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The Worship of Roman Divae: The Julio-Claudians to the Antonines

University of Florida Institutional Repository

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THE WORSHIP OF ROMAN DIVAE: THE JULIO-CLAUDIANS TO THE ANTONINES By REBECCA MARIE MUICH A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2004

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optimae meae familiae Joe, Kathy, Joe, and Rachel Muich

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank first and foremost my thesis committee, Dr. Gareth Schmeling, Dr. Jennifer Rea, and especially my director, Dr. Hans-Friedrich Mueller, for their support and direction throughout this project. I am also grateful to the Department of Classics at the University of Florida and its graduate students for providing support, motivation, and good humor when needed. I would especially like to thank Ms. Heather Ramsey-McLeod and Mrs. Druscilla Gurahoo for keeping me on schedule and of sound mind. I thank my friends who have graciously and even enthusiastically encouraged me to continue on with my academic adventures, in particular kindred spirits Jill and Matt Barber, Danielle Ho, and Stephanie Huff. I thank my roommate and fellow journeyman Jarrod Lux for not only sharing in my victories and defeats but also for helping me to find the grace to keep journeying. A Ponos he may be, but he is a Ponos I would endure for a lifetime. My family deserves nothing less than my eternal gratitude for, among other things, helping me to remember that there are things more important in life than school, and most importantly, for being a constant source of inspiration and unconditional love. Finally I thank Jon Zarecki, my partner and the light of my life, for knowing when to push and when not to. With him by my side I am not only a better student, but indeed a better person. iii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.iii ABSTRACT...vi INTRODUCTION..1 1 LIVIA DRUSILLA.16 1.1 Introduction..16 1.2 Literary Evidence of the Worship of Livia Drusilla 1.3 Numismatic and Sculptural Evidence of the Worship of Livia Drusilla.24 1.4 Inscriptional Evidence of the Worship of Livia Drusilla.28 1.5 Conclusions..34 2 THE JULIO-CLAUDIANS 2.1 Introduction..36 2.2 Julia Drusilla 2.3 Sabina Poppaea and Claudia 2.4 Conclusion...46 3 THE TRAJANIC FAMILY 3.1 Introduction..48 3.2 Marciana..50 3.3 Matidia.52 3.4 Plotina..55 3.5 Sabina..60 3.6 Conclusion...65 4 THE ANTONINES.68 4.1 Introduction..68 4.2 Faustina Maior.69 4.3 Faustina Minor.74 4.4 Ambiguous Inscriptional Evidence..79 4.5 Conclusion...80 CONCLUSION..82 iv

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v REFERENCES ..84 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .88

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the Univeristy of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts THE WORSHIP OF ROMAN DIVAE: THE JULIO-CLAUDIANS TO THE ANTONINES By Rebecca Marie Muich May 2004 Chair: Hans-Friedrich Mueller Major Department: Classics This study will examine and evaluate the extant evidence of diva worship in the Roman Empire to prove that the cults of divae were used throughout the Empire as a means of political exploitation for individuals, but also as cults of true believers. The study will begin with Livia Drusilla, the wife of Augustus, an empress who convinced the public that she deserved consecration. The following chapters will compare and contrast the remaining divae from the Julio-Claudian family, the families of Trajan and Hadrian, and the Antonine family. Literary, numismatic, sculptural, and inscriptional evidence is considered with each diva. The intent of this study is to prove that the cults of the divae were important, and should be included in these ongoing discussions about the Imperial cult and Roman religion. vi

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INTRODUCTION The difficulty in assessing the importance of the worship of divae in the Roman Empire lies in the nature of the Imperial cult and in the nature of the extant evidence of worship. It is easy to speculate about the motivations for deifying a Roman empress, but to ascertain whether a woman was deified because of belief that she was indeed divine or because it was the natural course of honors for a member of the Imperial household, one must make assumptions about the belief systems of the Romans as individuals and as a collective entity, as well as make assumptions about the importance or unimportance of each individual woman to those who conferred divinity upon her and those who purported to worship her. In addition to the necessary assumptions, there must also be some consideration of the nature of the Imperial cult and its relationship to women as worshippers, celebrants of ritual, and receivers of worship. This is a difficult task because the extant evidence often recognizes a celebrant of a particular cult, but rarely outlines her duties as a celebrant, let alone any rituals over which she may have presided. The task is made more onerous by the lack of substantial scholarship on the place of women in the Imperial cult. While theories on the importance of emperor worship, the nature of emperor worship, and the origins of emperor worship abound, there are few about the worship of imperial women. The purpose of this study is to examine and evaluate the extant evidence of diva worship in the Roman Empire to prove that the cults of divae were used throughout the 1

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2 Empire as a means of political exploitation for individuals, but also as cults of true believers. The actual practice of worship of divae, so far as we can tell, does not differ greatly from the worship of divinities with faithful worshippers. The study will begin with Livia Drusilla, the wife of Augustus, an empress who convinced the public that she deserved consecration. The following chapters will compare and contrast the remaining divae from the Julio-Claudian family, the families of Trajan and Hadrian, and the Antonine family. These parameters were set because of the amount of evidence that survived pertaining to them. Literary, numismatic, sculptural, and inscriptional evidence are considered with each diva. Each category of evidence has its own merits and problems. First of all, literary evidence may not be relied upon to present a truthful picture of the life of a Roman empress, the reasons for her consecration, and the nature of her worship. The era of the Julio-Claudians is the least troublesome, since there is more than one source with which to compare and contrast information. The years of the Trajanic family and the Antonine family are depicted primarily by the Historia Augusta, a source which merits its own thesis regarding its accuracy. 1 Supplementary works, though not of the historical genre in the strictest sense, may offer a sense of the personality of the diva, or the nature of her relationship to the emperor. Giacosa has called coinage a sensitive seismograph of imperial politics. 2 There is no other medium that disseminated the image of an empress or diva so completely through the Roman Empire. Men and women of every social standing handled coins in their lifetime, and through currency were able to own a picture of the emperors wife and 1 See Syme, Ronald, Historia Augusta Papers (Oxford 1983), and Emperors and Biography (Oxford 1971). 2 Giacosa (1970) 34.

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3 to visually receive her message. 3 Since not all coins were minted in Rome, the legends on the coins of various provinces in the East and West serve as a reminder that the worship of divae was not dictated only by the decree of the Senate, but also by the beliefs of the people of the Empire as well. The collection of coins examined in this study is not a complete collection of every coin pertaining to a diva, but rather a representative collection of the types attributed to each diva. Sculptural evidence is harder to evaluate than numismatic evidence because there is rarely any surviving legend or inscription to identify the individual or group which may have existed during the Empire. As a result, scholars have had to resort to a system of dating and identifying by examining hairstyles, dress, and portrait types. While it was true that one portrait type could be sent throughout the Empire as a template for public art, it is not always clear to us which type belongs to which empress, especially if there are no clear portraits of an empress on a coin. Sculpture, though, can display certain elements attributed to a diva more clearly than can a coin. The sculptures positively identified as divae display the women wearing the corn ears of Ceres and the infulae of priestesses, among other things. These images make associations on a grand scale, with greater detail than coins. Inscriptional evidence offers the most unadulterated evidence of exploitation and sincerity in the cults of the divae. Names and offices of the dedicators are often inscribed along with the dedication, as well as the type of sacrifice offered, and even the reason for the offering. Collections of inscriptions can report the locations of each inscription and the material on which it was written. Inscriptions are not without their detractions, however. First of all, they are often incomplete, and we must rely on the editors of 3 Keltanen (2002)106.

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4 collections to reconstruct them. Secondly, some inscriptions do not give the above stated information. The entire inscription can consist of the name of the dedicatee, leaving the researcher to wonder to what image or building the inscription was attached. Finally, it is not always clear to whom an inscription is addressed. Diva Matidia, the niece of Trajan, had a daughter named Matidia who was quite wealthy and earned many dedications on her own. 4 The inclusion of her name on inscriptions with her grandmother, mother, and sister, who were all divae, can lead to confusion about her divine status, and even about her identity. Faustina Maior and Faustina Minor present a similar problem. The mother and daughter were both deified, but most inscriptions do not add Maior or Minor or even II after their names to distinguish between them. Usually the names of their husbands are included with theirs on inscriptions, which can dispel the mystery, but for the inscriptions that only name the dedicatee, there is no help. Most of the inscriptions in this study come from the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. The collection is by no means complete, and very few of the important Greek inscriptions are considered, but the cited inscriptions offer an overview of the various types of dedications and reasons for dedicating. Simon Price wrote that religion should be treated not as an emotional but as an intellectual enterprise which attempts to provide a way of interpreting and ordering reality. 5 In the early Empire, the reality the Roman people faced was a government increasingly controlled by one man and an empire that encompassed many cultures with many different ways of ordering reality. The idea of the Imperial cult as a way of interpreting the power of the emperor was not a Roman origination. The Greeks had 4 Boatwright (1991) 522, 524. 5 Price (1980) 29.

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5 already been establishing cults to the living emperor since Alexander the Great. 6 For the Greeks, equating their ruler with divine powers was an acceptable way of honoring him. The emperor was like a god in that he was the source of unpredictable power and benefaction. 7 For the Romans in the Late Republic, this was not so. The establishment of an Imperial cult was one of the results of the changes in Roman religion from the Republic to the early Empire. One man became the focus of many realms of Roman culture; politics, the military and religion were identified more and more with only one man. The establishment of the Imperial cult, then, walked a line between the traditional religious rituals and the new experience of autocratic rule. 8 The idea of identifying men with gods was not foreign in Rome: Julius Caesar himself and Octavian after him claimed divine ancestry even before they were deified. 9 The belief that a dead man became a god, however, is more difficult to extrapolate from the sources, but there does seem to be a belief that Julius Caesar was a god, and Augustus popularity suggests that even if the populace was not convinced he was divine, they were comfortable with calling him so. Nevertheless, the honor was not something which could be given freely to whomever happened to be ruling, and in fact, those ruling were careful to avoid such honors while alive, as will be discussed below. 6 Fox (1987) 40. 7 Fox (1987) 40. 8 Beard, North, and Price (1998) 169. 9 For Caesar: Suet. Caes., 88: stella crinita per septem continuos dies fulsit exoriens circa undecimam horam, creditumque est animam usse Caesaris in caelum recepti. For Octavian, Suet. Aug, 94.4: Augustum natum esse mense decimo et ob hoc Apollinis filium existimatem. Dio Cass., 45.1: Beard, North, and Price (1998) 145; Flory (1995) 128.

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6 Though it will probably always be unclear how the Romans related their divi and divae to dei and deae, 10 it is clear that there was a system of worship in place, and the institution was an important part of the bureaucracy of the Empire. Taylor interprets the Imperial cult mainly as a political tool, as it created new offices of state-sanctioned religion. 11 Fox suggests that the Imperial cult institution was exploited for the opportunities of service and stature it offered. 12 Gordon interprets the acquisition of a priestly position as a system of patronage. No real power was conferred upon the priest, but the appointment initiated a relationship of dependence, gratitude, and respect. 13 Alfldy asserts that there were social, political, and economic advantages to being a part of the Imperial cult system. 14 Even liberti and slaves could be involved in the Imperial cult: liberti were the magistri of the cult of the Compitales for the worship of the Genius of Augustus, while slaves could be the ministri of the shrines. 15 Whether the rewards were tangible or symbolic, the priests of the Imperial cult were respected and took great care to include their other public offices, duties, and wealth to any record of offering. There were a few classes of priests and priestesses who celebrated rituals for the Imperial cult. In Rome the priest was called a flamen, and his wife the flaminica, who 10 The OLD makes the following distinctions: A dea is always a goddess, and a deus is defined as a god, though there some examples of using deus with mortals: parentum suum Caesar fecit deum, Vell. 2.126.1; edictum domini deique nostri, Mart. 5.8.1 (referring to Domitian, who was to be addressed as our lord and god); Vae, inquit, puto deus fio, Suet. Vesp., 23.4 (this is Vespasians estimation, not the general publics). Diva and divus can be used to define the gods and goddesses: divae Veneris nurus, Verg. Aen., 2.787, hominum divorumque voluptas, Luc., 1.1; they are also the titles applied to deified members of the imperial family. 11 Taylor (1931) 219. 12 Fox (1987) 40. 13 Gordon (1996) 233. 14 Alfldy (1996) 255. 15 Zanker (1988) 129, 131.

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7 was often in charge of the cults of divae. In the provinces, the priests were called sacerdotes, perhaps as a way to distinguish between Roman and provincial cult systems. Other groups of priests were involved with the Imperial cult: the Vestal Virgins, for example, became increasingly important to the imperial family in the early Empire. They were present at military triumphs, at the dedication of the Ara Pacis, and they were put in charge of the cult of the diva Liva. 16 The Arval Brethren were also important players in the institution of the Imperial cult. The Arval Brethren were a sodality of priests who were active in the Republic, though they can be found nowhere in the annals of the period. 17 They were revived in 29 B.C. by Octavian, and their earliest extant document dates to 21 B.C. 18 The Arval Brethren seemed to originally be concerned with the worship of the Dea Dia, and supposedly held their meetings and rituals in a grove outside the city, though many of the sacrifices took place within the city, on the Capitol or in the temple of divus Augustus. 19 The Acta of the Arval Brethren were inscribed on marble near their sacred grove, 20 and their records are detailed enough to give a good indication of the social strata of the members and the intricacies of their rituals. Symes study of the Arval Brethren reveals that it was Augustus intent in reviving the Arval Brethren to honor and reward the already illustrious. 21 He notes that the Brothers, throughout their traceable history, were 16 Beard, North, and Price 1998) 194. 17 Syme (1980) 2. Only Varro mentions them in On the Latin Language. 18 Syme (1980) 2. 19 Beard, North, and Price (1998) 195. 20 Syme (1980) v. 21 Syme (1980) v.

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8 made up of the middle ranks of the Senate, men who most likely would not be appointed to priesthoods or consulates. 22 Syme suggests that Augustus wanted the Arval Brethren to be dignified and decorative, 23 an institution in which notable civil servants would be visible in the worship of Imperial divi and divae, but one in which actual power and duties were limited. The Arval Brethren, in this respect, are an example of the ways Augustus and the political powers of the time could manipulate the institution of the Imperial cult to their advantage. Beard, North, and Simon point out that there was no such thing as one Imperial cult, but rather a series of different cults sharing an emphasis on the worship of the emperor, his family or predecessors. 24 This was nowhere more apparent than in the Roman colonies and municipalities which assimilated emperor worship into their own native cults. The Imperial cult came to the provinces in many ways. One was through the military, which kept a calendar marking the dates of celebrations of birthdays of divi and divae, which was in step with the records of the Arval Brethren back in Rome. 25 Systems of Imperial worship could be set by the Roman government, which Wardman interprets as a means of Romanization acceptable to the provinces. 26 Each community in the provinces, however, could set up their own cults by their own accord as well. 27 22 Syme (1980) 77. 23 Syme (1980) 100. 24 Beard, North, and Simon (1998) 318. 25 Beard, North, and Simon (1998) 325. 26 Wardman (1982) 88. 27 Beard, North, and Simon (1998) 349.

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9 Implementing the Imperial cult was a different task in the East and in the West. In the East, the Imperial cult was established from above, that is to say, by the imperial government. The Greek east was already quite comfortable with this concept of emperor worship, as mentioned above, and therefore it was an accepted part of the community. In the West, however, the cult was established from below, meaning there was no systematized state religion at hand. 28 The territories of Britain, Gaul, and the regions of the Danube and the Rhine were relatively untouched by Roman culture, but Narbonensis, Africa, and Hispania were settled by Roman immigrants. 29 There was therefore a situation where parts of the west were already establishing the Roman cults to which the Roman immigrants were accustomed, while others were integrating Roman customs into their own cultural mainstays. The provincial cult also had a means of distinguishing their priesthoods from those of Rome. Flamines were priests of the official state deities, and sacerdotes the priests for imported deities. Fishwick suggests that the titles may also have had something to do with the means of worship: a flamen served a cult based in a temple, while a sacerdos served a cult based around an altar. 30 Grether postulates that a flaminica was more common for a priestess of the living empress, and a sacerdos more common for a priestess of a dead empress. 31 Service to the Imperial cult was one way to assert importance and influence in the provinces, and one way in which a wealthy citizen could 28 Fishwick (1987) 93. 29 Fishwick (1987) 93. 30 Fishwick (1987) 93. 31 Grether (1946) 249-250.

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10 distinguish himself or herself. 32 In the west the cult was served by slaves and freedmen who had a part of the worship of the Lares and Genius at the crossroads. 33 The Imperial cult became important in these regions because it offered new offices that could be held by freedmen or local aristocracy. 34 It offered a new opportunity for the breakdown of social stratification not available at Rome. The imperial family was worshipped in many ways. Often emperors or empresses were honored when a territory took on the name of the emperor who founded it, such as Julia Cirta, 35 or when cities were renamed in their honor, such as Juliopolis in Bithynia, Trajanopolis on Phrygia, or Hadrianopolis in Thrace. 36 Then there were the more active forms of worship, such as sacrifices of animals, incense, ritual cakes, and lamps, as well as public festivals. 37 The rituals of the Arval Brethren included animal sacrifice, usually ox to men, cows to women, and occasionally a bull to the Genius of the emperor. They also burned incense, rubbed oil on the cult statues, and lit candles as part of their ritual. 38 In addition there were countless images of the deified Imperial family erected in their honor across the empire, from statues and busts to portraits on coins. Price has questioned who or what exactly is being worshipped in many of these rituals. Because there is little extant evidence describing the duties of flamines and sacerdotes, the language left behind in inscriptions and in the Acta of the Arval Brethren 32 Taylor (1931) 212. 33 Taylor (1931) 214. 34 Taylor (1931) 219. 35 Butcher (1988) 47. 36 Butcher (1988) 46. 37 Price (1980) 29, 30, 32. 38 MacMullen (1981) 45.

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11 becomes of utmost importance in determining the recipient of worship. In many instances, especially in the east, sacrifices were not made directly to the emperor, but rather on behalf of the emperor, perhaps for his health, safety, or in thanksgiving to him as a benefactor. 39 This practice is also found in the Acta of the Arval Brethren, when, in the reign of Augustus, they sacrificed on behalf of the Imperial family, but not to the family as divinities. There were also sacrifices made to the genius or iuno of emperors or empresses. Though it is not exactly clear what a genius or a iuno is, it represented some sort of spirit of the male or female head of the family and was connected to the worship of the Lares, Penates, and Vesta. 40 Sacrifices of bulls to the Genius of the emperor, the head of the Imperial family, were common in the reigns of Caligula and Nero. It is also clear, though, in the Acta of the Arval Brethren, that the deified emperors and empresses themselves were recipients of sacrifices, just as a genius or iuno or a member of the Capitoline Triad. Price attributes this to the Roman attempt to classify the types of divinities they worshipped: a divus or a diva was different from a deus or a dea, but was in fact divine, and so higher than a common man. 41 This left them with no qualms about sacrificing to an emperor who was once a man. The emperor had a role to play in the Imperial cult as well. Though it was the Senate who consecrated a member of the Imperial family, the emperor had to ask for the conferral from the Senate. 42 The ceremony of consecration for an emperor included a 39 Price (1980) 41. 40 Rose (1923) 59; Flory (1995) 128. 41 Price (1980) 36. 42 Wardman (1982) 82.

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12 lavish funeral capped by the release of an eagle, a symbol of his spirit rising to heaven. 43 There is no evidence of a corresponding ceremony for empresses. The motivations for deifying an emperor or empress could be endless, but Wardman points to a display of pietas as a particularly compelling force. By deifying his predecessor, an emperor proves to the public that his understands whence his power came, and he was mindful of his debt of gratitude. 44 However, as Simpson argues, consecration by the Senate was not just a matter of honoring a predecessor. In the perception of many literate Romans, consecration actually created deities, powers capable of hearing and answering prayers. 45 This is borne out by the rituals of the Arval Brethren, among others, but there is no real explanation as to how a Roman made the transition in belief that the emperor was a man to the belief that the emperor was a god. Image and art were the most powerful tools for spreading an Imperial message throughout the Empire. In an empire in which not everyone was literate, the association and assimilation 46 of divine attributes on statues and coins did more to connect the Imperial family with the divine than any decree of the Senate or any inscription of fasti. Zanker calls Roman imperial art the standardized visual language of the Empire. 47 Statues and coins allowed people in the far reaches of the Empire to know what the 43 Herodian, 4, offers a full description of the ceremony. 44 Wardman (1982) 83. 45 Simpson (1996) 67. 46 Spaeth (1996) 119. Association represents indirect identification with the divine, such as including the images of gods or goddesses on the reverses of coins. Assimilation was more rare the attributes and titles of divinities were applied directly to the emperor or empress. 47 Zanker (1988) 335.

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13 Imperial family looked like: how they wore their hair, what clothing they wore, and what their facial features were. At the same time, these same media could also impart the values and virtues the emperor wished to propagate throughout the Empire by using recognizable symbols in conjunction with the images of the ruling family. 48 But what about the empresses? How do women fit into this system of priesthoods, ritual, symbol and religion? Was the Imperial cult really a vehicle for the strengthening of the emperors hold on the Empire, or was it really a religious cult built on the premise that members of the Imperial family could hear and answer the prayers of their believers? I suggest that it was both, and that the deified empresses were an integral part of both processes of strengthening Imperial bureaucracy through rich priests and benefactors, and of ordering the reality of Roman beliefs. The actual practice of worship of divae, so far as we can tell, does not differ greatly from the worship of divi. Roman empresses were consecrated by decree of the Senate, just as Roman emperors. However, because the women themselves did not run the Empire, the images attributed to them did a double duty. On the one hand, they images associated the empress directly with the divine in her own right. On the other hand, they associated the symbols of feminine divinity with the principate of the emperor. The actions of the empresses and other members of the Imperial family, for good or ill, reflected directly onto the emperor and his character. Therefore, it was of utmost importance to portray the imperial women as models of Roman femininity, possessing the qualities which made them most helpful to their husbands, sons, or brothers. The association and assimilation of the attributes of Ceres with a diva, for example, suggests two things: first of all, that the diva herself was abundantly fertile, and secondly, in an 48 Zanker (1988) 336.

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14 indirect sense, that the principate as a whole could ensure agricultural and human fertility. 49 The assimilation of attributes was most common on sculpture, where there was enough material available to include intricate details of divinity. 50 By looking at a statue of Livia wearing ears of corn and holding sheaths of poppies, an individual could determine, without being told, that Livia had assimilated the attributes of Ceres and was supposed to represent fertility and plenty. The association of divine attributes was more common on coins, 51 where reverses could be used to conjure the image of a specific goddess with a few identifying characteristics. Provincial communities were the earliest worshippers of empresses not hampered by Roman sanction, they were free to create cults and worship as they chose, as Livia had a cult dedicated to her in her lifetime at Emerita. 52 There were several monuments to imperial women throughout Spain: busts of Livia at Segobriga and dedications to diva Drusilla at Valeria. 53 The names of cities themselves are witnesses to the popularity of the divae: there was also a Plotinopolis in Thrace and a Marcianopolis in Moesia. 54 Of course, at Rome the worship of divae was made clear on the tablets of the Acta of the Arval Brethren, which recorded not only the sacrifices to diva Drusilla, diva Augusta, and divae Poppaea and Claudia, but also sacrifices to the iuno of Julia Augusta. 49 Spaeth (1996) 121. 50 See the art of the Ara Pacis, in particular. Also consider the inscription of the statue to Livia in Magna Leptis with the inscription CERERI AUGUSTAE. Livia actually became Ceres in name and in image. 51 Keltanen (2002) 109. 52 Fishwick (1987) 157. 53 Curchin (1996) 146. 54 Butcher (1988) 46.

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15 Though the worship of divae has not been explored near ly as thoroughly as that of the divi it is part of an ongoing discussion of th e nature of the Roman Imperial cult. The basis of belief in divi and divae is not clearly understood: did mortals become divine because the Senate made them so, or where they already divine before the decree? Is the Imperial cult simply an elaborate syst em of implementing Imperial power and complimenting the Imperial family, or is ther e something in the relationship of the people with the ruling family that we do not unde rstand? This study cannot answer these questions and will not attempt to. The intent of this study is to prove that the cults of the divae were important, and shoul d be included in these ongoi ng discussions about the Imperial cult and Roman religion.

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CHAPTER 1 LIVIA DRUSILLA 1.1 Introduction The first deified woman of the Roman Empire was Julia Drusilla, the sister of the third Roman emperor, Caligula, but it is Livia Drusilla, the wife of Augustus, who is the paradigm to which all other empresses were compared. Livias record of public service and her honored status were a part of Roman politics and society for generations, and the history of her cult spans from the early years of Augustus principate to the Antonine dynasty. 1 Though she was not the first woman deified by the Senate, she was still the ideal diva. The deification and worship of Livia reveal many things about the worship of divae and the process of deification. Livia, based on the amount and the nature of surviving inscriptions and artwork, was actually believed to be divine, perhaps more so than any other diva. The establishment of Livias cult also offered more chances of political and social advancement in Rome and in the provinces to those who administered the cult rites. Livias worshippers were a diverse lot: there were individuals who, convinced by her public works that Livia merited deification, believed that she was truly divine. There were also those individuals who used her deification as an opportunity for political advancement, and therefore their praises and dedications to her held an ulterior motive. 1 Grether (1946) 233. 16

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17 Though Livia Drusilla, the wife of Augustus, had earned the respect of the Senate and the love of the Roman people through her patronage, she was not deified until the reign of Claudius in A.D. 41. Livias son Tiberius, perhaps displaying a sensitivity to the suspicions of the Roman people that Rome was falling into the hands of a dynasty, 2 was notoriously wary of accepting divine honors for himself, and flatly refused many honors the Senate and provincial bureaucrats offered to him. He refused the name of Pater Patriae on many occasions, and he did not permit anything to be sworn on his deeds in the Senate. 3 He also refused to allow Farther Spain to build a temple to himself and his mother, stating, in a speech to the Senate, that he wished to enjoy only those honors suitable to a mortal man. 4 In another petition, the people of the Greek city of Gythium 5 asked Tiberius permission to pay divine honors to Augustus, Tiberius and Livia. Tiberius replied that Augustus should be honored as a god, that Tiberius himself wanted honors appropriate to men, and that Livia could answer for herself. He did not allow temples, flamines or priests to be decreed to him, and he did not allow statues of himself to be dedicated without permission. The images he did sanction he did so on the condition that they not be placed among the images of the gods. 6 Tiberius rejection of the proffered honors convinced some of his awareness that Rome was perhaps not quite ready for an imperator; but the rejection of honors for his 2 Wood (1999) 81. 3 Tac. Ann. 1.72.1. 4 Tac. Ann 4.37-38. 5 AE 1929, no. 99-100, quoted in Lewis and Reinhold (1990) 521. 6 Suet. Tib. 26.

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18 mother led contemporary Roman writers to believe that he was either resentful or afraid of his mothers power and influence in the Senate. Recent discussion suggests he may have been struggling to find a balance between imperial extravagance and Republican sensibility, and that he felt that high honors given to any member of the Roman family were a sure sign of an empire. Tiberius policy on the Imperial cult displayed pietas toward his stepfather, 7 but led historians to question his feelings for his mother. His general policy regarding divine honors was that he discouraged actual cults to living persons in Italy, but outside Italy he was careful to regulate his own cult and the cult of the domus Augusta without detracting from the cult of divus Augustus. 8 Whatever Tiberius motives, Roman historians catalogued the slights he showed his mother in his lifetime. He bristled at the idea of adding son of Julia to his name, as proposed by the Senate, and did not allow his mother a lictor, 9 which was an unprecedented honor for a woman. He refused to allow her to be called parens patriae, though the Senate called for it. 10 Tiberius also refused to change the name of the month of September to Tiberius, and the month of October to Livium, for Livia. 11 Because of Tiberius persistence, Livia went without the high honors the Senate proposed. 1.2 Literary Evidence of the Worship of Livia Drusilla Much has been written about Livias role in the foundation of the Empire and the manipulation of the Julio-Claudian house. From 35 B.C. to 9 B.C. her importance was 7 Taylor (1929) 93. 8 Grether (1946) 234. 9 Tac. Ann. 1.14.1. 10 Suet. Tib. 50. 11 Suet. Tib. 26.

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19 not as great as it would become, since Marcellus and Agrippa were still available to become Augustus heirs. Tiberius and Drusus, Livias children, held unclear roles in the family, and so Livia herself was not as visible in the public eye. 12 Though Livia was not deified until 41 A.D., the Roman senators and people honored her extravagantly during her lifetime and after her death. Livias controversial and powerful position in the imperial household is universally reported by contemporary historians. It is this influence in the Senate and Augustus reliance on her good counsel that led many to believe that Livia merited deification. Though her deification followed on the heels of Drusilla, the difference between the women could not have been greater. Livias power within the Senate was considerable. Many individuals were saved from Senatorial scrutiny because of her intercession, 13 and Dio Cassius writes that she took part in senatorial proceedings as though she had full senatorial powers. 14 Livia was also a magnanimous patron. She was, by law, allowed to inherit more money than the original amount legislated by the lex Voconia. 15 Livia was enormously wealthy in her own right, and because she could administer her own property, she used the opportunities to gain allies and improve public life. On a political level, Dio Cassius suggests that she saved the lives of many senators and even helped to pay for some of their daughters dowries. 16 She erected a temple of Concordia with her own money, 17 12 Flory (1993) 298. 13 Haterius, (Tac. Ann. 1.13), Placinae, who was part of the Pisonian conspiracy, (Tac. Ann. 3.17), Urgulania, also involved in the Pisonian conspiracy, and who was protected from the Senate twice by Livia, (Tac. Ann 4.21). 14 Dio Cassius, 56.46. 15 Dio Cassius, 56.10. 16 Dio Cassius, 58.2.

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20 and also used her money to support men with political ambitions the future emperor Galba was a recipient of her generosity when she left him the significant sum of 50 million sesterces in her will. 18 At Augustus death, she inherited one third of his estate. 19 She also became his priestess, and was finally allowed a lictor only when she was performing her priestly duties. 20 Livia was allowed to sit with the Vestal Virgins in the theatre, 21 she was enrolled among mothers of three children when Drusus died, 22 and Tiberius dedicated a precinct to her on the first day of his consulship. 23 Livia died at age 86, 24 and Tacitus writes that she had a modest (modicum) funeral, at which her grandson Gaius, not her son Tiberius, gave her eulogy. 25 The Senate decreed that Roman women would mourn a full year for Livias death. She was buried in the Mausoleum of Augustus, and the Senate voted to erect an arch in her honor, perhaps as a kind of substitute deification. 26 This arch, an honor never before granted to a woman, was never built. Tiberius did not allow 17 Ovid, Fasti, 6.637-640. 18 Suet., Galba, 5. 19 Suet, Aug. 161. 20 Dio Cassius, 56. 46. 21 Tac. Ann. 4.16. 22 Dio Cassius, 55.2. 23 Dio Cassius, 55.8. 24 Dio Cassius, 58.2. 25 Tac. Ann. 5.1. 26 Flory (1995) 132.

