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The Impact of Exercise on Mood: Effects of Varying Intensity and Frequency


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THE IMPACT OF EXERCISE ON MOOD: EFFECTS OF VARYING INTENSITY AND FREQUENCY By MARY MURAWSKI A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2004

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Copyright 2004 by Mary Murawski

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my mentor, Dr. Michael Perri, as well as Dr. Patricia Durning, Dr. Lesley Fox, and Gretchen Ames, for their continual encouragement and assistance throughout the formation and completion of this thesis. iii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iii LIST OF TABLES...............................................................................................................v LIST OF FIGURES...........................................................................................................vi ABSTRACT......................................................................................................................vii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 2 MATERIALS AND METHODS.................................................................................7 Participants...................................................................................................................7 Procedures.....................................................................................................................8 Recruitment...........................................................................................................8 Baseline Assessment.............................................................................................8 Experimental Design....................................................................................................9 Intensity Prescriptions...........................................................................................9 Frequency Prescriptions......................................................................................10 Exercise Logs..............................................................................................................11 Exercise Interventions................................................................................................11 Dependent Measures...................................................................................................12 Statistical Analyses.....................................................................................................13 3 RESULTS...................................................................................................................14 Participant Characteristics..........................................................................................14 Preliminary Analyses..................................................................................................14 Primary Analyses........................................................................................................15 4 DISCUSSION.............................................................................................................23 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................29 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................33 iv

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 1 Exercise Prescriptions..............................................................................................6 2 Baseline Characteristics by Treatment Condition..................................................17 3 Means and Standard DeviationsPOMS Depression...........................................18 4 Means and Standard DeviationsPOMS Tension................................................18 5 Means and Standard DeviationsPOMS Vigor...................................................19 v

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 Depression by prescription at baseline and 6 months............................................20 2 Tension by prescription at baseline and 6 months.................................................20 3 Vigor by prescription at baseline and 6 months.....................................................21 4 Effect of intensity within group change in Vigor..................................................21 5 Effect of frequency within group change in Vigor................................................22 vi

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science THE IMPACT OF EXERCISE ON MOOD: EFFECTS OF VARYING INTENSITY AND FREQUENCY By Mary Murawski May 2004 Chair: Michael G. Perri Major Department: Clinical and Health Psychology Limited information exists about the dose-response relationship between exercise and mood. This study examined the effects of four different exercise prescriptions on changes in mood over the course of a 6-month intervention period. Participants included 315 healthy adults (62% women; 77% Caucasian; mean age = 48.9 years) who reported an average of < 1 hour per week of leisure-time physical activity at baseline. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four exercise counseling conditions that varied in intensity (moderate vs. high; 45-55% vs. 65-75% of maximum heart rate reserve) and frequency (moderate vs. high; 3-4 vs. 5-7 days/week). The Profile of Mood States was used to assess depression, tension, and vigor at baseline and 6 months. Repeated-measures ANOVAs showed significant improvements from baseline to 6 months in vigor (p < .01) but not in depression or tension (ps > .10). Post-hoc analyses indicated that significant increases in vigor occurred only in those conditions where exercise was prescribed either at moderate intensity/high frequency (p < .01) or at high vii

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intensity/moderate frequency (p < .01). Neither the moderate intensity/moderate frequency nor the high intensity/high frequency prescriptions resulted in significant changes in vigor. These results show that among healthy adults the psychological benefits associated with increased exercise may be limited to changes in vigor and that these changes only occur when exercise is prescribed at either a high intensity/moderate frequency or a moderate intensity/high frequency. viii

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Numerous physiological benefits are associated with engaging in regular physical activity (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [USDHHS], 1996). Studies have shown exercise to help prevent the development of osteoporosis (Lanyon, 1996), aid in decreasing the risk of developing non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (Kujala, Kaprio, Taimela, & Sarna, 1994), as well as provide many other welldocumented biological benefits (Byers, 1995). Relatively little research, however, has examined the psychological benefits that accompany physical activity. In reviewing the benefits of regular physical activity, Vuori (1998) indeed noted the lack of information on the impact of exercise on psychological factors and the need for more research to elucidate its effects. While some research has attempted to assess the effects of exercise on psychological factors, most studies have primarily focused on short-term effects occurring after acute bouts of exercise (Pierce & Pate, 1994; Rehor, Dunnagan, Stewart, & Cooley, 2001; Steptoe & Cox, 1998). Studies assessing psychological benefits associated with exercise have found significant reductions in symptoms such as depression and anxiety following brief sessions of exercise (Dimeo, Bauer, Varahram, Proest, & Halter, 2001; Lane, Crone-Grant, & Lane, 2002). While these studies provide evidence for the acute effects or immediate consequences following an exercise bout, they do not provide insight into the long-term psychological benefits, or chronic effects, that may accompany participation in regular exercise. 1

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2 Research detailing the chronic effects of regular exercise has been provided in several studies of long-term exercise interventions (Blumenthal, Williams, Needels, & Wallace, 1982; Morris & Salmon, 1994). DiLorenzo, Bargman, Stucky-Ropp, Brassington, Frensch, and LaFontaine (1999) found small reductions on dimensions of depression, tension-anxiety, and vigor as measured on the Profile of Mood States (POMS) following a twelve-week aerobic exercise intervention. Shin (1999) also used the POMS when assessing the effects of a walking exercise program. After an eight-week intervention, a significant decrease in depression and tension, as well as an increase in vigor occurred in the walking group as compared to a non-equivalent control group. While these studies have provided information regarding the long-term psychological effects of exercise, certain limitations to these studies should be considered. Many studies examining psychological benefits of regular exercise have often utilized unique or unrepresentative populations. In the study by Shin (1999) described above, a population of solely elderly Korean women acted as participants. Many studies examining the effects of exercise have focused on strictly elderly populations (Penninx, Leveille, Ferrucci, Van Eijk, & Guralnik, 1999; Schroeder, Nau, Osness, & Potteiger, 1998). Other studies have used participants with physical illnesses (Gowans, deHueck, Voss, Silaj, Abbey, & Reynolds, 2001; Pinto, Trunzo, Reiss, & Shiu, 2002) or with clinically diagnosed depression and anxiety (Dimeo et al., 2001). Furthermore, Berger and Owen (1983), who found a significant mood improvement in psychological factors as measured on the POMS, were assessing the unique population of competitive swimmers. Also, many times unusual forms of exercise have been utilized when trying to assess the psychological benefits of exercise. Forms of physical activity that are less accessible to

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3 the general public, such as tai chi or aquatic aerobics, have often been used in interventions (Belza, Topolski, Kinne, Patrick, & Ramsey, 2002; Ross, Bohannon, Davis, & Gurchiek, 1999). Lastly, it is important to note that all of these studies describing long-term psychological benefits of exercise did not control for the variables of exercise intensity or frequency. Only few studies have examined the chronic effects of physical activity while accounting for the intensity or frequency of the exercise (Moses, Steptoe, Mathews& Edwards, 1989). Katula, Blissmer, and McAuley (1999) found that a session of lighter intensity (29% HRres) walking resulted in decreased arousal and anxiousness (as measured by the State Anxiety Inventory), whereas a session of higher-intensity walking (96% HRres) resulted in increased arousal and decreased anxiousness in older adults. In a meta-analysis by Dunn, Trivedi, and ONeal (2001), evidence suggested that both moderate and vigorous exercise can yield positive psychological benefits. Indeed, research has shown that vigorous exercise is not necessary to obtain mood improvement (King, Taylor, & Haskell, 1993). Sexton, Maere, and Dahl (1989) found that participants in both a moderate intensity walking group and a higher intensity jogging group both showed significant decreases in symptoms of depression and anxiety (as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively). Similar findings have been reported in other studies assessing the impact of intensity on long-term psychological benefits of exercise (Veale, LeFevre, Pantelis, DeSouza, Mann, & Sargeant, 1992). It is interesting to note that some studies have examined the effects of varying the intensity of acute bouts of exercise (Bartholomew & Linder, 1998; Tate & Petruzzello, 1995; Treasure & Newberry, 1998). Kennedy and Newton (1997) found that

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4 participants enrolled in four sessions of either low intensity or high intensity aerobic classes all experienced reductions in depression, tension, fatigue, and anger and an increase in vigor as measured by the Profile of Mood States. Thus, much of the literature assessing the impact of varying the intensity of both long-term and short-term exercise interventions showed psychological benefits in all participants regardless of intensity condition. Unfortunately, fewer studies have examined the effects of different exercise frequencies on psychological functioning. McAuley (1991), after 10 weeks of a brisk walking intervention, found that a higher frequency of regular physical activity yields higher levels of positive affect (as measured on an affective reactions questionnaire). Those results, however, do not clarify the effects of exercise frequency on a variety of dimensions within psychological well-being, such as the mood components of depression, tension, and vigor. Some studies have shown higher frequency exercise to be associated with less depressive symptomatology (Conroy, Smith, & Felthous, 1982; Hassmen, Kolvula, & Uutela, 2002). It should be noted, however, that the majority of studies evaluating the effects of exercise on symptom reduction have utilized populations with clinically diagnosed depression or anxiety. Again, the lack of information on the impact of exercise frequency on mood improvement represents a large gap in the literature. Furthermore, this insufficient knowledge on the impact of exercise frequency contributes to the dearth of literature providing insight into the impact of exercise on psychological factors while controlling for both intensity and frequency. Evidence for exercise dose-response effects, or the amount or dose of exercise needed to produce a

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5 response, on dimensions of psychological mood has been notably lacking. One meta-analysis did examine the exercise dose-response relationship, but the analysis only utilized studies assessing clinical populations, who had significant levels of depression and anxiety at baseline. The researchers found that more frequent exercise yielded greater reductions in depression and anxiety and that both low and high intensity physical activity decreased depression (Dunn et al, 2001). While this information is helpful, we are still left with two unanswered questions: What are the psychological benefits of regular exercise in a non-clinical population? What dose of exercise is needed to produce psychological benefits in a non-clinical population? Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of varying exercise frequency and intensity on mood in a randomized trial, with a factorial design, consisting of two levels of intensity (moderate, 45%-55% vs. high, 65%-75% HRres) crossed with two levels of frequency (moderate, 3-4 vs. high, 5-7 days per week), while controlling for mode of exercise (walking), for daily duration (30 min), and for setting (home-based). Specifically, the study assessed the impact of four exercise prescriptions (See Table 1) on depression, tension, and vigor, as measured by the Profile of Mood States, at both baseline and 6 months. We hypothesized that compared to moderate frequency, high frequency exercise would result in: a decrease in depression, a decrease in tension, and an increase in vigor. With regards to intensity, we hypothesized that from baseline to 6 months both moderate and high intensity exercise would result in: a decrease in depression, a decrease in tension, and an increase in vigor.

