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Organometallic Precursors for the Chemical Vapor Deposition of LaB6


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ORGANOMETALLIC PRECURSORS FOR THE CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION OF LaB 6 By CHULEEKORN CHOTSUWAN A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2004

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To my parents, Non, my family, and all my friends

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First, I would like to thank my parents who always gave me an opportunity and support for my education. Also, their advice always encourages me to be a better person. I would like to thank my research advisor, Dr. Lisa McElwee-White, for her patience, kindness, and encouragement. She always gave me an opportunity to explore the knowledge of chemistry with great suggestions. I thank Dr. Lisa McElwee-Whites research group who always gave me help and suggestion for experiments and any lab work. Finally, I would like to thank Mr. Nattapong Phuensaen for his understanding, and encouragement throughout my graduate school life. iii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...............................................................................................iii LIST OF FIGURES...........................................................................................................vi ABSTRACT......................................................................................................................vii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................1 Applications of Field Emitter Arrays..........................................................................1 Pre-fabricated Field Emission Array Tips..................................................................2 Properties of Lanthanum Hexaboride (LaB 6 )............................................................2 Coating Pre-fabricated Field Emission Array Tips.....................................................3 Pyrolysis of Boranes...................................................................................................5 Chemical Vapor deposition (CVD) and Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD)...................................................................................................................6 Aerosol Assisted CVD................................................................................................7 2 MOCVD PRECURSORS FOR LaB6......................................................................10 Introduction...............................................................................................................10 Poly(pyrazolyl)borate Ligands..................................................................................10 Pyrazole and Pyrazolide Ion.....................................................................................11 Abbreviations for Poly(pyrazolyl)borate Ligands....................................................11 Characteristics of Poly(pyrazolyl)borate Ligands....................................................12 Lanthanum Poly(pyrazolyl)borate Complexes.........................................................13 Comparison of the Tp and Tp / Ligand......................................................................14 Methathesis Reactions of Lanthanum Triflate..........................................................14 Lanthanum -diketonates for MOCVD....................................................................14 Lanthanum Tris[bis(trimethylsilylamido)] for MOCVD..........................................15 Chemistry of Lanthanum Borohydride Complexes..................................................15 Structure of Tetrahydroborate Complexes................................................................16 Conclusion................................................................................................................17 3 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS.................................................................................18 Synthesis of MOCVD Precursors.............................................................................18 Mass Spectrometry and Film Growth Study of Complexes 1 and 2.........................20 iv

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Mass Spectrometry and Film Growth Study of Complex 4......................................22 Film Growth Study of Complex 3............................................................................23 Conclusion................................................................................................................23 4 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES........................................................................24 General Methods.......................................................................................................24 Tris (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione)lanthanum (III) ....................................24 Tris (2,2-dimethyl-6,6,7,7,8,8,8-heptafluoro-3,5-octanedione) lanthanum (III)......25 Tris(tetrahydrofuran) lanthanum tris(tetrahydroborate)...........................................25 Tris[bis(trimethylsilyl)amido]lanthanum(III)...........................................................26 Potassium hydrotris(3,5 dimethylpyrazolyl)borate.................................................26 Bis[hydro(3,5dimethylpyrazolyl)borato lanthanum (III) triflate............................26 Potassium Hydrotris(pyrazol-1-yl)borate.................................................................27 Acetylacetonatobis[hydrotris(pyrazol-1-yl)borato]lanthanum(III)...........................27 Addition of Sodium Borohydride to Tp / 2 LaOTf......................................................28 Addition of Potassium Borohydride to Tp / 2 LaOTf..................................................28 Addition of BH 3 THF to Tp / 2 LaOTf.....................................................................28 Addition of Potassium Hydrotris(3,5 dimethylpyrazolyl)borate to La(BH 4 ) 3 THF 3 .29 Preparation of Precursor 1 for LaB 6 Deposition.......................................................29 Preparation of Precursor 2 for LaB 6 Deposition.......................................................29 Preparation of Precursor 3 for LaB 6 Deposition.......................................................30 Preparation of Precursor 4 for LaB 6 Deposition.......................................................30 REFERENCES..................................................................................................................31 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................34 v

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1.1 Structure of LaB 6 ........................................................................................................3 1.2 FEA tip coating conformality ................................................................................................................................ 3 1.3 Example of field emission arrays...............................................................................4 1.4 CVD ultrasonic nebulizing delivery system and reactor .................................................................. 8 1.5 Picture of CVD system ............................................................................................................................................... 9 2.1 Bonding modes of hydrotris(pyrazolyl)borate.........................................................13 2.2 Bonding modes of borohydride................................................................................16 vi

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science ORGANOMETALLIC PRECURSORS FOR THE CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION OF LaB 6 By Chuleekorn Chotsuwan May 2004 Chairman: Lisa McElwee-White Major Department: Chemistry LaB 6 has been used as an electron emissive source for field emitter arrays (FEAs). However, the synthesis of LaB 6 precursors and deposition of LaB 6 are challenging. This thesis describes the generation of known precursors and new precursors bearing hydrotris(pyrazolyl)borate for metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of LaB 6 Mass spectrometry was used for preliminary screening of the precursors, and some precursors were used for CVD. Material deposited by CVD was characterized by X-ray diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). vii

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Applications of Field Emitter Arrays Field emitter arrays (FEAs) are used as high-intensity electron beam sources. Electron sources are used for vacuum electronics (e.g., the SPY1 cross-field amplifier system), high speed data communication (e.g., the HDR submarine SATCO transmitter), radars (e.g., SPS-73 radar), and electronic warfare systems. 1,2 In the past, traditional vacuum tubes have been used as electron emission sources. However, FEAs are an alternative for an electron emissive source. These FEA devices are reliable and have high performance aspects such as power efficiency, great compactness, and good response time compared to those traditional thermionic electron sources. FEAs can provide high anode current, instant turn on of a device, efficient frequency modulation, low power consumption, and low temperature operation. The efficiency of FEAs in modulated power tubes is determined by emission current and current density. Efficiency of FEAs can be improved by increased current density at low operational voltages. Also, the capacitance and transconductance are important for the efficiency of FEAs. These parameters determine the emission currents of tip arrays. By intergrating some fabricated materials into the FEA tips, the performance of FEAs might be improved. 1

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2 Pre-fabricated Field Emission Array Tips The materials that provide low turn-on voltages of FEAs give high brightness electron beams. The emission current increases with gate voltage and a low turn-on voltage also enhances high emission current. With a constant average tip current, fabrication of large FEAs provides higher total emission current. Many low work function materials are used for FEAs to increase the current density. Such materials such as carbides, borides, and nitrides which are used to fabricate Si tip arrays have a low work function of 2-3 eV. By integrating these materials into a high brightness electron source, the current density can be increased by a factor of 100. Some low work function materials, such as LaB 6 have been used on Si tips. The work function of sputtered LaB 6 thin film has a value of 2.78 eV. 3 It has been suggested that integrating LaB 6 will enhance the current density of FEAs. The emission current at a 100 V gate voltage for a work function at 4 eV with the field enhancement from 4 x 10 5 to 6 x 10 5 cm -1 will result in an emission current density from 2 x 10 5 to 4 x 10 6 A cm -2 In comparison to plain Si tips, the emission current of fabricated Si tips is increased significantly. Fabricated FEAs show the enhancement of current density. 4 With the growth of single crystalline coatings of LaB 6 on Si tips, the high emission current density might increase. Properties of Lanthanum Hexaboride (LaB 6 ) LaB 6 has been used as an electron emissive source for field emitter arrays (FEAs) due to its properties. LaB 6 is a low work function material having the work function value 2.8 eV. 3 LaB 6 has a CsCl solid state structure with a cubic lattice unit with the lattice parameter 4.15 (Figure 1.1). LaB 6 has a high melting point of 2770 o C and

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3 chemical stability at high temperature. Its properties are suitable for fabricated FEA tips as an emissive electron source. La 4.15 B Figure 1.1 Structure of LaB 6 Coating Pre-fabricated Field Emission Array Tips The deposition techniques for FEA tips should provide the following conditions for high efficiency: First, FEA tips must be sharp, and the coatings must have a good conformality as shown in Figure 1.2. Second, the thickness of tip arrays should be reproducible under suitable conditions. Last, the delivery system techniques should provide good control of the growth rate on the surface. Figure 1.3 shows field emission arrays. LaB6tip Ideal Good Poor Figure 1.2 FEA tip coating conformality

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4 Figure 1.3 Example of field emission arrays In the past, there have been difficulties with deposition of low work function materials. There are many coating techniques used for coating LaB 6 on to Si tips such as pulsed laser deposition, transfer mold deposition, or sputtering. 5-8 Current deposition techniques have difficulties with controlling the thickness of thin films at suitable conditions. Moreover, some deposition techniques do not generate a uniform or sharp tip during the delivery process. Thus, the deposition techniques are a challenge for this FEA technology. Chemical vapor deposition is an alternative method for deposition of materials to give a LaB 6 layer on a Si substrate. The ultimate goal for this project is to fabricate gated Si tip-on-post FEAs using chemical vapor deposition of LaB 6. Another strategy is to deposit a thick layer of the order of 2 m of single crystal LaB 6 on a Si substrate, and then produce tip arrays from the resulting materials. The Spencer group has investigated the deposition of LaB 6 on Si substrates by copyrolysis of lanthanum chloride with either nido-decaborane or pentaborane at 800-900 o C. 9 Films with a thickness of 1-2 m were reported. The characterization of the films was carried by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X

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5 ray emission spectroscopy (XES). The films were very highly crystalline. The films prepared from LaCl 3 and nido-pentaborane at 815 o C contained no impurities such as chloride by XRD. Both boron sources, nido-decaborane and pentaborane, gave similar results in the formation of lanthanum hexaboride thin films. The deposition of LaB 6 by copyrolysis presented some difficulties. The films were contaminated with some free boron because boron can form covalent bonds on the thin film at lower temperature. The boron rich material can be identifying by bluish purple color of the film, and lanthanum rich can be identified by the reddish color. 5 Pyrolysis of Boranes Boron trichloride, BCl 3 is commonly used for CVD of metal borides. However, BCl 3 has a low boiling point of 12.5 o C which has resulted in difficulties during the CVD processes. Pavel introduced other boranes with high boiling points such as BBr 3 (90 o C), pentaborane (333 o C), and decaborane (213 o C). 10 The copyrolysis of boranes has been investigated by several research groups. 11-16 Boranes investigated for CVD by copyrolysis include pentaborane and decaborane. 17,18 B-B covalent bonds are formed at low temperature (50-250 o C), and the formation of BH x solid occurred. 9 At higher temperature, diborane dissociates and forms higher boranes such as pentaborane and decaborane. Therefore, the higher boranes are more stable as compared to diborane at high temperature. According to calculations on the basis of thermodynamic data, it was shown that with the deposition from boron hydrides, the CVD process should be done at low temperature for good efficiency of CVD. 9

