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Effect of Water Hardness on the Survival of Rainbow Sharkminnow (Epalzeorhynchos frenatum) Eggs and Larvae


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EFFECT OF WATER HARDNESS ON THE SURVIVAL OF RAINBOW SHARKMINNOW ( Epalzeorhynchos frenatum) EGGS AND LARVAE By MICHAEL ANDREW ABERNATHY A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2004

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To my parents and fianc.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank: Dr. Frank Chapman for the intellectual and financial support that made this project possible. Dr. Charles Cichra for his statistical help as well as his guidance and support. Dr. David Evans for his advice and support. John and Kim Skidmore for opening up their farm and home to provide anything needed for the project and my aquaculture education. All of the people at the UF/IFAS Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Tropical Aquaculture Laboratory in Ruskin for their time and the use of their facilities. My father and late mother for their never ending support of my education. My fiancee Vanessa Wallach for her emotional and financial support. The faculty and students of the UF Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences for their ideas and friendship. iii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iii LIST OF TABLES...............................................................................................................v ABSTRACT.......................................................................................................................vi CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 2 METHODOLOGY.......................................................................................................6 3 RESULTS...................................................................................................................11 4 DISCUSSION.............................................................................................................14 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................26 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................29 iv

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 4-1 Replicate design for trials 1 and 2............................................................................20 4-2 Composition and chemistry for all treatment and control incubation waters..........21 4-3 Comparison of mean square root percent hatch (+ s.d.), mean square root percent larval survival (+ s.d ), and mean egg volume (+ s.d.) among incubation waters within treatments .....................................................................................................22 4-4 Comparison of mean square root percent hatch (+ s.d.) among treatments within incubation waters......................................................................................................23 4-5 Comparison of mean square root percent larval survival (+ s.d.) among treatments within incubation waters.........................................................................24 4-6 Comparison of mean egg volume (+ s.d.), in cubic millimeters, among treatments within incubation waters.........................................................................25 v

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science EFFECT OF WATER HARDNESS ON THE SURVIVAL OF RAINBOW SHARKMINNOW (Epalzeorhynchos frenatum) EGGS AND LARVAE By Michael Andrew Abernathy May 2004 Chair: Frank Chapman Major Department: Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Floridas highest grossing aquaculture product is ornamental fish for the aquarium trade. The native waters of many of the species are soft in terms of water hardness due to the fact that they are low in dissolved divalent cation concentrations. Some of those species have produced low hatch rates and larval survival when spawned in the typically hard water from the Floridan aquifer. This study used the rainbow sharkminnow (Epalzeorhynchos frenatum), a species native to soft water and one with consistently poor hatch (50%) and larval survival (70%), to test the effects of incubating eggs in waters with varying levels and types of water hardness. Four treatments, one with calcium and magnesium hardness, one with calcium only hardness, one with magnesium only hardness, and one with no water hardness, were tested. This study found that very soft waters (6.4-7.0 mg/L as CaCO 3 ) produced the highest hatch and larval survival. It also found that calcium is a necessary component of incubation water, and that vi

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magnesium is not a necessary component of incubation waters for the rainbow sharkminnow. vii

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Freshwater ornamental fish for the home aquarium are Floridas most valuable aquaculture commodity. The most recent survey reported 160 producers with farm gate sales totaling $42.4 million in 2001 (Florida Agricultural and Statistics Service [FASS] 2002). One of the more difficult aspects of ornamental aquaculture is husbandry during the early life stages. The most sensitive stage in the life cycle of a teleost is generally considered to be the developing egg and larva (Von Westernhagen 1988). One abiotic parameter having a major effect on egg development, and egg and larval survival is water hardness (Brown and Lynam 1981; Ketola et al. 1988; Spade and Bristow 1999). Water hardness is the measure of all divalent cations and is expressed in mg/L as calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ). Water hardness enters the aquatic environment through the leaching of sedimentary rock, containing sources of divalent cations, such as limestone and gypsum. In most natural bodies of freshwater, calcium and magnesium are the major constituents of water hardness (Boyd 1979). Historically, water hardness has been related to the capacity of water to produce lather from soap. Softer water produces more lather than harder water. Water hardness is often split into two categories; permanent and temporary. Temporary hardness is the part that is chemically associated with carbonate, such as CaCO 3 It is called temporary hardness because it can be boiled or precipitated out of a solution. Permanent hardness is the amount of hardness in excess of the carbonate hardness and cannot be boiled or precipitated out of solution. 1

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2 Water hardness has been shown to have a direct effect on the swelling of newly fertilized eggs, which is an important process during the early development of the teleost egg (Spade and Bristow 1999). The process of egg swelling, as described by Redding and Patino in The Physiology of Fishes (1993), is the uptake of extracellular water into the perivitelline space. The perivitelline space is located between the outer chorion of the egg and the vitelline membrane that surrounds the developing embryo. In a fertilized egg, the fluid filled perivitelline space provides room and protection for embryonic development (Eddy 1974). According to Rudy and Potts (1969) and Alderdice (1988), the egg draws in extracellular water due to the fact that it has greater osmotic pressure than the extracellular water it is bathed in. Osmotic pressure is greater in the perivitelline space of the egg because the vitelline membrane releases cortical substances into the perivitelline space which increases the osmotic pressure (Redding and Patino 1993). According to this theory, the greater the difference between the osmotic concentration of the perivitelline space and the extracellular water, the greater the swelling of the egg. Typically, egg swelling increases when water hardness decreases because low water hardness usually means low osmotic concentration. Other ions, both mono and multivalent, also play a role in egg swelling. The greater the valence of the ions, the greater the egg swelling is reduced (Eddy and Talbot 1983). Previous research has investigated the effect of water hardness on eggs and larvae of cultured fish. Spade and Bristow (1999) examined the effects of increasing water hardness on egg diameter and hatch rates of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) eggs. They found that increased water hardness of the incubation water reduced swelling (egg volume), which in turn stopped the eggs from rupturing and reduced buoyancy. The

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3 decrease in buoyancy was enough to stop eggs from floating out of hatching jars and being lost. Another study found that calcium, which is a component of water hardness, increased mortality of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) eggs when in high concentration of approximately 520mg/L in the incubation water (Ketola et al. 1988). In a similar study, Gonzal et al. (1987) found that over a range of water hardness from 100-600 mg/L as CaCO 3 silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) eggs had the greatest hatch and viability when incubated and hatched in 300-500 mg/L as CaCO 3 of hardness. These three studies demonstrated that water hardness has a direct effect on egg swelling and survival of developing eggs and larvae and that different species of fish have specific concentrations of water hardness for optimal egg and larval survival. Using the finding of these three studies, this study was designed to investigate the effects of varied concentration and type (calcium and/or magnesium) of water hardness on the survival of rainbow sharkminnow (Epalzeorhynchos frenatum) eggs and larvae. The rainbow sharkminnow is one of the popular species cultured for the ornamental fish trade. Typically, percent hatch for rainbow sharkminnow eggs is 50% and larval survival is approximately 70% (J. Skidmore, Golden Pond Tropicals, pers. comm. 2003). In Florida, the most common freshwater ornamental fish aquaculture practice is to raise fish in outdoor earthen ponds. Fish either spawn in the ponds or are brought indoors and spawned in water from the Floridan aquifer. Water from the Floridan aquifer in Hillsborough County, where most of the ornamental fish farms are located, is typically hard with average concentrations of 180mg/L of hardness as CaCO 3 (Shattles 1965). The rainbow sharkminnow was selected for this study because it met a number of criteria. It

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4 has low hatch and larval survival (50% and 70% respectively), and is native to soft water systems like many of the ornamental fish cultured in Florida (Froese and Pauly 2003; Rainboth 1966). It can also be hormonally induced to spawn and has high fecundity, with females producing around 10,000 eggs per spawn (Shireman and Gildea 1989), which provided sufficient numbers of eggs in a timely manner for the study. Of particular interest was the fact that the rainbow sharkminnow is native to waters of low hardness such as the Mekong River. One hypothesis for the cause of the low hatch rate and larval survival is that the eggs and larvae of the rainbow sharkminnow have evolved to develop in soft water, and therefore have low hatch rates and larval survival when incubated and hatched in hard water from the Floridan aquifer. Water hardness can be increased by the addition of salts containing divalent cations such as calcium chloride (Yeager 1994) and can be decreased by precipitating carbonates such as calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate out of a solution or via ion exchange or reverse osmosis. Therefore, hatchery systems can be adjusted to provide optimal water hardness levels for the incubation and hatching of different species of fish. Increasing hatch rates and larval survival would reduce the number of rainbow sharkminnows, or any species of cultured fish, needed to reach desired production levels. The reduction in broodstock numbers would decrease maintenance and breeding costs for a production facility. To test the effects of water hardness on rainbow sharkminnow eggs and larvae, eggs were incubated and hatched in reconstituted freshwater, of varying levels and type of water hardness. Hatch rate and larval survival were determined. Egg volume was measured to see if there was a relation between egg volume and hatch rates as previously

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5 documented for striped bass (Spade and Bristow 1999). As mentioned above, it is known that water hardness is directly related to egg swelling, which provides physical protection and room for the developing embryo, and egg and larval survival. Therefore, it is hypothesized in this study that a specific concentration of water hardness can be found for optimal hatch rates and larval survival of the rainbow sharkminnow.

