have had a role model who encouraged their

active involvement in sport. In contrast, females had a higher mean score (M = 3.92)

than males (M = 3.84) on "Passive Sport Involvement", which indicates that while

growing up they received more encouragement in this domain.

The role model socialization items were also analyzed individually to determine

more specific significant differences between males and females. The results of an

independent samples t-test suggested that men and women differ significantly on four of

the 12 items (Table 4-10). Females were more likely to report that the role model they

identified had a favorite sport (t = -2.95, p < .01, df = 303) and that because of him/her

they now follow the same team as their role model did (t = -2.44, p < .05, df = 301). On

the other hand, males were more likely to say that their role model encouraged them to

play sports (t = 4.38, p < .001, df = 172.51) and also came to watch them play sports (t =

3.11, p < .001. df = 183.59). These results support those of the factor scores, which

revealed that women were more likely to be socialized into passive in sport involvement

compared with males who received more encouragement to be actively engaged in sport.










Table 4-10. Independent Samples t-test Results of Role Model Socialization by Gender
Role Model Socialization Males Females
Statements


He/she had a favorite sports
team
He/she had a favorite sport
He/she talked about and/or
watched sports frequently
I owe my interest in sport
to him/her
He/she encouraged me to
play sports
He/she used to take me to
sporting events
He/she used to watch me
play sports
He/she got very emotional
when watching sports
(cheered, yelled, "booed",
applaud.d...)
Because of him/her I have
a favorite sport
He/she had a favorite
player
Because of him/her I
follow the same team
Because of him/her I have
a favorite player


Mean'
4.20

4.12
4.03

3.89

4.07

3.86

3.99

3.77


3.78

3.68

3.41

3.17


'Measured using a Likert-type format where
aEqual variances not assumed
*p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001


SD
.83

.82
.87

.97

.92

1.08

1.06

1.06


.97

.98

1.26

1.03


Mean'
4.33

4.39
4.12

3.92

3.44

3.77

3.51

3.93



3.70

3.65

3.77

3.12


.88

.73
1.02

1.07

1.33

1.20

1.41

1.08



1.14

1.04

1.22

1.07


1 = Strongly Disagree and 5 =


df
302

303
300

302

172.51a

298

183.59a

301



208.77a

297

301

300

Strongly Agree


When asked to share the primary purpose of their trip, some of the open-ended

responses also reflected the concept of role model socialization and the desire of the

nostalgia sport tourists in this study to pass on a piece of history to future generations.

The following statements illustrate this point and are responses to the question, "What is

the primary purpose of your visit to Wrigley Field?":

"bring the kids to see some history"
"culture and have my daughter appreciate history"
"enjoy tour with grandson"


t
-1.34

-2.95**
-.80

-.27

4.38***

.64

3.11***

-1.28



.60

.26

-2.44*

.44









"my boys and I enjoy touring baseball parks"
"so my grandchildren can see it"
"to bring kids and wife to the park where I came as a kid"
"to share some baseball history with my sons"
"to show my 14-yr old nephew"
"take my son on the tour of Wrigley"
"a visit to Wrigley Field with grandchildren"

The nostalgia sport tourists who shared these comments were males and females who

ranged in age from 35-63 (M = 47.8) and had between one and four children with them.

Cognitive Consumer Role Socialization While Growing Up

Research Question # 5

5a. What aspects of cognitive consumer role socialization are associated with
nostalgia sport tourists?

5b. Are there significant differences between the cognitive consumer role
socialization of male and female nostalgia sport tourists?

Respondents reported that while growing up, they were "taught about the rules and

strategies of one or more sports" (M = 4.21, SD = .90) and they "followed the progress of

teams in one or more sports" (M = 4.14, SD = 1.03). The least important aspect of

cognitive consumer role socialization among these participants was: "I kept track of

player's statistics in one or more sports" (M = 3.35, SD = 1.32). Table 4-11 shows the

means and standard deviations for each of the five items in the scale. The composite

mean score for all of the items combined in this scale was 3.87.

An independent samples t-test revealed that men and women differed significantly

in their overall level of cognitive consumer role socialization (t = 8.38, p < .001, df =

191.92 (equal variances not assumed)). Specifically, the composite mean score for this

scale was used to compare gender, and males reported that they had a high level of sport-









Table 4-11. Mean Scores of Cognitive Consumer Role Socialization Items
Cognitive Consumer Role
Socialization Statements
N1 Mean2 SD
I was taught about the rules and strategies of 339 4.21 .90
one or more sports
I followed the progress of teams in one or more 338 4.14 1.03
sports
I knew what teams were in each league for one 336 3.92 1.25
or more sports
I knew the players on the roster for one or more 337 3.75 1.27
teams
I kept track of player's statistics in one or more 337 3.35 1.32
sports
'The number (N) may vary due to missing values or responses
2 Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Strongly disagree and 5 = Strongly agree

related knowledge (M = 4.21) growing up, while females reported knowing less (M =

3.23) than the males about sport as a child.

