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Nitric Oxide Metabolites in Wound Fluids from Pressure Ulcers on V.A.C.(TM) Therapy


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NITRIC OXIDE METABOLITES IN WOUND FLUIDS FROM PRESSURE ULCERS ON V.A.C. THERAPY By BEVERLY BIBERA CHILDRESS A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2004

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Copyright 2004 by Beverly Bibera Childress

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I dedicate this dissertation to my mother, Generosa Childress, for all her hard work to give me a better chance in life. To my stepfather, Andrew Childress, who accepted and loved me as his biological daughter.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I sincerely thank my doctoral committee, Drs. Joyce Stechmiller, James Jessup, Gregory Schultz, Bruce Stevens, Lili Tian, and Carolyn Yucha, for their support and guidance. Each member with his/her own research expertise has greatly contributed to the completion of my dissertation. I could not have done it without them. Dr. Stechmiller is an exemplary teacher and mentor. As my chair, she gave me freedom to explore the research process and develop my potential as a novice researcher. As her research assistant, she taught me early on the importance of the scientific rigor involved in clinical studies. Her calm demeanor and optimism kept me sane and on track as I advanced in the accelerated BSN/PhD program. But most of all, I thank Dr. Stechmiller for believing in me and supporting me in my endeavors. I would like to thank Dr. Gloria Chin and her staff, especially Robert Nappo, for all their help. Special recognition goes to Dr. Timothy Blalock for teaching me basic laboratory techniques, which enabled me to do my own analyses. Also, I would like to thank my friends for their loving support during these past four years. I am grateful to have shared this life-changing journey with Sylvia Burns and Dr. Ramona Greig. Finally, I thank Dr. Mahesh Setty for his unwavering patience and encouragement during my last year of the program. iv

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES...........................................................................................................viii LIST OF FIGURES...........................................................................................................ix LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS..............................................................................................x ABSTRACT.......................................................................................................................xi CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 Background of the Problem..........................................................................................1 Problem Statement........................................................................................................3 Study Purpose...............................................................................................................4 Research Aims and Hypotheses....................................................................................4 Aim 1.....................................................................................................................4 Aim 2.....................................................................................................................5 Study Assumptions.......................................................................................................5 Study Limitations..........................................................................................................5 Significance to Nursing................................................................................................6 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.............................................................................................8 Acute Wound Healing Model.......................................................................................8 Inflammatory Phase...............................................................................................8 Proliferative Phase...............................................................................................11 Remodeling or Maturation Phase........................................................................12 Acute versus Chronic Wounds...................................................................................13 Nitric Oxide and Wound Healing...............................................................................14 Research Linking iNOS and NO during Inflammation......................................17 Research Linking iNOS and NO during Proliferation........................................18 Vacuum Assisted Closure TM (V.A.C. )......................................................................20 v

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3 METHOD...................................................................................................................23 Subjects.......................................................................................................................23 Sample and Sampling Method.............................................................................23 Setting..................................................................................................................24 Materials.....................................................................................................................24 Vacuum Assisted Closure (V.A.C. )...............................................................24 Measurement of serum nitrate/nitrite (NO x ) concentrations...............................25 Analysis of TNFand IL-1 in Wound Fluid....................................................28 Quantification of Total Protein............................................................................31 Amino Acid Analysis..........................................................................................32 Procedure....................................................................................................................32 Study Design.......................................................................................................32 Consent................................................................................................................33 Study Protocol.....................................................................................................33 Wound Fluid Collection and Storage..................................................................34 Data Management and Analysis.................................................................................35 4 RESULTS...................................................................................................................37 Statistical Procedure...................................................................................................37 Descriptive Results.....................................................................................................38 Subject Demographics.........................................................................................38 Clinical Measurements........................................................................................38 Analytic Results..........................................................................................................40 Statistical Analysis of Change for NO x ...............................................................40 Aim 1............................................................................................................40 Correlational Analysis for NO x and Cytokines...................................................42 Statistical Analysis of Change for Arginine, Citrulline, Ornithine, and Proline.43 Aim 2............................................................................................................43 Correlational Analysis for iNOS and Arginase...................................................45 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS......................................................................47 Discussion of Results..................................................................................................47 Demographics......................................................................................................47 Clinical Characteristics........................................................................................47 NO x Results.........................................................................................................48 Aim 1............................................................................................................48 Relationship between NO x and Pro-inflammatory Cytokines.............................49 Relationship between IL-1 and TNF-..............................................................49 Results of the Amino Acid profiles.....................................................................50 Aim 2............................................................................................................50 Relationship of iNOS and Arginase Activities....................................................52 Conclusions.................................................................................................................52 Implications for Clinical Practice...............................................................................54 Recommendations for Further Research....................................................................54 vi

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APPENDIX A CONSENT FORMS...................................................................................................55 B INCLUSION/EXCLUSION CRITERIA....................................................................59 C DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION..........................................................................61 D WOUND ASSESSMENT..........................................................................................64 E WOUND FLUID COLLECTION DATA..................................................................65 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................66 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................71 vii

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1 Animal Studies of NO and Wound Healing............................................................21 3-1 Sample Data Analysis..............................................................................................36 4-1 Subject Demographic Summary...............................................................................39 4-2 Summary Statistics of NO x Cytokines, and Amino Acid........................................39 4-3 Paired Differences for NO x by Ranks......................................................................41 4-4 Paired Differences for TNFby Ranks..................................................................42 4-5 Paired Differences for Arginine by Ranks...............................................................45 viii

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1 Arginine metabolism and phases of wound healing...................................................3 2-1 Cytokines, growth factors, and nitric oxide central to the wound healing process....9 2-2 Cellular effects of NO in the body..........................................................................15 2-3 Arginine metabolism................................................................................................16 3-1 Nitrate standard curve for nitrate/nitrite assay.........................................................28 3-2 TNFstandard curve for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay............................30 3-3 IL-1 standard curve for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay..............................31 3-4 Protein assay standard curve....................................................................................32 3-5 Diagram of study protocol........................................................................................33 4-1 Concentration of NO x at baseline and at 24 hours, 3 days, and 7 days of V.A.C. treatment...................................................................................................................41 4-2 Concentration of TNFat baseline and at 24 hours, 3 days, and 7 days of V.A.C. treatment....................................................................................................42 4-3 Levels of arginine and citrulline at baseline and at 24 hours, 3days, and 7 days of V.A.C. treatment................................................................................................44 4-4 Levels of ornithine and proline at baseline and at 24 hours, 3 days, and 7 days of V.A.C. treatment....................................................................................................44 5-1 Bar graph representing pre-V.A.C. and post-V.A.C. levels of arginine, citrulline, ornithine, and proline...............................................................................................51 5-2 Bar graph representing pre-V.A.C. and post-V.A.C. NO x levels.........................51 ix

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AGU bFGF BH 4 DFU EGF ELISA eNOS FGF GSNO HB-EGF IFNIGF-I IL-1/1/2/6/12 iNOS KGF KO L-NIL LPS MITU MMP NO 2 NO 3 NO NOS NO x nNOS ODC PDGF SNAP TGF-/ TIMP TNF-/ V.A.C. VEGF aminoguanidine hemisulphate basic fibroblast growth factor tetrahydrobiopterin diabetic foot ulcers epidermal growth factor enzyme-linked immunosorbent enzyme endothelial nitric oxide synthase fibroblast growth factor S-nitroso-glutathione heparin binding epidermal growth factor interferon-gamma insulin-like growth factor I interleukins 1 beta, 1, 2, 6, and 12 inducible nitric oxide synthase keratinocyte growth factor knockout L-N 6 (1-iminoethyl)-lysine lipopolysaccharide S-methyl isothiouronium matrix metalloproteinase nitrite nitrate nitric oxide nitric oxide synthase nitrate/nitrite neuronal nitric oxide synthase ornithine decarboxylase platelet-derived growth factor s-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine transforming growth factoralpha and -beta tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase tumor necrosis factoralpha and beta vacuum assisted closure TM vascular endothelin-derived factor x

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Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy NITRIC OXIDE METABOLITES IN WOUND FLUIDS FROM PRESSURE ULCERS ON V.A.C. THERAPY By Beverly Bibera Childress August 2004 Chair: Joyce K. Stechmiller Major Department: Nursing Compelling evidence suggests that nitric oxide (NO ), a metabolite of arginine, plays an important role in wound healing. Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid that is metabolized by nitric oxide synthase and arginase. A model for regulation of wound healing proposes the importance of a strict reciprocal control of these enzymes in wounds. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate arginine metabolism in wound fluids of patients with pressure ulcers on Vacuum Assisted Closure (V.A.C. ) therapy. This device, which has been shown to accelerate wound healing, also served as a tool to collect wound fluid. Wound fluid extracts from the larger V.A.C. Study were used to determine nitrate and nitrite by the Griess reaction method. Quantitative measurement of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1) was performed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Wound fluid analyses of arginine, citrulline, ornithine, and proline were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Eleven patients xi

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between 31-92 years of age with Stage III or IV pressure ulcer on V.A.C. therapy were enrolled. The subjects were recruited within a 50-mile radius of Gainesville. After informed consent was obtained, wound fluid was collected prior to V.A.C. application and post-V.A.C. within 24 hours, three days, and seven days. Subjects served as their own control in this prospective quasi-experimental repeated measures design. There was no significant difference between preand post-V.A.C. NO citrulline, ornithine, and proline levels. However, there was a statistically significant decrease in arginine levels measured at baseline and day three of V.A.C. therapy. Also, NO measured at 24 hours of V.A.C. placement decreased significantly at day seven of treatment. Furthermore, post-V.A.C. levels of TNFdecreased significantly from baseline. Thus, a less cytotoxic environment is found indicating a healing wound. Arginine and its metabolites are detectable in wound fluids from patients with pressure ulcers. To date, the metabolism of arginine has not been described in humans with pressure ulcers on V.A.C. therapy. The determination of NO in these wound environments provides baseline information on the mechanisms involved in aberrant wound healing, which has implications for nursing care. xii

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The focus of this chapter is to introduce the problem, study variables, and purpose of the study. Specific aims with their respective research hypotheses are delineated. The significance of this study to wound research and the discipline of nursing is provided. Background of the Problem Despite advances in wound care treatment, the United States spends billions of dollars a year to care for almost one million Americans who develop chronic wounds (Mendez-Eastman, 1998). Chronic venous insufficiency, diabetis mellitus, and pressure ulcers account for 70% of all chronic wounds (Nwomeh, Yager, & Cohen, 1998). Management of pressure ulcers alone in 1994 was estimated at $1.335 billion for inpatient and outpatient facilities (Agency for Health Care Policy and Research). It costs approximately $2,731 to heal one pressure ulcer in hospital and long-term care settings. Furthermore, patients with a single pressure ulcer are 3.5 to 5 times more likely to stay in the hospital than those without ulcers (Maklebust & Sieggreen, 2001). In a recent article by Arnold (2003), the incidence of pressure ulcers in acute care settings was reported at 2%-29%. Also, the author reported that the cost of healing one pressure ulcer wound ranged from $2,000-$70,000. Clearly, the scope of the problem is not well documented in the literature. However, the problem remains and may worsen as the aging baby-boomers retire. As patient acuity increases in combination with technological advances to prolong life, the total expenditure in chronic wounds is expected to rise. 1

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2 A plethora of commercial products are widely available in the market to treat chronic wounds. One such novel technology is the Vacuum Assisted Closure (V.A.C. ) device, which utilizes subatmospheric pressure upon topical application to acute, subacute, or chronic wounds (Argenta & Morykwas, 1997). The negative pressure created by this device is postulated to decrease wound exudates and bacterial colonization, increase tissue perfusion, and stimulate granulation tissue formation. The V.A.C. creates an interstitial fluid environment that promotes healing, and as a result, the wound heals faster. However, little is known of the mechanism by which the V.A.C. accelerates wound healing. It is well established that normal wound healing occurs sequentially and is strictly regulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. Utilizing biological mediators to treat chronic wounds have been under intense investigation for several years. Clinically, growth factors have yet to be proven beneficial in the treatment of chronic wounds in human subjects (Goldman, 2004). It is imperative, therefore, to continue our search for novel mediators to improve healing outcomes. Recently, the importance of nitric oxide (NO ) in wound repair has been elucidated. Not only does it possess cytostatic and cytotoxic properties, but also regulatory functions to mediate epithelialization, angiogenesis, and collagen deposition crucial to the proliferative phase. Nitric oxide is synthesized from arginine by the constitutive and inducible nitric oxide synthases (cNOS and iNOS). In wounds, iNOS predominates and competes for its substrate with arginase. The by-products of arginase, ornithine and proline, are also essential in wound repair. Hence, a strict reciprocal regulation of these enzymes has been proposed to modulate wound healing (Shearer, Richards, Mills, & Caldwell, 1997). As

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3 gene technology advances, the possibility of treating chronic wounds with NO releasing products or iNOS gene transfer exists. However, further study is needed to determine the role of nitric oxide in healing human wounds. Problem Statement Chronic, non-healing wounds of various etiologies are a major burden to society. Clinically regarded as the technology of the century, the V.A.C. device accelerates wound healing by applying negative pressure to the edges of the wound (Mendez-Eastman, 1998). The efficacy of this technique, however, is not well understood at the cellular and molecular level. Compelling evidence suggests that NO is vital to the wound healing process. As a free radical, it has cytotoxic properties as well as regulatory functions on various cell types involved in inflammation and proliferation (Schwentker & Billiar, 2002). Nitric oxide (NO ) is synthesized from L-arginine, a substrate for both nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and arginase (see Figure 1-1). In wounds, inducible NOS IL-1, IFNTNFiNOS arginase L-arginine Citrulline + NO Ornithine + urea Free radicals Proline ROS, RNS Polyamines Inflammation Proliferation Remodeling 1 3 5 7 9 11 days Figure 1-1. Arginine metabolism and phases of wound healing.

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4 Note: IL-1 = interleukins-1 beta; IFN= interferon-gamma; TNF= tumor necrosis factor-alpha; iNOS = inducible nitric oxide synthase; NO = nitric oxide; ROS = reactive oxygen species; RNS = reactive nitrogen species. Text in bold were measured. (iNOS) catalyzes arginine to citrulline and NO whereas arginase converts arginine to ornithine and urea. Ornithine is a precursor for proline and polyamines, which are essential in normal wound healing (Wu & Morris, 1999). Study Purpose Human studies using impaired wound healing models are lacking in this area. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the metabolic activity of arginine in wound fluids from pressure ulcer patients on V.A.C. therapy. Wound fluid extracts from the ongoing larger V.A.C. Study were used to analyze the metabolites of NO tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1). The main V.A.C. Study is a repeated measures experimental design assessing the characteristics of pressure ulcer environments for pro-inflammatory cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitors of matrix proteinases, and amino acids. Additional information taken directly from the larger study included demographics and values of the amino acid profile. Research Aims and Hypotheses Aim 1 Evaluate the Effects of the V.A.C. on Nitrate/Nitrite (NO x ) levels in Wound Fluids from Non-healing and Healing Pressure Ulcers. Hypothesis PreV.A.C. concentrations of NO x will be high due to increased levels of TNFand IL-1 in chronic wounds. Post-V.A.C. NO x will return to optimal levels that are supportive of healing within 24 hours followed by decreasing levels on days three and seven (see Figure 1-1).

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5 Aim 2 Evaluate the Effects of the V.A.C. on Arginine, Citrulline, Ornithine, and Proline in Wound Fluids from Non-healing and Healing Pressure Ulcers, which Reflects iNOS and Arginase Activities. Hypothesis There will be an increase in iNOS and arginase activities in chronic wounds as evidenced by high levels of citrulline, ornithine, and proline. After V.A.C. placement, the NO /citrulline pathway will predominate during days one and three followed by the ornithine/urea cycle (see Figure 1-1). Accordingly, arginine levels will decrease as it is utilized by iNOS and arginase. Data for these analyses were taken directly from the database of the larger V.A.C. Study. Study Assumptions The following assumptions are used in this study. 1. Wound fluid reflects the biological wound environment. 2. The V.A.C. changes the wound environment. 3. Variables of interest are detectable in the wound environment. Study Limitations Internal validity is an inherent threat to this proposed design. Without a control group, it is impossible to determine whether healing would have occurred over time without treatment of the V.A.C. It should be noted, however, that wounds are heterogeneous. The complexity of the wound healing process and the great variability that exist between patients further complicate comparison analyses (Stacey & Trengove, 1995). A major limitation of convenience sampling is the potential bias of self-selection (Portney & Watkins, 2000). Such limitation cannot be avoided unless probability

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6 sampling method is utilized. It should be noted, however, that the participating hospitals and clinics attracted all types of patients from the state of Florida. Unfortunately, the study sample was composed mainly of subjects of Caucasian descent. No medical complications were encountered as a result of the V.A.C. intervention. Another limitation of the proposed project is generalizability due to its small sample size. Only 11 subjects with pressure ulcers on the V.A.C. were studied. In addition, the findings from this study cannot be generalized to all types of chronic wounds. The etiology of decubitus ulcers, for example, greatly differs from diabetic foot ulcers or venous ulcers. Hence, the results will only reflect the wound environment of pressure ulcers. Significance to Nursing This study examined the by-products of arginine metabolism in wound fluids extracted from patients with stage III or IV pressure ulcers. Specifically, the determination of NO in these wound environments will provide baseline information on the mechanisms involved in aberrant wound healing. Gaining an insight to wound repair at the cellular and molecular level is vital to nursing care. At the bedside, nurses are integral in the assessment of skin integrity, risk factors, and nutritional needs of individuals. In most instances, nurses are first to identify skin breakdown and institute preventative measures such as positional and/or diaper (if incontinent) changes. At the same time, physicians and skin nurse specialists are alerted to further manage the patient especially those with complicated wounds. Knowledge of wound repair and measures that promote healing of chronic wounds is of the utmost importance. Nurses and other wound health care professionals can facilitate or impair wound repair. Thus, basic

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7 wound research is paramount to the management of wound healing by providing evidence-based interventions for practice.

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW The purpose of this chapter is to provide readers with background information. This includes an in-depth discussion of wound healing physiology and pathophysiology. Current models of acute and chronic wound healing are provided. A brief overview of nitric oxide (NO ) is presented. The role of NO in wound healing is further elucidated with linking research to the inflammatory and proliferative phases of healing. Lastly, the Vacuum Assisted Closure (V.A.C. ) system is explained in detail with supporting evidence regarding its use and success in treating chronic wounds. Acute Wound Healing Model Current knowledge of normal wound healing physiology is based on the cutaneous wound healing model. Regardless of the cause and extent of tissue injury, the healing process includes three overlapping phases: (1) inflammation, (2) proliferation, and (3) maturation or remodeling (see Figure 2-1). Each stage is strictly regulated by cytokines, growth factors, and other cellular components of inflammation. These biochemical mediators stimulate or inhibit cellular actions that are critical for host defense, eradication of noxious agents, and facilitation of healing (Karukonda et al., 2000; Mast & Schultz, 1996). Inflammatory Phase Inflammation, the first phase of wound healing, is the bodys natural response to injury and lasts 1-5 days. Hemostasis occurs as clots form and blood vessels constrict. The clot consisting primarily of fibrin, trapped red bloods cells, and aggregated platelets 8

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9 not only halts bleeding, but also forms the provisional wound matrix. Platelets release cytokines such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), platelet-derived growth (PDGF), tumor growth factor-beta (TGF-), tumor growth factor-alpha (TGF-), platelet-derived epidermal growth factor (PDEGF), platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor, Inflammation Neutrophils Macrophages Lymphocytes TGF-, NO PDGF, TGF-, FGF, IL-1 TGF-, IL-2, IFN-, NO TGF-, EGF, TNF-, NO Proliferation Epithelial Cells Fibroblasts Endothelial Cells TGF-, TGF-, EGF, NO TGF-, PDGF, KGF FGF, PDGF, TGF-, NO FGF, IGF-I, IFN-, NO Remodeling Fibroblasts Epithelial Cells TNF-, IL-1, PDGF, TGFEGF, TGFFigure 2-1. Cytokines, growth factors, and nitric oxide central to the wound healing process. Modified from B.B. Childress and J.K. Stechmiller (2002) the Role of Nitric Oxide in Wound Healing. Biological Research of Nursing, 4(1), 5-15. Note: EGF = epidermal growth factor; FGF = fibroblast growth factor; IFN= interferon-gamma; IGF-I = insulin-like growth factor I; IL 1/2 = interleukins 1 and 2; KGF = keratinocyte growth factor; NO = nitric oxide; PDGF = platelet-derived growth factor; TGF / = transforming growth factor and ; TNF= tumor necrosis factor ;

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10 (PD-ECGF). These proteins serve as mediators of the healing response by altering cellular functions. This is accomplished by the binding of cytokines to their receptors on cell membranes (Lawrence, 1998). Vasoconstriction is immediately followed by vasodilation of local blood vessels in response to histamine, kinins, and prostaglandins. As vascular permeability and levels of chemoattractants increase, the number of leukocytes migrating to the injured site increases. This is in response to stimuli such as bacterial endotoxin, PDGF, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-), and other chemotactic factors. As a result, neutrophils and monocytes infiltrate the area to remove damaged tissues and/or pathogens (Rote, 1998). Neutrophils, the first to arrive at the wounded tissue, clean up the wound environment via phagocytosis and breakdown extracellular matrix by releasing proteases. The proteolytic function of these enzymes differs greatly from the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) produced by fibroblasts in the subsequent stages. Protease activity is vital to wound debridement and the progression of the healing process to the next phase (Schultz & Mast, 1998) The inflammatory response declines by the third day and is marked by the absence of neutrophils from the wound. Monocytes are transformed into activated macrophages through stimulation by T lymphocyte-derived interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-sigma, and bacteria or viruses (Lawrence, 1998). Macrophages, which are also phagocytes, further decontaminate and prepare the wound for tissue repair. The breakdown of damaged matrix is mediated by collagenases and elastases that are secreted by macrophages, which are regulated by macrophage-derived tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) (Lawrence). Furthermore, macrophages stimulate fibroblasts

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11 proliferation, collagen production, and other key healing processes by releasing cytokines and growth factors such as TNF-, PDGF, TGF-, IL-1, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and TGF(Karukonda et al., 2000; Lawrence). In an autocrine manner, TGFstimulates macrophages to secrete additional TGFas well as other cytokines such as FGF, PDGF, TNF, and IL-1. Other products secreted by macrophage that are crucial to the wound healing process include oxygen metabolites, prostaglandins, and arginine (Lawrence, 1998). Proliferative Phase Central to the proliferative phase, which occurs from 3-16 days, is angiogenesis, reepithelialization, fibroplasia, and wound contraction (Maklebust & Sieggreen, 2001) These events are orchestrated in an orderly and timely manner by a multitude of cells including endothelial cells, epithelial cells, fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, and their biochemical mediators. Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, provides all the metabolic needs of the healing tissue. Hypoxia, high lactic acid concentrations, and low pH stimulate endothelial cells to proliferate on capillary sprouts. In addition, macrophage-derived cytokines are directly and indirectly responsible for migration and proliferation of these cells. Vascular endothelin-derived growth factor (VEGF) and basic FGF are two of the most potent promoter angiogenesis. Other angiogenic stimulants include TGF-, epidermal growth factor (EGF), TGF-, PD-ECGF, and TNF(Karukonda et al., 2000; Lawrence, 1998). Overlapping with inflammation, reepithelialization begins hours after injury with epithelial cells migrating to the wounded area in response to TGF-, TGF-, and EGF.