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CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGY Two trials were conducted during the course of the experiment and both used the same methodology. A trial consisted of incubating rainbow sharkminnow eggs in waters of varying concentrations and types of water hardness. The first trial started on July 30, 2004 two days before the second trial started on August 1, 2004. Four females and eight males were used for each trial, each female was considered a replicate, providing four replicates per trial. The four females used in the first trial were different fish than those used in the second trial. The experimental design for each trial is given in Table 1. The reconstituted waters used for incubation were prepared based on the formulations provided by Marking and Dawson (1973) and varied principally on the concentration, presence, or absence of the calcium and magnesium ions. Marking and Dawson (1973) categorized their reconstituted freshwaters by level of hardness, measured as mg/L of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ), with very soft being 10-13, soft 40-48, moderately hard 80-100, hard 160-180, and very hard 280-320, abbreviated as VS, S, MH, H, and VH, respectively. The different incubation waters in this study, which varied in levels of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ), calcium sulfate (CaSO 4 ), magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4 ), potassium chloride (KCl), and glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) were categorized using the VS, S, MH, H, and VH abbreviations. The amount of added constituents increased from the VS incubation waters which had the least, up to the VH incubation waters which had the most (Table 2). The incubation waters were prepared using Fisher 6

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7 Brand certified chemical reagents (Fisher Scientific Inc.). The solutions were first mixed then measured for water hardness, alkalinity, pH, and osmolality. Hardness measurements were made using the ManVer 2 Buret Titration method from the Hach water analysis handbook 3 rd edition (Hach, Co. 1997). Alkalinity measurements were made using the buret titration method from the Hach water analysis handbook 3 rd edition (Hach, Co. 1997). pH was measured using a Corning 120 pH meter (Corning, Inc.), and osmolality was measured using a Vapro vapor pressure osmometer (Wescor, Inc.). Incubation water composition and chemistry is provided in Table 2. Four treatments (CAMG, CA, MG, and Z) were developed to test the effects of varying levels and different types of water hardness on egg development. Each treatment consisted of six incubation waters; VS, S, MH, H, VH, and a control. The CAMG treatment, named for having both calcium and magnesium hardness, was based solely upon the reconstituted waters developed by Marking and Dawson (1973). Therefore, the incubation waters of the CAMG treatment were of approximately equal chemistry and composition to the reconstituted freshwaters developed by Marking and Dawson (1973). The CAMG treatment was developed to test the effects of varying concentrations of calcium and magnesium hardness on egg swelling and egg and larval survival. The CA and MG treatments, named for having calcium and magnesium only hardness, respectively, were made to measure the effects of varying levels of calcium only and magnesium only hardness on egg swelling and egg and larval survival. The Z treatment was made to test the effects that hardness-free water had on egg swelling and egg and larval survival. Hardness levels remained approximately equivalent among the respective incubation waters of the CAMG, CA, and MG treatments. For the CA

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8 treatment, this was accomplished by adding molar equivalents of CaSO 4 for the MgSO 4 removed. The Mg treatment replaced CaSO 4 with molar equivalents of MgSO 4. The Z treatment, which had no water hardness, was made to measure the effect of hardness-free water on egg swelling and egg and larval survival. Each category of incubation water (i.e., VS, S, MH, H, and VH) had approximately equivalent osmolalities so that egg development could be compared within and among treatments without the confounding variable of differing osmolality. For the Z treatment, glucose replaced hardness constituents to keep the osmolality of the incubation waters equivalent to those of the other three treatments. Glucose was used because it is a non-electrolyte macromolecule that does not have any inhibitory effects on egg swelling and cannot pass through the chorion of the egg (Potts and Rudy 1969; Eddy 1974). Water pumped from the Floridan aquifer up to the Golden Pond Tropicals fish farm was used as the control so that egg development in the four test treatments could be compared to current on-farm hatch rates and larval survival. Control water hardness, alkalinity, pH, and osmolality were measured, using the same methods as were used for the incubation waters, and are provided in Table 2. Rainbow sharkminnows were seined from earthen ponds and placed into 160-L foam holding vats filled with pond water. Females were sedated with 80mg/L of tricaine methanesulfonate (Western Chemical Inc.) and then catheterized to attain egg samples. Only females whose eggs had the germinal vesicle near the periphery were considered mature and selected for the study. Two males were selected for every female to ensure there was enough milt to fertilize all of the eggs. Males were chosen by size, with 10 cm (total length) or larger fish considered sexually mature % (J. Skidmore, Golden Pond

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9 Tropicals, pers. comm. 2003). Within an hour of collection, the females were sedated a second time with 80mg/L of tricaine methanesulfonate and injected at the base of the dorsal fin with a primer dose, 20% of the total dose of one microgram (1g) ovaprim (Syndel International, Inc.) to one gram (1g) of fish. Six hours after the primer, the remainder of the dose was injected into the females after they were sedated a third time with 80mg/L of tricaine methanesulfonate. Males were sedated with the same dose of tricaine methanesulfonate as the females and injected at the base of the dorsal fin with a full dose of ovaprim (1g ovaprim/ 1g of fish) immediately after the females were given their second injection. The injection sequence was designed so that the eggs and milt would be ready for stripping at the same time. Females and males were stripped of eggs and milt four to six hours after the final injection. Eggs from each female were placed into separate glass dishes. Milt from the two males was mixed with the eggs in each dish using a feather. A small plastic spoon was used to place approximately 100 eggs into a glass jar with 10ml of incubation water for activation. After swirling the eggs, milt, and water together for one minute to allow for fertilization, eggs were placed into glass dishes with 150ml of incubation water where they remained for the duration of the experiment. Fifty percent water changes were made every six hours to reduce water contamination by egg metabolites. Incubation temperature was 26.6 C and all tests were run in a dimly lit room. Egg development was observed and photographs taken over a 37-hour period after the eggs were placed into the dishes. Dead eggs, those which had ruptured or appeared cloudy, were removed after each photo set. Egg diameter was measured after 13.5-14.5 hours of incubation, at which time swelling was considered complete. Egg volume

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10 comparisons between and within CAMG and CA treatments were made. Treatments MG and Z were not part of the comparison because all eggs in those treatments were dead and it was impossible to obtain good measurements due to their poor condition. Eggs were counted and diameters measured using image analysis software (Motic Images 2000, version 1.3) installed in a personal computer. Egg volume was calculated using the equation D/6, where D is the egg diameter. Percent hatch was measured by dividing the number of hatched eggs by the number of fertilized eggs. Larval survival was determined 12 hours after the eggs hatched by dividing the number of surviving larvae by the number of hatched eggs. Percent hatch and percent larval survival were calculated for each dish because the number of eggs varied from dish to dish. This allowed for a comparison of incubation waters independent of the number of eggs in each dish. Percents for hatch and larval survival were transformed to square root percent hatch and larval survival before being analyzed statistically. The data were transformed to increase the R, which is the proportion of the variability that the analysis could explain. Separate one-way ANOVAs were performed to determine if the type and concentration of water hardness had an effect on egg volume, hatch rate, and larval survival. If significant effect was found, differences among treatment means were determined via a Duncans Multiple Comparison Test. The square root percent hatch and larval survival were regressed on the volume of the eggs from the CAMG and CA treatments to determine if there was a relation between volume and hatch or volume and larval survival. A significance level of alpha=0.05 was used for all tests. All analysis were conducted using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS 1985).

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CHAPTER 3 RESULTS Within the CAMG treatment, the hardness of the H incubation water (154mg/L as CaCO 3 ) was more similar to the control water hardness (180mg/L as CaCO 3 ) than the VS, S, MH, and VH incubation waters (Table 2). The control water, which was pumped from the Floridan aquifer, was the same water that was used on the fish farm where the study was conducted. There was no significant difference in egg volume, hatch, or larval survival between the H incubation water of the CAMG treatment and the control water (Table 3). Therefore, the CAMG treatment and all other treatments which were derived from the CAMG treatment were considered appropriate test waters to compare to the hard water from the Floridan aquifer. The VS incubation waters of the CAMG and CA treatment had significantly greater egg volume than all other incubation waters of the CAMG and CA treatments, respectively (Table 3). These data also show that egg volume decreased as hardness increased from the VS incubation water to the VH incubation water in both the CAMG and CA treatments. Table 2 shows that the amount of added constituents increased going from the VS incubation waters to the VH incubation waters. This suggests that there was a relationship between the amount of added constituents in the incubation waters and egg volume. Table 3 also shows that the VS incubation waters of the CAMG and CA treatments had significantly higher larval survival than the H, VH, and control incubation waters of the CAMG and CA treatments. The regression analysis of the square 11

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12 root percent larval survival (SRPERLRV) on egg volume within the CAMG treatment shows that there was a positive relationship between egg volume and larval survival with greater volume resulting in greater larval survival (SRPERLRV = -3.06 + 0.26 [egg volume], N = 24, R 2 = 0.36, p < 0.01). The regression analysis of the SRPERLRV on egg volume within the CA treatment also shows that there was a positive relationship between egg volume and larval survival with greater volume resulting in greater larval survival (SRPERLRV = -3.33 + 0.33 [egg volume], N = 24, R 2 = 0.44, p < 0.001). The CA treatment tested the effects of removing magnesium from the CAMG incubation waters. The similar results for square root percent hatch and square root percent larval survival for the CAMG and CA treatments demonstrate that magnesium is not a necessary component in the incubation and hatch waters for rainbow sharkminnow eggs (Tables 4 and 5). The MG treatment tested the effects of removing calcium from the CAMG incubation waters. All of the eggs in the VS, S, MH, H, and VH incubation waters of the MG treatment died. The results suggest that calcium is an essential component of incubation waters for rainbow sharkminnow eggs. The Z treatment tested the effects of removing all hardness (calcium and magnesium) from the CAMG incubation waters. As a result of omitting the calcium and magnesium, the sulfate was also omitted from the incubation waters (VS, S, MH, H, and VH) of the Z treatment and was therefore the only treatment without sulfate. All of the eggs in the Z treatment VS, S, MH, H, and VH incubation waters died. These results suggest that the absence of calcium, magnesium, and/or sulfate were the cause of egg death.

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13 There were no significant differences in hatch, larval survival, or volume among the eggs from all eight females incubated in the control water (Tables 4, 5, and 6). Due to the consistency among the eggs in the control water, it was possible to consider all females from both trials as equal (replicates) and to analyze the data for hatch, larval survival, and volume among and within all treatments and incubation waters.

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CHAPTER 4 DISCUSSION Egg mortality, due to a lack of calcium in incubation waters, has been previously documented by Lee and Hu (1983) with grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) and Brown and Lynam (1981) with brown trout (Salmo trutta trutta). They attributed the mortality to the fact that calcium is needed for normal hardening of the chorion (Zotin 1958) and that calcium is an important factor in controlling membrane permeability. Calcium ions decrease membrane porosity by allowing the closer packing of polar organic molecules in the membrane (Maetz 1974). A more porous or permeable membrane could result in osmoregulatory stress and subsequently death for the developing embryo. Calcium has also been shown to play an important role in the development of sea urchin eggs (Lytechinus pictus). At the instant of sperm contact, there is an initial depolarization of the plasma membrane which is followed by an extracellular calcium dependent action potential (Alderdice 1988). The similarities of sea urchin egg and fish egg development allow for the probability of a calcium-dependent electrical function following sperm contact in the rainbow sharkminnow egg. The mortality of the rainbow sharkminnow eggs, incubated in the MG and Z treatments calcium-free incubation waters, show that there is at least one extracellular calcium-dependent function during their development. Whether it was a disruption in normal egg swelling, of membrane permeability, of an action potential, or some other calcium dependent function, the disruption caused by the absence of calcium in the case of the Z and MG treatments caused 100% mortality of the 14

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15 rainbow sharkminnow eggs. The absence of sulfate from the Z treatment is not considered a cause of egg mortality because sulfate is not considered a necessary component of teleost egg development (Alderdice 1988). Lee and Hu (1983) found that magnesium is not a necessary component of incubation water for grey mullet eggs. Their findings are supported by the results from the magnesium-free incubation waters of the CA treatment of this experiment. Although magnesium is known to be necessary for some enzymatic functions in the metabolic cycle, the data from this study show that there are no extracellular magnesium dependent functions for egg development or for newly hatch larvae of the rainbow sharkminnow. All added constituents of the CAMG, CA, and MG treatments incubation waters were ions. Thus, solute concentration (osmolality) was directly proportional to the ionic concentration (increased solute concentration = increased ionic concentration). Increasing the solute/ionic concentration of the incubation waters increased the osmotic concentration (increased solute/ionic concentration = increased osmotic concentration). Egg volume in the CAMG and CA treatments, which was the measurement of the amount of egg swelling, decreased with increased osmotic concentration. This can be explained by the fact that egg swelling is an osmoticaly driven process. When osmotic concentration is greater inside the perivitelline space than the extracellular water surrounding the egg, extracellular water moves into the perivitelline space via osmosis causing the egg to swell. The fact that all eggs, in the CAMG and CA treatment incubation waters, increased in volume means that the CAMG and CA treatment incubation waters were hypoosmotic to the perivitelline space of the rainbow sharkminnow eggs.