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21 public funds to be spent on the arch, and promised that he himself would erect it with his own money. 27 There is little indication among the Roman historians of Livias perceived divinity while she was alive. Ovid, however, while he was in exile, wasted no words in equating the empress to goddesses. Of course his position of a persona non grata greatly influenced his words, but he does present a picture of personal piety which, though it may not be sincere on his part, may indicate the role of Livia and the imperial household in everyday life. Ovid evidently had a lararium of the imperial family in his home while in exile, one that contained the same images that would be found in any public gallery in Rome. 28 In his letter to Cottus, Ovid thanks him for sending the images of Caesar so that his could join the other images in the lararium: Redditus est nobis Caesar cum Caesare nuper, quos mihi misisti, Maxime Cotte, deos, utque tuum munus numerum quem debet haberet, est ibi Caesaribus Livia iuncta suis. 29 He also admonishes his wife to finish the honorary rituals for the imperial household, giving incense and unmixed wine to the gods, from which Augustus and his line came: sed prius impostia sanctis altaribus igni tura fer ad magnos vinoque pura deos, e quibus ante omnes Augustum numen adora progeniemque piam participemque tori. 30 Finally in a letter to Graecinus, Ovid insists that he is pious and shows the appropriate honors to the imperial household: 27 Dio Cassius, 58.2. 28 Zanker (1998) 265. 29 Ovid, Pont, 2.8. 1-4. 30 Ovid, Pont. 3.161-164.

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22 Nec pietas ignota mea est: videt hospita terra in nostra sacrum Caesaris esse domo. Stant pariter natusque pius coniunxque sacerdos, numina iam facto non leviora deo. 31 Ovid has covered all his bases: he has mentioned Augustus, his priestly wife, and his pious son, all standing equally with powers not unlike those of the gods. Ovids attentions to the imperial family were certainly meant to hasten his recall to Rome, but they also speak of a type of devotion that was not unusual in the Empire. Whether the divine powers of the imperial family were accepted or not, there was an accepted practice of honoring them as numina within the home. By that point in history, imperial images could be mass produced in cheap materials and symbols could be found everywhere: from jewelry to utensils, from wall and ceilings to roof tiles. 32 Flory interprets this attention to the family as the starting point for the deification of women. It was not the fact that Drusilla had been deified before Livia that broke down reserve, but rather it was the concept of the imperial family having a divine nature. 33 Ovid does pay particular attention to Livia, perhaps hoping to induce her to speak to Augustus on his behalf. In the aforementioned poem to his wife, Ovid compares Livias beauty with the beauty of Venus (Veneris formam) and Livias character with that of Junos (mores Iunonis). 34 The poets attention to Livia does not begin and end with flattery, however. In the Fasti, he surmises that the deification of Livia will follow close upon the heels of her husbands: et penes Augustos patriae tutela manebit: 31 Ovid, Pont, 4.9.105-108. 32 Zanker (1988) 266. 33 Flory, (1995) 134. 34 Ovid, Pont. 3.1.117.

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23 hanc fas imperii frena tenere domum. inde nepos natusque dei, licet ipse recuset, pondera caelesti mente paterna feret, utque ego perpetuis olim sacrabor in aris, sic Augusta novum Iulia numen erit. 35 After describing the good that Augustus has done, and the continued good the son and grandson of Augustus will do, Ovid mentions Livias imminent numen. Some kind of numen was appropriate for Livia, since she was the sacerdos divi Augusti, and was therefore an important mediator between the god and his people. 36 This is the most often quoted evidence that Augustus wished Livia to be deified. 37 Valerius Maximus also pays close attention to the connections between Livia and the divine. In the beginning of book 6, he says that Pudicitia rests among the Augustan household gods and in Julias most holy bed: tu Palatii columen augustos penates sanctissimumque Iuliae genialem torum adsidua statione celebras. 38 The reference to Julia seems puzzling, since, by the reign of Tiberius, when Valerius wrote, Augustus daughter had already been exiled for her sexual promiscuity. Most likely, the Julia here is Julia Augusta, or Livia. Like Ovid, Valerius praises her and the imperial family. Where Ovid was willing to compare Livia directly to Juno and Venus, Valerius attributes to her the quality of pudicitia. In Valerius time it was common to offer dedications to the iuno of Livia, as will be discussed below, and it was quite common to associate Livia 35 Ovid, Fasti, 1.531-536. 36 Flory (1995) 131. 37 ibid. 38 Valerius Maximus, 6.1.init.

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24 with the various virtues promoted by the state. It seems that Valerius, like Ovid, was anticipating the deification of Livia. 39 Livias grandson Claudius finally deified her in 41 A.D. Claudius, since he lived with Livia when he was a boy, 40 finally brought to fruition the desires of the Senate and the Roman people. Claudius, however, also had something to gain from this benefaction: first of all, it indicated to the people that he had a sense of pietas in giving honor to his ancestor, and secondly, it created a divine relationship for Claudius, who was not directly related to the divus Augustus. 41 In her honor Claudius held equestrian games, and set up a statue of her in the temple of Augustus. He also gave the charge of sacrificing to her to the Vestal Virgins, and declared that women taking oaths should swear by her name: 42 1.3 Numismatic and Sculptural Evidence of the Worship of Livia Drusilla There are not many coins bearing Livias portrait. Before she received the honor, few women appeared on coins. Augustus and Tiberius, as was their policy with honors regarding Livia, were sparing in their use of her image or name on coins during their reign. No recognizable image of Livia appeared on coins until A.D. 22 to 23, by Augustus order. 43 A female image did appear on the coinage of Augustus and Tiberius as Pax, but it is not clear whether this was intended to be Livia. 44 She appeared on 39 Mueller (2002) 43. 40 Dio Cassius, 60.2. 41 Wood (1999) 138. 42 Dio Cassius, 60.5. 43 Giacosa (1970) 23. 44 Wood (1999) 104.

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25 dupondii connected to abstracts the imperial family attributed to itself, such as Pietas, Iustitia, and Salus. In A.D. 22 the first coin to appear with Livias name showed a carpentum drawn by two mules, with the legend S.P.Q.R. IULIAE AUGUSTAE. 45 Other coins with identifiable images of Livia either connect her to an abstract divinity or to her husband or son. On one coin, a bust of Livia adorns the obverse with the legend SALUS AUGUSTA, with SC in the field of the reverse and a legend of Tiberius. 46 A similar coin from A.D. 22 to 23 has the legend IUSTITIA on the obverse with a diademed bust of Livia. 47 One dupondius showed the bust of Augustus on the obverse and a seated Livia on the reverse. 48 The coins from the reigns of Augustus and Tiberius bearing Livias likeness are a hesitant beginning of using her image in imperial art. Coins were widely distributed and would be seen by a great amount of people of diverse age, gender, and social standing. By identifying Livia with abstract divinities, Augustus and Tiberius accomplished two things: first they endowed Livia with the attributes of these divinities, setting her up as a model Roman matron, and secondly, they attributed, in a small way, perhaps, some kind of numen to Livia. This notion was not completely unfounded: Ovids went into exile in A.D. 8 and was already attributing some divine power to Livia with the rest of the imperial family. 49 By A.D. 22, it is possible that there was some expectancy of divine honors for Livia. 45 Grether (1946) 237. 46 Giacosa #4. 47 Giacosa #5. 48 Carson #37. 49 It is still unclear whether Ovid began the Fasti before or after he was exiled. At any rate, the suggestion that Livia would become a novum numen was made well before her image appeared on imperial coinage.

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26 Livias image appeared on coins in the years after her deification. Galba used the image of Livia on his coinage. On one aureus from A.D. 68 or 69, the obverse shows the bust of Galba and the reverse show a standing Livia. 50 A silver denarius of A.D. 68 or 69 shows the bust of Galba on the obverse and Livia on the reverse, holding a patera and a scepter, with the legend DIVA AUGUSTA. 51 Under Titus, the coins Iustitia and Pietas coins of the Augustan period were revived as well. 52 By the reigns of Galba and the Flavian emperors, it was common for women to appear on coins. Livias image appeared on them because her cult was still worshipped. 53 For the later emperors, it was a chance to honor the memory of a woman who had done much for Rome. It was not so much intended for worship, but rather a posthumous honor. Recognizable images of Livia did not appear in sculpture until her deification. Then her images were carefully distributed by the imperial family, and unofficial images were also erected in the provinces, a practice which attests to the indefinite nature of imperial art, as well as to the practice of spontaneous worship sanctioned beyond the reach of Rome. In Rome, Tiberius fought to keep the perception of his mother as divine under control. During the lifetime of her husband and son, the only association of Livia with the divine in imperial-sanctioned art was found on the Ara Pacis, and some 50 Carson #70. 51 Herbert #441. Grether suggests Galba ordered this to enhance his claim to power, but I am more of the mind that he wished to dedicate this honor to her memory because of the money she bequeathed him in her will. 52 Grether (1946) 251. 53 Grether (1946) 251. Grether states that the association of diva Augusta with divus Augustus allowed Livias cult to endure longer than many of the cults to divae which followed. The emperors were eager to honor Augustus memory, and therefore Livias, since she was connected to his divinity from the beginning as his priestess. In the case of Galba, however, I feel that he was showing the proper measure of pietas by honoring his patroness. Though Tiberius had stalled the execution of the will, the amount of money left to Galba was significant and no doubt helped him tremendously in his military campaigns.

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27 sanctioned provincial works. 54 Even with their concerns, the art of the Ara Pacis and statues of the period portray Livia in every respect as a goddess of plenty and fertility or as a priestess. 55 Even under Caligula, Livia appeared to have a certain amount of favor. One sculptural group from Velleia shows Livia as larger and more prominent than the other women of the group. 56 Under Claudius, it was not difficult for artists to liken Livia to goddesses, since images of her even before her deification showed her with the attributes of Ceres, 57 Cybele 58 and Venus Genetrix. 59 Later images included such divine indicators as diadems, infulae, and even spicea. 60 Even before her deification, Livia was equated with the divine. One example in particular proves this point: the statue of Ceres Augusta in Leptis Magna. The cult image was found in a small temple, and it was dedicated by a Roman official named Rubellius Blandus and a wealthy woman named Suphunibal. The statue was most likely dedicated after her death, but pre-dates her deification by 6-7 years. 61 Added to the following evidence of inscriptions, it seems clear that the provinces were willing to honor Livia as a goddess even before her deification. This spontaneous worship, worship of a cult not 54 Wood (1999) 140. 55 Grether (1946) 245. 56 Wood (1999) 125. 57 Grether (1946) 243-244. Paris cameo, Florentine sardonyx, cameo in the British museum. 58 Grether (1946) 243. A sardonyx in the Vienna museum showing her seated, holding a tympanum with a lion, wearing the crown of Cybele and holding a sheaf of poppies. 59 Wood (1999) 127. 60 Wood (1999) 127, 135. 61 Wood (1999) 112.

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28 brought in by the imperial government, indicates a popular belief in Livias divinity, or at least a popular belief that she deserved divine honors. 1.4 Inscriptional Evidence of the Worship of Livia Drusilla There is no possible way to catalogue inscriptions as sincere or exploitative in a definite way. We can only rely on the words of the inscriptions to interpret the purpose of a dedication or ritual or the intent of the dedicator. The inscriptions of the Acta of the Arval Brethren track the official attitude towards Livias divinity from the rule of Augustus until the rule of Vitellius. As a sodality dedicated almost entirely to the worship in Rome of the Imperial cult and as a group of politically entrenched men appointed to the sodality, the feelings of belief among the celebrants is not worth discussing. The rituals of the Arval Brethren were not celebrated to indicate their own personal belief but to indicate to the public that the imperial cult was not neglected by rulers and to demonstrate the pietas of the emperor. The Arval Brethren did offer prayers to Livia before her consecration during the reign of Claudius. In A.D. 38, three years before Livias deification, on the Capitoline the Arval Brethren sacrificed an ox to Capitoline Jove for Livias birthday. 62 They offered prayers on her birthday for two years before her death. 63 Her birthday was also celebrated in other parts of Italy: an inscription from the Forum Clodii in A.D. 18 lists her birthday among the fasti. 64 The sacrificing of the Arval Brethren was state-sactioned, but the sacrifice for Livias birthday, just like a sacrifice for Augustus or Tiberius, honored her popularity and power. 62 CIL 6.2028. 63 Flory (1995) 128. 64 CIL 11. 3303 in Grether (1946) 238.

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29 After Livias deification under Claudius, the Arval Brethren began to sacrifice to her instead of for her. On Livias consecration, they offered an ox to the divus Augustus and a cow to the diva Augusta. 65 In the following years of Claudius reign, it became customary to include sacrifices to the divus Augustus and the diva Augusta together among the other usual sacrifices to the Capitoline Triad. The sacrifices took place in various places, including the temple of Concordia, 66 the Palatine, 67 the new temple of the divus Augustus, 68 and the Capitoline. 69 In every instance, a cow was sacrificed to diva Augusta, always accompanied by an ox sacrificed to the divus Augustus. The worship of Livia did not end with the death of Claudius. Nero continued to show devotion to Augustus and Livia. In A.D.58 the Arval Brethren sacrificed two oxen to divus Augustus, two cows to diva Augusta, and two oxen to divus Claudius in the new temple. Prayers and sacrifices were made on the same day in the Capitol for the safety of Nero and Octavia, and sacrifices were made to the Capitoline Triad and Salus in the Capitol as well. 70 The records of the Arval Brethren in the reign of Nero mention the specific reason for prayer and sacrifice, Neros attempts to demonstrate his pietas. In A.D. 58 in October, sacrifices were made to the divus Augustus, the diva Augusta, and the divus Claudius because of the imperium Neronis. 71 In January A.D. 59 sacrifices of two animals apiece were made to divus Augustus, diva Augusta, and divus Claudius pro 65 CIL 6.2032. 66 CIL 6. 2033. 67 Antica 19. 68 Antica 20. 69 CIL 6.2038, Antica 25. 70 CIL 6.2040, Antica 26. 71 CIL 6.2041, Antica 27.

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30 salute Neronis Claudii et Octaviae coniugis eius in the new temple. 72 A similar sacrifice was made for the safety of Nero and Octavia around A.D. 61 in January, again of two animals apiece to the divus Augustus, diva Augusta, and divus Claudius. 73 A.D. 63 brought changes in the sacrifices and prayers of the Arval Brethren, due to two new women in Neros life: his new wife, Poppaea, and their daughter, Claudia. These women will be discussed below. Livia continued to be worshiped in conjunction with Augustus and Claudius. In 63 A.D., the year of Claudias birth and death, the Arval Brethren sacrificed in the Capitol ob imperium Neronis. Sacrifices were made to the Capitoline Triad and Felicitas, and in the new temple sacrifices were made to the divus Augustus, the diva Augusta, divus Claudius, diva Claudia, and diva Poppaea. 74 In A.D. 66 sacrifices were again made on the Capitol to include the divus Augustus, diva Augusta, divus Claudius, diva Claudia, and diva Poppaea, but also the genius of Nero. The same year saw sacrifices made to the same deities ob laurum imperatoris Neronis and ob Augustalia. 75 The worship of Livia continued even into the reign of Galba, Otho, and Vitellius. Under each emperor, sacrifices were made to divus Augustus, diva Augusta, and divus Claudius, as was customary in the early reign of Nero. 76 The sacrifices for Otho were made ob vota nuncupata pro salute imperatoris, and those of Vitellius were made pro 72 ibid. 73 CIL 6.2048, Antica 33. 74 CIL 6. 2043, Antica 29, II. 75 CIL 6.2044. 76 CIL 6.2051, Antica 40.

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31 salute et reditu (Vitelli) Germanici imperatoris. Galba owed a particular debt of gratitude to Livia, since she left him a large amount of money in her will. Though Augustus and Tiberius were carefully prohibiting Livia from extravagant honors, they could not control the inclinations and beliefs of their provincial subjects. Dedications were made to Livia across the Empire. The worship of Livia in the Greek East follows the honors accorded the living emperors of the time. At Athens Livia and Julia, Augustus daughter, shared a priestess and a temple with Hestia. 77 At Thasos, the women were honored as and Livia was honored as Livia was also called on coins from Clazomenae and Methymna. 79 These honors were all accorded to her before her official deification as was the Greek custom of honoring the emperor and empress as divine even in their lifetimes. This worship was not sanctioned by the Roman government, but rather was instituted by the people of the provinces themselves. A small marble tablet from the Forum Clodii lists a wide variety of honors done for the imperial family in the consulships of Tiberius Caesar and Germanicus Caesar, well before Livias deification. The dedications were decreed by the duoviri (Cn. Acceio Cn. f. Arnensis Rufo Lutatio, T. Petillio P. f. Quirina II viris decreta) of the province and covered many benefactions. Most notable is the money that the duoviri spend to honor the Imperial cult: aram numini Augusto pecunia nostra faciendam curavimus; ludos ex idibus Augustis diebus sex pecunia nosta faciendos curavimus. Livias birthday appears next on the list: natali Augustae mulsum et crustlum (sic) mulieribus vicanis ad bonam 77 CIA 3, 316 in Grether (1946) 230. 78 I.G. 12, 7 in Grether (1946) 231. 79 Grether (1946) 232.

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32 deam pecunia nostra dedimus; item dedicatione statuarum Caesarum et Augustae mulsum et crustla (sic) pecunia nostra decurionibus et populo dedimus, perpetuoque eius die dedicationis daturos nos testati sumus. 80 The duoviri certainly have demonstrated their peity, and they also had the money to inscribe their pietas on a stone, which also recorded the amounts of their own money they spent on the rituals and in giving opportunities of worship to the decuriones and the people. Livias birthday was one more occasion for them to display their pietas in an ostentatious manner. An inscription from El-Lehs in Africa offers a sacrum to the iuno of Livia. The reason is not inscribed, only: L Passieno Rufo Imperatore Africam obtinente Cn Cornelius Cn F Cor Rufus et Maria C F Galla Cn conservati vota L M solvont. 81 It seems as though the dedicators were saved from something when Rufus took command of Africa, and therefore they fulfilled the vows they promised. This sacrum was dedicated before Livia was deified, and indicates again that her spirit was petitioned for help. Whether the intention of the dedicators was for Livia herself, as a mortal, to actually put Rufus into power or whether the dedicators intended her spirit to move someone into action, it is not clear. But the dedication goes to her divine spirit, her iuno, not the woman herself. There are some inscriptions dedicated by freed slaves. One inscription in Rome was dedicated to the household gods of the imperial family and to diva Augusta by the freedman Bathyllus quod est in palatium immunis et honoratus. 82 In another inscription, Gelos, a freedman from Cisalpine Gaul dedicated an inscription to Julia, Augustus daughter and to diva Augusta, since it was through her will that he become free (Iuliae 80 CIL 11.3303. 81 CIL 8.16456. 82 CIL 6.4222.

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33 divai Augustae liberate matri ex testamento fieri iussit). 83 There is no mention of money, since both men probably have little, and there is not mention of sacrifices. These are simply inscriptions of thanks from men who have no political power or money to display the extent of their pietas. There are dedications of unidentified sacra all over the Empire, dedications which only supply the name of the dedicator and the name of the dedicatee. These most likely were the bases of statues or stood near a monument. These are useful in that they can show the extent of Livias worship throughout the Empire. M. Livius erected a monument to her in Urbini, 84 and L Mammius Maximus, who probably lived under Claudius, set up some monument to her in Herculaneum. 85 Another inscription from Falerio was dedicated to genio Augusti et Ti. Caesaris iunoni Liviae. 86 The dedications of men and women throughout the Empire are more powerful testimonies to the worship of Livia: they were flamines, flaminicae, and sacerdotes of her cults. Julia was the sacerdos in Baetica in Further Spain, 87 Albinus the son of Albui was the flamen of divus Augustus and diva Augusta in Lusitania, a province in Iberia. 88 Sabina was the flaminca of diva Augusta in Albingavinum, 89 Paulla the daughter of 83 AE 1975, 0289. 84 CIL 6.3879. 85 CIL 10.1413. 86 CIL 11.3076. 87 CIL 2.1571. 88 CIL 2.473. 89 CIL 5.7788.

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34 Cantia was the flaminica of diva Augusta in Ferrandus. 90 Plaria was the sacerdos of Livias cult in Ostia, 91 and Curtilia held the same office in Suasa. 92 Ria served as flaminica of diva Augusta in Cirta, in Algeria, 93 a dedication was made to Septicia Marcellina, the sacerdos of diva Augusta by the decree of the local military officers, 94 and finally Julia was the sacerdos of diva Augusta in Torreparedones. 95 If these inscriptions prove anything, it is that Livia was worshipped throughout the Empire and that her cults had priestesses to celebrate the rituals. Most of the inscriptions do not indicate the reason for the dedication, and the social status of the priests and priestesses is not clear, and so there are few conclusions about intent or belief to be made here. 1.5 Conclusions Livia was, in reality, the first diva of Rome. Through the powers given to her by her husband, she was able to distribute a vast amount of wealth in Rome to a variety of causes, and was able to exert considerable influence on political matters. She was rewarded for her service to the state and her support of her husband with honors which up to that point had never been conferred to a woman. The conferral of divine honors upon her was delayed because of the concerns of Augustus and Tiberius, but her divine power seemed to be accepted by some people of Rome. Her deification and the worship of her cult set a standard for the worship of divae in the coming generations. Her cult was the 90 CIL 9.1155. 91 CIL 14.399. 92 CIL 11.6172. 93 CIL 8.19492, CIL 8.6987. 94 IL (Vercel) 93. 95 CIL 2.5421.

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35 recipient of both heartfelt and insincere o fferings, and her image became the embodiment of feminine power. Livia begins th is study because she epitomizes the diva of the Roman Empire. The circumstances of deification, the receptions of the people, and the cult practices of the other divae will necessarily be compared and contrasted to Livias.

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CHAPTER 2 THE JULIO-CLAUDIANS 2.1 Introduction Though Julia Drusilla was the first deified Roman women, Livia was and will always be the model of merited consecration. Though three other women of the Julio-Claudian family were deified, the circumstances of their consecration and the worship of their cults are markedly different from Livias. The most important difference between Livia and the other Julian-Claudian women, and indeed with all other deified Roman women, is the belief or assumption of the Roman people that Livia deserved the honors she was awarded. Though Julia Drusilla, Poppaea Sabina, and her daughter Claudia were highly visible to Roman through public art, they did not live long enough nor did they hold positions of power long enough to be of any direct importance to the public. Livia lived to 86 Drusilla died around the age of 22, Poppaea was perhaps in her 30s, and Claudia was four months old. They were practically unknown to the Roman people except as symbols of the imperial family. Thus their consecrations and their cult worship took on a different tone from Livias, while the system of worship remained the same. The state-sanctioned worship of the Arval Brethren continued to worship the new divae as they did Livia, and the same honors were accorded to the empresses as had always been the custom in the East, but there appear to be more instances in the West of exploiting the cult of the Julio-Claudian divae than there was for Livia. This is due to the fact that the public in general did not seem to believe that these women merited consecration, and thus viewed their cults as opportunities for social advancement. 36

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37 2.2 Julia Drusilla 2.2.1 Literary Evidence of the Worship of Julia Drusilla Julia Drusilla was one of three daughters of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder, the others being Agrippina theYounger and Ju lia Livilla. Her brother, Caligula, succeeded Tiberius as ruler. Caligula made public his sentiment that his sisters should play a visible part of his reign by means of public decrees. He or dered that all sacred oaths should include his sisters: neque me liberosque meos cariores habebo quam Gaium habeo et sorores eius He issued a similar decree for the consuls: quod bonum felixque sit C. Caesaris sororibusque eius. 1 In A.D. 37 or 38 a silver sestertius was minted with the head of Caligula on the obvers e and his three sisters on the reverse, with Agrippina as Securitas, Drusilla as Concordia and Julia as Fortuna. 2 Caligula, as demonstrated by his actions, initially promoted a family-based image for the imperial household. He honored his mother and sisters and promoted their images in coin and art at least for awhile. Caligulas sisters had the ability to influence Caligula, but had no real hopes of power, 3 until he decided to make Drusilla the heir of the Empire. Caligula favored Drusilla above his other sisters. Suetonius te ll us that he took her back from her husband Lucius Cassius Longinus and kept her as his own wife, 4 but Dio Cassius reports she was married to Marcus Lepidus, a friend of Caligulas. 5 Wood suggests that Caligula 1 Suet. Calig 15. 2 Sutherland, #98. 3 Wood (1995) 458. 4 Suet, Calig 24. 5 Dio Cassius, 59.11.1.

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38 dissolved Drusillas marriage to Long inus to force her to marry Lepidus, 6 someone he felt he could control. Wood suggests that this move was calculated and not the result of a depraved desire: Caligula was intent on making Drusilla the embodiment of Julian fertility. He wanted her to produce an heir to the Empire. When Caligula fell ill in A.D. 37, he intended to bequeath the enti re Empire to her and her heir. 7 Lepidus, therefore, would become emperor, and Drusilla woul d fulfill her duty to continue the Julian bloodline. Her real power wa s in her ability to reproduce. 8 However, Caligulas plans were thwarted when Drusilla died suddenly at a young age. Upon her death, Caligula deified her and ordered all of Rome to mourn her death. Suetonius writes that he imposed public mourning by making it an offense to laugh, wash, or have dinner with your parents, wife, or children. 9 The worship of the diva Drusilla depended on the whim of Caligula, a private mourning for a dead relative made public. 10 Dio Cassius writes that Ca ligula changed her name to Panthea ordered a golden effigy to be set up in the Sentate House, a statue built for the temple of Venus in Rome, and dedicated twenty priests of men and women to her. There was also a festival in Rome on her birthday, on which the Se nate and the knights held a banquet. 11 There were games for the New Aphrod ite Drusilla throughout the Empire. 12 Dio Cassius describes dramatic affairs Caligula produced for Drusillas worship. He celebrated 6 Wood (1995) 459. 7 Wood (1999) 212. 8 Wood (1995) 459. 9 Suet, Calig ,. 24. 10 Wood (1995) 482. 11 Dio Cassius, 59.11. 12 IGRR 4, no. 145, in Lewis and Reinhold (1990) 32.

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39 Drusillas birthday after her death with a two-day festival. He brought her statue into the Circus on a car drawn by two elephants, and then proceeded to produce a spectacle that involved the deaths of bears and Libyan animals, as well as a pancratium competition. 13 The Senate then stated that Drusillas birthday and Tiberius birthday would be celebrated in the same manner as Augustus. Actors even dedicated images of Gaius and Drusilla to the gods. 14 He later named his daughter by C aesonia Drusilla, and put her into the lap of the Jupiter on the Capito line to show her divine favor. 15 By this point, Caligulas own delusions of divinity were becoming manifest. Caligulas motives of deification may ha ve been to repair what Wood calls a dynastic disaster. 16 Because Drusilla could not fulfill her purported role as fertile bearer of Julian heirs, she could become instead a kind of patron goddess for the imperial family. 17 By A.D. 39, a year after Drusillas wo rship, Caligulas system of family-based propaganda fell apart. He convi cted Lepidus with adultery w ith his sisters and treasonous conspiracy and executed him, and he exiled his sisters from Rome. 18 The worship of diva Drusilla ended with Caligulas assassination. 2.2.2 Numismatic and Sculptural Evidence of Worship of Julia Drusilla Though it was only Drusilla who was deified, a large amount of the images of the imperial family disseminated throughout the Em pire were group portraits of the sisters. 13 Dio Cassius, 59.13. 14 Dio Cassius, 59.13. 15 Dio Cassius, 59.28. 16 Wood (1995) 459. 17 Wood (1995) 460. 18 Dio Cassius, 59.22.

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40 Drusilla did enjoy some personal attention, th rough individual images and through divine attributes on her person to mark her divinity. There was a Milesian coin with the legend but its possible that this may have been minted before her deification. 19 Another coin from Apamea pays homage to both the imperial family and to diva Drusilla. The obverse is a portrait of Ag rippina Maior, and the reverse depicts her three daughters. Drusilla is a bit more pr onounced in this portrait, with DIVA inscribed below her portrait and a b eaded headband on her head. 20 There were also statues of the sisters throughout the Empire during their lifetime, and Drusilla appeared in sculptural groups with her sisters ev en after her consecration. 21 Drusilla is usually marked as divine by a particular headband, an infula 22 Because the images of the sisters on extant coins do not have distinct features it is difficult to assess which statues may be Drusilla. 2.2.3 Inscriptional Evidence of the Worship of Julia Drusilla There is evidence of sanctioned worship of diva Drusilla In A.D. 38 the Arval Brethren gathered near the kalends of Octobe r in the new temple of the Divine Augustus to sacrifice on the occasion of the consecration ( ob consecrationem divae Drusillae) of Drusilla. 23 The tablet shows other references to divae Drusillae In A.D. 40, 2 years after Drusillas death, the Arval Brethren gath ered on the Capitoline in June to sacrifice to Jove, Juno, and Minverva ob natalem divae Drusillae 24 At the Capitoline, a cow was 19 Wood (1995) 462. 20 Wood (1995) 463. 21 Wood (1995) 465. 22 See Wood (1995) 478 for a description of the infula and its connotations. 23 CIL 6.2028, Antica 12 c. 24 CIL 6.2030, Antica 14.

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41 sacrificed to divae Drusillae sorori Germanici Augusti along with the ab stracts important to the Julio-Claudians: Salus publica and Felicitas 25 This is the only inscription in which indicates an actual sacrifice to diva Drusilla. The others are not sacrifices made to her, but sacrifices made to other deities on her behalf. Beyond the prayers of the Arval Brethren, there were also sacra dedicated to Drusilla throughout the Empire. One inscripti on in particular indicates how Drusillas cult may be used to honor another member of her family. Tiberius, before Drusillas deification, dedicated a sacrum both to her and her father Germanicus: Iuliae Drusillae German Caesar F. Tiberius paren ti numinis honore delato posuit 26 It was not Drusilla who was important, but Germanicus, her famous father. Other insc riptions note that a sacrum was dedicated to diva Drusilla, sorori C. Caesaris Augusti Germanici one in Caere, and one divae Drusillae Germanici Caesaris f in Veleia. 27 These inscriptions refer to the diva as the daughter of a famous Roman he ro and the sister of the emperor. They are honored through her honor it is no t Drusilla alone on wh om her deification reflects. The worship of Drusilla also gave a nu mber of individuals the opportunity to inscribe their names, their wealth, and th eir political positions on stone. C. Rubellius Blandus, a quaestor under Augustus, dedicated some sacred object ( only a marble tablet survives) to Drusilla which stood in Tibur. A flock of abbreviations follow his name: TR, PL, PR COS, PRO COS, PONTIF. 28 Blandus was obviously an important man in 25 CIL .6.32345. 26 CIL 12.1026. 27 CIL 11.3598, CIL 11.1168. 28 CIL 14.3576.

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42 Tibur, and he used his dedication to Drusilla to reinforce that. At Avaricum Bithurigum C. Agileius, a man with a flock of initials after his name (VIRAVGCCRDSPD) offered a sacrum to divae Drusilla and to Minerva pro salute Caesarum 29 Here we see Drusilla petitioned as the patron goddess Caligula intended her to be, but the image that lingers in the mind, the last thing read, was the string of initials afte r Agileius name, telling all who pass of his importance. An inscription fr om Alpes Cottiae suggests that Drusilla had a cult, since her flaminica Secunda, gave a fishpond ( piscinam ) to her municipality. 30 This inscription relates that Drusilla did in actuality have cults around the Empire with priestesses, and also indicates that these priestesses could be relatively wealthy. This is a common characteristic of the priestesses of the various divae around the Empire, which will be discussed below. Finally, a fasti inscription from Ostia indicate s that the people there worshipped Drusilla, since they celebrated her death: IIII Idus Iun. Drusilla excessit. 31 The celebration of dates of births and deaths of members of the imperial family was not uncommon, as the army carried calendars of births and deaths with them and various cities had their own calendars of fasti posted in public places. Since there are not many extant examples of the worship of diva Drusilla, it is difficult to assess her importance in the Empi re. We do know that the Arval Brethren do not mention her again after Caligulas deat h, and that she is not worshipped in conjunction with any other members of the im perial family. It seems likely that all vestiges of cult worship of diva Drusilla ended with Caligula. In the Apocolocyntosis, 29 CIL 13.1194. 30 CIL 5.7345. 31 CIL 14.4535.