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12 By 24 hours, epithelial cells proliferate until a complete seal of the wound is formed to confine and protect the healing tissue (Karukonda et al., 2000; Rote, 1998). Proliferation of epithelial cells is mediated by TGF-, EGF, heparin binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF), IGF, KGF, and bFGF. Key cytokines produced by epithelial cells include PDGF 6, TGF-, and TGF(Lawrence, 1998). Collagen deposition by fibroblasts is vital to tissue granulation formation and scar maturation. The synthesis of collagen is mainly stimulated by TGF-, which is produced by pro-inflammatory cells and fibroblasts. External factors such as age, pressure, stress, and tension may directly affect the rate of collagen synthesis. PDGF, a stimulus for granulation of tissue, has been shown to indirectly limit cellular activity due to its influence on TGFexpression (Lawrence, 1998). Furthermore, TNFand IL-1 stimulate fibroblasts to synthesize collagen, up regulate MMPs, and down regulate tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (Mast & Schultz, 1996). Thus, newly synthesized collagen is deposited in an extracellular matrix conducive to healing. The last event of this phase is wound contraction, which lasts through the remodeling phase. Myofibroblasts responding to TGFand other substances mediate this process to promote wound closure (Karukonda et al., 2000; Rote, 1998). Remodeling or Maturation Phase The remodeling phase, which can last for several months, begins as cell proliferation and neovascularization ends. At this stage, the synthesis of new scar matrix and degradation of extracellular matrix components reach equilibrium. Fibroblasts produce stimulatory and inhibitory substances, which regulate this process. These cells are responsible for remodeling the new extracellular matrix by synthesizing collagen,

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13 gelatin, and proteoglycans. Replacement of the old matrix requires the proteolytic activities of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, and MMP-3. The destructive nature of these enzymes to the healing tissues is inhibited by TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, which are also secreted by fibroblasts (Schultz, 2000; Schultz & Mast, 1998; Tarnuzzer & Schultz, 1996). The complex interaction between MMPs and TIMPs is key to tissue remodeling. Acute versus Chronic Wounds Acute and chronic wounds greatly differ in their etiology, healing time, and wound environment. In acute wounds, such as a clean cut, a sudden and quick insult to the skin occurs. Immediately thereafter, injured cells and platelets release cytokines and growth factors to elicit the inflammatory response. In chronic states, cellular injury results from a persistent stimulus such as repeated tissue trauma or ischemia. Over time, the affected area becomes an open wound, providing a good medium for bacterial growth. An inflammatory response is initiated by the influx of neutrophils and macrophages into the wound site. The process, therefore, bypasses the release of growth factors that signal the healing cascade to begin (as seen in acute injury). A vicious cycle occurs as inflammatory cells secrete cytokines, TNFand IL-1, which in turn attract more inflammatory mediators (Schultz, 2000; Mast & Schultz, 1996). Further tissue damage ensues as the wound fails to move quickly and appropriately through the subsequent phases of healing. Schultz and Mast (1998) best summarize wound environments at the molecular level. Based on fluid analysis from healing wounds and chronic ulcers, they discovered that healing wounds show high levels of mitogenic activity, growth factors, and functional fibroblasts, but low concentrations of cytokines and proteases. In contrast,

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14 chronic wounds exhibit low mitotic activity, elevated levels of cytokines and proteases, low levels of growth factors, and senescent cells. Nitric Oxide and Wound Healing It is becoming evident from a decade of research that NO is essential to wound healing. Compelling data from animal and human studies clearly suggest that NO is an integral part of the inflammatory phase. Not only does it possess cytotoxic properties, but also regulatory functions to mediate epithelialization, angiogenesis, and collagen deposition crucial to the proliferative phase (see Figure 2-1). It is important to note, however, that the exact bioregulatory mechanism by which NO promotes wound repair has yet to be fully elucidated. Much research in this area is needed to understand how NO modulates wound healing in humans (P.C. Lee et al., 1999; Stallmeyer, Kmpfer, Kolb, Pfeilschifter, & Frank, 1999; Thornton et al., 1998). Nitric oxide is a ubiquitous molecule that serves various biological functions in the body (see Figure 2-2). Existing for only seconds, NO readily reacts with molecular oxygen and water to form its stable end products, nitrate and nitrite (Snyder & Bredt, 1992). NO is generated by a family of enzymes called NOS from a semi-essential amino acid, L-arginine (Wu & Morris, 1999). The two constitutive NOS are (1) neuronal (nNOS or type I) that is expressed in the peripheral and central nervous system, and (2) endothelial NOS (eNOS or Type III) that is found in endothelial cells of the vascular system. Type II (iNOS) is only expressed in the presence of endotoxins and/or pro-inflammatory cytokines. Unique to iNOS is its ability to synthesize NO in high concentration for a period of time to sustain its toxic effects irrespective of intracellular Ca 2+ levels (Lincoln, Hoyle, & Burnstock, 1997). A cytokine mixture of TNF-, IL-,

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15 and interferon-gamma (IFN-) can effectively induce human iNOS. Upon induction, the iNOS gene is transcribed and translated into a functional enzyme to generate NO in the NO Innate Immunity Fe2+guanylate cyclaseGTPcGMPPhysiologicalevents DNA COX-2 ProteinsThiols, -SH Other Fe2+Enzymes LipidsCell death Other Proteins CytohromeMitochondriaSeptic shock Signaling Inflammation Organ Damage ++++------Figure 2-2. Cellular effects of NO in the body. Note: GTP = guanosine triphosphate, cGMP = cyclic guanosine monophosphate, DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid, COX-2 = cyclooxygenase-2. presence of its co-substrates, co-factors, and prosthetic groups (see Figure 2-3) (Taylor & Geller, 2001). Once released, NO diffuses out of activated macrophages and destroys target cells through necrosis or apoptosis (Moncada & Higgs, 1995; Snyder & Bredt,

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16 1992). Many of the iNOS inhibitors include TGF-, PDGF, NO and IL-4, 6, 8, and 10 (Lincoln et al., 1997). cytokines,LPSmembrane L-arginineL-citrullineNO+L-ornithine Ca2+/CaML-arg plasmaeNOS, nNOSNFBiNOSarginaseNOS NOS BH4NADPHNADP+O2H2OArginosuccinatemtNOS y+LAT1/24F2H2CAT 1, 2, 3, 4b0,+AT1rBATATB0, + NH2NH2+C = Agmantine arginine decarboxylate arginosuccinatesynthasearginosuccinatelyaseATP Figure 2-3. Arginine metabolism. Note: arginine transport systems = y + L, y + (CAT 1,2,3,4); b 0,+ B 0, + ; ATP = adenosine triphosphate; BH 4 = tetrahydrobiopterin; Ca 2+ = calcium; CaM = calmodulin; H 2 O = water; LPS = lipopolysaccharide, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms = eNOS (endothelial NOS), iNOS (inducible NOS), mtNOS (mitochondrial NOS), nNOS (neuronal NOS); NF-B =, nuclear factor-B; NADPH = nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate; O 2 = oxygen. Interestingly, researchers have noted that NOS competes for its substrate with another enzyme called arginase. This enzyme converts arginine into ornithine and urea. Ornithine is an essential substrate for the synthesis of polyamines, which are important in

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17 cellular proliferation and repair. Proline, also derived from ornithine, is key in collagen synthesis (Wu & Morris, 1999). Analyses of wound fluids (less than three days) showed high concentrations of NO and citrulline in response to TNF-, IL-, IFNand lipopolysaccharide (LPS). As the healing process progressed and the inflammatory response decreased (more than three days), arginase activity increased as indicated by high levels of ornithine (Shearer et al., 1997). In another study, R.H. Lee and others (2001) examined the biochemical activity of NOS over a 35-day period in rats. Gene expression of iNOS correlated highly with an elevated NO concentration that peaked at 24 hours and declined steadily for the next 5-7 days with sustained levels up to the 10 th day. Research Linking iNOS and NO during Inflammation It is well established that NO mediates the cytotoxic effects of macrophages during the inflammatory phase. Wound fluid studies, for example, consistently demonstrated high levels of NO x early and transiently from wounds of various etiologies. To determine the precise time at which concentrations of arginine metabolites predominated, Albina, Mills, Henry, and Caldwell (1990) implanted subcutaneous sponges in rats for 15 days. High levels of nitrite and citrulline were found within 3 days, whereas increasing levels of urea and ornithine were detected after five days post sponge implantation. Studies of iNOS knockout (KO) mice established the critical role of this enzyme in wound repair. In a study of iNOS-deficient mice, healing of excisional wounds was delayed by four days. Wound closure was prolonged by 31% in iNOS KO mice compared with wild types. After a topical application of an adenoviral-mediated iNOS gene transfer, however, the wound closed (Yamasaki et al., 1998). Thus, it is evident that iNOS is the

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18 key NO -producing enzyme in wound healing, and gene therapy may prove beneficial for treating of chronic wounds. Current evidence suggests that abnormalities in arginine metabolism may contribute to the pathogenesis of impaired healing in human extremity ulcers. In a group of 22 diabetic patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFU), 22 diabetics, and 14 controls; iNOS and arginase activities were significantly increased in DFU patients when compared to the other two groups. Furthermore, the higher concentration of NO found in the diabetic groups was attributed to low levels of TGF1 (Jude, Boulton, Ferguson, & Appleton, 1999). It is suggested by Abd-El-Aleem et al. (2000) that the destructive effects of peroxynitrite on tissues may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic venous ulcers. In this study, the investigators enrolled 16 normal subjects and 18 patients with chronic venous ulcers. Biochemical and immunohistological analysis of biopsied samples revealed high levels of NOS and arginase in subjects with ulcers compared with normal skin. Recall that in normal repair, arginase enhances extracellular matrix deposition; however, when in excess it may lead to callus formation. Research Linking iNOS and NO during Proliferation Central to the proliferative phase is collagen deposition by fibroblasts. One group of researchers examined the effects of an iNOS inhibitor, S-methyl isothiouronium (MITU), in mice with implanted polyvinyl alcohol sponges. After 10 days, the group that received the highest dose of MITU (100mg/kg/day) exhibited low levels of NO in wound fluids and cell culture supernatants. This was highly correlated with decreased collagen accumulation and wound breaking strength (Schffer, Tantry, Gross, Wasserkrug, & Barbul, 1996). Similar results were found on a subsequent study using

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19 aminoguanidine hemisulphate (AGU) (Schffer, Tantry, Thornton, & Barbul, 1999). To further elucidate the role of iNOS in wound healing, iNOS-KO fibroblasts synthesized less collagen than the wild-type fibroblast. Restoration of collagen production was observed after low concentrations of an NO donor, s-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), was administered to the iNOS-KO cells (Shi, Most, Efron, Tantry, Fischel, & Barbul, 2001). On the other hand, collagen accumulation was shown to increase in rats following iNOS gene transfection (Thornton et al., 1998). NO-deficiency associated with diabetes demonstrates poor healing. Diabetes-induced rats given exogenous molsidomine, a nitric oxide donor, showed increased hydroxyproline content and wound breaking strength (Witte, Kiyama, & Barbul, 2002). Such findings suggest that NO is vital to tissue repair as evidenced by impaired healing in a wound environment with low levels of NO Potential treatments for impaired healing may involve administration of nitric oxide donors and/or gene manipulation. In a cutaneous wound repair study, Frank and colleagues (1998) revealed that iNOS was significantly expressed during inflammation, reepithelialization, and granulation of tissue. Within minutes of injury, epithelial cells will normally migrate from wound edges immediately post-injury and proliferates within the first 24 hours. Under NO deficient states, reepithelialization was severely delayed when a specific iNOS inhibitor, L-N6(1-iminoethyl)-lysine (L-NIL) was introduced to wounded mice (Stallmeyer et al., 1999). In angiogenesis, both iNOS and eNOS are postulated to be equally important in synthesizing NO Newly formed blood vessels are governed by one of the most potent angiogenic factors, VEGF. NO is believed to effectively enhance the expression of VEGF by keratinocytes during tissue repair. To illustrate the effects of exogenous NO

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20 in vitro cultures of human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT were exposed to purified growth factors, cytokines and/or S-nitroso-glutathione (GSNO). A potent keratinocyte inducer of VEGF mRNA expression, GSNO-treated cultures with TGF-1, keratinocyte growth factor, IL-1, or IFNexhibited high levels of VEGF and proteins. Similar results were also observed in vivo with L-NIL-treated rats showing decreased levels of VEGF mRNA during inflammation (Frank et al., 1999). One can infer from these studies that the underlying function of NO in repair is to induce keratinocytes to express VEGF. In a recent study, eNOS KO mice and wild types were wounded to determine the requirement of this enzyme in wound closure and strength. By day 10, wound strength was reduced by 38% in eNOS KO mice. Furthermore, a delay of 9.2 days in wound closure was observed in the eNOS KO group compared with the wild type controls (P.C. Lee et al., 1999). Undoubtedly, angiogenesis is essential in wound healing and NO may regulate this process with iNOS and eNOS as major contributors. In summary, the cytotoxic properties of NO are vital to the inflammatory phase of wound healing. NO continues to play a significant role in acute wound healing as a signaling molecule. As a messenger, NO upregulates and downregulates wound cellular functions. Additionally, the vasodilatory effects of NO in old and newly formed blood vessels are vital for wounded sites. Evidence to support the above assertions is summarized in Table 2-1. Vacuum Assisted Closure TM (V.A.C. ) FDA-approved since 1995, the V.A.C. (KCI, San Antonio, TX) device promotes rapid healing of chronic wounds refractory to conventional treatment (Mendez-Eastman, 1998). Clinically, the V.A.C. has been shown to enhance granulation tissue formation

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21 and increase healing rates. This may be in part due to increased vascularity, decreased bacterial burden, and increased growth factor to MMP ratios. It is indicated for acute acute/traumatic wounds, flaps and grafts, chronic wounds open wounds (diabetic and Table 2-1: Animal Studies of NO and Wound Healing Intervention NO x Epethelialization Angiogenesis OHP WBS Collagen Synthesis Molsidomine (diabetic rats) MITU AGU iNOS gene transfection iNOS-KO fibroblasts iNOS-KO cells with SNAP eNOS-KO L-NIL Note: NO x = nitrate/nitrite; OHP = hydroxyproline; WBS = wound breaking strength; MITU = S-methyl isothiouronium; AGU = aminoguanidine hemisulphate; iNOS = inducible nitric oxide; KO = knockout; SNAP = s-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine; eNOS = endothelial NOS; L-NIL = L-N 6 (1-iminoethyl)-lysine. pressure ulcers), and subacute wounds (dehisced incisions). The V.A.C. system consists of V.A.C. unit or pump, foam dressings, canister, drapes, and extension tubing. Simultaneously treatment of several wound sites is possible through the use of Y-connector (Kinetic Concepts, Incorporation, The Clinical Advantage, 2000). A special porous dressing is positioned in the wound cavity to distribute localized negative pressure to the edges of the wound. This acts to mechanically draw the tissue inward thereby stimulating epithelial migration and cellular proliferation (Argenta & Morykwas, 1997). Furthermore, removal of interstitial fluid from the surrounding tissues improves blood supply and eliminates bacterial contaminants (Mendez-Eastman, 1998).

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22 Within three to four days of V.A.C. treatment, the number of bacteria in the wound was shown to decrease significantly (Argenta & Morykwas). In a six week randomized trial of V.A.C. versus standard therapy of chronic wounds, 64% of granulation tissue formation occurred in the V.A.C. group (Joseph et al., 2000) in comparison to the saline-wet-to-moist dressing group. Deva and colleagues (2000) also reported positive healing outcomes in 26 out 30 pressure ulcer patients on the V.A.C. Thus, the environment created from the V.A.C. therapy is conducive to the healing process, which ultimately leads to wound closure. Clinical outcomes of V.A.C. therapy for acute and chronic wound treatment have shown promising results. The exact mechanism by which this device accelerates healing, however, is not well understood at the cellular and molecular level. Furthermore, the role of nitric oxide in wound repair has yet to be fully elucidated in animal and human studies. Undoubtedly, there is a need for further research in this area to better understand the phenomena.

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CHAPTER 3 METHOD This chapter is divided into four sections. The first section presents subject characteristics and sampling method. Second, the materials section provides information on the instruments used and variables tested in the study. The procedures are presented in the third section with specifics on study design, protocol, and data collection. A description of data management and statistical analyses of the two aims used examine the model shown in Figure 1.1. Subjects Sample and Sampling Method Eleven adults 21 years of age and over were selected as subjects by convenience sampling. Stage III or IV pressure ulcer patients who were scheduled for V.A.C. therapy were recruited. V.A.C. treatment was indicated for patients without fistulas, necrotic tissue, untreated cellulitis or osteomylitis, connective tissue disorder, or malignancy in the wound. The inclusion and exclusion criteria specific to the study were as follows: 21 years of age or older with stage III or IV pressure ulcers. patient required V.A.C. therapy on an outpatient or in-patient basis Pressure ulcer(s): o present for more than one month o no previous treatment with dermal skin substitutes o received little to no wound treatment for one week prior to V.A.C. (enzymatic debridement agent) 23

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24 o no hyperbaric oxygen or warm-up therapy o no fistulas, necrotic tissue with eschar, untreated cellulitis or osteomylitis, connective tissue disorder, and no malignancy in the wound o debridement recently performed no active systemic infection (normal white blood count), anemia (hematocrit less than 26) or immune deficiency diseases. no smoking within the past six months. not receiving steroids, immuno-suppressive or cytotoxic medications. Setting The study sites were within a 50-mile radius of Gainesville, Florida. The University of Florida and Veterans Administration Institutional Review Board approval of the study were obtained from each facility. The Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons, Advanced Registered Nurse Practitioner, and Clinical Nurse Specialists contacted the principal investigator (PI) and/or sponsor when subjects or their family members agreed to talk about participation in the study. The PI or faculty sponsor recruited potential subjects from the inpatient and outpatient settings of the hospitals and nursing homes. Written informed consent was obtained prior to review of medical records and all procedures. Materials Vacuum Assisted Closure (V.A.C. ) In this study, the V.A.C. System was applied and maintained according to the manufacturers protocol and followed by the subjects wound care team. These included the Clinical Nurse Specialist, Wound, Continence, and Ostomy Nurse Specialists, or Advanced Registered Nurse Practitioner who were all employed by the participating institution. Ten of the patients were on the classic V.A.C. while one subject was on the

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25 mini-V.A.C. In all patients, the physician and/or nurse practitioner ordered V.A.C. therapy to sacral wound on continuous therapy at 125 mmHg. Using the black polyurethane foam, the appropriate health care staff changed the dressing three times a week or as needed. Therapy was disrupted when patients were out of their rooms for medical tests, clinic visits, or physical therapy. Measurement of serum nitrate/nitrite (NO x ) concentrations Due to its volatile nature, NO has a short half-life (t = seconds) and is oxidized to its stable end products, nitrate (NO 3 ) and nitrite (NO 2 ) (Taylor & Geller, 2001). Since NO 2 is converted to NO 3 in most bodily fluids, the primary metabolite present is NO 3 Numerous studies in wound healing have estimate NO 3 and NO 2 (NO x ) in wound fluids as an indirect measure of NO synthesis in the healing process. The simplest and most widely used technique is spectrophotometric quantification of NO 2 by using the Griess diazotization reaction. Assays of total NO 2 + NO 3 ; therefore, are necessary to account for NO 3 that is undetected by the Griess method (Moshage, 1997; Sun, Zhang, Broderick, & Fein, 2003). The Cayman Chemical Nitrate/Nitrite Colorimetric Assay Kit (Ann Arbor, MI) was used to quantify total NO x in the wound fluid. The assay has a sensitivity of 2 M and is outlined in the manufacturers instruction as a two-step process. First, it involves the conversion of nitrate to nitrite followed by the addition of Greiss reagents to determine nitrite concentrations. Pre-assay preparation included washing of laboratory ware to decrease NO x contamination (Ishibashi et al., 2000; Makela et al., 1997), spin rinsing of filters, ultrafiltration of wound fluid to reduce absorbance background, and preparation of

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26 reagents that were provided with the kit. The following supplies were pre-washed as follows: 1. Disposable (polyethylene) gloves (Fisher Scientific, Pittsburg, PA) exterior surfaces were washed five times with molecular grade water (Mediatech, Inc Cellgro) and air dried. This type of glove was shown to have the least amount of NO x contamination (Makela et al., 1997) in comparison to gloves made of vinyl, latex, or non-latex synthetic polymers. Our recent study on potential sources of NO x contamination showed that nitrile gloves (Kimberly-Clarke Safeskin Purple Nitrile) contained high amounts of NO x (Davis, Childress, & Stechmiller, 2004). Therefore, this type of glove was avoided in the analysis. 2. Plastic graduated cylinders (Fisherbrand), beakers (Fisherbrand), and troughs (Corning, NY) the inner surfaces of these supplies were washed five times by rinsing them with molecular grade water. Glass laboratory wares were not used in the analysis since they contain considerable amounts of NO x (Makela et al.). 3. 1.5 ml graduated microcentrifuge tubes (Fisherbrand) filled with molecular grade water, these tubes were capped and inverted several times. Water was removed after vigorously shaking them. 4. Pre-sterilized pipette tips 20 l (Fisherbrand), 100 l and 1000 l (Molecular Bioproducts, San Diego, CA) the outer and inner surfaces of these tips were washed with molecular grade water as described by Ishibashi et al. (2000). Briefly, the pipette tips were attached to the appropriate mechanical pipette (Rainin Instruments, Oakland, CA) and dipped into water to a depth of two-thirds of the tips length. This procedure washed the outside of the tips and was repeated five times. For the interior surfaces, water was aspirated in a larger volume than the set volume. Then, water was expelled out of the tip until no water droplet was visible. This was repeated five times. 5. Microcon YM-10 centrifugal filter device (Millipore, Bedford, MA) the inner and outer surfaces of the sample reservoir were washed three times (per manufacturer guideline) as well as the filtrate vial as described above. Then, 200 l of molecular grade water was placed in the sample reservoir and spun for 15 minutes at 14,000 g at room temperature (Eppendorf Centrifuge 5804, Brinkman Instruments, Westbury, NY). After washing all the necessary laboratory supplies, 100-128 l of wound fluid was ultrafiltered through a 10 kDa molecular weight cut-off filter (Microcon YM-10) for 30 minutes at 14,000 g (Eppendorf Centrifuge) at room temperature. In addition to

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27 decreasing hemoglobins interference in the analysis, ultrafiltration of samples increased color formation in the presence of the Greiss reagents. Wound fluid samples were diluted three-fold with the assay buffer provided. This dilution factor was determined previously from two study patients. The manufacturers instructions for the preparation of nitrate standard and reagents were adhered to closely. To avoid mistakes during the assay, a template of the 96-well plate configuration was made. The first two columns of the plate contained the nitrate standard, which was done in duplicate. The standard stock, 200 M, was prepared by the addition of 0.1 ml of the reconstituted nitrate standard into a clean test tube containing 0.9 ml of assay buffer. As configured in the template, the standard curve were placed in wells with the appropriate volume of assay buffer resulting in final nitrate concentration of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 M. To create the blanks wells, 200 l of assay buffer was pipetted into two columns of the plate. No other reagents were added to these wells. Immediately thereafter, 40-80 l of samples per well were placed in the plate in quantiplicates as outlined by the template. Assay buffer was added to wells containing 40 l of samples to obtain a final volume of 80 l. After adding 10 l of the enzyme cofactor and nitrate reductase to each of the wells (standards and unknowns), the plate was incubated for three hours at room temperature. Following incubation, 50 l of Greiss reagents 1 and 2 were added to each of the standards and unknowns. After 10 minutes of incubation period, absorbance was read spectrophotometrically at 540 nm (Elx 800 Microplate Reader, Winooski, VT). Sample nitrate and nitrite concentrations were calculated from the nitrate standard curve generated by least squares regression analysis. The average absorbance values of

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28 the standards and blank wells were determined. The standard curve was plotted once the average of the blanks was subtracted from the average of the standards (Fig 3.1). In Figure 3-1, the optical density for the standards is on the vertical (y) axis and the concentration of the standard is on the horizontal (x) axis expressed in M. Depending on the volume and dilution factor used, the sample NO x was quantified by using the following formula given by the manufacturer: [Nitrate + Nitrite] = ((A 540 y-intercept)/slope (200 l /volume of sample used l) dilution) The coefficient of variation for sample replicates was less than 10%. Figure 3-1. Nitrate standard curve for nitrate/nitrite assay. Note: y = 0.0332x + 0.0275, R 2 = 0.9888; blue = standards, black = suppressed standards. Analysis of TNFand IL-1 in Wound Fluid Quantitative measurement of TNFand IL-1 was performed using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit from

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29 Amersham Biosciences (Buckinghamshire, England). The assay sensitivity is less than one pg/ml for IL-1 and less than five pg/ml for TNF-. The sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique is employed in both of these kits. The ELISAs were performed separately; however, both assay procedures are similar and will be discussed simultaneously in subsequent paragraphs. All reagents and working standards were prepared according to the manufacturers instruction manual. Prior to running both assays, a plate template identifying the locations of the samples, standards, and blanks was created in Microsoft Excel program. Based on previous analyses, the wound fluid was diluted with the provided diluent to 100-fold and five-fold for IL-1 and TNF-, respectively. A 1:2.5 serial dilution was prepared for both standard curves. Five standards, one zero and unknown samples, were run in duplicates. All empty wells were filled with sample diluent. A three hour and two hour incubation time at room temperature were observed after 50 l of the appropriate biotinylated antibody reagent was added to all wells for IL-1 and TNF-, respectively. At the end of each period, the plates were manually washed three times using a squirt bottle and blotted on paper towel. A 100 l of pre-diluted streptavidin-HRP (horseradish peroxidases) conjugate was pipetted immediately into each wells using a multi-channel pipette (Rainin Instruments) and incubated for 30 minutes at room temperature. Using the same procedure described above, the plates were washed three times. Then, 100 l of pre-mixed TMB substrate was added to each well and incubated at room temperature for 30 minutes in the dark. Using a plate reader set at 450 nm, the optical density of each well was determined within 30 minutes of the addition of the stop solution. KC junior (Bio-Tek Instruments), a curvefitting statistical software package, generated a standard

