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Effects of Cultural Differences and Product Types on Advertising Effectiveness in Costa Rica and the U.S.


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EFFECTS OF CULTURAL DIFFERENCES AND PRODUCT TYPES ON ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS IN COSTA RICA AND THE U.S. By HARMALA KAUR SARA A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ADVERTISING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2004

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to take this opportunity to thank the many people who have helped me throughout my graduate studies and thesis process. First of all, Dr. Jorge Villegas, my thesis supervisor, offered extreme support and help in all aspects of my thesis coordination through many e-mails and meetings. He always made time available to discuss my progress and keep me on the right track. His positive attitude served as a great motivation for me. Further, I would like to extend my great appreciation to Dr. Chang-Hoan Cho and Dr. Marilyn Roberts for serving on my committee. They have provided positive reinforcement and knowledge in the research and international aspects of my thesis. Dr. John Sutherland has been great support through my entire two years at the University of Florida. It has been an honor for me to be a part of the first Master of Advertising program at U.F. Ms. Jody Hedge has also been a great help to me by answering countless questions that I have had regarding my course work, graduation and thesis. Her great enthusiasm was always very comforting. Plus, I would like to thank Dr. Cynthia Morton for allowing me to recruit students from her class for my study. I could not have asked for more from my friends at the University of Costa Rica for their endless help in translations and offering opinions. Ana Marta Arguedas was of extreme assistance in helping me secure participants for my study from the University of Costa Rica. ii

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I would also like to thank my family and boyfriend for being by my side throughout this entire process which many times seemed endless. Without my parents encouragement and inspiration I do not know how I would have made it through to the end. My mothers kind words always gave me the confidence I needed, and my fathers own academic experience helped to offer invaluable advice. My boyfriend, Matt Servies had amazing patience with me and offered great motivation. Finally, my sister Malti always maintained a light-humored atmosphere which helped to keep my spirits up when frustration set in at times. iii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.................................................................................... ii LIST OF TABLES.................................................................................................. vi ABSTRACT............................................................................................................ vii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................. 1 2 LITERATURE REVIEW................................................................................... 4 Cultures and Values............................................................................................ 4 Individualism and Collectivism.......................................................................... 5 Advertising Appeals........................................................................................... 8 Product Categories.............................................................................................. 10 Current Study Intentions..................................................................................... 11 3 HYPOTHESES................................................................................................... 13 17 4 METHODS......................................................................................................... 17 Pretests................................................................................................................ 18 Main Study.......................................................................................................... 19 Materials............................................................................................................. 20 Questionnaire Scales........................................................................................... 21 Ancillary Measures............................................................................................. 22 5 RESULTS........................................................................................................... 22 Subject Profile..................................................................................................... 23 Measurement Reliabilities.................................................................................. 23 Product Familiarity............................................................................................. 24 Testing of Hypotheses........................................................................................ 30 6 DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS.............................................................. iv

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7 LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH.................................................. APPENDIX OF EXPERIMENT MATERIALS Advertisements.................................................................................................... Questionnaires..................................................................................................... REFERENCES....................................................................................................... BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.................................................................................. 34 38 60 82 84 v

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TABLES Table 5-1 Alpha scores for each measure....................................................................... 5-2 Tests of between-subjects effects................................................................... 5-3 Tests of between-subjects effects................................................................... Page 27 28 29 vi

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising EFFECTS OF CULTURAL DIFFERENCES AND PRODUCT TYPES ON ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS IN COSTA RICA AND THE U.S. By Harmala Kaur Sara August 2004 Chair: Jorge Villegas Major Department: Advertising The questions of which advertising appeals are appropriate across individualistic and collectivistic cultures and whether product categories moderate effectiveness of appeals were investigated by examining participants from the U.S. and Costa Rica. Participants were asked to view a set of seven advertisements, each with either individualistic or collectivistic copy, and then completed a questionnaire regarding their attitudes toward the ads, brands of products and types of products. Questions involving product familiarity and demographics were also asked. Results showed that there were no interactions between country and cultural value when trying to elicit favorable attitudes toward ads and brands. Additionally, no interactions were found among country, product type and cultural value when trying to elicit favorable attitudes toward ads and brands. vii

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In the recent years there has been a tremendous emphasis on international marketing and trade. Many companies have realized that in order to keep up in this world and survive they must consider venturing their products beyond borders. There are a variety of reasons why globalization has had such an impact. For example, certain industries have been experiencing maturity of their products within their already existent markets. Plus, by using this technique a larger audience throughout the world can be reached which can reduce costs (Belch & Belch, 2001). In order to successfully market products in different countries it is important to examine the various cultural differences. Although the products being promoted in each country may be the same, the types of advertising and appeals used to advertise them may not be similar. For example, some countries are considered to be individualistic such as the U.S., which means they place an emphasis on self-sufficiency and control; and derive pride from their individual accomplishments (Zhang & Neelankavil, 1997, p. 135). On the other hand, there are the collectivistic cultures like many Latin American and Asian countries, which involve subordination of personal interest to the goals of the group. (Zhang & Neelankavil, 1997, p. 135) However, even though a product is being advertised in an individualistic or collectivistic culture, whether the product itself is individualistic or collectivistic seems to 1

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2 play a role in how it should be advertised. It has been thought that only individualistic appeals should be used for individualistic cultures and collectivistic appeals for collectivistic cultures, but this may not always seem to be the case, especially for personal products. For example, no matter what cultural context a personal product such as a toothbrush may be immersed in, it would be best to use individualistic appeals because this product is usually used by one person privately. This illustrates object-based attitude formation, which states that an advertising appeal should be persuasive to the extent that it cogently addresses the functions engaged by the attitude object. (Shavitt, 1990; Zhang & Neelankavil, 1997, p. 138) Over the years great focus has been put on Central America by the United States as a business venture (Kingsley, 1967). With its close proximity, this market has shown itself as a lucrative target. In order for America to be successful in future trade with these nations it is imperative to discover which advertising appeals according to the culture and product types are most appropriate for this region. This study hopes to aid in revealing some answers to this question by examining the various perceptions and attitudes of the residents of one Latin American country toward ads containing individualistic or collectivistic appeals with either non-personal or personal product types. The country chosen for this study is Costa Rica. Likewise, the same will be done with U.S. residents to investigate an individualistic culture and to compare it with the collectivistic culture. This will be accomplished by following previous research done on this topic and conducting experiments using subjects from Costa Rica and the United States. First, an examination of the literature will be done and presented in order to achieve an understanding of the various constructs that support this study. These include

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3 the areas of cultures and values, individualism vs. collectivism, advertising appeals and product categories. From these ideas, hypotheses to be tested will be developed and explained. Next, a look into the method will be presented including pretests, the main study and materials to be used in the study such as advertisements, measurement scales and questionnaires. Following this, the results will be observed containing the subject profile, measurement reliability and hypotheses tests outcomes. These conclusions will be discussed as to what they mean what implications they may have. Finally, the limitations of the study will be displayed with recommendations for future research on this specific topic or others that may relate.

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CHAPTER 2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE RESEARCH: LITERATURE REVIEW Cultures and Values Culture has been seen in many ways. Many of which tend to lean toward a common thinking that people are not already born with a certain culture or cultural thinking. It is thought that the environment and situations in which a person is immersed within and how they influence him or her and the others who exist in the same surroundings to behave in certain ways (Hofstede, 1997). The two ways researchers examine cultures are emic and etic. In general, emic operations are those which examine what goes on specifically inside the head of a person or people of a certain culture. On the other hand, etic operations are involved in examining patterns in behavior (Harris, 1976). In terms of culture, when referring to emic, the minds and thoughts of one group of people, in particular, are being observed and analyzed. An emic study is thought to be culturally specific. It involves understanding one culture in-depth while etic compares the behaviors of two or more cultures. Etic is more pan-cultural in that it studies the broad-spectrum of patterns in behaviors that various cultures may have (Harris, 1976). Values of specific countries are important because they help to determine the behavior of the residents of that nation. They are what these people identify and are familiar with. Cultural values are held very dear to those who embrace them. Individuals feel that these are the proper ways of life which everyone should follow. Overall, they are strong 4

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5 influences on behaviors, attitudes and perceptions. Values differ however, from attitudes in that they are more stable and are central to ones cognitive system. Unlike needs which are only learned, values are both learned and innate (Kamakura & Novak, 1992). Individualism vs. Collectivism Due to the fact that this world is driving toward globalization, countries are beginning to facilitate trade with a multiple amount of other nations. As mentioned earlier, not always do these countries have the same cultural values. In order to maintain successful business with diverse nations it is imperative for one to understand the cultural differences that exist. This will aid in the appropriate communication of messages in areas such as advertising. Advertisers have found that the most profitable way to accomplish this is to create advertisements with appeals that correspond with a countrys values since it has been said that individual differences and social/cultural differences help facilitate consumer reactions to advertising (Cutler, 1997). First, the specific cultural values and norms must be identified of a particular nation that is the target of the advertising message. Hofstede has created certain dimensions, which explain and classify a countrys cultural orientation. These include power distance, individualism, masculinity and uncertainty avoidance. Each one is measured on an index scale from 0 to 100. The dimensions are important because they have been thought to be the most useful in business settings (Cutler, 1997). Scholars have proposed many other cultural dimensions; however they all share the ideas of individualism and collectivism. This is one reason why many use the individualism/collectivism dimension to investigate cultures (Cutler, 1997). It is largely

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6 accepted that individualism contains the traits of independence, self-orientation, goals focused toward the individual and motivation from individual accomplishments (Zhang & Neelankavil, 1997). Those with individualistic characteristics rely more on their own thoughts and decisions than those of the group. They are low self-monitors and express their private opinions. Additionally, most of these cultures are considered low-context. This refers to the idea that messages are more readily accepted when they are explicit and there is a high use of words. These individuals do not rely on their surroundings to understand information and messages (Hall, 1976). On the other hand, collectivism involves goals focused toward the group, concern for the group and interdependence (Zhang & Neelankavil, 1997). An example is a culture that is very family oriented. The people who are a part of this culture are concerned with avoiding shame and rely on the opinions of their peers and the group. This dimension is more regarded as high-context where messages are implicit and sent mostly with symbols (Hall, 1976). In regard to society, the definition of individualism-collectivism created by Hofstede is, the degree to which a culture relies on and has allegiance to the self or the group (Hofstedes Dimensions of Culture, 2003, p. 2). In other words, this means how much a person is involved with its society and whether this society is well-knit or loosely tied. This varies from country to country. For example, the United States has been found to be individualistic with a high Hofstede index score of 91. This is the highest score applied to a country for individualism followed by Australia with an index of 90 (Hofstedes Dimensions of Culture, 2003). The U.S. is seen as being characterized by achievement, individual accomplishment and material prosperity, all of which have been

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7 embodied in the idea of the American Dream. Although some have criticized individualism as being selfish, they do not take into account how it has contributed to the nations occupants concept of self and the influence it has had on social and political institutions. It has contributed to the American ideals of democracy and equality since it upholds the belief that every person is independent and has natural rights (Spence, 1985). When studying individualism, the concept of achievement and its motives are examined. It has been found that certain personal wants and desires are the major influences that create achievement behaviors. This concept has been thought of as American rugged individualism, which means that one strives towards their self-sufficiency and that their destiny is in their own hands (Spence, 1985). One study helped to explain the existence of individualism in the U.S.A. by looking at the areas of sacrifice vs. hedonism, extension of self into in-group vs. self as a distinct entity from in-group and concern for in-groups vs. self-reliance and emotional distance from in-group. It was found that subjects of the U.S. had more concern for their own goals, paid less attention to the views of in-groups, detached from in-groups, made decisions by oneself and had less concern for the in-group (Triandis, Bontempo, Villareal, Asai & Lucca, 1988). These views have also been proven to be common in Europe as well (Zhang & Neelankavil, 1997). As for being collectivistic in nature, countries within Asia, Africa and Latin America possess these traits (Zhang & Neelankavil, 1997). For example, according to Hofstedes cultural dimensions Costa Rica has been given an index of 15 with 100 being the highest for individualism (Hofstedes Dimensions of Culture, 2003). It has been found to be a country, which is concerned with its self-image. The people of Costa Rica

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8 are very proud of their nation, culture and traditions. Due to this, they highly identify with other Costa Ricans. It has been said that they consider themselves Costa Ricans first, and only after that, are they Central Americans or Latin Americans. Their values have always been focused on tolerance and respect for themselves and others (The Costa Rica Identity, 2003). They are peaceful, friendly and calm (Cisneros, 1982). Family and community are extremely important aspects of their lives. For example, the family is the basis for social life, and children remain at home with their parents until marriage. Extended families are common as well. They choose their in-groups and many times do not accept different ideas. However, these people are very eager to please and are afraid of shaming themselves (The Costa Rica Identity, 2003). Advertising Appeals When targeting specific audiences, the different advertising appeals should be taken into consideration in association with their cultural orientation. In individualistic countries the appeals tend to adopt characteristics reflecting the dimension of individualism. For example, the U.S. has been known to highly utilize the rugged Marlboro Man in its ads for cigarettes. These types of images will be more effective in countries of North America and Europe and if applied to collectivistic countries a different effect would occur (Zhang & Neelankavil, 1997). However, on the collectivist side, for the nation of Costa Rica, it has been seen that when products which are being advertised are used in both the United States and Costa Rica, the ad executions are close to the same. Some products though, do use a different approach. For example, an ad for Coke uses appeals that match Costa Rican preferences. It embraced the ideas of family

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9 and cost consciousness. The headline utilized a rational appeal which translated in English to, Family Coca-Cola (as Coca-Cola in Costa Rica is called Coca-Cola Familiar, Family Coke) satisfies everyone in the family. A subhead was found to be, Four full glasses that will cost you less. Also, found displayed in the ad were three popular Costa Rican dishes of food (Cisneros, 1982). In addition to individualistic and collectivistic, there are other appeals including those that are value-expressive or utilitarian. Value-expressive is being image oriented and symbolic, while utilitarian involves function and key benefits of a product. It has been found that value-expressive appeals are influenced by self-congruity while utilitarian are influenced by functional congruity. The value-expressive appeal is best used in persuasion with a product that has high product value-expressiveness. As for a utilitarian appeal, it is best used with a product that has high product utility (Johar & Sirgry, 1991). The concepts of self-congruity and functional congruity have been defined. Self-congruity is when there is a match between a products value-expressive attributes and the targets self concept, also known as product user image. The product user image is what a target thinks about the user of a product. These include actual self-image, ideal self-image, social self-image and ideal social self-image. On the other hand, functional congruity is when there is a match between the beliefs of product utilitarian attributes, which deal with performance and the targets referent attributes (Johar & Sirgy, 1991).

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10 Product Categories There are a variety of products that exist so it has been previously examined whether product categories play a role in moderating the effectiveness of appeals. This has been thought because most products are not the same as others and contain different meanings and benefits for different people. For this reason, some believe that the advertising appeal should reflect the function of the product and not the culture of the country in which the product is being advertised (Zhang & Neelankavil, 1997). As has been mentioned earlier, some products are value-expressive while others are utilitarian. In a study focused on China and the U.S., conducted by Zhang and Neelankavil, it was investigated to see if for non-personal products, appeals that reflect the specific cultural values of a country will be more effective than those that do not. A non-personal product has a purpose that is for the use by a group of people. Many people are able to be benefited by the use of this product. A camera is one type of non-personal product. So, according to the study, even if a non-personal product is being advertised in a collectivistic culture this does not mean that the advertising appeal should always reflect collectivism. In the case of personal products, those which are used for the purpose and benefit of only one person, the opposite is seen. If the benefits of this product are more geared toward personal goals it may then be appropriate to use an individualistic appeal instead. The results indicated that there were differences between U.S.A. and China. It was shown that individualistic appeals were more effective in U.S.A. and collectivistic appeals in China. In regard to products, the appeal for a personal product depended on the product type and its benefits toward people, whereas for a non-personal product, the

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11 appeal was more effective when it reflected the culture value of a country (Zhang & Neelankavil, 1997). In the above study the products chosen were a 35mm camera and a toothbrush. The camera was used as a non-personal product because it was universally used across the two cultures of the U.S. and China. For the personal product the toothbrush was utilized because it too was used in both countries for a very personal purpose (Zhang & Neelankavil, 1997). Current Study Intentions This present study intends to follow Zhang and Neelankavils research on China and the U.S. The questions of which advertising appeals are appropriate across individualistic and collectivistic cultures and whether product categories moderate effectiveness of appeals need to be investigated again to see if the results are upheld when another country and different products are employed. Due to this, the collectivist Latin American country, Costa Rica, was utilized instead. This country was chosen especially because of its low individualism index score. The U.S. was chosen once again to confirm the idea that individualistic appeals are best suited for this country and to see whether the use of different products will still moderate the effect of appeals. These two countries are a compatible match for this study due to their great difference in Hofstede individualism indices. The dimension of individualism utilized in this study because previously in the Zhang and Neelankavil experiment this was the dimension employed. Plus, when comparing the index scores of Costa Rica and the U.S. for other dimensions such as Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance and Masculinity there was not as much

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12 of a difference between the two countries. For example, the differences between the scores of both countries were as follows: Power Distance: 5, Uncertainty Avoidance: 40 and Masculinity: 41. In the case of Individualism, however, the difference of scores was 76. This was another reason which made the dimension of Individualism more favorable for this study as well. The study will use an etic approach by comparing the nations of Costa Rica and the U.S. because the behaviors of both countries are of interest rather than just the thoughts of one in particular. Plus, aside from just examining each behavior independently, the two will be compared and contrasted against one another.