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16 The swelling of the egg causes the internal hydrostatic pressure to increase (Alderdice et al. 1984; Kao and Chambers 1953). Alderdice (1984) explains that the flow of extracellular water into the perivitelline space of the egg (swelling) ceases when the hydrostatic pressure in the perivitelline space reaches a level which prevents further movement into the perivitelline space. As the hydrostatic pressure increases, so does the tension of the plasma membrane, which decreases its permeability to ions and water (Alderdice 1988). Decreased permeability would allow for greater protection against osmotic stress for the developing embryo. Therefore, one likely cause for greater egg and larval mortality, for eggs with intact protective chorions, found in the incubation waters with higher osmotic concentration and lesser egg volume was osmotic stress due to increased membrane permeability. The data (Table 2) also show that pH increased with greater osmotic concentration, and was therefore the lowest in the VS incubation waters of the CAMG and CA treatments. The significantly higher larval survival in the VS incubation waters compared to the H, VH, and control incubation waters is not believed to be related to the lower pH, nor is the higher pH in the other incubation waters believed to be related to increased larval mortality. pH has been shown to be a factor in increased egg and larval mortality, but only when eggs were incubated and hatched at low (4.0-5.0) levels of pH (Ingersoll et al. 1990; Von Westernhagen 1988). Low pH impairs the function of the hatching enzyme (chorionase), can be toxic to newly hatched larva, and can inhibit egg swelling (Von Westernhagen 1988). The range of pH in this experiment (6.7-8.3) did not reach levels that are normally considered toxic to fish eggs and larva (Von Westernhagen

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17 1988), and were therefore not considered to have a significant effect on the survival or mortality of rainbow sharkminnow eggs and larvae. There are many possible factors for why the highest hatch and larval survival in the control incubation waters of this experiment were substantially lower than those experienced on the farm (21.8% hatch and 7.8% larval survival versus 50% hatch and 70% larval survival, respectively). Considering that the control and farm water were the same, on-farm breeding practices are equivalent to this experiment up to the point where eggs and milt were divided into the different incubation waters for the experiment. Handling of the eggs was increased in this experiment compared to on-farm practices during the spawning due to the experimental design, which could be one reason for increased egg and larval mortality. Another possible factor is that on-farm hatching is done in McDonald jars which have water pumped in at an approximate rate of 1 liter per minute. The constant flow of water changes the water in the McDonald jars hundreds of times a day ensuring that dissolved oxygen remains high and toxins, such as ammonia and carbon dioxide, remain low in the incubation water. Due to practical constraints, it was not possible to change the water in the incubation dishes during this experiment as quickly. It is therefore likely that oxygen levels were lower or toxin levels were higher resulting in increased egg and larval mortality. One other possible factor was that this experiment was conducted in August which is late in the spawning season (May through August) for rainbow sharkminnows. Hence, it is possible that the initial egg quality had begun to deteriorate, which would have decreased egg and larval survival. Experimental methods were consistent throughout the experiment. Therefore, any factors effecting egg

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18 volume, hatch, and larval survival were equal among all incubation waters, which validates the comparison of data from the trials and treatments of this experiment. The premise of this experiment was to investigate the effects of concentration and type (calcium and/or magnesium) of water hardness on egg and larval survival. It was found that calcium, which contributes to water hardness, and the total osmotic concentration are key factors in egg and larval survival for the rainbow sharkminnow. Although calcium and magnesium both contribute to water hardness, calcium, not magnesium, is necessary for the development and survival of rainbow sharkminnow eggs. Calcium, although necessary, was found to have a detrimental effect at higher concentrations due to its increasing the osmotic concentration of the incubation water which directly effected the swelling of the eggs, reducing larval survival. All other constituents of the incubation waters, such as magnesium, increased osmotic concentration of the incubation water, which reduced larval survival. Water selected for the spawning of rainbow sharkminnows should have an osmotic concentration similar to that of the VS incubation waters of the CAMG, CA, and MG treatments. It is also essential that the incubation water contain calcium ions for the proper development of the egg. Therefore, tests that measure the total hardness of water are not sufficient when determining the potential use of that water for the incubation of rainbow sharkminnow eggs. Instead, testing for the presence and concentration of calcium and the total osmotic concentration of the incubation water would be more effective. More research is needed to further examine the hydromineral ion criteria for the incubation of rainbow sharkminnow eggs and many other cultured and non cultured species of fish. For cultured fishes, research should use on-farm spawning and incubation practices so that

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19 the experimental data can be compared directly to data from on-farm practices. Ketola et al. (1988) found similar responses of Atlantic salmon, rainbow trout, and brook trout eggs to high levels of calcium (water hardness). It is therefore likely that the results from this experiment can be applied to closely related species that share the same native waters such as the redtail sharkminnow (Epalzeochynchos bicolor). Further research should be conducted to confirm or dismiss this idea.

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20 Table 4-1. Replicate design for trials 1 and 2 Trial a #2 Incubation waters for treatments b CA and MG Female c #5 VS S MH H VH Control Female #6 VS S MH H VH Control Female #7 VS S MH H VH Control Female #8 VS S MH H VH Control a Trials consisted of incubating rainbow sharkminnow eggs in each of two treatment's incubation waters. Trial 1 was conducted two days before and with four different females than trial 2. b Treatments consisted of calcium and magnesium water hardness (CAMG), no water hardness (Z), calcium only water hardness (CA), and magnesium only water hardness (MG). Each treatment was divided into five incubation waters; VS, S, MH, H, and VH which correspond to very soft, soft, moderately hard, hard, and very hard, respectively. Very soft had the least amount of added constituents increasing up to very hard which had the most. Water from the Floridan aquifer was used as the control. c Each female was considered a replicate.

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Table 4-2. Composition and chemistry for all treatment and control incubation waters. TreatmentIncubation waterHardnessaAlkalinitya CaSO+2HOb MgSO b 424 KClb NaCO3b Glucoseb OsmolalitycpHTrial d 1CAMGVS6.48.07.57.50.512.0N/A466.7S34.026.030.030.02.048.0N/A477.2MH80.049.660.060.04.096.0N/A497.7H154.0104.0120.0120.08.0192.0N/A518.0VH310.0210.0240.0240.016.0384.0N/A568.2ZVS0.06.0N/AN/A0.512.072.0476.7S0.024.8N/AN/A2.048.0290.0477.1MH0.050.0N/AN/A4.096.0580.0507.5H0.0102.0N/AN/A8.0192.01159.0548.0VH0.0208.0N/AN/A16.0384.02318.0568.3Control e180.0150.0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A557.2Trial d 2CAVS6.87.221.5N/A0.512.0N/A476.7S36.024.086.0N/A2.048.0N/A487.1MH76.052.0171.5N/A4.096.0N/A517.4H162.0106.0346.0N/A8.0192.0N/A528.0VH292.0164.0686.0N/A16.0384.0N/A578.2MGVS7.08.0N/A10.50.512.0N/A496.8S34.024.0N/A42.02.048.0N/A507.0MH74.054.0N/A84.04.096.0N/A517.5H150.0106.0N/A167.58.0192.0N/A568.1VH310.0218.0N/A335.016.0384.0N/A608.3Control e180.0150.0N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A557.2a Hardness and alkalinity are given in mg/L as CaCO3.b Chemical compounds were added to deionized water and are given in mg/L.c Osmolality is given in mmol/Kg of H20.d Trials consisted of incubating rainbow shark eggs in each of two treatment's incubation waters. Trial 1 was conducted two days before and with four different females than trial 2.e Control water was pumped up from the Floridan aquifer. 21

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Table 4-3. Comparison of mean square root percent hatch (+ s.d.), mean square root percent larval survival (+ s.d ), and mean egg volume (+ s.d.) among incubation waters within treatments Trial b 1 CAMG treatment aZ treatmentIncubation water Hatch c Larval survival dVolume eIncubation water Hatch Larval survival Volume VS4.52 + 1.08A3.13 + 1.59A22.95 + 1.36AVS0.00 + 0.00B0.00 + 0.00A NA fS4.49 + 1.75A2.14 + 2.81AB19.78 + 0.68BS0.00 + 0.00B0.00 + 0.00ANAMH4.18 + 1.30A1.93 + 2.45AB17.68 + 1.32BMH0.00 + 0.00B0.00 + 0.00ANAH2.83 + 2.00A0.18 + 0.36B13.72 + 1.50CH0.00 + 0.00B0.00 + 0.00ANAVH2.35 + 1.91A0.00 + 0.00B11.69 + 1.49CVH0.00 + 0.00B0.00 + 0.00ANAControl1.85 + 2.16A0.00 + 0.00B12.23 + 2.18CControl1.85 + 2.16A0.00 + 0.00ANATrial b 2CA treatmentMG treatmentIncubation water Hatch Larval survival Volume Incubation water Hatch Larval survival Volume VS6.67 + 0.78A5.05 + 1.74A23.77 + 1.02AVS0.00 + 0.00A0.00 + 0.00ANAS5.37 + 1.07A3.30 + 2.25AB19.49 + 1.41BS0.00 + 0.00A0.00 + 0.00ANAMH4.99 + 1.47A2.76 + 1.67ABC16.65 + 2.49CMH0.00 + 0.00A0.00 + 0.00ANAH4.77 + 1.39A0.00 + 0.00C13.58 + 0.39DH0.00 + 0.00A0.00 + 0.00ANAVH4.38 + 1.72A1.19 + 2.38BC12.12 + 0.50DVH0.00 + 0.00A0.00 + 0.00ANAControl1.82 + 2.26B0.69 + 1.39BC11.77 + 2.09DControl1.82 + 2.26A0.69 + 1.39ANAa Treatments consisted of calcium and magnesium water hardness (CAMG), no water hardness (Z), into five incubation waters; VS, S, MH, H, and VH which correspond to very soft, soft, moderately hard, hard, and very hard, respectively. Very soft had the least amount of added constituents increasing up to very hard, which had the most. Water from the Floridan aquifer was used as the control.b Trials consisted of incubating rainbow shark eggs in each of two treatment's incubation waters. Trial 1 was conducted two days before and with four different females than trial 2.c Means of square root percent hatch within each treatment not sharing a common letter differ significantly.d Means of square root percent larval survival within each treatment not sharing a common letter differ significantly. e Means of egg volume within each treatment not sharing a common letter differ significantly. Significance determined by Duncan's New Multiple Range Test; P<0.05. f Volumes of dead eggs not measured. All eggs in Z and MG treatments died. 22

