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President Lincoln's Commute Route: A Heritage Tourism Opportunity?


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PRESIDENT LINCOLN’S COMMUTE ROUTE: A HERITAGE TOURISM OPPORTUNITY? By ANGELA SUSANNE BROWN A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ARCHITECTURAL STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2004

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Copyright 2004 by Angela Susanne Brown

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iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am very grateful to my thesis comm ittee (Peter Prugh, Dr. Kristin Larsen and Sophia Lynn) for their guidance and enthusiasm I particularly want to express my appreciation for Peter Prugh’s infinite knowledge and kindness, which made my educational experience at the University of Florida outstanding. I thank Sophia Lynn for introducing me to the Presid ent Lincoln and Soldiers’ Ho me National Monument, and encouraging me to stay involved with the proj ect after my internship. I also appreciate the support of William Dupont, Graham Gund Architect; and James Vaughan, Vice President for the Stewardship of Historic Sites at the National Trust for Historic Preservation. Their flexibility allowed me to finish this project on time. I thank my parents for instilling in me an appreciation for historic architecture, and for giving me the confid ence to achieve my goals. Finally, I owe my husband a lifetime of gratitude. His encouragement a nd support allowed me to make this dream a reality.

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iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iii LIST OF FIGURES..........................................................................................................vii ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ix CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 2 HERITAGE TOURISM DEFINED AND EVALUATED..........................................6 Tourism Vocabulary.....................................................................................................6 Heritage Tourism vs. Cultural Tourism.................................................................6 Heritage Trail.........................................................................................................7 National Park Service Vocabulary................................................................................8 National Scenic Trail.............................................................................................8 National Historic Trail...........................................................................................9 National Recreation Trail......................................................................................9 National Heritage Area........................................................................................10 National Park Service Designation of President Lincoln’ s Commute Route.............10 Evaluating the Impact of Heritage Tourism...............................................................12 3 EVALUATING HERI TAGE TOURISM..................................................................15 Evaluative System......................................................................................................16 Resource Protection.............................................................................................16 Visitor Experience...............................................................................................17 Community Benefit.............................................................................................19 Prioritization of Values...............................................................................................21 4 CASE STUDIES.........................................................................................................23 Cultural Tourism DC..................................................................................................23 Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail.........................................24 City within a City: Greater U Street Heritage Trail............................................26

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v African American Heritage Trail.........................................................................29 Evaluation of Cultural Tourism DC’s Heritage Trails........................................31 Resource protection......................................................................................31 Visitor experience........................................................................................32 Community benefit.......................................................................................33 Establishment Procedure Common to All Three Trails......................................34 Financial Investment...........................................................................................35 The Freedom Trail Foundation...................................................................................36 Boston’s Freedom Trail.......................................................................................37 Evaluation of Boston’s Freedom Trail................................................................40 Resource protection......................................................................................40 Visitor experience........................................................................................41 Community benefit.......................................................................................43 5 PRESIDENT LINCOLN’S COMMUTE ROUTE.....................................................45 Wartime Washington..................................................................................................48 Background..........................................................................................................48 Infusion of Soldiers.............................................................................................50 Ongoing Construction.........................................................................................51 Hospitals..............................................................................................................52 Freedmen and Slaves...........................................................................................53 Guards..................................................................................................................55 Riding with the President....................................................................................57 What Did President Lincoln See?...............................................................................57 Conclusion..................................................................................................................59 6 CONCLUSION...........................................................................................................61 Evaluating the Feasibility of Pres ident Lincoln’s Commute Route...........................63 Resource Protection.............................................................................................63 Visitor Experience...............................................................................................65 Community Benefit.............................................................................................66 Recommendations.......................................................................................................67 Opportunities for Future Research..............................................................................68 APPENDIX A NATIONAL TRAIL SYSTEM ACT.........................................................................69 B NATIONAL SCENIC AND HISTORIC TRAILS..................................................101 C NATIONAL HERITAGE AREAS...........................................................................103 D CURRENT ROUTE.................................................................................................105 E LIST OF INTERVIEWS..........................................................................................110

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vi LIST OF REFERENCES.................................................................................................111 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................114

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vii LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 4-1. Map of Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail.................................25 4-2. Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail Guidebook...........................25 4-3. City within a City: Greater U Street Heritage Tr ail Street Marker..........................27 4-4. City within a City: Greater U Street Heritage Trail Map.........................................28 4-5. African American Heritage Trail Guidebook...........................................................30 4-6. African American Heritage Trail Map.....................................................................30 4-7. The Freedom Trail Guidebook.................................................................................39 4-8. The Freedom Trail Marker.......................................................................................42 4-9. The Freedom Trail Map...........................................................................................43 5-1. President Lincoln’s Commute Route.......................................................................47 5-2. Campbell Hospital, near President Lincoln’s commute route..................................52 5-3. Contraband camp......................................................................................................54 6-1. Vermont Avenue at K Street....................................................................................64 6-2. The corner where Walt Whitman lived at Vermont and L Street............................64 6-3. The trail would pass through many blocks of boarded commercial buildings, like these on Georgia Avenue (formerly Seventh Street)................................................66 D-1. Vermont Avenue....................................................................................................105 D-2. Logan Circle (formerly Iowa Circle).....................................................................107 D-3. Rhode Island Avenue at Georgi a Avenue (formerly Seventh Street)....................107 D-4. Georgia Avenue (f ormerly Seventh Street)............................................................108

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viii D-5. These homes are representative of the neighborhood immedi ately surrounding the Soldiers’ Home today.............................................................................................109

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ix Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Architectural Studies PRESIDENT LINCOLN’S COMMUTE R OUTE: A HERITAGE TOURISM OPPORTUNITY? By Angela S. Brown May 2004 Chair: Peter Prugh Major Department: Architecture During the summers of 1862, 1863, and 1864, Pres ident Lincoln lived in a cottage at the Soldiers’ Home, a retirement community for enlisted soldiers 3 miles north of the White House. President Lincoln commute d to the White House every morning by horseback or carriage. The principle focus of our study was to explore whether it is feasible to establish a heritage trail al ong President Lincoln’s commute route through Washington, D.C. Many heritage tourism destinations in the country are called “her itage trails,” but there is no standard definition. The federa l government has passed legislation defining several heritage tourism categories, but her itage trails are not included. This is a weakness in the heritage tourism industry that could be strengthened by establishment of criteria and standards for federa l designation of heritage trails. Heritage tourism is an important segment of the tourism industry. Heritage tourism can benefit historic cities by providing money that can be used for maintenance and

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x promotion. Tourism also increases public awareness and interest, which can be particularly valuable if a res ource is ever threatened. Heri tage tourism destinations can provide an educational and entertaining travel opportunity for indi viduals, couples, and families. Tourism can also greatly benef it an area’s economy. If managed properly, heritage tourism can be a strong preservation, educational, and economic tool. A system for evaluating heritage tourism destinations is presented in our study. Heritage trails are difficult to evaluate by traditional measures, such as visitation and income potential. Instead, their impact can be measured based on their ability to protect available resources, create a meaningful vis itor experience, and pr ovide benefit to the local community. This evaluative system is very flexible. The three measures can be weighed differently for each case, dependi ng on the unique needs of the particular attraction. Boston’s Freedom Trail and three heritage trai ls in Washington, D.C. served as case studies. These trails were chosen because of their similarities to the possible President Lincoln’s Commute Route Herita ge Trail. They are located in densely populated, urban locations, and are less than 5 miles long. The aforementioned evaluative system was used to measure these trails’ effectiveness. We also began research to determine whethe r enough historic fabric exists today to make a successful heritage trail. A herita ge trail could entice visitors off of the Washington, D.C. Mall and into the commun ity, where they would get a more intimate view of the city, and learn about one of its unique neighborhoods. The trail would lead them to the President Lincoln and Soldiers ’ Home National Monument, which should be open to the public by 2006.

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Between June and November of 186 2, 1863, and 1864, Abraham Lincoln and his family lived in a cottage on the grounds of the Soldiers' Home, a residence for disabled military veterans 3 miles north of the White H ouse. He spent almost every night at the cottage, and commuted to work at the White H ouse every day. The cottage was a refuge from the pressures of the White House, and a quiet location to grieve the loss of their 12year-old son, Willie. President Lincoln lived at the Soldiers’ Home for a quarter of his presidency, but most Americans, and even some Lincoln scholars, are unaware of its existence. Though the Soldiers’ Home also served as a seasonal retreat for Presidents Buchanan, Hayes and Arthur, its association with President Lincoln and the possibility that he drafted the Emancipation Proclama tion there prompted President Clinton to designate the cottage and the surrounding 2.3 acres as the Pres ident Lincoln and Soldiers’ Home National Monument in 2000. The Ar med Forces Retirement Home, an independent federal agency, owns the propert y. In cooperation with the Armed Forces Retirement Home, the National Trust for Historic Preservation agreed to steward the restoration of the cottage and open it to the public as the preeminent site for learning about Lincoln’s presidency. To evaluate the potential for President Lincoln’s commute route to become a heritage tourism destination in Washington, D.C., one must learn more about heritage tourism as a whole. Our study provided the following:

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2 A working definition of “heritage tourism” Information on the impact of heritage tourism nationwide A system to evaluate the effectiveness of heritage tourism attractions Details about President Lincoln’s commu te route, and whether enough historic fabric remains to propose a he ritage trail along the route. First, what is heritage tourism? An exam ination of current literature suggests that different tourism and preservation organizati ons use very different definitions, though they tend to stress the importa nce of experiential education. “Heritage tourism” is often used interchangeably with “cultural tourism” or even combined, in terms like “cultural heritage tourism” or “historic and cultural travelers.” In addition, the federal government has defined several categories of heritage tourism through th e National Trail System Act of 1968. The Act defines National Scenic Trai ls, National Historic Trails, and National Recreation Trails. The National Park Service has also defined National Heritage Areas. It is interesting that “heritage trail,” proba bly the most commonly-us ed heritage tourism term, is not defined by the federal government. The establishment of criteria for federal designation of heritage trails could increase their use for e ducation and entertainment. Chapter 2 discusses cultural and heritage term s, and evaluates heritage tourism’s national impact. Heritage tourism has only recently become a recognized niche in the tourism industry, but heritage tourism is not new. Pe ople have been traveling to visit heritage resources for hundreds, if not thousands, of y ears. Addressing a tourism conference, Gail Dexter Lord, co-founder of Lord Cultural Re sources Planning and Management, said, “since ancient times it has been a motiva tion for travel, although only among a tiny

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3 minority of the general public The ‘Grand Tour’ was once c onsidered an essential part of a ‘gentleman’s’ education” (Lord, 1999: 1). In addition, tourism has been an important part of historic pr eservation since the inception of the field. All preservationists are familiar with Ann Pamela Cunningham’s desire to save Mount Vernon so Americans c ould visit George Washington’s home, learn about their greatest leader, and be inspired to become better citizens. She knew, as many more are beginning to realize, that herita ge resources can be great tourist draws. Americans are now becoming more sophisticat ed in their choices for leisure time activities. They travel for education a nd enrichment. A recent Travel Industry Association of America study (TIA, 2003) found that most hi storic/cultural travelers believe that trips where they can learn something new are more memorable to them. In addition, 38% of those surveyed sa id they prefer to visit dest inations with some historic significance. Since heritage tourism has become so popul ar, a mechanism is needed to evaluate its impact and potential for success. A thor ough review of articles and books pertaining to heritage tourism and its nationwide imp act yielded information about what makes certain heritage tourism attr actions more effective than others and served as the foundation of an evaluative system presented in Chapter 3. This system is a framework by which a community can determine the feasibility or effectiveness of its heritage tourism attractions. The system allows eval uation of a heritage tourism attraction’s effectiveness in three categories: resource protection, visitor expe rience, and community benefit. It should be recognized that th is is a value-laden system, which makes it remarkably flexible but also very subjective. Any of the three components can be

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4 weighed more or less heavily, depending on th e particular needs of an attraction and on the evaluator’s point of view. Lastly, the question of the feasibility of President Lincoln’s commute route as a heritage trail remains. A literature revi ew yielded contextual information about Washington, D.C. during the Civil War. A study of contemporary sources, particularly city directories and maps, provi ded rich detail about the par ticular route that President Lincoln took to and from the Soldiers’ Home every day between June and November of 1862, 1863, and 1864. This trail could teach visitors more about Abraham Lincoln, the Civil War, slavery, and emancipation. It mi ght encourage them to venture into the neighborhoods now surrounding President Lincoln’ s retreat. This woul d give visitors a more accurate impression of the city than the museums and monu ments of the Mall can afford. It might also provide a much-needed economic benefit to the community. It could foster a sense of pride in the community, and an incenti ve to protect the resources they have now. Preliminary research reveals serious c oncerns regarding President Lincoln’s Commute Route Heritage Trail’s potential for success. Almost no hist oric fabric remains today. This effectively negates all three of th e evaluative criteria: protection of historic resources, visitor experience, and community benefit. First, there are no resources to protect. Second, visitors are a ttracted to authenticity of pl ace, not merely the site of interesting history. This trail does not allow appreciation of original material. Third, the community will not benefit from a heritage trai l that does not attract and interest visitors. A lack of historic fabric makes the success of a heritage trail al ong President Lincoln’s

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5 commute route improbable. Alternate uses of President Lincoln’s commute route are discussed in Chapter 6. Under certain circumstances, heritage t ourism can be a great opportunity. The following chapters provide background in formation about the field, a method for evaluating this form of tourism effectivel y, and details regarding wartime Washington and President Lincoln’s commute route.

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6 CHAPTER 2 HERITAGE TOURISM DEFINED AND EVALUATED Tourism is a major industry in the Unite d States. A growing segment of this industry includes people who like to travel for educational reasons and to experience history. This activity is often cal led heritage or cultural tourism. It is important to define this segment of the tourism industry, particularly for use in our study. It is also helpful to understand the economic impact of heritage tourism. Heritage travelers spend millions of dollars every year. Preservationists who unde rstand the power of heritage tourism can use it to benefit the historic sites they hope to protect. Tourism Vocabulary Heritage Tourism vs. Cultural Tourism Most people use the terms “heritage tourism” and “cultural tourism” to describe the activities of people who are interested in travel for its educational value. These two terms are used interchangeably so of ten that the National Trust fo r Historic Preservation, which promotes preservation and the tourism that can result as an economic tool, does not make a distinction. The National Trust chooses to use the term “cultural heritage tourism,” an umbrella term, which it defines as “traveli ng to experience the places, artifacts and activities that authentically represent the stor ies and people of the past and present. It includes cultural, historic and natural resour ces” (NTHP, 2001: 2). The TIA also uses a combined term in its studies: “historic/cultural tourism.” While “cultural tourism” and “heritage t ourism” are very similar, they do not always mean exactly the same thing. Her itage tourism stresses the importance of

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7 experiencing a particular place. The touris m potential is based in the uniqueness or some particular quality of a specific building, neighborhood, battlefield, or other place. Cultural tourism is usually less dependent on the particular location. The education or experience to be gained from a location is more important in cultural tourism. An example given by Katherine Tandy Brown in “C ultural or Heritage – this Tourism is Hot” is “seeing the work of a great artist in his home and studio is a heritage event, while viewing those same works in a traveling exhibit is a cultural one. Sa me content, different context” (Brown, 2003: 1). Given these two definitions, it is clear that President Lincoln’s Commute Route is a heritage tourism opportunity more than a cult ural tourism one. The route is absolutely tied to its location. It would be impossible to propose the tra il in any location other than that where President Lincoln traveled every day. Because the trail is so place-based, “heritage tourism” is us ed throughout our study. Heritage Trail A commute route lends itself to the establishment of a tour ism “trail.” It has all the characteristics of a trail. It is linear, with a start point, a destination, and sights along the way. The term “heritage trail” is used ra ther loosely in the tourism industry, and can refer to many types of attractions. Some he ritage trails are nothing more than the sequence in which a tourist is recommended to see the sights. It might only be printed in a brochure, with no other way-fi nding devices or interpretation of a larger story. Some heritage trails are very structured and presen t a more coherent, logical experience. They are sometimes designated by a lo cal or state agency. A heri tage trail can not, however, be designated by the federal government. Only National Historic Trails, National

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8 Recreation Trails, National Scenic Trails, a nd National Heritage Ar eas are designated by the federal government. It is interesting to note that the National Park Service does not attempt to define “heritage trails.” Given that this is a co mmonly-used term when discussing organized trails, it is odd that an effo rt has not been made to do so. This seems to indicate a weakness in the tourism industry. Federal design ation of heritage trails could help define and set national criteria for this type of tourism. National Park Service Vocabulary The National Trail Systems Act, approve d in 1968 (Appendix A), provided for the establishment of National Recreation Trails and National Scenic Trails. The Act was amended in 1978 to include National Historic Tr ails. National Scenic Trails and National Historic Trails must be designated by an Ac t of Congress. The criteria for designation are fairly stringent. National Recreation Trai ls can be designated by the Secretaries of the Interior or Agriculture and can be desi gnated without meeting the highest level of criteria. National Scenic Trail Designation as a National Scenic Trail is a prestigious honor. It opens the door to federal funding and may attract private donors, as well. It also allows access to the National Park Service’s technical expertise. The National Trail Systems Act explains th e criteria and process for designation. National Scenic Trails must, “provide for maximum outdoor recreati on potential and for the conservation and enjoyment of the nationa lly significant scenic, historic, natural or cultural qualities of the areas through which such trails ma y pass” (NPS, 1968: Sec.3.a.2). These trails should be longer than 100 miles, continuously or as segments added together.

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9 National Scenic Trails must be designated by an Act of Congress. Only eight trails have been designated as National Scenic Trails in the history of th e program (Appendix B). National Historic Trail According to the National Trail System Act, National Historic Trails “shall have as their purpose the identification and protection of the histor ic route and its historic remnants and artifacts for public use and enjoyment” (NPS, 1968: Sec. 3.a.3). The designated trail must follow the original, hist oric trail as closely as possible. To be designated, it should be more than 100 miles lo ng. Exceptions are cons idered if the trail is particularly significant. To qualify as a National Histor ic Trail, a trail must meet three criteria. First, it must be significant because of its use as a specific route. Second, it must be nationally significant and have had a “fa r-reaching effect on broad patterns of American culture” (NPS, 1968: Sec. 5.b.11.B). These areas of significance include trade and commerce, exploration, migration, and settlement and milita ry campaigns. Lastly, it must have great potential for use by the public for recreation or historic interpretation. Fifteen trails have been designated as National Hi storic Trails (Appendix B). National Recreation Trail The criteria for designation as a Nationa l Recreation Trail are much less strenuous than that of a National Scenic or National Historic Trail. As previously mentioned, National Recreation Trails can be designated by the Secretary of the Interior or the Secretary of Agriculture instead of by an Act of Congress. They are also not restricted to trails longer than 100 miles. These trails must be open to travel by foot, wheelchairs, motorcycles, or other recreational forms but can not be open to passenger vehicles. As a

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10 result of this program’s relatively simple requirements, almost 900 National Recreation Trails have been designated si nce the program’s inception in 1968. Another form of heritage tourism is al so designated by the federal government – National Heritage Areas. They are similar to the trails in that th ey must meet strict criteria and be designated by Congress. They differ, though, in that they usually cover large, very diverse areas and ar e not necessarily linear. National Heritage Area National Heritage Areas are define d by the National Park Service as places designated by the United States Congr ess, where natural, cultural, historic and recreational resources combine to form a cohesive, nationally distinctive landscape arising from patterns of hum an activity shaped by geography. These patterns make National Heritage Areas repr esentative of the national experience through the physical features that remain and the traditions that have evolved in the areas. Continued use of the National He ritage Areas by people whose traditions helped to shape the landscapes enha nces their significance (www.nps.gov, 2004). These areas are large, encompassing many m iles. Congress has established 24 National Heritage Areas throughout the country (Append ix C). A representative example of a National Heritage Area is the Hudson Rive r Valley National Heritage Area. It encompasses 7,063 square miles and the homes of 3,010,805 people. It contains 878 National Register properties, 66 National Hi storic Landmarks, and 8 National Natural Landmarks (www.nps.gov, 2004). As this exam ple demonstrates, National Heritage Areas include substantial amount s of land and resources. National Park Service Designation of President Lincoln’s Commute Route President Lincoln’s Commute Route Heri tage Trail probably does not meet the criteria to become federally designated. Firs t, very little historic fabric remains, so President Lincoln’s commute route would not provide conservation or enjoyment of the

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11 historic qualities thr ough which the trail might pass, as is a criterion for becoming a National Scenic Trail. It comes closer to meeting the criteria for a National Historic Trail, but still seems to fall short. The trail does follow a path ac tually used by an historic figure almost 150 years ago. In addition, the people and events that President Lincoln likely witnessed on his commute route might have influenced his thinking. While it is clear that President Lincoln was making key decisi ons regarding freedom for slaves and other important issues at the time of his daily commute, ther e is not sufficient evidence to prove that his travels along the route actually influenced hi s decisions. It is un likely that the United States Congress would designate this trail as a National Historic Trail without more concrete evidence indicating that the path altered American cu lture. In addition, the route is only 3 miles long. It is significantly shor ter than the National Park Service’s 100-mile length criteria. The route does not offer great recreational en joyment, so is also unlikely to become a National Recreation Trail. The area is not conducive to bike ri ding, skating, or other athletic uses. Walking and driving are the most likely activities on this trail, which leads to another reason it can not be a National Recr eation Trail. Motorized vehicles are not allowed on Recreation Trails a nd this trail is based sole ly upon city streets. President Lincoln’s Commute Route Heritage Trail does not meet the criteria to become a federally-designated National Scenic Trail, National Heritage Trail, National Recreation Trail, or National Heritage Area. It also does not qualify to become a National Heritage Area. As the previous exam ple illustrates, National Heritage Areas are

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12 much more wide-reaching than this trail. It is much too short and focused. This trail does not fit into any of the fede rally-designated categories. With a clear understanding of heritage tourism terminology, it is now possible to consider its impact. If managed proper ly, this important industry can help preservationists protect historic resources. Evaluating the Impact of Heritage Tourism Heritage tourism is one of the fastest growing segments of the tourism industry. According to a study from the TIA and Smiths onian Magazine, 81% of American adults who traveled in 2003 can be classified as historic or cu ltural travelers.1 This is a stunning 118 million people and more than half of all ad ults in the United States. There are 13% more historic or cultural tr avelers than there were in 1996. The study cites visiting an historic building, battlefiel d or community as the most popular activity for cultural tourists (TIA, 2003). Why is heritage tourism becoming so popular ? In a presentation to the Wisconsin Heritage Tourism Conference, Gail Dexter Lord, co-founder of Lord Cultural Resources Planning and Management, said it is due to three factors: risi ng education levels, an aging population and women’s increasing economic role (Lord, 1999). First, a more educated popul ation is likely to demand more intelligent content from their vacation destinations. In fact, the TIA study shows th at 60% of historic/cultural trips are generated by households with a college degree. Second, the baby-boomer 1 The Travel Industry Association defines historic/cultu ral travelers as those who ha ve traveled 50 miles or more away from home in the last year to see a live theatre performance; dance pe rformance; classical music concert or opera; other music concert; art museum, gallery, exhibit or auction; antique shop, show or auction; heritage, ethnic or folk festival or fair; other fair or festival such as a county fair or arts and crafts fair; ethnic area or community; ethnic culture exhibit or center; designated historic site such as a building, landmark, home or monument; designated historic co mmunity or town; history museum; historic military site; or historic memorial or cemetery.

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13 generation, the largest age gr oup in the country, is appro aching 60 years old. These people have more time and disposable income than many others in the United States. The TIA study also shows that about 40% of historic/cultural trips are taken by baby boomer households (TIA, 2003). Lastly, the increasing economic role of women is critical. Women tend to be more interested in cultural or historic activities than men. When women are in control of family finan ces and leadership, as is the case in many households, families are more likely to choose cultural destinations for their vacations. Cities with historic resources can use thei r assets to benefit from these trends. According to the 2003 TIA study, one third of historic or cultural trips are taken by families with household incomes of $75,000 or more Tourists who travel to historic or other cultural destinations al so tend to spend more money per trip than the average traveler. These tourists spend, on average, $166 more per trip, excluding transportation costs. This is 36% more money per tr ip. The study goes further to say that, Compared to the average trip in the U.S., historic/cultural trips are more likely to be seven nights or longer and include air travel, a rental car, and a hotel stay. Historic/cultural travelers are also more li kely to extend their stay to experience history and culture at their de stination. In fact, four in ten added extra time to their trip specifically because of a histor ic/cultural activ ity (TIA, 2003: 3). Of the people who added time to their trip becau se of an historic or cultural activity, 44% added part of one day, 25% added an extr a night, 15% added 2 more nights and 16% added three or more extra nights (TIA, 2003). Washington, D.C. is visited by historic/cul tural travelers more often than any other city in the country (Keefe, 2004). Millions of people travel to Washington, D.C. from other parts of the United States and the world every year. It is one of the most cultural cities in the United States. It is likely th at every adult in Amer ica could list several cultural attractions in Washington, D.C.

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14 Other heritage attractions in D.C. would compete with the potential President Lincoln’s Commute Route Heritage Trail. Alternatively, the trail would have a vast pool from which to attract visitors, particularly those with an interest in Lincoln, the Civil War, slavery, and other related issues. From a tourism perspective, President Lincoln’s Commute Route is probably a feas ible heritage tourism opportunity.

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15 CHAPTER 3 EVALUATING HERITAGE TOURISM Heritage trails are difficult to evaluate by traditional criteria, such as visitation and income potential. Heritage tr ails are usually located in public rights-of-way, so it is difficult to know who is walking down a city street specifically because it features a heritage trail. Guide books are usually free and can not be easily tracked. If the books are sold, there is no way to know whether the person who bought the book actually used it to walk the trail. On the other hand, they may have loaned it to their friends, in which case the impact would be far greater than book sales could measure. A review of current literature indicates th at there are many stakeholders in heritage tourism, each of which must be considered wh en planning a heritage tourism destination. It is possible to evaluate the effectiveness of a heritage trail by considering its ability to satisfy the needs of three key constituencies: the historic resource, the visitor and the community.1 It should be noted that this is a value-laden system, which makes it remarkably flexible, but also very subjective. Any of the three components can be weighed more or less heavily, depending on th e particular needs of an attraction and on the evaluator’s point of view. 1 Articles by William T. Alderson, Peter H. Brink, John Chaney, Cheryl Hargrove, Gail Dexter Lord, Richard J. Roddewig, Scott W. Standish, Vanessa Turner Maybank and Amy Jordan Webb were particularly useful in the creation of this evaluative system. Books by Priscilla Boniface and Elizabeth B. Waters were also helpful.

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16 Evaluative System Resource Protection A preservationist’s primary goal is the prot ection of an area’s historic resources. The resources, be it buildings, landscapes or sculptures, are the primary reasons people are drawn to a heritage location in the first place. Establishing a tourism program that destroys or damages the resources may yi eld high short-term rewards but is not sustainable. Protection of the resource is of the utmost importance to most preservationists. If managed well, tourism can assist in that protection. Tourists provide money that can be used for maintenance a nd care of the resource. Resources that pay for themselves or make a profit are usually well protected. In addition, public in terest can protect a resource. Legislators who might propose inse nsitive development, highway projects, or other measures that are detrimental to the si te are much more likely to work around it if they know that the public would be outraged at its destruction. Lastl y, resources that are financially stable and enjoy public support are more likely to win gr ant requests and other funding opportunities. J. Brendan Meyer, Project Manager of Tr ails and Tours for Cultural Tourism DC, says a heritage trail’s most significant posit ive impact upon historic resources is in its ability to project the community’s values. He ritage trails help unify a community behind its unique history. It educates the member s of the neighborhood about their important resources and how those resources can be used as economic tools. If the city later decides to designate an area as an historic di strict, it is likely to face less opposition than it might otherwise because the idea has al ready been planted. Recognition through placement on a heritage trail can also help wh en buildings are threat ened with demolition.

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17 The trail gives the community a sense of pr ide in its resources and the ammunition to fight their removal. Those wishing to use heritage resources to attract tourists must plan well in advance of the first busload to ensure that this added pressure will not damage the resource. Most negative impacts stem from overuse of historic resources. The good news is that heritage trails by design, do not actually “use” the resources. People walk in public rights of way, not on the actual resource s. They do not touch them, breathe inside them or make other physical contact. This is one reason that trails are an attractive form of heritage tourism. Unfortunately, heritage trails can crea te other negative impacts on historic resources. Overdevelopment is a possible c onsequence that can be very threatening to historic resources. When used in coopera tion with other economic and tourism tools, heritage trails can spur intere st in a particular area and the development that comes with increased popularity. When an area becomes popular to visitors, businesses will follow. Local residents and those considering relocati ng to the city become more interested in purchasing property in that area because of the increased level of amenities. This could lead to a “teardown trend,” or the replacement of historic buildings with newer, larger ones. Excessively-increased pr operty values can also result Increased property values are good for people who want to sell but can be devastating to families who can no longer afford to pay their property taxes. Visitor Experience While resource protection is a significant c oncern, the needs of the visitor are just as essential. Touris ts, and particularly those tourists in the baby-boomer generation, want to be educated on their vacations. Kather ine Tandy Brown, author of “Cultural or

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18 Heritage: This Tourism is Hot,” quotes Bruce Beckham, former National Tourism Association president: “Baby boo mers want to come home from vacation with more than a tan. They’re more into life-seeing than sight -seeing. That’s where cultural and heritage tourism fits in” (Beckham in Brown, 2003: 2). Visitors must be convinced that it is wo rth their time and money to travel to a heritage resource. Word of mouth is th e most effective tool, but advertising and marketing are useful, too. Once visitors arrive they need to feel that their effort was worth it. When they leave, they should take something away that will be valuable to their lives. People are searching for meaning in their experiences. Nationally-franchised businesses are making every city in America lo ok exactly like every other city. We long for a purposeful way to use our free time in a genuine, unique place. Many Americans turn to historic, cultural or natural resources to fulfill that desire As Richard Roddewig said in “Selling America’s Heritage Without Selling Out,” “Americans are attracted to historic sites because they are genuine. Thei r interest in such genui ne history stems from a reaction to the plasticized history in so much of our culture” (Roddewig, 1988: 2). Authenticity is an extremely important factor in the visitor’s experience. Visitors want to see the actual building or real hist oric artifact. They do not want reproductions or, worse yet, a sign that says that somethi ng important happened on th is site. If they travel to a heritage tourism destination and le arn that what they are seeing is not “real,” they will leave very disappointed. In addition to authenticity, tourists are ve ry interested in compelling stories. A heritage tourism destination that uses the real stories of act ual historic figures will be

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19 more interesting that one that on ly describes architecture or artif acts. It is important to tie authentic historic material to people who actually lived in a house and those who really used the tools. On the other hand, the public’s expectations have been heightened by Disney World and other mass-produced entertainment. They are unwilling to give up the conveniences that style of entertainment pr ovides. Tourists want easy access from transportation hubs. They want plenty of c onveniently-located restrooms on site. They want safety, cleanliness, and ev en predictability. They want food when they are hungry and a nice place to sleep when they are tired. Heritage tourism destinations must be ready to compete with shopping malls, movie theat res, and theme parks if they are to be successful (Lord, 1999). Community Benefit The third criterion for success is a tourist de stination’s ability to adequately address its community’s needs. Each community is different, but most would be delighted to benefit financially from a tourist attracti on. Much-needed economic development can stem from the establishment of an historic trail. Small businesses may recognize an increase in customers as visitors find uni que places to eat and purchase souvenirs. Increased interest can attract homeowners w ho want to rehabilitate the older housing stock. It can also attract developers who see the econom ic opportunity in adding new businesses to the area. These new property owners bring more taxes and jobs to the neighborhood. The taxes that result from tourists visiti ng an area can also be a great financial benefit to the area, too. Vi sitors pay taxes on shopping, hot el rooms, and meals. In Washington D.C., the sales tax is 5.75%. Th e hotel tax, including sales tax, is 14.5%.

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20 Food and beverage tax is 10%. This can a dd up to a substantial amount of money. The average heritage tourist pays $623 on a trip (T IA, 2003, 3). If a tourist stays three nights at $150 per night, spends $50 per day on meal s, and buys one souvenir worth $23, that person will have contributed approximately $81 in taxes. If a tourist destination can attract 50,000 people to visit the area, that is more than $4 million added, just in taxes, to the local economy. If balanced well, development can bene fit the community w ithout damaging the historic resources. Retailers and restaurateurs can benefit fr om the increased traffic to their area. The design of the trail should be considered early to ensure community benefit. For example, an attraction that shuttles visitors through a neighborhood on a bus, pausing only long enough to allow pictures taken out the windows, does not financially benefit the community. It adds pollution, traffic, and noise without any monetary infusion to mitigate the adverse effects. Al ternatively, a bus tour that stops along the route, drops visitors off, and encourages them to experience the local shops and restaurants can add valuable commerce to a neighborhood. Not all community benefits are financial. The community pr ide resulting from being known as the home of a heritage resource can also be very valuable. Desiring to project a positive image to the visitors can encourage the local community to keep its streets clean, its storefronts attractive, and its yards tidy. A heritage attraction can become the heart of a community and a reason to celebrate its uniqueness. It can create a sense of unity with in the neighborhood. Heritage tourism can also cause problems in the local area. Overuse of public rights of way and amenities can be problematic and can result in increased frustration for

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21 local residents. If bus tours along a partic ular route become too popular, the exhaust, noise and vibration from those buses can be hazardous to both people and historic resources. It is also frustrating to busi ness owners who can not realize added profit from tourists who never leave the bus. Increased popularity can lead to excessive crowds and a loss of the area’s original sense of place. In his descrip tion of Venice in Portraits of Places Henry James said, The sentimental tourist’s sole quarrel w ith his Venice is that he has too many competitors there. He likes to be alone; to be original, to have (to himself, at least) the air of making discoveries. The Venice of today is a vast museum with a little wicket that admits you and is perpet ually turning and creaking, and you march through the institution with a herd of fe llow gazers. There is nothing left to discover or describe, an originality of a ttitude is completely impossible (James in Roddewig, 1988: 4). We must be careful not to allow tourism to dominate so fully that the authentic character of the area is lost. This will eventually lead to the loss of all three factors of success. The resources will be damaged by loss of context, if not from overuse, visitors will be frustrated with the crowds and loss of authenticity, and the community will have lost its sense of place. Prioritization of Values It should be noted that this evaluative system is not an objective means of assessing the success of a heritage tour ism attraction. This system is values-based. This makes it subjective but also allows it to be very fl exible. Evaluation is also dependent on the resource’s level of significance. Protection of the resource might be a very important value when evaluating the success of a her itage tourism program involving a nationally significant resource. In evalua ting a resource that has only local significance, one might assign less importance to resource protection and more to community benefit. This

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22 system can be adopted hierarchically dependi ng on the evaluator’s point of view or the particular needs of the tourism attraction. From a preservationist’s standpoint, resource protect ion usually outweighs the other two categories. To many preservationists, tourism is purely a means of protection. Tourism brings the money that is necessary to keep resources maintained well. It would be irresponsible and inexcusable to allow tourism to destroy the very source of the public’s interest. From a tourism professional’s point of view, the criteria would probably be weighed in exactly the opposite order. Th e primary concern is that the associated businesses make a profit. If the community is not getting a financial benefit, a tourism professional would probably consider the pr ogram a failure, even if the resource was protected. In each instance, the visitors’ experience might be valued, but not necessarily for the visitors’ sake. It can some times be valued only for its ability to enhance the primary goal, be it preservationor tourism-focused. Visitor experience, in itself, is an integral component of successful heritage tourism. If the visitor’s satisf action is neglected, it seems unlikely that either of the other tw o evaluative criteria will be successful. Preservation might suffer due to lack of visito r interest. The attract ion will also probably not make a profit if visitors become disinterested.

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23 CHAPTER 4 CASE STUDIES As a practical application of the previously-defined evaluative system, and to learn more about how heritage trails are established, trails were studied in Washington, D.C. and Boston, Massachusetts. These studies incl ude one trail that ce lebrated its kickoff only three months ago, and one that is the ol dest heritage trail in the United States. The case studies were chosen for their similarity to the potential President Lincoln’s Commute Route Heritage Trail. They are less than five miles long and located in densely-populated, urban areas. The tra ils are evaluated base d on their ability to satisfy the three criteria for success: resource protection, visitor experience and community benefit. Cultural Tourism DC Cultural Tourism DC was founded in 1996 and became a non profit corporation in 1999. It is a membership organizatio n that includes the following: Almost every museum and cultural organization in the city Neighborhood groups Community development corporations Religious organizations The city’s public transit organization, Metro The National Capital Region of the National Park Service Professional tour guides The city's official marketing entities Cultural Tourism DC is funded by many public and private organizations and is in partnership with the D.C. Chamber of Comme rce, the National Capital Region of the National Park Service, Washington Metr opolitan Area Trans portation Authority,

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24 Washington Convention Center Authority a nd the Washington, D.C. Convention and Tourism Corporation. Cultural Tourism DC’s mission is to, “involve visitors to the District of Columbia in the rich heritage and culture of the entir e city of Washington” (www.culturaltourismdc.org, 2004). Cultural Tourism DC invites visitors to see areas of the city beyond the National Mall by providing information about other parts of D.C. In addition to its heritage trails, Cultural Tourism DC has developed several bus tours and guided walking tours. The organization has also published Capital Assets an inventory of her itage attractions in Washington, D.C. This guide catalogue s attractions by neighborhood, theme, and readiness to attract and educate visitors. Cultural Tourism DC’s three heritage trails are examined here. They are: the Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail, the City within a City: Greater U Street Heritage Trail, and the African American Her itage Trail. Cultural Tourism DC is just now attempting to formally study these trails’ e ffectiveness and success. Due to this lack of concrete evaluation, informal assessment has been made through personal observation. Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail The Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail is actually three related trail loops in downtown Washi ngton, D.C.: the West Loop, th e Center Loop, and the East Loop. These trails focus on Washington during the Civil War and the continuing challenge of ensuring equality for its citizens. They include many Lincoln-related sites, such as The site of the first public telegraph: constructed in 1845, this telegraph line was valuable to President Lincoln because it allowed communication with his generals. New York Avenue Presbyterian church: site of an earlier, similar church where President Lincoln and his family worshiped.

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25 The Willard Inter-Continental Hotel: where President-elect Lincoln stayed for ten days before his inauguration in 1861. The three loops can be walked in one hour each and are conveniently located near Metro stations (Figure 4-1). Markers are lo cated along the route to educate visitors. A guide book (Figure 4-2) is sold for $4 .95 at various local bookstores. Figure 4-1. Map of Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail (Reprinted with permission from Cultural Tourism DC. Busch, Richard T. Civil War to Civil Rights: Washington’s Downtown Heritage Trail Charlottesville, VA: Howell Press, 2001: inside front cover.) Figure 4-2. Civil War to Civil Rights: Down town Heritage Trail Guidebook (Reprinted with permission from Cultural Tourism DC. Busch, Richard T. Civil War to Civil Rights: Washington’s Downtown Heritage Trail Charlottesville, VA: Howell Press, 2001: front cover.)

