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Preliminary Investigation of the Iconography of the Woman with the Skull from the Puerta de las Platerias of Santiago de...


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PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF THE ICONOGRAPHY OF THE WOMAN WITH THE SKULL FROM THE PUERTA DE LAS PLATERAS OF SANTIAGO DE COMPOSTELA By KAREN FAYE WEBB A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2004

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Copyright 2004 by Karen Faye Webb

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To Dan and Judy Webb

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am indebted to many individuals for their support and guidance in my physical and conceptual pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela. I would most like to thank Dr. David Stanley who has been my constant supporter as my toughest critic and my most caring mentor. Dr. Carolyn Watsons medieval art class at Furman University introduced me to the complex beauty of the south transept portal. My parents indulged my awe of this portal and physically and metaphorically climbed the steps leading to the Puerta de las Plateras with me to pay homage to the Woman with the Skull. Without them, this study would not have been possible. I would like to thank my reader, Dr. John Scott, for his insightful comments, and Jeremy Culler, Sarah Webb and Sandra Goodrich for their support, friendship, and unwavering faith in me. Finally, I would like to thank the Woman with the Skull, who brought me on this pilgrimage and has given me a new awareness about art and myself. iv

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF FIGURES...........................................................................................................vi ABSTRACT.........................................................................................................................x CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 2 HISTORICAL FOUNDATION OF THE CATHEDRAL AND DATING OF THE SOUTH PORTAL........................................................................................................3 3 SCULPTURAL ORGANIZATION, DESCRIPTION OF THE ICONOGRAPHY, AND THE ICONOGRAPHIC PROGRAM...............................................................18 4 THE SOCIAL, POLITIC, AND RELIGIOUS CONTEXT OF LATE ELEVENTH CENTURY SPAIN.....................................................................................................49 5 THE ICONOGRAPHY OF THE WOMAN WITH THE SKULL............................61 6 CONCLUSION...........................................................................................................78 LIST OF REFERENCES.................................................................................................112 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................117 v

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1. Puerta de las Plateras, Santiago de Compostela, (Gaillard, Les Dbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Len-Jaca-Compostelle, pl. LXXXIX)..................83 2. Left Tympanum, Puerta de la s Plateras, (Photo: Karen Webb)...............................84 3. Diagram superimposed over the Left Tympanum, Puerta de las Plateras, (Photo: Karen Webb)...............................................................................................84 4. Right Tympanum, Puerta de las Pl ateras, Santiago de Compostela (Photo: Karen Webb)............................................................................................................85 5. Diagram superimposed on Right Tymp anum, Puerta de las Plateras, Santiago de Compostela (Photo: Karen Webb).......................................................................85 6. Woman with the Skull, Left Tympan um, Puerta de las Plateras, Santiago de Compostela, (Gaillard, Les Dbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Len-Jaca-Compostelle, pl. CI).................................................................................................86 7. Plan of the Cathedral of San tiago de Compostela, (Conant, The Early Architectural History of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela). [Black=Romanesque; Green=Romanico-Gothic; Red=Gothic; Yellow=Renaissance, Baroque; White=Modern]....................................................87 8. Plan of Santiago de Compostela, (Stokstad, Santiago de Composte la: In the Age of the Great Pilgrimages, pp.2-3)............................................................................88 9. Left portion of Left Tympanum, Puerta de las Plateras, Santiago de Compostela (Photo: Karen Webb)...........................................................................89 10. Right portion of Left Tympanum, Puerta de la s Plateras, Santiago de Compostela (Photo: Karen Webb)...........................................................................89 11. Christ with Spolia Crown, Left Tympanum, Puerta de las Plateras, Santiago de Compostela, (Naaesgaard, Saint-Jacques de Compostelle et les dbuts de la grande sculptures vers 1100, p. 50).........................................................................90 vi

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12. Blessing Apostle, Left Tympanum, Puerta de las Plateras, Santiago de Compostela, (Gaillard, Les Dbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Len-Jaca-Compostelle, pl. C)...................................................................................................90 13. Theotokos, Right Tympanum, Puerta de las Plateras, Santiago de Compostela, (Naesgaard, Saint-Jacques de Compostelle et les dbuts de la grande sculptures vers 1100, p.59)........................................................................................................91 14. Flagellation panel, Right Tympanum Puerta de las Plateras, Santiago de Compostela, (Gaillard, Les Dbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Len-Jaca-Compostelle, pl. CIII)...............................................................................................92 15. Male bust, Left Tympanum, Puerta de las Plateras, Santiago de Compostela, (Gaillard, Les Dbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Len-Jaca-Compostelle, pl. C).........................................................................................................................92 16. Healing of the Blind, Right Tympanum Puerta de las Plateras, Santiago de Compostela, (Gaillard, Les Dbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Len-Jaca-Compostelle, pl. CIV)...............................................................................................93 17. Crowning of Christ a nd the Betrayal of Christ, Right Tympanum, Puerta de las Plateras, Santiago de Compostela, (Gaillard, Les Dbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Len-Jaca-Compostelle, pl. CV)..........................................................94 18. Last Judgment, west tympanum of Saint-Lazare, 1120-1135, marble, Autun, France (Gardners Art through the Ages. Eleventh edition, Fig. 17-25)................94 19. Diagram of the Puerta de las Plat eras, Santiago de Compostela (Durliat, La sculpture romane de la route de Saint-Jacques: de Conques Compostelle, p.327).95 20. Arch of Constantine, 312 -315, Rome, Italy (south side) ( Gardners Art through the Ages, Eleventh Edition, Fig. 10-76)......................................................96 21. Jews wearing the round cap, BM Cott on Claudius B. iv, de tail of Folio 121r, 1025-1050 (Mellinkoff, The Round, cap-shaped hats depicted on Jews in BM Cotton Claudius B. iv, Fig. Id)...............................................................................96 22. St. Andrew, Left jamb of the right door, Puerta de las Plateras, Santiago de Compostela (Gaillard, Les Dbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Len-Jaca-Compostelle, pl. CVII).............................................................................................97 23. Spanish Coat of Arms (Maclagan, Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe, p.84).........................................................................................98 24. Trumeau, South Portal, Monastery Church of St. Pierre, Moissac, France (Porter, Romanesque Sculpture of the Pilgrimage Roads, Vol. II, Fig. 362)...........98 vii

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25. Sarcophagus of San Ramn, twelfth ce ntury, Roda de Isabena, Spain (Costa, Roda de Isabena: histoira y arte, p. 109).................................................................99 26. Theotokos, Apse mosaic of Hagi a Sophia, c.867, Istanbul, Turkey (Lowden, Early Christian and Byzantine Art, Fig. 99)............................................................99 27. Narbonne Ivory, c.820, the cathedral of Saint-Just de Narbonne, France (Sepire, LImage dun Dieu souffrant, p.216)......................................................100 28. Initial D with the Three Marys at the Tomb, Drogo Sacramentary Folio 58r, c.850 (The Utrecht Psalter in Medieval Art, p. 197, Fig. 11b)..............................101 29. Capital of Salome, Santa Marta de Tera, Zamora, Spain (Moralejo, The Codex Calixtinus as an art historical source, Fig. 6, p. 225)................................102 30. Titian, The Penitent Magdalen 1560s, oil on canvas, Hermitage, St. Petersburg (Pedrocco, Titian, Fig. 241).................................................................102 31. Georges de la Tour, The Penitent Magdalen c.1638-1643, oil on canvas, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (Cuzin and Rosenberg, Georges de la Tour, p. 202, Fig. 39).............................................................................................103 32. Book cover of Pericopes of Henry II (cod. Lat. 4452, cim. 57), c.870, ivory, precious stones, niello, and enamels, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich (Sepiere, Limage dun Dieu souffrant (Ixe-Xe siecle): Aux origines du crucifix, PL. XXIa).104 33. Book cover of the Pericopes of Henry II c.870, ivory, Codex Latinus 4452 Staatsbibliothek, Mnich (Seiferth, Synagogue and Church in the Middle Ages: Two Symbols in Art and Literature, Fig. 5)............................................................105 34. Detail of Synagogue and King Charles the Bald, Pericopes of Henry II c.870, ivory, Codex Latinus 4452, Staatsbibliothek, Mnich (Seiferth, Synagogue and Church in the Middle Ages: Two Symbols in Art and Literature, Fig. 5)..............106 35. Codex Aureus of Charles the Bald Mnich, SB, Throne of Charles the Bald, f.5v, c.870 (The Utrecht Psalter in Medieval Art, p. 18, Fig. 22)..........................107 36. Detail of Roma between Oceanus and Gaia, Pericopes of Henry II c.870, ivory, Codex Latinus 4452, Staatsbibliothek, Mnich, (Seiferth, Synagogue and Church in the Middle Ages: Two Symbols in Art and Literature, Fig. 5)..............108 37. Apotheosis of Antoninus Pius a nd Faustina, pedestal of the Column of Antoninus Pius, c.161 A.D., marble, Rome, Italy (Gardners Art through the Ages. Eleventh edition, Fig. 10-57)..................................................................................109 38. Detail of Shield with She-Wo lf Suckling Romulus and Remus from the Apotheosis of Antoninus Pius and Faustina, pedestal of the Column of Antoninus viii

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Pius, c.161 A.D., marble, Rome, Italy (Gardners Art through the Ages. Eleventh edition, Fig. 10-57).................................................................................................109 39. Crucifixion from the diptych of Rambona, 900, Rome, Vatican Museum, (Sepiere, Limage dun Dieu souffrant (Ixe-Xe siecle): Aux origines du crucifix, Fig. 56, p. 216).......................................................................................................110 40. The Crucifixion from the Rabula Gospels, c.586, Florence, Biblioteca Laurentiana (Beckwith, Early Christian and Byzantine Art, Fig. 45)....................111 ix

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF THE ICONOGRAPHY OF THE WOMAN WITH THE SKULL FROM THE PUERTA DE LAS PLATERAS OF SANTIAGO DE COMPOSTELA By Karen Faye Webb May 2004 Chair: David Stanley Major Department: Art and Art History Walter Cahn labels the Woman with the Skull on the south portal of Santiago de Compostela as one of the most enigmatic figures in Romanesque sculpture. This study will endeavor to alleviate some of her mysterious anonymity by showing her importance as a metaphor of conversion relevant to the liturgical changes in Spain in the 1070s and 1080s. The present position of this spolia figure resulted from the religious controversy between King Alfonso VI of Len-Castile and Pope Gregory VII. Through letters and personal envoys, Gregory VII demanded that Alfonso VI abandon the Mozarabic Liturgy with its inherent Arian heretical elements that denied the dual nature of Christ and that it be replaced with the orthodox Roman rite. Alfonso VI conceded to Gregory VIIs demands and in 1080 at the Council of Burgos, the Mozarabic liturgy was officially condemned and replaced with the orthodox Roman rite. The south transept sculptural program, which is composed entirely of sculptural spolia, is designed to emphasize the x

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orthodox doctrine of the dual nature of Christ. The Woman with the Skull will be explored as part of this papal propaganda. First, the Woman with the Skull will be described and the various identities that scholars have attempted to assign as the pieces iconography will be discussed. Second, this study will propose an iconographic tradition for the piece revealing the womans identity as an adaptation Carolingian iconography and Roman iconography from the Late Imperial Period. Finally, this study proposes a composite identity for the Woman with the Skull. This composite identity can be understood by combining the iconographic reference of the figure to earlier Roma figures, the almost cultic eleventh century identification of the figure as the Adulterous Woman, and the figures relationship to Biblical characters. This composite identity will be shown to include a fusion of the figures of Eve, Mary Magdalene, and the Virgin Mary. Ultimately, these conclusions about Cahns enigmatic woman will be related to Pope Gregory VIIs campaign to reform the Spanish Mozarabic liturgy tainted by Arianism to the Roman rite. In his campaign, the Woman with the Skull embodies the message of the south portal intended to act as a self-reflective image of the Spanish people and which is integral to their relationship to the south portal. xi

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The objective of this thesis is to examine the south portal or Puerta de las Plateras on the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela and to analyze its two tympana in order to decipher the programmatic theme intended for its medieval audience (Fig. 1). Strangely, most previous studies of the portal have been limited to the iconographic identification of individual pieces of sculpture, but few scholars have engaged in a search for the tympanas overall meaning. Few have even suggested a cohesive intent for what this thesis will suggest is a collection of thematically interrelated pieces of sculptural spolia that appears on the tympana (Fig. 2 and Fig. 4). Because of the diversity of spolia pieces, scholars are often presented with the difficult task of analyzing the different individual stones and then relating them to their position within the entire portal, which deceptively seem to be a conglomeration of unrelated pieces. Because this thesis is only dealing with the sculpture in the two tympana, the figure numbers of the sculpture will be organized according to an initial number, which will guide the reader in most cases to an image that is a detail of the tympana or of the individual piece. The second figure number will direct the reader to a diagram of either the entire left tympanum (Fig. 3) or the entire right tympanum (Fig. 5) that outlines each spolia piece and identifies it with a letter. Thus, in conjunction with this second number is also a capital letter, which will identify the individual stone panels within the context of their position in either tympanum. For example, one of the most famous sculptural pieces on the two tympana is the Woman with the Skull. References to 1

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2 her within the thesis text will be as follows: (Fig. 6 [Fig. 3, Stone G]). Figure 6 is a detail of the sculptural piece and Figure 3 is the left tympanum with the Woman with the Skulls position being identified by the letter G. In fact, the present study began as an inquiry into the meaning of that enigmatic Woman with the Skull. In order to attempt to discern the meaning of the Woman with the Skull and to understand her significance within the iconographic program of the Puerta de las Plateras, this thesis will investigate the following topics: Chapter 1 will explain the history of the site of the cathedral and the dating of the cathedral and portal. Chapter 2 will discuss the evidence for the use of spolia in the portal and it will contain a description of the iconography and an explication of its programmatic content. Chapter 3 will discuss the social context of the portal program and the symbolism and meaning of the portals, while Chapter 4 will explore the relationship between the portal and the Woman with the Skull. This chapter will also attempt to reveal iconographic prototypes for the Woman with the Skull predating it from the Imperial period of Rome and the Carolingian period. Chapter 5 will recapitulate the conclusions of the previous chapters and discuss the future implications of the portals iconography and of the figure of the Woman with the Skull.

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CHAPTER 2 HISTORICAL FOUNDATION OF THE CATHEDRAL AND DATING OF THE SOUTH PORTAL What is known of the medieval city of Santiago de Compostela remains ensconced in the foundations of its cathedral. Beyond these foundations, limited evidence exists about the medieval town, which Kenneth Conant calls irrevocably lost. 1 Despite this loss, Conant provides some clues that recreate a radius of buildings around the pre-Romanesque church before its Romanesque renovations. In this chapter, Conants study of the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela will be used to investigate the structures that were moved or destroyed to transform the pre-Romanesque church into the Romanesque pilgrimage church. Marilyn Stokstads study of the medieval city will help create some descriptive parameters for the areas surrounding the cathedral. Once familiarity has been established with the site, the controversial dates in which changes began to be applied to the site will be discussed in terms of these dates various documentation. From letters to inscriptions to manuscript citations, social and religious motivations aligned with the renovation dates will be proposed to strengthen this studys choice of a terminus postquem and a terminus antequem for the cathedrals south portal. Santiago de Compostelas cathedral evolved from its beginnings as a small ninth century tomb to St. James the Great, an apostle of Christ who the Christian inhabitants of 1 Kenneth Conant, The Early Architectural History of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1925), p. 3. 3

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4 the Iberian Peninsula claim to be the evangelist of their homeland. 2 James the Great was the first apostle to be martyred and was beheaded by King Herod in Judea. The Iberian tradition maintains that the followers of James placed his relics in a boat and that the boat was miraculously guided to the northwest coast of the Iberian Peninsula. It is hypothesized that the tomb to the apostle was lost over time and was rediscovered by a hermit named Pelayo. As legend maintains, in 813 he had a vision of lights emanating from the tombs earliest known incarnation, a small cella-like room. The foundations of this small tomb of likely Classical date are of granite and brick and are approximately oriented. 3 Soon after its discovery and the increase in pilgrim visits, King Alfonso II of Asturias (791-842) built a simple nave for Saint Jamess tomb, converting it into a small church that Stokstad describes as no more than a shed attached to the shrines west wall. 4 Alfonso II also embellished this first church of Santiago de Compostela with a baptistry on its north side. 5 The king continued his expansion of the site by building the church of San Salvador that was closely aligned, if not contiguous, with the sepulcher on the east side. 6 The church of Santa Mara was another addition made by the king and it was possibly located to the northeast of the church of Santiago de Compostela. 7 Alfonso III 2 There were three different men of prominence with the name James in the New Testament. St. James the Great was an apostle who was the son of Zebedee and Salome. St. James the Less was also an apostle who was possibly shorter in stature. The third James is James the Brother of Jesus. 3 Ibid. 4-5. 4 Conant, The Early Architectural History of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, p. 6; Marilyn Stokstad, Santiago de Compostela: In the Age of the Great Pilgrimages (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1978), p. 12. 5 Conant, The Early Architectural History of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, p. 6. 6 Ibid. 6. 7 Ibid. 39.

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5 of Asturias and Galicia (866-910) altered this first church of Santiago de Compostela with the intention to renovate Alfonso IIs prosaic structure into an Asturian style church. This project was completed in 896. 8 In the late eleventh or early twelfth centuries (controversial dating that will be discussed below), King Alfonso VI of Len-Castile (1065-1109) instituted the third renovation of the structure, the pre-Romanesque church of Santiago de Compostela. Conant lists three possible reasons that inspired Alfonso VI to undertake the third and most significant renovation of Santiago de Compostela: 1) the importance of fireproofing, 2) the economic concerns attached to Santiagos status as the culmination of the pilgrimage roads, 3) the reproduction of the pilgrimage church plan. 9 A fundamental and obvious reason for the renovation is the shift of the technology into the Romanesque era with its emphasis on vaulting to fireproof the church. Conant sees the emulation of the pilgrimage church type as a function of competition among pilgrimage churches and the need to promote Santiago de Compostela as the culmination of the pilgrimage. 10 Satisfying the expectations of pilgrims for their ultimate destination and the economic desire to keep the pilgrims in the city to generate profits from tourism made the renovation of the church essential. This conclusion should never be disregarded or overlooked for it certainly was a substantial motivation; however, other evidence builds upon this thesis to further motivations. 8 Ibid. 6. 9 Ibid. 16-18, 21. 10 Ibid. 17-18.

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6 Though Conant mentions this motivation, his argument emphasizes the sudden appearance of the pilgrimage church plan. 11 The plan that emerged has a regular modularized grid within a cruciform plan that includes a nave and single side aisles. The side aisles continue around the apse in the innovative ambulatory with radiating chapels that allows the pilgrims to venerate the relics without interrupting the services conducted in the church. Though Santiago de Compostela is a pilgrimage church, the relics of St. James are not on the periphery, but are the immovable center around which the cathedral was constructed. The basic pilgrimage church plan was featured in five major churches: St. Sernin in Toulouse, St. Martin at Tours, St. Martial at Limoges, St. Foy at Conques, and Santiago de Compostela. St. Martin at Tours and St. Martial at Limoges no longer exist and the church that served as the prototype for this popular plan is unknown. 12 Conant remains diplomatic as to which church gave rise to other structural duplications. He sees Santiago de Compostela as a candidate for the original ideas gestation, but he ultimately supports St. Martial of Limoges as the most likely source of the innovation. 13 However, Conant changes his choice for the prototypical pilgrimage church to St. Martin at Tours in later publications. 14 Conant also maintains that the geographical disproportion in which a greater number of cathedrals of this type are represented in France, makes the Spanish church an unlikely prototype. The uncertainty with which 11 Ibid. 13. 12 Ibid. 13 Ibid. 21. 14 Kenneth Conant, Carolingian and Romanesque Architecture 800-1200 (New York: Penguin Books, 1987 [Reprint of 2nd ed. published in 1966]), p. 161.

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7 Conant makes this ultimate conclusion and his constant reference to the insufficiency of the evidence makes further speculation on its origins untenable. 15 Marilyn Stokstad and Kenneth Conant both devote some of their studies to the various epithets given to the portals on Santiago de Compostela, but most of this information is presented in a plan made by Conant and in Stokstads schematic of the medieval city. Conants plan traces the additions to the cathedral through the pre-Romanesque to the Renaissance (Fig. 7). In the plan, he refers to the north portals three different designations. The earliest is the Francigena, next the Paradiso, and third, the Azabacheria while Conant labels the plaza that the north portal faces the Plaza de la Inmaculada. The west portal was and is known as the Obradoiro, just as the south portal is known as the Puerta de las Plateras. In Stokstads schematic (Fig. 8), the square and marketplace on the north is known as the Paraiso and the south plaza is the Plateras. The significance of these names will be discussed in Chapter 3. While Conant and Stokstad agree in general on the nomenclature and regions of the portals, the exact dating of the eleventh century building of the cathedral and the portals is more controversial. To narrow the terminus postquem of the cathedral requires an investigation of the archaeological and documentary evidence for the cathedrals construction. Conants conclusions are made more from excavated evidence than information available in letters, charters, manuscripts, and inscriptions. First, Conants deductions based on extant information regarding the revision of the buildings in the vicinity of the cathedral will be taken into consideration. Next, events that occurred during the period in which Conant projects the constructions execution will be assessed 15 Conant, The Early Architectural History of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, pp. 13, 20, 22.

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8 in terms of their importance for the idea to renovate. Finally, the major manuscripts from the Middle Ages that deal specifically with Santiago de Compostela will be considered. Conant reports that in August of 1077, the intrusion of the cathedral into the precinct of the Antealtares monastery was approved. 16 This monastery was likely affiliated with the Church of San Salvador, which no longer exists and was to the east of the pre-Romanesque church of Santiago de Compostela. 17 What is known of the monastery is that it was dismantled, moved, and rebuilt. 18 Based on this site-related evidence, Kenneth Conant believes that the plan of the church was formulated in the 1070s. 19 Conant estimates the beginning of cathedral construction to the year 1078 while he deduces that the plans were in the process of being formulated in 1075. 20 More mystery surrounds another building that is pertinent to the understanding of the medieval layout of the site of the new cathedral. The history of the small church of Sta. Mara is enigmatic because of Conants muddled discussion of the church. Early in his architectural history of Santiago de Compostela, Conant mentions a church of Santa Mara as being built under the jurisdiction of King Alfonso II. 21 However, when Conant takes up the topic again, this earlier reference is forgotten and he discusses a church of Sta. Mara built by Bishop Diego Pelaez (deposed in 1088) probably at the beginning of 16 Ibid. 21. 17 Ibid. 6. 18 Ibid. 39. 19 Ibid. 21. 20 Ibid. 18. 21 Ibid.

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9 the eleventh century, which he calls the original Sta. Mara. 22 As best as I can decipher Conants text, Pelaezs church supposedly lay to the northeast of the relics of Saint James and was likely demolished to make room for the new Romanesque renovations of the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela. 23 Evidence indicates that this original church was removed and that an Asturian style church also called Sta. Mara and possibly dated in part to the thirteenth or fourteenth century was relocated further east of the north transept in the present area of the Chapel of Corticela. 24 Whether Alfonso IIs church or Pelaezs church of Sta. Mara, which both predate the Romanesque cathedral, were restored in another location or a new one was built is unknown. According to Conant, most archaeologists refuse to associate the church of Sta. Mara that was built under Bishop Diego Pelaez with the Asturian style church located to the east of the north transept. Whether these archaeologists have any assumptions about the churchs relationship with Alfonso IIs church is unknown and Conant does not cite who these anonymous archaeologists are. 25 Conants skepticism about these archaeologists conclusions is founded in the highly suspect use of an Asturian style in a church with thirteenth or fourteenth century properties. 26 Though Conant does not verbally assert a Romanesque dating for this controversial Asturian style church of Sta. Mara (located east of the north transept), he indicates on his plan that he supports a Romanesque dating 22 Ibid. 39. 23 Ibid. 24 Ibid. 25 Ibid. 26 Ibid. The question becomes could the church be associated with Alfonso II, the ruler of Visigothic Spain? The Asturian style was at the height of architectural fashion during the Visigothic period.

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10 for this structure. 27 Like the other structures on the plan, the black coloration indicates a Romanesque time period of construction. The Historia Compostellana briefly mentions the church of Sta. Mara as a place in which Archbishop Diego Gelmrez (1100-1140) took refuge during one of the riots in Santiago de Compostela around 1116. 28 The church must have been reassembled by this time to exist as an independent entity and to make room for the cathedrals northern transept, which must have been complete or in construction at this time. Because of the churchs existence in the twelfth century, it seems likely that Conant is correct about a Romanesque date for the church. Conant vaguely remarks that the sculpture on the reassembled Sta. Mara put[s] it late. 29 Whether this means that the sculpture is considered pre or post thirteenth or fourteenth century is unknown. Ultimately, whether the church is Alfonso IIs or Bishop Pelaezs church, it was likely relocated in the late eleventh century and possibly retrofit in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. 30 I support Conants Romanesque dating for the relocation of the church and the conclusion that the church was retrofit. Despite the obstacles created by the lack of definitive evidence related to the city plan of Santiago de Compostela, Conant develops what he considers the most probable layout. With the Antealtares monastery possibly on the southeast, the church of Sta. 27 On his plan, Conant labels the location of the Church of Sta. Mara as the Chapel of the Corticela because Sta. Mara became associated with a complex of chapels to the east of the north transept. 28 Barbara Abou-el-haj, Santiago de Compostela in the Time of Diego Gelmrez, Gesta XXXV (1997), pp. 167-168. Bishop Diego Gelmrez was wearing the pallium in 1104, but Santiago de Compostela did not become an archdiocese until after 1120. See Karen Mathews, They wished to destroy the temple of God: Responses to Diego Gelmrezs Cathedral Construction in Santiago de Compostela, 1100-1140 (PhD-University of Chicago, 1995), pp. 61, 66. 29 Conant, The Early Architectural History of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, p. 39. 30 Ibid. 39.

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11 Mara on the northeast, and the church of San Salvador on the east, Conant derives a larger picture of the lost medieval city. Essentially, the reason for this loss of evidence involves the elaborate renovations that occurred in the city as can be seen in Conants plan. Though Conant is confronted with many unknowns, he still is able to draw conclusions about the location and dating of these buildings. However, Conants scholarship in reaching these conclusions omits the socio-religious influences that shaped the site of the Romanesque cathedral. One of the documents from the 1070s that seems to relate to the importance of the cathedrals renovation is a letter that Pope Gregory VII (1073-1085) wrote in 1074 to Alfonso VI. This letter does not address a renovation of the physical church, but states the need to renovate the spiritual and ritualistic church. Specifically, Gregory explains the heretical nature of the Mozarabic or Hispanic liturgy derived from its Visigothic implementers who were tainted by Arian heresy. Gregory advocates a return to Spains pre-Visigothic roots, the Roman liturgy. 31 When Serafn Moralejo discusses the letters possible influence on the cathedrals construction, he does so within a chronology of King Alfonso VIs activities that postdate the letters arrival. The receipt of the letter of 1074 was followed by Alfonso VIs trip to the Kingdom of Granada and a council in January of 1075. The trip to Granada was to solicit money and future payments of tribute. 32 A charter from a council of Alfonso VI dates his subsequent council to approximately six months after the receipt of Pope 31 Serafn Moralejo, On the Road, the Camino to Santiago in Art of Medieval Spain (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1993), p. 175. 32 Ibid. 211-212.

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12 Gregory VIIs ultimatum. 33 Implying that Alfonso VI felt rushed into some act that would demonstrate his desire to address and proclaim the Popes wishes, Moralejo considers the 30,000 dinars that the king acquired immediately prior to the council as seed money for the cathedrals construction. Moralejo neglects to mention that the king was engaged in countrywide campaigns to solicit financial and political support. 34 Among his agendas could have been the collection of funds for the church and the presentation of the popes religious demands. A religious agenda was already an issue in Alfonso VIs attempt to unite the country against Muslim influence. 35 These religious issues that included Pope Gregorys reform might have found corporeal expression in the plans to renovate the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela. In support of this thesis is the fact that within three months after the council, which Moralejo considers the genesis of the new cathedral, the Spanish equivalent of the ark of the covenant, the Arca Santa, was discovered in Oviedo. 36 Though Moralejo does not mention the countrywide campaign of Alfonso VI, he sees this object, which in its very dimensions and name evoke the ark, as a discovery signifying that the cathedrals construction was in medias res by this time. 37 The discovery of the ark would be an orchestrated occurrence inspired by Alfonso VIs campaign and it would serve to demonstrate Oviedos preeminence as the site of pilgrimage. It is likely that this discovery was intended to coerce pilgrims to 33 Serafn Moralejo, The Codex Calixtinus as an Art Historical Source in The Codex Calixtinus and the Shrine of St. James. Ed. John Williams and Alison Stones (Tubingen: Gunter NarrVerlag, 1992), p. 211. 34 B. F. Reilly, The Kingdom of Lon-Castille under King Alfonso VI (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988), p. 84. 35 Ibid. 83-84. 36 Moralejo, On the Road, the Camino to Santiago, p.178. 37 Ibid. 179.

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13 choose Oviedo as a pilgrimage destination instead of Santiago. Thus, Moralejo concludes that the letter from Pope Gregory VII, the council that convened following a substantial financial acquisition, and the discovery of the relics at Oviedo are events that are causally interrelated and not coincidental. Moralejos terminus postquem has been discussed in terms of socio-religious evidence. However, he and Georges Gaillard also consider the evidence available from the extant medieval manuscripts related to Santiago de Compostela and inscriptions found on the cathedral to arrive at their conclusions. The important manuscripts include the Codex Calixtinus and the Historia Compostellana. 38 Gaillard examines a folio from the Codex Calixtinus, which outright states the date of the commencement of construction on the cathedral as 1078. 39 However, this date is contradicted in another folio of the same manuscript that dates the cathedral according to the number of years that the construction began after the death of three major kings: Alfonso I, Henry I, and Louis the Fat. The codex states: Ab anno vero quo incoepta fuit usque ad lethum Adefonsi fortissimi et famosi Regis Aragonenesis habentur anni LIX; et ad necem Henrici Regis Anglorum LXII; et ad mortem Ludovii pinguissimi Regis Francorum LXIII. 40 Accordingly, the cathedrals construction is reported to have begun fifty-nine years before the death of Alfonso I of Aragon, sixty-two years before the death of Henry of England, and sixty-three years before the death of Louis the Fat of France. The date of Alfonso Is death is 1134, making the Codex Calixtinuss date for the beginning of the 38 The Codex Calixtinus was associated with Pope Calixtus II (1119-1124) and the Historia Compostellana was a panegyric created for and under Diego Gelmrez (1100-1140). 39 Georges Gaillard, Les Dbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Len-Jaca-Compostelle (Paris, 1938), p. 158. 40 Ibid. 158.

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14 cathedral 1075. Though this date concurs with Gaillards conclusions, the rest of the information provided in the passage conflicts with this date. Henry I died in 1135 and sixty-two years prior to this date would be 1073. Finally, Louis the Fat died in 1137, making the cathedrals beginning, which is supposed to be sixty-three years before this date, 1074. Upon examination of the original manuscript page from which copies of this manuscript were taken, the text containing these dates shows sign of wear and erasure. 41 Based on this evidence, Gaillard concludes that the information has the least probability of accuracy among the available sources. 1078 is also the terminus postquem given in the Historia Compostellana. However, Gaillard concludes that this date was obtained from one of the folios of the Codex Calixtinus or the date of 1078 found on the south portal of the cathedral. 42 All of these dates, the one in the Historia Compostellana, the date in the Codex Calixtinus, and the date on the portal are written ERA I C XVI. V IDUS ILII. 43 The day that the inscription indicates is the fifth of the ides of July or July 11 th 44 The readings of the year have been done according to the medieval dating called the Spanish era. 45 This dating adds thirty-eight years on to traditional dating. 46 Scholars have thus read the inscription to represent 1116 of the Spanish era or 1078 A.D. However, debates about 41 Ibid. 158. 42 Ibid. 43 Ibid. 44 Ibid. 45 Moralejo, The Codex Calixtinus as an Art Historical Source, p.211. 46 Herbert Thurston, Dates and Dating, Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04636c.htm,

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15 the inscription have been whether to read XVI or XLI. The Spanish were known to put a V shaped tail on a preceding X to indicate the numeral L. The conclusion has been drawn that the inscription could read ERA 1141 or 1103 A.D. 47 This latter choice of dating has been rejected by Moralejo and Gaillard who see this as too late for the cathedral. Moralejos assessment of socio-religious events and a terminus postquem of 1075 lead him to conclude that the portal commemorates some other event while Gaillard turns to the evidence in other inscriptions on the cathedrals to reach his conclusion. Gaillard regards the portal as being a victim of negligence because of the condition of its sculptural pieces. 48 For this reason, he concludes that the portal sculpture dates from 1112-1117, prior to the 1117 riots of Santiago de Compostela. The condition of the sculptural pieces will be addressed in Chapter 2. According to B. F. Reilly, Pope Gregory VII sent Cardinal Richard to Spain in 1078 and the papal legate may have arrived in Spain as early as June 8, 1078. 49 Cardinal Richard could have been in Santiago by the eleventh of July to enforce the popes liturgical reform. It is my opinion that the portal program was finalized in July of 1078 under the jurisdiction of the cardinal with the intent to reform the heretical Mozarabic liturgy. In addition to the Plateras inscription, the Capilla del Salvador in the ambulatory of the cathedral has a capital with an inscription that states: Consecra(la mense . ) nonasque trigeno anno (post dominice incarnationis milleno se)ptuageno qunito t(empre quo domus est fun)data iacobi, 50 This inscription indicates that the chapel was 47 Moralejo, The Codex Calixtinus as an Art Historical Source, p. 211. 48 Gaillard, Les Dbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Len -Jaca-Compostelle, p. 202. 49 Reilly, The Kingdom of Len -Castille under King Alfonso VI, 1065-1109, p. 105. 50 Gaillard, Les Dbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Len -Jaca-Compostelle, p. 161.