A comparison of the individual items in the cognitive consumer role model

socialization scale revealed that males had significantly higher means than females for

each of the five items used to measure cognitive consumer role socialization (Table 4-

12). These five items included: "I was taught about the rules and strategies of one or

more sports" (t = 3.88, p < .001, df = 180.49), "I followed the progress of teams in one or

more sports" (t = 5.53, p < .001, df = 176.10), "I knew what teams were in each league

for one or more sports" (t = 8.62, p < .001, df = 175.89), "I knew the players on the roster

for one or more teams" (t = 7.68, p < .001, df = 201.23) and "I kept track of player's

statistics in one or more sports" (t = 9.65, p < .001, df = 328).

Summary

These results provide an interesting insight into the motivations and socialization

patterns of nostalgia sport tourists. Although nostalgia was not a primary









Table 4-12. Independent Samples t-test Results of Cognitive Consumer Role
Socialization by Gender
Cognitive Consumer Males Females
Role Socialization
Statements
Mean' SD Mean' SD df t
I was taught about the 4.36 .73 121 3.93 180.49a 3.88*
rules and strategies of one
or more sports
I followed the progress of 4.39 .80 120 3.69 176.10a 5.53*
teams in one or more
sports
I knew what teams were in 4.35 .90 119 3.13 175.89a 8.62*
each league for one or
more sports
I knew the players on the 4.12 1.05 120 3.09 201.23a 7.68*
roster for one or more
teams
I kept track of player's 3.82 1.11 119 2.54 328 9.65*
statistics in one or more
sports
'Measured using a Likert-type format where 1 = Strongly Disagree and 5 = Strongly Agree
aEqual variances not assumed
*p<.001

motivation of respondents to travel to Wrigley Field for a ballpark tour, analysis of the

NOST scale and open-ended responses about trip purpose revealed that feelings of

nostalgia were evoked by the visit. The socialization scales were used to determine the

relationship between consumer role socialization and nostalgia sport tourism and reveal

that these sport tourists were socialized into various aspects of sport while growing up.

Overall, the research questions addressed in this chapter have been used to develop a

general understanding of why people decide to travel to nostalgic sport places and how

their past might influence this decision.
















CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between socialization

into and through sport and participation in nostalgia sport tourism. Gender differences in

motivations, feelings of nostalgia and consumer role socialization were also explored.

Based on the history of Wrigley Field and the focus of the ballpark tours offered, tourists

who traveled to take a tour of this venue were considered to be nostalgia sport tourists.

This chapter will discuss the findings of this study as they relate to the profile of these

nostalgia sport tourists, their motivations, including nostalgia, and their socialization into

sport.

Socialization

Socialization is a process that evolves over a person's life, making it a difficult

concept to study and measure. As the symbolic interactionist perspective points out,

people are also capable of interpreting or 'defining' each other's actions rather than just

reacting to another person's actions (Blumer, 1978). This means that it is impossible to

say that if a person is socialized heavily into sport, he or she will always participate in

sport later in life. However, research supports the contention that childhood play does

influence future leisure and recreation behavior (Giuliano et al., 2000; Iso-Ahola, 1980).

In fact, James (2001) demonstrated that children form preferences for sports teams early

in life and they are capable of forming a commitment to a sports team as young as age

five.









Using the dimensions of consumer role socialization identified by McPherson

(1972), three socialization scales were developed to measure this complex concept. The

purpose of these socialization scales was to determine if there was a relationship and to

what degree the nostalgia sport tourists were socialized into sport while growing up so

that inferences could be drawn about the effect of socialization on nostalgia sport

tourism. The results show that the participants reported a higher degree of socialization

into passive rather than active sport consumption. The highest composite score for the

consumer role socialization scales was cognitive consumer role socialization, followed by

passive sport involvement, active sport involvement and behavioral consumer role

socialization. In other words, participants were more likely to learn about sports or have

a role model who was ego or emotionally involved in sports while growing up than they

were to actively participate in sport as a child. This makes sense because the tour was

focused on the history and background of the ballpark and not on participation in sport.

The participants in this study were typically well educated and many people even

reported that the main reason they came on the tour was to 'learn'. The positive

influence of pleasure vacations on the education of children was also reported as a

motivation for parents by Crompton (1979, 1981) and in some cases even reported as the

main consideration in destination selection, so it is not surprising that this theme

emerged. Passive involvement in sport also reflects the capacity in which the majority of

society, particularly in the United States, is involved in sport. For example, it is reported

that overall active participation rates in sport decline after childhood (Malina, 1996;

McPherson et al., 1989; "Participation U.S. Research Menu: Total Participation By Age

Group, By Sport", n.d.) and more people often turn to passive sport consumption (i.e.









watching sports on television, becoming a spectator at sports events) (McPherson et al.,

1989).

Perhaps there would have been more evidence of socialization into active sport

involvement if the data had been collected at a fantasy camp or at a nostalgia sport

tourism event where active participation was the focus. In fact, in his discussion of a

fantasy baseball camp with an assortment of players from the 1969 Cubs, Roy Blount, Jr.

(1985) talked about his and other 'old boys' over the age of thirty-five living out their

childhood baseball dreams to play Major League Baseball.