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6 ChemicalVapor Deposition (CVD) and Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) In chemical vapor deposition, gaseous precursors are used to chemically deposit a solid thin film on a substrate. CVD is a result of a combination of surface reaction and mass transfer processes. 19 The substrate is placed on a susceptor and heated. The deposition process occurs when the gaseous precursors are dissociated and deposited on the substrate as a thin film at an optimized condition. In metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), organometallic precursor molecules are thermally dissociated and react on the surface of the substrate. MOCVD is the chemical vapor deposition that uses metal organic compounds as precursors. Such compounds contain a metal and organic ligands. When soluble and volatile compounds are required for CVD, such difficulties can be overcome using MOCVD. The major challenge for MOCVD is film contamination from the precursor ligands and solvent (when it is used). The CVD process can be explained as a series of steps. 19 First, gaseous precursors are transported to the CVD reactor. Second, the precursor gas dissociates homogenously into many intermediate species. Third, these intermediate species diffuse to the substrate surface through a boundary layer. Fourth, reactive and nonreactive species are adsorbed on the substrate surface. Fifth, the heterogeneous chemical reactions occur for the reactive species, and the species diffuse onto the growing film. Sixth, the non-reactive species will not be adsorbed into the substrate, but will generate by-products. Seventh, the diffusion of reactive species from the film surface to the gas bulk through the boundary layer occurs. Finally, the non-reactive species, by-products,

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7 and unreacted reactive species from the deposition pathway of the CVD reactor will be transported to the exhaust system. 19 Aerosol -Assisted CVD A precursor for conventional CVD must be volatile and chemically stable. The deposition of LaB 6 by conventional CVD would have a limited choice of precursors due to the need for volatility. However, aerosol-assisted CVD has been developed to allow the use of non-volatile precursors. 20 In this method, the precursor is transported to the substrate in form of an aerosol droplet from a solution in an appropriate solvent or co-solvents. Therefore, the precursor has to be stable in the selected solvent or co-solvents. There are advantages and disadvantages of aerosol-assisted CVD. In terms of transporting precursors, the aerosol process provides simplicity, reproducibility, and high deposition rate. Precursors can be low of volatility and low thermal stability. However, contamination from the solvent can affect the quality of the film. Residual particles may remain after droplet evaporation during aerosol delivery of volatile precursors. Thus, the choice of solvent and precursor is a crucial issue for the film deposition. Figures 1.4 and 1.5 show the CVD system used for the aerosol-assisted CVD experiment described later.

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8 Dissolved Precursor from Syringe Pump Sight Glass Gate Valve (for sample loadin g) Carrier Gas Curtain Inlet Precursor Aerosol Cooling Water Jacket Vibrating Quartz Plate Impinging Je t Graphite Susce p to r Quartz Tube 1/16 Plastic Tubing Carrier Gas to RF Coils Cooling Water Jacke t Throttle Valve Thermocou p le Cold Tra p Cable to Power Supply To Vacuum Pum p Note: Not to Scale Figure 1.4 CVD ultrasonic nebulizing delivery system and reactor

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9 Figure 1.5 Picture of CVD system

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CHAPTER 2 MOCVD PRECURSORS FOR LaB 6 Introduction There are two types of precursor systems for CVD: single source precursors and two-component precursors used in co-reactant systems. The single source precursor is one that provides more than one element for the film. The two-component co-reactant systems use a separate compound for each element. Thus in a two component system for CVD of LaB 6 lanthanum complexes would be used for the source of La, and boron hydrides (e.g., B 2 H 6 and BH 3 in solution of tetrahydrofuran) would be used for the source of B. This chapter discusses the chemistry of La complexes. One aspect of this project is focused on the chemistry of tetrahydroborate with La complexes bearing bulky ligands (e.g., polypyrazolyl borates). Although these types of complexes would probably be poor precursors, lanthanum complexes with this type of ligand are good models to learn substitution chemistry of tetraborohydroborate at La because the bulkiness of the ligands provides control over the coordination sphere. Poly(pyrazolyl)borate Ligands Since the report of poly(pyrazolyl)borates by Trofimenko nearly thirty years ago, 21 poly(pyrazolyl)borates have been studied widely in coordination chemistry. 22-26 Poly(pyrazolyl)borate ligands can be easily prepared by reaction a pyrazole with a borohydride salt (e.q. 2.3). These ligands have been used as coordination-controlling environments for many transition metals. However, the coordination chemistry of the 10

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11 lanthanide series is more complex in comparison to the transition metals because of the larger size of the metal ions. 27 Coordination numbers in the lanthanide series can be up to 8 or 9 depending on the size of the metal and the size of ligands on a complex. Based on the results with transition metals, poly(pyrazolyl)borates are good candidate ligands for the study of coordination and substitution of tetrahydroborate on lanthanum. Pyrazole and Pyrazolide Ion Poly(pyrazolyl)borates are derivatives of pyrazole ligands. Substituents on the pyrazole rings determine the nucleophilicity and steric accessibility. 26 NN R NN a pyrazole a pyrazolide ion Abbreviations for Poly(pyrazolyl)borate Ligands There are a variety of pyrazole substituents that have been used in preparation of poly(pyrazolyl)borates. The Tp and Tp / nomenclature refers to HB(pz) 3 and HB(3,5-Me 2 pz) 3 respectively. 28 Other poly(pyrazolyl)borate ligands have common names based on the Tp abbreviation. For example, Tp tBu is HB(3-Bu t pz) 3 22 Table 1 shows a selection of abbreviations for tris(pyrazolyl) borate ligands. KBH4+NN H K[HB(pz)3] or KTp r e f l ux5 (2.3)

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12 M NN N H N NB N R5 R3 R3 R5 R3 R5R4 R4 R4 Table 1 Abbreviation Structure R 3 R 4 R 5 Tp HB(pz) 3 H H H Tp me2 or Tp / HB(dmpz) 3 Me H Me Tp Ph HB(3-phenylpyrazolyl) 3 Ph H H Characteristics of Poly(pyrazolyl)borate Ligands Poly(pyrazolyl)borates are isoelectronic with cyclopentadienyl because they are six electron donors with one minus charge. Also, they bind to three coordination sites of a metal. 22 Figure 2.1 shows the bonding modes of coordinated hydrotris(pyrazolyl)borate and cyclopentadienyl ligands. The geometry of poly(pyrazolyl)borates can be bidentate or tridentate, depending on the metals and the substituents on the pyrazoles.

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13 MNN N H N NB N R R R R R R RRRR RM Figure 2.1 Bonding modes of hydrotris(pyrazolyl)borate and cyclopentadienyl ligands Lanthanum Poly(pyrazolyl)borate Complexes Lanthanum is the biggest metal in the lanthanide series and can have up to nine coordination sites. It generally has an oxidation number +3 in its complexes. With the large size and ionic bonding of lanthanum, the geometry and steric control in lanthanum complexes have been of interest. Bulky ligands such as poly(pyrazolyl)borates have been used to control the lanthanum coordination sphere. 29 There are several reports of synthesis of lanthanum complexes by the metathesis reaction of a lanthanum halide with the sodium or potassium salt of a poly(pyrazolyl)borate. Reaction of anhydrous LaCl 3 or lanthanum chloride hydrate with KTp or NaTp in THF afforded a good yield of LaTp 2 Cl. 30 Substitution of the chloride ligand of Tp 2 LaCl with an anionic bidentate ligand has been successfully reported. Anionic bidentate ligands such as -diketonate, oxalates, and carboxylates can be accommodated due to the eight possible coordination sites on La. Some of these lanthanum complexes, such as are air stable and not moisture sensitive. 31

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14 Comparison of the Tp and Tp/ Ligands The preparation of Tp lanthanum complexes faces the problem of ligand redistribution. During higher temperature reactions, ligand redistribution of Tp on the lanthanum complexes becomes significant. 32 The more sterically demanding ligand Tp / was found to suppress the ligand redistribution in the complexes. 33 Also, lanthanum complexes with Tp ligands have difficulties with solubility. The methyl groups on the 3 / and 5 / positions on the pyrazoles of Tp / tend to alleviate this problem. Moreover, with the steric crowding of Tp / its lanthanum complexes tend to be THF free, in contrast to related Tp lanthanum complexes, which have varying numbers of coordinated THF ligands. Metathesis Reactions of Lanthanum Triflate The synthesis of lanthanum poly(pyrazolyl)borate complexes was originally carried out by metathesis reactions of lanthanum halides with the poly(pyrazolyl)borate salt. Metathesis of lanthanum triflate has been subsequently investigated. Triflates were chosen as alternative starting materials because they contain a better leaving group relative to chlorides. 34 The lanthanum complexes containing a triflate ligand are good starting materials for further substitution chemistry. 35 This complex offers several advantages as compared to Tp 2 LaCl. The Tp / ligand offers a more sterically demanding environment and suppresses ligand distribution. The triflate is a good leaving group which will be good for substitution reactions. Lanthanum -diketonate for MOCVD -diketonate complexes of metals have been used of the deposition of materials for electroluminescent devices (EL). Most thin films for EL devices require deposition

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15 techniques such as CVD. The CVD requires volatile precursors that do not decompose at high temperature during the volatilation precursors. Lanthanum complexes that bear -diketonate ligands have been used for MOCVD due to the volatility properties of the complexes. Lanthanum complexes containing -diketonate ligands are volatile, anhydrous, unsolvated, and thermally stable. 36,37 Fluorine substitution on the -diketonate ligand increases the volatility of complexes. Lanthanum Tris[bis(trimethylsilyl)amido] for MOCVD Tris[bis(trimethylsilyl)amido]lanthanum has been used for MOCVD of lanthanum silicate thin films for semiconductor devices. The complex has been reported to be a volatile monomeric complex, which was used in the presence of oxygen for deposit of films over a wide range of temperature (350-600 o C). 38 With the present of silicon on the complex, the silicon directly forms an lanthanum silicate film promoting the deposition. The content of Si did not vary with depth in these relatively thick of the films. Chemistry of Lanthanum Borohydride Complexes There have been reports of lanthanum tetrahydroborate complexes prepared by simple substitution of borohydride for halide ligands. For example, the tris(tetrahydrofuran) lanthanum tetrahydroborate complex 3 has been reported. 36 The complex is easily prepared by reacting anhydrous lanthanum chloride with an excess of sodium tetraborohydrate (e.q. 3.3). X-ray diffraction and 11 B NMR data for the complex have been reported. 36,39

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16 LaO O O BH43 3 Structure of Tetraborohydrate Complexes The structure of metal tetrahydroborate complexes has been investigated. The structure of the complexes depends on the coordination environment and reaction conditions. 40 Marks and coworkers investigated the binding mode of the organolanthanide tetrahydroborate complexes using IR and Raman spectroscopy. 41 The bonding of hydroborate and lanthanum is covalent. Borohydride ligands can have four different modes depending on the environment of ligands around the metal (Figure 2.2). The binding mode of the tetrahedral BH 4 ligand to a metal ion is an important structural feature of the complex. Only bidentate and tridentate binding modes are found in metal complexes as determined by IR. X-ray diffraction can also provide useful data for the binding modes. However, NMR does not yield meaningful structural information on tetrahydroborate metal complexes because they are fluxional on the NMR timescale. MH H BH2 MH H H BH M+BH4-MH bidentatetridentatemonodentateionic BH3 Figure 2.2 Binding Modes of Borohydride

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17 Conclusion Lanthanum complexes bear poly(pyrazolyl)borate ligands have been synthesized. Lanthanum complexes bearing such ligands are a good model to learn chemistry substitution of lanthanum complexes with borohydride anion. Lanthanum complexes used for the deposition of the CVD of LaB 6 The study of lanthanum complexes deposition allowed us to learn the optimized condition for the deposition of the CVD of LaB 6

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CHAPTER 3 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Synthesis of MOCVD Precursors Complexes 1-4 have been tested as precursors for CVD as a source of lanthanum for LaB 6 Each of these compounds has been synthesized following the literature procedure. 31,42,43 O O La 3 O O La C3F7 3 LaO O O BH43 1 2 3 La[N(SiMe 3 ) 2 ] 3 4 Lanthanum -diketonate complexes such as 1 and 2 are good candidates for lanthanum precursors for MOCVD of LaB 6. The bulky -diketonate ligands promote volatility and inhibit association of the complexes during the deposition. Precursors 1 and 2 are easily prepared following the literature. 36,37 Complexes such as 3 precursors are good candidates for a single source precursor for MOCVD of LaB 6 which contain La and B. 18

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19 The complex is easily prepared by reacting anhydrous lanthanum chloride with an excess of sodium tetraborohydrate (e.q., 3.1). (3.1) (3.2) +3 NaBH4 LaO O O BH43 (3.3)3LaCl3 OLaO 3 1 O O + La(NO3)36H2OC3F7 O OH +La(NO3)36H2O OLaO C3F7 3 2 Complex 4 prepared following the literature. 44 Complexes 5 and 6 were synthesized following the literature procedure for the simple metathesis reaction (eq.3.4-3.5). 45 Clark and coworkers investigated the reaction of the lanthanum complex 5 with other ligands such as acetronitrile, benzonitrile, amines, puridine, and nitrile. 38 Only acetronitrile bound to the lanthanum complex, forming Tp / 2 La(MeCN)(OTf). Also the addition of NaNO 3 to the solution of the complex in THF resulted in the formation of Tp / 2 LaNO 3 in monodentate fashion.