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26 The Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail was established with funding from the Downtown Business Improveme nt District. The Business Improvement District’s mission is to, “help raise Downtown to world-class standards as a commercial, cultural and residential destination” and they sa w this trail as a natural extension of their other work (www.downtowndc.org, 2004). The District of Columbia Department of Transportation (DC-DOT) also provided Tr ansportation Enhancement funding. The DCDOT has also taken on responsibility for mainte nance and supervision of the trail. All signs are located on DC-DOT land which grea tly streamlined the permitting process. Cultural Tourism DC believes that the tr ail is very successful, though concrete evaluation has proven difficult. Cultural Tour ism DC is developing tools to measure the trail’s effectiveness, but with the public nature of the trail, it is almost impossible to count the number of visitors that follow the signs as a system. In addition, most of the businesses along the route are not of the type that would notic e an increase in visitors. Because this trail is in the downtown area, the businesses surrounding it are major corporations and others not reliant upon casual visitors. These businesses might realize indirect benefits of being lo cated on a heritage trail. The area, and therefore the businesses in the area, could become more prestigious because its historic value is recognized through markers and the guide book. This indirect benefit would be difficult to evaluate as having been caused by the trail, though. City within a City: Greater U Street Heritage Trail In cooperation with the Historical Soci ety of Washington, D.C., Cultural Tourism DC has established the City with in a City: Greater U Street Heritage Trail. According to Cultural Tourism DC’s web site,

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27 For half a century, during the years of se gregation, U Street was the nation's Black Broadway and the heart of African Amer ican business and culture in Washington, D.C... Located near Howard University, the U Street neighborhood was home to Edward Kennedy “Duke” Ellington. Its theat ers and clubs hosted some of the brightest lights in American jazz — Cab Calloway, Pearl Bailey, Sarah Vaughn, and Jelly Roll Morton, to name a fe w (www.culturaltourismdc.org, 2004). This heritage trail takes visitors to th e homes and businesses where many famous African Americans spent their time. The tra il is marked by permanent signage (Figure 43) that includes a map (Figure 4-4). The tra il can be walked in about an hour and a half and is easily accessible by Metro. The trail includes sites such as: True Reformer Building: Designed in 1902 by the first registered African American architect in the District of Columbia. Whitelaw Hotel: First first-class hotel in Washington that specifically catered to African Americans. Founders Library at Howard University: Howard University was founded in 1867. The guide book for this trail is free and avai lable from businesses al ong the route, at the African American Civil War Memorial or by contacting Cultural Tourism DC. Figure 4-3. City within a City: Greater U St reet Heritage Trail St reet Marker (Source: photo by author, 2004)

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28 Though this trail is also quite new, the ev aluation of its success might prove more achievable because this trail is located in an area populated by small businesses. These sole-proprietorships rely on cas ual visitors for their daily business and are more likely to notice an increase in visitors. They are al so more likely to actively participate in measuring that increase, unlike the corporations along the Civ il War to Civil Rights trail downtown. Cultural Tourism DC is working to develop tools that will allow it to measure the trail’s success in promoting the area to heritage tourists and locals. Figure 4-4. City within a City: Greater U Street Heritage Tra il Map (Source: photo by author, 2004) In addition to the marked heritage tra il, Cultural Tourism DC conducts regular walking tours of the U Street area. This two-hour tour is offered the first and third Saturday of each month between April and November and costs $12 per person. This tour is part of the process of introducing a neighborhood to its new visitors. Introduction is necessary because neighbors often feel threatened and invaded by outsiders coming to look at their historic resour ces. They might feel protec tive of their neighborhood and worry about the influx of new people on the stre ets. A slow process of introduction helps overcome these concerns.

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29 The trail and walking tour are two small components of the city’s ongoing economic revitalization efforts in the U Street Corridor. These tool s may prove vital in enhancing the area’s image enough to en courage new business development and neighborhood investment. African American Heritage Trail Cultural Tourism DC’s most recently-esta blished heritage trail is the African American Heritage Trail. The project starte d as a survey of African American historic resources in cooperation with the D.C. Historic Preser vation Office. Of more than 200 historic sites that were researched, approximately 100 were chosen for the trail, including the following: The Howard Theatre: This theatre, op ened in 1910, has hosted Duke Ellington, Mary Jefferson, Ella Fitzgerald and so me of Motown’s greatest artists. Mary Jane Patterson Residence: Home of the first black, female college graduate. Frederick Douglass National Historic Site: Home of Frederick Douglass, a formerly enslaved abolitionist and statesman. Ashbury United Methodist Church: Organi zed in 1836 by Caucasians who wanted to create a place of worship free from racism or segregation. The African American Heritage Trail diffe rs from Cultural Tour ism DC’s other two trails because it does not incl ude signage or any other physic al markers along the route. It exists solely with in a four-color guidebook, distribu ted for free throughout the city (Figure 4-5). According to Meye r, the guidebook is the only f easible product at this time, but the city is considering the addi tion of markers al ong the route. This project is actually made up of 15 diffe rent trails throughout the city (Figure 46). Each trail includes an average of seve n sites related to Washington, D.C.’s African American history and can be easily walked or driven. This tra il includes many of the

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30 same sites that Cultural Tourism DC’s other tw o trails encompass. In fact, both of the organization’s other trails, the Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail and the City within a City: Greater U Street Herita ge Trail are listed as individual “sites” in the African American Heritage Trail guidebook. Figure 4-5. African American Heritage Trai l Guidebook (Reprinted with permission of Cultural Tourism DC. McQuirter, Marya Annette. African American Heritage Trail: Washington, D.C. .. Washington, D.C.: Cultural Tourism DC, 2003: front cover.) Figure 4-6. African American Heritage Tr ail Map (Reprinted with permission from Cultural Tourism DC. McQuirter, Marya Annette. African American Heritage Trail: Washington, D.C. .. Washington, D.C.: Cultural Tourism DC, 2003: center foldout.)

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31 Evaluation of Cultural To urism DC’s Heritage Trails Cultural Tourism DC’s heritage trails have the potential to become very successful. The trails do not adversely affect the resources. In fact, they might even positively impact the resources through increased public ex posure. The visitor experience is also very positive. The trails are well-researched and inte resting. The potential for community benefit is also very high on some of these trails. This potential is not being maximized becau se no one realizes that this wonderful resource is available. If the trails were marketed more aggressively and the businesses kept better informed and stoc ked with brochures, the trails would probably become more popular. Cultural Tourism DC’s heritage trails are a wonderful attracti on in this city. It is unfortunate that they seem to be unknown and underutilized. Resource protection These three trails have helped protect the resources along each route primarily through increased visibility. Placing a marker in front of a buildi ng and telling its story in a guidebook gives these struct ures more importance. The bu ildings that are chosen for the markers and guidebooks draw a comprehe nsive picture of the community’s values, emphasizing the stories that the community members are most proud of. These stories help tourists and those from the D.C. area understand what each particular community holds dear. This designation will give the community a platform from which to protect the resources if ever they are threatened. The heritage trails will also make it easier for the District of Columbia to designate areas as historic districts, as is likely in the near future. Once the local community has embraced its unique heritage, it is less likely to oppose the designation. The same will probably be true for indi vidual landmark designation.

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32 It does not appear that these trails ar e damaging the historic resources in any measurable way. Because people walk in th e public right of way and not within the structures themselves, there is essentially no in crease in regular wear-and-tear. So far, the visitors have been respect ful of the buildings and markers and have not vandalized or otherwise damaged them. One possible negative impact to the historic resources might be in their becoming a victim of their own success. If the ne ighborhood surrounding these trails becomes a hot real estate area, developers will probably follow. These developers might attempt to tear down the neighborhood’s historic buildings to replace them with larg er, more expensive ones. The community must continue to be vigilant in its long-te rm protection of the resources. This is an extremely complex issue involving multiple economic and legislative factors. Visitor experience It is unfortunate that many visitors and locals in the D.C. area are not familiar with these heritage trails because they provide a very interesting and e ducational experience. The two marked trails, Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail and City Within a City: Greater U Street Heritage Trai l are marked with attractive, standardized signs. These signs are informative and easy to follow and the guidebooks are very professional. The stories they illuminate ar e engaging. The text is easy to read and the photographs are interesting. These trails are best-experienced as a pedestrian. They are not conveniently followed in a car. Many streets are one-wa y, making navigation difficult. In addition, once one reaches a particular site, there is often not a good place to pull off the road and take a good look.

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33 Community benefit As with the other factors of success, it is difficult to asse ss whether Cultural Tourism DC’s three heritage trails provide a significant community benefit. The Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail is located downtown, where the major corporations do not notice or particularly care about a modest increase in foot traffic that the trail might provide. One exception is Artifactory, a small, sole-proprietorship immediately adjacent to the second marker on the center loop of the trai l. The building is featured on the marker and in the guidebook as one of the oldest su rviving commercial build ings in the city. Artifactory, a shop full of antique and new produc ts from all over the world, has been in existence for more than 20 years. Unfortunately, the owner said that business has never been slower than it is now, and that this ha s been the case for about the last two years. This corresponds closely to the length of time the trail has existed just outside his door. He has not studied the trail’s effect upon his business, but sa id that none of his customers has ever mentioned the trail to him. This l eads one to believe that the trail has not been effective in bringing tourist dollars to the ar ea. It will be interesting to learn what Cultural Tourism DC’s evaluation reveals. The City within a City: Greater U Street Heritage Trail seems the mostly likely to create a financial community benefit. T hough possible that it has had a positive effect, the effect is difficult to single out due to the city’s other economic revitalization efforts in the area. The businesses along the U Street tra il are primarily sole-pr oprietorships. They are dependant upon the number of people who walk past their storefronts. Cultural Tourism DC asks the owners of these busin esses to distribute the guidebook for free and claims that they do so enthusiastically.

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34 Given these facts, it is inte resting that the businesses along the trail do not actually give the impression of enthusiastic support. It is difficult to find a business that actually has the guidebooks available. In a random sa mpling of six retail stores and restaurants, not one had the guidebook. The owner of a furn iture store said they used to give them away but haven’t had them in stock in quite a while. Another merchant was not even sure what guidebook was being requested. It is possible to follow th e trail using only the markers on the street, but it would be must easier to do with a map in-hand. Informal observation indicates that the si gns along the two marked trails are not particularly effective in at tracting attention. The author chose one sign in a very prominent location on both the Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail and the City within a City: Greater U Street Heritage Trail.1 In 10 minutes of observation, not one pedestrian stopped to read e ither of the signs. A few glan ced at them but hardly even broke stride to do so. In a ddition, none of the observed pede strians was carrying Cultural Tourism DC’s guidebooks. The African American Heritage Trail is so new that little observation is possible, but it seems unlikely that neighborhoods have seen a significant positive benefit. The trail exists only in a guidebook so it is even more difficult for people to realiz e it is there. Establishment Procedure Common to All Three Trails Because Cultural Tourism DC’s trails are so new, they are possibly more useful as illustration of the process of development. In each of these projects, Cultural Tourism DC has worked to establish a heritage tra il only where the nei ghborhood has initiated the action. All of the initial research must be completed by members of the community 1 The day of observation was a Saturday in February at approximately 2:00 PM. It was sunny, approximately 60 degrees, and there were many pedestrians in the area.

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35 before Cultural Tourism DC becomes involved. They must demonstrate that they have broad public support for the project. Once the preliminary research is complete and a significant number of community members have shown enthusiasm for a trail, the area must become ready for tourism. Cultural Tourism DC helps neighborhoods ready for tourism by slowly working up to a heritage trail. They begin by initiating bus tours of the neighborhood. This gets the merchants, businesses and residents comfortabl e with the idea of ha ving tourists in the area. It also keeps the tourists comfortable and safe during the tour. After the area has hosted bus tours for a certain amount of time (dependant on the needs of the particular commun ity), then guided tours are init iated. Guided tours help the community get used to having individuals in the neighborhood, but they are comforted by knowing that the tourists are in a well-c ontrolled group. The guided tours show area merchants and other business people that tourism can be a financial benefit. Once guided tours become successful, th e neighbors are comfortable and the merchants begin marketing to tourists, the gui ded tours are suspended and a heritage trail is established. Signage is posted and a guide book is printed to assi st individual tourists in finding their way through th e neighborhood. Hopefully, after the trail is established, visitors will feel comforta ble exploring the area on thei r own, off of the regular, established trail. This is the final goa l of this type of heritage tourism. Financial Investment Meyer estimates that the esta blishment of a heritage tra il in Washington, D.C. costs about $175,000. This includes all costs from inception through inst allation. The staff time involved in managing the project is one of the highest costs. Representatives from the neighborhood supply much of the research, bu t a professional researcher is necessary

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36 to ensure accuracy and a certain level of de tail that amateur researchers are unable to attain. Paying for that historic research is also included in this cost. It includes manufacturing and installing ap proximately 15 trail markers.2 Regular inspection and maintenance is a se parate cost, which, according to Meyer, could be approximately $15,000 per year. Ongoi ng management of the trail is also a separate cost. This number is difficult to esti mate because each trail is very different and each city’s needs vary widely. The Freedom Trail Foundation The Freedom Trail Foundation is respons ible for promoting Boston’s Freedom Trail. The organization was founded in 1958, in corporated in 1964 and hired its first full time staff in 1992. The Foundation’ s stakeholders include the: Sixteen historic sites along the trail National Park Service City of Boston and the local Vi sitors and Convention Bureau Commonwealth of Massachusetts an d its Department of Tourism Millions of visitors that visit the area every year The Foundation is “dedicated to preserving and promoting Boston’s distinct historic character and its important role in the American Revolution.” The Foundation accomplishes this mission by conducting tours, promoting and helping preserve the historic sites on the trail, offering educationa l programs for school children from all over the country and Boston, and organizing speci al events to showcase the area’s unique history. They also market the trail worldwide. The Freedom Foundation is concerned with only one trail: Boston’s Freedom Trail (www.thefreedomtrail.org, 2004). 2 Mr. Meyer estimated the cost based on 15 markers because Cultural Tourism DC’s trails have used approximately 15 markers each.

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37 Boston’s Freedom Trail was conceived in 1951 by Boston journalist William Schofield. He realized that vis itors were getting frustrated by an inability to easily locate the city’s Revolutionary War historic site s. “Tourists were going berserk, bumbling around and frothing at the mouth because they couldn’t find what they were looking for,” he wrote (Schofield in Zannieri, 2003: 45) He thought a way finding system should be created to lead visitors wher e they wanted to go. He told Bob Winn, who worked at the North Church, and together they approach ed John Hynes, Boston’s mayor. Hynes thought it was a wonderful idea. The city er ected plywood signs at each of 16 historic sites. Seven years later, the city painted th e now-famous red line that links the sites. The trail was named “The Freedom Trail” and The Freedom Trail Foundation was created. Local businesses donated money a nd services to create the fi rst visitor maps and signs. In 1964 The Freedom Trail Foundation was incorporated as a 501(c) 3 and ten years later, the Boston National Historic Par k, a unit of the National Park Service, was created. The Boston National Historic Park opened many funding opportunities, and the Park Service invested a large amount of money in the sites included in the park. In 19961997, the National Park Service commissione d a Vision Study, The Freedom Trail: A Framework for the Future to consider the state of the tr ail, its organizational structure, and how these factors could be improved. The study concluded that th e trail is vital to Boston’s heritage tourism indus try, but that the experience could be improved by better cooperation and organization among the sites. A lack of funding has kept the Foundation from implementing many of the study’s recommendations. Boston’s Freedom Trail Boston’s Freedom Trail is 2.5 miles long a nd links some of the country’s most significant Revolutionary War site s. It connects the following:

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38 Boston Common: America’s oldest park Massachusetts State House: Built in 1795 Park Street Church: Where William Lloyd Garrison gave his first public antislavery address. Granary Burying Ground: John Hancock, Samuel Adams, the Boston Massacre victims, Paul Revere, Peter Faneuil a nd other great patriots are buried here. King’s Chapel, King’s Chapel Burying Ground: Built in 1688 by a chaplain sent to Boston by King James II, who wanted Anglican religious services performed in the colonies. Boston Latin: First public school in America, opened on April 13, 1635. Ben Franklin, John Hancock and Samuel Adams learned to read here. Old Corner Bookstore Building: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Henry David Thoreau and other great Amer ican writers gathered here between 1833 and 1864. Old South Meeting House: Built in 1729, th is is where 5,000 colonists gathered to protest a British tax on tea just be fore the famous Boston Tea Party. Old State House: On July 18, 1776, the Decl aration of Independence was read for the first time to the public from its balcony. Boston Massacre Site: Where an argument turned into a mob scene and British soldiers shot five colonists. Faneuil Hall: Built in 1742 as a market, this building has been used as a debate hall for colonists, abolitionists, wo men’s rights activists and others. Paul Revere House: Home where Paul Revere lived dur ing the time of his famous ride through Boston. North Church: This church is where lanter ns were hung in the st eeple to alert the patriots that the British were on the way. Copp’s Hill Burying Ground: Many important colonists are buried here, including more than 1,000 African American. USS Constitution: The oldest commissioned warship in the world and a veteran of the War of 1812.

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39 Bunker Hill Monument: Site of one of the bloodiest battles of the Revolutionary War. The Freedom Trail Foundation does not own, opera te or maintain any of the sites along the trail. They are all independently owned and ma naged. The Freedom Trail Foundation is primarily responsible for the way finding system of the tr ail. To this end, the Foundation has created a full-color guidebook to assist visitors in finding and learning more about these sites (Figure 4-7). Figure 4-7. The Freedom Trail Guidebook (Reprinted with permission from The Freedom Trail Foundation. The Freedom Trail Guide: Walk into History on the Freedom Trail Boston: Recycled Paper Printi ng, Inc., 2000: front cover.) The trail is easy for tourists and locals to find. Public transportation is the best option in a major metropolis like Boston. Bo ston’s subway system, the “T”, has four stations conveniently located along the trail. If visitors are more comfortable using a car, they will probably find more parking then they expect. The 1997 Vision Study reveals that there are approximately 30,000 parking spaces in the area.

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40 Evaluation of Boston’s Freedom Trail3 Boston’s Freedom Trail is undeniably one of the most successful he ritage trails in the United States. The trail’s long history allows evaluation base d upon the three factors of success: resource protection, visitor experience, and community benefit. Resource protection Boston’s Freedom Trail has helped protec t the sites’ resour ces by raising their visibility to the public. This gives the pub lic a personal connection with their history, which can sometimes turn them into advocates and donors. If the city decides to enact legislation that could be detrimental to the site it is much easier to defeat that legislation when there is an outcry from these public advoca tes. The same is true if private industry proposes a change that could damage the site. A site with a strong, grassroots network of advocates will be protected by their support. The sites along The Freedom Trail enjoy this kind of support. The heightened visibility that comes with association with the Trail can also create a great fundraising potentia l. For example, between 1976 and 1998, more than $50 million was spent to restore and maintain the sites along Boston’s Freedom Trail (McConchie, 2/13/04). The trail has elevated th e sites to a profile envied by the staffs of many other historic sites around the count ry. This position opens many funding opportunities that might not ot herwise be available. People can only give money to sites th at they know about. On the other hand, being part of the trail means sharing that visi bility. It is more difficult to raise money for one particular site when, in the public’s unde rstanding, the sites are in extricably linked to 3 Articles by Martin Blatt, Mark Herlihy, Alfred F. Young and Nina Zannieri in The Public Historian were particularly helpful in gauging the success of Boston’s Freedom Trail.

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41 one another. A donor might believe that if he has already given mone y to one site, he has done his part and may see no need to donate to each of the other individual sites. In addition, The Freedom Trail Foundation conducts it own fundraising campaign. The sites along the trail must compete with The Free dom Trail foundation for scarce resources. They sometimes resent their association with the trail because some donations go to The Freedom Trail Foundation and not directly to the site. Linda McConchie, Executive Director of The Freedom Trail Foundation, believes that a third benefit to the historic resource is the public’s expectati on of high standards of maintenance along this trail. Because the sites are so famous, visitors expect them to be very clean and well cared for. They woul d be extremely disappointed to find shabby, deteriorating structures on the route, creati ng an incentive for the or ganizations that own and operate the sites along this trail to keep them well maintained. The sites along the trail seem to be in excellent condition. The trail does have the potential to nega tively impact certain resources because, unlike on Cultural Tourism DC’s trails, the publi c is encouraged to enter the buildings. The number of people who follow the trail and take tours of the museums in the peak tourism season could cause seriously impact th e sites. Each site is responsible for assessing this impact and taki ng the necessary precautions. Visitor experience Visitors to Boston’s Freedom Trail have a very satisfying experience. The trail is easy to follow because it is well-marked with a red brick or painted line connecting each site. The signs are consistent and easy to read from a distance (Figure 4-8). There are certain places where the trail a ppears to lead in more than one direction and a map is necessary to determine which is correct, but this is only a mi nor irritation.

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42 Figure 4-8. The Freedom Trail Ma rker (Source: photo by author, 2004) It is particularly valuable that the site s along the trail are authentic. There are no reconstructions and only one plaque to declar e that “on this site” something spectacular occurred. Every site is special and each tells a fascinating story. The museums are highly professional. Many of the sites do not charge for admission and those that do only request a minimal fee. There are also many visitor amenities al ong the route. The map (Figure 4-9) indicates information centers and public restro oms. These are located at multiple places along the trail. The route also pa sses many restaurants and shops. The only deficiency in the visitor experi ence is created by a la ck of coordination among the sites in presenting a common story. Due to their physical locations and the simplicity of Schofield’s original plan, th e visitor does not experience the sites in a chronological order. It is easy to get confus ed because there is not one, unified story, but several stories related only tangentially. The Freedom Trail Foundation has attempted to overcome this challenge by creating an Ante nna Audio Tour. These 2-hour-long audio players are available to rent for $15 (and $12 for each additional rental.) This audio tour

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43 addresses the sites along the trail in a clear, chronological story. Visitors who come to Boston without a good understanding of the city’s role in the Revolutionary War will find the trail much more understandable when using the audio tour. Figure 4-9. The Freedom Trail Map (Reprint ed with permission of The Freedom Trail Foundation. The Freedom Trail Guide: Walk into History on the Freedom Trail Boston: Recycled Paper Printi ng, Inc., 2000: center foldout.) Community benefit Boston has benefited greatly from the existence of the Freedom Trail. Approximately 2 million people walk the Freedom Trail every year. This represents about $1.8 million added to the area’s econom y every year (Dixon and Clancy, 1997). The businesses along the route particularly be nefit from the many visitors who walk the trail. In fact, many of those businesses w ould likely not exist if not for the tourism industry in the area.

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44 There could be no greater e ducational opportunity for Bo ston’s school children and families than the Freedom Trail. Unlike most other children in the country, they have authentic historic resources right in their ba ck yard. School groups from every other state also come see the sites along the trail, adding even more financial and educational benefit. Boston has gained recognition as a cultural city due in la rge part to the nationwide marketing of the Freedom Trail. The city takes pride in its affiliation with America’s struggle for independence. Together with the other great amenities available in the city, the Freedom Trail helps make Boston a ve ry cultural, pedest rian-friendly city.

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45 CHAPTER 5 PRESIDENT LINCOLN’S COMMUTE ROUTE I see the President almost every day, as I happen to live where he passes to or from his lodgings out of town. He never sl eeps at the White House during the hot season, but has quarters at a he althy location some three m iles north of the city, the Soldiers’ Home, a United States military establishment…. He always has a company of twenty-five or thirty cavalry, with sabres drawn and held upright over their shoulders. They say this guard was against his personal wish, but he let his counselors have their way. The party make s no great show in uniform or horses. Mr. Lincoln on the saddle ge nerally rides a good-sized, easy-going gray horse, is dress’d in plain black, somewhat rusty and dusty, wears a black stiff hat, and looks about as ordinary in attire, etc. as th e commonest man. A lieutenant with yellow straps, rides at his left, and following behind, two by two, come the cavalry men, in their yellow-striped jackets. They are gene rally going at a slow tr ot, as that is the pace set them by the one they wait upon. The sabres and accoutrements clank, and the entirely unornamental cortege as it tr ots towards Lafayette square arouses no sensation, only some curious stranger st ops and gazes (Whitman in Kimmel, 1957: 117). During the Civil War, Walt Whitman lived in a tenement at Vermont and L Street. His apartment was close to the White House and faced the route that President Lincoln used to travel to and from his summer resi dence at the Soldiers’ Home every day. He wrote about his sightings of the president, leaving us with po rtraits like this one. Between June and November of 186 2, 1863, and 1864, Abraham Lincoln and his family lived in a cottage at the Soldiers ’ Home, a home for a few hundred enlisted men and women who had been injured in war or w ho had served in the military for more than 20 years. Every day, President Lincoln travel ed three miles between the cottage and the White House by horseback or carriage. Lincol n first rode out to the Soldiers’ Home a few days before his inauguration and hi s last commute was the day before his assassination.

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46 It is important to note that the exact route examined here was determined by Matthew Pinsker in Lincoln’s Sanctuary: President Lincoln and the Soldiers’ Home Pinsker carefully researched all available documentation and concluded that President Lincoln most likely traveled th e following path (Figure 5-1): Started at the White House Traveled north on Vermont Avenue Took a right onto Rhode Island Avenue Took a left onto Seventh Street, which, as it crossed Boundary Avenue, became the Seventh Street Turnpike Took a right onto Rock Creek Church Roa d, which led directly to the Soldiers’ Home. President Lincoln probably varied his r oute occasionally, just as we do in our commutes today. There are many possible r outes he could have chosen, but from mentions of particular stops he made or sight ings of him, it is likely that this was the preferred route. It is also the most effici ent route from start to finish, and the Seventh Street Turnpike was one of the most commonlytraveled roads in or out of Washington.

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47 Figure 5-1. President Lincoln’s Commute R oute (Reprinted with permission from the National Trust for Historic Preservation. Pinsker, Matthew. Lincoln’s Sanctuary: Abraham Lincoln and the Soldiers’ Home New York: Oxford University Press, 2003: 6.)

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48 Wartime Washington Washington, D.C. 142 years ago was very di fferent than the Washington, D.C. of today. Understanding this background is esse ntial to a study of one route through it. What was the city like between 1861 a nd 1864, the years of President Lincoln’s occupancy at the Soldiers’ Home? What was the weather like, and how did this contribute to daily experiences? How many people lived in Washington at the time? How did the Civil War influence the landscape of the city? These and similar questions must be answered to understand the cont ext of President Lincoln’s daily commute. Background Washington, D.C. was a very new city in th e 1860s. It had been settled only about sixty years before and still felt like a tempor ary outpost. Henry Adams wrote that “as in 1800 and 1850, so in 1860, the same rude colony was camped in the same forest, with the same unfinished Greek temples for workroom s, and sloughs for roads” (Adams in Leech, 1941: 5). The Capitol was not yet complete and the Washington Monument, today such an icon of the nation’s strength, was only 1/3 of its current height. The city was planned by Pierre L’Enfant as a grid of streets ove rlaid by diagonal avenues with large public parks scattered throughout. L’Enfant knew that eventually this plan would make a great, European-style city. But 60 years was not enough time to fulfill this vision and, in the meantime, the city became known as “a city of magnificent distances” for the vast lengths of road that had to be travel ed between the relatively few monumental government buildings (Forman, 19). The roads were not paved, making navigation through the city even more difficult. Even Pennsylvania Avenue, the most traveled road in town, was made only of dirt. One letter to the editor exclaimed,

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49 What most is needed to contribute to the comfort and pleasure of citizens and strangers? The removal of mud and dust! This nuisance is the curse of Washington. It is as annoyi ng as the flies of Egypt. It penetrates everywhere. It fills our carriages; it enters our houses; it spoi ls our clothes; it blinds our eyes; it injures our lungs; it frets our temper; it drives away strangers, in fine, it is the great plague of our lives.… That the plan of our city is a most unfortunate one I think every resident will be ready to admit and deeply regret. The street are almost universally too wide, affording unnecessary space for the accumulation of dust, but when we add to these our immense ave nues, from one hundred and sixty to two hundred feet wide – a great Sahara of dirt – the blunder of the plan is seen to be prodigious. If the space thus worse than wasted had been laid out in numerous small squares, which could be planted with trees and kept in gr ass, it would have been a great improvement. Let our City C ouncil, then, awake to their duty in this respect. Let arrangements be promptly made to pave at least the more dense portions of our city. If th e streets north of Pennsylvania Avenue, from the Capitol to the War Department, and as far north on M Street, were paved it would embrace those portions most traveled, and woul d do very well for a beginning (Kimmel, 1957: 110). A common joke was that, “real estate was high in dry weather, as it was for the most part all in the air” (Brooks and Mitg ang, 1958: 20). President Lincoln traveled between the White House and the Soldiers ’ Home between June and November each year. The summer months were very dry, though the fall could br ing a good amount of rain. When it rained, that dust turned to mud. Noah Brooks, a young journalist with whom President Lincoln was friends, said that, Washington is probably the di rtiest and most ill-kept bor ough in the United States. It is impossible to describe the truly fearful conditions of the streets; they are seas or canals of liquid mud, varying in depth from one to three feet and possessing, as geographical features, conglomerations of garbage, refuse and trash, the odors whereof rival those of Cologne, which Coleri dge declared to be ‘seventy separate and distinct stinks…’ Everybody has heard of the great corrupti on of the city of Washington, but I will ventur e to say that its moral co rruption is far exceeded by the physical rottenness of its street s” (Brooks and Mitgang, 1958: 294). The location of the city was chosen through political negotiation with Maryland and Virginia, each of which gave up acreage fo r its inception. It was organized on a swampy plot of land facing the Potomac Rive r. These wet, marshy conditions were particularly bad around the President’s Mansi on, as the White House was then called. In

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50 Reveille in Washington Leech writes that, “At the foot of the President’s Park, as the unkempt tract south of the mansion was calle d, there was an unsavory marsh which had formerly been an outlet for sewage” (Leech, 1941: 7). The mosquitoes were unbearable and the malaria they transmitted was deadly. Washington’s heat and humidity drove many people out of the c ity during the steamy summer months, including members of Congress, which did not meet during the summer. President Lincoln and his family were not alon e in their desire to leave Washington in the summer. In the midst of this swamp, only a small section of town was developed north of Pennsylvania Avenue and between the Cap itol and the Presiden t’s Mansion. The buildings were not well-built, and contrasted sharply with the grand federal buildings. According to Leech, the city’s business – in cont rast to that of Federal Government, which required a setting of porticoed immensity – seemed all to be done in a small way. Ugly blocks of offices had been hastily run up as a speculation. Shabby boardinghouses, little grocery shops, petty attorney’s offices a nd mean restaurants and saloons served the fifteen hundred clerks who were employed in the departments (Leech, 1941: 9). Pennsylvania Avenue was the central thoroughf are through the city. The north side of the street held the respectable businesses. The south side, however, was a place not suitable for ladies or respected gentlemen. It is estimated that there were more than 450 houses of prostitution keeping about 5,000 “falle n angels” in the city during this time, many of them on the South side of Penns ylvania Avenue (Leech, 1941: 261). Infusion of Soldiers As war broke out, soldiers f illed the city. When the soldiers first arrived, the residents of the city were excited by the en tertainment they provided. Military bands played on the lawn of the White House. Wo men dressed in their fi nest clothes to be

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51 serenaded by these talented young soldiers. The many concerts, dress parades and flag raisings were exciting and new. Unfortunately, the novelty wore off soon enough and the soldiers’ antics began to wear on the locals. There was no place to go for peace and quiet. There was bugling and drilling in every quadrant of town. Target pr actice made it dangerous to walk in certain parks. The Evening Star one of Washington’s leading newspapers, complained, “Of soldiers the country is full. Give us orga nizers and commanders. We have men, let us have leaders. We have confusion, let us ha ve order” (Leech, 1941: 85). The citizens of Washington began to rese nt their new neighbors. The resentment was mutual as the soldiers quickly grew bored in this undeveloped, slow Southern town. They cr eated their own excitement th rough the city’s saloons and whorehouses. The city’s population had expl oded from 61,000 before the war started in 1860 to more than one hundred thousand in just a few months. By the end of the war, the population had more than tripled to about 200,000 (Pinsker, 2003: 8). Those hoping to profit from the influx of soldiers filled the ci ty to its limits. Leech described these new inhabitants: Washington was packed with the varied c oncourse of people attracted by the great army. Contractors, invent ors and cranks infested th e bureaus.… Correspondents were there to scribble, and ar tists to sketch. Soldiers’ relatives mingled with sightseeing tourists.… Counterfeiters and confid ence men assembled from all sections of the country.… Dancers and singers and comedians, prize fighters and gamblers, vendors of obscene literature and propriet ors of ‘rum-jug shops.’ Apparent on every street was the secret invasion of the women of the town; gay light-o-loves who swished into the music halls on the officers’ arms, whores who beckoned the drunken teamsters to shanties in the alleys (Leech, 1941: 121). Ongoing Construction The money brought into the city with thes e many new residents caused a great tide of building and other signs of prosperity. The number of people moving to Washington

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52 created a great demand for housing and shoppi ng. Construction continued on the grand public buildings, even in the midst of a war, because President Lincoln believed it was good for morale. “If people see the Capitol going on,” President Lincoln said, “it is a sign we intend the Union shall go on” (Lincoln in Leech, 1941: 279). Hospitals At the height of the war there were about twenty hosp itals in and around Washington (Brooks and Mitgang, 1958: 17). Many of these were in crudely-built, wooden structures or even tents. Former mansions were transfor med into hospitals. Buildings built as barracks were now being used as hospitals. One of these was located near the Seventh Street Road, where Pres ident Lincoln would have passed every day (Figure 5-2). As the war became more intense and the casualty lists began to grow, hotels, warehouses, private homes, schools, c hurches and other priv ate buildings were opened as hospitals. The Patent Office, Ge orgetown College, and even the Capitol, where two thousand cots were placed in the Rotunda and the halls of the House and Senate, were turned into hospitals (Leech, 1941: 206). Figure 5-2. Campbell Hospital, near Pres ident Lincoln’s commute route (Source: http://lcweb2.loc.gov, Jan 2004)

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53 President Lincoln would have come into contact with carri ages carrying wounded or dead soldiers along his commute route almost every day. Hospitals surrounded the Soldiers’ Home. President Lincoln occas ionally stopped the passing ambulances to inquire about fighting on the fr ont lines. On July 8, 1862, the New York Tribune ran an article titled, “The Presiden t and the Wounded.” It said, The President on the Fourth, while on his way to the Summer Residence at Soldiers’ Home, meeting a train of am bulances conveying wounded men from the late battles to the hospitals, just beyond the city limits, rode beside them for a considerable distance, conversing freely with the men, and seeming anxious to secure all the information possible with rega rd to the real cond ition of affairs on the Peninsula and the feeling among the troops from those who had borne the brunt of the fight (Pinsker, 2003: 37). President Lincoln must have felt that this was the best method of learning the truth about the war. The soldiers’ morale was also probably lifted by the interest and care he showed them. Freedmen and Slaves In addition to seeing soldiers on his co mmute every day, President Lincoln also passed the homes of free black men and wo men. Free blacks owned several of the properties outside the city limits along the Se venth Street Turnpike. Logan circle, or Iowa Circle as it was called when Lincoln was passing through, was, “an area of unkempt fields on the edge of the city where c ontraband and freedmen crowded into hastily erected wooden shacks” (Fitzpatrick and G oodwin, 2001: 149). Anna Harrison, a former fugitive slave, said, “I used to see Mr. Lincoln almost every day riding out to the Soldiers’ Home that summer [in 1862]” (Harrison in Pinsker, 2003: 66).

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54 There are reports, though unproven, that Pr esident Lincoln visited the contraband camps near his route.1 Mary Dines, an escaped slave from Maryland, claimed that President Lincoln had stopped at her camp many times. She kept a photograph of a contraband camp taken on a day the she clai med President Lincol n had visited, though Lincoln is not in the photo (Figure 5-3). Figure 5-3. Contraband camp. Photo saved by Mary Dines, who claimed it was taken on the day of President Lincoln’s visit (Reprinted with permission from the National Trust for Historic Preserva tion. Pinsker, Matthew. Lincoln’s Sanctuary: Abraham Lincol n and the Soldiers’ Home New York: Oxford University Press, 2003: 67.) She said that they had been warned to keep their performance short because the President was busy and needed to leave soon, but that he insist ed they continue to sing and pray. She said he even came back later, without his entourage, and continued to sing and pray with them. She was amazed that he “stood and sang and prayed just like all the rest of the people” (Pinsker, 2003: 68). 1 “Contraband” was a term used to describe slaves who had been taken from their masters during the war. These camps were temporary homes for the former slaves who were unable to earn a living.

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55 Guards Assassination plots were continuously floating around the city, but President Lincoln paid them no attention. Lincoln’s close advisors were alarmed by Lincoln’s habit of riding alone, frequently after dar k, along the 3 miles between the White House and the Soldiers’ Home. He refused to be guarded on his commute. He thought that if a person was determined to take his life, there was nothing anyone could do about it and he did not want to be guarded every moment of every day. Brooks remembered a conversation he had with President Lincoln regarding his safety. He recalled Lincoln saying, “I long ago made up my mind that if anybody wants to kill me, he will do it. If I wore a shirt of mail, and kept myself surrounded by a body-guard, it would be all the same. There are a thousand ways of getting at a man if it is desired that he should be killed” (Brooks and Mitgang, 1958: 44). Eventually, Mary Lincoln’s protestations persuaded the president that guards were necessary. He never liked it, though, saying that he and Mr s. Lincoln “’couldn’t hear themselves talk’ for the clatter of their sa bers and spurs; and that, as many of them appeared new hands and very awkward, he was more afraid of being shot by the accidental discharge of one of their carbines or revolvers, than of any attempt upon his life” (Pinsker, 2003: 60). He often sent the guard s away or left earlier than they expected to outrun them and enjoy a more peaceful ride. Even with a cavalry escort, some t hought it was still too dangerous for the President to be traveling th rough the countryside while a wa r raged nearby and threats on his life were reported almost daily. Brooks wrote that, Mr. Lincoln comes in early in the morning and returns about sunset, unless he has a press of business – which is often – when he sleeps at the White House and has ‘prog’ sent up from Willards. He goes and comes attended by an escort of a

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56 cavalry company, which was raised in this city for the purpose, and the escort also stands on guards at the premises during the night; but to my unsophisticated judgment nothing seems easier than a sudden cavalry raid from the Maryland side of the fortifications, past the few small fo rts, to seize the President of the United States, lug him from his ‘c hased couch,’ and carry hi m off as a hostage worth having (Brooks and Burlingame, 1998: 57). In addition, unruly civilians sometimes made the Seventh Street Turnpike a dangerous place. Pinsker reports that there was a racetrack, several saloons, and houses of prostitution in the area. John Hay was concer ned for the safety of this road when he wrote that he “rode home in the dark amid a party of drunken gamblers and harlots” on the Seventh Street Turnpi ke (Pinsker, 2003: 12). The Soldiers’ Home was very close to the front lines of the war. On July 10, 1864, just days after the family had settled into their summer residence for the season, Confederate General Jubal Early and his men a ttacked the area immediately north of the Soldiers’ Home. Secretary Stanton sent a carr iage and guard out to the Soldiers’ Home in the middle of the night to take President Lincol n and his family back to the White House. The president was not happy about it. Brooks wrot e about that night. He said that, “The news of the approach of Early was brought to the city… by the pa nic-stricken people from Rockville, Silver Spring, Tennallytown, and other Maryland villages. These people came flocking into Washington by the Seventh St reet Road, flying in wild disorder, and bringing their household goods with them” (B rooks and Mitgang, 1958: 159). President Lincoln must have seen these panic-stricken people as he, too, was being driven into town down the Seventh Street Road. It must have affected him to know that these people were running for their lives, and that thei r homes might not be th ere upon their return.