The gender differences found in this study support the contention that

socialization has some effect on nostalgia sport tourism. Overall, males reported

significantly higher levels of behavioral consumer role socialization, cognitive consumer

role socialization and active sport involvement than females. The only domain of

socialization which females reported a higher level in was passive sport involvement.

These results are supported by other studies that have found men more likely to be

socialized into sport to a higher degree than women (Gantz & Wenner, 1991) and are

more likely to consider it a part of their identity (Adler et al., 1992; Dietz-Uhler et al.,

2000). Dietz-Uhler et al. also found a similar gender difference between active and

passive sport involvement, as well as behavioral and cognitive socialization.

Specifically, women reported that they considered themselves a fan because they

attended games, cheered for their team and enjoyed watching sports with their friends and

family, while males reported being a fan because they personally played sports, liked

sports in general and enjoyed learning about sports.









The ratio of males to females who participated in this study alone reveals that

socialization might have an effect on a person's desire to participate in nostalgia sport

tourism. In other words, the sample consisted of a higher percentage of males than

females. Although this could have been simply because more males volunteered to take

part in the study, in actuality this sample seems to be representative of the actual tour

group composition based on the researcher's observation. While the highest percentage

of participants felt that their decision to come on the tour was a personal one, several of

the females who responded were more likely than males to report that they came on the

trip because their spouse or partner wanted to come and not to fulfill personal goals or

desires. Again, this goes back to the higher level of importance and emphasis placed on

relationships and family in the socialization of females into sport (Iso-Ahola, 1980;

McPherson, 1983) and in their reasons for taking vacations (Crompton, 1981).

It is through socialization that the knowledge, values and norms that lead to the

development of social roles, including those related to sport and leisure participation, are

developed (McPherson et al., 1989). Over time, a person attaches their own personal

meaning to the knowledge, values and norms that have been passed on to them and they

act toward this based on the meanings that these things (sports, baseball, Wrigley Field,

etc.) have for them (Blumer, 1969). As Wilson (1999) suggests, it is sometimes

necessary to actively reconstruct this past in order to reminisce about a personal past,

more vividly recall historical events that have occurred during one's life or even to better

understand history that one was not yet born to witness. This might involve travel to a

personally 'sacred' site for some individuals. People from as far away as Australia, New

Zealand and Puerto Rico journeyed to Wrigley Field, but many of the participants









traveled within 51-100 miles. Davis suggests the pilgimmage to somewhere that evokes

feeling of nostalgia may be one of the most effective ways to construct, maintain and

even reconstruct our identity (Davis, 1979). This illustrates the link between symbolic

interaction, socialization and nostalgia and offers support for the findings of this study.

Due to the interpretive nature of socialization (Blumer, 1969), it is impossible to

say that it did or did not have a critical effect on each individual's decision to travel to

Wrigley Field. However, it is evident that socialization played a key role in the meaning

that the nostalgia sport tourists attached to their experience and was an important part of

the nostalgic feelings that the tour brought about.

Motivations and Nostalgia

Tourists who travel to historical venues and halls of fame are called 'nostalgia sport

tourists' (Gibson, 1998a, 1998b, 1998c; Redmond, 1991), but there is little empirical

evidence to suggest that nostalgia is actually a motivation to participate in this form of

tourism. This study sought to determine if nostalgia was indeed the major factor in a

person's desire to travel to Wrigley Field for a tour, or if more general motivations for

pleasure vacations such as those presented by Crompton (1979) were more important.

The results indicated that nostalgia was not in fact the main factor in people's

decision to come on a tour of Wrigley Field. The following motivations for pleasure

vacation identified by Crompton were all significantly more important motives:

'novelty', 'enhancement of kinship relationships', 'prestige', 'facilitation of social'

interaction' and 'relaxation'. The number one motive reported by participants was

novelty, which is consistent with previous studies that have reported novelty seeking as a

key motive in pleasure vacations (Cohen, 1974; Cohen, 1979; Crompton, 1979; Dann,

1981; Dimanche & Havitz, 1994; Goossens, 2000). In fact, Cohen (1974) even









recognized the importance of novelty in the following definition of tourist he proposed:

"A 'tourist' is a voluntary, temporary traveler, traveling in the expectation of pleasure

from the novelty and change experienced..." (p. 533).

Although it was not a primary motive of these tourists, this does not discount the

importance of the nostalgic and historic aspect of the experience. In fact, nearly a quarter

of the participants said that the main purpose of their visit to Wrigley Field was because

of its historic, traditional and nostalgic features. The responses to the open-ended

questions revealed the personal meanings they attached to the experience. Males in their

twenties in particular provided many comments that demonstrate the nostalgia associated

with their visit. It is possible that some of the younger males in this study who reported

feelings of nostalgia had recently completed their competitive baseball careers and the

memories of those days were still fresh in their minds. Interestingly, of those adults who

responded to the questionnaire, few of them (less than 15%) were even over 56 years old.