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Table 4-4. Comparison of mean square root percent hatch ( + s.d.) among treatments within incubation waters. 23 Incubation water b c Treatment a VS S MH H VH Control Trial d 1 CAMG 4.52 + 1.08 B 4.49 + 1.75 A 4.18 + 1.30 A 2.83 + 2.00 B 2.35 + 1.91 B 1.85 + 2.16 A Z 0.00 + 0.00 C 0.00 + 0.00 B 0.00 + 0.00 B 0.00 + 0.00 C 0.00 + 0.00 C 1.85 + 2.16 A Trial d 2 CA 6.67 + 0.78 A 5.37 + 1.07 A 4.99 + 1.47 A 4.77 + 1.39 A 4.38 + 1.72 A 1.82 + 2.26 A MG 0.00 + 0.00 C 0.00 + 0.00 B 0.00 + 0.00 B 0.00 + 0.00 C 0.00 + 0.00 C 1.82 + 2.26 A a Treatment waters consisted of a calcium and magnesium water hardness (CAMG), no water hardness (Z), calcium only water hardness (CA), and magnesium only water hardness (MG) treatment. b Each treatment was divided into five incubation waters; VS, S, MH, H, and VH which corresponded to very soft, soft, moderately hard, hard, and very hard water, respectively. Very soft had the least amount of added constituents increasing up to very hard, which had the most. Water from the Floridan aquifer was used as a control. c Treatment means, within each incubation water not followed by the same letter, differ significantly. Significance determined by Duncan's New Multiple Range Test; P < 05. d Trials consisted of incubating rainbow shark eggs in each of two treatment's incubation waters. Trial 1 was conducted two days before and with four different females than trial 2.

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Table 4-5. Comparison of mean square root percent larval survival ( + s.d.) among treatments within incubation waters. 24 Incubation water b c Treatment a VS S MH H VH Control Trial d 1 CAMG 3.13 + 1.59 B 2.14 + 2.81 AB 1.93 + 2.45 AB 0.18 + 0.36 A 0.00 + 0.00 A 0.00 + 0.00 A Z 0.00 + 0.00 C 0.00 + 0.00 B 0.00 + 0.00 B 0.00 + 0.00 A 0.00 + 0.00 A 0.00 + 0.00 A Trial d 2 CA 5.05 + 1.74 A 3.30 + 2.25 AB 2.76 + 1.67 AB 0.00 + 0.00 A 1.19 + 2.38 A 0.69 + 1.39 A MG 0.00 + 0.00 C 0.00 + 0.00 B 0.00 + 0.00 B 0.00 + 0.00 A 0.00 + 0.00 A 0.69 + 1.39 A a Treatment waters consisted of a calcium and magnesium water hardness (CAMG), no water hardness (Z), calcium only water hardness (CA), and magnesium only water hardness (MG) treatment. b Each treatment was divided into five incubation waters; VS, S, MH, H, and VH which corresponded to very soft, soft, moderately hard, hard, and very hard water, respectively. Very soft had the least amount of added constituents increasing up to very hard, which had the most. Water from the Floridan aquifer was used as a control. c Treatment means, within each incubation water not followed by the same letter, differ significantly. Significance determined by Duncan's New Multiple Range Test; P < 05. d Trials consisted of incubating rainbow shark eggs in each of two treatment's incubation waters. Trial 1 was conducted two days before and with four different females than trial 2.

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Table 4-6. Comparison of mean egg volume ( + s.d.), in cubic millimeters, among treatments within incubation waters. 25 Incubation water b c Treatment a VS S MH H VH Control Trial d 1 CAMG 22.9 + 1.36 A 19.78 + 0.68 A 17.68 + 1.32 A 13.72 + 1.50 A 11.68 + 1.49 A 12.23 + 2.18 A Z NA e NA NA NA NA 12.23 + 2.18 A Trial d 2 CA 23.77 + 1.02 A 19.49 + 1.41 A 16.65 + 2.49 A 13.58 + 0.39 A 12.12 + 0.50 A 11.77 + 2.09 A MG NA e NA NA NA NA 11.77 + 2.09 A a Treatment waters consisted of a calcium and magnesium water hardness (CAMG), no water hardness (Z), calcium only water hardness (CA), and a magnesium only water hardness (MG) treatment. b Each treatment was divided into five incubation waters; VS, S, MH, H, and VH which corresponded to very soft, soft, moderately hard, hard, and very hard, water respectively. Very soft had the least amount of added constituents increasing up to very hard, which had the most. Water from the Floridan aquifer was used as a control. c Treatment means, within each incubation water not followed by the same letter, differ significantly. Significance determined by Duncan's New Multiple Range Test; P < 05. d Trials consisted of incubating rainbow shark eggs in each of two treatment's incubation waters. Trial 1 was conducted two days before and with four different females than trial 2. e Volumes of dead eggs not measured. All eggs in Z and MG treatments died.

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LIST OF REFERENCES Alderdice, D. F. 1988. Osmotic and ionic regulation in teleost eggs and larvae. Pages 163-252: Hoar, W. S. and Randall, D. J. (Editors), Fish Physiology, Vol. A, Eggs and Larvae. Academic Press, New York. Alderdice, D. F., Jensen, J. O., and Velsen, F. P. J. 1984. Measurement of hydrostatic pressure in salmonid eggs. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 62: 1977-1987. Boyd, C. E. 1979. Water Quality in Warmwater Fish Ponds. Auburn University, Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn, AL, 359pp. Brown, D. J. A. and Lynam, S. 1981. The effect of sodium and calcium concentrations on the hatching of eggs and the survival of the yolk sac fry of brown trout, Salmo trutta trutta at low pH. Journal of Fish Biology. 19: 205-211. Eddy, F. B. 1974. Osmotic properties of the perivitelline fluid and some properties of the chorion of Atlantic salmon eggs (Salmo salar). Journal of Zoology, London. 174: 237-243. Eddy, F. B. and Talbot, C. 1983. Formation of the perivitelline fluid in Atlantic salmon eggs (Salmo salar) in fresh water and in solutions of metal ions. Comprehensive Biochemistry and Physiology. 75C: 1-4. Florida Agricultural Statistics Service (FASS). June 2002. Aquaculture. 1-4. Froese, R. and Pauly, D. Editors. 2003. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org version 09 December 2003. Gonzal, A. C., Aralar, E. V., and Pavico J. M. F. 1987. The effects of water hardness on the hatching and viability of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) eggs. Aquaculture. 64: 111-118. Ingersol, C. G., Mount, D. R., Gulley, D., La Point, T. W., and Bergman, H. L. 1990. Effects of pH, aluminum, and calcium on survival and growth of eggs and fry of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 47: 1580-1592. Kao, C. Y. and Chambers, R. 1954. Internal hydrostatic pressure of the Fundulus egg. 1. The activated egg. Journal of Experimental Biology. 31: 139-149. 26

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27 Ketola, G. H., Longacre D., Greulich A., Phetterplace, L., and Lashomb R. 1988. High calcium concentration in water increases mortality of salmon and trout eggs. The Progressive Fish-Culturist. 50: 129-135. Lee, C. S. and Hu, F. 1983. Influences of Ca and Mg ions on the egg survival of grey mullet, Mugil cephalus L. Journal of Fish Biology. 22: 13-20. Maetz, J. 1974. Aspects of adaptation to hypo-osmotic and hyper-osmotic environment. Pages 1-165: D.C. Malins and J. R. Sargent (Editors), Biochemical and Biophysical Perspectives in Marine Biology, Vol. 1. Academic Press, London, pp. 1-165. Marking, L. L. and Dawson, V. K. 1973. Toxicity of quinaldine sulfate to fish. Investigative Fish Control. No. 48, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, D. C., 8pp. Potts, W. T. W. and P. P. Rudy, Jr. 1969. Water balance in the eggs of the Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Journal of Experimental Biology. 50: 223-237. Rainboth, W. J. 1966. Fishes of the Cambodian Mekong. FAO species identification field guide for fishery purposes. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy, 265 pp., 27 color plates. Redding, M. J. and Patino, R. 1993. Reproductive physiology. Pages 503-534: Evans, D. H. (Editor), The Physiology of Fishes. CRC press Inc., Boca Raton, Florida. Rudy, P. P., Jr. and Potts, W. T. W. 1969. Sodium balance in the eggs of the Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Journal of Experimental Biology. 50: 239-246. Shattles, D. E. 1965. Quality of water from the Floridan aquifer in Hillsborough County Florida. Florida Board of Conservation, Division of Geology. Map Series No. 9. Shireman, J. V. and Gildea, J. A. 1989. Induced spawning of rainbow sharks (Epalzeorhynchos frenatum) and redtail black sharks (Epalzeochynchos bicolor). The Progressive Fish-Culturist. 51: 104-108. Spade, S. and Bristow, B. 1999. Effects of increasing water hardness on egg diameter and hatch rates of striped bass eggs. North American Journal of Aquaculture. 61: 263-265. Von Westernhagen, H. 1988. Sublethal effects of pollutants of fish eggs and larvae. Pages 253-347: Hoar, W. S. and Randall, D. J. (Editors), Fish Physiology, Vol. A, Eggs and Larvae. Academic Press, New York. Yeager, D. M. 1994. A System for Increasing Water Hardness in Culture Water at a Soft-Water Striped Bass Production Facility. The Progressive Fish-Culturist. 56: 56-57.