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43 written during Neros reign, the man who supposedly witnessed Drusillas apotheosis at her funeral is ridiculed by Seneca. In trying to find a way to legitimize Claudius it is decided that his apotheos is must be witnessed: Tamen si necesse fuerit auctorem producere, quaerito ab eo qui Drusillam euntem in caelum vidit: idem Claudium vidisse se dicet iter faciente m non passibus aequis. 32 The whole situation is made light of, and the man who witnessed Drusillas apotheosis was asked to repeat his services. This is a good indication of how Seneca felt about deification in general, but also indicates that Drusilla was no longer revered by the time he wrote. 33 2.3 Sabina Poppaea and Claudia 2.3.1 Literary Evidence of the Worship of Poppaea and Claudia Nero, as mentioned above, deified his second wife Poppaea and their daughter Claudia. Claudia only lived to be four m onths old, and Poppaea was actually deified in 63, two years before her death by a swift kick from Nero in 65. Neros enforcement of public rejoicing and mourning to suit his own personal desi res were reminiscent of Caligulas extravagancies after Drusillas de ath. His relationship with Poppaea was not popular, and she was not well-liked by the senate or the people. The peoples reaction to Neros divorce of Octavia and marriage to Poppaea was violent and emphatic: effigies Poppaeae prorunt, Octaviae imagines gustant umeris, spargunt floribus foroque ac templis stabunt 34 Though unpopular, Poppaeas influence over her impressionable husband was considerable. Dio Cassius writes that many were critical of Octavia because 32 Seneca, Apoc 1. 33 Wood (1995) 465 n. 44. 34 Tac. Ann 14.61.

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44 of her toadying to Poppaea. 35 Her greatest achievement, however, was the birth of Claudia. The Senate commended her womb to the gods and offered public prayers upon Claudias birth. 36 They also dedicated a temple to fertility, a competition was ordered after the example of the Actian rites, and golden statues of th e Fortunes were place on the throne of Jupiter Capitoline. 37 Circus games were then he ld at Bouvillae for the Julian family, and Antium for the Claudian and Domitian families. 38 Claudia died at four months, and Nero was devastat ed. He plunged the country into a national state of mourning, as Caligula had for Drusilla, and deified his daughter, according her a divine couch, temple, and priest. 39 Nero killed Poppaea not l ong after, though it is unclear whether or not it was intentional. Tacitus stat es that Nero wanted children and was very open in his love of Poppaea, 40 and Dio Cassius simply states that Neros intention was unclear. Poppaea, according to Tacitus, was not cremated in the Roman custom, but was embalmed and taken into the tomb of the Julians. Nero himself praised her from the Rostra. 41 However, he was not present when the deum honores were voted to Poppaea by the Senate. 42 35 Dio Cassius, 62.13. 36 Tac. Ann 15.23. 37 Tac. Ann 15.23. 38 Tac. Ann 15.23. 39 Tac. Ann 16.6. 40 Ibid 41 Ibid 42 Tac. Ann 16.21.

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45 2.3.2 Numismatic Evidence of Worship of Poppaea and Claudia The only image of Poppaea in official Roma n art comes from coins of the official Roman mint. Other images appear on coin s throughout the Empire, most notably from the East. One Alexandrian coin ha s a picture of Poppaea under the legend meaning Poppaea Augusta. 43 Another coin, struck in a province of Asia Minor after A.D. 63 shows the bust of Nero on the obverse and the bust of Poppaea on the reverse, both with Greek legends. There are no images of diva Claudia on coins. There were images of Poppaea in Rome, as Tacitus relates, 44 but they were either made of flimsy material or she was so unpopular that none survived. 2.3.3 Inscriptional Evidence of Worship of Poppaea and Claudia The Arval Brethren included Poppaea and Claudia in their sacrifices in A.D. 63 made ob adventum Neronis Claudi Caesaris Augu sti Germanici et Pappaeae Augusti et Claudiae Augustae 45 This particular sacr ifice stands out, though, since, in addition to the Capitoline Triad, Salus publica Felicitas and Spes there was a sacrifice of a cow to iunoni Poppaeae Augustae and iunoni Claudiae Augustae The same fragment records sacrifices made to divae Poppaeae and divae Claudiae virgini, as Claudia is hereafter called in the prayers of the Arval Brethren. The same inscription shows sacrifices made in October ob iperium imperatoris Neronis. In the phrasing of th e sacrifice records, Claudia and Poppaea were always grouped with Augustus, Livia, and Claudius, and they actually receive sacrifices as divinities. 43 Wood (1999) 313. 44 see above. 45 CIL 6.2043.

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46 The records of the Arval Brethren show evidence of worship of the divae Claudia and Poppaea until A.D. 66, at which point it st ops completely. There is extremely little inscriptional evidence of worship of diva Poppaea or diva Claudia. There were few dedications made to diva Poppaea, one in Rome that was possibly the base of a statue, 46 and two in Luna, both by L. Titinius L. F. Galeria Glaucus Lucretianus, who held many official titles at Rome (FLAM ROMAE ET AUG II VIR IV P CS L VIR EQ R CURIO PRALF FADR COS TR MILIT L LG XXII PRIMIG PRALF) among them flamen patron of the colony, tribune of a legion, a nd praefect for the embassy of the Baliae Islands. The description of his honors alone take up half the dedication. One inscription of his was on two large marble tablets dedicated to diva Poppaea Augusta and Imperator Nero Caesar, 47 and the other was a smaller marble tablet that may have added divae Claudiae Neronis Augusti filiae virgini at a later date. 48 His dedications were not about the divae so much as his own accomplishments. Dedicating a sacrum to a beloved diva of the emperor was a way to ensure your name would be engraved into stone forever. Though the names of Poppaea and Nero were on th e tablets, it is clear that the person being honored was L. Titinius. There is no inscriptional evidence of either Claudia or Poppaea having any priests or priest esses dedicated to their cult. 2.4 Conclusions Livia Drusilla exercised considerable pow er for the duration of her life as an empress and an empress-mother. Her presti ge was gained through her own merit; that Augustus trusted her and asked her advice certainly earned her respect among powerful 46 CIL 6.40419. 47 CIL 11.1331. 48 CIL 11.6955.

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47 Romans, but her patronage and visibility as an inspiring Roman matron earned her the respect of the masses. Of the other deif ied Julio-Claudian women, only Poppaea could claim to have the kind of influence that Livia did, though her power was based on her ability to manipulate the emperor, not on her individual influence. Drusilla and Claudia were dearly beloved to emperors, and the l ove of the most powerful man was forced upon the masses. The contrast between the effort s of the emperors to worship their women relates to the contrast in the longevity of the worship: the forced adoration and extravagant adulation of Drus illa, Claudia, and Poppaea, about whom the Roman people new very little, resulted in the loss of intere st in any form of wo rship upon the death of the emperor. Livias record of public servi ce, and the calculated actions of Augustus and Tiberius remained in the memories of the Roman people, and her divinity was worshipped decades after her death. People believed that the power she had in life transferred to her death. The cults of Dr usilla, Poppaea and Claudia are not only less enduring, as evidenced by their lack of in scriptions, but are more susceptible to exploitation. It is clear th at those who were involved with their cults or inclined to dedicate to them did so only for the public recognition it would br ing them, or for the favor they felt they would gain from the emperor by remember their beloved family members. There was a suspension of belief not noted with Livias cult deification for the Julio-Claudian men, with the exception of Livia, was an exercise in public mourning for private passions.

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CHAPTER 3 THE TRAJANIC FAMILY 3.1 Introduction Trajan and Hadrian honored four women with deification between A.D. 98 and 138. The system of worship of these divae is not considerably different from that of the Julio-Claudians, yet it is clear that the role of the empress was changing. No woman in the House of Trajan or Hadrian possessed the kind of political power that Livia did, but their power was in something more abstract: the bonds of family. It was not the women themselves who were powerful in a political sense. 1 There was more general acceptance of women as divae, since dynastic rule had governed Rome for two generations before Trajan took power. There was no need to straddle a fence between republic and principate as there was for Augustus and Tiberius, and the imagery of the imperial family reflected that change. Boatwright suggests that the women of Trajan and Hadrian were more subservient than women of previous families. 2 There are no records of their political dealings or public works, and very little about their actual relationships with the emperor. There is also very little gossip about their sexuality, which suggests that they were very unconcerned with imperial power. Their importance was found in the image of concordia in the imperial family they could project to the Empire. 1 Boatwright (1991) 515. 2 Boatwright (1991) 513. 48

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49 There were three things Roman women needed to have any kind of say in political issues: lineage, high co nnections, and money. 3 There is little evidence that these women had any money of their own. They did not re store buildings or help needy families. There are no inscriptions th anking them for public works, or for money bequeathed upon their deaths. They simply did not demonstrat e the kind of service to the state that Livia did generations ago. As for their families, the women were not Roman by birth. They came from northern Italy, France, and Spain. 4 They did not come from a powerful Roman family, as Livia did, nor did they have the built -in connections with the aristocratic class that Livia enjoyed. They were foreign women brought in by the foreign generals who became emperors. This may also have somewhat tied their hands. The worship of the Trajanic women had an emphasis on family. There are many dedications throughout the Empire that bear the names of three divae mother, daughter, and granddaughter. Since Trajan did not leave a son to inheri t his throne, his family was immortalized through its women, not its men. Trajans successor, Hadrian, gained his Empire through the machinations of his adopted mother, and maintained the air of family legitimacy by marrying and making Trajans grandniece, Sabina, the empress. The women were the glue that held this dynasty together, no t the men. That was their contribution to the Empire. They were the models of what a Roma n woman should be at the time: possibly foreign, as the Empire ma rked its largest boundary under Trajan and Hadrian, and quietly supportive. Every literary refere nce that is not gos sip is a reference to the diva as a good wife, mother, or sister. Each knew her place in the family. 3 Boatwright (1991) 515. 4 Boatwright (1991) 518.

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50 3.2 Marciana 3.2.1 Literary and Inscriptional Ev idence of Worship of Marciana While Trajan did not deify his wife, he did confer such honors on his sister, Marciana, in 112 A.D. Marciana is a bit of a mystery. No Roman historian mentions her; only Pliny the Younger mentions her in the Panegyric, but does not call her by name, only tua soror Pliny praises her through Trajan saying that she possesses his simplicitas veritas, and candor 5 Its possible that she wa s married to a senator from Viceta, but she was a widow by the time Trajan took power. 6 Mariciana does not receive any sacrifices from the Arval Brethren, and there is no inscriptional evidence of any cult dedicated to her. Th ere are dedications of sacra to Marciana throughout the Empire. One inscription found in Azuaga emphasizes Trajans lineage: Divae Marcianae Augustae Imp Caes Divi Nervae F. Nervae Traini Optimi Aug Germ Dacici Parthici Sorori 7 Another found in Torreparedones simply calls her the sorori Augusti 8 and a base found in the Municipium Gigthense simply calls her Divae Mariciane Augustae 9 The emphasis of the inscriptions is her re lationship to Trajan they offer no other information about the woman herself, her proposed powers as a diva or even a reason for the dedication. Marcianas value is wrapped up in Trajans ability to use her as an example for Roman matrons. One look at a particularly grand dedication made at Ancona, dated at A.D. 115 indicates who was important in the imperial family, diva or 5 Plin. Pane 84. 6 Boatwright (1991) 517. 7 CIL 2.2340. 8 CIL 2.7892. 9 CIL 8.25.

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51 no. 10 There an arc that one time held a golde n equestrian statue honored the restoration of the port of Ancona, a port town important because of its proximity to Dalmatia, which Trajan funded with his own m oney. On the arc, the names Plotinae Aug Coniugi Aug and Divae Marcianae Aug Sorori Aug small 4 and 5 word dedications are inscribed on either side of a huge inscription to Imp Caesari Divi Nervae F. Nervae Traiano Optimo Aug Germanic Dacico explaining his good deed and thanking him for the use of his own money. 11 The women are merely side ornaments. 3.2.2 Numismatic Evidence of Worship of Marciana Marcianas importance as a deified woman is manifested in her coins, since the legend CONSECRATIO first appears on her coins 12 struck in all metals. 13 One coin struck under Trajan between A.D. 112 and 113, be fore Marcianas deification, depict her wearing a diadem. 14 Coins struck in 113, however, b ear CONSECRATIO on the reverse. An aureus from A.D. 113 has the diademed bust of Marciana on the obverse, and depicts the carpentum drawn by mules on the reverse. 15 A silver denarius from the same year depicts the diademed Marciana on th e obverse under the legend DIVA AUGUSTA MARCIANA, with an eagle on the reverse. 16 A third coin struck between A.D. 114 and 117 again depicts a diademed Marciana on the ob verse, with an eagle, on the reverse, this 10 OCD 87. 11 CIL 9.5894. 12 Stevenson (1982) 537. 13 Bickerman (1974) 366. 14 Carson, fig. 139. 15 Carson, fig. 140. 16 Herbert, fig. 778. The eagle was a common figure on consecration reverses for both men and women, but peacocks, the divine attribute of Juno, appears only on the reverses of women. Stevenson (1982) 250.

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52 time with wings spread open, holding a scepter in his claws. 17 The images on Marcianas coins offer no sense of Marcianas identity be yond her portrait. She is not equated to any abstract deities, and is not armed with any attributes of goddesses it was her deification that was important to Trajan, not her repres entation on coins. Trajan proved his own pietas by deifying the woman who was such an honor to him, as Pliny pointed out. 3.3 Matidia 3.3.1 Literary and Inscriptional Ev idence of Worship of Matidia Marciana is also featured on coins of her daughter, Matidia, Trajans niece. Matidia died in 119, two years after Hadrian became emperor, and was deified that same year. 18 Like Mariciana, Matidia is largely ignored by contemporary Roman historians. The Historia Augusta mentions her familial piety: she, along with Plotina and Attianus, escorted Trajans ashes from Antioch to Rome. 19 It also mentions that Hadrian held games to honor his mother-in-law. In 119 A.D. he held gladiatorial games, 20 and he also gave aromatica to the people in her honor. 21 Its possible that Matidia was married twice, once to L. Mindius, with whom she had Mindia Matidia, commonly called Matidia Minor, and once to L. Vibius Sabinus, with who she had Vibia Sabina, who later married Hadrian. 22 17 Giacosa, fig. 23. 18 OCD, 937. 19 H.A., Had 5.9. 20 H.A., Had 9.9. 21 H.A., Had 19.5. 22 Boatwright (1991) 517.

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53 Inscriptional evidence of the worship of Ma tidia is scarce. Matidias consecration under Hadrian was celebrated by the Arva l Brethren in A.D. 120 in January in consecrationem Matidiae Augusta e, socrus Imperatoris Caesaris Trainini Hadriani Augusti, unguenti pondo duo nomine college fratrum arvalium 23 This is the only mention of any of the Trajanic women in the Acta of the Arval Brethren. She was not sacrificed to, but rather two measurements of oil were offered on her behalf. There are not many dedications of sacra extant, though one from Rome does call her the felicitas auctor. 24 More common are inscriptions to the flaminicae and sacerdotes of her cult. One Caesia was her maxima sacerdos in Ager Mediolaniensis, 25 and an inscription honoring Lepida, the sacerdos of diva Augusta and of diva Matidia at Ariminum suggests that perhaps one woman could serve two cults at once. 26 It also states that she paid for the inscription with her own money. One last inscripti on honors Clodia, the sacerdos of diva Matidia, but the patr ons are unexpected: the collegia fabrorum et centonariorum the colleges of firefighters and craftsmen. 27 During the reigns of Tr ajan and Hadrian there is a marked increase of dedications paid for by local guilds and colleges. The decuriones, military officers, are noted most often. Fina lly there were the sculptural and buildings dedicated in her honor. A medallion of Hadria n shows a temple, regarded as the temple of Matidia, flanked by two smaller buildings, the basilicae of Marciana and Matidia. 28 23 CIL 2080. 24 CIL 6.40516. 25 CIL 5.5647. 26 CIL 11.415. 27 SupIt 8, Br 003 bis. 28 Keltanen (2002), 114 n. 55 For th e temple, cf. Platner (1929) 331, for basilicae, cf. Platner (1929) 81.

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54 There was also an altar mentioned in an inscription from Rome, but it is otherwise unknown. 29 The evidence of worship of Matidia is so scarce that there is little to glean about her cult. We know that she did have a cult wi th priestesses, and we know that there was most likely a cult to her in Rome in her own temple. But beyond that it is difficult to say what her cult was like, what kind of people worshipped her, or how important she was. The lack of evidence suggests that there were not many dedications made to her throughout the Empire, and so her cult may not have been that active. 3.3.2. Numismatic Evidence of Worship of Matidia Matidias divinity was most often legi timized through her mother. Early coins capitalize on her relationship to her Marciana, who was already deified by Trajan himself. One aureus struck between A.D. 115 and 117 de picts a diademed Matidia under the legend MATIDIA AUG DIVAE MARCIANAE F. The reverse depicts Matidia as Pietas, standing between two small children, pe rhaps Matidia the Younger and Sabina, Matidias children. 30 A silver denarius features the same obverse and reverse, with Pietas standing under the legend PIETAS AUGUST. 31 Matidia, like Marciana, was depicted in her family role: she was the pious guardian of Trajans ashes, and she was the chaste and faithful mother of two childre n. Her fertility allowed Trajans line to continue, and produced another diva. 29 Richardson (1992) 54. Inscription is CIL 6. 31893. 30 Carson, fig. 141, Giacosa, fig. 24. 31 Herbert, fig. 780.

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55 3.4 Plotina 3.4.1 Literary Evidence of Worship of Plotina Plotina, the wife of Trajan, was deif ied by her adopted son Hadrian in A.D. 123, six years after the Trajans death. Plotina was a controversial figure in Roman literature, though the attention paid to her manipulations does not approach that paid to Livias, and leans toward the scandalous. The Historia Augusta paints her as a woman with moral flexibility, but one loyal to her adopted son. Dio Cassius also relate s sensational stories about her rule, creating a lovestruck, incred ibly clever woman. Dio Cassius states outright that Plotina was in love with Hadr ian, and therefore used all her influence to make sure he was adopted by Trajan and became emperor. 32 Hadrian enjoyed her favor early in his political career. Due to her infl uence, he was designated a legate at the time of the Parthian expedition, 33 and she also helped him to become consul a second time while Trajan was still alive. 34 Most incredibly, Plotina orchestrated the adoption of Hadrian. Supposedly she had a man with a weak voice impersonate Trajan and name Hadrian as heir when Trajan decided to choose another, 35 and that she also signed Trajans letters herself. 36 Plotina, unlike Trajans sister and niece, seemed to have some 32 Dio Cassius, 69.1. 33 H.A, Had 4. 34 H.A., Had 4.4. 35 H.A., Had 4.10. 36 Dio Cassius, 69.4.

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56 semblance of influence over the emperors, ev en though it was represented in a less than flattering light. 37 Because of her support of him, Hadrian conferred divine honors upon Plotina. Trajan seemed to have little regard for her, preferring to honor in public his sister and niece before his wife. When she died, Dio Ca ssius reports that Hadrian wore black for nine days, dedicated a temple to her, and composed hymns to her. 38 The temple Hadrian erected in Plotinas honor was a basilica at Nemausus, Plotinas hometown, one that was made with exceptional skill, around A.D. 122-123. 39 Hadrian recognized the value of a strong feminine public figure, and therefore encouraged images and honors for Plotina to be places around the Empire. 3.4.2 Inscriptional Evidence of Worship of Plotina Besides the reports of contemporary Roma n historians, there is evidence that Plotina had cults throughout the Empire. There are no dedications of buildings or sacra to her, but rather to her priestesses. Collegia around the Empire also play a strong role in her worship by financing many of the sacra To Aemilia, a sacerdos of diva Plotina in Cisalpine Gaul, the collegium of firemen set up a monument. 40 Likewise the military officers set up a monument for Va lerius Ennius Marcellinus, a flamen of the diva Plotina. 41 Other inscriptions are monu ments to the priestesses of diva Plotina without a collegial donor: a dedication to Cantia, the colonial flaminica of diva Plotina was found 37 Boatwright (1991) 532. 38 Dio Cassius, 69.10. 39 H.A., Had 9.9. 40 CIL 5.4387. 41 InscrIT 9.1.129.

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57 under a triumphal arc in the fo rum Sempronius in Ariminum. 42 The priestesses were either wealthy themselves and paid for thei r own dedications, or were influential enough to induce a collegium to put up a dedication to them. It is worth noting that the dedications are made to th e priestesses and not the diva the position of flaminica or sacerdos must have held considerable influence in the provinces. One monument at Pollentia is a little ambiguous regardi ng its dedicatees. It is extraordinary at any rate because of its dedication to both diva Plotina and diva Faustina Maior: Sacerdoti divae Plotinae Pollentiae diva e Faustinae Taurinis divae Faustinae Maioris Concordiae coll den dr poll L D D D The inscription suggests that there was one sacerdos to diva Plotina at Pollentia, and to diva Faustina and to the Concordia of diva Faustina Maior at Taurus. 43 Faustina Maior was not deified until her death in A.D. 141, nearly 20 years after Plotin as deification. Does this mean that the worship of Plotina was still going on twenty years after her deification, or that the same individual was the sacerdos of both, and that she became the sacerdos of Faustina Maior after her services were no longer need with Plotina? There is no other reference to a cult of Concordia though the abstract is immensely important to Faustina Maior, as will be discussed below. In one last inscription from the Colonia Julia Karpis indicates that Plotina did have another shrine of some kind in the Empire: an aedem quam Cassia Maximula flaminica divae Plotinae caelesti deae voverat Two men, a sacerdos and a flamen dedicated suo sumptu a solo aedificatam D D marmoribus et museis et statua Pudicitae 42 CIL 11.407. 43 CIL 5.7617.

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58 Aug et thorace Caelestis Augus tae ornaverunt et die dedicati onis decurionibus sportulas dederunt 44 Plotina was honored with marble (presumably statues) and statue of Pudicitia Augusta a corselet, and little baskets of sacrifices. The statue of Pudicitia Augusta Augustan Chastity, must have been meant to highlight Plotinas own chastity, a valuable trait in an empress. This is one of the rare inscriptions which actually describes the ritual of a cult. There is no petition of any kind, but the goddess is offered gifts from the celebrants as well as the local collegium of military officers, and her shrine or temple was vowed by a woman, who obviously had some power. There is some emphasis on the money that the celebrants spent on these gi fts, and such a presentation would have certainly stuck out in the minds of those who read the inscriptions. 3.4.3 Numismatic Evidence of Worship of Plotina There is no mention of Plotin a in the records of the Arval Brethren, but her image is found on many coins from the reign of Traj an to Hadrian. Two coins struck during Trajans reign bearing Plotin as image depict her weari ng a diadem, though she was not yet deified. One silver denarius struck in A.D. 112 to 115, depicts the Ara Pudicitiae on the reverse of a Plotina coin, 45 while another aureus struck between A.D.113 and 117 shows Vesta on the reverse, seated with the palladium and long scepter. 46 Vesta was the only reverse type of Plotina during Hadrians reign, usually seated and holding the palladium 47 Vesta was the most important symbol of Romes aeternitas the keeper of 44 CIL 8.993. 45 Carson, fig. 138. 46 Giacosa, fig. 22. 47 Keltanen (2002) 110.

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59 the everlasting flame, and Hadrian asso ciates Plotina with the same trait. 48 Plotinas coins are also firsts in ot her categories: hers is the fi rst to use the legend PUDICITIA on her coins, which began somewhere around 11 2, and she is also th e first to use the legend FIDES AUGUSTA. In addition, she is one of only four empresses who used Minerva as a reverse type. 49 Two coins struck under Hadrian, after Pl otinas deification, depict her with Trajan. One aureus from A.D. 122 has Hadrian on the obverse with Trajan and Plotina facing each other on the reverse, indicating the importance of both of his adopted parents to Hadrian. 50 A second aureus struck between A.D. 134 and 138 shows the bust of Hadrian on the obverse, and Trajan and Plo tina facing each other on the reverse, with stars above their heads, with the legend DIVIS PARENTIBUS. 51 The coinage of Plotina sets a standard for the future divae There was a large number of types, and her association with one particular goddess, Vesta, recalled the association of Livia with Ceres. Hadrian especially placed an importance on the imagery of the empresses. While this is not borne out in Matidia, his mother-in-law, it is in Plotina, his patroness and great-aunt, and al so in Sabina, his wife. Whatever the condition of their marriage, Hadrian recogni zed the importance of making her image as accessible as possible throughout the Empire. Coins were handled by many classes of people everyday, and their images would be star ing at the handlers constantly. Thus, the coinage of Sabina, and the Fa ustinae after her, began her honor her as an Augusta and 48 Keltanen (2002) 111. 49 Keltanen (2002) 112. 50 Carson, fig. 160. 51 Giacosa, fig. 25.

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60 then as a diva making her a symbol of Roman femi ninity throughout the stages of her life. 3.5 Sabina 3.5.1 Literary Evidence of the Worship of Sabina Sabina, daughter of Matidia and grand-niece of Trajan, was the last woman to be deified from her family. Sabina was the glue that connected Hadrian to Trajans family, for although Hadrian was adopted by Traja n, the circumstances of the adoption were dubious. A marriage to Sabina lent an ai r of legitimacy to Hadrians rule. The Historia Augusta and the Epitome de Caesaribus are the only Roman literary sources to consider Sabina, and both are of dubious repute. The author or the Historia Augusta writes that Hadrian married her with the s upport of Plotina, but that Traj an had little interest in the match. 52 The history also relate s that Hadrian ordered Sept icius Clarus and Suetonius Tranquillanus, the historian, to be removed fr om office because they were treating Sabina a little too casually. 53 In its last mention of Sabina, the Historia Augusta reports that there was a rumor when she died that Hadrian had poisoned her. 54 Nothing is written about her deification or her worship, but th e inscriptional and numismatic evidence is legion. 3.5.2 Inscriptional Evidence of Worship of Sabina Compared to her predecessors, there is much more inscriptional evidence that Sabina was worshipped as a diva Most inscriptions ar e simply dedications of sacra to her, but there are two inscriptions to flaminicae of diva Sabina. One, from Navaria in 52 H.A., Had 2.10. 53 H.A., Had 11.3. 54 H.A., Had 23.9.

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61 Italy, suggests that Albucia may have been the flaminica of more than one Imperial cult: et Albuciae M F candidate flaminicae diva e Juliae Novar flamini c divae Sabinae Ticini 55 perhaps a situation similar to that of the sacerdos of Plotina and Faustina. Another inscription from Ariminum includes a referce to a flaminica of diva Sabina. 56 There is also a base in Saldae, 57 and one in Thamugadi, 58 a colony of military veterans in the province of Numidia founded under Trajan in A.D. 100, 59 both dedicated to Divae Sabinae Aug. There is only one structure dedicate d to Sabina: an altar. She has no temple in any location of the Empire. Not much is known about the altar itself, just that it is shown on coins of Hadrian and that it possibly stood where Sabinas pyre stood in Rome. 60 There is not much to be derived from these inscriptions except that Sabina had cults throughout the Empire. There are no long descriptions of of ferings and money, as was the case with Plotina. Of two inscriptions found in Rome issued by Hadrian himself, one seems to have a dubious connection to the Colonia Julia Augusta, 61 and the other seems to be from Africa, with a dedication of divae Sabinae Augustae Sabrathenses ex Africa. The settlement of Sabratha earned colonial status in the 2 nd century A.D., so it is possible that 55 CIL 5.6514. 56 CIL 11.408. 57 CIL 8.8929. 58 CIL 8.17847. 59 OCD 1491-2. 60 Richardson (1992) 338. 61 CIL 6.40528.

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62 this monument celebrates that occasion. 62 The second inscription also involved men besides Hadrian: the place of the dedication was adsignatus a Vaerio Urbico et Aemilio Papo curatioribus operum locorum publicorum. These men garnered the favor of the emperor himself by assigning the location of the sacrum Hadrian stands out as the only emperor up to that point to actually be recorded as having commissioned a sacrum to his deified wife. Though the literary evidence of the previous chapters indicates that the emperors commissioned statues or gave festiv als, there are no surviving inscriptions describing their role in the process. By including his name on the inscription, Hadrian demonstrates his pietas and tries to quell any rumors th at he and his wife may have experienced any marital discord. This is evidences by another inscription: Imperatori Hadriano Olympio et Iu noni Coniugali Sabinae 63 Benario states that he found no other instance of coniugalis in conjunction with Sabina in his research. The marriage of Hadrian and Sabina is al so considered in her coinage, discussed below. 3.5.3 Numismatic Evidence of Worship of Sabina There is a large amount of extant coin s of Sabina, many struck before her deification. These coins show Sabina on th e obverse, wearing a diadem, the sign of power. Most of the legends read SA BINA AUGUSTA, though some add HADRIANI AUG PP. The images on the reverse, however, are varied. There are quite of few of Concordia on the reverse, seated, holding a patera and a cornucopia. 64 These, in conjunction with the inscription with coniugali and Hadrians dedica tions, are indications 62 OCD 1342. 63 A.E. 1939, 190, in Benario (1980) 37. 64 Giacosa fig. 27, Herbert fig. 889, 891, 896.

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63 that perhaps the public did not believe their marriage to be a happy one, and that Hadrian was trying to convince them otherwise. 65 Pietas is another common image associated with Sabina. One coin shows Pietas with her hands on the heads of a young boy and girl, reminiscent of the coin of Matidia standing between her two daughters. 66 Another coin features a seated Pietas, holding the patera and the scepter. 67 Pudicitia also appears on the reverse, with her seated holding her hand to her lips on one sestertius 68 and raising her veil on the reverse of a denarius. 69 Sabina is not only associated with virtues before her deification, but also Olympian goddesses. One sestertius shows Ceres seated holding ears of corn and a torch. 70 Vesta sits holding a palladium and a scepter on the reverse of a denarius. 71 Even Juno, the queen, holding a patera and a scepter, adorns the reverse of a denarius. 72 One tetradrachm from 128 or 130 shows a very worn Cybele on the reverse, but the origin of the coin is unknown. 73 This is the first Roman coin struck with the image of Cybele on it, though provincial co ins had already been using her image in association with the goddess. 74 65 Benario (1980) 39. 66 Giacosa fig. 26. 67 Herbert fig. 996. 68 Herbert, fig. 944. 69 Herbert, fig. 897. 70 Herbert, fig. 993. 71 Herbert, fig. 898. 72 Herbert, fig. 892. 73 Carson, fig. 168. 74 Keltanen (2002) 123.

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64 The goddess most associated with Sabina in her extant coinage is Venus. The reverse of one denarius bear s the legend VENERI GENETRICI. 75 The reverse of another denarius shows Venus Genetrix, holding an apple, drawing up her robe. 76 A sestertius also shows Venus Genetrix in a field with an apple. 77 This seems a bit strange, because Sabina and Hadrian had no childre n, another fact that may ha ve initiated gossip about the status of their marriage. It is likely, though, that Hadr ian was trying to spark the connection between Venus and the emperors in the minds of the Roman people. He did, in fact, revive the cult of Venus during his reign. 78 An aureus from A.D. 128 may be hinting at Sabinas deification by depicting Juno standing near a bird, probably a peacock and holding a staff on the reverse. 79 Sabinas consecration coin was struck in A.D. 136. The obverse shows a veiled bust of Sabina, a strange departure from the bold di adem to the demure veil, and the reverse shows Sabina seated on an eagle under the legend CONSECRATIO. 80 A copper sestertius struck after her deification de picts DIVA AUGUSTA SABINA veiled and wearing a wreath of grain ears on the obverse, while the reverse shows an eagle standing on a scepter in a fiel d under the legend SC. 81 The coinage of Sabina demonstrates mo re than any other medium Hadrians understanding of the importance of imagery. The coinage of Plotina and Sabina, both of 75 Herbert, fig. 896. 76 Herbert, fig. 894. 77 Herbert, fig. 995. 78 Keltanen (2002) 120. 79 Carson, fig. 161. 80 Carson, fig. 162. 81 Herbert, fig. 997.