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6 Table 1. Exercise Prescriptions Moderate Intensity/Moderate Frequency (MI/MF) (45%-55% HRres/3-4 days per week) Moderate Intensity/High Frequency (MI/HF) (45%-55% HRres/5-7 days per week) High Intensity/Moderate Frequency (HI/MF) (65%-75% HRres/3-4 days per week) High Intensity/High Frequency (HI/HF) (65%-75% HRres/5-7 days per week)

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CHAPTER 2 MATERIALS AND METHODS Participants Participants were 315 healthy but sedentary women (n=195) and men (n=120) who volunteered to take part in a 2-year study of the effects of walking on health and fitness. Five cohorts of participants were recruited and randomized at 3-month intervals. Eligibility requirements included age between 30-69 years, sedentary lifestyle (defined as less than 1 hour per week of leisure-time physical activity over the prior 12 months), body mass index (BMI) between 19 and 45, and resting blood pressure below 140 mm Hg systolic and 90 mm Hg diastolic. To be eligible, potential participants also had to agree that over the course of the study they would maintain their usual physical activity patterns and not initiate any new exercise other than that associated with their randomly assigned treatment condition. Individuals who were unwilling or unable to give informed consent, were unwilling to accept random assignment, or were participating in another research project were not accepted. Potential participants were excluded if, at screening, their medical history, clinical examination, or laboratory results revealed any of the following conditions: coronary heart disease; chronic or recurrent respiratory or gastrointestinal conditions; hypercholesterolemia (for women, LDL-cholesterol > 190 mg/dl; for men > 160 mg/dl) or use of antihyperlipidemia medication; diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose > 110 mg/dl; cancer within 10 years; or bone, muscle, or joint conditions that would prevent walking on a regular basis. Women who were pregnant or planning to become pregnant during the course of the study were also excluded. 7

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8 Procedures Recruitment Participants were recruited through a variety of methods, including media articles, direct mailings, newspaper announcements, and presentations to community groups. Following telephone screening, potentially eligible persons were invited to attend an informational meeting during which the purposes and procedures of the study were explained and informed consent was obtained. After providing consent, each individual completed a medical history form that included questions concerning current and past illnesses, past surgeries, and current medication use. Baseline Assessment During a baseline testing session, each participant underwent a medical examination and completed a symptom-limited maximal exercise test to determine peak oxygen consumption (VO2max; ml/min/kg) and maximum heart rate (HRmax). Prior to the treadmill test, blood pressure (BP) and a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) were obtained in the sitting and standing positions. Three ECG leads were monitored continuously during the exercise test and a 12-lead ECG was repeated every 60 s of exercise and at 1, 3, and 5 min into recovery. Participants between the ages of 30 and 49 years performed the standard Bruce protocol (Bruce, Kusumi, & Hosmer, 1973). Participants between the ages of 50 and 69 years performed a modified Bruce protocol (Pollock & Wilmore, 1990), with workloads increasing by approximately three metabolic equivalents (METS) every 3 min. The tests continued until participants reached voluntary maximal exertion or until they became symptomatic or developed significant hemodynamic or electrocardiographic endpoints (e.g., angina). Oxygen uptake during exercise was determined each minute by means of a semiautomated computer-based

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9 system (ParvoMedics TrueMax 2400 Metabolic Measurement System, Consentius Technologies, Sandy, UT). Maximal oxygen uptake was defined as the average of two 30-s values measured during the last minute of exercise. The Karvonen formula (ACSM, 1986) was used to calculate HRres (Hrres = HRmax resting HR). Experimental Design Following stratification by age (30-49 years and 50-69 years), sex, and VO2max (above or below the median ageand sex-adjusted norms from the Cooper Clinic; Pollock & Wilmore, 1990), participants were randomly assigned to a physician advice control group (No data from these participants were included in the analyses reported in this thesis) or to one of the following four exercise training conditions: (a) moderate intensity, moderate frequency; (b) moderate intensity, higher frequency; (c) higher intensity, moderate frequency; or (d) higher intensity, higher frequency. The computerized randomization was carried out using SASs PROC PLAN (Spector, Goonight, Sall, & Sarle, 1985). Intensity Prescriptions Each participant was assigned an individualized training heart rate (THR) zone on the basis of the results of his or her initial treadmill testing. In the moderate intensity conditions, the individualized THR zone corresponded to 45%-55% HRres. In the higher intensity conditions, the individualized THR condition corresponded to 65%-75% HRres. The moderate and higher intensity ranges correspond to the intensity ranges designated as moderate and hard, respectively, in the Surgeon Generals report (USDHHS, 1996). Participants were instructed to adjust their pace of walking to an intensity level consistent with their prescribed THR zone (Participants who reported difficulty achieving their THRs through brisk walking, were taught race-walking

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10 techniques and, if necessary, were permitted to use motorized treadmills to achieve the targeted level of intensity). To corroborate self-reported HR values during unsupervised walking sessions, each participant was asked to complete a 30-min walk on three separate occasions (i.e., during Weeks 5, 12, and 24) while wearing a monitor that recorded HRs at 1-min intervals and stored the data in digital memory (Polar Accurex Plus, Polar Electro, Inc., Port Washington, NY). The stored data were later downloaded, and the percentage of time that the participants exercise HR fell within the prescribed THR zone was calculated. Frequency Prescriptions The exercise training activity prescribed to all participants was walking within the individualized THR zone for 30 min per day (either in a continuous bout or in up to three bouts, each of at least 10 min duration) for a prescribed number of days per week. [A review of exercise logs revealed that the majority of the exercise (79%) was completed in single 30-min bouts rather than multiple bouts of shorter duration and that there were no significant differences in the use of shorter bouts as a function of the exercise prescriptions.] The walking could occur at home or at a work site or both. Although participants were given flexibility in scheduling their exercise routines, the importance of achieving 30 min of exercise on each training day was strongly emphasized. Participants in the moderate frequency conditions were advised to walk 3-4 days per week. Participants in the higher frequency conditions were advised to walk 5-7 days per week. Each participant was provided with an individually tailored schedule for gradually building up to the prescribed intensity and frequency levels over the first month of the study.

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11 Exercise Logs Participants were instructed in the use of daily training logs for self-monitoring of their exercise, including the duration (i.e., number of minutes) and the intensity (i.e., average HR) of all leisure-time bouts of walking of at least 10 min duration. Because each bout of walking was recorded separately, the frequency of walking was also recorded. Each participant was provided with a Polar Beat HR monitor (Polar Electro, Inc., Port Washington, NY), which provided a continuous display of current HR. Participants were instructed to wear the HR monitors during each exercise bout and to record the most frequently observed HR during the exercise session on their exercise logs. The training logs were collected by staff at intervention sessions. In cases of absences, staff contacted participants to obtain the exercise information and to encourage future attendance. Exercise Interventions Following randomization, all participants received a standard exercise intervention program derived in part from a modified version of Cooper Institute for Aerobics Researchs Project Prime Program. The intervention included 11 group sessions over 6 months. The sessions were held weekly during Month 1, biweekly during Months 1-3, and monthly during Months 4-6. Treatment sessions were conducted by counselors (counterbalanced by condition) with graduate training in exercise science and/or behavioral science who followed a structured protocol. The exercise intervention procedures were guided by the principles of social-cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) and included instruction in goal setting, self-monitoring, cognitive restructuring, and problem solving. Each session was conducted in three segments. Segment 1 was used to review participants progress, since the previous

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12 session, in implementing the strategies recommended for increasing their activity level. Group problem solving was used when participants reported difficulty in achieving goals; praise was offered when participants reported good progress. Segment 2 was used for didactic instruction. The following topics were covered during the instruction segments: proper techniques for the use of walking as exercise; behavioral self-management skills; exercise and health; increasing motivation and reinforcement for exercise; positive self-talk; exercising in hot or cold weather; building social support for exercise; problem solving to overcome barriers to exercise; stress management; and relapse prevention. The participants were provided with handouts supplementing the presentations, and they were given homework assignments aimed at enhancing behavioral skills and problem solving. Segment 3 was used for a walking bout supervised by group leaders. In addition to providing participants with the opportunities to walk with other participants, the supervised walking bouts also offered group leaders opportunities to instruct participants on the use of the HR monitors for maintaining awareness of intensity during the walking bout. Dependent Measures Three dimensions of mood, including Depression, Tension, and Vigor, were assessed using three subscales of the Profile of Mood States (POMS). The POMS is a 65 item five-point adjective rating scale where participants are instructed to rate adjectives based on how you have been feeling during the past week including today. Participants are asked to rate the adjectives on a scale from (0) not at all to (4) extremely. A score for each mood factor is obtained by summing the responses to the rated adjectives that define each respective factor. Scores can range from 0 to 40 on each subscale with higher scores indicating higher levels of the mood variables. The POMS measures six

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13 factors, including: Depression-Dejection, TensionAnxiety, Vigor-Activity, Fatigue-Inertia, Confusion-Bewilderment, and Anger-Hostility. The POMS has an internal consistency of .90 and test-retest reliability ranging from .61 to .69 across the six factors. The scale of Depression, which was assessed in this study, measures the mood of depression as accompanied by a sense of personal inadequacy. This scale consists of adjectives such as unhappy, discouraged, and worthless. The Tension scale, also examined in this study, utilizes adjectives that are descriptive of heightened musculoskeletal tension, such as: tense, uneasy, and restless. The last factor of mood investigated in this study was Vigor. The POMS Vigor scale measures a mood of vigorousness, ebullience, and high energy, as described by adjectives including: lively, alert, and carefree (McNair, Lorr, Droppleman, 1992). Statistical Analyses A series of 2 X 2 X 2 repeated measures Analyses of Variance (ANOVAs) was utilized to assess the effects of 2 levels of intensity (moderate, high), 2 levels of frequency (moderate, high), at 2 time points (baseline, 6 months) on depression, tension, and vigor. Planned comparisons were used to examine the hypothesized changes in mood.