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CHAPTER 3 DEVELOPMENT OF HYPOTHESES Findings by Zhang and Neelankavil (1997) showed that cultural values such as individualism and collectivism can influence attitude to an ad directly. In their study, ads which utilized individualistic appeals were found to be more effective in the individualistic country of U.S.A. rather than in China, a collectivistic country. It was seen though, that the idea of collectivistic appeals being more effective in China than U.S.A. was not supported as much. However, this was said to possibly be caused by extraneous variables. In general though, the Chinese participants did favor the collectivistic ads over the individualistic ones. These ideas above were tested because it has been claimed in the past that for messages to be successful in a country which is considered individualistic the ads should also encompass the characteristics of individualism. These characteristics include independence, goals toward the individual and ideas centered around ones own self. Plus, on the other hand, it has been said that for an advertising message to be successful in a collectivistic country the ad must have collectivistic characteristics, which are those that are society, family and community oriented. Therefore, it is hypothesized that: H1: A match of cultural appeals will be more successful in eliciting more favorable attitudes toward ads. H1a: Appeals that emphasize individualistic values will elicit a more favorable attitude toward the ad in the U.S.A. than in Costa Rica. H1b: Appeals that emphasize collectivistic values will elicit a more 13

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14 favorable attitude toward the ad in Costa Rica than in the U.S.A. According to Zhang and Neelankavil (1997) similar results regarding the effect on attitude to the brand was found. The idea that an individualistic population will have a more favorable attitude to a brand due to an individualistic appeal was supported in their study. It was also found that the same was true for collectivistic appeals in China. These were tested for the same reason as H1. This being that it has been claimed in the past that for messages to be successful in a country which is considered individualistic the ads should also encompass the characteristics of individualism. Plus, on the other hand, for an advertising message to be successful in a collectivistic country the ad must have collectivistic characteristics. Along with messages, these ideas are believed to be held true for brands as well. Therefore, it is hypothesized that: H2: A match of cultural appeals will be more successful in eliciting more favorable attitudes toward brands. H2a: Appeals that emphasize individualistic values will elicit a more favorable attitude toward the brand in the U.S.A. than in Costa Rica. H2b: Appeals that emphasize collectivistic values will elicit a more favorable attitude toward the brand in Costa Rica than in the U.S.A. According to Zhang and Neelankavil (1997) it has been suggested that product types seem to moderate the effectiveness of advertising appeals toward the attitude of ads. Although above, it was stated that culturally congruent appeals were best for favorable attitudes toward ads, sometimes product type may play a role in achieving this.

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15 For example, it has been speculated that for non-personal products, which are those that can be shared among different individuals and do not serve only a purpose for a single person, advertising appeals should reflect the cultural value of the country in which the product is being advertised. This was found true in the case of the U.S. and China. On the other hand, in regard to a personal product, Zhang and Neelankavil (1997) produced results that showed cultural values did not have an effect on the attitude to an ad or brand. In the case of ads for a toothbrush, participants in both the U.S.A. and China preferred the same ad appeal. The appeal which was favored was individualistic. Therefore, it is hypothesized that: H3: Product types moderate the effectiveness of advertising appeals in eliciting a more favorable attitude toward ads. Specifically, that for non-personal products a match in advertising appeals with cultural values will elicit a more favorable attitude than those which do not follow this procedure. Matches in cultural values and advertising appeals do not create large differences, or if so very little, in attitude toward ads when the product is personal. For attitude to brand, similar results as those above for attitude to ads with the moderation of product types were found by Zhang and Neelankavil (1997). The individualistic appeal was once again favored in both China and the U.S. in eliciting a more favorable attitude, this time toward the brand, when the product was personal. In regard to a non-personal product, it was also seen that there was a difference in preference of appeals for China and the U.S., just as there had been when testing for the attitude toward the ad. Therefore, it is hypothesized that: H4: Product types moderate the effectiveness of advertising appeals in eliciting a more favorable attitude toward brands. Specifically, that for non-personal

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16 products a match in advertising appeals with cultural values will elicit a more favorable attitude than those which do not follow this procedure. Matches in cultural values and advertising appeals do not create large differences, or if so very little, in attitude toward brands when the product is personal.

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CHAPTER 4 METHOD In order to test which advertising appeals are appropriate across individualistic and collectivistic cultures and whether product categories moderate effectiveness of appeals a 2x2x2 experiment was conducted. The three variables used were country (Costa Rica and the U.S.), advertising appeals (collectivistic and individualistic) and product types (personal and non-personal). Thus, this was a between subjects (country and advertising appeals) within subjects (product types) experiment. The countries used were chosen due to their index scores on Hofstedes dimension of culture for individualism. Costa Rica had an index score of 15 out of 100 while the U.S. had a score of 91 out of 100 with 100 being the highest score of individualism. Pretests Product Types Products to be used in the experiment were chosen on the basis of whether they served personal or non-personal purposes. U.S. and Costa Rican students were asked to give their opinions on whether a specific product was individualistic or collectivistic. From these surveys, it was concluded that the products of stereos and televisions were found to be the best choices of collectivism by residents of both countries while the products of underwear and deodorant were found to be the best choices of individualism. 17

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18 Advertising Appeals Print advertisements were prepared by using a layout with pictures of the four products chosen above. The two advertising appeals were manipulated by varying the appeals. An advertisement for each product was made containing an appeal reflecting individualism and another with a collectivistic appeal (See Appendix). These ads were translated into Spanish by a native Costa Rican who speaks both Spanish and English so that they may be used while administering the experiment in Costa Rica. Once translated into Spanish, they were back translated into English by another bilingual Costa Rican to ensure their accuracy. The English and Spanish ads were shown to residents of Costa Rica and the U.S. who were then asked their opinions of whether they felt the ads reflected individualism or collectivism. Once it was determined that the ads correctly corresponded with the intended cultural value the ads were ready to be used for the main study. Main Study The experiment used 179 research participants (109 from the U.S., 70 from Costa Rica) from undergraduate classes in a university in Costa Rica and a university in the United States. Questionnaires were mailed to Costa Rica and distributed by a student at the university in that country. During chosen classes, students were asked to participate in the study in order to get extra credit points. Willing participants signed the informed consent and were given the questionnaire with scales and a booklet containing the advertisements to be viewed.

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19 Materials Advertisements Eleven advertisements were developed in both English and Spanish. Four of the ads with products contained an individualistic appeal and the other four ads for the same products utilized an appeal that was collectivistic. The basic design for these ads were a simple picture of only the product placed in the middle with a headline above and one or two sentences of copy below. Elaborate designs and people were not used in these ads so that there would not be any respondent bias toward these aspects. This was decided because a previous study similar to this one, done by Lepkowska-White, Brashear and Weinberger, utilized ads in this manner and were successful (Lepkowska-White, Brashear & Weinberger, 2003). Plus, the brands of the products that were presented in the ads were fictitious so that there was no bias toward specific already well-known brands. Three filler advertisements were created to disguise the purpose of the study. The sequence that these advertisements were compiled into the booklet was as follows: experimental ad 1 (non-personal personal product with individualistic appeal/non-personal product with individualistic appeal), filler ad 1, experimental ad 2 (personal product with individualistic appeal/personal product with collectivistic appeal), filler ad 2, experimental ad 3 (non-personal product with collectivistic appeal/non-personal product with collectivistic appeal), filler ad 3 and experimental ad 4 (personal product with individualistic appeal/personal product with individualistic appeal). Two versions of the booklets were made and differed due to the fact that the order of the types of products and ads were different (Zhang and Neelankavil, 1997). No more than these ads were used in order to avoid burn out by the research participants.

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20 Product Types The products used in the advertisements of the main study were those that were found to be the best match of non-personal and personal product types according to those surveyed in Costa Rica and the U.S. during the pretests. A stereo and television were chosen to represent the category of non-personal products while deodorant and underwear were personal. Questionnaire Scales Attitudes of Advertisements The attitudes towards the advertisements were measured with a 4-item, 9-point semantic differential scale containing the end points of unpleasant-pleasant, unlikable-likable, not irritating-irritating and not interesting-interesting. The measure of the attitude towards the advertisement was reflected through the mean of the ratings from this portion of the questionnaire (Zhang & Neelankavil, 1997). Semantic differential scales were used in this study because it has been proven that this form of scale can be used across cultures and has been successful in studies that were examining common characteristics between different countries (Zhang & Neelankavil, 1997). The scales above both used a range from -4 to 4 and 0 being the central point. Attitude of Brands A three-item scale was used to measure brand attitude containing the end points of bad-good, not nice-nice and unlikable-likable. The measure of the attitude towards the

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21 brand was reflected through the mean of the ratings from this portion of the questionnaire (Zhang & Neelankavil, 1997). Ancillary Measures Demographic measures were taken to check for biases in the responses of the research participants. Product familiarity was measured by using a semantic differential scale similar to the scales above that measured the attitude to the ads and brands. This scale also ranged from -4 to 4 with the endpoints being unfamiliar-familiar, inexperienced-experienced and unknowledgeable-knowledgeable (Kent & Allen, 1994). Product familiarity was tested to see if the U.S. and Costa Rica had any difference in product familiarity with the products used in this study (Zhang & Neelankavil, 1997). Questionnaire The questionnaire was translated into Spanish and then back translated into English as the advertisements were done. (See Appendix)

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CHAPTER 5 RESULTS Subject Profile Participants in the main study consisted of a total of 179 university students. Of these, 109 were from the United States while 70 were from Costa Rica. A Crosstab test was conducted between country and generated and showed that he Costa Rican sample had a 68.90% female representation. In the U.S. population, 45.70% were female. A Pearson Chi-square result found that there was an interaction between country and gender (significance=002 and d.f.=1). Through a Crosstab test again, age was found to be similar. The majority of U.S. participants were 18-22 years of age (93.40% of respondents) with the same being for their Costa Rican counterparts (72.50% of respondents). The Pearson Chi-square result showed a significant interaction between country and age (sig.=.001, d.f.=2). About 83.57% of the U.S. subjects were born in the United States while 94.29% of the Costa Ricans were born in Costa Rica. In the U.S. the most common races in decreasing order of appearance were Caucasian (70.64% of respondents), Hispanic (13.26% of respondents), Black (7.34% of respondents) and Asian (5.50% of respondents). Costa Rica had 68.51% of its population claiming to be Hispanic and 31.43% giving no response. Sophomores and Juniors made up most of the U.S. sample, 33.94% and 43.12% respectively. Seniors (35.71% of respondents) were the majority of the population in 22

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23 Costa Rica followed by Juniors (21.43% respondents). The majors of U.S. participants were in the departments of Journalism and Communication (43.12% respondents), Business (22.94% respondents), Liberal Arts and Sciences (13.76% respondents), Health and Human Performance (4.59% respondents), Fine Arts (.92% respondents), Architecture (.92% respondents), Public Health and Health Professions (.92%), English (.92% respondents), other (7.34% respondents) and no response (2.75% respondents). In Costa Rica the areas of study were as follows: Education (31.43% respondents), Liberal Arts and Sciences (22.86% respondents), Business (7.14% respondents), Health and Human Performance (4.29% respondents), Public Health and Health Professions (2.86% respondents), other (22.86% respondents) and no response (8.57% respondents). Measurement Reliability Measurement reliability was tested for both the attitude to ads and attitude to the brands. The measurements were of relatively satisfactory reliabilities according to Nunallys (1978) criterion of .70 or higher as a standard for basic research. The Alpha level for each is reported in Table 5-1. Product Familiarity A review of the data showed results that of the products used in this study product familiarity was similar for both the U.S. and Costa Rica. The concept of knowledge was used to determine the amount of familiarity with a certain product since in the area of advertising it is common to measure familiarity this way. An ANOVA test was conducted with the independent variable as country and dependent variable as knowledge of

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24 product. The results showed that stereos were the only product with a significant difference in familiarity between Costa Rica and the U.S. (F=10.95, d.f.=1, sig.=.001). It was found that the Costa Rican participants had more knowledge of stereos (M=1.79) than those in the U.S. (M=.66). Testing of the Hypotheses For the testing of the hypotheses ANOVA tests were performed in order to compare the means of three or more groups. Tables 5-2 and 5-3 show the results of the ANOVA tests displaying the sum of squares, degrees of freedom, means squares, F-values, significance and independent and dependent variables. Hypothesis 1 predicted that a match of cultural appeals will be more successful in eliciting a more favorable attitude toward ads. The scale of measurement utilized ranged from -4 to 4. An ANOVA (two way) was conducted with the two categorical independent variables, country and cultural value of the ad. The dependent continuous variable was the attitude toward the advertisement. The results suggested that the U.S. participants (n=109) had a less favorable attitude toward advertisements when the appeals were individualistic (M= .16) than those from Costa Rica (n=70) who favored them more (M=.62). Further, it was also shown that those from Costa Rica favored ads when the appeals were collectivistic (M=.83) more than those from the U.S. (M=.29); however, as seen in Table 5-2, the interaction effect between country and cultural value on the attitude to the ad was not significant (F=.10, d.f.=1, p<.05). Therefore, hypothesis 1 is rejected. Although H1 was rejected it was partially supported because H1b was correct in that Costa Rican subjects would harbor more favorable attitudes toward ads when the

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25 appeals matched the nations cultural value by being collectivistic. The lack of support for H1a may be due to extraneous variables that might have played a role in moderating the appeals for those in the U.S. One such factor could be the function of the product. This might be because when products possess the same function in different countries advertisements may be more successful when they display the same approach of showing the products purpose rather than cultural appeals. Hypothesis 2 predicted that a match of cultural appeals will be more successful in eliciting a more favorable attitude toward brands. Once again the scale used for measurement ranged from -4 to 4. An ANOVA (two way) was conducted with the two categorical independent variables, country and cultural value of the ad. The dependent continuous variable was the attitude toward the brand. The results suggested that the U.S. participants (n=109) had a more favorable attitude toward brands when the appeals were individualistic (M= .35) than those from Costa Rica (n=70) who favored them less (M=.26). Further, it was also shown that those from Costa Rica favored brands when the appeals were collectivistic (M=.66) more than those from the U.S. (M=.38); however, as seen in Table 5-3, the interaction effect between country and cultural value on the attitude to the brand was not significant (F=1.49, d.f.=1, p<.05). Therefore, hypothesis 2 is rejected. Although H2 was rejected since there was no significant interaction between country and cultural value in terms of attitude toward brands was it was partially supported due to the fact that H2a and H2b were confirmed by the results with the U.S. favoring individualistic appeals over Costa Rica and Costa Rica favoring the collectivistic appeals

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26 Hypothesis 3 predicted that product types moderate the effectiveness of appeals toward ads. A scale of measurement ranging from -4 to 4 was used. More specifically, a match in cultural appeals will elicit a more favorable attitude toward the ads when a product is non-personal. Furthermore, when the product is personal, cultural appeals do not play a factor in eliciting favorable attitudes toward ads. An ANOVA (two way) was conducted with the three categorical independent variables being country, type of product and cultural value of the ad. The dependent continuous variable was the attitude toward the ad. The results suggested that the U.S. participants (n=109) had a less favorable attitude toward advertisements when the appeals were individualistic (M=.38) and product type was non-personal than those from Costa Rica (n=70, M=.73). Further, it was also shown that those from Costa Rica are more likely to view ads favorably (M=1.47) than those from the U.S (M=1.01) when the appeals are collectivistic and product type is non-personal. For personal products it was seen that Costa Rican participants were more likely to have favorable attitudes to ads when the appeals were individualistic (M=.51) and collectivistic (M=.18) than those from the U.S. (individualistic M=-.05, collectivistic M=-.44); however, as seen in Table 5-2, the interaction effect among country, product type and cultural value on the attitude to the ad was not significant (F=.01, d.f.=1, p<.05). Therefore, hypothesis 3 is rejected. Hypothesis 4 predicted that product types moderate the effectiveness of appeals toward brands. The measurement scale that was used ranged from -4 to 4. More specifically, a match in cultural appeals will elicit a more favorable attitude toward the brands when a product is non-personal. Furthermore, when the product is personal, cultural appeals do not play a factor in eliciting favorable attitudes toward brands. An

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27 ANOVA (two way) was conducted with the three categorical independent variables being country, type of product and cultural value of the ad. The dependent continuous variable was the attitude toward the brand. The results suggested that the U.S. participants (n=109) had a more favorable attitude toward brands when the appeals were individualistic (M=.50) and product type was non-personal than those from Costa Rica (n=70, M=.15). Further, it was also shown that those from Costa Rica are less likely to view brands favorably (M=1.14) than those from the U.S (M=1.19) when the appeals are collectivistic and product type is non-personal. For personal products it was seen that Costa Rican participants were more likely to have favorable attitudes to brands when the appeals were individualistic (M=.38) and collectivistic (M=.16) than those from the U.S. (individualistic M=-.20, collectivistic M=-.44); however, as seen in Table 5-3, the interaction effect among country, product type and cultural value on the attitude to the brand was not significant (F=.04, d.f.=1, p<.05). Therefore, hypothesis 4 is rejected. Table 5-1 Alpha scores for each measure Scale Reliability Scale Reliability Attitude to Ad Boom .78 Attitude to Brand Boom .93 Attitude to Ad Refresher .74 Attitude to Brand Refresher .93 Attitude to Ad SuperView .79 Attitude to Brand SuperView .89 Attitude to Ad Ultra Comfort .73 Attitude to Brand Ultra Comfort .93

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28 Table 5-2 Tests of between-subjects effects Dependent Variable: AAD (Attitude to Ad) Source of Variation Sum of Squares DF Mean Square F Sig. Corrected Model 221.07 a 7 31.58 12.30* .00 Intercept 143.06 1 143.06 55.71* .00 Country 39.46 1 39.46 15.37* .00 Type of Product 114.56 1 114.56 44.61* .00 Cultural Value 4.20 1 4.20 1.64 .20 Country x Type of Product 1.23 1 1.23 .48 .49 Country x Cultural Value .27 1 .27 .10 .75 Type of Product x Cultural Value 43.40 1 43.40 16.90* .00 Country x Type of Product x Cultural Value .02 1 .02 .01 .93 Error 1735.92 676 2.57 Total 2071.81 684 Corrected Total 1956.99 683 F=12.30*, F=55.71*, F=15.37*, F=44.61*, F=16.90*, *p<.05 a. R Squared = .11 (Adjusted R Squared = .10)