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16 consecrated thirty years after the commencement of the works. 51 The Historia Compostellana gives the date of the chapels consecration as 1105. Thus, thirty years prior to this consecration date would be 1075. Like Conant, Gaillard concludes the first stone was laid in 1078, but that the cathedral was being conceived in 1075. 52 In this conclusion, Gaillard is able to reconcile the discrepancies related to the 1075 date and the 1078 date. However, Moralejo uses the inscription on the Capilla del Salvador to support his terminus postquem for the entire cathedral of 1075. 53 The urgency to fulfill the popes wishes seems like a powerful reason to begin the cathedral as soon as possible. To recap, 1075 is only six months after the popes demands to reform the liturgy were made. Its place within the sequence of chronological events explains Alfonso VIs council, and after the council, it is less than three months before the discovery of the Arca Santa, which seems to be a less than serendipitous event. Thus, the terminus postquem of 1075 is considered accurate by this study for the cathedral. In explanation of the July 11, 1078 date on the Puerta de las Plateras, Cardinal Richards arrival in Spain makes 1078 a likely candidate for the finalization of the south portals program. The manuscript of the Codex Calixtinus is the primary source that can be used to isolate a terminus antequem for the cathedrals south portal. The cathedral itself was in a constant state of evolution until the end of the Renaissance. However, the completion of the south portal, which is the only portal that retains most of its original sculptural 51 Moralejo, The Codex Calixtinus as an Art Historical Source, p.211. 52 Gaillard, Les Dbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Len -Jaca-Compostelle, p. 161. 53 Moralejo, The Codex Calixtinus as an Art Historical Source, p. 211.

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17 organization, can be concluded to have occurred by 1135. This is the latest possible date for the Codex Calixtinuss completion. 54 In the fifth book or Pilgrims Guide of the Codex Calixtinus, Aymery Picaud describes the sculpture on the facades of the cathedral. Unfortunately, his descriptions are relatively abstract; however, he does identify some key sculptures, especially those in the portals two tympana. The vague descriptions of the sculpture have been attributed to the possibility that scaffolding was obstructing Picauds view of the portals. 55 Thus, the description of the iconography indicates that the portals sculpture must have been in place as early as 1135. An iconographic and programmatic examination of the two tympana will be discussed next in Chapter 2. However, before this examination could be undertaken it was necessary to create a larger picture of the medieval city as it could be reconstructed with the studies of Kenneth Conant and Marilyn Stokstad. Conants conclusions about the importance of vaulting, economic concerns, and architectural competition through the pilgrimage church plan provide the foundation for determining the motivations of the cathedral. However, ultimately it is the work of Serafn Moralejo that seems the most accurate in its considerations of socio-religious motivations for the cathedrals construction through Pope Gregory VIIs letter, the council of Alfonso VI, the discovery of the Arca Santa, and the inscription in the Capilla del Salvador. B. F. Reillys social history of the reign of King Alfonso VI provides a clue to the most probable event that concluded the programmatic gestation of the Puerta de las Plateras, the arrival of the papal legate. 54 Ibid. 207. 55 Conant, The Early Architectural History of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, p. 28.

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CHAPTER 3 SCULPTURAL ORGANIZATION, DESCRIPTION OF THE ICONOGRAPHY, AND THE ICONOGRAPHIC PROGRAM As Figure 1 illustrates, there is hardly an inch of surface on the Puerta de las Plateras that is not covered with sculptural decoration. Although there are certainly plenty of sculptural pieces on the side walls, door jambs, the spandrel, and the upper wall, the exploration of this thesis has been limited to the sculpture within the two tympana. Two intersecting interpretations of this sculptural organization of the south portal will be considered: 1) the emulation of the art of Emperor Constantine (306-337 A.D.) and 2) an attempt at visual intimidation. Both of these agendas will be understood as participating in a common statement about Spains relationship to Rome. The abundant and violently cut sculptural pieces make an understanding of spolia or the reuse of materials from previous structures in a new context essential to an understanding of the iconography and program of this portal. In this new context, the sculpture of the Puerta de las Plateras bears meaning through its aesthetic presence. First, this chapter will discuss the visible signs and examples of spolia used in the portal. Second, the economic and ideological reasons for this sculptural reuse will be discussed. Finally, third, the iconographic significance of the sculptural pieces in the two tympana will be analyzed in order to identify the larger programmatic goals of the iconography. 18

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19 Because the focus of this study is on iconography, the stylistic differences in the figures will not be addressed. 1 However, it should be noted that the stylistic differences do provide evidence of spolia use. Nevertheless, any specific discussion of examples will be deferred to future studies of the Puerta de las Plateras or the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela. Without scientific testing to aid in the identification of different stone materials, the physical evidence provided by the stones appearance reveals that the pieces are not homogenous in their material. This is evidenced by their diversity of coloration as well as in the truncation of parts of the sculptural pieces and the overlapping of stones that disrupts the unity of the original sculpted forms. The pieces in the tympana will be categorized according to five different groupings. The first four groups relate to stones with common coloration and the last group includes the visibly altered stones that betray their reuse by the violence done to the sculptural form. Even within the restrictions of the two tympana, there is indisputable evidence of spolia. The first four groups are composed of (1) blue tinged stone, (2) speckled stone, (3) white stone, and (4) cream colored stone. These differences can be seen in color photographs of the portal provided within this study. There are six stones in the first blue toned group, with three of these stones found in the left tympanum and three found in the right tympanum. The left tympanum pieces include a heavily mutilated piece that may represent two combattant beasts (Fig. 9 [Fig. 3, Stone K]), a boy riding a lion (Fig. 10 1 Georges Durliats and Georges Gaillards studies take style into consideration and for information on this area of investigation, their studies or the comprehensive investigation of style along the pilgrimage roads by Arthur Kingsley Porter should be consulted. See Georges Gaillard, Les Dbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Len -Jaca-Compostelle (Paris, 1938) and Georges Durliat, La sculpture romane de la route de Saint-Jacques de Conques Compostelle (Mont-de-Marsan:: Comit d'tudes sur l'histoire, 1990).

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20 [Fig. 3, Stone M]), and beasts beneath a trilobed arched arcade (Fig. 10 [Fig. 3, Stone F]). The right tympanum includes a twisting angel (Fig. 5, Stone P), the three magi (Fig. 5, Stones Q and R), and a farm animal (Fig. 5, Stone O). The examples of speckled stone are all found in the left tympanum: the angel with the censer in a doorway (Fig. 9 [Fig. 3, Stone A]), Christ with a stone in his hand (Fig. 11 [Fig. 3, Stone B]), an angel with a censer hovering over a tree inhabited by a serpent (Fig. 9 [Fig. 3, Stone D]), and the demons outside the city walls (Fig. 9 [Fig. 3, Stone E]). The white stone appears in three pieces, one from the left tympanum, the blessing apostle (Fig. 12 [Fig. 3, Stone J]), and two from the right tympanum, the enthroned Virgin (Fig. 13 [Fig. 5, Stone S]) and the extensive flagellation panel (Fig. 14 [Fig. 5, Stone V]). Finally, the cream colored stone appears in two pieces in the left tympanum, a disembodied bust (Fig. 15 [Fig. 3, Stone I]), and the Woman with the Skull (Fig. 6 [Fig. 3, Stone G]), and two pieces in the right tympanum, the healing of the blind (Fig. 16 [Fig. 5, Stone U]) and the betrayal (Fig. 17 [Fig. 5, Stone X]). The fifth group is the stones that have been cut to fit into the portal composition, hence removing portions of the anatomy or form of the figures. These include the angel in the doorway (Fig. 3, Stone A), the disembodied bust (Fig. 3, StoneI), the blessing apostle (Fig. 3, Stone J), the hovering angel with the censer (Fig. 3, Stone D), the boy riding the lion (Fig. 3, Stone M), and the Woman with the Skull (Fig. 3, Stone G) on the left tympanum and the right tympanums magi (Fig. 5, Stones Q and R), wolf (Fig. 5, Stone N), and enthroned Virgin (Fig. 5, Stone S). The sculptural figures also present such a radical diversity of scale that they could not have been carved by the same sculptor or with an intention to create a single ensemble. Scale diversity was often employed to

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21 imply hierarchy as in the Last Judgment tympanum from St. Lazare in Autun (Fig. 18). However, on the left tympanum of the Puerta de las Plateras (Fig. 2), the Woman with the Skull is the largest piece and is larger in scale than the figure of Christ who would obviously be more important. The left tympanum contains a number of pieces that show signs of reuse and manipulation to fit them in a new context. The angel in the doorway (Fig. 9 [Fig. 3, Stone A]) has its halo cut off. 2 The disembodied bust (Fig. 15 [Fig. 3, Stone I]) has been visibly severed from the rest of its torso as can be seen in the chewed border of the stone where it is cropped at the upper chest. Next to the bust is the figure of the blessing apostle (Fig. 12 [Fig.3, Stone J]). This figure has been modified by the removal of its lower portions in a curving line at the waist, which has been done to fit it above the curving wing of the hovering angel. The hovering angel emerges from a lobed mass of clouds that may be cut off (Fig. 9 [Fig. 3, StoneD]). The serpents tree above which the angel is suspended has branches whose leaves are only partially represented due to a cut that removes the leaves off the entire left side of the plant. The boy riding the lion is mounted on an animal (Fig. 10 [Fig. 3, Stone M]) whose right hind paw has been cut off to fit this piece horizontally in the upper curve of the tympanum. Another indication of spolia is the fact that the boy riding the lion seems to be a piece that should be vertical instead of horizontal. Finally, the Woman with the Skull (Fig. 6 [Fig. 3, Stone G]) who dominates the right periphery of the tympanum has been cut so that her mass of hair on the left side of her head and her left shoulder have been completely removed. 2 Gaillard, Les Dbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Len -Jaca-Compostelle, p. 194.

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22 The right tympanum also contains sculptural pieces that have been broken in ways that compromise the integrity of their original form. In the tympanums configuration of the three magi, the magus closest to Christ has the top of his head cut off (Fig. 5, Stone R]). Within the same piece, the star of Bethlehem is depicted, but its upper rays of light have been sacrificed to fit a flying angel above the magi. All three magi have had their lower bodies cut off at the waist, while the enthroned Virgins halo is cut off at the top (Fig. 13 [Fig. 5, Stone S]). There is only one example of an overlapping stone that disrupts the visual logic of the relief sculpture. This is the spolia crown that has been fitted over Christ holding a stone (Fig.11 [Fig. 3, Stone C]). 3 The crown has been fit awkwardly over the halo of Christ in such a way that it compromises the visual continuity of the upper portion of the halos rounded edge. The fact that the crown was not carved on the image of Christ and had to be added through another stone is another indication that spolia is being used in the tympana. According to Kenneth Conant and Georges Durliat, the portal was renovated after the twelfth century. 4 The north and west portals of the cathedral were dismantled and sculptural pieces from these portals were integrated into the wall area above the south portal. As Durliats diagram illustrates (Fig. 19), the pieces added from the north and west portals do not alter the original organization and content of the two tympana of the south portal. 3 Ole Naesgaard, Saint-Jacques de Compostelle et les dbuts de la grande sculptures vers 1100 (Aarhus, 1962), p. 49. 4 Kenneth Conant, The Early Architectural History of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1925), plan in back of volume; Durliat, La sculpture romane de la route de Saint-Jacques: de Conques Compostelle, p. 327, pl. 348.

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23 As explored in the previous chapter, there are several possible sources from which spolia could have been acquired for the portal. The relocation of the Antealtares Monastery and the church of Santa Mara, and the destruction of the Church of San Salvador may have resulted in some sources for sculptural pieces. George Zarnecki credits much of the sculptural use on the exterior of churches in Spain to a revival among French artisans in the Romanesque period. 5 However, there is documentary evidence that external sculptural pieces were used at least on the west faade prior to the Romanesque period and that these sculptural pieces used in Alfonso III of Asturiass church were spolia. Alfonso III is recorded as stating at the churchs consecration: We brought from the city of Eabeca what we chose of the marble-building stones which our forefathers carried by ship across the Pontus, and that out of which they builded (sic) beautiful dwellings that were destroyed by our enemies. From these, indeed, of these very marbles, the principle portal of the west faade is composed; in truth we discovered the marvelously sculptured lintel of the cathedral just as it was in former times. We set up the portal at the left hand [north] adjoining the oratory of the Baptist and Martyr John (which likewise we founded and built of cut stone, and the six other sculptured columns, brought from Oporto in ships, on which the porch rests; we brought the squared stones and lime of which the eighteen columns are built, with other smaller columns of marble, by ship in a similar way. 6 Though the term spolia did not exist for Alfonso III, this is precisely the material that he describes. 5 Georges Zarnecki, Art of the Medieval World (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1975), p. 218. 6 Conant, The Early Architectural History of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, p. 8 Conant fails to cite his source. It would seem that the indication of a west and north faade in the quotation would correspond to the Romanesque church or the current church of Santiago de Compostela. Unfortunately, the west faade and north faade that are mentioned in the quotation cannot be related to the Romanesque faade on the west of the cathedral, the Obradoiro or the Romanesque faade on the north of the cathedral, the Inmaculada. This is because the Romanesque church was much larger than the pre-Romanesque church. In fact, the Romanesque structure was built over Alfonso IIIs church and as the Romanesque building approached completion, the latter was eventually dismantled and removed from the interior of the Romanesque church.

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24 Although John Onians does not take up the specific topic of spolia, his study that features the column, advocates a subconscious message relayed between architecture and its audience. Understanding architecture becomes like the information gained through a reading of body language or gesture. 7 The question becomes what information a portal so openly declarative of its composition of spolia would have relayed to the twelfth century viewer? Was the use of spolia due to a lack of monetary funds to complete the cathedral? Did the use of spolia communicate anything ideologically? First, the possible economic reasons for the use of spolia will be discussed. Next, the ideological implications of spolia use will be explored. Spolia first entered the art historical vocabulary in relationship to Roman art and particularly within the art and architecture of the emperor Constantine, who admired the successful emperors of Rome like Trajan (98-117 AD), Hadrian (117-138 AD), and Marcus Aurelius (161-180 AD). Constantine intended to use art to create an association with these emperors greatness and thus, he reused sculpture from the eras of these emperors in his own monuments. 8 Some scholars consider that Constantines use of spolia in the church of Old St. Peters and on the Arch of Constantine (Fig. 20) was determined by economic necessity. 9 The use of spolia has also been considered an aesthetic throwback that attempts to recapture the spirit of Classical antiquity. Richard Krautheimer considers the incorporation of spolia in Roman churches as an enthusiastic nod to the Classical world or even an emulation of the Classical world in an effort to 7 John Onians, Bearers of Meaning: The Classical Orders in Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988), pp. 4-5. 8 Beat Brenk, Spolia from Constantine to Charlemagne: Aesthetics versus Ideology, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 41 (1987), pp. 104-105 9 Ibid 105.

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25 revive it. 10 The economic reasons for spolia use and the connection of spolia with Constantine are important in relationship to the scope of this study. Spolia use in medieval Spain is a topic that has not received much attention. Moralejo states that the sculptural pieces used for the portals are likely reused material. He comes to this conclusion in his research of the observations of a seventeenth century Spaniard at Santiago de Compostela, but he does not consider the issue of spolia further. 11 As stated previously, Durliat discusses spolia in terms of pieces moved from the north portal to the south portal. However, as Figure 19 illustrates through the use of different tonalities in Durliats diagram, the two tympana of this study were not altered by additions of spolia moved from the north portal of the Romanesque church. This is also evidenced by the description of the tympana in Picauds Pilgrims Guide, which dates from 1135 and whose description remains true of the current organization of the south portal tympana. King Alfonso VIs project to complete the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela was not realized during his reign. In fact, Alfonso VI was exporting around 200,000 talons of gold per year to Cluny in return for their support in helping squelch the Moorish invasions on Toledo and also to solicit religious support in the form of ambassadorial clerics to institute the orthodoxy of the Roman liturgy in Spain. This would certainly have presented some economic stress on the funds for the cathedral project and may help to explain the reuse of materials. 10 Richard Krautheimer, The Architecture of Sixtus III: A Fifth Century Renascence? in Studies in Early Christian, Medieval and Renaissance Art (New York, 1969), pp. 181-96. 11 Serafn Moralejo, The Codex Calixtinus as an Art Historical Source in The Codex Calixtinus and the Shrine of St. James. Ed. John Williams and Alison Stones (Tubingen: Gunter NarrVerlag, 1992), p. 219.

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26 Sculptural reuse often related to an obligation not to desecrate the holy. Thus, the sculpture and its representations retained a power that destruction or discarding of the pieces would risk offending God and wasting the spiritual power of the art. However, it is interesting that churches like San Isidoro in Len, built in the 1060s, have sculptural decoration that may recreate the aesthetic of spolia in its facades. This hypothesis is generated because of the awkwardly cut stones of the church resemble the strange cutting of the stones at Santiago de Compostela. However, the stones at San Isidoro are stylistically homogenous. San Isidoro and its faades were completed in the second quarter of the twelfth century. 12 The building of the church, begun in the 1060s and the completion of its faades in the twelfth century, seem to indicate that the church was begun before Santiago de Compostelas Romanesque church. However, the faades were not completed until after Santiago de Compostela. If this church does attempt to simulate the use of spolia, it would reinforce the idea of a message relayed through the integration of spolia on the faades of Spanish churches in the Romanesque period. If San Isidoro was trying to create an aesthetic that resembled spolia without the actual use of spolia, there must have been an underlying meaning relayed by the appearance of spolia, or strangely cut stones. Though this conclusion is contestable, it may have some credence supposing that Zarnecki is correct in his theory of few sculptural faades in Spain or Europe with large-scale exterior sculpture before the French revival of this sculptural form around 1000 AD. The widespread and lavish use of sculpture over entire walls and portals seems to have few spolia sources, which were perhaps exhausted after the completion of Santiago de Compostela. 12 Gaillard, Les Dbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Len-Jaca-Compostelle, p. 67.

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27 Whatever the source of the spolia, its use is obvious in the two tympana of the south portal of Santiago de Compostela. This conclusion is evident when observing the different stones used for the various sculptures on the two tympana, the different scale of the pieces and their mutilation to be fit into the composition of the tympana. The use of spolia in medieval Spain or even the attempt to emulate an aesthetic that evokes spolia may have been done to connect the Spanish churches with Gregory VIIs reform and its orthodoxy. San Isidoro, which is in Len at the heart of Alfonso VIs locus of power, would definitely have required a visual testimony to its support of the popes cause. This may indicate that spolia use in medieval Spain not only acted as a reference to the iconography and past structures from which the art was taken, but that it was also intended to act as a declarative statement of orthodox liturgical practice. This orthodoxy becomes aesthetically connected to the first emperor openly supportive of Christianity, Constantine. Pope Gregory VII, who in 1073 was making a papal claim on Spain, is believed to have based this claim on the forged medieval document, the Donation of Constantine. 13 Though scholars of medieval Spain dispute the outcome of this claim, the use of spolia seems to create a declarative statement of Roman control over the Iberian peninsula at this time. From the information provided earlier in the quotation from King Alfonso III and the dismantling of buildings for the purposes of making room for the Romanesque 13 H. E. J. Cowdrey, The Cluniacs and the Gregorian Reform (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970), p. 220. In a recent study that traces the manuscript changes related to the conversion of medieval Spain from the Mozarabic to the Roman liturgy, Hlne Toubert describes the attempts of Pope Gregory VIIs renovatio to evoke either the early Christian era or more specifically the era of Constantine. See Hlne Toubert, Un art dirige: Reforme gregorienne et iconographie (Paris: Les editions du cerf, 1990); Ernst Kitzinger takes up this subject favoring Constantinian prototypes in Gregorys reform. See Ernst Kitzinger, The Gregorian Reform and the Visual Arts: A Problem of Method (The Prothero Lecture), Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Fifth Series, vol. 22 (London: University College London, 1972), pp. 87-102.

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28 cathedral, some of the spolia on the south portal of Santiago de Compostela could have been taken from pre-existent Spanish structures. This could have been as original sculpture converted into first time spolia or even recycled spolia from other locales like Eabeca. Whether the spolia was from Eabeca or elsewhere, it had been integrated into a Spanish identity. This would have made the spolia use an intermingling of solace and discomfort for its Spanish audience. The message of the portal would be that the Spanish were still the people they had been before the suppression of the Mozarabic liturgy in favor of the Roman liturgy. However, the pieces had been reordered like their heretical liturgy and in turn, the violence done to the pieces may have evoked a feeling of resentment in the forced conversion to the Roman liturgy. This may explain the damaged pieces of spolia like the two combattant beasts (Fig. 9 [Fig. 3, Stone K]) that may represent the portals patron and will be discussed in the next section of this chapter that addresses the topic of iconography. 14 There is evidence within this time period of resistance to the liturgical change, which can be seen in history, legend, and through the Spaniards most consistent weapon, manuscripts. Historically, this resistance is manifested in the reversion back to the Mozarabic liturgy by one of the Cluniac monks named Robert who was to be an abbot at the monastery of Sahagn that resulted in his removal from Spain and return to Cluny. 15 14 As in the use of spolia by Constantine to connect himself with the successful and powerful emperors of Rome, there is always the possibility that some of the sculptural pieces were obtained from Rome and Jerusalem as well as from Alfonso IIIs church. In this way, Santiago would be associating itself with the pilgrimages of Rome and Jerusalem as well as its own tradition. 15 Rose Walker, Views of Transition: Liturgy and Illumination in Medieval Spain (London: British Library, 1998), p. 31; Joseph F. OCallaghan, The Integration of Christian Spain into Europe: The Role of Alfonso VI pf Len-Castile, in Santiago, Saint-Denis, and Saint Peter: The Reception of the Roman Liturgy in Len-Castile in 1080 (New York: Fordham University Press, 1985), pp. 110-111.

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29 If the most vocal advocates of the Mozarabic liturgy were monks, as the incident with Robert illustrates, manuscripts were likely their strongest weapon. There are legends surrounding manuscripts, and there are also actual manuscripts that refute the liturgical conversion. The legends from the manuscripts of the Chronicon Burgense, Annales Compostellani, and the twelfth century Chronicon Najera, tell of a duel between a Toledan knight (Toledo as the hub of Mozarabic practice) and a Castilian knight on Palm Sunday or April 9, 1077. This duel was to determine which rite was orthodox. The Castilian wins in the Chronicon Burgense and the Chronicon Najera while the winner remains undetermined in the Annales Compostellani. The Chronicon Najera also discusses a test for orthodoxy in which a copy of the Roman liturgy was kicked into a fire along with a copy of the Mozarabic liturgy. The Mozarabic text is said to have leapt out of the flames unscathed, proving its orthodoxy. The legend concludes with the Mozarabic texts ultimate demise when King Alfonso VI kicked it back into the fire. 16 Thus, there appears to have been some negative public opinion of the king and his religious policy. There is a text, the Codex Aemilianensis, now in the library of the Escorial with a history of the Mozarabic liturgy inserted into it. Its history is believed to be a fabrication that supports the institution of the Mozarabic liturgy by the seven apostles who encouraged some local enrichment of the rites. The text also states that Pope John X (914-928) approved the rites when they were presented to him by Zanello, a priest of Santiago de Compostela. Even more contemporary, the work states that despite the disapproval of the liturgy by the papal legate, Hugh Candidus, even Pope Alexander II 16 Walker, Views of Transition: Liturgy and Illumination in Medieval Spain, p. 31; OCallaghan, The Integration of Christian Spain into Europe: The Role of Alfonso VI pf Len-Castile, p. 107.

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30 (1061-1073), who was said to have been presented with the liturgy, approved it as orthodox. 17 Finally, there is the text written on the back of the Liber Comicus. This Spanish lectionary became a soapbox for an anonymous monk from San Millan who rejected the Roman liturgy and the popes insistence of the Pauline evangelizing of Spain. By criticizing St. Pauls statement to test all things and to keep the good as an advocacy of change or novitate, the monk sees the Roman liturgys institution in Spain as innovation and thus, heretical. 18 This active disagreement concerning the heretical nature of the Mozarabic liturgy shows that the monks could fight their cause through the use of manuscripts. They had less control over the cathedral faades. The use of spolia seems to challenge the manuscripts accusation of innovation. Spolia use is a return to Christianitys origins and traditions and a return to orthodoxy that reordered the Spanish identity but did not sacrifice it. Thus, the use of spolia not only referenced Constantine and the forged assertion of Roman authority over the Iberian peninsula, it actively, combatted the assertion in manuscripts that the instigation of the Roman liturgy was an act of innovation. While manuscripts aided in the Spanish defense of their liturgy, there was also a monastic manuscript contemporaneous with the cathedral that directly impacts current knowledge of the pilgrimage in the early twelfth century. This manuscript also provides vital information for the next section of this chapter, a discussion of the south portal iconography. Interestingly, the most useful information about this Spanish cathedral 17 Walker, Views of Transition: Liturgy and Illumination in Medieval Spain, pp. 31-32. 18 Ibid. 32-33.

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31 comes from the quill of a French monk, Aymery Picaud. Aymery Picauds Pilgrims Guide is the sixth book of the Codex Calixtinus. This guide is important to this study because it gives a partial description of the Puerta de las Plateras and the sculpture on the two tympana: In meridiana porta apostolice basilice duo introitus, ut diximus, habentur et quatuor valve. In dextrali vero introitu ejus, de foris scilicet, in primo ordine super portas, dominica Tradicio miro modo sculpitur; ibi Dominus ligatur minibus Judeorum ad pilarem; ibi verberatur corrigiis; ibi sedet Pilatus in cathedra, quasi judicans eum. Desuper vero in alio ordine beata Maria, mater Domini, cum filio suo in Bethleem sculpitur, et tres reges qui veniunt ad visitandum puerum cum matre, trinum munus ei offerentes et stella, et angelus eos ammonens ne redeant ad Herodem. In liminaribus ejusdem introitus sunt duo apostolic, quasi valvarum custodies, unus ad dexteram et alius ad levam. Similiter in alio introitu sinistrali, in liminaribus scilicet, alii duo apostolic habentur et in primo ordine ejusdem introitus super portas scilicet dominica Temptacio sculpitur. Sunt enim ante Dominum tetri angeli quasi larve statuentes eum supra pinnaculum Templi; et alii offerunt ei lapides ammonentes ut faciat ex illis panem, et alii ostendunt ei regna mundi, fingentes se si daturos ea, si cadens adoraverit eos, quod absit. Sed alii angeli candidi videlicet boni, post tergum ejus et alii etiam desuper turibulis ei ministrants habentur. 19 [The South Portal has two entrances, as we have said, with four door-valves. In the right-hand arch (on the exterior, that is, in the first band above the doors), the Betrayal of Our Lord is wonderfully carved. There He is bound to the pillar by the hands of the Jews; there the whips play; there Pilate sits enthroned, as if judging Him. And above, on the other band is sculptured the Blessed Mary, Mother of Our Lord, with the Child, in Bethlehem, and the three Kings who are come to visit and the angel warning the Kings not to return to Herod. . at the other doorway, to the left; on that is, is carved the Temptation of Our Lord. There are before the Lord hideous angels like spectres setting Him upon the pinnacle of the Temple; others offer Him stones, urging Him to make bread of them; others spread out before Him the kingdoms of the world, pretending that they will give them to Him if He will fall down and worship themthus may it not be! But there are also others, white or good angels behind His back, and still other angels above with censers, ministering unto Him. . Nor ought we to forget the female figure set near the Temptation of Our Lord: she holds in her hands the rotting head of her lover, cut off by her husband who forces her to kiss it twice each day. What a great and 19 Jeanne Vielliard, Le Guide du Plerin de Saint-Jacques de Compostelle (Macon: Imprimerie Protat Frres, 1969), pp. 98, 100.

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32 admirable judgment upon an adulterous woman, which should be recounted to everyone!] 20 Picaud, Gaillard, and Durliat all agree on a cohesive iconographic grouping of Stone A thru Stone E. Stone A, which begins this grouping on the far left of the left tympanum, is described by Gaillard, Knowlton, and Durliat as an angel holding the chain of a censer (Fig. 9 [Fig. 3, Stone A]). 21 His left hand extends over his head while his right hand supports the underside of the pendulous bowl of the censer. Gaillard mentions the cropping of the angels halo to fit beneath the archivolt. 22 The angel has massive wings that extend above the figures shoulders to its feet. Gaillard and Knowlton mention that the sculptural piece has moulding in a right angle at its edges. 23 None of the other scholars mention the border, but it seems likely to me that instead of a moulded edge on the piece, the edges represent a threshold within which the angel stands. To the right and adjacent to the angel is a stone panel B. This figure appears with a cruciform halo whose arms are splayed at the ends. The symbols for alpha and omega appear between the arms inscribed in the halo while another alpha appears on the vertical member of the cross and a chi appears on the right arm of the cross (Fig. 11 [Fig. 3, Stone B]). Ole Naesgaard comments upon a feature of the piece that is often overlooked, the addition of a separate spolia piece in the form of a crown that is used to top the halo and 20 The above translation of Picauds Guide was taken from Conant, The Early Architectural History of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, p. 53-54. 21 Gaillard, Les Dbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Len-Jaca-Compostelle, p. 194; John Howard Barnes Knowlton, The Romanesque Sculpture of the Platerias Portal of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela (Thesis-M.A., New York University, 1939), p.37; Georges Durliat, La sculpture romane de la route de Saint-Jacque: de Conques Compostelle (Mont-de-Marsan: Comit d'tudes sur l'histoire, 1990), p. 330. 22 Gaillard, Les Dbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Len-Jaca-Compostelle, p. 194. 23 Gaillard, Les Dbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Len-Jaca-Compostelle, p. 194; Knowlton, The Romanesque Sculpture of the Platerias Portal of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, p. 37.

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33 obstructs its natural shape (Fig. 11 [Fig. 3, Stone C]). 24 The crowned figure is male who stands in profile with his bearded face slightly lowered, and seems to clutch a stone in his left hand while his right arm is bent across his body. Draped over his right arm is a long cloth. This may refer to the purification ritual that occurs at the beginning of the Roman Catholic mass. This may also connect with the censers that the angels are holding which were used to consecrate the altar at the opening of the mass. Beneath the feet of the figure is the inscription DVCTVS EST IHESVS IN DESERT[VM]. This inscription seems to allude to Matthew 4:1 which reads Tunc Jesus ductus est in desertum [a spiritu ut tentaretur a diabolo]. 25 From the use of the cruciform halo, the bearded visage, and the inscription, the iconography points to the identity of the figure as Christ. Stone B, which is Christ, faces Stone D that illustrates an angel, a plant, and a serpent (Fig. 9 [Fig. 3, Stone D]). A profile angel faces Christ and emerges from a cloud. Compared to the angel in panel A, the wings of the hovering angel extend only the length of its visible torso. The angel suspends an intricate censer that is inscribed with a foliate design that includes the abstracted face of a grotesque. It is unclear whether the clouds or any visible portions of the angels body have been severed to situate the piece within the area available for it within the tympanum. Beneath the angel is a cluster of plants within which is the depiction of a serpent. Karen Mathews and Serafn Moralejo connect this iconography with the figure of Christ that precedes it. Christs downward glance is 24 See note 2; Knowlton, The Romanesque Sculpture of the Platerias Portal of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, p. 38. 25 Durliat, La sculpture romane de la route de Saint-Jacques: de Conques Compostelle, p. 329

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34 thought to imply his connection with the tree and serpent illustrating his role as the Second Adam. 26 This theme seems important and will be further discussed in Chapter 3. In Stone E, two figures appear on the exterior of what looks like a fortification (Fig. 5 [Fig.3, Stone E]). Picaud calls the figures angels and differentiates between these creatures and the angels with the censers in the use of color distinctions. The angels with censers are called white, which may be a symbolic reference to these angels as helpers of Christ or perhaps it indicates the color paint that was used on the pieces. The angels in Stone E are referred to as black by Picaud. Rather than calling these creatures angels, Durliat describes them as composite creatures created through the intermingling of the features of a monkey, human, and angel. 27 Both creatures wear Greek or Roman style waist dressings with pteryges or long tongue-shaped lappets while the rest of their bodies are bare. One of the figures kneels with hands folded on its raised right knee, its face in three-quarters view. The other creature is hovering above the first creature. This second creature has a more ape-like face and seems to hold a stone in its joined open palms. The kneeling demon has an inscription beneath it that reads: IN MONTEM EXCELS[VM]. The city wall that is behind the two demons reads H[IERV]S[AL]EM CIVITA. 28 The general tendency in the reading of this portal is to group these four pieces into one narrative unit. The theme of the entire section is the First Temptation of Christ, or 26 Karen Mathews, They wished to destroy the temple of God: Responses to Diego Gelmrezs Cathedral Construction in Santiago de Compostela, 1100-1140 (PhD-University of Chicago, 1995), p. 202; Serafn Moralejo in Santiago de Compostela: 1000 ans de plerinage europen: Europalia 85 Espaa (Gand: Centrum voor Kunst en Cultuur, 1985), p. 49 27 Durliat, La sculpture romane de la route de Saint-Jacques: de Conques Compostelle, p. 330. 28 Ibid. 329-330.