While one might think that these younger people are not old enough to reflect upon

their past, Gammon (2002) pointed out that nostalgia is no longer reserved for the middle

aged and beyond. Recent monumental developments in technology and terrorist attacks

have abruptly changed society and have even young people reminiscing about a

'different' time. Davis (1979) suggested that historical discontinuities and transitions like

war, depression and natural catastrophes promote a nostalgic perspective that could serve

to minimize the jolts of rapid historical change. During such uncertain, hectic times,

Wilson (1999) theorized that the exercise of nostalgia might serve as forced downtime or

a chance to escape and/or relax. This might provide some insight into why the









motivation statements related to 'relaxation', 'escape' and 'nostalgia' in this study ranked

so closely to one another as motives to travel to Wrigley Field for a ballpark tour.

The tourism industry has taken advantage of this expanded market yearning for the

past by targeting this group through advertising and in some cases even spending large

sums of money on renovations to recreate a nostalgic atmosphere (Dann, 1994).

Fortunately, Wrigley Field does not need to spend large amounts of money to

'reconstruct' the past, but they do make reference to 'historic Wrigley Field' and

advertise ballpark tours that offer an 'insider's look at over 90 years of history in a

legendary ballpark' ("Wrigley Field Tours", n.d.). Recent trends in the entertainment

industry also reflect the increase in people's desire to revisit things such as music and

sport from different eras. Entire 'classic' channels show re-runs of time-honored sports

events and allow even people who might not have been alive for games to see them

broadcast as they happened (Gammon, 2002). Consumer literature has shown that the

use of nostalgia can have a positive effect on brand image and willingness to purchase

(Pascal et al., 2002), but findings also suggest that nostalgia might also be a difficult

reaction for marketers to predict (Holak & Havlena, 1998).

In other comments, the nostalgic appeal of the tour was apparent both in reliving

earlier memories for themselves or in sharing them with friends and family, particularly

children and grandchildren. There were many young children on the tour, but only

participants over the age of 18 were asked to participate. One of the primary assumptions

inherent in symbolic interactionism is that meanings are constructed and shared among

individuals (Blumer, 1969). Certainly, in this study affiliation needs were reported as

important reasons for taking the trip. Less than 6% of the participants came alone on the









tour, and all others were in groups. However, a closer examination of the NOST scale

and the open-ended responses revealed that for men in particular, there was a sense of

pilgrimage (Bale, 1989) associated with visiting Wrigley Field as well as the need to

share this experience with family and friends. Sharing special places that have special

meaning is consistent with studies about Cooperstown, home of the National Baseball

Hall of Fame, where a large proportion of visitors are fathers and grandfathers sharing the

nostalgia of the sport with their sons and grandsons (Newman, 2001; Snyder, 1991).

Even though many of the participants may have just been tourists to Chicago who

decided to go on a ballpark tour because Wrigley Field is viewed as a landmark in the

city, the link between nostalgia and Wrigley cannot be ignored. So although the motives

of these tourists were found to be similar to those who go on pleasure vacations in

general, there is a deeper meaning associated with certain nostalgic destinations such as

Wrigley Field that separates them from other cultural or heritage tourist attractions.

Therefore, even though the results of this study indicate that nostalgia might not be as

important as a motive as originally thought, it was an important part of the experience for

many of the people who took the tour and nostalgia should not be disregarded as a

potential motive underlying visits to sports themed locations.

The gender differences found in the motivations are also consistent with the

literature and possibly reflect the effect of socialization on nostalgia sport tourists.

Females were significantly more likely than males to report that the tour was a chance to

spend time with family and friends. This is related to general gender patterns in tourism

and leisure in which women are more relationship-oriented and place more emphasis on

the family than men in their travel choices (Crompton, 1981; Davidson, 1996; Giuliano et









al., 2000; Iso-Ahola, 1980; McGehee et al., 1996). This finding is also consistent with

the results of Dietz-Uhler et al.'s (2000) study of male and female college student fans, in

which females were more likely to report being a sport fan for 'social' reasons, such as

watching and spending time with friends and family.

Males on the other hand, were more likely to report that the tour took them back to

their childhood. Although the difference in the overall NOST scale was not significant,

males also reported that the tour made them feel more nostalgic than females. This may

be in part due to the fact that males in this study had been socialized into sport more

extensively than females. According to symbolic interactionism, the meanings of things

(such as a tour of Wrigley Field) emerge through social interaction over the life course

(Blumer, 1969; Fine, 1986). Therefore, males might have felt a stronger symbolic

connection to the things they experienced during the tour than the females due to their

higher level of socialization into and through sport (Adler et al., 1992; Frey & Eitzen,

1991; McPherson, 1983). However, symbolic interactionism also recognizes that these

'meanings' are not static but are modified through an interpretive process (Blumer,

1969). This might help to explain why the difference between the mean NOST scale

scores was not significant among men and women. Perhaps some of the females may

have been increasingly exposed to sport as they interacted with people outside of their

immediate family and as a result could have developed more meaning and a stronger

affiliation for sport than they reported during their childhood (Gibson, Willming &

Holdnak, 2002).