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20 NN NN NN La B H OSO2CF3 2NN NN NN La B H O O 5 6 La(OTf)3+2 K(Tp/) THFTp'2 LaOTf+2 K(OTf)RT5 (3.4) 2 KTp+ O O +LaCl3 EtOHKOHTp2La(acac)6 (3.5) Mass Spectrometry and Film Growth Study of Complexes 1 and 2 Mass spectrometry experiments were carried out with both 1 and 2. These experiments have yielded information about the fragmentation characteristics of the complexes under gas phase ionization conditions. The utilization of mass spectral data predicts possible mechanisms for MOCVD processes, and MS data provide probable fragmentatiopatterns of the lanthanum complexes as CVD precursors. The positive ion electron-impact ionization (EI) mass spectra of 1 and 2 yielded similar fragments. The molecular ion could be observed from both 1 and 2. The base peak in the EI spectrum of 1 occurs at m/z 505 and is assigned to the [M C 11 H 19 O 2 ] + fragment uses from loss of the -diketonate ligand. The organic ion observed in the EI spectrum occurs at m/z 57, corresponding to the fragment [t-Bu] + Other mass envelopes are consistent with a loss of [t-Bu] + and the -diketonate ligands.

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21 The mass spectral analysis of 2 also yielded a similar pattern of fragments. The base peak in the EI spectrum of 2 occurs at m/z 729 and is assigned to the [M C 9 H 9 O 2 F 7 ] + fragment which arises from loss of the -diketonate ligand. The organic ions observed in the EI spectrum occur at m/z 57 [t-Bu] + and 169 [C 3 F 7 ] + Other mass envelopes are consistent with the loss of [t-Bu] + and [C 3 F 7 ] + The mass spectral data collected for 1 and 2 offer some perspectives about their potential as MOCVD precursors. The cleavage of the -diketonate moiety from the lanthanum complexes is necessary for the CVD process in forming LaB 6 films. However, the observation of the organic fragments may indicate potential problems with controlling contamination in films. After the fragmentation analyses were carried out, precursors 1 and 2 were used to deposit thin films. The source of boron was used either BH 3 THF 1 M or diborane (B 2 H 6 ). Deposition tests required transport of the solid lanthanum precursor to the reactor in the vapor phase. Each precursor was dissolved in an appropriate solvent to a concentration of 12.6 mg/mL and volatilized using the nebulizing reactor decribed in Chapter 1. Film depositions were carried out by Omar Bchir. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results do not indicate any film crystallinity for growth from 1 or 2 except for SiO 2 formation on the substrate Si (100) and Si (111) at 600, 700, 800, and 900 o C. The film composition was characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy AES. AES results indicate deposition of B and a very small amount of La (less than 1%) from 1. AES indicates deposition of La, B, C, O, and F from 2. The concentration (atomic %) of La varied from 19%35 % at 600, 700, and 800 o C. However, at 900 o C, the AES result indicates 10 % of La.

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22 Mass Spectrometry and Film Growth Study of Complex 4 Mass spectrometry experiments were carried out with 4. These experiments have yielded information about the fragmentation characteristics of the complexes under gas phase ionization conditions. The utilization of mass spectral data predicts possible mechanisms for MOCVD processes, and MS data provide possible fragmentation patterns of the lanthanum precursors under deposition conditions. The positive ion electron-impact ionization (EI) mass spectrum of 4 was obtained. The molecular ion could be observed at m/z 619. The base peak in the EI spectrum of 4 occurs at m/z 160 and is assigned to the [N(SiMe 3 ) 2 ] + fragment. Another lanthanum-containing fragment was found at m/z 299 [M 2(N(SiMe 3 ) 2 )] + The mass spectral data collected for 4 offer some perspectives about these systems as MOCVD precursors. The cleavage of the trimethylsilylamido moiety from the lanthanum complexes is necessary for the CVD process in forming LaB 6 films. After the fragmentation analyses were carried out, precursor 4 was used to deposit thin films. The source of boron was diborane (B 2 H 6 ). Deposition tests required transport of the solid lanthanum precursor to the reactor in the vapor phase. The precursor was dissolved in benzonitrile to a concentration of 12.6 mg/mL and volatilized using the nebulizing reactor described in Chapter 1. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate amorphous films were deposited on Si (100) and Si (111) from 300-800 o C. The film composition was characterized by AES. AES indicates deposition of B, C, O, and N during experiment with 4. However, the AES data indicate that no La was deposited in the film.

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23 Film Growth Study of 3 Precursor 3 was used to deposit thin film. The source of boron was used either BH 3 THF 1 M or diborane (B 2 H 6 ). Deposition tests required transport of the solid lanthanum precursor to the reactor in the vapor phase. The precursor was dissolved in benzonitrile to a concentration of 12.6 mg/mL and volatilized using the nebulizing described in chapter 1. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate amorphous films were deposited on Si (100) and Si (111) at 300-800 o C. The film composition was characterized by AES. AES indicates deposition of B, C, and O during experiment with 3. However, AES data indicate that no La was deposited in the films. Conclusion Several precursors were used to deposit on Si thin film at the optimizied condition. The result showed that solvents and co-solvents might be the source the contamination. Mass spectrometry study showed the cleavage of ligands that were expected. La composition is less than 10 % on the film characterized by AES and XRD.

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CHAPTER 4 EXPERIMENTAL PRECEDURES General Methods Standard inert atmosphere techniques were used throughout. Tetrahydrofuran and benzene were purified by passage through a MBRAUN MB-SP series purification system. All chemicals used were purchased in reagent grade and used with no further purification. 1 H, 13 C, 11 B, and 19 F NMR spectra were recorded on Varian Gemini 300 and VXR 300 spectrometers. IR spectra were recorded on a Perkin-Elmer 1600 FTIR. High and low resolution mass spectrometry analyses were performed by the University of Florida analytical service. Tris 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione lanthanum (III) (1) 2,2,6,6-Tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione [H(thd)] (1.7 g, 9.3 mmol) was dissolved in 30 mL of 95% methanol. NaOH was dissolved in 50 mL of 50% aqueous methanol. The solution of NaOH (10 mL) was added into a solution of H(thd). Then the mixture was added to a solution of lanthanum (III) nitrate heptahydrate (1.3 g, 3.0 mmol) in 50% aqueous ethanol (30 mL). The mixture was allowed to stir for 2 hours. The solvent was removed until the volume was decreased by half, and distilled water (50 mL) was added to precipitate the product. The white solid was obtained by filtration and dried in vacuo to obtain 1 in 90 % yield. The product was characterized by comparison with literature data. 37 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ) 1.08 (s, 9 H), 5.68 (s, 1 H); 13 C NMR (CDCl 3 ) 28.88, 41.10, 24

PAGE 32

25 93.26, 200.42 mp = 240 o C; LRMS (EI): m/z 688 [M] + 631 [M t-Bu] + 505 [M C 11 H 19 O 2 ] + ,287 [LaC 8 H 10 O 2 ] + 127 [C 7 H 10 O 2 ] + 57 [t-Bu] + Tris(2,2-dimethyl-6,6,7,7,8,8,8-heptafluoro-3,5-octanedione) lanthanum (III) (2) Lanthanum (III) nitrate heptahydrate (0.4 g, 1.0 mmole) was dissolved in the minimum amount of absolute methanol. The pH of the mixture was adjusted to pH 4-6 by adding the minimum amount of a solution of 4.12 M aqueous NaOH. A solution of 2,2-dimethyl-6,6,7,7,8,8,8-heptafluoro-3,5-octanedione (Hfod) (0.9 g, 3.3 mmole) in 20 mL of absolute ethanol was brought to pH 7 using 4.12 M sodium hydroxide solution. The mixture of Hfod and lanthanum (III) nitrate heptahydrate adjusted pH was allowed to stir while 40 mL distilled water was added. The resulting precipitate was collected and dried in vacuo. The product was obtained in 55% yield and characterized by comparison with literature data. 42 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ) 1.12 (s, 9 H), 6.02 (s, 1 H); 13 C NMR (CDCl 3 ) 27.59, 27.83, 42.42, 85.84; mp = 226 o C; LRMS, (EI): m/z 1024 M + 967 [M t-Bu] + 855 [M C 3 F 7 ] + 169 [C 3 F 7 ] + 57 [t-Bu] + Tris(tetrahydrofuran) lanthanum tris(tetrahydroborate) (3) A mixture of anhydrous lanthanum chloride (1.0 g, 4.1 mmole) and a 20 % excess of sodium borohydride (0.6 g, 15 mmole) in 30 mL dry THF was allowed to stir for 12 hours. The white precipitate of sodium chloride was removed by filtration and the liquid phase was collected. Then the solvent was removed by reduced pressure. The crude product was obtained as a white solid in 75 % yield. The crude product was recrystallized from a small amount of dry THF. The remaining sodium chloride was separated by filtration. The product was dried in vacuo and afforded 3 in 58% yield as a

PAGE 33

26 white solid, which was characterized by comparison to literature data. 37 11 B NMR (THF) -20.00 (q, 3 B). Tris[bis(trimethylsilyl)amido]lanthanum(III) (4) A mixture of anhydrous lanthanum chloride (2.0 g, 8.2 mmol) and LiN(SiMe 3 ) 2 (4.1 g, 25 mmol) was stirred in dry THF for 12 hours. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure to obtain a white solid which was washed with petroleum ether. Evaporation of the solvent afforded 4 in 80% yield. The product was characterized by comparison to literature data. 43,46 1 H NMR (C 6 D 6 ) 0.10 (s, 54 H), 13 C NMR (C 6 D 6 ) 25.4, m.p. = 146-147 o C; LRMS, (EI): m/z 619 [M] + 618 [M H] + 299 [M-2(N(SiMe 3 ) 2 )] + 160 [N(SiMe 3 ) 2 ] + Potassium hydrotris (3,5 dimethyl pyrazolyl)borate A mixture of potassium borohydride (0.2 g, 0.04 mol) and 5 equivalents of 3,5dimethylpyrazole (12 g 0.2 mol) was heated with stirring until hydrogen gas was generated. The mixture was allowed to stir for 75 minutes. The mixture was then cooled, and toluene was immediately added to the solution. The resulting precipitate was filtered and air dried. The product was obtained as a white solid in 70% yield and characterized by comparison with literature data. 1 H NMR (acetone d 6 ) 2.01 (s, 9H), 2.17 (s, 9H), 5.53 (s, 6H). Bis[hydro(3,5 dimethyl pyrazolyl)borato]lanthanum (III) triflate (5) A mixture of KTp / (3.90 g, 11.6 mmol) and lanthanum triflate (3.40 g, 5.80 mmol) was stirred in 100 mL THF at room temperature for 12 h. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure. The solid was extracted with toluene (2 X 100mL) and the combined toluene extracts were concentrated. The white solid was precipitated by cooling