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57 Riding with the President Riding with President Lincoln to and from the Soldiers’ Home was an excellent way to get some time alone with him. John Hay, a White House aide, realized the political advantage of riding with the presiden t. Riding with the President, “had quietly become one of Hay’s more useful daily chor es. He found that on the dusty thirty-minute journey, the president could sometimes prove quite expansive and candid.” (Pinsker, 2003: 14) They, and others who occasionally rode with him, talk ed about the war and other important decisions the President was cons idering. Not all of the trips were full of work discussions, though. Brooks recalls riding with the President on his commute on November day and hearing the President re cite Oliver Wendell Holmes’s “The Last Leaf” from memory (Brooks and Mitgang, 1958: 78). What Did President Lincoln See?2 The commute route changed somewhat dur ing Lincoln’s presidency. At the beginning of the Civil War, only a small sec tion of Washington, D.C. was developed. The war brought thousands of soldiers and bus iness owners to town, and this heightened demand spurred an increase in commercial and residential building. During the years that President Lincoln was commuting through th e northern section of Washington, the development moved in that direction. At the start of the war, he would only have seen a couple of developed blocks before entering a largely rural landscape for the remainder of the ride. By 1864 the developed area was larg er, but only by a few blocks. The majority of the trip was still undeveloped land. 2 Boyd’s Washington and Georgetown Directories of 1861 – 1865, Boshke’s 1861 Map of Washington, D.C., and Passonneau’s Evolution of the Center were used to reconstruct the hist oric context in this section.

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58 When President Lincoln left the White House on Vermont Avenue, he would have seen prosperous businesses and private homes. There were offices for lawyers, shops for shoemakers and carpenters and apartment bu ildings like the one where he sometimes nodded cordially to Walt Whitman. He passed King & Burchell’s Fine Teas and Choice Family Groceries and the Dickson & King Wood and Coal Dealers. A few foreign offices were in the area, like Buruaga Asta, Charge de Affaires of Chile. He passed Secretary of War Stanton’s house and someti mes stopped to discuss business with him there. As he arrived near Iowa Circ le (what is Logan Circle t oday) he had left the heavy development behind. He saw small, wood-frame buildings, many of which had been built by freedmen. On his right, he passed within one block of a contraband camp. The businesses he passed in this area were less pr estigious than the ones closer to the White House but were still owned by white men. Af ter he turned right on to Rhode Island, he passed Maurice Hurley’s boarding house. At the same corner, he would have seen the A&M Grocery and Sutler’s Supply Store and William Robinson’s Grocery Store. In a home facing the alley behind these stores, Be tty Taylor was worki ng as a washer woman, a common business for black women during the Civil War. There were many black washer women in the area. After passing several empty blocks on Rhode Island Avenue, President Lincoln turned left on Seventh Street (which is Georgia Avenue today), the principal road in and out of the city. In 1862 there were only a fe w buildings in this area. He would have passed a blacksmith shop, a shoemaker, a few small grocery stores, and Gately Malachi’s Restaurant. By 1864, several more businesses had settled in the area, primarily on the

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59 west side of the street. He would have s een a tailor’s shop, a confectioner’s, and a few more restaurants. Seventh Street became th e Seventh Street Turnpi ke at Boundary Street, where there was a small tollgate. Presiden t Lincoln passed the tollgate without being asked to pay (Pinsker, 2003: 7). After the to llgate, he passed a few small residences on the east side of the road. So me of the residences outside of the city limits might have been owned by freedmen. He would also have seen the tents and other temporary encampments of thousands of military men. President Lincoln rode north on the Seventh Street Turnpike for about a mile before he turned right on to Rock Creek Church Road. This area was almost completely rural. There were a couple of residenc es south of the road, but he probably would not have been able to see them, as they were about a ha lf mile off the road and probably obscured by vegetation. Within half a mile of turning ri ght on to Rock Creek Church Road, he would have seen the few buildings of the Sold iers’ Home, one of them his own summer residence. He turned right and a pproached the home from the west. Conclusion Lincoln’s daily commute from the city to his country retreat gave him a better understanding of the true conditions in the country. He had candid conversations with those riding with him about the war and importa nt decisions he had to make. He stopped ambulances and talked with so ldiers about their experiences during th e war. He rode among contraband camps and shacks built by freedmen and spoke with them, learning about their lives. This commute through the city taught him, firsthand, what ordinary people were going through and would certainly have formed a foundation from which he could lead the country.

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60 The commute also served as a community outreach effort. Soldiers who encountered the president in th e streets must have felt comforted to know that he could see and understand their conditions The same is true for slaves and freedmen. They had a direct connection with the President of th e United States in a way that is almost impossible today. The significance of this site was offici ally recognized when President William Clinton designated the cottage and the surround ing 2.3 acres as the President Lincoln and Soldiers’ Home National Monument in 2000. It will be open to the public by 2006 and when it is, this commute might help connect today’s busy professionals to President Lincoln. Almost everyone commutes to and fr om an office every day. We all share the experience of hurrying out the door to get a h ead start on the traffic and the day’s work. This connection can help future visitors to the President Lincol n and Soldiers’ Home National Monument relate to the president in a more pers onal way and better understand President Lincoln as an ordinary man.

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61 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION Our study provides valuable information about heritage tourism and the viability of President Lincoln’s Commute Route Heritage Trail. Definitions of key terms allow a better understanding about heritage tourism as a field. While there are many terms used to describe similar activities, the focus of “place-based” learning in heritage education makes it the best description of the type of tourism that would be established through President Lincoln’s Commute Route Heritage Tr ail. In addition, a study of National Park Service criteria for federal desi gnation as a National Scenic Trail, National Historic Trail, National Recreational Trail and National Heritage Area makes it clear that President Lincolns’ Commute Route Heritage Trail is probably not eligib le for federal designation. An evaluation of heritage tourism’s na tionwide impact indicates that it is an important and growing segment of the tourism industry. Heritage tourists spend millions of dollars every year. An increasing interest in history and educa tional experiences can be capitalized upon by areas that have historic resources to offer. If managed properly, the results of heritage tourism can help protect historic resources. In Chapter 3, our study proposes an evaluative system by which the effectiveness of heritage tourism attractions can be assessed. This system includes criteria to judge an attraction’s ability to protect historic res ources, provide a meaningful visitor experience and ensure a substantial commun ity benefit. Those wishing to evaluate heritage tourism attractions, or consider the vi ability of a future attraction, will find this hierarchical system useful. The system is completely values-based, which can provide great

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62 flexibility, but is also very subjective. Th e results of any study using this system are going to be influenced by the reviewer’s po int of view and the circumstances of the particular site, including its level of significance. Several case studies presented here allow th e reader to learn a bout trails that are similar to the possible President Lincoln’s Co mmute Route Heritage Trail. They include the Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Her itage Trail, City with in a City: Greater U Street Heritage Trail, African American He ritage Trail and Boston’s Freedom Trail. Each case study trail is less than 5 miles long and located in densely populated, urban areas. They are assessed by the afor ementioned evaluative system. Chapter 5 focuses on the context of the commute route and what President Lincoln would have seen as he traveled the 3 mile s between the White House and the Soldiers’ Home every day. Washington, D.C. was a diffi cult place to live during the Civil War. The summer weather was exceedingly uncomfortable, the area was marshy, and the resulting mosquitoes were unbearable. For these reasons, many people left Washington every summer, including the President and his family. The Soldiers ’ Home was a refuge in many ways. Its breezy, hilltop location pr ovided respite from the unhealthy conditions of the city. It was also a quiet place to get away from the constant pressures of the White House. Lastly, it provided a sanctuary where the family could grieve the loss of 12-yearold Willie. A survey of the current route reveals that almost no historic fabric remains from President Lincolns’ time (Appendi x D). The entire route is now densely-developed. The first few blocks from the White House are lined with late 20th century commercial buildings (Figures 6-1 and 6-2). The next couple of blocks had historically seen

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63 contraband camps and small shacks that houses freedmen. They are now filled with late 19th century buildings, built about 20 or 30 years after President Lincoln’s daily commutes. The remaining length of the route is lined with earlyand mid 20th century buildings. More research is necessary to definitivel y determine whether any historic fabric remains. There appears to be only 1 block of buildings that could be from the Civil War era (Figure 6-3). It is located at what was the intersection of the Se venth Street Turnpike and Boundary Road. These buildings are current ly in a state of disrepair, and many of them are boarded up. Evaluating the Feasibility of Presid ent Lincoln’s Commute Route Learning about the terminology and impact of heritage tourism, establishing a flexible evaluative system, st udying similar trails and rese arching the context of the commute route have made it possible to evalua te the feasibility of President Lincolns’ Commute Route Heritage Trail. The evalua tive system discussed in our study was used to determine whether the new trail could satisf y the criteria of resource protection, visitor experience, and community benefit. Resource Protection Very few buildings along the route during President Lincoln’s time still exist. This route was primarily rural during President Li ncoln’s residency, wh ich means that there were not many buildings that could have survived in the first place. Now the entire route is densely developed with late 19th century and 20th century buildings. As there are almost no historic materials available, resource protection is impossible.

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64 Figure 6-1. Vermont at K Str eet the most developed sect ion of President Lincoln’s commute route. No historic structur es remain. (Source: photo by author, 2004) A B C D Figure 6-2. The corner where Walt Whitman lived at Vermont and L Street. A) The northwest corner. B) The southwest corn er. C) The northeast corner. D) The southeast corner. (Source: photos by author, 2004)

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65 It would probably prove extremely difficult to sustain an entire heritage trail based solely on the commute route without muse ums or other attractions along the way. President Lincoln’s Commute Route Heritage Tr ail must be rated very poorly in this category of the evaluative system. A lack of historic resources makes the success of this trail extremely improbable. Visitor Experience If enough historic fabric remained a nd compelling stories were discovered, President Lincoln’s Commute Route Heritage Trail could entice visitors from the National Mall. Most visitors to Wash ington, D.C. only see the monuments and Smithsonian museums. They l eave without really getting to know the city and all that it has to offer. This trail might provide an entertaining and educational experience that would bring tourists in contact with the local community. This trail would also offer an opportun ity for greater understanding of Washington during the Civil War and of President Lincol n as a regular person. Lincoln has probably been studied more than any other American Pr esident. This trail could provide a window into President Lincoln’s more personal si de, as he commuted from the strains of his professional life to the solitude of hi s quiet country retreat every day. President Lincoln’s Commute Route Heritage Trail must be rated poorly in this category, too, as it would face major obstacles re garding visitor experience. First, extant historic structures are key to a heritage trail’s success, as vi sitors do not particularly want to look at signs that tell them that somethi ng interesting happened “on this site.” They want to see the actual, authentic structures and this route simply does not have the historic resources to disp lay. Second, the route traverses a neighborhood that is economically depressed. Visitors may be unha ppy about the lack of amenities such as

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66 restrooms and restaurants. In addition, the trail is linear. If visitors walked the entire 3mile-long route, they would need some form of transportation to take them back to where they started. At this time, public transpor tation is severely lack ing around the Soldiers’ Home. The closest Metro stat ion is approximately 2 miles away and the bus routes are not user friendly. Heritage Tourism DC’s development process (bus tours that become guided tours that eventually become an ungui ded heritage trail) could be used to overcome some of these challenges but it would take several years and, again, the lack of historic resources makes the proba bility of success very low. Figure 6-3. The trail would pass through many blocks of boa rded commercial buildings, like these on Georgia Avenue (formerly Seventh Street). More research is necessary, but these might be from th e Civil War era. (Source: photo by author, 2004) Community Benefit Of the three evaluative measur es, this trail holds the most promise for its ability to provide a positive community benefit. T ourist money could help boost this area’s economic condition. The amenities that the city or an organization like Cultural Tourism DC might add to the area because of its new visibility to tourists would help the area

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67 tremendously. This might include public in formation booths, restrooms, landscaping, pedestrian-friendly sidewalks and crosswalks, benches, and other tools to make the area more inviting. If the trail were to bring tourists to th e area, members of the community might be wary of the new visitors. A busing system, like that used by Cultural Tourism DC, would be the first step in overcom ing these concerns. This would be followed by a guided walking tour and, eventually, visitors follo wing signage independently. If the initial uneasiness can be overcome, this trail could be a catalyst for more economic revitalization. Residents might consider openi ng restaurants or ot her business that are currently lacking in the area. Recommendations The potential President Lincoln’s Commute Route Heritage Trail faces challenges that could be insurmountable. It is improbabl e that it would become a successful heritage trail, particularly given the almost complete lack of historic re sources. It would not protect historic resources or pr ovide a very interesting or e ducational visitor experience. It is not recommended that this commute rout e be established as a heritage trail. The commute route is very interestin g, though, and should not be discounted because it is not a viable heritage trail. The route could be successfully used as an introduction to the President Lincoln and Soldiers’ Home National Monument. Due to the lack of public transportation to the Sold iers’ Home and shortage of parking spaces onsite, it seems probable that a bus system will be initiated to transport visitors to the site from the Mall. The commute route offers an opportunity to educate those visitors while they ride out to the site. By the time the bus reaches the site, the visitors will be oriented

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68 to Washington during the Civil War and the daily challenges that President Lincoln faced. Opportunities for Future Research President Lincoln’s commute route provides an interesting topic fo r future research. It is possible that further inve stigation would reveal that there is more historic fabric remaining, though it will definitely not be enoug h to sustain a heritage trail. This research should be conducted because if the resources are still standing, we should identify them and find ways to protect them before they, too, are lost. In addition, further research into Walt Whitman’s papers could reveal very meaningful information. It is possible that more details exist about the section of President Lincoln’s commute route that Whitma n observed every day. His writing is also likely to provide insightful details about othe r parts of Washington, D.C. during this time period, particularly information about Civil War hospitals and the soldiers who were injured. Whitman was a devoted volunteer at these hospitals. The Civil War hospitals of Washington, D.C. are another topic of possible future research. There were approxi mately 20 hospitals in Wash ington, D.C. during the Civil War. Matthew Brady, a respected Civil Wa r photographer, took many pictures of the hospitals and soldiers. It is possible that the Capitol’s re cords would include information about its time as a Civil War hospital, as might other federal buildings of the time.

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69 APPENDIX A NATIONAL TRAIL SYSTEM ACT An Act To establish a national trails system, and for other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Repr esentatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled Short Title Section l. This Act may be cited as the "National Trails System Act.” Statement of Policy Section 2. [16USC1241] (a) In order to provide for the ever-increas ing outdoor recreation needs of an expanding population and in order to promote the preser vation of, public access to, travel within, and enjoyment and appreciation of the open-ai r, outdoor areas and hi storic resources of the Nation, trails should be established (i) pr imarily, near the urban areas of the Nation, and (ii) secondarily, w ithin scenic areas and along histor ic travel routes of the Nation which are often more remotely located. (b) The purpose of this Act is to provide the means for attaining these objectives by instituting a national system of recreation, scenic and hist oric trails, by designating the Appalachian Trail and the Paci fic Crest Trail as the initia l components of that system, and by prescribing the methods by which, and standards according to which, additional components may be added to the system. (c) The Congress recognizes the valuable contributions that volunteers and private, nonprofit trail groups have made to the deve lopment and maintenance of the Nation's trails. In recognition of these contributions, it is further the purpose of this Act to encourage and assist volunteer citizen involvement in the planning, development, maintenance, and management, where appropriate, of trails. ________________________ P.L. 90-543, as amended through P.L. 107-325, December 4, 20 02. This document can be found at http://www.nps.gov/nts/legislation.html. It is also in United States Code, Volume 16, Sections 1241-1251.

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70 National Trails System Section 3. [16USC1242] (a) The national system of trails sh all be composed of the following: (l) National recreation trails, es tablished as provided in sectio n 4 of this Act, which will provide a variety of outdoor recreation uses in or reasonably accessible to urban areas. (2) National scenic trails, established as provide d in section 5 of this Act, which will be extended trails so located as to provide for maximum outdoor recreation potential and for the conservation and enjoyment of the nationally significant scenic, hi storic, natural, or cultural qualities of the areas through which such trails may pass. National scenic trails may be located so as to represent dese rt, marsh, grassland, mountain, canyon, river, forest, and other areas, as we ll as landforms which exhibit significant characteristics of the physiographic regions of the Nation. (3) National historic trails, established as provi ded in section 5 of this Act, which will be extended trails which follow as closely as pos sible and practicable the original trails or routes of travel of national historic significan ce. Designation of such tr ails or routes shall be continuous, but the established or develope d trail, and the acquis ition thereof, need not be continuous onsite. National hi storic trails shall have as their purpose the identification and protection of the historic route and its hi storic remnants and artifacts for public use and enjoyment. Only those selected land and water based components of a historic trail which are on federally owned lands and which meet the national historic trail criteria established in this Act are included as Federal protect ion components of a national historic trail. The appropriat e Secretary may certify other la nds as protected segments of an historic trail upon applica tion from State or local govern mental agencies or private interests involved if such segments meet the national historic trail criteria established in this Act and such criteria supplementary thereto as the appropriate Secretary may prescribe, and are administer ed by such agencies or inte rests without expense to the United States. (4) Connecting or side trails, established as provided in sec tion 6 of this Act, which will provide additional points of public access to national recreation, national scenic or national historic trails or which will provide connections between such trails. The Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Agricu lture, in consultation with appropriate governmental agencies and public and private organizations, shall establish a uniform marker for the national trails system. (b) For purposes of this section, the term 'ext ended trails' means trails or trail segments which total at least one hundred miles in length, except that historic tr ails of less than one hundred miles may be designated as extended tr ails. While it is desirable that extended trails be continuous, stud ies of such trails may conclude th at it is feasible to propose one or more trail segments which, in the aggregate, constitute at least one hundred miles in length.

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71 National Recreation Trails Section 4. [16USC1243] (a) The Secretary of the Interior, or the Secr etary of Agriculture where lands administered by him are involved, may establish and designa te national recreati on trails, with the consent of the Federal agency, State, or pol itical subdivision havi ng jurisdiction over the lands involved, upon finding that-(i) such trails are reasonably accessible to urban areas, and, or (ii) such trails meet the criteria established in this Act and such supplementary criteria as he may prescribe. (b) As provided in this sec tion, trails within park, fore st, and other recreation areas administered by the Secretary of the Interior or the Secretary of Agriculture or in other federally administered areas may be estab lished and designated as "National Recreation Trails" by the appropriate Secretary and, when no Federal land acquis ition is involved -(i) trails in or reasonably accessible to urban areas may be designated as "National Recreation Trails" by the appropriate Secretar y with the consent of the States, their political subdivisions, or other ap propriate administering agencies; (ii) trails within park, forest, and other re creation areas owned or administered by States may be designated as "National Recreation Tr ails" by the appropriate Secretary with the consent of the State; and (iii) trails on privately owne d lands may be designated 'National Recreation Trails' by the appropriate Secretary with the written cons ent of the owner of the property involved. National Scenic and National Historic Trails Section 5. [16USC1244] (a) National scenic and national historic tra ils shall be authorized and designated only by Act of Congress. There are hereby estab lished the following National Scenic and National Historic Trails: (1) The Appalachian National Scenic Trail, a trail of approximately two thousand miles extending generally along the Appalachian Mo untains from Mount Katahdin, Maine, to Springer Mountain, Georgia. Insofar as practic able, the right-of-way for such trail shall comprise the trail depicted on the maps identified as "Nationwide System of Trails, Proposed Appalachian Trail, NST-AT-101May 1967", which shall be on file and available for public inspection in the office of the Director of the National Park Service. Where practicable, such rights-of-way sh all include lands protected for it under agreements in effect as of the date of enact ment of this Act, to which Federal agencies and States were parties. The Appalachian Tr ail shall be administered primarily as a

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72 footpath by the Secretary of the Interior in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture. (2) The Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail, a trail of approximately two thousand three hundred fifty miles, extending from the Mexi can-California border northward generally along the mountain ranges of the west coas t States to the Canadian-Washington border near Lake Ross, following the route as ge nerally depicted on the map, identified as "Nationwide System of Trails, Proposed Pacific Crest Trail, NST-PC-103-May 1967" which shall be on file and available for public inspection in the office of the Chief of the Forest Service. The Pacific Crest Trail sh all be administered by the Secretary of Agriculture, in consultation with the Secretary of the Interior. (3) The Oregon National Historic Trail, a route of approximately two thousand miles extending from near Independence, Missouri, to the vicinity of Portland, Oregon, following a route as depicted on maps identifi ed as 'Primary Route of the Oregon Trail 1841-1848', in the Department of the Interi or's Oregon Trail study report dated April 1977, and which shall be on file and available for public inspection in the office of the Director of the National Park Service. The tr ail shall be administered by the Secretary of the Interior. (4) The Mormon Pioneer National Historic Tra il, a route of approxi mately one thousand three hundred miles extending from Nauvoo, Illi nois, to Salt Lake City, Utah, following the primary historical route of the Morm on Trail as generally depicted on a map, identified as, 'Mormon Trail Vicinity Map, fi gure 2' in the Department of the Interior Mormon Trail study report dated March 1977, an d which shall be on file and available for public inspection in the office of the Di rector, National Park Service, Washington, D.C. The trail shall be administered by the Secretary of the Interior. (5) The Continental Divide National Scenic Tr ail, a trail of approximately thirty-one hundred miles, extending from the MontanaCanada border to the New Mexico-Mexico border, following the approximate route depi cted on the map, identified as 'Proposed Continental Divide National Scenic Trail' in the Department of the Interior Continental Divide Trail study report dated March l977 a nd which shall be on f ile and available for public inspection in the office of the Chief, Forest Service, Washington, D.C. The Continental Divide National Scenic Trail sh all be administered by the Secretary of Agriculture in consultation with the Secr etary of the Interior Notwithstanding the provisions of section 7(c), the use of motorized vehicles on roads which will be designated segments of the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail shall be permitted in accordance with regulations prescrib ed by the appropriate Secretary. (6) The Lewis and Clark National Historic Trai l, a trail of approximately three thousand seven hundred miles, extending from Wood River, Illinois, to the mouth of the Columbia River in Oregon, following the outbound and inbound routes of the Lewis and Clark Expedition depicted on maps identified as, 'V icinity Map, Lewis and Clark Trail' study report dated April l977. The map shall be on file and available for public inspection in the

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73 office of the Director, National Park Serv ice, Washington, D.C. The trail shall be administered by the Secretary of the Interior. (7) The Iditarod National Historic Trail, a route of approximately two thousand miles extending from Seward, Alaska, to Nome, Alas ka, following the routes as depicted on maps identified as 'Seward-Nome Trail', in th e Department of the Interior's study report entitled 'The Iditarod Trail (Seward-Nome R oute) and other Alaskan Gold Rush Trails' dated September l977. The map shall be on file and available for public inspection in the office of the Director, National Park Serv ice, Washington, D.C. The trail shall be administered by the Secretary of the Interior. (8) The North Country National Scenic Trail, a tr ail of approximately thirty-two hundred miles, extending from eastern New York Stat e to the vicinity of Lake Sakakawea in North Dakota, following the approximate r oute depicted on the map identified as 'Proposed North Country Trail-Vicinity Map' in the Department of the Interior 'North Country Trail Report', dated June l975. The ma p shall be on file and available for public inspection in the office of the Director, Nati onal Park Service, Washington, District of Columbia. The trail shall be administer ed by the Secretary of the Interior. (9) The Overmountain Victory National Historic Trail, a system totaling approximately two hundred seventy-two miles of trail with routes from the mustering point near Abingdon, Virginia, to Sycamore Shoals (nea r Elizabethton, Tennessee); from Sycamore Shoals to Quaker Meadows (near Morganton, North Carolina); from the mustering point in Surry County, North Carolina, to Quaker Meadows; and from Quaker Meadows to Kings Mountain, South Carolina, as depicted on the map identified as Map 3--Historic Features--l780 in the draft study report entitled 'Overmount ain Victory Trail' dated December l979. The map shall be on file and av ailable for public in spection in the Office of the Director, National Park Service, Washi ngton, District of Columbia. The trail shall be administered by the Secretary of the Interior. (l0) The Ice Age National Scenic Trail, a trail of approximately one thousand miles, extending from Door County, Wisconsin, to In terstate Park in Saint Croix County, Wisconsin, generally following the route desc ribed in "On the Trail of the Ice Age--A Hiker's and Biker's Guide to Wisconsin's Ice Age National Scientific Reserve and Trail", by Henry S. Reuss, Member of Congress, date d l980. The guide and maps shall be on file and available for public inspection in the Offi ce of the Director, National Park Service, Washington, District of Colu mbia. Overall administration of the trail shall be the responsibility of the Secretary of the Interior pursuant to s ection 5(d) of this Act. The State of Wisconsin, in consulta tion with the Secretary of the Interior, may, subject to the approval of the Secretary, prepare a plan for the management of the trail which shall be deemed to meet the requirements of sect ion 5(e) of this Act. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 7(c), snowmobile use may be permitted on segments of the Ice Age National Scenic Trail where deemed appr opriate by the Secretary and the managing authority responsible for the segment.

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74 (ll) The Potomac Heritage National Scenic Trail, a corridor of approximately seven hundred and four miles following the route as ge nerally depicted on the map identified as 'National Trails System, Proposed Potomac He ritage Trail' in 'The Potomac Heritage Trail', a report prepared by the Department of the Interior a nd dated December l974, except that no designation of the trail shall be made in the State of West Virginia. The map shall be on file and available for public in spection in the office of the Director of the National Park Service, Washingt on, District of Columbia. The trail shall initially consist of only those segments of the corridor located within the ex terior boundaries of federally administered areas. No lands or interests th erein outside the exteri or boundaries of any federally administered area may be acquired by the Federal Government for the Potomac Heritage Trail. The Secretary of the Interi or may designate lands outside of federally administered areas as segments of the trail, only upon application from the States or local governmental agencies involved, if such segments meet the criteria established in this Act and are administered by such agencies wit hout expense to the Un ited States. The trail shall be administered by the Secretary of the Interior. (12) The Natchez Trace National Scenic Tra il, a trail system of approximately six hundred and ninety-four miles extending from Nashville, Tennessee, to Natchez, Mississippi, as depicted on the map entitled 'Concept Plan, Natchez Trace Trails Study' in 'The Natchez Trace', a report prepared by th e Department of the Interior and dated August l979. The map shall be on file and avai lable for public inspection in the office of the Director of the National Park Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, District of Columbia. The trail shall be ad ministered by the Secretary of the Interior. (l3) The Florida National Scenic Trail, a ro ute of approximately thirteen hundred miles extending through the State of Fl orida as generally depicted in 'The Florida Trail', a national scenic trail study draf t report prepared by the Depa rtment of the Interior and dated February l980. The report shall be on file and available for public inspection in the office of the Chief of the Forest Service, Wa shington, District of Co lumbia. No lands or interests therein outside the exterior boundari es of any federally administered area may be acquired by the Federal Government for th e Florida Trail except with the consent of the owner thereof. The Secretary of Agricult ure may designate lands outside of federally administered areas as segments of the trail, only upon application from the States or local governmental agencies involved, if such segments meet the criteria established in this Act and are administered by such agencies wit hout expense to the Un ited States. The trail shall be administered by th e Secretary of Agriculture. (l4) The Nez Perce National Hi storic Trail, a route of a pproximately eleven hundred and seventy miles extending from the vicinity of Wallowa Lake, Oregon, to Bear Paw Mountain, Montana, as generally depicted in 'Nez Perce (Nee-Me-Poo) Trail Study Report' prepared by the Department of Ag riculture and dated March l982. The report shall be on file and available for public inspect ion in the Office of the Chief of the Forest Service, Washington, District of Columbia The trail shall be administered by the Secretary of Agriculture. No lands or intere sts therein outside the exterior boundaries of any federally administered area may be acqui red by the Federal Government for the Nez Perce National Historic Trail. The Secretar y of Agriculture may de signate lands outside

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75 of federally administered areas as segments of the trail upon application from the States or local governmental agencies involved if su ch segments meet the criteria established in this Act and are administered by such agenci es without expense to the United States. So that significant route segments and sites re cognized as associated with the Nez Perce Trail may be distinguished by suitable markers, the Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to accept the donation of suitable markers for placement at appropriate locations. Any such markers associated with the Nez Per ce Trail which are to be located on lands administered by any other department or agency of the United States may be placed on such lands only with the concurrence of the head of such department or agency. (15) The Santa Fe National Hist oric Trail, a trail of approxi mately 950 miles from a point near Old Franklin, Missouri, through Kansas, Oklahoma, a nd Colorado to Santa Fe, New Mexico, as generally depicted on a map entitle d "The Santa Fe Trail" contained in the Final Report of the Secretary of the Interior pursuant to subsection (b ) of this section, dated July l976. The map shall be on file and available for public inspection in the office of the Director of the National Park Service, Washington, District of Columbia. The trail shall be administered by the Secr etary of the Interior. No lands or interests therein outside the exterior boundaries of any federally admi nistered area may be acquired by the Federal Government for the Santa Fe Trail except with the consent of the ow ner thereof. Before acquiring any easement or entering into a ny cooperative agreement with a private landowner with respect to th e trail, the Secretary sha ll notify the landowner of the potential liability, if any, fo r injury to the public resulti ng from physical conditions which may be on the landowner's land. The United States shall not be held liable by reason of such notice or failure to provide such notice to the landowner. So that significant route segments and sites recognized as associated with the Santa Fe Trail may be distinguished by suitable markers, the Secretary of the Inte rior is authorized to accept the donation of suitable markers for placement at appropriate locations. (l6) (A) The Trail of Tears Na tional Historic Trail, a trail consisting of water routes and overland routes traveled by the Cherokee Nati on during its removal fr om ancestral lands in the East to Oklahoma during l838 and l 839, generally located within the corridor described through portions of Georgia, Nort h Carolina, Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas, and Oklahoma in the final report of the Secretary of the Interior prepared pursuant to subsection (b) of this section entitled "Trail of Tears" and dated June l986. Maps depicting the corridor shall be on file and available for public inspection in the Office of the National Park Se rvice, Department of the Interior. The trail shall be administered by the Secr etary of the Interior. No lands or interests therein outside the exterior boundaries of any federally admi nistered area may be acquired by the Federal Government for the Trail of Tears except w ith the consent of the owner thereof. (B) In carrying out his responsib ilities pursuant to subsections 5(f) and 7(c) of this Act, the Secretary of the Interior shall give careful considera tion to the establishment of appropriate interpretive sites for the Trail of Tears in the vicinity of Hopkinsville, Kentucky, Fort Smith, Arkansas, Trail of T ears State Park, Missouri, and Tahlequah, Oklahoma.

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76 (17) The Juan Bautista de Anza National Hist oric Trail, a trail comprising the overland route traveled by Captain Juan Bautista de Anza of Spain during the years 1775 and 1776 from Sonora, Mexico, to the vi cinity of San Francisco, Califo rnia, as generally described in the report of the Department of Interior pr epared pursuant to the subsection (b) entitled 'Juan Bautista de Anza National Trail St udy, Feasibility Study and Environmental Assessment' and dated August, 1986. A map gene rally depicting the trail shall be on file and available for public inspection in the O ffice of the Director of the National Park Service, Washington, District of Columbia The trail shall be administered by the Secretary of Interior. No lands or interest therein outside the exterior boundaries of any federally administered area may be acquire d by the Federal Government for the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail wit hout the consent of th e owner thereof. In implementing this paragraph, the Secretary shall encourage volunteer trail groups to participate in the development and maintenance of the trail. (18) The California National Historic Trail, a route of approximately five thousand seven hundred miles, including all routes and cu toffs, extending from Independence and Saint Joseph, Missouri, and Council Bluffs, Iowa, to various points in California and Oregon, as generally described in the report of the De partment of the Interior prepared pursuant to subsection (b) of this section entitle d "California and Pony Express Trails, Eligibility/Feasib ility Study/Environmental Assessment" and dated September 1987. A map generally depicting the route shall be on file and available for public inspection in the Office of the National Park Service, Department of the Interior. The trail shall be administered by the Secretary of the Interior No lands or interest s therein outside the exterior boundaries of any federally admi nistered area may be acquired by the United States for the California Nati onal Historic Trail except with the consent of the owner thereof. (19) The Pony Express National Historic Trail, a route of approximately one thousand nine hundred miles, including the original rout e and subsequent route changes, extending from Saint Joseph, Missouri, to Sacramento, California, as generally described in the report of the Department of the Interior prepar ed pursuant to subsecti on (b) of this section entitled "California and Pony Express Trails, Eligibility/F easibility Study/Environmental Assessment" and dated September 1987. A map ge nerally depicting th e route shall be on file and available for public inspection in the Office of the National Park Service, Department of the Interior. The trail shall be administered by the Secretary of the Interior. No lands or interests therein outside the exterior boundaries of any federally administered area may be acquired by the United States fo r the Pony Express National Historic Trail except with the consent of the owner thereof. [Related language from section 2, P.L. 102-328: The Secretary of the In terior (hereinafter referred to as the Secretary) shall undertake a study of the land a nd water route used to carry mail from Sacramento to San Francisco, Ca lifornia, to determine the feasibility and suitability of designation of such route as a component of the Pony Express National Historic Trail designated by s ection 1 of this Act. Upon co mpletion of the study, if the Secretary determines such a route is a feas ible and suitable addition to the Pony Express National Historic Trail, the Secretary shall designate the route as a component of the Pony Express National Historic Trail. Th e Secretary shall publish notice of such

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77 designation in the Federal Register and sha ll submit the study along with his findings to the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs of the United States House of Representatives and the Committee on Ener gy and Natural Resources of the United States Senate.] (20) The Selma to Montgomery National Histor ic Trail, consisting of 54 miles of city streets and United States Highway 80 from Brow n Chapel A.M.E. Church in Selma to the State Capitol Building in Montgomery, Alab ama, traveled by voting rights advocates during March 1965 to dramatize the need fo r voting rights legislation, as generally described in the report to the Secretary of the Interior prep ared pursuant to subsection (b) of this section enti tled "Selma to Montgomery" and dated April, 1993. Maps depicting the route shall be on file and available for public inspection in the Office of the National Park Service, Department of the Interior. Th e trail shall be administered in accordance with this Act, including section 7(h). The Secretary of the Inte rior, acting through the National Park Service, which shall be the lead Federal agency, shall cooperate with other Federal, State and local authorities to preser ve historic sites alo ng the route, including (but not limited to) the Edmund Pettus Bridge and the Brown Chapel A.M.E. Church. (21) El Camino Real de tierra adentro -(A) El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro (the Royal Road of th e Interior) National Historic Trail, a 404 mile long trail fr om Rio Grande near El Paso, Texas to San Juan Pueblo, New Mexico, as generally depi cted on the maps entitled ‘Uni ted States Route: El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro,’ contained in the report prepared pursuant to subsection (b) entitled ‘National Historic Trail Feasibility Study and Environmental Assessment: El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, Te xas-New Mexico,’ dated March 1997. (B) Map A map generally depicting the trai l shall be on file and available for public inspection in the Office of the National Park Service, Department of the Interior. (C) Administration The Trail shall be admi nistered by the Secretary of the Interior. (D) Land Acquisition No lands or interests therein outside the ex terior boundaries of any federally administered area may be acquired by the Federal Goverment for El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro except w ith the consent of the owner thereof. (E) Volunteer Groups; Consultation Th e Secretary of the Interior shall -(i) encourage volunteer groups to participate in the development and maintenance of the trail; and (ii) consult with other affected Federal, Stat e, local governmental, and tribal agencies in the administration of the trail. (F) Coordination of Activities -The Secretary of the Interior may coordinate with United States and Mexican public and non-governme ntal organizations, academic institutions,

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78 and in sonsultation with the Secretray of Stat e, the government of Mexico and its political subdivisions, for the purpose of exchanging trai l information and research, fostering trail preservation and education programs, provi ding technical assistance, and working to establish an international historic trail w ith complementary preservation and educatioin programs in each nation. (22) Ala Kahakai Nation al Historic Trail -(A) In General The Ala Kahakai National Hi storic Trail (the Tr ail by the Sea), a 175 mile long trail extending from ‘Upola Point on the north tip of Hawaii Island down the west coast of the Island around Ka Lae to the east boundar of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park at the ancient shoreline temple known as ‘Waha’ula,’ as generally depicted on the map entitled ‘Ala Kahakai Trail,’ contained in the report prepared pursuant to subsection (b) entitled ‘Ala Kahakai National Trail Study and Environmental Impact Statement,’ dated January, 1998. (B) Map A map generally depicting the trai l shall be on file and available for public inspection in the Office of the National Park Service, Department of the Interior. (C) Administration The trail shall be admi nistered by the Secret ray of the Interior. (D) Land Acquisition No land or interest in land outside the exteri or boundaries of any federally administered area may be acquired by the United States for the trail except with the consent of the owner of the land or interest in land. (E) Public Participation; Consultation The Secretary of the Interior shall (i) encourage communities a nd owners of land along the trail, native Hawaiians, and volunteer trail groups to partic ipate in the planning, development, and maintennace of the trail; and (ii) consult with affected Federal, State, and local agencies, native Hawaiian groups, and landowners in the administration of the trail. (23) Old Spanish National Historic Trail -(A) In General The Old Spanish National Hi storic Trail, an approximately 2,700 mile long trail extending from Santa Fe, New Mexico, to Los Angeles, California, that served as a major trade route between 1829 and 1848, as generally depicted on the maps numbered 1 through 9, as contained in the re port entitled ‘Old Sp anish Trail National Historic Trail Feasibility Study,’ dated July 2001, including the Armijo Route, Northern Route, North Branch, and Mojave Road. (B) Map A map generally depicting the trai l shall be on file and available for public inspection in the appropriate offices of the Department of the Interior.