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30 curve for each ELISA (see Fig 3.2). Based on this curve, levels of IL-1 and TNFwere quantified in the wound fluid. Note that the best-fit curve for TNFis not a line. Instead, a four-parameter logistic curve fit was plotted as suggested by the manufacturer with R= .9963. The coefficient of variation for sample duplicates was less than 10%. Figure 3-2. TNFstandard curve for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Note: y = [(1.8273-2.3367)/(1 + (x/36.8707) 0.5182 ) + 2.3367], R 2 = 0.9963, h = human, TNF= tumor necrosis factor-alpha

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31 Figure 3-3. IL-1 standard curve for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Note: y = .0085x + .0099, R 2 =.9996, IL-1 = interleukin-1 beta, OD = optical density, h = human Quantification of Total Protein To correct for the dilutional effect in the assays, total protein content was analyzed by using the BCA Protein Assay Kit (Pierce, Rockford, IL). In this particular assay, the microplate procedure was used due to a smaller volume requirement. The preparation of diluted bovine serum albumin and working reagent was done per manufacturers instructions. In duplicates, 25 l of each standard and unknown sample were pipetted into a microplate well (Nunc Brand Products, Denmark). Then, 200 l of the prepared working reagent (25 ml of Reagent A with 1 ml of Reagent B) was added onto each well and mixed thoroughly on a plate shaker for 30 seconds (MaxQ 2000, Barnstead Lab-line, Melrose Park, IL). After incubation for 30 minutes at 37 C, the plate was read at 540 nm on a plate reader. Using KCjunior software (Bio-Tek Instruments), a four-parameter curve was used (see Fig 3.3) as recommended by the manufacturer to determine the concentration of protein in the wound fluid. The coefficient of variation for sample

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32 duplicates was less than 10%. The inflammatory cytokines, TNFand IL-1, were then normalized to total protein content and expressed as pg/ug of protein. Amino Acid Analysis Based on the larger V.A.C. Study, levels of arginine, citrulline, ornithine, and proline of wound fluids were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method (Waters, Millford, MA). Figure 3-4. Protein assay standard curve. Note: 4 parameter: y = (4.14633-0.0331)/(1 + (x/2070) 1.1775 + 0.0331), R 2 = 0.9994; blue = standards, black = suppressed standard Procedure Study Design A prospective quasi-experimental repeated measures design was utilized to investigate the metabolic activity of arginine in wound fluids of patients with pressure ulcers on V.A.C. therapy. Every subject was on V.A.C. therapy and evaluated at each time interval. Therefore, each subject served as his/her own control (Portney & Watkins,

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33 2000). Wound fluid was collected at baseline prior to V.A.C. application and within 24 hours, three days, and seven days of V.A.C. placement (see Figure 3-4). Consent In accordance to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability (HIPAA) guidelines, clinicians informed V.A.C. candidates of the study and notified investigators of potential subjects. Subjects or health surrogates with power-of-attorney were approached in person or via phone. The purpose, risks, and benefits of the study were discussed in detail (Appendix A). Furthermore, the subjects right to withdraw from the project at anytime without consequences was explained. For consents obtained over the phone, a witness, such as the patients nurse, was involved in the consent process. After the appropriate parties consented, a brief review of the medical record for subject eligibility was conducted. Clinicians were notified if the subject met all the study criteria. Coordination of time for V.A.C. placement was vital to baseline wound fluid collection. Study Protocol The diagram (see Figure 3-5) illustrates the study protocol used in this study. Screen V.A.C. Candidates Obtain Consent Collect Pre-V.A.C. Wound Fluid Collect Post-V.A.C. Wound Fluid 24-hr 3 days 7 days Figure 3-5. Diagram of study protocol

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34 Wound Fluid Collection and Storage Once consent was obtained, a transparent polyurethane occlusive dressing (Tegraderm, 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota) was placed over the pressure ulcer prior to the initiation of V.A.C. therapy. Hydration status of the patients was standardized through intake of 500 ml of fluids by mouth. Three of the eleven subjects were placed on maintenance intravenous fluids and/or other intravenous medications. Subjects were placed on their side for at least an hour, which facilitated fluid collection. After this period, the fluid was aspirated from beneath the dressing using a sterile needless tuberculin syringe being careful to avoid injury to the underlying tissue (Stacey & Trengove, 1995). This procedure was repeated two or three more times if not enough fluid was present. If no fluid was found on the third attempt, 1 ml of normal saline (NS) was injected into the wound. Three of the eleven subjects had 1 ml of NS added into the wound. Approximately 0.5-2 ml of fluid was collected in a 15-ml Fisherbrand disposable sterile centrifuge tube (Fisher Scientific, Pittsburg, PA). This specimen was placed immediately on ice and transferred to the laboratory in a biohazard container. The sample was pipetted into 1.5-ml microtubes (Fisher Scientific, Pittsburg, PA) and centrifuged (Eppendorf Centrifuge, Westbury, NY) at 8000 rpm for 15 minutes. Small but visible pellets were discarded. The supernatant was aliquoted into separate microvials and stored at C until analyzed. For the amino acid profile, one unspun vial was stored in the same manner. These specimens served as baseline data. Within 24 hours following application of the V.A.C. additional wound fluid was collected from the tubing of the V.A.C. System. This was accomplished by clamping off both ends of the tubing and stopping the therapy. First, the clamp proximal to the

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35 patient was clamped off followed by the second one, which was distal to the patient. Then, therapy was stopped for approximately 10-15 seconds. The tube was disconnected and fluid was allowed to drain into the 15-ml tubes. Immediately thereafter, the tubes were reconnected and unclamped. The patient was informed that a quick gentle-like massage or suction would to be felt once the V.A.C. is placed back on therapy. Tubing connection and V.A.C. pressure settings were verified prior to leaving the patients bedside. This procedure was repeated for the 3rd and 7th day collection. Using the same steps to transfer, handle, and store the specimens as previously described. Wound fluid was collected from the V.A.C. system at least two hours after dressing and/or tubing changes. It was reported by Childress and colleagues (2003) that certain biochemical markers were altered upon exposure to the V.A.C. components. In this study, the impact of time (0, 1, and 6 hour) and wound exposure to V.A.C. foam and tubing was investigated. Preliminary findings indicated that there was an immediate decrease in IL-1 levels upon wound fluid exposure to foam and tubing. These levels, however, remained constant over the six-hour time period. No conclusions could be made regarding TNF-. In a separate analysis, NO x levels were noted to slightly increase within an hour of exposure to V.A.C. foam, but remained constant over time. Whereas, the V.A.C. tubing did not appear to alter NO x levels at all time period. Furthermore, the V.A.C. components, foam and tubing, were found to contain very low to undetectable amounts of NO x Data Management and Analysis The subjects baseline profile and other pertinent data were compiled in a folder with his/her initials and identification number. These folders were secured in a file cabinet in a locked office. The office was centrally located for easy accessibility. A

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36 spreadsheet was created in Microsoft Excel program, which was exported to statistical software for analysis. Summary measures were generated from SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) on a Windows based computer. Sample size was calculated using two-sided one sample t-test with an overall type I error .05. Power was determined to be over 80% with sample size nine as long as delta sigma 0.31 (Splus Software). Delta represents the expected difference between NO x levels before and after V.A.C. placement, and sigma denotes the standard deviation of the difference. Based on preliminary data available, the study sample size was deemed sufficient to address the study aim. Since the assumptions of normality were violated, nonparametric statistical techniques were used to determine significance at .05 for the aims of this particular study. The specific aims, hypotheses testing, statistical tests, and outcome measures are summarized in Table 3-1. Table 3-1: Sample Data Analysis Specific Aims Hypothesis Testing Statistical Test Outcome Measure Aim 1 : Evaluate the effects of the V.A.C. on NO x levels a) H 0 : 1 = 2 H 1 : 1 > 2 b) H 0 : 2 = 3 = 4 H 1 : H 0 is not true under 2 3 4 a) Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Test b) Friedman Two-way Analysis of Variance c) Spearman Correlations. NO x concentrations Aim 2 : Evaluate the effects of the V.A.C. on citrulline, ornithine, and proline a) H 0 : 1 = 2 H 1 : 1 > 2 b) H 0 : 2 = 3 = 4 H 1 : H 0 is not true under 2 3 4 a) Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Test b) Friedman Two-way Analysis of Variance c) Spearman Correlations Levels of citrulline, ornithine, and proline

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CHAPTER 4 RESULTS The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the Vacuum Assisted Closure (V.A.C. ) on nitrate/nitrite (NO x ) levels in wound fluids from non-healing and healing pressure ulcers. The secondary aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of the V.A.C. on arginine citrulline, ornithine, and proline in wound fluids from non-healing and healing pressure ulcers. The presence of these metabolites reflects inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and arginase activities. This chapter first presents descriptive results including mean, median, range, standard deviation, and frequency data for each of the variables. The two hypotheses posed in Chapter 1 are addressed using the following nonparametric tests, Wilcoxon-Signed Ranks Test, Friedman two-way analysis of variance by ranks, and Spearman Rank Correlation. Statistical Procedure Values considered below the detection limit of the assays used in this study were corrected and included in the data analyses. This was accomplished by taking from the smallest value of the specific assay divided by two. All data files were prepared in the Microsoft Excel program and then imported into SPSS for analysis. Prior to performing any of the statistical analysis, the raw data were checked for accuracy. Then, the normality of the distribution of values for all continuous variables was assessed. This was accomplished by obtaining descriptive statistics, which included the mean, standard deviation, range, skewness, and kurtosis. The tests of normality were performed to obtain the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Wilks-Shapiro statistics. Additional information 37

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38 was gained through visual inspection of histograms, normal Q-Q plots, detrended normal Q-Q plots, and box-plots. Many of the variables were positively skewed, thus, violating the normality assumptions. Log transformations were performed in an attempt to normalize the variables. Unfortunately, the data remained abnormally distributed. As a result, the non-parametric statistics were used to analyze the data. Descriptive Results Subject Demographics Twenty-eight subjects were invited to participate in this study. Four patients were contacted by phone, and the remainder was invited to participate in person. Thirteen subjects did not meet the study criteria. Two subjects were not interested in participating in the study for various reasons. One subject was on nitric oxide (NO ) inhalation therapy for pulmonary hypertension. Only one subject was dropped from the study because the V.A.C. was found to hinder rehabilitative activities. Subject demographics expressed in numbers and percentages included age, gender, race, diabetes, and stage of pressure ulcer. Table 4-1 identifies the subject demographics, which are expressed in numbers and percentages. Clinical Measurements Table 4-2 lists the main clinical measurements for the entire study. The mean age was 61 years with a range of 31 to 92.

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39 Table 4-1: Subject Demographic Summary Variables N (total = 11) Percent Age 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 90-99 1 1 3 3 2 1 9.1 9.1 27.3 27.3 18.1 9.1 Gender Male Female 6 5 55 45 Race Caucasian African-American 10 1 91 9 Diabetes Mellitus No Yes 5 6 45 55 Stage of Pressure Ulcer Stage III Stage IV 5 6 45 55 Table 4-2: Summary Statistics of NO x Cytokines, and Amino Acid Variables N Minimum Maximum Median Mean Std. Deviation Age 11 31 92 67.1 61 16.56 NO x (M) baseline 11 6.30 86.78 29.48 33.04 22.41 24-hr 11 7.17 83.79 23.96 28.58 24.58 3d 11 1.50 64.87 14.04 19.72 19.42 7d 10 0.07 26.97 16.50 14.70 8.27 IL-1 (pg/mg protein) baseline 11 0.0058 0.5746 0.0592 0.1689 0.2209 24-hr 11 0.0631 0.4763 0.1616 0.2013 0.1279 3d 11 0.0070 0.6320 0.0961 0.1657 0.1833 7d 10 0.0212 0.8864 0.1552 0.2220 0.2481 TNF(pg/mg protein) baseline 11 0.0026 0.1293 0.0192 0.0274 0.0355 24-hr 11 0.0051 0.0184 0.0069 0.0078 0.0038 3d 11 0.0029 0.0119 0.0060 0.0067 0.0030 7d 10 0.0036 0.0201 0.0054 0.0072 0.0050 Proline (M/L) baseline 10 28 779 335 384.95 268.63

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40 Table 4-2. Continued Variables N Minimum Maximum Median Mean Std. Deviation 24-hr 10 72 929 397 427.8 236.74 3d 10 3.5 2841 345 551.65 849.19 7d 9 37.5 1234 360 508.94 434.83 Citrulline (M/L) baseline 10 2 302.5 102 116.95 89.33 24-hr 10 74 695 131.5 191.9 185.38 3d 10 3 444 110 128 125.75 7d 9 9 198 124 127.01 61.99 Ornithine (M/L) baseline 10 4 541.25 167.5 215.13 163.55 24-hr 10 133 743 251 301.1 174.19 3d 10 126 890 260 345.5 263.57 7d 9 58.75 495 149 193.08 141.89 Arginine (M/L) baseline 10 17 345 102.5 122.9 96.39 24-hr 10 35 168 87 95.9 46.09 3d 10 7 169 42 57.58 48.98 7d 9 12.5 159 95 77.72 52.33 Analytic Results Statistical Analysis of Change for NO x Aim 1 To evaluate the effects of the V.A.C. on nitrate/nitrite (NO x ) levels in wound fluids from non-healing and healing pressure ulcers. A visual examination of the data shows decreasing levels of NO x over time (see Table 4-2, Figure 4-1). Variability is low between time points as indicated by the close approximation of the error bars (Fig 4-1). The Friedman two-way analysis of variance by ranks, however, did not yield statistical significance with time as an independent variable. A Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was performed to determine the difference in NO x levels in wound fluids prior to and after V.A.C. application. There was no significant difference in NO x levels at baseline with the post-V.A.C. levels measured at 24 hours, three days,

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41 and seven days (Table 4-3). However, there was a statistically significant difference in NO x levels from 24 hours to 7 days of V.A.C. therapy (z = -2.395, p = 0.017). 0510152025303540baseline24-hr3d 7dTime PointsConcentration (M ) Figure 4-1. Concentration of NOx at baseline and at 24 hours, 3 days, and 7 days of V.A.C. treatment. Values are expressed as means +/SD. Table 4-3: Paired Differences for NO x by Ranks Differences Ranks N Mean Rank Sum of Ranks Z p (2-tailed) NO7d < NObase Negative 6 7.00 42 NO7d > NObase Positive 4 3.25 13 NO7d NObase Total 10 -1.478 .139 NO7d < NO24hr Negative 8 6.38 51 NO7d > NO24hr Positive 2 2 4 NO7d NO24hr Total 10 -2.395 0.017 The graph shown in Fig 4-2 depicts a drastic drop in mean levels of TNFfrom baseline to 24 hours of V.A.C. therapy. Then, the mean levels stabilized by days three and seven of treatment. To determine if significant differences existed, the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was conducted (see Table 4-4). There was a statistically significant difference in TNFlevels from baseline to 24 hours (p = .016, z = -2.401), baseline to three days (p = .010, z = -2.578), and baseline to seven days (p = 0.028, z = -2.191).

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42 Furthermore, the Friedman test showed a significant difference in TNFconcentrations over time (2 = 6.84, df = 3, p = .039, one-tailed). 0.00000.00500.01000.01500.02000.02500.03000.0350baseline24-hr3d 7dTime PointsMean Levels (pg/mg protein) Figure 4-2. Concentration of TNFat baseline and at 24 hours, 3 days, and 7 days of V.A.C. treatment. Values are expressed as means +/SD. Table 4-4: Paired Differences for TNFby Ranks Differences Ranks N Mean Sum of Z p Rank Ranks (2-tailed) TNF24hr < TNFbase Negative 8 7.5 60 TNF24hr > TNFbase Positive 3 2 6 TNF24hr TNFbase Total 11 -2.40 0.02 TNF3d < TNFbase Negative 9 6.89 62 TNF3d > TNFbase Positive 2 2 4 TNF3d TNFbase Total 11 -2.58 0.01 TNF7d < TNFbase Negative 7 7 49 TNF7d > TNFbase Positive 3 2 6 TNF7d TNFbase Total 10 -2.19 0.03 Correlational Analysis for NO x and Cytokines As part of aim 1, the relationship between NO levels with TNFand IL-1 was investigated using the Spearman rank order correlation. There was a positive correlation between TNFand IL-1 (rho = .5811, n = 11, p < 0.030, one-tailed), with TNFlevels

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43 associating moderately with IL-1 concentrations. A very weak positive correlation of NO with IL-1 and TNFexisted; however, it was not statistically significant. Statistical Analysis of Change for Arginine, Citrulline, Ornithine, and Proline Aim 2 Evaluate the effects of the V.A.C. on arginine, citrulline, ornithine, and proline in wound fluids from non-healing and healing pressure ulcers. Levels of arginine decreased from baseline to 24 and 72 hours, but increased marginally by day seven of V.A.C. therapy (Fig 4.3). Citrulline levels increased in 24 hours, then decreased to baseline. Whereas, ornithine and proline levels increased from baseline to 24 and 72 hours of V.A.C. treatment (see Figure 4-4.). Both levels decreased by day seven with ornithine levels falling below preV.A.C. levels (see Fig 4-4 and Table 4-2). Variability is low between time points for all amino acids as indicated by the close approximation of the error bars (see Figure 4-4 and 4-5). A Wilcoxon signed-Ranks test was conducted to determine the differences in preand postV.A.C. levels of arginine, citrulline, proline, and ornithine in wound fluids (Table 4-5). Arginine levels at baseline were different from the postV.A.C. levels at day three (z = -1.89, p = .03). There were no significant differences in citrulline, ornithine, and proline concentrations before and after V.A.C. application. Furthermore, the Friedman two-way analysis of variance by ranks, did not yield significance for any of the variables tested over time.

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44 050100150200250300baseline24-hr3d 7dTime PointsMean Level (pg/mg protein) Arginine Citrulline Figure 4-3. Levels of arginine and citrulline at baseline and at 24 hours, 3 days, and 7 days of V.A.C. treatment. Values are expressed as means +/SD. 0100200300400500600700baseline24-hr3d 7dTime PointsMean Levels (M/L) Ornithine Proline Figure 4-4. Levels of ornithine and proline at baseline and at 24 hours, 3 days, and 7 days of V.A.C. treatment. Values are expressed as means +/SD.

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45 Table 4-5: Paired Differences for Arginine by Ranks Differences Ranks N Mean Sum of Z p Rank Ranks (1-tailed) Arg3d < Argb Negative 8 8.25 33 Arg3d > Argb Positive 2 3.67 22 Arg3d Argb Total 10 -1.89 0.03 Note: arg = arginine, b = baseline Correlational Analysis for iNOS and Arginase To determine the relationship between citrulline, proline, ornithine, and arginine levels at baseline, the Spearman rank order correlation was performed. All preV.A.C. levels correlated highly and significantly. A strong positive correlation existed between proline and citrulline (rho =. 782, p = .008), between proline and ornithine (rho = .879, p = .001), and between proline and arginine (rho = .830, p = .003). Baseline levels of citrulline correlated moderately with baseline levels of arginine (rho = .770, p = .009) and highly with baseline levels of ornithine (rho = .879, p = .001). PreV.A.C. levels of ornithine moderately correlated with preV.A.C. levels of arginine (rho = .697, p = .025). The Spearman correlations were conducted to determine the relationships of citrulline with the by-products of arginase, ornithine and proline, on the 7th day of V.A.C. placement. A negative and very weak inverse correlation existed between citrulline and proline (rho = -.075, p = .847) as well as between citrulline and ornithine (rho = -.0133, p = .732). Furthermore, citrulline weakly and negatively correlated with arginine (rho = -.017, p = .966). As one can see, all correlations were not statistically significant, however, the existing relationship has been established in the literature. A very weak correlation existed between NO x citrulline, and arginine at baseline. Interestingly, a statistically high and moderate relationship exits between citrulline and

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46 arginine at baseline (rho = .770, p = .009). This relationship was not observed at 7th day of V.A.C. therapy Instead, a statistically significant correlation existed between NO and arginine (rho = .833, p = .002). An inverse but very weak relationship was noted between NO and citrulline levels (rho = -0.17, p =. 966) seven day postV.A.C. placement.

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CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS In this chapter, the descriptive and analytic results addressed in chapter 4 will be discussed in detail. Conclusions regarding the research hypotheses are provided with rationales as supported in the literature. In addition, implications for clinical practice and recommendations for future research are provided. Discussion of Results Demographics Fifty-five percent (N = 6) of the subjects in the study were men and 45% were women (N = 5). Ninety-one percent were Caucasian and 9% were African-American. Fifty-four percent were between 50-69 years of age with 18% accounting for below 50 and 27% above 70 years of age. Almost half of the sample was non-diabetic (45%), while 55% were diabetics. Approximately 45% had stage III pressure ulcer, and the remainder with stage IV pressure ulcer (55%). Clinical Characteristics Of the 11 subjects who were enrolled in the study, only nine completed the study protocol. The other two subjects were excluded in some but not all of the statistical analyses. An insufficient amount of wound fluid resulted in loss of data for the amino acid profile for one subject. A similar problem is attributed to the other subject with difficulty in obtaining a specimen for the 7th day of V.A.C. therapy. 47

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48 NO x Results Aim 1 To evaluate the effects of the V.A.C. on nitrate/nitrite (NO x ) levels in wound fluids from non-healing and healing pressure ulcers. The null hypothesis for Aim 1 was that there is no difference between preV.A.C. and postV.A.C. NO x concentrations. We accept the null hypothesis and conclude that there was no significant difference in NO x levels from baseline to day one, three, and seven of V.A.C. placement. Notably, NO x measured at 24 hours of V.A.C. therapy was significantly different from day seven (p = 0.017). Further evaluation of the data show decreasing levels at all four time points (see Table 4-2 and Figure 4-1). Although, the correlational analysis did not yield statistical significance, a fair degree of relationship existed between baseline NO x levels and at 24 hours (rho = .245, p = .467) of V.A.C. treatment. Pre-V.A.C. NO x levels became inversely correlated with post-V.A.C. levels on days three (rho = -.2, p = .555) and seven (rho = -.612, p = .03, one-tailed) of therapy. Based on the above findings, one can conclude that a different wound environment exists after the V.A.C. is applied. Wound fluids from non-healing pressure ulcers contain high amounts of NO x Within 24 hours of V.A.C. placement, NO x dropped consistently and persistently over the study period. This result is consistent with previous studies in experimental wounds. During the early phase of inflammation, macrophage and other wound cells express iNOS to synthesize NO The activity of this enzyme peaks within 24-72 hours post-injury (Albina et al., 1990; Becker et al., 1993, Carter et al., 1994; R.H. Lee, et al., 2001, Reichner et al., 1999). According to Albina and colleagues, NO concentrations in wound fluids were highest before day three of sponge

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49 implantation in rats. One can infer that a pseudo-acute wound environment is created by the V.A.C. Additionally, a physiological level of NO that is conducive to healing is achieved by the 7th day of V.A.C. therapy. Secondary statistical analyses were performed to determine the role of diabetes mellitus in the study sample. In a recent study by Jude et al. (1999), subjects who had diabetic foot ulcers were shown to have increased iNOS and arginase activities. For this study, the Mann-U Whitney test did not yield statistical significant difference in NO x levels between subjects with and without diabetes. This could be due to one of the limitations of the study, the sample size. Relationship between NO x and Pro-inflammatory Cytokines Little to no relationship exists between baseline NO x and IL-1 levels (rho = .009, p > .05), and between NO x and TNF(rho = .018, p > .05). Thus, NO does not covary with IL-1 and TNFat baseline. In addition to IL-1 and TNF-, other inducers of iNOS expression include IFNand LPS (Taylor & Gaylor, 2001). Relationship between IL-1 and TNFA strong positive correlation between IL-1 and TNFlevels (rho = .582, n = 11, p < 0.03, one-tailed) exists at baseline. Thus, a change in IL-1 levels is proportionally related to a change in TNFin chronic pressure ulcer wounds. Interestingly, baseline levels of TNFare significantly different from postV.A.C. therapy at 24 hours (p = .016), three days (p = .010), and seven days (p = .028). This was demonstrated in two statistical analyses using the Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks test and Friedmans two-way analysis of variance by ranks. This clearly suggests a decrease in inflammation of pressure ulcer wounds as it heals over time (Mast & Schultz, 1996). Similarly, Trengove

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50 and colleagues (2000) showed high levels of TNFin wound fluids from patients with chronic venous leg ulcers. Within two weeks, the levels significantly decreased in the healing wounds. Similar trends in TNFlevels are observed in this project, but the TNFpresent in chronic wound of pressure ulcers are 10 times less than are reported by Trengove et al. (2000). Results of the Amino Acid profiles Aim 2 To evaluate the effects of the V.A.C. on arginine, citrulline, ornithine, and proline in wound fluid from non-healing and healing pressure ulcers. The null hypothesis for Aim 2 was that there are no significant differences in preand postV.A.C. levels of arginine, citrulline, ornithine, and proline in wound fluids. We reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there was a significant difference in arginine levels measured at baseline and day three of V.A.C. therapy. We accept the null hypothesis and conclude that there were no significant differences in preand postV.A.C. levels of citrulline, ornithine, and proline in wound fluids. Abnormalities in arginine metabolism have been cited as the pathogenesis of chronic venous ulcers and diabetic foot ulcers in humans (Jude et al., 1999; Abd-El-Aleem et al., 2000). In these types of wounds, increased iNOS and arginase activities were found resulting in high levels of NO citrulline, and ornithine. For this particular study sample, the pressure ulcer wounds contained high levels of arginine (Fig 5-1) and NO x (Fig 5-2). In contrast, citrulline and ornithine were present at lower concentrations (Fig 5-2). Since iNOS appears to be the predominantly active enzyme in the chronic

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51 wound, its substrate is sustained at a higher level. It appears that NO along with the pro-inflammatory cytokines are maintaining the pressure ulcer wound in its chronic state. 0100200300400500600baseline24-hr3d 7dTime PointsMean Level (M/L) Arginine Citrulline Ornithine Proline Figure 5-1. Bar graph representing pre-V.A.C. and post-V.A.C. levels of arginine, citrulline, ornithine, and proline. Values are expressed as means. 05101520253035baseline24-hr3d 7dTime PointsMean Concentration (M) Figure 5-2. Bar graph representing pre-V.A.C. and post-V.A.C. NO x levels. Values are expressed as means.