The researcher also made observations that indicated the tour participants attached

special meanings to some of the objects or 'symbols' encountered during their experience









at Wrigley Field. Following the tour, fathers and sons put on their gloves and played

catch on the infield dirt. This supports Snyder's (1991) finding that visits to

Cooperstown were a special bonding time for fathers and sons. Families gathered and

asked the tour guide to take a picture with the scoreboard and ivy covered walls in the

background. One group expressed that there were four generations of family in the

picture. This is similar to findings in the mainstream tourism literature where the

importance of taking family photographs for future reminiscence about the vacation has

been discussed (Redfoot, 1984; Urry, 1990) as a significant part of the immediate tourism

experience.

Tour participants who were lucky enough to be allowed on the outfield grass

were told numerous times that they were not to go past the warning track to keep them

from trying to take an ivy leaf home with them. Even as they were being warned about

this while sitting in the 'bleachers', several tour members leaned down over the wall in

the bleachers and tried to reach even a leaf of the plants to take home for a keepsake.

Some just settled for putting a handful of dirt in their pocket as they walked off the field.

This is analogous to the fan who took the brick home from Comiskey Park to remember

his father when it was going to be torn down (Trujillo & Krizek, 1994). It is also

suggestive of sign value in leisure consumer behavior, which poses that there is a

symbolic nature to leisure purchases (Dimanche & Samdahl, 1994), such as souvenirs,

and that the consumer controls a substantial amount of the symbolic meaning attributed

to that object (Hirschman, 1986).

Implications

Because there is still very little known about the demographics and background of

nostalgia sport tourists, this study provides a good overview of this potentially









marketable group. In a time particularly ridden with uncertainty, change and instability,

many people are looking to escape back to a childhood that seemed simpler and less

intimidating (Davis, 1979). Nostalgia sport tourism has the chance to offer the escape to

the 'past' that people are looking for and can do so in various ways.

For example, this study offers hope for authentically nostalgic venues that might be

able to attract visitors based on historic value alone. While recreations of the past have

been successful at marketing a nostalgic feel (Gammon, 2002), some individuals are not

satisfied with this 'staged authenticity' and seek out a more realistic traditional

experience (MacCannell, 1976; Redfoot, 1984). Without investing large sums of money

to recreate the past as many businesses have done, these venues have the potential to

create revenue, but also offer nostalgic experiences at an affordable price.

The venue chosen for this study provides a good example of how this might be

possible. The tour guides for Wrigley Field were all volunteers so this kept prices at a

reasonable $15, which was actually used to fund a charity known as Cubs Care. The

participants in this study reported diverse levels of annual household income, which

indicates the tours were not limited to only those families with high incomes even though

over a quarter of them reported annual household incomes greater than $100,000.

Volunteers to lead tours can be enticed with preferred seating or other benefits that do not

cost the organization anything, but make it worthwhile for them to dedicate their time.

Even though the money from the tours did not go directly to the Cubs budget, it was

probably more valuable in terms of portraying a positive image of Wrigley Field and

creating a more intimate feeling of attachment for those who took the tour. This is

similar to the finding that people show a stronger place attachment to places where they









have had a previous positive experience (Williams, Patterson, Roggenbuck & Watson,

1992).

Providing ballpark tours could also be a good idea for venues that do not

necessarily have the historical background like Wrigley Field and have trouble attracting

crowds to support their team. A place does not have to be old for people to feel nostalgic

about it, so sport marketers might want to consider placing more emphasis on promoting

ballpark tours to families. Certainly, there is evidence of interest among baseball fans to

tour newer ballparks such as Coors Field, home of the Colorado Rockies, which was built

in 1995 and hosts a team that has only been in Major League Baseball since 1993 ("Coors

Field Tours", n.d.). While baseball has only been played in the Cincinnati Red's Great

American Ballpark for one year, people also travel to tour the facility ("Great American

Ballpark Tours", n.d.) and observe the intimacy and a sense of history that the architect

tried to incorporate into the design at the request of fans (Erardi, 2003).

During these tours, it might also be beneficial to offer children special privileges

that would make the experience more memorable to build upon the socialization and

symbolic connection to the ballpark (Williams et al., 1992). In fact, research on various

entertainment products has revealed that a consumer's early experience plays a

significant role in forming lifelong attachments and determining brand favorites

(Schindler & Holbrook, 2003). So, this could not only give the parents a good

impression of the venue, but might also lay a potential foundation for the future

generation of paying supporters. The findings of Pascal et al. (2002) support that

advertisements evoking nostalgic feelings are capable of creating more favorable









perceptions of an advertisement and advertised brand resulting in a higher likelihood of

purchase.

Recommendations for Further Research

One of the goals of this study was to contribute to the limited empirical

understanding of nostalgia sport tourism in the academic literature. Because the focus of

this study was on those people who had traveled outside of their home community to take

a Wrigley Field tour, only the tourists or non-residents of Chicago were analyzed in this

study. However, the researcher did not screen out residents or metro-Chicago when

conducting the survey so that they can be used for future analysis. It is suggested that

comparisons be made between the tourists and residents using this data. Information

regarding current sport participation was also collected so a comparison of past and

current sport behavior could also be made and might shed further understanding of the

relationship between active and passive sport consumption and participation in nostalgia

sport tourism.