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79 (C ) Administration The trail shall be admi nistered by the Secretary of the Interior (referred to in this para graph as the ‘Secretary’). (D) Land Acquisition The United States sha ll not acquire for the trail any land or interest in land outside the exterior boundary of any fede rally-managed area without the consent of the owner of the land or interest in land. (E) Consultation The Secretary shall consult wi th other Federal Stat e, local, and tribal agencies in the administration of the trail. (F) Additional Routes The S ecretary may designate additional routes to the trail if (i) the additional routes were included in the Old Spanish Trail National Historic Trail Feasibility Study, but were not recommended for designation as a national historic trail; and (ii) the Secretary determines that the additional ro utes were used for trade and commerce between 1829 and 1848. (b) The Secretary of the Interi or, through the agency most likel y to administer such trail, and the Secretary of Agriculture where la nds administered by him are involved, shall make such additional studies as are herein or may hereafter be authorized by the Congress for the purpose of determining the feasibility and desirability of designating other trails as national scenic or national hist oric trails. Such studies shall be made in consultation with the heads of other Federa l agencies administering lands through which such additional proposed trails would pass and in cooperation with in terested interstate, State, and local governmental agencies, public and private organizations, and landowners and land users concerned. The feasibility of designating a trail shall be determined on the basis of an evaluation of whether or not it is physically possible to develop a trail along a route being studied, and whether the development of a trail w ould be financially feasible. The studies listed in subsection (c) of this section shall be completed and submitted to the Congress, with recommendations as to the su itability of trail desi gnation, not later than three complete fiscal years from the date of enactment of their addi tion to this subsection, or from the date of enactment of this sent ence, whichever is later. Such studies, when submitted, shall be printed as a House or Sena te document, and shall include, but not be limited to: (1) the proposed route of such trai l (including maps and illustrations); (2) the areas adjacent to such trails, to be uti lized for scenic, historic, natural, cultural, or developmental purposes; (3) the characteristics which, in the judgme nt of the appropriate Secretary, make the proposed trail worthy of designati on as a national scenic or nati onal historic trail; and in the case of national historic trails the re port shall include the recommendation of the Secretary of the Interior's National Park System Advisory Board as to the national

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80 historic significance based on the criteria developed under the Hist oric Sites Act of 1935 (40 Stat. 666; 16 U.S.C. 461); (4) the current status of land ownership and current and potential use along the designated route; (5) the estimated cost of acquisition of lands or interest in lands, if any; (6) the plans for developing and maintaining the trail and the cost thereof; (7) the proposed Federal administering agency (which, in the case of a national scenic trail wholly or substantially within a na tional forest, shall be the Department of Agriculture); (8) the extent to which a State or its po litical subdivisions and public and private organizations might reasonably be expected to participate in acquiring the necessary lands and in the administration thereof; (9) the relative uses of the lands involved, including: the number of anticipated visitordays for the entire leng th of, as well as for segments of, such trail; the number of months which such trail, or segments thereof, will be open for recreation purposes; the economic and social benefits which might accrue from alternate land uses; and the estimated manyears of civilian employment and expenditures expected for the purposes of maintenance, supervision, and regulat ion of such trail; (10) the anticipated impact of public outdoor recreation use on the preservation of a proposed national historic tra il and its related historic a nd archeological features and settings, including the measures proposed to ensure evaluation and preservation of the values that contribute to their national historic significance; and (11) To qualify for designation as a national historic trail, a trail must meet all three of the following criteria: (A) It must be a trail or route establishe d by historic use and must be historically significant as a result of that use. The route n eed not currently exist as a discernible trail to qualify, but its location must be suffici ently known to permit evaluation of public recreation and historical intere st potential. A designated tr ail should generally accurately follow the historic route, but may deviate somewhat on occasion of necessity to avoid difficult routing through subseque nt development, or to provi de some route variations offering a more pleasurable recr eational experience. Such devi ations shall be so noted on site. Trail segments no longer possible to travel by trail due to subsequent development as motorized transportation routes may be desi gnated and marked onsite as segments which link to the historic trail. (B) It must be of national si gnificance with respect to any of several broad facets of

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81 American history, such as tr ade and commerce, exploration, migration and settlement, or military campaigns. To qualify as nationally significant, historic use of the trail must have had a far reaching effect on broad patterns of American culture. Trails significant in the history of native Americans may be included. (C) It must have significant potential for publ ic recreational use or historical interest based on historic interpretation and appreciati on. The potential for such use is generally greater along roadless segments developed as hist oric trails and at historic sites associated with the trail. The presence of recreation poten tial not related to hist oric appreciation is not sufficient justific ation for designation under this category. (c) The following routes shall be studied in accordance with the objectives outlined in subsection (b) of this section. (1) Continental Divide Trai l, a three-thousand-one-hundred -mile trail extending from near the Mexican border in southwestern New Mexico northward generally along the Continental Divide to the Canadian border in Glacier National Park. (2) Potomac Heritage Trail, an eighthundred-and-twenty-five-mile trail extending generally from the mouth of the Potomac Rive r to its sources in Pennsylvania and West Virginia including the one-hundredandse venty-mile Chesapeake and Ohio Canal towpath. (3) Old Cattle Trails of the Southwest fr om the vicinity of San Antonio, Texas, approximately eight hundred miles through Ok lahoma via Baxter Springs and Chetopa, Kansas, to Fort Scott, Kansas, including the Chisholm Trail, from the vicinity of San Antonio or Cuero, Texas, appr oximately eight hundred mile s north through Oklahoma to Abilene, Kansas. (4) Lewis and Clark Trail, from Wood River, Illinois, to the Paci fic Ocean in Oregon, following both the outbound and inbound routes of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. (5) Natchez Trace, from Nashville, Tenne ssee, approximately six hundred miles to Natchez, Mississippi. (6) North Country Trail, from the Appalach ian Trail in Vermont, approximately three thousand two hundred miles through the Stat es of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, to the Lewis and Clark Trail in North Dakota. (7) Kittanning Trail from Shirleysburg in Huntingdon County to Kittanning, Armstrong County, Pennsylvania. (8) Oregon Trail, from Independence, Misso uri, approximately two thousand miles to near Fort Vancouver, Washington.

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82 (9) Santa Fe Trail, from Independence, Misso uri, approximately eight hundred miles to Santa Fe, New Mexico. (l0) Long Trail extending two hundred and fifty -five miles from the Massachusetts border northward through Vermont to the Canadian border. (ll) Mormon Trail, extending from Nauvoo, Illin ois, to Salt Lake City, Utah, through the States of Iowa, Nebraska, and Wyoming. (l2) Gold Rush Trails in Alaska. (l3) Mormon Battalion Trail, extending tw o thousand miles from Mount Pisgah, Iowa, through Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona to Los Angeles, California. (l4) El Camino Real from St. Augustine to San Mateo, Florida, approximately 20 miles along the southern boundary of the St. Johns River from Fort Caroline National Memorial to the St. August National Park Monument. (l5) Bartram Trail, extendi ng through the States of Geor gia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee. (l6) Daniel Boone Trail, exte nding from the vicinity of Stat esville, North Carolina, to Fort Boonesborough State Park, Kentucky. (l7) Desert Trail, extend ing from the Canadian border through parts of Idaho, Washington, Oregon, Nevada, California, and Arizona, to the Mexican border. (l8) Dominguez-Escalante Trail, extending approximately two thousand miles along the route of the l776 expedition led by Father Francisco Atanasio Dominguez and Father Silvestre Velez de Escalante, originating in Santa Fe, New Mexico ; proceeding northwest along the San Juan, Dolores, Gunnison, and White Rivers in Colorado, thence westerly to Utah Lake; thence southward to Arizona and returning to Santa Fe. (19) Florida Trail, extendi ng north from Everglade Nati onal Park, including the Big Cypress Swamp, the Kissimmee Prairie, the W ithlacoochee State Forest, Ocala National Forest, Osceola National Forest, and Black Wate r River State Forest, said completed trail to be approximately one thousand three hundr ed miles along, of which over four hundred miles of trail have already been built. (20) Indian Nations Trail, extending from the Red River in Oklahoma approximately two hundred miles northward through the former Indian nations to the Oklahoma-Kansas boundary line. (21) Nez Perce Trail extending from the vicin ity of Wallowa Lake, Oregon, to Bear Paw Mountain, Montana.

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83 (22) Pacific Northwest Trai l, extending approximately one thousand miles from the Continental Divide in Glacier National Par k, Montana, to the Pacific Ocean beach of Olympic National Park, Washington, by way of -(A) Flathead National Forest and Kootenai National Forest in the State of Montana; (B) Kaniksu National Forest in the State of Idaho; and (C) Colville National Forest, Okanogan Nati onal Forest, Pasayten Wilderness Area, Ross Lake National Recreation Area, North Cascad es National Park, Mount Baker, the Skagit River, Deception Pass, Whidbey Island, Olym pic National Forest, and Olympic National Park in the State of Washington. (23) Overmountain Victory Trail, extending fr om the vicinity of Elizabethton, Tennessee, to Kings Mountain National Mi litary Park, South Carolina. (24) Juan Bautista de Anza Trail, following the overland route taken by Juan Bautista de Anza in connection with his travels from th e United Mexican States to San Francisco, California. (25) Trail of Tears, including the associ ated forts and specifically, Fort Mitchell, Alabama, and historic properties, extending fr om the vicinity of Murphy, North Carolina, through Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, Kentuck y, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas, to the vicinity of Tahlequah, Oklahoma. (26) Illinois Trail, extending from the Lewis and Clark Tra il at Wood River, Illinois to the Chicago Portage National Historic Site, generally following the Illinois River and the Illinois and Michigan Canal. (27) Jedediah Smith Trail, to include the routes of the explorations led by Jedediah Smith (A) during the period 1826-1827, extending from the Idaho-Wyoming border, through the Great Salt Lake, Sevier, Vi rgin, and Colorado River Vall eys, and the Mojave Desert, to the San Gabriel Mission, California; th ence through the Tehach api Mountains, San Joaquin and Stanislaus River Valleys, Ebbe tts Pass, Walker River Valley, Bald Mount, Mount Grafton, and Great Salt La ke to Bear Lake, Utah; and (B) during 1828, extending from the Sacramen to and Trinity River valleys along the Pacific coastline, through the Smith and Willa mette River Valleys to the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site, Washington, on the Columbia River. (28) General Crook Trail, extending from Pr escott, Arizona, across the Mogollon Rim to Fort Apache.

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84 (29) Beale Wagon Road, within the Kaibab and Cononino National Fo rests in Arizona; Provided, such study may be prepared in conjunction with ongoing planning processes for these National Forests to be completed before 1990. (30) Pony Express Trail, extending from Saint Joseph, Missouri, through Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Nevada, to Sacramento, California, as indicated on a map labeled "Potential Pony Express Tr ail", dated October 1983 and the California Trail extending from the vici nity of Omaha, Nebraska, a nd Saint Joseph, Missouri, to various points in California, as indicated on a map labeled "Potential California Trail" and dated August 1, 1983. Notwithstanding subsec tion (b) of this sect ion, the study under this paragraph shall be completed and submitte d to the Congress no la ter than the end of two complete fiscal years beginning after the date of the enactment of this paragraph. Such study shall be separated into two porti ons, one relating to the Pony Express Trail and one relating to th e California Trail. (3l) De Soto Trail, the approximate route ta ken by the expedition of the Spanish explorer Hernado de Soto in l539, ex tending through portions of the St ates of Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, to the area of Little Rock, Arkansas, on to Texas and Louisiana, and any other States which may have been crossed by the expedition. The study under this paragraph shall be prepared in accordance with subsection (b) of this section, except that it shall be completed and submitted to the Congress with recommendations as to the trai l's suitability for desi gnation not later than one calendar year after the date of enactment of this paragraph. (32) Coronado Trail, the approximate rout e taken by the expedition of the Spanish explorer Francisco Vasquez de Corona do between l540 and l542, extending through portions of the States of Arizona, New Mexi co, Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas. The study under this paragraph shall be prepared in acco rdance with subsection (b) of this section. In conducting the study under this paragraph, the Secretary shall provide for (A) the review of all original Spanish documentati on on the Coronado Trail, (B) the continuing search for new primary documentation on the trail, and (C) the examination of all information on the archeologi cal sites along the trail. (33) The route from Selma to Montgomer y, Alabama traveled by people in a march dramatizing the need for voting rights legisl ation, in March 1965, in cludes Sylvan South Street, Water Avenue, the Edmund Pettus Br idge, and Highway 80. The study under this paragraph shall be prepared in accordance with subsection (b) of this section, except that it shall be completed and submitted to the Congress with recommendations as to the trail's suitability for designation not later than 1 year after the enactment of this paragraph. (34) American Discovery Tra il, extending from Pt. Reyes, California, across the United States through Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Kans as, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Indiana, Illinois, Ohio, West Virginia, Maryland, and th e District of Columbia, to Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware; to include in the cen tral United States a northern route through

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85 Colorado, Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, and Indi ana and a southern r oute through Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana. (35) Ala Kahakai Trail in the State of Hawaii, an ancient Hawaiian trail on the island of Hawaii extending from the northern tip of th e Island of Hawaii approximately 175 miles along the western and southern coasts to the northern boundary of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. (36) (A) El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, the approximately 1,800 mile route extending from Mexico City, Mexi co, across the international border at El Paso, Texas, to Santa Fe, New Mexico. (B) The study shall (i) examine changing routes w ithin the general corridor; (ii) examine major connecting branch routes; and (iii) give due consideration to alternative name designations. (C) The Secretary of the Interior is aut horized to work in cooperation with the Government of Mexico (including, but not li mited to providing technical assistance) to determine the suitability and feasibility of establishing an interna tional historic route along the El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro. (37) (A) El Camino Real Para Los Texas, the approximate series of routes from Saltillo, Monclova, and Guerrero, Mexico across Te xas through San Antonio and Nacogdoches, to the vicinity of Los Adaes, Louisiana, toge ther with the evolving routes later known as the San Antonio Road. (B) The study shall (i) examine the changing roads w ithin the historic corridor; (ii) examine the major connecting branch routes; (iii) determine the individual or combined suit ability and feasibility of routes for potential national historic tr ail designation; (iv) consider the preservation heritage pl an developed by the Texas Department of Transportation entitled "A Texas Legacy: Th e Old San Antonio Road and the Caminos Reales", dated January, 1991; and (v) make recommendations concerning the suitability and feasibility of establishing an international historical park where the tra il crosses the United St ates-Mexico border at Maverick County, Texas, and Guerrero, Mexico.

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86 (C) The Secretary of the Interior is aut horized to work in cooperation with the government of Mexico (including, but not lim ited to providing technical assistance) to determine the suitability and feasibility of esta blishing an internationa l historic trail along the El Camino Real Para Los Texas. (D) The study shall be undert aken in consultation with th e Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development and the Texas Department of Transportation. (E) The study shall consider alternat ive name designations for the trail. (F) The study shall be completed no later than two years after the date funds are made available for the study. (38) The Old Spanish Trail, beginning in Santa Fe, New Mexico, proceeding through Colorado and Utah, and ending in Los Angeles, California, and the Northern Branch of the Old Spanish Trail, beginning near Espanola, New Mexico, proceeding through Colorado, and ending near Crescent Junction, Utah. (39) The Great Western Scenic Trail, a syst em of trails to acco mmodate a variety of travel users in a corridor of approximate ly 3,100 miles in length extending from the Arizona-Mexico border to the Idaho-MontanaCanada border, following the approximate route depicted on the map identified as 'Gr eat Western Trail Corridor, 1988,' which shall be on file and available for public inspection in the Office of the Chief of the Forest Service, United States Department of Agricu lture. The trail study shall be conducted by the Secretary of Agriculture, in consultation with the Secr etary of the Interior, in accordance with subsection (b) and shall include -(A) the current status of land ownership and current and potential use along the designated route; (B) the estimated cost of ac quisition of lands or intere sts in lands, if any; and (C) an examination of the appropriateness of motorized trail use along the trail. (40) Star Spangled Banner National Historic Trail (A) In General The Star Spangled Banner National Historic Trail,tracing the War of 1812 route from the arrival of the British fleet in the Patuxent River in Calvert County and St. Mary’s County, Maryland, the landing of the British forces at Benedict, the sinking of the Chesapeake Flotilla at Pig Poin t, the American defeat at the Battle of Bladensburg, the siege of the Nation’s Ca pital, Washington, District of Columbia (including the burning of the United States Capitol and the White House), the British naval dispersions in the upper Chesapeake Bay leading to the Battle of Caulk’s Field in Kent County, Maryland, the route of the American troops from Washington through Georgetown, the Maryland counties of Mont gomery, Howard, and Baltimore, and the

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87 City of Baltimore Maryland, to the Battle of North Point, and the ultimate victory of the Americans at Fort McHenry on September 14, 1814. (B) Affected Areas The trail crosses eight c ounties within the boundari es of the State of Maryland, the City of Baltimore, Maryland, and Washington, Distri ct of Columbia. (C ) Coordination with other Congressionall y Mandated Activities The study under this paragraph shall be undertaken in coordination with the st udy authorized under section 603 of the Omnibus Parks and Public Lands Management Act of 1996 (16 U.S.C. 1a-5 note; 110 Stat. 4172) and the Chesapeake Ba y Gateways and Watertrails Network authorized under the Chesapeake Bay Initia tive Act of 1998 (16 U.S.C. 461 note; 112 Stat. 2961). Such coordination shall extend to any research needed to complete the studies and any findings and im plementation actions that resu lt from the studies and shall use available resources to the greatest exte nt possible to avoid unnecessary duplication of effort. (D) Deadline for Study Not late r than 2 years after funds ar e made available fore the study under this paragraph, the study shall be completed and transmitted with final recommendations to the Committee on Resource s in the House of Representatives and the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources in the Senate. (41) The Long Walk, a series of routes wh ich the Navajo and Mescalero Apache Indian tribes were forced to walk beginning in the fall of 1863 as a result of their removal by the United States Government from their ancestral lands, generally located within a corridor extending through portions of Canyon de Chelley, Arizona, and Albuquerque, Canyon Blanco, Anton Chico, Canyon Piedra Pint ado, and Fort Sumner, New Mexico. (42) Metacomet-MonadnockMattabes ett Trail The Metacomet-MonadnockMattabesett Trail, a system of trails and potential trails extending southward approximately 180 miles through Massachuse tts on the Metacome t-Monadnock Trail, across central Connecticut on the Metacome t Trail, and ending at Long Island Sound. (d) The Secretary charged with the administra tion of each respective trail shall, within one year of the date of the addition of any na tional scenic or national historic trail to the system, and within sixty days of the enactment of this sentence fo r the Appalachian and Pacific Crest National Scenic Trails, establis h an advisory council for each such trail, each of which councils shall expire ten years fr om the date of its establishment, except that the Advisory Council establ ished for the Iditarod Historic Trail shall expire twenty years from the date of its establishment. If the appropriate Secretary is unable to establish such an advisory council because of the lack of adequate public interest, the Secretary shall so advise the appropriate committees of the Congress. The appropriate Secretary shall consult with such council from time to time with respect to ma tters relating to the trail, including the selection of rights-of-way, standards fo r the erection and maintenance of markers along the trail, and the administ ration of the trail. The members of each advisory council, which shall not exceed thirty -five in number, shall serve for a term of two years and without compen sation as such, but the Se cretary may pay, upon vouchers signed by the chairman of the council, the expenses reasonably incurred by the council

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88 and its members in carrying out their responsib ilities under this se ction. Members of each council shall be appointed by the ap propriate Secretary as follows: (1) the head of each Federal department or independent agency administering lands through which the trail route passes, or his designee; (2) a member appointed to represent each St ate through which the trail passes, and such appointments shall be made from recommenda tions of the Governors of such States; (3) one or more members appointed to represent private or ganizations, including corporate and individual la ndowners and land users, wh ich in the opinion of the Secretary, have an established and recognized interest in the trail, and such appointments shall be made from recommendations of the heads of such organi zations: Provided, That the Appalachian Trail Conference shall be re presented by a sufficient number of persons to represent the various sec tions of the country through which the Appalachian Trail passes; and (4) the Secretary shall designate one member to be chairman and shall fill vacancies in the same manner as the original appointment. (e) Within two complete fiscal years of the date of enactment of legislation designating a national scenic trail, except for the Contin ental Divide National Scenic Trail and the North Country National Scenic Trail, as part of the syst em, and within two complete fiscal years of the date of enactment of this subsection for the Pacific Crest and Appalachian Trails, the responsib le Secretary shall, after fu ll consultation with affected Federal land managing agencies, the Governor s of the affected States, the relevant advisory council established pursuant to section 5(d), and the Appalachian Trail Conference in the case of the Appalachian Trail, submit to the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs of the House of Repres entatives and the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate, a comprehe nsive plan for the acquisition, management, development, and use of the trail, incl uding but not limited to, the following items: (1) specific objectives and pr actices to be observed in the management of the trail, including the identification of all significant natural, historical, and cultural resources to be preserved (along with high pot ential historic sites and high potential route segments in the case of national historic tr ails), details of any anticipat ed cooperative agreements to be consummated with other entities, and an id entified carrying capacity of the trail and a plan for its implementation; (2) an acquisition or protection plan, by fiscal year for all lands to be acquired by fee title or lesser interest, along with detailed expl anation of anticipated necessary cooperative agreements for any lands not to be acquired; and (3) general and site-specific developm ent plans including anticipated costs.

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89 (f) Within two complete fiscal years of the date of enactment of legislation designating a national historic trail or the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail or the North Country National Scenic Trail as part of the system, the resp onsible Secretary shall, after full consultation with affected Federal la nd managing agencies, the Governors of the affected States, and the relevant Advisory C ouncil established pursuant to section 5(d) of this Act, submit to the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate, a comprehensive plan for the management, and us e of the trail, incl uding but not limited to, the following items: (1) specific objectives and pr actices to be observed in the management of the trail, including the identification of all significant natural, historical, and cultural resources to be preserved, details of any anticipated coope rative agreements to be consummated with State and local government agencies or priv ate interests, and for national scenic or national historic trails an identified carry ing capacity of the trail and a plan for its implementation; (2) the process to be followed by the appr opriate Secretary to implement the marking requirements established in section 7(c) of this Act; (3) a protection plan for any high potential histor ic sites or high poten tial route segments; and (4) general and site-specific development plans, including anticipated costs. Connecting and Side Trails Section 6. [16USC1245] Connecting or side trails with in park, forest, and other recr eation areas administered by the Secretary of the Interior or Secretary of Agriculture may be established, designated, and marked by the appropriate Secretary as components of a nationa l recreation, national scenic or national historic trail. When no Federal land acquisition is involved, connecting or side trails may be locate d across lands administered by interstate, State, or local governmental agencies with their consent, or, where the appropriate Secretary deems necessary or desirable, on privately owne d lands with the consent of the landowners. Applications for approval and designation of connecting and side trails on non-Federal lands shall be submitted to the appropriate Secretary. Administration and Development Section 6 [16USC1246] (a) (1) (A) The Secretary charged with the ove rall administration of a trail pursuant to section 5(a) shall, in admini stering and managing the trail, consult with the heads of all other affected State and Federal agencies. Noth ing contained in this Act shall be deemed to transfer among Federal agencies any mana gement responsibilities established under

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90 any other law for federally administered lands which are components of the National Trails System. Any transfer of management responsibilities may be carried out between the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Agricu lture only as provided under subparagraph (B). (B) The Secretary charged with the overall admi nistration of any trail pursuant to section 5(a) may transfer management of any specified trail segment of such trail to the other appropriate Secretary pursuant to a join t memorandum of agreement containing such terms and conditions as the Secretaries cons ider most appropriate to accomplish the purposes of this Act. During any period in which management responsibilities for any trail segment are tran sferred under such an agreement, the management of any such segment shall be subject to the laws, rules, and regulations of the Secretary provided with the management authority under the agreement except to such extent as the agreement may otherwise expressly provide. (2) Pursuant to section 5(a), the appropriate Secretary shall select the rights-of-way for national scenic and national historic tra ils and shall publish notice thereof of the availability of appropriate maps or descriptions in the Federal Register; Provided, That in selecting the rights-of-way full considerati on shall be given to minimizing the adverse effects upon the adjacent landowner or us er and his operation. Development and management of each segment of the Nationa l Trails System shall be designed to harmonize with and complement any established multiple-use plans for the specific area in order to insure continued maximum benef its from the land. The location and width of such rights-of-way across Federal lands under the jurisdiction of a nother Federal agency shall be by agreement between the head of th at agency and the appr opriate Secretary. In selecting rights-of-way for trail purposes the Secretary shall obtain the advice and assistance of the States, local governments, private organizations, and landowners and land users concerned. (b) After publication of notice of the availability of appr opriate maps or descriptions in the Federal Register, the Secretary charged with the administration of a national scenic or national historic trail may relocate segments of a national scenic or national historic trail right-of-way with the concurre nce of the head of the Fede ral agency having jurisdiction over the lands involved, upon a determination th at: (I) Such a relocation is necessary to preserve the purposes for which the trail wa s established, or (ii) the relocation is necessary to promote a sound land management program in accordance with established multiple-use principles: Provided, That a substantial relocation of the rights-of-way for such trail shall be by Act of Congress. (c) National scenic or national historic trails may contain cam psites, shelters, and relatedpublic-use facilities. Other uses along the trail, which will not substa ntially interfere with the nature and purposes of the trail, may be permitted by the Secretary charged with the administration of the trail. Reasonable effort s shall be made to provide sufficient access opportunities to such trails and, to the exte nt practicable, efforts be made to avoid activities incompatible with the purposes for which such trails were established. The use of motorized vehicles by th e general public along any natio nal scenic trail shall be

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91 prohibited and nothing in this Act shall be c onstrued as authorizing the use of motorized vehicles within the natural and historical ar eas of the national park system, the national wildlife refuge system, the national wilder ness preservation system where they are presently prohibited or on other Federal lands where trails are designa ted as being closed to such use by the appropriate Secretary: Pr ovided, That the Secret ary charged with the administration of such trail shall establish regulations which shall authorize the use of motorized vehicles when, in his judgment such vehicles are necessary to meet emergencies or to enable adjacent landowners or land users to have reasonable access to their lands or timber rights: Provided further, That private lands included in the national recreation, national scenic, or national hist oric trails by cooperative agreement of a landowner shall not preclude such owner fr om using motorized vehicles on or across such trails or adjacent lands from time to time in accordance with regulations to be established by the appropriate Secretary. Wher e a national historic trail follows existing public roads, developed rightsof-way or waterways, and similar features of man's nonhistorically related development, approxima ting the original location of a historic route, such segments may be marked to faci litate retracement of th e historic route, and where a national historic trail parallels an existing public road such road may be marked to commemorate the historic route. Othe r uses along the historic trails and the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail, wh ich will not substantially interfere with the nature and purposes of the trail, and whic h, at the time of designation, are allowed by administrative regulations, including the use of motorized vehicles, shall be permitted by the Secretary charged with administration of th e trail. The Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Agriculture, in consultation with appropria te governmental agencies and public and private organizations, shall establ ish a uniform marker, including thereon an appropriate and distinctive symbol for each national recreation, national scenic, and national historic trail. Where the trails cro ss lands administered by Federal agencies such markers shall be erected at appropriate poi nts along the trails and maintained by the Federal agency administering the trail in accordance with standards established by the appropriate Secretary and where the trails cr oss non-Federal lands, in accordance with written cooperative agreements, the appropria te Secretary shall provide such uniform markers to cooperating agencies and shall requi re such agencies to erect and maintain them in accordance with the standards estab lished. The appropriate Secretary may also provide for trail interpretation sites, which shal l be located at histor ic sites along the route of any national scenic or nati onal historic trail, in order to present information to the public about the trail, at the lowest possible cost, with emphasis on th e portion of the trail passing through the State in which the site is located. Wherever possible, the sites shall be maintained by a State agency under a c ooperative agreement between the appropriate Secretary and the State agency. (d) Within the exterior boundaries of areas und er their administration that are included in the right-of-way selected for a national recr eation, national scenic, or national historic trail, the heads of Federal agencies may use lands for trail purposes and may acquire lands or interests in land s by written cooperative agreem ent, donation, purchase with donated or appropriated funds or exchange.

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92 (e) Where the lands included in a national scen ic or national historic trail right-of-way are outside of the exterior boundari es of federally administered areas, the Secretary charged with the administration of such trail shall encourage the States or local governments involved (1) to enter into written cooperative agreemen ts with landowners, private organizations, and individuals to provide th e necessary trail right -of-way, or (2) to acquire such lands or interests therein to be utilized as segments of the national scenic or national historic trail: Provided, That if the St ate or local governments fail to enter into such written cooperative agreements or to acq uire such lands or interests therein after notice of the selection of the right-of-way is published, the appropriate Secretary, may (I) enter into such agreements with landow ners, States, local governments, private organizations, and individuals for the use of lands for trail purposes, or (ii) acquire private lands or interests therein by donati on, purchase with dona ted or appropriated funds or exchange in accordance with the prov isions of subsection (f ) of this section: Provided further, That the appropriate Secret ary may acquire lands or interests therein from local governments or governmental corpor ations with the consen t of such entities. The lands involved in such rights-of-way shoul d be acquired in fee, if other methods of public control are not sufficient to assure their use for the purpose for which they are acquired: Provided, That if the Secretary char ged with the administ ration of such trail permanently relocates the right-of -way and disposes of all title or interest in the land, the original owner, or his heirs or assigns, sh all be offered, by notice given at the former owner's last known address, the right of fi rst refusal at the fair market price. (f) (1) The Secretary of the Interior, in the exercise of his exchange authority, may accept title to any non-Federal propert y within the right-of-way and in exchange therefor he may convey to the grantor of such propert y any federally owned property under his jurisdiction which is located in the State wh erein such property is located and which he classifies as suitable for exchange or other disposal. The values of the properties so exchanged either shall be approximately equal, or if they are not approximately equal the values shall be equalized by the payment of cas h to the grantor or to the Secretary as the circumstances require. The Secretary of Agricu lture, in the exercise of his exchange authority, may utilize authori ties and procedures available to him in connection with exchanges of national forest lands. (2) In acquiring lands or interests therein fo r a National Scenic or Historic Trail, the appropriate Secretary may, with consent of a landowner, acq uire whole tracts notwithstanding that parts of such tracts may lie outside the area of trail acquisition. In furtherance of the purposes of this act, lands so acquired outsi de the area of trail acquisition may be exchanged for any non-Federa l lands or interests therein within the trail right-of-way, or disposed of in accordance with such procedures or regulations as the appropriate Secretary shall prescribe, incl uding: (I) provisions for conveyance of such acquired lands or interests therei n at not less than fair market value to the highest bidder, and (ii) provisions for allowing the last owners of record a right to purchase said acquired lands or interests therein upon payment or agreement to pay an amount equal to the highest bid price. For lands designated for exchange or disposal, the appropriate Secretary may convey these lands with any rese rvations or covenants deemed desirable to

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93 further the purposes of this Act. The proceed s from any disposal shall be credited to the appropriation bearing the costs of la nd acquisition for the affected trail. (g) The appropriate Secretary may utilize c ondemnation proceedings without the consent of the owner to acquire private lands or intere sts, therein pursuant to this section only in cases where, in his judgment, all reasonable efforts to acquire such lands or interest therein by negotiation have failed, and in such ca ses he shall acquire only such title as, in his judgment, is reasonably necessary to pr ovide passage across such lands: Provided, That condemnation proceedings may not be utilized to acquire fee title or lesser interests to more than an average of one hundred and twenty-five acres per mile. Money appropriated for Federal purposes from th e land and water conservation fund shall, without prejudice to appropriations from other sources, be available to Federal departments for the acquisition of lands or inte rests in lands for the purposes of this Act. For national historic trails, di rect Federal acquisition for tra il purposes shall be limited to those areas indicated by the study report or by the comprehe nsive plan as high potential route segments or high potential historic sites. Except for designated protected components of the trail, no land or site locate d along a designated nati onal historic trail or along the Continental Divide National Scenic Tr ail shall be subject to the provisions of section 4(f) of the Departme nt of Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. 1653(f)) unless such land or site is deemed to be of historical significance under approp riate historical site criteria such as those for the National Register of Historic Places. (h) (1) The Secretary charged with the administration of a national re creation, national scenic, or national historic trail shall provide for the development and maintenance of such trails within federally administered areas, and shall cooperate with and encourage the States to operate, develop, and maintain portions of such trails which are located outside the boundaries of federa lly administered areas. When deemed to be in the public interest, such Secretary may en ter written cooperative agreements with the States or their political subdivisions, landowners, private organizations, or individuals to operate, develop, and maintain any portion of such a tr ail either within or outside a federally administered area. Such agreements ma y include provisions for limited financial assistance to encourage participation in the acquisition, protection, operation, development, or maintenance of such trails, provisions providing volunt eer in the park or volunteer in the forest status (in accordance w ith the Volunteers in the Parks Act of 1969 and the Volunteers in the Fore sts Act of 1972) to individual s, private organizations, or landowners participating in such activities, or provisions of both types. The appropriate Secretary shall also initiate consultations with affected Stat es and their political subdivisions to encourage -(A) the development and implementation by su ch entities of appropr iate measures to protect private landowners from trespass resu lting from trail use and from unreasonable personal liability and property dama ge caused by trail use, and (B) the development and implementation by such entities of provisions for land practices compatible with the purposes of this Act, fo r property within or adja cent to trail rights-ofway. After consulting with States and thei r political subdivisions under the preceding

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94 sentence, the Secretary may provide assistance to such entities under appropriate cooperative agreements in the ma nner provided by this subsection. (2) Whenever the Secretary of the Interior makes any conveyance of land under any of the public land laws, he may reserve a right-of -way for trails to the extent he deems necessary to carry out th e purposes of this Act. (i) The appropriate Secretary, with the concurrence of the heads of any other Federal agencies administering lands through whic h a national recreation, national scenic, or national historic trail passes, and after consultation with th e States, local governments, and organizations concerned, may issue regula tions, which may be revised from time to time, governing the use, protection, manageme nt, development, and administration of trails of the national trails system. In order to maintain good conduct on and along the trails located within federally administ ered areas and to provide for the proper government and protection of such trails, the Secretary of the Interi or and the Secretary of Agriculture shall prescrib e and publish such uniform regulations as they deem necessary and any person who violates such regulations shall be gui lty of a misdemeanor, and may be punished by a fine of not more $500 or by imprisonment not exceeding six months, or by both such fine and imprisonm ent. The Secretary responsible for the administration of any segment of any com ponent of the National Trails System (as determined in a manner consistent with subsection (a)(1) of this section) may also utilize authorities related to units of the national park system or the national forest system, as the case may be, in carrying out his administrati ve responsibilities for such component. (j) Potential trail uses allowed on designate d components of the national trails system may include, but are not limited to, the follo wing: bicycling, cro ss-country skiing, day hiking, equestrian activities, j ogging or similar fitness activ ities, trail biking, overnight and long-distance backpacking, snowmobiling, and surface water and underwater activities. Vehicles which may be permitted on certain trails may include, but need not be limited to, motorcycles, bicycles, four-wheel drive or all-terrain off-road vehicles. In addition, trail access for handicapped individuals may be provided. The provisions of this subsection shall not supersede any other provisi ons of this Act or other Federal laws, or any State or local laws. (k) For the conservation purpose of preservi ng or enhancing the re creational, scenic, natural, or historical values of components of the national trails system, and environs thereof as determined by the appropriate Se cretary, landowners are authorized to donate or otherwise convey qualified re al property interests to qualif ied organizations consistent with section 170(h)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, including, but not limited to, right-of-way, open space, scenic, or cons ervation easements, without regard to any limitation on the nature of the estate or in terest otherwise transferable within the jurisdiction where the la nd is located. The conveyance of any such interest in land in accordance with this subsection shall be deem ed to further a Federal conservation policy and yield a significant public benefit for purposes of section 6 of Public Law 96-541.

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95 State and Metropolitan Area Trails Section. 8. [16USC1247] (a) The Secretary of the Interi or is directed to encourage States to consider, in their comprehensive statewide outdoor recreation pl ans and proposals for financial assistance for State and local projects submitted pursuan t to the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act, needs and opportunities for establishi ng park, forest, and other recreation and historic trails on lands owned or administered by States, and recreation and historic trails on lands in or near urban areas. The Secretary is also directed to encourage States to consider, in their comprehensive statewide historic preservation plans and proposals for financial assistance for State, local, and priv ate projects submitted pursuant to the Act of October 15, 1966 (80 Stat. 915), as amended, needs and opportunities for establishing historic trails. He is further directed in accordance with the authority contained in the Act of May 28, 1963 (77 Stat. 49), to encourage St ates, political subdivi sions, and private interests, including nonprofit organiza tions, to establish such trails. (b) The Secretary of Housing and Urban Deve lopment is directed, in administering the program of comprehensive urban planning and assistance under section 701 of the Housing Act of 1954, to encourage the planning of recreation trails in connection with the recreation and tran sportation planning for metropolitan and other urban areas. He is further directed, in administering the ur ban open space program unde r title VII of the Housing Act of 1961, to encourage such recreation trails. (c) The Secretary of Agriculture is directed, in accordance with authority vested in him, to encourage States and local agencies and private interests to establish such trails. (d) The Secretary of Transportation, the Chairman of the Interstate Commerce Commission, and the Secretary of the Inte rior, in administering the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976, shall encourage State and local agencies and private interests to establish appr opriate trails using the provisions of such programs. Consistent with the purposes of th at Act, and in furtherance of the national policy to preserve established ra ilroad rights-of-way for future reactivation of rail service, to protect rail transportation corridors, and to encourage energy efficient transportation use, in the case of interim use of any es tablished railroad right s-of-way pursuant to donation, transfer, lease, sale, or otherwise in a manner consistent with the National Trails System Act, if such interim use is subject to restoration or reconstruction for railroad purposes, such interim use shall not be treated, for purposes of any law or rule of law, as an abandonment of the use of such right s-of-way for railroad purposes. If a State, political subdivision, or qualified private organization is prepar ed to assume full responsibility for management of such rights-o f-way and for any legal liability arising out of such transfer or use, and for the payment of any and all taxes that may be levied or assessed against such rights-of-way, then the Commission shall impose such terms and conditions as a requirement of any transfer or conveyance for interim use in a manner consistent with this Act, and shall not perm it abandonment or discont inuance inconsistent or disruptive of such use.

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96 (e) Such trails may be designated and suitabl y marked as parts of the nationwide system of trails by the States, thei r political subdivisions, or ot her appropriate administering agencies with the approval of the Secretary of the Interior. Rights-of-Way and Other Properties Section 9. [16USC1248] (a) The Secretary of the Interior or the Secr etary of Agriculture as the case may be, may grant easements and rights-of-way upon, over, under, across, or al ong any component of the national trails system in accordance with the laws applicable to the national park system and the national forest system, re spectively: Provided, That any conditions contained in such easements and rights-of-way shall be related to the policy and purposes of this Act. (b) The Department of Defense, the Depa rtment of Transportation, the Interstate Commerce Commission, the Fe deral Communications Commission, the Federal Power Commission, and other Federal agencies having jurisdiction or control over or information concerning the use, abandonment, or disposition of roadways, utility rightsof-way, or other properties which may be suitable for the purpose of improving or expanding the national trails system shall coopera te with the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Agriculture in order to assu re, to the extent practicable, that any such properties having values suitabl e for trail purposes may be ma de available for such use. (c) Commencing upon the date of enactment of this subsection, any and all right, title, interest, and estate of the United States in all rights-of-way of the type described in the Act of March 8, l922 (43 U.S.C. 9l2), sha ll remain in the United States upon the abandonment or forfeiture of such rights-of-wa y, or portions thereof, except to the extent that any such right-of-way, or portion ther eof, is embraced within a public highway no later than one year af ter a determination of abandonment or forfeiture, as provided under such Act. (d) (1) All rights-of-way, or portions thereof, retained by the United States pursuant to subsection (c) which are located within the boun daries of a conservation system unit or a National Forest shall be added to and incor porated within such unit or National Forest and managed in accordance with applicable provisions of law, including this Act. (2) All such retained rights -of-way, or portions thereof, which are located outside the boundaries of a conservation system unit or a National Forest but adjacent to or contiguous with any portion of the public lands shall be ma naged pursuant to the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of l976 and other applicable law, including this section. (3) All such retained rights -of-way, or portions thereof, which are located outside the boundaries of a conservation system unit or Na tional Forest which the Secretary of the Interior determines suitable for use as a publ ic recreational trail or other recreational purposes shall be managed by the Secretary for such uses, as well as for such other uses

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97 as the Secretary determines to be appropriate pursuant to applicable laws, as long as such uses do not preclude trail use. (e) (l) The Secretary of the Interior is au thorized where appropriate to release and quitclaim to a unit of government or to another entity meeting the requirements of this subsection any and all right, title and interest in the surface estate of any portion of any right-of-way to the extent any such right, ti tle, and interest was retained by the United States pursuant to subsection (c), if such portion is not located within the boundaries of any conservation system unit or National Fo rest. Such release and quitclaim shall be made only in response to an application theref or by a unit of State or local government or another entity which the Secretary of the Interi or determines to be legally and financially qualified to manage the relevant portion for public recreational purposes. Upon receipt of such an application, the Secr etary shall publish a notice conc erning such application in a newspaper of general circulation in the area where the relevant portion is located. Such release and quitclaim shall be on the following conditions: (A) If such unit or entity attempts to sell, conve y, or otherwise transfer such right, title, or interest or attempts to permit the use of any part of such portion for any purpose incompatible with its use for public recreation, then any and all right, title, and interest released and quitclaimed by the Secretary pursua nt to this subsection shall revert to the United States. (B) Such unit or entity shall assume full re sponsibility and hold the United States harmless for any legal liability which might arise with respec t to the transfer, possession, use, release, or quitcla im of such right-of-way. (C) Notwithstanding any other pr ovision of law, the United St ates shall be under no duty to inspect such portion prior to such rele ase and quitclaim, and shall incur no legal liability with respect to any hazard or any unsafe condition existing on such portion at the time of such release and quitclaim. (2) The Secretary is authorized to sell any portion of a right-of-way retained by the United States pursuant to subsection (c) loca ted outside the boundaries of a conservation system unit or National Forest if any such portion is -(A) not adjacent to or contiguous with any portion of the public lands; or (B) determined by the Secretary, pursuant to the disposal criteria established by section 203 of the Federal Land Policy and Management Ac t of l976, to be suitable for sale. Prior to conducting any such sale, the Secretary shal l take appropriate steps to afford a unit of State or local government or any other entity an opportunity to seek to obtain such portion pursuant to paragra ph (l) of this subsection. (3) All proceeds from sales of such retained rights of way shall be deposited into the Treasury of the United States and credited to the Land and Water Conservation Fund as provided in section 2 of the Land an d Water Conservation Fund Act of l965.