PAGE 34

27 overnight. The product was obtained in 85% yield by decanting off the mother liquor and drying under vacuum. The product was characterized by comparison to literature data. 35 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ) 1.83 (s, 18H), 2.38 (s, 18 H), 5.67 (s, 6H); 13 C NMR (CDCl 3 ) 12.93, 13.5, 106.3, 145.7, 150.2; IR (KBr pellet, cm -1 ) 2963 (sh), 2931 (sh), 2560 (sh) B-H, 2358 (s), 1550 (s), 1440 (s), 1410(s), 1352 (m), 1300 (m), 1204 (vs), 1034 (vs), 980 (m), 804 (s), 688 (m), 639 (m); LRMS (EI): m/z 882 [M] + 813 [M CF 3 ] + 733 [M OSO 2 CF 3 ] + 786 [M (3,5-Me 2 pz)] + 329 [La(3,5-Me 2 pz) 2 ] + 96 [3,5-Me 2 pz] + Potassium Hydrotris(pyrazol-1-yl)borate A mixture of potassium borohydride (2.0 g, 37.0 mmol) and 5 equivalents of pyrazole (12.6 g, 186.0 mmol) was heated together with stirring until hydrogen gas was generated. The mixture was allowed to stir for 75 minutes. The mixture was cooled and toluene (200 mL) was added to the solution. The resulting precipitate was collected by filtration and air dried to obtain potassium hydrotris(pyrazol-1-yl)borate in 65% yield as a white solid. The product was characterized by comparison with literature data. 1 H NMR (C 6 D 6 ) 6.10 (t, 3 H), 7.20 (d, 3 H), 7.35 (d, 3 H). Acetylacetonatobis[hydrotris(pyrazol-1-yl)borato]lanthanum(III) (6) Potassium hydrotris(pyrazol-1-yl)borate (0.5 g, 2.0 mmol), pentane-2,4-dione (0.1 g, 1.0 mmol), ethanol (10 mL), and 0.01 M aqueous KOH (10 mL) were mixed and added to a solution of LaCl 3 6H 2 O (0.3 g, 1 mmol) in water (15 mL). The mixture was allowed to stir for 1 hour. The white solid precipitate was collected by filtration and dried in vacuo to obtain 6 (70 %yield). The product was characterized by comparison with literature data. 31 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ) 7.67 (d, 6 H), 7.14 (d, 6 H), 6.03 (t, 6 H),

PAGE 35

28 5.63 (s, 1 H), 2.00 (s, 6 H); 13 C NMR (CDCl 3 ) 23.3, 44.0, 50.6, 133.2, 129.2, 105.6; m.p. = 193 o C. Addition of sodium borohydride to Tp/ 2 LaOTf A solution of sodium borohydride (0.05 g, 1.2 mmol) in 10 mL dry THF was added to a solution of Tp / 2 LaOTf (0.5 g, 0.6 mmol) in 25 mL dry THF. The reaction was allowed to stir at room temperature for one day. After the reaction, the mixture was extracted with toluene and evaporated to obtain the white solid in 55 % yield. 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ) 0.57 (s), 1.33 (s), 1.39 (s), 1.56 (s), 1.97 (s), 2.18 (m), 2.37 (m), 5.46 (s), 5.66 (d), 5.64 (s); 11 B NMR (THF) -14.95 (broad). Addition of potassium borohydride to Tp/ 2 LaOTf A solution of potassium borohydride (0.04 g, 1.2 mmol) in 10 mL dry toluene was added to a solution of Tp / 2 LaOTf (0.5 g, 0.6 mmol) in 25 mL dry toluene. The reaction was allowed to stir at 60 o C for one day. After the reaction, the solvent was removed by reduced pressure to afford the white solid in 70% yield. 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ) 0.63 (s), 1.27 (s), 1.33 (s), 1.51 (s), 1.70 (s), 2.08 (m), 2.27 (m), 5.20 (s), 5.48 (d), 5.61(s). Addition of BH 3 THF to Tp/ 2 LaOTf A solution of 1 M BH 3 THF (1 mL) was added to a solution of Tp / 2 LaOTf (0.5 g, 0.6 mmol) in 20 mL dried THF. The reaction was allowed to stir at room temperature for two days. Then, the mixture was extracted with 20 mL of dry toluene and the solution was a vacuum filtered. The collected toluene solution was evaporated to obtain a white solid residue in 55 % yield. 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ) 1.77 (s), 2.23 (m), 3.67 (s), 5.71 (s), 5.86 (s), 5.96 (d).

PAGE 36

29 Addition of Potassium Hydrotris(3,5dimethylpyrazolyl)borate to La(BH 4 ) 3 (THF) 3 A solution of KTp / (1.7 g, 5.0 mmole) in 30 mL dry THF was added to a solution of La(BH 4 ) 3 (THF) 3 (1.0 g, 2.0 mmole)in a 5 mL dry THF. The reaction was allowed to stir at room temperature for two days. Then, the mixture was extracted with 20 mL of dry toluene and the solution was vacuum filtered. The collected toluene solution was evaporated to obtain a white solid residue in 60 % yield. 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ) 0.59 (s), 1.27 (s), 1.34 (s), 1.40 (s), 1.58 (s), 2.02 (s), 2.17 (s), 2.34 (m), 5.48 (s), 5.62(d), 5.72 (s). Preparation of Precursor 1 for LaB 6 Deposition All syringes were prepared in a dry box. Compound 1 (0.12 g, 0.14 mmol) was dissolved in 9.5 mL of triglyme in a small vial. Then, the solution of BH 3 THF 1 M (1.5 mL) was added into the small vial. After the compounds dissolved completely in the solution, a syringe was filled with the mixture. For a deposition with diborane, compound 1 (0.12 g, 0.14 mmol) was dissolved in 10.0 mL of tryglyme in a small vial. After the compounds dissolved completely in the solution, a syringe was filled with the mixture. Preparation of Precursor 2 for LaB 6 Deposition All syringes were prepared in a dry box. Compound 2 (0.18 g, 0.18 mmol) was dissolved in 9.5 mL of benzonitrile in a small vial. Then, the solution of BH 3 THF 1 M (1.5 mL) was added into the small vial. After the compounds dissolved completely in the solution, a syringe was filled with the mixture.

PAGE 37

30 For a deposition with diborane, compound 1 (0.18 g, 0.18 mmol) was dissolved in 10.0 mL of benzonitrile in a small vial. After the compounds dissolved completely in the solution, a syringe was filled with the mixture. Preparation of Precursor 3 for LaB 6 Deposition All syringes were prepared in a dry box. For a deposition with diborane, compound 3 (0.18 g, 0.18 mmol) was dissolved in 10.0 mL of benzonitrile in a small vial. After the compounds dissolved completely in the solution, a syringe was filled with the mixture. Preparation of Precursor 4 for LaB 6 Deposition All syringes were prepared in a dry box. For a deposition with diborane, compound 4 (0.18 g, 0.18 mmol) was dissolved in 10.0 mL of triglyme in a small vial. After the compounds dissolved completely in the solution, a syringe was filled with the mixture.

PAGE 38

REFERENCES (1) Vaudaine, P.; Meyer, R. Technical Digest of International Electron Devices Meeting 1991, 197. (2) Spindt, C. A.; Brodie, I.; Humphery, L.; Westberg, E. R. J. Appl. Phys. 1976, 47, 5248. (3) Waldhauser, W.; Mitterer, C.; Laimer, J.; Stori, H. Surface & Coatings Technology 1995, 74-75, 890-896. (4) Temple, D. Material Science and Engineering 1999, R24, 185-239. (5) Motojima, S.; Takahashi, Y.; Sugiyama, K. J. Cryst. Growth 1978, 44, 106-109. (6) Nakano, T.; Baba, S.; Kobayashi, A.; Kinbara, A.; Kajiwara, T.; Watanabe, K.; Nakano, T.; Baba, S.; Kobayashi, A. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 1991, 9, 547-549. (7) Ryan, J. G.; Roberts, S. Thin Solid Films 1986, 135, 9-19. (8) Okamoto, Y.; Aida, T.; Shinada, S. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 1987, 26, 1722-1726. (9) Kher, S. S.; Spencer, J. T. J.Phys, Chem. Solids 1998, 59, 1343-1351. (10) Pavel, P. J. Solid State Chem. 2000, 154, 157-161. (11) Owen, A. J. J. Appl. Chem. 1960, 10, 483. (12) Long, L. H. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 1970, 32, 1097-1115. (13) Fehlner, T. P.; Koski, W. S. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1964, 73, 3138. (14) Bond, A. C.; Pinsky, M. L. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1970, 92, 32-36. (15) Bragg, J. K.; McCarty, L. V.; Norton, F. L. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1951, 73, 2134-2140. 31

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32 (16) Houser, T. J.; Greennough, R. C. Chem. Ind. 1967, 323. (17) Siegel, B.; Mack, J. L. J. Phys. Chem. 1958, 62, 373. (18) Owen, A. J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1961, 83, 5438. (19) Johnston, S. W. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida 2000. (20) Kodas, T. T.; Hampden-Smith, J. M. Aerosol Processing of Materials 1999, 11. (21) Trofimenko, S. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1967, 80, 6288-6294. (22) Trofimenko, S. Chem. Rev. 1993, 93, 943-980. (23) Kitajima, N.; Tolman, B. W. Inorg. Chem. 1995, 43, 109-126. (24) Slugove, C.; Schmid, R.; Kirchmer, K. Chem. Rev. 1999, 186, 109-126. (25) Parkin, G. Inorg. Chem. 1995, 42, 291-393. (26) Trofimenko, S. Chem. Rev. 1972, 72, 497-509. (27) Bernice, G. S.; Stephen, J. L. Inorg. Chem. 1978, 17, 844-850. (28) Curtis, M. D.; Shiu, K. B.; Butler, W. M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1986, 108, 1550-1561. (29) Marques, N.; Sella, A.; Takats, J. Chem. Rev. 2002, 102, 2137-2159. (30) Reger, D. L.; Lindeman, J. A.; Lebioda, L. Inorg. Chim. Acta. 1987, 139, 71-73. (31) Michael, A. J. M.; Christopher, J. J.; Anthony, J. E. J. Chem. Soc. Dalt. Trans 1989, 1393-1400. (32) Bagnall, K. W.; Tempest, A. C.; Takats, J.; Masino, A. P. Inorg. Nucl. Chem.Lett. 1976, 12, 555-557. (33) Maunder, G. H.; Sella, A.; Tocher, D. A. J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1994, 885-886. (34) Lawrence, G. A. Chem. Rev. 1986, 86, 17-34.