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28 Zotin, A. I. 1958. The mechanism of the hardening of the salmonid egg membrane after fertilization or spontaneous activation. Journal of Embryology and Experimental Morphology. 6: 546-568.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Michael Andrew Abernathy was born August 9, 1976, in Van Nuys, California. His youth was spent playing sports and fishing the coastal waters of southern California and northern Baja California, Mexico. He began pursuing his interests in marine biology as early as junior high school, and during his senior year of high school, co-founded a marine science club. His interests in marine biology did not wane, and after high school, he set off to the University of California at Santa Cruz to pursue a Bachelor of Science in marine biology. While acquiring his degree he developed an interest in aquaculture after completing an independent study on the topic. After four enjoyable years in Santa Cruz, he moved back to southern California with his degree in hand. After a few years of working, traveling, and caring for family, he decided to further his education and pursue his interest in aquaculture. In August 2002, he moved to Florida with his fiancee and enrolled as a graduate student under Dr. Frank Chapman at the University of Florida in the Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. He looks forward to receiving his Master of Science degree and moving back to California to start an ornamental aquaculture business, get married, and continue what has been a great life. 29


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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0004915/00001

Material Information

Title: Effect of Water Hardness on the Survival of Rainbow Sharkminnow (Epalzeorhynchos frenatum) Eggs and Larvae
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0004915:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0004915/00001

Material Information

Title: Effect of Water Hardness on the Survival of Rainbow Sharkminnow (Epalzeorhynchos frenatum) Eggs and Larvae
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0004915:00001


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Full Text












EFFECT OF WATER HARDNESS ON THE SURVIVAL OF RAINBOW
SHARKMINNOW (Epalzeorhynchosfrenatum) EGGS AND LARVAE














By

MICHAEL ANDREW ABERNATHY


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2004


































To my parents and fiance.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


I would like to thank:

Dr. Frank Chapman for the intellectual and financial support that made this project

possible.

Dr. Charles Cichra for his statistical help as well as his guidance and support.

Dr. David Evans for his advice and support.

John and Kim Skidmore for opening up their farm and home to provide anything

needed for the project and my aquaculture education.

All of the people at the UF/IFAS Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

Tropical Aquaculture Laboratory in Ruskin for their time and the use of their facilities.

My father and late mother for their never ending support of my education.

My fiancee Vanessa Wallach for her emotional and financial support.

The faculty and students of the UF Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

for their ideas and friendship.















TABLE OF CONTENTS



A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ......... ................................................................................... iii

LIST OF TABLES ........ .............. ........ ............ .......... .......... .. v

ABSTRACT ........ .............. ............. ..... .......... .......... vi

CHAPTER

1 IN TR O D U C TIO N ......................................................................... .... .. ........

2 M E TH O D O L O G Y ...................................................................... ......................... 6

3 RESULTS .................................... .................................. ........... 11

4 D ISCU SSION ..................................................................... ......... 14

L IST O F R E FE R E N C E S ............................................................................. .............. 26

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E TCH ...................................................................... ..................29
















LIST OF TABLES


Table page

4-1 R eplicate design for trials 1 and 2....................................... ........................ 20

4-2 Composition and chemistry for all treatment and control incubation waters. .........21

4-3 Comparison of mean square root percent hatch (+ s.d.), mean square root percent
larval survival (+ s.d), and mean egg volume (+ s.d.) among incubation waters
w within treatm ents ..................... ...... ............ .............................22

4-4 Comparison of mean square root percent hatch (+ s.d.) among treatments within
in cub ation w aters........... ..... ....................................................................... .. .... 2 3

4-5 Comparison of mean square root percent larval survival (+ s.d.) among
treatments within incubation waters.................... .. .... .............. ............... 24

4-6 Comparison of mean egg volume (+ s.d.), in cubic millimeters, among
treatm ents w within incubation w aters..................................................................... 25















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

EFFECT OF WATER HARDNESS ON THE SURVIVAL OF RAINBOW
SHARKMINNOW (Epalzeorhynchosfrenatum) EGGS AND LARVAE

By

Michael Andrew Abernathy

May 2004

Chair: Frank Chapman
Major Department: Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

Florida's highest grossing aquaculture product is ornamental fish for the aquarium

trade. The native waters of many of the species are soft in terms of water hardness due to

the fact that they are low in dissolved divalent cation concentrations. Some of those

species have produced low hatch rates and larval survival when spawned in the typically

hard water from the Floridan aquifer. This study used the rainbow sharkminnow

(Epalzeorhynchosfrenatum), a species native to soft water and one with consistently

poor hatch (50%) and larval survival (70%), to test the effects of incubating eggs in

waters with varying levels and types of water hardness. Four treatments, one with

calcium and magnesium hardness, one with calcium only hardness, one with magnesium

only hardness, and one with no water hardness, were tested. This study found that very

soft waters (6.4-7.0 mg/L as CaCO3) produced the highest hatch and larval survival. It

also found that calcium is a necessary component of incubation water, and that









magnesium is not a necessary component of incubation waters for the rainbow

sharkminnow.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Freshwater ornamental fish for the home aquarium are Florida's most valuable

aquaculture commodity. The most recent survey reported 160 producers with farm gate

sales totaling $42.4 million in 2001 (Florida Agricultural and Statistics Service [FASS]

2002). One of the more difficult aspects of ornamental aquaculture is husbandry during

the early life stages. The most sensitive stage in the life cycle of a teleost is generally

considered to be the developing egg and larva (Von Westernhagen 1988). One abiotic

parameter having a major effect on egg development, and egg and larval survival is water

hardness (Brown and Lynam 1981; Ketola et al. 1988; Spade and Bristow 1999).

Water hardness is the measure of all divalent cations and is expressed in mg/L as

calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Water hardness enters the aquatic environment through the

leaching of sedimentary rock, containing sources of divalent cations, such as limestone

and gypsum. In most natural bodies of freshwater, calcium and magnesium are the major

constituents of water hardness (Boyd 1979). Historically, water hardness has been

related to the capacity of water to produce lather from soap. Softer water produces more

lather than harder water. Water hardness is often split into two categories; permanent

and temporary. Temporary hardness is the part that is chemically associated with

carbonate, such as CaCO3. It is called temporary hardness because it can be boiled or

precipitated out of a solution. Permanent hardness is the amount of hardness in excess of

the carbonate hardness and cannot be boiled or precipitated out of solution.









Water hardness has been shown to have a direct effect on the swelling of newly

fertilized eggs, which is an important process during the early development of the teleost

egg (Spade and Bristow 1999). The process of egg swelling, as described by Redding

and Patino in The Physiology of Fishes (1993), is the uptake of extracellular water into

the perivitelline space. The perivitelline space is located between the outer chorion of the

egg and the vitelline membrane that surrounds the developing embryo. In a fertilized

egg, the fluid filled perivitelline space provides room and protection for embryonic

development (Eddy 1974). According to Rudy and Potts (1969) and Alderdice (1988),

the egg draws in extracellular water due to the fact that it has greater osmotic pressure

than the extracellular water it is bathed in. Osmotic pressure is greater in the perivitelline

space of the egg because the vitelline membrane releases cortical substances into the

perivitelline space which increases the osmotic pressure (Redding and Patino 1993).

According to this theory, the greater the difference between the osmotic concentration of

the perivitelline space and the extracellular water, the greater the swelling of the egg.

Typically, egg swelling increases when water hardness decreases because low water

hardness usually means low osmotic concentration. Other ions, both mono and

multivalent, also play a role in egg swelling. The greater the valence of the ions, the

greater the egg swelling is reduced (Eddy and Talbot 1983).

Previous research has investigated the effect of water hardness on eggs and larvae

of cultured fish. Spade and Bristow (1999) examined the effects of increasing water

hardness on egg diameter and hatch rates of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) eggs. They

found that increased water hardness of the incubation water reduced swelling (egg

volume), which in turn stopped the eggs from rupturing and reduced buoyancy. The









decrease in buoyancy was enough to stop eggs from floating out of hatching jars and

being lost. Another study found that calcium, which is a component of water hardness,

increased mortality of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salary rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus

mykiss), and brook trout (Salvelinusfontinalis) eggs when in high concentration of

approximately 520mg/L in the incubation water (Ketola et al. 1988). In a similar study,

Gonzal et al. (1987) found that over a range of water hardness from 100-600 mg/L as

CaCO3, silver carp (Hyp~gl ,1,h iL hinhyi \ molitrix) eggs had the greatest hatch and

viability when incubated and hatched in 300-500 mg/L as CaCO3 of hardness. These

three studies demonstrated that water hardness has a direct effect on egg swelling and

survival of developing eggs and larvae and that different species of fish have specific

concentrations of water hardness for optimal egg and larval survival.

Using the finding of these three studies, this study was designed to investigate the

effects of varied concentration and type (calcium and/or magnesium) of water hardness

on the survival of rainbow sharkminnow (Epalzeorhynchosfrenatum) eggs and larvae.

The rainbow sharkminnow is one of the popular species cultured for the ornamental fish

trade. Typically, percent hatch for rainbow sharkminnow eggs is 50% and larval survival

is approximately 70% (J. Skidmore, Golden Pond Tropicals, pers. comm. 2003). In

Florida, the most common freshwater ornamental fish aquaculture practice is to raise fish

in outdoor earthen ponds. Fish either spawn in the ponds or are brought indoors and

spawned in water from the Floridan aquifer. Water from the Floridan aquifer in

Hillsborough County, where most of the ornamental fish farms are located, is typically

hard with average concentrations of 180mg/L of hardness as CaCO3 (Shattles 1965). The

rainbow sharkminnow was selected for this study because it met a number of criteria. It









has low hatch and larval survival (50% and 70% respectively), and is native to soft water

systems like many of the ornamental fish cultured in Florida (Froese and Pauly 2003;

Rainboth 1966). It can also be hormonally induced to spawn and has high fecundity,

with females producing around 10,000 eggs per spawn (Shireman and Gildea 1989),

which provided sufficient numbers of eggs in a timely manner for the study. Of

particular interest was the fact that the rainbow sharkminnow is native to waters of low

hardness such as the Mekong River. One hypothesis for the cause of the low hatch rate

and larval survival is that the eggs and larvae of the rainbow sharkminnow have evolved

to develop in soft water, and therefore have low hatch rates and larval survival when

incubated and hatched in hard water from the Floridan aquifer.

Water hardness can be increased by the addition of salts containing divalent cations

such as calcium chloride (Yeager 1994) and can be decreased by precipitating carbonates

such as calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate out of a solution or via ion

exchange or reverse osmosis. Therefore, hatchery systems can be adjusted to provide

optimal water hardness levels for the incubation and hatching of different species of fish.

Increasing hatch rates and larval survival would reduce the number of rainbow

sharkminnows, or any species of cultured fish, needed to reach desired production levels.