Another future analysis of these data could break down the 'purpose of the trip'

by nostalgia and other motivations. A comparison of the nostalgia and motivations of

those people who said that sport or "visiting Wrigley Field" was the primary purpose of

their trip to Chicago might differ from those people who reported that their primary

purpose was something other than sport such as "vacation", "visiting friends/family",

"business", "convention", etc. This might reveal a difference between 'sport tourism'

and 'tourism sport' or between those tourists who journey to a sport venue specifically to

see and experience that place and those who are just traveling and decide to take a tour or

participate in sport as a side trip (Gammon & Robinson, 2003).









It is especially recommended that this study be replicated at other baseball

ballpark tours across the country and even internationally to determine if the age or

setting of the venue has an impact on the motivations of people who travel to take a

stadium tour. For example, the motivations (including nostalgia) and socialization of

tourists who traveled to an old stadium such as Wrigley Field could be compared to those

people who traveled to a more modern stadium like the Astrodome in Houston, Texas.

This might provide researchers with a better idea as to what brings about feelings of

nostalgia. Is it the history and aura of the stadium that evokes these feelings or can a

person feel nostalgic about a place based on personal experience and memories they

associate with a place? Fairley (2003) found that the feelings of nostalgia people

experienced were more associated with social interaction, so this suggests that special

nostalgic meanings might not only be attached to physical locations, but to social

groupings as well. Redfoot (1984) and Gammon (2002) suggest the search for

'authentic' nostalgic experiences are rooted deep in society and may become more

prominent in our fast-paced, technologically driven society. Certainly, Dann (1994)

documents the growth of the use of nostalgia in mainstream tourism marketing and

development.

A similar questionnaire could be implemented to study venues for other sports

such as football, basketball and hockey. This would allow researchers to determine if the

type of sport has any influence on the motivations and socialization of the tourists that

travel to participate in tours of these stadiums. For example, is nostalgia associated more

with baseball than other sports? Brandmeyer and Alexander (1986) suggest that baseball

has been surpassed as the "nation's pastime" by football as baseball is more reminiscent









of an earlier era when the pace of society in the United States was slower, more people

worked or lived in rural areas and there was a heightened sense of community. In

contrast, football is a better reflection of today's high paced technologically driven

society. As a result, nostalgia for a previous era might be more heightened with regards to

baseball than other sports. Thus, studies of the stadium tours of other sports would be one

way of expanding this present study. In addition, studies of other 'nostalgia sport' venues

of such as halls of fame, fantasy camps, and so forth is recommended to probe more

deeply into this idea of nostalgia for both baseball and other sports.

Although this study did not discuss place attachment as a theoretical framework, a

connection between nostalgia, history and place attachment emerged throughout the

discussion of the results. Despite the differences among these concepts, they can be

linked together through socialization. For example, the nostalgic feelings a person

develops for a certain place might be based on its history. The historic value of a place,

which might be specific to a certain person or a part of society as a whole, is passed down

through generations via socialization and can create special meaning for individuals.

This might also help in understanding how the nostalgia associated with a particular place

is passed on over time and may serve as a link in explaining how meanings are developed

for a place like Wrigley Field over the life course. So, although place attachment has

been more commonly used as a framework in outdoor recreation studies (Bricker &

Kerstetter, 2000, 2002; Kyle, Absher & Graefe, 2003; Moore & Graefe, 1994), it might

serve as a good foundation for the study of nostalgia sport tourists and should be

considered as a better understanding of nostalgia sport tourists is pursued. Certainly,









referring to a similar concept, Bale (1989) writes of the place identity associated with

sports venues around the world.

Finally, a qualitative study involving nostalgia sport tourists, such as Fairley's

(2003) study of a group of traveling Australian Football League fans, could also provide

a more in depth understanding of the patterns evident in the quantitative data collected in

this study. The open-ended responses in this study suggested nostalgia was an important

part of their trip, so personal interviews of ballpark tour participants could also provide a

more in-depth understanding of an individual's nostalgia and socialization into and

through sport.

Limitations

There were several limitations of this study. There was some evidence of

participant fatigue or respondents experiencing difficulty in understanding the wording of

some of the questions. This may have been a result of the length of the questionnaire or

the nature of the questions. This was controlled for as much as possible by the wording

and pre-coding of responses to enhance the ease of filling out the questionnaire. The

person administering the questionnaire was also present at the time of the survey to

answer any questions.

Another limitation of this study involved the section of the questionnaire that

asked people to recall past experiences in order to gather information about socialization.

Whenever asking a person to recall earlier events there is always the possibility of a

memory lapse that might result in an inaccurate recollection of the past. Although a

longitudinal design might be more accurate in the depiction the complete process of

socialization, this was the beyond the scope of this study.









Delimitations

The primary delimitation of this study was that only those individuals who took a

tour on the three specified tour dates were eligible to participate in the survey. This

limits the generalizability of the results to people who take tours of Wrigley Field.