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29 Table 5-3 Tests of between-subjects effects Dependent Variable: ABR (Attitude to Brand) Source of Variation Sum of Squares DF Mean Square F Sig. Corrected Model 191.28 a 7 27.33 7.79* .00 Intercept 106.72 1 106.72 30.42* .00 Country 1.30 1 1.30 .37 .54 Type of Product 71.21 1 71.21 20.30* .00 Cultural Value 6.75 1 6.75 1.92 .17 Country x Type of Product 14.05 1 14.05 4.00 .05 Country x Cultural Value 5.23 1 5.23 1.49 .22 Type of Product x Cultural Value 63.75 1 63.75 18.17* .00 Country x Type of Product x Cultural Value .15 1 .15 .04 .84 Error 2371.80 676 3.51 Total 2671.78 684 Corrected Total 2563.08 683 F=7.79*, F=30.42*, F=20.30*, F=18.17*, *p<.05 a. R Squared = .08 (Adjusted R Squared = .07)

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CHAPTER 6 DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS From the results of this study it can be inferred that culture does play a role in advertising effectiveness. There were differences in attitudes toward ads and brands when different cultural appeals were used. However, surprisingly, some of the results turned out to be different than expected. Interestingly, although it was predicted that the U.S. would always favor individualistic appeals more than Costa Rica, this was not the case. Attitudes in the U.S. toward ads did not appear to be more favorable with individualistic appeals than in Costa Rica. However, it was found that in Costa Rica collectivistic appeals always produced more favorable attitudes to ads and brands than in the U.S. Another factor in this study that was looked at was whether product type plays a role in moderating the effectiveness of advertising appeals. It was thought that when a product is non-personal, where the benefits of the product can be obtained by many different people, an appeal which matched the countrys cultural value would be more effective in producing a favorable attitude to the ad or brand. This was held true in the case of Costa Rica, where the findings showed that participants from this country had more favorable attitudes toward ads and brands than in the U.S. when the appeals were collectivistic and the product was non-personal. For the U.S., it was seen that although it was thought that individualistic appeals for non-personal products would create more favorable attitudes toward ads and brands than in Costa Rica, this was not the case. This could be due to the effect of some extraneous factors such as product function which was 30

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31 discussed earlier. For personal products, the results showed that both countries favored an individualistic appeal which means that cultural appeals play little or no role in eliciting a favorable attitude to an ad or brand in this situation. This supports the idea that product type plays more of a role when a product is personal since the benefits of the item are geared toward one person only. The outcomes of the tests also showed that in the case of non-personal products attitude toward the ad and brand was more favorable when the appeal was collectivistic in both the U.S. and Costa Rica. This idea also follows the belief that when a product is non-personal and can be enjoyed by others an appeal is more successful when it displays the characteristics of collectivism. Therefore, regardless of whether an ad uses an appeal that matches the cultural value of a country in which the product is being advertised, the product type tends to be a factor that determines what type of appeal should be used in order to be successful. Another reason why favorable attitudes toward ads could be generated by ads which contain cultural appeals that are opposite to the cultural values of a country is that the ad may be found interesting due to the fact that it is different from all of the other ads and their appeals which are normally utilized in that country. For example, in the U.S., collectivistic appeals may create more favorable attitudes toward ads because they are different from the individualistic appeals which are more widely employed. In other words, these ads are breaking through the clutter and are have more novelty, which in turn makes them more favorable (Lepkowska-White, Brashear & Weinberger, 2003). While comparing the attitudes to ads and brands when a personal product was involved to the attitudes while a non-personal product was utilized it was seen that the

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32 attitudes were considerably less favorable for the former ads. This could be due to some outside factor such as a dislike for the way the products were portrayed in the ads or the types of products used themselves. One implication from this study is that when advertising is done it is crucial to look at various factors which could affect the attitude to an ad or brand. Since this world is so diverse with a variety of cultures it is very important to pay close attention to the differences that people from country to country may have. In the case of paying attention to differences between countries equivalency is necessary. This is to make sure that everything that is done and said for one country will be done and understood exactly the same by those of the other countries being examined. For example, in this study translation and back translation were done so as not to distort messages and ideas that were intended to be the exact same for each country. Furthermore, the same advertisements, products and materials were used. Otherwise there could have been a misrepresentation of the actual findings. Another inference that may be made from this study is that culture can play a role in the effectiveness of advertising, but this is not always held true. Plus, in some instances product type may also moderate the effectiveness of appeals as well; however, this is also not always the case. The results from this study showed that Costa Rican participants responded better to individualistic appeals than their U.S. counterparts. These findings allow us to realize that one type of appeal which has been traditionally thought as only appropriate for one culture may be successful in another. This means that for certain products and situations advertisers may be able to use the same appeals to reach different

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33 people in different countries. This standardization will help to conserve time and money in advertising campaigns. This study also implies that copy testing is extremely important in the area of advertising. For example, the copy and its meaning can be a factor in how a viewer of an ad responds to it. There are many words which have one meaning in one country but an opposite or entirely different meaning in another. So therefore, it is essential that the correct choice of words is selected so that the intended message is presented. Otherwise, the point of the advertisement may be entirely lost. The reason why the results of this study did not turn out as they were expected to may have implications of their own. For example, Costa Rica may have shown to have more favorable attitudes toward ads when individualistic appeals were used compared to the U.S. because these two samples examined may be more culturally similar than assumed. The participants of this research were young adults mostly ranging from ages 18-23 in both countries. This generation of Costa Ricans may be growing up with more similar individualistic beliefs as their counterparts in the U.S. than past generations. The United States has created a presence of its own in Costa Rica through television and products. These, in addition to other factors may contribute to the lean toward individualistic appeals. Plus, the sample that was used in Costa Rica was just a subculture of the entire population of Costa Rica. These participants may just be a small segment of the nation that may have been influenced by individualistic thought. Every nation has its own subcultures and beliefs. From this, it is clear that every aspect of a culture must be taken into consideration when trying to reach its people rather than just generalizing the differences.

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CHAPTER 7 LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH There are various limitations to this study. One being that since this is an international study, correspondence with contacts in another country was needed many times mainly through email causing communication to be slowed. The conducting of the experiment in Costa Rica was also hindered due to lack of home computers and school email addresses for the questionnaires to be distributed. The traditional mailing of the ads to and from Costa Rica also slowed the process of the study. Another limitation was found in the collection of data from Costa Rica. Many professors at the University of Costa Rica do not allow class time to be taken up for non-class related materials. This caused less of a sample than anticipated to be collected from this country. Another limitation seen in this study is that participants in U.S.A. and Costa Rica were only exposed to the ads once and then asked their opinions. Usually under normal circumstances audiences are able to view ads more than once at different times. Since this study was international in nature it takes time to perfect the method to fit both cultures appropriately. Usually in order to get the best results many tests are run and then corrected until the best one is found. In the circumstances of this particular study there was a limited amount of time and funds to achieve this. It is recommended that in the future the appropriate amount of time and budget is obtained in order to gain the best possible results. Additionally, more pretests containing larger sample sizes should be 34

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35 used next time in order to get more accurate ideas of how to select more appropriate and favorable advertisement layouts, copy and products. The advertisements used in this study did not employ images of people in order to avoid bias by the respondents toward these images rather than focusing on the appeals presented in the copy or the products. However, images of people actually using the various products could help to decipher whether the advertisement is collectivistic or individualistic or whether the product in the ad is non-personal or personal. For example, by using a group of people enjoying a product the ideas of collectivism and non-personal products can be easily detected. So, in research following this study it could be examined whether the use of people in the advertisements creates a different set of results than those found in this experiment. In the case of future research, perhaps different countries that hold collectivistic and individualistic values could be used. Also, different Latin American countries should be utilized since Costa Rica does not represent the entire Latin American population. This study has already been planned to be conducted in Mexico and possibly Brazil to see whether similar results will occur. Also, the samples used in this study were just a small portion of the entire population of each country examined. Plus, they were student samples which alone do not represent the ideas and thinking of the entire nation. Therefore, the results should not be generalized to the entire population of Costa Rica or U.S. In the future larger and more diverse segments should be employed. Furthermore, in this study culture was not measured. Tests were not done in order to examine what the differences between the nations of the U.S. and Costa Rica are.

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36 Therefore, it was just assumed that the U.S. and Costa Rican samples would be different. A careful, in-depth examination of cultural aspects in different nations should be undertaken before conducting cross-cultural studies as this. Additionally, manipulation checks were not done in order to test and ensure whether the ads that were used in this study were individualistic or collectivistic. These should be done in order to improve the accuracy of the tests that are conducted. Furthermore, later studies can employ the use of other forms of media such as broadcast. Plus, it would be interesting to see if attitudes to ads are more favorable when the ads break through clutter by containing an appeal which is opposite to those that are mainly used in the media sector being examined. Other cultural differences could be tested as well such as Uncertainty Avoidance or Power Distance. Also, other factors besides product types can be tested to see if they moderate the affects of advertising appeals. Once such example is the product life cycle and in what stage is a particular product experiencing. Finally, other products besides the ones used in this study could be used to see if similar results occur. As was stated earlier, since the personal products in this study produced quite low favorable attitudes toward ads and brands different ones should be employed to see if it was actually these specific products that were creating the results.

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APPENDIX EXPERIMENT MATERIALS

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U.S. Ad 1 38

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39 U.S. Ad 2

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40 U.S. Ad 3

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41 U.S. Ad 4

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42 U.S. Ad 5

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43 U.S. Ad 6

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44 U.S. Ad 7

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45 U.S. Ad 8

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46 U.S. Ad 9

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47 U.S. Ad 10

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48 U.S. Ad 11

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49 Costa Rican Ad 1

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50 Costa Rican Ad 2

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51 Costa Rican Ad 3

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52 Costa Rican Ad 4

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53 Costa Rican Ad 5

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54 Costa Rican Ad 6

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55 Costa Rican Ad 7

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56 Costa Rican Ad 8

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57 Costa Rican Ad 9

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58 Costa Rican Ad 10

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59 Costa Rican Ad 11

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60 Informed Consent Protocol Title: The effects of cultural differences and product types on advertising effectiveness in Costa Rica and the U.S. Principal Investigator and Procedure Administrator: Harmala Sara, University of Florida Graduate Student, College of Journalism and Communications. Faculty Supervisor: Jorge Villegas, Ph.D, University of Florida Professor, College of Journalism and Communications. Please read this consent document carefully before you decide to participate in this study. Purpose of the research study: This study involves research with the purpose being to test which advertising appeals are appropriate across varying cultures and whether certain types of products influence the effectiveness of appeals. What you will be asked to do in the study: If you agree to participate you will be asked to view a set of seven advertisements and then read a group of adjectives, and decide where your opinion of the ad and brand of the product would be most accurately reflected on a continuum. After that, with your permission you will be asked to mark the space on the scale that most closely reflects your attitude. Then furthermore, if you agree to participate you will be asked your opinion about the product brands that you have just viewed by choosing and marking which brand you would purchase if given the opportunity. Finally, with your permission you will be asked your opinion of whether you are familiar and knowledgeable about and experienced with certain product categories. Time required: Twenty minutes Risks and Benefits: There are no anticipated risks of this study. There is no direct benefit to you for participating in this study. Compensation: You will receive extra credit points for participating in this study. The amount of extra credit is the decision of your instructor. Confidentiality: The results of your participation will be anonymous and confidential to the extent provided by law. Your responses will not be able to be associated directly with you. You may withdraw your consent at any time with no consequences. If you do withdraw consent, the results of your participation, to the extent that they can be identified as yours, will be returned to you, removed from the research records, or destroyed. Voluntary participation: Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating. Right to not answer: You do not have to answer any question that you do not wish to answer. Right to withdraw from the study: You have the right to withdraw from the study at anytime without consequence. Whom to contact if you have questions about the study: Harmala Sara, Graduate Student, College of Journalism and Communications, harmalasara@hotmail.com or Jorge Villegas, Ph.D, College of Journalism and Communications, jvillegas@jou.ufl.edu. Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: UFIRB Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250; ph 392-0433. Agreement: I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily agree to participate in the procedure and I have received a copy of this description. Participant: ___________________________________________ Date: _________________ Principal Investigator: ___________________________________ Date: _________________

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61 Instructions: Please review the following advertisements in the booklet and then answer the questions that correspond with that particular ad. Directions The following questionnaire asks you to indicate your opinion to a number of descriptive adjectives and open-ended questions about various newspaper ads for products. The scales in some of the questions are meant to measure your opinions on each of the ads. There are no right or wrong answers. Once you finish one ad and answer the questions corresponding with it please move on to the next advertisement. Please view advertisement 1 and read each set of adjectives carefully, and decide where your opinion would be the most accurately reflected on the continuum. Then, mark the space on the scale that most closely reflects your opinion. You may refuse to answer any question. Remember, there are no right or wrong answers. Advertisement 1: Do you find the advertisement: Unpleasant ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Pleasant 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Unlikable ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Likable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Not Irritating ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Irritating 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Not Interesting ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Interesting 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Do you find the Brand Boom to be: Bad ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Good 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Not Nice ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Nice 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Unlikable ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Likable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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62 Please view advertisement 2 and read each set of adjectives carefully, and decide where your opinion would be the most accurately reflected on the continuum. Then, mark the space on the scale that most closely reflects your opinion. You may refuse to answer any question. Remember, there are no right or wrong answers. Advertisement 2: Do you find the advertisement: Unpleasant ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Pleasant 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Unlikable ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Likable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Not Irritating ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Irritating 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Not Interesting ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Interesting 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Do you find the Brand Cool Wave to be: Bad ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Good 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Not Nice ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Nice 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Unlikable ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Likable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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63 Please view advertisement 3 and read each set of adjectives carefully, and decide where your opinion would be the most accurately reflected on the continuum. Then, mark the space on the scale that most closely reflects your opinion. You may refuse to answer any question. Remember, there are no right or wrong answers. Advertisement 3: Do you find the advertisement: Unpleasant ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Pleasant 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Unlikable ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Likable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Not Irritating ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Irritating 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Not Interesting ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Interesting 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Do you find the Brand Refresher to be: Bad ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Good 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Not Nice ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Nice 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Unlikable ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Likable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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64 Please view advertisement 4 and read each set of adjectives carefully, and decide where your opinion would be the most accurately reflected on the continuum. Then, mark the space on the scale that most closely reflects your opinion. You may refuse to answer any question. Remember, there are no right or wrong answers. Advertisement 4: Do you find the advertisement: Unpleasant ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Pleasant 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Unlikable ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Likable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Not Irritating ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Irritating 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Not Interesting ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Interesting 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Do you find the Brand Perfect Press to be: Bad ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Good 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Not Nice ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Nice 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Unlikable ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Likable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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65 Please view advertisement 5 and read each set of adjectives carefully, and decide where your opinion would be the most accurately reflected on the continuum. Then, mark the space on the scale that most closely reflects your opinion. You may refuse to answer any question. Remember, there are no right or wrong answers. Advertisement 5: Do you find the advertisement: Unpleasant ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Pleasant 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Unlikable ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Likable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Not Irritating ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Irritating 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Not Interesting ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Interesting 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Do you find the Brand SuperView to be: Bad ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Good 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Not Nice ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Nice 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Unlikable ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Likable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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66 Please view advertisement 6 and read each set of adjectives carefully, and decide where your opinion would be the most accurately reflected on the continuum. Then, mark the space on the scale that most closely reflects your opinion. You may refuse to answer any question. Remember, there are no right or wrong answers. Advertisement 6: Do you find the advertisement: Unpleasant ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Pleasant 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Unlikable ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Likable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Not Irritating ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Irritating 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Not Interesting ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Interesting 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Do you find the Brand In-Touch to be: Bad ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Good 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Not Nice ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Nice 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Unlikable ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Likable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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67 Please view advertisement 7 and read each set of adjectives carefully, and decide where your opinion would be the most accurately reflected on the continuum. Then, mark the space on the scale that most closely reflects your opinion. You may refuse to answer any question. Remember, there are no right or wrong answers. Advertisement 7: Do you find the advertisement: Unpleasant ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Pleasant 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Unlikable ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Likable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Not Irritating ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Irritating 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Not Interesting ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Interesting 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Do you find the Brand Ultra Comfort to be: Bad ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Good 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Not Nice ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Nice 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Unlikable ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Likable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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68 Please read the following question carefully and answer to the best of your ability. You may refuse to answer any question. There are no right or wrong answers. Which of the following brands would you choose to purchase if given the opportunity? Refresher deodorant _____ Premier camera _____ Tech computer ____ Ultra Comfort underwear _____ Super Sonic toothbrush _____ Glide razor _____ Boom stereo _____ SuperView television _____ Please read each set of adjectives carefully, and decide where your opinion would be the most accurately reflected on the continuum. Then, circle the space on the scale that most closely reflects your opinion. You may refuse to answer any question. Remember, there are no right or wrong answers. Are you familiar with stereos? Unfamiliar ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Familiar 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Are you familiar with underwears? Unfamiliar ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Familiar 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Are you familiar with deodorants? Unfamiliar ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Familiar 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Are you familiar with televisions? Unfamiliar ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Familiar 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Are you familiar with fans? Unfamiliar ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Familiar 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Are you familiar with irons? Unfamiliar ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Familiar 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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69 Are you familiar with telephones? Unfamiliar ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Familiar 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Are you experienced with stereos? Inexperienced ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Experienced 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Are you experienced with underwears? Inexperienced ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Experienced 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Are you experienced with deodorants? Inexperienced ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Experienced 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Are you experienced with televisions? Inexperienced ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Experienced 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Are you experienced with fans? Inexperienced ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Experienced 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Are you experienced with irons? Inexperienced ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Experienced 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Are you experienced with telephones? Inexperienced ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Experienced 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Are you knowledgeable about stereos? Unknowledgeable ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Knowledgeable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Are you knowledgeable about underwears? Unknowledgeable ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Knowledgeable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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70 Are you knowledgeable about deodorants? Unknowledgeable ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Knowledgeable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Are you knowledgeable about televisions? Unknowledgeable ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Knowledgeable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Are you knowledgeable about fans? Unknowledgeable ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Knowledgeable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Are you knowledgeable about irons? Unknowledgeable ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Knowledgeable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Are you knowledgeable about telephones? Unknowledgeable ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Knowledgeable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 The following questions will be used for statistical purposes. Your answers are completely confidential. Are you Male _______ or Female _______ What age are you? ________ What race are you? ___________________ What country were you born in? __________________ What school do you attend? ______________________ What year of school are you in? ___________________ What are you studying? __________________________ Thank you for your participation. If you have any problems or questions, please email Harmala Sara at harmala@ufl.edu or Dr. Villegas at jvillegas@jou.ufl.edu.