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98 (4) The Secretary of the Inte rior shall annually report to the Congress the total proceeds from sales under paragraph (2) during the pre ceding fiscal year. Such report shall be included in the President's annual budget submitted to the Congress. (f) As used in this section -(1) The term "conservation system unit" has the same meaning given such term in the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservati on Act (Public Law 96-487; 94 Stat. 237l et seq.), except that such term shall also include units outside Alaska. (2) The term "public lands" has the same m eaning given such term in the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of l976. Authorization of Appropriations Section 10. [16USC1249] (a) (1) There are hereby author ized to be appropriated for the acquisition of lands or interests in lands not more than $5,000,000 for the Appalachian National Scenic Trail and not more than $500,000 for the Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail. From the appropriations authorized for fiscal year 1979 and succeeding fiscal years pursuant to the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act (78 St at. 897), as amended, not more than the following amounts may be expended for the acqui sition of lands and interests in lands authorized to be acquired pursuant to the pr ovisions of this Act: for the Appalachian National Scenic Trail, not to exc eed $30,000,000 for fiscal year 1979, $30,000,000 for fiscal year 1980, and $30,000,000 for fiscal year 1981, except that the difference between the foregoing amounts and the actual appropria tions in any one fiscal year shall be available for appropriation in subsequent fiscal years. (2) It is the express intent of the Congress that the S ecretary should substantially complete the land acquisition program nece ssary to insure the protection of the Appalachian Trail within three complete fiscal years following the date of enactment of this sentence. (b) For the purposes of Public Law 95-42 ( 91 Stat. 211), the lands and interests therein acquired pursuant to this section shall be deemed to qualify for funding under the provisions of section 1, clause 2, of said Act. (c) (1) There is hereby authori zed to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to implement the provisions of this Act relati ng to the trails designated by paragraphs 5(a)(3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8), (9) and (10): Provided, That no such funds are authorized to be appropriated prior to Oct ober 1, 1978: And provided further, That notwithstanding any other provisions of this Act or any other provisions of la w, no funds may be expended by Federal agencies for the acquis ition of lands or interests in lands outside the exterior boundaries of existing Federal areas for the Cont inental Divide National Scenic Trail, the North Country National Scenic Trail, the Ice Age Nationa l Scenic Trail, the Oregon

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99 National Historic Trail, the Mormon Pioneer Na tional Historic Trail, the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail, and th e Iditarod National Historic Tra il, except that funds may be expended for the acquisition of lands or inte rests therein for the purpose of providing for one trail interpretation site, as described in section 7(c), along with such trail in each State crossed by the trail. (2) Except as otherwise provided in this Act, there is author ized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to implement the pr ovisions of this Act re lating to the trails designated by section 5(a). Not more than $500,000 may be appropriated for the purposes of acquisition of land and interests therein fo r the trail designated by section 5(a)(12) of this Act, and not more than $2,000,000 may be appropriated for the purposes of the development of such trail. The administra ting agency for the trail shall encourage volunteer trail groups to participate in the developmen t of the trail. Volunteer Trails Assistance Section 11. [16USC1250] (a) (1) In addition to the cooperative agreement and other authorities contained in this Act, the Secretary of the Interior, the Secr etary of Agriculture, and the head of any Federal agency administering Federal lands, are authorized to encourage volunteers and volunteer organizations to plan, develop, main tain, and manage, wher e appropriate, trails throughout the Nation. (2) Wherever appropriate in fu rtherance of the purposes of this Act, the Secretaries are authorized and encouraged to utilize the Volunteers in the Parks Act of 1969, the Volunteers in the Forests Act of 1972, and sect ion 6 of the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965 (relating to the developmen t of Statewide Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plans). (b) Each Secretary or the head of any Federal land managing agency, may assist volunteers and volunteers organizations in planning, developing, maintaining, and managing trails. Volunteer work may include, but need not be limited to-(1) planning, developing, main taining, or managing (A) tra ils which are components of the national trails system, or (B) trails wh ich, if so developed and maintained, could qualify for designation as components of the national trails system; or (2) operating programs to organize and supe rvise volunteer trail building efforts with respect to the trails referred to in paragraph (1), conducting tr ail-related research projects, or providing education and training to volunteers on methods of trails planning, construction, and maintenance. (c) The appropriate Secretary or the head of any Federal land managing agency may utilize and to make available Fe deral facilities, equipment, t ools, and technical assistance to volunteers and volunteer organizations, subjec t to such limitations and restrictions as

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100 the appropriate Secretary or the head of any Federal land managing agency deems necessary or desirable. Definitions Section 12. [16USC1251] As used in this Act: (1) The term "high potential historic sites" mean s those historic sites related to the route, or sites in close proximity thereto, which pr ovide opportunity to interpret the historic significance of the trail during th e period of its major use. Criteria for consideration as high potential sites include hist oric significance, presence of visible historic remnants, scenic quality, and relati ve freedom from intrusion. (2) The term "high potential route segments" means those segments of a trail which would afford high quality recreation experien ce in a portion of the route having greater than average scenic values or affording an opportunity to vicariously share the experience of the original users of a historic route. (3) The term "State" means each of the several States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Ri co, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Is lands, the Northern Mariana Islands, and any other territory or possess ion of the United States. (4) The term "without expense to the Un ited States" means that no funds may be expended by Federal agencies for the developm ent of trail related facilities or for the acquisition of lands or interest in lands outside the exterior boundaries of Federal areas. For the purposes of the preceding sentence, amounts made available to any State or political subdivision under the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965 or any other provision of law shall not be trea ted as an expense to the United States.

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101 APPENDIX B NATIONAL SCENIC TRAILS AND NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAILS Appalachian National Scenic Trail : from Maine to Georgia Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail : from Mexico/California border to Canadian/Washington border Oregon National Historic Trail : From Missouri to Oregon Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail : from Illinois to Utah Continental Divide National Scenic Trail : from Montana/Canada border to New Mexico/Mexico Border Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail : from Illinois to Oregon Iditarod National Historic Trail : from Steward, Alaska to Nome, Alaska North Country National Scenic Trail : from New York to North Dakota Overmountain Victory Na tional Historic Trail : several routes in Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina Ice Age National Scenic Trail : from Door County, Wisconsin to Saint Croix County, Wisconsin Potomac Heritage National Scenic Trail : Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Washington, D.C. Natchez Trace National Scenic Trail : from Tennessee to Mississippi Florida National Scenic Trail : through Florida Nez Perce National Historic Trail : from Oregon to Oklahoma Santa Fe National Historic Trail : from Missouri to New Mexico Trail of Tears National Historic Trail : from Georgia to Oklahoma Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail : from Mexico to California

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102 California National Historic Trail : several routes in Missouri, Iowa, California, and Oregon Pony Express National Historic Trail : from Missouri to California Selma to Montgomery Na tional Historic Trail : through Alabama El Camino Real de Tierra Ad entro National Historic Trail : from Texas to New Mexico Ala Kahakai Natioanl Historic Trail : through Hawaii Old Spanish National Historic Trail : from New Mexico to California

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103 APPENDIX C NATIONAL HERITAGE AREAS Augusta Canal National Heritage Area : Georgia Blue Ridge National Heritage Area : North Carolina Cache La Poudre River Corridor : Colorado Cane River National Heritage Area : Louisiana Delaware & Lehigh National Heritage Corridor : Pennsylvania Erie Canalway National Corridor : New York Essex National Heritage Area : Massachusetts Hudson River Valley National Heritage Area : Massachusetts Illinois & Michigan National Heritage Corridor : Illinois John H. Chafee Blackstone River Va lley National Heritage Corridor : Massachuetts, Rhode Island Lackawanna Heritage Valle y National Heritage Area : Pennsylvania MotorCities – Automobile National Heritage Area : Michigan National Coal Heritage Area : West Virginia Ohio & Erie National Heritage CanalWay : Ohio Path of Progress Heritage Tour Route : Pennsylvania Quinebaug & Shetucket Rivers Vall ey National Heritage Corridor: Connecticut, Massachusetts Rivers of Steel National Heritage Area : Pennsylvania Schuylkill River Valley National Heritage Area : Pennsylvania Silos & Smokestacks : Iowa

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104 South Carolina National Heritage Corridor : South Carolina Tennessee Civil War National Heritage Area : Tennessee Wheeling National Heritage Area : West Virginia Yuma Crossing National Heritage Area : Arizona

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105 APPENDIX D CURRENT ROUTE The following sequence of photographs s hows the commute route today, from Lafayette Square north to the Soldiers’ Home. It is clear from these pictures that little historic fabric remains and that the landscap e is completely different than that of President Lincoln’s experience. A Figure D-1. Vermont Avenue. A) One block nor th of the White House. B) At K Street, looking north. C) At L Street, looking north. This corner was where Walt Whitman watched the president travel to and from the Soldiers’ Home. (Source: photos by author, 2004)

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106 B Figure D-1. Continued C Figure D-1. Continued

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107 Figure D-2. Logan Circle (formerly Iowa Circ le). Small, wooden shacks, many of them occupied by freedmen and fugitive slaves were located in this area in the 1860s. Most of these homes were bu ilt in the late 1870s and early 1880s. (Source: photo by author, 2004) Figure D-3. Rhode Island Avenue at Georgia Avenue (formerly Seventh Street). No left turns are allowed here, so one must ve nture one block off of the route to make the turn. (Source: photo by author, 2004)

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108 A Figure D-4. Georgia Avenue (formerly Seve nth Street). A) N ear Florida Avenue (formerly Boundary Street). A small collection of businesses were located here by 1864. It is possible that the buildings on the right are from that period. Many of these buildings are boa rded up. B) The businesses in this area cater to students at Howard Universi ty. This area was primarily rural in the 1860s. (Source: photos by author, 2004) B Figure D-4. Continued

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109 Figure D-5. These homes are representa tive of the neighborhood immediately surrounding the Soldiers’ Home today. This area was completely rural in the 1860s. (Source: photo by author, 2004)

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110 APPENDIX E LIST OF INTERVIEWS The following people were interviewed for this thesis: Suzanne Copping Program Assistant for the Na tional Heritage Areas Program, National Park Service: personal interview December 2003 Steve Elkinton Program Leader for the National Trails System, National Park Service: telephone interview December 2003 Linda McConchie Executive Director of The Freedom Trail Foundation, Boston, MA: telephone interview January 2004; personal interview February 2004 J. Brendan Meyer Project Manager for Trails a nd Tours, Cultural Tourism DC: personal interview January 2004 Joseph Passonneau Founder, Joseph Passonneau & Partners: personal interview January 2004

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111 LIST OF REFERENCES Alderson, William T. “Standing Out in the Crow d.” Heritage Tourism: Partnerships and Possibilities Ed. John-Paul Richiuso, LuAnne Sneddon. Nashville: American Association for State an d Local History, 1994. 9-11. Blatt, Martin. “Boston’s Public History.” Th e Public Historian: A Journal of Public History Vol. 25, No. 2: 11-16. Boniface, Priscilla. Managing Quality Cultural Tourism New York: Routledge, 1995. Boyd’s Washington and Ge orgetown Directory 1861-1865. Library of Congress Microfilm 02986. Brink, Peter. “Experiencing America through Heritage Tourism.” Forum Journal Vol. 13, No. 4: 1-5. 2 Jan. 2004 . Brooks, Noah, and Michael Burlingame. Lincoln Observed: Civil War Dispatches of Noah Brooks Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998. Brooks, Noah, and Herbert Mitgang. Washington in Lincoln’s Time New York: Rinehart & Company, Inc., 1958. Brown, Katherine Tandy. “Cultural or Heritage : This Tourism is Hot!” The Group Travel Leader June 2000: 1-2. 19 Dec. 2003 . Busch, Richard T. Civil War to Civil Right s: Washington’s Downtown Heritage Trail Charlottesville, VA: Howell Press, 2001. Chaney, John. “Heritage Tourism: Keeping it Real.” Forum News Vol. 8, No. 1: 1. 12 Dec. 2003 . Cultural Tourism DC. “Who is Cultural T ourism DC?” Cultural Tourism DC, 2004. 9 Jan. 2004 . Dixon, David and Goody Clancy. The Freedom Trail: A Framework for the Future Prepared for the National Park Service. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1996. Fitzpatrick, Sandra, and Maria R. Goodwin. Th e Guide to Black Washington: Places and Events of Historical and Cultural Significance in the Nation’s Capital Rev. and illus. ed. New York: Hippocrene Books, 2001.

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112 Forman, Stephen M. A Guide to Civil War Washington Washington, D.C.: Elliott & Clark Publishing, 1995. The Freedom Trail Foundation. The Freedom Trail Guide: Walk into History on the Freedom Trail Boston: Recycled Pa per Printing, Inc., 2000. The Freedom Trail Foundation. “Walk into Hi story on the Freedom Trail!” The Freedom Trail Foundation, 2004. 5 Jan. 2004 . Hargrove, Cheryl. “Authenticity in Cultu ral Heritage Tourism.” Forum Journal Vol. 18, No. 1: 1-3. 10 Dec. 2003 . Hargrove, Cheryl. “Authenticity: The Essentia l Ingredient for Heritage Tourism.” Forum Journal Vol. 13, No. 4: 1-3. 4 Dec. 2003 . Hargrove, Cheryl. “Building Partnerships Through Heritage Tourism: How the Preservation Community and the Touris m Industry Can Develop Strong Tourism Programs.” Forum Journal Vol. 5, No. 4: 1-2. 4 Dec. 2003 . Hargrove, Cheryl M. “Tourism: History’s Wake-Up Call.” Heritage Tourism: Partnerships and Possibilities Ed. John-Paul Richiuso, LuAnne Sneddon. Nashville: American Association fo r State and Local History, 1994. 1-4. Herlihy, Mark. “Pursuing History in the Hub: Assessing Heritage Trails in Boston.” The Public Historian: A Journal of Public History Vol. 25, No. 2: 73-77. Keefe, Cathy. “Travelers’ Desire to Experien ce History and Culture Stronger than Ever.” Travel Industry Association of Amer ica, 2004. 23 Jan. 2004 . Kimmel, Stanley. Mr. Lincoln’s Washington New York: Coward-McCann, Inc., 1957. Leech, Margaret. Reveille in Washington: 1860-1865 New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1941. Lord, Gail Dexter. “The Power of Cultural Tourism.” Lord Cultural Resources Planning and Management, Inc., 2003. 19 Dec. 2003 . Maybank, Vanessa Turner. “Tourism Manageme nt: The Charleston Experience.” Forum Journal Vol. 13, No. 4: 1-3. 15 Nov. 2003 McQuirter, Marya Annette. African American Heritage Trail: Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C.: Cultural Tourism DC, 2003. National Heritage Areas. “What is a Nationa l Heritage Area?” National Park Service, 2003. 13 Jan. 2004 .

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113 National Recreation Trails Program Web. “What is the National Recreation Trails Program?” American Trails, 2003. 15 Dec 2003 . National Trails System. “National Trails System Act.” National Park Service, 2003. 20 Feb. 2004. . National Trust for Historic Preservation. “Her itage Tourism.” National Trust for Historic Preservation, 2004. 6 Jan. 2004 . Pinsker, Matthew. Lincoln’s Sanctuary: Abraham Lincoln and the Soldiers’ Home New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. Roddewig, Richard J. “Selling America’s Her itage Without Selling Out.” Forum Journal Vol. 2, No. 3: 1-3. 2 Jan 2004 . Smith, Kathryn Schneider. Capital Assets : A Report on the Tourist Potential of Neighborhood Heritage and Cultu ral Sites in Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C.: DC Heritage Tourism Coalition, 1999. Standish, Scott W. “Authentic Heritage Tourism.” Forum News Vol. 4, No. 4: 1-4. 6 Jan 2004 . Travel Industry Association of Amer ica. The Historic/Cultural Traveler 2003 ed. New York: Travel Industry Association of America, 2003. Washington, D.C.: The Evolution of the Ce nter; Two Centuries of Growth and Change Map. Washington, D.C.: Joseph Passonneau & Partners, 2003. Waters, Elizabeth B. Living with Success: Managing Residential Life and Tourism in Historic Communities Annapolis, MD: Historic Annapolis Foundation, 1995. Webb, Amy Jordan. “Statewide Cultural Heritage Tourism Programs on the Rise.” Forum News Vol. 8, No. 1: 1-7. 6 Jan 2004 . Webb, Amy Jordan. “A Decade of He ritage Tourism.” Forum Journal Vol. 13, No. 4: 14. 6 Jan 2004 . Young, Alfred F. “Revolution in Boston? Ei ght Propositions for Public History on the Freedom Trail.” The Public Historia n: A Journal of Public History Vol. 25, No. 2: 17-41. Zannieri, Nina. “Report from the Field: Not the Same Old Freedom Trail – A View from the Paul Revere House.” The Public Hi storian: A Journal of Public History Vol. 25, No. 2: 43-53.

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114 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Angela Susanne Brown grew up in Texas, wh ere she fell in love with the historic architecture of Galveston Isla nd. She earned a Bachelor of Ar ts degree in public relations from Texas Tech University in 1996 and a Ma ster of Science in Architectural Studies degree (with a specialization in historic preser vation) from the Univer sity of Florida in 2004.


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Copyright Date: 2008

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Title: President Lincoln's Commute Route: A Heritage Tourism Opportunity?
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

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Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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PRESIDENT LINCOLN' S COMMUTE ROUTE:
A HERITAGE TOURISM OPPORTUNITY?














By

ANGELA SUSANNE BROWN


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE INT ARCHITECTURAL STUDIES

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2004
































Copyright 2004

by

Angela Susanne Brown
















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I am very grateful to my thesis committee (Peter Prugh, Dr. Kristin Larsen and

Sophia Lynn) for their guidance and enthusiasm. I particularly want to express my

appreciation for Peter Prugh' s infinite knowledge and kindness, which made my

educational experience at the University of Florida outstanding. I thank Sophia Lynn for

introducing me to the President Lincoln and Soldiers' Home National Monument, and

encouraging me to stay involved with the project after my internship. I also appreciate

the support of William Dupont, Graham Gund Architect; and James Vaughan, Vice

President for the Stewardship of Historic Sites at the National Trust for Historic

Preservation. Their flexibility allowed me to finish this proj ect on time.

I thank my parents for instilling in me an appreciation for historic architecture,

and for giving me the confidence to achieve my goals. Finally, I owe my husband a

lifetime of gratitude. His encouragement and support allowed me to make this dream a

reality.




















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page


ACKNOWLEDGMENT S ................. ................. iii........ ....


LIST OF FIGURES .............. ....................vii


AB STRAC T ................ .............. ix


CHAPTER


1 INTRODUCTION ................. ...............1.......... ......


2 HERITAGE TOURISM DEFINED AND EVALUATED .............. .....................


Tourism Vocabulary ................. .... ...............
Heritage Tourism vs. Cultural Tourism............... ...............6.
Heritage Trail.................... ...............
National Park Service Vocabulary............... ...............
National Scenic Trail ............ ..... ._ ...............8....
National Historic Trail ............ ..... ._ ...............9....
National Recreation Trail .............. ...............9.....
National Heritage Area........ ......... ..._ ... ... ... ... .........___......... 1
National Park Service Designation of President Lincoln' s Commute Route............. 10
Evaluating the Impact of Heritage Tourism ............_...... ._ .........._.......1


3 EVALUATING HERITAGE TOURISM .............. .....................15


Evaluative System .............. ...............16....
Resource Protection ................. ...............16.................
Visitor Experience ................. ...............17.......... .....
Community Benefit ................. ...............19.......... .....
Prioritization of Values ................. ...............21......._.. ....


4 CASE STUDIES............... ...............23


Cultural Tourism DC .............. ........ ... .... .........2
Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail .............. ....................2
City within a City: Greater U Street Heritage Trail .............. .....................2












African American Heritage Trail .................. .. ....._ ......._ ........2
Evaluation of Cultural Tourism DC's Heritage Trails............... ..................1
Resource protection............... ...............3
Visitor experience .............. ...............32....
Community benefit............... .... ..... ..... .........3
Establishment Procedure Common to All Three Trails .............. ...................34
Financial Investment .............. ...............35....
The Freedom Trail Foundation............... ...............3
Boston' s Freedom Trail .................. ..._ ...............37..
Evaluation of Boston's Freedom Trail .............. ...............40....

Resource protection............... ...............4
Visitor experience .............. ...............41....
Community benefit............... ...............43


5 PRESIDENT LINTCOLN' S CO1V1VUTE ROUTE ........................... ...............45


Wartime Washington ................. ...............48.................

Background ................. ...............48.................
Infusion of Soldiers .............. ...............50....

Ongoing Construction .............. ...............51....
H hospital s ................. ...............52.......... .....
Freedmen and Slaves ................. ...............53........... ....
G uards.................. ......... ..........5

Riding with the President .............. ...............57....
What Did President Lincoln See? ................. ...............57........... ...
Conclusion ................ ...............59.................


6 CONCLU SION................ ..............6


Evaluating the Feasibility of President Lincoln's Commute Route .................. .........63
Resource Protection............... ...............6
Visitor Experience ................ ...............65.................
Community Benefit .............. ...............66....
Recommendations............... .... .........6

Opportunities for Future Research............... ...............68


APPENDIX


A NATIONAL TRAIL SY STEM ACT .............. ...............69....


B NATIONAL SCENIC AND HISTORIC TRAILS .............. ....................10


C NATIONAL HERITAGE AREAS ................. ...............103...............


D CURRENT ROUTE .............. ...............105....


E LIST OF INTERVIEWS ................. ...............110......... .....












LIST OF REFERENCES ................. ...............111................


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................. ...............114......... ......



















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Page

4-1. Map of Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail ................ ...............25

4-2. Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail Guidebook ...........................25

4-3. City within a City: Greater U Street Heritage Trail Street Marker ................... .......27

4-4. City within a City: Greater U Street Heritage Trail Map .................... ...............2

4-5. African American Heritage Trail Guidebook............... ...............3

4-6. African American Heritage Trail Map ................ ...............30...............

4-7. The Freedom Trail Guidebook ................. ...............39........... ...

4-8. The Freedom Trail Marker ................. ...............42........... ...

4-9. The Freedom Trail Map .............. ...............43....

5-1. President Lincoln's Commute Route .............. ...............47....

5-2. Campbell Hospital, near President Lincoln' s commute route .........._.... ...............52

5-3. Contraband camp............... ...............54..

6-1. Vermont Avenue at K Street ................. ......... ...............64. ..

6-2. The corner where Walt Whitman lived at Vermont and L Street ............................64

6-3. The trail would pass through many blocks of boarded commercial buildings, like
these on Georgia Avenue (formerly Seventh Street)............... ................6

D-1. Vermont Avenue. ............. ...............105....

D-2. Logan Circle (formerly lowa Circle) .............. ...............107....

D-3. Rhode Island Avenue at Georgia Avenue (formerly Seventh Street) ................... .107

D-4. Georgia Avenue (formerly Seventh Street) ................. ............... ......... ...108











D-5. These homes are representative of the neighborhood immediately surrounding the
Soldiers' Home today ................. ...............109................
















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Architectural Studies

PRESIDENT LINCOLN' S COMMUTE ROUTE:
A HERITAGE TOURISM OPPORTUNITY?

By

Angela S. Brown

May 2004

Chair: Peter Prugh
Major Department: Architecture

During the summers of 1862, 1863, and 1864, President Lincoln lived in a cottage at

the Soldiers' Home, a retirement community for enlisted soldiers 3 miles north of the

White House. President Lincoln commuted to the White House every morning by

horseback or carriage. The principle focus of our study was to explore whether it is

feasible to establish a heritage trail along President Lincoln' s commute route through

Washington, D.C.

Many heritage tourism destinations in the country are called "heritage trails," but

there is no standard definition. The federal government has passed legislation defining

several heritage tourism categories, but heritage trails are not included. This is a

weakness in the heritage tourism industry that could be strengthened by establishment of

criteria and standards for federal designation of heritage trails.

Heritage tourism is an important segment of the tourism industry. Heritage tourism

can benefit historic cities by providing money that can be used for maintenance and










promotion. Tourism also increases public awareness and interest, which can be

particularly valuable if a resource is ever threatened. Heritage tourism destinations can

provide an educational and entertaining travel opportunity for individuals, couples, and

families. Tourism can also greatly benefit an area's economy. If managed properly,

heritage tourism can be a strong preservation, educational, and economic tool.

A system for evaluating heritage tourism destinations is presented in our study.

Heritage trails are difficult to evaluate by traditional measures, such as visitation and

income potential. Instead, their impact can be measured based on their ability to protect

available resources, create a meaningful visitor experience, and provide benefit to the

local community. This evaluative system is very flexible. The three measures can be

weighed differently for each case, depending on the unique needs of the particular

attraction.

Boston's Freedom Trail and three heritage trails in Washington, D.C. served as case

studies. These trails were chosen because of their similarities to the possible President

Lincoln's Commute Route Heritage Trail. They are located in densely populated, urban

locations, and are less than 5 miles long. The aforementioned evaluative system was

used to measure these trails' effectiveness.

We also began research to determine whether enough historic fabric exists today to

make a successful heritage trail. A heritage trail could entice visitors off of the

Washington, D.C. Mall and into the community, where they would get a more intimate

view of the city, and learn about one of its unique neighborhoods. The trail would lead

them to the President Lincoln and Soldiers' Home National Monument, which should be

open to the public by 2006.















CHAPTER 1
INTTRODUCTION

Between June and November of 1862, 1863, and 1864, Abraham Lincoln and his

family lived in a cottage on the grounds of the Soldiers' Home, a residence for disabled

military veterans 3 miles north of the White House. He spent almost every night at the

cottage, and commuted to work at the White House every day. The cottage was a refuge

from the pressures of the White House, and a quiet location to grieve the loss of their 12-

year-old son, Willie. President Lincoln lived at the Soldiers' Home for a quarter of his

presidency, but most Americans, and even some Lincoln scholars, are unaware of its

existence.

Though the Soldiers' Home also served as a seasonal retreat for Presidents

Buchanan, Hayes and Arthur, its association with President Lincoln and the possibility

that he drafted the Emancipation Proclamation there prompted President Clinton to

designate the cottage and the surrounding 2.3 acres as the President Lincoln and Soldiers'

Home National Monument in 2000. The Armed Forces Retirement Home, an

independent federal agency, owns the property. In cooperation with the Armed Forces

Retirement Home, the National Trust for Historic Preservation agreed to steward the

restoration of the cottage and open it to the public as the preeminent site for learning

about Lincoln's presidency.

To evaluate the potential for President Lincoln's commute route to become a

heritage tourism destination in Washington, D.C., one must learn more about heritage

tourism as a whole. Our study provided the following:










* A working definition of "heritage tourism"

* Information on the impact of heritage tourism nationwide

* A system to evaluate the effectiveness of heritage tourism attractions

* Details about President Lincoln's commute route, and whether enough historic
fabric remains to propose a heritage trail along the route.

First, what is heritage tourism? An examination of current literature suggests that

different tourism and preservation organizations use very different definitions, though

they tend to stress the importance of experiential education. "Heritage tourism" is often

used interchangeably with "cultural tourism" or even combined, in terms like "cultural

heritage tourism" or "historic and cultural travelers." In addition, the federal government

has defined several categories of heritage tourism through the National Trail System Act

of 1968. The Act defines National Scenic Trails, National Historic Trails, and National

Recreation Trails. The National Park Service has also defined National Heritage Areas.

It is interesting that "heritage trail," probably the most commonly-used heritage tourism

term, is not defined by the federal government. The establishment of criteria for federal

designation of heritage trails could increase their use for education and entertainment.

Chapter 2 discusses cultural and heritage terms, and evaluates heritage tourism's national

impact.

Heritage tourism has only recently become a recognized niche in the tourism

industry, but heritage tourism is not new. People have been traveling to visit heritage

resources for hundreds, if not thousands, of years. Addressing a tourism conference, Gail

Dexter Lord, co-founder of Lord Cultural Resources Planning and Management, said,

"since ancient times it has been a motivation for travel, although only among a tiny









minority of the general public. The 'Grand Tour' was once considered an essential part

of a 'gentleman's' education" (Lord, 1999: 1).

In addition, tourism has been an important part of historic preservation since the

inception of the field. All preservationists are familiar with Ann Pamela Cunningham's

desire to save Mount Vernon so Americans could visit George Washington's home, learn

about their greatest leader, and be inspired to become better citizens. She knew, as many

more are beginning to realize, that heritage resources can be great tourist draws.

Americans are now becoming more sophisticated in their choices for leisure time

activities. They travel for education and enrichment. A recent Travel Industry

Association of America study (TIA, 2003) found that most historic/cultural travelers

believe that trips where they can learn something new are more memorable to them. In

addition, 3 8% of those surveyed said they prefer to visit destinations with some historic

significance.

Since heritage tourism has become so popular, a mechanism is needed to evaluate

its impact and potential for success. A thorough review of articles and books pertaining

to heritage tourism and its nationwide impact yielded information about what makes

certain heritage tourism attractions more effective than others and served as the

foundation of an evaluative system presented in Chapter 3. This system is a framework

by which a community can determine the feasibility or effectiveness of its heritage

tourism attractions. The system allows evaluation of a heritage tourism attraction's

effectiveness in three categories: resource protection, visitor experience, and community

benefit. It should be recognized that this is a value-laden system, which makes it

remarkably flexible but also very subj ective. Any of the three components can be










weighed more or less heavily, depending on the particular needs of an attraction and on

the evaluator' s point of view.

Lastly, the question of the feasibility of President Lincoln' s commute route as a

heritage trail remains. A literature review yielded contextual information about

Washington, D.C. during the Civil War. A study of contemporary sources, particularly

city directories and maps, provided rich detail about the particular route that President

Lincoln took to and from the Soldiers' Home every day between June and November of

1862, 1863, and 1864. This trail could teach visitors more about Abraham Lincoln, the

Civil War, slavery, and emancipation. It might encourage them to venture into the

neighborhoods now surrounding President Lincoln's retreat. This would give visitors a

more accurate impression of the city than the museums and monuments of the Mall can

afford. It might also provide a much-needed economic benefit to the community. It

could foster a sense of pride in the community, and an incentive to protect the resources

they have now.

Preliminary research reveals serious concerns regarding President Lincoln's

Commute Route Heritage Trail's potential for success. Almost no historic fabric remains

today. This effectively negates all three of the evaluative criteria: protection of historic

resources, visitor experience, and community benefit. First, there are no resources to

protect. Second, visitors are attracted to authenticity of place, not merely the site of

interesting history. This trail does not allow appreciation of original material. Third, the

community will not benefit from a heritage trail that does not attract and interest visitors.

A lack of historic fabric makes the success of a heritage trail along President Lincoln's










commute route improbable. Alternate uses of President Lincoln's commute route are

discussed in Chapter 6.

Under certain circumstances, heritage tourism can be a great opportunity. The

following chapters provide background information about the field, a method for

evaluating this form of tourism effectively, and details regarding wartime Washington

and President Lincoln' s commute route.















CHAPTER 2
HERITAGE TOURISM DEFINED AND EVALUATED

Tourism is a maj or industry in the United States. A growing segment of this

industry includes people who like to travel for educational reasons and to experience

history. This activity is often called heritage or cultural tourism. It is important to define

this segment of the tourism industry, particularly for use in our study. It is also helpful to

understand the economic impact of heritage tourism. Heritage travelers spend millions of

dollars every year. Preservationists who understand the power of heritage tourism can

use it to benefit the historic sites they hope to protect.

Tourism Vocabulary

Heritage Tourism vs. Cultural Tourism

Most people use the terms "heritage tourism" and "cultural tourism" to describe the

activities of people who are interested in travel for its educational value. These two terms

are used interchangeably so often that the National Trust for Historic Preservation, which

promotes preservation and the tourism that can result as an economic tool, does not make

a distinction. The National Trust chooses to use the term "cultural heritage tourism," an

umbrella term, which it defines as "traveling to experience the places, artifacts and

activities that authentically represent the stories and people of the past and present. It

includes cultural, historic and natural resources" (NTHP, 2001: 2). The TIA also uses a

combined term in its studies: "historic/cultural tourism."

While "cultural tourism" and "heritage tourism" are very similar, they do not

always mean exactly the same thing. Heritage tourism stresses the importance of










experiencing a particular place. The tourism potential is based in the uniqueness or some

particular quality of a specific building, neighborhood, battlefield, or other place.

Cultural tourism is usually less dependent on the particular location. The education or

experience to be gained from a location is more important in cultural tourism. An

example given by Katherine Tandy Brown in "Cultural or Heritage this Tourism is

Hot" is "seeing the work of a great artist in his home and studio is a heritage event, while

viewing those same works in a traveling exhibit is a cultural one. Same content, different

context" (Brown, 2003: 1).

Given these two definitions, it is clear that President Lincoln' s Commute Route is a

heritage tourism opportunity more than a cultural tourism one. The route is absolutely

tied to its location. It would be impossible to propose the trail in any location other than

that where President Lincoln traveled every day. Because the trail is so place-based,

"heritage tourism" is used throughout our study.

Heritage Trail

A commute route lends itself to the establishment of a tourism "trail." It has all the

characteristics of a trail. It is linear, with a start point, a destination, and sights along the

way. The term "heritage trail" is used rather loosely in the tourism industry, and can

refer to many types of attractions. Some heritage trails are nothing more than the

sequence in which a tourist is recommended to see the sights. It might only be printed in

a brochure, with no other way-finding devices or interpretation of a larger story. Some

heritage trails are very structured and present a more coherent, logical experience. They

are sometimes designated by a local or state agency. A heritage trail can not, however,

be designated by the federal government. Only National Historic Trails, National










Recreation Trails, National Scenic Trails, and National Heritage Areas are designated by

the federal government.

It is interesting to note that the National Park Service does not attempt to define

"heritage trails." Given that this is a commonly-used term when discussing organized

trails, it is odd that an effort has not been made to do so. This seems to indicate a

weakness in the tourism industry. Federal designation of heritage trails could help define

and set national criteria for this type of tourism.

National Park Service Vocabulary

The National Trail Systems Act, approved in 1968 (Appendix A), provided for the

establishment of National Recreation Trails and National Scenic Trails. The Act was

amended in 1978 to include National Historic Trails. National Scenic Trails and National

Historic Trails must be designated by an Act of Congress. The criteria for designation

are fairly stringent. National Recreation Trails can be designated by the Secretaries of

the Interior or Agriculture and can be designated without meeting the highest level of

criteria.

National Scenic Trail

Designation as a National Scenic Trail is a prestigious honor. It opens the door to

federal funding and may attract private donors, as well. It also allows access to the

National Park Service's technical expertise.

The National Trail Systems Act explains the criteria and process for designation.

National Scenic Trails must, "provide for maximum outdoor recreation potential and for

the conservation and enjoyment of the nationally significant scenic, historic, natural or

cultural qualities of the areas through which such trails may pass" (NPS, 1968: Sec.3.a.2).

These trails should be longer than 100 miles, continuously or as segments added together.









National Scenic Trails must be designated by an Act of Congress. Only eight trails have

been designated as National Scenic Trails in the history of the program (Appendix B).

National Historic Trail

According to the National Trail System Act, National Historic Trails "shall have as

their purpose the identification and protection of the historic route and its historic

remnants and artifacts for public use and enj oyment" (NPS, 1968: Sec. 3.a.3). The

designated trail must follow the original, historic trail as closely as possible. To be

designated, it should be more than 100 miles long. Exceptions are considered if the trail

is particularly significant.

To qualify as a National Historic Trail, a trail must meet three criteria. First, it

must be significant because of its use as a specific route. Second, it must be nationally

significant and have had a "far-reaching effect on broad patterns of American culture"

(NPS, 1968: Sec. 5.b.11.B). These areas of significance include trade and commerce,

exploration, migration, and settlement and military campaigns. Lastly, it must have great

potential for use by the public for recreation or historic interpretation. Fifteen trails have

been designated as National Historic Trails (Appendix B).

National Recreation Trail

The criteria for designation as a National Recreation Trail are much less strenuous

than that of a National Scenic or National Historic Trail. As previously mentioned,

National Recreation Trails can be designated by the Secretary of the Interior or the

Secretary of Agriculture instead of by an Act of Congress. They are also not restricted to

trails longer than 100 miles. These trails must be open to travel by foot, wheelchairs,

motorcycles, or other recreational forms but can not be open to passenger vehicles. As a









result of this program's relatively simple requirements, almost 900 National Recreation

Trails have been designated since the program's inception in 1968.

Another form of heritage tourism is also designated by the federal government -

National Heritage Areas. They are similar to the trails in that they must meet strict

criteria and be designated by Congress. They differ, though, in that they usually cover

large, very diverse areas and are not necessarily linear.

National Heritage Area

National Heritage Areas are defined by the National Park Service as

places designated by the United States Congress, where natural, cultural, historic
and recreational resources combine to form a cohesive, nationally distinctive
landscape arising from patterns of human activity shaped by geography. These
patterns make National Heritage Areas representative of the national experience
through the physical features that remain and the traditions that have evolved in the
areas. Continued use of the National Heritage Areas by people whose traditions
helped to shape the landscapes enhances their significance (www.nps.gov, 2004).

These areas are large, encompassing many miles. Congress has established 24 National

Heritage Areas throughout the country (Appendix C). A representative example of a

National Heritage Area is the Hudson River Valley National Heritage Area. It

encompasses 7,063 square miles and the homes of 3,010,805 people. It contains 878

National Register properties, 66 National Historic Landmarks, and 8 National Natural

Landmarks (www.nps.gov, 2004). As this example demonstrates, National Heritage

Areas include substantial amounts of land and resources.

National Park Service Designation of President Lincoln's Commute Route

President Lincoln's Commute Route Heritage Trail probably does not meet the

criteria to become federally designated. First, very little historic fabric remains, so

President Lincoln' s commute route would not provide conservation or enj oyment of the










historic qualities through which the trail might pass, as is a criterion for becoming a

National Scenic Trail.

It comes closer to meeting the criteria for a National Historic Trail, but still seems

to fall short. The trail does follow a path actually used by an historic figure almost 150

years ago. In addition, the people and events that President Lincoln likely witnessed on

his commute route might have influenced his thinking. While it is clear that President

Lincoln was making key decisions regarding freedom for slaves and other important

issues at the time of his daily commute, there is not sufficient evidence to prove that his

travels along the route actually influenced his decisions. It is unlikely that the United

States Congress would designate this trail as a National Historic Trail without more

concrete evidence indicating that the path altered American culture. In addition, the route

is only 3 miles long. It is significantly shorter than the National Park Service's 100-mile

length criteria.

The route does not offer great recreational enj oyment, so is also unlikely to become

a National Recreation Trail. The area is not conducive to bike riding, skating, or other

athletic uses. Walking and driving are the most likely activities on this trail, which leads

to another reason it can not be a National Recreation Trail. Motorized vehicles are not

allowed on Recreation Trails and this trail is based solely upon city streets.

President Lincoln's Commute Route Heritage Trail does not meet the criteria to

become a federally-designated National Scenic Trail, National Heritage Trail, National

Recreation Trail, or National Heritage Area. It also does not qualify to become a

National Heritage Area. As the previous example illustrates, National Heritage Areas are










much more wide-reaching than this trail. It is much too short and focused. This trail

does not fit into any of the federally-designated categories.

With a clear understanding of heritage tourism terminology, it is now possible to

consider its impact. If managed properly, this important industry can help

preservationists protect historic resources.

Evaluating the Impact of Heritage Tourism

Heritage tourism is one of the fastest growing segments of the tourism industry.