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35 Matthew 4:1, which is the probable source for the inscription at the base of Stone B. 29 The First Temptation in which Christ is tempted to turn stones into bread by the hovering demon, explains the stone in Christs own hand. 30 The angels with the censers are considered the angels that helped Christ during his time in the desert. The composite creatures are interpreted as demons or black angels that aid in Satans temptation of Christ. Interestingly, Picaud describes the tympanum as depicting all three temptations. 31 However, the second temptation, Christs temptation on the pinnacle of the temple, and the third temptation in which Christ is asked to bow before the devil is not overtly referenced pictorially. Stone F is often connected with the temptation grouping (Fig. 10 [Fig. 3, Stone F]). Though Knowlton describes the creatures in this panel as three lions, the three figures are not depicted as quadrupeds but they are depicted as bipeds. 32 This upright position creates connections with the composite figures with human and animal qualities that are also bipeds on Stone E. These similarities result in the tendency to associate these figures with demons from the temptation of Christ as Durliat does. 33 The three figures are walking along an arcade with trilobed arches. The first figure, in profile with a dog-like 29 Picaud as translated by Conant, The Early Architectural History of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, p. 53; Durliat, La sculpture romane de la route de Saint-Jacques: de Conques Compostelle, pp. 329-330; Gaillard, Les Dbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Len-Jaca-Compostelle, p. 194-196; Knowlton, The Romanesque Sculpture of the Platerias Portal of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, p. 37; Naesgaard, Saint-Jacques de Compostelle et les dbuts de la grande sculptures vers 1100, pp. 50-52. 30 Durliat, La sculpture romane de la route de Saint-Jacques: de Conques Compostelle, p. 330. 31 Picaud as translated by Conant, The Early Architectural History of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, p. 53. 32 Knowlton, The Romanesque Sculpture of the Platerias Portal of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, p. 39. 33 Durliat, La sculpture romane de la route de Saint-Jacques: de Conques Compostelle, p. 330.

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36 head, faces Stone E. The second figure has its back to the first figure but with its head turned toward Stone E. The third figure is badly damaged and the orientation of the head and body is difficult to decipher. This beast may hold a club or it may be clutching one of the columns of the colonnade. Stone G is the piece on the tympanum depicted in the largest scale and it is a partially clothed, seated woman holding a skull on her lap (Fig. 6 [Fig. 3, Stone G]). She is seated on a cross-legged chair known to the Romans as a sella curulis and known in the Romanesque period as a faldestorium. Though she is referred to as Woman with the Skull, her earliest description by Aymery Picaud is the Adulterous Woman. 34 The identification of the iconography of this enigmatic figure will be fully discussed in Chapter 4. Picaud, Gaillard, and Durliat seem to devote most of their attention to the six panels of the tympanum that are directly above the lintel. However, as Durliats tympanum diagram indicates, there are five more pieces below the tympanums archivolt and a sixth piece, Stone M, that is sandwiched between the unofficial registers of the upper and lower portions of the left tympanum (Fig. 10 [Fig. 3, Stone M]). Stone H and Stone K are severely damaged (Fig. 9 [Fig. 3, Stone H and K]), and it is impossible to determine their specific iconographic significance. Close examination of Stone H indicates that there are limbs intertwined with vines, but little else can be discerned. Beside this piece is Stone I, which represents a head severed from its body at the upper chest (Fig. 15 [Fig. 3, Stone I]). The figure has short hair that is tucked behind its ears while a round cloth hat covers the mans head from forehead to crown. The hat has 34 Picaud as cited by Conant, The Early Architectural History of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, p. 53.

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37 a rounded roll of fabric at its periphery. This hat looks like the Jewish round cap discussed by Ruth Mellinkoff in an article on an Anglo-Saxon manuscript, the BM Cotton Claudius B from 1025-1050 (Fig. 21) where the hat is believed to first appear. She connects the hat with the influx of French people into England around the Norman Conquest and it is also featured in a cycle of English Frescoes in Spain. 35 This may also be the cap that found its way to Algeria from the Spanish Jews that moved there in the thirteenth century, and many of these Jews were silversmiths. 36 Stone J is a figure with a scallop-shaped collar with his right hand raised in blessing (Fig. 12 [Fig. 3, Stone J]). In the right door jamb of the left door is another figure (Fig. 22) with this same collar and there is an inscription identifying the piece as St. Andrew. Thus, the figure in Stone J may be understood to represent an unknown apostle. As stated earlier, Stone K is severely damaged (Fig. 9 [Fig. 3, Stone K]). 37 Two beasts seem to be represented and they appear to be combattant or facing one another as mirror images that would appear in coats of arms. By the late eleventh and early twelfth century, no coat of arms existed in Spain. The first official coat of arms of Spain appeared in the fifteenth century under King Ferdinand V of Spain (1474-1516) and Queen Isabella of Spain (1474-1504) (Fig. 23). 38 However, there were coins of Alfonso VII of Len-Castile (1126-1157) that featured two lions heads representing the province 35 Ruth Mellinkoff, The Round, Cap-Shaped Hats Depicted on Jews in BM Cotton Claudius B. iv. in Anglo-Saxon England 2 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973), p. 161. 36 Alfred Rubens, A History of Jewish Costume (New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1967), pp. 65-66. 37 Knowltons title for the piece is Two Confronted Lions. Knowlton, The Romanesque Sculpture of the Platerias Portal of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, p. 36 38 See de Alfonso Carlos, El Escudo de Espaa en las obras de arte del Patrimonio Nacional. Reales sitios XIX/73 (1982).

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38 of Len facing one another. 39 The left corner of the piece still has a paw of the creature intact that seems to represent a lion paw. There are two wings that appear in the background. However, their position does not logically fit on the animals represented so they may be part of the original sculpted form prior to the pieces new context as spolia. Stone L is also difficult to decipher (Fig. 10 [Fig. 3, Stone L]). The lower portions of the creatures body are definitely animalistic, but the head of the figure in some photographs appears to be a dog and in others it appears to be a human head. Gaillard identifies the piece as a dog restrained by a serpent while Knowlton sees the figure as a lion strangled by a snake. 40 Stone M depicts a male youth riding an animal (Fig. 10 [Fig. 3, Stone M]). The youth and animal are shown in left profile. The youths foot is in a stirrup and the youth has a trumpet raised to his lips. 41 He wears a short, above the knee robe with concentric folds at the chest and left arm at his side. The paw of the animal resembles the first beast in Stone F (Fig. 10 [Fig. 3, Stone F]) and possibly influenced Knowltons assessment of the creatures in that panel as lions. 42 The animal in Stone M is likely a lion as its stylized mane exhibits the same sinuous curves in shorter segments as seen in the Woman with the Skulls hair (Fig. 6 [Fig. 3, Stone G]). This stylization and the animals long neck resemble the lions on the trumeau at Moissac (Fig. 24). 39 J. F. Lhotka and P. K. Anderson, Survey of Medieval Iberian Coinages (Chicago: Argonaut, Inc., 1963), p. 20. 40 Gaillard, Les Dbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Len-Jaca-Compostelle, p. 196; Knowlton, The Romanesque Sculpture of the Platerias Portal of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, p. 36. 41 Gaillard refers to this horn as un pain. Gaillard, Les Dbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Len-Jaca-Compostelle, p. 196. 42 John Howard Barnes Knowlton, The Romanesque Sculpture of the Platerias Portal of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, p. 36.

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39 The right tympanum is composed of Stones N thru X. Stones O thru S all seem to participate in a common narrative of the Adoration of the Magi. Stone N represents the foremost portion of a fox or wolf biting its tail or as Knowlton understands it as a dog or wolf holding a snake between its teeth (Fig. 5, Stone N). 43 Stone O is a very damaged stone that illustrates a four legged farm animal (Fig. 5, Stone O). This panel seems to be relevant to the general theme in Stone R, which shows a twisting angel (Fig. 5, Stone R) and to Stones Q thru S, which represent the Adoration of the Magi (Fig. 7). The twisting angel, that would appear to have originally been a vertical piece, is fitted horizontally over the magi. The star of Bethlehem appears between the Magi closest to the Virgin while another star appears over the Virgins head (Fig. 4 [Fig. 5, Stone S]). The uppermost rays of the star between the Magi has been cut off to make room for the twisting angel, who is likely representative of the angel who warns the Magi not to return to King Herod. All three Magi are cut off at the waist; the two closest to the Virgin face her and the Christ child while the third is turned and faces the opposite direction. All the Magi have been severely damaged and only the outline of these figures can be read. Porter suggests that the unusual depiction of this asymmetrical Adoration scene is understood as an adaptation of a Syrian iconographic tradition in which the three Magi appear to the left of the Virgin. 44 Interestingly, this same iconography of the Adoration of the Magi appears on the twelfth century sepulcher of San Ramn, in the church of 43 Ibid 40. 44 Arthur Kingsley Porter, Spain or Toulouse? and Other Questions. Art Bulletin 7 (1924), p. 7.

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40 Roda de Isabena in Huesca in northern Spain (Fig. 25). 45 This may indicate a common model book that may have Syrian origins. Stone panel T is another mysterious piece that was originally intended to be placed vertically, but the master of the portal inserted it horizontally. It depicts a figure wearing a heavy robe and holding a book. His head looks like it is covered with another round cap like the one mentioned in Stone I on the left tympanum (Fig.3, Stone I) and is similar to the round cap in Figure 21. However, this figure has a halo around his head. It is inserted over Stone U that depicts a miracle of Christ (Fig. 17 [Fig. 5, Stone U]). In this panel, a haloed Christ looks down at a figure holding a crutch. Gaillard interprets the panel as the healing of the paralytic. 46 However, Knowlton points out that Early Christian representations of the healing of the blind included a crutch, which explains why Christ is looking intently into the eyes of the disabled man or boy. 47 It is my opinion that the healing of the blind man is represented because of its connection to early Christian representations that relate to Gregory VIIs renovatio that will be discussed in Chapter 3. Stone V is the largest on the two tympana. It is possible that as many as three scenes appear in the panel in continuous narrative: the crowning of Christ with thorns, the flagellation, and the Crucifixion (Fig. 14 [Fig. 5, Stone V]). Picaud describes the first image as Pilate seated on a lattice work chair with another man standing above him with 45 Manuel Iglesias Costa, Roda de Isabena: histoira y arte (Barbastro: D.D.P.C.B., 1989), p. 109. 46 Gaillard, Les Dbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Len-Jaca-Compostelle, p. 199. 47 Knowlton, The Romanesque Sculpture of the Platerias Portal of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, p. 97.

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41 his arm extended to the seated mans head. 48 Mathews agrees with Picauds assessment of the figure as Pilate. 49 However, there is no historical or biblical explanation for a crowning of Pilate. It is precisely for this reason that Gaillard and Knowlton favor the reading of this image as Christ being crowned with thorns. 50 The only problem with this interpretation is that Christ is seated and thus, it seems too accommodating for a figure undergoing torture. Despite this fact, I concur with Gaillards and Knowltons conclusion. Further along panel V is a group of four figures. The figure on the left of this group is what Picaud identifies as a Jew whipping Christs back. 51 Christ stands with his back to this figure and another figure while he faces another captor who ties his hands to a column. This position creates a horizontal line of the arms of the captor and captive that forms an abstract cross against the vertical column that melds the flagellation with the Crucifixion. Interestingly, the bowl-shaped haircuts of the Jews resemble the round shaped hats that the Jews were known to wear and that are represented in Stone I and Stone T. On the far right of the panel is a third image of a vacant cross on a mound that represents Christs triumph over the cross or the Crucifixion. There is also another beardless figure to the right of the cross. The figures on this panel are cruder and more disproportionate than the other tympanum pieces. All the figures, except Christ who is barefoot, are wearing boots. 48 Picaud as cited by Conant, The Early Architectural History of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, p. 53. 49 Mathews, They wished to destroy the temple of God: Responses to Diego Gelmrezs Cathedral Construction in Santiago de Compostela, 1100-1140, p. 192. 50 Gaillard, Les Dbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Len-Jaca-Compostelle, p. 200; Knowlton, The Romanesque Sculpture of the Platerias Portal of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, p. 43. 51 Picaud as cited by Conant, The Early Architectural History of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, p. 53

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42 Stone W, which appears above Stone X, illustrates an angel plunging from clouds with a crown held in his hands. Picaud concludes that this piece is supposed to be read with Stone X as one narrative unit. 52 Stone X depicts the Kiss of Judas (Fig. 17 [Fig. 5, Stone X]). Christ offers his cheek towards the face of another barefoot figure, likely Judas. The two figures, probably Roman guards, on the periphery of this couple are wearing boots. This composition is also found in a Syrian manuscript illumination. 53 Again, this suggests that a Syrian model book was in use for portions of the iconography of this portal. To summarize, the tympana of the Puerta de las Plateras present a diversity of images, which may initially seem to be unrelated spolia preserved for their artistry or their sacredness. However, while some of the panels of the tympana are too damaged to suggest a definitive identification of iconography, the better preserved panels seem to present related themes to the dual nature of Christ. These are: the Temptation of Christ, the Adoration of the Magi, the Healing of the Blind, the Crowning with the Thorns, the Flagellation, the Resurrection, and the Betrayal. In the left tympanums lower register, an angel stands in a doorway holding a censer. He appears behind Christ who holds a rock and stands before vegetation with a snake intertwined within it. Another angel hovers with a censer over the foliage. Next are two demons, one genuflects and the other hovers with a rock in his hand. Both of these figures appear before the city of Jerusalem. All of these figures can be related to the First Temptation of Christ. Next, three monsters appear in a trilobed arched arcade. 52 Ibid. 53. 53 Knowlton, The Romanesque Sculpture of the Platerias Portal of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, p. 98.

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43 The first monster is the most distinctive and he appears to be a dog or hyena type figure. Next to this piece is the Woman with the Skull who is enthroned on a faldestorium. And above her head is the boy riding the lion. In the left tympanums top register is a piece that might represent human figures intertwined within vines. The disembodied bust of the next figure represents possibly a Jew as revealed by the visual evidence of his hat. He appears before a blessing apostle, whose identity as such is determined by his scalloped collar. Next, two combattant lions surround a flower. And finally, a man/beast is restrained by a snake. The top register of the right tympanum begins by presenting a dog with a snake between its teeth. Next is a large quadruped, likely a horse or a cow accompanied by a flying angel. These pieces may be related to the three Magi and the enthroned Virgin and Child. The lower register of the tympanum depicts a Jewish person over the scene of the healing of the blind man. Next is the continuous narrative: the crowning of Christ with the thorns, the flagellation of Christ at the pillar, and the empty cross. At the right corner is the betrayal of Christ by Judas and the crowning of Christ by an angel. The question becomes what unifies the iconography in each tympanum and the larger message presented in the tympana of the Puerta de las Plateras? Karen Mathewss understanding of the iconography makes the subject of the tympanum a social statement to the citizens of Santiago de Compostela. She relies heavily on an understanding of the iconography of the tympana of the Puerta de las Plateras in terms of the Historia Compostellana. Mathews parallels the program of the portal to an illumination of the biographical narrative of Archbishop Diego Gelmrez written in this manuscript, which recounts the struggles of this man who became the ecclesiastical authority in Santiago de

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44 Compostela twelve years after the deposition of Bishop Pelaez. Mathews makes many interesting connections between text and iconography. The Historia Compostellana accuses many of Gelmrezs insubordinate clerics as being akin to Judas. Mathews sees the kiss of Judas in the Betrayal scene on the right tympanum (Fig. 17) as exemplifying this relationship between Gelmrez and the Spanish clerics. 54 She also reads the punishment of Jesus in the flagellation panel (Fig. 14) as a reflection of the callous and cavalier attitude of the city of Jerusalem, which she associates with the people of Santiago and their treatment of Gelmrez. 55 However, Mathews does not include any mention of the inscription of H[IERV]S[AL]EM CIVITA on the left tympanum (Fig. 3, Stone E) or any tangible evidence to support an identification of the subject of the tympanum with Jerusalem. She also does not relate this conclusion to Aymery Picauds identification of the torturers in the flagellation panel to Jews and in fact, considers the Codex Calixtinuss Pilgrims Guide as an unreliable source. 56 She sees this unreliability in the texts prejudiced author, but she discounts the inaccuracies that may be found in the Historia Compostellana, which was completed under the supervision of Gelmrez and the monks at Santiago by 1140. Mathews does not deal with the date inscribed on the portal that refers to July 11, 1078. Unfortunately, she fails to make a plausible argument relating Archbishop Diego Gelmrez and the portals iconography. She does not provide evidence that the text of the Historia Compostellana was formulated before the 54 Mathews, They wished to destroy the temple of God: Responses to Diego Gelmrezs Cathedral Construction in Santiago de Compostela, 1100-1140, p. 194. 55 Mathews relies on the history of riots within the town and the alienation of Gelmrez during these violent moments. Karen Mathews, Reading Romanesque Sculpture: The Iconography and Reception of the South Portal Sculpture at Santiago de Compostela, Gesta 39/1 (2000), p. 5. 56 Mathews, They wished to destroy the temple of God: Responses to Diego Gelmrezs Cathedral Construction in Santiago de Compostela, 1100-1140, p. 141.

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45 organization of the tympana sculpture. All evidence, like the portal inscription, indicates that the riots she attributes to the broken appearance of the sculpture postdated the erection of the portal. It seems plausible, since the correlations that Mathews finds are at best conjecture, that Gelmrez tailored the text of the Historia Compostellana to an already existent program on the south portal. The other programmatic consideration of the portal that I am aware of is that of Jos Mara de Azcarate. He supports a reading of the portal as the dual nature of Christ. 57 Problematic to this conclusion seems to be Mathewss complaint regarding missing scenes in the passion narrative of the two tympana on the Puerta de las Plateras. It is the lack of an iconographic representation of the Last Supper, Crucifixion, and the Three Women at the Tomb that concerns her. 58 Traditionally, the Last Supper is not included within the passion sequences and thus, the lack of this scene is not viewed by me as a lacuna in the representation of the Passion. The scenes of the Entry into Jerusalem, the Crucifixion, and the Three Marys at the Tomb seem to be more important and will be accounted for in the description of the dual nature program. I concur with Azcarate that the iconographic program in the two tympana of the Puerta de las Plateras can be understood as the dual nature of Christ based on the primary events depicted that include the Adoration of the Magi, the Temptations, the Betrayal, the Flagellation, the Crucifixion, and Mary Magdalene at the Tomb. The Adoration of the Magi (Fig. 5, Stones Q thru S), which is depicted in the right tympanum, 57 Jos Mara de Azcarate, La Portada de las Plateras y el programa iconografico de la Catedral de Santiago Archivo Espaol de Arte, 36 (1963), p. 1. 58 Mathews, They wished to destroy the temple of God: Responses to Diego Gelmrezs Cathedral Construction in Santiago de Compostela, 1100-1140, p. 191.

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46 is an unusual asymmetrical composition that Arthur Kingsley Porter relates to a Syrian composition. 59 However, in this depiction, the third magus is turned away from the enthroned mother and child. The magi are known to carry gifts that indicate earthly kingship (gold), heavenly kingship (frankincense), and death/resurrection (anointing oil). It is possible that this composition was chosen for this scene to emphasize Christ as completely human in Caspers gift of earthly kingship and as completely divine in Melchiors gift of heavenly kingship. The third magus is turned away from Christ possibly to indicate the unnecessary gift of anointing oil because of Christs resurrection. Here is the first reference to the resurrection that Mathews sees as missing from the tympana. The fact that two stars are represented in the scene is unusual and may also reference the dual nature, one star leading to death if unheeded and the other star as a symbol of salvation. The magi are facing the enthroned Virgin (Fig. 13 [Fig. 5, Stone S]) who is nimbed and positioned frontally giving her an iconic appearance similar to Byzantine images of the Virgin. Images such as that of the theotokos in Hagia Sophias apse (Fig. 26) are recalled with this iconographic depiction. 60 In the left tympanum is the representation of Christs First Temptation (Fig. 3, Stones A thru E), which probably is intended to evoke all three temptations. This scene is one of the strongest declarations of Christs humanity and divinity. By approaching the hungry Christ at a time in which his human needs are great, the devil tempts Christ to turn stones into bread using his divinity to satiate his humanity. Though Christ is human, his divine nature prevents him from acting on a human frailty. 59 Porter, Spain or Toulouse? and Other Questions, p.7. 60 The Council of Ephesus in 431 confirmed the Virgin Mary as God-bearer, in an effort to extinguish Nestorianism.

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47 The Passion, which includes the Betrayal, the Crowning of Christ with Thorns, the Flagellation, the Crucifixion, and the Resurrection is found predominantly on the right tympanum. The Passion is important for the dual nature of Christ not only in its exemplifying his human suffering, but also in Christs divine salvation of humanity through this suffering. The Betrayal (Fig. 17 [Fig. 5, Stone X]) illustrates Christs arrest and the Judas kiss, his emotional suffering. The crowning with the thorns is one of the trials in Christs physical suffering (Fig. 14 [Fig. 5, Stone V]). The flagellation scene (Fig. 14 [Fig. 5, Stone V]) is interesting because it conflates Christs pre-Crucifixion tortures with his suffering on the cross. The arms of the torturer and Christ across the pillar make an abstract cross with Christ to the left of the cross and his restraining oppressor on the right. Christs position to the right of this cross puts him in the position of salvation. This cross composition helps account for Mathewss missing Crucifixion image. An actual cross appears to the right of this scene. It is an empty cross on a mound that could represent Golgotha. The empty cross symbolizes Christs triumph over the cross and therefore is also an allusion to His resurrection. Mathewss complaint about the missing scene of resurrection has thus been reconciled by the backward turned magus toward Herods kingdom and the vacant cross at the end of the flagellation panel. There is, however, one more possible sculptural arrangement that implies resurrection. This includes the two pieces on either end of the left tympanum, the angel in the doorway (Fig. 9 [Fig. 3, Stone A]) and the Woman with the Skull (Fig. 6 [Fig. 3, Stone G]). The angel in the doorway holds a censer. From the doorway of the sepulcher, the angel looks across the tympanum to the Woman with the Skull. There is the possibility that this enigmatic female figure is the prototype for the

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48 Penitent Magdalene who is often depicted with the sixteenth century Tridentine attribute of the skull. The skull may represent Golgotha or the skull of Adam. But there are pre-existent images of Mary at the Tomb that have one Mary figure holding an incense pot toward the angel seated at the open door of the tomb. This motif appears in a Carolingian ivory, located at the Cathedral of Narbonne in Narbonne, France (Fig. 27). 61 The Narbonne ivory has the open door of the sepulchre, which significantly, also has rectangular moulding around the door, similar to the door behind the angel (Fig. 9 [Fig. 3, Stone A]). The iconography of Mary Magdalene with the censer appears frequently in Carolingian art and also appears in an initial in a folio from the Drogo Sacramentary (Fig. 28) also with a tomb with a rectangular door. The connection of Carolingian iconography with the Puerta de las Plateras will gain further importance in Chapter 4s isolation of iconography of the Carolingian period that relates to the Woman with the Skull. Because of their damaged state, some panels of the two tympana defy iconographic identification. However, the better preserved spolia elements reveal a complex program of New Testament scenes, which emphasize the humanity and the divinity of Christ. This program may be the result of a complex ecclesiastic and secular struggle between Pope Gregory VII and King Alfonso VI of Len-Castile, which will be discussed in the next chapter. 61 Marie-Christine Sepire, LImage dun Dieu souffrant (Paris: Les ditions du Cerf, 1994), pp. 215-217.

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CHAPTER 4 THE SOCIAL, POLITIC, AND RELIGIOUS CONTEXT OF LATE ELEVENTH CENTURY SPAIN With the weakening and eventual downfall of the Roman Empire, the northern portions of its territory fell pray to the invasions of various barbarous people. As a result, the Iberian Peninsula was overrun by the Visigoths in the mid-fifth century who brought with them the Christian Arian heresy. Because of this infiltration of the peninsula by heresy, many of the traditions labeled as both Christian and Spanish, have had their orthodoxy challenged by the papacy and the Roman Catholic Church. One of the most pronounced instances of this type of challenge occurred in the late eleventh century between Pope Gregory VII and King Alfonso VI. First, this chapter will briefly discuss Arianism, which emerges as an important aspect of the Mozarabic liturgy in late eleventh century Spain emerges. The renewed importance of Arianism involves the Pope and various documents related to and possibly utilized to justify the replacement of the Mozarabic liturgy with the Roman Rite. King Alfonso VIs response to the pressure of Gregory VIIs renovatio will also be considered, and all of these factors will be related to the south portal and its title as portal of the silversmiths. The audience of the south portal, which would have included the townspeople and the pilgrims from the pilgrimage path through the Iberian Peninsula, will also be related to the title of the portal: Puerta de las Plateras. Ultimately, all these factors will be interrelated to the purpose and program of the portal. 49

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50 As briefly explored in Chapter 2, Pope Gregory VIIs emphasis on early Christian themes in his renovatio may indicate that he saw the original bad seed that cultivated the Mozarabic liturgy as the same antagonist to early Christian orthodoxy, Arius. Arius (250-336 AD), considered the founder of Arianism, claimed that Christ was not equal with God because he was between the designation of human and divine; thus, Arius challenged the dual nature of Christ. 1 The exact origin of this heresy is debated. While Arius was an Alexandrian bishop, Newman sees Arianisms development as occurring within the School of Antioch and barely stops short of definitively calling it a Jewish heresy. 2 He comes to this conclusion in the associations between Arius and Lucian of Antioch who tutored Arius and likely encouraged the ideas of Paul of Samosata, who advocated Christs position as merely man. 3 Though there are several theories about the gestation of the Arian heresy, Newmans theory and Ariuss relationship to Antioch will be the argument about Arianism most important to this thesis. Because Spain had a particularly influential historical connection with Arianism, Spanish Christian tradition provoked various suspicions concerning its orthodoxy. The primary target of critical inspection fell upon its most public displays, namely the Mozarabic Liturgy. The term Mozarabic is somewhat misleading. The liturgy received this name some time after the liturgys abolition in 1080 at the Council of Burgos. 4 The 1 Rowen Williams, Arius: Heresy and Tradition (London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1987), pp. 98-103. 2 John Henry Cardinal Newman, The Arians of the Fourth Century (London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1919), pp. 1-24. There has been a continuous dialogue about Arian origins that Rowan Williams sees as being relevant despite many theories, which might ordinarily seem outdated because of their conception in the late nineteenth century. 3 Ibid. 3. 4 The Council of Burgos declared the Roman Liturgy the acceptable liturgy of Spain and was the official dismissal of the Spanish tradition that used the Mozarabic Liturgy. See Henry Jenner, Mozarabic Rite,

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51 reason for this title is believed to involve the persistence of the liturgy among the Spanish Christians in the areas of Spain under Arabic jurisdiction even after the council. 5 It has been known as the Gothic Rite, the Toledan Rite, and the Visigothic Rite. 6 These designations are related to possible origins of the rite with the Visigothic control of Spain and Toledos position as the headquarters of the Mozarabic Rite, where it was believed to have been practiced even after 1080 with the knowledge of King Alfonso VI. 7 It has also been called the Isidorian Rite because Isidore of Seville (560-636) is speculated as the writer of the liturgy, or at least may have been involved in revisions of the liturgy. 8 No evidence exists concerning the Spanish liturgy before the Visigoths, and very little aside from a few manuscripts, remain of the liturgy before its abolition in 1080. 9 However, it is possible that there is some information about the Mozarabic liturgy that may be gleaned from Pope Gregory VIIs campaign against the liturgy. He wrote some letters to various parties and, as the liturgical saga progressed, recipients of correspondences included Abbot Hugh of Cluny and King Alfonso VI. 10 Pope Gregory Catholic Encyclopedia. www.newadvent.org/cathen10611a.htm, for information on the name of the liturgy and Teofilo F. Ruiz, Burgos and the Council of 1080, in Santiago, Saint-Denis, and Saint Peter: The Reception of the Roman Liturgy in Len-Castille in 1080 (New York: Fordham University Press, 1985), pp. 121-130. 5 Henry Jenner, Mozarabic Rite, Catholic Encyclopedia. www.newadvent.org/cathen10611a.htm, 6 Ibid. 7 B. F. Reilly, The Kingdom of Len-Castille under King Alfonso VI, 1065-1109, p. 183. 8 Henry Jenner, Mozarabic Rite, Catholic Encyclopedia. www.newadvent.org/cathen10611a.htm 9 Ibid. 10 Joseph F. OCallaghan, The Integration of Christian Spain into Europe: The Role of Alfonso VI of Len-Castile, in Santiago, Saint-Denis, and Saint Peter: The Reception of the Roman Liturgy in Len-Castile in 1080 (New York: Fordham University Press, 1985), p. 109.

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52 VIIs initial letter to the king of Len-Castile in 1074 includes some justification for his efforts to rid Spain of its Mozarabic liturgical tradition because it is an attempt to cleanse Priscillianism and Arianism from the liturgy witnessed by papal legates. 11 The concentration of this thesis upon the heresy of Arianism instead of Priscillianism is based upon the signifiers that the pope used for his campaign and that are related to the south portal. These signifiers have already been broached in previous chapters, but to recapitulate they include the dual nature program of the portal and the use of spolia like that seen on the Arch of Constantine (Fig. 20) and the Church of Old St. Peters. As the first caesaropapist figure, Constantine called the Council of Nicaea in 325 to address the emergence of the Arian heresy in the early Christian world. Pope Gregory VII may have seen himself as following in the steps of Constantine and as referenced earlier, Ernst Kitzinger supports prototypes for Pope Gregorys renovatio that relate to Constantine and Galla Placidia while Helen Toubert recognizes general early Christian themes in Gregorys campaign. 12 H. E. J. Cowdrey and Ramn Gonzlvez propose a possible use of the document forged in the Carolingian era, the Donation of Constantine, as influential in Pope Gregory VIIs campaign. 13 Supposedly dating from the early Christian period, this forged document unjustly made a claim that asserted papal control over many territories 11 Serafn Moralejo, On the Road, the Camino to Santiago in Art of Medieval Spain (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1993), p. 175. 12 See Ernst Kitzinger, The Gregorian Reform and the Visual Arts: A Problem of Method (The Prothero Lecture), Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, p. 98 and Hlne Toubert, Un art dirige: Reforme gregorienne et iconographie (Paris: Les editions du cerf, 1990). 13 Ramn Gonzlvez, The Persistence of the Mozarabic Liturgy in Toledo after A.D. 1080, in Santiago, Saint-Denis, and Saint Peter: The Reception of the Roman Liturgy in Len-Castile in 1080 (New York: Fordham University Press, 1985), p. 158; H.E.J. Cowdrey, The Cluniacs and the Gregorian Reform (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970), p. 220.