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CHAPTER 3 RESULTS Participant Characteristics Of 2,165 people who made telephone inquiries concerning the study, 877 underwent screening for eligibility, 553 met criteria for participation, and 492 accepted randomization to one of four treatment conditions or to a control condition. The 315 participants in the four exercise intervention conditions constituted our study sample (See Table 2 for baseline characteristics). ANOVAs showed that the treatment groups did not differ significantly in baseline measures of age, educational level, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, or cardiorespiratory fitness. Preliminary Analyses Rates of attendance at the group intervention sessions (M= 71%, SD= 21%) were equivalent across conditions (range of means across groups= 69%-74%), as were the percentages of participants who dropped out prior to completion (overall attrition rate= 13%, range across groups= 9%-17%). Similarly, the rates of exercise log completion (M= 73%, SD=37%) were comparable across conditions (range of means across groups= 68%-79%). HR data collected via downloadable HR monitors used during selected weeks demonstrated that the majority of participants adhered to the exercise intensity prescriptions. In the moderate intensity conditions, 88% of the participants had mean HRs (averaged over the last 20 min of 30-min bouts) within their individually prescribed THR zones (45%-55% HRres), 2% were below prescription (< 45% HRres), and 10% were above prescription (56%-64% HRres). In the higher intensity conditions, 71% of 14

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15 the participants had mean HRs within the prescribed THR zones (65%-75% HRres); 6% exceeded the prescribed intensity; and 23% fell below the prescription, including 8% in the moderate intensity range (45%-55% HRres). Primary Analyses The 2 (moderate vs. high intensity) X 2 (moderate vs. high frequency) X 2 (baseline vs. 6-months) repeated measures ANOVA was utilized to examine the effects of exercise intensity and frequency on POMS Depression (See Table 3 for Means and Standard Deviations). Results showed no significant effect for Time, F (1, 310) =.34, p=.56; no significant Time X Intensity interaction effect, F (1, 310) =.22, p=.64; and no significant Time X Frequency interaction effect F (1, 310)=.02, p=.90. There was a significant 3-way interaction for Time X Intensity X Frequency, F (1, 310) =5.36, p=.02. Planned comparisons showed a trend that High Intensity/Moderate Frequency (p=.058) exercise decreases depression from baseline to 6 months compared to Moderate Intensity/Moderate Frequency exercise (See Figure 1). The 2 X 2 X 2 repeated measures ANOVA for change in Tension scores (See Table 4 for Means and Standard Deviations) after 6 months showed no significant effect for Time, F (1,311) =.64, p=.42; no significant Time X Intensity interaction effect, F (1,311) =.76, p=.38; no significant for Time X Frequency interaction effect, F (1, 311) =.40, p=.53; and no significant 3-way interaction effect for Time X Intensity X Frequency, F (1, 311) =1.94, p=.17. Planned comparison t-tests showed no significant differences in tension by prescription at baseline and 6 months (See Figure 2). The 2 X 2 X 2 repeated measures ANOVA for change in Vigor (See Table 5 for Means and Standard Deviations) after 6 months showed a significant effect for Time, F (1,311) =26.68, p=.001; no significant Time X Intensity interaction effect, F (1, 311)

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16 =.38, p=.54; and no significant Time X Frequency interaction effect, F (1,311) =.25, p=.62. There was a significant 3-way interaction effect for Time X Intensity X Frequency, F (1, 311) =6.33, p=.01 (See Figure 3). Planned comparisons showed both Moderate (p<.01) and Higher (p<.01) Intensity conditions produced significant within group increases in Vigor (See Figure 4). Planned comparisons also showed both Moderate (p<.01) and Higher (p<.01) Frequency conditions produced significant within group increases in Vigor (See Figure 5). Further analyses showed, however, that only the Moderate Intensity/Higher Frequency (p<.01) and Higher Intensity/Moderate Frequency (p<.01) prescriptions yielded significant within group changes in Vigor. The Moderate Intensity/Moderate Frequency (p=.195) and High Intensity/High Frequency (p=.191) prescriptions did not yield significant within group changes in Vigor (See Figure 3).

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Table 2. Baseline Characteristics by Treatment Condition MI/MF MI/HF HI/MF HI/HF (n =71) ( n =84) ( n =76) ( n =84) Variable M SD % M SD % M SD % M SD % Age (years) 48.3 7.8 48.9 8.3 49.4 8.8 49.0 8.7 Gender Male 44 35 34 40 Female 56 65 66 60 Ethnicity Caucasian 78 78 64 85 17 African American 14 11 21 11 Hispanic 3 5 7 1 Asian 4 5 3 2 Other 1 1 5 1 Education Less than High School 13 8 5 9 High School Graduate 1 6 8 11 Some College 24 34 22 26 Bachelors Degree 30 27 32 27 Masters Degree 15 17 21 13 Doctoral Degree 17 8 12 14 BMI 28.1 4.9 28.0 5.0 28.3 4.4 28.7 6.2 VO2max 26.8 5.7 25.3 5.1 25.0 5.5 25.0 6.7 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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18 Table 3. Means and Standard DeviationsPOMS Depression Baseline 6 Months n M SD M SD Group Prescription MI/MF 71 4.85 5.36 5.75 6.21 MI/HF 84 5.97 7.75 4.98 6.81 HI/MF 75 7.13 8.75 5.88 7.94 HI/HF 84 5.26 6.20 5.70 7.55 Total 314 5.80 7.17 5.56 7.15 Intensity Prescription Moderate 155 5.46 6.76 5.33 6.54 High 159 6.14 7.55 5.78 7.71 Total 314 5.80 7.17 5.56 7.15 Frequency Prescription Moderate 146 6.02 7.37 5.82 7.13 High 168 5.62 7.00 5.34 7.18 Total 314 5.80 7.17 5.56 7.15 Table 4. Means and Standard DeviationsPOMS Tension Baseline 6 Months n M SD M SD Group Prescription MI/MF 71 6.05 4.18 6.29 5.07 MI/HF 84 5.91 5.07 5.71 5.22 HI/MF 76 7.81 6.15 6.75 5.65 HI/HF 84 5.81 4.45 5.92 4.38 Total 315 6.38 5.06 6.15 5.08 Intensity Prescription Moderate 155 5.97 4.67 5.98 5.15 High 160 6.76 5.40 6.31 5.02 Total 315 6.38 5.06 6.15 5.08 Frequency Prescription Moderate 147 6.96 5.35 6.53 5.36 High 168 5.86 4.76 5.81 4.81 Total 315 6.38 5.06 6.15 5.08

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19 Table 5. Means and Standard DeviationsPOMS Vigor Baseline 6 Months n M SD M SD Group Prescription MI/MF 71 17.30 5.69 18.12 6.32 MI/HF 84 17.38 6.54 20.12 6.68 HI/MF 76 17.14 6.58 19.18 5.82 HI/HF 84 17.64 5.68 18.43 5.84 Total 315 17.37 6.12 19.00 6.20 Intensity Prescription Moderate 155 17.34 6.14 19.22 6.57 High 160 17.40 6.11 18.79 5.82 Total 315 17.37 6.12 19.00 6.20 Frequency Prescription Moderate 147 17.21 6.15 18.69 6.06 High 168 17.51 6.11 19.28 6.32 Total 315 17.37 6.12 19.00 6.20

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20 Baseline6-monthsBaseline6-monthsBaseline6-monthsBaseline6-months 0123456789Depression ScoresDepression by Prescription at Baseline and 6 Months[ Means and SEM ] MI/MF MI/HF HI/MF HI/HF Figure 1. Depression by prescription at baseline and 6 months Baseline6-monthsBaseline6-monthsBaseline6-monthsBaseline6-months 012345678910Tension ScoresTension by Prescription at Baseline and 6 Months[ Means and SEM ] MI/MF MI/HF HI/MF HI/HF Figure 2. Tension by prescription at baseline and 6 months

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21 Baseline6-monthsBaseline6-monthsBaseline6-monthsBaseline6-months 0102030Vigor ScoresVigor by Prescription at Baseline and 6 Months[ Means and SEM ] MI/MF MI/HF HI/MF HI/HF *** significant change from baseline (p < .01) Figure 3. Vigor by prescription at baseline and 6 months Baseline6-monthsBaseline6-months 0102030Vigor ScoresEffect of IntensityWithin group change in Vigor Moderate Intensity High Intensity *** significant change from baseline (p < .01) Figure 4. Effect of intensity within group change in Vigor

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22 Baseline6-monthsBaseline6-months 0102030Vigor ScoresEffect of FrequencyWithin group change in Vigor Moderate Intensity High Intensity *** significant change from baseline (p < .01) Figure 5. Effect of frequency within group change in Vigor

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CHAPTER 4 DISCUSSION In the present study we found no significant effects for Time X Intensity or Time X Frequency for Depression, Tension, or Vigor. We did find significant Time X Intensity X Frequency interaction effects for both Depression and Vigor. Although there were no significant post-hoc findings for Depression, there was a trend towards decreases in Depression in the High Intensity/Moderate Frequency group. In regards to Vigor, significant improvements over time were observed in the Moderate Intensity/High Frequency and High Intensity/Moderate Frequency groups. Some limitations to this study should be noted. First, with this non-clinical cohort, who had minimal symptoms of negative mood at baseline, a floor effect may have occurred. Because there were low levels of negative mood within the sample at baseline, there was little room for improvement in anxiety and depression from baseline to 6 months. The Means and Standard Deviations from an Adult normative sample for Depression (M= 10.2, SD=10.4) are actually higher than found at baseline in our sample (M= 5.80, SD= 7.17). The Means and Standard Deviations from an Adult normative sample for Tension (M= 12.8, SD= 7.9) are also higher than found in our sample at baseline (M= 6.38, SD= 5.06). Even the Means and Standard Deviations from an Adult normative sample for Vigor are lower (M= 14.9, SD=6.7) than our sample at baseline (M=17.37, SD=6.12); thus making even improvement in Vigor more difficult due to a ceiling effect (McNair, Lorr, & Droppleman, 1992). Also, it should be noted that the amounts of exercise prescribed in this study were quite modest, at only 90 to 150 minutes 23

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24 per week. Furthermore, Perri et al. (2002) found that participants only completed 61% of the exercise prescription in the moderate frequency condition and 63% of the exercise prescription in the higher frequency condition. Thus, the total volume of exercise completed was even lower than initially prescribed (Ms= 92 min per week in higher frequency condition vs. 60 min per week in moderate frequency condition). Perhaps prescriptions of higher volumes may yield more benefits. While recognizing the limitations of this study, it is important to emphasize that this studys findings add to the literature in that both the frequency and intensity of the prescribed exercise was accounted for, which has not been controlled for in previous studies (Cowper, et al., 1991). Blumenthal et al. (1982), examining the chronic effects of regular exercise, prescribed 45 minutes of walking at 70%-85% of Maximum Heart Rate (individually determined by participants initial treadmill test) three times a week throughout a 10-week walking/jogging intervention. Examining the impact of exercise on tension, fatigue, anger, vigor, depression, and confusion, as measured by the Profile of Mood States, in a non-clinical population, the researchers did find some improvements in mood. After 10 weeks of training, the exercise group showed significant decreases in tension, fatigue, and confusion compared to a no-treatment group. The exercise group did not show any decrease in anger, but did show non-significant increases in vigor and decreases in depression. This study, however, can not provide insight into what combination of frequency and intensity may be most beneficial in producing changes in mood. Furthermore, they prescribed a more moderate frequency of exercise (only 3 days a week) but utilized a higher intensity rate (the current studys high intensity condition only prescribed 65%-75% HRres) and a longer duration (45 min vs. the current studys