According to a study from the TIA and Smithsonian Magazine, 81% of American adults

who traveled in 2003 can be classified as historic or cultural travelers.l This is a stunning

1 18 million people and more than half of all adults in the United States. There are 13%

more historic or cultural travelers than there were in 1996. The study cites visiting an

historic building, battlefield or community as the most popular activity for cultural

tourists (TIA, 2003).

Why is heritage tourism becoming so popular? In a presentation to the Wisconsin

Heritage Tourism Conference, Gail Dexter Lord, co-founder of Lord Cultural Resources

Planning and Management, said it is due to three factors: rising education levels, an aging

population and women's increasing economic role (Lord, 1999).

First, a more educated population is likely to demand more intelligent content from

their vacation destinations. In fact, the TIA study shows that 60% of historic/cultural

trips are generated by households with a college degree. Second, the baby-boomer

SThe Travel Industry Association defines historic/cultural travelers as those who have traveled 50 miles or
more away from home in the last year to see a live theatre performance; dance performance; classical music
concert or opera: other music concert; art museum, gallery, exhibit or auction; antique shop, show or
auction; heritage, ethnic or folk festival or fair: other fair or festival such as a county fair or arts and crafts
fair; ethnic area or community; ethnic culture exhibit or center; designated historic site such as a building,
landmark, home or monument; designated historic community or town; history museum; historic military
site: or historic memorial or cemetery .










generation, the largest age group in the country, is approaching 60 years old. These

people have more time and disposable income than many others in the United States.

The TIA study also shows that about 40% of historic/cultural trips are taken by baby

boomer households (TIA, 2003). Lastly, the increasing economic role of women is

critical. Women tend to be more interested in cultural or historic activities than men.

When women are in control of family finances and leadership, as is the case in many

households, families are more likely to choose cultural destinations for their vacations.

Cities with historic resources can use their assets to benefit from these trends.

According to the 2003 TIA study, one third of historic or cultural trips are taken by

families with household incomes of $75,000 or more. Tourists who travel to historic or

other cultural destinations also tend to spend more money per trip than the average

traveler. These tourists spend, on average, $166 more per trip, excluding transportation

costs. This is 36% more money per trip. The study goes further to say that,

Compared to the average trip in the U.S., historic/cultural trips are more likely to be
seven nights or longer and include air travel, a rental car, and a hotel stay.
Historic/cultural travelers are also more likely to extend their stay to experience
history and culture at their destination. In fact, four in ten added extra time to their
trip specifically because of a historic/cultural activity (TIA, 2003: 3).

Of the people who added time to their trip because of an historic or cultural activity, 44%

added part of one day, 25% added an extra night, 15% added 2 more nights and 16%

added three or more extra nights (TIA, 2003).

Washington, D.C. is visited by historic/cultural travelers more often than any other

city in the country (Keefe, 2004). Millions of people travel to Washington, D.C. from

other parts of the United States and the world every year. It is one of the most cultural

cities in the United States. It is likely that every adult in America could list several

cultural attractions in Washington, D.C.









Other heritage attractions in D.C. would compete with the potential President

Lincoln's Commute Route Heritage Trail. Alternatively, the trail would have a vast pool

from which to attract visitors, particularly those with an interest in Lincoln, the Civil

War, slavery, and other related issues. From a tourism perspective, President Lincoln' s

Commute Route is probably a feasible heritage tourism opportunity.















CHAPTER 3
EVALUATING HERITAGE TOURISM

Heritage trails are difficult to evaluate by traditional criteria, such as visitation and

income potential. Heritage trails are usually located in public rights-of-way, so it is

difficult to know who is walking down a city street specifically because it features a

heritage trail. Guide books are usually free and can not be easily tracked. If the books

are sold, there is no way to know whether the person who bought the book actually used

it to walk the trail. On the other hand, they may have loaned it to their friends, in which

case the impact would be far greater than book sales could measure.

A review of current literature indicates that there are many stakeholders in heritage

tourism, each of which must be considered when planning a heritage tourism destination.

It is possible to evaluate the effectiveness of a heritage trail by considering its ability to

satisfy the needs of three key constituencies: the historic resource, the visitor and the

community.l It should be noted that this is a value-laden system, which makes it

remarkably flexible, but also very subjective. Any of the three components can be

weighed more or less heavily, depending on the particular needs of an attraction and on

the evaluator' s point of view.







SArticles by William T. Alderson, Peter H. Brink, John Chaney, Cheryl Hargrove, Gail Dexter Lord,
Richard J. Roddewig, Scott W. Standish, Vanessa Turner Maybank and Amy Jordan Webb were
particularly useful in the creation of this evaluative system. Books by Priscilla Boniface and Elizabeth B.
Waters were also helpful.










Evaluative System

Resource Protection

A preservationist' s primary goal is the protection of an area' s historic resources.

The resources, be it buildings, landscapes or sculptures, are the primary reasons people

are drawn to a heritage location in the first place. Establishing a tourism program that

destroys or damages the resources may yield high short-term rewards but is not

sustainable. Protection of the resource is of the utmost importance to most

pre servati omists.

If managed well, tourism can assist in that protection. Tourists provide money that

can be used for maintenance and care of the resource. Resources that pay for themselves

or make a profit are usually well protected. In addition, public interest can protect a

resource. Legislators who might propose insensitive development, highway projects, or

other measures that are detrimental to the site are much more likely to work around it if

they know that the public would be outraged at its destruction. Lastly, resources that are

Einancially stable and enjoy public support are more likely to win grant requests and other

funding opportunities.

J. Brendan Meyer, Proj ect Manager of Trails and Tours for Cultural Tourism DC,

says a heritage trail's most significant positive impact upon historic resources is in its

ability to proj ect the community's values. Heritage trails help unify a community behind

its unique history. It educates the members of the neighborhood about their important

resources and how those resources can be used as economic tools. If the city later

decides to designate an area as an historic district, it is likely to face less opposition than

it might otherwise because the idea has already been planted. Recognition through

placement on a heritage trail can also help when buildings are threatened with demolition.










The trail gives the community a sense of pride in its resources and the ammunition to

fight their removal.

Those wishing to use heritage resources to attract tourists must plan well in

advance of the first busload to ensure that this added pressure will not damage the

resource. Most negative impacts stem from overuse of historic resources. The good

news is that heritage trails, by design, do not actually "use" the resources. People walk in

public rights of way, not on the actual resources. They do not touch them, breathe inside

them or make other physical contact. This is one reason that trails are an attractive form

of heritage tourism.

Unfortunately, heritage trails can create other negative impacts on historic

resources. Overdevelopment is a possible consequence that can be very threatening to

historic resources. When used in cooperation with other economic and tourism tools,

heritage trails can spur interest in a particular area and the development that comes with

increased popularity. When an area becomes popular to visitors, businesses will follow.

Local residents and those considering relocating to the city become more interested in

purchasing property in that area because of the increased level of amenities. This could

lead to a teardownn trend," or the replacement of historic buildings with newer, larger

ones. Excessively-increased property values can also result. Increased property values

are good for people who want to sell but can be devastating to families who can no longer

afford to pay their property taxes.

Visitor Experience

While resource protection is a significant concern, the needs of the visitor are just

as essential. Tourists, and particularly those tourists in the baby-boomer generation, want

to be educated on their vacations. Katherine Tandy Brown, author of "Cultural or










Heritage: This Tourism is Hot," quotes Bruce Beckham, former National Tourism

Association president: "Baby boomers want to come home from vacation with more than

a tan. They're more into life-seeing than sight-seeing. That' s where cultural and heritage

tourism fits in" (Beckham in Brown, 2003: 2).

Visitors must be convinced that it is worth their time and money to travel to a

heritage resource. Word of mouth is the most effective tool, but advertising and

marketing are useful, too. Once visitors arrive, they need to feel that their effort was

worth it. When they leave, they should take something away that will be valuable to their

lives.

People are searching for meaning in their experiences. Nationally-franchised

businesses are making every city in America look exactly like every other city. We long

for a purposeful way to use our free time in a genuine, unique place. Many Americans

turn to historic, cultural or natural resources to fulfill that desire. As Richard Roddewig

said in "Selling America' s Heritage Without Selling Out," "Americans are attracted to

historic sites because they are genuine. Their interest in such genuine history stems from

a reaction to the plasticized history in so much of our culture" (Roddewig, 1988: 2).

Authenticity is an extremely important factor in the visitor' s experience. Visitors

want to see the actual building or real historic artifact. They do not want reproductions

or, worse yet, a sign that says that something important happened on this site. If they

travel to a heritage tourism destination and learn that what they are seeing is not "real,"

they will leave very disappointed.

In addition to authenticity, tourists are very interested in compelling stories. A

heritage tourism destination that uses the real stories of actual historic figures will be










more interesting that one that only describes architecture or artifacts. It is important to tie

authentic historic material to people who actually lived in a house and those who really

used the tools.

On the other hand, the public's expectations have been heightened by Disney

World and other mass-produced entertainment. They are unwilling to give up the

conveniences that style of entertainment provides. Tourists want easy access from

transportation hubs. They want plenty of conveniently-located restrooms on site. They

want safety, cleanliness, and even predictability. They want food when they are hungry

and a nice place to sleep when they are tired. Heritage tourism destinations must be

ready to compete with shopping malls, movie theatres, and theme parks if they are to be

successful (Lord, 1999).

Community Benefit

The third criterion for success is a tourist destination's ability to adequately address

its community's needs. Each community is different, but most would be delighted to

benefit Einancially from a tourist attraction. Much-needed economic development can

stem from the establishment of an historic trail. Small businesses may recognize an

increase in customers as visitors find unique places to eat and purchase souvenirs.

Increased interest can attract homeowners who want to rehabilitate the older housing

stock. It can also attract developers who see the economic opportunity in adding new

businesses to the area. These new property owners bring more taxes and j obs to the

neighborhood.

The taxes that result from tourists visiting an area can also be a great financial

benefit to the area, too. Visitors pay taxes on shopping, hotel rooms, and meals. In

Washington D.C., the sales tax is 5.75%. The hotel tax, including sales tax, is 14.5%.










Food and beverage tax is 10%. This can add up to a substantial amount of money. The

average heritage tourist pays $623 on a trip (TIA, 2003, 3). If a tourist stays three nights

at $150 per night, spends $50 per day on meals, and buys one souvenir worth $23, that

person will have contributed approximately $81 in taxes. If a tourist destination can

attract 50,000 people to visit the area, that is more than $4 million added, just in taxes, to

the local economy.

If balanced well, development can benefit the community without damaging the

historic resources. Retailers and restaurateurs can benefit from the increased traffic to

their area. The design of the trail should be considered early to ensure community

benefit. For example, an attraction that shuttles visitors through a neighborhood on a bus,

pausing only long enough to allow pictures taken out the windows, does not financially

benefit the community. It adds pollution, traffic, and noise without any monetary

infusion to mitigate the adverse effects. Alternatively, a bus tour that stops along the

route, drops visitors off, and encourages them to experience the local shops and

restaurants can add valuable commerce to a neighborhood.

Not all community benefits are financial. The community pride resulting from

being known as the home of a heritage resource can also be very valuable. Desiring to

proj ect a positive image to the visitors can encourage the local community to keep its

streets clean, its storefronts attractive, and its yards tidy. A heritage attraction can

become the heart of a community and a reason to celebrate its uniqueness. It can create a

sense of unity within the neighborhood.

Heritage tourism can also cause problems in the local area. Overuse of public

rights of way and amenities can be problematic and can result in increased frustration for










local residents. If bus tours along a particular route become too popular, the exhaust,

noise and vibration from those buses can be hazardous to both people and historic

resources. It is also frustrating to business owners who can not realize added profit from

tourists who never leave the bus.

Increased popularity can lead to excessive crowds and a loss of the area' s original

sense of place. In his description of Venice in Portraits of Places, Henry James said,

The sentimental tourist's sole quarrel with his Venice is that he has too many
competitors there. He likes to be alone; to be original, to have (to himself, at least)
the air of making discoveries. The Venice of today is a vast museum with a little
wicket that admits you and is perpetually turning and creaking, and you march
through the institution with a herd of fellow gazers. There is nothing left to
discover or describe, an originality of attitude is completely impossible (James in
Roddewig, 1988: 4).

We must be careful not to allow tourism to dominate so fully that the authentic

character of the area is lost. This will eventually lead to the loss of all three factors of

success. The resources will be damaged by loss of context, if not from overuse, visitors

will be frustrated with the crowds and loss of authenticity, and the community will have

lost its sense of place.

Prioritization of Values

It should be noted that this evaluative system is not an obj ective means of assessing

the success of a heritage tourism attraction. This system is values-based. This makes it

subj ective but also allows it to be very flexible. Evaluation is also dependent on the

resource's level of significance. Protection of the resource might be a very important

value when evaluating the success of a heritage tourism program involving a nationally

significant resource. In evaluating a resource that has only local significance, one might

assign less importance to resource protection and more to community benefit. This










system can be adopted hierarchically depending on the evaluator' s point of view or the

particular needs of the tourism attraction.

From a preservationist' s standpoint, resource protection usually outweighs the

other two categories. To many preservationists, tourism is purely a means of protection.

Tourism brings the money that is necessary to keep resources maintained well. It would

be irresponsible and inexcusable to allow tourism to destroy the very source of the

public's interest.

From a tourism professional's point of view, the criteria would probably be

weighed in exactly the opposite order. The primary concern is that the associated

businesses make a profit. If the community is not getting a financial benefit, a tourism

professional would probably consider the program a failure, even if the resource was

protected.

In each instance, the visitors' experience might be valued, but not necessarily for

the visitors' sake. It can sometimes be valued only for its ability to enhance the primary

goal, be it preservation- or tourism-focused. Visitor experience, in itself, is an integral

component of successful heritage tourism. If the visitor' s satisfaction is neglected, it

seems unlikely that either of the other two evaluative criteria will be successful.

Preservation might suffer due to lack of visitor interest. The attraction will also probably

not make a profit if visitors become disinterested.















CHAPTER 4
CASE STUDIES

As a practical application of the previously-defined evaluative system, and to learn

more about how heritage trails are established, trails were studied in Washington, D.C.

and Boston, Massachusetts. These studies include one trail that celebrated its kickoff

only three months ago, and one that is the oldest heritage trail in the United States.

The case studies were chosen for their similarity to the potential President

Lincoln's Commute Route Heritage Trail. They are less than five miles long and located

in densely-populated, urban areas. The trails are evaluated based on their ability to

satisfy the three criteria for success: resource protection, visitor experience and

community benefit.

Cultural Tourism DC

Cultural Tourism DC was founded in 1996 and became a non profit corporation in

1999. It is a membership organization that includes the following:

* Almost every museum and cultural organization in the city
* Neighborhood groups
* Community development corporations
* Religious organizations
* The city's public transit organization, Metro
* The National Capital Region of the National Park Service
* Professional tour guides
* The city's official marketing entities

Cultural Tourism DC is funded by many public and private organizations and is in

partnership with the D.C. Chamber of Commerce, the National Capital Region of the

National Park Service, Washington Metropolitan Area Transportation Authority,









Washington Convention Center Authority and the Washington, D.C. Convention and

Tourism Corporation. Cultural Tourism DC's mission is to, "involve visitors to the

District of Columbia in the rich heritage and culture of the entire city of Washington"

(www.culturaltouri smdc.org, 2004).

Cultural Tourism DC invites visitors to see areas of the city beyond the National

Mall by providing information about other parts of D.C. In addition to its heritage trails,

Cultural Tourism DC has developed several bus tours and guided walking tours. The

organization has also published Capital Assets, an inventory of heritage attractions in

Washington, D.C. This guide catalogues attractions by neighborhood, theme, and

readiness to attract and educate visitors.

Cultural Tourism DC's three heritage trails are examined here. They are: the Civil

War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail, the City within a City: Greater U Street

Heritage Trail, and the African American Heritage Trail. Cultural Tourism DC is just

now attempting to formally study these trails' effectiveness and success. Due to this lack

of concrete evaluation, informal assessment has been made through personal observation.

Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail

The Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail is actually three related

trail loops in downtown Washington, D.C.: the West Loop, the Center Loop, and the East

Loop. These trails focus on Washington during the Civil War and the continuing

challenge of ensuring equality for its citizens. They include many Lincoln-related sites,

such as

* The site of the first public telegraph: constructed in 1845, this telegraph line was
valuable to President Lincoln because it allowed communication with his generals.

* New York Avenue Presbyterian church: site of an earlier, similar church where
President Lincoln and his family worshiped.










*The Willard Inter-Continental Hotel: where President-elect Lincoln stayed for ten
days before his inauguration in 1861.

The three loops can be walked in one hour each and are conveniently located near

Metro stations (Figure 4-1). Markers are located along the route to educate visitors. A

guide book (Figure 4-2) is sold for $4.95 at various local bookstores.

r r The Doratown Heritage Trail


Figure 4-1.


Map of Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail (Reprinted with
permission from Cultural Tourism DC. Busch, Richard T. Civil War to Civil
Rights: Washington's Downtown Heritage Trail. Charlottesville, VA: Howell
Press, 2001: inside front cover.)


Figure 4-2.


Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail Guidebook (Reprinted
with permission from Cultural Tourism DC. Busch, Richard T. Civil War to
Civil Rights: Washington's Downtown Heritage Trail. Charlottesville, VA:
Howell Press, 2001: front cover.)









The Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail was established with

funding from the Downtown Business Improvement District. The Business Improvement

District' s mission is to, "help raise Downtown to world-class standards as a commercial,

cultural and residential destination" and they saw this trail as a natural extension of their

other work (www.downtowndc. org, 2004). The District of Columbia Department of

Transportation (DC-DOT) also provided Transportation Enhancement funding. The DC-

DOT has also taken on responsibility for maintenance and supervision of the trail. All

signs are located on DC-DOT land which greatly streamlined the permitting process.

Cultural Tourism DC believes that the trail is very successful, though concrete

evaluation has proven difficult. Cultural Tourism DC is developing tools to measure the

trail's effectiveness, but with the public nature of the trail, it is almost impossible to count

the number of visitors that follow the signs as a system. In addition, most of the

businesses along the route are not of the type that would notice an increase in visitors.

Because this trail is in the downtown area, the businesses surrounding it are maj or

corporations and others not reliant upon casual visitors. These businesses might realize

indirect benefits of being located on a heritage trail. The area, and therefore the

businesses in the area, could become more prestigious because its historic value is

recognized through markers and the guide book. This indirect benefit would be difficult

to evaluate as having been caused by the trail, though.

City within a City: Greater U Street Heritage Trail

In cooperation with the Historical Society of Washington, D.C., Cultural Tourism

DC has established the City within a City: Greater U Street Heritage Trail. According to

Cultural Tourism DC's web site,









For half a century, during the years of segregation, U Street was the nation's Black
Broadway and the heart of African American business and culture in Washington,
D.C... Located near Howard University, the U Street neighborhood was home to
Edward Kennedy "Duke" Ellington. Its theaters and clubs hosted some of the
brightest lights in American j azz Cab Calloway, Pearl Bailey, Sarah Vaughn,
and Jelly Roll Morton, to name a few (www. culturaltourismdc. org, 2004).

This heritage trail takes visitors to the homes and businesses where many famous

African Americans spent their time. The trail is marked by permanent signage (Figure 4-

3) that includes a map (Figure 4-4). The trail can be walked in about an hour and a half

and is easily accessible by Metro. The trail includes sites such as:

* True Reformer Building: Designed in 1902 by the first registered African American
architect in the District of Columbia.

* Whitelaw Hotel: First first-class hotel in Washington that specifically catered to
African Americans.

* Founders Library at Howard University: Howard University was founded in 1867.

The guide book for this trail is free and available from businesses along the route, at the

African American Civil War Memorial or by contacting Cultural Tourism DC.




















Figure 4-3. City within a City: Greater U Street Heritage Trail Street Marker (Source:
photo by author, 2004)










Though this trail is also quite new, the evaluation of its success might prove more

achievable because this trail is located in an area populated by small businesses. These

sole-proprietorships rely on casual visitors for their daily business and are more likely to

notice an increase in visitors. They are also more likely to actively participate in

measuring that increase, unlike the corporations along the Civil War to Civil Rights trail

downtown. Cultural Tourism DC is working to develop tools that will allow it to

measure the trail's success in promoting the area to heritage tourists and locals.


















Figure 4-4. City within a City: Greater U Street Heritage Trail Map (Source: photo by
author, 2004)

In addition to the marked heritage trail, Cultural Tourism DC conducts regular

walking tours of the U Street area. This two-hour tour is offered the first and third

Saturday of each month between April and November and costs $12 per person. This

tour is part of the process of introducing a neighborhood to its new visitors. Introduction

is necessary because neighbors often feel threatened and invaded by outsiders coming to

look at their historic resources. They might feel protective of their neighborhood and

worry about the influx of new people on the streets. A slow process of introduction helps

overcome these concerns.









The trail and walking tour are two small components of the city's ongoing

economic revitalization efforts in the U Street Corridor. These tools may prove vital in

enhancing the area' s image enough to encourage new business development and

neighborhood investment.

African American Heritage Trail

Cultural Tourism DC's most recently-established heritage trail is the African

American Heritage Trail. The proj ect started as a survey of African American historic

resources in cooperation with the D.C. Historic Preservation Office.

Of more than 200 historic sites that were researched, approximately 100 were

chosen for the trail, including the following:

* The Howard Theatre: This theatre, opened in 1910, has hosted Duke Ellington,
Mary Jefferson, Ella Fitzgerald and some of Motown' s greatest artists.

* Mary Jane Patterson Residence: Home of the first black, female college graduate.

* Frederick Douglass National Historic Site: Home of Frederick Douglass, a formerly
enslaved abolitionist and statesman.

* Ashbury United Methodist Church: Organized in 1836 by Caucasians who wanted
to create a place of worship free from racism or segregation.

The African American Heritage Trail differs from Cultural Tourism DC's other two

trails because it does not include signage or any other physical markers along the route.

It exists solely within a four-color guidebook, distributed for free throughout the city

(Figure 4-5). According to Meyer, the guidebook is the only feasible product at this time,

but the city is considering the addition of markers along the route.

This proj ect is actually made up of 15 different trails throughout the city (Figure 4-

6). Each trail includes an average of seven sites related to Washington, D.C.'s African

American history and can be easily walked or driven. This trail includes many of the











same sites that Cultural Tourism DC's other two trails encompass. In fact, both of the


organization's other trails, the Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail and

the City within a City: Greater U Street Heritage Trail are listed as individual "sites" in

the African American Heritage Trail guidebook.


Figure 4-5.


African American Heritage Trail Guidebook (Reprinted with permission of
Cultural Tourism DC. McQuirter, Marya Annette. African American
Heritage Trail: Washinnton, D.C... Washington, D.C.: Cultural Tourism DC,
2003: front cover.)


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African American Heritage Trail Map (Reprinted with permission from
Cultural Tourism DC. McQuirter, Marya Annette. African American
Heritage Trail: Washington, D.C... Washington, D.C.: Cultural Tourism DC,
2003: center foldout.)









Evaluation of Cultural Tourism DC's Heritage Trails

Cultural Tourism DC's heritage trails have the potential to become very successful.

The trails do not adversely affect the resources. In fact, they might even positively

impact the resources through increased public exposure. The visitor experience is also

very positive. The trails are well-researched and interesting. The potential for

community benefit is also very high on some of these trails.

This potential is not being maximized because no one realizes that this wonderful

resource is available. If the trails were marketed more aggressively and the businesses

kept better informed and stocked with brochures, the trails would probably become more

popular. Cultural Tourism DC's heritage trails are a wonderful attraction in this city. It

is unfortunate that they seem to be unknown and underutilized.

Resource protection

These three trails have helped protect the resources along each route primarily

through increased visibility. Placing a marker in front of a building and telling its story

in a guidebook gives these structures more importance. The buildings that are chosen for

the markers and guidebooks draw a comprehensive picture of the community's values,

emphasizing the stories that the community members are most proud of. These stories

help tourists and those from the D.C. area understand what each particular community

holds dear. This designation will give the community a platform from which to protect

the resources if ever they are threatened.

The heritage trails will also make it easier for the District of Columbia to designate

areas as historic districts, as is likely in the near future. Once the local community has

embraced its unique heritage, it is less likely to oppose the designation. The same will

probably be true for individual landmark designation.









It does not appear that these trails are damaging the historic resources in any

measurable way. Because people walk in the public right of way and not within the

structures themselves, there is essentially no increase in regular wear-and-tear. So far,

the visitors have been respectful of the buildings and markers and have not vandalized or

otherwise damaged them.

One possible negative impact to the historic resources might be in their becoming a

victim of their own success. If the neighborhood surrounding these trails becomes a hot

real estate area, developers will probably follow. These developers might attempt to tear

down the neighborhood's historic buildings to replace them with larger, more expensive

ones. The community must continue to be vigilant in its long-term protection of the

resources. This is an extremely complex issue involving multiple economic and

legislative factors.

Visitor experience

It is unfortunate that many visitors and locals in the D.C. area are not familiar with

these heritage trails because they provide a very interesting and educational experience.

The two marked trails, Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail and City

Within a City: Greater U Street Heritage Trail are marked with attractive, standardized

signs. These signs are informative and easy to follow and the guidebooks are very

professional. The stories they illuminate are engaging. The text is easy to read and the

photographs are interesting.

These trails are best-experienced as a pedestrian. They are not conveniently

followed in a car. Many streets are one-way, making navigation difficult. In addition,

once one reaches a particular site, there is often not a good place to pull off the road and

take a good look.









Community benefit

As with the other factors of success, it is difficult to assess whether Cultural

Tourism DC's three heritage trails provide a significant community benefit. The Civil

War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail is located downtown, where the maj or

corporations do not notice or particularly care about a modest increase in foot traffic that

the trail might provide.

One exception is Artifactory, a small, sole-proprietorship immediately adj acent to

the second marker on the center loop of the trail. The building is featured on the marker

and in the guidebook as one of the oldest surviving commercial buildings in the city.

Artifactory, a shop full of antique and new products from all over the world, has been in

existence for more than 20 years. Unfortunately, the owner said that business has never

been slower than it is now, and that this has been the case for about the last two years.

This corresponds closely to the length of time the trail has existed just outside his door.

He has not studied the trail's effect upon his business, but said that none of his customers

has ever mentioned the trail to him. This leads one to believe that the trail has not been

effective in bringing tourist dollars to the area. It will be interesting to learn what

Cultural Tourism DC's evaluation reveals.

The City within a City: Greater U Street Heritage Trail seems the mostly likely to

create a financial community benefit. Though possible that it has had a positive effect,

the effect is difficult to single out due to the city's other economic revitalization efforts in

the area. The businesses along the U Street trail are primarily sole-proprietorships. They

are dependant upon the number of people who walk past their storefronts. Cultural

Tourism DC asks the owners of these businesses to distribute the guidebook for free and

claims that they do so enthusiastically.










Given these facts, it is interesting that the businesses along the trail do not actually

give the impression of enthusiastic support. It is difficult to find a business that actually

has the guidebooks available. In a random sampling of six retail stores and restaurants,

not one had the guidebook. The owner of a furniture store said they used to give them

away but haven't had them in stock in quite a while. Another merchant was not even

sure what guidebook was being requested. It is possible to follow the trail using only the

markers on the street, but it would be must easier to do with a map in-hand.

Informal observation indicates that the signs along the two marked trails are not

particularly effective in attracting attention. The author chose one sign in a very

prominent location on both the Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail and

the City within a City: Greater U Street Heritage Trail.l In 10 minutes of observation, not

one pedestrian stopped to read either of the signs. A few glanced at them but hardly even

broke stride to do so. In addition, none of the observed pedestrians was carrying Cultural

Tourism DC's guidebooks.

The African American Heritage Trail is so new that little observation is possible,

but it seems unlikely that neighborhoods have seen a significant positive benefit. The

trail exists only in a guidebook so it is even more difficult for people to realize it is there.

Establishment Procedure Common to All Three Trails

Because Cultural Tourism DC's trails are so new, they are possibly more useful as

illustration of the process of development. In each of these projects, Cultural Tourism

DC has worked to establish a heritage trail only where the neighborhood has initiated the

action. All of the initial research must be completed by members of the community


SThe day of observation was a Saturday in February at approximately 2:00 PM. It was sunny,
approximately 60 degrees, and there were many pedestrians in the area.









before Cultural Tourism DC becomes involved. They must demonstrate that they have

broad public support for the project. Once the preliminary research is complete and a

significant number of community members have shown enthusiasm for a trail, the area

must become ready for tourism.

Cultural Tourism DC helps neighborhoods ready for tourism by slowly working up

to a heritage trail. They begin by initiating bus tours of the neighborhood. This gets the

merchants, businesses and residents comfortable with the idea of having tourists in the

area. It also keeps the tourists comfortable and safe during the tour.

After the area has hosted bus tours for a certain amount of time dependantt on the

needs of the particular community), then guided tours are initiated. Guided tours help the

community get used to having individuals in the neighborhood, but they are comforted by

knowing that the tourists are in a well-controlled group. The guided tours show area

merchants and other business people that tourism can be a financial benefit.

Once guided tours become successful, the neighbors are comfortable and the

merchants begin marketing to tourists, the guided tours are suspended and a heritage trail

is established. Signage is posted and a guide book is printed to assist individual tourists

in finding their way through the neighborhood. Hopefully, after the trail is established,

visitors will feel comfortable exploring the area on their own, off of the regular,

established trail. This is the final goal of this type of heritage tourism.

Financial Investment

Meyer estimates that the establishment of a heritage trail in Washington, D.C. costs

about $175,000. This includes all costs from inception through installation. The staff

time involved in managing the proj ect is one of the highest costs. Representatives from

the neighborhood supply much of the research, but a professional researcher is necessary










to ensure accuracy and a certain level of detail that amateur researchers are unable to

attain. Paying for that historic research is also included in this cost. It includes

manufacturing and installing approximately 15 trail markers.2

Regular inspection and maintenance is a separate cost, which, according to Meyer,

could be approximately $15,000 per year. Ongoing management of the trail is also a

separate cost. This number is difficult to estimate because each trail is very different and

each city's needs vary widely.

The Freedom Trail Foundation

The Freedom Trail Foundation is responsible for promoting Boston's Freedom

Trail. The organization was founded in 1958, incorporated in 1964 and hired its first full

time staff in 1992. The Foundation's stakeholders include the:

* Sixteen historic sites along the trail
* National Park Service
* City of Boston and the local Visitors and Convention Bureau
* Commonwealth of Massachusetts and its Department of Tourism
* Millions of visitors that visit the area every year

The Foundation is "dedicated to preserving and promoting Boston's distinct historic

character and its important role in the American Revolution." The Foundation

accomplishes this mission by conducting tours, promoting and helping preserve the

historic sites on the trail, offering educational programs for school children from all over

the country and Boston, and organizing special events to showcase the area's unique

history. They also market the trail worldwide. The Freedom Foundation is concerned

with only one trail: Boston's Freedom Trail (www.thefreedomtrail .org, 2004).



2 MT. Meyer OStimated the cost based on 15 markers because Cultural Tourism DC's trails have used
approximately 15 markers each.









Boston' s Freedom Trail was conceived in 1951 by Boston j ournalist William

Schofield. He realized that visitors were getting frustrated by an inability to easily locate

the city's Revolutionary War historic sites. "Tourists were going berserk, bumbling

around and frothing at the mouth because they couldn't find what they were looking for,"

he wrote (Schofield in Zannieri, 2003: 45). He thought a way finding system should be

created to lead visitors where they wanted to go. He told Bob Winn, who worked at the

North Church, and together they approached John Hynes, Boston's mayor. Hynes

thought it was a wonderful idea. The city erected plywood signs at each of 16 historic

sites. Seven years later, the city painted the now-famous red line that links the sites. The

trail was named "The Freedom Trail" and The Freedom Trail Foundation was created.

Local businesses donated money and services to create the first visitor maps and signs.

In 1964 The Freedom Trail Foundation was incorporated as a 501(c) 3 and ten

years later, the Boston National Historic Park, a unit of the National Park Service, was

created. The Boston National Historic Park opened many funding opportunities, and the

Park Service invested a large amount of money in the sites included in the park. In 1996-

1997, the National Park Service commissioned a Vision Study, The Freedom Trail: A

Framework for the Future, to consider the state of the trail, its organizational structure,

and how these factors could be improved. The study concluded that the trail is vital to

Boston's heritage tourism industry, but that the experience could be improved by better

cooperation and organization among the sites. A lack of funding has kept the Foundation

from implementing many of the study's recommendations.

Boston's Freedom Trail

Boston' s Freedom Trail is 2.5 miles long and links some of the country's most

significant Revolutionary War sites. It connects the following:










* Boston Common: America's oldest park

* Massachusetts State House: Built in 1795

* Park Street Church: Where William Lloyd Garrison gave his first public anti-
slavery address.

* Granary Burying Ground: John Hancock, Samuel Adams, the Boston Massacre
victims, Paul Revere, Peter Faneuil and other great patriots are buried here.

* King's Chapel, King's Chapel Burying Ground: Built in 1688 by a chaplain sent to
Boston by King James II, who wanted Anglican religious services performed in the
colonies.

* Boston Latin: First public school in America, opened on April 13, 1635. Ben
Franklin, John Hancock and Samuel Adams learned to read here.

* Old Corner Bookstore Building: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Harriet Beecher
Stowe, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Oliver Wendell Holmes,
Henry David Thoreau and other great American writers gathered here between
1833 and 1864.

* Old South Meeting House: Built in 1729, this is where 5,000 colonists gathered to
protest a British tax on tea just before the famous Boston Tea Party.

* Old State House: On July 18, 1776, the Declaration of Independence was read for
the first time to the public from its balcony.

* Boston Massacre Site: Where an argument turned into a mob scene and British
soldiers shot five colonists.

* Faneuil Hall: Built in 1742 as a market, this building has been used as a debate hall
for colonists, abolitionists, women's rights activists and others.

* Paul Revere House: Home where Paul Revere lived during the time of his famous
ride through Boston.

* North Church: This church is where lanterns were hung in the steeple to alert the
patriots that the British were on the way.

* Copp's Hill Burying Ground: Many important colonists are buried here, including
more than 1,000 African American.

* USS Constitution: The oldest commissioned warship in the world and a veteran of
the War of 1812.










*Bunker Hill Monument: Site of one of the bloodiest battles of the Revolutionary
War.

The Freedom Trail Foundation does not own, operate or maintain any of the sites along

the trail. They are all independently owned and managed. The Freedom Trail

Foundation is primarily responsible for the way finding system of the trail. To this end,

the Foundation has created a full-color guidebook to assist visitors in finding and learning

more about these sites (Figure 4-7).



















Figure 4-7. The Freedom Trail Guidebook (Reprinted with permission from The
Freedom Trail Foundation. The Freedom Trail Guide: Walk into History on
the Freedom Trail. Boston: Recycled Paper Printing, Inc., 2000: front cover.)

The trail is easy for tourists and locals to find. Public transportation is the best

option in a major metropolis like Boston. Boston's subway system, the "T", has four

stations conveniently located along the trail. If visitors are more comfortable using a car,

they will probably find more parking then they expect. The 1997 Vision Study reveals

that there are approximately 30,000 parking spaces in the area.









Evaluation of Boston's Freedom Trail3

Boston's Freedom Trail is undeniably one of the most successful heritage trails in

the United States. The trail's long history allows evaluation based upon the three factors

of success: resource protection, visitor experience, and community benefit.

Resource protection

Boston's Freedom Trail has helped protect the sites' resources by raising their

visibility to the public. This gives the public a personal connection with their history,

which can sometimes turn them into advocates and donors. If the city decides to enact

legislation that could be detrimental to the site, it is much easier to defeat that legislation

when there is an outcry from these public advocates. The same is true if private industry

proposes a change that could damage the site. A site with a strong, grassroots network of

advocates will be protected by their support. The sites along The Freedom Trail enjoy

this kind of support.

The heightened visibility that comes with association with the Trail can also create

a great fundraising potential. For example, between 1976 and 1998, more than $50

million was spent to restore and maintain the sites along Boston's Freedom Trail

(McConchie, 2/13/04). The trail has elevated the sites to a profile envied by the staffs of

many other historic sites around the country. This position opens many funding

opportunities that might not otherwise be available.

People can only give money to sites that they know about. On the other hand,

being part of the trail means sharing that visibility. It is more difficult to raise money for

one particular site when, in the public's understanding, the sites are inextricably linked to


3 Articles by Martin Blatt, Mark Herlihy, Alfred F. Young and Nina Zannieri in The Public Historian were
particularly helpful in gauging the success of Boston' s Freedom Trail.









one another. A donor might believe that if he has already given money to one site, he has

done his part and may see no need to donate to each of the other individual sites. In

addition, The Freedom Trail Foundation conducts it own fundraising campaign. The sites

along the trail must compete with The Freedom Trail foundation for scarce resources.

They sometimes resent their association with the trail because some donations go to The

Freedom Trail Foundation and not directly to the site.

Linda McConchie, Executive Director of The Freedom Trail Foundation, believes

that a third benefit to the historic resource is the public' s expectation of high standards of

maintenance along this trail. Because the sites are so famous, visitors expect them to be

very clean and well cared for. They would be extremely disappointed to find shabby,

deteriorating structures on the route, creating an incentive for the organizations that own

and operate the sites along this trail to keep them well maintained. The sites along the

trail seem to be in excellent condition.

The trail does have the potential to negatively impact certain resources because,

unlike on Cultural Tourism DC's trails, the public is encouraged to enter the buildings.

The number of people who follow the trail and take tours of the museums in the peak

tourism season could cause seriously impact the sites. Each site is responsible for

assessing this impact and taking the necessary precautions.

Visitor experience

Visitors to Boston's Freedom Trail have a very satisfying experience. The trail is

easy to follow because it is well-marked with a red brick or painted line connecting each

site. The signs are consistent and easy to read from a distance (Figure 4-8). There are

certain places where the trail appears to lead in more than one direction and a map is

necessary to determine which is correct, but this is only a minor irritation.


























Figure 4-8. The Freedom Trail Marker (Source: photo by author, 2004)

It is particularly valuable that the sites along the trail are authentic. There are no

reconstructions and only one plaque to declare that "on this site" something spectacular

occurred. Every site is special and each tells a fascinating story. The museums are

highly professional. Many of the sites do not charge for admission and those that do only

request a minimal fee.

There are also many visitor amenities along the route. The map (Figure 4-9)

indicates information centers and public restrooms. These are located at multiple places

along the trail. The route also passes many restaurants and shops.

The only deficiency in the visitor experience is created by a lack of coordination

among the sites in presenting a common story. Due to their physical locations and the

simplicity of Schofield' s original plan, the visitor does not experience the sites in a

chronological order. It is easy to get confused because there is not one, unified story, but

several stories related only tangentially. The Freedom Trail Foundation has attempted to

overcome this challenge by creating an Antenna Audio Tour. These 2-hour-long audio

players are available to rent for $15 (and $12 for each additional rental.) This audio tour










addresses the sites along the trail in a clear, chronological story. Visitors who come to

Boston without a good understanding of the city's role in the Revolutionary War will find

the trail much more understandable when using the audio tour.















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about $1.8 million added to the area's economy every year (Dixon and Clancy, 1997).

The businesses along the route particularly benefit from the many visitors who walk the

trail. In fact, many of those businesses would likely not exist if not for the tourism

industry in the area.










There could be no greater educational opportunity for Boston' s school children and

families than the Freedom Trail. Unlike most other children in the country, they have

authentic historic resources right in their back yard. School groups from every other state

also come see the sites along the trail, adding even more financial and educational

benefit.

Boston has gained recognition as a cultural city due in large part to the nationwide

marketing of the Freedom Trail. The city takes pride in its affiliation with America's

struggle for independence. Together with the other great amenities available in the city,

the Freedom Trail helps make Boston a very cultural, pedestrian-friendly city.