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65 which were under the control of Hadrian at some point, uses association with goddesses and virtues more than the coinage of Mari ciana and Matidia. Ha drian knew that coins were a reliable and enduring way to insinuate image associations into the minds of the Roman people. 3.6 Conclusion The Trajanic women are confounding becau se we possess little information of them. It is hard to analyze any political power they may have had since the primary literary sources are not the most reliable. This also makes it difficult to analyze their inscriptions we dont know if they were patrons of collegia around the Empire, or if they were involved with the founding of a colony. We do know from the Historia Augusta that they traveled with the emperors, and were thus visibl e to the citizens and inhabitants of the Empire. However, the lack of concrete information may be a result of the perceived role of the wo men of the Trajanic family. Pliny the Younger, in his Panegyric to Trajan, praises the modest y of Plotina and Marciana: Obtulerat illis senatus cognomen Augus tarum, quod certatim deprecatae sunt, quam diu appellationem patris pa triae tu recusasses, seu quod plus esse in eo iudicabant, si uxor et so ror tua quam si Augustae di cerentur. Sed, quaecumque illis ratio tantam moderatiam suasit, hoc magis dignae sunt, quae in animis nostris et sint et habeantur augustae, quia non vocantur 82 The senate had offered the cognomen of Augusta to them, which they certainly avoided, as long as you refused the title of pater patriae, pe rhaps because they judged there to be more to it, if they we re called your wife or sister rather than Augusta. But, whatever rationale brought on such great moderation, they are more worthy for this, who in our minds both are and are held Augustae, because they are not so called. 82 Plin. Pane 84.

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66 To Pliny, the deference of the imperial wome n to Trajan was their most laudable quality. Because they were humble and did not make a ny pretenses of power, they were an asset to Trajans imperial family and proved that they knew their place. 83 Unlike Drusilla, for example, reproduction was not a concern of these women, because adoption was so common. 84 Thus there were no images of fertility, no symbols of plenty they were unnecessary. Dio Cassius and the Historia Augusta describe Plotinas maneuvers to make Hadrian emperor, but they do not allude to any political aspi rations that she may have held on her own. The other women of the imperial family are mentioned by the Roman historians as minor pl ayers, women who supported th eir husbands, brother, and son-in-law, but not women who actively sought any kind of recognition for themselves. They were the perfect exemplars of the Roman matron. Within a few generations, the concept of deification cha nged dramatically. Because Livia was widely believed to have merited her consecration, the deifications of the other Julio-Claudian women were met with lukewarm and even ridiculing responses. By the time the line of Trajan took power, merit no longer seemed necessary for deification. If the Julio-Claudian women we re deified because of the love of their husbands (and father), the Tr ajanic women were deified because of their power as symbols. There can be no other possibility with the exception of Pl otina, and even her role is not exactly clear, the women were not involved in politics or philanthropy. The emperors did not seem to be extraordinar ily fond of them. They were simply good women who stayed out of trouble, and were re warded for their modesty. The worship of these divae reflects this mood: the de dications are not made for any particular reason, and 83 Boatwright (1991) 535. 84 Boatwright (1991) 536.

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67 the coins present the symbols of femininity th e emperors wished to associate with their reign. Veneration had become commonplace, an honor accorded to a member of the imperial family simply because of their status in the Empire.

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CHAPTER 4 THE ANTONINES 4.1 Introduction The Antonine family deified only two of its women, Annia Galeria Faustina, known as Faustina Maior, the wife of Antoninus Pius, and Annia Faustina, known as Faustina Minor, the daughter of the Faustina Maior and the wife of Marcus Aurelius. The Antonine Emperors enjoyed a great amount of popularity and adoration, and the public extended those feelings to the empresses as well. Faustina Maior was especially loved and adored, and the images of her that survive emphasize her importance in the imperial household. Adoration of Antonine women extended to the reaches of the Empire, bringing to fruition a trend that began in the family of Trajan and Hadrian: the tightening of the grip of Rome and Roman culture on the provinces. The system of adoption had produced four sound emperors, and the Roman people were eager to praise their imperial family. The same system also lessened the importance of reproduction and fertility, as witnessed in the Trajanic family. The Faustinae, however, had no problems conceiving, and it is the fecundity of Faustina Minor that returned the system of succession to family dynasties (with disastrous results). The Faustinae were portrayed in the Historia Augusta, the source from which most information about their lives comes. Both women were accused of adultery, and both enjoyed the trust and adoration of their husbands. The charges of adultery are somewhat dubious, considering the source and the sensational means of reporting, and the worship of the Faustinae throughout the Empire suggests either that the reports were not true or that they did not matter to the public. 68

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69 4.2 Faustina Maior 4.2.1 Literary Evidence of Worship of Faustina Maior The Faustinae were not prayed to by the Arval Brethren, though Faustina Minor was prayed for by the Arval Brethren sometime between A.D. 169 and 177: servaveris salvum incolumemque cum Faustina Augusta et Commodo Caesare ceterisque omnibus domus Augustae eventumque bonum 1 However, there are many sacra dedicated to them throughout the Empire. Keltanen suggests that af ter the reign of Sabina and the shrewd usage of imagery by Hadrian, the figure of the empress was incorporated into monumental art and the number of coins with their images increased. 2 Faustina Maior died three years into her husband Antoninus Pius reign, but throughout her reign, her image was never out of sight of Roman citizens everywhere. Roman historians relate An toninus love and esteem for his wife, though rumors abounded about her loose morals. The Historia Augusta states that the honors Faustina received were instituted mainly by th e Senate: she was called Augusta by them, 3 and that they consecrated her upon her death. 4 After her consecrati on, Faustina was awarded a temple and flaminincae, statues made of gold and silver and her image was placed in all the circuses. The temple was dedicated to her alone until the death of Antoninus Pius in A.D. 161, when the temple became dedicated to them both. 5 The Senate also attempted 1 CIL 6.2093, Antica 85. 2 Keltanen (2002) 141. 3 H.A., A.P 5.2. 4 H.A., A.P 6.7. 5 Platner (1929) 13.

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70 to change the name of September and Octobe r to Antoninus and Faustina, much as they had suggested to Tiberius, but Antoninus refused the honor. 6 Antoninus Pius also honored her with his own decrees, as Hadria n had done with Sabina : he decided that a statue of her would be put in the Senate house, 7 and in Faustinas honor he also established a program to take care of poor girls, and he called them the Faustinianae. 8 4.2.2 Inscriptional Evidence of Worship of Faustina Maior Even before her deification, dedications were made to Faustina Maior. One marble tablet in Rome was offered pro salute Imperatoris Caesaris Titi Aeli Hadriani Antonini Augusti Pii, patris pa triae, et Faustinae Augustae 9 Much like the formula of the Arval Brethren, the inscription offers a pr ayer for the safety of the emperor, with a focus on his grand lineage, and includes the wi fe of the emperor in the prayers for wellbeing. The inscriptional evidence of dedication to and worship of diva Faustina Maior is scattered around the Empire. There are dedications of sacra found in the forum of Aeclanum, 10 Tarraco, 11 Sassina, 12 Voleini, 13 and Lactoria. 14 These inscriptions do not indicate who paid for the sacra or for what occasion they were dedicated. There was also 6 H.A., A.P ., 10.1. 7 Ibid 8 H.A., A.P ., 8.2. 9 CIL 6.40541. 10 CIL 9.1113. 11 CIL 2.4096. 12 CIL 9.6500. 13 CIL 11.7279. 14 CIL 13.527.

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71 an altar of Diva Faustina Maior placed possibly wher e her pyre stood, but there is little known about it. 15 There were inscriptions, however, with clear in tent of worship: in Falerio, Antonia, the colonial sacerdos of diva Faustina was able, with a generous donation from the local division of decuriones, to erect statues in the theatre quas ad exornandum theatrum 16 The involvement of collegia around the Empire continued as it had under Trajan and Hadrian. While the de dication of named individuals do not cease completely, it became more and more common to see P D D or D D on the last line of inscriptions, indicating that the de dication was placed by decree of the decuriones or erected by their decree. Individual power seemed to be replaced in importance by the power of groups, at least in dedications to divae One inscription from Mantissa near Os tia describes a dedication to Antoninus Pius and diva Faustina Maior by the decree of the decuriones ob insignem eorum concordiam utique in ara virgines quae in colonia Ostiensi nubent item mariti earum supplicent 17 The personified marital harmony between the diva and her husband could now look over the young women and their brideg rooms in the colony, perhaps as statues in a shrine dedicated to them, though it is not clear from the inscription. The concordia between Antoninus Pius and Faustina Maior was an important propaganda theme during Antoninus reign, even after Faustinas d eath. This inscriptio n more than those mentioned above indicate a kind of belief in the power of the concordia between Faustina and Antoninus. It is as though the emperor and empress are giving their blessing to the maidens and their bridegrooms as they make their prayers concerning their marriage. 15 Richardson (1992) 338. 16 CIL 9.5428. 17 CIL 14.5326.

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72 Another evidence of their concordia was the relief of their joint apotheosis on the Column of Antoninus Pius. The column was erected by Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, Antoninus heirs, and depicted the apot heosis of the couple together on the figure of a winged Genius, flanked by eagles. Roma watches the ascension from the lower left, while a personification of the Campus Mart ius reclines and watches from the lower right. 18 Even in death, the couple was together they were depicted as enjoying the rewards of their pious life together. Where the images and hints dropped about the concordia between Sabina and Hadrian seemed forced, the concordia between Antoninus and Faustina was evident to all, a fortunate vi rtue in any marriage, and was considered a part of their combined divine nature. 4.2.3 Numismatic Evidence of Worship of Faustina Maior The images of the Faustinae, especially of Faustina Maior, were best preserved in the coins of the period, in whic h the portrayal of the empress as a powerful entity was of utmost importance. There is very little co inage of Faustina Maior because she died three years after her husband became emperor, 19 but her deification remained a very hallowed event through his reign. A co in dating before her death with her image on the obverse shows Concordia on the reverse, holding a patera and a double cornucopia. 20 Another coin just before her deification indicates her importance to the Empire: the obverse is simply the bust of Faustina under the le gend FAUSTINA AUGUSTA, but the reverse shows Juno seated on a throne with a peacock near at hand, the bird that often appeared 18 Richardson (1992) 95. 19 Keltanen (2002) 125. 20 Herbert, fig. 1027.

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73 on the consecration coins of other divae 21 Again, concordia appears as an important virtue to Faustina and her husband indeed th e empress herself is associated with the virtue. Faustinas consecration and diva coins are much more common, as they were minted throughout the reign of Antoninus Pius. A consecration coin of copper, minted in A.D. 141 was particularly detailed. The obverse bore the legend DIVA FAUSTINA, while the reverse bore an image of Vesta in a field, sacrificing over a lighted altar, holding a patera and a torch, under th e legend CONSECRATIO. 22 Sometimes an eagle or a winged Victory depicted the apot heosis of Faustina into the heavens. 23 Vesta appears on the reverse of another diva coin, again holding a torch and the palladium 24 and yet another, this time standing on the obverse. 25 Her association with Vesta recalls Plotinas association with the goddess: Faus tina, now a goddess, was a guardian of the aeternitas of Rome. An aureus struck under Antoninus Pius shows a diademed and veiled Faustina on the obverse, with Ceres on the reverse, wearing a veil, and holding a scepter and a torch, under the legend AUGUSTA. 26 A copper sestertius dated to A.D. 141 bears the legend DIVA FAUSTINA on the obverse, and AETERNITAS on the reverse, depicting a Faustina seated in a biga drawn by two elephants with drivers. 27 An aureus from A.D. 141 shows the diva Faustina on the obverse, but the reverse depicts 21 Carson, fig. 175. 22 Herbert, fig. 1029. 23 Keltanen (2002) 127. 24 Giacosa, fig. 29. 25 Carson, fig. 179. 26 Giacosa, fig. 28. 27 Herbert, fig. 1028.

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74 three small children under the legend PUELLAE FAUSTINIANAE. 28 Finally, the legend FECUNDITAS appears for the first time on Faustina Maiors coinage, holding a scepter in her hands and a baby in her arms. 29 The coins associated the goddesses of plenty, fertility, and aeternitas with Faustina: she was the first empress since Vespasians wife Domitilla to produce a di rect heir to the Empire. 30 4.3 Faustina Minor 4.3.1 Literary Evidence of the Worship of Faustina Minor Faustina Minor, like her mother, was very popular. The daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Maior, she, like the women of the Trajanic family, carried the imperial blood, along with her cousin Marcus Aurelius, into the next generation of rulers. Faustina lived much longer than her mother, and there is more information about her and her life related in the works of contemporar y Roman historians. Like her mother, there were rumors that Faustina was unfaithful, and that Marcus Aurelius overlooked her escapades. The Historia Augusta suggests that their son, Co mmodus, had such a love of gladiatorial games because Faustina had an affair with a gladiator, though she later confessed to her husband. 31 Though Faustina was supposedly unfaithful, Aurelius was reportedly aware of Faustinas importance to the Empire. When Aurelius refused to 28 Carson, fig. 178. 29 Keltanen (2002) 131. 30 Matidias daughter, Sabina, did become empress, but Matidia was never an empress she was the niece of the emperor Trajan and the mother-in-law of the emperor Hadrian. The empress Faustinas child, Faustina minor, would become empress herself when she married her cousin Marcus Aurelius, another blood relative of Faustina Maior the son of her brother by Domitia Lucilla. 31 H.A., M.A ., 19.2.

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75 punish his wife even though he found out about her affairs, he said: si uxorem dimittimus, reddamus et dotem. 32 The dowry, of course, was the Empire. Faustinas alleged crimes went beyond thos e of passion: there were rumors that she was in league with Cassius, who attempted to overthrow the Empire. The Historia Augusta reports that correspondence from the time acquitted Faus tina of the charges, and that she actually petitioned her husband fo r lenient treatment of the offenders. 33 Dio Cassius, however, reports the opposite, that Cassius and Faustina ac tually had plans to marry after Marcus Aurelius death so that they could rule, si nce Commodus would be too young to assume the throne. 34 Dio Cassius also suggests that Faustina may have died from her own hand to escape punishment for he r actions, but concedes that she may also have died from the gout. 35 The Historia Augusta reports that Faustina died in the hills of mount Taurus in the village of Halala, from a sudden sickness caught while on military campaign with Marcus Aurelius. 36 If there is one pattern th at endures through the repres entation of imperial women in the writings of Roman contemporaries, it is that the more political power they are perceived to have, the more they are repr esented as sexually promiscuous or morally corrupt. Faustina Maior was relatively protect ed because of her early death, but Faustina Minor, because she lived so long and enjoyed the love of her husband, garnered such attention in spades. The trut h of her actions can never be ascertained, but her reputation 32 H.A., M.A 19.7. 33 H.A., Avidus Cassius 11.1. 34 Dio Cassius, 72.22. 35 Dio Cassius, 72.29. 36 H.A., M.A ., 26.4.

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76 among the people, evidence by their dedications, suggests that even if she was unfaithful and treasonous, the people love d her anyway. It seems unlik ely that a society would pay such honors to an individual who threatened to overturn an extremely popular ruler. Many honors were conferred upon Faustina Minor at her death. The senate consecrated her and conferred a temple to her. Dio Cassius relates that the Senate also did not put to death anyo ne involved with Cassius, 37 and that silver images of Marcus and Faustina were erected in the temple of Venus at Rome, where an altar was erected for brides and bridegrooms to offer sacrifices, si milar perhaps to the one erected in Ostia for their parents. Marcus Aurelius also honored his wife: he instituted another program of Faustinianae, as his father-in-law did for his mother-in-law. Since Faustina died while on military campaign, he called her the mater castrorum 38 The village where she died Aurelius made a colony and erected a temple to her there. 39 Golden statues of Faustina were also carried into the theatr e on a chair during public festivals. 40 In an odd turn of events, a later emperor, Caracalla, revoked the temple of Faustina and her divine name. The son of Elagabalus later made it a temple to himself or to Syrian Jove or the Sun. 41 4.3.2 Inscriptional Evidence of Worship of Faustina Minor There is some inscriptional evidence of Faustinas divinity, but the evidence can be easily confused with evidence for Faus tina Maior, since there is rarely any differentiation made in insc riptions between the two divae Faustinae. The sacra that 37 Dio Cassius, 72.30. 38 This title came into importance with Julia Domna. 39 H.A., A.C. 19.4. 40 Dio Cassius, 72.31. 41 H.A., A.C ., 11.6-7.

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77 definitely belong to Faustina Minor were de dicated to her at Piso by decree of the decuriones. 42 An inscription is found in Rome, proba bly in a theatre at Tibur, a resort town, reading diva Faustina phsaltria Procha f Tibert Serot 43 The meaning is not entirely clear, but it seems a harpist named Procha may have been involved in some kind of honorary performance to Faustina Minor. An inscription with near ly identical wording was found in Mutina as well. 44 Like her mother, there was also an altar to diva Faustina Minor, but the specifics are unknow n. It is projected that it stood where her funeral pyre stood in the city. 45 Two marble bases were found in Rome on which the inscription described two statues dedicated to diva Faustina, the wife of Antoninus Pius, Faustina the Younger, and Commodus. One statue was a man in military ga rb erected in the forum, and another in civilian garb in the pronaos of the temple of the divus Antoninus Pius. 46 This inscription seems to follow the pattern of older inscrip tions of the Julio-Claudian period, when a list of powerful men was inscribed along with the actual dedication. The main dedicator in this inscription was Titus Pomponius, who wa s a friend of Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. A long list of titles and names follo ws, capped with the actual dedication of the statues. This kind of inscription, with the names of all the Augusti from Marcus Aurelius to Commodus, was erected not necessarily as a tribute to them, but a tribute to the his relationship with them and his high standing. 42 CIL 11.6323. 43 CIL 6.10139. 44 CIL 11.870. 45 Richardson (1992) 338. 46 CIL 6.41145.

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78 4.3.3 Numismatic Evidence of Worship of Faustina Minor The images on Faustinas coinage, more so that that of her mothers, indicate the values that were assigned to her as the em press: namely fertility and chastity. Faustina Minor lived through most of the reign of her husband, Marcus Aurelius, and produced 12 to 13 kids, seven of which were boys, though most of them died as children. 47 Her role in the imperial family was more earthly than her mothers: Faustina Maior lived on as a deified, idealized woman throughout Antoninus reign, but Faustina Minor lived as flesh and blood and mind during Marcus Aurelius rei gn, and her actions were thus able to be scrutinized by the public. Therefore the imperi al family dictated how her role should be interpreted: as a wife and mother. Faustina Minor first appeared on coins dur ing her fathers reign, under the legend FAUSTINA AUG PII AUG FIL. One such aureus bore an image of a dove on the reverse, under the legend CONCORDIA. 48 A similar coin, a sestertius, bore Pudicitia on the reverse, seated demurely with a veil covering her face. 49 Another aureus from Antoninus reign shows Venus Genetrix on the re verse, holding a long scepter in her left hand. 50 A denarius from the same time period shows Venus on the reverse, holding an apple and a rudder with a dolphin coiled around it. 51 When Faustina became Faustina Augusta and was no longer only referred to as the daughter of Antoninus, the fertility imagery became more prominent. The reverse of a silver denarius under the legend 47 Keltanen (2002) 136. 48 Giacosa, fig. 32. 49 Herbert, fig. 1031. 50 Giacosa, fig. 30. 51 Herbert, fig. 1018.

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79 FECUND AUGUSTAE depicts Fecunditas holding two babies in her arms while standing between two small girls. 52 An aureus struck under Aurelius, depicts Felicitas on the reverse, holding two children and standing between four more. 53 Finally an aureus from the reign of Marcus Aurelius show s Cybele between two lions, holding a tympanum, under the legend MATRI MAGNAE. 54 Faustina Minors role was extremely clear: to produce as many heirs as possible. Faustina Minors consecration coins we re not as popular as her mothers, 55 but they held their own distinctions. Wh en Faustina was deified in A.D. 176, one sestertius in particular bears a strange legend. The obverse is a bust of diva Faustina, but the reverse depicts Faustina in a biga, under the legend SIDERIBUS RECEPTA, a legend found on no other womans coin. 56 An aureus from the same year shows a veiled diva Faustina on the obverse, and Faus tina sitting in front of th e standards on the reverse, under the legend MATRI CASTRORUM, 57 the first woman to bear the title. 4.4 Ambiguous Inscriptional Evidence The inscriptions that do not make distin ctions between Fausti na Maior and Minor are mostly sacra dedicated throughout the Empire w ith no more the inscription than divae Faustinae or divae Faustinae Augustae One inscription from Vibo suggests a cult to diva Faustina, since the military officers there helped paid Quinta, the sacerdos to pay 52 Herbert, fig. 1041. 53 Carson, fig. 190. 54 Giacosa, fig. 31. 55 Mattingly (1948) 149. 56 Carson, fig. 201. I have found no other such coin in my research. 57 Carson, fig. 176.

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80 for a dedication. 58 In Ceccano, the military officers confer a bronze ( aes ) upon Saesina, the sacerdos of diva Faustina, ob merita eius. 59 Lastly, a silver statue of a man in gladiatorial outfit ( veste gladiat ) was erected by the allector collegi or the officer in charge of collecting dues, to diva Faustina. It is not clear what collegium paid for the statue. It may have been dedicated, though, to Faustina Minor, since she supposedly had a great love of the games. 60 4.5 Conclusion The Faustinae were adored by their husba nds and the public alike, and so the charges of adultery, if true hardly seem important. Th e adoration of their husbands propelled them to divinity, and also made them benefactresses af ter their death. The information surviving them does not accord them much by was of personality, but the identity created for them by the imperial fa mily makes obvious thei r intended perception: fertile women who were good mothers and who were faithful to their husbands. Again, the truth of the Historia Augusta was not really revealed in the public image presented to the Empire: the Faustinae were deified and remembered for the love they had for their families, just as the imperial family had intended. The ritual of deification e volves in the Antonine Age fr om an expected veneration to one that, while probably anticipated, was welcomed by the Roman people. While the women of Trajan and Hadrian were worshipped, the amount of inscriptions to them is considerable only when considering them together. For the Faustinae, though some inscriptions were ambiguous, there was certa inly a good amount between the two women. 58 CIL 10.54. 59 CIL 10.5656. 60 CIL 6.3756.

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81 The deification of Faustina Maio r, in particular, seemed to have some resonance among the Roman people: perhaps it was the concordia between her and her husband, and the fact that he never remarried, but the love he had for her manifested itself in the adoration of the Roman people.

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CONCLUSION Mattingly suggests that the Imperial cult was becoming personal religion, 1 based on the feelings of the emperors themselves. It seems, though, especially in light of the deifications of Drusilla, Poppaea, and Claudia, that the Imperial cult always subsisted of some kind of personal emotion, pushed upon the Roman public whether or not the sentiment was shared. The honor of consecration became an expected honor for the emperor and empress. Although Livia Drusilla seemed to deserve her consecration, the honor was a long time coming. By the time of Trajan, the Senate was conferring honors upon women who seemed to do nothing to merit their deification except remain above public reproach. The change in attitude towards the honor of consecration was possibly due to the regularity of its conferral, but also possibly due to the evolving role of women in the domus Augusta. Livia will always be the quintessential diva. She was the epitome of a wealthy, well-connected woman in the early principate, and she was the template of feminine political involvement the other Julio-Claudian women followed. After Livia, the other Julio-Claudian women were concerned mostly with the preservation of the Julio-Claudian bloodline, as the principate was concerned with concretizing the wealth and power of Rome. When the adoptive emperors came to power, the face of the Roman citizen had changed, due to the expansion of Romes borders. As men with foreign blood came to rule Rome, women with foreign blood came to symbolize the height of femininity in the Empire. Thus, when the Antonines came to power, the importance of 1 Mattingly (1948) 150. 82

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83 fecundity and chastity accompanied their rise, together with new hopes of dynasty. The women of the emperors were used throughout the generations to promote the character and virtues of the emperor and the principate. The deification of these women goes be yond personal religion. The Imperial cult was a systematized method of connecti ng the ruling family to the religious and cultural heritage of the Roma n Empire. The imperial wome n were deified not only to gratify their mourning husbands, sons, or brot hers, but also to present to Rome, along with the deified emperors, the numina of their Roman identity. The imperial house was a microcosm of the Roman Empire, and its divi ne nature made its power and excellence accessible to worshippers across the globe.

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REFERENCES Alfldy, Geza, Subject and ruler, subject and method, in Subject and Ruler: The Cult of the Ruling Power in Classical Antiquity, ed. Alastair Small (Ann Arbor: Michigan University Press, 1996). Beard, Mary, John North, Simon Price, Religions of Rome (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998). Beard, Mary and John North, eds., Pagan Priests: Religion and Power in the Ancient World. (London: Duckworth, 1990). Benario, H.W., Iuno coniugalis Sabina, Liverpool Classical Monthly 5 (1980), 37-39. Bickerman, E.J., Diva Augusta Marciana, The American Journal of Philology 95 (1974), 362-376. Boatwright, Mary T., The Imperial Women of the Early 2 nd Century A.D, The American Journal of Philology 112 (1991), 513-540. Bodel, John, ed. Epigraphic Evidence: Ancient History from Inscriptions (London: Routledge, 2001). Butcher, Kevin, Roman Provincial Coins (London: Seaby, 1988). Carson, Robert, A, Coins of the Roman Empire (London: Routledge, 1990). Corporis Inscriptionum Latinarum Supplementa Italica Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. Curchin, Leonard A. Cult and Celt: indigenous participation in emperor worship, in Subject and Ruler: The Cult of the Ruling Power in Classical Antiquity, ed. Alastair Small, 143-152 (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996). Dio Cassius, Historia Romana, ed. John Melber (Lipsiae in Aedibus B.G. Teubeneri 1928). Fishwick, Duncan, The Imperial Cult in the Latin West (Leiden 1987). Flory, Maureen B., The Deification of Roman Women, The Ancient History Bulletin 9 (1995), 127-134. 84

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85 ----------, Livia and the History of Public Honorific Statues for Women in Rome, TAPA 123 (1993), 287-308. Fox, Robin Lane, Pagans and Christians (New York: Alfred and Knopf, Inc., 1987). Giacosa, Giorgio, Women of the Caesars, trans. R. Ross Holloway (Milan: Edicioni Arte e Moneta, 1970). Grether, Gertrude, Livia and the Roman Imperial Cult, American Journal of Philology 67 (1946), 222-252. Herbert, Kevin, Roman Imperial Coins (Wauconda: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, Inc., 1996). Inscriptiones Graecae ad Res Romanas Pertinentes Inscriptiones Latinae Keltanen, Minerva, The Public Images of Four Empresses: Ideal Wives, Mothers and Regents? in Women, Wealth and Power in the Roman Empire (Rome: Acta Instituti Romani Finlandiae vol. 25, 2002). Lewis, Naphtali and Meyer Reinhold, eds., Roman Civilization, vol II The Empire (New York: Columbia University Press, 1990). MacMullen, Ramsay, Paganism in the Roman Empire (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1981). Mattingly, Harold, The Consecration of Faustina the Elder and her Daughter, Harvard Theological Review 41 (1948), 147-151. Mueller, Hans-Friedrich, Roman Religion in Valerius Maximus (London and New York: Routledge, 2002). Ovid, Epistulae Ex Ponto libri quattor ed. J.A. Richmond (Leipzig: Teubner 1990). ----------, Fastorum Libri Sex. eds. E.H. Alton, D.E.W. Wormell, E. Courtney (BSB B.G. Teubner Verglagsgesellschaft 1988). Paul, George M., ed., Roman Coins and Public Life under the Empire (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1999). Platner, Samuel Ball, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome (London: Oxford University Press, 1929).

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86 Pliny the Younger, Epistularum Libri Novem, Epistularum ad Traianum Liber Panegyricus, ed. Maurice Schuster (Lipsiae in Aedibus B.G. Teubneri 1958). Price, S.R.F, Between Man and God: Sacrifice in the Roman Imperial Cult, Journal of Roman Studies 70 (1980), 28-43. Richardson, L., A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome (Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992). Rose, H.J., The Original Significance of the Genius, The Classical Quarterly 17 (1923), 57-60. Scheid, John, ed., Comentarii Fraturm Arvalium Qui Supersunt. (Rome: Ecole Francaise de Rome and Soprintendenza Archeologica di Roma, 1998). Scriptores Historiae Augustae, vol. 1 trans. David Magie (London: Harvard University Press, 1991). Seneca. Apocolocyntosis, ed. P.T. Eden (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984). Simpson, C.J., Caligulas Cult: immolations, immortality, intent, in Subject and Ruler: The Cult of the Ruling Power in Classical Antiquity, ed. Alastair Small, 63-71 (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996). Spaeth, Barbette Stanley, The Roman Goddess Ceres (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1996). Stevenson, Seth W., A Dictionary of Roman Coins (London: B.A. Seaby, Ltd., 1982). Suetonius, De Vita Caesarum Libri VIII (Lipsiae in Aedibus B.G. Teubneri, 1933). Sutherland, C.H. V., The Emperor and the Coinage (London: Spink and Son, Ltd., 1976). Syme, Ronald, Some Arval Brethren (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980). Tacitus, Annales, ed. Erich Koesterman (Lipsiae in Aedibus B.G. Teubneri 1960). Taylor, Lily Ross, The Divinity of the Roman Emperor (Middletown: American Philological Association, 1931). ----------, Tiberius Refusals of Divine Honors, TAPA 60 (1929), 87-101.

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87 Turcan, Robert, The Cults of the Roman Empire trans. Antonia Nevill (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996). Valerius Maximus, Factorum et dictorum memorabilium libri IX trans. Shackleton Bailey (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000). Wardman, Alan, Religion and Statecraft Among the Romans (London: Granada, 1982). Wood, Susan, Diva Drusilla and the Sisters of Caligula, American Journal of Philology 99 (1995), 457-482. ----------. Imperial Women (Leiden: Brill, 1999). Zanker, Paul, The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus trans. Alan Shapiro (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1988).