PAGE 33

25 30 min.), which may not be reasonable for all adults. Thus, our study, which varies both the intensity and frequency levels within 4 exercise prescriptions, provides greater detail into the actual and perhaps most parsimonious dosage necessary to produce improvements in mood. Our findings showed that the prescriptions for both Moderate and Higher Intensity walking resulted in an increase in Vigor from baseline to 6 months. This result is as we expected and is consistent with findings from previous studies showing both lower and higher intensity exercise yielding significant changes in Vigor (Kennedy & Newton, 1997). Neither the Moderate nor the Higher Intensity prescriptions, however, yielded significant changes in Depression or Anxiety. This finding could be a result of the restricted range of scores due to the healthy cohort utilized in this study as mentioned previously, whose low baseline scores of depression and anxiety left little room for improvement. This could explain the inconsistency with the present studys findings that none of the exercise prescriptions impacted depression or anxiety scores, whereas previous studies that utilized clinically depressed or anxious populations did indeed observe decreases in mood symptoms associated with participation in physical activity (Hassmen, Koivua, & Uutela, 2000). Furthermore, our results showed that the prescriptions for both Moderate and Higher Frequency walking also resulted in an increase in Vigor from baseline to 6 months. Although we expected Higher Frequency walking to result in mood improvement, we did not anticipate that Moderate Frequency walking would also yield significant changes in mood when paired with Higher Intensity walking. This finding that changes in mood occur with prescriptions of Moderate Frequency /High Intensity

PAGE 34

26 walking and a High Frequency/Moderate Intensity walking could possibly be explained in terms of the dose-response relationship. Perhaps the mechanism for change is the balance between having a High component to initiate a change in mood but also the need for a Moderate component to ensure that the exercise does not result in a fatigue that would counteract the beneficial effects of the exercise on Vigor. Plante and Rodin (1991) discuss a number of possible biological and psychological mechanisms that could explain the connection between exercise and psychological health. One theory they discuss, postulating a biological mechanism, suggests that improvement in mood (Vigor) is a result of exercise-enhanced neurotransmission of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine. Again, a High component of exercise may be necessary to initiate this enhanced transmission, while a moderate component would help maintain an appropriate level of transmission. Thus, a Moderate Intensity/Moderate Frequency amount of activity may not be sufficient to initiate and maintain increased neurotransmission. High Intensity/High Frequency activity, however, may actually initiate and cause an excess or exhaustion of neurotransmission; thus, negating the possible beneficial effects. Another theory discussed by Plante and Rodin (1991), suggesting a psychological mechanism, states that exercise provides a distraction from unpleasant cognitions, emotions, and behaviors. Again, a Moderate Intensity/High Frequency prescription of activity would allow for a level of intensity that would not be so effortful that the exercise itself would become unpleasant and with such a high frequency of distractions so as to generate increases in Vigor. A High Intensity/Moderate Frequency prescription of exercise would enable a higher level of distraction because of the more intense demands of the activity

PAGE 35

27 but at such a lower, occasional frequency so as to still produce significant mood improvement. Also, our findings that Vigor was increased but Depression and Tension were not significantly decreased could possibly speak to the preventive nature of exercise on mental health. Previous studies have found that while regular physical activity did not lower symptoms of depression or anxiety, baseline levels of activity did predict future likelihood of developing depression or anxiety. Camacho, et al. (1991) described this finding following their 9-year study of the relationship between physical activity and depression. Participants whose activity level was categorized as low (0-4 points on a physical activity frequency index) were significantly more likely to be clinically depressed at follow-up than the those who reported moderate (5-8 points) or high (9-14 points) levels of physical activity at baseline. Thus, in non-clinical populations, regularly participating in exercise may not reduce negative mood but rather may enhance positive mood states over the long term (Stewart, et al., 1994). Our findings that exercise increases Vigor and possibly prevent mood disturbance in the future may also have implications for quality of life issues, especially in older adults. Regular physical activity has been shown to increase feelings of well-being and may even facilitate independent living or postpone disability in the elderly (Spirduso & Cronin, 2001). Thus, the long-term mood enhancing benefits of exercise may represent an important aspect of quality of life as adults age and attempt to maintain physical and mental health. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that in a non-clinical population, regular exercise is associated with improvements in vigor but not depression or tension.

PAGE 36

28 Furthermore, this improvement in mood occurs only when exercise is prescribed at either a higher intensity/moderate frequency or a moderate intensity/higher frequency and may represent a significant quality of life issue.

PAGE 37

LIST OF REFERENCES American College of Sports Medicine. (1986). Guidelines for graded exercise testing and exercise prescription (3 rd ed). Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Bartholomew, J., & Linder, D., (1998). State anxiety following resistance exercise: The role of gender and exercise identity. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 21, 205-219. Belza, B., Topolski, T., Kinne, S., Patrick, DL., & Ramsey, SD. (2002). Does adherence make a difference? Results from a community-based aquatic exercise program. Nursing Resources, 51, 285-291. Berger, B.G., & Owen, D.R. (1983). Mood alteration with swimming-swimmers really do feel better. Psychosomatic Medicine, 45, 425-433. Blumenthal, J.A., Williams, R.S., Needels, T.L., & Wallace, A.G. (1982). Psychological changes accompany aerobic exercise in healthy middle-aged adults. Psychosomatic Medicine, 44, 529-536. Blackburn, DG. (2002). Establishing an effective framework for physical activity counseling in primary care settings. Nutrition in Clinical Care, 5, 95-102. Blanchard, C.M., Rodgers, W.M., Spence, J.C., & Courneya, K.S. (2001). Feeling state responses to acute exercise of high and low intensity. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sports, 4, 30-38. Bruce, R.A., Kusumi, F., & Hosmer, D. (1973). Maximum oxygen intake and nomographic assessment of functional aerobic impairment in cardiovascular disease. American Heart Journal, 85, 545-562. Byers, T. (1995). Body weight and mortality. New England Journal of Medicine, 333, 723-724. Camacho, T.C., Roberts, R.E., Lazarus, N.B., Kaplan, G.A., &Cohen, R.D. (1991). Physical activity and depression: evidence from the Alameda County Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 134, 220-231. 29

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30 Cowper, P.A., Morey, M.C., & Bearon, L.B. (1991). The impact of supervised exercise on the psychological well-being and health status of older veterans. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 10, 469-485. DiLorenzo, T., Bargman E., Stucky-Ropp, R., Brassington, G., Frensch, P., & LaFontaine, T. (1999). Long-term effects of aerobic exercise on psychological outcomes. Preventive Medicine, 28, 75-85. Dimeo, R., Bauer, M., Varahram, I., Proest, G., & Halter, U. (2001). Benefits from aerobic exercise in patients with major depression: a pilot study. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 35, 114-117. Dunn, A., Trivedi, H., & ONeal, H. (2001). Physical activity dose-response effects on outcomes of depression and anxiety. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 33, S587-S597. Gowans, S.E., deHueck, A., Voss, S., Silaj, A., Abbey,S.E., & Reynolds, W.J. (2001). Effect of a randomized, controlled trial of exercise on mood and physical function in individuals with fibromyalgia. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 45, 519-529. Hassmen, P., Koivula, N., & Uutela, A. (2000). Physical exercise and psychological well-being: a population study in Finland. Prev. Medicine, 30, 17-25. Jones, D.A., Ainsworth, B., Croft, J., Macera, C., Lloyd, E., & Yusuf, H. (1998). Moderate leisure-time physical activity: Who is meeting the public health recommendations? Archives of Family Medicine, 7, 285-289. Katula, J., Blissmer, B., & McAuley, E. (1999). Exercise intensity and self-efficacy effects on anxiety reduction in healthy, older adults. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 22, 233-247. Kennedy, M.M., & Newton, M. (1997). Effect of exercise intensity on mood in step aerobics. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 37, 200-204. King, A.C., Taylor, C., & Haskell, W. (1993). Effects of differing intensities and formats of 12 months of exercise training on psychological outcomes in older adults. Health Psychology, 12, 292-300. King, A.C., Taylor, C.B., Haskell, W.L., & DeBusk, R.F. (1989). Influence of regular aerobic exercise on psychological health: A randomized, controlled trial of healthy middle-aged adults. Health Psychology, 8, 305-324. Kujala, U., Kaprio, J., Taimela, S., & Sarna, S. (1994). Prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and ischemic heart disease in former elite athletes. Metabolism, 43, 1255-1260. Lane, A.M., Crone-Grant, D., & Lane, H. (2002). Mood changes following exercise. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 94, 732-734.

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31 Lanyon, L.E. (1996). Using functional loading to influence bone mass and architecture: objectives, mechanisms, and relationship with estrogen of the mechanically adaptive process in bone. Bone, 18, S37-S43. McAuley, E. (1991). Efficacy, attributional, and affective responses to exercise participation. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 13, 383-293. McNair, D., Lorr, M., & Droppleman, L. (1992). EdITS Manual for the profile of mood states. San Diego, CA: Educational and Industrial Testing Service. Morris, M., & Salmon, P. (1994). Qualitative and quantitative effects of running on mood. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 34, 284-291. Moses, J., Steptoe, A., Mathews, A., & Edwards, S. (1989). The effects of exercise training on mental well-being in the normal population: A controlled trial. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 33, 47-61. Penninx, B.W.J.H., Leveille, S., Ferrucci, L., Van Eijk, J.T.M., & Guralnik, J.M. (1999). Exploring the effect of depression on physical disability: longitudinal evidence from the established populations for epidemiologic studies of the elderly. American Journal of Public Health 89, 1346-1352. Perri, M., Anton, S., Durning, P., Ketterson, T., Sydeman, S., Berlant, N., Kanasky, W., Newton, R., Limacher, M., & Martin, D. (2002). Adherence to exercise prescriptions: effects of prescribing moderate versus higher levels of intensity and frequency. Health Psychology, 5, 452-458. Pierce, E.F., & Pate, D.W. (1994). Mood Alterations in older adults following acute exercise. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 79, 191-194. Pinto, B., Tunzo, J., Reiss, P., & Shiu, S. (2002). Exercise participation after diagnosis of breast cancer: trends and effects on mood and quality of life. Psycho-Oncology, 11, 389-400. Plante, T., & Rodin, J. (1991). Physical fitness and enhanced psychological health. Current Psychology, 9, 3-25. Pollock, M.L., & Wilmore, J.H. (1990). Exercise in health and disease: Evaluation and prescription for prevention and rehabilitation (2 nd ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders. Rehor, P.R., Dunngan, T., Stewart, C., & Cooley, D. (2001). Alteration of mood state after a single bout of noncompetitive and competitive exercise programs. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 93, 249-256. Ross, M.C., Bohannon, A.S., Davis, D.C., & Gurchiek, L. (1999). The effects of a short-term exercise program on movement, pain, and mood in the elderly. Results of a pilot study. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 17, 139-147.