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52 In terms of substrate availability, arginine appears to be utilized by iNOS and arginase at 24 hours of V.A.C. therapy. This increased in catabolic activity is evident by the high levels of NO x citrulline, ornithine, and proline at 24 hours of V.A.C. therapy. Within 72 hours, arginine reached its lowest level as arginase activity peaked. This is reflected by a concurrent increased in levels of ornithine and proline. Simultaneously, iNOS activity decreased as seen by the lower levels of NO x and citrulline from 24 hours. Arginine supply is slowly replenished as both activities of iNOS and arginase decreased. By day seven, both citrulline and NO x levels continued to drop while ornithine and proline levels began to decrease. These findings are consistent with previous studies on animal models using models of acute and impaired healing. Relationship of iNOS and Arginase Activities At baseline, arginine, citrulline, ornithine, and proline, were strongly correlated. A very weak but positive relationship was noted between NO and citrulline as well as arginine. Therefore, an interaction did exist at baseline between iNOS, arginase, and arginine in a positive direction. Although not statistically significant, a positive relationship was noted between ornithine and proline on day seven of V.A.C. therapy. In contrast, an inverse correlation existed between citrulline and the by-products of arginase. Furthermore, a strong positive relationship existed between arginine and NO x (p = .002). These findings are consistent with the substrate utilization and reciprocal relationship of iNOS and arginase in wounds. Conclusions The main research hypotheses for this particular study sample were not statistically significant. However, the by-products of iNOS and arginase are detectable in wound

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53 fluids from patients with pressure ulcers. To date, the metabolism of arginine has not been described in humans with pressure ulcers on V.A.C. therapy. The cytotoxic properties of NO are vital to the inflammatory phase of wound healing. Within seven days of V.A.C. treatment, NO levels decreased significantly. This was corroborated by the presence of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-. PostV.A.C. values at 24 hours, three days, and seven days were found to be significantly different from baseline. This is indicative of a healing wound as previously reported by several investigators. Clearly, the vicious cycle characteristic of chronic wounds was disrupted after V.A.C. placement. A less cytotoxic environment is created by the V.A.C. thereby allowing pressure ulcer wounds to heal. Recall from aim 1 that postV.A.C. levels of NO x at 24 hours and seven days were statistically significant. From aim 2, it was shown that arginine levels before V.A.C. therapy were significantly different on the 3rd day of V.A.C. treatment. Both citrulline and NO levels decreased by day three and continued to drop until day seven. In contrast, proline and ornithine levels peaked at day three and began to decrease by day seven. Hence, the iNOS/citrulline pathway predominated during the first 72 hours of V.A.C. therapy. Subsequently, the arginase/ornithine pathway dominated the remainder of the therapy. Hence, a pseudo-acute environment is achieved shortly after the V.A.C. was applied followed by an environment conducive to healing. Study findings should be cautiously interpreted. First, generalizability is limited to pressure ulcer patients. In addition, a small sample size was used in this study through non-random selection. The Caucasian race is representative of the study sample; therefore, extrapolation to other races would be difficult. Furthermore, there was no

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54 control group. Instead subjects served as their own control due to the repeated measures design of the study. Implications for Clinical Practice In todays changing practice, wound health care professionals are bombarded with many new products and technologies. The course of treatment chosen is due to many factors. The V.A.C. for example, has been in use for several years. The exact mechanism by which this device accelerates healing is not well understood. Clinical trials are few and the efficacy of this treatment is not well documented (Evans & Land, 2004). It is imperative, therefore, to individualize wound care management and be informed about current research. Knowledge of the physiology of acute wound healing is key to understanding chronic wounds and treatment. This requires periodic literature review and conference attendance. Patient education should include the importance of nutrition, alcohol and smoking cessation, and treatment compliance. Recommendations for Further Research Limitations of this study include the small sample size and lack of a control group. However, the findings of the study were sufficient to meet the exploratory and descriptive nature of this project. Recommendations for future research include: 1) increasing study sample size to include other race and ethnic backgrounds, 2) randomizing subjects to either conventional treatment or V.A.C. therapy, 3) increasing the timeframe to quantify healing through wound size measurements and provide a better understanding of arginine metabolism, 4) performing punch biopsies for immunohistochemical studies, 5) creating a research group to recruit subjects and collect data, 6) expanding wound criteria to other types of chronic wounds, and 7) providing incentive to study subjects.

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APPENDIX A CONSENT FORMS IRB# 224-2001 Informed Consent to Participate in Research Institutional Review Board APPROVED FOR USE From 5/16/03 Through 5/14/04 You are being asked to take part in a research study. This form provides you with information about the study. The Principal Investigator (the person in charge of this research) or a representative of the Principal Investigator will also describe this study to you and answer all of your questions. Before you decide whether or not to take part, read the information below and ask questions about anything you do not understand. Your participation is entirely voluntary. 1. Name of Participant ("Study Subject") 2. Title of Research Study Biochemical analysis of wound fluid from acute and chronic wounds 3. Principal Investigator and Telephone Number(s) Joyce K. Stechmiller, PhD, ARNP (352) 273-6370 Bobbi Langkamp-Henken, PhD (352) 392-1991 x 205 Beverly Childress, BSN (352) 273-6370 Tricia Porter (352) 273-6370 4. Source of Funding or Other Material Support University of Florida College of Nursing KCI, Inc 5. What is the purpose of this research study? You have an acute or chronic wound, which is currently being treated with the 224 2001 / Rev 05-I6-03 / Page 1 of 4 55

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56 Vacuum Assisted Closure (V.A.C.) device or drainage system as part of standard care. To further evaluate how a wound heals we would like to obtain fluid samples from the suction canister at two-three separate times, depending how long your drainage system is in place. This will occur within 24 hours that the VAC or drainage system is applied and then approximately 23 days and then one week later. 6. What will be done if you take part in this research study? If you take part in this research study, your wound fluid will be removed from the suction canister with a sterile syringe at two separate times. This procedure will last approximately 2-3 minutes. We will also review your medical record and obtain general information about you like gender, diagnosis and most recent laboratory findings related to your blood count and blood electrolytes. 7. What are the possible discomforts and risks? There are no discomforts or risks to you for participating in this study. If you wish to discuss the information above, you may ask questions now or call the Principal Investigator listed on the front page of this form. 8a. What are the possible benefits to you? There are no direct benefits to you. 8b. What are the possible benefits to others? There are no direct benefits to others, but allowing us to assess your wound fluid may help nurses and other health providers better understand wound healing in older adults and how we may better meet the health care needs of older people 9. If you choose to take part in this research study, will it cost you anything? Participating in the study will not cost you anything. Routine medical care not assigned with the study will be charged to you or your insurance. These costs may not be applicable if you are a veteran and being treated at the North Florida/South Georgia Veteran Health System (NF/SG VFS). 10. Will you receive compensation for taking part in this research study? You will not receive any money for participating in this study. 224 2001 / Rev 05-16-03 / Page 2 of 4

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57 11. What if you are injured because of the study? If you experience an injury that is directly caused by this study, only professional consultative care will be provided without charge. However, hospital expenses will have to be paid by you or your insurance provider. No other compensation is offered. You will not have to pay hospital expenses if you are being treated at the North Florida/South Georgia Veteran Health System (NF/SG VHS) and experience any physical injury during participation in a Veteran's health System-approved study. 12. What other options or treatments are available if you do not want to be in this study? 13. Participation in this study is entirely voluntary. You are free to refuse to be in the study. 13a. Can you withdraw from this research study? If you wish to stop your participation in this research study for any reason, you should contact: Joyce Stechmiller, PhD ARNP at (352) 273-6370. You are free to withdraw your consent and stop participation in this research study at any time without penalty or loss of benefits to which you are otherwise entitled. Throughout the study, the researchers will notify you of new information that may become available and that might affect your decision to remain in the study. In addition, if you have any questions regarding your rights as a research subject, you may phone the Institutional Review Board (IRB) office at (352) 846-1494. 13b. If you withdraw, can information about you still be used and/or collected? No. 13c. Can the Principal Investigator withdraw you from this research study? You may be withdrawn from the study without your consent for the following reasons: This will not be done. 14. How will your privacy and the confidentiality of your research records be protected? Authorized persons from the University of Florida, and the Institutional Review Board have the legal right to review your research records and will protect the confidentiality of those records to the extent permitted by law. If the research project is sponsored or if it is being conducted under the authority of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), then the sponsor, the sponsor's agent, and the FDA also have the legal right to review your research records. Otherwise, your research records will not be released without your consent unless required by law or a court order. 224 2001 / Rev 05-16-03 / Page 3 of 4

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58 15. If the results of this research are published or presented at scientific meetings, your identity will not be disclosed. 16. How will the researcher(s) benefit from your being in this study? No, the researcher will not benefit from your participation in this study beyond publishing or presenting the results. Signatures As a representative of this study, I have explained (0 the participant the purpose, the procedures, the possible benefits, and the risks of this research study; the alternatives to being in the study; and how privacy will be protected: Signature of Person Obtaining Consent Date You have been informed about this study's purpose, procedures, possible benefits, and risks; the alternatives to being in the study; and how your privacy will be protected. You have received a copy of this Form. You have been given the opportunity to ask questions before you sign, and you have been told that you can ask other questions at any time. You voluntarily agree to participate in this study. By signing this form, you are not waiving any of your legal rights. Signature of Person Consenting Date 224 2001 / Rev 05-16-03 / Page 4 of 4

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APPENDIX B INCLUSION/EXCLUSION CRITERIA University of Florida College of Nursing V.A.C. Study Biochemical analysis of wound fluid from pressure ulcers of adults on V.A.C. therapy Name: ________________ Study #: _________ M.R.#: __________ Address: ___________________________________________________ Phone: (____)________________ Date/time: ___________________ Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria: 1. YES NO Patient is 21 y/o with stage III or IV pressure ulcers. 2. YES NO Patient requires V.A.C. therapy on an outpatient or in-patient basis at STH at UF or VAMC, both in Gainesville, FL. 3. YES NO Pressure ulcer(s): is present for > 1 month has no previous treatment with dermal skin substitutes has received little to NO wound treatment for 1 week prior to V.A.C. (enzymatic debridement agent) has no HBO or warm-up therapy has no fistulas, necrotic tissue with eschar, untreated cellulitis or osteomyelitis, connective tissue disorder, no malignancy in the wound 4. YES NO Patient does NOT have an active systemic infection, 59

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60 anemia (Hct <26), or immune deficiency diseases. 5. YES NO Patient has STOPPED smoking within the past 6 months. 6. YES NO Patient is currently NOT receiving steroids, immunosuppressive or cytotoxic medications. 7. YES NO Informed consent has been obtained and copies given to patient/surrogate/durable power of attorney/proxy.

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APPENDIX C DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION University of Florida College of Nursing V.A.C. Study Biochemical analysis of wound fluid from pressure ulcers of adults on V.A.C. therapy Section I: General Info Name: M.R.#: Study #: DOB: Age: Sex: M F Wt: Ht: Race: Date enrolled: Dates of Fluid Collection: Section II: Pertinent H & P HPI: PMH: DM, CAD, PVD, HTN, DVT, venous insufficiency, clots/coagulopathies, 61

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62 Medications: Rx & OTC Dose Frequency SH: smoker: Y N living situation: home care, nursing home, lives alone, family support activity: ambulates, moves all extremities, non-mobile, chair bound ADL nutritional status BMI (standard chart) hygiene: incontinent, clean/dry skin, bathes daily previous ulcer? Treatment? FH:

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63 ROS: (general survey & other pertinent data) PE: (general appearance, VS, and other pertinent data) Section III: Labs & Pertinent Diagnostic Tests CMP/date: Albumin/date:

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APPENDIX D WOUND ASSESSMENT University of Florida College of Nursing V.A.C. Study Biochemical analysis of wound fluid from pressure ulcers of adults on V.A.C. therapy Pre-V.A.C Post-V.A.C Dates Onset date of ulcer Ulcer stage Dimensions: Length: Width: Depth: Location Undermining Sinus/tunneling Wound Description Edge: Edema: Base color: Drainage amount: Drainage type: Periwound cond: Granulation (%): Digital photography Wound tracing Bacterial loading Note: if undermining and sinus/tunneling exist, then use clock method. 64

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APPENDIX E WOUND FLUID COLLECTION DATA University of Florida College of Nursing V.A.C. Study Biochemical analysis of wound fluid from pressure ulcers of adults on V.A.C. therapy TIME Pre-V.A.C. Post-V.A.C. Name & # Baseline 24-hr 3 days 7 days 65

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LIST OF REFERENCES Abd-El-Aleem, S.A., Ferguson, M.W., Appleton, I., Kairsingh, S., Jude, E.B., Jones, K., McCollum, C.N., & Ireland, G.W. (2000). Expression of nitric oxide synthase isoforms and arginase in normal human skin and chronic venous leg ulcers. Journal of Pathology, 191, 434-442. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (1994). Economic impact and public policy implication .Retrieved April 15, 2002, from http://hstat.nlm.nih.gov/hq/Hquest/screen/Text Browse/t/1018878615084/s/58027. Albina, J.E., Mills, C.C., Henry, W.L., & Caldwell, M.D. (1990). Temporal expression of different pathways of l-arginine metabolism in healing wounds. The Journal of Immunology, 144(10), 3877-3880. Argenta, L.C., & Morykwas, M.J. (1997). Vacuum-assisted closure: A new method for wound control and treatment. Clinical experience. Annals of Plastic Surgery, 38(6), 563-576. Arnold, M.C. (2004). Pressure ulcer prevention and management: The current evidence for care. American Association of Critical-Care Nurses Clinical Issues, 14(4), 411-428. Becker, W.K., Shippee, R.L., McManus, A.T., Mason, A.D., & Pruitt, B.A. (1993). Kinetics of nitrogen oxide production following experimental thermal injury in rats. The Journal of Trauma, 34, 855-862. Carter, E.A., Derojas-W.T., Tamir, S., Tannenbaum, S.R., Yu, Y.M, & Tompkins, R.G. (1994). Nitric oxide production is intensely and persistently increased in tissue by thermal injury. The Biochemical Journal, 304, 201-204. Childress, B.B., & Stechmiller, J.K. (2002). Role of nitric oxide and wound healing. Biological Research for Nursing, 4(1), 5-15. Childress, B.B., Blalock, T.D., Kilpadi, D.V., Dials, H.J., Nappo, R.W., Radhakrishnan, S., Stechmiller, J.K., Chin, G.A., Mozingo, W., & Schultz, G.A. (May, 2003). V.A.C. system-biochemical wound fluid interactions. Paper presented at the International Proceedings of the Wound Healing Society 13 th Annual Educational Symposium and Exhibition, Seattle, WA. 66

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67 Davis, J., Childress, B.B., & Stechmiller, J.K. (April, 2004). Potential nitrate/nitrite (NO x ) contaminant analysis. Poster presented at the 2 nd Annual College of Nursing Research Day, Gainesville, FL. Deva, A.K., Buckland, G.H., Fisher, E., Liew, S.C.C., Merten, S., McGlyn, M., Glanoutsos, M.P., Baldwin, M.A.R., & Lendway, P.G. (2000). The Medical Journal of Australia, 173, 128-131. Evans, D., Land, L. (2004). Topical negative pressure for treating chronic wounds. [Systematic Review] Cochrane Wounds Group. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1. Frank, S., Madlener, M., Pfeilschifter, J., & Werner, S. (1998). Induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase and its corresponding tetrahydrobiopterin-cofactor-synthesizing enzyme GTP-cyclohydrolase I during cutaneous wound. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 111, 1058-1064. Frank, S., Stallmeyer, B., Kmpfer, H., Kolb, N., & Pfeilschifter, J. (1999). Nitric oxide triggers enhanced induction of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in cultured keratinocytes (HaCaT) and during cutaneous wound repair. The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 13, 2002-2014. Goldman, R. (2004). Growth factors and chronic wound healing: Past, present, and future. Advances in Skin and Wound Care, 17(1), 24-35. Ishibashi, T., Yoshida, J., & Nishio, M. (2000). NO x contamination in laboratory ware and effect of countermeasures. Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry, 4(5), 516-525. Joseph, E., Hamori, C.A., Bergman, S., Roaf, E., Swann, N.F., & Anastasi, G.W. (2000). A prospective randomized trial of vacuum-assisted closure versus standard therapy of chronic nonhealing wounds. Wounds: A Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice, 12(3), 60-67. Jude, E.B., Boulton, A.J.M., Ferguson, M.W.J., & Appleton, I. (1999). The role of nitric oxide synthase isoforms and arginase in the pathogenesis of diabetic foot ulcers: Possible modulatory effects by transforming growth factor beta1. Diabetologia, 42, 748-757. Karukonda, S.R.K., Flynn, T.C., Boh, E.E., McBurney, E.I., Russo, G.G., & Millikan, L.E. (2000). The effects of drugs on wound healing: Part I. International Journal of Dermatology, 39, 250-257. Kinetic Concepts, Incorporation, The Clinical Advantage (2000). The V.A.C.: Vacuum assisted closure. San Antonio, TX: KCI. Lawrence, W.T. (1998). Physiology of the acute wound. Clinics in Plastic Surgery, 25(3), 321-340.

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68 Lee, P.C., Salyapongse, A.N., Bragdon, G.A., Shears L.L., Watkins, S.C., Edington, H.D.J., & Billiar, T.R. (1999). Impaired wound healing and angiogenesis in eNOS-deficient mice. American Journal of Physiology, 277, H1600-H1608. Lee, R.H., Efron, D., Tantry, U., & Barbul, A. (2001). Nitric oxide in the healing wounds: A time-course study. Journal of Surgical Research, 101, 104-108. Lincoln, J., Hoyle, C.H., & Burnstock, G. (1997). Nitric oxide in health and disease. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Makela, S., Yazdanpanah, M., Adatia, I., Ellish, G. (1997). Disposable surgical gloves and pasteur (transfer) pipettes as potential sources of contamination in nitrite and nitrate assays. Clinical Chemistry, 43(12), 2418-2420. Maklebust, J., & Sieggreen, M. (2001). Pressure ulcers: Guidelines for prevention and management (3 rd ed.). Springhouse, PA: Springhouse Corporation. Mast, B.A., & Schultz, G.S. (1996). Interactions of cytokines, growth factors, and proteases in acute and chronic wound. Wound Repair and Regeneration, 4, 411-420. Mendez-Eastman, S. (1998). When wounds wont heal (vacuum-assisted closure therapy). RN, 61(1), 20-24. Moncada, S., & Higgs, A. (1995). The l-arginine-nitric oxide pathway. The New England Journal of Medicine, 329(27), 2002-2011. Moshage, H. (1997). Nitric oxide determinations: Much ado about NO-thing? Clinical Chemistry, 43(4), 553-6. Nwomeh, B.C., Yager, D.R., & Cohen, I.K. (1998). Physiology of the chronic wound. Clinics in Plastic Surgery, 25(3), 341-356. Portney, L.G., & Watkins, M.P. (2000). Foundations of clinical research: Applications to practice (6 th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Reichner, J.S., Meszaros, A.J., Louis, C.A., Henry, W.L., Mastrofrancesco, B., Martin, B. & Albina, J.E. (1999). American Journal of Pathology, 154(4), 1097-1104. Rote, N.S. (1998). Inflammation. In: K.L. McCance, & S.E. Huether (Eds.), Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (3rd ed., pp. 205-236). St. Louis, MO: Mosby, Inc. Schffer, M.R., Tantry, U., Gross, S.S., Wasserkrug, H.L., & Barbul, A. (1996). Nitric oxide regulates wound healing. Journal of Surgical Research, 63, 237-240.

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69 Schffer, M.R., Tantry, U., Thornton, F.J., & Barbul, A. (1999). Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis in wounds: Pharmacology and effect on accumulation of collagen in wounds in mice. The European Journal of Surgery, 165(3), 262-7. Schultz, G.S. (2000). Molecular regulation of wound healing. In R.A. Bryant, Acute & chronic wounds: Nursing management (2 nd ed., pp. 413-429). St. Louis, MO: Mosby, Inc. Schultz, G.S., & Mast, B.A. (1998). Molecular analysis of the environment of healing and chronic wounds: Cytokines, proteases, and growth factors. Wounds, 10, 1F-9F. Schwentker, A., & Billiar, T.R. (2002). Inducible nitric oxide synthase: From cloning to therapeutic applications. World Journal of Surgery, 26(7), 772-778. Shearer, J.D., Richards, J.R., Mills, C.D., & Caldwell, M.D. (1997). Differential regulation of macrophage arginine metabolism: A proposed role in wound healing. American Journal of Physiology, 272, E181-E189. Shi, H.P., Most, D., Efron, D.T., Tantry, U., Fischel, M.H., & Barbul, A. (2001). The role of iNOS in wound healing. Surgery, 130(2), 225-9. Snyder, S.H., & Bredt, D.S. (1992). Biological roles of nitric oxide. Scientific American 266(5), 68-77. Stacey, M.C., & Trengove, N.J. (1995). Biochemical measurements of tissue and wound fluids. In R. Mani, V. Falanga, C.P. Shearman, & D. Sandeman (Eds.), Chronic wound healing: Clinical measurement and basic science (pp. 99-123). London, UK: W.B. Saunders Company Ltd. Stallmeyer, B., Kmpfer, H., Kolb, N., Pfeilschifter, J., & Frank, S. (1999). The function of nitric oxide in wound repair: Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide-synthase severely impairs wound reepithelialization. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 113, 1090-1098. Sun, J., Zhang, X., Broderick, M., & Fein, H. (2003). Measurements of nitric oxide production in biological systems by using griess reaction assay. Sensors, 3, 276-284. Tarnuzzer, R.W., & Schultz, G.S. (1996). Biochemical analysis of acute and chronic wound environments. Wound Repair and Regeneration, 4, 321-325. Taylor, B.S., & Geller, D.A. (2001). Regulation of the inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) gene. In D. Salvemini, T.R. Billiar, & Y. Vodovotz (Ed.), Nitric oxide and inflammation (3 rd ed., pp. 1-26). Basel, Switzerland: Birkhuser.

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70 Thornton, F.J., Schffer, M.R., Witte, M.B., Moldawer, L.L., Mackay, S.L.D., Abouhamze, T.A., Tannahill, C.L., & Barbul, A. (1998). Enhanced collagen accumulation following direct transfection of the inducible nitric oxide synthase in cutaneous wounds. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 246, 654-659. Trengove, N.J., Bielefeldt-Ohmann, H., & Stacey, M.C. (2000). Mitogenic activity and cytokine levels in non-healing and healing chronic leg ulcers. Wound Repair and Regeneration, 8(1), 13-25. Witte, M.B., Kiyama, T., & Barbul, A. (2002). Nitric oxide enhances experimental wound healing in diabetes. The British Journal of Surgery 89(12), 1594-601. Wu, G., & Morris, S.M. (1999). Arginine metabolism: Nitric oxide and beyond. Biochemical Journal, 336, 1-17. Yamasaki, K., Edington, H.D.J., McClosky, C., Tzeng, E., Lizonova, A., Kovesdi, I., Steed, D.L., & Billiar, T.R. (1998). Reversal of impaired wound repair in iNOS-deficient mice by topical adenoviral-medicated iNOS gene transfer. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 101, 967-971..