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53 including Spain. Interestingly, this document was included in a group of false decrees called the Pseudo-Isidorian decretals. This set of documents, which were organized in the Carolingian period, possibly by a member of the diocese of Hincmar of Rheims (845-882), was not known to have existed in Spain during the eleventh century. 14 But the original attribution of the decretals to Isidore of Seville, the same person believed to have composed or revised the Mozarabic liturgy, seems to open the possibility that Pope Gregory VII had some access to this document. 15 Thus, the Pseudo-Isidorian decretals and their inclusion of the Donation of Constantine make the period of the decretals forging, the Carolingian period, and the period of the Donations supposed creation, the reign of Constantine, important to Pope Gregory VIIs claim. The revival of the early Christian fight against Arianism in the south portals dual nature program has been explored, but the Carolingian revival of this early Christian fight against heresy needs some introduction. The Pseudo-Isidorian decretals appeared in the Carolingian period that is known for Alcuin and Charlemagnes fight against Hispanic Adoptionism. Hispanic Adoptionism was primarily classified as reflecting Arian tendencies to diminish the dual nature of Christ. However, historically, the Pseudo-Isidorian decretals date to the reign of Charles the Bald (843-877) and relate more to this Carolingian ruler. As stated earlier, this 14 Though Hincmar of Rheims is reported to have used the decretals on at least one occasion, it is believed that they were created under his authority by a disgruntled bishop. Philip Schaff, 0. The Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals, History of the Christian Church, Volume IV: Mediaeval Christianity. A.D.590-1073. http://www.ccel.org/s/schaff/hcc4/htm/i.iv.xiii.htm; , Louis Saltet, False Decretals, Catholic Encyclopedia. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05773a.htm, 15 False Decretals, Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=389494, The decretals, which was created in mid-ninth century, supports the primacy of the pope and elevates bishops to have more rights than usually given them by the archbishops. Louis Saltet, False Decretals, Catholic Encyclopedia http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05773a.htm,

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54 document may have been a product of the diocese of Hincmar of Rheims, who reprimanded Charles the Bald on numerous occasions for his interest in practices regarded as heretical. 16 Between 860 and 870, Hincmar wrote a treatise to Charles the Bald entitled De cavendis vitiis et virtutibus exercendis. This work emphasized the necessity of the transubstantiation of the Eucharistic sacraments. In supporting the actual consumption of the flesh and blood of Christ through the sacraments, this work not only supports the dual nature of Christ, but it also advocates the necessity of contrition, humility, and particularly, the practice of orthodox faith to engaging in this transubstantiation. 17 Hincmars emphasis of these requirements may have been an effort to counter Charles the Balds behavior. This is especially true because of the kings interest in unorthodox traditions. For example, Charles the Bald invited emissaries from Spain to his court in 870 to perform the Mozarabic rite for him. 18 More interesting is the fact that the reputed author/compiler of the Pseudo-Isidorian decretals in the Carolingian period used the canons of Isidore of Seville, the believed writer or reviser of the Mozarabic liturgy. 19 At this time, the writer, whose pseudonym 16 Philip Schaff, 0. The Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals, History of the Christian Church, Volume IV: Mediaeval Christianity. A.D.590-1073. http://www.ccel.org/s/schaff/hcc4/htm/i.iv.xiii.htm, 17 Celia Chazelle, The Crucified God in the Carolingian Era (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), pp. 288, 290. 18 See Henry Jenner, Mozarabic Rite, Catholic Encyclopedia. www.newadvent.org/cathen10611a.htm, 19 Philip Schaff. Isidore of Seville, New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Vol. VI: Innocents Liudger. http://www.ccel.org/s/schaff/encyc/encyc06/htm/iii.xli.htm ; Henry Jenner. Mozarabic Rite, in Catholic Encyclopedia. www.newadvent.org/cathen10611a.htm,

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55 was Isidore Mercator, was erroneously identified with Isidore of Seville. 20 If Charles the Bald was showing interest in the liturgical creation of Isidore of Seville, namely the Mozarabic liturgy, Pope Nicholas I (d.867) could use a forged document believed to be by the same individual who wrote this liturgy to counter the kings attempt to claim ecclesiastical authority. Hincmar of Rheims was likely trying to distance the king from the Mozarabic liturgy, its unorthodoxy, and any ties to Isidore of Seville. Additionally, the Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals inclusion of the Donation of Constantine establishes Gregory VIIs papal claim to the fourth century. This claim is said to be made by none other than the legalizer of Christianity himself, Constantine the Great. Thus, this document and the Pseudo-Isidorian decretals attempt to show any divergence from Roman Orthodoxy as heretical in lands that had supposedly belonged to the united Roman Empire in the fourth century. The nomenclature which associates Isidore of Seville with the decretals would seem to be orchestrated to suggest this church fathers recognition of the primacy of Rome and the pope as well as the surprising admission of the unorthodox nature of what may have been his Mozarabic liturgy. In this way, the decretals would seem to play an important role in Pope Gregory VIIs renovatio because they quote earlier sources that asserted papal primacy and do so in the name of the Mozarabic liturgys most prominent figurehead. 21 However, interestingly, Pope Gregory VII never mentions Hispanic Adoptionism in his reasons for objecting to the liturgy. In fact, the pope wavers in his 20 Philip Schaff. Isidore Mercator, New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Vol. VI: Innocents Liudger. http://www.ccel.org/s/schaff/encyc/encyc06/htm/iii.xxxviii.htm, 21 Louis Saltet, False Decretals, Catholic Encyclopedia. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05773a.htm,

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56 reasons for the reform citing the possible tainting of Spain from Arian influences to pagan influences and Muslim influences. Finally, when the installment of the Roman rite was ensured in Len-Castille, Pope Gregory VII issued a bull in 1081 that stated his approval in relation to the amending of unnamed formal heresies by the reinstatement of the Roman liturgy. 22 When examining the Popes vacillation in reasoning, the question becomes: did the identification of the heresy in the Mozarabic liturgy precede Gregorys campaign, or was the Visigothic history of Spain an excuse to feign discovery of Arianism in the Mozarabic liturgy, which would fit perfectly into the Popes Constantinian propaganda? Was the Donation of Constantine an instrument to further reform, or was it the reason for reform? The Pseudo-Isidorian decretals are instrumental in asserting the primacy of the pope while giving the bishops more independence. 23 Interestingly, after the deposition of Bishop Pelaez in 1088, no representative of the pope in the form of a bishop was named at Santiago de Compostela until 1094. 24 Part of the reasoning for this vacancy was possibly to enable the pope to enact a strict control over the region of Galicia himself and thus assert a personal role in removing the Mozarabic liturgy so near and dear to the Spanish people and monastics. As seen in the strong resistance of the monastics at 22 Ramn Gonzlvez, The Persistence of the Mozarabic Liturgy in Toledo after A.D. 1080, in Santiago, Saint-Denis, and Saint Peter: The Reception of the Roman Liturgy in Len-Castile in 1080, pp. 160-161. 23 Karen Mathews, who examines the Puerta de las Plateras as a program organized by Archbishop Diego Gelmrez, mentions the commonly held opinion of the people of Santiago de Compostela that Bishop Gelmrez conducted himself in a pope-like manner that seems to hint at the influence of the Pseudo-Isidorian decretals. Karen Matthews, They wished to destroy the temple of God: Responses to Diego Gelmrezs Cathedral Construction in Santiago de Compostela, 1100-1140, (PhD-University of Chicago, 1995), p. 67 24 Georges Gaillard, Les Dbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Len-Jaca-Compostelle (Paris, 1938), p.162; John Howard Barnes Knowlton, The Romanesque Sculpture of the Platerias Portal of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela (Thesis-M.A., New York University, 1939), p. 12.

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57 Sahagn and in the monks manipulation of the medium of manuscripts, Spanish monastics would have required intense scrutiny before identifying an individual that would prove resistant to any agenda except the supporting of Roman orthodoxy. While Knowlton sees this period without a bishop as involving artistic inactivity, it seems that this would have been the perfect opportunity for the pope to exercise complete control over what was visually communicated. 25 This general heretical theme extracted by Pope Gregory VII takes on a very specific form. He distills the specifically Spanish heresy into a generalized category of heresy visually and conceptually associated with Judaism. Pope Gregory VII likely took his cue in the use of a Jewish metaphor for heresy from Alcuin, who in his fight against Spanish Adoptionism reprimands Bishop Felix of Urgel and Archbishop Elipandus of Toledo (717-800). Referring to the bishop and archbishops support of Spanish Adoptionism, Alcuin states . with the Jews you still do not believe. 26 As previously described, Arianism itself has also been associated with Judaism. So how is this Jewish idiom expressed? There are elements including the title of the south portal, the cathedrals position within the town center, and iconographic qualities, which assert this comparison. First, the title of the south portal, Puerta de las Plateras, means the portal of the silversmiths. Interestingly, though throughout the Middle Ages there were prohibitions on Jewish artistic production, the silversmiths in Spain were Jewish. 27 Though the unwritten assumption about the title of the south portal 25 Ibid. 12. 26 Chazelle, The Crucified God in the Carolingian Era, p. 59. 27 Bernard Bernstein, Sanctification and the Art of Silversmithing: Processes and Techniques; A Handbook for Museums (New York: The Judaica Museum, 1994), p. 6.

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58 has been that the portal faces the shops of the silversmiths, as seen in the medieval city plan of Marilyn Stokstad (Fig. 8), there seems to be some further ideas being fostered in this title. Since the Pilgrims Guide asserts that the French only entered from the north, the south portals audience was the town of Santiago de Compostela. From this idea, Karen Mathews asserts that the south portal was predominantly used by the townspeople and that this was the portals intended audience. 28 Though this makes sense geographically, the title of the portal as being for the silversmiths seems to suggest that the townspeople were being associated with the label of non-believers seen as heretics, expressed in this case by association with Judaism. Further support for this idea is that the pilgrimage route to Santiago that moves only through the Iberian Peninsula and not through the rest of Europe is called Ruta de la Plata or the Silver Route. This route was also known as the Camino Mozarabe. It is by this same route that the relics of Isidore of Seville, the writer or reviser of the Mozarabic liturgy, were brought to Len. 29 In terms of contrasts in planning, the cruciform shape of the cathedral has the Plaza de la Inmaculada on the north arm of the cathedral while the Plaza de las Plateras is on the south. This idea seems to evoke Carolingian Crucifixion imagery with Ecclesia on the right of the cross and Synagogue on the left of the cross. The designations of the cathedral and its relationship to city planning and naming seem to express this idea of the orthodox and the heretical. In fact, the bishops palace is located on the north side of the cathedral while the cloisters are located on the south side. This seems to further express the resistance of the Spanish monastics to the Roman liturgy and orthodoxy. 28 Matthews, They wished to destroy the temple of God: responses to Diego Gelmrezs cathedral construction in Santiago de Compostela, 1100-1140, p. 151. 29 Alison Raju, The Way of St. James: Via de la Plata (Cumbria: Cicerone, 2001), p. 10.

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59 These ideas may not have been solidified until the appointment of Diego Gelmrez as archbishop of Santiago de Compostela in 1100, under whose leadership the Ruta de la Plata was popularized. But the generalization of heresy in Jewish terms, which may have originated with Pope Gregory VII and his quotation of Carolingian sources, also finds expression on the two tympana. As stated earlier, Figure 15 and the horizontal figure above the healing of the blind (Fig. 5, Stone T) depict Jewish figures whose designation as such are verifiable by the round cap that they are wearing. The blessing apostle (Fig. 12 [Fig. 3, Stone J]) on the left tympanum may be proselytizing the capped figure on his right. Even the unidentifiable creature, possibly dog, being restrained by a snake (Fig. 3, Stone L) on the left tympanum may reflect the suppression of the Spanish by the heresy of the Old Law while the dog or wolf with the snake between its teeth (Fig. 5, Stone N) on the right tympanum may reflect the triumph of the New Law over the Old Law. In the referencing of Arian heresy in his letter to Alfonso VI, Pope Gregory VII opened a theological gold mine of Spanish historical connections that include the Visigoths, the Carolingians, and Constantine. Through the use of the Donation of Constantine within the Pseudo-Isidorian decretals, Pope Gregory VII was likely connecting his campaign to a long, but fabricated, history of papal suzerainty in Spain. Through iconography and metaphors of heresy in terms of Judaism, he asserted this connection and perhaps even exploited what would become a legend. This legend originated in the Woman with the Skulls (Fig. 6 [Fig. 3, Stone G]) designation as the Adulterous Woman by Aymery Picaud. This description of the woman may be intended to relay a connection between the woman and Jerusalem, which is the adulterous woman in the Bible in the books of Ezekiel and Jeremiah. However,

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60 what may be the most telling association comes from the most important Spanish figure in this thesis, Isidore of Seville. He opens his History of the Goths, Vandals, and Suevi by calling Spain an adulterous woman. 30 This description will be explored in detail in Chapter 4 in which the Woman with Skull will be examined in depth in regard to various scholars identifications of her iconography and with regard to iconographic precedents that have eluded scholars up to this point. 30 Isidore of Sevilles History of the Goths, Vandals, and Suevi (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1970), pp. 1-2.

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CHAPTER 5 THE ICONOGRAPHY OF THE WOMAN WITH THE SKULL As the largest figure on the two tympana of the south portal sculpture of Santiago de Compostela (Fig. 1), all of which lack an original context, the classically rendered Woman with the Skull (Fig. 6) presents an interesting art historical challenge. For this reason, her iconography was discussed briefly in Chapter 2 with the intention of devoting all of Chapter 4 to the figure that Walter Cahn labels as one of the most enigmatic in Romanesque sculpture. 1 This chapter will begin by giving a description of the piece and continue by considering the various identities that scholars have attempted to assign as the pieces iconography. While Cahns statements concerning the piece express a certain resignation and ultimate acceptance that the womans identity is lost due to a lack of iconographic evidence, this study will propose an iconographic tradition for the piece revealing the womans identity as found in Carolingian and Late Imperial Roman iconography. Many of the scholarly ideas about the Woman with the Skull will be shown to be relevant only when these scholars choices for her identity are interrelated to one another and in the service of her iconographic precursor, the Penitent Roma. Ultimately, this composite identity will be related to Pope Gregory VIIs campaign to reform the Spanish Mozarabic liturgy by reasserting the Roman rite. In this campaign, the Woman with the Skull embodies the message of the south portal intended to act as a self-reflective image of the Spanish people to the south portal. 1 Walter Cahn, Romanesque Sculpture and the Spectator, in The Romanesque Frieze and its Spectator (London: The Dean and Chapter of Lincoln Cathedral, 1992), p. 59. 61

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62 Beyond the overtly prominent scale of the Woman with the Skull (Fig. 6 [Fig.3, Stone G]), she is one of the most artistically skilled pieces of spolia on the portal. There is a visual as well as thematic dichotomy expressed by the positive mass and negative space in the sculpting of this figure. The empty space veiled between the womans legs is characterized by drapery folds which are defined and dominated by deep furrows while the mass of her bare left leg counterbalances this in emphasizing the subtractive technique that pushes the plasticity of her shin forward into space. The folds below the waist produce an equal emphasis on the furrows stark shadowed depressions that in turn create a positive convex contrast in the dramatic yin and yang of their Zen sand curves. The sculptor uses subtle indentations to allude to the hemline of her dress while a similar though vertical line lightly defines the shin of her robe-covered leg that is quite pronounced in the projecting mass of her bare leg. In contrast, the upper torso of the woman has her right breast exposed, while her left breast is implied through the drapery folds. The diagonal of her bare body and the diagonal of her clothed body imply the crisscross of the faldestorium/sella curulis upon which she is seated. And, like the drapery folds of her robe, her hair resembles a braided mass of sinuous vines offset by thin swells on some strands. Ultimately, the sculptural result is dramatically fat folds of drapery and organically, intertwining tresses of hair. Her abundant hair and full face are in glaring contrast to the death skull on her lap. None of the other pieces in the two tympana either formalistically or stylistically replicate the sculptural drama enacted in the Woman with the Skull. Additionally, none of them have as much drama surrounding their iconographic interpretations. The first record of an iconographical identification of the woman is often considered the most

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63 sensationalistic and it comes from Aymery Picauds early twelfth century Pilgrims Guide which states: Nec est oblivioni tradendum quod milier quedam juxta dominicam Temptacionem stat, tenens inter manus suas caput lecatoris sui fetidum, a marito proprio abscisum, osculans illut bis per diem, coacta a viro suo. O quam ingentem et admirabilem justiciam mulieris adulterate, omnibus narrandam! 2 [Nor ought we to forget the female figure set near the Temptation of Our Lord: she holds in her hands the rotting head of her lover, cut off by her husband, who forces her to kiss it twice a day. What a great and admirable judgment upon an adulterous woman, which should be recounted to everyone!] 3 George Zarneckis translation of this passage specifies that the heads former owner is the womans seducer, a translated meaning that will have important connotations as this chapter progresses. 4 Picauds interpretation has elicited a wide range of responses from that of Philip Verdier who finds Picauds assessment of the image no more than a roman to Serafn Moralejos re-evaluation and endorsement of Picauds description. 5 Moralejo justifies Picauds interpretation, less on visual evidence and more by the contemporaneousness of the interpretation with the sculptures placement in the tympanum. 6 The Pilgrims Guide dates from 1135, and was probably written within sixty years following the creation of the program of the south portal, which could not predate 1075 and that this study 2 Jeanne Vielliard, Le Guide du Plerin de Saint-Jacques de Compostelle (Macon: Imprimerie Protat Frres, 1969), p. 102. 3 Translation of the words of Aymery Picaud from his Pilgrims Guide in Kenneth Conant, The Early Architectural History of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1925), p.53. 4 George Zarnecki, Art of the Medieval World (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1975), p. 224. 5 P. Verdier, La participation populaire la creation et la jouissance de loeuvre dart in La culture populaire au Moyen Age, Ed. P. Boglioni (Montreal 1979), pp. 63-80, esp. 70-73. 6 Serafn Moralejo, The Codex Calixtinus as an art historical source, in The Codex Calixtinus and the Shrine of St. James. Ed. John Williams and Alison Stones (Tubingen: Gunter NarrVerlag, 1992), p. 218.

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64 maintains as being created in 1078. But Moralejo does not restrict his interpretation of the piece to only Picauds words. He also maintains the idea that the image in its representation of adultery may be an exemplum based on eleventh or twelfth century sermons. 7 The idea of the exemplum implies that the piece in its new context as spolia acquired a new meaning that was not inherent to its iconography. Thus, Moralejo seems to assert that the piece became a source for creative interpretation without any retention of its meaning from its former context. Essentially, reading an accurate meaning into the piece without any iconographic consistency from its first context to this new context makes a recreation of twelfth century meaning virtually impossible. Another unfortunate weakness of this argument is its dependence on written sources that are not even identifiable: there is no specific written sermon with an exemplum to which Moralejo can relate the story of the Adulterous Woman. In addition, there is no visual evidence to support his reading. Moralejo does mention the possible connection of the Woman with the Skull to a capital in Santa Marta de Tera in Zamora of a seated woman with a decapitated head in her lap (Fig.29). However, he concedes that the figure on the capital is probably Salome because of the beard that is shown on the severed head. 8 Jos Mara de Azcarate relates the Woman with the Skull to the sculpture found on the historiated capitals of the south portal found below the tympana. These capitals depict the expulsion of Adam and Eve from Paradise. Azcarate concludes from these images that the Woman with the Skull is Eve as Mother of Death. 9 This is understood 7 Ibid. 218. 8 Ibid. 217. 9 Jos Mara de Azcarate, La Portada de las Plateras y el programa iconografico de la Catedral de Santiago Archivo Espaol de Arte, 36 (1963), pp. 1-20 (Specifically pp.10-12).

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65 based on the skull on the womans lap as alluding to death. Eve was the instrument of the devil that brought death into the world through her encouragement of Adam to eat the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge, thus her association as sins bearer and the mother of death. However, the problem with this interpretation is that Azcarate does not create a very tight interrelationship of this figure to his larger dual nature program. Karen Mathewss study discusses the Woman with the Skull only in vague terms that allude to connections with images of fully clothed women originally from the north portal. 10 Although the purposes in this connection remain ambiguous, she is likely trying to loosely connect the piece to a social event or person in conjunction with her aim to relate the entire south portal program to Archbishop Diego Gelmrez. While she alludes to Moralejos conclusions about the piece being an exemplum and melds this interpretation with the idea of Eve as Mother of Death as also being an exemplum, it can only be assumed that she concurs with Moralejos theory, except she is connecting the exemplum to personages and female stereotypes concurrent with Diego Gelmrezs retention of the office of archbishop. 11 She also makes many references to women as sinful, including Queen Urraca of Len-Castile (1109-1126). 12 Mathews quotes a passage from the Historia Compostellana that refers to the Queen as acting in accordance with female perversity in the breaking of a pact with the archbishop. 13 However, 10 Karen Mathews, They wished to destroy the temple of God: Responses to Diego Gelmrezs Cathedral Construction in Santiago de Compostela, 1100-1140 (PhD-University of Chicago, 1995), pp. 185-186, 204-205. 11 Ibid. 204-205. Diego Gelmrezs active participation as archbishop at Santiago de Compostela was between 1100 and 1140. 12 Ibid. 13 Ibid. 206. makes comparison between the image and Historia Compostellanas statement about the queen (Urraca) breaking a pact with the archbishop But whom does female perversity not confront? What do the

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66 Mathews only suggests a general tenor of misogynistic sentiment as influencing the sculpture and the text and not direct references to particulars. 14 Unfortunately, the only possible connection between the queen and the Woman with the Skull is possibly the seat of power, the sella curulis or faldestorium. However, representing the Queen in slanderous association of the Woman with the Skull would likely have deprived the archbishop of his office and his head. Mathews also entertains connections between the figure of the Woman with the Skull and Lust; however, there is a sculptural piece in the cathedral museum of Santiago de Compostela that was originally on the portal and that represents Lust. Redundancy, though present in some instances on the portal, makes this interpretation less plausible. 15 Ole Naesgaard creates an association between the Woman with the Skull and the floating head (Fig. 11) that appears to be in the same style. Without any basis, Naesgaard maintains that the floating head on the upper left of the tympanum is the husband that decapitated the Woman with the Skulls seducer. He concludes that the story of the Woman with the Skull is derived from sources like One Thousand and One Nights and the Decameron. 16 The problem is that the Decameron postdates the Pilgrims Guide by over two hundred years. Though there was Arab influence in Spain that might have wiles of the serpent not presume? Whom does this most terrible viper not attack? In sum, what feminine trickery confronts, presumes, and attacks is indicated clearly by the example of Eve, our first mother. The most audacious soul of women violates that which is most holy; all is the same, the licit and the prohibited. (HC, II, 39, 284). 14 Ibid. 206. 15 Ibid. 205. 16 Ole Naesgaard, Saint-Jacques de Compostelle et les dbuts de la grande sculptures vers 1100 (Aarhus, 1962), pp. 73-74.

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67 exposed the Spanish to the eighth-century One Thousand and One Nights, there is no historical reason for connecting the Woman with the Skull with this source. Chapter 2 of this thesis has connected the Woman with the Skull to the Penitent Mary Magdalene, a suggestion first made by J. Villa-Amil y Castro and Georges Gaillard. 17 The official association of the Magdalene with a skull does not occur until the Council of Trent in the 1560s. 18 However, she is shown with this attribute in the Renaissance paintings of Titian (Fig. 30) and Georges de la Tour (Fig. 31). Rather, I would like to suggest that there is a larger and more complex melding of iconography and ideology that is occurring with this iconography of the Woman with the Skull. As stated earlier, the identification of the piece as an adulterous woman by the Pilgrims Guide remains a much-debated interpretation. In fact, Walter Cahn concludes that Ultimately, then, we lack in this instance the means to verify the claims of the Pilgrims Guide by reference to a stable pictorial tradition or specifiable hermeneutical practice. 19 One of the aims of this chapter is to fill this lacuna. As the previous chapters have attempted to establish, the themes and texts of the Carolingian period are just as relevant to the Romanesque period as they are to the ninth and tenth centuries. Pope Gregory VIIs endeavor to purge Spain of heresy is simply a renewal of the project of Alcuin and Charlemagne who first interpreted the Mozarabic 17 See J. Villa-Amil y Castro, La Cathedral de Santiago (Madrid 1909), p.32 and Georges Gaillard Les commencements de lart roman en Espagne Bulletin Hispanique 37 (1935): 273-308 or Etudes dart roman (Paris 1972), pp. 38-63. 18 Susan Haskins, Mary Magdalene: Myth and Metaphor (New York: Riverhead Books, 1995), p.236. 19 Cahn, Romanesque Sculpture and the Spectator, p. 59.

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68 liturgy as being tainted by Arianism. 20 However, what is more important is the continuation of this issue into the reign of Charles the Bald. According to Barton Sholod, Charles the Bald was regularly apprised of the activities and progress in the pre-Romanesque church of Santiago de Compostela. 21 In 870, the same year that this king invited emissaries from Spain to perform the Mozarabic liturgy at his court and that Hincmar of Rheims wrote about the importance of the Eucharist to the king, Hincmar of Rheims commissioned an ivory that has now been integrated into the Pericopes of Henry II (Fig. 32). 22 This ivory is one of the most renowned Crucifixion ivories of the Carolingian period and can be interpreted as supporting the dual nature of Christ. Known as the Munich ivory or Cover of the Bamberg Evangelistary (Fig. 33), it will be shown as containing a possible prototype for the Woman with the Skull. The ivory is composed of three registers with wavy groundlines. The top register contains the Crucifixion, the middle register depicts the resurrection and three Marys at the tomb, and the bottom register contains classical personifications amid individuals being resurrected from their tombs. While the Crucifixion and resurrection seem to celebrate the dual nature of Christ, the Spanish Mozarabic liturgy may be referenced in the two figures on the far right of the top register of the ivory (Fig. 34). The standing figure has a knob or horn on her head while her heel touches the jug containing the vinegar that was offered by Stephano to Christ. This horned figure has been associated 20 Celia Chazelle, The Crucified God in the Carolingian Era: Theology and Art of Christs Passion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), p. 55. 21 Barton Sholod, Charlemagne in Spain: The Cultural Legacy of Roncesvalles (Genve: Librairie Droz, 1966), p.59 n. 77. 22 Amy Vandersall, The Ivories of the Court School of Charles the Bald (PhD, Yale University, 1965), p. 83.

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69 with Judaism in figures like Moses while Celia Chazelle has also associated the vinegar used by Stephano in the Crucifixion with Judaism. 23 This is important because Judaism was considered a general metaphor for heresy and dissent from orthodoxy. This Synagogue figure or figure of Judaism hands a flat, round disk to the enthroned and crowned male dressed in royal robes. This round disk may be a missorium and signify the emissaries that came from Spain to the court of Charles the Bald in 870. 24 The ivorys enthroned and crowned figure with his patterned robes closely resembles the image of Charles the Bald from the Codex Aureus of Charles the Bald from 870 (Fig. 35). 25 Both figures have a patterned border to their garment which in the Codex Aureus is jeweled and this motif is abstracted in the smaller ivory figure. Thus, the king in the ivory may represent Charles the Bald accepting Synagogue who would personify the Spanish Mozarabic liturgy. Celia Chazelle concludes that Hincmar of Rheims commissioned the ivory as an admonishment to the king against heresy with which I concur. 26 But instead of general heresy, the Synagogue figure and her missorium seem to connect the ivory to the specific incident of the kings invitation of the emissaries to perform the Mozarabic liturgy. 23 Celia Chazelle, The Crucified God in the Carolingian Era: Theology and Art of Christs Passion, p. 148. 24 Henry Jenner. Mozarabic Rite, in Catholic Encyclopedia. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/10611a.htm, 25 Celia Chazelle, The Crucified God in the Carolingian Era: Theology and Art of Christs Passion, p. 283. The figure of Christ and the knot of his perizoma on the ivory appear to be a direct quotation of this manuscript as well. 26 Ibid. 299. Chazelle, however, says that the figure on the right of the ivory resembles Charles the Bald but is actually Tellus. She also does not address her proposal of general heretical admonishment of the king specifically in terms of the Mozarabic liturgy.

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70 The most significant figure in the ivory to this thesis is one of the classical personifications in the bottom register of the ivory. The use of classical personifications illustrates the importance of classical style to the ivory and perhaps is meant to evoke Constantinian models and prototypes. This would relay a message of christusmimesis and caesaropapism as well as evoke the importance of Constantine through the Carolingian document, the Donation of Constantine, which falsely transferred papal authority over areas such as Spain. This ivory and its style essentially proclaim a prerequisite of orthodoxy to ownership and jurisdiction of these areas based on this false Donation of Constantine. Examining the particular figures of the Classical personifications reveals the presence of Oceanus and Gaia who flank a mysterious central figure (Fig. 36). 27 This central female figure is seated on royal cushions and has a bared right breast. It is also significant that she is located in a graveyard, creating associations with death. Ferber identifies this mysterious female figure as a personification of Roma. 28 A similar but more majestic figure appears in the Late Imperial sculpture at the base of the column of Antoninus Pius in the apotheosis relief (Fig. 37). Like the ivory figure, this Late Imperial Roma has a bared right breast, and to her left is a shield depicting the suckling of Romulus and Remus by the legendary she-wolf (Fig. 38). 29 The emblem of Roma on the base of the column of Antoninus Pius can also be linked to the seated Roma on Charles the Balds ivory, based on her compositional location directly 27 S. Ferber, Crucifixion Iconography in a Group of Carolingian Ivory Plaques, Art Bulletin (XLVIII/1966), p. 327. 28 Ibid. 327. 29 According to legend, Romulus and Remus were orphaned as babies and were nurtured by the she-wolf. When they grew to manhood, Romulus kills Remus on April 27, 753 B.C., the date of the founding of Rome. Thus, the image on the shield of Roma further reinforces her identification.

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71 beneath the cross. The Carolingian iconography of Roma positioned directly beneath the cross of the Crucifixion is also represented in a second Carolingian Crucifixion ivory known as the Rambona diptych dated to 900 (Fig. 39). In the Rambona ivory, Roma is personified by the suckling she-wolf that is depicted directly beneath the cross. The similarity in placement of the seated woman from the ivory of Charles the Bald and the suckling she-wolf from the Rambona ivory supports the interpretation, that this seated woman on the ivory of Charles the Bald is Roma. The female personification of Roma on the Antoninus Pius monument and the Roman figure on Charles the Balds ivory both share the bared right breast found in the image of the Woman with the Skull (Fig. 6). In addition, the Woman with the Skull has the death skull in her lap, which creates the same association with death as does the personification of Roma in the graveyard in Charles the Balds ivory. Perhaps even the positioning of the ivorys Roma figure at the base of the cross, the location known as Golgotha or place of the skull, may be related to the Woman with the Skulls iconography. Further connections include that neither figure is veiled and both have an upward tilt to their head, the ivory figure to enable her to look on her conversion back to Rome and the Roman liturgy through the Crucifixion image above her. The Woman with the Skull possibly has this same position through similar model book iconography or her original context, which may be similar to the ivorys composition. However, the important interpretation of the Woman with the Skull is that she is a Roma who is penitent or who has strayed. She was orthodox and then tainted by heresy, but she ultimately is converted back to Roman ways.

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72 The importance of rehabilitation instead of recreation is illustrated by Rose Walker, who makes the all important point in her book that Pope Gregory VII was emphatic that the Roman Liturgy was the original liturgy of Spain and that the Mozarabic was a deviation from this original liturgy. 30 Without this claim, Pope Gregory VII would have been supporting innovation, which was heretical. 31 With the influence of the Donation of Constantine, Spain would be categorized among the possessions of Rome long before Isidore of Seville and the Mozarabic liturgy. By using an image of the Woman with the Skull, which may now be identifiable as Penitent Roma, the pope would insure that his message was clear: the Spanish had deviated from their original liturgy and had fallen into heresy. Thus, in 1074, Spain was being led by the Pope to see the error of her ways by beginning to embrace her nascent liturgy, that of Rome. 32 However, the question becomes how does the idea of papal jurisdiction relate to the reading of the sculptural piece as the Adulterous Woman in Picauds interpretation and the idea of Villa-Amil y Castro and Gaillard whose thesis connects the piece to the Penitent Mary Magdalene? The answer to this question may reside in ideas broached in previous chapters of this thesis. In Chapter 3, the Mozarabic liturgy was connected to Isidore of Seville who also wrote a History of the Goths, Vandals, and Suevi. In this text, Isidore of Seville 30 See Rose Walker, Views of Transition: Liturgy and Illumination in Medieval Spain (London: British Library, 1998), p.21. 31 Ibid. 32-33. 32 The pope may make direct reference to Spain as this adulterous woman in one of his letters of 1080. In this letter, he refers to the insurrection of the monk Robert at Sahagn who supported the Mozarabic liturgy as being aided by . his ancient helper, an abandoned woman . Scholars have assumed that the woman could only be Constance of Burgundy; however, it seems possible that the woman aiding Robert was in fact Spain itself. For further information, see P. David, Etudes historiques sur la Galice et le Portugal (Paris and Lisbon, 1966), pp. 414-17.