The reduction in broodstock numbers would decrease maintenance and breeding costs for

a production facility.

To test the effects of water hardness on rainbow sharkminnow eggs and larvae,

eggs were incubated and hatched in reconstituted freshwater, of varying levels and type

of water hardness. Hatch rate and larval survival were determined. Egg volume was

measured to see if there was a relation between egg volume and hatch rates as previously






5


documented for striped bass (Spade and Bristow 1999). As mentioned above, it is known

that water hardness is directly related to egg swelling, which provides physical protection

and room for the developing embryo, and egg and larval survival. Therefore, it is

hypothesized in this study that a specific concentration of water hardness can be found

for optimal hatch rates and larval survival of the rainbow sharkminnow.














CHAPTER 2
METHODOLOGY

Two trials were conducted during the course of the experiment and both used the

same methodology. A trial consisted of incubating rainbow sharkminnow eggs in waters

of varying concentrations and types of water hardness. The first trial started on July 30,

2004 two days before the second trial started on August 1, 2004. Four females and eight

males were used for each trial, each female was considered a replicate, providing four

replicates per trial. The four females used in the first trial were different fish than those

used in the second trial. The experimental design for each trial is given in Table 1.

The reconstituted waters used for incubation were prepared based on the

formulations provided by Marking and Dawson (1973) and varied principally on the

concentration, presence, or absence of the calcium and magnesium ions. Marking and

Dawson (1973) categorized their reconstituted freshwaters by level of hardness,

measured as mg/L of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), with very soft being 10-13, soft 40-48,

moderately hard 80-100, hard 160-180, and very hard 280-320, abbreviated as VS, S,

MH, H, and VH, respectively. The different incubation waters in this study, which

varied in levels of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), calcium sulfate (CaSO4), magnesium

sulfate (MgSO4), potassium chloride (KC1), and glucose (C6H1206) were categorized

using the VS, S, MH, H, and VH abbreviations. The amount of added constituents

increased from the VS incubation waters which had the least, up to the VH incubation

waters which had the most (Table 2). The incubation waters were prepared using Fisher









Brand certified chemical reagents (Fisher Scientific Inc.). The solutions were first mixed

then measured for water hardness, alkalinity, pH, and osmolality. Hardness

measurements were made using the ManVer 2 Buret Titration method from the Hach

water analysis handbook 3rd edition (Hach, Co. 1997). Alkalinity measurements were

made using the buret titration method from the Hach water analysis handbook 3rd edition

(Hach, Co. 1997). pH was measured using a Coming 120 pH meter (Corning, Inc.), and

osmolality was measured using a Vapro vapor pressure osmometer (Wescor, Inc.).

Incubation water composition and chemistry is provided in Table 2.

Four treatments (CAMG, CA, MG, and Z) were developed to test the effects of

varying levels and different types of water hardness on egg development. Each treatment

consisted of six incubation waters; VS, S, MH, H, VH, and a control. The CAMG

treatment, named for having both calcium and magnesium hardness, was based solely

upon the reconstituted waters developed by Marking and Dawson (1973). Therefore, the

incubation waters of the CAMG treatment were of approximately equal chemistry and

composition to the reconstituted freshwaters developed by Marking and Dawson (1973).

The CAMG treatment was developed to test the effects of varying concentrations of

calcium and magnesium hardness on egg swelling and egg and larval survival. The CA

and MG treatments, named for having calcium and magnesium only hardness,

respectively, were made to measure the effects of varying levels of calcium only and

magnesium only hardness on egg swelling and egg and larval survival. The Z treatment

was made to test the effects that hardness-free water had on egg swelling and egg and

larval survival. Hardness levels remained approximately equivalent among the

respective incubation waters of the CAMG, CA, and MG treatments. For the CA









treatment, this was accomplished by adding molar equivalents of CaSO4 for the MgSO4

removed. The Mg treatment replaced CaSO4 with molar equivalents of MgSO4. The Z

treatment, which had no water hardness, was made to measure the effect of hardness-free

water on egg swelling and egg and larval survival. Each category of incubation water

(i.e., VS, S, MH, H, and VH) had approximately equivalent osmolalities so that egg

development could be compared within and among treatments without the confounding

variable of differing osmolality. For the Z treatment, glucose replaced hardness

constituents to keep the osmolality of the incubation waters equivalent to those of the

other three treatments. Glucose was used because it is a non-electrolyte macromolecule

that does not have any inhibitory effects on egg swelling and cannot pass through the

chorion of the egg (Potts and Rudy 1969; Eddy 1974).

Water pumped from the Floridan aquifer up to the Golden Pond Tropicals fish farm

was used as the control so that egg development in the four test treatments could be

compared to current on-farm hatch rates and larval survival. Control water hardness,

alkalinity, pH, and osmolality were measured, using the same methods as were used for

the incubation waters, and are provided in Table 2.

Rainbow sharkminnows were seined from earthen ponds and placed into 160-L

foam holding vats filled with pond water. Females were sedated with 80mg/L oftricaine

methanesulfonate (Western Chemical Inc.) and then catheterized to attain egg samples.

Only females whose eggs had the germinal vesicle near the periphery were considered

mature and selected for the study. Two males were selected for every female to ensure

there was enough milt to fertilize all of the eggs. Males were chosen by size, with 10 cm

(total length) or larger fish considered sexually mature % (J. Skidmore, Golden Pond









Tropicals, pers. comm. 2003). Within an hour of collection, the females were sedated a

second time with 80mg/L of tricaine methanesulfonate and injected at the base of the

dorsal fin with a primer dose, 20% of the total dose of one microgram (1 [tg) ovaprim

(Syndel International, Inc.) to one gram (Ig) of fish. Six hours after the primer, the

remainder of the dose was injected into the females after they were sedated a third time

with 80mg/L of tricaine methanesulfonate. Males were sedated with the same dose of

tricaine methanesulfonate as the females and injected at the base of the dorsal fin with a

full dose of ovaprim (1[tg ovaprim/ Ig of fish) immediately after the females were given

their second injection. The injection sequence was designed so that the eggs and milt

would be ready for stripping at the same time.

Females and males were stripped of eggs and milt four to six hours after the final

injection. Eggs from each female were placed into separate glass dishes. Milt from the

two males was mixed with the eggs in each dish using a feather. A small plastic spoon

was used to place approximately 100 eggs into a glass jar with 10ml of incubation water

for activation. After swirling the eggs, milt, and water together for one minute to allow

for fertilization, eggs were placed into glass dishes with 150ml of incubation water where

they remained for the duration of the experiment. Fifty percent water changes were made

every six hours to reduce water contamination by egg metabolites. Incubation

temperature was 26.6 C and all tests were run in a dimly lit room.

Egg development was observed and photographs taken over a 37-hour period after

the eggs were placed into the dishes. Dead eggs, those which had ruptured or appeared

cloudy, were removed after each photo set. Egg diameter was measured after 13.5-14.5

hours of incubation, at which time swelling was considered complete. Egg volume









comparisons between and within CAMG and CA treatments were made. Treatments MG

and Z were not part of the comparison because all eggs in those treatments were dead and

it was impossible to obtain good measurements due to their poor condition. Eggs were

counted and diameters measured using image analysis software (Motic Images 2000,

version 1.3) installed in a personal computer. Egg volume was calculated using the

equation 7tD3/6, where D is the egg diameter. Percent hatch was measured by dividing

the number of hatched eggs by the number of fertilized eggs. Larval survival was

determined 12 hours after the eggs hatched by dividing the number of surviving larvae by

the number of hatched eggs.

Percent hatch and percent larval survival were calculated for each dish because the

number of eggs varied from dish to dish. This allowed for a comparison of incubation

waters independent of the number of eggs in each dish. Percent for hatch and larval

survival were transformed to square root percent hatch and larval survival before being

analyzed statistically. The data were transformed to increase the R2, which is the

proportion of the variability that the analysis could explain. Separate one-way ANOVAs

were performed to determine if the type and concentration of water hardness had an

effect on egg volume, hatch rate, and larval survival. If significant effect was found,

differences among treatment means were determined via a Duncan's Multiple

Comparison Test. The square root percent hatch and larval survival were regressed on

the volume of the eggs from the CAMG and CA treatments to determine if there was a

relation between volume and hatch or volume and larval survival. A significance level of

alpha=0.05 was used for all tests. All analysis were conducted using the Statistical

Analysis System (SAS 1985).














CHAPTER 3
RESULTS

Within the CAMG treatment, the hardness of the H incubation water (154mg/L as

CaCO3) was more similar to the control water hardness (180mg/L as CaCO3) than the

VS, S, MH, and VH incubation waters (Table 2). The control water, which was pumped

from the Floridan aquifer, was the same water that was used on the fish farm where the

study was conducted. There was no significant difference in egg volume, hatch, or larval

survival between the H incubation water of the CAMG treatment and the control water

(Table 3). Therefore, the CAMG treatment and all other treatments which were derived

from the CAMG treatment were considered appropriate test waters to compare to the

hard water from the Floridan aquifer.

The VS incubation waters of the CAMG and CA treatment had significantly greater

egg volume than all other incubation waters of the CAMG and CA treatments,

respectively (Table 3). These data also show that egg volume decreased as hardness

increased from the VS incubation water to the VH incubation water in both the CAMG

and CA treatments. Table 2 shows that the amount of added constituents increased

going from the VS incubation waters to the VH incubation waters. This suggests that

there was a relationship between the amount of added constituents in the incubation

waters and egg volume. Table 3 also shows that the VS incubation waters of the CAMG

and CA treatments had significantly higher larval survival than the H, VH, and control

incubation waters of the CAMG and CA treatments. The regression analysis of the square









root percent larval survival (SRPERLRV) on egg volume within the CAMG treatment

shows that there was a positive relationship between egg volume and larval survival with

greater volume resulting in greater larval survival (SRPERLRV = -3.06 + 0.26 [egg

volume], N = 24, R2 = 0.36, p < 0.01). The regression analysis of the SRPERLRV on egg

volume within the CA treatment also shows that there was a positive relationship

between egg volume and larval survival with greater volume resulting in greater larval

survival (SRPERLRV = -3.33 + 0.33 [egg volume], N = 24, R2 = 0.44, p < 0.001).

The CA treatment tested the effects of removing magnesium from the CAMG

incubation waters. The similar results for square root percent hatch and square root

percent larval survival for the CAMG and CA treatments demonstrate that magnesium is

not a necessary component in the incubation and hatch waters for rainbow sharkminnow

eggs (Tables 4 and 5).