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71 Documento de consentimiento informado Ttulo del estudio: Efectos de los diferentes tipos de productos y de las diferencias culturales en la efectividad de la publicidad en Costa Rica y Estados Unidos. Investigadora principal: Harmala Sara, licenciada de la Facultad de Periodismo y Comunicacin de la Universidad de Florida. Director del proyecto: Jorge Villegas, doctor de la Facultad de Periodismo y Comunicacin de la Universidad de Florida. Lea atentamente el presente documento de consentimiento antes de participar en el estudio. Objetivo de la investigacin: Analizar qu recursos publicitarios son apropiados en culturas diversas y establecer si ciertos tipos de productos ejercen influencia sobre la efectividad de la publicidad. Si acepta participar en el estudio, se le pedir que vea siete anuncios publicitarios. A continuacin, deber leer una serie de adjetivos y decidir cules reflejan de forma ms precisa su opinin sobre el anuncio y la marca. Luego, se le pedir que indique qu nivel de la escala refleja mejor su postura al respecto. A continuacin, deber exponer su opinin sobre las marcas que aparecen en los anuncios nombrando la marca que elegira si tuviera que comprar un producto. Por ltimo, se le preguntar si conoce ciertas categoras de productos. Tiempo necesario para participar en el estudio: Veinte minutos. Riesgos y beneficios: No existen riesgos derivados de participar en el estudio. No hay beneficio directo a usted para participar en este estudio. Compensacin: Recibir crditos adicionales por participar en el estudio. La cantidad de crditos recibida queda a criterio del instructor. Confidencialidad: Su participacin en el estudio ser annima y confidencial hasta donde lo permita la legislacin vigente. No ser posible relacionar con usted las respuestas que proporcione a lo largo del estudio. En cualquier momento del estudio puede denegar su consentimiento sin consecuencia alguna para usted. Si decide hacerlo, se le entregarn los resultados de su participacin en el estudio, en la medida en que puedan relacionarse con usted, o bien se eliminarn de los archivos, o se destruirn. Participacin voluntaria: Su participacin en el estudio es totalmente voluntaria. No existe ninguna penalizacin por no participar. Derecho a no responder: Si as lo desea, puede no contestar a alguna de las preguntas. Derecho a interrumpir su participacin: Puede abandonar el estudio cuando desee sin consecuencia alguna para usted. En caso de dudas sobre el estudio, pngase en contacto con Harmala Sara, licenciada de la Facultad de Periodismo y Comunicacin, escribiendo a la direccin de correo electrnico harmalasara@hotmail.com, o con Jorge Villegas, doctor de la Facultad de Periodismo y Comunicacin, escribiendo a la direccin jvillegas@jou.ufl.edu. Si desea obtener informacin sobre sus derechos como participante en un estudio, pngase en contacto con: UFIRB Office, Box 112250, Universidad de Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-2250. Telfono: 392-0433. Consentimiento: Declaro que he ledo el procedimiento detallado en este documento, que he recibido una copia del mismo y que doy mi consentimiento a participar de forma voluntaria en el mismo. Participante: ________________________________________________________ Fecha: _________________ Investigador principal: ________________________________________________ Fecha: _________________

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72 Instrucciones: Por favor revise los siguientes anuncios comerciales en el folleto y despus responda las preguntas correspondientes a cada anuncio. Procedimiento El siguiente cuestionario le pide indicar su opinin a un nmero de adjetivos descriptivos y preguntas abiertas acerca de anuncios de productos en peridicos. Las escalas en algunas de las preguntas deben medir su opinin en cada uno de los anuncios. No existen respuestas correctas o incorrectas. Una vez que termine un anuncio y responda las preguntas correspondientes, por favor pase al siguiente. Por favor observe el anuncio commercial nmero uno, lea cada uno de los adjetivos cuidadosamente y decida dnde se refleja ms su opinin en la lnea discontinua. Luego, encierre en un crculo el espacio de la escala qu refleja su opinin ms cercanamente. Puede negarse a responder cualquier pregunta. Recuerde, no hay respuestas correctas o incorrectas. Anuncio 1: Encuentra el anuncio: No placentero ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Placentero 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Desagradable ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Agradable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 No irritante ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Irritante 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 No interesante ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Interesante 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Encuentra la marca Boom: Mala ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ____ Buena 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 No linda ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Linda 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Desagradable ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Agradable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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73 Por favor observe el anuncio commercial nmero dos, lea cada uno de los adjetivos cuidadosamente y decida dnde se refleja ms su opinin en la lnea discontinua. Luego, encierre en un crculo el espacio de la escala qu refleja su opinin ms cercanamente. Puede negarse a responder cualquier pregunta. Recuerde, no hay respuestas correctas o incorrectas. Anuncio 2: Encuentra el anuncio: No placentero ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Placentero 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Desagradable ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Agradable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 No irritante ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Irritante 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 No interesante ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Interesante 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Encuentra la marca Cool Wave: Mala ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ____ Buena 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 No linda ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Linda 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Desagradable ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Agradable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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74 Por favor observe el anuncio commercial nmero tres, lea cada uno de los adjetivos cuidadosamente y decida dnde se refleja ms su opinin en la lnea discontinua. Luego, encierre en un crculo el espacio de la escala qu refleja su opinin ms cercanamente. Puede negarse a responder cualquier pregunta. Recuerde, no hay respuestas correctas o incorrectas. Anuncio 3: Encuentra el anuncio: No placentero ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Placentero 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Desagradable ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Agradable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 No irritante ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Irritante 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 No interesante ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Interesante 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Encuentra la marca Refresher: Mala ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ____ Buena 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 No linda ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Linda 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Desagradable ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Agradable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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75 Por favor observe el anuncio commercial nmero cuatro, lea cada uno de los adjetivos cuidadosamente y decida dnde se refleja ms su opinin en la lnea discontinua. Luego, encierre en un crculo el espacio de la escala qu refleja su opinin ms cercanamente. Puede negarse a responder cualquier pregunta. Recuerde, no hay respuestas correctas o incorrectas. Anuncio 4: Encuentra el anuncio: No placentero ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Placentero 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Desagradable ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Agradable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 No irritante ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Irritante 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 No interesante ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Interesante 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Encuentra la marca Perfect Press: Mala ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ____ Buena 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 No linda ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Linda 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Desagradable ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Agradable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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76 Por favor observe el anuncio commercial nmero cinco, lea cada uno de los adjetivos cuidadosamente y decida dnde se refleja ms su opinin en la lnea discontinua. Luego, encierre en un crculo el espacio de la escala qu refleja su opinin ms cercanamente. Puede negarse a responder cualquier pregunta. Recuerde, no hay respuestas correctas o incorrectas. Anuncio 5: Encuentra el anuncio: No placentero ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Placentero 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Desagradable ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Agradable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 No irritante ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Irritante 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 No interesante ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Interesante 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Encuentra la marca SuperView: Mala ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ____ Buena 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 No linda ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Linda 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Desagradable ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Agradable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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77 Por favor observe el anuncio commercial nmero seis, lea cada uno de los adjetivos cuidadosamente y decida dnde se refleja ms su opinin en la lnea discontinua. Luego, encierre en un crculo el espacio de la escala qu refleja su opinin ms cercanamente. Puede negarse a responder cualquier pregunta. Recuerde, no hay respuestas correctas o incorrectas. Anuncio 6: Encuentra el anuncio: No placentero ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Placentero 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Desagradable ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Agradable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 No irritante ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Irritante 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 No interesante ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Interesante 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Encuentra la marca In-Touch: Mala ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ____ Buena 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 No linda ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Linda 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Desagradable ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Agradable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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78 Por favor observe el anuncio commercial nmero siete, lea cada uno de los adjetivos cuidadosamente y decida dnde se refleja ms su opinin en la lnea discontinua. Luego, encierre en un crculo el espacio de la escala qu refleja su opinin ms cercanamente. Puede negarse a responder cualquier pregunta. Recuerde, no hay respuestas correctas o incorrectas. Anuncio 7: Encuentra el anuncio: No placentero ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Placentero 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Desagradable ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Agradable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 No irritante ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Irritante 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 No interesante ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Interesante 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Encuentra la marca Ultra Comfort: Mala ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ____ Buena 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 No linda ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Linda 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Desagradable ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Agradable 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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79 Por favor lea la siguiente pregunta cuidadosamente y responda de la major manera posible. Puede negarse a responder cualquier pregunta. No hay respuestas correctas o incorrectas. Cul de las siguientes marcas escogera para comprar si tuviera la oportunidad? Desodorante Refresher _____ Camara Premier _____ Computadora Tech _____ Ropa interior Ultra Confort _____ Cepillo de dientes Super Sonic _____ Navaja de afeitar Glide _____ stereo Boom _____ Televisor SuperView _____ Por favor lea cada grupo de adjetivos y decida dnde su opinin debe ir en la lnea discontinua. Despus, encierre en un crculo el espacio de la escala que ms se acerca a su opinin. Puede negarse a responder cualquier pregunta. Recuerde, no hay respuestas correctas o incorrectas. Est familiarizado con los estreos? No familiar ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Familiar 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Est familiarizado con las ropas interiores? No familiar ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Familiar 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Est familiarizado con los desodorantes? No familiar ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Familiar 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Est familiarizado con los televisores? No familiar ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Familiar 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Est familiarizado con los ventiladores? No familiar ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Familiar 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Est familiarizado con las planchas? No familiar ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Familiar 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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80 Est familiarizado con los telfonos? No familiar ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Familiar 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Tiene experiencia con los estreos? No experiencia ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Experiencia 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Tiene experiencia con las ropas interiores? No experiencia ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Experiencia 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Tiene experiencia con los desodorantes? No experiencia ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Experiencia 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Tiene experiencia con los televisores? No experiencia ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Experiencia 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Tiene experiencia con los ventiladores? No experiencia ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Experiencia 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Tiene experiencia con las planchas? No experiencia ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Experiencia 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Tiene experiencia con los telfonos? No experiencia ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Experiencia 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Tiene conocimiento de los estreos? No conocimiento ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Conocimiento 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Tiene conocimiento de las ropas interiores? No conocimiento ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Conocimiento 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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81 Tiene conocimiento de los desodorantes? No conocimiento ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Conocimiento 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Tiene conocimiento de los televisores? No conocimiento ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Conocimiento 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Tiene conocimiento de los ventiladores? No conocimiento ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Conocimiento 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Tiene conocimiento de las planchas? No conocimiento ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Conocimiento 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Tiene conocimiento de los telfonos? No conocimiento ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___ Conocimiento 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Las siguientes preguntas sern utilizadas para propsitos estadsticos. Sus respuestas son totalmente confidenciales. Es usted del sexo masculino _______ o femenino _______? Qu edad tiene? ________ A qu raza pertenece? ___________________ En qu pas naci? __________________ A qu centro educativo asiste? ______________________ En cul ao de estudios se encuentra? ___________________ Qu estudia? __________________________ Gracias por su participacin. Si tiene algn problema o pregunta, por favor enve un correo electrnico a Harmala Sara a harmala@ufl.edu o Dr.Villegas a jvillegas@jou.ufl.edu.

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REFERENCES Belch, G. E., & Belch, M.A. (2001). Advertising and promotion: An integrated marketing communications perspective. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2001. Cisneros, L. B. (1982). Development of advertising in Costa Rica. Unpublished masters thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville. The Costa Rica Identity. (2003). Retrieved May 23, 2003, from http://www.infocostarica.com/culture/ Cutler, B. D. (1997). Advertisers relative reliance on collectivism-individualism appeals: A cross-cultural study. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 9 (3), 43-55. Direct Marketing in Costa Rica. (2004). Retrieved February 26, 2004, from http://www.davisdirect.com/newsletter/2v02/costa_rica.html Hall, E. T. (1976). Beyond culture. Garden City, NY: Anchor Book, Doubleday. Harris, M. (1976). History and significance of the emic/etic distinction. Annual Review of Anthropology, 5, 329-350. Hofstede, G. (1997). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. New York: McGraw Hill. Hofstedes dimensions of culture. (2003). Retrieved April 3, 2003, from http://home.triad.rr.com/anelson/hofstedes.htm Johar, J.S., & Sirgy, J.M. (1991). Value-expressive versus utilitarian advertising appeals: When and why to use which appeal. Journal of Advertising, 20 (3), 23-33. Kamakura, W. A., & Novak, T. P. (1992). Value-system segmentation: Exploring the meaning of LOV. Journal of Consumer Research, 19 (1), 119. Kent, R. J., & Allen, C. T. (1994). Competitive interference effects in consumer memory for advertising: The role of brand familiarity. Journal of Marketing, 58 (3), 97-105. 82

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83 Kingsley, R. E. (1967, July). The public diplomacy of U.S. business abroad: The experience of Latin America. Journal of Inter-American Studies, 9 (3), 413-428. Lepkowska-White, E., Brashear, T. G., & Weinberger, M. G. (2003). A test of ad appeal effectiveness in Poland and the United States: The interplay of appeal, product and culture. Journal of Advertising, 32 (3), 57-67. Shavitt, S. (1990). The role of attitude objects in attitude function. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 26, 124-148. Spence, J.T. (1985). Achievement American style: The rewards and costs of individualism. American Psychologist, 40 (12), 1285-1295. Triandis, H. C., Bontempo, R., Villareal, M. J., Asai, M., & Lucca, N. (1988). Individualism and collectivism: Cross-cultural perspectives on self-ingroup relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54 (2), 323-338. Villegas, J. (2003). Proceedings of ADV4400: International advertising. Gainesville: University of Florida. Zhang, Y., & Neelankavil, J. P. (1997). The influence of culture on advertising effectiveness in China and the USA, A cross-cultural study. European Journal of Marketing, 31 (2), 134-145.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Harmala Sara was born in 1979, in Opelika, Alabama, and grew up in Auburn, Alabama. After attending Auburn city schools and graduating in 1998 she attended Florida State University in Tallahassee, Florida, with a major in public relations and minors in graphic design and business. During her undergraduate career she traveled to Spain for a language program and Costa Rica for a service/cultural program. Following obtaining her Bachelor of Arts degree from Florida State University in the spring of 2002, Harmala worked as a public relations assistant at an integrated marketing communications firm in Tallahassee during the summer. In the fall of 2002 she began her studies at the University of Florida working toward a masters degree in advertising. Upon completion of her degree, Harmala will relocate to Atlanta, Georgia. 84


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Title: Effects of Cultural Differences and Product Types on Advertising Effectiveness in Costa Rica and the U.S.
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

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Source Institution: University of Florida
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EFFECTS OF CULTURAL DIFFERENCES AND PRODUCT TYPES ON
ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS IN COSTA RICA AND THE U.S.







By

HARMALA KAUR SARA


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF MASTER OF ADVERTISING

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2004















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to take this opportunity to thank the many people who have helped

me throughout my graduate studies and thesis process. First of all, Dr. Jorge Villegas, my

thesis supervisor, offered extreme support and help in all aspects of my thesis

coordination through many e-mails and meetings. He always made time available to

discuss my progress and keep me on the right track. His positive attitude served as a great

motivation for me. Further, I would like to extend my great appreciation to Dr. Chang-

Hoan Cho and Dr. Marilyn Roberts for serving on my committee. They have provided

positive reinforcement and knowledge in the research and international aspects of my

thesis.

Dr. John Sutherland has been great support through my entire two years at the

University of Florida. It has been an honor for me to be a part of the first Master of

Advertising program at U.F. Ms. Jody Hedge has also been a great help to me by

answering countless questions that I have had regarding my course work, graduation and

thesis. Her great enthusiasm was always very comforting.

Plus, I would like to thank Dr. Cynthia Morton for allowing me to recruit students

from her class for my study. I could not have asked for more from my friends at the

University of Costa Rica for their endless help in translations and offering opinions. Ana

Marta Arguedas was of extreme assistance in helping me secure participants for my study

from the University of Costa Rica.









I would also like to thank my family and boyfriend for being by my side

throughout this entire process which many times seemed endless. Without my parents'

encouragement and inspiration I do not know how I would have made it through to the

end. My mother's kind words always gave me the confidence I needed, and my father's

own academic experience helped to offer invaluable advice. My boyfriend, Matt Servies

had amazing patience with me and offered great motivation. Finally, my sister Malti

always maintained a light-humored atmosphere which helped to keep my spirits up when

frustration set in at times.















TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

A C K N O W L ED G E M EN T S .................................................................................... ii

L IST O F T A B L E S........................................... .................... ...... .......... ........ vi

A B ST R A C T .................................................................................... vii

CHAPTER

1 IN TR OD U CTION ........................................................................... 1

2 LITER A TU RE REV IEW ........................................... ................................. 4

Cultures and V alues. ........................ ................ ................................... 4
Individualism and C ollectivism ........................................................ ............ 5
A advertising A appeals. ....... .... ........................................ ...... .... 8
P ro du ct C ateg ories........ ...... .............................................................. .. .... 10
C current Study Intentions.......................................................... ................... 11

3 H Y P O T H E SE S.............................................................. .. ............. .... .... 13

4 M E T H O D S ..................................................................17

P re te sts ...................................................................1 7
Main Study................................................ 18
M a te ria ls ............................................................................................ 1 9
Questionnaire Scales................................................. 20
Ancillary M easures.............................. 21

5 R E SU L T S ................... ...................2...................2.........

Subject Profile ........................................................................................... 22
M easurem ent R liabilities ...................................................................... 23
Product Fam iliarity ........................................................................ ..... 23
Testing of Hypotheses ......................... ....... 24

6 DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS...................... .................. 30









7 LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH........................................... 34

APPENDIX OF EXPERIMENT MATERIALS
A dv ertisem ents............................................................. .................. ...... .... 3 8
Q questionnaires ........... ... .... ........ .... .................... 60

R E F E R E N C E S ...................................................................... .................. ...... 82

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ........ ............................ .......... ... 84















TABLES

Table Page

5-1 Alpha scores for each measure............................................................ .... 27

5-2 Tests of between-subjects effects.................................................................28

5-3 Tests of between-subjects effects.................................................................29















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising

EFFECTS OF CULTURAL DIFFERENCES AND PRODUCT TYPES ON
ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS IN COSTA RICA AND THE U.S.