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33 (35) Lui, S. Y.; Graham, H. M.; Sella, A.; Stevenson, M.; Tocher, D. Inorg. Chem. 1996, 35, 76-81. (36) Mirsaidov, U.; Shaimuradov, I. B.; Khikmatov, M.; Shaimuradov, I. B.; Khikmatov, M. Russian J. Inorg. Chem. 1986, 31, 753. (37) Kent, J. E.; Robert, E. S. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1965, 87, 5254-5256. (38) Robin, J. H.; Liu, S. Y.; Maunder, G. H.; Sella, A.; Elsegood, M. J. J. Am. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans. 1997, 13, 2241-2247. (39) Titov, L. V.; Gavrilova, L. A.; Mirsaidov, U. Russian J. Inorg. Chem. 1982, 27, 1104-1107. (40) Lobkovsky, E. B.; Gun'ko, Y. K.; Bulychev, B. M.; Belsky, V. K.; Soloveichik, G. L.; Antipin, M. Y. J. Organomet. Chem. 1991, 406, 343. (41) Marks, T. J.; Gregory, G. W. Inorg. Chem. 1976, 15, 1302-1307. (42) Springer, C. S.; Meek, D. W.; Sievers, R. E. Inorg. Chem. 1967, 65, 1105-1110. (43) Bradley, D. C.; Ghotra, F. A. J. Am. Chem. Soc., Dalton. Trans 1973, 1021. (44) Bradley, D. C.; Faktor, M. M. Chemistry and Industry 1958, 1332. (45) Lui, S. Y., Maunder, G. H.; Sella A.; Stevenson M.; and Tocher D. Inorg. Chem. 1996, 35, 76-81. (46) Helen, A. C.; Paul, W. A.; Jeffrey, G.; Anthony, J. C.; John, R. L.; Lesley, S. M.; Paul, C. R.; Gary, C. W. Chem. Vap. Dep. 2003, 9, 7-10.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Chuleekorn Chotsuwan was born on May 3, 1979, at Nonthaburi, Thailand. She grew up in a rural area of Thailand. As a child, she always had an interest in science and experiments. In 1996, she got a scholarship from the Thai government to study chemistry in the U.S. She started her undergraduate degree at University of Colorado at Boulder. In 2001, she went to study in graduate school at the University of Florida and joined Professor Lisa McElwee Whites group and started her LaB 6 MOCVD project. She obtained her Master of Science in chemistry in May 2004. 34


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Title: Organometallic Precursors for the Chemical Vapor Deposition of LaB6
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Copyright Date: 2008

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ORGANOMETALLIC PRECURSORS FOR
THE CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION OF LaB6














By

CHIULEEKORN CHOTSUWAN


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2004


































To my parents, Non, my family, and all my friends
















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First, I would like to thank my parents who always gave me an opportunity and

support for my education. Also, their advice always encourages me to be a better person.

I would like to thank my research advisor, Dr. Lisa McElwee-White, for her

patience, kindness, and encouragement. She always gave me an opportunity to explore

the knowledge of chemistry with great suggestions.

I thank Dr. Lisa McElwee-White' s research group who always gave me help and

suggestion for experiments and any lab work.

Finally, I would like to thank Mr. Nattapong Phuensaen for his understanding,

and encouragement throughout my graduate school life.


















TABLE OF CONTENTS


page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S ................. ................. iii.._._. .....

LIST OF FIGURES .............. ....................vi

AB STRAC T ................ .............. vii

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ................. ...............1.................


Applications of Field Emitter Arrays ................. ...............1............ ...
Pre-fabricated Field Emission Array Tips .............. ...............2.....
Properties of Lanthanum Hexaboride (LaB 6) ................. ............... ......... ...2
Coating Pre-fabricated Field Emission Array Tips............... ...............3..
Pyrolysis of Boranes ...................... .. ........... .... ... ... .........5
Chemical Vapor deposition (CVD) and Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition
(M OCVD) ................... ...............6.......... ......
Aerosol Assisted CVD ................. ...............7............ ....


2 MOCVD PRECURSORS FOR LaB6 ................. ....__ ....___ ...........1

Introducti on ............... ... .... ...............10....
Poly(pyrazolyl)borate Ligands ...._ ......_____ .......___ .............1
Pyrazole and Pyrazolide lon ................... ......... ... ...............11......
Abbreviations for Poly(pyrazolyl)borate Ligands ................. .........................11
Characteristics of Poly(pyrazolyl)borate Ligands ................. .........................12
Lanthanum Poly(pyrazolyl)borate Complexes .............. ...............13....
Comparison of the Tp and Tp/ Ligand ......._..__ ........__ ....._._ ..........1
Methathesis Reactions of Lanthanum Trifiate ................. .............................14
Lanthanum P-diketonates for MOCVD ................................. ............... 14. ....
Lanthanum Tris[bis(trimethylsilylamido)] for MOCVD ................. ............... ....15
Chemistry of Lanthanum Borohydride Complexes ................. ................ ...._.15
Structure of Tetrahydroborate Complexes ................. ............. ......... .......16
Conclusion .............. ............... 17....


3 EXPERIMENTAL RESULT S ................. ...............18........... ....


Synthesis of MOCVD Precursors ................. ....... ...... .. ... ....... ............1
Mass Spectrometry and Film Growth Study of Complexes 1 and 2.........................20











Mass Spectrometry and Film Growth Study of Complex 4............... ...................22
Film Growth Study of Complex 3 .............. ...............23....
Conclusion .............. ...............23....


4 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES .............. ...............24....

General M ethods .................. ... ........ ............. ....... .........2
Tris (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione)1antau (III) .................. ...............24
Tris (2,2-dimethyl-6,6,7,7,8,8,8-heptafluoro-3 ,5otndoe lanthanum (III) ....._25
Tri s(tetrahydrofuran) lanthanum tris(tetrahydroborate) ................. ............... .....25
Tris[bis(trimethylsilyl)amido]lanthanum(III)................ .............................26
Potassium hydrotri s(3,5 -dimethylpyrazolyl)b orate ................... .......................26
Bi s[hydro(3 ,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)b orator lanthanum (III) trifiate ................... .........26
Potassium Hydrotris(pyrazol-1 -yl)borate ................. ... ........... .........__.........2
Acetylacetonatobis[hydrotris(pyrazol-1 -yl)borato]lanthanum(III).............._._... .......27
Addition of Sodium Borohydride to Tp/ 2LaOTf ......... ................. ...............28
Addition of Potassium Borohydride to Tp/ 2LaOTf ................. ........... ...........28
Addition of BH3 THF to Tp/ 2LaOTf ............... ........... ...................2
Addition of Potassium Hydrotris(3,5 dimethylpyrazolyl)borate to La(BH4)3THF3 .29
Preparation of Precursor 1 for LaB6 Deposition .......................__ ................29
Preparation of Precursor 2 for LaB6 Deposition .......................__ ................29
Preparation of Precursor 3 for LaB6 Deposition .......................__ ................30
Preparation of Precursor 4 for LaB6 Deposition .......................__ ................30

REFERENCES .............. ...............31....

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .............. ...............34....

















LIST OF FIGURES

Figure pg

1.1 Structure ofLaB6................. ...............3

1.2 FEA tip coating conformality...................~~~~~ 3

1.3 Example of field emission arrays. ................ ...............4...............

1.4 CVD ultrasonic nebulizing delivery system and reactor~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 8

1.5 Picture of CVD system ........~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 9

2.1 Bonding modes of hydrotris(pyrazolyl)borate ................. ............................13

2.2 Bonding modes of borohydride............... .............1















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

ORGANOMETALLIC PRECURSORS FOR
THE CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION OF LaB6

By

Chuleekorn Chotsuwan

May 2004

Chairman: Lisa McElwee-White
Maj or Department: Chemistry

LaB6 has been used as an electron emissive source for field emitter arrays (FEAs).

However, the synthesis of LaB6 preCUTSors and deposition of LaB6 are challenging. This

thesis describes the generation of known precursors and new precursors bearing

hydrotris(pyrazolyl)borate for metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of

LaB6. Mass spectrometry was used for preliminary screening of the precursors, and some

precursors were used for CVD. Material deposited by CVD was characterized by X-ray

diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES).















CHAPTER 1
INTTRODUCTION

Applications of Field Emitter Arrays

Field emitter arrays (FEAs) are used as high-intensity electron beam sources.

Electron sources are used for vacuum electronics (e.g., the SPY1 cross-field amplifier

system), high speed data communication (e.g., the HDR submarine SATCO transmitter),

radars (e.g., SPS-73 radar), and electronic warfare systems.1,2

In the past, traditional vacuum tubes have been used as electron emission sources.

However, FEAs are an alternative for an electron emissive source. These FEA devices

are reliable and have high performance aspects such as power efficiency, great

compactness, and good response time compared to those traditional thermionic electron

sources. FEAs can provide high anode current, instant turn on of a device, efficient

frequency modulation, low power consumption, and low temperature operation.

The efficiency of FEAs in modulated power tubes is determined by emission

current and current density. Efficiency of FEAs can be improved by increased current

density at low operational voltages. Also, the capacitance and transconductance are

important for the efficiency of FEAs. These parameters determine the emission currents

of tip arrays. By intergrating some fabricated materials into the FEA tips, the

performance of FEAs might be improved.









Pre-fabricated Field Emission Array Tips

The materials that provide low turn-on voltages of FEAs give high brightness

electron beams. The emission current increases with gate voltage and a low turn-on

voltage also enhances high emission current. With a constant average tip current,

fabrication of large FEAs provides higher total emission current.

Many low work function materials are used for FEAs to increase the current

density. Such materials such as carbides, borides, and nitrides which are used to fabricate

Si tip arrays have a low work function of 2-3 eV. By integrating these materials into a

high brightness electron source, the current density can be increased by a factor of 100.

Some low work function materials, such as LaB6, have been used on Si tips. The work

function of sputtered LaB6 thin film has a value of 2.78 eV.3 It has been suggested that

integrating LaB6 will enhance the current density of FEAs. The emission current at a 100

V gate voltage for a work function at 4 eV with the Hield enhancement from 4 x 105 to 6 x

105 cml will result in an emission current density from 2 x 105 to 4 x 106 A cm-2 I

comparison to plain Si tips, the emission current of fabricated Si tips is increased

significantly. Fabricated FEAs show the enhancement of current density.4 With the

growth of single crystalline coatings of LaB6 On Si tips, the high emission current density

might increase.

Properties of Lanthanum Hexaboride (LaB6)

LaB6 has been used as an electron emissive source for Hield emitter arrays (FEAs)

due to its properties. LaB6 is a low work function material having the work function

value 2.8 eV.3 LaB6 has a CsCl solid state structure with a cubic lattice unit with the

lattice parameter 4.15 A+ (Figure 1.1). LaB6 has a high melting point of 2770 oC and









chemical stability at high temperature. Its properties are suitable for fabricated FEA tips

as an emissive electron source.

/-4.15 A -/












Figure 1.1 Structure of LaB6

Coating Pre-fabricated Field Emission Array Tips

The deposition techniques for FEA tips should provide the following conditions

for high efficiency: First, FEA tips must be sharp, and the coatings must have a good

conformality as shown in Figure 1.2. Second, the thickness of tip arrays should be

reproducible under suitable conditions. Last, the delivery system techniques should

provide good control of the growth rate on the surface. Figure 1.3 shows field emission

arrays.