The MG treatment tested the effects of removing calcium from the CAMG

incubation waters. All of the eggs in the VS, S, MH, H, and VH incubation waters of the

MG treatment died. The results suggest that calcium is an essential component of

incubation waters for rainbow sharkminnow eggs.

The Z treatment tested the effects of removing all hardness (calcium and

magnesium) from the CAMG incubation waters. As a result of omitting the calcium and

magnesium, the sulfate was also omitted from the incubation waters (VS, S, MH, H, and

VH) of the Z treatment and was therefore the only treatment without sulfate. All of the

eggs in the Z treatment VS, S, MH, H, and VH incubation waters died. These results

suggest that the absence of calcium, magnesium, and/or sulfate were the cause of egg

death.






13


There were no significant differences in hatch, larval survival, or volume among

the eggs from all eight females incubated in the control water (Tables 4, 5, and 6). Due

to the consistency among the eggs in the control water, it was possible to consider all

females from both trials as equal (replicates) and to analyze the data for hatch, larval

survival, and volume among and within all treatments and incubation waters.














CHAPTER 4
DISCUSSION

Egg mortality, due to a lack of calcium in incubation waters, has been previously

documented by Lee and Hu (1983) with grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) and Brown and

Lynam (1981) with brown trout (Salmo trutta trutta). They attributed the mortality to the

fact that calcium is needed for normal hardening of the chorion (Zotin 1958) and that

calcium is an important factor in controlling membrane permeability. Calcium ions

decrease membrane porosity by allowing the closer packing of polar organic molecules in

the membrane (Maetz 1974). A more porous or permeable membrane could result in

osmoregulatory stress and subsequently death for the developing embryo. Calcium has

also been shown to play an important role in the development of sea urchin eggs

(Lytechinuspictus). At the instant of sperm contact, there is an initial depolarization of

the plasma membrane which is followed by an extracellular calcium dependent action

potential (Alderdice 1988). The similarities of sea urchin egg and fish egg development

allow for the probability of a calcium-dependent electrical function following sperm

contact in the rainbow sharkminnow egg. The mortality of the rainbow sharkminnow

eggs, incubated in the MG and Z treatments calcium-free incubation waters, show that

there is at least one extracellular calcium-dependent function during their development.

Whether it was a disruption in normal egg swelling, of membrane permeability, of an

action potential, or some other calcium dependent function, the disruption caused by the

absence of calcium in the case of the Z and MG treatments caused 100% mortality of the









rainbow sharkminnow eggs. The absence of sulfate from the Z treatment is not

considered a cause of egg mortality because sulfate is not considered a necessary

component of teleost egg development (Alderdice 1988).

Lee and Hu (1983) found that magnesium is not a necessary component of

incubation water for grey mullet eggs. Their findings are supported by the results from

the magnesium-free incubation waters of the CA treatment of this experiment. Although

magnesium is known to be necessary for some enzymatic functions in the metabolic

cycle, the data from this study show that there are no extracellular magnesium dependent

functions for egg development or for newly hatch larvae of the rainbow sharkminnow.

All added constituents of the CAMG, CA, and MG treatments incubation waters

were ions. Thus, solute concentration (osmolality) was directly proportional to the ionic

concentration (increased solute concentration = increased ionic concentration).

Increasing the solute/ionic concentration of the incubation waters increased the osmotic

concentration (increased solute/ionic concentration = increased osmotic concentration).

Egg volume in the CAMG and CA treatments, which was the measurement of the amount

of egg swelling, decreased with increased osmotic concentration. This can be explained

by the fact that egg swelling is an osmoticaly driven process. When osmotic

concentration is greater inside the perivitelline space than the extracellular water

surrounding the egg, extracellular water moves into the perivitelline space via osmosis

causing the egg to swell. The fact that all eggs, in the CAMG and CA treatment

incubation waters, increased in volume means that the CAMG and CA treatment

incubation waters were hypoosmotic to the perivitelline space of the rainbow

sharkminnow eggs.









The swelling of the egg causes the internal hydrostatic pressure to increase

(Alderdice et al. 1984; Kao and Chambers 1953). Alderdice (1984) explains that the

flow of extracellular water into the perivitelline space of the egg (swelling) ceases when

the hydrostatic pressure in the perivitelline space reaches a level which prevents further

movement into the perivitelline space. As the hydrostatic pressure increases, so does the

tension of the plasma membrane, which decreases its permeability to ions and water

(Alderdice 1988). Decreased permeability would allow for greater protection against

osmotic stress for the developing embryo. Therefore, one likely cause for greater egg

and larval mortality, for eggs with intact protective chorions, found in the incubation

waters with higher osmotic concentration and lesser egg volume was osmotic stress due

to increased membrane permeability.

The data (Table 2) also show that pH increased with greater osmotic concentration,

and was therefore the lowest in the VS incubation waters of the CAMG and CA

treatments. The significantly higher larval survival in the VS incubation waters

compared to the H, VH, and control incubation waters is not believed to be related to the

lower pH, nor is the higher pH in the other incubation waters believed to be related to

increased larval mortality. pH has been shown to be a factor in increased egg and larval

mortality, but only when eggs were incubated and hatched at low (4.0-5.0) levels of pH

(Ingersoll et al. 1990; Von Westernhagen 1988). Low pH impairs the function of the

hatching enzyme (chorionase), can be toxic to newly hatched larva, and can inhibit egg

swelling (Von Westernhagen 1988). The range of pH in this experiment (6.7-8.3) did not

reach levels that are normally considered toxic to fish eggs and larva (Von Westernhagen









1988), and were therefore not considered to have a significant effect on the survival or

mortality of rainbow sharkminnow eggs and larvae.

There are many possible factors for why the highest hatch and larval survival in the

control incubation waters of this experiment were substantially lower than those

experienced on the farm (21.8% hatch and 7.8% larval survival versus 50% hatch and

70% larval survival, respectively). Considering that the control and farm water were the

same, on-farm breeding practices are equivalent to this experiment up to the point where

eggs and milt were divided into the different incubation waters for the experiment.

Handling of the eggs was increased in this experiment compared to on-farm practices

during the spawning due to the experimental design, which could be one reason for

increased egg and larval mortality. Another possible factor is that on-farm hatching is

done in McDonald jars which have water pumped in at an approximate rate of 1 liter per

minute. The constant flow of water changes the water in the McDonald jars hundreds of

times a day ensuring that dissolved oxygen remains high and toxins, such as ammonia

and carbon dioxide, remain low in the incubation water. Due to practical constraints, it

was not possible to change the water in the incubation dishes during this experiment as

quickly. It is therefore likely that oxygen levels were lower or toxin levels were higher

resulting in increased egg and larval mortality. One other possible factor was that this

experiment was conducted in August which is late in the spawning season (May through

August) for rainbow sharkminnows. Hence, it is possible that the initial egg quality had

begun to deteriorate, which would have decreased egg and larval survival. Experimental

methods were consistent throughout the experiment. Therefore, any factors effecting egg









volume, hatch, and larval survival were equal among all incubation waters, which

validates the comparison of data from the trials and treatments of this experiment.

The premise of this experiment was to investigate the effects of concentration and

type (calcium and/or magnesium) of water hardness on egg and larval survival. It was

found that calcium, which contributes to water hardness, and the total osmotic

concentration are key factors in egg and larval survival for the rainbow sharkminnow.

Although calcium and magnesium both contribute to water hardness, calcium, not

magnesium, is necessary for the development and survival of rainbow sharkminnow

eggs. Calcium, although necessary, was found to have a detrimental effect at higher

concentrations due to its increasing the osmotic concentration of the incubation water

which directly effected the swelling of the eggs, reducing larval survival. All other

constituents of the incubation waters, such as magnesium, increased osmotic

concentration of the incubation water, which reduced larval survival. Water selected for

the spawning of rainbow sharkminnows should have an osmotic concentration similar to

that of the VS incubation waters of the CAMG, CA, and MG treatments. It is also

essential that the incubation water contain calcium ions for the proper development of the

egg. Therefore, tests that measure the total hardness of water are not sufficient when

determining the potential use of that water for the incubation of rainbow sharkminnow

eggs. Instead, testing for the presence and concentration of calcium and the total osmotic

concentration of the incubation water would be more effective. More research is needed

to further examine the hydromineral ion criteria for the incubation of rainbow

sharkminnow eggs and many other cultured and non cultured species of fish. For

cultured fishes, research should use on-farm spawning and incubation practices so that






19


the experimental data can be compared directly to data from on-farm practices. Ketola

et al. (1988) found similar responses of Atlantic salmon, rainbow trout, and brook trout

eggs to high levels of calcium (water hardness). It is therefore likely that the results from

this experiment can be applied to closely related species that share the same native waters

such as the redtail sharkminnow (Epalzeochynchos bicolor). Further research should be

conducted to confirm or dismiss this idea.









Table 4-1. Replicate design for trials 1 and 2
Trial a #2 Incubation waters for treatments b CA and MG


Female '#5 VS S MH H VH Control
Female #6 VS S MH H VH Control
Female #7 VS S MH H VH Control
Female #8 VS S MH H VH Control

a Trials consisted of incubating rainbow sharkminnow eggs in each of two treatment's
incubation waters. Trial 1 was conducted two days before and with four different
females than trial 2.
b Treatments consisted of calcium and magnesium water hardness (CAMG), no water
hardness (Z), calcium only water hardness (CA), and magnesium only water hardness
(MG). Each treatment was divided into five incubation waters; VS, S, MH, H, and VH
which correspond to very soft, soft, moderately hard, hard, and very hard, respectively.
Very soft had the least amount of added constituents increasing up to very hard which
had the most. Water from the Floridan aquifer was used as the control.
SEach female was considered a replicate.


