By
Harmala Kaur Sara

August 2004

Chair: Jorge Villegas
Major Department: Advertising

The questions of which advertising appeals are appropriate across individualistic

and collectivistic cultures and whether product categories moderate effectiveness of

appeals were investigated by examining participants from the U.S. and Costa Rica.

Participants were asked to view a set of seven advertisements, each with either

individualistic or collectivistic copy, and then completed a questionnaire regarding their

attitudes toward the ads, brands of products and types of products. Questions involving

product familiarity and demographics were also asked.

Results showed that there were no interactions between country and cultural value

when trying to elicit favorable attitudes toward ads and brands. Additionally, no

interactions were found among country, product type and cultural value when trying to

elicit favorable attitudes toward ads and brands.
















CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

In the recent years there has been a tremendous emphasis on international

marketing and trade. Many companies have realized that in order to keep up in this world

and survive they must consider venturing their products beyond borders. There are a

variety of reasons why globalization has had such an impact. For example, certain

industries have been experiencing maturity of their products within their already existent

markets. Plus, by using this technique a larger audience throughout the world can be

reached which can reduce costs (Belch & Belch, 2001).

In order to successfully market products in different countries it is important to

examine the various cultural differences. Although the products being promoted in each

country may be the same, the types of advertising and appeals used to advertise them may

not be similar. For example, some countries are considered to be individualistic such as

the U.S., which means they place "an emphasis on self-sufficiency and control; and

derive pride from their individual accomplishments (Zhang & Neelankavil, 1997, p.

135)." On the other hand, there are the collectivistic cultures like many Latin American

and Asian countries, which involve "subordination of personal interest to the goals of the

group." (Zhang & Neelankavil, 1997, p. 135)

However, even though a product is being advertised in an individualistic or

collectivistic culture, whether the product itself is individualistic or collectivistic seems to









play a role in how it should be advertised. It has been thought that only individualistic

appeals should be used for individualistic cultures and collectivistic appeals for

collectivistic cultures, but this may not always seem to be the case, especially for

personal products. For example, no matter what cultural context a personal product such

as a toothbrush may be immersed in, it would be best to use individualistic appeals

because this product is usually used by one person privately. This illustrates "object-

based attitude formation," which states that an advertising appeal should be "persuasive

to the extent that it cogently addresses the functions engaged by the attitude object."

(Shavitt, 1990; Zhang & Neelankavil, 1997, p. 138)

Over the years great focus has been put on Central America by the United States

as a business venture (Kingsley, 1967). With its close proximity, this market has shown

itself as a lucrative target. In order for America to be successful in future trade with these

nations it is imperative to discover which advertising appeals according to the culture and

product types are most appropriate for this region. This study hopes to aid in revealing

some answers to this question by examining the various perceptions and attitudes of the

residents of one Latin American country toward ads containing individualistic or

collectivistic appeals with either non-personal or personal product types. The country

chosen for this study is Costa Rica. Likewise, the same will be done with U.S. residents

to investigate an individualistic culture and to compare it with the collectivistic culture.

This will be accomplished by following previous research done on this topic and

conducting experiments using subjects from Costa Rica and the United States.

First, an examination of the literature will be done and presented in order to

achieve an understanding of the various constructs that support this study. These include









the areas of cultures and values, individualism vs. collectivism, advertising appeals and

product categories. From these ideas, hypotheses to be tested will be developed and

explained. Next, a look into the method will be presented including protests, the main

study and materials to be used in the study such as advertisements, measurement scales

and questionnaires. Following this, the results will be observed containing the subject

profile, measurement reliability and hypotheses tests outcomes. These conclusions will be

discussed as to what they mean what implications they may have. Finally, the limitations

of the study will be displayed with recommendations for future research on this specific

topic or others that may relate.















CHAPTER 2
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE RESEARCH: LITERATURE REVIEW

Cultures and Values

Culture has been seen in many ways. Many of which tend to lean toward a

common thinking that people are not already born with a certain culture or cultural

thinking. It is thought that the environment and situations in which a person is immersed

within and how they influence him or her and the others who exist in the same

surroundings to behave in certain ways (Hofstede, 1997).

The two ways researchers examine cultures are emic and etic. In general, emic

operations are those which examine what goes on specifically inside the head of a person

or people of a certain culture. On the other hand, etic operations are involved in

examining patterns in behavior (Harris, 1976).

In terms of culture, when referring to emic, the minds and thoughts of one group

of people, in particular, are being observed and analyzed. An emic study is thought to be

culturally specific. It involves understanding one culture in-depth while etic compares the

behaviors of two or more cultures. Etic is more pan-cultural in that it studies the broad-

spectrum of patterns in behaviors that various cultures may have (Harris, 1976).

Values of specific countries are important because they help to determine the behavior of

the residents of that nation. They are what these people identify and are familiar with.

Cultural values are held very dear to those who embrace them. Individuals feel that these

are the proper ways of life which everyone should follow. Overall, they are strong









influences on behaviors, attitudes and perceptions. Values differ however, from attitudes

in that they are more stable and are central to one's cognitive system. Unlike needs which

are only learned, values are both learned and innate (Kamakura & Novak, 1992).



Individualism vs. Collectivism

Due to the fact that this world is driving toward globalization, countries are

beginning to facilitate trade with a multiple amount of other nations. As mentioned

earlier, not always do these countries have the same cultural values. In order to maintain

successful business with diverse nations it is imperative for one to understand the cultural

differences that exist. This will aid in the appropriate communication of messages in

areas such as advertising. Advertisers have found that the most profitable way to

accomplish this is to create advertisements with appeals that correspond with a country's

values since it has been said that individual differences and social/cultural differences

help facilitate consumer reactions to advertising (Cutler, 1997).

First, the specific cultural values and norms must be identified of a particular

nation that is the target of the advertising message. Hofstede has created certain

dimensions, which explain and classify a country's cultural orientation. These include

power distance, individualism, masculinity and uncertainty avoidance. Each one is

measured on an index scale from 0 to 100. The dimensions are important because they

have been thought to be the most useful in business settings (Cutler, 1997).

Scholars have proposed many other cultural dimensions; however they all share

the ideas of individualism and collectivism. This is one reason why many use the

individualism/collectivism dimension to investigate cultures (Cutler, 1997). It is largely









accepted that individualism contains the traits of independence, self-orientation, goals

focused toward the individual and motivation from individual accomplishments (Zhang

& Neelankavil, 1997). Those with individualistic characteristics rely more on their own

thoughts and decisions than those of the group. They are low self-monitors and express

their private opinions. Additionally, most of these cultures are considered low-context.

This refers to the idea that messages are more readily accepted when they are explicit and

there is a high use of words. These individuals do not rely on their surroundings to

understand information and messages (Hall, 1976).

On the other hand, collectivism involves goals focused toward the group, concern

for the group and interdependence (Zhang & Neelankavil, 1997). An example is a culture

that is very family oriented. The people who are a part of this culture are concerned with

avoiding shame and rely on the opinions of their peers and the group. This dimension is

more regarded as high-context where messages are implicit and sent mostly with symbols

(Hall, 1976).

In regard to society, the definition of individualism-collectivism created by

Hofstede is, "the degree to which a culture relies on and has allegiance to the self or the

group" (Hofstede's Dimensions of Culture, 2003, p. 2). In other words, this means how

much a person is involved with its society and whether this society is well-knit or loosely

tied. This varies from country to country. For example, the United States has been found

to be individualistic with a high Hofstede index score of 91. This is the highest score

applied to a country for individualism followed by Australia with an index of 90

(Hofstede's Dimensions of Culture, 2003). The U.S. is seen as being characterized by

achievement, individual accomplishment and material prosperity, all of which have been









embodied in the idea of the "American Dream." Although some have criticized

individualism as being "selfish", they do not take into account how it has contributed to

the nation's occupants' concept of self and the influence it has had on social and political

institutions. It has contributed to the American ideals of democracy and equality since it

upholds the belief that every person is independent and has natural rights (Spence, 1985).

When studying individualism, the concept of achievement and its motives are

examined. It has been found that certain personal wants and desires are the major

influences that create achievement behaviors. This concept has been thought of as

"American rugged individualism", which means that one strives towards their self-

sufficiency and that their destiny is in their own hands (Spence, 1985).

One study helped to explain the existence of individualism in the U.S.A. by

looking at the areas of sacrifice vs. hedonism, extension of self into in-group vs. self as a

distinct entity from in-group and concern for in-groups vs. self-reliance and emotional

distance from in-group. It was found that subjects of the U.S. had more concern for their

own goals, paid less attention to the views of in-groups, detached from in-groups, made

decisions by oneself and had less concern for the in-group (Triandis, Bontempo,

Villareal, Asai & Lucca, 1988). These views have also been proven to be common in

Europe as well (Zhang & Neelankavil, 1997).

As for being collectivistic in nature, countries within Asia, Africa and Latin

America possess these traits (Zhang & Neelankavil, 1997). For example, according to

Hofstede's cultural dimensions Costa Rica has been given an index of 15 with 100 being

the highest for individualism (Hofstede's Dimensions of Culture, 2003). It has been

found to be a country, which is concerned with its self-image. The people of Costa Rica









are very proud of their nation, culture and traditions. Due to this, they highly identify

with other Costa Ricans. It has been said that they consider themselves "Costa Ricans"

first, and only after that, are they "Central Americans" or "Latin Americans." Their

values have always been focused on tolerance and respect for themselves and others (The

Costa Rica Identity, 2003). They are peaceful, friendly and calm (Cisneros, 1982).

Family and community are extremely important aspects of their lives. For example, the

family is the basis for social life, and children remain at home with their parents until

marriage. Extended families are common as well. They choose their in-groups and many

times do not accept different ideas. However, these people are very eager to please and

are afraid of shaming themselves (The Costa Rica Identity, 2003).



Advertising Appeals

When targeting specific audiences, the different advertising appeals should be

taken into consideration in association with their cultural orientation. In individualistic

countries the appeals tend to adopt characteristics reflecting the dimension of

individualism. For example, the U.S. has been known to highly utilize the "rugged"

Marlboro Man in its ads for cigarettes. These types of images will be more effective in

countries of North America and Europe and if applied to collectivistic countries a

different effect would occur (Zhang & Neelankavil, 1997). However, on the collectivist

side, for the nation of Costa Rica, it has been seen that when products which are being

advertised are used in both the United States and Costa Rica, the ad executions are close

to the same. Some products though, do use a different approach. For example, an ad for

Coke uses appeals that match Costa Rican preferences. It embraced the ideas of family









and cost consciousness. The headline utilized a rational appeal which translated in

English to, "Family Coca-Cola (as Coca-Cola in Costa Rica is called Coca-Cola Familiar,

"Family Coke") satisfies everyone in the family." A subhead was found to be, "Four full

glasses that will cost you less." Also, found displayed in the ad were three popular Costa

Rican dishes of food (Cisneros, 1982).

In addition to individualistic and collectivistic, there are other appeals including

those that are value-expressive or utilitarian. Value-expressive is being image oriented

and symbolic, while utilitarian involves function and key benefits of a product. It has

been found that value-expressive appeals are influenced by self-congruity while

utilitarian are influenced by functional congruity. The value-expressive appeal is best

used in persuasion with a product that has high product value-expressiveness. As for a

utilitarian appeal, it is best used with a product that has high product utility (Johar &

Sirgry, 1991).

The concepts of self-congruity and functional congruity have been defined. Self-

congruity is when there is a match between a product's value-expressive attributes and

the target's self concept, also known as product user image. The product user image is

what a target thinks about the user of a product. These include actual self-image, ideal

self-image, social self-image and ideal social self-image. On the other hand, functional

congruity is when there is a match between the beliefs of product utilitarian attributes,

which deal with performance and the target's referent attributes (Johar & Sirgy, 1991).









Product Categories

There are a variety of products that exist so it has been previously examined

whether product categories play a role in moderating the effectiveness of appeals. This

has been thought because most products are not the same as others and contain different

meanings and benefits for different people. For this reason, some believe that the

advertising appeal should reflect the function of the product and not the culture of the

country in which the product is being advertised (Zhang & Neelankavil, 1997). As has

been mentioned earlier, some products are value-expressive while others are utilitarian.

In a study focused on China and the U.S., conducted by Zhang and Neelankavil, it

was investigated to see if for non-personal products, appeals that reflect the specific

cultural values of a country will be more effective than those that do not. A non-personal

product has a purpose that is for the use by a group of people. Many people are able to be

benefited by the use of this product. A camera is one type of non-personal product. So,

according to the study, even if a non-personal product is being advertised in a

collectivistic culture this does not mean that the advertising appeal should always reflect

collectivism.

In the case of personal products, those which are used for the purpose and benefit

of only one person, the opposite is seen. If the benefits of this product are more geared

toward personal goals it may then be appropriate to use an individualistic appeal instead.

The results indicated that there were differences between U.S.A. and China. It

was shown that individualistic appeals were more effective in U.S.A. and collectivistic

appeals in China. In regard to products, the appeal for a personal product depended on the

product type and its benefits toward people, whereas for a non-personal product, the









appeal was more effective when it reflected the culture value of a country (Zhang &

Neelankavil, 1997).

In the above study the products chosen were a 35mm camera and a toothbrush.

The camera was used as a non-personal product because it was universally used across

the two cultures of the U.S. and China. For the personal product the toothbrush was

utilized because it too was used in both countries for a very personal purpose (Zhang &

Neelankavil, 1997).



Current Study Intentions

This present study intends to follow Zhang and Neelankavil's research on China

and the U.S. The questions of which advertising appeals are appropriate across

individualistic and collectivistic cultures and whether product categories moderate

effectiveness of appeals need to be investigated again to see if the results are upheld

when another country and different products are employed. Due to this, the collectivist

Latin American country, Costa Rica, was utilized instead. This country was chosen

especially because of its low individualism index score. The U.S. was chosen once again

to confirm the idea that individualistic appeals are best suited for this country and to see

whether the use of different products will still moderate the effect of appeals. These two

countries are a compatible match for this study due to their great difference in Hofstede

individualism indices. The dimension of individualism utilized in this study because

previously in the Zhang and Neelankavil experiment this was the dimension employed.

Plus, when comparing the index scores of Costa Rica and the U.S. for other dimensions

such as Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance and Masculinity there was not as much









of a difference between the two countries. For example, the differences between the

scores of both countries were as follows: Power Distance: 5, Uncertainty Avoidance: 40

and Masculinity: 41. In the case of Individualism, however, the difference of scores was

76. This was another reason which made the dimension of Individualism more favorable

for this study as well.

The study will use an etic approach by comparing the nations of Costa Rica and

the U.S. because the behaviors of both countries are of interest rather than just the

thoughts of one in particular. Plus, aside from just examining each behavior

independently, the two will be compared and contrasted against one another.















CHAPTER 3
DEVELOPMENT OF HYPOTHESES

Findings by Zhang and Neelankavil (1997) showed that cultural values such as

individualism and collectivism can influence attitude to an ad directly. In their study, ads

which utilized individualistic appeals were found to be more effective in the

individualistic country of U.S.A. rather than in China, a collectivistic country. It was seen

though, that the idea of collectivistic appeals being more effective in China than U.S.A.

was not supported as much. However, this was said to possibly be caused by extraneous

variables. In general though, the Chinese participants did favor the collectivistic ads over

the individualistic ones.

These ideas above were tested because it has been claimed in the past that for

messages to be successful in a country which is considered individualistic the ads should

also encompass the characteristics of individualism. These characteristics include

independence, goals toward the individual and ideas centered around ones own self. Plus,

on the other hand, it has been said that for an advertising message to be successful in a

collectivistic country the ad must have collectivistic characteristics, which are those that

are society, family and community oriented. Therefore, it is hypothesized that:


H1: A match of cultural appeals will be more successful in eliciting more
favorable attitudes toward ads.

Hla: Appeals that emphasize individualistic values will elicit a more
favorable attitude toward the ad in the U.S.A. than in Costa Rica.

Hlb: Appeals that emphasize collectivistic values will elicit a more









favorable attitude toward the ad in Costa Rica than in the U.S.A.


According to Zhang and Neelankavil (1997) similar results regarding the effect on

attitude to the brand was found. The idea that an individualistic population will have a

more favorable attitude to a brand due to an individualistic appeal was supported in their

study. It was also found that the same was true for collectivistic appeals in China.

These were tested for the same reason as H1. This being that it has been claimed

in the past that for messages to be successful in a country which is considered

individualistic the ads should also encompass the characteristics of individualism. Plus,

on the other hand, for an advertising message to be successful in a collectivistic country

the ad must have collectivistic characteristics. Along with messages, these ideas are

believed to be held true for brands as well. Therefore, it is hypothesized that:


H2: A match of cultural appeals will be more successful in eliciting more
favorable attitudes toward brands.

H2a: Appeals that emphasize individualistic values will elicit a more
favorable attitude toward the brand in the U.S.A. than in Costa
Rica.

H2b: Appeals that emphasize collectivistic values will elicit a more
favorable attitude toward the brand in Costa Rica than in the
U.S.A.


According to Zhang and Neelankavil (1997) it has been suggested that product

types seem to moderate the effectiveness of advertising appeals toward the attitude of

ads. Although above, it was stated that culturally congruent appeals were best for

favorable attitudes toward ads, sometimes product type may play a role in achieving this.









For example, it has been speculated that for non-personal products, which are

those that can be shared among different individuals and do not serve only a purpose for a

single person, advertising appeals should reflect the cultural value of the country in which

the product is being advertised. This was found true in the case of the U.S. and China. On

the other hand, in regard to a personal product, Zhang and Neelankavil (1997) produced

results that showed cultural values did not have an effect on the attitude to an ad or brand.

In the case of ads for a toothbrush, participants in both the U.S.A. and China preferred the

same ad appeal. The appeal which was favored was individualistic. Therefore, it is

hypothesized that:


H3: Product types moderate the effectiveness of advertising appeals in eliciting a
more favorable attitude toward ads. Specifically, that for non-personal
products a match in advertising appeals with cultural values will elicit a
more favorable attitude than those which do not follow this procedure.
Matches in cultural values and advertising appeals do not create large
differences, or if so very little, in attitude toward ads when the product is
personal.