Because the method of random selection was not used in this study, any generalizability

of the findings should be made with caution. However, the profile of this sample was

similar to that reported in other fan studies (Gladden & Funk, 2002; James, 2001; James

& Ridinger, 2002; Tripp, 2003), so this supports the contention that the sample was

probably representative of the entire population. There was also some difference in the

sub-sample sizes of males and females used for comparison. However, from observing

the general make-up of the tour groups, this is thought to be representative of the average

profile of the nostalgia sport tourist that came to Wrigley Field for a ballpark tour as well

as other sports fans in general (James, 2001; James & Ridinger, 2002; Tripp, 2003). This

is also consistent with the characteristics of the typical active sport tourist revealed by

Gibson (1998a). She found that the people who engaged in active sport tourism

represented a minority of the US population and were mostly white, male, affluent and

well educated.

Due to the exploratory nature of this study, these delimitations were tolerated, as

it was more important to establish some baseline data about nostalgia sport tourism

related to stadium tours than it was to generalize the findings to a wider population.

Conclusion

The results of this study suggest that nostalgia sport tourism is similar to other

types of tourism, in that things such as novelty and family were primary motivations to

travel, and that a secondary level of motivation may be nostalgia. Also, if you look at









what constitutes nostalgia, looking backwards to the past, then a connection can be made

among the concepts of socialization, sentimentality and something to share with the

family that have tied together the results of this study.

While this study can only draw inferences about the influence of socialization on

the motivations of nostalgia sport tourists, it has provided an even deeper look into a

sport that has offered a link between the past and the present. Baseball is a phenomenon

that has evolved, reflected the best and worst of our society, and baffled generations of

writers and scholars. In closing, Peter V. Ueberroth (1985) discusses what he feels

baseball means and what might help to capture the essence of this study in his foreword

to The Complete Armchair Book of Baseball:

From Damn Yankees to The Natural, the magic of baseball is elusive and
impossible to explain. Perhaps this is one reason that it has captured the hearts of
Americans for generations, that the country's greatest writers have turned on their
creative juices to try to unlock its secrets. ...It is a game full of paradoxes: as old
as the horse and buggy, yet as modern as the Concorde; as slow as a sweltering
summer afternoon, yet as swift as a thunderbolt; as simple as a hand-held
calculator, yet as complex as calculus. How has this game managed to bridge time
and space? How does one explain America's fascination with its tradition and
voluminous statistics? Baseball is a realm of fairness and order where imagery,
mysticism, and alchemy in the confines of the baseball diamond tickle the little boy
or girl in all of us (p. xiii-xiv).
















APPENDIX A
SURVEY INSTRUMENT




The entire questionnaire was 6 pages and appears differently here in accordance

with the University of Florida Graduate School Thesis guidelines.


Department of Recreation, Parks and Tourism
University of Florida


Summer 2003
Subject ID:


Wrigley Field Stadium Tour Survey


Introduction: If you agree to participate, the following questions will ask you about your past sport
experience and motivations to go on today's tour of Wrigley Field. Your time and assistance is greatly
appreciated in this study!


Consent Statement: This questionnaire will take only 10-15 minutes to complete. You do not have to
answer any question you do not wish to answer, and you are free to discontinue participation at anytime
without consequence. No compensation will be awarded. If you choose to fill out this questionnaire, you
agree to participate in this study.


PART A: Motivations: This section of the survey will examine your motivations to take today's
tour.


1. Are you a resident of metro Chicago?


1 =Yes


2 = No


2. The primary purpose of my trip to Chicago is (please circle ONE):


1 = Vacation
2 = Business
3 = Convention


4 = Visiting friends/family
5 = Day trip
6 = I live in Chicago


7= Visit Wrigley Field
8 = Other


(please specify)











3. How important is visiting Wrigley Field to your overall trip to Chicago?

1 2 3 4 5
Not Important ------------Somewhat Important----------------Very Important


4. What is the primary purpose of your visit to Wrigley Field?




5. Not including today's visit, how many times have you been to Wrigley Field before?
(Please circle ONE)

1 = Never 3 = 5-10 times
2 = Less than 5 times 4 = I'm a regular


6. If you have been to Wrigley Field before, who was with you on your first visit?
(List ALL that apply)


(e.g. father, brother, friend etc.)


7. Who had the most influence on your decision to take today's tour? (Please circle ONE)

1 = Yourself 4 = Children 6 = Friend
2 = Spouse / Partner 5 = Parent(s) 7 = Grandparent(s)
3 = Other relative 8 = Other
(please specify) (please specify)


8. While in Chicago I plan to attend a Cubs game: 1 = Yes 2 = No

9. Do you consider yourself a baseball fan? 1 = Yes 2 = No



10. Do you know what charity will benefit from the money you paid to take part in today's tour?
1 = Yes (please name) 2 = No