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Rebecca Marie Muich was born on 15 January 1980 to Joseph and Kathryn Muich in Mobile, AL. She grew up in Fenton, MO, with her brother Joseph and her sister Rachel. She attended Cor Jesu Academy in St. Louis before moving to Cincinnati, OH, to attend Xavier University. There she earned an Honor Bachelor of Arts degree and majored in classics and history. She continued her studies in classics at the University of Florida, where she will receive her Master of Arts degree in classics in May 2004. 88


Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0004865/00001

Material Information

Title: The Worship of Roman Divae: The Julio-Claudians to the Antonines
Physical Description: 94 p.
Creator: Muich, Rebecca Marie ( Dissertant )
Mueller, Hans-Friedrich. ( Thesis advisor )
Schmeling, Gareth ( Reviewer )
Rea, Jennifer ( Reviewer )
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Classics thesis, M.A
Dissertations, Academic -- UF -- Classics

Notes

Abstract: This study will examine and evaluate the extant evidence of diva worship in the Roman Empire to prove that the cults of divae were used throughout the Empire as a means of political exploitation for individuals, but also as cults of true believers. The study will begin with Livia Drusilla, the wife of Augustus, an empress who convinced the public that she deserved consecration. The following chapters will compare and contrast the remaining divae from the Julio-Claudian family, the families of Trajan and Hadrian, and the Antonine family. Literary, numismatic, sculptural, and inscriptional evidence is considered with each diva. The intent of this study is to prove that the cults of the divae were important, and should be included in these ongoing discussions about the Imperial cult and Roman religion.
Summary: cult, deification, diva, imperial, religion, Roman, women
General Note: Includes vita.
General Note: Title from title page of source document.
General Note: Document formatted into pages; contains 94 pages.
General Note: Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.)--University of Florida, 2004.
General Note: System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0004865:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0004865/00001

Material Information

Title: The Worship of Roman Divae: The Julio-Claudians to the Antonines
Physical Description: 94 p.
Creator: Muich, Rebecca Marie ( Dissertant )
Mueller, Hans-Friedrich. ( Thesis advisor )
Schmeling, Gareth ( Reviewer )
Rea, Jennifer ( Reviewer )
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Classics thesis, M.A
Dissertations, Academic -- UF -- Classics

Notes

Abstract: This study will examine and evaluate the extant evidence of diva worship in the Roman Empire to prove that the cults of divae were used throughout the Empire as a means of political exploitation for individuals, but also as cults of true believers. The study will begin with Livia Drusilla, the wife of Augustus, an empress who convinced the public that she deserved consecration. The following chapters will compare and contrast the remaining divae from the Julio-Claudian family, the families of Trajan and Hadrian, and the Antonine family. Literary, numismatic, sculptural, and inscriptional evidence is considered with each diva. The intent of this study is to prove that the cults of the divae were important, and should be included in these ongoing discussions about the Imperial cult and Roman religion.
Summary: cult, deification, diva, imperial, religion, Roman, women
General Note: Includes vita.
General Note: Title from title page of source document.
General Note: Document formatted into pages; contains 94 pages.
General Note: Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.)--University of Florida, 2004.
General Note: System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UFE0004865:00001


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THE WORSHIP OF ROMAN DIVAE: THE JULIO-CLAUDIANS TO THE
ANTONINTES













By

REBECCA MARIE MUCH


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA INT PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2004



































optimae meae famniliae Joe, Kathy, Joe, and Rachel Muich















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I thank first and foremost my thesis committee, Dr. Gareth Schmeling, Dr.

Jennifer Rea, and especially my director, Dr. Hans-Friedrich Mueller, for their support

and direction throughout this proj ect. I am also grateful to the Department of Classics at

the University of Florida and its graduate students for providing support, motivation, and

good humor when needed. I would especially like to thank Ms. Heather Ramsey-

McLeod and Mrs. Druscilla Gurahoo for keeping me on schedule and of sound mind. I

thank my friends who have graciously and even enthusiastically encouraged me to

continue on with my academic adventures, in particular kindred spirits Jill and Matt

Barber, Danielle Ho, and Stephanie Huff. I thank my roommate and fellow journeyman

Jarrod Lux for not only sharing in my victories and defeats but also for helping me to find

the grace to keep journeying. A Ponos he may be, but he is a Ponos I would endure for a

lifetime. My family deserves nothing less than my eternal gratitude for, among other

things, helping me to remember that there are things more important in life than school,

and most importantly, for being a constant source of inspiration and unconditional love.

Finally I thank Jon Zarecki, my partner and the light of my life, for knowing when to

push and when not to. With him by my side I am not only a better student, but indeed a

better person.





















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ............... ...........iii..................


AB STRAC T ......_ _.............. ............vi.. ....


INTRODUCTION ............... ...........1...................


1 LIVIA DRUSILLA ............... ...........16............. ....


1 .1 Introducti on ................... .. ....... .. ......... .. .....1
1.2 Literary Evidence of the Worship of Livia Drusilla .........._. .. ...........18
1.3 Numismatic and Sculptural Evidence of the Worship of Livia Drusilla.......24
1.4 Inscriptional Evidence of the Worship of Livia Drusilla.......... .._..........28
1.5 Conclusions ............... ............34.. .......... ....


2 THE JULIO-CLAUDIANS ............... ...........36............. ....


2. 1 Introducti on ............... ............36.. .......... ...
2.2 Julia Drusilla. ............... ........... ...........37........

2.3 Sabina Poppaea and Claudia ............... ............... ........ 43
2.4 Conclusion ............... ............46.. ...............


3 THE TRAJANIC FAMILY. ......._.._. ......_.. ....................4


3 .1 Introducti on ............... ............48.. .......... ...
3.2 Marciana ............... ............50.. ...............
3.3 Matidia ............... ...........52...................
3.4 Plotina ............... ............55.. ...............
3.5 Sabina ............... ............60.. .......... ....
3.6 Conclusion ....._ ............... ............65........


4 THE ANTONINTES ............... ...........68............. ....


4. 1 Introducti on ............... ............68.. .......... ...
4.2 Faustina Maior. ........ ........_.__. .......... .........6
4.3 Faustina Minor. ........ ........_..... .......... ...........7
4.4 Ambiguous Inscriptional Evidence ............... ......................79
4.5 Conclusion ............... ............80.. .......... ....


CONCLUSION ............... ............82.. ...............














REFERENCE S...........__ ............84......... ......


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ............... ...........88...................


































































v















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the Univeristy of Florida in
Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts

THE WORSHIP OF ROMAN DIVAE: THE JULIO-CLAUDIANS TO THE
ANTONINTES

By

Rebecca Marie Muich

May 2004

Chair: Hans-Friedrich Mueller
Maj or Department: Classics

This study will examine and evaluate the extant evidence of diva worship in the

Roman Empire to prove that the cults of dive were used throughout the Empire as a

means of political exploitation for individuals, but also as cults of true believers. The

study will begin with Livia Drusilla, the wife of Augustus, an empress who convinced the

public that she deserved consecration. The following chapters will compare and contrast

the remaining dive from the Julio-Claudian family, the families of Traj an and Hadrian,

and the Antonine family. Literary, numismatic, sculptural, and inscriptional evidence is

considered with each diva. The intent of this study is to prove that the cults of the dive

were important, and should be included in these ongoing discussions about the Imperial

cult and Roman religion.














INTRODUCTION


The difficulty in assessing the importance of the worship of dive in the Roman

Empire lies in the nature of the Imperial cult and in the nature of the extant evidence of

worship. It is easy to speculate about the motivations for deifying a Roman empress, but

to ascertain whether a woman was deified because of belief that she was indeed divine or

because it was the natural course of honors for a member of the Imperial household, one

must make assumptions about the belief systems of the Romans as individuals and as a

collective entity, as well as make assumptions about the importance or unimportance of

each individual woman to those who conferred divinity upon her and those who

purported to worship her. In addition to the necessary assumptions, there must also be

some consideration of the nature of the Imperial cult and its relationship to women as

worshippers, celebrants of ritual, and receivers of worship. This is a difficult task

because the extant evidence often recognizes a celebrant of a particular cult, but rarely

outlines her duties as a celebrant, let alone any rituals over which she may have presided.

The task is made more onerous by the lack of substantial scholarship on the place of

women in the Imperial cult. While theories on the importance of emperor worship, the

nature of emperor worship, and the origins of emperor worship abound, there are few

about the worship of imperial women.

The purpose of this study is to examine and evaluate the extant evidence of diva

worship in the Roman Empire to prove that the cults of divae were used throughout the










Empire as a means of political exploitation for individuals, but also as cults of true

believers. The actual practice of worship of dive, so far as we can tell, does not differ

greatly from the worship of divinities with faithful worshippers. The study will begin

with Livia Drusilla, the wife of Augustus, an empress who convinced the public that she

deserved consecration. The following chapters will compare and contrast the remaining

dive from the Julio-Claudian family, the families of Traj an and Hadrian, and the

Antonine family. These parameters were set because of the amount of evidence that

survived pertaining to them.

Literary, numismatic, sculptural, and inscriptional evidence are considered with

each diva. Each category of evidence has its own merits and problems. First of all,

literary evidence may not be relied upon to present a truthful picture of the life of a

Roman empress, the reasons for her consecration, and the nature of her worship. The era

of the Julio-Claudians is the least troublesome, since there is more than one source with

which to compare and contrast information. The years of the Trajanic family and the

Antonine family are depicted primarily by the Historia Augusta, a source which merits its

own thesis regarding its accuracy.l Supplementary works, though not of the historical

genre in the strictest sense, may offer a sense of the personality of the diva, or the nature

of her relationship to the emperor.

Giacosa has called coinage a "sensitive seismograph of imperial politics."2 There

is no other medium that disseminated the image of an empress or diva so completely

through the Roman Empire. Men and women of every social standing handled coins in

their lifetime, and through currency were able to own a picture of the emperor' s wife and

SSee Syme, Ronald, Historia Augusta Papers (Oxford 1983), and Emperors and Biography (Oxford 1971).

2 Giacosa (1970) 34.









to visually receive her message.3 Since not all coins were minted in Rome, the legends

on the coins of various provinces in the East and West serve as a reminder that the

worship of dive was not dictated only by the decree of the Senate, but also by the beliefs

of the people of the Empire as well. The collection of coins examined in this study is not

a complete collection of every coin pertaining to a diva, but rather a representative

collection of the types attributed to each diva.

Sculptural evidence is harder to evaluate than numismatic evidence because there

is rarely any surviving legend or inscription to identify the individual or group which may

have existed during the Empire. As a result, scholars have had to resort to a system of

dating and identifying by examining hairstyles, dress, and portrait types. While it was

true that one portrait type could be sent throughout the Empire as a template for public

art, it is not always clear to us which type belongs to which empress, especially if there

are no clear portraits of an empress on a coin. Sculpture, though, can display certain

elements attributed to a diva more clearly than can a coin. The sculptures positively

identified as dive display the women wearing the corn ears of Ceres and the infulae of

priestesses, among other things. These images make associations on a grand scale, with

greater detail than coins.

Inscriptional evidence offers the most unadulterated evidence of exploitation and

sincerity in the cults of the divae. Names and offices of the dedicators are often inscribed

along with the dedication, as well as the type of sacrifice offered, and even the reason for

the offering. Collections of inscriptions can report the locations of each inscription and

the material on which it was written. Inscriptions are not without their detractions,

however. First of all, they are often incomplete, and we must rely on the editors of

3 Keltanen (2002)106.









collections to reconstruct them. Secondly, some inscriptions do not give the above stated

information. The entire inscription can consist of the name of the dedicatee, leaving the

researcher to wonder to what image or building the inscription was attached. Finally, it is

not always clear to whom an inscription is addressed. Diva Matidia, the niece of Traj an,

had a daughter named Matidia who was quite wealthy and earned many dedications on

her own.4 The inclusion of her name on inscriptions with her grandmother, mother, and

sister, who were all divae, can lead to confusion about her divine status, and even about

her identity. Faustina Maior and Faustina Minor present a similar problem. The mother

and daughter were both deified, but most inscriptions do not add "Maior" or "Minor" or

even "II" after their names to distinguish between them. Usually the names of their

husbands are included with theirs on inscriptions, which can dispel the mystery, but for

the inscriptions that only name the dedicatee, there is no help. Most of the inscriptions in

this study come from the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. The collection is by no

means complete, and very few of the important Greek inscriptions are considered, but the

cited inscriptions offer an overview of the various types of dedications and reasons for

dedicating.

Simon Price wrote that "religion should be treated not as an emotional but as an

intellectual enterprise which attempts to provide a way of interpreting and ordering

reality."' In the early Empire, the reality the Roman people faced was a government

increasingly controlled by one man and an empire that encompassed many cultures with

many different ways of "ordering reality." The idea of the Imperial cult as a way of

interpreting the power of the emperor was not a Roman origination. The Greeks had

4 Boatwright (1991) 522, 524.

SPrice (1980) 29.










already been establishing cults to the living emperor since Alexander the Great.6 For the

Greeks, equating their ruler with divine powers was an acceptable way of honoring him.

The emperor was like a god in that he was the source of "unpredictable power and

benefaction."'

For the Romans in the Late Republic, this was not so. The establishment of an

Imperial cult was one of the results of the changes in Roman religion from the Republic

to the early Empire. One man became the focus of many realms of Roman culture;

politics, the military and religion were identified more and more with only one man. The

establishment of the Imperial cult, then, walked a line between the traditional religious

rituals and the new experience of autocratic rule." The idea of identifying men with gods

was not foreign in Rome: Julius Caesar himself and Octavian after him claimed divine

ancestry even before they were deified.9 The belief that a dead man became a god,

however, is more difficult to extrapolate from the sources, but there does seem to be a

belief that Julius Caesar was a god, and Augustus' popularity suggests that even if the

populace was not convinced he was divine, they were comfortable with calling him so.

Nevertheless, the honor was not something which could be given freely to whomever

happened to be ruling, and in fact, those ruling were careful to avoid such honors while

alive, as will be discussed below.


6 Fox (1987) 40.

7Fox (1987) 40.

SBeard, North, and Price (1998) 169.

9 For Caesar: Suet. Caes., 88: stella crinita per septem continues dies fulsit exoriens circa undecimam
horam, creditumque est animam usse Caesaris in caelum recepti. For Octavian, Suet. Aug, 94.4: Augustum
natum esse mense decimo et ob hocApollinis filium existimatem. Dio Cass., 45.1:
* ALog zs Ka*** tt *Azz~a isw* S *up*(Smo *RK zo* *A7* ALaLvog a* t* v KEKxonxvat, tt Kami~ap-
8o* oa worsE *V va* *u ro**8~p* KV1I Cov**rvt~ a.V FLvo~u *v*~ l ptos *6t* *ro VoCL *** voop Xp* V* **-
Zsys. Beard, North, and Price (1998) 145; Flory (1995) 128.










Though it will probably always be unclear how the Romans related their divi and

dive to dei and deae,lo it is clear that there was a system of worship in place, and the

institution was an important part of the bureaucracy of the Empire. Taylor interprets the

Imperial cult mainly as a political tool, as it created new offices of state-sanctioned

religion.ll Fox suggests that the Imperial cult institution was exploited for the

opportunities of service and stature it offered.12 Gordon interprets the acquisition of a

priestly position as a system of patronage. No real power was conferred upon the priest,

but the appointment initiated a relationship of "dependence, gratitude, and respect."13

Alfoildy asserts that there were social, political, and economic advantages to being a part

of the Imperial cult system.14 Even liberti and slaves could be involved in the Imperial

cult: liberti were the magistri of the cult of the Compitales for the worship of the Genius

of Augustus, while slaves could be the ministry of the shrines." Whether the rewards

were tangible or symbolic, the priests of the Imperial cult were respected and took great

care to include their other public offices, duties, and wealth to any record of offering.

There were a few classes of priests and priestesses who celebrated rituals for the

Imperial cult. In Rome the priest was called a flamnen, and his wife the flamninica, who


'o The OLD makes the following distinctions: A d'ea is always a goddess, and a d'eus is defined as a god,
though there some examples of using d'eus with mortals: parentum suum Caesar ... fecit d'eum, Vell.
2.126.1; edictum domini deique nostri, Mart. 5.8.1 (referring to Domitian, who was to be addressed as "our
lord and god"); Vae, inquit, puto deus fio, Suet. Vesp., 23.4 (this is Vespasian's estimation, not the general
public's). Diva and divus can be used to define the gods and goddesses: divae Veneris nurus, Verg. Aen.,
2.787, hominum divorumque voluptas, Luc., 1.1; they are also the titles applied to deified members of the
imperial family.

11 Taylor (1931) 219.

12 Fox (1987) 40.

13 Gordon (1996) 233.

14 Alfijldy (1996) 255.

'5Zanker (1988) 129, 131.









was often in charge of the cults of divae. In the provinces, the priests were called

sacerdotes, perhaps as a way to distinguish between Roman and provincial cult systems.

Other groups of priests were involved with the Imperial cult: the Vestal Virgins, for

example, became increasingly important to the imperial family in the early Empire. They

were present at military triumphs, at the dedication of the Ara Pacis, and they were put in

charge of the cult of the diva Liva.16

The Arval Brethren were also important players in the institution of the Imperial

cult. The Arval Brethren were a sodality of priests who were active in the Republic,

though they can be found nowhere in the annals of the period." They were revived in 29

B.C. by Octavian, and their earliest extant document dates to 21 B.C.ls The Arval

Brethren seemed to originally be concerned with the worship of the Dea Dia, and

supposedly held their meetings and rituals in a grove outside the city, though many of the

sacrifices took place within the city, on the Capitol or in the temple of divus Augustus.19

The Acta of the Arval Brethren were inscribed on marble near their sacred grove,20 and

their records are detailed enough to give a good indication of the social strata of the

members and the intricacies of their rituals. Syme's study of the Arval Brethren reveals

that it was Augustus' intent in reviving the Arval Brethren "to honor and reward the

already illustrious."21 He notes that the Brothers, throughout their traceable history, were



16 Beard, North, and Price 1998) 194.

17 Syme (1980) 2. Only Varro mentions them in On the Latin Language.

1s Syme (1980) 2.

19 Beard, North, and Price (1998) 195.

20 Syme (1980) v.

21 Syme (1980) v.









made up of the middle ranks of the Senate, men who most likely would not be appointed

to priesthoods or consulates.22 Syme suggests that Augustus wanted the Arval Brethren

to be "dignified and decorative,"23 an institution in which notable civil servants would be

visible in the worship of Imperial divi and dive, but one in which actual power and

duties were limited. The Arval Brethren, in this respect, are an example of the ways

Augustus and the political powers of the time could manipulate the institution of the

Imperial cult to their advantage.

Beard, North, and Simon point out that there was no such thing as one Imperial

cult, but rather a series of different cults sharing an emphasis on the worship of the

emperor, his family or predecessors.24 This was nowhere more apparent than in the

Roman colonies and municipalities which assimilated emperor worship into their own

native cults. The Imperial cult came to the provinces in many ways. One was through

the military, which kept a calendar marking the dates of celebrations of birthdays of divi

and divae, which was in step with the records of the Arval Brethren back in Rome.25

Systems of Imperial worship could be set by the Roman government, which Wardman

interprets as a means of Romanization acceptable to the provinces.26 Each community in

the provinces, however, could set up their own cults by their own accord as well.27





22 Syme (1980) 77.

23 Syme (1980) 100.

24 Beard, North, and Simon (1998) 318.

25 Beard, North, and Simon (1998) 325.

26 Wardman (1982) 88.

27 Beard, North, and Simon (1998) 349.









Implementing the Imperial cult was a different task in the East and in the West.

In the East, the Imperial cult was established "from above," that is to say, by the imperial

government. The Greek east was already quite comfortable with this concept of emperor

worship, as mentioned above, and therefore it was an accepted part of the community. In

the West, however, the cult was established "from below," meaning there was no

systematized state religion at hand.28 The territories of Britain, Gaul, and the regions of

the Danube and the Rhine were relatively untouched by Roman culture, but Narbonensis,

Africa, and Hispania were settled by Roman immigrants.29 There was therefore a

situation where parts of the west were already establishing the Roman cults to which the

Roman immigrants were accustomed, while others were integrating Roman customs into

their own cultural mainstays.

The provincial cult also had a means of distinguishing their priesthoods from

those of Rome. Flamnines were priests of the official state deities, and sacerdotes the

priests for imported deities. Fishwick suggests that the titles may also have had

something to do with the means of worship: a flamnen served a cult based in a temple,

while a sacerdos served a cult based around an altar.30 Grether postulates that a flamninica

was more common for a priestess of the living empress, and a sacerdos more common for

a priestess of a dead empress.31 Service to the Imperial cult was one way to assert

importance and influence in the provinces, and one way in which a wealthy citizen could



28Fishwick (1987) 93.

29 Fishwick (1987) 93.

30Fishwick (1987) 93.

31 Grether (1946) 249-250.









distinguish himself or herself.32 In the west the cult was served by slaves and freedmen

who had a part of the worship of the Lares and Genius at the crossroads.33 The Imperial

cult became important in these regions because it offered new offices that could be held

by freedmen or local aristocracy.34 It offered a new opportunity for the breakdown of

social stratifieation not available at Rome.

The imperial family was worshipped in many ways. Often emperors or empresses

were honored when a territory took on the name of the emperor who founded it, such as

Julia Cirta,35 Or when cities were renamed in their honor, such as Juliopolis in Bithynia,

Trajanopolis on Phrygia, or Hadrianopolis in Thrace.36 Then there were the more active

forms of worship, such as sacrifices of animals, incense, ritual cakes, and lamps, as well

as public festivals.37 The rituals of the Arval Brethren included animal sacrifice, usually

ox to men, cows to women, and occasionally a bull to the Genius of the emperor. They

also burned incense, rubbed oil on the cult statues, and lit candles as part of their ritual.38

In addition there were countless images of the deified Imperial family erected in their

honor across the empire, from statues and busts to portraits on coins.

Price has questioned who or what exactly is being worshipped in many of these

rituals. Because there is little extant evidence describing the duties of flamnines and

sacerdotes, the language left behind in inscriptions and in the Acta of the Arval Brethren

32Taylor (1931) 212.

33Taylor (1931) 214.

34Taylor (1931) 219.

35Butcher (1988) 47.

36 Butcher (1988) 46.

r7 Price (1980) 29, 30, 32.

38MacMullen (1981) 45.









becomes of utmost importance in determining the recipient of worship. In many

instances, especially in the east, sacrifices were not made directly to the emperor, but

rather on behalf of the emperor, perhaps for his health, safety, or in thanksgiving to him

as a benefactor.39 This practice is also found in the Acta of the Arval Brethren, when, in

the reign of Augustus, they sacrificed on behalf of the Imperial family, but not to the

family as divinities. There were also sacrifices made to the genius or iuno of emperors or

empresses. Though it is not exactly clear what a genius or a iuno is, it represented some

sort of spirit of the male or female head of the family and was connected to the worship

of the Lares, Penates, and Vesta.40 Sacrifices of bulls to the Genius of the emperor, the

head of the Imperial family, were common in the reigns of Caligula and Nero.

It is also clear, though, in the Acta of the Arval Brethren, that the deified emperors

and empresses themselves were recipients of sacrifices, just as a genius or iuno or a

member of the Capitoline Triad. Price attributes this to the Roman attempt to classify the

types of divinities they worshipped: a divus or a diva was different from a deus or a dea,

but was in fact divine, and so higher than a common man.41 This left them with no

qualms about sacrificing to an emperor who was once a man.

The emperor had a role to play in the Imperial cult as well. Though it was the

Senate who consecrated a member of the Imperial family, the emperor had to ask for the

conferral from the Senate.42 The ceremony of consecration for an emperor included a



39 Price (1980) 41.

40 Rose (1923) 59; Flory (1995) 128.

41 Price (1980) 36.

42 Wardman (1982) 82.










lavish funeral capped by the release of an eagle, a symbol of his spirit rising to heaven.43

There is no evidence of a corresponding ceremony for empresses. The motivations for

deifying an emperor or empress could be endless, but Wardman points to a display of

pieta~s as a particularly compelling force. By deifying his predecessor, an emperor proves

to the public that his understands whence his power came, and he was mindful of his debt

of gratitude.44

However, as Simpson argues, consecration by the Senate was not just a matter of

honoring a predecessor. In the perception of many literate Romans, consecration actually

created deities, powers capable of hearing and answering prayers.45 This is borne out by

the rituals of the Arval Brethren, among others, but there is no real explanation as to how

a Roman made the transition in belief that the emperor was a man to the belief that the

emperor was a god.

Image and art were the most powerful tools for spreading an Imperial message

throughout the Empire. In an empire in which not everyone was literate, the association

and assimilation46 Of divine attributes on statues and coins did more to connect the

Imperial family with the divine than any decree of the Senate or any inscription of fa~sti.

Zanker calls Roman imperial art the "standardized visual language" of the Empire.47

Statues and coins allowed people in the far reaches of the Empire to know what the



43 Herodian, 4, offers a full description of the ceremony.

44 Wardman (1982) 83.

45 Simpson (1996) 67.

46 Spaeth (1996) 119. Association represents indirect identification with the divine, such as including the
images of gods or goddesses on the reverses of coins. Assimilation was more rare the attributes and titles
of divinities were applied directly to the emperor or empress.

47 Zanker (1988) 335.










Imperial family looked like: how they wore their hair, what clothing they wore, and what

their facial features were. At the same time, these same media could also impart the

values and virtues the emperor wished to propagate throughout the Empire by using

recognizable symbols in conjunction with the images of the ruling family.48

But what about the empresses? How do women fit into this system of

priesthoods, ritual, symbol and religion? Was the Imperial cult really a vehicle for the

strengthening of the emperor' s hold on the Empire, or was it really a religious cult built

on the premise that members of the Imperial family could hear and answer the prayers of

their believers? I suggest that it was both, and that the deified empresses were an integral

part of both processes of strengthening Imperial bureaucracy through rich priests and

benefactors, and of "ordering the reality" of Roman beliefs.

The actual practice of worship of dive, so far as we can tell, does not

differ greatly from the worship of divi. Roman empresses were consecrated by decree of

the Senate, just as Roman emperors. However, because the women themselves did not

run the Empire, the images attributed to them did a double duty. On the one hand, they

images associated the empress directly with the divine in her own right. On the other

hand, they associated the symbols of feminine divinity with the principate of the emperor.

The actions of the empresses and other members of the Imperial family, for good or ill,

reflected directly onto the emperor and his character. Therefore, it was of utmost

importance to portray the imperial women as models of Roman femininity, possessing

the qualities which made them most helpful to their husbands, sons, or brothers. The

association and assimilation of the attributes of Ceres with a diva, for example, suggests

two things: first of all, that the diva herself was abundantly fertile, and secondly, in an

48Zanker (1988) 336.









indirect sense, that the principate as a whole could ensure agricultural and human

fertility.49 The assimilation of attributes was most common on sculpture, where there

was enough material available to include intricate details of divinity.'o By looking at a

statue of Livia wearing ears of corn and holding sheaths of poppies, an individual could

determine, without being told, that Livia had assimilated the attributes of Ceres and was

supposed to represent fertility and plenty. The association of divine attributes was more

common on coins," where reverses could be used to conjure the image of a specific

goddess with a few identifying characteristics.

Provincial communities were the earliest worshippers of empresses not

hampered by Roman sanction, they were free to create cults and worship as they chose,

as Livia had a cult dedicated to her in her lifetime at Emerita.52 There were several

monuments to imperial women throughout Spain: busts of Livia at Segobriga and

dedications to diva Drusilla at Valeria.53 The names of cities themselves are witnesses to

the popularity of the divae: there was also a Plotinopolis in Thrace and a Marcianopolis

in Moesia.54 Of course, at Rome the worship of dive was made clear on the tablets of

the Acta of the Arval Brethren, which recorded not only the sacrifices to diva Drusilla,

diva Augusta, and dive Poppaea and Claudia, but also sacrifices to the iuno of Julia

Augusta.


49 Spaeth (1996) 121.

so See the art of the Ara Pacis, in particular. Also consider the inscription of the statue to Livia in Magna
Leptis with the inscription CERERI AUGUSTAE. Livia actually became Ceres in name and in image.

51Keltanen (2002) 109.

52 Fishwick (1987) 157.

53 Curchin (1996) 146.

54 Butcher (1988) 46.










Though the worship of dive has not been explored nearly as thoroughly as that of

the divi, it is part of an ongoing discussion of the nature of the Roman Imperial cult. The

basis of belief in divi and divae is not clearly understood: did mortals become divine

because the Senate made them so, or where they already divine before the decree? Is the

Imperial cult simply an elaborate system of implementing Imperial power and

complimenting the Imperial family, or is there something in the relationship of the people

with the ruling family that we do not understand? This study cannot answer these

questions and will not attempt to. The intent of this study is to prove that the cults of the

dive were important, and should be included in these ongoing discussions about the

Imperial cult and Roman religion.














CHAPTER 1
LIVIA DRUSILLA

1.1 Introduction

The first deified woman of the Roman Empire was Julia Drusilla, the sister of the

third Roman emperor, Caligula, but it is Livia Drusilla, the wife of Augustus, who is the

paradigm to which all other empresses were compared. Livia' s record of public service

and her honored status were a part of Roman politics and society for generations, and the

history of her cult spans from the early years of Augustus' principate to the Antonine

dynasty.l Though she was not the first woman deified by the Senate, she was still the

ideal diva.

The deifieation and worship of Livia reveal many things about the worship of

dive and the process of deification. Livia, based on the amount and the nature of

surviving inscriptions and artwork, was actually believed to be divine, perhaps more so

than any other diva. The establishment of Livia' s cult also offered more chances of

political and social advancement in Rome and in the provinces to those who administered

the cult rites. Livia's worshippers were a diverse lot: there were individuals who,

convinced by her public works that Livia merited deification, believed that she was truly

divine. There were also those individuals who used her deification as an opportunity for

political advancement, and therefore their praises and dedications to her held an ulterior

motive.





SGrether (1946) 233.










Though Livia Drusilla, the wife of Augustus, had earned the respect of the Senate

and the love of the Roman people through her patronage, she was not deified until the

reign of Claudius in A.D. 41. Livia's son Tiberius, perhaps displaying a sensitivity to the

suspicions of the Roman people that Rome was falling into the hands of a dynasty,2 was

notoriously wary of accepting divine honors for himself, and flatly refused many honors

the Senate and provincial bureaucrats offered to him. He refused the name of Pater

Patriae on many occasions, and he did not permit anything to be sworn on his deeds in

the Senate.3 He also refused to allow Farther Spain to build a temple to himself and his

mother, stating, in a speech to the Senate, that he wished to enj oy only those honors

suitable to a mortal man.4

In another petition, the people of the Greek city of Gythiums asked Tiberius'

permission to pay divine honors to Augustus, Tiberius and Livia. Tiberius replied that

Augustus should be honored as a god, that Tiberius himself wanted honors appropriate to

men, and that Livia could answer for herself. He did not allow temples, flamnines or

priests to be decreed to him, and he did not allow statues of himself to be dedicated

without permission. The images he did sanction he did so on the condition that they not

be placed among the images of the gods.6

Tiberius' rej section of the proffered honors convinced some of his awareness that

Rome was perhaps not quite ready for an imperator; but the rej section of honors for his



SWood (1999) 81.

STac. 4nn. 1.72.1.

STac. 4nn 4.37-38.

SAE 1929, no. 99-100, quoted in Lewis and Reinhold (1990) 521.

6 Suet. Tib. 26.










mother led contemporary Roman writers to believe that he was either resentful or afraid

of his mother' s power and influence in the Senate. Recent discussion suggests he may

have been struggling to find a balance between imperial extravagance and Republican

sensibility, and that he felt that high honors given to any member of the Roman family

were a sure sign of an empire. Tiberius' policy on the Imperial cult displayed pieta~s

toward his stepfather,' but led historians to question his feelings for his mother. His

general policy regarding divine honors was that he discouraged actual cults to living

persons in Italy, but outside Italy he was careful to regulate his own cult and the cult of

the domus Augusta without detracting from the cult of divus Augustus.8 Whatever

Tiberius' motives, Roman historians catalogued the slights he showed his mother in his

lifetime. He bristled at the idea of adding "son of Julia" to his name, as proposed by the

Senate, and did not allow his mother a lictor,9 which was an unprecedented honor for a

woman. He refused to allow her to be called parens patriae, though the Senate called for

it.'0 Tiberius also refused to change the name of the month of September to Tiberius, and

the month of October to Livium, for Livia.ll Because of Tiberius' persistence, Livia

went without the high honors the Senate proposed.