For attitude to brand, similar results as those above for attitude to ads with the

moderation of product types were found by Zhang and Neelankavil (1997). The

individualistic appeal was once again favored in both China and the U.S. in eliciting a

more favorable attitude, this time toward the brand, when the product was personal. In

regard to a non-personal product, it was also seen that there was a difference in

preference of appeals for China and the U.S., just as there had been when testing for the

attitude toward the ad. Therefore, it is hypothesized that:


H4: Product types moderate the effectiveness of advertising appeals in eliciting a
more favorable attitude toward brands. Specifically, that for non-personal






16


products a match in advertising appeals with cultural values will elicit a
more favorable attitude than those which do not follow this procedure.
Matches in cultural values and advertising appeals do not create large
differences, or if so very little, in attitude toward brands when the product
is personal.















CHAPTER 4
METHOD

In order to test which advertising appeals are appropriate across individualistic

and collectivistic cultures and whether product categories moderate effectiveness of

appeals a 2x2x2 experiment was conducted. The three variables used were country (Costa

Rica and the U.S.), advertising appeals collectivisticc and individualistic) and product

types (personal and non-personal). Thus, this was a between subjects (country and

advertising appeals) within subjects (product types) experiment.

The countries used were chosen due to their index scores on Hofstede's

dimension of culture for individualism. Costa Rica had an index score of 15 out of 100

while the U.S. had a score of 91 out of 100 with 100 being the highest score of

individualism.



Pretests

Product Types

Products to be used in the experiment were chosen on the basis of whether they

served personal or non-personal purposes. U.S. and Costa Rican students were asked to

give their opinions on whether a specific product was individualistic or collectivistic.

From these surveys, it was concluded that the products of stereos and televisions were

found to be the best choices of collectivism by residents of both countries while the

products of underwear and deodorant were found to be the best choices of individualism.









Advertising Appeals

Print advertisements were prepared by using a layout with pictures of the four

products chosen above. The two advertising appeals were manipulated by varying the

appeals. An advertisement for each product was made containing an appeal reflecting

individualism and another with a collectivistic appeal (See Appendix). These ads were

translated into Spanish by a native Costa Rican who speaks both Spanish and English so

that they may be used while administering the experiment in Costa Rica. Once translated

into Spanish, they were back translated into English by another bilingual Costa Rican to

ensure their accuracy.

The English and Spanish ads were shown to residents of Costa Rica and the U.S.

who were then asked their opinions of whether they felt the ads reflected individualism or

collectivism. Once it was determined that the ads correctly corresponded with the

intended cultural value the ads were ready to be used for the main study.



Main Study

The experiment used 179 research participants (109 from the U.S., 70 from Costa

Rica) from undergraduate classes in a university in Costa Rica and a university in the

United States. Questionnaires were mailed to Costa Rica and distributed by a student at

the university in that country. During chosen classes, students were asked to participate in

the study in order to get extra credit points. Willing participants signed the informed

consent and were given the questionnaire with scales and a booklet containing the

advertisements to be viewed.









Materials

Advertisements

Eleven advertisements were developed in both English and Spanish. Four of the

ads with products contained an individualistic appeal and the other four ads for the same

products utilized an appeal that was collectivistic. The basic design for these ads were a

simple picture of only the product placed in the middle with a headline above and one or

two sentences of copy below. Elaborate designs and people were not used in these ads so

that there would not be any respondent bias toward these aspects. This was decided

because a previous study similar to this one, done by Lepkowska-White, Brashear and

Weinberger, utilized ads in this manner and were successful (Lepkowska-White,

Brashear & Weinberger, 2003). Plus, the brands of the products that were presented in

the ads were fictitious so that there was no bias toward specific already well-known

brands. Three filler advertisements were created to disguise the purpose of the study. The

sequence that these advertisements were compiled into the booklet was as follows:

experimental ad 1 (non-personal personal product with individualistic appeal/non-

personal product with individualistic appeal), filler ad 1, experimental ad 2 (personal

product with individualistic appeal/personal product with collectivistic appeal), filler ad

2, experimental ad 3 (non-personal product with collectivistic appeal/non-personal

product with collectivistic appeal), filler ad 3 and experimental ad 4 (personal product

with individualistic appeal/personal product with individualistic appeal). Two versions of

the booklets were made and differed due to the fact that the order of the types of products

and ads were different (Zhang and Neelankavil, 1997). No more than these ads were used

in order to avoid bum out by the research participants.









Product Types

The products used in the advertisements of the main study were those that were

found to be the best match of non-personal and personal product types according to those

surveyed in Costa Rica and the U.S. during the protests. A stereo and television were

chosen to represent the category of non-personal products while deodorant and

underwear were personal.



Questionnaire Scales

Attitudes of Advertisements

The attitudes towards the advertisements were measured with a 4-item, 9-point

semantic differential scale containing the end points of unpleasant-pleasant, unlikable-

likable, not irritating-irritating and not interesting-interesting. The measure of the attitude

towards the advertisement was reflected through the mean of the ratings from this portion

of the questionnaire (Zhang & Neelankavil, 1997).

Semantic differential scales were used in this study because it has been proven

that this form of scale can be used across cultures and has been successful in studies that

were examining common characteristics between different countries (Zhang &

Neelankavil, 1997). The scales above both used a range from -4 to 4 and 0 being the

central point.

Attitude of Brands

A three-item scale was used to measure brand attitude containing the end points

of bad-good, not nice-nice and unlikable-likable. The measure of the attitude towards the









brand was reflected through the mean of the ratings from this portion of the questionnaire

(Zhang & Neelankavil, 1997).



Ancillary Measures

Demographic measures were taken to check for biases in the responses of the

research participants. Product familiarity was measured by using a semantic differential

scale similar to the scales above that measured the attitude to the ads and brands. This

scale also ranged from -4 to 4 with the endpoints being unfamiliar-familiar,

inexperienced-experienced and unknowledgeable-knowledgeable (Kent & Allen, 1994).

Product familiarity was tested to see if the U.S. and Costa Rica had any difference in

product familiarity with the products used in this study (Zhang & Neelankavil, 1997).



Questionnaire

The questionnaire was translated into Spanish and then back translated into

English as the advertisements were done. (See Appendix)















CHAPTER 5
RESULTS

Subject Profile

Participants in the main study consisted of a total of 179 university students. Of

these, 109 were from the United States while 70 were from Costa Rica. A Crosstab test

was conducted between country and generated and showed that he Costa Rican sample

had a 68.90% female representation. In the U.S. population, 45.70% were female. A

Pearson Chi-square result found that there was an interaction between country and gender

(significance=002 and d.f.=l).

Through a Crosstab test again, age was found to be similar. The majority of U.S.

participants were 18-22 years of age (93.40% of respondents) with the same being for

their Costa Rican counterparts (72.50% of respondents). The Pearson Chi-square result

showed a significant interaction between country and age (sig.=.001, d.f.=2).

About 83.57% of the U.S. subjects were born in the United States while 94.29%

of the Costa Ricans were born in Costa Rica. In the U.S. the most common races in

decreasing order of appearance were Caucasian (70.64% of respondents), Hispanic

(13.26% of respondents), Black (7.34% of respondents) and Asian (5.50% of

respondents). Costa Rica had 68.51% of its population claiming to be Hispanic and

31.43% giving no response.

Sophomores and Juniors made up most of the U.S. sample, 33.94% and 43.12%

respectively. Seniors (35.71% of respondents) were the majority of the population in









Costa Rica followed by Juniors (21.43% respondents). The majors of U.S. participants

were in the departments of Journalism and Communication (43.12% respondents),

Business (22.94% respondents), Liberal Arts and Sciences (13.76% respondents), Health

and Human Performance (4.59% respondents), Fine Arts (.92% respondents),

Architecture (.92% respondents), Public Health and Health Professions (.92%), English

(.92% respondents), other (7.34% respondents) and no response (2.75% respondents). In

Costa Rica the areas of study were as follows: Education (31.43% respondents), Liberal

Arts and Sciences (22.86% respondents), Business (7.14% respondents), Health and

Human Performance (4.29% respondents), Public Health and Health Professions (2.86%

respondents), other (22.86% respondents) and no response (8.57% respondents).



Measurement Reliability

Measurement reliability was tested for both the attitude to ads and attitude to the

brands. The measurements were of relatively satisfactory reliabilities according to

Nunally's (1978) criterion of .70 or higher as a standard for basic research. The Alpha

level for each is reported in Table 5-1.



Product Familiarity

A review of the data showed results that of the products used in this study product

familiarity was similar for both the U.S. and Costa Rica. The concept of knowledge was

used to determine the amount of familiarity with a certain product since in the area of

advertising it is common to measure familiarity this way. An ANOVA test was conducted

with the independent variable as country and dependent variable as knowledge of









product. The results showed that stereos were the only product with a significant

difference in familiarity between Costa Rica and the U.S. (F=10.95, d.f.=l, sig.=.001). It

was found that the Costa Rican participants had more knowledge of stereos (M=1.79)

than those in the U.S. (M=.66).



Testing of the Hypotheses

For the testing of the hypotheses ANOVA tests were performed in order to

compare the means of three or more groups. Tables 5-2 and 5-3 show the results of the

ANOVA tests displaying the sum of squares, degrees of freedom, means squares, F-

values, significance and independent and dependent variables.

Hypothesis 1 predicted that a match of cultural appeals will be more successful in

eliciting a more favorable attitude toward ads. The scale of measurement utilized ranged

from -4 to 4. An ANOVA (two way) was conducted with the two categorical independent

variables, country and cultural value of the ad. The dependent continuous variable was

the attitude toward the advertisement. The results suggested that the U.S. participants

(n=109) had a less favorable attitude toward advertisements when the appeals were

individualistic (M= .16) than those from Costa Rica (n=70) who favored them more

(M=.62). Further, it was also shown that those from Costa Rica favored ads when the

appeals were collectivistic (M=.83) more than those from the U.S. (M=.29); however, as

seen in Table 5-2, the interaction effect between country and cultural value on the attitude

to the ad was not significant (F=.10, d.f.=l, p<.05). Therefore, hypothesis 1 is rejected.

Although H1 was rejected it was partially supported because Hlb was correct in

that Costa Rican subjects would harbor more favorable attitudes toward ads when the









appeals matched the nation's cultural value by being collectivistic. The lack of support

for HIa may be due to extraneous variables that might have played a role in moderating

the appeals for those in the U.S. One such factor could be the function of the product.

This might be because when products possess the same function in different countries

advertisements may be more successful when they display the same approach of showing

the product's purpose rather than cultural appeals.

Hypothesis 2 predicted that a match of cultural appeals will be more successful in

eliciting a more favorable attitude toward brands. Once again the scale used for

measurement ranged from -4 to 4. An ANOVA (two way) was conducted with the two

categorical independent variables, country and cultural value of the ad. The dependent

continuous variable was the attitude toward the brand. The results suggested that the U.S.

participants (n=109) had a more favorable attitude toward brands when the appeals were

individualistic (M= .35) than those from Costa Rica (n=70) who favored them less

(M=.26). Further, it was also shown that those from Costa Rica favored brands when the

appeals were collectivistic (M=.66) more than those from the U.S. (M=.38); however, as

seen in Table 5-3, the interaction effect between country and cultural value on the attitude

to the brand was not significant (F=1.49, d.f.=l, p<.05). Therefore, hypothesis 2 is

rejected.

Although H2 was rejected since there was no significant interaction between

country and cultural value in terms of attitude toward brands was it was partially

supported due to the fact that H2a and H2b were confirmed by the results with the U.S.

favoring individualistic appeals over Costa Rica and Costa Rica favoring the

collectivistic appeals









Hypothesis 3 predicted that product types moderate the effectiveness of appeals

toward ads. A scale of measurement ranging from -4 to 4 was used. More specifically, a

match in cultural appeals will elicit a more favorable attitude toward the ads when a

product is non-personal. Furthermore, when the product is personal, cultural appeals do

not play a factor in eliciting favorable attitudes toward ads. An ANOVA (two way) was

conducted with the three categorical independent variables being country, type of product

and cultural value of the ad. The dependent continuous variable was the attitude toward

the ad. The results suggested that the U.S. participants (n=109) had a less favorable

attitude toward advertisements when the appeals were individualistic (M=.38) and

product type was non-personal than those from Costa Rica (n=70, M=.73). Further, it was

also shown that those from Costa Rica are more likely to view ads favorably (M=1.47)

than those from the U.S (M=1.01) when the appeals are collectivistic and product type is

non-personal. For personal products it was seen that Costa Rican participants were more

likely to have favorable attitudes to ads when the appeals were individualistic (M=.51)

and collectivistic (M=. 18) than those from the U.S. (individualistic M=-.05, collectivistic

M=-.44); however, as seen in Table 5-2, the interaction effect among country, product

type and cultural value on the attitude to the ad was not significant (F=.01, d.f.=l, p<.05).

Therefore, hypothesis 3 is rejected.

Hypothesis 4 predicted that product types moderate the effectiveness of appeals

toward brands. The measurement scale that was used ranged from -4 to 4. More

specifically, a match in cultural appeals will elicit a more favorable attitude toward the

brands when a product is non-personal. Furthermore, when the product is personal,

cultural appeals do not play a factor in eliciting favorable attitudes toward brands. An









ANOVA (two way) was conducted with the three categorical independent variables being

country, type of product and cultural value of the ad. The dependent continuous variable

was the attitude toward the brand. The results suggested that the U.S. participants

(n=109) had a more favorable attitude toward brands when the appeals were

individualistic (M=.50) and product type was non-personal than those from Costa Rica

(n=70, M=.15). Further, it was also shown that those from Costa Rica are less likely to

view brands favorably (M=1.14) than those from the U.S (M=1.19) when the appeals are

collectivistic and product type is non-personal. For personal products it was seen that

Costa Rican participants were more likely to have favorable attitudes to brands when the

appeals were individualistic (M=.38) and collectivistic (M=. 16) than those from the U.S.

(individualistic M=-.20, collectivistic M=-.44); however, as seen in Table 5-3, the

interaction effect among country, product type and cultural value on the attitude to the

brand was not significant (F=.04, d.f.=l, p<.05). Therefore, hypothesis 4 is rejected.



Table 5-1 Alpha scores for each measure
Scale Reliability Scale Reliability
Attitude to Ad Boom .78 Attitude to Brand Boom .93
Attitude to Ad Refresher .74 Attitude to Brand Refresher .93
Attitude to Ad SuperView .79 Attitude to Brand SuperView .89
Attitude to Ad Ultra Comfort .73 Attitude to Brand Ultra Comfort .93










Table 5-2 Tests of between-subjects effects
Dependent Variable: AAD (Attitude to Ad)
Source of Variation Sum of Squares DF Mean Square F Sig.
Corrected Model 221.07a 7 31.58 12.30* .00

Intercept 143.06 1 143.06 55.71* .00


Country 39.46 1 39.46 15.37* .00

Type of Product 114.56 1 114.56 44.61* .00

Cultural Value 4.20 1 4.20 1.64 .20

Country x Type of 1.23 1 1.23 .48 .49
Product
Country x Cultural .27 1 .27 .10 .75
Value
Type of Product x 43.40 1 43.40 16.90* .00
Cultural Value
Country x Type of .02 1 .02 .01 .93
Product x Cultural
Value
Error 1735.92 676 2.57

Total 2071.81 684

Corrected Total 1956.99 683

F=12.30*, F=55.71*, F=15.37*, F=44.61*, F=16.90*, *p<.05
a. R Squared =.11 (Adjusted R Squared = .10)












Table 5-3 Tests of between-subjects effects
Dependent Variable: ABR (Attitude to Brand
Source of Variation Sum of Squares DF Mean Square F Sig.
Corrected Model 191.28a 7 27.33 7.79* .00

Intercept 106.72 1 106.72 30.42* .00


Country 1.30 1 1.30 .37 .54

Type of Product 71.21 1 71.21 20.30* .00

Cultural Value 6.75 1 6.75 1.92 .17

Country x Type of 14.05 1 14.05 4.00 .05
Product
Country x Cultural 5.23 1 5.23 1.49 .22
Value
Type of Product x 63.75 1 63.75 18.17* .00
Cultural Value
Country x Type of .15 1 .15 .04 .84
Product x Cultural
Value
Error 2371.80 676 3.51

Total 2671.78 684

Corrected Total 2563.08 683

F=7.79*, F=30.42*, F=20.30*, F=18.17*, *p<.05
a. R Squared = .08 (Adjusted R Squared = .07)















CHAPTER 6
DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS

From the results of this study it can be inferred that culture does play a role in

advertising effectiveness. There were differences in attitudes toward ads and brands when

different cultural appeals were used. However, surprisingly, some of the results turned

out to be different than expected. Interestingly, although it was predicted that the U.S.

would always favor individualistic appeals more than Costa Rica, this was not the case.

Attitudes in the U.S. toward ads did not appear to be more favorable with individualistic

appeals than in Costa Rica. However, it was found that in Costa Rica collectivistic

appeals always produced more favorable attitudes to ads and brands than in the U.S.

Another factor in this study that was looked at was whether product type plays a

role in moderating the effectiveness of advertising appeals. It was thought that when a

product is non-personal, where the benefits of the product can be obtained by many

different people, an appeal which matched the country's cultural value would be more

effective in producing a favorable attitude to the ad or brand. This was held true in the

case of Costa Rica, where the findings showed that participants from this country had

more favorable attitudes toward ads and brands than in the U.S. when the appeals were

collectivistic and the product was non-personal. For the U.S., it was seen that although it

was thought that individualistic appeals for non-personal products would create more

favorable attitudes toward ads and brands than in Costa Rica, this was not the case. This

could be due to the effect of some extraneous factors such as product function which was









discussed earlier. For personal products, the results showed that both countries favored an

individualistic appeal which means that cultural appeals play little or no role in eliciting a

favorable attitude to an ad or brand in this situation. This supports the idea that product

type plays more of a role when a product is personal since the benefits of the item are

geared toward one person only.