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32 Schroeder, J.M., Nau, K.L., Osness, W.H., & Potteiger, J.A. (1998). A comparison of life satisfaction, functional ability, physical characteristics, and activity level among older adults in various living settings. Journal of Aging Phys. Act., 6, 340-349. Sexton, H., Maere, A., & Dahl, N.H. (1989). Exercise intensity and reduction of neurotic symptoms: a controlled follow-up study. Acta Psychiatr. Scand., 80, 231-235. Shephard, R.J. (2001). Absolute versus relative intensity of physical activity in a dose-response context. Journal of Medicine, Science, and Sports Exercise, 33, S400-418. Shin, Y. (1999). The effects of a walking exercise program on physical function and emotional state of elderly Korean women. Public Health Nursing, 16, 146-154. Spector, P.C., Goodnight, J.H., Sall, J.P., & Sarle, W.S. (1985). The GLM procedure. In SAS Institute (Eds.), SAS users guide: Statistics (5 th ed., pp. 433-506). Cary, NC: SAS Institute. Spirduso, W., & Cronin, D.L. (2001). Exercise dose-response effects on quality of life and independent living in older adults. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 33, S598-S608. Steptoe, A., & Cox, S. (1998). Acute effects of aerobic exercise on mood. Health Psychology, 7, 329-340. Stewart, A.L., Hays, R.D., Wells, K.B., Rogers, W.H., Spritzer, K.L., & Greenfield, S. (1994). Long-term functioning and well-being outcomes associated with physical activity and exercise in patients with chronic conditions in the Medical Outcomes Study. J. Clin. Epidemiol, 47, 719-730. Tate, A.K., & Petruzzello, S.J. (1995). Varying the intensity of acute exercise: Implications for changes in affect. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 35, 295-302. Treasure, D., & Newberry, D. (1998). Relationship between self-efficacy, exercise intensity, and feeling states in a sedentary population during and following an acute bout of exercise. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 20, 1-11. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). (1996). Physical activity and health: A report of the surgeon general. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Veale, E., LeFevre, K., Pantelis, C., DeSouza, V., Mann, A., & Sargeant, A. (1992). Aerobic exercise in the adjuctive treatment of depression: a randomized controlled trial. J.R. Soc. Med, 85, 541-544. Vuori, I. (1998). Does physical activity enhance health? Patient Education and Counseling, 33, S95-S103.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Mary Murawski graduated summa cum laude from Saint Anselm College in 2002, where she received a Bachelor of Arts in psychology. She is currently working towards her Ph.D in clinical and health psychology, focusing in the area of medical/health psychology. 33


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Title: The Impact of Exercise on Mood: Effects of Varying Intensity and Frequency
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

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Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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THE IMPACT OF EXERCISE ON MOOD: EFFECTS OF VARYING INTENSITY
AND
FREQUENCY














By

MARY MURAWSKI


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2004
































Copyright 2004

by

Mary Murawski
















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank my mentor, Dr. Michael Perri, as well as Dr. Patricia Durning,

Dr. Lesley Fox, and Gretchen Ames, for their continual encouragement and assistance

throughout the formation and completion of this thesis.





















TABLE OF CONTENTS


page


ACKNOWLEDGMENT S .........__... ......._. .............._ iii..


LIST OF TABLES ........._.__........_. ...............v....


LIST OF FIGURES .............. ....................vi


AB STRAC T ................ .............. vii


CHAPTER


1 INTRODUCTION ................. ...............1.......... ......


2 MATERIALS AND METHODS .............. ...............7.....


Participants .............. ...............7.....
Proc edure s ................ ...............8............ ....
Recruitm ent .............. ...............8.....
Baseline Assessment .............. ...............8.....

Experimental Design .............. ...............9.....
Intensity Prescriptions .............. ...............9.....
Frequency Prescriptions .............. ...............10....
Exercise Logs ................. ...............11.................
Exercise Interventions ................. ...............11.......... .....

Dependent Measures ................. ...............12.................
Statistical Analyses ................. ...............13.................


3 RE SULT S ................. ...............14.......... .....


Participant Characteristics .............. ...............14....
Preliminary Analyses ................. ...............14.................
Primary Analyses ................. ...............15.................


4 DI SCUS SSION ................. ...............23................


LIST OF REFERENCES ................. ...............29........... ....


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .............. ...............33....


















LIST OF TABLES

Table pg

1 Exercise Prescriptions ........._ ...... .___ ...............6....

2 Baseline Characteristics by Treatment Condition............... ...............1

3 Means and Standard Deviations--POMS Depression............... ...............1

4 Means and Standard Deviations--POMS Tension............... ...............18

5 Means and Standard Deviations--POMS Vigor ...........__.......__ .............19

















LIST OF FIGURES

Figure pg

1 Depression by prescription at baseline and 6 months.............__ ........._ ......20

2 Tension by prescription at baseline and 6 months ........._._. .........._._............20

3 Vigor by prescription at baseline and 6 months............... ...............21.

4 Effect of intensity within group change in Vigor ................. ................ ...._.21

5 Effect of frequency within group change in Vigor ................. .......................22
















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

THE IMPACT OF EXERCISE ON MOOD: EFFECTS OF VARYING
INTENSITY AND FREQUENCY

By

Mary Murawski

May 2004

Chair: Michael G. Perri
Major Department: Clinical and Health Psychology

Limited information exists about the dose-response relationship between exercise

and mood. This study examined the effects of four different exercise prescriptions on

changes in mood over the course of a 6-month intervention period. Participants included

315 healthy adults (62% women; 77% Caucasian; mean age = 48.9 years) who reported

an average of < 1 hour per week of leisure-time physical activity at baseline. Participants

were randomly assigned to one of four exercise counseling conditions that varied in

intensity (moderate vs. high; 45-55% vs. 65-75% of maximum heart rate reserve) and

frequency (moderate vs. high; 3-4 vs. 5-7 days/week). The Profile of Mood States was

used to assess depression, tension, and vigor at baseline and 6 months. Repeated-

measures ANOVAs showed significant improvements from baseline to 6 months in vigor

(p < .01) but not in depression or tension (ps > .10). Post-hoc analyses indicated that

significant increases in vigor occurred only in those conditions where exercise was

prescribed either at moderate intensity/high frequency (p < .01) or at high









intensity/moderate frequency (p < .01). Neither the moderate intensity/moderate

frequency nor the high intensity/high frequency prescriptions resulted in significant

changes in vigor. These results show that among healthy adults the psychological benefits

associated with increased exercise may be limited to changes in vigor and that these

changes only occur when exercise is prescribed at either a high intensity/moderate

frequency or a moderate intensity/high frequency.















CHAPTER 1
INTTRODUCTION

Numerous physiological benefits are associated with engaging in regular physical

activity (U. S. Department of Health and Human Services [USDHHS], 1996). Studies

have shown exercise to help prevent the development of osteoporosis (Lanyon, 1996), aid

in decreasing the risk of developing non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (Kuj ala,

Kaprio, Taimela, & Sarna, 1994), as well as provide many other well- documented

biological benefits (Byers, 1995). Relatively little research, however, has examined the

psychological benefits that accompany physical activity.

In reviewing the benefits of regular physical activity, Vuori (1998) indeed noted the

lack of information on the impact of exercise on psychological factors and the need for

more research to elucidate its effects. While some research has attempted to assess the

effects of exercise on psychological factors, most studies have primarily focused on

short-term effects occurring after acute bouts of exercise (Pierce & Pate, 1994; Rehor,

Dunnagan, Stewart, & Cooley, 2001; Steptoe & Cox, 1998).

Studies assessing psychological benefits associated with exercise have found

significant reductions in symptoms such as depression and anxiety following brief

sessions of exercise (Dimeo, Bauer, Varahram, Proest, & Halter, 2001; Lane, Crone-

Grant, & Lane, 2002). While these studies provide evidence for the acute effects or

immediate consequences following an exercise bout, they do not provide insight into the

long-term psychological benefits, or chronic effects, that may accompany participation in

regular exercise.









Research detailing the chronic effects of regular exercise has been provided in

several studies of long-term exercise interventions (Blumenthal, Williams, Needels, &

Wallace, 1982; Morris & Salmon, 1994). DiLorenzo, Bargman, Stucky-Ropp,

Brassington, Frensch, and LaFontaine (1999) found small reductions on dimensions of

depression, tension-anxiety, and vigor as measured on the Profile of Mood States

(POMS) following a twelve-week aerobic exercise intervention. Shin (1999) also used

the POMS when assessing the effects of a walking exercise program. After an eight-

week intervention, a significant decrease in depression and tension, as well as an increase

in vigor occurred in the walking group as compared to a non-equivalent control group.

While these studies have provided information regarding the long-term psychological

effects of exercise, certain limitations to these studies should be considered.

Many studies examining psychological benefits of regular exercise have often

utilized unique or unrepresentative populations. In the study by Shin (1999) described

above, a population of solely elderly Korean women acted as participants. Many studies

examining the effects of exercise have focused on strictly elderly populations (Penninx,

Leveille, Ferrucci, Van Eijk, & Guralnik, 1999; Schroeder, Nau, Osness, & Potteiger,

1998). Other studies have used participants with physical illnesses (Gowans, deHueck,

Voss, Silaj, Abbey, & Reynolds, 2001; Pinto, Trunzo, Reiss, & Shiu, 2002) or with

clinically diagnosed depression and anxiety (Dimeo et al., 2001). Furthermore, Berger

and Owen (1983), who found a significant mood improvement in psychological factors as

measured on the POMS, were assessing the unique population of competitive swimmers.