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73 describes Spain as a woman who has broken her betrothal to Rome by illicit relations with the Goths. Of all lands which stretch from the West to India, you are the most beautiful, O Spain, sacred and ever-blessed mother of leaders and of nations. . Thus rightly did golden Rome, the head of nations, once desire you, and although the same Romulaean virtue, first victorious, betrothed you to itself, at last, nevertheless, the most flourishing nation of the Goths after many victories in the world eagerly captured and loved you, and enjoys you up to the present amid royal insignia and abundant wealth, secure in the felicity of empire. 33 As seen in Julie Galambushs study of the personification of Jerusalem in the Bible and the variations of adultery, sexual indiscretions with a third party during a betrothal was considered adulterous behavior. 34 Thus, under this definition and with Isidore of Sevilles metaphor of Spain as violating her betrothal, Spain could be likened to an adulterous woman. Galambushs dissertation, which concerns the identification of Jerusalem as adulterous in the Book of Ezekiel, becomes even more important when considering Mary Magdalenes relationship to the adulterous woman metaphor. Galambush sees Jerusalem as a larger metaphor for Judaism, which this thesis has shown to be connected with some of the iconographic representations on the portal and as a metaphor for the Arian heresy. 35 The idea of Jerusalem as being adulterous and Spain as being adulterous may not have been a metaphor that the Spaniards would have rejected on the basis of their association of Spain with Judaism. In fact, the connections between the arca santa found at Oviedo and the ark of the covenant seem to support an enthusiasm for the 33 Isidore of Sevilles History of the Goths, Vandals, and Suevi. Trans. Guido Donini and Gordon B. Ford, Jr. (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1970), pp. 1-2. 34 Julie Galambush, Jerusalem in the Book of Ezekiel: The city as Yahwehs wife (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1992), p. 28. 35 Ibid.

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74 Jewish metaphor. After all, the Jews were the chosen people and perhaps, the Spaniards felt that they could become the chosen people who fulfilled the Christian frenzy for conversion. Additionally, in the left tympanum, Figure 9 (Fig.3, Stone E) has the inscription of H[IERV]S[AL]EM CIVITA which makes a connection between the Woman with the Skull and Jerusalem through spatial proximity of these sculptural pieces. While Galambush unites Judaism and adultery, Susan Haskins describes the Magdalenes association with Judaism and the Synagogue found in Hippolytus of Romes Commentary on the Canticle of Canticles. 36 Hippolytus of Rome classifies the Sponsa or Bride of Christ as being both Mary Magdalene and her sister Martha. 37 It is unclear if he refers to only Mary Magdalene as Synagogue, or the Church of the Jews, or to both of the women as such. Regardless, the Magdalene is essentially a betrothed figure who likely was viewed as violating this agreement in her sinful behavior as a prostitute and a metaphor for the Synagogue or the Church of the Jews. 38 This idea is further traced to possible visual representations in the depiction in the Rabula Gospels (Fig. 33) of the Virgin Mary and Mary Magdalene at the tomb of Christ. The Rabula Gospels depicts a similar two-person visitation of the tomb except in this case it is the Syrian version that has the Virgin Mary accompany the Magdalene. 39 Haskins concurs with other scholars that this is due to a cult to the Virgin in Syria. However, it seems that 36 Haskins, Mary Magdalene: Myth and Metaphor, p. 60. 37 Ibid. 60-61. 38 It is likely that the misattribution of the Magdalene as a prostitute occurred around the third or fourth centuries when the commentary on the Mishna, the Talmud began to be circulated. In the Talmud, the Magdalene is associated with an adulteress. The Hebrew word, znh, was used to refer to both prostitutes and women engaged in illicit sexual behavior while under the authority of another man. See Galambush, Jerusalem in the Book of Ezekiel: The city as Yahwehs wife, pp. 27-35. 39 Ibid. 89-91.

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75 this may be an even more blatant attempt to associate Mary Magdalene with the Church of the Jews and as the first Eve because of the Virgins title of Second or redeeming Eve. 40 The visit to the tomb seems to fuse and express a message of conversion of the Church of the Jews into Mary-Ecclesia, the Church of Christ. The Syrian origin of the Rabula Gospels may also reflect a Syrian ideology behind the association between Mary Magdalene and the Church of the Jews. St. Ephraim the Syrian, whose sermons were in Castilian manuscripts in the tenth century and also available at Cluny in the eleventh century, wrote a sermon for Easter Sunday that identifies the Synagogue as an adulterous woman. 41 With the associations of the Magdalene to the Bride of Christ in Hippolytus of Romes Commentary on the Canticle of Canticles, the fourth century relation of St. Ephraims text of adultery and the Jews, and the appearance of the Virgin and the Magdalene at the tomb two centuries later in the Rabula Gospels, these texts may show a progression in the interpretation and role of Mary Magdalene. By combining these sources, not only can Villa-Amil y Castro, Gaillard, and Picauds interpretations of the Woman with the Skull take on a new meaning, but the interpretation of the figure as Eve by Azcarate also gains importance. Zarneckis translation of Picauds text describes the Adulterous Womans sin as being caused by a seducer instead of a lover. Like Eve, she was seduced into sin. Because the Woman with the Skull is a penitent Roma figure, she represents the same woman who strays and 40 Ibid. 91. 41 Andre Grabar, Les illustrations des Beatus mozarabes et les miniatures orientales chretiennes et juives, Cahiers archeologiques XXVIII (1979), pp. 8-10; G. Bardy, Le Souvenir de Saint Ephrem dans le Haut Moyen Age Latin, Revue du Moyen Age Latin 2 (1946), p. 300.

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76 triumphs. So essentially, she represents the ultimate Biblical conflation that the figures of Eve, Mary Magdalene, and the Virgin Mary may be intended to represent. Especially for the Carolingians and Pope Gregory VII, it was important to represent these various figures as one figure so that she would simultaneously represent pre-fallen Eve and Rome in her orthodoxy as the original betrothed church, the Magdalene in her adultery as the heretical Mozarabic liturgy, and finally, the triumphant church who had always existed despite the heresies of Judaism and Mozarabic Arianism. Ultimately, the Woman with the Skull would represent the woman who finally triumphs in her orthodoxy as the pre-fallen Eve and the Eve restored from Original Sin brought on by her seduction. This idea is further reinforced when taking into consideration that the primary audience of the Puerta de las Plateras was the town of Santiago and the pilgrims on the Ruta de la Plata. As established in Chapter 3, the silversmith portal and the Route of the Silver may refer to the Jewish silversmiths. This connection may have been intended to address the audience of the south portalthe townspeople of Santiago de Compostela, with their Jewish artisans. The adulterous metaphor of the Jews that extended to the heretical Spanish people of the town and the Spanish pilgrims on the Ruta de la Plata is sustained in the image of the Woman with the Skull. This image was likely intended as a self-reflective symbol of a liturgically prodigal return of Spain and her people to their betrothed, Rome, and the ultimate triumph of the papacy. The figure of the Woman with the Skull was related in Chapter 2 to the angel on the opposite side of the tympanum so as to create a scene of the resurrection. By integrating the figure of the Penitent Roma that is an emblem of Spain into the scene of the resurrection, the program of the Puerta de las Plateras placed the Arian disbelievers

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77 in the divine nature of Christ directly in association with the scene from Christian theology that declares his divinity. In this way, Spain is placed in the role of witness to Christs display of the divinity that accompanied his humanity. Within this role, the Woman with the Skull drew the citizens of Santiago de Compostela and the pilgrims of the Ruta de la Plata as a group who were likened to the Jews who also denied the divinity of Christ, into orthodoxy by forcefully positioning them, like the spolia figure, into the scene of the resurrection. Through the multivalent meanings of the Woman with the Skull as a conflation of the fallen and the redeemed and in her association with Spain, the papacy created a propagandistic tool that may have been essential to refute the Mozarabic Arian heresy.

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CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION As this study has attempted to show, the urgency to fulfill Pope Gregory VIIs demands in his 1074 letter urging the reform of the Mozarabic liturgy initiated the building of the Romanesque church of Santiago de Compostela. But more significant to this study is that it likely dictated the program of the south portal, the Puerta de las Plateras, which was the portal of the Spanish townspeople and pilgrims. Through the popes letter and through inscription evidence, this study derives a terminus postquem of 1075 for the cathedral. The confusion related to the date of July 11, 1078, on the Puerta de las Plateras is taken by this study to mark Cardinal Richards arrival in Spain. This papal legate likely served as the bearer of the dual nature program for the south portal, explaining that dates placement on the Puerta de las Plateras. The manuscript of the Codex Calixtinus is the primary source that can be used to isolate a terminus antequem for the cathedrals south portal. This document describes the tympana arrangement as it exists today and can be used to conclude the sculptural programs placement by 1135. As seen in Chapter 2, even without geological testing, the different stones used for the various sculptures on the two tympana, the different scale of the pieces and their mutilation to be fit into the composition of the tympana seems to make spolia use a natural conclusion for the portal. The tympana, which are composed completely of spolia, become an important example of spolia use in medieval Spain, a topic that has not received much attention. The use of spolia in medieval Spain may connect the Spanish churches with Gregory VIIs reform and its orthodoxy. This may indicate that spolia use 78

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79 in medieval Spain not only acted as a reference to the iconography and past structures from which the art was taken, but that it was also intended to act as a declarative statement of orthodox liturgical practice. This orthodoxy becomes aesthetically connected to the first emperor openly supportive of Christianity, Constantine, who also used spolia in his monuments like the Arch of Constantine. Pope Gregory VII, who in 1073 was making a papal claim on Spain, is believed to have based this claim on the forged medieval document, the Donation of Constantine. Though scholars of medieval Spain dispute the outcome of this claim, the use of spolia seems to create a declarative statement of Roman control over the Iberian Peninsula at this time. The use of spolia not only referenced Constantine and the forged assertion of Roman authority over the Iberian Peninsula, it actively, combatted the assertion in manuscripts that the instigation of the Roman liturgy was an act of innovation. The actual reuse of spolia was likely a visual way of representing not innovation but reordering. I support the argument of Jos Mara de Azcarate that the iconographic program in the two tympana of the Puerta de las Plateras can be understood as the dual nature of Christ based on the primary events depicted. These events include the Adoration of the Magi, the Temptations, the Betrayal, the Flagellation, the Crucifixion, and Mary Magdalene at the Tomb. Karen Mathewss complaint about the missing scene of resurrection has been reconciled by the backward-turned magus toward Herods kingdom and the vacant cross at the end of the flagellation panel. The two pieces on either end of the left tympanum, the angel in the doorway and the Woman with the Skull, have also been argued as representing resurrection. The angel in the doorway holds a censer. From the doorway of the sepulcher, the angel looks across the tympanum to the Woman with

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80 the Skull, who this study relates to the Penitent Mary Magdalene and the Penitent Roma. The motif that combines an angel, the Magdalene, and an incense pot appears in a Carolingian ivory and a Carolingian manuscript, further supporting the Carolingian iconographic allusions that this thesis has identified. Chapter 3 takes the dual nature programs importance and relates it to the Arian influences brought to Spain by the downfall of the Roman Empire and the invasions of the Goths. The Visigoths who practiced the Arian heresy took control of the land and the religion of Spain. Because Spain had a particularly influential historical connection with Arianism, Spanish Christian tradition provoked various suspicions concerning its orthodoxy. The primary target of critical inspection fell upon its most public displays, the Mozarabic Liturgy. This rite was also called the Isidorian Rite because the liturgy was revised or possibly written by Isidore of Seville. Not only the dual nature program of the portal but also the use of spolia may relate to the detection of Arianism in the Mozarabic liturgy. As the first caesaropapist figure, Constantine called the Council of Nicaea in 325 to address the emergence of the Arian heresy in the early Christian world. Pope Gregory VII may have seen himself as following in the steps of Constantine. The forged Donation of Constantine was included in a group of false decrees called the Pseudo-Isidorian decretals. The mistaken attribution of the decretals to Isidore of Seville, the same person believed to have composed or revised the Mozarabic liturgy, seems to open the possibility that Pope Gregory VII had some access to this document. The Pseudo-Isidorian decretals appeared in the Carolingian period, known for Alcuins and Charlemagnes fight against Hispanic Adoptionism. Hispanic Adoptionism

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81 was primarily classified as portraying Arian tendencies to diminish the dual nature of Christ. However, historically, the Pseudo-Isidorian decretals date to the reign of Charles the Bald and relate more to this Carolingian ruler. This is especially important because of the kings interest in unorthodox traditions as seen in the emissaries from Spain who came to his court in 870 to perform the Mozarabic rite for him. The heretical theme, that the Carolingian period identified and that was expunged by Pope Gregory VII, takes on a very specific form through a visual and conceptual association with Judaism. There are elements including the title of the south portal, the cathedrals position within the town center, and iconographic qualities that assert this comparison. While the Pilgrims Guide maintains that the French only entered from the north, the south portals audience was the town of Santiago de Compostela. From this idea, Mathews asserts that the south portal was predominantly used by the townspeople and that this was the portals intended audience. Though this makes sense geographically, the title of the portal as being for the silversmiths, an occupation of Jews, seems to suggest that the townspeople were being associated with the label of heretics expressed in this case by association with Judaism. Further supportive of this idea is that the route to Santiago through the Iberian Peninsula is called Ruta de la Plata or the Silver Route. Additionally, as seen in Chapter 4, the enigmatic piece in the left tympanum that the twelfth century Pilgrims Guide calls the Adulterous Woman, may also reflect this Jewish theme. The Book of Ezekiel identifies the Jews as adulterous in chapter sixteen. This designation was a larger metaphor for Spain seen in the works of Isidore of Seville. The adulterous woman interpretation seems to be accurate for the sculptural piece

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82 because of this literary reference and its authors connection and the portals programmatic relationship to the Mozarabic liturgy. The idea of heresy as adultery reflected the idea of the Roman rite as not innovation, but the original liturgy from which adulterous Spain strayed. This same type of iconography and meaning is read into the ivory from the Pericopes of Henry II that dates to the Carolingian rule of Charles the Bald. This ivory, or a model book version of its figure of Roma, was likely the prototype for the Woman with the Skull. Due to limitations such as language proficiency and time constraints, this study, whose title bears the word preliminary, has excluded many of the Spanish studies done on Santiago de Compostela. As a masters thesis, there is further work and exploration that can be done to expand this study, as has been done in the work of Jos Mara de Azcarate. Further investigations of the Woman with the Skull in terms of 1) her enthroned position on a sella curulis/faldestorium, 2) her bared breast and its relationship to the Virgin suckling the Christ Child, and 3) ideas of the womans relationship to the theotokos as the new Eve and the womans relationship to Original Sin are avenues of exploration that would require further inquiry. However, many of the questions surrounding the identity of the Woman with the Skull have been narrowed through the iconographic traditions broached by this study.

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Figure 1. Puerta de las Plateras, Santiago de Compostela, (Gaillard, Les Dbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Len-Jaca-Compostelle, pl. LXXXIX).

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84 Figure 2. Left Tympanum, Puerta de las Plateras, (Photo: Karen Webb). Figure 3. Diagram superimposed over the Left Tympanum, Puerta de las Plateras, (Photo: Karen Webb).

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85 Figure 4. Right Tympanum, Puerta de las Pl ateras, Santiago de Compostela (Photo: Karen Webb). Figure 5. Diagram superimposed on Right Tymp anum, Puerta de las Plateras, Santiago de Compostela (Photo: Karen Webb).

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86 Figure 6. Woman with the Skull, Left Tympan um, Puerta de las Plateras, Santiago de Compostela, (Gaillard, Les Dbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Len-Jaca-Compostelle, pl. CI).

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87 Figure 7. Plan of the Cathedral of San tiago de Compostela, (Conant, The Early Architectural History of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela). [Black=Romanesque; Green=Romanico-Gothic; Red=Gothic; Yellow=Renaissance, Baroque; White=Modern]

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88 Figure 8. Plan of Santiago de Compostela, (Stokstad, Santiago de Composte la: In the Age of the Great Pilgrimages, pp.2-3).

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89 Figure 9. Left portion of Left Tympanum, Puerta de las Plateras, Santiago de Compostela (Photo: Karen Webb). Figure 10. Right portion of Left Tympanum, Puerta de las Plateras, Santiago de Compostela (Photo: Karen Webb).

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90 Figure 11. Christ with Spolia Crown, Left Tympanum, Puerta de las Plateras, Santiago de Compostela, (Naaesgaard, Saint-Jacques de Compostelle et les dbuts de la grande sculptures vers 1100, p. 50). Figure 12. Blessing Apostle, Left Tympanum, Puerta de las Plateras, Santiago de Compostela, (Gaillard, Les Dbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Len-Jaca-Compostelle, pl. C).

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91 Figure 13. Theotokos, Right Tympanum, Puerta de las Plateras, Santiago de Compostela, (Naesgaard, Saint-Jacques de Compostelle et les dbuts de la grande sculptures vers 1100, p.59).

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92 Figure 14. Flagellation panel, Right Tympanum, Puerta de las Plateras, Santiago de Compostela, (Gaillard, Les Dbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Len-Jaca-Compostelle, pl. CIII). Figure 15. Male bust, Left Tympanum, Puerta de las Plateras, Santiago de Compostela, (Gaillard, Les Dbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Len-Jaca-Compostelle, pl. C).

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93 Figure 16. Healing of the Blind, Right Tympanum, Puerta de las Plateras, Santiago de Compostela, (Gaillard, Les Dbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Len-Jaca-Compostelle, pl. CIV).

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94 Figure 17. Crowning of Christ and the Betrayal of Christ, Right Tympanum, Puerta de las Plateras, Santiago de Compostela, (Gaillard, Les Dbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Len-Jaca-Compostelle, pl. CV). Figure 18. Last Judgment, west tympanum of Saint-Lazare, 1120-1135, marble, Autun, France (Gardners Art through the Ages. Eleventh edition, Fig. 17-25).

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95 Figure 19. Diagram of the Puerta de las Plateras, Santiago de Compostela (Durliat, La sculpture romane de la route de Saint-Jacques: de Conques Compostelle, p.327).

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96 Figure 20. Arch of Constantine, 312-315, Rome, Italy (south side) (Gardners Art through the Ages Eleventh Edition, Fig. 10-76). Figure 21. Jews wearing the round cap, BM Cotton Claudius B. iv, detail of Folio 121r, 1025-1050 (Mellinkoff, The Round, cap-shaped ha ts depicted on Jews in BM Cotton Claudius B. iv, Fig. Id).

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97 Figure 22. St. Andrew, Left jamb of the right door, Puerta de las Plateras, Santiago de Compostela (Gaillard, Les Dbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Len-Jaca-Compostelle, pl. CVII).

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98 Figure 23. Spanish Coat of Arms (Maclagan, Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe, p.84). Figure 24. Trumeau, South Portal, Monastery Church of St. Pierre, Moissac, France (Porter, Romanesque Sculpture of the Pilgrimage Roads, Vol. II, Fig. 362).

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99 Figure 25. Sarcophagus of San Ramn, twelfth century, Roda de Isabena, Spain (Costa, Roda de Isabena: histoira y arte, p. 109). Figure 26. Theotokos, Apse mosaic of Hagia Sophia, c.867, Istanbul, Turkey (Lowden, Early Christian and Byzantine Art, Fig. 99).

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100 Figure 27. Narbonne Ivory, c.820, the cathedral of Saint-Just de Narbonne, France (Sepire, LImage dun Dieu souffrant, p.216).

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101 Figure 28. Initial D with the Three Marys at the Tomb, Drogo Sacramentary, Folio 58r, c.850 (The Utrecht Psalter in Medieval Art, p. 197, Fig. 11b).

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102 Figure 29. Capital of Salome, Santa Marta de Tera, Zamora, Spain (Moralejo, The Codex Calixtinus as an art historical source, Fig. 6, p. 225). Figure 30. Titian, The Penitent Magdalen, 1560s, oil on canvas, Hermitage, St. Petersburg (Pedrocco, Titian, Fig. 241).

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103 Figure 31. Georges de la Tour, The Penitent Magdalen, c.1638-1643, oil on canvas, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (Cuzin and Rosenberg, Georges de la Tour, p. 202, Fig. 39).

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104 Figure 32. Book cover of Pericopes of Henry II (cod. Lat. 4452, cim. 57), c.870, ivory, precious stones, niello, and enamels, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich (Sepiere, Limage dun Dieu souffrant (Ixe-Xe siecle): Aux origines du crucifix, PL. XXIa).

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105 Figure 33. Book cover of the Pericopes of Henry II, c.870, ivory, Codex Latinus 4452, Staatsbibliothek, Mnich (Seiferth, Synagogue and Church in the Middle Ages: Two Symbols in Art and Literature, Fig. 5).

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106 Figure 34. Detail of Synagogue and King Charles the Bald, Pericopes of Henry II, c.870, ivory, Codex Latinus 4452, Staatsbibliothek, Mnich (Seiferth, Synagogue and Church in the Middle Ages: Two Symbols in Art and Literature, Fig. 5).

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107 Figure 35. Codex Aureus of Charles the Bald, Mnich, SB, Throne of Charles the Bald, f.5v, c.870 (The Utrecht Psalter in Medieval Art, p. 18, Fig. 22).

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108 Figure 36. Detail of Roma between Oceanus and Gaia, Pericopes of Henry II, c.870, ivory, Codex Latinus 4452, Staatsbibliothek, Mnich, (Seiferth, Synagogue and Church in the Middle Ages: Two Symbols in Art and Literature, Fig. 5).

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109 Figure 37. Apotheosis of Antoninus Pius and Faustina, pedestal of the Column of Antoninus Pius, c.161 A.D., marble, Rome, Italy (Gardners Art through the Ages. Eleventh edition, Fig. 10-57). Figure 38. Detail of Shield with She-Wolf Suckling Romulus and Remus from the Apotheosis of Antoninus Pius and Faustina, pedestal of the Column of Antoninus Pius, c.161 A.D., marble, Rome, Italy (Gardners Art through the Ages. Eleventh edition, Fig. 10-57).

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110 Figure 39. Crucifixion from the diptych of Rambona, 900, Rome, Vatican Museum, (Sepiere, Limage dun Dieu souffrant (Ixe-Xe siecle): Aux origines du crucifix, Fig. 56, p. 216).

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111 Figure 40. The Crucifixion from the Rabula Gospels, c.586, Florence, Biblioteca Laurentiana (Beckwith, Early Christian and Byzantine Art, Fig. 45).

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LIST OF REFERENCES Abou-el-haj, Barbara. Santiago de Compostela in the Time of Diego Gelmrez. Gesta XXXV (1997): 165-179. Alfonso, Carlos de. El Escudo de Espaa en las obras de arte del Patrimonio Nacional. Reales sitios XIX/73 (1982): 57-72. Azcarate, Jos Mara de. La Portada de las Plateras y el programa iconografico de la Catedral de Santiago. Archivo Espaol de Arte 36 (1963): 1-20. Bardy, G. Le Souvenir de Saint Ephrem dans le Haut Moyen Age Latin. Revue du Moyen Age Latin 2 (1946): 297-300. Beckwith, John. Early Christian and Byzantine Art. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1970. Bernstein, Bernard. Sanctification and the Art of Silversmithing: Processes and Techniques; A Handbook for Museums. New York: The Judaica Museum, 1994. Brenk, Beat. Spolia from Constantine to Charlemagne: Aesthetics versus Ideology. Dumbarton Oaks Papers 41 (1987): 103-109. Cahn, Walter. Romanesque Sculpture and the Spectator. The Romanesque Frieze and Its Spectator. London: The Dean and Chapter of Lincoln Cathedral, 1992. Chazelle, Celia. The Crucified God in the Carolingian Era: Theology and Art of Christs Passion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Conant, Kenneth. The Early Architectural History of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1925. ________. Carolingian and Romanesque Architecture 800-1200. New York: Penquin Books, 1987. Costa, Manuel Iglesias. Roda de Isabena: histoira y arte. Barbastro: D.D.P.C.B., 1989. Cowdrey, H. E. J. The Cluniacs and the Gregorian Reform. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970. Cuzin, Jean-Pierre. Georges de la Tour. Paris: Runion des Muses Nationaux, 1997. David, P. Etudes historiques sur la Galice et le Portugal. Paris and Lisbon, 1966. 112

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113 Durliat, Georges. La sculpture romane de la route de Saint-Jacques: de Conques Compostelle. Mont-de-Marsan: Comit d'tudes sur l'histoire, 1990. False Decretals. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=389494, Ferber, S. Crucifixion Iconography in a Group of Carolingian Ivory Plaques, Art Bulletin XLVIII (1966): 323-337. Gaillard, Georges. Les commencements de lart roman en Espagne. Bulletin Hispanique 37 (1935): 273-308. ________. Les Dbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Leon-Jaca-Compostelle. Paris, 1938. Galambush, Julie. Jerusalem in the Book of Ezekiel: The City as Yahwehs Wife Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1992. Gardners Art through the Ages. Eleventh Edition. Ed. Fred S. Kleiner, Christina J. Mamiya, and Richard G. Tansey. Fort Worth: Harcourt College Publishers, 2001. Gonzlvez, Ramn. The Persistence of the Mozarabic Liturgy in Toledo after A.D.1080. Santiago, Saint-Denis, and Saint Peter: The Reception of the Roman Liturgy in Len-Castile in 1080. New York: Fordham University Press, 1985. Grabar, Andre. Les illustrations des Beatus mozarabes et les miniatures orientales chretiennes et juives. Cahiers archeologiques XXVIII (1979): 7-16. Haskins, Susan. Mary Magdalene: Myth and Metaphor. New York: Riverhead Books, 1995. Isidore of Sevilles History of the Goths, Vandals, and Suevi. Trans. Guido Donini and Gordon B. Ford, Jr. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1970. Jenner, Henry. Mozarabic Rite. Catholic Encyclopedia. Ed. K. Knight, 2003 http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/10611a.htm, Kitzinger, Ernst. The Gregorian Reform and the Visual Arts: A Problem of Method (The Prothero Lecture). Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Fifth Series, vol. 22. London: University College London, 1972: 87-102. Knowlton, John Howard Barnes. The Romanesque sculpture of the Platerias portal of the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela. M.A. Thesis, New York University, New York, 1939. Krautheimer, Richard. The Architecture of Sixtus III: A Fifth Century Renascence? Studies in Early Christian, Medieval and Renaissance Art New York, 1969.

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114 Lhotka, J. F. and P. K. Anderson. Survey of Medieval Iberian Coinages. Chicago: Argonaut, Inc., 1963. Lowden, John. Early Christian and Byzantine Art. London: Phaidon, 1997. Maclagan, Michael. Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe. New York: Barnes and Nobles Books, 2002. Mathews, Karen. Reading Romanesque Sculpture: The Iconography and Reception of the South Portal Sculpture at Santiago de Compostela. Gesta 39/1 (2000): 3-12. ________. They wished to destroy the temple of God: Responses to Diego Gelmrezs Cathedral Construction in Santiago de Compostela, 1100-1140. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Chicago, Illinois, 1995. Mellinkoff, Ruth. The Round, Cap-Shaped Hats Depicted on Jews in BM Cotton Claudius B. iv. Anglo-Saxon England 2 (1973): 155-166. Moralejo, Serafn. The Codex Calixtinus as an Art Historical Source. The Codex Calixtinus and the Shrine of St. James. Ed. John Williams and Alison Stones. Tubingen: Gunter NarrVerlag, 1992. ________. On the Road, the Camino to Santiago. Art of Medieval Spain. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1993. Naesgaard, Ole. Saint-Jacques de Compostelle et les dbuts de la grande sculptures vers 1100. Aarhus, 1962. Newman, John Henry Cardinal. The Arians of the Fourth Century. London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1919. OCallaghan, Joseph F. The Integration of Christian Spain into Europe: The Role of Alfonso VI pf Len-Castile. Santiago, Saint-Denis, and Saint Peter: The Reception of the Roman Liturgy in Len-Castile in 1080. New York: Fordham University Press, 1985: 101-120. Onians, John. Bearers of Meaning: The Classical Orders in Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988. Pedrocco, Filippo. Titian. New York: Rizzoli, 2000. Porter, Arthur Kingsley. Romanesque Sculpture of the Pilgrimage Roads, Volume IV. New York: Hacker Art Books, 1966. ________. Spain or Toulouse? and Other Questions. Art Bulletin 7 (1924): 3-25. Raju, Alison. The Way of St. James: Via de la Plata. Cumbria: Cicerone, 2001.

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115 Reilly, B. F. The Kingdom of Lon-Castille under King Alfonso VI. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988. Rubens, Alfred. A History of Jewish Costume. New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1967. Ruiz, Teofilo F. Burgos and the Council of 1080. Santiago, Saint-Denis, and Saint Peter: The Reception of the Roman Liturgy in Leon-Castille in 1080. New York: Fordham University Press, 1985. Saltet, Louis. False Decretals. Catholic Encyclopedia http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05773a.htm, Santiago de Compostela: 1000 ans de plerinage europen: Europalia 85 Espaa. Gand: Centrum voor Kunst en Cultuur, 1985. Sepire, Marie-Christine. LImage dun Dieu souffrant. Paris: Les ditions du Cerf, 1994. Philip Schaff. Isidore of Seville, New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Vol. VI: Innocents Liudger. http://www.ccel.org/s/schaff/encyc/encyc06/htm/iii.xli.htm, ________. The Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals. History of the Christian Church, Volume IV: Mediaeval Christianity. A.D.590-1073. http://www.ccel.org/s/schaff/hcc4/htm/i.iv.xiii.htm, Seiferth, Wolfgang S. Synagogue and Church in the Middle Ages: Two Symbols in Art and Literature. Trans. Lee Chadeayne and Paul Gottwald. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., 1970. Sholod, Barton. Charlemagne in Spain: The Cultural Legacy of Roncesvalles. Genve: Librairie Droz, 1966. Snyder, James. Medieval Art. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, Inc, 1989. Stokstad, Marilyn. Santiago de Compostela: In the Age of the Great Pilgrimages. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1978. Thurston, Herbert. Dates and Dating, Catholic Encyclopedia. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04636c.htm, Toubert, Helene. Un art dirige: Reforme gregorienne et iconographie. Paris: Les editions du cerf, 1990. The Utrecht Psalter in Medieval Art: Picturing the Psalms of David. Ed. Koert van der Horst et al. Tuurdijk: HES, 1996.

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116 Vandersall, Amy. The Ivories of the Court School of Charles the Bald. PhD Dissertation, Yale University, Connecticut, 1965. Verdier, P. La participation populaire la creation et la jouissance de loeuvre dart. Ed. P. Boglioni. La culture populaire au Moyen Age. Montreal:LAurore, 1979. Viellard, Jeanne. Le Guide du Plerin de Saint-Jacques de Compostelle. Macon: Imprimerie Protat Frres, 1969. Villa-Amil y Castro, J. La Cathedral de Santiago. Madrid 1909. Walker, Rose. Views of Transition: Liturgy and Illumination in Medieval Spain. London: British Library, 1998. Williams, Rowen. Arius: Heresy and Tradition. London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1987. Zarnecki, George. Art of the Medieval World. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1975.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Karen Webb received her Master of Arts from the University of Florida in the spring of 2004 with an emphasis in medieval art. Before this degree, she completed a masters in humanities at the University of Chicago in 2001. She will continue her research in Spanish Romanesque art or Carolingian art in a doctoral program in the fall. 117


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Title: Preliminary Investigation of the Iconography of the Woman with the Skull from the Puerta de las Platerias of Santiago de Compostela
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Copyright Date: 2008

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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0004760/00001

Material Information

Title: Preliminary Investigation of the Iconography of the Woman with the Skull from the Puerta de las Platerias of Santiago de Compostela
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF THE ICONOGRAPHY OF THE WOMAN
WITH THE SKULL FROM THE PUERTA DE LAS PLATERIAS OF SANTIAGO DE
COMPOSTELA














By

KAREN FAYE WEBB


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2004
































Copyright 2004

by

Karen Faye Webb

































To Dan and Judy Webb
















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I am indebted to many individuals for their support and guidance in my physical

and conceptual pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela. I would most like to thank Dr.

David Stanley who has been my constant supporter as my toughest critic and my most

caring mentor. Dr. Carolyn Watson's medieval art class at Furman University introduced

me to the complex beauty of the south transept portal. My parents indulged my awe of

this portal and physically and metaphorically climbed the steps leading to the Puerta de

las Platerias with me to pay homage to the Woman with the Skull. Without them, this

study would not have been possible. I would like to thank my reader, Dr. John Scott, for

his insightful comments, and Jeremy Culler, Sarah Webb and Sandra Goodrich for their

support, friendship, and unwavering faith in me. Finally, I would like to thank the

Woman with the Skull, who brought me on this pilgrimage and has given me a new

awareness about art and myself.




















TABLE OF CONTENTS





ACKNOWLEDGMENT S .............. .................... iv


LI ST OF FIGURE S .............. .................... vi

AB S TRAC T ..... ._ ................. ............_........x


CHAPTER


1 INTRODUCTION ................. ...............1.......... ......

2 HISTORICAL FOUNDATION OF THE CATHEDRAL AND DATING OF THE
SOUTH PORTAL .............. ...............3.....


3 SCULPTURAL ORGANIZATION, DESCRIPTION OF THE ICONOGRAPHY,
AND THE ICONOGRAPHIC PROGRAM ................. ...............................18


4 THE SOCIAL, POLITIC, AND RELIGIOUS CONTEXT OF LATE ELEVENTH
CENTURY SPAIN ................. ...............49.................