CHAPTER 5
PRESIDENT LINCOLN' S CO1V1VUTE ROUTE

I see the President almost every day, as I happen to live where he passes to or from
his lodgings out of town. He never sleeps at the White House during the hot
season, but has quarters at a healthy location some three miles north of the city, the
Soldiers' Home, a United States military establishment.... He always has a
company of twenty-five or thirty cavalry, with sabres drawn and held upright over
their shoulders. They say this guard was against his personal wish, but he let his
counselors have their way. The party makes no great show in uniform or horses.
Mr. Lincoln on the saddle generally rides a good-sized, easy-going gray horse, is
dress'd in plain black, somewhat rusty and dusty, wears a black stiff hat, and looks
about as ordinary in attire, etc. as the commonest man. A lieutenant with yellow
straps, rides at his left, and following behind, two by two, come the cavalry men, in
their yellow-striped jackets. They are generally going at a slow trot, as that is the
pace set them by the one they wait upon. The sabres and accoutrements clank, and
the entirely unornamental cortege as it trots towards Lafayette square arouses no
sensation, only some curious stranger stops and gazes (Whitman in Kimmel, 1957:
117).

During the Civil War, Walt Whitman lived in a tenement at Vermont and L Street.

His apartment was close to the White House and faced the route that President Lincoln

used to travel to and from his summer residence at the Soldiers' Home every day. He

wrote about his sightings of the president, leaving us with portraits like this one.

Between June and November of 1862, 1863, and 1864, Abraham Lincoln and his

family lived in a cottage at the Soldiers' Home, a home for a few hundred enlisted men

and women who had been injured in war or who had served in the military for more than

20 years. Every day, President Lincoln traveled three miles between the cottage and the

White House by horseback or carriage. Lincoln first rode out to the Soldiers' Home a

few days before his inauguration and his last commute was the day before his

assassination.










It is important to note that the exact route examined here was determined by

Matthew Pinsker in Lincoln's Sanctuary: President Lincoln and the Soldiers' Home.

Pinsker carefully researched all available documentation and concluded that President

Lincoln most likely traveled the following path (Figure 5-1):

* Started at the White House
* Traveled north on Vermont Avenue
* Took a right onto Rhode Island Avenue
* Took a left onto Seventh Street, which, as it crossed Boundary Avenue, became the
Seventh Street Turnpike
* Took a right onto Rock Creek Church Road, which led directly to the Soldiers'
Home.

President Lincoln probably varied his route occasionally, just as we do in our

commutes today. There are many possible routes he could have chosen, but from

mentions of particular stops he made or sightings of him, it is likely that this was the

preferred route. It is also the most efficient route from start to finish, and the Seventh

Street Turnpike was one of the most commonly-traveled roads in or out of Washington.







47








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Wartime Washington

Washington, D.C. 142 years ago was very different than the Washington, D.C. of

today. Understanding this background is essential to a study of one route through it.

What was the city like between 1861 and 1864, the years of President Lincoln' s

occupancy at the Soldiers' Home? What was the weather like, and how did this

contribute to daily experiences? How many people lived in Washington at the time?

How did the Civil War influence the landscape of the city? These and similar questions

must be answered to understand the context of President Lincoln' s daily commute.

Background

Washington, D.C. was a very new city in the 1860s. It had been settled only about

sixty years before and still felt like a temporary outpost. Henry Adams wrote that "as in

1800 and 1850, so in 1860, the same rude colony was camped in the same forest, with the

same unfinished Greek temples for workrooms, and sloughs for roads" (Adams in Leech,

1941: 5). The Capitol was not yet complete and the Washington Monument, today such

an icon of the nation' s strength, was only 1/3 of its current height. The city was planned

by Pierre L'Enfant as a grid of streets overlaid by diagonal avenues with large public

parks scattered throughout. L'Enfant knew that eventually this plan would make a great,

European-style city. But 60 years was not enough time to fulfill this vision and, in the

meantime, the city became known as "a city of magnificent distances" for the vast

lengths of road that had to be traveled between the relatively few monumental

government buildings (Forman, 19).

The roads were not paved, making navigation through the city even more difficult.

Even Pennsylvania Avenue, the most traveled road in town, was made only of dirt. One

letter to the editor exclaimed,









What most is needed to contribute to the comfort and pleasure of citizens and
strangers? The removal of mud and dust! This nuisance is the curse of
Washington. It is as annoying as the flies of Egypt. It penetrates everywhere. It
fills our carriages; it enters our houses; it spoils our clothes; it blinds our eyes; it
injures our lungs; it frets our temper; it drives away strangers, in fine, it is the great
plague of our lives.... That the plan of our city is a most unfortunate one I think
every resident will be ready to admit and deeply regret. The street are almost
universally too wide, affording unnecessary space for the accumulation of dust, but
when we add to these our immense avenues, from one hundred and sixty to two
hundred feet wide a great Sahara of dirt the blunder of the plan is seen to be
prodigious. If the space thus worse than wasted had been laid out in numerous
small squares, which could be planted with trees and kept in grass, it would have
been a great improvement. Let our City Council, then, awake to their duty in this
respect. Let arrangements be promptly made to pave at least the more dense
portions of our city. If the streets north of Pennsylvania Avenue, from the Capitol
to the War Department, and as far north on M Street, were paved it would embrace
those portions most traveled, and would do very well for a beginning (Kimmel,
1957: 110).

A common joke was that, "real estate was high in dry weather, as it was for the

most part all in the air" (Brooks and Mitgang, 1958: 20). President Lincoln traveled

between the White House and the Soldiers' Home between June and November each

year. The summer months were very dry, though the fall could bring a good amount of

rain. When it rained, that dust turned to mud. Noah Brooks, a young j ournalist with

whom President Lincoln was friends, said that,

Washington is probably the dirtiest and most ill-kept borough in the United States.
It is impossible to describe the truly fearful conditions of the streets; they are seas
or canals of liquid mud, varying in depth from one to three feet and possessing, as
geographical features, conglomerations of garbage, refuse and trash, the odors
whereof rival those of Cologne, which Coleridge declared to be 'seventy separate
and distinct stinks...' Everybody has heard of the great corruption of the city of
Washington, but I will venture to say that its moral corruption is far exceeded by
the physical rottenness of its streets" (Brooks and Mitgang, 1958: 294).

The location of the city was chosen through political negotiation with Maryland

and Virginia, each of which gave up acreage for its inception. It was organized on a

swampy plot of land facing the Potomac River. These wet, marshy conditions were

particularly bad around the President' s Mansion, as the White House was then called. In










Reveille in Washinoton, Leech writes that, "At the foot of the President' s Park, as the

unkempt tract south of the mansion was called, there was an unsavory marsh which had

formerly been an outlet for sewage" (Leech, 1941: 7).

The mosquitoes were unbearable and the malaria they transmitted was deadly.

Washington' s heat and humidity drove many people out of the city during the steamy

summer months, including members of Congress, which did not meet during the summer.

President Lincoln and his family were not alone in their desire to leave Washington in the

summer.

In the midst of this swamp, only a small section of town was developed north of

Pennsylvania Avenue and between the Capitol and the President' s Mansion. The

buildings were not well-built, and contrasted sharply with the grand federal buildings.

According to Leech,

the city's business in contrast to that of Federal Government, which required a
setting of porticoed immensity seemed all to be done in a small way. Ugly blocks
of offices had been hastily run up as a speculation. Shabby boardinghouses, little
grocery shops, petty attorney's offices and mean restaurants and saloons served the
fifteen hundred clerks who were employed in the departments (Leech, 1941: 9).

Pennsylvania Avenue was the central thoroughfare through the city. The north side of

the street held the respectable businesses. The south side, however, was a place not

suitable for ladies or respected gentlemen. It is estimated that there were more than 450

houses of prostitution keeping about 5,000 "fallen angels" in the city during this time,

many of them on the South side of Pennsylvania Avenue (Leech, 1941: 261).

Infusion of Soldiers

As war broke out, soldiers filled the city. When the soldiers first arrived, the

residents of the city were excited by the entertainment they provided. Military bands

played on the lawn of the White House. Women dressed in their finest clothes to be










serenaded by these talented young soldiers. The many concerts, dress parades and flag

raising were exciting and new.

Unfortunately, the novelty wore off soon enough and the soldiers' antics began to

wear on the locals. There was no place to go for peace and quiet. There was bugling and

drilling in every quadrant of town. Target practice made it dangerous to walk in certain

parks. The Evening Star, one of Washington's leading newspapers, complained, "Of

soldiers the country is full. Give us organizers and commanders. We have men, let us

have leaders. We have confusion, let us have order" (Leech, 1941: 85). The citizens of

Washington began to resent their new neighbors.

The resentment was mutual as the soldiers quickly grew bored in this undeveloped,

slow Southern town. They created their own excitement through the city's saloons and

whorehouses. The city's population had exploded from 61,000 before the war started in

1860 to more than one hundred thousand in just a few months. By the end of the war, the

population had more than tripled to about 200,000 (Pinsker, 2003: 8). Those hoping to

profit from the influx of soldiers filled the city to its limits. Leech described these new

inhabitants:

Washington was packed with the varied concourse of people attracted by the great
army. Contractors, inventors and cranks infested the bureaus.... Correspondents
were there to scribble, and artists to sketch. Soldiers' relatives mingled with sight-
seeing tourists.... Counterfeiters and confidence men assembled from all sections
of the country.... Dancers and singers and comedians, prize fighters and gamblers,
vendors of obscene literature and proprietors of 'rum-jug shops.' Apparent on
every street was the secret invasion of the women of the town; gay light-o-loves
who swished into the music halls on the officers' arms, whores who beckoned the
drunken teamsters to shanties in the alleys (Leech, 1941: 121).

Ongoing Construction

The money brought into the city with these many new residents caused a great tide

of building and other signs of prosperity. The number of people moving to Washington










created a great demand for housing and shopping. Construction continued on the grand

public buildings, even in the midst of a war, because President Lincoln believed it was

good for morale. "If people see the Capitol going on," President Lincoln said, "it is a

sign we intend the Union shall go on" (Lincoln in Leech, 1941: 279).

Hospitals

At the height of the war there were about twenty hospitals in and around

Washington (Brooks and Mitgang, 1958: 17). Many of these were in crudely-built,

wooden structures or even tents. Former mansions were transformed into hospitals.

Buildings built as barracks were now being used as hospitals. One of these was located

near the Seventh Street Road, where President Lincoln would have passed every day

(Figure 5-2). As the war became more intense and the casualty lists began to grow,

hotels, warehouses, private homes, schools, churches and other private buildings were

opened as hospitals. The Patent Office, Georgetown College, and even the Capitol,

where two thousand cots were placed in the Rotunda and the halls of the House and

Senate, were turned into hospitals (Leech, 1941: 206).
















Figure 5-2. Campbell Hospital, near President Lincoln's commute route (Source:
http:.//1cweb2.loc.gov, Jan 2004)










President Lincoln would have come into contact with carriages carrying wounded

or dead soldiers along his commute route almost every day. Hospitals surrounded the

Soldiers' Home. President Lincoln occasionally stopped the passing ambulances to

inquire about fighting on the front lines. On July 8, 1862, the New York Tribune ran an

article titled, "The President and the Wounded." It said,

The President on the Fourth, while on his way to the Summer Residence at
Soldiers' Home, meeting a train of ambulances conveying wounded men from the
late battles to the hospitals, just beyond the city limits, rode beside them for a
considerable distance, conversing freely with the men, and seeming anxious to
secure all the information possible with regard to the real condition of affairs on the
Peninsula and the feeling among the troops from those who had borne the brunt of
the fight (Pinsker, 2003: 37).

President Lincoln must have felt that this was the best method of learning the truth

about the war. The soldiers' morale was also probably lifted by the interest and care he

showed them.

Freedmen and Slaves

In addition to seeing soldiers on his commute every day, President Lincoln also

passed the homes of free black men and women. Free blacks owned several of the

properties outside the city limits along the Seventh Street Turnpike. Logan circle, or

lowa Circle as it was called when Lincoln was passing through, was, "an area of unkempt

fields on the edge of the city where contraband and freedmen crowded into hastily

erected wooden shacks" (Fitzpatrick and Goodwin, 2001: 149). Anna Harrison, a former

fugitive slave, said, "I used to see Mr. Lincoln almost every day riding out to the

Soldiers' Home that summer [in 1862]" (Harrison in Pinsker, 2003: 66).









There are reports, though unproven, that President Lincoln visited the contraband

camps near his route.l Mary Dines, an escaped slave from Maryland, claimed that

President Lincoln had stopped at her camp many times. She kept a photograph of a

contraband camp taken on a day the she claimed President Lincoln had visited, though

Lincoln is not in the photo (Figure 5-3).






















Figure 5-3. Contraband camp. Photo saved by Mary Dines, who claimed it was taken on
the day of President Lincoln' s visit (Reprinted with permission from the
National Trust for Historic Preservation. Pinsker, Matthew. Lincoln's
Sanctuary: Abraham Lincoln and the Soldiers' Home. New York: Oxford
University Press, 2003: 67.)

She said that they had been warned to keep their performance short because the

President was busy and needed to leave soon, but that he insisted they continue to sing

and pray. She said he even came back later, without his entourage, and continued to sing

and pray with them. She was amazed that he "stood and sang and prayed just like all the

rest of the people" (Pinsker, 2003: 68).


"Contraband" was a term used to describe slaves who had been taken from their masters during the war.
These camps were temporary homes for the former slaves who were unable to earn a living.









Guards

Assassination plots were continuously floating around the city, but President

Lincoln paid them no attention. Lincoln's close advisors were alarmed by Lincoln's

habit of riding alone, frequently after dark, along the 3 miles between the White House

and the Soldiers' Home. He refused to be guarded on his commute. He thought that if a

person was determined to take his life, there was nothing anyone could do about it and he

did not want to be guarded every moment of every day. Brooks remembered a

conversation he had with President Lincoln regarding his safety. He recalled Lincoln

saying, "I long ago made up my mind that if anybody wants to kill me, he will do it. If I

wore a shirt of mail, and kept myself surrounded by a body-guard, it would be all the

same. There are a thousand ways of getting at a man if it is desired that he should be

killed" (Brooks and Mitgang, 1958: 44).

Eventually, Mary Lincoln's protestations persuaded the president that guards were

necessary. He never liked it, though, saying that he and Mrs. Lincoln "'couldn't hear

themselves talk' for the clatter of their sabers and spurs; and that, as many of them

appeared new hands and very awkward, he was more afraid of being shot by the

accidental discharge of one of their carbines or revolvers, than of any attempt upon his

life" (Pinsker, 2003: 60). He often sent the guards away or left earlier than they expected

to outrun them and enj oy a more peaceful ride.

Even with a cavalry escort, some thought it was still too dangerous for the

President to be traveling through the countryside while a war raged nearby and threats on

his life were reported almost daily. Brooks wrote that,

Mr. Lincoln comes in early in the morning and returns about sunset, unless he has a
press of business which is often when he sleeps at the White House and has
'prog' sent up from Willards. He goes and comes attended by an escort of a









cavalry company, which was raised in this city for the purpose, and the escort also
stands on guards at the premises during the night; but to my unsophisticated
judgment nothing seems easier than a sudden cavalry raid from the Maryland side
of the fortifications, past the few small forts, to seize the President of the United
States, lug him from his 'chased couch,' and carry him off as a hostage worth
having (Brooks and Burlingame, 1998: 57).

In addition, unruly civilians sometimes made the Seventh Street Tumnpike a

dangerous place. Pinsker reports that there was a racetrack, several saloons, and houses

of prostitution in the area. John Hay was concerned for the safety of this road when he

wrote that he "rode home in the dark amid a party of drunken gamblers and harlots" on

the Seventh Street Tumnpike (Pinsker, 2003: 12).

The Soldiers' Home was very close to the front lines of the war. On July 10, 1864,

just days after the family had settled into their summer residence for the season,

Confederate General Jubal Early and his men attacked the area immediately north of the

Soldiers' Home. Secretary Stanton sent a carriage and guard out to the Soldiers' Home in

the middle of the night to take President Lincoln and his family back to the White House.

The president was not happy about it. Brooks wrote about that night. He said that, "The

news of the approach of Early was brought to the city... by the panic-stricken people

from Rockville, Silver Spring, Tennallytown, and other Maryland villages. These people

came flocking into Washington by the Seventh Street Road, flying in wild disorder, and

bringing their household goods with them" (Brooks and Mitgang, 1958: 159). President

Lincoln must have seen these panic-stricken people as he, too, was being driven into

town down the Seventh Street Road. It must have affected him to know that these people

were running for their lives, and that their homes might not be there upon their return.









Riding with the President

Riding with President Lincoln to and from the Soldiers' Home was an excellent

way to get some time alone with him. John Hay, a White House aide, realized the

political advantage of riding with the president. Riding with the President, "had quietly

become one of Hay's more useful daily chores. He found that on the dusty thirty-minute

journey, the president could sometimes prove quite expansive and candid." (Pinsker,

2003: 14) They, and others who occasionally rode with him, talked about the war and

other important decisions the President was considering. Not all of the trips were full of

work discussions, though. Brooks recalls riding with the President on his commute on

November day and hearing the President recite Oliver Wendell Holmes's "The Last

Leaf' from memory (Brooks and Mitgang, 1958: 78).

What Did President Lincoln See?2

The commute route changed somewhat during Lincoln's presidency. At the

beginning of the Civil War, only a small section of Washington, D.C. was developed.

The war brought thousands of soldiers and business owners to town, and this heightened

demand spurred an increase in commercial and residential building. During the years that

President Lincoln was commuting through the northern section of Washington, the

development moved in that direction. At the start of the war, he would only have seen a

couple of developed blocks before entering a largely rural landscape for the remainder of

the ride. By 1864 the developed area was larger, but only by a few blocks. The majority

of the trip was still undeveloped land.




2 Boyd's Washington and Georgetown Directories of 1861 1865, Boshke's 1861 Map of Washington,
D.C., and Passonneau's Evolution of the Center were used to reconstruct the historic context in this section.










When President Lincoln left the White House on Vermont Avenue, he would have

seen prosperous businesses and private homes. There were offices for lawyers, shops for

shoemakers and carpenters and apartment buildings like the one where he sometimes

nodded cordially to Walt Whitman. He passed King & Burchell's Fine Teas and Choice

Family Groceries and the Dickson & King Wood and Coal Dealers. A few foreign

offices were in the area, like Buruaga Asta, Charge de Affaires of Chile. He passed

Secretary of War Stanton' s house and sometimes stopped to discuss business with him

there.

As he arrived near lowa Circle (what is Logan Circle today) he had left the heavy

development behind. He saw small, wood-frame buildings, many of which had been

built by freedmen. On his right, he passed within one block of a contraband camp. The

businesses he passed in this area were less prestigious than the ones closer to the White

House but were still owned by white men. After he turned right on to Rhode Island, he

passed Maurice Hurley's boarding house. At the same corner, he would have seen the

A&M Grocery and Sutler's Supply Store and William Robinson's Grocery Store. In a

home facing the alley behind these stores, Betty Taylor was working as a washer woman,

a common business for black women during the Civil War. There were many black

washer women in the area.

After passing several empty blocks on Rhode Island Avenue, President Lincoln

turned left on Seventh Street (which is Georgia Avenue today), the principal road in and

out of the city. In 1862 there were only a few buildings in this area. He would have

passed a blacksmith shop, a shoemaker, a few small grocery stores, and Gately Malachi's

Restaurant. By 1864, several more businesses had settled in the area, primarily on the









west side of the street. He would have seen a tailor' s shop, a confectioner' s, and a few

more restaurants. Seventh Street became the Seventh Street Tumnpike at Boundary Street,

where there was a small tollgate. President Lincoln passed the tollgate without being

asked to pay (Pinsker, 2003: 7). After the tollgate, he passed a few small residences on

the east side of the road. Some of the residences outside of the city limits might have

been owned by freedmen. He would also have seen the tents and other temporary

encampments of thousands of military men.

President Lincoln rode north on the Seventh Street Turnpike for about a mile before

he turned right on to Rock Creek Church Road. This area was almost completely rural.

There were a couple of residences south of the road, but he probably would not have been

able to see them, as they were about a half mile off the road and probably obscured by

vegetation. Within half a mile of turning right on to Rock Creek Church Road, he would

have seen the few buildings of the Soldiers' Home, one of them his own summer

residence. He turned right and approached the home from the west.

Conclusion

Lincoln's daily commute from the city to his country retreat gave him a better

understanding of the true conditions in the country. He had candid conversations with

those riding with him about the war and important decisions he had to make. He stopped

ambulances and talked with soldiers about their experiences during the war. He rode

among contraband camps and shacks built by freedmen and spoke with them, learning

about their lives. This commute through the city taught him, firsthand, what ordinary

people were going through and would certainly have formed a foundation from which he

could lead the country.









The commute also served as a community outreach effort. Soldiers who

encountered the president in the streets must have felt comforted to know that he could

see and understand their conditions. The same is true for slaves and freedmen. They had

a direct connection with the President of the United States in a way that is almost

impossible today.

The significance of this site was officially recognized when President William

Clinton designated the cottage and the surrounding 2.3 acres as the President Lincoln and

Soldiers' Home National Monument in 2000. It will be open to the public by 2006 and

when it is, this commute might help connect today's busy professionals to President

Lincoln. Almost everyone commutes to and from an office every day. We all share the

experience of hurrying out the door to get a head start on the traffic and the day's work.

This connection can help future visitors to the President Lincoln and Soldiers' Home

National Monument relate to the president in a more personal way and better understand

President Lincoln as an ordinary man.















CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION

Our study provides valuable information about heritage tourism and the viability of

President Lincoln' s Commute Route Heritage Trail. Definitions of key terms allow a

better understanding about heritage tourism as a field. While there are many terms used

to describe similar activities, the focus of "place-based" learning in heritage education

makes it the best description of the type of tourism that would be established through

President Lincoln's Commute Route Heritage Trail. In addition, a study of National Park

Service criteria for federal designation as a National Scenic Trail, National Historic Trail,

National Recreational Trail and National Heritage Area makes it clear that President

Lincolns' Commute Route Heritage Trail is probably not eligible for federal designation.

An evaluation of heritage tourism's nationwide impact indicates that it is an

important and growing segment of the tourism industry. Heritage tourists spend millions

of dollars every year. An increasing interest in history and educational experiences can

be capitalized upon by areas that have historic resources to offer. If managed properly,

the results of heritage tourism can help protect historic resources.

In Chapter 3, our study proposes an evaluative system by which the effectiveness

of heritage tourism attractions can be assessed. This system includes criteria to judge an

attraction's ability to protect historic resources, provide a meaningful visitor experience

and ensure a substantial community benefit. Those wishing to evaluate heritage tourism

attractions, or consider the viability of a future attraction, will find this hierarchical

system useful. The system is completely values-based, which can provide great









flexibility, but is also very subjective. The results of any study using this system are

going to be influenced by the reviewer' s point of view and the circumstances of the

particular site, including its level of significance.

Several case studies presented here allow the reader to learn about trails that are

similar to the possible President Lincoln' s Commute Route Heritage Trail. They include

the Civil War to Civil Rights: Downtown Heritage Trail, City within a City: Greater U

Street Heritage Trail, African American Heritage Trail and Boston's Freedom Trail.

Each case study trail is less than 5 miles long and located in densely populated, urban

areas. They are assessed by the aforementioned evaluative system.

Chapter 5 focuses on the context of the commute route and what President Lincoln

would have seen as he traveled the 3 miles between the White House and the Soldiers'

Home every day. Washington, D.C. was a difficult place to live during the Civil War.

The summer weather was exceedingly uncomfortable, the area was marshy, and the

resulting mosquitoes were unbearable. For these reasons, many people left Washington

every summer, including the President and his family. The Soldiers' Home was a refuge

in many ways. Its breezy, hilltop location provided respite from the unhealthy conditions

of the city. It was also a quiet place to get away from the constant pressures of the White

House. Lastly, it provided a sanctuary where the family could grieve the loss of 12-year-

old Willie.

A survey of the current route reveals that almost no historic fabric remains from

President Lincolns' time (Appendix D). The entire route is now densely-developed. The

first few blocks from the White House are lined with late 20th century commercial

buildings (Figures 6-1 and 6-2). The next couple of blocks had historically seen









contraband camps and small shacks that houses freedmen. They are now filled with late

19th century buildings, built about 20 or 30 years after President Lincoln's daily

commutes. The remaining length of the route is lined with early- and mid 20th century

buildings.

More research is necessary to definitively determine whether any historic fabric

remains. There appears to be only 1 block of buildings that could be from the Civil War

era (Figure 6-3). It is located at what was the intersection of the Seventh Street Turnpike

and Boundary Road. These buildings are currently in a state of disrepair, and many of

them are boarded up.

Evaluating the Feasibility of President Lincoln's Commute Route

Learning about the terminology and impact of heritage tourism, establishing a

flexible evaluative system, studying similar trails and researching the context of the

commute route have made it possible to evaluate the feasibility of President Lincolns'

Commute Route Heritage Trail. The evaluative system discussed in our study was used

to determine whether the new trail could satisfy the criteria of resource protection, visitor

experience, and community benefit.

Resource Protection

Very few buildings along the route during President Lincoln's time still exist. This

route was primarily rural during President Lincoln's residency, which means that there

were not many buildings that could have survived in the first place. Now the entire route

is densely developed with late 19th century and 20th century buildings. As there are

almost no historic materials available, resource protection is impossible.


























Figure 6-1. Vermont at K Street the most developed section of President Lincoln' s
commute route. No historic structures remain. (Source: photo by author,
2004)



























Figure 6-2. The corner where Walt Whitman lived at Vermont and L Street. A) The
northwest corner. B) The southwest corner. C) The northeast corner. D) The
southeast corner. (Source: photos by author, 2004)









It would probably prove extremely difficult to sustain an entire heritage trail based

solely on the commute route without museums or other attractions along the way.

President Lincoln's Commute Route Heritage Trail must be rated very poorly in this

category of the evaluative system. A lack of historic resources makes the success of this

trail extremely improbable.

Visitor Experience

If enough historic fabric remained and compelling stories were discovered,

President Lincoln's Commute Route Heritage Trail could entice visitors from the

National Mall. Most visitors to Washington, D.C. only see the monuments and

Smithsonian museums. They leave without really getting to know the city and all that it

has to offer. This trail might provide an entertaining and educational experience that

would bring tourists in contact with the local community.

This trail would also offer an opportunity for greater understanding of Washington

during the Civil War and of President Lincoln as a regular person. Lincoln has probably

been studied more than any other American President. This trail could provide a window

into President Lincoln's more personal side, as he commuted from the strains of his

professional life to the solitude of his quiet country retreat every day.

President Lincoln's Commute Route Heritage Trail must be rated poorly in this

category, too, as it would face major obstacles regarding visitor experience. First, extant

historic structures are key to a heritage trail's success, as visitors do not particularly want

to look at signs that tell them that something interesting happened "on this site." They

want to see the actual, authentic structures and this route simply does not have the

historic resources to display. Second, the route traverses a neighborhood that is

economically depressed. Visitors may be unhappy about the lack of amenities such as









restrooms and restaurants. In addition, the trail is linear. If visitors walked the entire 3-

mile-long route, they would need some form of transportation to take them back to where

they started. At this time, public transportation is severely lacking around the Soldiers'

Home. The closest Metro station is approximately 2 miles away and the bus routes are

not user friendly. Heritage Tourism DC's development process (bus tours that become

guided tours that eventually become an unguided heritage trail) could be used to

overcome some of these challenges but it would take several years and, again, the lack of

historic resources makes the probability of success very low.



















Figure 6-3. The trail would pass through many blocks of boarded commercial buildings,
like these on Georgia Avenue (formerly Seventh Street). More research is
necessary, but these might be from the Civil War era. (Source: photo by
author, 2004)

Community Benefit

Of the three evaluative measures, this trail holds the most promise for its ability to

provide a positive community benefit. Tourist money could help boost this area' s

economic condition. The amenities that the city or an organization like Cultural Tourism

DC might add to the area because of its new visibility to tourists would help the area










tremendously. This might include public information booths, restrooms, landscaping,

pedestrian-friendly sidewalks and crosswalks, benches, and other tools to make the area

more inviting.

If the trail were to bring tourists to the area, members of the community might be

wary of the new visitors. A busing system, like that used by Cultural Tourism DC, would

be the first step in overcoming these concerns. This would be followed by a guided

walking tour and, eventually, visitors following signage independently. If the initial

uneasiness can be overcome, this trail could be a catalyst for more economic

revitalization. Residents might consider opening restaurants or other business that are

currently lacking in the area.

Recommendations

The potential President Lincoln's Commute Route Heritage Trail faces challenges

that could be insurmountable. It is improbable that it would become a successful heritage

trail, particularly given the almost complete lack of historic resources. It would not

protect historic resources or provide a very interesting or educational visitor experience.

It is not recommended that this commute route be established as a heritage trail.

The commute route is very interesting, though, and should not be discounted

because it is not a viable heritage trail. The route could be successfully used as an

introduction to the President Lincoln and Soldiers' Home National Monument. Due to

the lack of public transportation to the Soldiers' Home and shortage of parking spaces

onsite, it seems probable that a bus system will be initiated to transport visitors to the site

from the Mall. The commute route offers an opportunity to educate those visitors while

they ride out to the site. By the time the bus reaches the site, the visitors will be oriented










to Washington during the Civil War and the daily challenges that President Lincoln

faced.

Opportunities for Future Research

President Lincoln's commute route provides an interesting topic for future research.

It is possible that further investigation would reveal that there is more historic fabric

remaining, though it will definitely not be enough to sustain a heritage trail. This

research should be conducted because if the resources are still standing, we should

identify them and find ways to protect them before they, too, are lost.

In addition, further research into Walt Whitman' s papers could reveal very

meaningful information. It is possible that more details exist about the section of

President Lincoln's commute route that Whitman observed every day. His writing is also

likely to provide insightful details about other parts of Washington, D.C. during this time

period, particularly information about Civil War hospitals and the soldiers who were

injured. Whitman was a devoted volunteer at these hospitals.

The Civil War hospitals of Washington, D.C. are another topic of possible future

research. There were approximately 20 hospitals in Washington, D.C. during the Civil

War. Matthew Brady, a respected Civil War photographer, took many pictures of the

hospitals and soldiers. It is possible that the Capitol's records would include information

about its time as a Civil War hospital, as might other federal buildings of the time.















APPENDIX A
NATIONAL TRAIL SYSTEM ACT

An Act

To establish a national trails system, and for other purposes.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America
in Congress assembled

Short Title

Section 1.

This Act may be cited as the "National Trails System Act."

Statement of Policy

Section 2. [16USC1241]

(a) In order to provide for the ever-increasing outdoor recreation needs of an expanding
population and in order to promote the preservation of, public access to, travel within,
and enj oyment and appreciation of the open-air, outdoor areas and historic resources of
the Nation, trails should be established (i) primarily, near the urban areas of the Nation,
and (ii) secondarily, within scenic areas and along historic travel routes of the Nation
which are often more remotely located.

(b) The purpose of this Act is to provide the means for attaining these objectives by
instituting a national system of recreation, scenic and historic trails, by designating the
Appalachian Trail and the Pacific Crest Trail as the initial components of that system,
and by prescribing the methods by which, and standards according to which, additional
components may be added to the system.

(c) The Congress recognizes the valuable contributions that volunteers and private,
nonprofit trail groups have made to the development and maintenance of the Nation's
trails. In recognition of these contributions, it is further the purpose of this Act to
encourage and assist volunteer citizen involvement in the planning, development,
maintenance, and management, where appropriate, of trails.




P.L. 90-543, as amended through P.L. 107-325, December 4, 2002. This document can be found at
hopl1 w\ il \ .nps.gov/nts/legislation.html. It is also in United States Code, Volume 16, Sections 1241-1251.









National Trails System

Section 3. [16USC1242]

(a) The national system of trails shall be composed of the following:

(1) National recreation trails, established as provided in section 4 of this Act, which will
provide a variety of outdoor recreation uses in or reasonably accessible to urban areas.

(2) National scenic trails, established as provided in section 5 of this Act, which will be
extended trails so located as to provide for maximum outdoor recreation potential and for
the conservation and enjoyment of the nationally significant scenic, historic, natural, or
cultural qualities of the areas through which such trails may pass. National scenic trails
may be located so as to represent desert, marsh, grassland, mountain, canyon, river,
forest, and other areas, as well as landforms which exhibit significant characteristics of
the physiographic regions of the Nation.

(3) National historic trails, established as provided in section 5 of this Act, which will be
extended trails which follow as closely as possible and practicable the original trails or
routes of travel of national historic significance. Designation of such trails or routes shall
be continuous, but the established or developed trail, and the acquisition thereof, need not
be continuous onsite. National historic trails shall have as their purpose the identification
and protection of the historic route and its historic remnants and artifacts for public use
and enj oyment. Only those selected land and water based components of a historic trail
which are on federally owned lands and which meet the national historic trail criteria
established in this Act are included as Federal protection components of a national
historic trail. The appropriate Secretary may certify other lands as protected segments of
an historic trail upon application from State or local governmental agencies or private
interests involved if such segments meet the national historic trail criteria established in
this Act and such criteria supplementary thereto as the appropriate Secretary may
prescribe, and are administered by such agencies or interests without expense to the
United States.

(4) Connecting or side trails, established as provided in section 6 of this Act, which will
provide additional points of public access to national recreation, national scenic or
national historic trails or which will provide connections between such trails.
The Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Agriculture, in consultation with
appropriate governmental agencies and public and private organizations, shall establish a
uniform marker for the national trails system.

(b) For purposes of this section, the term 'extended trails' means trails or trail segments
which total at least one hundred miles in length, except that historic trails of less than one
hundred miles may be designated as extended trails. While it is desirable that extended
trails be continuous, studies of such trails may conclude that it is feasible to propose one
or more trail segments which, in the aggregate, constitute at least one hundred miles in
length.









National Recreation Trails

Section 4. [16USC1243]

(a) The Secretary of the Interior, or the Secretary of Agriculture where lands administered
by him are involved, may establish and designate national recreation trails, with the
consent of the Federal agency, State, or political subdivision having jurisdiction over the
lands involved, upon finding that--

(i) such trails are reasonably accessible to urban areas, and, or

(ii) such trails meet the criteria established in this Act and such supplementary criteria as
he may prescribe.

(b) As provided in this section, trails within park, forest, and other recreation areas
administered by the Secretary of the Interior or the Secretary of Agriculture or in other
federally administered areas may be established and designated as "National Recreation
Trails" by the appropriate Secretary and, when no Federal land acquisition is involved --

(i) trails in or reasonably accessible to urban areas may be designated as "National
Recreation Trails" by the appropriate Secretary with the consent of the States, their
political subdivisions, or other appropriate administering agencies;

(ii) trails within park, forest, and other recreation areas owned or administered by States
may be designated as "National Recreation Trails" by the appropriate Secretary with the
consent of the State; and

(iii) trails on privately owned lands may be designated 'National Recreation Trails' by the
appropriate Secretary with the written consent of the owner of the property involved.

National Scenic and National Historic Trails

Section 5. [16USC1244]

(a) National scenic and national historic trails shall be authorized and designated only by
Act of Congress. There are hereby established the following National Scenic and
National Historic Trails:

(1) The Appalachian National Scenic Trail, a trail of approximately two thousand miles
extending generally along the Appalachian Mountains from Mount Katahdin, Maine, to
Springer Mountain, Georgia. Insofar as practicable, the right-of-way for such trail shall
comprise the trail depicted on the maps identified as "Nationwide System of Trails,
Proposed Appalachian Trail, NST-AT-101-May 1967", which shall be on file and
available for public inspection in the office of the Director of the National Park Service.
Where practicable, such rights-of-way shall include lands protected for it under
agreements in effect as of the date of enactment of this Act, to which Federal agencies
and States were parties. The Appalachian Trail shall be administered primarily as a










footpath by the Secretary of the Interior, in consultation with the Secretary of
Agriculture.

(2) The Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail, a trail of approximately two thousand three
hundred fifty miles, extending from the Mexican-California border northward generally
along the mountain ranges of the west coast States to the Canadian-Washington border
near Lake Ross, following the route as generally depicted on the map, identified as
"Nationwide System of Trails, Proposed Pacific Crest Trail, NST-PC-103-May 1967"
which shall be on Eile and available for public inspection in the office of the Chief of the
Forest Service. The Pacific Crest Trail shall be administered by the Secretary of
Agriculture, in consultation with the Secretary of the Interior.

(3) The Oregon National Historic Trail, a route of approximately two thousand miles
extending from near Independence, Missouri, to the vicinity of Portland, Oregon,
following a route as depicted on maps identified as 'Primary Route of the Oregon Trail
1841-1848', in the Department of the Interior's Oregon Trail study report dated April
1977, and which shall be on Eile and available for public inspection in the office of the
Director of the National Park Service. The trail shall be administered by the Secretary of
the Interior.

(4) The Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail, a route of approximately one thousand
three hundred miles extending from Nauvoo, Illinois, to Salt Lake City, Utah, following
the primary historical route of the Mormon Trail as generally depicted on a map,
identified as, 'Mormon Trail Vicinity Map, figure 2' in the Department of the Interior
Mormon Trail study report dated March 1977, and which shall be on file and available
for public inspection in the office of the Director, National Park Service, Washington,
D.C. The trail shall be administered by the Secretary of the Interior.

(5) The Continental Divide National Scenic Trail, a trail of approximately thirty-one
hundred miles, extending from the Montana-Canada border to the New Mexico-Mexico
border, following the approximate route depicted on the map, identified as 'Proposed
Continental Divide National Scenic Trail' in the Department of the Interior Continental
Divide Trail study report dated March 1977 and which shall be on file and available for
public inspection in the office of the Chief, Forest Service, Washington, D.C. The
Continental Divide National Scenic Trail shall be administered by the Secretary of
Agriculture in consultation with the Secretary of the Interior. Notwithstanding the
provisions of section 7(c), the use of motorized vehicles on roads which will be
designated segments of the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail shall be permitted in
accordance with regulations prescribed by the appropriate Secretary.

(6) The Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail, a trail of approximately three thousand
seven hundred miles, extending from Wood River, Illinois, to the mouth of the Columbia
River in Oregon, following the outbound and inbound routes of the Lewis and Clark
Expedition depicted on maps identified as, 'Vicinity Map, Lewis and Clark Trail' study
report dated April 1977. The map shall be on file and available for public inspection in the









office of the Director, National Park Service, Washington, D.C. The trail shall be
administered by the Secretary of the Interior.

(7) The Iditarod National Historic Trail, a route of approximately two thousand miles
extending from Seward, Alaska, to Nome, Alaska, following the routes as depicted on
maps identified as 'Seward-Nome Trail', in the Department of the Interior's study report
entitled 'The Iditarod Trail (Seward-Nome Route) and other Alaskan Gold Rush Trails'
dated September 1977. The map shall be on file and available for public inspection in the
office of the Director, National Park Service, Washington, D.C. The trail shall be
administered by the Secretary of the Interior.

(8) The North Country National Scenic Trail, a trail of approximately thirty-two hundred
miles, extending from eastern New York State to the vicinity of Lake Sakakawea in
North Dakota, following the approximate route depicted on the map identified as
'Proposed North Country Trail-Vicinity Map' in the Department of the Interior 'North
Country Trail Report', dated June 1975. The map shall be on file and available for public
inspection in the office of the Director, National Park Service, Washington, District of
Columbia. The trail shall be administered by the Secretary of the Interior.