LaB6



R~tip

Ideal Good Poor

Figure 1.2 FEA tip coating conformality

























Figure 1.3 Example of field emission arrays

In the past, there have been difficulties with deposition of low work function

materials. There are many coating techniques used for coating LaB6 On to Si tips such as

pulsed laser deposition, transfer mold deposition, or sputtering. 5* Current deposition

techniques have difficulties with controlling the thickness of thin films at suitable

conditions. Moreover, some deposition techniques do not generate a uniform or sharp tip

during the delivery process. Thus, the deposition techniques are a challenge for this FEA

technology. Chemical vapor deposition is an alternative method for deposition of

materials to give a LaB6 layer On a Si substrate. The ultimate goal for this project is to

fabricate gated Si tip-on-post FEAs using chemical vapor deposition of LaB6. Another

strategy is to deposit a thick layer of the order of 2 Clm of single crystal LaB6 On a Si

substrate, and then produce tip arrays from the resulting materials.

The Spencer group has investigated the deposition of LaB6 On Si substrates by

copyrolysis of lanthanum chloride with either nido-decaborane or pentaborane at 800-

900oC.9 Films with a thickness of 1-2 Clm were reported. The characterization of the

films was carried by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-









ray emission spectroscopy (XES). The films were very highly crystalline. The films

prepared from LaCl3 and nido-pentaborane at 815oC contained no impurities such as

chloride by XRD. Both boron sources, nido-decaborane and pentaborane, gave similar

results in the formation of lanthanum hexaboride thin films.

The deposition of LaB6 by copyrolysis presented some difficulties. The films

were contaminated with some free boron because boron can form covalent bonds on the

thin film at lower temperature. The boron rich material can be identifying by bluish

purple color of the film, and lanthanum rich can be identified by the reddish color.'

Pyrolysis of Boranes

Boron trichloride, BCl3 is commonly used for CVD of metal borides. However,

BCl3 has a low boiling point of 12.5oC which has resulted in difficulties during the CVD

processes. Pavel introduced other boranes with high boiling points such as BBr3 (90oC),

pentaborane (333 oC), and decaborane (213 oC).10 The copyrolysis of boranes has been

investigated by several research groups.11-16 Boranes investigated for CVD by

copyrolysis include pentaborane and decaborane.l7~ls B-B covalent bonds are formed at

low temperature (50-250 oC), and the formation of BHx solid occurred. 9

At higher temperature, diborane dissociates and forms higher boranes such as

pentaborane and decaborane. Therefore, the higher boranes are more stable as compared

to diborane at high temperature. According to calculations on the basis of

thermodynamic data, it was shown that with the deposition from boron hydrides, the

CVD process should be done at low temperature for good efficiency of CVD. 9









ChemicalVapor Deposition (CVD) and

Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD)

In chemical vapor deposition, gaseous precursors are used to chemically deposit a

solid thin film on a substrate. CVD is a result of a combination of surface reaction and

mass transfer processes.19 The substrate is placed on a susceptor and heated. The

deposition process occurs when the gaseous precursors are dissociated and deposited on

the substrate as a thin film at an optimized condition. In metal-organic chemical vapor

deposition (MOCVD), organometallic precursor molecules are thermally dissociated and

react on the surface of the substrate.

MOCVD is the chemical vapor deposition that uses metal organic compounds as

precursors. Such compounds contain a metal and organic ligands. When soluble and

volatile compounds are required for CVD, such difficulties can be overcome using

MOCVD. The major challenge for MOCVD is film contamination from the precursor

ligands and solvent (when it is used).

The CVD process can be explained as a series of steps.19 First, gaseous

precursors are transported to the CVD reactor. Second, the precursor gas dissociates

homogenously into many intermediate species. Third, these intermediate species diffuse

to the substrate surface through a boundary layer. Fourth, reactive and nonreactive

species are adsorbed on the substrate surface. Fifth, the heterogeneous chemical

reactions occur for the reactive species, and the species diffuse onto the growing film.

Sixth, the non-reactive species will not be adsorbed into the substrate, but will generate

by-products. Seventh, the diffusion of reactive species from the film surface to the gas

bulk through the boundary layer occurs. Finally, the non-reactive species, by-products,









and unreacted reactive species from the deposition pathway of the CVD reactor

will be transported to the exhaust system.19

Aerosol -Assisted CVD

A precursor for conventional CVD must be volatile and chemically stable. The

deposition of LaB6 by conventional CVD would have a limited choice of precursors due

to the need for volatility. However, aerosol-assisted CVD has been developed to allow

the use of non-volatile precursors.20 In this method, the precursor is transported to the

substrate in form of an aerosol droplet from a solution in an appropriate solvent or co-

solvents. Therefore, the precursor has to be stable in the selected solvent or co-solvents.

There are advantages and disadvantages of aerosol-assisted CVD. In terms of

transporting precursors, the aerosol process provides simplicity, reproducibility, and high

deposition rate. Precursors can be low of volatility and low thermal stability. However,

contamination from the solvent can affect the quality of the film. Residual particles may

remain after droplet evaporation during aerosol delivery of volatile precursors. Thus, the

choice of solvent and precursor is a crucial issue for the film deposition. Figures 1.4 and

1.5 show the CVD system used for the aerosol-assisted CVD experiment described later.











Dissolved
Precursor from
Syringe Pump


Sight
Glass


Carrier Gas
Curtain Inlet


Gate Valve (forapl

loadinse

Cooling
Water Jacket -


Graphite
Suscento

Cooling Water
Jacket

Throttle Valve

Cold Tran

To
Vacuum
Pumn


Precursor


Vibrating
Quartz,
Plate


iit~-Imp~iinging


Tubing Carrier Gas
to


Cable to
Power Supply Note: Not to Scale


Figure 1.4 CVD ultrasonic nebulizing delivery system and reactor














r. r


Figure 1.5 Picture of CVD system


I;

01















CHAPTER 2
MOCVD PRECURSORS FOR LaB6

Introduction

There are two types of precursor systems for CVD: single source precursors and

two-component precursors used in co-reactant systems. The single source precursor is

one that provides more than one element for the film. The two-component co-reactant

systems use a separate compound for each element. Thus in a two component system for

CVD of LaB6, lanthanum complexes would be used for the source of La, and boron

hydrides (e.g., B2H6 and BH3 in Solution of tetrahydrofuran) would be used for the source

of B. This chapter discusses the chemistry of La complexes.

One aspect of this proj ect is focused on the chemistry of tetrahydroborate with La

complexes bearing bulky ligands (e.g., polypyrazolyl berates). Although these types of

complexes would probably be poor precursors, lanthanum complexes with this type of

ligand are good models to learn substitution chemistry of tetraborohydroborate at La

because the bulkiness of the ligands provides control over the coordination sphere.

Polv(pyrazolvl)borate Linands

S since the rep ort of poly(pyrazolyl)b orate s by Trofi menko nearly thi rty y ears

ago,21 pOly(pyrazolyl)borates have been studied widely in coordination chemistry.22-26

Poly(pyrazolyl)borate ligands can be easily prepared by reaction a pyrazole with a

borohydride salt (e.q. 2.3). These ligands have been used as coordination-controlling

environments for many transition metals. However, the coordination chemistry of the









lanthanide series is more complex in comparison to the transition metals because of the

larger size of the metal ions.27 COordination numbers in the lanthanide series can be up

to 8 or 9 depending on the size of the metal and the size of ligands on a complex. Based

on the results with transition metals, poly(pyrazolyl)b orates are good candidate

ligands for the study of coordination and substitution of tetrahydroborate on lanthanum.

Pyrazole and Pyrazolide lon

Poly(pyrazolyl)borates are derivatives of pyrazole ligands. Substituents on the

pyrazole rings determine the nucleophilicity and steric accessibility.26





N~T



a pyrazole a pyrazolide ion

Abbreviations for Polv(pyrazolvl)borate Linands

There are a variety of pyrazole substituents that have been used in preparation of

poly(pyrazolyl)b orate s. The Tp and Tp/ nomenclature refers to HB(pz)3 and HB(3,5-

MezpZ)3 TOSpectively.28 Other poly(pyrazolyl)borate ligands have common names based

on the Tp abbreviation. For example, Tp tBu is HB(3-Butpz)3.22 Table 1 shows a

selection of abbreviations for tris(pyrazolyl) borate ligands.




KBH4 5 N elxK[HB(pz)3] or KTp


H (2.3)





















Table 1

Abbreviation Structure R3 R4 Rs

Tp HB(pz)3 H H H

Tpme2 Or Tp' HB(dmpz)3 Me H Me

Tph HB (3-phenylpyrazolyl)3 Ph H H



Characteristics of Polv(pyrazolvl)borate Linands

Poly(pyrazolyl)borates are isoelectronic with cyclopentadienyl because they are

six electron donors with one minus charge. Also, they bind to three coordination sites of

a metal.22 Figure 2. 1 shows the bonding modes of coordinated hydrotri s(pyrazolyl)borate

and cyclopentadienyl ligands. The geometry of poly(pyrazolyl)borates can be bidentate

or tridentate, depending on the metals and the substituents on the pyrazoles.










R ,RR




RM R



5~R R


Figure 2.1 Bonding modes of hydrotri s(pyrazolyl)borate and cyclopentadienyl ligands

Lanthanum Polv(pyrazolvl)borate Complexes

Lanthanum is the biggest metal in the lanthanide series and can have up to nine

coordination sites. It generally has an oxidation number +3 in its complexes. With the

large size and ionic bonding of lanthanum, the geometry and steric control in lanthanum

complexes have been of interest. Bulky ligands such as poly(pyrazolyl)borates have

been used to control the lanthanum coordination sphere.29

There are several reports of synthesis of lanthanum complexes by the metathesis

reaction of a lanthanum halide with the sodium or potassium salt of a

poly(pyrazolyl)borate. Reaction of anhydrous LaCl3 Or lanthanum chloride hydrate with

KTp or NaTp in THF afforded a good yield of LaTp2 -.30

Substitution of the chloride ligand of Tp2LaCl with an anionic bidentate ligand

has been successfully reported. Anionic bidentate ligands such as P-diketonate, oxalates,

and carboxylates can be accommodated due to the eight possible coordination sites on La.

Some of these lanthanum complexes, such as are air stable and not moisture sensitive.31









Comparison of the Tp and Tp/ Ligands

The preparation of Tp lanthanum complexes faces the problem of ligand

redistribution. During higher temperature reactions, ligand redistribution of Tp on the

lanthanum complexes becomes signifieant.32 The more sterically demanding ligand Tp/

was found to suppress the ligand redistribution in the complexes.33

Also, lanthanum complexes with Tp ligands have difficulties with solubility. The

methyl groups on the 3/ and 5/ positions on the pyrazoles of Tp/ tend to alleviate this

problem. Moreover, with the steric crowding of Tp/, its lanthanum complexes tend to be

THF free, in contrast to related Tp lanthanum complexes, which have varying numbers of

coordinated THF ligands.

Metathesis Reactions of Lanthanum Trifiate

The synthesis of lanthanum poly(pyrazolyl)borate complexes was originally

carri ed out by metathesi s reacti ons of lanthanum hali de s with the poly(pyrazolyl)b orate

salt. Metathesis of lanthanum trifiate has been subsequently investigated. Trifiates were

chosen as alternative starting materials because they contain a better leaving group

relative to chlorides.34 The lanthanum complexes containing a trifiate ligand are good

starting materials for further substitution chemistry.35 This complex offers several

advantages as compared to Tp2LaC1. The Tp/ ligand offers a more sterically demanding

environment and suppresses ligand distribution. The trifiate is a good leaving group

which will be good for substitution reactions.