5 THE ICONOGRAPHY OF THE WOMAN WITH THE SKULL ............................61


6 CONCLU SION............... ...............7

LIST OF REFERENCES ......_ .................. ................. ......... ........ .....112


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH..................... ................11

















LIST OF FIGURES


figure pg

1. Puerta de las Platerias, Santiago de Compostela, (Gaillard, Les Dibuts de la
Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Leo~n-Jaca-Compostelle, pl. LXXXIX). .................83

2. Left Tympanum, Puerta de las Platerias, (Photo: Karen Webb). ............. .................84

3. Diagram superimposed over the Left Tympanum, Puerta de las Platerias,
(Photo: Karen W ebb). ............. ...............84.....

4. Right Tympanum, Puerta de las Platerias, Santiago de Compostela (Photo:
Karen W ebb). ............. ...............85.....

5. Diagram superimposed on Right Tympanum, Puerta de las Platerias, Santiago
de Compostela (Photo: Karen Webb)............... ...............85.

6. Woman with the Skull, Left Tympanum, Puerta de las Platerias, Santiago de
Compostela, (Gaillard, Les Dibuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Leon-Jaca-
Compostelle, pl. CI). ............. ...............86.....

7. Plan of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, (Conant, The Early
Architectural History of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela).
[Black=Romanesque; Green=Romanico-Gothic; Red= Gothic;
Yellow=Renaissance, Baroque; White=Modern] .............. ....................8

8. Plan of Santiago de Compostela, (Stokstad, Santiago de Compostela:1In the Age
of the Great Pilgrimages, pp.2-3). ................ ............... ......... ........ ..88

9. Left portion of Left Tympanum, Puerta de las Platerias, Santiago de
Compostela (Photo: Karen Webb). ............. ...............89.....

10. Right portion of Left Tympanum, Puerta de las Platerias, Santiago de
Compostela (Photo: Karen Webb). ............. ...............89.....

11. Christ with Spolia Crown, Left Tympanum, Puerta de las Platerias, Santiago
de Compostela, (Naaesgaard, Saint-Jacques de Compostelle et les debuts de la
grande sculptures vers 1100, p. 50). ............. ...............90.....










12. Blessing Apostle, Left Tympanum, Puerta de las Platerias, Santiago de
Compostela, (Gaillard, Les Dibuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Ledn-Jaca-
Compostelle, pl. C) ................. ...............90................

13. Theotokos, Right Tympanum, Puerta de las Platerias, Santiago de Compostela,
(Naesgaard, Saint-Jacques de Compostelle et les debuts de la grande sculptures
vers 1100, p.59) ............... ...............91....

14. Flagellation panel, Right Tympanum, Puerta de las Platerias, Santiago de
Compostela, (Gaillard, Les Dibuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Ledn-Jaca-
Compostelle, pl. CIII) ................. ...............92................

15. Male bust, Left Tympanum, Puerta de las Platerias, Santiago de Compostela,
(Gaillard, Les Dibuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Led~n-Jaca-Compostelle,
pl. C )............... ...............92...

16. Healing of the Blind, Right Tympanum, Puerta de las Platerias, Santiago de
Compostela, (Gaillard, Les Dibuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Ledn-Jaca-
Compostelle, pl. CIV)............... ...............93..

17. Crowning of Christ and the Betrayal of Christ, Right Tympanum, Puerta de las
Platerias, Santiago de Compostela, (Gaillard, Les Dibuts de la Sculpture Romane
Espagnole: Led~n-Jaca-Compostelle, pl. CV). ............. ...............94.....

18. Last Judgment, west tympanum of Saint-Lazare, 1120-1135, marble, Autun,
France (Gardner 's Art through the Ages. Eleventh edition, Fig. 17-25). ...............94

19. Diagram of the Puerta de las Platerias, Santiago de Compostela (Durliat, La
sculpture romane de la route de Saint-Jacques: de Conques a Compostelle, p.327).95

20. Arch of Constantine, 312-315, Rome, Italy (south side) (Gardner 's Art
through the Ages, Eleventh Edition, Fig. 10-76) ......... ................. ...............96

21. Jews wearing the round cap, BM Cotton Claudius B. iv, detail of Folio 121r,
1025-1050 (Mellinkoff, "The Round, cap-shaped hats depicted on Jews in BM
Cotton Claudius B. iv," Fig. Id). ............. ...............96.....

22. St. Andrew, Left jamb of the right door, Puerta de las Platerias, Santiago de
Compostela (Gaillard, Les Dibuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Ledn-Jaca-
Compostelle, pl. CVII). ............. ...............97.....

23. Spanish Coat of Arms (Maclagan, Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal
Families of Europe, p.84) ................. ...............98........... ...

24. Trumeau, South Portal, Monastery Church of St. Pierre, Moissac, France
(Porter, Romanesque Sculpture of the Pilgrimage Roads, Vol. II, Fig. 3 62)...........98










25. Sarcophagus of San Ramon, twelfth century, Roda de Isabena, Spain (Costa,
Roda de Isabena: histoira y arte, p. 109). ....__................. ................ ...9

26. Theotokos, Apse mosaic of Hagia Sophia, c.867, Istanbul, Turkey (Lowden,
EarlyE~~~~EEEEE~~~~EEEE Christian and Byzantine Art, Fig. 99). ............. ...............99.....

27. Narbonne Ivory, c.820, the cathedral of Saint-Just de Narbonne, France
(Sepiere, L 'Inzage d'un Dieu souf~fant, p.216). .................. ...............10

28. Initial D with the Three Marys at the Tomb, Drogo Sacra~nentaly, Folio 58r,
c.850 (The Utrecht Psalter in M~edieval Art, p. 197, Fig. 11Ib). ........._.... .............101

29. Capital of Salome, Santa Marta de Tera, Zamora, Spain (Moralejo, "The
Codex Calixtinus as an art historical source," Fig. 6, p. 225) ............... ...............102

30. Titian, The Penitent Ma'~gdalen, 1560s, oil on canvas, Hermitage, St.
Petersburg (Pedrocco, Titian, Fig. 241). ............. ...............102....

31. Georges de la Tour, The Penitent Magdalen, c. 163 8-1643, oil on canvas, the
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (Cuzin and Rosenberg, Georges de la
Tour, p. 202, Fig. 39). ............. ...............103....

32. Book cover ofPericopes ofHenry II (cod. Lat. 4452, cim. 57), c.870, ivory,
precious stones, niello, and enamels, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich (Sepiere,
L 'intage d 'un Dieu sou~ffra~nt (Ixe-Xe siecle): Aux origins du crucify ix, PL. XXIa). 104

33. Book cover of the Pericopes ofHenry II, c. 870, ivory, Codex Latinus 4452,
Staatsbibliothek, Miinich (Seiferth, Synagogue and Church in the M~iddle Ages:
Two Symbols in Art and Literature, Fi g. 5)................... ............... 105

34. Detail of Synagogue and King Charles the Bald, Pericopes ofHenry II, c.870,
ivory, Codex Latinus 4452, Staatsbibliothek, Miinich (Seiferth, Synagogue and
Church in the M~iddle Ages: Two Symbols in Art and Literature, Fig. 5). .........._..106

35. Codex Aureus of Charles the Bald, Miinich, SB, Throne of Charles the Bald,
f.5v, c. 870 (The Utrecht Psalter in 2edievalArt, p. 18, Fig. 22). ........._.............107

36. Detail of Roma between Oceanus and Gaia, Pericopes ofHenry II, c.870,
ivory, Codex Latinus 4452, Staatsbibliothek, Miinich, (Seiferth, Synagogue and
Church in the M~iddle Ages: Two Symbols in Art and Literature, Fig. 5). .........._..108

37. Apotheosis of Antoninus Pius and Faustina, pedestal of the Column of
Antoninus Pius, c. 161 A.D., marble, Rome, Italy (Gardner 's Art through the Ages.
Eleventh edition, Fig. 10-57)............... ...............109

38. Detail of Shield with She-Wolf Suckling Romulus and Remus from the
Apotheosis of Antoninus Pius and Faustina, pedestal of the Column of Antoninus










Pius, c. 161 A.D., marble, Rome, Italy (Gardner 's Art through the Ages. Eleventh
edition, Fig. 10-57) ................. ...............109...............

39. Crucifixion from the diptych of Rambona, 900, Rome, Vatican Museum,
(Sepiere, L 'image d 'un Dieu sou~ffrant (Ixe-Xe siecle): Aux origins du crucify ix,
Fig. 56, p. 216). ................ ...............110..............

40. The Crucifixion from the Rabula Gospels, c.586, Florence, Biblioteca
Laurentiana (Beckwith, EarlyE~~~~EEEEE~~~~EEEE Christian and Byzantine Art, Fig. 45). ................... 111
















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF THE ICONOGRAPHY OF THE WOMAN
WITH THE SKULL FROM THE PUERTA DE LAS PLATERIAS OF SANTIAGO DE
COMPOSTELA

By

Karen Faye Webb

May 2004

Chair: David Stanley
Major Department: Art and Art History

Walter Cahn labels the Woman with the Skull on the south portal of Santiago de

Compostela as one of the most enigmatic figures in Romanesque sculpture. This study

will endeavor to alleviate some of her mysterious anonymity by showing her importance

as a metaphor of conversion relevant to the liturgical changes in Spain in the 1070s and

1080s. The present position of this spolia figure resulted from the religious controversy

between King Alfonso VI of Le6n-Castile and Pope Gregory VII. Through letters and

personal envoys, Gregory VII demanded that Alfonso VI abandon the Mozarabic Liturgy

with its inherent Arian heretical elements that denied the dual nature of Christ and that it

be replaced with the orthodox Roman rite. Alfonso VI conceded to Gregory VII's

demands and in 1080 at the Council of Burgos, the Mozarabic liturgy was officially

condemned and replaced with the orthodox Roman rite. The south transept sculptural

program, which is composed entirely of sculptural spolia, is designed to emphasize the









orthodox doctrine of the dual nature of Christ. The Woman with the Skull will be

explored as part of this papal propaganda.

First, the Woman with the Skull will be described and the various identities that

scholars have attempted to assign as the piece's iconography will be discussed. Second,

this study will propose an iconographic tradition for the piece revealing the woman's

identity as an adaptation Carolingian iconography and Roman iconography from the Late

Imperial Period. Finally, this study proposes a composite identity for the Woman with

the Skull. This composite identity can be understood by combining the iconographic

reference of the figure to earlier Roma figures, the almost cultic eleventh century

identification of the figure as the "Adulterous Woman," and the figure' s relationship to

Biblical characters. This composite identity will be shown to include a fusion of the

figures of Eve, Mary Magdalene, and the Virgin Mary.

Ultimately, these conclusions about Cahn's enigmatic woman will be related to

Pope Gregory VII's campaign to reform the Spanish Mozarabic liturgy tainted by

Arianism to the Roman rite. In his campaign, the Woman with the Skull embodies the

message of the south portal intended to act as a self-reflective image of the Spanish

people and which is integral to their relationship to the south portal.















CHAPTER 1
INTTRODUCTION

The obj ective of this thesis is to examine the south portal or Puerta de las Platerias

on the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela and to analyze its two tympana in order to

decipher the programmatic theme intended for its medieval audience (Fig. 1). Strangely,

most previous studies of the portal have been limited to the iconographic identification of

individual pieces of sculpture, but few scholars have engaged in a search for the

tympana' s overall meaning. Few have even suggested a cohesive intent for what this

thesis will suggest is a collection of thematically interrelated pieces of sculptural spolia

that appears on the tympana (Fig. 2 and Fig. 4).

Because of the diversity of spolia pieces, scholars are often presented with the

difficult task of analyzing the different individual stones and then relating them to their

position within the entire portal, which deceptively seem to be a conglomeration of

unrelated pieces. Because this thesis is only dealing with the sculpture in the two

tympana, the figure numbers of the sculpture will be organized according to an initial

number, which will guide the reader in most cases to an image that is a detail of the

tympana or of the individual piece. The second figure number will direct the reader to a

diagram of either the entire left tympanum (Fig. 3) or the entire right tympanum (Fig. 5)

that outlines each spolia piece and identifies it with a letter. Thus, in conjunction with

this second number is also a capital letter, which will identify the individual stone panels

within the context of their position in either tympanum. For example, one of the most

famous sculptural pieces on the two tympana is the Woman with the Skull. References to









her within the thesis text will be as follows: (Fig. 6 [Fig. 3, Stone G]). Figure 6 is a detail

of the sculptural piece and Figure 3 is the left tympanum with the Woman with the

Skull's position being identified by the letter G.

In fact, the present study began as an inquiry into the meaning of that enigmatic

Woman with the Skull. In order to attempt to discern the meaning of the Woman with

the Skull and to understand her significance within the iconographic program of the

Puerta de las Platerias, this thesis will investigate the following topics: Chapter 1 will

explain the history of the site of the cathedral and the dating of the cathedral and portal.

Chapter 2 will discuss the evidence for the use of spolia in the portal and it will contain a

description of the iconography and an explication of its programmatic content. Chapter 3

will discuss the social context of the portal program and the symbolism and meaning of

the portals, while Chapter 4 will explore the relationship between the portal and the

Woman with the Skull. This chapter will also attempt to reveal iconographic prototypes

for the Woman with the Skull predating it from the Imperial period of Rome and the

Carolingian period. Chapter 5 will recapitulate the conclusions of the previous chapters

and discuss the future implications of the portal's iconography and of the figure of the

Woman with the Skull.















CHAPTER 2
HISTORICAL FOUNDATION OF THE CATHEDRAL AND DATING OF THE
SOUTH PORTAL

What is known of the medieval city of Santiago de Compostela remains ensconced

in the foundations of its cathedral. Beyond these foundations, limited evidence exists

about the medieval town, which Kenneth Conant calls "irrevocably lost."l Despite this

loss, Conant provides some clues that recreate a radius of buildings around the pre-

Romanesque church before its Romanesque renovations. In this chapter, Conant's study

of the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela will be used to investigate the structures that

were moved or destroyed to transform the pre-Romanesque church into the Romanesque

pilgrimage church. Marilyn Stokstad's study of the medieval city will help create some

descriptive parameters for the areas surrounding the cathedral. Once familiarity has been

established with the site, the controversial dates in which changes began to be applied to

the site will be discussed in terms of these dates' various documentation. From letters to

inscriptions to manuscript citations, social and religious motivations aligned with the

renovation dates will be proposed to strengthen this study's choice of a terminus

postquent and a terminus antequent for the cathedral's south portal.

Santiago de Compostela's cathedral evolved from its beginnings as a small ninth

century tomb to St. James the Great, an apostle of Christ who the Christian inhabitants of





SKenneth Conant, The Early architectural History of the Cathedral of L aner, ;. de Compostela
(Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1925), p. 3.










the Iberian Peninsula claim to be the evangelist of their homeland.2 James the Great was

the first apostle to be martyred and was beheaded by King Herod in Judea. The Iberian

tradition maintains that the followers of James placed his relics in a boat and that the boat

was miraculously guided to the northwest coast of the Iberian Peninsula. It is

hypothesized that the tomb to the apostle was lost over time and was rediscovered by a

hermit named Pelayo. As legend maintains, in 813 he had a vision of lights emanating

from the tomb's earliest known incarnation, a small cella-like room. The foundations of

this small tomb of likely Classical date are of granite and brick and are approximately

oriented.3 Soon after its discovery and the increase in pilgrim visits, King Alfonso II of

Asturias (791-842) built a simple nave for Saint James' s tomb, converting it into a small

church that Stokstad describes as no more than a shed attached to the shrine's west wall.4

Alfonso II also embellished this first church of Santiago de Compostela with a baptistry

on its north side.' The king continued his expansion of the site by building the church of

San Salvador that was closely aligned, if not contiguous, with the sepulcher on the east

side.6 The church of Santa Maria was another addition made by the king and it was

possibly located to the northeast of the church of Santiago de Compostela.7 Alfonso III



2 There were three different men of prominence with the name James in the New Testament. St. James the
Great was an apostle who was the son of Zebedee and Salome. St. James the Less was also an apostle who
was possibly shorter in stature. The third James is James the Brother of Jesus.

3 Ibid. 4-5.

4 COnant, The Early Architectural History of the Cathedral of Le t,,;.. de Compostela, p. 6; Marilyn
Stokstad, Le Ire Is. de Compostela: In the Age of the Great Pilgrimages (Norman: University of Oklahoma
Press, 1978), p. 12.

SConant, The Early Architectural History of the Cathedral of Le t,,;.. de Compostela, p. 6.

6 Ibid. 6.

SIbid. 39.









of Asturias and Galicia (866-910) altered this first church of Santiago de Compostela

with the intention to renovate Alfonso II' s prosaic structure into an Asturian style church.

This proj ect was completed in 896.8

In the late eleventh or early twelfth centuries (controversial dating that will be

discussed below), King Alfonso VI of Le6n-Castile (1065-1 109) instituted the third

renovation of the structure, the pre-Romanesque church of Santiago de Compostela.

Conant lists three possible reasons that inspired Alfonso VI to undertake the third and

most significant renovation of Santiago de Compostela: 1) the importance of fireproofing,

2) the economic concerns attached to Santiago' s status as the culmination of the

pilgrimage roads, 3) the reproduction of the pilgrimage church plan.9 A fundamental and

obvious reason for the renovation is the shift of the technology into the Romanesque era

with its emphasis on vaulting to fireproof the church.

Conant sees the emulation of the pilgrimage church type as a function of

competition among pilgrimage churches and the need to promote Santiago de

Compostela as the culmination of the pilgrimage.10 Satisfying the expectations of

pilgrims for their ultimate destination and the economic desire to keep the pilgrims in the

city to generate profits from tourism made the renovation of the church essential. This

conclusion should never be disregarded or overlooked for it certainly was a substantial

motivation; however, other evidence builds upon this thesis to further motivations.





"Ibid. 6.

9 Ibid. 16-18, 21.

' Ibid. 17-18.










Though Conant mentions this motivation, his argument emphasizes the sudden

appearance of the pilgrimage church plan."l The plan that emerged has a regular

modularized grid within a cruciform plan that includes a nave and single side aisles. The

side aisles continue around the apse in the innovative ambulatory with radiating chapels

that allows the pilgrims to venerate the relics without interrupting the services conducted

in the church. Though Santiago de Compostela is a pilgrimage church, the relics of St.

James are not on the periphery, but are the immovable center around which the cathedral

was constructed. The basic pilgrimage church plan was featured in five maj or churches:

St. Sernin in Toulouse, St. Martin at Tours, St. Martial at Limoges, St. Foy at Conques,

and Santiago de Compostela. St. Martin at Tours and St. Martial at Limoges no longer

exist and the church that served as the prototype for this popular plan is unknown.12

Conant remains diplomatic as to which church gave rise to other structural duplications.

He sees Santiago de Compostela as a candidate for the original idea's gestation, but he

ultimately supports St. Martial of Limoges as the most likely source of the innovation.13

However, Conant changes his choice for the prototypical pilgrimage church to St. Martin

at Tours in later publications.14 COnant also maintains that the geographical

disproportion in which a greater number of cathedrals of this type are represented in

France, makes the Spanish church an unlikely prototype. The uncertainty with which





11 Ibid. 13.

I12 bid.

13 Ibid. 21.

14 Kenneth Conant, Carolingian and Romanesque architecture 800-1200 (New York: Penguin Books, 1987
[Reprint of 2"d ed. published in 1966]), p. 161.










Conant makes this ultimate conclusion and his constant reference to the insufficiency of

the evidence makes further speculation on its origins untenable."

Marilyn Stokstad and Kenneth Conant both devote some of their studies to the

various epithets given to the portals on Santiago de Compostela, but most of this

information is presented in a plan made by Conant and in Stokstad' s schematic of the

medieval city. Conant's plan traces the additions to the cathedral through the pre-

Romanesque to the Renaissance (Fig. 7). In the plan, he refers to the north portal's three

different designations. The earliest is the Francigena, next the Paradiso, and third, the

Azabacheria while Conant labels the plaza that the north portal faces the Plaza de la

Innzaculad. The west portal was and is known as the Obradoiro, just as the south portal

is known as the Puerta de la~s Plateria~s. In Stokstad's schematic (Fig. 8), the square and

marketplace on the north is known as the Paraiso and the south plaza is the Plateria~s.

The significance of these names will be discussed in Chapter 3.

While Conant and Stokstad agree in general on the nomenclature and regions of the

portals, the exact dating of the eleventh century building of the cathedral and the portals

is more controversial. To narrow the terminus postquent of the cathedral requires an

investigation of the archaeological and documentary evidence for the cathedral's

construction. Conant's conclusions are made more from excavated evidence than

information available in letters, charters, manuscripts, and inscriptions. First, Conant's

deductions based on extant information regarding the revision of the buildings in the

vicinity of the cathedral will be taken into consideration. Next, events that occurred

during the period in which Conant projects the construction's execution will be assessed


'5 Conant, The Early architectural History of the Cathedral of L aner, ;. de Compostela, pp. 13, 20, 22.










in terms of their importance for the idea to renovate. Finally, the maj or manuscripts from

the Middle Ages that deal specifically with Santiago de Compostela will be considered.

Conant reports that in August of 1077, the intrusion of the cathedral into the

precinct of the Antealtares monastery was approved.16 This monastery was likely

affiliated with the Church of San Salvador, which no longer exists and was to the east of

the pre-Romanesque church of Santiago de Compostela. 17 What is known of the

monastery is that it was dismantled, moved, and rebuilt.l Based on this site-related

evidence, Kenneth Conant believes that the plan of the church was formulated in the

1070s.19 COnant estimates the beginning of cathedral construction to the year 1078 while

he deduces that the plans were in the process of being formulated in 1075.20

More mystery surrounds another building that is pertinent to the understanding of

the medieval layout of the site of the new cathedral. The history of the small church of

Sta. Maria is enigmatic because of Conant' s muddled discussion of the church. Early in

his architectural history of Santiago de Compostela, Conant mentions a church of Santa

Maria as being built under the jurisdiction of King Alfonso II.21 However, when Conant

takes up the topic again, this earlier reference is forgotten and he discusses a church of

Sta. Maria built by Bishop Diego Pelaez (deposed in 1088) probably at the beginning of




16 Ibid. 21.

17 Ibid. 6.

1s Ibid. 39.

19 Ibid. 21.

2 Ibid. 18.

21 Ibid.










the eleventh century, which he calls the "original Sta. Maria."22 As best as I can decipher

Conant' s text, Pelaez's church supposedly lay to the northeast of the relics of Saint James

and was likely demolished to make room for the new Romanesque renovations of the

cathedral of Santiago de Compostela.23 Evidence indicates that this "original" church

was removed and that an Asturian style church also called Sta. Maria and possibly dated

in part to the thirteenth or fourteenth century was relocated further east of the north

transept in the present area of the Chapel of Corticela.24 Whether Alfonso II' s church or

Pelaez's church of Sta. Maria, which both predate the Romanesque cathedral, were

restored in another location or a new one was built is unknown. According to Conant,

most archaeologists refuse to associate the church of Sta. Maria that was built under

Bishop Diego Pelaez with the Asturian style church located to the east of the north

transept. Whether these archaeologists have any assumptions about the church's

relationship with Alfonso II's church is unknown and Conant does not cite who these

anonymous archaeologists are.25 COnant' s skepticism about these archaeologists'

conclusions is founded in the highly suspect use of an Asturian style in a church with

thirteenth or fourteenth century properties. 26 Though Conant does not verbally assert a

Romanesque dating for this controversial Asturian style church of Sta. Maria (located

east of the north transept), he indicates on his plan that he supports a Romanesque dating



22 Ibid. 39.

23 Ibid.

24 Ibid.

25 Ibid.

26 Ibid. The question becomes could the church be associated with Alfonso II, the ruler of Visigothic
Spain? The Asturian style was at the height of architectural fashion during the Visigothic period.










for this structure.27 Like the other structures on the plan, the black coloration indicates a

Romanesque time period of construction. The Historia Compostell anall~~~~1111~~~~ briefly mentions

the church of Sta. Maria as a place in which Archbishop Diego Gelmirez (1100-1140)

took refuge during one of the riots in Santiago de Compostela around 1116.28 The church

must have been reassembled by this time to exist as an independent entity and to make

room for the cathedral's northern transept, which must have been complete or in

construction at this time. Because of the church's existence in the twelfth century, it

seems likely that Conant is correct about a Romanesque date for the church. Conant

vaguely remarks that the sculpture on the reassembled Sta. Maria "put[s] it late."29

Whether this means that the sculpture is considered pre or post thirteenth or fourteenth

century is unknown. Ultimately, whether the church is Alfonso II's or Bishop Pelaez's

church, it was likely relocated in the late eleventh century and possibly retrofit in the

thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.30 I Support Conant' s Romanesque dating for the

relocation of the church and the conclusion that the church was retrofit.

Despite the obstacles created by the lack of definitive evidence related to the city

plan of Santiago de Compostela, Conant develops what he considers the most probable

layout. With the Antealtares monastery possibly on the southeast, the church of Sta.



27On his plan, Conant labels the location of the Church of Sta. Maria as the Chapel of the Corticela because
Sta. Maria became associated with a complex of chapels to the east of the north transept.

28 Barbara Abou-el-haj, "Santiago de Compostela in the Time of Diego Gelmirez," Gesta XXXV (1997),
pp. 167-168. Bishop Diego Gelmirez was wearing the pallium in 1104, but Santiago de Compostela did
not become an archdiocese until after 1120. See Karen Mathews, ""They wished to destroy the temple of
God": Responses to Diego Gelmirez's Cathedral Construction in Santiago de Compostela, 1100-1140"
(PhD-University of Chicago, 1995), pp. 61, 66.

29 COnant, The Early architectural History of the Cathedral of L aner, ;. de Compostela, p. 3 9.

"0 Ibid. 39.










Maria on the northeast, and the church of San Salvador on the east, Conant derives a

larger picture of the lost medieval city. Essentially, the reason for this loss of evidence

involves the elaborate renovations that occurred in the city as can be seen in Conant' s

plan. Though Conant is confronted with many unknowns, he still is able to draw

conclusions about the location and dating of these buildings.

However, Conant's scholarship in reaching these conclusions omits the socio-

religious influences that shaped the site of the Romanesque cathedral. One of the

documents from the 1070s that seems to relate to the importance of the cathedral's

renovation is a letter that Pope Gregory VII (1073-1085) wrote in 1074 to Alfonso VI.

This letter does not address a renovation of the physical church, but states the need to

renovate the spiritual and ritualistic church. Specifically, Gregory explains the heretical

nature of the Mozarabic or Hispanic liturgy derived from its Visigothic implementers

who were tainted by Arian heresy. Gregory advocates a return to Spain's pre-Vrisigothic

roots, the Roman liturgy.31

When Serafin Moralej o discusses the letter' s possible influence on the cathedral's

construction, he does so within a chronology of King Alfonso VI' s activities that postdate

the letter' s arrival. The receipt of the letter of 1074 was followed by Alfonso VI' s trip to

the Kingdom of Granada and a council in January of 1075. The trip to Granada was to

solicit money and future payments of tribute.32 A charter from a council of Alfonso VI

dates his subsequent council to approximately six months after the receipt of Pope




31 Serafin Moralejo, "On the Road, the Camino to Santiago" in Art ofi~edieval Spain (New York:
Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1993), p. 175.

32 Ibid. 211-212.










Gregory VII's ultimatum.33 Implying that Alfonso VI felt rushed into some act that

would demonstrate his desire to address and proclaim the Pope's wishes, Moralejo

considers the 30,000 dinars that the king acquired immediately prior to the council as

seed money for the cathedral's construction. Moralejo neglects to mention that the king

was engaged in countrywide campaigns to solicit financial and political support.3

Among his agendas could have been the collection of funds for the church and the

presentation of the pope's religious demands. A religious agenda was already an issue in

Alfonso VI' s attempt to unite the country against Muslim influence.35 These religious

issues that included Pope Gregory's reform might have found corporeal expression in the

plans to renovate the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela. In support of this thesis is the

fact that within three months after the council, which Moralejo considers the genesis of

the new cathedral, the Spanish equivalent of the ark of the covenant, the Arca Santa, was

discovered in Oviedo.36 Though Moralejo does not mention the countrywide campaign

of Alfonso VI, he sees this obj ect, which in its very dimensions and name evoke the ark,

as a discovery signifying that the cathedral's construction was in medians res by this

time.37 The discovery of the ark would be an orchestrated occurrence inspired by

Alfonso VI's campaign and it would serve to demonstrate Oviedo's preeminence as the

site of pilgrimage. It is likely that this discovery was intended to coerce pilgrims to


33 Serafin Moralejo, "The Codex Calixtinus as an Art Historical Source" in The Codex Calixtinus and the
Shrine ofSt. James. Ed. John Williams and Alison Stones (Tubingen: Gunter NarrVerlag, 1992), p. 211.

34 B. F. Reilly, The Kingdom ofLion-Castille under King Alfonso VI (Princeton: Princeton University
Press, 1988), p. 84.

35 Ibid. 83-84.

36 MOralejo, "On the Road, the Camino to Santiago," p.178.

37 Ibid. 179.










choose Oviedo as a pilgrimage destination instead of Santiago. Thus, Moralejo

concludes that the letter from Pope Gregory VII, the council that convened following a

substantial financial acquisition, and the "discovery" of the relics at Oviedo are events

that are causally interrelated and not coincidental.

Moralejo's terminus postquem has been discussed in terms of socio-religious

evidence. However, he and Georges Gaillard also consider the evidence available from

the extant medieval manuscripts related to Santiago de Compostela and inscriptions

found on the cathedral to arrive at their conclusions. The important manuscripts include

the Codex Calixtinus and the Historia Compostell ana.38~111~~~111~~

Gaillard examines a folio from the Codex Calixtinus, which outright states the date

of the commencement of construction on the cathedral as 1078.39 However, this date is

contradicted in another folio of the same manuscript that dates the cathedral according to

the number of years that the construction began after the death of three maj or kings:

Alfonso I, Henry I, and Louis the Fat. The codex states:

Ab anno vero quo incoepta fuit usque ad lethum Adefonsi fortissimi et famosi
Regis Aragonenesis habentur anni LIX; et ad necem Henrici Regis Anglormm LXII;
et ad mortem Ludovii pinguissimi Regis Francorum LXIII.40

Accordingly, the cathedral's constr-uction is reported to have begun fifty-nine years

before the death of Alfonso I of Aragon, sixty-two years before the death of Henry of

England, and sixty-three years before the death of Louis the Fat of France. The date of

Alfonso I' s death is 1 134, making the Codex Calixtinus' s date for the beginning of the

38 The Codex Calixtinus was associated with Pope Calixtus II (1119-1124) and the Historia Compostellana
was a panegyric created for and under Diego Gelmirez (1100-1140).

39 Georges Gaillard, Les Ddbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Ledn-Jaca-Compostelle (Paris, 1938),
p. 158.

40 Ibid. 158.










cathedral 1075. Though this date concurs with Gaillard's conclusions, the rest of the

information provided in the passage conflicts with this date. Henry I died in 1135 and

sixty-two years prior to this date would be 1073. Finally, Louis the Fat died in 1137,

making the cathedral's beginning, which is supposed to be sixty-three years before this

date, 1074. Upon examination of the original manuscript page from which copies of this

manuscript were taken, the text containing these dates shows sign of wear and erasure.41

Based on this evidence, Gaillard concludes that the information has the least probability

of accuracy among the available sources. 1078 is also the terminus postquem given in the

Historia Compostell ana.l~~~~1111~~~~ However, Gaillard concludes that this date was obtained from

one of the folios of the Codex Calixtinus or the date of 1078 found on the south portal of

the cathedral.42

All of these dates, the one in the Historia Compostell anal~~~~1111~~~~ the date in the Codex

Calixtinus, and the date on the portal are written ERA I C XVI. V IDUS ILII.43 The day

that the inscription indicates is the fifth of the ides of July or July 11th 44 The readings of

the year have been done according to the medieval dating called the Spanish era.45 This

dating adds thirty-eight years on to traditional dating.46 Scholars have thus read the

inscription to represent 1116 of the Spanish era or 1078 A.D. However, debates about



41 Ibid. 158.

42Ibid.

43 Ibid.

44Ibid.

45Moralejo, "The Codex Calixtinus as an Art Historical Source," p.211.

46 Herbert Thurston, "Dates and Dating," Catholic Encyclopedia,
1lutp un \ \\.newadvent. org/cathen/0463 6c.htm,









the inscription have been whether to read XVI or XLI. The Spanish were known to put a

V shaped tail on a preceding X to indicate the numeral L. The conclusion has been

drawn that the inscription could read ERA 1141 or 1103 A.D.47 This latter choice of

dating has been rej ected by Moralej o and Gaillard who see this as too late for the

cathedral. Moralejo's assessment of socio-religious events and a terminus postquem of

1075 lead him to conclude that the portal commemorates some other event while Gaillard

turns to the evidence in other inscriptions on the cathedrals to reach his conclusion.