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Beverly Bibera Childress was born in Hilongos, Philippines. She grew up with her grandmother while her mother worked abroad. At the age of 12, she came to the United States and lived with her mother and stepfather. Even though she spoke little English, Beverly was not held back in grade school. Instead, she was enrolled in junior high school and took several courses in English as a second language class. Beverly graduated with high honors from Port St. Lucie High School. She was ranked eleventh out of over 300 students. After entering the University of Florida in 1993, she received her Bachelor of Science in Nursing with honors. She began her nursing career on a cardiothoracic with telemetry unit at Shands Hospital at UF. As a preceptor for students, she realized her passion for teaching. Consequently, she enrolled in the accelerated BSN to PhD program in 2000 on a two-year Nursing Traineeship. While in the program, Beverly worked as a research assistant for Drs. Stechmiller and Yucha. As a teaching assistant to an undergraduate pharmacology class, she gave lectures and prepared exam questions. Additionally, she maintained her RN position while attending graduate school full-time. On her spare time, Beverly served as president of the Doctoral Student Council as well as mentored graduate and undergraduate honors students. In 2003, the Florida Nurses Foundation and Sigma Theta Tau, Alpha Theta Chapter awarded Beverly research grants. Teaching is no longer the primary focus of Beverlys educational career, but also research. As a nurse scientist, Beverly realizes how she may contribute to the greater good of the society through scientific research. She believes that dissemination of 71

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72 knowledge through research is one of the ways to provide evidence-based practice. Furthermore, it enables the nursing profession to develop and advance. By sharing research findings with other investigators, current knowledge is confirmed, modified, or discarded. In addition, ideas are born and shaped through these collegial interactions. Consequently, she plans to continue her research program on nitric oxide and its role in wound healing. Additionally, she plans to teach students at the university level and practice as an Advanced Nurse Practitioner.


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Title: Nitric Oxide Metabolites in Wound Fluids from Pressure Ulcers on V.A.C.(TM) Therapy
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

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Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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NITRIC OXIDE METABOLITES IN WOUND FLUIDS
FROM PRESSURE ULCERS ON V.A.C." THERAPY
















By

BEVERLY BIBERA CHILDRESS


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2004

































Copyright 2004

by

Beverly Bibera Childress

































I dedicate this dissertation to my mother, Generosa Childress, for all her hard work to
give me a better chance in life. To my stepfather, Andrew Childress, who accepted and
loved me as his biological daughter.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I sincerely thank my doctoral committee, Drs. Joyce Stechmiller, James Jessup,

Gregory Schultz, Bruce Stevens, Lili Tian, and Carolyn Yucha, for their support and

guidance. Each member with his/her own research expertise has greatly contributed to

the completion of my dissertation. I could not have done it without them.

Dr. Stechmiller is an exemplary teacher and mentor. As my chair, she gave me

freedom to explore the research process and develop my potential as a novice researcher.

As her research assistant, she taught me early on the importance of the scientific rigor

involved in clinical studies. Her calm demeanor and optimism kept me sane and on track

as I advanced in the accelerated BSN/PhD program. But most of all, I thank Dr.

Stechmiller for believing in me and supporting me in my endeavors.

I would like to thank Dr. Gloria Chin and her staff, especially Robert Nappo, for all

their help. Special recognition goes to Dr. Timothy Blalock for teaching me basic

laboratory techniques, which enabled me to do my own analyses. Also, I would like to

thank my friends for their loving support during these past four years. I am grateful to

have shared this life-changing journey with Sylvia Burns and Dr. Ramona Greig. Finally,

I thank Dr. Mahesh Setty for his unwavering patience and encouragement during my last

year of the program.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

L IS T O F T A B L E S .................................................................... ......... .... ....... ....... v iii

LIST OF FIGURES ......... ......................... ...... ........ ............ ix

LIST OF A BBREV IA TION S .......................... ........................................................... x

ABSTRACT .............. .......................................... xi

CHAPTER

1 IN TR OD U CTION ............................................... .. ......................... ..

Background of the Problem ........................................................... .................
Problem Statem ent ........................................................ ...... .. ......... .. .. .3
Stu dy P u rp o se ................................................................... ............................... . 4
R research A im s and H ypotheses......................................................... ............... 4
A im 1 ................................................................. . 4
A im 2 ............................................................. .5
Study A ssum options ............................................................... ......... ........... 5
Study Limitations......................................5
Significance to N using ....................................................... 6

2 LITERA TU RE REV IEW ....................................................... 8

Acute W ound Healing M odel .............................................................. .............. 8
Inflam m atory Phase ................................................................ ..............
Proliferative Phase ............................................. ......... .... ..............11
Remodeling or Maturation Phase ................. .................................. 12
Acute versus Chronic W pounds ............................................................................13
N itric O xide and W found H dealing ............... .............................. .................... ....... 14
Research Linking iNOS and NO' during Inflammation....................................17
Research Linking iNOS and NO' during Proliferation............................18
Vacuum Assisted ClosureTM (V.A.C.) ........................................ ...............20





v









3 M E T H O D ....................................................... 23

Subjects .................................... ......................................................2 3
Sam ple and Sam pling M ethod........................................ ......................... 23
S e ttin g ............................................................................................................ 2 4
M materials ............................ .............. .................. 2 4
Vacuum Assisted Closure (V.A.C.) ............. ....................... ...............24
Measurement of serum nitrate/nitrite (NOx) concentrations ............................25
Analysis of TNF-a and IL-10 in Wound Fluid................... ............................ 28
Quantification of Total Protein................................................ ............... 31
A m ino A cid A analysis ................................................ .............................. 32
P ro c ed u re ................................................................ 3 2
S tu d y D e sig n ................................................................................................. 3 2
C o n s e n t .................................................................................................... 3 3
Study Protocol ...................................................... 33
W ound Fluid Collection and Storage ...................................... ........... ....34
Data Management and Analysis ................................ .......... .................35

4 R E S U L T S .............................................................................3 7

S statistical P ro ce d u re ............................................................................................. 3 7
D escriptiv e R results ................................ ...................8..........
Subject Demographics ........... ... ................. ......... 38
Clinical M easurem ents ............................................................. 38
Analytic Results ................. ... ........ ......................40
Statistical Analysis of Change for NO ......................... ..... ........ ......... 40
A im 1 .............. ... ........... ......... .......................... ............... ......4 0
Correlational Analysis for NOx and Cytokines ..........................................42
Statistical Analysis of Change for Arginine, Citrulline, Ornithine, and Proline.43
A im 2.............. ...................... .. ........ .......... .. ...... .... 43
Correlational Analysis for iNOS and Arginase ................................................45

5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS ........................... ...... ...............47

D discussion of R esults............ ............................................................ ................. 47
D em og rap h ics....... ...................................................................................4 7
Clinical Characteristics....................... ........ ......... 47
N O x R e su lts ................................................................................................... 4 8
Aim 1......................................... ... ................... 48
Relationship between NOx and Pro-inflammatory Cytokines ...........................49
Relationship between IL-10 and TNF-a ................................... ........49
Results of the Amino Acid profiles .............. ................................50
Aim 2.............................................................. .............. ........ 50
Relationship of iNOS and Arginase Activities ............................................52
C onclu sions........................... ..............................52
Im plications for Clinical Practice................................................... .................. 54
Recommendations for Further Research ................................... ..................54









APPENDIX

A C O N SE N T F O R M S .......................................................................... ....................55

B INCLUSION/EXCLUSION CRITERIA........................................... ............... 59

C DEM OGRAPHIC INFORM ATION ................................... .....................................61

D W OU N D A SSE SSM EN T ................................................. ............................... 64

E WOUND FLUID COLLECTION DATA ..............................65

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S .......................................................................... ....................66

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H ...................................................................... ..................71
















LIST OF TABLES

Table page

2-1 Animal Studies of NO* and W ound Healing.............................. ......... ......21

3-1 Sam ple D ata A analysis .................................................. ............... 36

4-1 Subject Dem graphic Summary............................................................... .....39

4-2 Summary Statistics of NOx, Cytokines, and Amino Acid...................................39

4-3 Paired Differences for NOx by Ranks .............................................. ......41

4-4 Paired Differences for TNF-a by Ranks ..........................................42

4-5 Paired Differences for Arginine by Ranks .........................................45
















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure p

1-1 Arginine metabolism and phases of wound healing..................... ...............3

2-1 Cytokines, growth factors, and nitric oxide central to the wound healing process....9

2-2 Cellular effects of NO' in the body. ....... .................................................. .......... 15

2 -3 A rginin e m etab olism ..................................................................... ..................... 16

3-1 Nitrate standard curve for nitrate/nitrite assay ............................... ............... .28

3-2 TNF-a standard curve for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ..........................30

3-3 IL-10 standard curve for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ............................31

3-4 Protein assay standard curve .............................................................................. 32

3-5 D iagram of study protocol.......................................................................... ....... 33

4-1 Concentration of NOx at baseline and at 24 hours, 3 days, and 7 days of V.A.C.
treatm en t ............................................... .................... ...................... 4 1

4-2 Concentration of TNF-a at baseline and at 24 hours, 3 days, and 7 days of
V .A .C treatm ent ...................... .................... ... .... ........ ......... 42

4-3 Levels of arginine and citrulline at baseline and at 24 hours, 3days, and 7 days
of V .A .C treatm ent .............................................................. .............44

4-4 Levels of ornithine and proline at baseline and at 24 hours, 3 days, and 7 days of
V .A .C treatm ent ...................... .................... ... .... ........ ......... 44

5-1 Bar graph representing pre-V.A.C. and post-V.A.C. levels of arginine, citrulline,
ornithine, and proline ....................... .. ...... ................ ............... .... ....... ..5 1

5-2 Bar graph representing pre-V.A.C. and post-V.A.C. NOx levels.......................51
















LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS


AGU
bFGF
BH4
DFU
EGF
ELISA
eNOS
FGF
GSNO
HB-EGF
IFN-y
IGF-I
IL-10/1/2/6/12
iNOS
KGF
KO
L-NIL
LPS
MITU
MMP
NO2-
N03-
NO*
NOS
NOx
nNOS
ODC
PDGF
SNAP
TGF-a/P
TIMP
TNF-a/P
V.A.C.*
VEGF


aminoguanidine hemisulphate
basic fibroblast growth factor
tetrahydrobiopterin
diabetic foot ulcers
epidermal growth factor
enzyme-linked immunosorbent enzyme
endothelial nitric oxide synthase
fibroblast growth factor
S-nitroso-glutathione
heparin binding epidermal growth factor
interferon-gamma
insulin-like growth factor I
interleukins 1 beta, 1, 2, 6, and 12
inducible nitric oxide synthase
keratinocyte growth factor
knockout
L-N6- (1-iminoethyl)-lysine
lipopolysaccharide
S-methyl isothiouronium
matrix metalloproteinase
nitrite
nitrate
nitric oxide
nitric oxide synthase
nitrate/nitrite
neuronal nitric oxide synthase
omithine decarboxylase
platelet-derived growth factor
s-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine
transforming growth factor- alpha and -beta
tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase
tumor necrosis factor- alpha and beta
vacuum assisted closureTM
vascular endothelin-derived factor















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

NITRIC OXIDE METABOLITES IN WOUND FLUIDS
FROM PRESSURE ULCERS ON V.A.C. THERAPY

By

Beverly Bibera Childress

August 2004

Chair: Joyce K. Stechmiller
Major Department: Nursing

Compelling evidence suggests that nitric oxide (NO'), a metabolite of arginine,

plays an important role in wound healing. Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid that is

metabolized by nitric oxide synthase and arginase. A model for regulation of wound

healing proposes the importance of a strict reciprocal control of these enzymes in

wounds. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate arginine metabolism in

wound fluids of patients with pressure ulcers on Vacuum Assisted Closure (V.A.C.)

therapy. This device, which has been shown to accelerate wound healing, also served as

a tool to collect wound fluid.

Wound fluid extracts from the larger V.A.C. Study were used to determine nitrate

and nitrite by the Griess reaction method. Quantitative measurement of tumor necrosis

factor-alpha (TNF-a) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-10) was performed by the enzyme-linked

immunosorbent assay. Wound fluid analyses of arginine, citrulline, omithine, and

proline were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Eleven patients










between 31-92 years of age with Stage III or IV pressure ulcer on V.A.C. therapy were

enrolled. The subjects were recruited within a 50-mile radius of Gainesville. After

informed consent was obtained, wound fluid was collected prior to V.A.C. application

and post-V.A.C. within 24 hours, three days, and seven days. Subjects served as their

own control in this prospective quasi-experimental repeated measures design.

There was no significant difference between pre- and post-V.A.C. NO', citrulline,

ornithine, and proline levels. However, there was a statistically significant decrease in

arginine levels measured at baseline and day three of V.A.C. therapy. Also, NO'

measured at 24 hours of V.A.C. placement decreased significantly at day seven of

treatment. Furthermore, post-V.A.C. levels of TNF-a decreased significantly from

baseline. Thus, a less cytotoxic environment is found indicating a healing wound.

Arginine and its metabolites are detectable in wound fluids from patients with

pressure ulcers. To date, the metabolism of arginine has not been described in humans

with pressure ulcers on V.A.C. therapy. The determination of NO' in these wound

environments provides baseline information on the mechanisms involved in aberrant

wound healing, which has implications for nursing care.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

The focus of this chapter is to introduce the problem, study variables, and purpose

of the study. Specific aims with their respective research hypotheses are delineated. The

significance of this study to wound research and the discipline of nursing is provided.

Background of the Problem

Despite advances in wound care treatment, the United States spends billions of

dollars a year to care for almost one million Americans who develop chronic wounds

(Mendez-Eastman, 1998). Chronic venous insufficiency, diabetis mellitus, and pressure

ulcers account for 70% of all chronic wounds (Nwomeh, Yager, & Cohen, 1998).

Management of pressure ulcers alone in 1994 was estimated at $1.335 billion for

inpatient and outpatient facilities (Agency for Health Care Policy and Research). It costs

approximately $2,731 to heal one pressure ulcer in hospital and long-term care settings.

Furthermore, patients with a single pressure ulcer are 3.5 to 5 times more likely to stay in

the hospital than those without ulcers (Maklebust & Sieggreen, 2001). In a recent article

by Arnold (2003), the incidence of pressure ulcers in acute care settings was reported at

2%-29%. Also, the author reported that the cost of healing one pressure ulcer wound

ranged from $2,000-$70,000. Clearly, the scope of the problem is not well documented

in the literature. However, the problem remains and may worsen as the aging baby-

boomers retire. As patient acuity increases in combination with technological advances

to prolong life, the total expenditure in chronic wounds is expected to rise.









A plethora of commercial products are widely available in the market to treat

chronic wounds. One such novel technology is the Vacuum Assisted Closure (V.A.C.)

device, which utilizes subatmospheric pressure upon topical application to acute,

subacute, or chronic wounds (Argenta & Morykwas, 1997). The negative pressure

created by this device is postulated to decrease wound exudates and bacterial

colonization, increase tissue perfusion, and stimulate granulation tissue formation. The

V.A.C. creates an interstitial fluid environment that promotes healing, and as a result,

the wound heals faster. However, little is known of the mechanism by which the V.A.C.

accelerates wound healing.

It is well established that normal wound healing occurs sequentially and is strictly

regulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. Utilizing biological

mediators to treat chronic wounds have been under intense investigation for several

years. Clinically, growth factors have yet to be proven beneficial in the treatment of

chronic wounds in human subjects (Goldman, 2004). It is imperative, therefore, to

continue our search for novel mediators to improve healing outcomes. Recently, the

importance of nitric oxide (NO') in wound repair has been elucidated. Not only does it

possess cytostatic and cytotoxic properties, but also regulatory functions to mediate

epithelialization, angiogenesis, and collagen deposition crucial to the proliferative phase.

Nitric oxide is synthesized from arginine by the constitutive and inducible nitric oxide

synthases (cNOS and iNOS). In wounds, iNOS predominates and competes for its

substrate with arginase. The by-products of arginase, ornithine and proline, are also

essential in wound repair. Hence, a strict reciprocal regulation of these enzymes has been

proposed to modulate wound healing (Shearer, Richards, Mills, & Caldwell, 1997). As









gene technology advances, the possibility of treating chronic wounds with NO* releasing

products or iNOS gene transfer exists. However, further study is needed to determine

the role of nitric oxide in healing human wounds.

Problem Statement

Chronic, non-healing wounds of various etiologies are a major burden to society.

Clinically regarded as the technology of the century, the V.A.C. device accelerates

wound healing by applying negative pressure to the edges of the wound (Mendez-

Eastman, 1998). The efficacy of this technique, however, is not well understood at the

cellular and molecular level. Compelling evidence suggests that NO' is vital to the

wound healing process. As a free radical, it has cytotoxic properties as well as regulatory

functions on various cell types involved in inflammation and proliferation (Schwentker &

Billiar, 2002). Nitric oxide (NO') is synthesized from L-arginine, a substrate for both

nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and arginase (see Figure 1-1). In wounds, inducible NOS


IL-10, IFN-y L-arginine
TNF-a iNS a

iNOSi *arginase


Citrulline + NO' Ornithine + urea

t t
Free radicals Proline
ROS, RNS Polyamines


Figure 1-1. Arginine metabolism and phases of wound healing.









Note: IL-10 = interleukins-1 beta; IFN-y = interferon-gamma; TNF-a = tumor necrosis
factor-alpha; iNOS = inducible nitric oxide synthase; NO*= nitric oxide; ROS = reactive
oxygen species; RNS = reactive nitrogen species. Text in bold were measured.

(iNOS) catalyzes arginine to citrulline and NO', whereas arginase converts arginine to

ornithine and urea. Ornithine is a precursor for proline and polyamines, which are

essential in normal wound healing (Wu & Morris, 1999).

Study Purpose

Human studies using impaired wound healing models are lacking in this area.

Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the metabolic activity of arginine in

wound fluids from pressure ulcer patients on V.A.C. therapy. Wound fluid extracts

from the ongoing larger V.A.C. Study were used to analyze the metabolites of NO',

tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1). The main V.A.C.

Study is a repeated measures experimental design assessing the characteristics of pressure

ulcer environments for pro-inflammatory cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases, tissue

inhibitors of matrix proteinases, and amino acids. Additional information taken directly

from the larger study included demographics and values of the amino acid profile.

Research Aims and Hypotheses

Aim 1

Evaluate the Effects of the V.A.C. on Nitrate/Nitrite (NOx) levels in Wound Fluids

from Non-healing and Healing Pressure Ulcers.

Hypothesis

Pre- V.A.C. concentrations of NOx will be high due to increased levels of TNF-a

and IL-10 in chronic wounds. Post-V.A.C. NOx will return to optimal levels that are

supportive of healing within 24 hours followed by decreasing levels on days three and

seven (see Figure 1-1).










Aim 2

Evaluate the Effects of the V.A.C. on Arginine, Citrulline, Ornithine, and Proline

in Wound Fluids from Non-healing and Healing Pressure Ulcers, which Reflects iNOS

and Arginase Activities.

Hypothesis

There will be an increase in iNOS and arginase activities in chronic wounds as

evidenced by high levels of citrulline, ornithine, and proline. After V.A.C. placement,

the NO'/citrulline pathway will predominate during days one and three followed by the

ornithine/urea cycle (see Figure 1-1). Accordingly, arginine levels will decrease as it is

utilized by iNOS and arginase. Data for these analyses were taken directly from the

database of the larger V.A.C. Study.

Study Assumptions

The following assumptions are used in this study.

1. Wound fluid reflects the biological wound environment.
2. The V.A.C. changes the wound environment.
3. Variables of interest are detectable in the wound environment.

Study Limitations

Internal validity is an inherent threat to this proposed design. Without a control

group, it is impossible to determine whether healing would have occurred over time

without treatment of the V.A.C.. It should be noted, however, that wounds are

heterogeneous. The complexity of the wound healing process and the great variability

that exist between patients further complicate comparison analyses (Stacey & Trengove,

1995).

A major limitation of convenience sampling is the potential bias of self-selection

(Portney & Watkins, 2000). Such limitation cannot be avoided unless probability









sampling method is utilized. It should be noted, however, that the participating hospitals

and clinics attracted all types of patients from the state of Florida. Unfortunately, the

study sample was composed mainly of subjects of Caucasian descent. No medical

complications were encountered as a result of the V.A.C. intervention.

Another limitation of the proposed project is generalizability due to its small

sample size. Only 11 subjects with pressure ulcers on the V.A.C. were studied. In

addition, the findings from this study cannot be generalized to all types of chronic

wounds. The etiology of decubitus ulcers, for example, greatly differs from diabetic foot

ulcers or venous ulcers. Hence, the results will only reflect the wound environment of

pressure ulcers.

Significance to Nursing

This study examined the by-products of arginine metabolism in wound fluids

extracted from patients with stage III or IV pressure ulcers. Specifically, the

determination of NO* in these wound environments will provide baseline information on

the mechanisms involved in aberrant wound healing. Gaining an insight to wound repair

at the cellular and molecular level is vital to nursing care. At the bedside, nurses are

integral in the assessment of skin integrity, risk factors, and nutritional needs of

individuals. In most instances, nurses are first to identify skin breakdown and institute

preventative measures such as positional and/or diaper (if incontinent) changes. At the

same time, physicians and skin nurse specialists are alerted to further manage the patient

especially those with complicated wounds. Knowledge of wound repair and measures

that promote healing of chronic wounds is of the utmost importance. Nurses and other

wound health care professionals can facilitate or impair wound repair. Thus, basic






7


wound research is paramount to the management of wound healing by providing

evidence-based interventions for practice.














CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

The purpose of this chapter is to provide readers with background information.

This includes an in-depth discussion of wound healing physiology and pathophysiology.

Current models of acute and chronic wound healing are provided. A brief overview of

nitric oxide (NO') is presented. The role of NO' in wound healing is further elucidated

with linking research to the inflammatory and proliferative phases of healing. Lastly, the

Vacuum Assisted Closure (V.A.C.) system is explained in detail with supporting

evidence regarding its use and success in treating chronic wounds.

Acute Wound Healing Model

Current knowledge of normal wound healing physiology is based on the cutaneous

wound healing model. Regardless of the cause and extent of tissue injury, the healing

process includes three overlapping phases: (1) inflammation, (2) proliferation, and (3)

maturation or remodeling (see Figure 2-1). Each stage is strictly regulated by cytokines,

growth factors, and other cellular components of inflammation. These biochemical

mediators stimulate or inhibit cellular actions that are critical for host defense, eradication

of noxious agents, and facilitation of healing (Karukonda et al., 2000; Mast & Schultz,

1996).

Inflammatory Phase

Inflammation, the first phase of wound healing, is the body's natural response to

injury and lasts 1-5 days. Hemostasis occurs as clots form and blood vessels constrict.

The clot consisting primarily of fibrin, trapped red bloods cells, and aggregated platelets









not only halts bleeding, but also forms the provisional wound matrix. Platelets release

cytokines such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), platelet-derived growth (PDGF),

tumor growth factor-beta (TGF-P), tumor growth factor-alpha (TGF-a), platelet-derived

epidermal growth factor (PDEGF), platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor,


Inflammation


Neutrophils
TGF-P, NO'


Macrophages
PDGF, TGF-a, FGF, IL-1
TGF-P, EGF, TNF-a, NO'


Lymphocytes
TGF-P, IL-2, IFN-y, NO'


Epithe ial Cells


TGF-a, TGF-P, EGF, NO'


TGF-P, PDGF, KGF
FGF, IGF-I, IFN-y, NO'




Remodeling


FGF, PDGF, TGF-P, NO'


Fibroblasts


Epithelial Cells

EGF, TGF-0


TNF-a, IL-1, PDGF, TGF-0


Figure 2-1. Cytokines, growth factors, and nitric oxide central to the wound healing
process. Modified from B.B. Childress and J.K. Stechmiller (2002) the "Role
of Nitric Oxide in Wound Healing". Biological Research ofNursing, 4(1), 5-
15. Note: EGF = epidermal growth factor; FGF = fibroblast growth factor;
IFN-y = interferon-gamma; IGF-I = insulin-like growth factor I; IL 1/2 =
interleukins 1 and 2; KGF = keratinocyte growth factor; NO' = nitric oxide;
PDGF = platelet-derived growth factor; TGF a/P = transforming growth factor
a and p; TNF-a = tumor necrosis factor a;









(PD-ECGF). These proteins serve as mediators of the healing response by altering

cellular functions. This is accomplished by the binding of cytokines to their receptors on

cell membranes (Lawrence, 1998).

Vasoconstriction is immediately followed by vasodilation of local blood vessels in

response to histamine, kinins, and prostaglandins. As vascular permeability and levels of

chemoattractants increase, the number of leukocytes migrating to the injured site

increases. This is in response to stimuli such as bacterial endotoxin, PDGF, tumor

necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-ca), and other chemotactic factors. As a result, neutrophils

and monocytes infiltrate the area to remove damaged tissues and/or pathogens (Rote,

1998). Neutrophils, the first to arrive at the wounded tissue, clean up the wound

environment via phagocytosis and breakdown extracellular matrix by releasing proteases.