(9) The Overmountain Victory National Historic Trail, a system totaling approximately
two hundred seventy-two miles of trail with routes from the mustering point near
Abingdon, Virginia, to Sycamore Shoals (near Elizabethton, Tennessee); from Sycamore
Shoals to Quaker Meadows (near Morganton, North Carolina); from the mustering point
in Surry County, North Carolina, to Quaker Meadows; and from Quaker Meadows to
Kings Mountain, South Carolina, as depicted on the map identified as Map 3--Historic
Features--1780 in the draft study report entitled 'Overmountain Victory Trail' dated
December 1979. The map shall be on file and available for public inspection in the Office
of the Director, National Park Service, Washington, District of Columbia. The trail shall
be administered by the Secretary of the Interior.

(10) The Ice Age National Scenic Trail, a trail of approximately one thousand miles,
extending from Door County, Wisconsin, to Interstate Park in Saint Croix County,
Wisconsin, generally following the route described in "On the Trail of the Ice Age--A
Hiker's and Biker's Guide to Wisconsin's Ice Age National Scientific Reserve and Trail",
by Henry S. Reuss, Member of Congress, dated 1980. The guide and maps shall be on file
and available for public inspection in the Office of the Director, National Park Service,
Washington, District of Columbia. Overall administration of the trail shall be the
responsibility of the Secretary of the Interior pursuant to section 5(d) of this Act. The
State of Wisconsin, in consultation with the Secretary of the Interior, may, subj ect to the
approval of the Secretary, prepare a plan for the management of the trail which shall be
deemed to meet the requirements of section 5(e) of this Act. Notwithstanding the
provisions of section 7(c), snowmobile use may be permitted on segments of the Ice Age
National Scenic Trail where deemed appropriate by the Secretary and the managing
authority responsible for the segment.









(ll) The Potomac Heritage National Scenic Trail, a corridor of approximately seven
hundred and four miles following the route as generally depicted on the map identified as
'National Trails System, Proposed Potomac Heritage Trail' in 'The Potomac Heritage
Trail', a report prepared by the Department of the Interior and dated December 1974,
except that no designation of the trail shall be made in the State of West Virginia. The
map shall be on file and available for public inspection in the office of the Director of the
National Park Service, Washington, District of Columbia. The trail shall initially consist
of only those segments of the corridor located within the exterior boundaries of federally
administered areas. No lands or interests therein outside the exterior boundaries of any
federally administered area may be acquired by the Federal Government for the Potomac
Heritage Trail. The Secretary of the Interior may designate lands outside of federally
administered areas as segments of the trail, only upon application from the States or local
governmental agencies involved, if such segments meet the criteria established in this Act
and are administered by such agencies without expense to the United States. The trail
shall be administered by the Secretary of the Interior.

(12) The Natchez Trace National Scenic Trail, a trail system of approximately six
hundred and ninety-four miles extending from Nashville, Tennessee, to Natchez,
Mississippi, as depicted on the map entitled 'Concept Plan, Natchez Trace Trails Study' in
'The Natchez Trace', a report prepared by the Department of the Interior and dated
August 1979. The map shall be on file and available for public inspection in the office of
the Director of the National Park Service, Department of the Interior, Washington,
District of Columbia. The trail shall be administered by the Secretary of the Interior.

(13) The Florida National Scenic Trail, a route of approximately thirteen hundred miles
extending through the State of Florida as generally depicted in 'The Florida Trail', a
national scenic trail study draft report prepared by the Department of the Interior and
dated February 1980. The report shall be on file and available for public inspection in the
office of the Chief of the Forest Service, Washington, District of Columbia. No lands or
interests therein outside the exterior boundaries of any federally administered area may
be acquired by the Federal Government for the Florida Trail except with the consent of
the owner thereof. The Secretary of Agriculture may designate lands outside of federally
administered areas as segments of the trail, only upon application from the States or local
governmental agencies involved, if such segments meet the criteria established in this Act
and are administered by such agencies without expense to the United States. The trail
shall be administered by the Secretary of Agriculture.

(14) The Nez Perce National Historic Trail, a route of approximately eleven hundred and
seventy miles extending from the vicinity of Wallowa Lake, Oregon, to Bear Paw
Mountain, Montana, as generally depicted in 'Nez Perce (Nee-Me-Poo) Trail Study
Report' prepared by the Department of Agriculture and dated March 1982. The report
shall be on file and available for public inspection in the Office of the Chief of the Forest
Service, Washington, District of Columbia. The trail shall be administered by the
Secretary of Agriculture. No lands or interests therein outside the exterior boundaries of
any federally administered area may be acquired by the Federal Government for the Nez
Perce National Historic Trail. The Secretary of Agriculture may designate lands outside









of federally administered areas as segments of the trail upon application from the States
or local governmental agencies involved if such segments meet the criteria established in
this Act and are administered by such agencies without expense to the United States. So
that significant route segments and sites recognized as associated with the Nez Perce
Trail may be distinguished by suitable markers, the Secretary of Agriculture is authorized
to accept the donation of suitable markers for placement at appropriate locations. Any
such markers associated with the Nez Perce Trail which are to be located on lands
administered by any other department or agency of the United States may be placed on
such lands only with the concurrence of the head of such department or agency.

(15) The Santa Fe National Historic Trail, a trail of approximately 950 miles from a point
near Old Franklin, Missouri, through Kansas, Oklahoma, and Colorado to Santa Fe, New
Mexico, as generally depicted on a map entitled "The Santa Fe Trail" contained in the
Final Report of the Secretary of the Interior pursuant to subsection (b) of this section,
dated July 1976. The map shall be on file and available for public inspection in the office
of the Director of the National Park Service, Washington, District of Columbia. The trail
shall be administered by the Secretary of the Interior. No lands or interests therein outside
the exterior boundaries of any federally administered area may be acquired by the Federal
Government for the Santa Fe Trail except with the consent of the owner thereof. Before
acquiring any easement or entering into any cooperative agreement with a private
landowner with respect to the trail, the Secretary shall notify the landowner of the
potential liability, if any, for injury to the public resulting from physical conditions which
may be on the landowner's land. The United States shall not be held liable by reason of
such notice or failure to provide such notice to the landowner. So that significant route
segments and sites recognized as associated with the Santa Fe Trail may be distinguished
by suitable markers, the Secretary of the Interior is authorized to accept the donation of
suitable markers for placement at appropriate locations.

(16) (A) The Trail of Tears National Historic Trail, a trail consisting of water routes and
overland routes traveled by the Cherokee Nation during its removal from ancestral lands
in the East to Oklahoma during 1838 and 1839, generally located within the corridor
described through portions of Georgia, North Carolina, Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky,
Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas, and Oklahoma in the final report of the Secretary of the
Interior prepared pursuant to subsection (b) of this section entitled "Trail of Tears" and
dated June 1986. Maps depicting the corridor shall be on file and available for public
inspection in the Office of the National Park Service, Department of the Interior. The trail
shall be administered by the Secretary of the Interior. No lands or interests therein outside
the exterior boundaries of any federally administered area may be acquired by the Federal
Government for the Trail of Tears except with the consent of the owner thereof.

(B) In carrying out his responsibilities pursuant to subsections 5(f) and 7(c) of this Act,
the Secretary of the Interior shall give careful consideration to the establishment of
appropriate interpretive sites for the Trail of Tears in the vicinity of Hopkinsville,
Kentucky, Fort Smith, Arkansas, Trail of Tears State Park, Missouri, and Tahlequah,
Oklahoma.









(17) The Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail, a trail comprising the overland
route traveled by Captain Juan Bautista de Anza of Spain during the years 1775 and 1776
from Sonora, Mexico, to the vicinity of San Francisco, California, as generally described
in the report of the Department of Interior prepared pursuant to the subsection (b) entitled
'Juan Bautista de Anza National Trail Study, Feasibility Study and Environmental
Assessment' and dated August, 1986. A map generally depicting the trail shall be on Eile
and available for public inspection in the Office of the Director of the National Park
Service, Washington, District of Columbia. The trail shall be administered by the
Secretary of Interior. No lands or interest therein outside the exterior boundaries of any
federally administered area may be acquired by the Federal Govemnment for the Juan
Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail without the consent of the owner thereof. In
implementing this paragraph, the Secretary shall encourage volunteer trail groups to
participate in the development and maintenance of the trail.

(18) The California National Historic Trail, a route of approximately Hyve thousand seven
hundred miles, including all routes and cutoffs, extending from Independence and Saint
Joseph, Missouri, and Council Bluffs, Iowa, to various points in Califomnia and Oregon,
as generally described in the report of the Department of the Interior prepared pursuant to
subsection (b) of this section entitled "California and Pony Express Trails,
Eligibility/Feasibility Study/Environmental Assessment" and dated September 1987. A
map generally depicting the route shall be on Eile and available for public inspection in
the Office of the National Park Service, Department of the Interior. The trail shall be
administered by the Secretary of the Interior. No lands or interests therein outside the
exterior boundaries of any federally administered area may be acquired by the United
States for the California National Historic Trail except with the consent of the owner
thereof.

(19) The Pony Express National Historic Trail, a route of approximately one thousand
nine hundred miles, including the original route and subsequent route changes, extending
from Saint Joseph, Missouri, to Sacramento, California, as generally described in the
report of the Department of the Interior prepared pursuant to subsection (b) of this section
entitled "California and Pony Express Trails, Eligibility/Feasibility Study/Environmental
Assessment" and dated September 1987. A map generally depicting the route shall be on
Eile and available for public inspection in the Office of the National Park Service,
Department of the Interior. The trail shall be administered by the Secretary of the Interior.
No lands or interests therein outside the exterior boundaries of any federally administered
area may be acquired by the United States for the Pony Express National Historic Trail
except with the consent of the owner thereof.
[Related language from section 2, P.L. 102-328: The Secretary of the Interior (hereinafter
referred to as the Secretary) shall undertake a study of the land and water route used to
carry mail from Sacramento to San Francisco, Califomnia, to determine the feasibility and
suitability of designation of such route as a component of the Pony Express National
Historic Trail designated by section 1 of this Act. Upon completion of the study, if the
Secretary determines such a route is a feasible and suitable addition to the Pony Express
National Historic Trail, the Secretary shall designate the route as a component of the
Pony Express National Historic Trail. The Secretary shall publish notice of such









designation in the Federal Register and shall submit the study along with his findings to
the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs of the United States House of
Representatives and the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the United
States Senate.]

(20) The Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail, consisting of 54 miles of city
streets and United States Highway 80 from Brown Chapel A.M.E. Church in Selma to the
State Capitol Building in Montgomery, Alabama, traveled by voting rights advocates
during March 1965 to dramatize the need for voting rights legislation, as generally
described in the report to the Secretary of the Interior prepared pursuant to subsection (b)
of this section entitled Selma to Montgomery" and dated April, 1993. Maps depicting
the route shall be on file and available for public inspection in the Office of the National
Park Service, Department of the Interior. The trail shall be administered in accordance
with this Act, including section 7(h). The Secretary of the Interior, acting through the
National Park Service, which shall be the lead Federal agency, shall cooperate with other
Federal, State and local authorities to preserve historic sites along the route, including
(but not limited to) the Edmund Pettus Bridge and the Brown Chapel A.M.E. Church.

(21) El Camino Real de tierra adentro --

(A) El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro (the Royal Road of the Interior) National Historic
Trail, a 404 mile long trail from Rio Grande near El Paso, Texas to San Juan Pueblo,
New Mexico, as generally depicted on the maps entitled 'United States Route: El Camino
Real de Tierra Adentro,' contained in the report prepared pursuant to subsection (b)
entitled 'National Historic Trail Feasibility Study and Environmental Assessment: El
Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, Texas-New Mexico,' dated March 1997.

(B) Map A map generally depicting the trail shall be on file and available for public
inspection in the Office of the National Park Service, Department of the Interior.

(C) Administration The Trail shall be administered by the Secretary of the Interior.

(D) Land Acquisition No lands or interests therein outside the exterior boundaries of
any federally administered area may be acquired by the Federal Goverment for El
Camino Real de Tierra Adentro except with the consent of the owner thereof.

(E) Volunteer Groups; Consultation The Secretary of the Interior shall --

(i) encourage volunteer groups to participate in the development and maintenance of the
trail; and

(ii) consult with other affected Federal, State, local governmental, and tribal agencies in
the administration of the trail.

(F) Coordination of Activities -The Secretary of the Interior may coordinate with United
States and Mexican public and non-governmental organizations, academic institutions,









and in sonsultation with the Secretray of State, the government of Mexico and its political
subdivisions, for the purpose of exchanging trail information and research, fostering trail
preservation and education programs, providing technical assistance, and working to
establish an international historic trail with complementary preservation and education
programs in each nation.

(22) Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail --

(A) In General The Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail (the Trail by the Sea), a 175
mile long trail extending from 'Upola Point on the north tip of Hawaii Island down the
west coast of the Island around Ka Lae to the east boundary of Hawaii Volcanoes National
Park at the ancient shoreline temple known as 'Waha'ula,' as generally depicted on the
map entitled 'Ala Kahakai Trail,' contained in the report prepared pursuant to subsection
(b) entitled 'Ala Kahakai National Trail Study and Environmental Impact Statement,'
dated January, 1998.

(B) Map A map generally depicting the trail shall be on file and available for public
inspection in the Office of the National Park Service, Department of the Interior.

(C) Administration The trail shall be administered by the Secretray of the Interior.

(D) Land Acquisition No land or interest in land outside the exterior boundaries of any
federally administered area may be acquired by the United States for the trail except with
the consent of the owner of the land or interest in land.

(E) Public Participation; Consultation The Secretary of the Interior shall

(i) encourage communities and owners of land along the trail, native Hawaiians, and
volunteer trail groups to participate in the planning, development, and maintennace of the
trail; and

(ii) consult with affected Federal, State, and local agencies, native Hawaiian groups, and
landowners in the administration of the trail.

(23) Old Spanish National Historic Trail --

(A) In General The Old Spanish National Historic Trail, an approximately 2,700 mile
long trail extending from Santa Fe, New Mexico, to Los Angeles, California, that served
as a maj or trade route between 1829 and 1848, as generally depicted on the maps
numbered 1 through 9, as contained in the report entitled 'Old Spanish Trail National
Historic Trail Feasibility Study,' dated July 2001, including the Armij o Route, Northern
Route, North Branch, and Moj ave Road.

(B) Map A map generally depicting the trail shall be on file and available for public
inspection in the appropriate offices of the Department of the Interior.










(C ) Administration The trail shall be administered by the Secretary of the Interior
(referred to in this paragraph as the Secretary').

(D) Land Acquisition The United States shall not acquire for the trail any land or
interest in land outside the exterior boundary of any federally-managed area without the
consent of the owner of the land or interest in land.

(E) Consultation The Secretary shall consult with other Federal State, local, and tribal
agencies in the administration of the trail.

(F) Additional Routes The Secretary may designate additional routes to the trail if

(i) the additional routes were included in the Old Spanish Trail National Historic Trail
Feasibility Study, but were not recommended for designation as a national historic trail;
and

(ii) the Secretary determines that the additional routes were used for trade and commerce
between 1829 and 1848.

(b) The Secretary of the Interior, through the agency most likely to administer such trail,
and the Secretary of Agriculture where lands administered by him are involved, shall
make such additional studies as are herein or may hereafter be authorized by the
Congress for the purpose of determining the feasibility and desirability of designating
other trails as national scenic or national historic trails. Such studies shall be made in
consultation with the heads of other Federal agencies administering lands through which
such additional proposed trails would pass and in cooperation with interested interstate,
State, and local governmental agencies, public and private organizations, and landowners
and land users concerned. The feasibility of designating a trail shall be determined on the
basis of an evaluation of whether or not it is physically possible to develop a trail along a
route being studied, and whether the development of a trail would be financially feasible.
The studies listed in subsection (c) of this section shall be completed and submitted to the
Congress, with recommendations as to the suitability of trail designation, not later than
three complete fiscal years from the date of enactment of their addition to this subsection,
or from the date of enactment of this sentence, whichever is later. Such studies, when
submitted, shall be printed as a House or Senate document, and shall include, but not be
limited to:

(1) the proposed route of such trail (including maps and illustrations);

(2) the areas adj acent to such trails, to be utilized for scenic, historic, natural, cultural, or
developmental purposes;

(3) the characteristics which, in the judgment of the appropriate Secretary, make the
proposed trail worthy of designation as a national scenic or national historic trail; and in
the case of national historic trails the report shall include the recommendation of the
Secretary of the Interior's National Park System Advisory Board as to the national









historic significance based on the criteria developed under the Historic Sites Act of 1935
(40 Stat. 666; 16 U.S.C. 461);

(4) the current status of land ownership and current and potential use along the designated
route;

(5) the estimated cost of acquisition of lands or interest in lands, if any;

(6) the plans for developing and maintaining the trail and the cost thereof;

(7) the proposed Federal administering agency (which, in the case of a national scenic
trail wholly or substantially within a national forest, shall be the Department of
Agriculture);

(8) the extent to which a State or its political subdivisions and public and private
organizations might reasonably be expected to participate in acquiring the necessary
lands and in the administration thereof;

(9) the relative uses of the lands involved, including: the number of anticipated visitor-
days for the entire length of, as well as for segments of, such trail; the number of months
which such trail, or segments thereof, will be open for recreation purposes; the economic
and social benefits which might accrue from alternate land uses; and the estimated man-
years of civilian employment and expenditures expected for the purposes of maintenance,
supervision, and regulation of such trail;

(10) the anticipated impact of public outdoor recreation use on the preservation of a
proposed national historic trail and its related historic and archeological features and
settings, including the measures proposed to ensure evaluation and preservation of the
values that contribute to their national historic significance; and

(1 1) To qualify for designation as a national historic trail, a trail must meet all three of the
following criteria:

(A) It must be a trail or route established by historic use and must be historically
significant as a result of that use. The route need not currently exist as a discernible trail
to qualify, but its location must be sufficiently known to permit evaluation of public
recreation and historical interest potential. A designated trail should generally accurately
follow the historic route, but may deviate somewhat on occasion of necessity to avoid
difficult routing through subsequent development, or to provide some route variations
offering a more pleasurable recreational experience. Such deviations shall be so noted on
site. Trail segments no longer possible to travel by trail due to subsequent development as
motorized transportation routes may be designated and marked onsite as segments which
link to the historic trail.

(B) It must be of national significance with respect to any of several broad facets of









American history, such as trade and commerce, exploration, migration and settlement, or
military campaigns. To qualify as nationally significant, historic use of the trail must
have had a far reaching effect on broad patterns of American culture. Trails significant in
the history of native Americans may be included.

(C) It must have significant potential for public recreational use or historical interest
based on historic interpretation and appreciation. The potential for such use is generally
greater along roadless segments developed as historic trails and at historic sites associated
with the trail. The presence of recreation potential not related to historic appreciation is
not sufficient justification for designation under this category.

(c) The following routes shall be studied in accordance with the obj ectives outlined in
subsection (b) of this section.

(1) Continental Divide Trail, a three-thousand-one-hundred-mile trail extending from
near the Mexican border in southwestern New Mexico northward generally along the
Continental Divide to the Canadian border in Glacier National Park.

(2) Potomac Heritage Trail, an eight-hundred-and-twenty-five-mile trail extending
generally from the mouth of the Potomac River to its sources in Pennsylvania and West
Virginia including the one-hundred- and- seventy-mile Chesapeake and Ohio Canal
towpath.

(3) Old Cattle Trails of the Southwest from the vicinity of San Antonio, Texas,
approximately eight hundred miles through Oklahoma via Baxter Springs and Chetopa,
Kansas, to Fort Scott, Kansas, including the Chisholm Trail, from the vicinity of San
Antonio or Cuero, Texas, approximately eight hundred miles north through Oklahoma to
Abilene, Kansas.

(4) Lewis and Clark Trail, from Wood River, Illinois, to the Pacific Ocean in Oregon,
following both the outbound and inbound routes of the Lewis and Clark Expedition.

(5) Natchez Trace, from Nashville, Tennessee, approximately six hundred miles to
Natchez, Mississippi.

(6) North Country Trail, from the Appalachian Trail in Vermont, approximately three
thousand two hundred miles through the States of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio,
Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, to the Lewis and Clark Trail in North Dakota.

(7) Kittanning Trail from Shirleysburg in Huntingdon County to Kittanning, Armstrong
County, Pennsylvania.

(8) Oregon Trail, from Independence, Missouri, approximately two thousand miles to
near Fort Vancouver, Washington.










(9) Santa Fe Trail, from Independence, Missouri, approximately eight hundred miles to
Santa Fe, New Mexico.

(10) Long Trail extending two hundred and fifty-five miles from the Massachusetts border
northward through Vermont to the Canadian border.

(ll) Mormon Trail, extending from Nauvoo, Illinois, to Salt Lake City, Utah, through the
States of Iowa, Nebraska, and Wyoming.

(12) Gold Rush Trails in Alaska.

(13) Mormon Battalion Trail, extending two thousand miles from Mount Pisgah, Iowa,
through Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona to Los Angeles, California.

(14) El Camino Real from St. Augustine to San Mateo, Florida, approximately 20 miles
along the southern boundary of the St. Johns River from Fort Caroline National Memorial
to the St. August National Park Monument.

(15) Bartram Trail, extending through the States of Georgia, North Carolina, South
Carolina, Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee.

(16) Daniel Boone Trail, extending from the vicinity of Statesville, North Carolina, to
Fort Boonesborough State Park, Kentucky.

(17) Desert Trail, extending from the Canadian border through parts of Idaho,
Washington, Oregon, Nevada, California, and Arizona, to the Mexican border.

(18) Dominguez-Escalante Trail, extending approximately two thousand miles along the
route of the 1776 expedition led by Father Francisco Atanasio Dominguez and Father
Silvestre Velez de Escalante, originating in Santa Fe, New Mexico; proceeding northwest
along the San Juan, Dolores, Gunnison, and White Rivers in Colorado, thence westerly to
Utah Lake; thence southward to Arizona and returning to Santa Fe.

(19) Florida Trail, extending north from Everglade National Park, including the Big
Cypress Swamp, the Kissimmee Prairie, the Withlacoochee State Forest, Ocala National
Forest, Osceola National Forest, and Black Water River State Forest, said completed trail
to be approximately one thousand three hundred miles along, of which over four hundred
miles of trail have already been built.

(20) Indian Nations Trail, extending from the Red River in Oklahoma approximately two
hundred miles northward through the former Indian nations to the Oklahoma-Kansas
boundary line.

(21) Nez Perce Trail extending from the vicinity of Wallowa Lake, Oregon, to Bear Paw
Mountain, Montana.









(22) Pacific Northwest Trail, extending approximately one thousand miles from the
Continental Divide in Glacier National Park, Montana, to the Pacific Ocean beach of
Olympic National Park, Washington, by way of --

(A) Flathead National Forest and Kootenai National Forest in the State of Montana;

(B) Kaniksu National Forest in the State of Idaho; and

(C) Colville National Forest, Okanogan National Forest, Pasayten Wilderness Area, Ross
Lake National Recreation Area, North Cascades National Park, Mount Baker, the Skagit
River, Deception Pass, Whidbey Island, Olympic National Forest, and Olympic National
Park in the State of Washington.

(23) Overmountain Victory Trail, extending from the vicinity of Elizabethton, Tennessee,
to Kings Mountain National Military Park, South Carolina.

(24) Juan Bautista de Anza Trail, following the overland route taken by Juan Bautista de
Anza in connection with his travels from the United Mexican States to San Francisco,
California.

(25) Trail of Tears, including the associated forts and specifically, Fort Mitchell,
Alabama, and historic properties, extending from the vicinity of Murphy, North Carolina,
through Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas, to the
vicinity of Tahlequah, Oklahoma.

(26) Illinois Trail, extending from the Lewis and Clark Trail at Wood River, Illinois to
the Chicago Portage National Historic Site, generally following the Illinois River and the
Illinois and Michigan Canal.

(27) Jedediah Smith Trail, to include the routes of the explorations led by Jedediah Smith

(A) during the period 1826-1827, extending from the Idaho-Wyoming border, through
the Great Salt Lake, Sevier, Virgin, and Colorado River Valleys, and the Moj ave Desert,
to the San Gabriel Mission, California; thence through the Tehachapi Mountains, San
Joaquin and Stanislaus River Valleys, Ebbetts Pass, Walker River Valley, Bald Mount,
Mount Grafton, and Great Salt Lake to Bear Lake, Utah; and

(B) during 1828, extending from the Sacramento and Trinity River valleys along the
Pacific coastline, through the Smith and Willamette River Valleys to the Fort Vancouver
National Historic Site, Washington, on the Columbia River.

(28) General Crook Trail, extending from Prescott, Arizona, across the Mogollon Rim to
Fort Apache.










(29) Beale Wagon Road, within the Kaibab and Cononino National Forests in Arizona;
Provided, such study may be prepared in conjunction with ongoing planning processes
for these National Forests to be completed before 1990.

(30) Pony Express Trail, extending from Saint Joseph, Missouri, through Kansas,
Nebraska, Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Nevada, to Sacramento, California, as indicated on
a map labeled "Potential Pony Express Trail", dated October 1983 and the California
Trail extending from the vicinity of Omaha, Nebraska, and Saint Joseph, Missouri, to
various points in California, as indicated on a map labeled "Potential California Trail"
and dated August 1, 1983. Notwithstanding subsection (b) of this section, the study under
this paragraph shall be completed and submitted to the Congress no later than the end of
two complete fiscal years beginning after the date of the enactment of this paragraph.
Such study shall be separated into two portions, one relating to the Pony Express Trail
and one relating to the California Trail.

(31) De Soto Trail, the approximate route taken by the expedition of the Spanish explorer
Hernado de Soto in 1539, extending through portions of the States of Florida, Georgia,
South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, to the area of Little
Rock, Arkansas, on to Texas and Louisiana, and any other States which may have been
crossed by the expedition. The study under this paragraph shall be prepared in accordance
with subsection (b) of this section, except that it shall be completed and submitted to the
Congress with recommendations as to the trail's suitability for designation not later than
one calendar year after the date of enactment of this paragraph.

(32) Coronado Trail, the approximate route taken by the expedition of the Spanish
explorer Francisco Vasquez de Coronado between 1540 and 1542, extending through
portions of the States of Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas. The study
under this paragraph shall be prepared in accordance with subsection (b) of this section.
In conducting the study under this paragraph, the Secretary shall provide for (A) the
review of all original Spanish documentation on the Coronado Trail, (B) the continuing
search for new primary documentation on the trail, and (C) the examination of all
information on the archeological sites along the trail.

(33) The route from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama traveled by people in a march
dramatizing the need for voting rights legislation, in March 1965, includes Sylvan South
Street, Water Avenue, the Edmund Pettus Bridge, and Highway 80. The study under this
paragraph shall be prepared in accordance with subsection (b) of this section, except that
it shall be completed and submitted to the Congress with recommendations as to the
trail's suitability for designation not later than 1 year after the enactment of this
paragraph.

(34) American Discovery Trail, extending from Pt. Reyes, California, across the United
States through Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Indiana,
Illinois, Ohio, West Virginia, Maryland, and the District of Columbia, to Cape Henlopen
State Park, Delaware; to include in the central United States a northern route through









Colorado, Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, and Indiana and a southern route through Colorado,
Kansas, Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana.

(3 5) Ala Kahakai Trail in the State of Hawaii, an ancient Hawaiian trail on the island of
Hawaii extending from the northern tip of the Island of Hawaii approximately 175 miles
along the western and southern coasts to the northern boundary of Hawaii Volcanoes
National Park.

(36) (A) El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, the approximately 1,800 mile route
extending from Mexico City, Mexico, across the international border at El Paso, Texas,
to Santa Fe, New Mexico.

(B) The study shall

(i) examine changing routes within the general corridor;

(ii) examine maj or connecting branch routes; and

(iii) give due consideration to alternative name designations.

(C) The Secretary of the Interior is authorized to work in cooperation with the
Government of Mexico (including, but not limited to providing technical assistance) to
determine the suitability and feasibility of establishing an international historic route
along the El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro.

(37) (A) El Camino Real Para Los Texas, the approximate series of routes from Saltillo,
Monclova, and Guerrero, Mexico across Texas through San Antonio and Nacogdoches,
to the vicinity of Los Adaes, Louisiana, together with the evolving routes later known as
the San Antonio Road.

(B) The study shall

(i) examine the changing roads within the historic corridor;

(ii) examine the maj or connecting branch routes;

(iii) determine the individual or combined suitability and feasibility of routes for potential
national historic trail designation;

(iv) consider the preservation heritage plan developed by the Texas Department of
Transportation entitled "A Texas Legacy: The Old San Antonio Road and the Caminos
Reales", dated January, 1991; and

(v) make recommendations concerning the suitability and feasibility of establishing an
international historical park where the trail crosses the United States-Mexico border at
Maverick County, Texas, and Guerrero, Mexico.











(C) The Secretary of the Interior is authorized to work in cooperation with the
government of Mexico (including, but not limited to providing technical assistance) to
determine the suitability and feasibility of establishing an international historic trail along
the El Camino Real Para Los Texas.

(D) The study shall be undertaken in consultation with the Louisiana Department of
Transportation and Development and the Texas Department of Transportation.

(E) The study shall consider alternative name designations for the trail.

(F) The study shall be completed no later than two years after the date funds are made
available for the study.

(3 8) The Old Spanish Trail, beginning in Santa Fe, New Mexico, proceeding through
Colorado and Utah, and ending in Los Angeles, Califomnia, and the Northemn Branch of
the Old Spanish Trail, beginning near Espanola, New Mexico, proceeding through
Colorado, and ending near Crescent Junction, Utah.

(39) The Great Westemn Scenic Trail, a system of trails to accommodate a variety of
travel users in a corridor of approximately 3,100 miles in length extending from the
Arizona-Mexico border to the Idaho-Montana-Canada border, following the approximate
route depicted on the map identified as 'Great Westemn Trail Corridor, 1988,' which shall
be on file and available for public inspection in the Office of the Chief of the Forest
Service, United States Department of Agriculture. The trail study shall be conducted by
the Secretary of Agriculture, in consultation with the Secretary of the Interior, in
accordance with subsection (b) and shall include --

(A) the current status of land ownership and current and potential use along the
designated route;

(B) the estimated cost of acquisition of lands or interests in lands, if any; and

(C) an examination of the appropriateness of motorized trail use along the trail.

(40) Star Spangled Banner National Historic Trail -

(A) In General The Star Spangled Banner National Historic Trail,tracing the War of
1812 route from the arrival of the British fleet in the Patuxent River in Calvert County
and St. Mary's County, Maryland, the landing of the British forces at Benedict, the
sinking of the Chesapeake Flotilla at Pig Point, the American defeat at the Battle of
Bladensburg, the siege of the Nation' s Capital, Washington, District of Columbia
(including the burning of the United States Capitol and the White House), the British
naval dispersions in the upper Chesapeake Bay leading to the Battle of Caulk' s Field in
Kent County, Maryland, the route of the American troops from Washington through
Georgetown, the Maryland counties of Montgomery, Howard, and Baltimore, and the










City of Baltimore Maryland, to the Battle of North Point, and the ultimate victory of the
Americans at Fort McHenry on September 14, 1814.

(B) Affected Areas The trail crosses eight counties within the boundaries of the State of
Maryland, the City of Baltimore, Maryland, and Washington, District of Columbia.

(C ) Coordination with other Congressionally Mandated Activities The study under this
paragraph shall be undertaken in coordination with the study authorized under section
603 of the Omnibus Parks and Public Lands Management Act of 1996 (16 U. S.C. l a-5
note; 110 Stat. 4172) and the Chesapeake Bay Gateways and Watertrails Network
authorized under the Chesapeake Bay Initiative Act of 1998 (16 U.S.C. 461 note; 112
Stat. 2961). Such coordination shall extend to any research needed to complete the
studies and any findings and implementation actions that result from the studies and shall
use available resources to the greatest extent possible to avoid unnecessary duplication of
effort.

(D) Deadline for Study Not later than 2 years after funds are made available fore the
study under this paragraph, the study shall be completed and transmitted with final
recommendations to the Committee on Resources in the House of Representatives and
the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources in the Senate.

(41) The Long Walk, a series of routes which the Navaj o and Mescalero Apache Indian
tribes were forced to walk beginning in the fall of 1863 as a result of their removal by the
United States Government from their ancestral lands, generally located within a corridor
extending through portions of Canyon de Chelley, Arizona, and Albuquerque, Canyon
Blanco, Anton Chico, Canyon Piedra Pintado, and Fort Sumner, New Mexico.

(42) Metacomet-Monadnock- Mattab e sett Trail The Metac omet-Monadnock-
Mattabesett Trail, a system of trails and potential trails extending southward
approximately 180 miles through Massachusetts on the Metacomet-Monadnock Trail,
across central Connecticut on the Metacomet Trail, and ending at Long Island Sound.
(d) The Secretary charged with the administration of each respective trail shall, within
one year of the date of the addition of any national scenic or national historic trail to the
system, and within sixty days of the enactment of this sentence for the Appalachian and
Pacific Crest National Scenic Trails, establish an advisory council for each such trail,
each of which councils shall expire ten years from the date of its establishment, except
that the Advisory Council established for the Iditarod Historic Trail shall expire twenty
years from the date of its establishment. If the appropriate Secretary is unable to establish
such an advisory council because of the lack of adequate public interest, the Secretary
shall so advise the appropriate committees of the Congress. The appropriate Secretary
shall consult with such council from time to time with respect to matters relating to the
trail, including the selection of rights-of-way, standards for the erection and maintenance
of markers along the trail, and the administration of the trail. The members of each
advisory council, which shall not exceed thirty-five in number, shall serve for a term of
two years and without compensation as such, but the Secretary may pay, upon vouchers
signed by the chairman of the council, the expenses reasonably incurred by the council









and its members in carrying out their responsibilities under this section. Members of each
council shall be appointed by the appropriate Secretary as follows:

(1) the head of each Federal department or independent agency administering lands
through which the trail route passes, or his designee;

(2) a member appointed to represent each State through which the trail passes, and such
appointments shall be made from recommendations of the Governors of such States;

(3) one or more members appointed to represent private organizations, including
corporate and individual landowners and land users, which in the opinion of the
Secretary, have an established and recognized interest in the trail, and such appointments
shall be made from recommendations of the heads of such organizations: Provided, That
the Appalachian Trail Conference shall be represented by a sufficient number of persons
to represent the various sections of the country through which the Appalachian Trail
passes; and

(4) the Secretary shall designate one member to be chairman and shall fill vacancies in
the same manner as the original appointment.

(e) Within two complete fiscal years of the date of enactment of legislation designating a
national scenic trail, except for the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail and the
North Country National Scenic Trail, as part of the system, and within two complete
fiscal years of the date of enactment of this subsection for the Pacific Crest and
Appalachian Trails, the responsible Secretary shall, after full consultation with affected
Federal land managing agencies, the Governors of the affected States, the relevant
advisory council established pursuant to section 5(d), and the Appalachian Trail
Conference in the case of the Appalachian Trail, submit to the Committee on Interior and
Insular Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Energy and
Natural Resources of the Senate, a comprehensive plan for the acquisition, management,
development, and use of the trail, including but not limited to, the following items:

(1) specific obj ectives and practices to be observed in the management of the trail,
including the identification of all significant natural, historical, and cultural resources to
be preserved (along with high potential historic sites and high potential route segments in
the case of national historic trails), details of any anticipated cooperative agreements to
be consummated with other entities, and an identified carrying capacity of the trail and a
plan for its implementation;

(2) an acquisition or protection plan, by fiscal year for all lands to be acquired by fee title
or lesser interest, along with detailed explanation of anticipated necessary cooperative
agreements for any lands not to be acquired; and

(3) general and site-specific development plans including anticipated costs.









(f) Within two complete fiscal years of the date of enactment of legislation designating a
national historic trail or the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail or the North
Country National Scenic Trail as part of the system, the responsible Secretary shall, after
full consultation with affected Federal land managing agencies, the Governors of the
affected States, and the relevant Advisory Council established pursuant to section 5(d) of
this Act, submit to the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs of the House of
Representatives and the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate, a
comprehensive plan for the management, and use of the trail, including but not limited to,
the following items:

(1) specific obj ectives and practices to be observed in the management of the trail,
including the identification of all significant natural, historical, and cultural resources to
be preserved, details of any anticipated cooperative agreements to be consummated with
State and local government agencies or private interests, and for national scenic or
national historic trails an identified carrying capacity of the trail and a plan for its
implementation;

(2) the process to be followed by the appropriate Secretary to implement the marking
requirements established in section 7(c) of this Act;

(3) a protection plan for any high potential historic sites or high potential route segments;
and

(4) general and site-specific development plans, including anticipated costs.

Connecting and Side Trails

Section 6. [16USC1245]

Connecting or side trails within park, forest, and other recreation areas administered by
the Secretary of the Interior or Secretary of Agriculture may be established, designated,
and marked by the appropriate Secretary as components of a national recreation, national
scenic or national historic trail. When no Federal land acquisition is involved, connecting
or side trails may be located across lands administered by interstate, State, or local
governmental agencies with their consent, or, where the appropriate Secretary deems
necessary or desirable, on privately owned lands with the consent of the landowners.
Applications for approval and designation of connecting and side trails on non-Federal
lands shall be submitted to the appropriate Secretary.

Administration and Development

Section 6 [16USC1246]

(a) (1) (A) The Secretary charged with the overall administration of a trail pursuant to
section 5(a) shall, in administering and managing the trail, consult with the heads of all
other affected State and Federal agencies. Nothing contained in this Act shall be deemed
to transfer among Federal agencies any management responsibilities established under










any other law for federally administered lands which are components of the National
Trails System. Any transfer of management responsibilities may be carried out between
the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Agriculture only as provided under
subparagraph (B).

(B) The Secretary charged with the overall administration of any trail pursuant to section
5(a) may transfer management of any specified trail segment of such trail to the other
appropriate Secretary pursuant to a joint memorandum of agreement containing such
terms and conditions as the Secretaries consider most appropriate to accomplish the
purposes of this Act. During any period in which management responsibilities for any
trail segment are transferred under such an agreement, the management of any such
segment shall be subj ect to the laws, rules, and regulations of the Secretary provided with
the management authority under the agreement except to such extent as the agreement
may otherwise expressly provide.

(2) Pursuant to section 5(a), the appropriate Secretary shall select the rights-of-way for
national scenic and national historic trails and shall publish notice thereof of the
availability of appropriate maps or descriptions in the Federal Register; Provided, That in
selecting the rights-of-way full consideration shall be given to minimizing the adverse
effects upon the adj acent landowner or user and his operation. Development and
management of each segment of the National Trails System shall be designed to
harmonize with and complement any established multiple-use plans for the specific area
in order to insure continued maximum benefits from the land. The location and width of
such rights-of-way across Federal lands under the jurisdiction of another Federal agency
shall be by agreement between the head of that agency and the appropriate Secretary. In
selecting rights-of-way for trail purposes, the Secretary shall obtain the advice and
assistance of the States, local governments, private organizations, and landowners and
land users concerned.

(b) After publication of notice of the availability of appropriate maps or descriptions in
the Federal Register, the Secretary charged with the administration of a national scenic or
national historic trail may relocate segments of a national scenic or national historic trail
right-of-way with the concurrence of the head of the Federal agency having jurisdiction
over the lands involved, upon a determination that: (I) Such a relocation is necessary to
preserve the purposes for which the trail was established, or (ii) the relocation is
necessary to promote a sound land management program in accordance with established
multiple-use principles: Provided, That a substantial relocation of the rights-of-way for
such trail shall be by Act of Congress.

(c) National scenic or national historic trails may contain campsites, shelters, and related-
public-use facilities. Other uses along the trail, which will not substantially interfere with
the nature and purposes of the trail, may be permitted by the Secretary charged with the
administration of the trail. Reasonable efforts shall be made to provide sufficient access
opportunities to such trails and, to the extent practicable, efforts be made to avoid
activities incompatible with the purposes for which such trails were established. The use
of motorized vehicles by the general public along any national scenic trail shall be