Also, many times unusual forms of exercise have been utilized when trying to assess the

psychological benefits of exercise. Forms of physical activity that are less accessible to










the general public, such as tai chi or aquatic aerobics, have often been used in

interventions (Belza, Topolski, Kinne, Patrick, & Ramsey, 2002; Ross, Bohannon, Davis,

& Gurchiek, 1999). Lastly, it is important to note that all of these studies describing long-

term psychological benefits of exercise did not control for the variables of exercise

intensity or frequency.

Only few studies have examined the chronic effects of physical activity while

accounting for the intensity or frequency of the exercise (Moses, Steptoe, Mathews&

Edwards, 1989). Katula, Blissmer, and McAuley (1999) found that a session of lighter

intensity (29% HRres) walking resulted in decreased arousal and anxiousness (as

measured by the State Anxiety Inventory), whereas a session of higher-intensity walking

(96% HRres) resulted in increased arousal and decreased anxiousness in older adults. In a

meta-analysis by Dunn, Trivedi, and O'Neal (2001), evidence suggested that both

moderate and vigorous exercise can yield positive psychological benefits. Indeed,

research has shown that vigorous exercise is not necessary to obtain mood improvement

(King, Taylor, & Haskell, 1993). Sexton, Maere, and Dahl (1989) found that participants

in both a moderate intensity walking group and a higher intensity jogging group both

showed significant decreases in symptoms of depression and anxiety (as measured by the

Beck Depression Inventory and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively). Similar

findings have been reported in other studies assessing the impact of intensity on long-

term psychological benefits of exercise (Veale, LeFevre, Pantelis, DeSouza, Mann, &

Sargeant, 1992). It is interesting to note that some studies have examined the effects of

varying the intensity of acute bouts of exercise (Bartholomew & Linder, 1998; Tate &

Petruzzello, 1995; Treasure & Newberry, 1998). Kennedy and Newton (1997) found that










participants enrolled in four sessions of either low intensity or high intensity aerobic

classes all experienced reductions in depression, tension, fatigue, and anger and an

increase in vigor as measured by the Profile of Mood States. Thus, much of the literature

assessing the impact of varying the intensity of both long-term and short-term exercise

interventions showed psychological benefits in all participants regardless of intensity

condition.

Unfortunately, fewer studies have examined the effects of different exercise

frequencies on psychological functioning. McAuley (1991), after 10 weeks of a brisk

walking intervention, found that a higher frequency of regular physical activity yields

higher levels of positive affect (as measured on an "affective reactions questionnaire").

Those results, however, do not clarify the effects of exercise frequency on a variety of

dimensions within psychological well-being, such as the mood components of

depression, tension, and vigor. Some studies have shown higher frequency exercise to be

associated with less depressive symptomatology (Conroy, Smith, & Felthous, 1982;

Hassmen, Kolvula, & Uutela, 2002). It should be noted, however, that the majority of

studies evaluating the effects of exercise on symptom reduction have utilized populations

with clinically diagnosed depression or anxiety. Again, the lack of information on the

impact of exercise frequency on mood improvement represents a large gap in the

literature.

Furthermore, this insufficient knowledge on the impact of exercise frequency

contributes to the dearth of literature providing insight into the impact of exercise on

psychological factors while controlling for both intensity and frequency. Evidence for

exercise dose-response effects, or the amount or "dose" of exercise needed to produce a










response, on dimensions of psychological mood has been notably lacking. One meta-

analysis did examine the exercise dose-response relationship, but the analysis only

utilized studies assessing clinical populations, who had significant levels of depression

and anxiety at baseline. The researchers found that more frequent exercise yielded greater

reductions in depression and anxiety and that both low and high intensity physical

activity decreased depression (Dunn et al, 2001). While this information is helpful, we

are still left with two unanswered questions: What are the psychological benefits of

regular exercise in a non-clinical population? What dose of exercise is needed to produce

psychological benefits in a non-clinical population?

Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of varying

exercise frequency and intensity on mood in a randomized trial, with a factorial design,

consisting of two levels of intensity (moderate, 45%-55% vs. high, 65%-75% HRres~)

crossed with two levels of frequency (moderate, 3-4 vs. high, 5-7 days per week), while

controlling for mode of exercise (walking), for daily duration (30 min), and for setting

(home-based). Specifically, the study assessed the impact of four exercise prescriptions

(See Table 1) on depression, tension, and vigor, as measured by the Profile of Mood

States, at both baseline and 6 months. We hypothesized that compared to moderate

frequency, high frequency exercise would result in: a decrease in depression, a decrease

in tension, and an increase in vigor. With regards to intensity, we hypothesized that from

baseline to 6 months both moderate and high intensity exercise would result in: a

decrease in depression, a decrease in tension, and an increase in vigor.









Table 1. Exercise Prescriptions


Moderate Intensity/Moderate Frequency (MI/MF)
(45%-55% HRres/3-4 days per week)

Moderate Intensity/High Frequency (MI/HF)
(45%-55% HRres/5-7 days per week)

High Intensity/Moderate Frequency (HI/MF)
(65%-75% HRres/3-4 days per week)

High Intensity/High Frequency (HI/HF)
(65%-75% HRres/5-7 days per week)















CHAPTER 2
MATERIALS AND METHODS

Participants

Participants were 315 healthy but sedentary women (n=195) and men (n=120) who

volunteered to take part in a 2-year study of the effects of walking on health and fitness.

Five cohorts of participants were recruited and randomized at 3-month intervals.

Eligibility requirements included age between 30-69 years, sedentary lifestyle (defined as

less than 1 hour per week of leisure-time physical activity over the prior 12 months),

body mass index (BMI) between 19 and 45, and resting blood pressure below 140 mm

Hg systolic and 90 mm Hg diastolic. To be eligible, potential participants also had to

agree that over the course of the study they would maintain their usual physical activity

patterns and not initiate any new exercise other than that associated with their randomly

assigned treatment condition. Individuals who were unwilling or unable to give informed

consent, were unwilling to accept random assignment, or were participating in another

research project were not accepted. Potential participants were excluded if, at screening,

their medical history, clinical examination, or laboratory results revealed any of the

following conditions: coronary heart disease; chronic or recurrent respiratory or

gastrointestinal conditions; hypercholesterolemia (for women, LDL-cholesterol > 190

mg/dl; for men > 160 mg/dl) or use of antihyperlipidemia medication; diabetes mellitus,

fasting blood glucose > 1 10 mg/dl; cancer within 10 years; or bone, muscle, or j oint

conditions that would prevent walking on a regular basis. Women who were pregnant or

planning to become pregnant during the course of the study were also excluded.









Procedures

Recruitment

Participants were recruited through a variety of methods, including media articles,

direct mailings, newspaper announcements, and presentations to community groups.

Following telephone screening, potentially eligible persons were invited to attend an

informational meeting during which the purposes and procedures of the study were

explained and informed consent was obtained. After providing consent, each individual

completed a medical history form that included questions concerning current and past

illnesses, past surgeries, and current medication use.

Baseline Assessment

During a baseline testing session, each participant underwent a medical

examination and completed a symptom-limited maximal exercise test to determine peak

oxygen consumption (VOzmax; ml/min/kg) and maximum heart rate (HRmax). Prior to the

treadmill test, blood pressure (BP) and a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) were

obtained in the sitting and standing positions. Three ECG leads were monitored

continuously during the exercise test and a 12-lead ECG was repeated every 60 s of

exercise and at 1, 3, and 5 min into recovery. Participants between the ages of 30 and 49

years performed the standard Bruce protocol (Bruce, Kusumi, & Hosmer, 1973).

Participants between the ages of 50 and 69 years performed a modified Bruce protocol

(Pollock & Wilmore, 1990), with workloads increasing by approximately three metabolic

equivalents (METS) every 3 min. The tests continued until participants reached

voluntary maximal exertion or until they became symptomatic or developed significant

hemodynamic or electrocardiographic endpoints (e.g., angina). Oxygen uptake during

exercise was determined each minute by means of a semiautomated computer-based









system (ParvoMedics TrueMax 2400 Metabolic Measurement System, Consentius

Technologies, Sandy, UT). Maximal oxygen uptake was defined as the average of two

30-s values measured during the last minute of exercise. The Karvonen formula (ACSM,

1986) was used to calculate HRres (Hrres = HRmax TOSting HR).

Experimental Design

Following stratification by age (30-49 years and 50-69 years), sex, and VOzmax

(above or below the median age- and sex-adjusted norms from the Cooper Clinic; Pollock

& Wilmore, 1990), participants were randomly assigned to a physician advice control

group (No data from these participants were included in the analyses reported in this

thesis) or to one of the following four exercise training conditions: (a) moderate intensity,

moderate frequency; (b) moderate intensity, higher frequency; (c) higher intensity,

moderate frequency; or (d) higher intensity, higher frequency. The computerized

randomization was carried out using SAS's PROC PLAN (Spector, Goonight, Sall, &

Sarle, 1985).

Intensity Prescriptions

Each participant was assigned an individualized training heart rate (THR) zone on

the basis of the results of his or her initial treadmill testing. In the moderate intensity

conditions, the individualized THR zone corresponded to 45%-55% HRres. In the higher

intensity conditions, the individualized THR condition corresponded to 65%-75% HRres.

The "moderate" and "higher" intensity ranges correspond to the intensity ranges

designated as "moderate" and "hard", respectively, in the Surgeon General's report

(USDHHS, 1996). Participants were instructed to adjust their pace of walking to an

intensity level consistent with their prescribed THR zone (Participants who reported

difficulty achieving their THRs through brisk walking, were taught race-walking










techniques and, if necessary, were permitted to use motorized treadmills to achieve the

targeted level of intensity). To corroborate self-reported HR values during unsupervised

walking sessions, each participant was asked to complete a 30-min walk on three separate

occasions (i.e., during Weeks 5, 12, and 24) while wearing a monitor that recorded HRs

at 1-min intervals and stored the data in digital memory (Polar Accurex Plus, Polar

Electro, Inc., Port Washington, NY). The stored data were later downloaded, and the

percentage of time that the participant' s exercise HR fell within the prescribed THR zone

was calculated.

Frequency Prescriptions

The exercise training activity prescribed to all participants was walking within the

individualized THR zone for 30 min per day (either in a continuous bout or in up to three

bouts, each of at least 10 min duration) for a prescribed number of days per week. [A

review of exercise logs revealed that the majority of the exercise (79%) was completed in

single 30-min bouts rather than multiple bouts of shorter duration and that there were no

significant differences in the use of shorter bouts as a function of the exercise

prescriptions.] The walking could occur at home or at a work site or both. Although

participants were given flexibility in scheduling their exercise routines, the importance of

achieving 30 min of exercise on each training day was strongly emphasized. Participants

in the moderate frequency conditions were advised to walk 3-4 days per week.