The proteolytic function of these enzymes differs greatly from the matrix

metalloproteinases (MMPs) produced by fibroblasts in the subsequent stages. Protease

activity is vital to wound debridement and the progression of the healing process to the

next phase (Schultz & Mast, 1998)

The inflammatory response declines by the third day and is marked by the absence

of neutrophils from the wound. Monocytes are transformed into activated macrophages

through stimulation by T lymphocyte-derived interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-sigma,

and bacteria or viruses (Lawrence, 1998). Macrophages, which are also phagocytes,

further decontaminate and prepare the wound for tissue repair. The breakdown of

damaged matrix is mediated by collagenases and elastases that are secreted by

macrophages, which are regulated by macrophage-derived tissue inhibitor of

metalloproteinases (TIMPs) (Lawrence). Furthermore, macrophages stimulate fibroblasts









proliferation, collagen production, and other key healing processes by releasing cytokines

and growth factors such as TNF-c, PDGF, TGF-3, IL-1, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-

1), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and TGF-a (Karukonda et al., 2000; Lawrence). In an

autocrine manner, TGF-3 stimulates macrophages to secrete additional TGF-3 as well as

other cytokines such as FGF, PDGF, TNF, and IL-1. Other products secreted by

macrophage that are crucial to the wound healing process include oxygen metabolites,

prostaglandins, and arginine (Lawrence, 1998).

Proliferative Phase

Central to the proliferative phase, which occurs from 3-16 days, is angiogenesis,

reepithelialization, fibroplasia, and wound contraction (Maklebust & Sieggreen, 2001)

These events are orchestrated in an orderly and timely manner by a multitude of cells

including endothelial cells, epithelial cells, fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, and their

biochemical mediators.

Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, provides all the metabolic needs

of the healing tissue. Hypoxia, high lactic acid concentrations, and low pH stimulate

endothelial cells to proliferate on capillary sprouts. In addition, macrophage-derived

cytokines are directly and indirectly responsible for migration and proliferation of these

cells. Vascular endothelin-derived growth factor (VEGF) and basic FGF are two of the

most potent promoter angiogenesis. Other angiogenic stimulants include TGF-a,

epidermal growth factor (EGF), TGF-P, PD-ECGF, and TNF-a (Karukonda et al., 2000;

Lawrence, 1998).

Overlapping with inflammation, reepithelialization begins hours after injury with

epithelial cells migrating to the wounded area in response to TGF-a, TGF-3, and EGF.









By 24 hours, epithelial cells proliferate until a complete seal of the wound is formed to

confine and protect the healing tissue (Karukonda et al., 2000; Rote, 1998). Proliferation

of epithelial cells is mediated by TGF-a, EGF, heparin binding epidermal growth factor

(HB-EGF), IGF, KGF, and bFGF. Key cytokines produced by epithelial cells include

PDGF 6, TGF-P, and TGF-ac (Lawrence, 1998).

Collagen deposition by fibroblasts is vital to tissue granulation formation and scar

maturation. The synthesis of collagen is mainly stimulated by TGF-P, which is produced

by pro-inflammatory cells and fibroblasts. External factors such as age, pressure, stress,

and tension may directly affect the rate of collagen synthesis. PDGF, a stimulus for

granulation of tissue, has been shown to indirectly limit cellular activity due to its

influence on TGF-3 expression (Lawrence, 1998). Furthermore, TNF-a and IL-13

stimulate fibroblasts to synthesize collagen, up regulate MMPs, and down regulate tissue

inhibitors of metalloproteinases (Mast & Schultz, 1996). Thus, newly synthesized

collagen is deposited in an extracellular matrix conducive to healing.

The last event of this phase is wound contraction, which lasts through the

remodeling phase. Myofibroblasts responding to TGF-P and other substances mediate

this process to promote wound closure (Karukonda et al., 2000; Rote, 1998).

Remodeling or Maturation Phase

The remodeling phase, which can last for several months, begins as cell

proliferation and neovascularization ends. At this stage, the synthesis of new scar matrix

and degradation of extracellular matrix components reach equilibrium. Fibroblasts

produce stimulatory and inhibitory substances, which regulate this process. These cells

are responsible for remodeling the new extracellular matrix by synthesizing collagen,









gelatin, and proteoglycans. Replacement of the old matrix requires the proteolytic

activities of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, and MMP-3. The destructive nature of these

enzymes to the healing tissues is inhibited by TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, which are also

secreted by fibroblasts (Schultz, 2000; Schultz & Mast, 1998; Tarnuzzer & Schultz,

1996). The complex interaction between MMPs and TIMPs is key to tissue remodeling.

Acute versus Chronic Wounds

Acute and chronic wounds greatly differ in their etiology, healing time, and wound

environment. In acute wounds, such as a clean cut, a sudden and quick insult to the skin

occurs. Immediately thereafter, injured cells and platelets release cytokines and growth

factors to elicit the inflammatory response. In chronic states, cellular injury results from

a persistent stimulus such as repeated tissue trauma or ischemia. Over time, the affected

area becomes an open wound, providing a good medium for bacterial growth. An

inflammatory response is initiated by the influx of neutrophils and macrophages into the

wound site. The process, therefore, bypasses the release of growth factors that signal the

healing cascade to begin (as seen in acute injury). A vicious cycle occurs as

inflammatory cells secrete cytokines, TNF-a and IL-10, which in turn attract more

inflammatory mediators (Schultz, 2000; Mast & Schultz, 1996). Further tissue damage

ensues as the wound fails to move quickly and appropriately through the subsequent

phases of healing.

Schultz and Mast (1998) best summarize wound environments at the molecular

level. Based on fluid analysis from healing wounds and chronic ulcers, they discovered

that healing wounds show high levels of mitogenic activity, growth factors, and

functional fibroblasts, but low concentrations of cytokines and proteases. In contrast,









chronic wounds exhibit low mitotic activity, elevated levels of cytokines and proteases,

low levels of growth factors, and senescent cells.

Nitric Oxide and Wound Healing

It is becoming evident from a decade of research that NO' is essential to wound

healing. Compelling data from animal and human studies clearly suggest that NO' is an

integral part of the inflammatory phase. Not only does it possess cytotoxic properties,

but also regulatory functions to mediate epithelialization, angiogenesis, and collagen

deposition crucial to the proliferative phase (see Figure 2-1). It is important to note,

however, that the exact bioregulatory mechanism by which NO' promotes wound repair

has yet to be fully elucidated. Much research in this area is needed to understand how

NO* modulates wound healing in humans (P.C. Lee et al., 1999; Stallmeyer, Kampfer,

Kolb, Pfeilschifter, & Frank, 1999; Thornton et al., 1998).

Nitric oxide is a ubiquitous molecule that serves various biological functions in the

body (see Figure 2-2). Existing for only seconds, NO' readily reacts with molecular

oxygen and water to form its stable end products, nitrate and nitrite (Snyder & Bredt,

1992). NO' is generated by a family of enzymes called NOS from a semi-essential amino

acid, L-arginine (Wu & Morris, 1999). The two constitutive NOS are (1) neuronal

(nNOS or type I) that is expressed in the peripheral and central nervous system, and (2)

endothelial NOS (eNOS or Type III) that is found in endothelial cells of the vascular

system. Type II (iNOS) is only expressed in the presence of endotoxins and/or pro-

inflammatory cytokines. Unique to iNOS is its ability to synthesize NO' in high

concentration for a period of time to sustain its toxic effects irrespective of intracellular

Ca2+ levels (Lincoln, Hoyle, & Burnstock, 1997). A cytokine mixture of TNF-a, IL-3,









and interferon-gamma (IFN-y) can effectively induce human iNOS. Upon induction, the

iNOS gene is transcribed and translated into a functional enzyme to generate NO' in the


Figure 2-2. Cellular effects of NO* in the body. Note: GTP = guanosine triphosphate,
cGMP = cyclic guanosine monophosphate, DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid,
COX-2 = cyclooxygenase-2.

presence of its co-substrates, co-factors, and prosthetic groups (see Figure 2-3) (Taylor &

Geller, 2001). Once released, NO' diffuses out of activated macrophages and destroys

target cells through necrosis or apoptosis (Moncada & Higgs, 1995; Snyder & Bredt,









1992). Many of the iNOS inhibitors include TGF-P, PDGF, NO', and IL-4, 6, 8, and 10

(Lincoln et al., 1997).


Figure 2-3. Arginine metabolism. Note: arginine transport systems = yL, y (CAT
1,2,3,4); bo0+, B' +; ATP = adenosine triphosphate; BH4 = tetrahydrobiopterin;
Ca2+= calcium; CaM = calmodulin; H20 = water; LPS = lipopolysaccharide,
nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms = eNOS (endothelial NOS), iNOS
induciblee NOS), mtNOS (mitochondrial NOS), nNOS (neuronal NOS); NF-
KB =, nuclear factor-KB; NADPH = nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide
phosphate; 02 = oxygen.

Interestingly, researchers have noted that NOS competes for its substrate with

another enzyme called arginase. This enzyme converts arginine into ornithine and urea.

Ornithine is an essential substrate for the synthesis of polyamines, which are important in









cellular proliferation and repair. Proline, also derived from ornithine, is key in collagen

synthesis (Wu & Morris, 1999). Analyses of wound fluids (less than three days) showed

high concentrations of NO* and citrulline in response to TNF-a, IL-, IFN-y and

lipopolysaccharide (LPS). As the healing process progressed and the inflammatory

response decreased (more than three days), arginase activity increased as indicated by

high levels of ornithine (Shearer et al., 1997). In another study, R.H. Lee and others

(2001) examined the biochemical activity of NOS over a 35-day period in rats. Gene

expression of iNOS correlated highly with an elevated NO' concentration that peaked at

24 hours and declined steadily for the next 5-7 days with sustained levels up to the 10th

day.

Research Linking iNOS and NO' during Inflammation

It is well established that NO' mediates the cytotoxic effects of macrophages during

the inflammatory phase. Wound fluid studies, for example, consistently demonstrated

high levels of NOx early and transiently from wounds of various etiologies. To determine

the precise time at which concentrations of arginine metabolites predominated, Albina,

Mills, Henry, and Caldwell (1990) implanted subcutaneous sponges in rats for 15 days.

High levels of nitrite and citrulline were found within 3 days, whereas increasing levels

of urea and ornithine were detected after five days post sponge implantation. Studies of

iNOS knockout (KO) mice established the critical role of this enzyme in wound repair.

In a study of iNOS-deficient mice, healing of excisional wounds was delayed by four

days. Wound closure was prolonged by 31% in iNOS KO mice compared with wild

types. After a topical application of an adenoviral-mediated iNOS gene transfer,

however, the wound closed (Yamasaki et al., 1998). Thus, it is evident that iNOS is the










key NO'-producing enzyme in wound healing, and gene therapy may prove beneficial for

treating of chronic wounds.

Current evidence suggests that abnormalities in arginine metabolism may

contribute to the pathogenesis of impaired healing in human extremity ulcers. In a group

of 22 diabetic patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFU), 22 diabetics, and 14 controls;

iNOS and arginase activities were significantly increased in DFU patients when

compared to the other two groups. Furthermore, the higher concentration of NO* found

in the diabetic groups was attributed to low levels of TGF-31 (Jude, Boulton, Ferguson, &

Appleton, 1999). It is suggested by Abd-El-Aleem et al. (2000) that the destructive

effects of peroxynitrite on tissues may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic venous

ulcers. In this study, the investigators enrolled 16 normal subjects and 18 patients with

chronic venous ulcers. Biochemical and immunohistological analysis of biopsied

samples revealed high levels of NOS and arginase in subjects with ulcers compared with

normal skin. Recall that in normal repair, arginase enhances extracellular matrix

deposition; however, when in excess it may lead to callus formation.

Research Linking iNOS and NO' during Proliferation

Central to the proliferative phase is collagen deposition by fibroblasts. One group

of researchers examined the effects of an iNOS inhibitor, S-methyl isothiouronium

(MITU), in mice with implanted polyvinyl alcohol sponges. After 10 days, the group that

received the highest dose of MITU (100mg/kg/day) exhibited low levels of NO' in

wound fluids and cell culture supernatants. This was highly correlated with decreased

collagen accumulation and wound breaking strength (Schaffer, Tantry, Gross,

Wasserkrug, & Barbul, 1996). Similar results were found on a subsequent study using









aminoguanidine hemisulphate (AGU) (Schaffer, Tantry, Thornton, & Barbul, 1999). To

further elucidate the role of iNOS in wound healing, iNOS-KO fibroblasts synthesized

less collagen than the wild-type fibroblast. Restoration of collagen production was

observed after low concentrations of an NO' donor, s-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine

(SNAP), was administered to the iNOS-KO cells (Shi, Most, Efron, Tantry, Fischel, &

Barbul, 2001). On the other hand, collagen accumulation was shown to increase in rats

following iNOS gene transfection (Thornton et al., 1998). NO-deficiency associated

with diabetes demonstrates poor healing. Diabetes-induced rats given exogenous

molsidomine, a nitric oxide donor, showed increased hydroxyproline content and wound

breaking strength (Witte, Kiyama, & Barbul, 2002). Such findings suggest that NO' is

vital to tissue repair as evidenced by impaired healing in a wound environment with low

levels of NO. Potential treatments for impaired healing may involve administration of

nitric oxide donors and/or gene manipulation.

In a cutaneous wound repair study, Frank and colleagues (1998) revealed that iNOS

was significantly expressed during inflammation, reepithelialization, and granulation of

tissue. Within minutes of injury, epithelial cells will normally migrate from wound edges

immediately post-injury and proliferates within the first 24 hours. Under NO' deficient

states, reepithelialization was severely delayed when a specific iNOS inhibitor, L-N6- (1-

iminoethyl)-lysine (L-NIL) was introduced to wounded mice (Stallmeyer et al., 1999).

In angiogenesis, both iNOS and eNOS are postulated to be equally important in

synthesizing NO'. Newly formed blood vessels are governed by one of the most potent

angiogenic factors, VEGF. NO' is believed to effectively enhance the expression of

VEGF by keratinocytes during tissue repair. To illustrate the effects of exogenous NO',









in vitro cultures of human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT were exposed to purified growth

factors, cytokines and/or S-nitroso-glutathione (GSNO). A potent keratinocyte inducer of

VEGF mRNA expression, GSNO-treated cultures with TGF-31, keratinocyte growth

factor, IL-10, or IFN-y exhibited high levels of VEGF and proteins. Similar results were

also observed in vivo with L-NIL-treated rats showing decreased levels of VEGF mRNA

during inflammation (Frank et al., 1999). One can infer from these studies that the

underlying function of NO* in repair is to induce keratinocytes to express VEGF. In a

recent study, eNOS KO mice and wild types were wounded to determine the requirement

of this enzyme in wound closure and strength. By day 10, wound strength was reduced

by 38% in eNOS KO mice. Furthermore, a delay of 9.2 days in wound closure was

observed in the eNOS KO group compared with the wild type controls (P.C. Lee et al.,

1999). Undoubtedly, angiogenesis is essential in wound healing and NO' may regulate

this process with iNOS and eNOS as major contributors.

In summary, the cytotoxic properties of NO* are vital to the inflammatory phase of

wound healing. NO' continues to play a significant role in acute wound healing as a

signaling molecule. As a messenger, NO' upregulates and downregulates wound cellular

functions. Additionally, the vasodilatory effects of NO* in old and newly formed blood

vessels are vital for wounded sites. Evidence to support the above assertions is

summarized in Table 2-1.

Vacuum Assisted ClosureTM (V.A.C.)

FDA-approved since 1995, the V.A.C. (KCI, San Antonio, TX) device promotes

rapid healing of chronic wounds refractory to conventional treatment (Mendez-Eastman,

1998). Clinically, the V.A.C. has been shown to enhance granulation tissue formation









and increase healing rates. This may be in part due to increased vascularity, decreased

bacterial burden, and increased growth factor to MMP ratios. It is indicated for acute

acute/traumatic wounds, flaps and grafts, chronic wounds open wounds (diabetic and

Table 2-1: Animal Studies of NO* and Wound Healing
Intervention NOx Epethelia- Angiogenesis OHP WBS Collagen
lization Synthesis
Molsidomine
(diabetic rats)
MITU
AGU

iNOS gene
transfection t
iNOS-KO
fibroblastsT
iNOS-KO cells
with SNAP
eNOS-KO

L-NIL

Note: NOx = nitrate/nitrite; OHP = hydroxyproline; WBS = wound breaking strength;
MITU = S-methyl isothiouronium; AGU = aminoguanidine hemisulphate; iNOS =
inducible nitric oxide; KO = knockout; SNAP = s-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine; eNOS =
endothelial NOS; L-NIL = L-N6- (1-iminoethyl)-lysine.

pressure ulcers), and subacute wounds dehiscedd incisions). The V.A.C. system consists

of V.A.C." unit or pump, foam dressings, canister, drapes, and extension tubing.

Simultaneously treatment of several wound sites is possible through the use of Y-

connector (Kinetic Concepts, Incorporation, The Clinical Advantage, 2000).

A special porous dressing is positioned in the wound cavity to distribute localized

negative pressure to the edges of the wound. This acts to mechanically draw the tissue

inward thereby stimulating epithelial migration and cellular proliferation (Argenta &

Morykwas, 1997). Furthermore, removal of interstitial fluid from the surrounding tissues

improves blood supply and eliminates bacterial contaminants (Mendez-Eastman, 1998).









Within three to four days of V.A.C. treatment, the number of bacteria in the wound was

shown to decrease significantly (Argenta & Morykwas). In a six week randomized trial

of V.A.C. versus standard therapy of chronic wounds, 64% of granulation tissue

formation occurred in the V.A.C. group (Joseph et al., 2000) in comparison to the

saline-wet-to-moist dressing group. Deva and colleagues (2000) also reported positive

healing outcomes in 26 out 30 pressure ulcer patients on the V.A.C.. Thus, the

environment created from the V.A.C. therapy is conducive to the healing process, which

ultimately leads to wound closure.

Clinical outcomes of V.A.C. therapy for acute and chronic wound treatment have

shown promising results. The exact mechanism by which this device accelerates healing,

however, is not well understood at the cellular and molecular level. Furthermore, the role

of nitric oxide in wound repair has yet to be fully elucidated in animal and human studies.

Undoubtedly, there is a need for further research in this area to better understand the

phenomena.














CHAPTER 3
METHOD

This chapter is divided into four sections. The first section presents subject

characteristics and sampling method. Second, the materials section provides information

on the instruments used and variables tested in the study. The procedures are presented

in the third section with specifics on study design, protocol, and data collection. A

description of data management and statistical analyses of the two aims used examine the

model shown in Figure 1.1.

Subjects

Sample and Sampling Method

Eleven adults 21 years of age and over were selected as subjects by convenience

sampling. Stage III or IV pressure ulcer patients who were scheduled for V.A.C.

therapy were recruited. V.A.C. treatment was indicated for patients without fistulas,

necrotic tissue, untreated cellulitis or osteomylitis, connective tissue disorder, or

malignancy in the wound. The inclusion and exclusion criteria specific to the study were

as follows:

* 21 years of age or older with stage III or IV pressure ulcers.

* patient required V.A.C. therapy on an outpatient or in-patient basis

* Pressure ulcer(s):

o present for more than one month

o no previous treatment with dermal skin substitutes

o received little to no wound treatment for one week prior to V.A.C.
(enzymatic debridement agent)









o no hyperbaric oxygen or warm-up therapy

o no fistulas, necrotic tissue with eschar, untreated cellulitis or osteomylitis,
connective tissue disorder, and no malignancy in the wound

o debridement recently performed

* no active systemic infection (normal white blood count), anemia (hematocrit less
than 26) or immune deficiency diseases.

* no smoking within the past six months.

* not receiving steroids, immuno-suppressive or cytotoxic medications.

Setting

The study sites were within a 50-mile radius of Gainesville, Florida. The

University of Florida and Veterans Administration Institutional Review Board approval

of the study were obtained from each facility. The Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons,

Advanced Registered Nurse Practitioner, and Clinical Nurse Specialists contacted the

principal investigator (PI) and/or sponsor when subjects or their family members agreed

to talk about participation in the study. The PI or faculty sponsor recruited potential

subjects from the inpatient and outpatient settings of the hospitals and nursing homes.

Written informed consent was obtained prior to review of medical records and all

procedures.

Materials

Vacuum Assisted ClosureTM (V.A.C.R)

In this study, the V.A.C. System was applied and maintained according to the

manufacturer's protocol and followed by the subject's wound care team. These included

the Clinical Nurse Specialist, Wound, Continence, and Ostomy Nurse Specialists, or

Advanced Registered Nurse Practitioner who were all employed by the participating

institution. Ten of the patients were on the classic V.A.C., while one subject was on the









mini-V.A.C.. In all patients, the physician and/or nurse practitioner ordered V.A.C.

therapy to sacral wound on continuous therapy at 125 mmHg. Using the black

polyurethane foam, the appropriate health care staff changed the dressing three times a

week or as needed. Therapy was disrupted when patients were out of their rooms for

medical tests, clinic visits, or physical therapy.

Measurement of serum nitrate/nitrite (NOx) concentrations

Due to its volatile nature, NO' has a short half-life (t/2 = seconds) and is oxidized

to its stable end products, nitrate (NO3-) and nitrite (NO2-) (Taylor & Geller, 2001).

Since NO2 is converted to NO3s in most bodily fluids, the primary metabolite present is

NOs3. Numerous studies in wound healing have estimate NO3- and NO2- (NOx) in wound

fluids as an indirect measure of NO* synthesis in the healing process. The simplest and

most widely used technique is spectrophotometric quantification ofNO2- by using the

Griess diazotization reaction. Assays of total NO2- + N03-; therefore, are necessary to

account for NO3- that is undetected by the Griess method (Moshage, 1997; Sun, Zhang,

Broderick, & Fein, 2003).

The Cayman Chemical Nitrate/Nitrite Colorimetric Assay Kit (Ann Arbor, MI) was

used to quantify total NOx in the wound fluid. The assay has a sensitivity of 2 [tM and is

outlined in the manufacturer's instruction as a two-step process. First, it involves the

conversion of nitrate to nitrite followed by the addition of Greiss reagents to determine

nitrite concentrations. Pre-assay preparation included washing of laboratory ware to

decrease NOx contamination (Ishibashi et al., 2000; Makela et al., 1997), spin rinsing of

filters, ultrafiltration of wound fluid to reduce absorbance background, and preparation of









reagents that were provided with the kit. The following supplies were pre-washed as

follows:

1. Disposable (polyethylene) gloves (Fisher Scientific, Pittsburg, PA) exterior
surfaces were washed five times with molecular grade water (Mediatech, Inc
Cellgro) and air dried. This type of glove was shown to have the least amount of
NOx contamination (Makela et al., 1997) in comparison to gloves made of vinyl,
latex, or non-latex synthetic polymers. Our recent study on potential sources of
NOx contamination showed that nitrile gloves (Kimberly-Clarke Safeskin Purple
Nitrile) contained high amounts of NOx (Davis, Childress, & Stechmiller, 2004).
Therefore, this type of glove was avoided in the analysis.

2. Plastic graduated cylinders (Fisherbrand), beakers (Fisherbrand), and troughs
(Corning, NY) the inner surfaces of these supplies were washed five times by
rinsing them with molecular grade water. Glass laboratory wares were not used in
the analysis since they contain considerable amounts of NOx (Makela et al.).

3. 1.5 ml graduated microcentrifuge tubes (Fisherbrand) filled with molecular grade
water, these tubes were capped and inverted several times. Water was removed
after vigorously shaking them.

4. Pre-sterilized pipette tips 20 tl (Fisherbrand), 100 tl and 1000 tl (Molecular
Bioproducts, San Diego, CA) the outer and inner surfaces of these tips were
washed with molecular grade water as described by Ishibashi et al. (2000). Briefly,
the pipette tips were attached to the appropriate mechanical pipette (Rainin
Instruments, Oakland, CA) and dipped into water to a depth of two-thirds of the
tip's length. This procedure washed the outside of the tips and was repeated five
times. For the interior surfaces, water was aspirated in a larger volume than the set
volume. Then, water was expelled out of the tip until no water droplet was visible.
This was repeated five times.

5. Microcon YM-10 centrifugal filter device (Millipore, Bedford, MA) the inner
and outer surfaces of the sample reservoir were washed three times (per
manufacturer guideline) as well as the filtrate vial as described above. Then, 200 tl
of molecular grade water was placed in the sample reservoir and spun for 15
minutes at 14,000 g at room temperature (Eppendorf Centrifuge 5804, Brinkman
Instruments, Westbury, NY).

After washing all the necessary laboratory supplies, 100-128 tl of wound fluid was

ultrafiltered through a 10 kDa molecular weight cut-off filter (Microcon YM-10) for 30

minutes at 14,000 g (Eppendorf Centrifuge) at room temperature. In addition to









decreasing hemoglobin's interference in the analysis, ultrafiltration of samples increased

color formation in the presence of the Greiss reagents.

Wound fluid samples were diluted three-fold with the assay buffer provided. This

dilution factor was determined previously from two study patients. The manufacturer's

instructions for the preparation of nitrate standard and reagents were adhered to closely.