1.2 Literary Evidence of the Worship of Livia Drusilla

Much has been written about Livia's role in the foundation of the Empire and the

manipulation of the Julio-Claudian house. From 35 B.C. to 9 B.C. her importance was



STaylor (1929) 93.

"Grether (1946) 234.

9 Tac. Ann. 1.14.1.

10 Suet. Tib. 50.

11 Suet. Tib. 26.










not as great as it would become, since Marcellus and Agrippa were still available to

become Augustus' heirs. Tiberius and Drusus, Livia's children, held unclear roles in the

family, and so Livia herself was not as visible in the public eye.12 Though Livia was not

deified until 41 A.D., the Roman senators and people honored her extravagantly during

her lifetime and after her death. Livia's controversial and powerful position in the

imperial household is universally reported by contemporary historians. It is this

influence in the Senate and Augustus' reliance on her good counsel that led many to

believe that Livia merited deification. Though her deification followed on the heels of

Drusilla, the difference between the women could not have been greater.

Livia's power within the Senate was considerable. Many individuals were

"saved" from Senatorial scrutiny because of her intercession,13 and Dio Cassius writes

that she took part in senatorial proceedings as though she had full senatorial powers.14

Livia was also a magnanimous patron. She was, by law, allowed to inherit more money

than the original amount legislated by the lex Voconia.lS Livia was enormously wealthy

in her own right, and because she could administer her own property, she used the

opportunities to gain allies and improve public life. On a political level, Dio Cassius

suggests that she saved the lives of many senators and even helped to pay for some of

their daughters' dowries.16 She erected a temple of Concordia with her own money,"



12 Flory (1993) 298.

13 Haterius, (Tac. Ann. 1.13), Placinae, who was part of the Pisonian conspiracy, (Tac. Ann. 3.17),
Urgulania, also involved in the Pisonian conspiracy, and who was protected from the Senate twice by Livia,
(Tac. Ann 4.21).

14 Dio Cassius, 56.46.

1s Dio Cassius, 56.10.

16 Dio Cassius, 58.2.










and also used her money to support men with political ambitions the future emperor

Galba was a recipient of her generosity when she left him the significant sum of 50

million sesterces in her will.l

At Augustus' death, she inherited one third of his estate.19 She also became his

priestess, and was finally allowed a lictor only when she was performing her priestly

duties.20 Livia was allowed to sit with the Vestal Virgins in the theatre,21 She was

enrolled among mothers of three children when Drusus died,22 and Tiberius dedicated a

precinct to her on the first day of his consulship.23 Livia died at age 86,24 and Tacitus

writes that she had a modest (modicum) funeral, at which her grandson Gaius, not her son

Tiberius, gave her eulogy.25 The Senate decreed that Roman women would mourn a full

year for Livia' s death. She was buried in the Mausoleum of Augustus, and the Senate

voted to erect an arch in her honor, perhaps as a kind of substitute deification.26 This

arch, an honor never before granted to a woman, was never built. Tiberius did not allow







'7 Ovid, Fasti, 6.637-640.

's Suet., Galba, 5.

19 Suet, Aug. 161.

20 Dio Cassius, 56. 46.

21 Tac. Ann. 4.16.

22 Dio Cassius, 55.2.

23 Dio Cassius, 55.8.

24 Dio Cassius, 58.2.

25 Tac. Ann. 5.1.

26 Flory (1995) 132.










public funds to be spent on the arch, and promised that he himself would erect it with his

own money."

There is little indication among the Roman historians of Livia' s perceived divinity

while she was alive. Ovid, however, while he was in exile, wasted no words in equating

the empress to goddesses. Of course his position of a persona non grata greatly

influenced his words, but he does present a picture of personal piety which, though it may

not be sincere on his part, may indicate the role of Livia and the imperial household in

everyday life. Ovid evidently had a larariunt of the imperial family in his home while in

exile, one that contained the same images that would be found in any public gallery in

Rome.28 In his letter to Cottus, Ovid thanks him for sending the images of Caesar so that

his could join the other images in the lararium :

Redditus est nobis Caesar cunt Caesare nuper,
quos naihi naisisti, Maxinte Cotte, deos,
utque tuum naunus nunterunt quent debet haberet,
est ibi Caesaribus Livia iuncta suis. 29

He also admonishes his wife to finish the honorary rituals for the imperial household,

giving incense and unmixed wine to the gods, from which Augustus and his line came:

sed prius inspostia sanctis altaribus~ttt~~~ttt~~~ttt igni
tura fer ad nzagnos vinoque pura deos,
e quibus ante onanes Augustunt nunten adora
progenienzque plant participenzque tori. 3

Finally in a letter to Graecinus, Ovid insists that he is pious and shows the appropriate

honors to the imperial household:


27 Dio Cassius, 58.2.

28 Zanker (1998) 265.

29 Orid, Pont, 2.8. 1-4.

30 Orid, Pont. 3.161-164.










Nec pieta~s ignota mea est: videt hospital terra
in nostra sacrum Caesaris esse domo.
Stant pariter natusque pius coniunxque sacerdos,
numina iam facto non leviora deo. 31

Ovid has covered all his bases: he has mentioned Augustus, his priestly wife, and

his pious son, all standing equally with powers not unlike those of the gods. Ovid's

attentions to the imperial family were certainly meant to hasten his recall to Rome, but

they also speak of a type of devotion that was not unusual in the Empire. Whether the

divine powers of the imperial family were accepted or not, there was an accepted practice

of honoring them as numina within the home. By that point in history, imperial images

could be mass produced in cheap materials and symbols could be found everywhere:

from jewelry to utensils, from wall and ceilings to roof tiles.32 Flory interprets this

attention to the family as the starting point for the deifieation of women. It was not the

fact that Drusilla had been deified before Livia that "broke down reserve," but rather it

was the concept of the imperial family having a divine nature.33

Ovid does pay particular attention to Livia, perhaps hoping to induce her to speak

to Augustus on his behalf. In the aforementioned poem to his wife, Ovid compares

Livia's beauty with the beauty of Venus (Veneris formamn) and Livia's character with that

of Juno's (mores lunonis).34 The poet's attention to Livia does not begin and end with

flattery, however. In the Fa~sti, he surmises that the deifieation of Livia will follow close

upon the heels of her husband' s:

et penes Augustos patriae tutela manebit:

31 Ovid, Pont, 4.9.105-108.

32 Zanker (1988) 266.

33 Flory, (1995) 134.

34 Ovid, Pont. 3.1.117.










hanc fas insperii fr~ena tenere donsum.
inde nepos natusque dei, licet ipse recuset,
pondera caelesti nzente paterna feret,
utque ego perpetuis olins sacrabor in aris,
sic Augusta novum lulia nunten erit. 35


After describing the good that Augustus has done, and the continued good the son and

grandson of Augustus will do, Ovid mentions Livia's imminent nunten. Some kind of

nunten was appropriate for Livia, since she was the sacerdos divi Augusti, and was

therefore an important mediator between the god and his people.36 This is the most often

quoted evidence that Augustus wished Livia to be deified.37

Valerius Maximus also pays close attention to the connections between Livia and

the divine. In the beginning of book 6, he says that Pudicitia rests among the Augustan

household gods and in Julia's most holy bed: tu Palatii colunten augustos penates

sanctissinsunque luliae genialent torunt adsidua statione celebra~s.38 The reference to

Julia seems puzzling, since, by the reign of Tiberius, when Valerius wrote, Augustus'

daughter had already been exiled for her sexual promiscuity. Most likely, the Julia here

is Julia Augusta, or Livia. Like Ovid, Valerius praises her and the imperial family.

Where Ovid was willing to compare Livia directly to Juno and Venus, Valerius attributes

to her the quality of pudicitia. In Valerius' time it was common to offer dedications to

the iuno of Livia, as will be discussed below, and it was quite common to associate Livia






35Orid, Fasti, 1.531-536.

36 Flory (1995) 131.

r7 ibid.

38 Valerius Maximus, 6.1.init.









with the various virtues promoted by the state. It seems that Valerius, like Ovid, was

anticipating the deification of Livia.39

Livia's grandson Claudius finally deified her in 41 A.D. Claudius, since he lived

with Livia when he was a boy,40 finally brought to fruition the desires of the Senate and

the Roman people. Claudius, however, also had something to gain from this benefaction:

first of all, it indicated to the people that he had a sense of pieta~s in giving honor to his

ancestor, and secondly, it created a divine relationship for Claudius, who was not directly

related to the divus Augustus.41 In her honor Claudius held equestrian games, and set up

a statue of her in the temple of Augustus. He also gave the charge of sacrificing to her to

the Vestal Virgins, and declared that women taking oaths should swear by her name:

zu*4 zs yuvatS~v pXov z** voyla u* Y* S ots*Gout Xsks* oaS.42

1.3 Numismatic and Sculptural Evidence of the Worship of Livia Drusilla

There are not many coins bearing Livia's portrait. Before she received the honor,

few women appeared on coins. Augustus and Tiberius, as was their policy with honors

regarding Livia, were sparing in their use of her image or name on coins during their

reign. No recognizable image of Livia appeared on coins until A.D. 22 to 23, by

Augustus' order.43 A female image did appear on the coinage of Augustus and Tiberius

as Pax, but it is not clear whether this was intended to be Livia.44 She appeared on



39 Mueller (2002) 43.

o0 Dio Cassius, 60.2.

41 Wood (1999) 138.

42Dio Cassius, 60.5.

43Giacosa (1970) 23.

44Wood (1999) 104.










dupondii connected to abstracts the imperial family attributed to itself, such as Pieta~s,

lustitia, and Salus. In A.D. 22 the first coin to appear with Livia's name showed a

carpentum drawn by two mules, with the legend S.P.Q.R. IULIAE AUGUSTAE.45 Other

coins with identifiable images of Livia either connect her to an abstract divinity or to her

husband or son. On one coin, a bust of Livia adorns the obverse with the legend SALUS

AUGUSTA, with SC in the Hield of the reverse and a legend of Tiberius.46 A similar coin

from A.D. 22 to 23 has the legend IUSTITIA on the obverse with a diademed bust of

Livia.47 One dupondius showed the bust of Augustus on the obverse and a seated Livia

on the reverse.48 The coins from the reigns of Augustus and Tiberius bearing Livia' s

likeness are a hesitant beginning of using her image in imperial art. Coins were widely

distributed and would be seen by a great amount of people of diverse age, gender, and

social standing. By identifying Livia with abstract divinities, Augustus and Tiberius

accomplished two things: first they endowed Livia with the attributes of these divinities,

setting her up as a model Roman matron, and secondly, they attributed, in a small way,

perhaps, some kind of numen to Livia. This notion was not completely unfounded:

Ovid's went into exile in A.D. 8 and was already attributing some divine power to Livia

with the rest of the imperial family.49 By A.D. 22, it is possible that there was some

expectancy of divine honors for Livia.




45Grether (1946) 237.

46 Giacosa #4.

47Giacosa #5.

48Carson #37.

49 It is still unclear whether Orid began the Fasti before or after he was exiled. At any rate, the suggestion
that Livia would become a novum numen was made well before her image appeared on imperial coinage.










Livia's image appeared on coins in the years after her deification. Galba used the

image of Livia on his coinage. On one aureus from A.D. 68 or 69, the obverse shows the

bust of Galba and the reverse show a standing Livia.so A silver denarizes of A.D. 68 or 69

shows the bust of Galba on the obverse and Livia on the reverse, holding a patera and a

scepter, with the legend DIVA AUGUSTA.S1 Under Titus, the coins Iristitia and Pieta~s

coins of the Augustan period were revived as well.52 By the reigns of Galba and the

Flavian emperors, it was common for women to appear on coins. Livia's image appeared

on them because her cult was still worshipped.53 For the later emperors, it was a chance

to honor the memory of a woman who had done much for Rome. It was not so much

intended for worship, but rather a posthumous honor.

Recognizable images of Livia did not appear in sculpture until her deification.

Then her images were carefully distributed by the imperial family, and unofficial images

were also erected in the provinces, a practice which attests to the indefinite nature of

imperial art, as well as to the practice of "spontaneous worship" sanctioned beyond the

reach of Rome. In Rome, Tiberius fought to keep the perception of his mother as divine

under control. During the lifetime of her husband and son, the only association of Livia

with the divine in imperial-sanctioned art was found on the Ara Pacis, and some


50 Carson #70.

51 Herbert 1441. Grether suggests Galba ordered this to enhance his claim to power, but I am more of the
mind that he wished to dedicate this honor to her memory because of the money she bequeathed him in her
will.

52Grether (1946) 251.

53 Grether (1946) 251. Grether states that the association of diva Augusta with divus Augustus allowed
Livia's cult to endure longer than many of the cults to divae which followed. The emperors were eager to
honor Augustus' memory, and therefore Livia's, since she was connected to his divinity from the beginning
as his priestess. In the case of Galba, however, I feel that he was showing the proper measure of pietas by
honoring his patroness. Though Tiberius had stalled the execution of the will, the amount of money left to
Galba was significant and no doubt helped him tremendously in his military campaigns.









sanctioned provincial works.54 Even with their concerns, the art of the Ara Pacis and

statues of the period portray Livia in every respect as a goddess of plenty and fertility or

as a priestess." Even under Caligula, Livia appeared to have a certain amount of favor.

One sculptural group from Velleia shows Livia as larger and more prominent than the

other women of the group.56 Under Claudius, it was not difficult for artists to liken Livia

to goddesses, since images of her even before her deification showed her with the

attributes of Ceres,5 Cybele5 and Venus Genetrix.59 Later images included such divine

indicators as diadems, infulae, and even spicea.60

Even before her deification, Livia was equated with the divine. One example in

particular proves this point: the statue of Ceres Augusta in Leptis Magna. The cult image

was found in a small temple, and it was dedicated by a Roman official named Rubellius

Blandus and a wealthy woman named Suphunibal. The statue was most likely dedicated

after her death, but pre-dates her deification by 6-7 years.61 Added to the following

evidence of inscriptions, it seems clear that the provinces were willing to honor Livia as a

goddess even before her deification. This "spontaneous worship," worship of a cult not





54Wood (1999) 140.

55Grether (1946) 245.

56 Wood (1999) 125.

57Grether (1946) 243-244. Paris cameo, Florentine sardonyx, cameo in the British museum.

58 Grether (1946) 243. A sardonyx in the Vienna museum showing her seated, holding a tympanum with a
lion, wearing the crown of Cybele and holding a sheaf of poppies.

59 Wood (1999) 127.

61) Wood (1999) 127, 135.

61 Wood (1999) 112.









brought in by the imperial government, indicates a popular belief in Livia's divinity, or at

least a popular belief that she deserved divine honors.

1.4 Inscriptional Evidence of the Worship of Livia Drusilla

There is no possible way to catalogue inscriptions as sincere or exploitative in a

definite way. We can only rely on the words of the inscriptions to interpret the purpose

of a dedication or ritual or the intent of the dedicator. The inscriptions of the Acta of the

Arval Brethren track the official attitude towards Livia's divinity from the rule of

Augustus until the rule of Vitellius. As a sodality dedicated almost entirely to the

worship in Rome of the Imperial cult and as a group of politically entrenched men

appointed to the sodality, the feelings of belief among the celebrants is not worth

discussing. The rituals of the Arval Brethren were not celebrated to indicate their own

personal belief but to indicate to the public that the imperial cult was not neglected by

rulers and to demonstrate the pieta~s of the emperor.

The Arval Brethren did offer prayers to Livia before her consecration during the

reign of Claudius. In A.D. 38, three years before Livia's deifieation, on the Capitoline

the Arval Brethren sacrificed an ox to Capitoline Jove for Livia's birthday.62 They

offered prayers on her birthday for two years before her death.63 Her birthday was also

celebrated in other parts of Italy: an inscription from the Forum Clodii in A.D. 18 lists her

birthday among the fasti.64 The sacrificing of the Arval Brethren was state-sactioned, but

the sacrifice for Livia's birthday, just like a sacrifice for Augustus' or Tiberius, honored

her popularity and power.


62 CIL 6.2028.

63 Flory (1995) 128.

64 CIL 11. 3303 in Grether (1946) 238.










After Livia's deifieation under Claudius, the Arval Brethren began to sacrifice to

her instead of for her. On Livia' s consecration, they offered an ox to the divus Augustus

and a cow to the diva Augusta.65 In the following years of Claudius' reign, it became

customary to include sacrifices to the divus Augustus and the diva Augusta together

among the other usual sacrifices to the Capitoline Triad. The sacrifices took place in

various places, including the temple of Concordia,66 the Palatine,67 the new temple of the

divus Augustus,68 and the Capitoline.69 In every instance, a cow was sacrificed to diva

Augusta, always accompanied by an ox sacrificed to the divus Augustus.

The worship of Livia did not end with the death of Claudius. Nero continued to

show devotion to Augustus and Livia. In A.D.58 the Arval Brethren sacrificed two oxen

to divus Augustus, two cows to diva Augusta, and two oxen to divus Claudius in the new

temple. Prayers and sacrifices were made on the same day in the Capitol for the safety of

Nero and Octavia, and sacrifices were made to the Capitoline Triad and Salus in the

Capitol as well.70 The records of the Arval Brethren in the reign of Nero mention the

specific reason for prayer and sacrifice, Nero's attempts to demonstrate his pieta~s. In

A.D. 58 in October, sacrifices were made to the divus Augustus, the diva Augusta, and

the divus Claudius because of the imperium Neronis.n1 In January A.D. 59 sacrifices of

two animals apiece were made to divus Augustus, diva Augusta, and divus Claudius pro

65 GIL 6.2032.

66 GIL 6. 2033.

67 4ntica 19.

68 4ntica 20.

69 GIL 6.2038, 4ntica 25.

"0 GL 6.2040, 4ntica 26.

G1CL 6.2041, 4ntica 27.










salute Neronis Claudii ... et Octaviae coningis eius in the new temple.72 A similar

sacrifice was made for the safety of Nero and Octavia around A.D. 61 in January, again

of two animals apiece to the divus Augustus, diva Augusta, and divus Claudius.73

A.D. 63 brought changes in the sacrifices and prayers of the Arval Brethren, due

to two new women in Nero's life: his new wife, Poppaea, and their daughter, Claudia.

These women will be discussed below. Livia continued to be worshiped in conjunction

with Augustus and Claudius. In 63 A.D., the year of Claudia' s birth and death, the Arval

Brethren sacrificed in the Capitol ob imperium Neronis. Sacrifices were made to the

Capitoline Triad and Felicita~s, and in the new temple sacrifices were made to the divus

Augustus, the diva Augusta, divus Claudius, diva Claudia, and diva Poppaea.74 In A.D.

66 sacrifices were again made on the Capitol to include the divus Augustus, diva

Augusta, divus Claudius, diva Claudia, and diva Poppaea, but also the genius of Nero.

The same year saw sacrifices made to the same deities ob laurum imperatoris Neronis

and ob Augustalia.7

The worship of Livia continued even into the reign of Galba, Otho, and Vitellius.

Under each emperor, sacrifices were made to divus Augustus, diva Augusta, and divus

Claudius, as was customary in the early reign ofNero.76 The sacrifices for Otho were

made ob vota nuncupatapro salute imperatoris, and those of Vitellius were made pro





72ibid.

G3CL 6.2048, 4ntica 33.

G4CL 6. 2043, 4ntica 29, II.

G5CL 6.2044.

76 GIL 6.2051, 4ntica 40.









sahtte et reditu (Vitelli) Gernzanici insperatoris. Galba owed a particular debt of gratitude

to Livia, since she left him a large amount of money in her will.

Though Augustus and Tiberius were carefully prohibiting Livia from extravagant

honors, they could not control the inclinations and beliefs of their provincial subj ects.

Dedications were made to Livia across the Empire. The worship of Livia in the Greek

East follows the honors accorded the living emperors of the time. At Athens Livia and

Julia, Augustus' daughter, shared a priestess and a temple with Hestia.7 At Thasos, the

women were honored as E* spy mi, and Livia was honored as Os* *E* spy* ttg." Livia

was also called Os* *A~lp~a on coins from Clazomenae and Methymna.79 These honors

were all accorded to her before her official deification as was the Greek custom of

honoring the emperor and empress as divine even in their lifetimes. This worship was

not sanctioned by the Roman government, but rather was instituted by the people of the

provinces themselves.

A small marble tablet from the Forum Clodii lists a wide variety of honors done

for the imperial family in the consulships of Tiberius Caesar and Germanicus Caesar,

well before Livia's deification. The dedications were decreed by the duoviri (Cn. Acceio

Cn. f: Arnensis Rufo Lutatio, T. Petillio P. f: Quirina H viris decreta) of the province and

covered many benefactions. Most notable is the money that the duoviri spend to honor

the Imperial cult: aran nuntini Augusto pecunia nostra facien~~dd~~ddd ant~~dd curavintus; hidos ex

idibus Augustis diebus sex pecunia nostafaciendos curavintus. Livia's birthday appears

next on the list: natali Augustae naulsunt et crustlunt (sic) naulieribus vicanis ad bona~n

77CL4 3, 316 in Grether (1946) 230.

78I.G. 12, 7 in Grether (1946) 231.

79 Grether (1946) 232.










dean pecunia nostra dedintus; item dedication statuarun Caesarunt et Augustae

naulsunt et crustla (sic) pecunia nostra decurionibus et populo dedintus, perpetuoque eius

die dedicationis daturos nos testati sunsus.so The duoviri certainly have demonstrated

their peity, and they also had the money to inscribe their pieta~s on a stone, which also

recorded the amounts of their own money they spent on the rituals and in giving

opportunities of worship to the decuriones and the people. Livia' s birthday was one

more occasion for them to display their pieta~s in an ostentatious manner. An inscription

from El-Lehs in Africa offers a sacrum to the iuno of Livia. The reason is not inscribed,

only: L Pa~ssieno Rufo Insperatore Afr~ica~n obtinente Cn Cornelius Cn F Cor Rufus et

Maria C F Galla Cn conservati vota LM 2solvont. 8 It seems as though the dedicators

were "saved" from something when Rufus took command of Africa, and therefore they

fulfilled the vows they promised. This sacrum was dedicated before Livia was deified,

and indicates again that her spirit was petitioned for help. Whether the intention of the

dedicators was for Livia herself, as a mortal, to actually put Rufus into power or whether

the dedicators intended her spirit to move someone into action, it is not clear. But the

dedication goes to her divine spirit, her iuno, not the woman herself.

There are some inscriptions dedicated by freed slaves. One inscription in Rome

was dedicated to the household gods of the imperial family and to diva Augusta by the

freedman Bathyllus quod est in palatiunt inanunis et honoratus.82 In another inscription,

Gelos, a freedman from Cisalpine Gaul dedicated an inscription to Julia, Augustus'

daughter and to diva Augusta, since it was through her will that he become free (hdliae


so GIL 11.3303.

si GIL 8.16456.

G2CL 6.4222.










d'ivai Augustae liberate matri ex testamen~ttt~~ttto fierit~~t iussit).83 There is no mention of money,

since both men probably have little, and there is not mention of sacrifices. These are

simply inscriptions of thanks from men who have no political power or money to display

the extent of their pietas.

There are dedications of unidentified sacra all over the Empire, dedications which

only supply the name of the dedicator and the name of the dedicatee. These most likely

were the bases of statues or stood near a monument. These are useful in that they can

show the extent of Livia' s worship throughout the Empire. M. Livius erected a

monument to her in Urbini,84 and L Mammius Maximus, who probably lived under

Claudius, set up some monument to her in Herculaneum.85 Another inscription from

Falerio was dedicated to genio Augusti et Ti. Caesaris iunoni Liviae.86

The dedications of men and women throughout the Empire are more powerful

testimonies to the worship of Livia: they were flamnines, flamninicae, and sacerdotes of her

cults. Julia was the sacerdos in Baetica in Further Spain,s Albinus the son of Albui was

the flamen of divus Augustus and diva Augusta in Lusitania, a province in Iberia.8

Sabina was the flamninca of d'iva Augusta in Albingavinum,89 Paulla the daughter of





83 AE 1975, 0289.

84 CIL 6.3879.

85CIL 10.1413.

86 CIL 11.3076.

87CIL 2.1571.

""CIL 2.473.

89 CIL 5.7788.










Cantia was the flamninica of diva Augusta in Ferrandus.90 Plaria was the sacerdos of

Livia's cult in Ostia,91 and Curtilia held the same office in Suasa.92 Ria served as

flamninica of diva Augusta in Cirta, in Algeria,93 a dedication was made to Septicia

Marcellina, the sacerdos of diva Augusta by the decree of the local military officers,94

and finally Julia was the sacerdos of diva Augusta in Torreparedones.95 If these

inscriptions prove anything, it is that Livia was worshipped throughout the Empire and

that her cults had priestesses to celebrate the rituals. Most of the inscriptions do not

indicate the reason for the dedication, and the social status of the priests and priestesses is

not clear, and so there are few conclusions about intent or belief to be made here.

1.5 Conclusions

Livia was, in reality, the first diva of Rome. Through the powers given to her by

her husband, she was able to distribute a vast amount of wealth in Rome to a variety of

causes, and was able to exert considerable influence on political matters. She was

rewarded for her service to the state and her support of her husband with honors which up

to that point had never been conferred to a woman. The conferral of divine honors upon

her was delayed because of the concerns of Augustus and Tiberius, but her divine power

seemed to be accepted by some people of Rome. Her deification and the worship of her

cult set a standard for the worship of dive in the coming generations. Her cult was the



90 CIL 9.1155.

91 CIL 14.399.

92 CIL 11.6172.

93 CIL 8.19492, CIL 8.6987.

94 IL (Vercel) 93.

95 CIL 2.5421.










recipient of both heartfelt and insincere offerings, and her image became the embodiment

of feminine power. Livia begins this study because she epitomizes the diva of the Roman

Empire. The circumstances of deification, the receptions of the people, and the cult

practices of the other dive will necessarily be compared and contrasted to Livia' s.













CHAPTER 2
THE JULIO-CLAUDIANS

2.1 Introduction

Though Julia Drusilla was the first deified Roman women, Livia was and will

always be the model of merited consecration. Though three other women of the Julio-

Claudian family were deified, the circumstances of their consecration and the worship of

their cults are markedly different from Livia's. The most important difference between

Livia and the other Julian-Claudian women, and indeed with all other deified Roman

women, is the belief or assumption of the Roman people that Livia deserved the honors

she was awarded. Though Julia Drusilla, Poppaea Sabina, and her daughter Claudia were

highly visible to Roman through public art, they did not live long enough nor did they

hold positions of power long enough to be of any direct importance to the public. Livia

lived to 86 Drusilla died around the age of 22, Poppaea was perhaps in her 30s, and

Claudia was four months old. They were practically unknown to the Roman people

except as symbols of the imperial family. Thus their consecrations and their cult worship

took on a different tone from Livia' s, while the system of worship remained the same.

The state-sanctioned worship of the Arval Brethren continued to worship the new dive

as they did Livia, and the same honors were accorded to the empresses as had always

been the custom in the East, but there appear to be more instances in the West of

exploiting the cult of the Julio-Claudian dive than there was for Livia. This is due to the

fact that the public in general did not seem to believe that these women merited

consecration, and thus viewed their cults as opportunities for social advancement.









2.2 Julia Drusilla

2.2.1 Literary Evidence of the Worship of Julia Drusilla

Julia Drusilla was one of three daughters of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder,

the others being Agrippina theYounger and Julia Livilla. Her brother, Caligula,

succeeded Tiberius as ruler. Caligula made public his sentiment that his sisters should

play a visible part of his reign by means of public decrees. He ordered that all sacred

oaths should include his sisters: neque me liberosque meos cariores habebo quamn Gaium

habeo et sorores eius. He issued a similar decree for the consuls: quod bonum felixque

sit C. Caesaris sororibusque eius.l In A.D. 37 or 38 a silver sestertius was minted with

the head of Caligula on the obverse and his three sisters on the reverse, with Agrippina as

Securita~s, Drusilla as Concordia, and Julia as Fortuna.2 Caligula, as demonstrated by his

actions, initially promoted a family-based image for the imperial household. He honored

his mother and sisters and promoted their images in coin and art at least for awhile.

Caligula's sisters had the ability to influence Caligula, but had no real hopes of

power,3 until he decided to make Drusilla the heir of the Empire. Caligula favored

Drusilla above his other sisters. Suetonius tell us that he took her back from her husband

Lucius Cassius Longinus and kept her as his own wife,4 but Dio Cassius reports she was

married to Marcus Lepidus, a friend of Caligula' s.5 Wood suggests that Caligula





SSuet. Calig. 15.

2 Sutherland, #98.

3 Wood (1995) 458.

4 Suet, Calig. 24.

5 Dio Cassius, 59.11.1.









dissolved Drusilla's marriage to Longinus to force her to marry Lepidus,6 Someone he felt

he could control. Wood suggests that this move was calculated and not the result of a

depraved desire: Caligula was intent on making Drusilla the embodiment of Julian

fertility. He wanted her to produce an heir to the Empire. When Caligula fell ill in A.D.

37, he intended to bequeath the entire Empire to her and her heir.7 Lepidus, therefore,

would become emperor, and Drusilla would fulfill her duty to continue the Julian

bloodline. Her real power was in her ability to reproduce.8

However, Caligula's plans were thwarted when Drusilla died suddenly at a young

age. Upon her death, Caligula deified her and ordered all of Rome to mourn her death.

Suetonius writes that he imposed public mourning by making it an offense to laugh,

wash, or have dinner with your parents, wife, or children.9 The worship of the diva

Drusilla depended on the whim of Caligula, a private mourning for a dead relative made

public.10 Dio Cassius writes that Caligula changed her name to PantheaPPP~~~~PPP~~~PPP ordered a

golden effigy to be set up in the Sentate House, a statue built for the temple of Venus in

Rome, and dedicated twenty priests of men and women to her. There was also a festival

in Rome on her birthday, on which the Senate and the knights held a banquet." There

were games for the "New Aphrodite Drusilla" throughout the Empire.12 Dio Cassius

describes dramatic affairs Caligula produced for Drusilla's worship. He celebrated

6 Wood (1995) 459.

SWood (1999) 212.

"Wood (1995) 459.

9 Suet, Calig,. 24.

'0 Wood (1995) 482.

11 Dio Cassius, 59.11.

'2 IGRR 4, no. 145, in Lewis and Reinhold (1990) 32.










Drusilla's birthday after her death with a two-day festival. He brought her statue into the

Circus on a car drawn by two elephants, and then proceeded to produce a spectacle that

involved the deaths of bears and Libyan animals, as well as a pancratimm competition.13

The Senate then stated that Drusilla's birthday and Tiberius' birthday would be

celebrated in the same manner as Augustus'. Actors even dedicated images of Gaius and

Drusilla to the gods.14 He later named his daughter by Caesonia Drusilla, and put her into

the lap of the Jupiter on the Capitoline to show her divine favor." By this point,

Caligula's own delusions of divinity were becoming manifest.

Caligula's motives of deification may have been to repair what Wood calls a

"dynastic disaster."16 Because Drusilla could not fulfill her purported role as fertile

bearer of Julian heirs, she could become instead a kind of patron goddess for the imperial

family." By A.D. 39, a year after Drusilla's worship, Caligula' s system of family-based

propaganda fell apart. He convicted Lepidus with adultery with his sisters and treasonous

conspiracy and executed him, and he exiled his sisters from Rome.ls The worship of diva

Drusilla ended with Caligula's assassination.