11. Please rate the following reasons in your decision to visit Wrigley Field today:

Strongly Strongly
Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly
Disagree Agree
It was a chance to spend time
1 2 3 4 5
with family/friends
It was an escape from routine 1 2 3 4 5
It was a chance to get to know 1 2 3 4 5
myself better
It was a chance to relax 1 2 3 4 5
It took me back to my 1 2 3 4 5
childhood
It was a chance to see
1 2 3 4 5
something new and different
It will give me something
unique to talk about when I get 1 2 3 4 5
home
It gave me a chance to share
something special with 1 2 3 4 5
family/friends












12. In thinking about your trip today, please rate


Strongly Strongly
Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Str
Disagree Agree
It reminded me of the past 1 2 3 4 5
It helped me recall pleasant 1 2 3 4 5
memories
It made me feel nostalgic 1 2 3 4 5
It made me reminisce about a
1 2 3 4 5
previous time
It made me think about when I
1 2 3 4 5
was younger
It evoked fond memories 1 2 3 4 5

It was a pleasant reminder of 1 2 3 4 5
the past
It brought back memories of
1 2 3 4 5
good times from the past
It reminded me of the good old 1 2 3 4 5
days
It reminded me of good times in
1 2 3 4 5
the past


the following:












I PART B: Past Sport Experience: Please tell me about your sport experience while growing up. I


13. WHEN YOU WERE GROWING UP, how often did you participate in the following
activities?

Never Rarely Sometimes Often Frequently
I played organized sport (e.g. team, 1 2 3 4 5
league, etc.)
I played pick-up games. 1 2 3 4 5
I attended sports events (e.g. high 1 2 3 4 5
school, college, professional, etc.)
I watched sports on TV 1 2 3 4 5
I listened to sports on the radio 1 2 3 4 5
I discussed sports with others 1 2 3 4 5
I read about sports (e.g. newspaper, 1 2 3 4 5
magazines, books, etc.)
I collected sports memorabilia (e.g. 1 2 3 4 5
player's cards, hats, jerseys, etc.)
I visited a Hall of Fame or sport 4
museum


14. Thinking about the activities listed above (Question 13), was there one persons) who most
often encouraged you to participate in these activities? If so, please identify this personss.



(e.g. father, brother, friend etc.)



15. Who do you consider to be the most influential persons) in your introduction to sport (in
general)?


(e.g. father, brother, friend etc.)







86



16. In reference to the person you identified in question 15, please answer the following:

Strongly Strongly
Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Str
Disagree Agree

He/she had a favorite sport 1 2 3 4 5
Because of him/her I have a
er 1 2 3 4 5
favorite sport
He/she had a favorite sports 1 2 3 4 5
team
Because of him/her I follow the
1 2 3 4 5
same team
He/she had a favorite player 1 2 3 4 5
Because of him/her I have a
1 2 3 4 5
favorite player
He/she got very emotional when
watching sports (e.g. cheered, 1 2 3 4 5
yelled, "booed", applauded...)
He/she talked about and/or
1 2 3 4 5
watched sports frequently
I owe my interest in sport to
.m r1 2 3 4 5
him/her
He/she used to take me to
1 2 3 4 5
sporting events
He/she encouraged me to play 1 2 3 4 5
sports
He/she used to watch me play 1 2 3 4 5
sports


16. What was your favorite sports team growing up?


(please specify)


a. Circle the number that indicates your level of commitment to that team?


Low Interest ----------Moderate Interest-----------High Interest











17. WHILE YOU WERE GROWING UP:
Strongly Strongly
Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Stron
Disagree Agree
I was taught about the rules and
2 3 4 5
strategies of one or more sports
I followed the progress of teams 1 2 3 4 5
in one or more sports
I kept track of player's statistics
1 2 3 4 5
in one or more sports
I knew the players on the roster
2 3 4 5
for one or more teams
I knew what teams were in each
2 3 4 5
league for one or more sports

PART C: Current Sport-related Behavior: Please tell me about your current level of interest in
sport.


18. Please indicate how often you CURRENTLY participate in the following:

Never Rarely Sometimes Often Frequently
I play organized sport 1 2 3 4 5
I play pick-up games 1 2 3 4 5
I attend sports events (e.g. high school, 1 2 3 4
college, professional, etc.)
I watch sports on TV 1 2 3 4 5
I listen to sports on the radio 1 2 3 4 5
I discuss sports with others 1 2 3 4 5
I read about sports (e.g. newspaper, 1 2 3 4
magazines, books, etc.)
I collect sports memorabilia (e.g. 1 2 3 4 5
player's cards, hats, jerseys, etc.)
I visit Halls of Fame or sport museums 1 2 3 4 5







88




19. Please indicate your CURRENT level of sport-related knowledge:


20. What is/are your favorite teams) now?




21. What is your current level of commitment as a sports fan?

1 2 3 4 5
Low Interest --------------Moderate Interest----------------High Interest


Strongly Strongly
Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Str
Disagree Agree
I know the rules and strategies of 1 2 3 4 5
one or more sports
I follow the progress of the teams
1 2 3 4 5
in one or more sports
I keep track of player's statistics
1 2 3 4 5
in one or more sports

I pay attention to what teams
players are on in one or more 1 2 3 4 5
sports
I know the players on the roster
for one or more teams
for one or more teams