Table 4-2. Composition and chemistry for all treatment and control incubation waters.
Treatment Incubation water Hardness a Alkalinity a CaSO4+2H20 b MgSO4 b KCl b NaCO3 b Glucose b Osmolality c pH

Trial d 1

CAMG VS 6.4 8.0 7.5 7.5 0.5 12.0 N/A 46 6.7
S 34.0 26.0 30.0 30.0 2.0 48.0 N/A 47 7.2
MH 80.0 49.6 60.0 60.0 4.0 96.0 N/A 49 7.7
H 154.0 104.0 120.0 120.0 8.0 192.0 N/A 51 8.0
VH 310.0 210.0 240.0 240.0 16.0 384.0 N/A 56 8.2

Z VS 0.0 6.0 N/A N/A 0.5 12.0 72.0 47 6.7
S 0.0 24.8 N/A N/A 2.0 48.0 290.0 47 7.1
MH 0.0 50.0 N/A N/A 4.0 96.0 580.0 50 7.5
H 0.0 102.0 N/A N/A 8.0 192.0 1159.0 54 8.0
VH 0.0 208.0 N/A N/A 16.0 384.0 2318.0 56 8.3

Control e 180.0 150.0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 55 7.2


Trial d 2

CA VS 6.8 7.2 21.5 N/A 0.5 12.0 N/A 47 6.7
S 36.0 24.0 86.0 N/A 2.0 48.0 N/A 48 7.1
MH 76.0 52.0 171.5 N/A 4.0 96.0 N/A 51 7.4
H 162.0 106.0 346.0 N/A 8.0 192.0 N/A 52 8.0
VH 292.0 164.0 686.0 N/A 16.0 384.0 N/A 57 8.2

MG VS 7.0 8.0 N/A 10.5 0.5 12.0 N/A 49 6.8
S 34.0 24.0 N/A 42.0 2.0 48.0 N/A 50 7.0
MH 74.0 54.0 N/A 84.0 4.0 96.0 N/A 51 7.5
H 150.0 106.0 N/A 167.5 8.0 192.0 N/A 56 8.1
VH 310.0 218.0 N/A 335.0 16.0 384.0 N/A 60 8.3

Control e 180.0 150.0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 55 7.2


aHardness and alkalinity are given in mg/L as CaCO3.
b Chemical compounds were added to deionized water and are given in mg/L.
c Osmolality is given in mmol/Kg of HO.
dTrials consisted of incubating rainbow shark eggs in each of two treatment's incubation waters.
Trial 1 was conducted two days before and with four different females than trial 2.
eControl water was pumped up from the Floridan aquifer.
















Table 4-3. Comparison of mean square root percent hatch (+ s.d.), mean square root percent larval survival (+ s.d ), and mean egg
volume (+ s.d.) among incubation waters within treatments.
Trial b 1

CAMG treatment a Z treatment

Incubation water Hatch c Larval survival d Volume e Incubation water Hatch Larval survival Volume
VS 4.52 + 1.08 A 3.13 + 1.59 A 22.95 + 1.36 A VS 0.00+ 0.00 B 0.00 + 0.00 A NA f
S 4.49 +1.75 A 2.14+ 2.81 AB 19.78 + 0.68 B S 0.00+ 0.00 B 0.00 + 0.00 A NA
MH 4.18 +1.30 A 1.93 + 2.45 AB 17.68 +1.32 B MH 0.00+ 0.00 B 0.00 + 0.00 A NA
H 2.83 +2.00 A 0.18+ 0.36 B 13.72 +1.50 C H 0.00+ 0.00 B 0.00 + 0.00 A NA
VH 2.35 +1.91 A 0.00+ 0.00 B 11.69 +1.49 C VH 0.00+ 0.00 B 0.00 + 0.00 A NA
Control 1.85 +2.16 A 0.00 +0.00 B 12.23 +2.18 C Control 1.85 + 2.16 A 0.00 +0.00 A NA

Trial b 2

CA treatment MG treatment

Incubation water Hatch Larval survival Volume Incubation water Hatch Larval survival Volume
VS 6.67 + 0.78 A 5.05 + 1.74 A 23.77 +1.02 A VS 0.00 + 0.00 A 0.00 + 0.00 A NA
S 5.37 +1.07 A 3.30+ 2.25 AB 19.49 +1.41 B S 0.00+ 0.00 A 0.00 + 0.00 A NA
MH 4.99 +1.47 A 2.76+ 1.67 ABC 16.65 +2.49 C MH 0.00+ 0.00 A 0.00 + 0.00 A NA
H 4.77 +1.39 A 0.00+ 0.00 C 13.58 + 0.39 D H 0.00+ 0.00 A 0.00 + 0.00 A NA
VH 4.38 +1.72 A 1.19+ 2.38 BC 12.12 + 0.50 D VH 0.00+ 0.00 A 0.00 + 0.00 A NA
Control 1.82 +2.26 B 0.69 +1.39 BC 11.77 +2.09 D Control 1.82 +2.26 A 0.69 +1.39 A NA


aTreatments consisted of calcium and magnesium water hardness (CAMG), no water hardness (Z),
into five incubation waters; VS, S, MH, H, and VH which correspond to very soft, soft, moderately
hard, hard, and very hard, respectively. Very soft had the least amount of added constituents increasing up
to very hard, which had the most. Water from the Floridan aquifer was used as the control.
b Trials consisted of incubating rainbow shark eggs in each of two treatment's incubation waters.
Trial 1 was conducted two days before and with four different females than trial 2.
c Means of square root percent hatch within each treatment not sharing a common letter differ significantly.
d Means of square root percent larval survival within each treatment not sharing a common letter differ significantly.
e Means of egg volume within each treatment not sharing a common letter differ significantly.
Significance determined by Duncan's New Multiple Range Test; P<0.05.
f Volumes of dead eggs not measured. All eggs in Z and MG treatments died.












Table 4-4. Comparison of mean square root percent hatch (+ s.d.) among treatments within incubation waters.
Incubation water b c
Treatment a VS S MH H VH Control
Trial d 1
CAMG 4.52 + 1.08 B 4.49 + 1.75 A 4.18 + 1.30 A 2.83 + 2.00 B 2.35 + 1.91 B 1.85 + 2.16 A
Z 0.00 + 0.00 C 0.00+ 0.00 B 0.00 + 0.00 B 0.00 + 0.00 C 0.00 + 0.00 C 1.85 +2.16 A
Trial d 2
CA 6.67 + 0.78 A 5.37 + 1.07 A 4.99 + 1.47 A 4.77 + 1.39 A 4.38 + 1.72 A 1.82 + 2.26 A
MG 0.00 + 0.00 C 0.00 + 0.00 B 0.00 + 0.00 B 0.00 + 0.00 C 0.00 + 0.00 C 1.82 + 2.26 A

a Treatment waters consisted of a calcium and magnesium water hardness (CAMG), no water hardness (Z), calcium only water
hardness (CA), and magnesium only water hardness (MG) treatment.
b Each treatment was divided into five incubation waters; VS, S, MH, H, and VH which corresponded to very soft, soft, moderately
hard, hard, and very hard water, respectively. Very soft had the least amount of added constituents increasing up to very hard,
which had the most. Water from the Floridan aquifer was used as a control.


c Treatment means, within each incubation water not followed by the same letter, differ significantly. Significance determined by
Duncan's New Multiple Range Test; P < 05.

d Trials consisted of incubating rainbow shark eggs in each of two treatment's incubation waters. Trial 1 was conducted two days
before and with four different females than trial 2.













Table 4-5. Comparison of mean square root percent larval survival (+ s.d.) among treatments within incubation waters.
Incubation water bc
Treatment a VS S MH H VH Control
Trial d 1
CAMG 3.13 + 1.59 B 2.14 + 2.81 AB 1.93 + 2.45 AB 0.18 +0.36 A 0.00 + 0.00 A 0.00 + 0.00 A
Z 0.00 + 0.00 C 0.00 + 0.00 B 0.00 + 0.00 B 0.00 + 0.00 A 0.00 + 0.00 A 0.00 + 0.00 A
Trial d 2
CA 5.05 + 1.74 A 3.30 + 2.25 AB 2.76 + 1.67 AB 0.00 + 0.00 A 1.19 + 2.38 A 0.69 + 1.39 A
MG 0.00 + 0.00 C 0.00 + 0.00 B 0.00 + 0.00 B 0.00 + 0.00 A 0.00 + 0.00 A 0.69 + 1.39 A


a Treatment waters consisted of a calcium and magnesium water hardness (CAMG), no water hardness (Z), calcium only water hardness (CA),
and magnesium only water hardness (MG) treatment.

b Each treatment was divided into five incubation waters; VS, S, MH, H, and VH which corresponded to very soft, soft, moderately hard, hard,
and very hard water, respectively. Very soft had the least amount of added constituents increasing up to very hard, which had the most. Water
from the Floridan aquifer was used as a control.


c Treatment means, within each incubation water not followed by the same letter, differ significantly. Significance determined by Duncan's New
Multiple Range Test; P < 05.

d Trials consisted of incubating rainbow shark eggs in each of two treatment's incubation waters. Trial 1 was conducted two days before and with
four different females than trial 2.













Table 4-6. Comparison of mean egg volume (+ s.d.), in cubic millimeters, among treatments within incubation waters.
Incubation water b

Treatment a VS S MH H VH Control

Triald 1
CAMG 22.9+ 1.36 A 19.78 + 0.68 A 17.68 + 1.32 A 13.72 + 1.50 A 11.68+ 1.49 A 12.23 + 2.18 A
Z NA e NA NA NA NA 12.23 + 2.18 A
Trial d 2
CA 23.77 + 1.02 A 19.49 + 1.41 A 16.65 + 2.49 A 13.58 + 0.39 A 12.12 + 0.50 A 11.77 + 2.09 A
MG NAe NA NA NA NA 11.77 + 2.09 A


a Treatment waters consisted of a calcium and magnesium water hardness (CAMG), no water hardness (Z), calcium only water hardness (CA),
and a magnesium only water hardness (MG) treatment.

b Each treatment was divided into five incubation waters; VS, S, MH, H, and VH which corresponded to very soft, soft, moderately hard, hard,
and very hard, water respectively. Very soft had the least amount of added constituents increasing up to very hard, which had the most.
Water from the Floridan aquifer was used as a control.



c Treatment means, within each incubation water not followed by the same letter, differ significantly. Significance determined by Duncan's New
Multiple Range Test; P < 05.

d Trials consisted of incubating rainbow shark eggs in each of two treatment's incubation waters.
Trial 1 was conducted two days before and with four different females than trial 2.


e Volumes of dead eggs not measured. All eggs in Z and MG treatments died.

















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28


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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Michael Andrew Abernathy was born August 9, 1976, in Van Nuys, California.

His youth was spent playing sports and fishing the coastal waters of southern California

and northern Baja California, Mexico. He began pursuing his interests in marine biology

as early as junior high school, and during his senior year of high school, co-founded a

marine science club. His interests in marine biology did not wane, and after high school,

he set off to the University of California at Santa Cruz to pursue a Bachelor of Science in

marine biology. While acquiring his degree he developed an interest in aquaculture after

completing an independent study on the topic. After four enjoyable years in Santa Cruz,

he moved back to southern California with his degree in hand. After a few years of

working, traveling, and caring for family, he decided to further his education and pursue

his interest in aquaculture. In August 2002, he moved to Florida with his fiancee and

enrolled as a graduate student under Dr. Frank Chapman at the University of Florida in

the Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. He looks forward to receiving his

Master of Science degree and moving back to California to start an ornamental

aquaculture business, get married, and continue what has been a great life.