Lanthanum 13-diketonate for MOCVD

P-diketonate complexes of metals have been used of the deposition of materials

for electroluminescent devices (EL). Most thin films for EL devices require deposition









techniques such as CVD. The CVD requires volatile precursors that do not decompose at

high temperature during the volatilation precursors. Lanthanum complexes that bear P-

diketonate ligands have been used for MOCVD due to the volatility properties of the

complexes.

Lanthanum complexes containing P-diketonate ligands are volatile, anhydrous,

unsolvated, and thermally stable.36,37 Fluorine substitution on the P-diketonate ligand

increases the volatility of complexes.

Lanthanum Tri s bi s(trimethyl silvl)ami do] for MO CVD

Tri s[bi s(trimethyl silyl)amido]lanthanum has been used for MOCVD of lanthanum

silicate thin films for semiconductor devices. The complex has been reported to be a

volatile monomeric complex, which was used in the presence of oxygen for deposit of

films over a wide range of temperature (350-600oC).38 With the present of silicon on the

complex, the silicon directly forms an lanthanum silicate film promoting the deposition.

The content of Si did not vary with depth in these relatively thick of the films.

Chemistry of Lanthanum Borohydride Complexes

There have been reports of lanthanum tetrahydroborate complexes prepared by

simple sub stituti on of borohydride for halide ligands. For example, the

tri s(tetrahydrofuran) lanthanum tetrahydroborate complex 3 has been reported.36 The

complex is easily prepared by reacting anhydrous lanthanum chloride with an excess of

sodium tetraborohydrate (e.q. 3.3). X-ray diffraction and 1B NMR data for the complex

have been reported.36,39










O








Structure of Tetraborohydrate Complexes

The structure of metal tetrahydroborate complexes has been investigated. The

structure of the complexes depends on the coordination environment and reaction

conditions.40 Marks and coworkers investigated the binding mode of the

organolanthanide tetrahydroborate complexes using IR and Raman spectroscopy.41 The

bonding of hydroborate and lanthanum is covalent.

Borohydride ligands can have four different modes depending on the environment

of ligands around the metal (Figure 2.2). The binding mode of the tetrahedral BH4

ligand to a metal ion is an important structural feature of the complex. Only bidentate

and tridentate binding modes are found in metal complexes as determined by IR. X-ray

diffraction can also provide useful data for the binding modes. However, NMR does not

yield meaningful structural information on tetrahydroborate metal complexes because

they are fluxional on the NMR timescale.


M ~HBH2 MMH BH M-H--BH3 M ZBH4



bidentate tridentate monodentate 10mic

Figure 2.2 Binding Modes of Borohydride










Conclusion

Lanthanum complexes bear poly(pyrazolyl)borate ligands have been synthesized.

Lanthanum complexes bearing such ligands are a good model to learn chemistry

substitution of lanthanum complexes with borohydride anion. Lanthanum complexes

used for the deposition of the CVD of LaB6. The study of lanthanum complexes

deposition allowed us to learn the optimized condition for the deposition of the CVD of

LaB6.















CHAPTER 3
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

Synthesis of MOCVD Precursors

Complexes 1-4 have been tested as precursors for CVD as a source of lanthanum

for LaB6. Each of these compounds has been synthesized following the literature

procedure.31,42,43


C3F7O

O a O a, O- La BH4 3




1 2 3



La[N(SiMe3)2 3



Lanthanum P-diketonate complexes such as 1 and 2 are good candidates for

lanthanum precursors for MOCVD of LaB6. The bulky P-diketonate ligands promote

volatility and inhibit association of the complexes during the deposition. Precursors 1

and 2 are easily prepared following the literature. 36,37

Complexes such as 3 precursors are good candidates for a single source precursor

for MOCVD of LaB6 which contain La and B.








The complex is easily prepared by reacting anhydrous lanthanum chloride with an excess

of sodium tetraborohydrate (e.q., 3.1).


(3.1) ---------------------+ La(NO3 3 *6H2~ O L



O OH C3F7
(3.2) C3Fy + La(NO3 3 6H20 Lai



2

(3.3) LaCl3 + 3 NaBH4 ~ a(H)

6~3

Complex 4 prepared following the literature.44 COmplexes 5 and 6 were

synthesized following the literature procedure for the simple metathesis reaction (eq.3.4-

3.5).45 Clark and coworkers investigated the reaction of the lanthanum complex 5 with
other ligands such as acetronitrile, benzonitrile, amines, puridine, and nitrile.38 Only

acetronitrile bound to the lanthanum complex, forming Tp 2La(MeCN)(OTf). Also the

addition of NaNO3 to the solution of the complex in THF resulted in the formation of

Tp/2 LaNO3 in mOnodentate fashion.























La(OTf)3 + 2 K(Tpi) TH Tp'2 LaOTf + 2 K(OTf)
RT
5 (3.4)

OOO
2 KTp+ + LaCl3 EO Tp2La(acac)
KOH 6
(3.5)

Mass Spectrometry and Film Growth Study of Complexes 1 and 2

Mass spectrometry experiments were carried out with both 1 and 2. These

experiments have yielded information about the fragmentation characteristics of the

complexes under gas phase ionization conditions. The utilization of mass spectral data

predicts possible mechanisms for MOCVD processes, and MS data provide probable

fragmentatiopatterns of the lanthanum complexes as CVD precursors.

The positive ion electron-impact ionization (EI) mass spectra of 1 and 2 yielded

similar fragments. The molecular ion could be observed from both 1 and 2. The base

peak in the El spectrum of 1 occurs at m/z 505 and is assigned to the [M CllH1902]

fragment uses from loss of the P-diketonate ligand. The organic ion observed in the El

spectrum occurs at m/z 57, corresponding to the fragment [t-Bu] Other mass envelopes

are consistent with a loss of [t-Bu] and the P-diketonate ligands.









The mass spectral analysis of 2 also yielded a similar pattern of fragments. The

base peak in the El spectrum of 2 occurs at m/z 729 and is assigned to the

[M C9H902F7] fragment which arises from loss of the P-diketonate ligand. The

organic ions observed in the El spectrum occur at m/z 57 [t-Bu] and 169 [C3F7] Other

mass envelopes are consistent with the loss of [t-Bu]' and [C3F7]

The mass spectral data collected for 1 and 2 offer some perspectives about their

potential as MOCVD precursors. The cleavage of the P-diketonate moiety from the

lanthanum complexes is necessary for the CVD process in forming LaB6 f11ms.

However, the observation of the organic fragments may indicate potential problems with

controlling contamination in films.

After the fragmentation analyses were carried out, precursors 1 and 2 were used to

deposit thin films. The source of boron was used either BH3 THF 1 M or diborane

(B2H6). Deposition tests required transport of the solid lanthanum precursor to the

reactor in the vapor phase. Each precursor was dissolved in an appropriate solvent to a

concentration of 12.6 mg/mL and volatilized using the nebulizing reactor described in

Chapter 1. Film depositions were carried out by Omar Bchir.

The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results do not indicate any film crystallinity for

growth from 1 or 2 except for SiO2 formation on the substrate Si (100) and Si (111) at

600, 700, 800, and 900 oC. The film composition was characterized by Auger electron

spectroscopy AES. AES results indicate deposition of B and a very small amount of La

(less than 1%) from 1. AES indicates deposition of La, B, C, O, and F from 2. The

concentration (atomic %) of La varied from 19%- 35 % at 600, 700, and 800 oC.

However, at 900oC, the AES result indicates 10 % of La.









Mass Spectrometry and Film Growth Study of Complex 4

Mass spectrometry experiments were carried out with 4. These experiments have

yielded information about the fragmentation characteristics of the complexes under gas

phase ionization conditions. The utilization of mass spectral data predicts possible

mechanisms for MOCVD processes, and MS data provide possible fragmentation

patterns of the lanthanum precursors under deposition conditions.

The positive ion electron-impact ionization (EI) mass spectrum of 4 was obtained.

The molecular ion could be observed at m/z 619. The base peak in the El spectrum of 4

occurs at m/z 160 and is assigned to the [N(SiMe3)2] fragment. Another lanthanum-

containing fragment was found at m/z 299 [M 2(N(SiMe3)2)] The mass spectral data

collected for 4 offer some perspectives about these systems as MOCVD precursors. The

cleavage of the trimethylsilylamido moiety from the lanthanum complexes is necessary

for the CVD process in forming LaB6 f11ms.

After the fragmentation analyses were carried out, precursor 4 was used to deposit

thin films. The source of boron was diborane (B2H6). Deposition tests required transport

of the solid lanthanum precursor to the reactor in the vapor phase. The precursor was

dissolved in benzonitrile to a concentration of 12.6 mg/mL and volatilized using the

nebulizing reactor described in Chapter 1.

The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate amorphous films were deposited on

Si (100) and Si (111) from 300-800 oC. The film composition was characterized by AES.

AES indicates deposition of B, C, O, and N during experiment with 4. However, the

AES data indicate that no La was deposited in the film.









Film Growth Study of 3

Precursor 3 was used to deposit thin film. The source of boron was used either

BH3 'THF 1 M or diborane (B2H6). Deposition tests required transport of the solid

lanthanum precursor to the reactor in the vapor phase. The precursor was dissolved in

benzonitrile to a concentration of 12.6 mg/mL and volatilized using the nebulizing

described in chapter 1.

The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate amorphous films were deposited on

Si (100) and Si (111) at 300-800 oC. The film composition was characterized by AES.

AES indicates deposition of B, C, and O during experiment with 3. However, AES data

indicate that no La was deposited in the films.

Conclusion

Several precursors were used to deposit on Si thin film at the optimizied

condition. The result showed that solvents and co-solvents might be the source the

contamination. Mass spectrometry study showed the cleavage of ligands that were

expected. La composition is less than 10 % on the film characterized by AES and XRD.















CHAPTER 4
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

General Methods

Standard inert atmosphere techniques were used throughout. Tetrahydrofuran and

benzene were purified by passage through a MBRAUN MB-SP series purification

sy stem.

All chemicals used were purchased in reagent grade and used with no further

purification. 1H, 13C 11B, and 19F NMR spectra were recorded on Varian Gemini 300

and VXR 300 spectrometers. IR spectra were recorded on a Perkin-Elmer 1600 FTIR.

High and low resolution mass spectrometry analyses were performed by the University of

Florida analytical service.

Tris 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione lanthanum (III) (1)

2,2,6,6-Tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione [H(thd)] (1.7 g, 9.3 mmol) was dissolved in 30 mL

of 95% methanol. NaOH was dissolved in 50 mL of 50% aqueous methanol. The

solution of NaOH (10 mL) was added into a solution of H(thd). Then the mixture was

added to a solution of lanthanum (III) nitrate heptahydrate (1.3 g, 3.0 mmol) in 50%

aqueous ethanol (30 mL). The mixture was allowed to stir for 2 hours. The solvent was

removed until the volume was decreased by half, and distilled water (50 mL) was added

to precipitate the product. The white solid was obtained by filtration and dried in vacuo

to obtain 1 in 90 % yield. The product was characterized by comparison with literature

data.37 1H NMR (CDCl3) 6 1.08 (s, 9 H), 5.68 (s, 1 H); 13C NMR (CDCl3) 6 28.88, 41.10,









93.26, 200.42 mp = 240 oC; LRMS (EI): m:z 688 [M] 631 [M t-Bu] +, 505 [M -

CllH1902]r ,287 [LaCsHloO2] 127 [C7H1oO2] r, 57 [t-Bu]

Tri s(2,2-dimethyl-6,6, 7,7, 8,8,8-heptafluoro-3 ,5 -octanedione)1lanthanum (III) (2)

Lanthanum (III) nitrate heptahydrate (0.4 g, 1.0 mmole) was dissolved in the

minimum amount of absolute methanol. The pH of the mixture was adjusted to pH 4-6

by adding the minimum amount of a solution of 4. 12 M aqueous NaOH. A solution of

2,2-dimethyl-6,6,7,7,8,8,8-heptafluoro-3,5-caein (Hfod) (0.9 g, 3.3 mmole) in 20

mL of absolute ethanol was brought to pH 7 using 4.12 M sodium hydroxide solution.