To avoid mistakes during the assay, a template of the 96-well plate configuration was

made. The first two columns of the plate contained the nitrate standard, which was done

in duplicate. The standard stock, 200 [tM, was prepared by the addition of 0.1 ml of the

reconstituted nitrate standard into a clean test tube containing 0.9 ml of assay buffer. As

configured in the template, the standard curve were placed in wells with the appropriate

volume of assay buffer resulting in final nitrate concentration of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30,

and 35 [M. To create the blanks wells, 200 ul of assay buffer was pipetted into two

columns of the plate. No other reagents were added to these wells. Immediately

thereafter, 40-80 ul of samples per well were placed in the plate in quantiplicates as

outlined by the template. Assay buffer was added to wells containing 40 ul of samples to

obtain a final volume of 80 ul. After adding 10 ul of the enzyme cofactor and nitrate

reductase to each of the wells (standards and unknowns), the plate was incubated for

three hours at room temperature. Following incubation, 50 ul of Greiss reagents 1 and 2

were added to each of the standards and unknowns. After 10 minutes of incubation

period, absorbance was read spectrophotometrically at 540 nm (Elx 800 Microplate

Reader, Winooski, VT).

Sample nitrate and nitrite concentrations were calculated from the nitrate standard

curve generated by least squares regression analysis. The average absorbance values of













the standards and blank wells were determined. The standard curve was plotted once the

average of the blanks was subtracted from the average of the standards (Fig 3.1). In

Figure 3-1, the optical density for the standards is on the vertical (y) axis and the

concentration of the standard is on the horizontal (x) axis expressed in gM. Depending

on the volume and dilution factor used, the sample NOx was quantified by using the

following formula given by the manufacturer:

[Nitrate + Nitrite] = ((A540 y-intercept)/slope (200 pl /volume of

sample used pl) dilution)

The coefficient of variation for sample replicates was less than 10%.





2.0

E
C



1.5
03









0 10 20 30
Nitrate (uM)

Figure 3-1. Nitrate standard curve for nitrate/nitrite assay. Note: y =0.0332x + 0.0275,
R2= 0.9888; blue = standards, black = suppressed standards.

Analysis of TNF-a and IL-1P in Wound Fluid

Quantitative measurement of TNF-a and IL- 1 was performed using a

commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit from


it from









Amersham Biosciences (Buckinghamshire, England). The assay sensitivity is less than

one pg/ml for IL-10 and less than five pg/ml for TNF-a. The "sandwich" enzyme

immunoassay technique is employed in both of these kits. The ELISAs were performed

separately; however, both assay procedures are similar and will be discussed

simultaneously in subsequent paragraphs.

All reagents and working standards were prepared according to the manufacturer's

instruction manual. Prior to running both assays, a plate template identifying the

locations of the samples, standards, and blanks was created in Microsoft Excel program.

Based on previous analyses, the wound fluid was diluted with the provided diluent to

100-fold and five-fold for IL-10 and TNF-a, respectively. A 1:2.5 serial dilution was

prepared for both standard curves. Five standards, one zero and unknown samples, were

run in duplicates. All empty wells were filled with sample diluent. A three hour and two

hour incubation time at room temperature were observed after 50 [l of the appropriate

biotinylated antibody reagent was added to all wells for IL-1p and TNF-a, respectively.

At the end of each period, the plates were manually washed three times using a squirt

bottle and blotted on paper towel. A 100 ul of pre-diluted streptavidin-HRP (horseradish

peroxidases) conjugate was pipetted immediately into each wells using a multi-channel

pipette (Rainin Instruments) and incubated for 30 minutes at room temperature. Using

the same procedure described above, the plates were washed three times. Then, 100 [l of

pre-mixed TMB substrate was added to each well and incubated at room temperature for

30 minutes in the dark. Using a plate reader set at 450 nm, the optical density of each

well was determined within 30 minutes of the addition of the stop solution. KC junior

(Bio-Tek Instruments), a curve- fitting statistical software package, generated a standard









curve for each ELISA (see Fig 3.2). Based on this curve, levels of IL-10 and TNF-a

were quantified in the wound fluid. Note that the best-fit curve for TNF-a is not a line.

Instead, a four-parameter logistic curve fit was plotted as suggested by the manufacturer

with R= .9963. The coefficient of variation for sample duplicates was less than 10%.


100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
[(h)TNF-alpha] (pg.ml)

Figure 3-2. TNF-a standard curve for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Note: y
[(1.8273-2.3367)/(1 + (x/36.8707)05182 ) + 2.3367], R2 = 0.9963, h = human,
TNF-a = tumor necrosis factor-alpha











1.4




1.0

4? 0.8

o 0.6

0.4-

0.2- -

20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160
[(h)IL-1 beta] (pghnl)

Figure 3-3. IL-10 standard curve for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Note: y
.0085x + .0099, R2 =.9996, IL-10 = interleukin-1 beta, OD = optical density,
h = human

Quantification of Total Protein

To correct for the dilutional effect in the assays, total protein content was analyzed

by using the BCATM Protein Assay Kit (Pierce, Rockford, IL). In this particular assay,

the microplate procedure was used due to a smaller volume requirement. The preparation

of diluted bovine serum albumin and working reagent was done per manufacturer's

instructions. In duplicates, 25 al of each standard and unknown sample were pipetted

into a microplate well (Nunc Brand Products, Denmark). Then, 200 kl of the prepared

working reagent (25 ml of Reagent A with 1 ml of Reagent B) was added onto each well

and mixed thoroughly on a plate shaker for 30 seconds (MaxQ 2000, Barnstead Lab-line,

Melrose Park, IL). After incubation for 30 minutes at 37 oC, the plate was read at 540

nm on a plate reader. Using KCjunior software (Bio-Tek Instruments), a four-parameter

curve was used (see Fig 3.3) as recommended by the manufacturer to determine the

concentration of protein in the wound fluid. The coefficient of variation for sample










duplicates was less than 10%. The inflammatory cytokines, TNF-a and IL-10, were then

normalized to total protein content and expressed as pg/ug of protein.

Amino Acid Analysis

Based on the larger V.A.C. Study, levels of arginine, citrulline, omithine, and

proline of wound fluids were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography

(HPLC) method (Waters, Millford, MA).



2.5


2.0
E

0 1.5


1 .0







200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000
Protein Concentration (ug/li)

Figure 3-4. Protein assay standard curve. Note: 4 parameter: y = (4.14633-0.0331)/(1 +
(x/2070)177 + 0.0331), R2 = 0.9994; blue = standards, black = suppressed
standard

Procedure

Study Design

A prospective quasi-experimental repeated measures design was utilized to

investigate the metabolic activity of arginine in wound fluids of patients with pressure

ulcers on V.A.C. therapy. Every subject was on V.A.C. therapy and evaluated at each

time interval. Therefore, each subject served as his/her own control (Portney & Watkins,









2000). Wound fluid was collected at baseline prior to V.A.C. application and within 24

hours, three days, and seven days of V.A.C. placement (see Figure 3-4).

Consent

In accordance to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability (HIPAA)

guidelines, clinicians informed V.A.C. candidates of the study and notified investigators

of potential subjects. Subjects or health surrogates with power-of-attorney were

approached in person or via phone. The purpose, risks, and benefits of the study were

discussed in detail (Appendix A). Furthermore, the subject's right to withdraw from the

project at anytime without consequences was explained. For consents obtained over the

phone, a witness, such as the patient's nurse, was involved in the consent process. After

the appropriate parties consented, a brief review of the medical record for subject

eligibility was conducted. Clinicians were notified if the subject met all the study

criteria. Coordination of time for V.A.C. placement was vital to baseline wound fluid

collection.

Study Protocol

The diagram (see Figure 3-5) illustrates the study protocol used in this study.

Screen V.A.C. Candidates
Obtain Consent


Collect Pre-V.A.C."Wound Fluid

I
Collect Post-V.A.C. Wound Fluid




24-hr 3 days 7 days

Figure 3-5. Diagram of study protocol









Wound Fluid Collection and Storage

Once consent was obtained, a transparent polyurethane occlusive dressing

(Tegraderm, 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota) was placed over the pressure ulcer prior to the

initiation of V.A.C." therapy. Hydration status of the patients was standardized through

intake of 500 ml of fluids by mouth. Three of the eleven subjects were placed on

maintenance intravenous fluids and/or other intravenous medications. Subjects were

placed on their side for at least an hour, which facilitated fluid collection. After this

period, the fluid was aspirated from beneath the dressing using a sterile needless

tuberculin syringe being careful to avoid injury to the underlying tissue (Stacey &

Trengove, 1995). This procedure was repeated two or three more times if not enough

fluid was present. If no fluid was found on the third attempt, 1 ml of normal saline (NS)

was injected into the wound. Three of the eleven subjects had 1 ml of NS added into the

wound.

Approximately 0.5-2 ml of fluid was collected in a 15-ml Fisherbrand disposable

sterile centrifuge tube (Fisher Scientific, Pittsburg, PA). This specimen was placed

immediately on ice and transferred to the laboratory in a biohazard container. The

sample was pipetted into 1.5-ml microtubes (Fisher Scientific, Pittsburg, PA) and

centrifuged (Eppendorf Centrifuge, Westbury, NY) at 8000 rpm for 15 minutes. Small

but visible pellets were discarded. The supernatant was aliquoted into separate

microvials and stored at -80 TC until analyzed. For the amino acid profile, one unspun

vial was stored in the same manner. These specimens served as baseline data.

Within 24 hours following application of the V.A.C., additional wound fluid was

collected from the tubing of the V.A.C. System. This was accomplished by clamping

off both ends of the tubing and stopping the therapy. First, the clamp proximal to the









patient was clamped off followed by the second one, which was distal to the patient.

Then, therapy was stopped for approximately 10-15 seconds. The tube was disconnected

and fluid was allowed to drain into the 15-ml tubes. Immediately thereafter, the tubes

were reconnected and unclamped. The patient was informed that a quick gentle-like

massage or suction would to be felt once the V.A.C. is placed back on therapy. Tubing

connection and V.A.C. pressure settings were verified prior to leaving the patient's

bedside. This procedure was repeated for the 3rd and 7th day collection. Using the

same steps to transfer, handle, and store the specimens as previously described.

Wound fluid was collected from the V.A.C. system at least two hours after

dressing and/or tubing changes. It was reported by Childress and colleagues (2003) that

certain biochemical markers were altered upon exposure to the V.A.C. components. In

this study, the impact of time (0, 1, and 6 hour) and wound exposure to V.A.C. foam

and tubing was investigated. Preliminary findings indicated that there was an immediate

decrease in IL-10 levels upon wound fluid exposure to foam and tubing. These levels,

however, remained constant over the six-hour time period. No conclusions could be

made regarding TNF-a. In a separate analysis, NOx levels were noted to slightly increase

within an hour of exposure to V.A.C. foam, but remained constant over time. Whereas,

the V.A.C." tubing did not appear to alter NOx levels at all time period. Furthermore,

the V.A.C." components, foam and tubing, were found to contain very low to

undetectable amounts of NOx.

Data Management and Analysis

The subject's baseline profile and other pertinent data were compiled in a folder

with his/her initials and identification number. These folders were secured in a file

cabinet in a locked office. The office was centrally located for easy accessibility. A









spreadsheet was created in Microsoft Excel program, which was exported to statistical

software for analysis. Summary measures were generated from SPSS (SPSS Inc.,

Chicago, IL) on a Windows based computer. Sample size was calculated using two-sided

one sample t-test with an overall type I error .05. Power was determined to be over 80%

with sample size nine as long as delta + sigma > 0.31 (Splus Software). Delta represents

the expected difference between NOx levels before and after V.A.C. placement, and

sigma denotes the standard deviation of the difference. Based on preliminary data

available, the study sample size was deemed sufficient to address the study aim.

Since the assumptions of normality were violated, nonparametric statistical

techniques were used to determine significance at .05 for the aims of this particular study.

The specific aims, hypotheses testing, statistical tests, and outcome measures are

summarized in Table 3-1.

Table 3-1: Sample Data Analysis
Specific Aims Hypothesis Statistical Test Outcome
Testing Measure
Aim 1: Evaluate a) Ho: 1 = [02 a) Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks NOx
the effects of the Hi: [l > 02 Test concentrations
V.A.C. on NOx
levels b) Ho: [2 = [3 = [4 b) Friedman Two-way
Hi: Ho is not Analysis of Variance
true under [2 >
0t3 > [4 c) Spearman Correlations.

Aim 2: Evaluate a) Ho: 01 = 02 a) Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Levels of
the effects of the H1: [l > 02 Test citrulline,
V.A.C. on omithine, and
citrulline, b) Ho: [02 = [3 = [4 b) Friedman Two-way proline
ornithine, and Hi: Ho is not Analysis of Variance
proline true under [2 >
t03 > [4 c) Spearman Correlations














CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the Vacuum Assisted

Closure (V.A.C.) on nitrate/nitrite (NOx) levels in wound fluids from non-healing and

healing pressure ulcers. The secondary aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of the

V.A.C. on arginine citrulline, omithine, and proline in wound fluids from non-healing

and healing pressure ulcers. The presence of these metabolites reflects inducible nitric

oxide synthase (iNOS) and arginase activities. This chapter first presents descriptive

results including mean, median, range, standard deviation, and frequency data for each of

the variables. The two hypotheses posed in Chapter 1 are addressed using the following

nonparametric tests, Wilcoxon-Signed Ranks Test, Friedman two-way analysis of

variance by ranks, and Spearman Rank Correlation.

Statistical Procedure

Values considered below the detection limit of the assays used in this study were

corrected and included in the data analyses. This was accomplished by taking from the

smallest value of the specific assay divided by two. All data files were prepared in the

Microsoft Excel program and then imported into SPSS for analysis. Prior to performing

any of the statistical analysis, the raw data were checked for accuracy. Then, the

normality of the distribution of values for all continuous variables was assessed. This

was accomplished by obtaining descriptive statistics, which included the mean, standard

deviation, range, skewness, and kurtosis. The tests of normality were performed to

obtain the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Wilks-Shapiro statistics. Additional information









was gained through visual inspection of histograms, normal Q-Q plots, detrended normal

Q-Q plots, and box-plots. Many of the variables were positively skewed, thus, violating

the normality assumptions. Log transformations were performed in an attempt to

normalize the variables. Unfortunately, the data remained abnormally distributed. As a

result, the non-parametric statistics were used to analyze the data.

Descriptive Results

Subject Demographics

Twenty-eight subjects were invited to participate in this study. Four patients were

contacted by phone, and the remainder was invited to participate in person. Thirteen

subjects did not meet the study criteria. Two subjects were not interested in participating

in the study for various reasons. One subject was on nitric oxide (NO') inhalation

therapy for pulmonary hypertension. Only one subject was dropped from the study

because the V.A.C. was found to hinder rehabilitative activities.

Subject demographics expressed in numbers and percentages included age, gender,

race, diabetes, and stage of pressure ulcer. Table 4-1 identifies the subject demographics,

which are expressed in numbers and percentages.

Clinical Measurements

Table 4-2 lists the main clinical measurements for the entire study. The mean age

was 61 years with a range of 31 to 92.









Table 4-1:
Variables
Age
30-39
40-49
50-59
60-69
70-79
90-99
Gender


Subject Demographic Summary
N (total = 11)

1
1
3
3
2
1


Male
Female
Race
Caucasian
African-American
Diabetes Mellitus
No
Yes
Stage of Pressure
Ulcer
Stage III
Stage IV


Percent

9.1
9.1
27.3
27.3
18.1
9.1

55
45


Table 4-2: Summary Statistics ofNOx, Cytokines, and Amino Acid
Std.
Variables N Minimum Maximum Median Mean Deviation
Age 11 31 92 67.1 61 16.56


NOx ([tM)
baseline
24-hr
3d
7d
IL-10 (pg/mg protein)
baseline
24-hr
3d
7d
TNF-a (pg/mg protein)
baseline
24-hr
3d
7d
Proline (tM/L)
baseline


6.30
7.17
1.50
0.07

0.0058
0.0631
0.0070
0.0212

0.0026
0.0051
0.0029
0.0036


86.78
83.79
64.87
26.97

0.5746
0.4763
0.6320
0.8864

0.1293
0.0184
0.0119
0.0201


29.48
23.96
14.04
16.50

0.0592
0.1616
0.0961
0.1552

0.0192
0.0069
0.0060
0.0054


10 28 779 335


33.04
28.58
19.72
14.70


22.41
24.58
19.42
8.27


0.1689 0.2209
0.2013 0.1279
0.1657 0.1833
0.2220 0.2481

0.0274 0.0355
0.0078 0.0038
0.0067 0.0030
0.0072 0.0050

384.95 268.63









Table 4-2. Continued

Variables N Minimum Maximum Median
24-hr 10 72 929 397
3d 10 3.5 2841 345
7d 9 37.5 1234 360
Citrulline ([tM/L)
baseline 10 2 302.5 102
24-hr 10 74 695 131.5
3d 10 3 444 110
7d 9 9 198 124
Ornithine ([tM/L)
baseline 10 4 541.25 167.5
24-hr 10 133 743 251
3d 10 126 890 260
7d 9 58.75 495 149
Arginine ([tM/L)
baseline 10 17 345 102.5
24-hr 10 35 168 87
3d 10 7 169 42
7d 9 12.5 159 95

Analytic Results

Statistical Analysis of Change for NOx

Aim 1


Std.
Mean Deviation
427.8 236.74
551.65 849.19
508.94 434.83

116.95 89.33
191.9 185.38
128 125.75
127.01 61.99

215.13 163.55
301.1 174.19
345.5 263.57
193.08 141.89

122.9 96.39
95.9 46.09
57.58 48.98
77.72 52.33


To evaluate the effects of the V.A.C. on nitrate/nitrite (NOx) levels in wound

fluids from non-healing and healing pressure ulcers.

A visual examination of the data shows decreasing levels of NOx over time (see

Table 4-2, Figure 4-1). Variability is low between time points as indicated by the close

approximation of the error bars (Fig 4-1). The Friedman two-way analysis of variance by

ranks, however, did not yield statistical significance with time as an independent variable.

A Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was performed to determine the difference in NOx levels in

wound fluids prior to and after V.A.C. application. There was no significant difference

in NOx levels at baseline with the post-V.A.C. levels measured at 24 hours, three days,










and seven days (Table 4-3). However, there was a statistically significant difference in

NOx levels from 24 hours to 7 days of V.A.C. therapy (z = -2.395, p = 0.017).

40

35

30

25

i 20

c 15-
0

10

5-

0
baseline 24-hr 3d 7d
Time Points

Figure 4-1. Concentration of NOx at baseline and at 24 hours, 3 days, and 7 days of
V.A.C. treatment. Values are expressed as means +/- SD.

Table 4-3: Paired Differences for NOx by Ranks
Mean Sum of p
Differences Ranks N Rank Ranks Z (2-tailed)
NO7d NO7d > NObase Positive 4 3.25 13
NO7d NObase Total 10 -1.478 .139
NO7d NO7d > NO24hrPositive 2 2 4
NO7d NO24hr Total 10 -2.395 0.017

The graph shown in Fig 4-2 depicts a drastic drop in mean levels of TNF-a from

baseline to 24 hours of V.A.C. therapy. Then, the mean levels stabilized by days three

and seven of treatment. To determine if significant differences existed, the Wilcoxon

signed-ranks test was conducted (see Table 4-4). There was a statistically significant

difference in TNF-a levels from baseline to 24 hours (p = .016, z = -2.401), baseline to

three days (p = .010, z = -2.578), and baseline to seven days (p = 0.028, z = -2.191).










Furthermore, the Friedman test showed a significant difference in TNF-a concentrations


over time (X2

0.0350 -

0.0300 -

C-
I 0.0250 -
-

C 0.0200 -
01
n 0.0150 -

-J
c 0.0100 -

0.0050 -

0.0000 -


6.84, df = 3, p


.039, one-tailed).


baseline 24-hr 3d 7d


Time Points


Figure 4-2. Concentration of TNF-a at baseline and at 24 hours, 3 days, and 7 days of
V.A.C." treatment. Values are expressed as means +/- SD.


Table 4-4: Paired Differences for TI


Differences


Ranks


NF-a by Ranks
N Mean
Rank


TNF24hr < TNFbase Negative 8 7.5 60
TNF24hr > TNFbase Positive 3 2 6
TNF24hr TNFbase Total 11 -2.40 0.02
TNF3d < TNFbase Negative 9 6.89 62
TNF3d > TNFbase Positive 2 2 4
TNF3d- TNFbase Total 11 -2.58 0.01
TNF7d < TNFbase Negative 7 7 49
TNF7d > TNFbase Positive 3 2 6
TNF7d TNFbase Total 10 -2.19 0.03



Correlational Analysis for NOx and Cytokines

As part of aim 1, the relationship between NO' levels with TNF-a and IL-10 was

investigated using the Spearman rank order correlation. There was a positive correlation

between TNF-a and IL-1l (rho = .5811, n = 11, p < 0.030, one-tailed), with TNF-a levels


Sum of
Ranks


p
(2-tailed)









associating moderately with IL-10 concentrations. A very weak positive correlation of

NO* with IL-10 and TNF-a existed; however, it was not statistically significant.

Statistical Analysis of Change for Arginine, Citrulline, Ornithine, and Proline

Aim 2

Evaluate the effects of the V.A.C. on arginine, citrulline, omithine, and proline in

wound fluids from non-healing and healing pressure ulcers.

Levels of arginine decreased from baseline to 24 and 72 hours, but increased

marginally by day seven of V.A.C. therapy (Fig 4.3). Citrulline levels increased in 24

hours, then decreased to baseline. Whereas, ornithine and proline levels increased from

baseline to 24 and 72 hours of V.A.C. treatment (see Figure 4-4.). Both levels

decreased by day seven with ornithine levels falling below pre- V.A.C. levels (see Fig

4-4 and Table 4-2). Variability is low between time points for all amino acids as

indicated by the close approximation of the error bars (see Figure 4-4 and 4-5).

A Wilcoxon signed-Ranks test was conducted to determine the differences in pre-

and post- V.A.C. levels of arginine, citrulline, proline, and ornithine in wound fluids

(Table 4-5). Arginine levels at baseline were different from the post- V.A.C. levels at

day three (z = -1.89, p = .03). There were no significant differences in citrulline,

ornithine, and proline concentrations before and after V.A.C. application. Furthermore,

the Friedman two-way analysis of variance by ranks, did not yield significance for any of

the variables tested over time.

















250


S200
C.
0)

S150


1-
= 100
1C


baseline


*Arginine
S--Citrulline


24-hr


Time Points


Figure 4-3. Levels of arginine and citrulline at baseline and at 24 hours, 3 days, and 7
days of V.A.C. treatment. Values are expressed as means +/- SD.



700


600


500


400
a. 400 ._._.- --- ~ ~ ~ ~ ^ --------------
--- Ornithine
> 3 Proline
3, 300


200


100


0
baseline 24-hr 3d 7d

Time Points


Figure 4-4. Levels of omithine and proline at baseline and at 24 hours, 3 days, and 7
days of V.A.C. treatment. Values are expressed as means +/- SD.









Table 4-5: Paired Differences for Arginine by Ranks
Differences Ranks N Mean Sum of Z p
Rank Ranks (1-tailed)
Arg3d < Argb Negative 8 8.25 33
Arg3d > Argb Positive 2 3.67 22
Arg3d Argb Total 10 -1.89 0.03
Note: arg = arginine, b = baseline

Correlational Analysis for iNOS and Arginase

To determine the relationship between citrulline, proline, ornithine, and arginine

levels at baseline, the Spearman rank order correlation was performed. All pre- V.A.C.

levels correlated highly and significantly. A strong positive correlation existed between

proline and citrulline (rho =. 782, p = .008), between proline and ornithine (rho = .879, p

= .001), and between proline and arginine (rho = .830, p = .003). Baseline levels of

citrulline correlated moderately with baseline levels of arginine (rho = .770, p = .009) and

highly with baseline levels of ornithine (rho= .879, p = .001). Pre- V.A.C. levels of

ornithine moderately correlated with pre- V.A.C. levels of arginine (rho= .697, p =

.025).

The Spearman correlations were conducted to determine the relationships of

citrulline with the by-products of arginase, ornithine and proline, on the 7th day of

V.A.C. placement. A negative and very weak inverse correlation existed between

citrulline and proline (rho = -.075, p = .847) as well as between citrulline and ornithine

(rho = -.0133, p = .732). Furthermore, citrulline weakly and negatively correlated with

arginine (rho = -.017, p = .966). As one can see, all correlations were not statistically

significant, however, the existing relationship has been established in the literature.

A very weak correlation existed between NOx, citrulline, and arginine at baseline.

Interestingly, a statistically high and moderate relationship exits between citrulline and






46


arginine at baseline (rho = .770, p = .009). This relationship was not observed at 7th day

of V.A.C. therapy Instead, a statistically significant correlation existed between NO'

and arginine (rho = .833, p = .002). An inverse but very weak relationship was noted

between NO' and citrulline levels (rho = -0.17, p =. 966) seven day post- V.A.C.

placement.














CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

In this chapter, the descriptive and analytic results addressed in chapter 4 will be

discussed in detail. Conclusions regarding the research hypotheses are provided with

rationales as supported in the literature. In addition, implications for clinical practice and

recommendations for future research are provided.

Discussion of Results

Demographics

Fifty-five percent (N = 6) of the subjects in the study were men and 45% were

women (N = 5). Ninety-one percent were Caucasian and 9% were African-American.

Fifty-four percent were between 50-69 years of age with 18% accounting for below 50

and 27% above 70 years of age. Almost half of the sample was non-diabetic (45%),

while 55% were diabetics. Approximately 45% had stage III pressure ulcer, and the

remainder with stage IV pressure ulcer (55%).

Clinical Characteristics

Of the 11 subjects who were enrolled in the study, only nine completed the study

protocol. The other two subjects were excluded in some but not all of the statistical

analyses. An insufficient amount of wound fluid resulted in loss of data for the amino

acid profile for one subject. A similar problem is attributed to the other subject with

difficulty in obtaining a specimen for the 7th day of V.A.C. therapy.









NOx Results

Aim 1

To evaluate the effects of the V.A.C." on nitrate/nitrite (NOx) levels in wound

fluids from non-healing and healing pressure ulcers.

The null hypothesis for Aim 1 was that there is no difference between pre- V.A.C.

and post- V.A.C. NOx concentrations. We accept the null hypothesis and conclude that

there was no significant difference in NOx levels from baseline to day one, three, and

seven of V.A.C. placement. Notably, NOx measured at 24 hours of V.A.C. therapy

was significantly different from day seven (p = 0.017). Further evaluation of the data

show decreasing levels at all four time points (see Table 4-2 and Figure 4-1). Although,

the correlational analysis did not yield statistical significance, a fair degree of relationship

existed between baseline NOx levels and at 24 hours (rho = .245, p = .467) of V.A.C.

treatment. Pre-V.A.C. NOx levels became inversely correlated with post-V.A.C. levels

on days three (rho = -.2, p = .555) and seven (rho = -.612, p = .03, one-tailed) of therapy.

Based on the above findings, one can conclude that a different wound environment

exists after the V.A.C. is applied. Wound fluids from non-healing pressure ulcers

contain high amounts of NOx. Within 24 hours of V.A.C. placement, NOx dropped

consistently and persistently over the study period. This result is consistent with previous

studies in experimental wounds. During the early phase of inflammation, macrophage

and other wound cells express iNOS to synthesize NO'. The activity of this enzyme

peaks within 24-72 hours post-injury (Albina et al., 1990; Becker et al., 1993, Carter et

al., 1994; R.H. Lee, et al., 2001, Reichner et al., 1999). According to Albina and

colleagues, NO' concentrations in wound fluids were highest before day three of sponge









implantation in rats. One can infer that a pseudo-acute wound environment is created by

the V.A.C.. Additionally, a physiological level of NO* that is conducive to healing is

achieved by the 7th day of V.A.C. therapy.

Secondary statistical analyses were performed to determine the role of diabetes

mellitus in the study sample. In a recent study by Jude et al. (1999), subjects who had

diabetic foot ulcers were shown to have increased iNOS and arginase activities. For this

study, the Mann-U Whitney test did not yield statistical significant difference in NOx

levels between subjects with and without diabetes. This could be due to one of the

limitations of the study, the sample size.

Relationship between NOx and Pro-inflammatory Cytokines

Little to no relationship exists between baseline NOx and IL-10 levels (rho = .009,

p > .05), and between NOx and TNF-a (rho = .018, p > .05). Thus, NO' does not covary

with IL-10 and TNF-a at baseline. In addition to IL-10 and TNF-a, other inducers of

iNOS expression include IFN-y and LPS (Taylor & Gaylor, 2001).

Relationship between IL-1p and TNF-a

A strong positive correlation between IL-10 and TNF-a levels (rho= .582, n = 11,

p < 0.03, one-tailed) exists at baseline. Thus, a change in IL-10 levels is proportionally

related to a change in TNF-a in chronic pressure ulcer wounds. Interestingly, baseline

levels of TNF-a are significantly different from post- V.A.C. therapy at 24 hours (p =

.016), three days (p = .010), and seven days (p = .028). This was demonstrated in two

statistical analyses using the Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks test and Friedman's two-way

analysis of variance by ranks. This clearly suggests a decrease in inflammation of

pressure ulcer wounds as it heals over time (Mast & Schultz, 1996). Similarly, Trengove









and colleagues (2000) showed high levels of TNF-a in wound fluids from patients with

chronic venous leg ulcers. Within two weeks, the levels significantly decreased in the

healing wounds. Similar trends in TNF-a levels are observed in this project, but the

TNF-a present in chronic wound of pressure ulcers are 10 times less than are reported by

Trengove et al. (2000).

Results of the Amino Acid profiles

Aim 2

To evaluate the effects of the V.A.C." on arginine, citrulline, ornithine, and proline

in wound fluid from non-healing and healing pressure ulcers.

The null hypothesis for Aim 2 was that there are no significant differences in pre-

and post- V.A.C." levels of arginine, citrulline, omithine, and proline in wound fluids.

We reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there was a significant difference in

arginine levels measured at baseline and day three of V.A.C." therapy. We accept the

null hypothesis and conclude that there were no significant differences in pre- and post-

V.A.C." levels of citrulline, ornithine, and proline in wound fluids.

Abnormalities in arginine metabolism have been cited as the pathogenesis of

chronic venous ulcers and diabetic foot ulcers in humans (Jude et al., 1999; Abd-El-

Aleem et al., 2000). In these types of wounds, increased iNOS and arginase activities

were found resulting in high levels of NO*, citrulline, and omithine. For this particular

study sample, the pressure ulcer wounds contained high levels of arginine (Fig 5-1) and

NOx (Fig 5-2). In contrast, citrulline and omithine were present at lower concentrations

(Fig 5-2). Since iNOS appears to be the predominantly active enzyme in the chronic








51



wound, its substrate is sustained at a higher level. It appears that NO' along with the pro-


inflammatory cytokines are maintaining the pressure ulcer wound in its chronic state.



600


500


S400
Arginine
3 Citrulline
S300
O Ornithine
TE Proline
200


100


0 O.

baseline 24-hr 3d 7d

Time Points


Figure 5-1. Bar graph representing pre-V.A.C. and post-V.A.C. levels of arginine,
citrulline, ornithine, and proline. Values are expressed as means.

35


30


S25

0
S20-


C 15
0


S10


5


0
baseline 24-hr 3d 7d
Time Points


Figure 5-2. Bar graph representing pre-V.A.C. and post-V.A.C. NOx levels.
Values are expressed as means.









In terms of substrate availability, arginine appears to be utilized by iNOS and

arginase at 24 hours of V.A.C." therapy. This increased in catabolic activity is evident

by the high levels of NOx, citrulline, ornithine, and proline at 24 hours of V.A.C.

therapy. Within 72 hours, arginine reached its lowest level as arginase activity peaked.

This is reflected by a concurrent increased in levels of ornithine and proline.

Simultaneously, iNOS activity decreased as seen by the lower levels of NOx and

citrulline from 24 hours. Arginine supply is slowly replenished as both activities of

iNOS and arginase decreased. By day seven, both citrulline and NOx levels continued to

drop while ornithine and proline levels began to decrease. These findings are consistent

with previous studies on animal models using models of acute and impaired healing.

Relationship of iNOS and Arginase Activities

At baseline, arginine, citrulline, ornithine, and proline, were strongly correlated. A

very weak but positive relationship was noted between NO' and citrulline as well as

arginine. Therefore, an interaction did exist at baseline between iNOS, arginase, and

arginine in a positive direction. Although not statistically significant, a positive

relationship was noted between ornithine and proline on day seven of V.A.C." therapy.

In contrast, an inverse correlation existed between citrulline and the by-products of

arginase. Furthermore, a strong positive relationship existed between arginine and NOx

(p = .002). These findings are consistent with the substrate utilization and reciprocal

relationship of iNOS and arginase in wounds.

Conclusions

The main research hypotheses for this particular study sample were not statistically

significant. However, the by-products of iNOS and arginase are detectable in wound









fluids from patients with pressure ulcers. To date, the metabolism of arginine has not

been described in humans with pressure ulcers on V.A.C. therapy.

The cytotoxic properties of NO' are vital to the inflammatory phase of wound

healing. Within seven days of V.A.C. treatment, NO' levels decreased significantly.

This was corroborated by the presence of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-a. Post-

V.A.C. values at 24 hours, three days, and seven days were found to be significantly

different from baseline. This is indicative of a healing wound as previously reported by

several investigators. Clearly, the vicious cycle characteristic of chronic wounds was

disrupted after V.A.C. placement. A less cytotoxic environment is created by the

V.A.C., thereby allowing pressure ulcer wounds to heal.

Recall from aim 1 that post- V.A.C. levels of NOx at 24 hours and seven days

were statistically significant. From aim 2, it was shown that arginine levels before

V.A.C. therapy were significantly different on the 3rd day of V.A.C. treatment. Both

citrulline and NO' levels decreased by day three and continued to drop until day seven.

In contrast, proline and ornithine levels peaked at day three and began to decrease by day

seven. Hence, the iNOS/citrulline pathway predominated during the first 72 hours of

V.A.C. therapy. Subsequently, the arginase/ornithine pathway dominated the remainder

of the therapy. Hence, a pseudo-acute environment is achieved shortly after the V.A.C.

was applied followed by an environment conducive to healing.

Study findings should be cautiously interpreted. First, generalizability is limited to

pressure ulcer patients. In addition, a small sample size was used in this study through

non-random selection. The Caucasian race is representative of the study sample;

therefore, extrapolation to other races would be difficult. Furthermore, there was no









control group. Instead subjects served as their own control due to the repeated measures

design of the study.

Implications for Clinical Practice

In today's changing practice, wound health care professionals are bombarded with

many new products and technologies. The course of treatment chosen is due to many

factors. The V.A.C.*, for example, has been in use for several years. The exact

mechanism by which this device accelerates healing is not well understood. Clinical

trials are few and the efficacy of this treatment is not well documented (Evans & Land,

2004). It is imperative, therefore, to individualize wound care management and be

informed about current research. Knowledge of the physiology of acute wound healing is

key to understanding chronic wounds and treatment. This requires periodic literature

review and conference attendance. Patient education should include the importance of

nutrition, alcohol and smoking cessation, and treatment compliance.

Recommendations for Further Research

Limitations of this study include the small sample size and lack of a control group.

However, the findings of the study were sufficient to meet the exploratory and descriptive

nature of this project. Recommendations for future research include: 1) increasing study

sample size to include other race and ethnic backgrounds, 2) randomizing subjects to

either conventional treatment or V.A.C. therapy, 3) increasing the timeframe to quantify

healing through wound size measurements and provide a better understanding of arginine

metabolism, 4) performing punch biopsies for immunohistochemical studies, 5) creating

a research group to recruit subjects and collect data, 6) expanding wound criteria to other

types of chronic wounds, and 7) providing incentive to study subjects.














APPENDIX A
CONSENT FORMS

IRB# 224-2001


Informed Consent to Participate in Research


Institutional Review Board
APPROVED FOR USE
From 5 16/03 Through 5 14/04

You are being asked to take part in a research study. This form provides you with
information about the study. The Principal Investigator (the person in charge of this
research) or a representative of the Principal Investigator will also describe this study to
you and answer all of your questions. Before you decide whether or not to take part, read
the information below and ask questions about anything you do not understand. Your
participation is entirely voluntary.

1. Name of Participant ("Study Subject")

2. Title of Research Study

Biochemical analysis of wound fluid from acute and chronic wounds

3. Principal Investigator and Telephone Number(s)

Joyce K. Stechmiller, PhD, ARNP (352) 273-6370
Bobbi Langkamp-Henken, PhD (352) 392-1991 x 205
Beverly Childress, BSN (352) 273-6370
Tricia Porter (352) 273-6370

4. Source of Funding or Other Material Support

University of Florida College of Nursing KCI, Inc

5. What is the purpose of this research study?

You have an acute or chronic wound, which is currently being treated with the

224 2001 / Rev 05-16-03 / Page 1 of 4









Vacuum Assisted Closure (V.A.C.) device or drainage system as part of standard
care. To further evaluate how a wound heals we would like to obtain fluid samples
from the suction canister at two-three separate times, depending how long your
drainage system is in place. This will occur within 24 hours that the VAC or
drainage system is applied and then approximately 23 days and then one week later.

6. What will be done if you take part in this research study?

If you take part in this research study, your wound fluid will be removed from the
suction canister with a sterile syringe at two separate times. This procedure will last
approximately 2-3 minutes. We will also review your medical record and obtain
general information about you like gender, diagnosis and most recent laboratory
findings related to your blood count and blood electrolytes.

7. What are the possible discomforts and risks?

There are no discomforts or risks to you for participating in this study. If you wish
to discuss the information above, you may ask questions now or call the Principal
Investigator listed on the front page of this form.

8a. What are the possible benefits to you?

There are no direct benefits to you.

8b. What are the possible benefits to others?

There are no direct benefits to others, but allowing us to assess your wound fluid
may help nurses and other health providers better understand wound healing in
older adults and how we may better meet the health care needs of older people

9. If you choose to take part in this research study, will it cost you anything?

Participating in the study will not cost you anything. Routine medical care not
assigned with the study will be charged to you or your insurance. These costs may
not be applicable if you are a veteran and being treated at the North Florida/South
Georgia Veteran Health System (NF/SG VFS).

10. Will you receive compensation for taking part in this research study?

You will not receive any money for participating in this study.


224 2001 / Rev 05-16-03 / Page 2 of 4









11. What if you are injured because of the study?

If you experience an injury that is directly caused by this study, only professional
consultative care will be provided without charge. However, hospital expenses will
have to be paid by you or your insurance provider. No other compensation is
offered. You will not have to pay hospital expenses if you are being treated at the
North Florida/South Georgia Veteran Health System (NF/SG VHS) and experience
any physical injury during participation in a Veteran's health System-approved
study.

12. What other options or treatments are available if you do not want to be in this
study?

13. Participation in this study is entirely voluntary.

You are free to refuse to be in the study.

13a. Can you withdraw from this research study?

If you wish to stop your participation in this research study for any reason, you
should contact: Joyce Stechmiller, PhD ARNP at (352) 273-6370. You are free to
withdraw your consent and stop participation in this research study at any time
without penalty or loss of benefits to which you are otherwise entitled. Throughout
the study, the researchers will notify you of new information that may become
available and that might affect your decision to remain in the study.

In addition, if you have any questions regarding your rights as a research subject,
you may phone the Institutional Review Board (IRB) office at (352) 846-1494.

13b. If you withdraw, can information about you still be used and/or collected? No.

13c. Can the Principal Investigator withdraw you from this research study?

You may be withdrawn from the study without your consent for the following
reasons: This will not be done.

14. How will your privacy and the confidentiality of your research records be protected?

Authorized persons from the University of Florida, and the Institutional Review
Board have the legal right to review your research records and will protect the
confidentiality of those records to the extent permitted by law. If the research
project is sponsored or if it is being conducted under the authority of the United
States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), then the sponsor, the sponsor's agent,
and the FDA also have the legal right to review your research records. Otherwise,
your research records will not be released without your consent unless required by
law or a court order.


224 2001 / Rev 05-16-03 / Page 3 of 4









15. If the results of this research are published or presented at scientific meetings, your
identity will not be disclosed.

16. How will the researchers) benefit from your being in this study?

No, the researcher will not benefit from your participation in this study beyond
publishing or presenting the results.

Signatures

As a representative of this study, I have explained (0 the participant the purpose,
the procedures, the possible benefits, and the risks of this research study; the
alternatives to being in the study; and how privacy will be protected:



Signature of Person Obtaining Consent Date



You have been informed about this study's purpose, procedures, possible benefits,
and risks; the alternatives to being in the study; and how your privacy will be
protected. You have received a copy of this Form. You have been given the
opportunity to ask questions before you sign, and you have been told that you can
ask other questions at any time.



You voluntarily agree to participate in this study. By signing this form, you are not
waiving any of your legal rights.



Signature of Person Consenting Date


224 2001 / Rev 05-16-03 / Page 4 of 4














APPENDIX B
INCLUSION/EXCLUSION CRITERIA

University of Florida
College of Nursing
V.A.C. Study


Biochemical analysis of wound fluid from pressure ulcers of adults on V.A.C.
therapy

Name: Study #: M.R.#:

Address:

Phone: ( Date/time:



Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria:

1. YES NO Patient is > 21 y/o with stage III or IV pressure ulcers.

2. YES NO Patient requires V.A.C. therapy on an outpatient or

in-patient basis at STH at UF or VAMC, both in Gainesville, FL.

3. YES NO Pressure ulcer(s):

is present for > 1 month

has no previous treatment with dermal skin substitutes

has received little to NO wound treatment for 1 week prior
to V.A.C. (enzymatic debridement agent)

has no HBO or warm-up therapy

has no fistulas, necrotic tissue with eschar, untreated
cellulitis or osteomyelitis, connective tissue disorder, no
malignancy in the wound

4. YES NO Patient does NOT have an active systemic infection,











5. YES NO

6. YES NO



7. YES NO


anemia (Hct <26), or immune deficiency diseases.

Patient has STOPPED smoking within the past 6 months.

Patient is currently NOT receiving steroids, immuno-

suppressive or cytotoxic medications.

Informed consent has been obtained and copies given to

patient/surrogate/durable power of attorney/proxy.















APPENDIX C
DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

University of Florida
College of Nursing
V.A.C. Study

Biochemical analysis of wound fluid from pressure ulcers of adults on V.A.C. therapy
Section I: General Info


Study #:


Age:


Sex: M F


Date enrolled:


Wt: Ht: Race:


Dates of Fluid Collection:


Section II: Pertinent H & P



HPI:






PMH: DM, CAD, PVD, HTN, DVT, venous insufficiency, clots/coagulopathies,


Name:

DOB:









Medications:

Rx & OTC Dose Frequency












SH:

- smoker: Y N

- living situation: home care, nursing home, lives alone, family support

- activity: ambulates, moves all extremities, non-mobile, chair bound

-ADL

- nutritional status BMI (standard chart)

- hygiene: incontinent, clean/dry skin, bathes daily

- previous ulcer? Treatment?


FH:









ROS: (general survey & other pertinent data)
















PE: (general appearance, VS, and other pertinent data)
















Section III: Labs & Pertinent Diagnostic Tests



CMP/date:


Albumin/date:















APPENDIX D
WOUND ASSESSMENT

University of Florida
College of Nursing
V.A.C. Study

Biochemical analysis of wound fluid from pressure ulcers of adults on V.A.C. therapy


Pre-V.A.C.


Post-V.A.C.


Dates
Onset date of ulcer

Ulcer stage

Dimensions:
Length:
Width:
Depth:
Location

Undermining

Sinus/tunneling

Wound Description
Edge:
Edema:
Base color:
Drainage amount:
Drainage type:
Periwound cond:
Granulation (%):
Digital photography

Wound tracing

Bacterial loading

Note: if undermining and sinus/tunneling exist, then use clock method.















APPENDIX E
WOUND FLUID COLLECTION DATA



University of Florida
College of Nursing
V.A.C. Study


Biochemical analysis of wound fluid from pressure ulcers of adults on V.A.C. therapy





TIME


Pre-V.A.C.


Baseline


Post-V.A.C.


24-hr


3 days


I I -


Name & #


7 days















LIST OF REFERENCES


Abd-El-Aleem, S.A., Ferguson, M.W., Appleton, I., Kairsingh, S., Jude, E.B., Jones, K.,
McCollum, C.N., & Ireland, G.W. (2000). Expression of nitric oxide synthase
isoforms and arginase in normal human skin and chronic venous leg ulcers. Journal
ofPathology, 191, 434-442.

Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (1994). Economic impact and public policy
implication .Retrieved April 15, 2002, from
http://hstat.nlm.nih.gov/hq/Hquest/screen/Text Browse/t/1018878615084/s/58027.

Albina, J.E., Mills, C.C., Henry, W.L., & Caldwell, M.D. (1990). Temporal expression of
different pathways of 1-arginine metabolism in healing wounds. The Journal of
Immunology, 144(10), 3877-3880.

Argenta, L.C., & Morykwas, M.J. (1997). Vacuum-assisted closure: A new method for
wound control and treatment. Clinical experience. Annals ofPlastic Surgery,
38(6), 563-576.

Arnold, M.C. (2004). Pressure ulcer prevention and management: The current evidence
for care. American Association of Critical-Care Nurses Clinical Issues, 14(4), 411-
428.

Becker, W.K., Shippee, R.L., McManus, A.T., Mason, A.D., & Pruitt, B.A. (1993).
Kinetics of nitrogen oxide production following experimental thermal injury in rats.
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Carter, E.A., Derojas-W.T., Tamir, S., Tannenbaum, S.R., Yu, Y.M, & Tompkins, R.G.
(1994). Nitric oxide production is intensely and persistently increased in tissue by
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Childress, B.B., & Stechmiller, J.K. (2002). Role of nitric oxide and wound healing.
Biological Research for Nursing, 4(1), 5-15.

Childress, B.B., Blalock, T.D., Kilpadi, D.V., Dials, H.J., Nappo, R.W., Radhakrishnan,
S., Stechmiller, J.K., Chin, G.A., Mozingo, W., & Schultz, G.A. (May, 2003).
V.A.C. system-biochemical wound fluid interactions. Paper presented at the
International Proceedings of the Wound Healing Society 13t Annual Educational
Symposium and Exhibition, Seattle, WA.










Davis, J., Childress, B.B., & Stechmiller, J.K. (April, 2004). Potential nitrate/nitrite
(NOx) contaminant analysis. Poster presented at the 2nd Annual College of Nursing
Research Day, Gainesville, FL.

Deva, A.K., Buckland, G.H., Fisher, E., Liew, S.C.C, Merten, S., McGlyn, M.,
Glanoutsos, M.P., Baldwin, M.A.R., & Lendway, P.G. (2000). The Medical
Journal ofAustralia, 173, 128-131.

Evans, D., Land, L. (2004). Topical negative pressure for treating chronic wounds.
[Systematic Review] Cochrane Wounds Group. Cochrane Database of Systematic
Reviews, 1.

Frank, S., Madlener, M., Pfeilschifter, J., & Werner, S. (1998). Induction of inducible
nitric oxide synthase and its corresponding tetrahydrobiopterin-cofactor-
synthesizing enzyme GTP-cyclohydrolase I during cutaneous wound. Journal of
Investigative Dermatology, 111, 1058-1064.

Frank, S., Stallmeyer, B., Kampfer, H., Kolb, N., & Pfeilschifter, J. (1999). Nitric oxide
triggers enhanced induction of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in
cultured keratinocytes (HaCaT) and during cutaneous wound repair. The
Federation ofAmerican Societies for Experimental Biology, 13, 2002-2014.

Goldman, R. (2004). Growth factors and chronic wound healing: Past, present, and
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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Beverly Bibera Childress was born in Hilongos, Philippines. She grew up with her

grandmother while her mother worked abroad. At the age of 12, she came to the United

States and lived with her mother and stepfather. Even though she spoke little English,

Beverly was not held back in grade school. Instead, she was enrolled in junior high

school and took several courses in English as a second language class. Beverly graduated

with high honors from Port St. Lucie High School. She was ranked eleventh out of over

300 students. After entering the University of Florida in 1993, she received her Bachelor

of Science in Nursing with honors. She began her nursing career on a cardiothoracic with

telemetry unit at Shands Hospital at UF. As a preceptor for students, she realized her

passion for teaching. Consequently, she enrolled in the accelerated BSN to PhD program

in 2000 on a two-year Nursing Traineeship. While in the program, Beverly worked as a

research assistant for Drs. Stechmiller and Yucha. As a teaching assistant to an

undergraduate pharmacology class, she gave lectures and prepared exam questions.

Additionally, she maintained her RN position while attending graduate school full-time.

On her spare time, Beverly served as president of the Doctoral Student Council as well as

mentored graduate and undergraduate honors students. In 2003, the Florida Nurses

Foundation and Sigma Theta Tau, Alpha Theta Chapter awarded Beverly research grants.

Teaching is no longer the primary focus of Beverly's educational career, but also

research. As a nurse scientist, Beverly realizes how she may contribute to the greater

good of the society through scientific research. She believes that dissemination of






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knowledge through research is one of the ways to provide evidence-based practice.

Furthermore, it enables the nursing profession to develop and advance. By sharing

research findings with other investigators, current knowledge is confirmed, modified, or

discarded. In addition, ideas are born and shaped through these collegial interactions.

Consequently, she plans to continue her research program on nitric oxide and its role in

wound healing. Additionally, she plans to teach students at the university level and

practice as an Advanced Nurse Practitioner.