The outcomes of the tests also showed that in the case of non-personal products

attitude toward the ad and brand was more favorable when the appeal was collectivistic in

both the U.S. and Costa Rica. This idea also follows the belief that when a product is

non-personal and can be enjoyed by others an appeal is more successful when it displays

the characteristics of collectivism. Therefore, regardless of whether an ad uses an appeal

that matches the cultural value of a country in which the product is being advertised, the

product type tends to be a factor that determines what type of appeal should be used in

order to be successful.

Another reason why favorable attitudes toward ads could be generated by ads

which contain cultural appeals that are opposite to the cultural values of a country is that

the ad may be found interesting due to the fact that it is different from all of the other ads

and their appeals which are normally utilized in that country. For example, in the U.S.,

collectivistic appeals may create more favorable attitudes toward ads because they are

different from the individualistic appeals which are more widely employed. In other

words, these ads are breaking through the clutter and are have more novelty, which in

turn makes them more favorable (Lepkowska-White, Brashear & Weinberger, 2003).

While comparing the attitudes to ads and brands when a personal product was

involved to the attitudes while a non-personal product was utilized it was seen that the









attitudes were considerably less favorable for the former ads. This could be due to some

outside factor such as a dislike for the way the products were portrayed in the ads or the

types of products used themselves.

One implication from this study is that when advertising is done it is crucial to

look at various factors which could affect the attitude to an ad or brand. Since this world

is so diverse with a variety of cultures it is very important to pay close attention to the

differences that people from country to country may have.

In the case of paying attention to differences between countries equivalency is

necessary. This is to make sure that everything that is done and said for one country will

be done and understood exactly the same by those of the other countries being examined.

For example, in this study translation and back translation were done so as not to distort

messages and ideas that were intended to be the exact same for each country.

Furthermore, the same advertisements, products and materials were used. Otherwise there

could have been a misrepresentation of the actual findings.

Another inference that may be made from this study is that culture can play a role

in the effectiveness of advertising, but this is not always held true. Plus, in some instances

product type may also moderate the effectiveness of appeals as well; however, this is also

not always the case. The results from this study showed that Costa Rican participants

responded better to individualistic appeals than their U.S. counterparts. These findings

allow us to realize that one type of appeal which has been traditionally thought as only

appropriate for one culture may be successful in another. This means that for certain

products and situations advertisers may be able to use the same appeals to reach different









people in different countries. This standardization will help to conserve time and money

in advertising campaigns.

This study also implies that copy testing is extremely important in the area of

advertising. For example, the copy and its meaning can be a factor in how a viewer of an

ad responds to it. There are many words which have one meaning in one country but an

opposite or entirely different meaning in another. So therefore, it is essential that the

correct choice of words is selected so that the intended message is presented. Otherwise,

the point of the advertisement may be entirely lost.

The reason why the results of this study did not turn out as they were expected to

may have implications of their own. For example, Costa Rica may have shown to have

more favorable attitudes toward ads when individualistic appeals were used compared to

the U.S. because these two samples examined may be more culturally similar than

assumed. The participants of this research were young adults mostly ranging from ages

18-23 in both countries. This generation of Costa Ricans may be growing up with more

similar individualistic beliefs as their counterparts in the U.S. than past generations. The

United States has created a presence of its own in Costa Rica through television and

products. These, in addition to other factors may contribute to the lean toward

individualistic appeals. Plus, the sample that was used in Costa Rica was just a subculture

of the entire population of Costa Rica. These participants may just be a small segment of

the nation that may have been influenced by individualistic thought. Every nation has its

own subcultures and beliefs. From this, it is clear that every aspect of a culture must be

taken into consideration when trying to reach its people rather than just generalizing the

differences.















CHAPTER 7
LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH

There are various limitations to this study. One being that since this is an

international study, correspondence with contacts in another country was needed many

times mainly through email causing communication to be slowed. The conducting of the

experiment in Costa Rica was also hindered due to lack of home computers and school

email addresses for the questionnaires to be distributed. The traditional mailing of the ads

to and from Costa Rica also slowed the process of the study. Another limitation was

found in the collection of data from Costa Rica. Many professors at the University of

Costa Rica do not allow class time to be taken up for non-class related materials. This

caused less of a sample than anticipated to be collected from this country.

Another limitation seen in this study is that participants in U.S.A. and Costa Rica

were only exposed to the ads once and then asked their opinions. Usually under normal

circumstances audiences are able to view ads more than once at different times.

Since this study was international in nature it takes time to perfect the method to

fit both cultures appropriately. Usually in order to get the best results many tests are run

and then corrected until the best one is found. In the circumstances of this particular study

there was a limited amount of time and funds to achieve this. It is recommended that in

the future the appropriate amount of time and budget is obtained in order to gain the best

possible results. Additionally, more protests containing larger sample sizes should be









used next time in order to get more accurate ideas of how to select more appropriate and

favorable advertisement layouts, copy and products.

The advertisements used in this study did not employ images of people in order to

avoid bias by the respondents toward these images rather than focusing on the appeals

presented in the copy or the products. However, images of people actually using the

various products could help to decipher whether the advertisement is collectivistic or

individualistic or whether the product in the ad is non-personal or personal. For example,

by using a group of people enjoying a product the ideas of collectivism and non-personal

products can be easily detected. So, in research following this study it could be examined

whether the use of people in the advertisements creates a different set of results than

those found in this experiment.

In the case of future research, perhaps different countries that hold collectivistic

and individualistic values could be used. Also, different Latin American countries should

be utilized since Costa Rica does not represent the entire Latin American population. This

study has already been planned to be conducted in Mexico and possibly Brazil to see

whether similar results will occur.

Also, the samples used in this study were just a small portion of the entire

population of each country examined. Plus, they were student samples which alone do

not represent the ideas and thinking of the entire nation. Therefore, the results should not

be generalized to the entire population of Costa Rica or U.S. In the future larger and more

diverse segments should be employed.

Furthermore, in this study culture was not measured. Tests were not done in order

to examine what the differences between the nations of the U.S. and Costa Rica are.









Therefore, it was just assumed that the U.S. and Costa Rican samples would be different.

A careful, in-depth examination of cultural aspects in different nations should be

undertaken before conducting cross-cultural studies as this.

Additionally, manipulation checks were not done in order to test and ensure

whether the ads that were used in this study were individualistic or collectivistic. These

should be done in order to improve the accuracy of the tests that are conducted.

Furthermore, later studies can employ the use of other forms of media such as

broadcast. Plus, it would be interesting to see if attitudes to ads are more favorable when

the ads break through clutter by containing an appeal which is opposite to those that are

mainly used in the media sector being examined.

Other cultural differences could be tested as well such as Uncertainty Avoidance

or Power Distance. Also, other factors besides product types can be tested to see if they

moderate the affects of advertising appeals. Once such example is the product life cycle

and in what stage is a particular product experiencing.

Finally, other products besides the ones used in this study could be used to see if

similar results occur. As was stated earlier, since the personal products in this study

produced quite low favorable attitudes toward ads and brands different ones should be

employed to see if it was actually these specific products that were creating the results.















APPENDIX


EXPERIMENT MATERIALS






U.S. Ad 1




Enjoy Entertaining
Friends and Family!


Delight everyone with music
from your Boom stereo.






U.S. Ad 2




Have Fun and
Enjoy Yourself!


Let yourself go free with music
from the Boom stereo.






U.S. Ad 3



Now You Never Have
to Look Sloppy Again!


The Perfect Press iron will always
keep you looking your best.






U.S. Ad 4



Get Close to Friends
and Family!


Wear Refresher deodorant.
It's the one everyone trusts.






U.S. Ad 5



Feel Good and Fresh
About Yourself!


Wear Refresher deodorant to ensure
that your freshness lasts through
all of your day's rigorous endeavors.






U.S. Ad 6



Remain Cool Through
Those Hot Days!


The Cool Wave fan will keep you
fresh regardless of what temperature
it may be outside.






U.S. Ad 7




Entertain the
Ones You ove!









The SuperView TV will help you
provide enjoyment for
friends and family.
Gather around the SuperView to spend
time with those you care about.






U.S. Ad 8




Relax and


Entertain,.. eIf!


Allow the SuperView TV to provide
you with enjoyment and relaxtion
from your long day.






U.S. Ad 9



Keep In Touch With
Those You Love!


Allow the In-Touch telephone
to keep you close to friends and family
no matter where they may be.






U.S. Ad 10



Ultra Comfort
Underwear, It's What


Everyone's

a-^^


SWearing!


-V


Get the comfort that those you care
about are experiencing.






U.S. Ad 11






Get The Comfort
You Need!


-i-'N


' ,.


Get Ultra Comfort underwear, and
cherish the feeling of pure comfort
throughout your day.






Costa Rican Ad 1




Disfrute entreteniendo a
su familiar y amigos!


Deleitelos a todos con musica
de su stereo Boom.






Costa Rican Ad 2





iEntretengase
y disfrute!
---^^^**^*Bl i-"


"IXI


Liberese con la musica del
equipo de estereo Boom.






Costa Rican Ad 3


Nunca mas tend
verse descuid


ra


que


ado.


La plancha Perfect Iron hara que
luzca de la mejor manera.






Costa Rican Ad 4



iAcerquese a su familiar
y amigos!


Use desodorante Refresher.
El desodorante que todos confian en 61.






Costa Rican Ad 5


iSientase bien!
iSientase fresco!


Use desodorante Refresher para
asegurarse de que su frescura
se mantenga durante sus
difas de riguroso esfuerzo.






Costa Rican Ad 6


Mantengase fresco
durante estos dias
calientes!


a


El ventilador Cool Wave lo mantendra
fresco sin importar la temperature
de afuera.






Costa Rican Ad 7




iEntretenga a sus
series queridos!


El televisor SuperView contribuira a la
diversion de su familiar y amigos.
Reunase alrededor del SuperView para
compartir tiempo con su familiar y amigos.






Costa Rican Ad 8


iRelajese y
entretenac


Al final de su largo dia, reciba disfrute
y descanso del televisor SuperView.






Costa Rican Ad 9

Mantengase en contact
con aquellos que
usted ama!


Deje que telefono In-Touch lo
mantenga cerca de sus amigos
y familiar sin importar d6nde esten.






Costa Rican Ad 10





iCalzoncillos Ultra
Comfort, lo que todo
el mundo esta usando!


. -


--


Obtenga el confort que sus series
queridos estan sintiendo.






Costa Rican Ad 11





Tenga el confort que
usted necesita!


a


--r
K"


--* Jl

Compre ropa interior Ultra Comfort
y aprecie la sensaci6n del confort
puro a lo largo de su dia.










Informed Consent
Protocol Title: The effects of cultural differences and product types on advertising effectiveness in Costa Rica
and the U.S.
Principal Investigator and Procedure Administrator: Harmala Sara, University of Florida Graduate Student,
College of Journalism and Communications.
Faculty Supervisor: Jorge Villegas, Ph.D, University of Florida Professor, College of Journalism and
Communications.
Please read this consent document carefully before you decide to participate in this study.
Purpose of the research study: This study involves research with the purpose being to test which advertising
appeals are appropriate across varying cultures and whether certain types of products influence the effectiveness
of appeals.
What you will be asked to do in the study: If you agree to participate you will be asked to view a set of seven
advertisements and then read a group of adjectives, and decide where your opinion of the ad and brand of the
product would be most accurately reflected on a continuum. After that, with your permission you will be asked to
mark the space on the scale that most closely reflects your attitude. Then furthermore, if you agree to participate
you will be asked your opinion about the product brands that you have just viewed by choosing and marking
which brand you would purchase if given the opportunity. Finally, with your permission you will be asked your
opinion of whether you are familiar and knowledgeable about and experienced with certain product categories.
Time required: Twenty minutes
Risks and Benefits: There are no anticipated risks of this study. There is no direct benefit to you for
participating in this study.

Compensation: You will receive extra credit points for participating in this study. The
amount of extra credit is the decision of your instructor.

Confidentiality: The results of your participation will be anonymous and confidential to the
extent provided by law. Your responses will not be able to be associated directly with
you. You may withdraw your consent at any time with no consequences. If you do
withdraw consent, the results of your participation, to the extent that they can be
identified as yours, will be returned to you, removed from the research records, or
destroyed.
Voluntary participation: Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not
participating.
Right to not answer: You do not have to answer any question that you do not wish to answer.
Right to withdraw from the study: You have the right to withdraw from the study at anytime without
consequence.
Whom to contact if you have questions about the study: Harmala Sara, Graduate Student, College of
Journalism and Communications, harmalasara@hotmail.com or Jorge Villegas, Ph.D, College of Journalism and
Communications, jvillegas@j ou.ufl.edu.
Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: UFIRB Office, Box 112250,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250; ph 392-0433.
Agreement: I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily agree to participate in the procedure and I
have received a copy of this description.


Participant: Date:


Principal Investigator:


Date:









Instructions: Please review the following advertisements in the booklet and then answer
the questions that correspond with that particular ad.

Directions
The following questionnaire asks you to indicate your opinion to a number of descriptive
adjectives and open-ended questions about various newspaper ads for products. The
scales in some of the questions are meant to measure your opinions on each of the ads.
There are no right or wrong answers.

Once you finish one ad and answer the questions corresponding with it please move on to
the next advertisement.





Please view advertisement 1 and read each set of adjectives carefully, and decide
where your opinion would be the most accurately reflected on the continuum. Then,
mark the space on the scale that most closely reflects your opinion. You may refuse
to answer any question. Remember, there are no right or wrong answers.

Advertisement 1:

Do you find the advertisement:


Unpleasant


: : _: _: _: : : : Pleasant
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Unlikable : : : : : : : : Likable
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Not Irritating


Not Interesting


Irritating


9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


: : : _: _: _: _: : Interesting
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Do you find the Brand Boom to be:


Bad : : :
9 8 7 6 5


: :: Good
3 2 1


Not Nice


9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Unlikable : : : : : : : Likable
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Nice






62


Please view advertisement 2 and read each set of adjectives carefully, and decide
where your opinion would be the most accurately reflected on the continuum. Then,
mark the space on the scale that most closely reflects your opinion. You may refuse
to answer any question. Remember, there are no right or wrong answers.


Advertisement 2:

Do you find the advertisement:


Unpleasant : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4


Unlikable : : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2


: _: _: Pleasant
3 2 1


Likable
1


Not Irritating


9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Not Interesting : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3


Irritating


Interesting


2 1


Do you find the Brand Cool Wave to be:


Bad :
9 8 7 6


Good


5 4 3 2 1


Not Nice : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

Unlikable : : : : :


Nice
1


Likable


9 8 7 6 5


4 3 2 1






63


Please view advertisement 3 and read each set of adjectives carefully, and decide
where your opinion would be the most accurately reflected on the continuum. Then,
mark the space on the scale that most closely reflects your opinion. You may refuse
to answer any question. Remember, there are no right or wrong answers.


Advertisement 3:

Do you find the advertisement:


Unpleasant : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4


Unlikable : : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2


: _: _: Pleasant
3 2 1


Likable
1


Not Irritating


9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Not Interesting : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3


2 1


Do you find the Brand Refresher to be:


Bad : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4


Good


3 2 1


Not Nice : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

Unlikable : : : : :


Nice
1


Likable


9 8 7 6 5


Irritating


Interesting


4 3 2 1






64


Please view advertisement 4 and read each set of adjectives carefully, and decide
where your opinion would be the most accurately reflected on the continuum. Then,
mark the space on the scale that most closely reflects your opinion. You may refuse
to answer any question. Remember, there are no right or wrong answers.


Advertisement 4:

Do you find the advertisement:


Unpleasant : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4


Unlikable : : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2


: _: _: Pleasant
3 2 1


Likable
1


Not Irritating


9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Not Interesting : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3

Do you find the Brand Perfect Press to be:


Irritating


Interesting


2 1


Bad :
9 8 7 6


Good


5 4 3 2 1


Not Nice : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

Unlikable : : : : :


Nice
1


Likable


9 8 7 6 5


4 3 2 1









Please view advertisement 5 and read each set of adjectives carefully, and decide
where your opinion would be the most accurately reflected on the continuum. Then,
mark the space on the scale that most closely reflects your opinion. You may refuse
to answer any question. Remember, there are no right or wrong answers.


Advertisement 5:

Do you find the advertisement:


Unpleasant : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4


Unlikable : : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2


: _: _: Pleasant
3 2 1


Likable
1


Not Irritating


9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Not Interesting : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3


Irritating


Interesting


2 1


Do you find the Brand SuperView to be:


Bad :
9 8 7 6


Good


5 4 3 2 1


Not Nice : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2


Unlikable


9 8 7 6 5


Nice
1


Likable


4 3 2 1









Please view advertisement 6 and read each set of adjectives carefully, and decide
where your opinion would be the most accurately reflected on the continuum. Then,
mark the space on the scale that most closely reflects your opinion. You may refuse
to answer any question. Remember, there are no right or wrong answers.


Advertisement 6:

Do you find the advertisement:


Unpleasant : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4


Unlikable : : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2


: _: _: Pleasant
3 2 1


Likable
1


Not Irritating


9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Not Interesting : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3


Irritating


Interesting


2 1


Do you find the Brand In-Touch to be:


Bad : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4


Good


3 2 1


Not Nice : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

Unlikable : : : : :


Nice
1


Likable


9 8 7 6 5


4 3 2 1






67


Please view advertisement 7 and read each set of adjectives carefully, and decide
where your opinion would be the most accurately reflected on the continuum. Then,
mark the space on the scale that most closely reflects your opinion. You may refuse
to answer any question. Remember, there are no right or wrong answers.


Advertisement 7:

Do you find the advertisement:


Unpleasant : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4


Unlikable : : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2


: _: _: Pleasant
3 2 1


Likable
1


Not Irritating


9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Not Interesting : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3

Do you find the Brand Ultra Comfort to be:


Irritating


Interesting


2 1


Bad :
9 8 7 6


Good


5 4 3 2 1


Not Nice : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2


Unlikable


9 8 7 6 5


Nice
1


Likable


4 3 2 1












Please read the following question carefully and answer to the best of your ability.
You may refuse to answer any question. There are no right or wrong answers.

Which of the following brands would you choose to purchase if given the
opportunity?