Gaillard regards the portal as being a victim of negligence because of the condition of its

sculptural pieces.48 For this reason, he concludes that the portal sculpture dates from

1 112-1 117, prior to the 1 117 riots of Santiago de Compostela. The condition of the

sculptural pieces will be addressed in Chapter 2. According to B. F. Reilly, Pope

Gregory VII sent Cardinal Richard to Spain in 1078 and the papal legate may have

arrived in Spain as early as June 8, 1078.49 Cardinal Richard could have been in Santiago

by the eleventh of July to enforce the pope's liturgical reform. It is my opinion that the

portal program was finalized in July of 1078 under the jurisdiction of the cardinal with

the intent to reform the heretical Mozarabic liturgy.

In addition to the Platerias inscription, the Capilla del Salvador in the ambulatory

of the cathedral has a capital with an inscription that states: "Consecra(la mense .. )

nonasque trigeno anno (post dominice incarnationis milleno se)ptuageno qunito t(empre

quo domus est fun)data iacobi,"50 This inscription indicates that the chapel was


47 MOralejo, "The Codex Calixtinus as an Art Historical Source," p. 211.

48 Gaillard, Les Ddbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Ledn -Jaca-Compostelle, p. 202.

49 Reilly, The Kingdom ofLedn -Castille under King Alfonso VI, 1065-1109, p. 105.

so Gaillard, Les Ddbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Ledn -Jaca-Compostelle, p. 161.









consecrated "thirty years after the commencement of the works."" The Historia

Compostell anall~~~~1111~~~~ gives the date of the chapel's consecration as 1105. Thus, thirty years

prior to this consecration date would be 1075. Like Conant, Gaillard concludes the first

stone was laid in 1078, but that the cathedral was being conceived in 1075.52 In this

conclusion, Gaillard is able to reconcile the discrepancies related to the 1075 date and the

1078 date. However, Moralejo uses the inscription on the Capilla del Salvador to support

his terminus postquem for the entire cathedral of 1075.53

The urgency to fulfill the pope's wishes seems like a powerful reason to begin the

cathedral as soon as possible. To recap, 1075 is only six months after the pope's

demands to reform the liturgy were made. Its place within the sequence of chronological

events explains Alfonso VI's council, and after the council, it is less than three months

before the discovery of the Arca Santa, which seems to be a less than serendipitous event.

Thus, the terminus postquem of 1075 is considered accurate by this study for the

cathedral. In explanation of the July 11, 1078 date on the Puerta de las Platerias,

Cardinal Richard's arrival in Spain makes 1078 a likely candidate for the finalization of

the south portal's program.

The manuscript of the Codex Calixtinus is the primary source that can be used to

isolate a terminus antequem for the cathedral's south portal. The cathedral itself was in a

constant state of evolution until the end of the Renaissance. However, the completion of

the south portal, which is the only portal that retains most of its original sculptural



51 Moralejo, "The Codex Calixtinus as an Art Historical Source," p.211.

52 Gaillard, Les Ddbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Ledn -Jaca-Compostelle, p. 161.

53 MOralejo, "The Codex Calixtinus as an Art Historical Source," p. 211.










organization, can be concluded to have occurred by 1135. This is the latest possible date

for the Codex Calixtinus' s completion.54 In the fifth book or Pilgrim's Guide of the

Codex Calixtinus, Aymery Picaud describes the sculpture on the facades of the cathedral.

Unfortunately, his descriptions are relatively abstract; however, he does identify some

key sculptures, especially those in the portal's two tympana. The vague descriptions of

the sculpture have been attributed to the possibility that scaffolding was obstructing

Picaud's view of the portals." Thus, the description of the iconography indicates that the

portal's sculpture must have been in place as early as 1135.

An iconographic and programmatic examination of the two tympana will be

discussed next in Chapter 2. However, before this examination could be undertaken it

was necessary to create a larger picture of the medieval city as it could be reconstructed

with the studies of Kenneth Conant and Marilyn Stokstad. Conant's conclusions about

the importance of vaulting, economic concerns, and architectural competition through the

pilgrimage church plan provide the foundation for determining the motivations of the

cathedral. However, ultimately it is the work of Serafin Moralejo that seems the most

accurate in its considerations of socio-religious motivations for the cathedral's

construction through Pope Gregory VII's letter, the council of Alfonso VI, the discovery

of the Arca Santa, and the inscription in the Capilla del Salvador. B. F. Reilly's social

history of the reign of King Alfonso VI provides a clue to the most probable event that

concluded the programmatic gestation of the Puerta de las Platerias, the arrival of the

papal legate.


54 Ibid. 207.

55 Conant, The Early architectural History of the Cathedral of L aner, ;. de Compostela, p. 28.















CHAPTER 3
SCULPTURAL ORGANIZATION, DESCRIPTION OF THE ICONOGRAPHY, AND
THE ICONOGRAPHIC PROGRAM

As Figure 1 illustrates, there is hardly an inch of surface on the Puerta de las

Platerias that is not covered with sculptural decoration. Although there are certainly

plenty of sculptural pieces on the side walls, door j ambs, the spandrel, and the upper wall,

the exploration of this thesis has been limited to the sculpture within the two tympana.

Two intersecting interpretations of this sculptural organization of the south portal will be

considered: 1) the emulation of the art of Emperor Constantine (306-337 A.D.) and 2) an

attempt at visual intimidation. Both of these agendas will be understood as participating

in a common statement about Spain's relationship to Rome. The abundant and violently

cut sculptural pieces make an understanding of spolia or the reuse of materials from

previous structures in a new context essential to an understanding of the iconography and

program of this portal. In this new context, the sculpture of the Puerta de las Platerias

bears meaning through its aesthetic presence.

First, this chapter will discuss the visible signs and examples of spolia used in the

portal. Second, the economic and ideological reasons for this sculptural reuse will be

discussed. Finally, third, the iconographic significance of the sculptural pieces in the two

tympana will be analyzed in order to identify the larger programmatic goals of the

iconography.










Because the focus of this study is on iconography, the stylistic differences in the

figures will not be addressed.l However, it should be noted that the stylistic differences

do provide evidence of spolia use. Nevertheless, any specific discussion of examples will

be deferred to future studies of the Puerta de las Platerias or the cathedral of Santiago de

Compostela.

Without scientific testing to aid in the identification of different stone materials, the

physical evidence provided by the stones' appearance reveals that the pieces are not

homogenous in their material. This is evidenced by their diversity of coloration as well

as in the truncation of parts of the sculptural pieces and the overlapping of stones that

disrupts the unity of the original sculpted forms. The pieces in the tympana will be

categorized according to five different groupings. The first four groups relate to stones

with common coloration and the last group includes the visibly altered stones that betray

their reuse by the violence done to the sculptural form. Even within the restrictions of the

two tympana, there is indisputable evidence of spolia.

The first four groups are composed of (1) blue tinged stone, (2) speckled stone, (3)

white stone, and (4) cream colored stone. These differences can be seen in color

photographs of the portal provided within this study. There are six stones in the first blue

toned group, with three of these stones found in the left tympanum and three found in the

right tympanum. The left tympanum pieces include a heavily mutilated piece that may

represent two combattant beasts (Fig. 9 [Fig. 3, Stone K]), a boy riding a lion (Fig. 10



SGeorges Durliat's and Georges Gaillard's studies take style into consideration and for information on this
area of investigation, their studies or the comprehensive investigation of style along the pilgrimage roads
by Arthur Kingsley Porter should be consulted. See Georges Gaillard, Les Ddbuts de la Sculpture Romane
Espagnole: Ledn -Jaca-Compostelle (Paris, 1938) and Georges Durliat, La sculpture romane de la route de
Saint-Jacques de Conques 6 Compostelle (Mlont-de-Marsan:: Comit6 d'6tudes sur l'histoire, 1990).










[Fig. 3, Stone M]), and beasts beneath a trilobed arched arcade (Fig. 10 [Fig. 3, Stone F]).

The right tympanum includes a twisting angel (Fig. 5, Stone P), the three magi (Fig. 5,

Stones Q and R), and a farm animal (Fig. 5, Stone O). The examples of speckled stone

are all found in the left tympanum: the angel with the censer in a doorway (Fig. 9 [Fig. 3,

Stone A]), Christ with a stone in his hand (Fig. 11 [Fig. 3, Stone B]), an angel with a

censer hovering over a tree inhabited by a serpent (Fig. 9 [Fig. 3, Stone D]), and the

demons outside the city walls (Fig. 9 [Fig. 3, Stone E]). The white stone appears in three

pieces, one from the left tympanum, the blessing apostle (Fig. 12 [Fig. 3, Stone J]), and

two from the right tympanum, the enthroned Virgin (Fig. 13 [Fig. 5, Stone S]) and the

extensive flagellation panel (Fig. 14 [Fig. 5, Stone V]). Finally, the cream colored stone

appears in two pieces in the left tympanum, a disembodied bust (Fig. 15 [Fig. 3, Stone

I]), and the Woman with the Skull (Fig. 6 [Fig. 3, Stone G]), and two pieces in the right

tympanum, the healing of the blind (Fig. 16 [Fig. 5, Stone U]) and the betrayal (Fig. 17

[Fig. 5, Stone X]).

The fifth group is the stones that have been cut to fit into the portal composition,

hence removing portions of the anatomy or form of the figures. These include the angel

in the doorway (Fig. 3, Stone A), the disembodied bust (Fig. 3, Stonel), the blessing

apostle (Fig. 3, Stone J), the hovering angel with the censer (Fig. 3, Stone D), the boy

riding the lion (Fig. 3, Stone M), and the Woman with the Skull (Fig. 3, Stone G) on the

left tympanum and the right tympanum's magi (Fig. 5, Stones Q and R), wolf (Fig. 5,

Stone N), and enthroned Virgin (Fig. 5, Stone S). The sculptural figures also present

such a radical diversity of scale that they could not have been carved by the same sculptor

or with an intention to create a single ensemble. Scale diversity was often employed to










imply hierarchy as in the Last Judgment tympanum from St. Lazare in Autun (Fig. 18).

However, on the left tympanum of the Puerta de las Platerias (Fig. 2), the Woman with

the Skull is the largest piece and is larger in scale than the figure of Christ who would

obviously be more important.

The left tympanum contains a number of pieces that show signs of reuse and

manipulation to fit them in a new context. The angel in the doorway (Fig. 9 [Fig. 3,

Stone A]) has its halo cut off.2 The disembodied bust (Fig. 15 [Fig. 3, Stone I]) has been

visibly severed from the rest of its torso as can be seen in the chewed border of the stone

where it is cropped at the upper chest. Next to the bust is the figure of the blessing

apostle (Fig. 12 [Fig.3, Stone J]). This figure has been modified by the removal of its

lower portions in a curving line at the waist, which has been done to fit it above the

curving wing of the hovering angel. The hovering angel emerges from a lobed mass of

clouds that may be cut off (Fig. 9 [Fig. 3, StoneD]). The serpent's tree above which the

angel is suspended has branches whose leaves are only partially represented due to a cut

that removes the leaves off the entire left side of the plant. The boy riding the lion is

mounted on an animal (Fig. 10 [Fig. 3, Stone M]) whose right hind paw has been cut off

to fit this piece horizontally in the upper curve of the tympanum. Another indication of

spolia is the fact that the boy riding the lion seems to be a piece that should be vertical

instead of horizontal. Finally, the Woman with the Skull (Fig. 6 [Fig. 3, Stone G]) who

dominates the right periphery of the tympanum has been cut so that her mass of hair on

the left side of her head and her left shoulder have been completely removed.


2 Gaillard, Les Debuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Leon -Jaca-Compostelle, p. 194.










The right tympanum also contains sculptural pieces that have been broken in ways

that compromise the integrity of their original form. In the tympanum's configuration of

the three magi, the magus closest to Christ has the top of his head cut off (Fig. 5, Stone

R]). Within the same piece, the star of Bethlehem is depicted, but its upper rays of light

have been sacrificed to fit a flying angel above the magi. All three magi have had their

lower bodies cut off at the waist, while the enthroned Virgin's halo is cut off at the top

(Fig. 13 [Fig. 5, Stone S]).

There is only one example of an overlapping stone that disrupts the visual logic of

the relief sculpture. This is the spolia crown that has been fitted over Christ holding a

stone (Fig. 11 [Fig. 3, Stone C]).3 The crown has been fit awkwardly over the halo of

Christ in such a way that it compromises the visual continuity of the upper portion of the

halo's rounded edge. The fact that the crown was not carved on the image of Christ and

had to be added through another stone is another indication that spolia is being used in

the tympana.

According to Kenneth Conant and Georges Durliat, the portal was renovated after

the twelfth century.4 The north and west portals of the cathedral were dismantled and

sculptural pieces from these portals were integrated into the wall area above the south

portal. As Durliat's diagram illustrates (Fig. 19), the pieces added from the north and

west portals do not alter the original organization and content of the two tympana of the

south portal.


SOle Naesgaard, Saint-Jacques de Contpostelle et les debuts de la grande sculptures vers 1100 (Aarhus,
1962), p. 49.

SKenneth Conant, The Early architectural History of the Cathedral of L aner, ;. de Compostela
(Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1925), plan in back of volume: Durliat, La sculpture roniane de la
route de Saint-Jacques: de Conques a Contpostelle, p. 327, pl. 348.










As explored in the previous chapter, there are several possible sources from which

spolia could have been acquired for the portal. The relocation of the Antealtares

Monastery and the church of Santa Maria, and the destruction of the Church of San

Salvador may have resulted in some sources for sculptural pieces. George Zarnecki

credits much of the sculptural use on the exterior of churches in Spain to a revival among

French artisans in the Romanesque period.' However, there is documentary evidence that

external sculptural pieces were used at least on the west facade prior to the Romanesque

period and that these sculptural pieces used in Alfonso III of Asturias' s church were

spolia. Alfonso III is recorded as stating at the church's consecration:

We brought from the city of Eabeca what we chose of the marble-building stones
which our forefathers carried by ship across the Pontus, and that out of which they
builded (sic) beautiful dwellings that were destroyed by our enemies. From these,
indeed, of these very marbles, the principle portal of the west facade is composed;
in truth we discovered the marvelously sculptured lintel of the cathedral just as it
was in former times. We set up the portal at the left hand [north] adj oining the
oratory of the Baptist and Martyr John (which likewise we founded and built of cut
stone, and the six other sculptured columns, brought from Oporto in ships, on
which the porch rests; we brought the squared stones and lime of which the
eighteen columns are built, with other smaller columns of marble, by ship in a
similar way.6

Though the term spolia did not exist for Alfonso III, this is precisely the material that he

describes.





5 Georges Zarnecki, 4rt of the Medieval World (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1975), p. 218.

b Conant, The Early architectural History of the Cathedral of Le Ir .;.. de Compostela, p. 8 Conant fails to
cite his source. It would seem that the indication of a west and north facade in the quotation would
correspond to the Romanesque church or the current church of Santiago de Compostela. Unfortunately, the
west facade and north facade that are mentioned in the quotation cannot be related to the Romanesque
facade on the west of the cathedral, the Obradoiro or the Romanesque facade on the north of the cathedral,
the Inmaculada. This is because the Romanesque church was much larger than the pre-Romanesque
church. In fact, the Romanesque structure was built over Alfonso III's church and as the Romanesque
building approached completion, the latter was eventually dismantled and removed from the interior of the
Romanesque church.










Although John Onians does not take up the specific topic of spolia, his study that

features the column, advocates a subconscious message relayed between architecture and

its audience. Understanding architecture becomes like the information gained through a

reading of body language or gesture.' The question becomes what information a portal

so openly declarative of its composition of spolia would have relayed to the twelfth

century viewer? Was the use of spolia due to a lack of monetary funds to complete the

cathedral? Did the use of spolia communicate anything ideologically? First, the possible

economic reasons for the use of spolia will be discussed. Next, the ideological

implications of spolia use will be explored.

Spolia first entered the art historical vocabulary in relationship to Roman art and

particularly within the art and architecture of the emperor Constantine, who admired the

successful emperors of Rome like Traj an (98-1 17 AD), Hadrian (1 17-13 8 AD), and

Marcus Aurelius (161-180 AD). Constantine intended to use art to create an association

with these emperors' greatness and thus, he reused sculpture from the eras of these

emperors in his own monuments.8 Some scholars consider that Constantine's use of

spolia in the church of Old St. Peter' s and on the Arch of Constantine (Fig. 20) was

determined by economic necessity.9 The use of spolia has also been considered an

aesthetic throwback that attempts to recapture the spirit of Classical antiquity. Richard

Krautheimer considers the incorporation of spolia in Roman churches as an enthusiastic

nod to the Classical world or even an emulation of the Classical world in an effort to

SJohn Onians, Bearers of M.004;-,,~ The Classical Orders in 4ntiquity, the Middle 4ges, and the
Renaissance (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988), pp. 4-5.

SBeat Brenk, "Spolia from Constantine to Charlemagne: Aesthetics versus Ideology," Dwnharton Oaks
Papers 41 (1987), pp. 104-105

9 Ibid 105.









revive it.'0 The economic reasons for spolia use and the connection of spolia with

Constantine are important in relationship to the scope of this study.

Spolia use in medieval Spain is a topic that has not received much attention.

Moralejo states that the sculptural pieces used for the portals are likely reused material.

He comes to this conclusion in his research of the observations of a seventeenth century

Spaniard at Santiago de Compostela, but he does not consider the issue of spolia

further." As stated previously, Durliat discusses spolia in terms of pieces moved from

the north portal to the south portal. However, as Figure 19 illustrates through the use of

different tonalities in Durliat' s diagram, the two tympana of this study were not altered

by additions of spolia moved from the north portal of the Romanesque church. This is

also evidenced by the description of the tympana in Picaud's Pilgrim' s Guide, which

dates from 1 13 5 and whose description remains true of the current organization of the

south portal tympana.

King Alfonso VI' s proj ect to complete the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela

was not realized during his reign. In fact, Alfonso VI was exporting around 200,000

talons of gold per year to Cluny in return for their support in helping squelch the Moorish

invasions on Toledo and also to solicit religious support in the form of ambassadorial

clerics to institute the orthodoxy of the Roman liturgy in Spain. This would certainly

have presented some economic stress on the funds for the cathedral proj ect and may help

to explain the reuse of materials.



'0 Richard Krautheimer, "The Architecture of Sixtus III: A Fifth Century Renascence?" in Studies in Early
Christian, Medieval and Renaissance Art (New York, 1969), pp. 181-96.

11 Serafin Moralejo, "The Codex Calixtinus as an Art Historical Source" in The Codex Calixtinus and the
Shrine ofSt. James. Ed. John Williams and Alison Stones (Tubingen: Gunter NarrVerlag, 1992), p. 219.










Sculptural reuse often related to an obligation not to desecrate the holy. Thus, the

sculpture and its representations retained a power that destruction or discarding of the

pieces would risk offending God and wasting the spiritual power of the art. However, it

is interesting that churches like San Isidoro in Le6n, built in the 1060s, have sculptural

decoration that may recreate the aesthetic of spolia in its facades. This hypothesis is

generated because of the awkwardly cut stones of the church resemble the strange cutting

of the stones at Santiago de Compostela. However, the stones at San Isidoro are

stylistically homogenous. San Isidoro and its facades were completed in the second

quarter of the twelfth century.12 The building of the church, begun in the 1060s and the

completion of its facades in the twelfth century, seem to indicate that the church was

begun before Santiago de Compostela's Romanesque church. However, the facades were

not completed until after Santiago de Compostela. If this church does attempt to simulate

the use of spolia, it would reinforce the idea of a message relayed through the integration

of spolia on the facades of Spanish churches in the Romanesque period. If San Isidoro

was trying to create an aesthetic that resembled spolia without the actual use of spolia,

there must have been an underlying meaning relayed by the appearance of spolia, or

strangely cut stones. Though this conclusion is contestable, it may have some credence

supposing that Zarnecki is correct in his theory of few sculptural facades in Spain or

Europe with large-scale exterior sculpture before the French revival of this sculptural

form around 1000 AD. The widespread and lavish use of sculpture over entire walls and

portals seems to have few spolia sources, which were perhaps exhausted after the

completion of Santiago de Compostela.


'2 Gaillard, Les Debuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Leon-Jaca-Compostelle, p. 67.










Whatever the source of the spolia, its use is obvious in the two tympana of the

south portal of Santiago de Compostela. This conclusion is evident when observing the

different stones used for the various sculptures on the two tympana, the different scale of

the pieces and their mutilation to be fit into the composition of the tympana.

The use of spolia in medieval Spain or even the attempt to emulate an aesthetic that

evokes spolia may have been done to connect the Spanish churches with Gregory VII's

reform and its orthodoxy. San Isidoro, which is in Le6n at the heart of Alfonso VI's

locus of power, would definitely have required a visual testimony to its support of the

pope's cause. This may indicate that spolia use in medieval Spain not only acted as a

reference to the iconography and past structures from which the art was taken, but that it

was also intended to act as a declarative statement of orthodox liturgical practice. This

orthodoxy becomes aesthetically connected to the first emperor openly supportive of

Christianity, Constantine. Pope Gregory VII, who in 1073 was making a papal claim on

Spain, is believed to have based this claim on the forged medieval document, the

Donation of Constantine.13 Though scholars of medieval Spain dispute the outcome of

this claim, the use of spolia seems to create a declarative statement of Roman control

over the Iberian peninsula at this time.

From the information provided earlier in the quotation from King Alfonso III and

the dismantling of buildings for the purposes of making room for the Romanesque



13 H. E. J. Cowdrey, The Cluniacs and the Gregorian Reform (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970), p. 220. In a
recent study that traces the manuscript changes related to the conversion of medieval Spain from the
Mozarabic to the Roman liturgy, H616ne Toubert describes the attempts of Pope Gregory VII's renovatio to
evoke either the early Christian era or more specifically the era of Constantine. See H616ne Toubert, Un art
dirige: Reforme gregorienne et iconographie (Paris: Les editions du cerf, 1990); Ernst Kitzinger takes up
this subject favoring Constantinian prototypes in Gregory's reform. See Ernst Kitzinger, "The Gregorian
Reform and the Visual Arts: A Problem of Method (The Prothero Lecture)," Transactions of the Royal
Historical Society, Fifth Series, vol. 22 (London: University College London, 1972), pp. 87-102.










cathedral, some of the spolia on the south portal of Santiago de Compostela could have

been taken from pre-existent Spanish structures. This could have been as original

sculpture converted into first time spolia or even recycled spolia from other locales like

Eabeca. Whether the spolia was from Eabeca or elsewhere, it had been integrated into a

Spanish identity. This would have made the spolia use an intermingling of solace and

discomfort for its Spanish audience. The message of the portal would be that the Spanish

were still the people they had been before the suppression of the Mozarabic liturgy in

favor of the Roman liturgy. However, the pieces had been reordered like their heretical

liturgy and in turn, the violence done to the pieces may have evoked a feeling of

resentment in the forced conversion to the Roman liturgy. This may explain the damaged

pieces of spolia like the two combattant beasts (Fig. 9 [Fig. 3, Stone K]) that may

represent the portal's patron and will be discussed in the next section of this chapter that

addresses the topic of iconography.14

There is evidence within this time period of resistance to the liturgical change,

which can be seen in history, legend, and through the Spaniards' most consistent weapon,

manuscripts. Historically, this resistance is manifested in the reversion back to the

Mozarabic liturgy by one of the Cluniac monks named Robert who was to be an abbot at

the monastery of Sahagu~n that resulted in his removal from Spain and return to Cluny.l




14 As in the use of spolia by Constantine to connect himself with the successful and powerful emperors of
Rome, there is always the possibility that some of the sculptural pieces were obtained from Rome and
Jerusalem as well as from Alfonso III's church. In this way, Santiago would be associating itself with the
pilgrimages of Rome and Jerusalem as well as its own tradition.

15 Rose Walker, Filews of Transition: Liturgy and Illwnination in Adedieval Spain (London: British Library,
1998), p. 31; Joseph F. O'Callaghan, "The Integration of Christian Spain into Europe: The Role of Alfonso
VI pf Le6n-Castile," inl La use,,.;.. Saint-Denis, and Saint Peter: The Reception of the Roman Liturgy in
Leon-Castile in 1080 (New York: Fordham University Press, 1985), pp. 110-111.









If the most vocal advocates of the Mozarabic liturgy were monks, as the incident with

Robert illustrates, manuscripts were likely their strongest weapon.

There are legends surrounding manuscripts, and there are also actual manuscripts

that refute the liturgical conversion. The legends from the manuscripts of the Chronicon

Burgense, Annales Compostellani, and the twelfth century Chronicon Najera, tell of a

duel between a Toledan knight (Toledo as the hub of Mozarabic practice) and a Castilian

knight on Palm Sunday or April 9, 1077. This duel was to determine which rite was

orthodox. The Castilian wins in the Chronicon Burgense and the Chronicon Najera

while the winner remains undetermined in the Annales Compostell ani.l~~~~1111~~~~ The Chronicon

Najera also discusses a test for orthodoxy in which a copy of the Roman liturgy was

kicked into a fire along with a copy of the Mozarabic liturgy. The Mozarabic text is said

to have leapt out of the flames unscathed, proving its orthodoxy. The legend concludes

with the Mozarabic text' s ultimate demise when King Alfonso VI kicked it back into the

fire.16 Thus, there appears to have been some negative public opinion of the king and his

religious policy.

There is a text, the Codex Aemilianensis, now in the library of the Escorial with a

history of the Mozarabic liturgy inserted into it. Its history is believed to be a fabrication

that supports the institution of the Mozarabic liturgy by the seven apostles who

encouraged some local enrichment of the rites. The text also states that Pope John X

(914-928) approved the rites when they were presented to him by Zanello, a priest of

Santiago de Compostela. Even more contemporary, the work states that despite the

disapproval of the liturgy by the papal legate, Hugh Candidus, even Pope Alexander II

16 Walker, Views of Transition: Liturgy and Illumination in M~edieval Spain, p. 3 1; O'Callaghan, "The
Integration of Christian Spain into Europe: The Role of Alfonso VI pf Le6n-Castile," p. 107.










(1061-1073), who was said to have been presented with the liturgy, approved it as

orthodox. 1

Finally, there is the text written on the back of the Liber Comicus. This Spanish

lectionary became a soapbox for an anonymous monk from San Millan who rej ected the

Roman liturgy and the pope's insistence of the Pauline evangelizing of Spain. By

criticizing St. Paul's statement to test all things and to keep the good as an advocacy of

change or novitate, the monk sees the Roman liturgy's institution in Spain as innovation

and thus, heretical.ls This active disagreement concerning the heretical nature of the

Mozarabic liturgy shows that the monks could fight their cause through the use of

manuscripts. They had less control over the cathedral facades. The use of spolia seems

to challenge the manuscript' s accusation of innovation. Spolia use is a return to

Christianity's origins and traditions and a return to orthodoxy that reordered the Spanish

identity but did not sacrifice it. Thus, the use of spolia not only referenced Constantine

and the forged assertion of Roman authority over the Iberian peninsula, it actively,

combatted the assertion in manuscripts that the instigation of the Roman liturgy was an

act of innovation.

While manuscripts aided in the Spanish defense of their liturgy, there was also a

monastic manuscript contemporaneous with the cathedral that directly impacts current

knowledge of the pilgrimage in the early twelfth century. This manuscript also provides

vital information for the next section of this chapter, a discussion of the south portal

iconography. Interestingly, the most useful information about this Spanish cathedral



"7 Walker, Views of Transition: Liturgy and Illumination in M~edieval Spain, pp. 3 1-32.

'8 Ibid. 32-33.










comes from the quill of a French monk, Aymery Picaud. Aymery Picaud's Pilgrim's

Guide is the sixth book of the Codex Calixtinus. This guide is important to this study

because it gives a partial description of the Puerta de las Platerias and the sculpture on the

two tympana:

In meridiana porta apostolice basilice duo introitus, ut diximus, habentur et quatuor
valve. In dextrali vero introitu ejus, de foris scilicet, in primo ordine super portas,
dominica Tradicio miro modo sculpitur; ibi Dominus ligatur minibus Judeorum ad
pilarem; ibi verberatur corrigiis; ibi sedet Pilatus in cathedra, quasi judicans eum.
Desuper vero in alio ordine beata Maria, mater Domini, cum filio suo in Bethleem
sculpitur, et tres reges qui veniunt ad visitandum puerum cum matre, trinum munus
ei offerentes et stella, et angelus eos ammonens ne redeant ad Herodem. In
liminaribus ejusdem introitus sunt duo apostolic, quasi valvarum custodies, unus ad
dexteram et alius ad levam. Similiter in alio introitu sinistrali, in liminaribus
scilicet, alii duo apostolic habentur et in primo ordine ejusdem introitus super
portas scilicet dominica Temptacio sculpitur. Sunt enim ante Dominum tetri angeli
quasi larve statuentes eum supra pinnaculum Templi; et alii offerunt ei lapides
ammonentes ut faciat ex illis panem, et alii ostendunt ei regna mundi, fingentes se
si daturos ea, si cadens adoraverit cos, quod absit. Sed alii angeli candidi videlicet
boni, post tergum ejus et alii etiam desuper turibulis ei ministrants habentur.19



[The South Portal has two entrances, as we have said, with four door-valves. In the
right-hand arch (on the exterior, that is, in the first band above the doors), the
Betrayal of Our Lord is wonderfully carved. There He is bound to the pillar by the
hands of the Jews; there the whips play; there Pilate sits enthroned, as if judging
Him. And above, on the other band is sculptured the Blessed Mary, Mother of Our
Lord, with the Child, in Bethlehem, and the three Kings who are come to visit and
the angel warning the Kings not to return to Herod. .. at the other doorway, to the
left; on that is, is carved the Temptation of Our Lord. There are before the Lord
hideous angels like spectres setting Him upon the pinnacle of the Temple; others
offer Him stones, urging Him to make bread of them; others spread out before Him
the kingdoms of the world, pretending that they will give them to Him if He will
fall down and worship them--thus may it not be! But there are also others, white
or good angels behind His back, and still other angels above with censers,
ministering unto Him. .. Nor ought we to forget the female figure set near the
Temptation of Our Lord: she holds in her hands the rotting head of her lover, cut
off by her husband who forces her to kiss it twice each day. What a great and



19 Jeanne Vielliard, Le Guide du Pelerin de Saint-Jacques de Compostelle (Macon: Imprimerie Protat
Frbres, 1969), pp. 98, 100.










admirable judgment upon an adulterous woman, which should be recounted to
everyone!i]20

Picaud, Gaillard, and Durliat all agree on a cohesive iconographic grouping of

Stone A thru Stone E. Stone A, which begins this grouping on the far left of the left

tympanum, is described by Gaillard, Knowlton, and Durliat as an angel holding the chain

of a censer (Fig. 9 [Fig. 3, Stone A]).21 His left hand extends over his head while his

right hand supports the underside of the pendulous bowl of the censer. Gaillard mentions

the cropping of the angel's halo to fit beneath the archivolt.22 The angel has massive

wings that extend above the figure's shoulders to its feet. Gaillard and Knowlton

mention that the sculptural piece has moulding in a right angle at its edges.23 None of the

other scholars mention the border, but it seems likely to me that instead of a moulded

edge on the piece, the edges represent a threshold within which the angel stands.

To the right and adjacent to the angel is a stone panel B. This figure appears with a

cruciform halo whose arms are splayed at the ends. The symbols for alpha and omega

appear between the arms inscribed in the halo while another alpha appears on the vertical

member of the cross and a chi appears on the right arm of the cross (Fig. 11 [Fig. 3, Stone

B]). Ole Naesgaard comments upon a feature of the piece that is often overlooked, the

addition of a separate spolia piece in the form of a crown that is used to top the halo and

"0 The above translation of Picaud's Guide was taken from Conant, The Early architectural History of the
Cathedral of ~l,,n, ;. de Compostela, p. 53-54.

21Gaillard, Les Ddbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Ledn-Jaca-Contpostelle, p. 194: John Howard
Barnes Knowlton, "The Romanesque Sculpture of the Platerias Portal of the Cathedral of Santiago de
Compostela" (Thesis-M.A., New York University, 1939), p.37; Georges Durliat, La sculpture roniane de la
route de Saint-Jacque: de Conques a Contpostelle (Mont-de-Marsan: Comit6 d'6tudes sur l'histoire, 1990),
p. 330.

22Gaillard, Les Ddbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Ledn-Jaca-Contpostelle, p. 194.