The mixture of Hfod and lanthanum (III) nitrate heptahydrate adjusted pH was allowed to

stir while 40 mL distilled water was added. The resulting precipitate was collected and

dried in vacuo. The product was obtained in 55% yield and characterized by comparison

with literature data.42 1H NMR (CDCl3) 6 1.12 (s, 9 H), 6.02 (s, 1 H); 13C NMR (CDCl3)

6 27.59, 27.83, 42.42, 85.84; mp = 226oC; LRMS, (EI): m:z 1024 M 967 [M t-Bu] ',

855 [M -C3F7] 169 [C3F7] 57 [t-Bu]+

Tri s(tetrahydrofuran) lanthanum tri s(tetrahydroborate) (3)

A mixture of anhydrous lanthanum chloride (1.0 g, 4. 1 mmole) and a 20 % excess

of sodium borohydride (0.6 g, 15 mmole) in 30 mL dry THF was allowed to stir for 12

hours. The white precipitate of sodium chloride was removed by filtration and the liquid

phase was collected. Then the solvent was removed by reduced pressure. The crude

product was obtained as a white solid in 75 % yield. The crude product was

recrystallized from a small amount of dry THF. The remaining sodium chloride was

separated by filtration. The product was dried in vacuo and afforded 3 in 58% yield as a









white solid, which was characterized by comparison to literature data.37 11B NMR (THF)

6 -20.00 (q, 3 B).

Tri s b is(tri methyl silvyl)ami dollanthanum(III) (4)

A mixture of anhydrous lanthanum chloride (2.0 g, 8.2 mmol) and LiN(SiMe3)2

(4.1 g, 25 mmol) was stirred in dry THF for 12 hours. The solvent was removed under

reduced pressure to obtain a white solid which was washed with petroleum ether.

Evaporation of the solvent afforded 4 in 80% yield. The product was characterized by

comparison to literature data.43,46 1H NMR (C6D6) 6 0.10 (s, 54 H), 13C NMR (C6D6)

s 25.4, m.p. = 146-147oC; LRMS, (EI): m z 619 [M] 618 [M H] ,

299 [M-2(N(SiMe3)2)] 160 [N(SiMe3)2]

Potassium hydrotris (3,5 -dimethyl pyrazolvl)borate

A mixture of potassium borohydride (0.2 g, 0.04 mol) and 5 equivalents of 3,5-

dimethylpyrazole (12 g 0.2 mol) was heated with stirring until hydrogen gas was

generated. The mixture was allowed to stir for 75 minutes. The mixture was then

cooled, and toluene was immediately added to the solution. The resulting precipitate was

filtered and air dried. The product was obtained as a white solid in 70% yield and

characterized by comparison with literature data. 1H NMR (acetone d6) 6 2.01 (s, 9H),

2.17 (s, 9H), 5.53 (s, 6H).

Bisrhydro(3,5 -dimethyl pyrazolvl)boratollanthanum (III) trifiate (5)

A mixture of KTp/ (3.90 g, 11.6 mmol) and lanthanum trifiate (3.40 g, 5.80 mmol) was

stirred in 100 mL THF at room temperature for 12 h. The solvent was removed under

reduced pressure. The solid was extracted with toluene (2 X 100mL) and the combined

toluene extracts were concentrated. The white solid was precipitated by cooling









overnight. The product was obtained in 85% yield by decanting off the mother liquor and

drying under vacuum. The product was characterized by comparison to literature data.35

1H NMR (CDCl3) 6 1.83 (s, 18H), 2.38 (s, 18 H), 5.67 (s, 6H); 13C NMR (CDCl3)

6 12.93, 13.5, 106.3, 145.7, 150.2; IR (KBr pellet, cm l) 2963 (sh), 2931 (sh), 2560 (sh)

v B-H, 2358 (s), 1550 (s), 1440 (s), 1410(s), 1352 (m), 1300 (m), 1204 (vs), 1034 (vs),

980 (m), 804 (s), 688 (m), 639 (m); LRMS (EI): m/z 882 [M] 813 [M- CF3] 733 [M -

OSO2CF3] +, 786 [M- (3,5-Mezpz)] +, 329 [La(3,5-MezpZ)2] +, 96 [3,5-MezpZ .

Potas sium Hydrotri s(pyrazol- 1-vl)b orate

A mixture of potassium borohydride (2.0 g, 37.0 mmol) and 5 equivalents of

pyrazole (12.6 g, 186.0 mmol) was heated together with stirring until hydrogen gas was

generated. The mixture was allowed to stir for 75 minutes. The mixture was cooled and

toluene (200 mL) was added to the solution. The resulting precipitate was collected by

filtration and air dried to obtain potassium hydrotris(pyrazol-1 -yl)borate in 65% yield as a

white solid. The product was characterized by comparison with literature data.

1H NMR (C6D6) 6 6.10 (t, 3 H), 7.20 (d, 3 H), 7.35 (d, 3 H).

Acetyl acetonatobi s rhdrotri s(pyrazol- 1-vl)b orato~l anthanum(III) (6)

Potassium hydrotris(pyrazol-1 -yl)borate (0.5 g, 2.0 mmol), pentane-2,4-dione (0. 1

g, 1.0 mmol), ethanol (10 mL), and 0.01 M aqueous KOH (10 mL) were mixed and

added to a solution of LaCl3 6H20 (0.3 g, 1 mmol) in water (15 mL). The mixture was

allowed to stir for 1 hour. The white solid precipitate was collected by filtration and

dried in vacuo to obtain 6 (70 %yield). The product was characterized by comparison

with literature data.31 1H NMR (CDCl3) 6 7.67 (d, 6 H), 7.14 (d, 6 H), 6.03 (t, 6 H),









5.63 (s, 1 H), 2.00 (s, 6 H); 13C NMR (CDCl3) 6 23.3, 44.0, 50.6, 133.2, 129.2, 105.6;

m.p. = 193oC.

Addition of sodium borohydride to Tp/2LaOTf

A solution of sodium borohydride (0.05 g, 1.2 mmol) in 10 mL dry THF was

added to a solution of Tp/2LaOTf (0.5 g, 0.6 mmol) in 25 mL dry THF. The reaction was

allowed to stir at room temperature for one day. After the reaction, the mixture was

extracted with toluene and evaporated to obtain the white solid in 55 % yield. 1H NMR

(CDCl3) 6 0.57 (s), 1.33 (s), 1.39 (s), 1.56 (s), 1.97 (s), 2.18 (m), 2.37 (m), 5.46 (s), 5.66

(d), 5.64 (s); 11B NMR (THF) 6 -14.95 (broad).

Addition of potassium borohydride to Tp'gLaOTf

A solution of potassium borohydride (0.04 g, 1.2 mmol) in 10 mL dry toluene was

added to a solution of Tp 2LaOTf (0.5 g, 0.6 mmol) in 25 mL dry toluene. The reaction

was allowed to stir at 60 oC for one day. After the reaction, the solvent was removed by

reduced pressure to afford the white solid in 70% yield. 1H NMR (CDCl3) 6 0.63 (s), 1.27

(s), 1.33 (s), 1.51 (s), 1.70 (s), 2.08 (m), 2.27 (m), 5.20 (s), 5.48 (d), 5.61(s).

Addition of BH_? THF to Tp zLaOTf

A solution of 1 M BH3 THF (1 mL) was added to a solution of Tp/ 2LaOTf (0.5

g, 0.6 mmol) in 20 mL dried THF. The reaction was allowed to stir at room temperature

for two days. Then, the mixture was extracted with 20 mL of dry toluene and the

solution was a vacuum filtered. The collected toluene solution was evaporated to obtain

a white solid residue in 55 % yield. 1H NMR (CDCl3) 6 1.77 (s), 2.23 (m), 3.67 (s), 5.71

(s), 5.86 (s), 5.96 (d).









Addition of Potassium Hydrotris(3,5- dimethylpyrazolvl)borate to

La(BH4 3(THF)3

A solution of KTp/ (1.7 g, 5.0 mmole) in 30 mL dry THF was added to a solution

of La(BH4)3(THF)3 (1.0 g, 2.0 mmole)in a 5 mL dry THF. The reaction was allowed to

stir at room temperature for two days. Then, the mixture was extracted with 20 mL of

dry toluene and the solution was vacuum filtered. The collected toluene solution was

evaporated to obtain a white solid residue in 60 % yield. 1H NMR (CDCl3) 6 0.59 (s),

1.27 (s), 1.34 (s), 1.40 (s), 1.58 (s), 2.02 (s), 2. 17 (s), 2.34 (m), 5.48 (s), 5.62(d), 5.72 (s).

Preparation of Precursor 1 for LaB6 Deposition

All syringes were prepared in a dry box. Compound 1 (0.12 g, 0.14 mmol) was

dissolved in 9.5 mL of triglyme in a small vial. Then, the solution of BH3 THF 1 M

(1.5 mL) was added into the small vial. After the compounds dissolved completely in the

solution, a syringe was filled with the mixture.

For a deposition with diborane, compound 1 (0.12 g, 0.14 mmol) was dissolved in

10.0 mL of tryglyme in a small vial. After the compounds dissolved completely in the

solution, a syringe was filled with the mixture.

Preparation of Precursor 2 for LaB6 Deposition

All syringes were prepared in a dry box. Compound 2 (0.18 g, 0.18 mmol) was

dissolved in 9.5 mL of benzonitrile in a small vial. Then, the solution of BH3 THF 1 M

(1.5 mL) was added into the small vial. After the compounds dissolved completely in the

solution, a syringe was filled with the mixture.










For a deposition with diborane, compound 1 (0.18 g, 0.18 mmol) was dissolved in

10.0 mL of benzonitrile in a small vial. After the compounds dissolved completely in the

solution, a syringe was filled with the mixture.

Preparation of Precursor 3 for LaB6 Deposition

All syringes were prepared in a dry box. For a deposition with diborane,

compound 3 (0.18 g, 0.18 mmol) was dissolved in 10.0 mL of benzonitrile in a small vial.

After the compounds dissolved completely in the solution, a syringe was filled with the

mixture.

Preparation of Precursor 4 for LaB6 Deposition

All syringes were prepared in a dry box. For a deposition with diborane,

compound 4 (0.18 g, 0.18 mmol) was dissolved in 10.0 mL of triglyme in a small vial.

After the compounds dissolved completely in the solution, a syringe was filled with the

mixture.
















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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Chuleekom Chotsuwan was bomn on May 3, 1979, at Nonthaburi, Thailand. She

grew up in a rural area of Thailand. As a child, she always had an interest in science and

experiments. In 1996, she got a scholarship from the Thai government to study chemistry

in the U.S. She started her undergraduate degree at University of Colorado at Boulder.

In 2001, she went to study in graduate school at the University of Florida and joined

Professor Lisa McElwee White's group and started her LaB6 MOCVD project. She

obtained her Master of Science in chemistry in May 2004.