Refresher deodorant

Ultra Comfort underwear


Premier camera


Super Sonic toothbrush


Tech computer


Glide razor


Boom stereo


SuperView television


Please read each set of adjectives carefully, and decide where your opinion would be
the most accurately reflected on the continuum. Then, circle the space on the scale
that most closely reflects your opinion. You may refuse to answer any question.
Remember, there are no right or wrong answers.

Are you familiar with stereos?


Unfamiliar
9 8 7 6
Are you familiar with underwears?

Unfamiliar
9 8 7 6
Are you familiar with deodorants?

Unfamiliar
9 8 7 6
Are you familiar with televisions?


Familiar


5 4 3 2 1


Familiar


5 4 3 2 1


Familiar


5 4 3 2 1


Unfamiliar
9 8
Are you familiar with fans?

Unfamiliar
9 8
Are you familiar with irons?


Familiar


7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Familiar


7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Familiar


9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Unfamiliar









Are you familiar with telephones?

Unfamiliar
9 8 7 6 5 4


Are you experienced with stereos?

Inexperienced
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
Are you experienced with underwears?

Inexperienced
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
Are you experienced with deodorants?

Inexperienced
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
Are you experienced with televisions?

Inexperienced
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
Are you experienced with fans?

Inexperienced
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
Are you experienced with irons?

Inexperienced
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
Are you experienced with telephones?

Inexperienced
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2


Are you knowledgeable about stereos?

Unknowledgeable
9 8 7 6 5 4
Are you knowledgeable about underwears?

Unknowledgeable _


3 2 1


Experienced



Experienced



Experienced



Experienced



Experienced



Experienced



Experienced








Knowledgeable



Knowledgeable
Knowledgeable


9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Familiar


3 2 1









Are you knowledgeable about deodorants?

Unknowledgeable
9 8 7 6 5
Are you knowledgeable about televisions?

Unknowledgeable
9 8 7 6 5
Are you knowledgeable about fans?

Unknowledgeable
9 8 7 6 5
Are you knowledgeable about irons?

Unknowledgeable
9 8 7 6 5
Are you knowledgeable about telephones?

Unknowledgeable


4 3 2 1



4 3 2 1



4 3 2 1



4 3 2 1


Knowledgeable



Knowledgeable



Knowledgeable



Knowledgeable


Knowledgeable


9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

The following questions will be used for statistical purposes. Your answers are
completely confidential.

Are you Male or Female

What age are you?

What race are you?

What country were you born in?

What school do you attend?

What year of school are you in?

What are you studying?


Thank you for your participation. If you have any problems or questions, please email
Harmala Sara at harmala@ufl.edu or Dr. Villegas atjvillegas@jou.ufl.edu.












Documento de consentimiento informado
Titulo del studio: Efectos de los diferentes tipos de products y de las diferencias culturales en la efectividad
de la publicidad en Costa Rica y Estados Unidos.

Investigadora principal: Harmala Sara, licenciada de la Facultad de Periodismo y Comunicaci6n de la
Universidad de Florida.

Director del proyecto: Jorge Villegas, doctor de la Facultad de Periodismo y Comunicaci6n de la Universidad
de Florida.

Lea atentamente el present document de consentimiento antes de participar en el studio.
Objetivo de la investigaci6n: Analizar qu6 recursos publicitarios son apropiados en cultures diversas y
establecer si ciertos tipos de products ejercen influencia sobre la efectividad de la publicidad.

Si acepta participar en el studio, se le pedira que vea siete anuncios publicitarios. A continuaci6n, debera leer
una series de adjetivos y decidir cuales reflejan de forma mas precisa su opinion sobre el anuncio y la marca.
Luego, se le pedira que indique qu6 nivel de la escala refleja mejor su postura al respect. A continuaci6n, debera
exponer su opinion sobre las marcas que aparecen en los anuncios nombrando la marca que elegiria si tuviera
que comprar un product. Por ultimo, se le preguntara si conoce ciertas categories de products.

Tiempo necesario para participar en el studio: Veinte minutes.

Riesgos y beneficios: No existen riesgos derivados de participar en el studio. No hay beneficio director a
usted para participar en este studio.

Compensaci6n: Recibira creditos adicionales por participar en el studio. La cantidad de cr6ditos recibida queda
a criterio del instructor.

Confidencialidad: Su participaci6n en el studio sera anonima y confidencial hasta donde lo permit la
legislaci6n vigente. No sera possible relacionar con usted las respuestas que proporcione a lo largo del studio. En
cualquier moment del studio puede denegar su consentimiento sin consecuencia alguna para usted. Si decide
hacerlo, se le entregaran los resultados de su participaci6n en el studio, en la media en que puedan relacionarse
con usted, o bien se eliminaran de
los archives, o se destruiran.

Participaci6n voluntaria: Su participaci6n en el studio es totalmente voluntaria. No existe ninguna
penalizaci6n por no participar.

Derecho a no responder: Si asi lo desea, puede no contestar a alguna de las preguntas.

Derecho a interrumpir su participaci6n: Puede abandonar el studio cuando desee sin consecuencia alguna
para usted.

En caso de dudas sobre el studio, p6ngase en contact con Harmala Sara, licenciada de la Facultad de
Periodismo y Comunicaci6n, escribiendo a la direcci6n de correo electr6nico harmalasara@hotmail.com, o con
Jorge Villegas, doctor
de la Facultad de Periodismo y Comunicaci6n, escribiendo a la direccin jvillegas@jou.ufl.edu.

Si desea obtener informaci6n sobre sus derechos como participate en un studio, p6ngase en contact con:
UFIRB Office, Box 112250, Universidad de Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-2250. Tel6fono: 392-0433.

Consentimiento: Declaro que he leido el procedimiento detallado en este document, que he recibido una copia
del mismo y que doy mi consentimiento a participar de forma voluntaria en el mismo.

Participante: Fecha:


Investigador principal:


Fecha:









Instrucciones: Por favor revise los siguientes anuncios comerciales en el folleto y
despues respond las preguntas correspondientes a cada anuncio.

Procedimiento
El siguiente cuestionario le pide indicar su opinion a un numero de adjetivos descriptivos
y preguntas abiertas acerca de anuncios de products en peri6dicos. Las escalas en
algunas de las preguntas deben medir su opinion en cada uno de los anuncios. No existen
respuestas correctas o incorrectas.

Una vez que termine un anuncio y respond las preguntas correspondientes, por favor
pase al siguiente.



Por favor observe el anuncio commercial numero uno, lea cada uno de los adjetivos
cuidadosamente y decide d6nde se refleja mis su opinion en la linea discontinue.
Luego, encierre en un circulo el espacio de la escala qu refleja su opinion mis
cercanamente. Puede negarse a responder cualquier pregunta. Recuerde, no hay
respuestas correctas o incorrectas.

Anuncio 1:

Encuentra el anuncio:


No placentero


Desagradable


No irritante


Placentero
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Agradable
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Irritant


9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


No interesante


9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Encuentra la marca Boom:


Mala : :
9 8 7 6


: : : : : Buena
5 4 3 2 1


No linda


9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Desagradable


: : : : _: _: _: : Agradable
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Interesante


Linda






73


Por favor observe el anuncio commercial numero dos, lea cada uno de los adjetivos
cuidadosamente y decide d6nde se refleja mis su opinion en la linea discontinue.
Luego, encierre en un circulo el espacio de la escala qu refleja su opinion mis
cercanamente. Puede negarse a responder cualquier pregunta. Recuerde, no hay
respuestas correctas o incorrectas.


Anuncio 2:

Encuentra el anuncio:


No placentero : : : : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Desagradable


9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


No irritante : : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2


No interesante : : : : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Encuentra la marca Cool Wave:


Mala


Buena


9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2


No linda : : : : : : : : Linda
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Desagradable : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4


: : _: Agradable
3 2 1


Placentero


Agradable


Irritante
1


Interesante






74


Por favor observe el anuncio commercial numero tres, lea cada uno de los adjetivos
cuidadosamente y decide d6nde se refleja mis su opinion en la linea discontinue.
Luego, encierre en un circulo el espacio de la escala qu refleja su opinion mis
cercanamente. Puede negarse a responder cualquier pregunta. Recuerde, no hay
respuestas correctas o incorrectas.


Anuncio 3:

Encuentra el anuncio:


No placentero : : : : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Desagradable


9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


No irritante : : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2


No interesante : : : : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Encuentra la marca Refresher:


Mala


Buena


9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2


No linda : : : : : : : : Linda
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Desagradable : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4


: : _: Agradable
3 2 1


Placentero


Agradable


Irritante
1


Interesante









Por favor observe el anuncio commercial numero cuatro, lea cada uno de los
adjetivos cuidadosamente y decide d6nde se refleja mis su opinion en la linea
discontinue. Luego, encierre en un circulo el espacio de la escala qu refleja su
opinion mAs cercanamente. Puede negarse a responder cualquier pregunta.
Recuerde, no hay respuestas correctas o incorrectas.


Anuncio 4:

Encuentra el anuncio:


No placentero : : : : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Desagradable


9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


No irritante : : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2


No interesante : : : : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Encuentra la marca Perfect Press:


Mala


Buena


9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2


No linda : : : : : : : : Linda
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Desagradable : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4


: : _: Agradable
3 2 1


Placentero


Agradable


Irritante
1


Interesante









Por favor observe el anuncio commercial numero cinco, lea cada uno de los
adjetivos cuidadosamente y decide d6nde se refleja mis su opinion en la linea
discontinue. Luego, encierre en un circulo el espacio de la escala qu refleja su
opinion mAs cercanamente. Puede negarse a responder cualquier pregunta.
Recuerde, no hay respuestas correctas o incorrectas.


Anuncio 5:

Encuentra el anuncio:


No placentero : : : : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Desagradable


9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


No irritante : : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2


No interesante : : : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Encuentra la marca SuverView:


Mala


Buena


9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2


No linda : : : : : : : Linda
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Desagradable


Agradable


9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Placentero


Agradable


Irritante
1


Interesante









Por favor observe el anuncio commercial numero seis, lea cada uno de los adjetivos
cuidadosamente y decide d6nde se refleja mis su opinion en la linea discontinue.
Luego, encierre en un circulo el espacio de la escala qu refleja su opinion mis
cercanamente. Puede negarse a responder cualquier pregunta. Recuerde, no hay
respuestas correctas o incorrectas.


Anuncio 6:

Encuentra el anuncio:


No placentero : : : : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Desagradable


Placentero


Agradable


9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


No irritante : : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2


No interesante : : : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Irritante
1


Interesante


Encuentra la marca In-Touch:


M ala : : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2


Buena


No linda : : : : : : : Linda
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Desagradable


Agradable


9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1






78


Por favor observe el anuncio commercial numero siete, lea cada uno de los adjetivos
cuidadosamente y decide d6nde se refleja mis su opinion en la linea discontinue.
Luego, encierre en un circulo el espacio de la escala qu refleja su opinion mis
cercanamente. Puede negarse a responder cualquier pregunta. Recuerde, no hay
respuestas correctas o incorrectas.


Anuncio 7:

Encuentra el anuncio:


No placentero : : : : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Desagradable


9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


No irritante : : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2


No interesante : : : : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Encuentra la marca Ultra Comfort:


Mala


Buena


9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2


No linda : : : : : : : Linda
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Desagradable : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4


: : _: Agradable
3 2 1


Placentero


Agradable


Irritante
1


Interesante









Por favor lea la siguiente pregunta cuidadosamente y respond de la major manera
possible. Puede negarse a responder cualquier pregunta. No hay respuestas correctas
o incorrectas.

ZCual de las siguientes marcas escogeria para comprar si tuviera la oportunidad?


Desodorante Refresher

Ropa interior Ultra Confort

Navaja de afeitar Glide


Camara Premier


Computadora Tech


Cepillo de dientes Super Sonic


Stereo Boom


Televisor SuperView


Por favor lea cada grupo de adjetivos y decide d6nde su opinion debe ir en la linea
discontinue. Despues, encierre en un circulo el espacio de la escala que mAs se
acerca a su opinion. Puede negarse a responder cualquier pregunta. Recuerde, no
hay respuestas correctas o incorrectas.

;Esta familiarizado con los estereos?


No familiar


9 8 7 6 5
, Esta familiarizado con las ropas interiores?


No familiar


9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
, Esta familiarizado con los desodorantes?

No familiar : : : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
, Esta familiarizado con los televisores?


Familiar


4 3 2 1


Familiar


Familiar


No familiar


9 8 7 6 5
j Esta familiarizado con los ventiladores?


No familiar


9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
, Esta familiarizado con las planchas?


No familiar


Familiar


4 3 2 1


Familiar


: Familiar
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1









, Esta familiarizado con los telefonos?
No familiar
9 8 7 6 5 4 3


: Familiar
2 1


jTiene experiencia con los estereos?

No experiencia : : : : : : : : Experiencia
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
,Tiene experiencia con las ropas interiores?

No experiencia : : : : : : : : Experiencia
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
,Tiene experiencia con los desodorantes?

No experiencia : : : : : : : : Experiencia
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
gTiene experiencia con los televisores?

No experiencia : : : : : : : : Experiencia
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
gTiene experiencia con los ventiladores?

No experiencia : : : : : : : : Experiencia
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
gTiene experiencia con las planchas?

No experiencia : : : : : : : : Experiencia
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
gTiene experiencia con los telefonos?

No experiencia : : : : : : : Experiencia
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


gTiene conocimiento de los estereos?

No conocimiento : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3
,Tiene conocimiento de las ropas interiores?

No conocimiento : : : : :
9 8 7 6 5 4 3


:Conocimiento
2 1


Conocimiento


2 1









STiene conocimiento de los desodorantes?

No conocimiento : : :
9 8 7 6
STiene conocimiento de los televisores?

No conocimiento : : :
9 8 7 6
STiene conocimiento de los ventiladores?

No conocimiento : : :
9 8 7 6
STiene conocimiento de las planchas?

No conocimiento : : :
9 8 7 6
STiene conocimiento de los telefonos?

No conocimiento


Conocimiento


5 4 3 2


: : : : Conocimiento
5 4 3 2 1


: : : : Conocimiento
5 4 3 2 1


Conocimiento


5 4 3 2 1


Conocimiento


9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2


Las siguientes preguntas serAn utilizadas para prop6sitos estadisticos. Sus
respuestas son totalmente confidenciales.

,Es usted del sexo masculine o femenino ?

iQue edad tiene?

iA que raza pertenece?

iEn que pais naci6?

iA que centro educativo asiste?

,En cual afio de studios se encuentra?

,Que estudia?

Gracias por su participaci6n. Si tiene algun problema o pregunta, por favor envie un
correo electr6nico a Harmala Sara a harmala@ufl.edu o Dr.Villegas a
jvillegas@jou.ufl.edu.















REFERENCES


Belch, G. E., & Belch, M.A. (2001). Advertising and promotion: An integrated
marketing communications perspective. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2001.

Cisneros, L. B. (1982). Development of advertising in Costa Rica. Unpublished master's
thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville.

The Costa Rica Identity. (2003). Retrieved May 23, 2003, from
http://www.infocostarica.com/culture/.

Cutler, B. D. (1997). Advertiser's relative reliance on collectivism-individualism
appeals: A cross-cultural study. Journal ofInternational Consumer Marketing, 9
(3), 43-55.

Direct Marketing in Costa Rica. (2004). Retrieved February 26, 2004, from
http://www.davisdirect.com/newsletter/2v02/costa rica.html.

Hall, E. T. (1976). Beyond culture. Garden City, NY: Anchor Book, Doubleday.

Harris, M. (1976). History and significance of the emic/etic distinction. Annual Review of
Anthropology, 5, 329-350.

Hofstede, G. (1997). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. New York:
McGraw Hill.

Hofstede's dimensions of culture. (2003). Retrieved April 3, 2003, from
http://home.triad.rr.com/anelson/hofstedes.htm.

Johar, J.S., & Sirgy, J.M. (1991). Value-expressive versus utilitarian advertising
appeals: When and why to use which appeal. Journal ofAdvertising, 20 (3), 23-
33.

Kamakura, W. A., & Novak, T. P. (1992). Value-system segmentation: Exploring the
meaning of LOV. Journal of Consumer Research, 19 (1), 119.

Kent, R. J., & Allen, C. T. (1994). Competitive interference effects in
consumer memory for advertising: The role of brand familiarity. Journal of
Marketing, 58 (3), 97-105.









Kingsley, R. E. (1967, July). The public diplomacy of U.S. business abroad: The
experience of Latin America. Journal ofInter-American Studies, 9 (3), 413-428.

Lepkowska-White, E., Brashear, T. G., & Weinberger, M. G. (2003). A test of ad appeal
effectiveness in Poland and the United States: The interplay of appeal, product
and culture. Journal ofAdvertising, 32 (3), 57-67.

Shavitt, S. (1990). The role of attitude objects in attitude function. Journal of
Experimental Social Psychology, 26, 124-148.

Spence, J.T. (1985). Achievement American style: The rewards and costs of
individualism. American Psychologist, 40 (12), 1285-1295.

Triandis, H. C., Bontempo, R., Villareal, M. J., Asai, M., & Lucca,
N. (1988). Individualism and collectivism: Cross-cultural perspectives on self-
ingroup relationships. Journal ofPersonality and Social Psychology, 54 (2), 323-
338.

Villegas, J. (2003). Proceedings ofADV4400: International advertising. Gainesville:
University of Florida.

Zhang, Y., & Neelankavil, J. P. (1997). The influence of culture on advertising
effectiveness in China and the USA, A cross-cultural study. European Journal of
Marketing, 31 (2), 134-145.















BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Harmala Sara was born in 1979, in Opelika, Alabama, and grew up in Auburn,

Alabama. After attending Auburn city schools and graduating in 1998 she attended

Florida State University in Tallahassee, Florida, with a major in public relations and

minors in graphic design and business. During her undergraduate career she traveled to

Spain for a language program and Costa Rica for a service/cultural program.

Following obtaining her Bachelor of Arts degree from Florida State University in

the spring of 2002, Harmala worked as a public relations assistant at an integrated

marketing communications firm in Tallahassee during the summer. In the fall of 2002 she

began her studies at the University of Florida working toward a master's degree in

advertising. Upon completion of her degree, Harmala will relocate to Atlanta, Georgia.