Participants in the higher frequency conditions were advised to walk 5-7 days per week.

Each participant was provided with an individually tailored schedule for gradually

building up to the prescribed intensity and frequency levels over the first month of the

study .










Exercise Logs

Participants were instructed in the use of daily training logs for self-monitoring of

their exercise, including the duration (i.e., number of minutes) and the intensity (i.e.,

average HR) of all leisure-time bouts of walking of at least 10 min duration. Because

each bout of walking was recorded separately, the frequency of walking was also

recorded. Each participant was provided with a Polar Beat HR monitor (Polar Electro,

Inc., Port Washington, NY), which provided a continuous display of current HR.

Participants were instructed to wear the HR monitors during each exercise bout and to

record the most frequently observed HR during the exercise session on their exercise

logs. The training logs were collected by staff at intervention sessions. In cases of

absences, staff contacted participants to obtain the exercise information and to encourage

future attendance.

Exercise Interventions

Following randomization, all participants received a standard exercise intervention

program derived in part from a modified version of Cooper Institute for Aerobics

Research's Project Prime Program. The intervention included 11 group sessions over 6

months. The sessions were held weekly during Month 1, biweekly during Months 1-3,

and monthly during Months 4-6. Treatment sessions were conducted by counselors

(counterbalanced by condition) with graduate training in exercise science and/or

behavioral science who followed a structured protocol.

The exercise intervention procedures were guided by the principles of social-

cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) and included instruction in goal setting, self-

monitoring, cognitive restructuring, and problem solving. Each session was conducted in

three segments. Segment 1 was used to review participants' progress, since the previous









session, in implementing the strategies recommended for increasing their activity level.

Group problem solving was used when participants reported difficulty in achieving goals;

praise was offered when participants reported good progress. Segment 2 was used for

didactic instruction. The following topics were covered during the instruction segments:

proper techniques for the use of walking as exercise; behavioral self-management skills;

exercise and health; increasing motivation and reinforcement for exercise; positive self-

talk; exercising in hot or cold weather; building social support for exercise; problem

solving to overcome barriers to exercise; stress management; and relapse prevention.

The participants were provided with handouts supplementing the presentations, and they

were given homework assignments aimed at enhancing behavioral skills and problem

solving. Segment 3 was used for a walking bout supervised by group leaders. In addition

to providing participants with the opportunities. to walk with other participants, the

supervised walking bouts also offered group leaders opportunities to instruct participants

on the use of the HR monitors for maintaining awareness of intensity during the walking

bout.

Dependent Measures

Three dimensions of mood, including Depression, Tension, and Vigor, were

assessed using three sub scales of the Profile of Mood States pomsS). The POMS is a 65

item five-point adj ective rating scale where participants are instructed to rate adj ectives

based on "how you have been feeling during the past week including today." Participants

are asked to rate the adjectives on a scale from (0) "not at all" to (4) "extremely". A

score for each mood factor is obtained by summing the responses to the rated adj ectives

that define each respective factor. Scores can range from 0 to 40 on each subscale with

higher scores indicating higher levels of the mood variables. The POMS measures six










factors, including: Depression-Dej section, Tension- Anxiety, Vigor-Activity, Fatigue-

Inertia, Confusion-Bewilderment, and Anger-Hostility. The POMS has an internal

consistency of .90 and test-retest reliability ranging from .61 to .69 across the six factors.

The scale of Depression, which was assessed in this study, measures the "mood of

depression as accompanied by a sense of personal inadequacy." This scale consists of

adjectives such as "unhappy", "discouraged", and "worthless". The Tension scale, also

examined in this study, utilizes adj ectives that are "descriptive of heightened

musculoskeletal tension", such as: "tense", "uneasy", and "restless". The last factor of

mood investigated in this study was Vigor. The POMS Vigor scale measures "a mood of

vigorousness, ebullience, and high energy", as described by adjectives including:

"lively", "alert", and "carefree" (McNair, Lorr, Droppleman, 1992).

Statistical Analyses

A series of 2 X 2 X 2 repeated measures Analyses of Variance (ANOVAs) was

utilized to assess the effects of 2 levels of intensity (moderate, high), 2 levels of

frequency (moderate, high), at 2 time points (baseline, 6 months) on depression, tension,

and vigor. Planned comparisons were used to examine the hypothesized changes in

mood.















CHAPTER 3
RESULTS

Participant Characteristics

Of 2, 165 people who made telephone inquiries concerning the study, 877

underwent screening for eligibility, 553 met criteria for participation, and 492 accepted

randomization to one of four treatment conditions or to a control condition. The 3 15

participants in the four exercise intervention conditions constituted our study sample (See

Table 2 for baseline characteristics). ANOVAs showed that the treatment groups did not

differ significantly in baseline measures of age, educational level, BMI, blood pressure,

heart rate, or cardiorespiratory fitness.

Preliminary Analyses

Rates of attendance at the group intervention sessions (M= 71%, SD= 21%) were

equivalent across conditions (range of means across groups= 69%-74%), as were the

percentages of participants who dropped out prior to completion (overall attrition rate=

13%, range across groups= 9%-17%). Similarly, the rates of exercise log completion

(M= 73%, SD=37%) were comparable across conditions (range of means across groups=

68%-79%). HR data collected via downloadable HR monitors used during selected

weeks demonstrated that the maj ority of participants adhered to the exercise intensity

prescriptions. In the moderate intensity conditions, 88% of the participants had mean

HRs (averaged over the last 20 min of 30-min bouts) within their individually prescribed

THR zones (45%-55% HRres), 2% were below prescription (< 45% HRres), and 10%

were above prescription (56%-64% HRres). In the higher intensity conditions, 71% of









the participants had mean HRs within the prescribed THR zones (65%-75% HRres); 6%

exceeded the prescribed intensity; and 23% fell below the prescription, including 8% in

the moderate intensity range (45%-55% HRres).

Primary Analyses

The 2 (moderate vs. high intensity) X 2 (moderate vs. high frequency) X 2

(baseline vs. 6-months) repeated measures ANOVA was utilized to examine the effects

of exercise intensity and frequency on POMS Depression (See Table 3 for Means and

Standard Deviations). Results showed no significant effect for Time, F (1, 310) =.34,

p=.56; no significant Time X Intensity interaction effect, F (1, 310) =.22, p=.64; and no

significant Time X Frequency interaction effect F (1, 310)=.02, p=.90. There was a

significant 3-way interaction for Time X Intensity X Frequency, F (1, 310) =5.36, p=.02.

Planned comparisons showed a trend that High Intensity/Moderate Frequency (p=.058)

exercise decreases depression from baseline to 6 months compared to Moderate

Intensity/Moderate Frequency exercise (See Figure 1).

The 2 X 2 X 2 repeated measures ANOVA for change in Tension scores (See Table

4 for Means and Standard Deviations) after 6 months showed no significant effect for

Time, F (1,311) =.64, p=.42; no significant Time X Intensity interaction effect, F (1,311)

=.76, p=.38; no significant for Time X Frequency interaction effect, F (1, 311) =.40,

p=.53; and no significant 3-way interaction effect for Time X Intensity X Frequency, F

(1, 311) =1.94, p=.17. Planned comparison t-tests showed no significant differences in

tension by prescription at baseline and 6 months (See Figure 2).

The 2 X 2 X 2 repeated measures ANOVA for change in Vigor (See Table 5 for

Means and Standard Deviations) after 6 months showed a significant effect for Time, F

(1,311) =26.68, p=.001; no significant Time X Intensity interaction effect, F (1, 311)









=.38, p=.54; and no significant Time X Frequency interaction effect, F (1,311) =.25,

p=.62. There was a significant 3-way interaction effect for Time X Intensity X

Frequency, F (1, 311) =6.33, p=.01 (See Figure 3).

Planned comparisons showed both Moderate (p<.01) and Higher (p<.01) Intensity

conditions produced significant within group increases in Vigor (See Figure 4). Planned

comparisons also showed both Moderate (p<.01) and Higher (p<.01) Frequency

conditions produced significant within group increases in Vigor (See Figure 5). Further

analyses showed, however, that only the Moderate Intensity/Higher Frequency (p<.01)

and Higher Intensity/Moderate Frequency (p<.01) prescriptions yielded significant within

group changes in Vigor. The Moderate Intensity/Moderate Frequency (p=.195) and High

Intensity/High Frequency (p=. 191) prescriptions did not yield significant within group

changes in Vigor (See Figure 3).


















MI/MF MI/HF HI/MF HI/HF
(n=-71) (n=-84) (n=-76) (n=-84)
Variable M SD % M SD % M SD % M SD %


Age (years) 48.3 7.8 48.9 8.3 49.4 8.8 49.0 8.7
Gender
Male 44 35 34 40
Female 56 65 66 60
Ethnicity
Caucasian 78 78 64 85
African American 14 11 21 11
Hispanic 3 5 7 1
Asian 4 5 3 2
Other 1 1 5 1
Education
Less than High School 13 8 5 9
High School Graduate 1 6 8 11
Some College 24 34 22 26
Bachelor' sDegree 30 27 32 27
Master' sDegree 15 17 21 13
Doctoral Degree 17 8 12 14
BMI 28.1 4.9 28.0 5.0 28.3 4.4 28.7 6.2
VO2max 26.8 5.7 25.3 5.1 25.0 5.5 25.0 6.7


Table 2. Baseline Characteristics by Treatment Condition












Baseline 6 Months
n M SD M SD



Group Prescription
MI/MF 71 4.85 5.36 5.75 6.21
MI/HF 84 5.97 7.75 4.98 6.81
HI/MF 75 7.13 8.75 5.88 7.94
HI/HF 84 5.26 6.20 5.70 7.55
Total 314 5.80 7.17 5.56 7.15
Intensity Prescription
Moderate 155 5.46 6.76 5.33 6.54
High 159 6.14 7.55 5.78 7.71
Total 314 5.80 7.17 5.56 7.15
Frequency Prescription
Moderate 146 6.02 7.37 5.82 7.13
High 168 5.62 7.00 5.34 7.18
Total 314 5.80 7.17 5.56 7.15