2.2.2 Numismatic and Sculptural Evidence of Worship of Julia Drusilla

Though it was only Drusilla who was deified, a large amount of the images of the

imperial family disseminated throughout the Empire were group portraits of the sisters.



13 Dio Cassius, 59.13.

14 Dio Cassius, 59.13.

15 Dio Cassius, 59.28.

16 Wood (1995) 459.

17 Wood (1995) 460.

's Dio Cassius, 59.22.









Drusilla did enj oy some personal attention, through individual images and through divine

attributes on her person to mark her divinity. There was a Milesian coin with the legend

OEA APOYCIAAIA, but it' s possible that this may have been minted before her

deifieation.19 Another coin from Apamea pays homage to both the imperial family and to

diva Drusilla. The obverse is a portrait of Agrippina Maior, and the reverse depicts her

three daughters. Drusilla is a bit more pronounced in this portrait, with DIVA inscribed

below her portrait and a beaded headband on her head.20 There were also statues of the

sisters throughout the Empire during their lifetime, and Drusilla appeared in sculptural

groups with her sisters even after her consecration.21 Drusilla is usually marked as divine

by a particular headband, an infula.22 Because the images of the sisters on extant coins

do not have distinct features, it is difficult to assess which statues may be Drusilla.

2.2.3 Inscriptional Evidence of the Worship of Julia Drusilla

There is evidence of sanctioned worship of diva Drusilla. In A.D. 3 8 the Arval

Brethren gathered near the kalends of October in the new temple of the Divine Augustus

to sacrifice on the occasion of the consecration (ob consecrationem dive Drusillae) of

Drusilla.23 The tablet shows other references to dive Drusillae. In A.D. 40, 2 years

after Drusilla' s death, the Arval Brethren gathered on the Capitoline in June to sacrifice

to Jove, Juno, and Minverva ob natalem divae Drusillae.24 At the Capitoline, a cow was



19 Wood (1995) 462.

20 Wood (1995) 463.

21 Wood (1995) 465.

22 See Wood (1995) 478 for a description of the infula and its connotations.

23 CIL 6.2028, Antica 12 c.

24 CIL 6.2030, Antica 14.










sacrificed to dive Drusillae sorori Gernzanici Augusti, along with the abstracts important

to the Julio-Claudians: Salus public and Felicita~s.25 This is the only inscription in

which indicates an actual sacrifice to diva Drusilla. The others are not sacrifices made to

her, but sacrifices made to other deities on her behalf.

Beyond the prayers of the Arval Brethren, there were also sacra dedicated to

Drusilla throughout the Empire. One inscription in particular indicates how Drusilla' s

cult may be used to honor another member of her family. Tiberius, before Drusilla's

deification, dedicated a sacrum both to her and her father Germanicus: luliae Drusillae

German Caesar F. Tiberius parenti nuntinis honore delato posuit.26 It was not Drusilla

who was important, but Germanicus, her famous father. Other inscriptions note that a

sacrum was dedicated to diva Drusilla, sorori C. Caesaris Augusti Gernzanici, one in

Caere, and one dive Drusillaelllll~~~~~~11111 Gernzanici Caesaris f in Veleia.27 These inscriptions

refer to the diva as the daughter of a famous Roman hero and the sister of the emperor.

They are honored through her honor it is not Drusilla alone on whom her deification

reflects.

The worship of Drusilla also gave a number of individuals the opportunity to

inscribe their names, their wealth, and their political positions on stone. C. Rubellius

Blandus, a quaestor under Augustus, dedicated some sacred obj ect (only a marble tablet

survives) to Drusilla which stood in Tibur. A flock of abbreviations follow his name:

TR, PL, PR COS, PRO COS, PONTIF.28 Blandus was obviously an important man in


25CL.6.32345.

26 GIL 12.1026.

G7CL 11.3598, GIL 11.1168.

G8CL 14.3576.









Tibur, and he used his dedication to Drusilla to reinforce that. At Avaricum Bithurigum

C. Agileius, a man with a flock of initials after his name (VIRAVGCCRDSPD) offered a

sacrum to divae Drusilla and to Minerva pro salute Caesarum.29 Here we see Drusilla

petitioned as the patron goddess Caligula intended her to be, but the image that lingers in

the mind, the last thing read, was the string of initials after Agileius' name, telling all

who pass of his importance. An inscription from Alpes Cottiae suggests that Drusilla had

a cult, since her flaminica, Secunda, gave a fishpond (piscinam) to her municipality.30

This inscription relates that Drusilla did in actuality have cults around the Empire with

priestesses, and also indicates that these priestesses could be relatively wealthy. This is a

common characteristic of the priestesses of the various dive around the Empire, which

will be discussed below.

Finally, a fasti inscription from Ostia indicates that the people there worshipped

Drusilla, since they celebrated her death: IIIIldus lun. Drusilla excessit.31 The

celebration of dates of births and deaths of members of the imperial family was not

uncommon, as the army carried calendars of births and deaths with them and various

cities had their own calendars of fa~sti posted in public places.

Since there are not many extant examples of the worship of diva Drusilla, it is

difficult to assess her importance in the Empire. We do know that the Arval Brethren do

not mention her again after Caligula's death, and that she is not worshipped in

conjunction with any other members of the imperial family. It seems likely that all

vestiges of cult worship of diva Drusilla ended with Caligula. In the Apocolocyntosis,


29 CIL 13.1194.

30 CIL 5.7345.

31 CIL 14.4535.










written during Nero' s reign, the man who supposedly "witnessed" Drusilla' s apotheosis

at her funeral is ridiculed by Seneca. In trying to Eind a way to legitimize Claudius' it is

decided that his apotheosis must be witnessed: Tamnen si necesse fuerit auctorem

producer, quaerito ab co qui Drusillllllam euntem in caelum vidit: idem Claudium vidisse

se dicet iter facientem 'non pa~ssibus aequis.'32 The whole situation is made light of, and

the man who witnessed Drusilla's apotheosis was asked to repeat his services. This is a

good indication of how Seneca felt about deifieation in general, but also indicates that

Drusilla was no longer revered by the time he wrote.33

2.3 Sabina Poppaea and Claudia

2.3.1 Literary Evidence of the Worship of Poppaea and Claudia

Nero, as mentioned above, deified his second wife Poppaea and their daughter

Claudia. Claudia only lived to be four months old, and Poppaea was actually deified in

63, two years before her death by a swift kick from Nero in 65. Nero's enforcement of

public rej oicing and mourning to suit his own personal desires were reminiscent of

Caligula's extravagancies after Drusilla' s death. His relationship with Poppaea was not

popular, and she was not well-liked by the senate or the people. The people's reaction to

Nero's divorce of Octavia and marriage to Poppaea was violent and emphatic: effigies

Poppaeae prorunt, Octaviae imagines gustant umeris, spargunt floribus foroque ac

templis stabunt.34 Though unpopular, Poppaea's influence over her impressionable

husband was considerable. Dio Cassius writes that many were critical of Octavia because




32 Seneca, Apoc. 1.

33 Wood (1995) 465 n. 44.

34 Tac. Ann. 14.61.










of her "toadying" to Poppaea.35 Her greatest achievement, however, was the birth of

Claudia. The Senate commended her womb to the gods and offered public prayers upon

Claudia's birth.36 They also dedicated a temple to fertility, a competition was ordered

after the example of the Actian rites, and golden statues of the Fortunes were place on the

throne of Jupiter Capitoline.37 CiTCUS games were then held at Bouvillae for the Julian

family, and Antium for the Claudian and Domitian families.38 Claudia died at four

months, and Nero was devastated. He plunged the country into a national state of

mourning, as Caligula had for Drusilla, and deified his daughter, according her a divine

couch, temple, and priest.39 Nero killed Poppaea not long after, though it is unclear

whether or not it was intentional. Tacitus states that Nero wanted children and was very

open in his love of Poppaea,40 and Dio Cassius simply states that Nero' s intention was

unclear. Poppaea, according to Tacitus, was not cremated in the Roman custom, but was

embalmed and taken into the tomb of the Julians. Nero himself praised her from the

Rostra.41 However, he was not present when the deum honors were voted to Poppaea by

the Senate.42






35Dio Cassius, 62.13.

36 Tac. 4nn. 15.23.

37Tac. 4nn. 15.23.

38Tac. 4nn. 15.23.

39 Tac. 4nn. 16.6.

40Ibid.

41Ibid.

42 Tac. 4nn. 16.21.









2.3.2 Numismatic Evidence of Worship of Poppaea and Claudia

The only image of Poppaea in official Roman art comes from coins of the official

Roman mint. Other images appear on coins throughout the Empire, most notably from

the East. One Alexandrian coin has a picture of Poppaea under the legend

HOHH~AIA CEBACTH, meaning "Poppaea Augusta."43 Another coin, struck in a

province of Asia Minor after A.D. 63 shows the bust of Nero on the obverse and the bust

of Poppaea on the reverse, both with Greek legends. There are no images of diva Claudia

on coins. There were images of Poppaea in Rome, as Tacitus relates,44 but they were

either made of flimsy material or she was so unpopular that none survived.

2.3.3 Inscriptional Evidence of Worship of Poppaea and Claudia

The Arval Brethren included Poppaea and Claudia in their sacrifices in A.D. 63

made ob adventum Neronis Claudi Caesaris Augusti Germanici et Pappaeae Augusti et

Claudiae Augustae.45 This particular sacrifice stands out, though, since, in addition to the

Capitoline Triad, Salus public, Felicitas, and Spes, there was a sacrifice of a cow to

iunoni Poppaeae Augustae and iunoni Claudiae Augustae. The same fragment records

sacrifices made to dive Poppaeae and dive Claudiae virgini, as Claudia is hereafter

called in the prayers of the Arval Brethren. The same inscription shows sacrifices made

in October ob iperium imperatoris Neronis. In the phrasing of the sacrifice records,

Claudia and Poppaea were always grouped with Augustus, Livia, and Claudius, and they

actually receive sacrifices as divinities.




43 Wood (1999) 313.

44 See above.

45 CIL 6.2043.









The records of the Arval Brethren show evidence of worship of the dive Claudia

and Poppaea until A.D. 66, at which point it stops completely. There is extremely little

inscriptional evidence of worship of diva Poppaea or diva Claudia. There were few

dedications made to diva. Poppaea, one in Rome that was possibly the base of a statue,46

and two in Luna, both by L. Titinius L. F. Galeria Glaucus Lucretianus, who held many

official titles at Rome (FLAM ROMAE ET AUG II VIR IV P CS L VIR EQ R CURIO

PRALF FADR COS TR MILIT L LG XXII PRIMIG PRALF) among them flamnen,

patron of the colony, tribune of a legion, and praefect for the embassy of the Baliae

Islands. The description of his honors alone take up half the dedication. One inscription

of his was on two large marble tablets dedicated to diva Poppaea Augusta and Imperator

Nero Caesar,47 and the other was a smaller marble tablet that may have added divae

Claudiae Neronis Augusti filiae virgini at a later date.48 His dedications were not about

the dive so much as his own accomplishments. Dedicating a sacrum to a beloved diva

of the emperor was a way to ensure your name would be engraved into stone forever.

Though the names of Poppaea and Nero were on the tablets, it is clear that the person

being honored was L. Titinius. There is no inscriptional evidence of either Claudia or

Poppaea having any priests or priestesses dedicated to their cult.

2.4 Conclusions

Livia Drusilla exercised considerable power for the duration of her life as an

empress and an empress-mother. Her prestige was gained through her own merit; that

Augustus trusted her and asked her advice certainly earned her respect among powerful


46 GIL 6.40419.

G7CL 11.1331.

G8CL 11.6955.









Romans, but her patronage and visibility as an inspiring Roman matron earned her the

respect of the masses. Of the other deified Julio-Claudian women, only Poppaea could

claim to have the kind of influence that Livia did, though her power was based on her

ability to manipulate the emperor, not on her individual influence. Drusilla and Claudia

were dearly beloved to emperors, and the love of the most powerful man was forced upon

the masses. The contrast between the efforts of the emperors to worship their women

relates to the contrast in the longevity of the worship: the forced adoration and

extravagant adulation of Drusilla, Claudia, and Poppaea, about whom the Roman people

new very little, resulted in the loss of interest in any form of worship upon the death of

the emperor. Livia' s record of public service, and the calculated actions of Augustus and

Tiberius remained in the memories of the Roman people, and her divinity was

worshipped decades after her death. People believed that the power she had in life

transferred to her death. The cults of Drusilla, Poppaea and Claudia are not only less

enduring, as evidenced by their lack of inscriptions, but are more susceptible to

exploitation. It is clear that those who were involved with their cults or inclined to

dedicate to them did so only for the public recognition it would bring them, or for the

favor they felt they would gain from the emperor by remember their beloved family

members. There was a suspension of belief not noted with Livia' s cult deification for

the Julio-Claudian men, with the exception of Livia, was an exercise in public mourning

for private passions.













CHAPTER 3
THE TRAJANIC FAMILY

3.1 Introduction

Traj an and Hadrian honored four women with deification between A.D. 98 and

138. The system of worship of these dive is not considerably different from that of the

Julio-Claudians, yet it is clear that the role of the empress was changing. No woman in

the House of Traj an or Hadrian possessed the kind of political power that Livia did, but

their power was in something more abstract: the bonds of family. It was not the women

themselves who were powerful in a political sense.l There was more general acceptance

of women as dive, since dynastic rule had governed Rome for two generations before

Traj an took power. There was no need to straddle a fence between republic and

principate as there was for Augustus and Tiberius, and the imagery of the imperial family

reflected that change. Boatwright suggests that the women of Traj an and Hadrian were

more subservient than women of previous families.2 There are no records of their

political dealings or public works, and very little about their actual relationships with the

emperor. There is also very little gossip about their sexuality, which suggests that they

were very unconcerned with imperial power. Their importance was found in the image

of concordia in the imperial family they could proj ect to the Empire.







SBoatwright (1991) 515.

SBoatwright (1991) 513.









There were three things Roman women needed to have any kind of say in political

issues: lineage, high connections, and money.3 There is little evidence that these women

had any money of their own. They did not restore buildings or help needy families.

There are no inscriptions thanking them for public works, or for money bequeathed upon

their deaths. They simply did not demonstrate the kind of service to the state that Livia

did generations ago. As for their families, the women were not Roman by birth. They

came from northern Italy, France, and Spain.4 They did not come from a powerful

Roman family, as Livia did, nor did they have the built-in connections with the

aristocratic class that Livia enjoyed. They were foreign women brought in by the foreign

generals who became emperors. This may also have somewhat tied their hands.

The worship of the Traj anic women had an emphasis on family. There are many

dedications throughout the Empire that bear the names of three dive, mother, daughter,

and granddaughter. Since Traj an did not leave a son to inherit his throne, his family was

immortalized through its women, not its men. Trajan's successor, Hadrian, gained his

Empire through the machinations of his adopted mother, and maintained the air of family

legitimacy by marrying and making Trajan's grandniece, Sabina, the empress. The

women were the glue that held this dynasty together, not the men. That was their

contribution to the Empire. They were the models of what a Roman woman should be at

the time: possibly foreign, as the Empire marked its largest boundary under Traj an and

Hadrian, and quietly supportive. Every literary reference that is not gossip is a reference

to the diva as a good wife, mother, or sister. Each knew her place in the family.




3 Boatwright (1991) 515.

4 Boatwright (1991) 518.










3.2 Marciana

3.2.1 Literary and Inscriptional Evidence of Worship of Marciana

While Traj an did not deify his wife, he did confer such honors on his sister,

Marciana, in 1 12 A.D. Marciana is a bit of a mystery. No Roman historian mentions

her; only Pliny the Younger mentions her in the Panegyric, but does not call her by name,

only tua soror. Pliny praises her through Trajan, saying that she possesses his

simplicita~s, verita~s, and candor.5 It' s possible that she was married to a senator from

Viceta, but she was a widow by the time Traj an took power.6 Mariciana does not receive

any sacrifices from the Arval Brethren, and there is no inscriptional evidence of any cult

dedicated to her. There are dedications of sacra to Marciana throughout the Empire.

One inscription found in Azuaga emphasizes Traj an' s lineage: Divae Marcianae

Augustae Imp Caes Divi Nervae F. Nervae Traini Optimi Aug Germ Dacici ParthiciPPP~~~~PPP~~~PPP

Sorori.7 Another found in Torreparedones simply calls her the sorori Augusti,s and a

base found in the Municipium Gigthense simply calls her Divae Ma'~riciane Augustae.9

The emphasis of the inscriptions is her relationship to Traj an they offer no other

information about the woman herself, her proposed powers as a diva, or even a reason for

the dedication. Marciana' s value is wrapped up in Traj an' s ability to use her as an

example for Roman matrons. One look at a particularly grand dedication made at

Ancona, dated at A.D. 115 indicates who was important in the imperial family, diva or



SPlin. Pane. 84.

6 Boatwright (1991) 517.

G CL 2.2340.

G CL 2.7892.

9 GIL 8.25.










no.l0 There an are that one time held a golden equestrian statue honored the restoration

of the port of Ancona, a port town important because of its proximity to Dalmatia, which

Traj an funded with his own money. On the arc, the names Plotinae Aug Coniugi Aug and

Dive Marcianae Aug Sorori Aug, small 4 and 5 word dedications are inscribed on either

side of a huge inscription to Imp Caesari Divi Nervae F. Nerve Traiano Optimo Aug

Germanic Dacico, explaining his good deed and thanking him for the use of his own

money.ll The women are merely side ornaments.

3.2.2 Numismatic Evidence of Worship of Marciana

Marciana' s importance as a deified woman is manifested in her coins, since the

legend CONSECRATIO first appears on her coinsl2 Struck in all metals.13 One coin

struck under Traj an between A.D. 1 12 and 1 13, before Marciana' s deification, depict her

wearing a diadem.14 COins struck in 113, however, bear CONSECRATIO on the reverse.

An aureus from A.D. 1 13 has the diademed bust of Marciana on the obverse, and depicts

the carpentum drawn by mules on the reverse.l5 A silver denarius from the same year

depicts the diademed Marciana on the obverse under the legend DIVA AUGUSTA

MARCIANA, with an eagle on the reverse.16 A third coin struck between A.D. 114 and

117 again depicts a diademed Marciana on the obverse, with an eagle, on the reverse, this


'o OCD, 87.

11 CIL 9.5894.

12 Stevenson (1982) 537.

13 Bickerman (1974) 366.

14 Carson, fig. 139.

1s Carson, fig. 140.

16 Herbert, fig. 778. The eagle was a common figure on consecration reverses for both men and women,
but peacocks, the divine attribute of Juno, appears only on the reverses of women. Stevenson (1982) 250.










time with wings spread open, holding a scepter in his claws." The images on Marciana' s

coins offer no sense of Marciana' s identity beyond her portrait. She is not equated to any

abstract deities, and is not armed with any attributes of goddesses it was her deification

that was important to Traj an, not her representation on coins. Traj an proved his own

pieta~s by deifying the woman who was such an honor to him, as Pliny pointed out.

3.3 Matidia

3.3.1 Literary and Inscriptional Evidence of Worship of Matidia

Marciana is also featured on coins of her daughter, Matidia, Traj an' s niece.

Matidia died in 119, two years after Hadrian became emperor, and was deified that same

year.x" Like Mariciana, Matidia is largely ignored by contemporary Roman historians.

The Historia Augusta mentions her familial piety: she, along with Plotina and Attianus,

escorted Traj an' s ashes from Antioch to Rome.19 It also mentions that Hadrian held

games to honor his mother-in-law. In 119 A.D. he held gladiatorial games,20 and he also

gave aromatica to the people in her honor.21 It's possible that Matidia was married

twice, once to L. Mindius, with whom she had Mindia Matidia, commonly called Matidia

Minor, and once to L. Vibius Sabinus, with who she had Vibia Sabina, who later married

Hadrian.22





17 Giacosa, fig. 23.

1s OCD, 937.

19 H1.A., Had. 5.9.

20 H.A., Had. 9.9.

21 H1.A., Had. 19.5.

22Boatwright (1991) 517.










Inscriptional evidence of the worship of Matidia is scarce. Matidia's consecration

under Hadrian was celebrated by the Arval Brethren in A.D. 120 in January in

consecrationent Matidiae Augustae, socrus Insperatoris Caesaris Trainini Hadriani

Augusti, unguenti pondo duo nontine college fratrunt arvaliun.23 This is the only

mention of any of the Traj anic women in the Acta of the Arval Brethren. She was not

sacrificed to, but rather two measurements of oil were offered on her behalf. There are

not many dedications of sacra extant, though one from Rome does call her the felicita~s

auctor.24 More common are inscriptions to the fla~ninicae and sacerdotes of her cult.

One Caesia was her nzaxinta sacerdos in Ager Mediolaniensis,25 and an inscription

honoring Lepida, the sacerdos of diva Augusta and of diva Matidia at Ariminum suggests

that perhaps one woman could serve two cults at once.26 It also states that she paid for

the inscription with her own money. One last inscription honors Clodia, the sacerdos of

diva Matidia, but the patrons are unexpected: the collegia fabrorunt et centonariorunt, the

colleges of firefighters and craftsmen.27 During the reigns of Traj an and Hadrian there is

a marked increase of dedications paid for by local guilds and colleges. The decuriones,

military officers, are noted most often. Finally there were the sculptural and buildings

dedicated in her honor. A medallion of Hadrian shows a temple, regarded as the temple

of Matidia, flanked by two smaller buildings, the basilicae of Marciana and Matidia.28



G3CL 2080.

G4CL 6.40516.

G5CL 5.5647.

26 GIL 11.415.

27Suplt 8, Br 003 bis.

28Keltanen (2002), 114 n. 55 For the temple, cf. Platner (1929) 331, for basilicae, cf. Platner (1929) 81.










There was also an altar mentioned in an inscription from Rome, but it is otherwise

un nown."

The evidence of worship of Matidia is so scarce that there is little to glean about

her cult. We know that she did have a cult with priestesses, and we know that there was

most likely a cult to her in Rome in her own temple. But beyond that it is difficult to say

what her cult was like, what kind of people worshipped her, or how important she was.

The lack of evidence suggests that there were not many dedications made to her

throughout the Empire, and so her cult may not have been that active.

3.3.2. Numismatic Evidence of Worship of Matidia

Matidia's divinity was most often legitimized through her mother. Early coins

capitalize on her relationship to her Marciana, who was already deified by Traj an

himself. One aureus struck between A.D. 115 and 117 depicts a diademed Matidia under

the legend MATIDIA AUG DIVAE MARCIANAE F. The reverse depicts Matidia as

Pieta~s, standing between two small children, perhaps Matidia the Younger and Sabina,

Matidia's children.30 A silver denarius features the same obverse and reverse, with

Pieta~s standing under the legend PIETAS AUGUST.31 Matidia, like Marciana, was

depicted in her family role: she was the pious guardian of Traj an' s ashes, and she was the

chaste and faithful mother of two children. Her fertility allowed Trajan's line to

continue, and produced another diva.






29 Richardson (1992) 54. Inscription is CIL 6. 31893.

30 Carson, fig. 141, Giacosa, fig. 24.

31 Herbert, fig. 780.












3.4 Plotina

3.4.1 Literary Evidence of Worship of Plotina

Plotina, the wife of Traj an, was deified by her adopted son Hadrian in A.D. 123,

six years after the Traj an' s death. Plotina was a controversial figure in Roman literature,

though the attention paid to her manipulations does not approach that paid to Livia' s, and

leans toward the scandalous. The Historia Augusta paints her as a woman with moral

flexibility, but one loyal to her adopted son. Dio Cassius also relates sensational stories

about her rule, creating a lovestruck, incredibly clever woman. Dio Cassius states

outright that Plotina was in love with Hadrian, and therefore used all her influence to

make sure he was adopted by Traj an and became emperor.32 Hadrian enjoyed her favor

early in his political career. Due to her influence, he was designated a legate at the time

of the Parthian expedition,33 and she also helped him to become consul a second time

while Trajan was still alive.34 Most incredibly, Plotina orchestrated the adoption of

Hadrian. Supposedly she had a man with a weak voice impersonate Trajan and name

Hadrian as heir when Traj an decided to choose another,35 and that she also signed

Traj an' s letters herself.36 Plotina, unlike Traj an' s sister and niece, seemed to have some






32 Dio Cassius, 69.1.

33 H1.A, Had, 4.

34 H1.A., Had. 4.4.

35 H1.A., Had. 4.10.

36 Dio Cassius, 69.4.










semblance of influence over the emperors, even though it was represented in a less than

flattering light.37

Because of her support of him, Hadrian conferred divine honors upon Plotina.

Traj an seemed to have little regard for her, preferring to honor in public his sister and

niece before his wife. When she died, Dio Cassius reports that Hadrian wore black for

nine days, dedicated a temple to her, and composed hymns to her.38 The temple Hadrian

erected in Plotina' s honor was a basilica at Nemausus, Plotina's hometown, one that was

made with exceptional skill, around A.D. 122-123.39 Hadrian recognized the value of a

strong feminine public figure, and therefore encouraged images and honors for Plotina to

be places around the Empire.

3.4.2 Inscriptional Evidence of Worship of Plotina

Besides the reports of contemporary Roman historians, there is evidence that

Plotina had cults throughout the Empire. There are no dedications of buildings or sacra

to her, but rather to her priestesses. Collegia around the Empire also play a strong role in

her worship by financing many of the sacra. To Aemilia, a sacerdos of diva Plotina in

Cisalpine Gaul, the collegium of firemen set up a monument.40 Likewise the military

officers set up a monument for Valerius Ennius Marcellinus, a flamnen of the diva

Plotina.41 Other inscriptions are monuments to the priestesses of diva Plotina without a

collegial donor: a dedication to Cantia, the colonial flamninica of diva Plotina was found


37 Boatwright (1991) 532.

38 Dio Cassius, 69.10.

39 H.A., Had. 9.9.

40 CIL 5.4387.

41 ITIScrlT 9.1.129.










under a triumphal arc in the forum Sempronius in Ariminum.42 The priestesses were

either wealthy themselves and paid for their own dedications, or were influential enough

to induce a collegium to put up a dedication to them. It is worth noting that the

dedications are made to the priestesses and not the diva the position of flamninica or

sacerdos must have held considerable influence in the provinces.

One monument at Pollentia is a little ambiguous regarding its dedicatees. It is

extraordinary at any rate because of its dedication to both diva Plotina and diva Faustina

Maior: Sacerd'oti divae Plotinae Pollentiae divae Faustinae Taurinis divae Faustinae

Maioris Concordiae coll den dr polll LDD D. The inscription suggests that there was

one sacerdos to diva Plotina at Pollentia, and to diva Faustina and to the Concordia of

diva Faustina Maior at Taurus.43 Faustina Maior was not deified until her death in A.D.

141, nearly 20 years after Plotina' s deification. Does this mean that the worship of

Plotina was still going on twenty years after her deification, or that the same individual

was the sacerdos of both, and that she became the sacerdos of Faustina Maior after her

services were no longer need with Plotina? There is no other reference to a cult of

Concordia, though the abstract is immensely important to Faustina Maior, as will be

discussed below.

In one last inscription from the Colonia Julia Karpis indicates that Plotina did

have another shrine of some kind in the Empire: an aedem quam Cassia Maximula

flamninica divae Plotinae caelesti deae voverat. Two men, a sacerd'os and a flamnen

dedicated suo sumptu a solo aedi~icatamtttt~~~~~~tttt D D marmoribus et museis et statua Pudicitae



42 CIL 11.407.

43 CIL 5.7617.










Aug et thorace Caelestis Augustae ornaverunt et die dedicationis decurionibus sportula~s

dederunt.44 Plotina was honored with marble (presumably statues) and statue of

Pudicitia Augusta, a corselet, and little baskets of sacrifices. The statue ofPudicitia

Augusta, Augustan Chastity, must have been meant to highlight Plotina' s own chastity, a

valuable trait in an empress. This is one of the rare inscriptions which actually describes

the ritual of a cult. There is no petition of any kind, but the goddess is offered gifts from

the celebrants as well as the local collegium of military officers, and her shrine or temple

was vowed by a woman, who obviously had some power. There is some emphasis on the

money that the celebrants spent on these gifts, and such a presentation would have

certainly stuck out in the minds of those who read the inscriptions.

3.4.3 Numismatic Evidence of Worship of Plotina

There is no mention of Plotina in the records of the Arval Brethren, but her image

is found on many coins from the reign of Traj an to Hadrian. Two coins struck during

Traj an' s reign bearing Plotina' s image depict her wearing a diadem, though she was not

yet deified. One silver denarius, struck in A.D. 1 12 to 1 15, depicts the Ara Pudicitiae on

the reverse of a Plotina coin,45 while another aureus, struck between A.D. 113 and 1 17

shows Vesta on the reverse, seated with the palladium and long scepter.46 Vesta was the

only reverse type of Plotina during Hadrian' s reign, usually seated and holding the

pallllllllllllllllladium .4 Vesta was the most important symbol of Rome' s aeternita~s, the keeper of



44 CIL 8.993.

45 Carson, fig. 138.

46 Giacosa, fig. 22.

47 Keltanen (2002) 110.









the everlasting flame, and Hadrian associates Plotina with the same trait.48 Plotina's

coins are also "firsts" in other categories: hers is the first to use the legend PUDICITIA

on her coins, which began somewhere around 112, and she is also the first to use the

legend FIDES AUGUSTA. In addition, she is one of only four empresses who used

Minerva as a reverse type.49

Two coins struck under Hadrian, after Plotina' s deification, depict her with

Traj an. One attreus from A.D. 122 has Hadrian on the obverse with Traj an and Plotina

facing each other on the reverse, indicating the importance of both of his adopted parents

to Hadrian.so A second aureus, struck between A.D. 134 and 138 shows the bust of

Hadrian on the obverse, and Traj an and Plotina facing each other on the reverse, with

stars above their heads, with the legend DIVIS PARENTIBUS.S

The coinage of Plotina sets a standard for the future dive. There was a large

number of types, and her association with one particular goddess, Vesta, recalled the

association of Livia with Ceres. Hadrian especially placed an importance on the imagery

of the empresses. While this is not borne out in Matidia, his mother-in-law, it is in

Plotina, his patroness and great-aunt, and also in Sabina, his wife. Whatever the

condition of their marriage, Hadrian recognized the importance of making her image as

accessible as possible throughout the Empire. Coins were handled by many classes of

people everyday, and their images would be staring at the handlers constantly. Thus, the

coinage of Sabina, and the Faustinae after her, began her honor her as an Augusta and


48Keltanen (2002) 111.

49 Keltanen (2002) 112.

"0 Carson, fig. 160.

51Giacosa, fig. 25.










then as a diva, making her a symbol of Roman femininity throughout the stages of her

life.

3.5 Sabina

3.5.1 Literary Evidence of the Worship of Sabina

Sabina, daughter of Matidia and grand-niece of Traj an, was the last woman to be

deified from her family. Sabina was the glue that connected Hadrian to Traj an' s family,

for although Hadrian was adopted by Traj an, the circumstances of the adoption were

dubious. A marriage to Sabina lent an air of legitimacy to Hadrian's rule. The Historia

Augusta and the Epitome de Caesaribus are the only Roman literary sources to consider

Sabina, and both are of dubious repute. The author or the Historia Augusta writes that

Hadrian married her with the support of Plotina, but that Traj an had little interest in the

match.52 The history also relates that Hadrian ordered Septicius Clarus and Suetonius

Tranquillanus, the historian, to be removed from office because they were treating Sabina

a little too casually.53 In its last mention of Sabina, the Historia Augusta reports that

there was a rumor when she died that Hadrian had poisoned her.54 Nothing is written

about her deifieation or her worship, but the inscriptional and numismatic evidence is

legion.