Table 4. Means and Standard Deviations--POMS Tension

Baseline 6 Months
n M SD M SD



Group Prescription
MI/MF 71 6.05 4.18 6.29 5.07
MI/HF 84 5.91 5.07 5.71 5.22
HI/MF 76 7.81 6.15 6.75 5.65
HI/HF 84 5.81 4.45 5.92 4.38
Total 315 6.38 5.06 6.15 5.08
Intensity Prescription
Moderate 155 5.97 4.67 5.98 5.15
High 160 6.76 5.40 6.31 5.02
Total 315 6.38 5.06 6.15 5.08
Frequency Prescription
Moderate 147 6.96 5.35 6.53 5.36
High 168 5.86 4.76 5.81 4.81
Total 315 6.38 5.06 6.15 5.08


Table 3. Means and Standard Deviations-


-POMS Depression












Baseline 6 Months
n M SD M SD



Group Prescription
MI/MF 71 17.30 5.69 18.12 6.32
MI/HF 84 17.38 6.54 20.12 6.68
HI/MF 76 17.14 6.58 19.18 5.82
HI/HF 84 17.64 5.68 18.43 5.84
Total 315 17.37 6.12 19.00 6.20
Intensity Prescription
Moderate 155 17.34 6.14 19.22 6.57
High 160 17.40 6.11 18.79 5.82
Total 315 17.37 6.12 19.00 6.20
Frequency Prescription
Moderate 147 17.21 6.15 18.69 6.06
High 168 17.51 6.11 19.28 6.32
Total 315 17.37 6.12 19.00 6.20


Table 5. Means and Standard Deviations--POMS Vigor











Depression by Prescription at Baseline and 6 Months
[ Means and SEM ]


Baseline 6-months Baseline 6-months Baseline 6-months Baseline 6-months


Figure 1. Depression by prescription at baseline and 6 months


Tension by Prescription at Baseline and 6 Months
[ Means and SEM ]
10
MI/MF
9 MI/HF
HI/MF
8 t~HI/HF


7-5










Baseline 6-months Baseline 6-months Baseline 6-months Baseline 6-months


Figure 2. Tension by prescription at baseline and 6 months





























Baseline 6-months Baseline 6-months Baseline 6-months Baseline 6-months

significant change from baseline (p < .01)

Figure 3. Vigor by prescription at baseline and 6 months


Effect of Intensity
Within group change in Vigor
30
SModerate Intensity

High Intensity ~


10 E


Baseline 6-months Baseline

significant change from baseline (p < .01)

Figure 4. Effect of intensity within group change in Vigor


6-months


Vigor by Prescription at Baseline and 6 Months
[ Means and SEM ]













Effect of Frequency
Within group change in Vigor
30
SModerate Intensity

High Intensity ~

20-




10-





Baseline 6-months Baseline 6-months

significant change from baseline (p < .01)

Figure 5. Effect of frequency within group change in Vigor















CHAPTER 4
DISCUSSION

In the present study we found no significant effects for Time X Intensity or Time X

Frequency for Depression, Tension, or Vigor. We did Eind significant Time X Intensity

X Frequency interaction effects for both Depression and Vigor. Although there were no

significant post-hoc Eindings for Depression, there was a trend towards decreases in

Depression in the High Intensity/Moderate Frequency group. In regards to Vigor,

significant improvements over time were observed in the Moderate Intensity/High

Frequency and High Intensity/Moderate Frequency groups.

Some limitations to this study should be noted. First, with this non-clinical cohort,

who had minimal symptoms of negative mood at baseline, a "floor effect" may have

occurred. Because there were low levels of negative mood within the sample at baseline,

there was little room for improvement in anxiety and depression from baseline to 6

months. The Means and Standard Deviations from an Adult normative sample for

Depression (M= 10.2, SD=10.4) are actually higher than found at baseline in our sample

(M= 5.80, SD= 7.17). The Means and Standard Deviations from an Adult normative

sample for Tension (M= 12.8, SD= 7.9) are also higher than found in our sample at

baseline (M= 6.38, SD= 5.06). Even the Means and Standard Deviations from an Adult

normative sample for Vigor are lower (M= 14.9, SD=6.7) than our sample at baseline

(M=17.37, SD=6.12); thus making even improvement in Vigor more difficult due to a

"ceiling effect" (McNair, Lorr, & Droppleman, 1992). Also, it should be noted that the

amounts of exercise prescribed in this study were quite modest, at only 90 to 150 minutes










per week. Furthermore, Perri et al. (2002) found that participants only completed 61% of

the exercise prescription in the moderate frequency condition and 63% of the exercise

prescription in the higher frequency condition. Thus, the total volume of exercise

completed was even lower than initially prescribed (Ms= 92 min per week in higher

frequency condition vs. 60 min per week in moderate frequency condition). Perhaps

prescriptions of higher volumes may yield more benefits.

While recognizing the limitations of this study, it is important to emphasize that

this study's findings add to the literature in that both the frequency and intensity of the

prescribed exercise was accounted for, which has not been controlled for in previous

studies (Cowper, et al., 1991). Blumenthal et al. (1982), examining the chronic effects of

regular exercise, prescribed 45 minutes of walking at 70%-85% of Maximum Heart Rate

(individually determined by participant' s initial treadmill test) three times a week

throughout a 10-week walking/joegging intervention. Examining the impact of exercise

on tension, fatigue, anger, vigor, depression, and confusion, as measured by the Profile of

Mood States, in a non-clinical population, the researchers did find some improvements in

mood. After 10 weeks of training, the exercise group showed significant decreases in

tension, fatigue, and confusion compared to a no-treatment group. The exercise group did

not show any decrease in anger, but did show non-significant increases in vigor and

decreases in depression. This study, however, can not provide insight into what

combination of frequency and intensity may be most beneficial in producing changes in

mood. Furthermore, they prescribed a more moderate frequency of exercise (only 3 days

a week) but utilized a higher intensity rate (the current study's high intensity condition

only prescribed 65%-75% HRres) and a longer duration (45 min vs. the current study's









30 min.), which may not be reasonable for all adults. Thus, our study, which varies both

the intensity and frequency levels within 4 exercise prescriptions, provides greater detail

into the actual and perhaps most parsimonious dosage necessary to produce

improvements in mood.

Our Eindings showed that the prescriptions for both Moderate and Higher Intensity

walking resulted in an increase in Vigor from baseline to 6 months. This result is as we

expected and is consistent with Eindings from previous studies showing both lower and

higher intensity exercise yielding significant changes in Vigor (Kennedy & Newton,

1997). Neither the Moderate nor the Higher Intensity prescriptions, however, yielded

significant changes in Depression or Anxiety. This finding could be a result of the

restricted range of scores due to the healthy cohort utilized in this study as mentioned

previously, whose low baseline scores of depression and anxiety left little room for

improvement. This could explain the inconsistency with the present study's findings that

none of the exercise prescriptions impacted depression or anxiety scores, whereas

previous studies that utilized clinically depressed or anxious populations did indeed

observe decreases in mood symptoms associated with participation in physical activity

(Hassmen, Koivua, & Uutela, 2000).

Furthermore, our results showed that the prescriptions for both Moderate and

Higher Frequency walking also resulted in an increase in Vigor from baseline to 6

months. Although we expected Higher Frequency walking to result in mood

improvement, we did not anticipate that Moderate Frequency walking would also yield

significant changes in mood when paired with Higher Intensity walking. This finding that

changes in mood occur with prescriptions of Moderate Frequency /High Intensity









walking and a High Frequency/Moderate Intensity walking could possibly be explained

in terms of the dose-response relationship. Perhaps the mechanism for change is the

balance between having a High component to initiate a change in mood but also the need

for a Moderate component to ensure that the exercise does not result in a fatigue that

would counteract the beneficial effects of the exercise on Vigor. Plante and Rodin (1991)

discuss a number of possible biological and psychological mechanisms that could explain

the connection between exercise and psychological health. One theory they discuss,

postulating a biological mechanism, suggests that improvement in mood (Vigor) is a

result of exercise-enhanced neurotransmission of norepinephrine, serotonin, and

dopamine. Again, a High component of exercise may be necessary to initiate this

enhanced transmission, while a moderate component would help maintain an appropriate

level of transmission. Thus, a Moderate Intensity/Moderate Frequency amount of

activity may not be sufficient to initiate and maintain increased neurotransmission. High

Intensity/High Frequency activity, however, may actually initiate and cause an excess or

exhaustion of neurotransmission; thus, negating the possible beneficial effects. Another

theory discussed by Plante and Rodin (1991), suggesting a psychological mechanism,

states that exercise provides a distraction from "unpleasant cognitions, emotions, and

behaviors." Again, a Moderate Intensity/High Frequency prescription of activity would

allow for a level of intensity that would not be so effortful that the exercise itself would

become unpleasant and with such a high frequency of distractions so as to generate

increases in Vigor. A High Intensity/Moderate Frequency prescription of exercise would

enable a higher level of distraction because of the more intense demands of the activity









but at such a lower, occasional frequency so as to still produce significant mood

improvement.

Also, our findings that Vigor was increased but Depression and Tension were not

significantly decreased could possibly speak to the preventive nature of exercise on

mental health. Previous studies have found that while regular physical activity did not

lower symptoms of depression or anxiety, baseline levels of activity did predict future

likelihood of developing depression or anxiety. Camacho, et al. (1991) described this

finding following their 9-year study of the relationship between physical activity and

depression. Participants whose activity level was categorized as "low" (0-4 points on a

physical activity frequency index) were significantly more likely to be clinically

depressed at follow-up than the those who reported moderate (5-8 points) or high (9-14

points) levels of physical activity at baseline. Thus, in non-clinical populations, regularly

participating in exercise may not reduce negative mood but rather may enhance positive

mood states over the long term (Stewart, et al., 1994).

Our findings that exercise increases Vigor and possibly prevent mood disturbance

in the future may also have implications for quality of life issues, especially in older

adults. Regular physical activity has been shown to increase feelings of well-being and

may even facilitate independent living or postpone disability in the elderly (Spirduso &

Cronin, 2001). Thus, the long-term mood enhancing benefits of exercise may represent

an important aspect of quality of life as adults age and attempt to maintain physical and

mental health.

In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that in a non-clinical population,

regular exercise is associated with improvements in vigor but not depression or tension.









Furthermore, this improvement in mood occurs only when exercise is prescribed at either

a higher intensity/moderate frequency or a moderate intensity/higher frequency and may

represent a significant quality of life issue.
















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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Mary Murawski graduated summa cum laude from Saint Anselm College in 2002,

where she received a Bachelor of Arts in psychology. She is currently working towards

her Ph.D in clinical and health psychology, focusing in the area of medical/health

psychology.