3.5.2 Inscriptional Evidence of Worship of Sabina

Compared to her predecessors, there is much more inscriptional evidence that

Sabina was worshipped as a diva. Most inscriptions are simply dedications of sacra to

her, but there are two inscriptions to flamninicae of diva Sabina. One, from Navaria in


52 H1.A., Had. 2.10.

53 H1.A., Had. 11.3.

54 H1.A., Had. 23.9.










Italy, suggests that Albucia may have been the flamninica of more than one Imperial cult:

et Albuciae M~F candidate JIaninicae dive Juliae NovJar7antinic dive Sabinae T icini,

perhaps a situation similar to that of the sacerdos of Plotina and Faustina. Another

inscription from Ariminum includes a referee to a flamninica of diva Sabina.56 There is

also a base in Saldae,5 and one in Thamugadi,58 a colony of military veterans in the

province of Numidia founded under Traj an in A.D. 100,59 both dedicated to Divae

Sabinae Aug. There is only one structure dedicated to Sabina: an altar. She has no

temple in any location of the Empire. Not much is known about the altar itself, just that it

is shown on coins of Hadrian and that it possibly stood where Sabina' s pyre stood in

Rome.60 There is not much to be derived from these inscriptions except that Sabina had

cults throughout the Empire. There are no long descriptions of offerings and money, as

was the case with Plotina.

Of two inscriptions found in Rome issued by Hadrian himself, one seems to have

a dubious connection to the Colonia Julia Augusta,61 and the other seems to be from

Africa, with a dedication of divae Sabinae Augustae .6ubi athemes~l~ ex Afr~ica. The

settlement of Sabratha earned colonial status in the 2nd century A.D., so it is possible that





55CIL 5.6514.

56 CIL 11.408.

57CIL 8.8929.

58CIL 8.17847.

59 OCD, 1491-2.

61) Richardson (1992) 338.

61 CIL 6.40528.









this monument celebrates that occasion.62 The second inscription also involved men

besides Hadrian: the place of the dedication was adsignatus a Vaerio Urbico et Aemilio

Papo curatioribus operum locorum publicorum. These men garnered the favor of the

emperor himself by assigning the location of the sacrum. Hadrian stands out as the only

emperor up to that point to actually be recorded as having commissioned a sacrum to his

deified wife. Though the literary evidence of the previous chapters indicates that the

emperors commissioned statues or gave festivals, there are no surviving inscriptions

describing their role in the process. By including his name on the inscription, Hadrian

demonstrates his pietas and tries to quell any rumors that he and his wife may have

experienced any marital discord. This is evidences by another inscription: Imperatori

Hadriano Olympio et lunoni Coniugali Sabinae.63 Benario states that he found no other

instance of coniugalis in conjunction with Sabina in his research. The marriage of

Hadrian and Sabina is also considered in her coinage, discussed below.

3.5.3 Numismatic Evidence of Worship of Sabina

There is a large amount of extant coins of Sabina, many struck before her

deification. These coins show Sabina on the obverse, wearing a diadem, the sign of

power. Most of the legends read SABINA AUGUSTA, though some add HADRIANI

AUG PP. The images on the reverse, however, are varied. There are quite of few of

Concordia on the reverse, seated, holding a patera and a cornucopia.64 These, in

conjunction with the inscription with coniugali and Hadrian's dedications, are indications



62 OCD, 1342.

63 A.E. 1939, 190, in Benario (1980) 37.

64 Giacosa fig. 27, Herbert fig. 889, 891, 896.










that perhaps the public did not believe their marriage to be a happy one, and that Hadrian

was trying to convince them otherwise.65 Pieta~s is another common image associated

with Sabina. One coin shows Pietas with her hands on the heads of a young boy and girl,

reminiscent of the coin of Matidia standing between her two daughters.66 Another coin

features a seated Pieta~s, holding the patera and the scepter.67 Pudicitia also appears on

the reverse, with her seated holding her hand to her lips on one sestertius,68 and raising

her veil on the reverse of a denarius.69 Sabina is not only associated with virtues before

her deification, but also Olympian goddesses. One sestertius shows Ceres seated holding

ears of corn and a torch.70 Vesta sits holding a palllllllllIllllllladium and a scepter on the reverse of

a denarius.n1 Even Juno, the queen, holding a patera and a scepter, adorns the reverse of

a denarius.72 One tetradrachm from 128 or 130 shows a very worn Cybele on the

reverse, but the origin of the coin is unknown.73 This is the first Roman coin struck with

the image of Cybele on it, though provincial coins had already been using her image in

association with the goddess.74




65 Benario (1980) 39.

66 Giacosa fig. 26.

67 Herbert fig. 996.

68 Herbert, fig. 944.

69 Herbert, fig. 897.

"0 Herbert, fig. 993.

71 Herbert, fig. 898.

72Herbert, fig. 892.

73Carson, fig. 168.

74Keltanen (2002) 123.










The goddess most associated with Sabina in her extant coinage is Venus. The

reverse of one denarius bears the legend VENERI GENETRICI.7 The reverse of another

denarius shows Venus Genetrix, holding an apple, drawing up her robe.76 A sestertius

also shows Venus Genetrix in a field with an apple." This seems a bit strange, because

Sabina and Hadrian had no children, another fact that may have initiated gossip about the

status of their marriage. It is likely, though, that Hadrian was trying to spark the

connection between Venus and the emperors in the minds of the Roman people. He did,

in fact, revive the cult of Venus during his reign.'

An aureus from A.D. 128 may be hinting at Sabina' s deification by depicting

Juno standing near a bird, probably a peacock and holding a staff on the reverse.79

Sabina' s consecration coin was struck in A.D. 136. The obverse shows a veiled bust of

Sabina, a strange departure from the bold diadem to the demure veil, and the reverse

shows Sabina seated on an eagle under the legend CONSECRATIO.so A copper

sestertius struck after her deification depicts DIVA AUGUSTA SABINA veiled and

wearing a wreath of grain ears on the obverse, while the reverse shows an eagle standing

on a scepter in a field under the legend SC.8

The coinage of Sabina demonstrates more than any other medium Hadrian's

understanding of the importance of imagery. The coinage of Plotina and Sabina, both of

75Herbert, fig. 896.

76 Herbert, fig. 894.

77Herbert, fig. 995.

78Keltanen (2002) 120.

79 C8TSon, fig. 161.

so Carson, fig. 162.

st Herbert, fig. 997.










which were under the control of Hadrian at some point, uses association with goddesses

and virtues more than the coinage of Mariciana and Matidia. Hadrian knew that coins

were a reliable and enduring way to insinuate image associations into the minds of the

Roman people.

3.6 Conclusion

The Traj anic women are confounding because we possess little information of

them. It is hard to analyze any political power they may have had since the primary

literary sources are not the most reliable. This also makes it difficult to analyze their

inscriptions we don't know if they were patrons of collegia around the Empire, or if

they were involved with the founding of a colony. We do know from the Historia

Augusta that they traveled with the emperors, and were thus visible to the citizens and

inhabitants of the Empire. However, the lack of concrete information may be a result of

the perceived role of the women of the Trajanic family. Pliny the Younger, in his

Panegyric to Traj an, praises the modesty of Plotina and Marciana:

Obtulerat illis senatus cognonsen Augustarunt, quod certatint deprecatae sunt,
qua~n diu appellationent patris patriae tu recusa~sses, seu quod plus esse in eo
iudicabant, si uxor et soror tua qua~n si Augustae dicerentur. Sed, quaecunzque
illis ratio tantanttttt~~~~~~ttttttt noderatia~n sua~sit, hoc nzagis dignae sunt, quae in aninzis
nostris et sint et habeantur augustae, quia non vocantur.82

The senate had offered the cognomen of Augusta to them, which they certainly
avoided, as long as you refused the title of "pater patriae", perhaps because they
judged there to be more to it, if they were called your wife or sister rather than
"Augusta." But, whatever rationale brought on such great moderation, they are
more worthy for this, who in our minds both are and are held "Augustae", because
they are not so called.


82Plin. Pane. 84.









To Pliny, the deference of the imperial women to Traj an was their most laudable quality.

Because they were humble and did not make any pretenses of power, they were an asset

to Traj an' s imperial family and proved that they knew their place.83 Unlike Drusilla, for

example, reproduction was not a concern of these women, because adoption was so

common.84 Thus there were no images of fertility, no symbols of plenty they were

unnecessary. Dio Cassius and the Historia Augusta describe Plotina' s maneuvers to

make Hadrian emperor, but they do not allude to any political aspirations that she may

have held on her own. The other women of the imperial family are mentioned by the

Roman historians as minor players, women who supported their husbands, brother, and

son-in-law, but not women who actively sought any kind of recognition for themselves.

They were the perfect exemplars of the Roman matron.

Within a few generations, the concept of deifieation changed dramatically.

Because Livia was widely believed to have merited her consecration, the deifieations of

the other Julio-Claudian women were met with lukewarm and even ridiculing responses.

By the time the line of Trajan took power, merit no longer seemed necessary for

deifieation. If the Julio-Claudian women were deified because of the love of their

husbands (and father), the Traj anic women were deified because of their power as

symbols. There can be no other possibility with the exception of Plotina, and even her

role is not exactly clear, the women were not involved in politics or philanthropy. The

emperors did not seem to be extraordinarily fond of them. They were simply good

women who stayed out of trouble, and were rewarded for their modesty. The worship of

these divae reflects this mood: the dedications are not made for any particular reason, and

83Boatwright (1991) 535.

84Boatwright (1991) 536.









the coins present the symbols of femininity the emperors wished to associate with their

reign. Veneration had become commonplace, an honor accorded to a member of the

imperial family simply because of their status in the Empire.













CHAPTER 4
THE ANTONINES

4.1 Introduction

The Antonine family deified only two of its women, Annia Galeria Faustina,

known as Faustina Maior, the wife of Antoninus Pius, and Annia Faustina, known as

Faustina Minor, the daughter of the Faustina Maior and the wife of Marcus Aurelius.

The Antonine Emperors enjoyed a great amount of popularity and adoration, and the

public extended those feelings to the empresses as well. Faustina Maior was especially

loved and adored, and the images of her that survive emphasize her importance in the

imperial household. Adoration of Antonine women extended to the reaches of the

Empire, bringing to fruition a trend that began in the family of Traj an and Hadrian: the

tightening of the grip of Rome and Roman culture on the provinces. The system of

adoption had produced four sound emperors, and the Roman people were eager to praise

their imperial family. The same system also lessened the importance of reproduction and

fertility, as witnessed in the Trajanic family. The Faustinae, however, had no problems

conceiving, and it is the fecundity of Faustina Minor that returned the system of

succession to family dynasties (with disastrous results). The Faustinae were portrayed in

the Historia Augusta, the source from which most information about their lives comes.

Both women were accused of adultery, and both enjoyed the trust and adoration of their

husbands. The charges of adultery are somewhat dubious, considering the source and the

sensational means of reporting, and the worship of the Faustinae throughout the Empire

suggests either that the reports were not true or that they did not matter to the public.












4.2 Faustina Maior

4.2.1 Literary Evidence of Worship of Faustina Maior

The Faustinae were not prayed to by the Arval Brethren, though Faustina Minor was

prayed for by the Arval Brethren sometime between A.D. 169 and 177: servaveris salvum

incolumemque cum Faustina Augusta et Commodo Caesare ceterisque omnibus domus

Augustae eventumque bonum.l However, there are many sacra dedicated to them

throughout the Empire. Keltanen suggests that after the reign of Sabina and the shrewd

usage of imagery by Hadrian, the figure of the empress was incorporated into

monumental art and the number of coins with their images increased.2 Faustina Maior

died three years into her husband Antoninus Pius' reign, but throughout her reign, her

image was never out of sight of Roman citizens everywhere.

Roman historians relate Antoninus' love and esteem for his wife, though rumors

abounded about her loose morals. The Historia Augusta states that the honors Faustina

received were instituted mainly by the Senate: she was called Augusta by them,3 and that

they consecrated her upon her death.4 After her consecration, Faustina was awarded a

temple and flamninincae, statues made of gold and silver, and her image was placed in all

the circuses. The temple was dedicated to her alone until the death of Antoninus Pius in

A.D. 161, when the temple became dedicated to them both.' The Senate also attempted



CIL 6.2093, Antica 85.

2 Keltanen (2002) 141.

3 H1.A., A.P, 5.2.

4 H.A., A.P. 6.7.

SPlatner (1929) 13.










to change the name of September and October to Antoninus and Faustina, much as they

had suggested to Tiberius, but Antoninus refused the honor.6 Antoninus Pius also

honored her with his own decrees, as Hadrian had done with Sabina: he decided that a

statue of her would be put in the Senate house,7 and in Faustina' s honor he also

established a program to take care of poor girls, and he called them the Faustinianae.8

4.2.2 Inscriptional Evidence of Worship of Faustina Maior

Even before her deification, dedications were made to Faustina Maior. One

marble tablet in Rome was offered pro salute Imperatoris Caesaris Titi Aeli Hadriani

Antonini Augusti Pii, patris patriae, et Faustinae Augustae.9 Much like the formula of

the Arval Brethren, the inscription offers a prayer for the safety of the emperor, with a

focus on his grand lineage, and includes the wife of the emperor in the prayers for well-

being.

The inscriptional evidence of dedication to and worship of diva Faustina Maior is

scattered around the Empire. There are dedications of sacra found in the forum of

Aeclanum,lo Tarraco,"l Sassina,12 Voleini,13 and Lactoria.14 These inscriptions do not

indicate who paid for the sacra or for what occasion they were dedicated. There was also


6 H.A., A.P., 10.1.

Ilbid.

SH.A., A.P., 8.2.

9 CIL 6.40541.

10 CIL 9.1113.

" CIL 2.4096.

12 CIL 9.6500.

13 CIL 11.7279.

14 CIL 13.527.









an altar of Diva Faustina Maior placed possibly where her pyre stood, but there is little

known about it. There were inscriptions, however, with clear intent of worship: in

Falerio, Antonia, the colonial sacerdos of diva Faustina was able, with a generous

donation from the local division of decuriones, to erect statues in the theatre qua~s ad

exornandum theatrum.16 The involvement of collegia around the Empire continued as it

had under Traj an and Hadrian. While the dedication of named individuals do not cease

completely, it became more and more common to see P D D, or D D on the last line of

inscriptions, indicating that the dedication was placed by decree of the decuriones or

erected by their decree. Individual power seemed to be replaced in importance by the

power of groups, at least in dedications to divae.

One inscription from Mantissa near Ostia describes a dedication to Antoninus

Pius and diva Faustina Maior by the decree of the decuriones ob insignem eorum

concordiamn utique in ara virgines quae in colonia Ostiensi nubent item mariti earum

supplicent.l7 The personified marital harmony between the diva and her husband could

now look over the young women and their bridegrooms in the colony, perhaps as statues

in a shrine dedicated to them, though it is not clear from the inscription. The concordia

between Antoninus Pius and Faustina Maior was an important propaganda theme during

Antoninus' reign, even after Faustina' s death. This inscription more than those

mentioned above indicate a kind of belief in the power of the concordia between Faustina

and Antoninus. It is as though the emperor and empress are giving their blessing to the

maidens and their bridegrooms as they make their prayers concerning their marriage.


1s Richardson (1992) 338.

16 CIL 9.5428.

17 CIL 14.5326.









Another evidence of their concordia was the relief of their j oint apotheosis on the

Column of Antoninus Pius. The column was erected by Marcus Aurelius and Lucius

Verus, Antoninus' heirs, and depicted the apotheosis of the couple together on the figure

of a winged Genius, flanked by eagles. Roma watches the ascension from the lower left,

while a personification of the Campus Martius reclines and watches from the lower

right. Even in death, the couple was together they were depicted as enjoying the

rewards of their pious life together. Where the images and hints dropped about the

concordia between Sabina and Hadrian seemed forced, the concordia between Antoninus

and Faustina was evident to all, a fortunate virtue in any marriage, and was considered a

part of their combined divine nature.

4.2.3 Numismatic Evidence of Worship of Faustina Maior

The images of the Faustinae, especially of Faustina Maior, were best preserved in

the coins of the period, in which the portrayal of the empress as a powerful entity was of

utmost importance. There is very little coinage of Faustina Maior because she died three

years after her husband became emperor,19 but her deification remained a very hallowed

event through his reign. A coin dating before her death with her image on the obverse

shows Concordia on the reverse, holding a patera and a double cornucopia.20 Another

coin just before her deification indicates her importance to the Empire: the obverse is

simply the bust of Faustina under the legend FAUSTINTA AUGUSTA, but the reverse

shows Juno seated on a throne with a peacock near at hand, the bird that often appeared




1s Richardson (1992) 95.

19 Keltanen (2002) 125.

20 Herbert, fig. 1027.










on the consecration coins of other divae.21 Again, concordia appears as an important

virtue to Faustina and her husband indeed the empress herself is associated with the

virtue.

Faustina's consecration and diva coins are much more common, as they were

minted throughout the reign of Antoninus Pius. A consecration coin of copper, minted in

A.D. 141 was particularly detailed. The obverse bore the legend DIVA FAUSTINA,

while the reverse bore an image of Vesta in a field, sacrificing over a lighted altar,

holding a patera and a torch, under the legend CONSECRATIO.22 Sometimes an eagle

or a winged Victory depicted the apotheosis of Faustina into the heavens.23 Vesta

appears on the reverse of another diva coin, again holding a torch and the pallllllllIllllllllladim2

and yet another, this time standing on the obverse.25 Her association with Vesta recalls

Plotina' s association with the goddess: Faustina, now a goddess, was a guardian of the

aeternita~s of Rome. An aureus struck under Antoninus Pius shows a diademed and

veiled Faustina on the obverse, with Ceres on the reverse, wearing a veil, and holding a

scepter and a torch, under the legend AUGUSTA.26 A copper sestertius dated to A.D.

141 bears the legend DIVA FAUSTINA on the obverse, and AETERNITAS on the

reverse, depicting a Faustina seated in a biga drawn by two elephants with drivers.27 An

aureus from A.D. 141 shows the diva Faustina on the obverse, but the reverse depicts

21 Carson, fig. 175.

22 Herbert, fig. 1029.

23 Keltanen (2002) 127.

24 Giacosa, fig. 29.

25 Carson, fig. 179.

26 Giacosa, fig. 28.

27 Herbert, fig. 1028.










three small children under the legend PUELLAE FAUSTINIANAE.28 Finally, the

legend FECUNDITAS appears for the first time on Faustina Maior' s coinage, holding a

scepter in her hands and a baby in her arms.29 The coins associated the goddesses of

plenty, fertility, and aeternitas with Faustina: she was the first empress since Vespasian's

wife Domitilla to produce a direct heir to the Empire.30

4.3 Faustina Minor

4.3.1 Literary Evidence of the Worship of Faustina Minor

Faustina Minor, like her mother, was very popular. The daughter of Antoninus

Pius and Faustina Maior, she, like the women of the Traj anic family, carried the imperial

blood, along with her cousin Marcus Aurelius, into the next generation of rulers.

Faustina lived much longer than her mother, and there is more information about her and

her life related in the works of contemporary Roman historians. Like her mother, there

were rumors that Faustina was unfaithful, and that Marcus Aurelius overlooked her

escapades. The Historia Augusta suggests that their son, Commodus, had such a love of

gladiatorial games because Faustina had an affair with a gladiator, though she later

confessed to her husband.31 Though Faustina was supposedly unfaithful, Aurelius was

reportedly aware of Faustina' s importance to the Empire. When Aurelius refused to






28Carson, fig. 178.

29 Keltanen (2002) 131.

30Matidia's daughter, Sabina, did become empress, but Matidia was never an empress she was the niece
of the emperor Trajan and the mother-in-law of the emperor Hadrian. The empress Faustina's child,
Faustina minor, would become empress herself when she married her cousin Marcus Aurelius, another
blood relative of Faustina Maior- the son of her brother by Domitia Lucilla.

31 H1.A., AL4A., 19.2.










punish his wife even though he found out about her affairs, he said: si uxorent dinzittintus,

redda~nus et dotent.32 The dowry, of course, was the Empire.

Faustina's alleged crimes went beyond those of passion: there were rumors that

she was in league with Cassius, who attempted to overthrow the Empire. The Historia

Augusta reports that correspondence from the time acquitted Faustina of the charges, and

that she actually petitioned her husband for lenient treatment of the offenders.33 Dio

Cassius, however, reports the opposite, that Cassius and Faustina actually had plans to

marry after Marcus Aurelius' death so that they could rule, since Commodus would be

too young to assume the throne.34 Dio Cassius also suggests that Faustina may have died

from her own hand to escape punishment for her actions, but concedes that she may also

have died from the gout.35 The Historia Augusta reports that Faustina died in the hills of

mount Taurus in the village of Halala, from a sudden sickness caught while on military

campaign with Marcus Aurelius.36

If there is one pattern that endures through the representation of imperial women

in the writings of Roman contemporaries, it is that the more political power they are

perceived to have, the more they are represented as sexually promiscuous or morally

corrupt. Faustina Maior was relatively protected because of her early death, but Faustina

Minor, because she lived so long and enjoyed the love of her husband, garnered such

attention in spades. The truth of her actions can never be ascertained, but her reputation



3H.A., M. 19.7.

3H.A., 4vidus Cassius, 11.1.

34Dio Cassius, 72.22.

35Dio Cassius, 72.29.

36 H.A., 1A4., 26.4.










among the people, evidence by their dedications, suggests that even if she was unfaithful

and treasonous, the people loved her anyway. It seems unlikely that a society would pay

such honors to an individual who threatened to overturn an extremely popular ruler.

Many honors were conferred upon Faustina Minor at her death. The senate

consecrated her and conferred a temple to her. Dio Cassius relates that the Senate also

did not put to death anyone involved with Cassius,37 and that silver images of Marcus and

Faustina were erected in the temple of Venus at Rome, where an altar was erected for

brides and bridegrooms to offer sacrifices, similar perhaps to the one erected in Ostia for

their parents. Marcus Aurelius also honored his wife: he instituted another program of

Faustinianae, as his father-in-law did for his mother-in-law. Since Faustina died while on

military campaign, he called her the mater castrorum.38 The village where she died

Aurelius made a colony and erected a temple to her there.39 Golden statues of Faustina

were also carried into the theatre on a chair during public festivals.40 In an odd turn of

events, a later emperor, Caracalla, revoked the temple of Faustina and her divine name.

The son of Elagabalus later made it a temple to himself or to Syrian Jove or the Sun.41

4.3.2 Inscriptional Evidence of Worship of Faustina Minor

There is some inscriptional evidence of Faustina' s divinity, but the evidence can

be easily confused with evidence for Faustina Maior, since there is rarely any

differentiation made in inscriptions between the two divae Faustinae. The sacra that



37Dio Cassius, 72.30.

38This title came into importance with Julia Domna.

39 H.A., 4. C. 19.4.

40 Dio Cassius, 72.31.

41 H.A., 4. C., 11.6-7.









definitely belong to Faustina Minor were dedicated to her at Piso by decree of the

decuriones.42 An inscription is found in Rome, probably in a theatre at Tibur, a resort

town, reading diva Faustina phsaltria Procha f Tibert Serot.43 The meaning is not

entirely clear, but it seems a harpist named Procha may have been involved in some kind

of honorary performance to Faustina Minor. An inscription with nearly identical wording

was found in Mutina as well.44 Like her mother, there was also an altar to diva Faustina

Minor, but the specifics are unknown. It is proj ected that it stood where her funeral pyre

stood in the city.4

Two marble bases were found in Rome on which the inscription described two

statues dedicated to diva Faustina, the wife of Antoninus Pius, Faustina the Younger, and

Commodus. One statue was a man in military garb erected in the forum, and another in

civilian garb in the pronaos of the temple of the divus Antoninus Pius.46 This inscription

seems to follow the pattern of older inscriptions of the Julio-Claudian period, when a list

of powerful men was inscribed along with the actual dedication. The main dedicator in

this inscription was Titus Pomponius, who was a friend of Marcus Aurelius and Lucius

Verus. A long list of titles and names follows, capped with the actual dedication of the

statues. This kind of inscription, with the names of all the Augusti from Marcus Aurelius

to Commodus, was erected not necessarily as a tribute to them, but a tribute to the his

relationship with them and his high standing.


42 CIL 11.6323.

43 CIL 6.10139.

44 CIL 11.870.

45 Richardson (1992) 338.

46 CIL 6.41145.










4.3.3 Numismatic Evidence of Worship of Faustina Minor

The images on Faustina' s coinage, more so that that of her mother' s, indicate the

values that were assigned to her as the empress: namely fertility and chastity. Faustina

Minor lived through most of the reign of her husband, Marcus Aurelius, and produced 12

to 13 kids, seven of which were boys, though most of them died as children.47 Her role in

the imperial family was more earthly than her mother's: Faustina Maior lived on as a

deified, idealized woman throughout Antoninus' reign, but Faustina Minor lived as flesh

and blood and mind during Marcus' Aurelius' reign, and her actions were thus able to be

scrutinized by the public. Therefore the imperial family dictated how her role should be

interpreted: as a wife and mother.

Faustina Minor first appeared on coins during her father' s reign, under the legend

FAUSTINA AUG PII AUG FIL. One such aureus bore an image of a dove on the

reverse, under the legend CONCORDIA.48 A similar coin, a sestertius, bore Pudicitia on

the reverse, seated demurely with a veil covering her face.49 Another aureus from

Antoninus' reign shows Venus Genetrix on the reverse, holding a long scepter in her left

hand.'o A denarius from the same time period shows Venus on the reverse, holding an

apple and a rudder with a dolphin coiled around it." When Faustina became Faustina

Augusta and was no longer only referred to as the daughter of Antoninus, the fertility

imagery became more prominent. The reverse of a silver denarius, under the legend


47Keltanen (2002) 136.

48Giacosa, fig. 32.

49 Herbert, fig. 1031.

50Giacosa, fig. 30.

51 Herbert, fig. 1018.









FECUND AUGUSTAE depicts Fecundita~s holding two babies in her arms while

standing between two small girls.52 An aureus struck under Aurelius, depicts Felicita~s on

the reverse, holding two children and standing between four more.53 Finally an aureus

from the reign of Marcus Aurelius shows Cybele between two lions, holding a

tympanum, under the legend MATRI MAGNAE.54 Faustina Minor' s role was extremely

clear: to produce as many heirs as possible.

Faustina Minor' s consecration coins were not as popular as her mother' s,55 but

they held their own distinctions. When Faustina was deified in A.D. 176, one sestertius

in particular bears a strange legend. The obverse is a bust of diva Faustina, but the

reverse depicts Faustina in a biga, under the legend SIDERIBUS RECEPTA, a legend

found on no other woman' s coin.56 An aureus from the same year shows a veiled diva

Faustina on the obverse, and Faustina sitting in front of the standards on the reverse,

under the legend MATRI CASTRORUM,5 the first woman to bear the title.

4.4 Ambiguous Inscriptional Evidence

The inscriptions that do not make distinctions between Faustina Maior and Minor

are mostly sacra dedicated throughout the Empire with no more the inscription than

dive Faustinae or divae Faustinae Augustae. One inscription from Vibo suggests a cult

to diva Faustina, since the military officers there helped paid Quinta, the sacerdos, to pay



52 Herbert, fig. 1041.

53 Carson, fig. 190.

54 Giacosa, fig. 31.

55Mattingly (1948) 149.

56 Carson, fig. 201. I have found no other such coin in my research.

57Carson, fig. 176.










for a dedication.' In Ceccano, the military officers confer a bronze (aes) upon Saesina,

the sacerdos of diva Faustina, ob merits eius.59 Lastly, a silver statue of a man in

gladiatorial outfit (veste gladiat) was erected by the allector college, or the officer in

charge of collecting dues, to diva Faustina. It is not clear what collegium paid for the

statue. It may have been dedicated, though, to Faustina Minor, since she supposedly had

a great love of the games.60

4.5 Conclusion

The Faustinae were adored by their husbands and the public alike, and so the

charges of adultery, if true, hardly seem important. The adoration of their husbands

propelled them to divinity, and also made them benefactresses after their death. The

information surviving them does not accord them much by was of personality, but the

identity created for them by the imperial family makes obvious their intended perception:

fertile women who were good mothers and who were faithful to their husbands. Again,

the "truth" of the Historia Augusta was not really revealed in the public image presented

to the Empire: the Faustinae were deified and remembered for the love they had for their

families, just as the imperial family had intended.

The ritual of deification evolves in the Antonine Age from an expected veneration

to one that, while probably anticipated, was welcomed by the Roman people. While the

women of Traj an and Hadrian were worshipped, the amount of inscriptions to them is

considerable only when considering them together. For the Faustinae, though some

inscriptions were ambiguous, there was certainly a good amount between the two women.


G8CL 10.54.

59 GIL 10.5656.

61) GL 6.3756.










The deification ofFaustina Maior, in particular, seemed to have some resonance among

the Roman people: perhaps it was the concordia between her and her husband, and the

fact that he never remarried, but the love he had for her manifested itself in the adoration

of the Roman people.














CONCLUSION

Mattingly suggests that the Imperial cult was becoming "personal religion,"l

based on the feelings of the emperors themselves. It seems, though, especially in light of

the deifications of Drsilla, Poppaea, and Claudia, that the Imperial cult always subsisted

of some kind of personal emotion, pushed upon the Roman public whether or not the

sentiment was shared.

The honor of consecration became an expected honor for the emperor and

empress. Although Livia Drusilla seemed to deserve her consecration, the honor was a

long time coming. By the time of Traj an, the Senate was conferring honors upon women

who seemed to do nothing to merit their deification except remain above public reproach.

The change in attitude towards the honor of consecration was possibly due to the

regularity of its conferral, but also possibly due to the evolving role of women in the

domus Augusta. Livia will always be the quintessential diva. She was the epitome of a

wealthy, well-connected woman in the early principate, and she was the template of

feminine political involvement the other Julio-Claudian women followed. After Livia,

the other Julio-Claudian women were concerned mostly with the preservation of the

Julio-Claudian bloodline, as the principate was concerned with concretizing the wealth

and power of Rome. When the adoptive emperors came to power, the face of the Roman

citizen had changed, due to the expansion of Rome's borders. As men with foreign blood

came to rule Rome, women with foreign blood came to symbolize the height of

femininity in the Empire. Thus, when the Antonines came to power, the importance of

SMattingly (1948) 150.









fecundity and chastity accompanied their rise, together with new hopes of dynasty. The

women of the emperors were used throughout the generations to promote the character

and virtues of the emperor and the principate.

The deification of these women goes beyond "personal religion." The Imperial

cult was a systematized method of connecting the ruling family to the religious and

cultural heritage of the Roman Empire. The imperial women were deified not only to

gratify their mourning husbands, sons, or brothers, but also to present to Rome, along

with the deified emperors, the numina of their Roman identity. The imperial house was a

microcosm of the Roman Empire, and its divine nature made its power and excellence

accessible to worshippers across the globe.














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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Rebecca Marie Muich was born on 15 January 1980 to Joseph and Kathryn Muich

in Mobile, AL. She grew up in Fenton, MO, with her brother Joseph and her sister

Rachel. She attended Cor Jesu Academy in St. Louis before moving to Cincinnati, OH,

to attend Xavier University. There she earned an Honor Bachelor of Arts degree and

majored in classics and history. She continued her studies in classics at the University of

Florida, where she will receive her Master of Arts degree in classics in May 2004.