23Gaillard, Les Ddbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Ledn-Jaca-Contpostelle, p. 194: Knowlton,
"The Romanesque Sculpture of the Platerias Portal of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela," p. 37.










obstr-ucts its natural shape (Fig. 11 [Fig. 3, Stone C]).24 The crowned figure is male who

stands in profile with his bearded face slightly lowered, and seems to clutch a stone in his

left hand while his right arm is bent across his body. Draped over his right arm is a long

cloth. This may refer to the purification ritual that occurs at the beginning of the Roman

Catholic mass. This may also connect with the censers that the angels are holding which

were used to consecrate the altar at the opening of the mass. Beneath the feet of the

figure is the inscription DVCTVS EST IHESVS IN DESERT[VM]. This inscription

seems to allude to Matthew 4: 1 which reads Tunc Jesus ductus est in desertum [a spirit

ut tentaretur a diabolo].25 From the use of the cruciform halo, the bearded visage, and the

inscription, the iconography points to the identity of the figure as Christ.

Stone B, which is Christ, faces Stone D that illustrates an angel, a plant, and a

serpent (Fig. 9 [Fig. 3, Stone D]). A profile angel faces Christ and emerges from a cloud.

Compared to the angel in panel A, the wings of the hovering angel extend only the length

of its visible torso. The angel suspends an intricate censer that is inscribed with a foliate

design that includes the abstracted face of a grotesque. It is unclear whether the clouds or

any visible portions of the angel's body have been severed to situate the piece within the

area available for it within the tympanum. Beneath the angel is a cluster of plants within

which is the depiction of a serpent. Karen Mathews and Serafin Moralej o connect this

iconography with the figure of Christ that precedes it. Christ' s downward glance is






24See note 2: Knowlton, "The Romanesque Sculpture of the Platerias Portal of the Cathedral of Santiago de
Compostela," p. 38.

25Durliat, La sculpture romane de la route de Saint-Jacques: de Conques a Compostelle, p. 329










thought to imply his connection with the tree and serpent illustrating his role as the

Second Adam.26 This theme seems important and will be further discussed in Chapter 3.

In Stone E, two figures appear on the exterior of what looks like a fortification (Fig.

5 [Fig.3, Stone E]). Picaud calls the figures angels and differentiates between these

creatures and the angels with the censers in the use of color distinctions. The angels with

censers are called "white," which may be a symbolic reference to these angels as helpers

of Christ or perhaps it indicates the color paint that was used on the pieces. The "angels"

in Stone E are referred to as black by Picaud. Rather than calling these creatures angels,

Durliat describes them as composite creatures created through the intermingling of the

features of a monkey, human, and angel.27 Both creatures wear Greek or Roman style

waist dressings with pteryges or long tongue-shaped lappets while the rest of their bodies

are bare. One of the figures kneels with hands folded on its raised right knee, its face in

three-quarters view. The other creature is hovering above the first creature. This second

creature has a more ape-like face and seems to hold a stone in its joined open palms. The

kneeling demon has an inscription beneath it that reads: IN MONTEM EXCELS[VM].

The city wall that is behind the two demons reads H[IERV]S[AL]EM CIVITA.28

The general tendency in the reading of this portal is to group these four pieces into

one narrative unit. The theme of the entire section is the First Temptation of Christ, or





26 Karen Mathews, ""They wished to destroy the temple of God": Responses to Diego Gelmirez's
Cathedral Construction in Santiago de Compostela, 1100-1140" (PhD-University of Chicago, 1995), p.
202; Serafin Moralejo inl Inoses;. de Compostela: 1000 ans de pelerinage europeen: Europalia 85 Espaila
(Gand: Centrum voor Kunst en Cultuur, 1985), p. 49

27 Durliat, La sculpture romane de la route de Saint-Jacques: de Conques a Compostelle, p. 330.

28Ibid. 329-330.










Matthew 4: 1, which is the probable source for the inscription at the base of Stone B.29

The First Temptation in which Christ is tempted to turn stones into bread by the hovering

demon, explains the stone in Christ's own hand.30 The angels with the censers are

considered the angels that helped Christ during his time in the desert. The composite

creatures are interpreted as demons or "black angels" that aid in Satan's temptation of

Christ. Interestingly, Picaud describes the tympanum as depicting all three temptations.31

However, the second temptation, Christ' s temptation on the pinnacle of the temple, and

the third temptation in which Christ is asked to bow before the devil is not overtly

referenced pictorially.

Stone F is often connected with the temptation grouping (Fig. 10 [Fig. 3, Stone F]).

Though Knowlton describes the creatures in this panel as three lions, the three figures are

not depicted as quadrupeds but they are depicted as bipeds. 32 This upright position

creates connections with the composite figures with human and animal qualities that are

also bipeds on Stone E. These similarities result in the tendency to associate these figures

with demons from the temptation of Christ as Durliat does.33 The three figures are

walking along an arcade with trilobed arches. The first figure, in profile with a dog-like


29 Picaud as translated by Conant, The Early Architectural Histo; v of the Cathedral of Lon Ir, ;. de
Compostela, p. 53; Durliat, La sculpture roinane de la route de Saint-Jacques: de Conques &i Contpostelle,
pp. 329-330: Gaillard, Les Debuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Leon-Jaca-Contpostelle, p. 194-196:
Knowlton, "The Romanesque Sculpture of the Platerias Portal of the Cathedral of Santiago de
Compostela," p. 37; Naesgaard, Saint-Jacques de Contpostelle et les debuts de la grande sculptures vers
1100, pp. 50-52.

"0 Durliat, La sculpture roniane de la route de Saint-Jacques: de Conques 6 Contpostelle, p. 330.

31 Picaud as translated by Conant, The Early~rchitectural Histo; v of the Cathedral of Lon Ir, ;. de
Compostela, p. 53.

32Knowlton, "The Romanesque Sculpture of the Platerias Portal of the Cathedral of Santiago de
Compostela," p. 39.

33Durliat, La sculpture roniane de la route de Saint-Jacques: de Conques 6 Contpostelle, p. 330.










head, faces Stone E. The second figure has its back to the first figure but with its head

turned toward Stone E. The third figure is badly damaged and the orientation of the head

and body is difficult to decipher. This beast may hold a club or it may be clutching one

of the columns of the colonnade.

Stone G is the piece on the tympanum depicted in the largest scale and it is a

partially clothed, seated woman holding a skull on her lap (Fig. 6 [Fig. 3, Stone G]). She

is seated on a cross-legged chair known to the Romans as a sella curulis and known in the

Romanesque period as a faldestorium. Though she is referred to as "Woman with the

Skull," her earliest description by Aymery Picaud is the "Adulterous Woman."34 The

identification of the iconography of this enigmatic figure will be fully discussed in

Chapter 4.

Picaud, Gaillard, and Durliat seem to devote most of their attention to the six

panels of the tympanum that are directly above the lintel. However, as Durliat' s

tympanum diagram indicates, there are five more pieces below the tympanum's archivolt

and a sixth piece, Stone M, that is sandwiched between the unofficial registers of the

upper and lower portions of the left tympanum (Fig. 10 [Fig. 3, Stone M]). Stone H and

Stone K are severely damaged (Fig. 9 [Fig. 3, Stone H and K]), and it is impossible to

determine their specific iconographic significance. Close examination of Stone H

indicates that there are limbs intertwined with vines, but little else can be discerned.

Beside this piece is Stone I, which represents a head severed from its body at the

upper chest (Fig. 15 [Fig. 3, Stone I]). The figure has short hair that is tucked behind its

ears while a round cloth hat covers the man's head from forehead to crown. The hat has

34 Picaud as cited by Conant, The Early architectural History of the Cathedral of L aner, ;. de Compostela,
p. 53.










a rounded roll of fabric at its periphery. This hat looks like the Jewish round cap

discussed by Ruth Mellinkoff in an article on an Anglo-Saxon manuscript, the BM

Cotton Claudius B from 1025-1050 (Fig. 21) where the hat is believed to first appear.

She connects the hat with the influx of French people into England around the Norman

Conquest and it is also featured in a cycle of English Frescoes in Spain. 35 This may also

be the cap that found its way to Algeria from the Spanish Jews that moved there in the

thirteenth century, and many of these Jews were silversmiths.36

Stone J is a figure with a scallop-shaped collar with his right hand raised in blessing

(Fig. 12 [Fig. 3, Stone J]). In the right door jamb of the left door is another figure (Fig.

22) with this same collar and there is an inscription identifying the piece as St. Andrew.

Thus, the figure in Stone J may be understood to represent an unknown apostle.

As stated earlier, Stone K is severely damaged (Fig. 9 [Fig. 3, Stone K]).37 Two

beasts seem to be represented and they appear to be combattant or facing one another as

mirror images that would appear in coats of arms. By the late eleventh and early twelfth

century, no coat of arms existed in Spain. The first official coat of arms of Spain

appeared in the fifteenth century under King Ferdinand V of Spain (1474-1516) and

Queen Isabella of Spain (1474-1504) (Fig. 23).38 However, there were coins of Alfonso

VII of Le6n-Castile (1 126-1 157) that featured two lions' heads representing the province



35Ruth Mellinkoff, "The Round, Cap-Shaped Hats Depicted on Jews in BM Cotton Claudius B. iv." in
4nglo-Saxon England 2 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973), p. 161.

36 Alfred Rubens, 4 History ofJewish Costwne (New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1967), pp. 65-66.

37Knowlton's title for the piece is "Two Confronted Lions." Knowlton, "The Romanesque Sculpture of the
Platerias Portal of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela," p. 36

38See de Alfonso Carlos, "El Escudo de Espafia en las obras de arte del Patrimonio Nacional." Reales
sitios XIX/73 (1982).










of Le6n facing one another.39 The left corner of the piece still has a paw of the creature

intact that seems to represent a lion paw. There are two wings that appear in the

background. However, their position does not logically fit on the animals represented so

they may be part of the original sculpted form prior to the piece's new context as spolia.

Stone L is also difficult to decipher (Fig. 10 [Fig. 3, Stone L]). The lower portions

of the creature's body are definitely animalistic, but the head of the figure in some

photographs appears to be a dog and in others it appears to be a human head. Gaillard

identifies the piece as a dog restrained by a serpent while Knowlton sees the figure as a

lion strangled by a snake.40

Stone M depicts a male youth riding an animal (Fig. 10 [Fig. 3, Stone M]). The

youth and animal are shown in left profile. The youth's foot is in a stirrup and the youth

has a trumpet raised to his lips.41 He wears a short, above the knee robe with concentric

folds at the chest and left arm at his side. The paw of the animal resembles the first beast

in Stone F (Fig. 10 [Fig. 3, Stone F]) and possibly influenced Knowlton's assessment of

the creatures in that panel as lions.42 The animal in Stone M is likely a lion as its stylized

mane exhibits the same sinuous curves in shorter segments as seen in the Woman with

the Skull's hair (Fig. 6 [Fig. 3, Stone G]). This stylization and the animal's long neck

resemble the lions on the trumeau at Moissac (Fig. 24).


39 J. F. Lhotka and P. K. Anderson, Survey ofi~edievallberian Coinages (Chicago: Argonaut, Inc., 1963),
p. 20.

40 Gaillard, Les Ddbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Ledn-Jaca-Compostelle, p. 196; Knowlton,
"The Romanesque Sculpture of the Platerias Portal of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela," p. 36.

41 Gaillard refers to this horn as "un pain." Gaillard, Les Ddbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Ledn-
Jaca-Compostelle, p. 196.

42 JOhn Howard Barnes Knowlton, "The Romanesque Sculpture of the Platerias Portal of the Cathedral of
Santiago de Compostela," p. 36.









The right tympanum is composed of Stones N thru X. Stones O thru S all seem to

participate in a common narrative of the Adoration of the Magi. Stone N represents the

foremost portion of a fox or wolf biting its tail or as Knowlton understands it as a dog or

wolf holding a snake between its teeth (Fig. 5, Stone N).43 Stone O is a very damaged

stone that illustrates a four legged farm animal (Fig. 5, Stone O). This panel seems to be

relevant to the general theme in Stone R, which shows a twisting angel (Fig. 5, Stone R)

and to Stones Q thr-u S, which represent the Adoration of the Magi (Fig. 7). The twisting

angel, that would appear to have originally been a vertical piece, is fitted horizontally

over the magi. The star of Bethlehem appears between the Magi closest to the Virgin

while another star appears over the Virgin's head (Fig. 4 [Fig. 5, Stone S]). The

uppermost rays of the star between the Magi has been cut off to make room for the

twisting angel, who is likely representative of the angel who warns the Magi not to return

to King Herod. All three Magi are cut off at the waist; the two closest to the Virgin face

her and the Christ child while the third is turned and faces the opposite direction. All the

Magi have been severely damaged and only the outline of these figures can be read.

Porter suggests that the unusual depiction of this asymmetrical Adoration scene is

understood as an adaptation of a Syrian iconographic tradition in which the three Magi

appear to the left of the Virgin.44 Interestingly, this same iconography of the Adoration

of the Magi appears on the twelfth century sepulcher of San Ram6n, in the church of







43 Ibid 40.

44 Arthur Kingsley Porter, "Spain or Toulouse? and Other Questions." Art Bulletin 7 (1924), p. 7.










Roda de Isabena in Huesca in northern Spain (Fig. 25).45 This may indicate a common

model book that may have Syrian origins.

Stone panel T is another mysterious piece that was originally intended to be placed

vertically, but the master of the portal inserted it horizontally. It depicts a figure wearing

a heavy robe and holding a book. His head looks like it is covered with another round

cap like the one mentioned in Stone I on the left tympanum (Fig.3, Stone I) and is similar

to the round cap in Figure 21. However, this figure has a halo around his head. It is

inserted over Stone U that depicts a miracle of Christ (Fig. 17 [Fig. 5, Stone U]). In this

panel, a haloed Christ looks down at a figure holding a crutch. Gaillard interprets the

panel as the healing of the paralytic.46 However, Knowlton points out that Early

Christian representations of the healing of the blind included a crutch, which explains

why Christ is looking intently into the eyes of the disabled man or boy. 47 It is my

opinion that the healing of the blind man is represented because of its connection to early

Christian representations that relate to Gregory VII's renovatio that will be discussed in

Chapter 3.

Stone V is the largest on the two tympana. It is possible that as many as three

scenes appear in the panel in continuous narrative: the crowning of Christ with thorns, the

flagellation, and the Crucifixion (Fig. 14 [Fig. 5, Stone V]). Picaud describes the first

image as Pilate seated on a lattice work chair with another man standing above him with




45 M8HUC1 1gleSias Costa, Roda de Isabena: histoira y arte (Barbastro: D.D.P.C.B., 1989), p. 109.

46 Gaillard, Les Ddbuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Ledn-Jaca-Compostelle, p. 199.

47 Knowlton, "The Romanesque Sculpture of the Platerias Portal of the Cathedral of Santiago de
Compostela," p. 97.










his arm extended to the seated man's head.48 Mathews agrees with Picaud's assessment

of the figure as Pilate.49 However, there is no historical or biblical explanation for a

crowning of Pilate. It is precisely for this reason that Gaillard and Knowlton favor the

reading of this image as Christ being crowned with thorns.'o The only problem with this

interpretation is that Christ is seated and thus, it seems too accommodating for a figure

undergoing torture. Despite this fact, I concur with Gaillard's and Knowlton's

conclusion. Further along panel V is a group of four figures. The figure on the left of this

group is what Picaud identifies as a Jew whipping Christ's back." Christ stands with his

back to this figure and another figure while he faces another captor who ties his hands to

a column. This position creates a horizontal line of the arms of the captor and captive

that forms an abstract cross against the vertical column that melds the flagellation with

the Crucifixion. Interestingly, the bowl-shaped haircuts of the Jews resemble the round

shaped hats that the Jews were known to wear and that are represented in Stone I and

Stone T. On the far right of the panel is a third image of a vacant cross on a mound that

represents Christ's triumph over the cross or the Crucifixion. There is also another

beardless figure to the right of the cross. The figures on this panel are cruder and more

disproportionate than the other tympanum pieces. All the figures, except Christ who is

barefoot, are wearing boots.


48Picaud as cited by Conant, The Early Architectural History of the Cathedral of L oanr, q.;. de Compostela,
p. 53.

49 Mathews, ""They wished to destroy the temple of God": Responses to Diego Gelmirez's Cathedral
Construction in Santiago de Compostela, 1100-1140," p. 192.

"0 Gaillard, Les Debuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Leon-Jaca-Contpostelle, p. 200; Knowlton,
"The Romanesque Sculpture of the Platerias Portal of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela," p. 43.

51Picaud as cited by Conant, The Early Architectural History of the Cathedral of L oanr, q.;. de Compostela,
p. 53










Stone W, which appears above Stone X, illustrates an angel plunging from clouds

with a crown held in his hands. Picaud concludes that this piece is supposed to be read

with Stone X as one narrative unit.52 Stone X depicts the Kiss of Judas (Fig. 17 [Fig. 5,

Stone X]). Christ offers his cheek towards the face of another barefoot figure, likely

Judas. The two figures, probably Roman guards, on the periphery of this couple are

wearing boots. This composition is also found in a Syrian manuscript illumination.53

Again, this suggests that a Syrian model book was in use for portions of the iconography

of this portal.

To summarize, the tympana of the Puerta de las Platerias present a diversity of

images, which may initially seem to be unrelated spolia preserved for their artistry or

their sacredness. However, while some of the panels of the tympana are too damaged to

suggest a definitive identification of iconography, the better preserved panels seem to

present related themes to the dual nature of Christ. These are: the Temptation of Christ,

the Adoration of the Magi, the Healing of the Blind, the Crowning with the Thorns, the

Flagellation, the Resurrection, and the Betrayal.

In the left tympanum's lower register, an angel stands in a doorway holding a

censer. He appears behind Christ who holds a rock and stands before vegetation with a

snake intertwined within it. Another angel hovers with a censer over the foliage. Next

are two demons, one genuflects and the other hovers with a rock in his hand. Both of

these figures appear before the city of Jerusalem. All of these figures can be related to

the First Temptation of Christ. Next, three monsters appear in a trilobed arched arcade.


52Ibid. 53.

53 Knowlton, "The Romanesque Sculpture of the Platerias Portal of the Cathedral of Santiago de
Compostela," p. 98.









The first monster is the most distinctive and he appears to be a dog or hyena type figure.

Next to this piece is the "Woman with the Skull" who is enthroned on a faldestorium.

And above her head is the boy riding the lion.

In the left tympanum's top register is a piece that might represent human figures

intertwined within vines. The disembodied bust of the next figure represents possibly a

Jew as revealed by the visual evidence of his hat. He appears before a blessing apostle,

whose identity as such is determined by his scalloped collar. Next, two combattant lions

surround a flower. And finally, a man/beast is restrained by a snake.

The top register of the right tympanum begins by presenting a dog with a snake

between its teeth. Next is a large quadruped, likely a horse or a cow accompanied by a

flying angel. These pieces may be related to the three Magi and the enthroned Virgin and

Child. The lower register of the tympanum depicts a Jewish person over the scene of the

healing of the blind man. Next is the continuous narrative: the crowning of Christ with

the thorns, the flagellation of Christ at the pillar, and the empty cross. At the right corner

is the betrayal of Christ by Judas and the crowning of Christ by an angel.

The question becomes what unifies the iconography in each tympanum and the

larger message presented in the tympana of the Puerta de las Platerias? Karen Mathews's

understanding of the iconography makes the subj ect of the tympanum a social statement

to the citizens of Santiago de Compostela. She relies heavily on an understanding of the

iconography of the tympana of the Puerta de las Platerias in terms of the Historia

Compostellana.l~~~~1111~~~~ Mathews parallels the program of the portal to an illumination of the

"biographical" narrative of Archbishop Diego Gelmirez written in this manuscript, which

recounts the struggles of this man who became the ecclesiastical authority in Santiago de










Compostela twelve years after the deposition of Bishop Pelaez. Mathews makes many

interesting connections between text and iconography. The Historia Compostell anall~~~~1111~~~~

accuses many of Gelmirez' s insubordinate clerics as being akin to Judas. Mathews sees

the kiss of Judas in the Betrayal scene on the right tympanum (Fig. 17) as exemplifying

this relationship between Gelmirez and the Spanish clerics.54 She also reads the

punishment of Jesus in the flagellation panel (Fig. 14) as a reflection of the callous and

cavalier attitude of the city of Jerusalem, which she associates with the people of

Santiago and their treatment of Gelmirez.5 However, Mathews does not include any

mention of the inscription of "H[IERV] S[AL]EM CIVITA" on the left tympanum (Fig. 3,

Stone E) or any tangible evidence to support an identification of the subj ect of the

tympanum with Jerusalem. She also does not relate this conclusion to Aymery Picaud's

identification of the torturers in the flagellation panel to Jews and in fact, considers the

Codex Calixtinus' s Pilgrim' s Guide as an unreliable source.56 She sees this unreliability

in the text' s prejudiced author, but she discounts the inaccuracies that may be found in

the Historia Compostell anal~~~~1111~~~~ which was completed under the supervision of Gelmirez and

the monks at Santiago by 1140. Mathews does not deal with the date inscribed on the

portal that refers to July 11, 1078. Unfortunately, she fails to make a plausible argument

relating Archbishop Diego Gelmirez and the portal's iconography. She does not provide

evidence that the text of the Historia Compostell anall~~~~1111~~~~ was formulated before the


54Mathews, ""They wished to destroy the temple of God": Responses to Diego Gelmirez's Cathedral
Construction in Santiago de Compostela, 1100-1140," p. 194.

55Mathews relies on the history of riots within the town and the alienation of Gelmirez during these violent
moments. Karen Mathews, "Reading Romanesque Sculpture: The Iconography and Reception of the South
Portal Sculpture at Santiago de Compostela," Gesta 39/1 (2000), p. 5.

56 Mathews, ""They wished to destroy the temple of God": Responses to Diego Gelmirez's Cathedral
Construction in Santiago de Compostela, 1100-1140," p. 141.










organization of the tympana sculpture. All evidence, like the portal inscription, indicates

that the riots she attributes to the broken appearance of the sculpture postdated the

erection of the portal. It seems plausible, since the correlations that Mathews finds are at

best conj ecture, that Gelmirez tailored the text of the Historia Compostellan2a to an

already existent program on the south portal.

The other programmatic consideration of the portal that I am aware of is that of

Jose Maria de Azcarate. He supports a reading of the portal as the dual nature of Christ.5

Problematic to this conclusion seems to be Mathews's complaint regarding missing

scenes in the passion narrative of the two tympana on the Puerta de las Platerias. It is the

lack of an iconographic representation of the Last Supper, Crucifixion, and the Three

Women at the Tomb that concerns her.'" Traditionally, the Last Supper is not included

within the passion sequences and thus, the lack of this scene is not viewed by me as a

lacuna in the representation of the Passion. The scenes of the Entry into Jerusalem, the

Crucifixion, and the Three Marys at the Tomb seem to be more important and will be

accounted for in the description of the dual nature program.

I concur with Azcarate that the iconographic program in the two tympana of the

Puerta de las Platerias can be understood as the dual nature of Christ based on the

primary events depicted that include the Adoration of the Magi, the Temptations, the

Betrayal, the Flagellation, the Crucifixion, and Mary Magdalene at the Tomb. The

Adoration of the Magi (Fig. 5, Stones Q thr-u S), which is depicted in the right tympanum,



57 Jos6 Maria de Azcarate, "La Portada de las Platerias y el program iconografico de la Catedral de
Santiago" 4rchivo Espaiiol de 4rte, 36 (1963), p. 1.

58 Mathews, ""They wished to destroy the temple of God": Responses to Diego Gelmirez's Cathedral
Construction in Santiago de Compostela, 1100-1140," p. 191.









is an unusual asymmetrical composition that Arthur Kingsley Porter relates to a Syrian

composition.59 However, in this depiction, the third magus is turned away from the

enthroned mother and child. The magi are known to carry gifts that indicate earthly

kingship (gold), heavenly kingship (frankincense), and death/resurrection (anointing

oil). It is possible that this composition was chosen for this scene to emphasize Christ as

completely human in Casper' s gift of earthly kingship and as completely divine in

Melchior' s gift of heavenly kingship. The third magus is turned away from Christ

possibly to indicate the unnecessary gift of anointing oil because of Christ' s

resurrection. Here is the first reference to the resurrection that Mathews sees as missing

from the tympana. The fact that two stars are represented in the scene is unusual and may

also reference the dual nature, one star leading to death if unheeded and the other star as a

symbol of salvation. The magi are facing the enthroned Virgin (Fig. 13 [Fig. 5, Stone S])

who is nimbed and positioned frontally giving her an iconic appearance similar to

Byzantine images of the Virgin. Images such as that of the theotokos in Hagia Sophia' s

apse (Fig. 26) are recalled with this iconographic depiction.60

In the left tympanum is the representation of Christ' s First Temptation (Fig. 3,

Stones A thr-u E), which probably is intended to evoke all three temptations. This scene

is one of the strongest declarations of Christ' s humanity and divinity. By approaching

the hungry Christ at a time in which his human needs are great, the devil tempts Christ to

turn stones into bread using his divinity to satiate his humanity. Though Christ is human,

his divine nature prevents him from acting on a human frailty.


59 Porter, "Spain or Toulouse? and Other Questions," p.7.

61) The Council of Ephesus in 43 1 confirmed the Virgin Mary as "God-bearer," in an effort to extinguish
Nestorianism.









The Passion, which includes the Betrayal, the Crowning of Christ with Thorns, the

Flagellation, the Crucifixion, and the Resurrection is found predominantly on the right

tympanum. The Passion is important for the dual nature of Christ not only in its

exemplifying his human suffering, but also in Christ' s divine salvation of humanity

through this suffering. The Betrayal (Fig. 17 [Fig. 5, Stone X]) illustrates Christ's arrest

and the Judas kiss, his emotional suffering. The crowning with the thorns is one of the

trials in Christ's physical suffering (Fig. 14 [Fig. 5, Stone V]). The flagellation scene

(Fig. 14 [Fig. 5, Stone V]) is interesting because it conflates Christ' s pre-Crucifixion

tortures with his suffering on the cross. The arms of the torturer and Christ across the

pillar make an abstract cross with Christ to the left of the cross and his restraining

oppressor on the right. Christ' s position to the right of this cross puts him in the position

of salvation. This cross composition helps account for Mathews' s missing Crucifixion

image. An actual cross appears to the right of this scene. It is an empty cross on a

mound that could represent Golgotha. The empty cross symbolizes Christ's triumph over

the cross and therefore is also an allusion to His resurrection.

Mathews's complaint about the missing scene of resurrection has thus been

reconciled by the backward turned magus toward Herod's kingdom and the vacant cross

at the end of the flagellation panel. There is, however, one more possible sculptural

arrangement that implies resurrection. This includes the two pieces on either end of the

left tympanum, the angel in the doorway (Fig. 9 [Fig. 3, Stone A]) and the Woman with

the Skull (Fig. 6 [Fig. 3, Stone G]). The angel in the doorway holds a censer. From the

doorway of the sepulcher, the angel looks across the tympanum to the Woman with the

Skull. There is the possibility that this enigmatic female figure is the prototype for the









Penitent Magdalene who is often depicted with the sixteenth century Tridentine attribute

of the skull. The skull may represent Golgotha or the skull of Adam. But there are pre-

existent images of Mary at the Tomb that have one Mary figure holding an incense pot

toward the angel seated at the open door of the tomb. This motif appears in a Carolingian

ivory, located at the Cathedral of Narbonne in Narbonne, France (Fig. 27).61 The

Narbonne ivory has the open door of the sepulchre, which significantly, also has

rectangular moulding around the door, similar to the door behind the angel (Fig. 9 [Fig. 3,

Stone A]). The iconography of Mary Magdalene with the censer appears frequently in

Carolingian art and also appears in an initial in a folio from the Drogo Sacramnentary

(Fig. 28) also with a tomb with a rectangular door. The connection of Carolingian

iconography with the Puerta de las Platerias will gain further importance in Chapter 4's

isolation of iconography of the Carolingian period that relates to the Woman with the

Skull.

Because of their damaged state, some panels of the two tympana defy iconographic

identification. However, the better preserved spolia elements reveal a complex program

of New Testament scenes, which emphasize the humanity and the divinity of Christ. This

program may be the result of a complex ecclesiastic and secular struggle between Pope

Gregory VII and King Alfonso VI of Le6n-Castile, which will be discussed in the next

chapter.


61 Marie-ChriStine Sepibre, L hugcle d 'un Dieu ..anul,,t (Paris: Les editions du Cerf, 1994), pp. 215-217.















CHAPTER 4
THE SOCIAL, POLITIC, AND RELIGIOUS CONTEXT OF LATE ELEVENTH
CENTURY SPAIN

With the weakening and eventual downfall of the Roman Empire, the northern

portions of its territory fell pray to the invasions of various barbarous people. As a result,

the Iberian Peninsula was overrun by the Visigoths in the mid-fifth century who brought

with them the Christian Arian heresy. Because of this infiltration of the peninsula by

heresy, many of the traditions labeled as both Christian and Spanish, have had their

orthodoxy challenged by the papacy and the Roman Catholic Church. One of the most

pronounced instances of this type of challenge occurred in the late eleventh century

between Pope Gregory VII and King Alfonso VI. First, this chapter will briefly discuss

Arianism, which emerges as an important aspect of the Mozarabic liturgy in late eleventh

century Spain emerges. The renewed importance of Arianism involves the Pope and

various documents related to and possibly utilized to justify the replacement of the

Mozarabic liturgy with the Roman Rite. King Alfonso VI' s response to the pressure of

Gregory VII' s renovatio will also be considered, and all of these factors will be related to

the south portal and its title as portal of the silversmiths. The audience of the south

portal, which would have included the townspeople and the pilgrims from the pilgrimage

path through the Iberian Peninsula, will also be related to the title of the portal: Puerta de

las Platerias. Ultimately, all these factors will be interrelated to the purpose and program

of the portal.










As briefly explored in Chapter 2, Pope Gregory VII's emphasis on early Christian

themes in his renovatio may indicate that he saw the original "bad seed" that cultivated

the Mozarabic liturgy as the same antagonist to early Christian orthodoxy, Arius. Arius

(250-336 AD), considered the founder of Arianism, claimed that Christ was not equal

with God because he was between the designation of human and divine; thus, Arius

challenged the dual nature of Christ.' The exact origin of this heresy is debated. While

Arius was an Alexandrian bishop, Newman sees Arianism's development as occurring

within the School of Antioch and barely stops short of definitively calling it a Jewish

heresy.2 He comes to this conclusion in the associations between Arius and Lucian of

Antioch who tutored Arius and likely encouraged the ideas of Paul of Samosata, who

advocated Christ' s position as merely man.3 Though there are several theories about the

gestation of the Arian heresy, Newman' s theory and Arius's relationship to Antioch will

be the argument about Arianism most important to this thesis.

Because Spain had a particularly influential historical connection with Arianism,

Spanish Christian tradition provoked various suspicions concerning its orthodoxy. The

primary target of critical inspection fell upon its most public displays, namely the

Mozarabic Liturgy. The term Mozarabic is somewhat misleading. The liturgy received

this name some time after the liturgy's abolition in 1080 at the Council of Burgos.4 The



i Rowen Williams, Arius: Heresy and Tradition (London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1987), pp. 98-103.

2 JOhn Henry Cardinal Newman, The Arians of the Fourth Century (London: Longmans, Green, and Co.,
1919), pp. 1-24. There has been a continuous dialogue about Arian origins that Rowan Williams sees as
being relevant despite many theories, which might ordinarily seem outdated because of their conception in
the late nineteenth century.

3 Ibid. 3.

4 The Council of Burgos declared the Roman Liturgy the acceptable liturgy of Spain and was the official
dismissal of the Spanish tradition that used the Mozarabic Liturgy. See Henry Jenner, "Mozarabic Rite,"










reason for this title is believed to involve the persistence of the liturgy among the Spanish

Christians in the areas of Spain under Arabic jurisdiction even after the council.' It has

been known as the Gothic Rite, the Toledan Rite, and the Visigothic Rite.6 These

designations are related to possible origins of the rite with the Visigothic control of Spain

and Toledo' s position as the headquarters of the Mozarabic Rite, where it was believed to

have been practiced even after 1080 with the knowledge of King Alfonso VI.7 It has also

been called the Isidorian Rite because Isidore of Seville (560-636) is speculated as the

writer of the liturgy, or at least may have been involved in revisions of the liturgy.8

No evidence exists concerning the Spanish liturgy before the Visigoths, and very

little aside from a few manuscripts, remain of the liturgy before its abolition in 1080.9

However, it is possible that there is some information about the Mozarabic liturgy that

may be gleaned from Pope Gregory VII's campaign against the liturgy. He wrote some

letters to various parties and, as the liturgical saga progressed, recipients of

correspondences included Abbot Hugh of Cluny and King Alfonso VI.10 Pope Gregory


Catholic Enqvclopedia. www.newadvent.org/cathenl0611a.htm, for information on
the name of the liturgy and Teofilo F. Ruiz, "Burgos and the Council of 1080," inl I,,ne.,;. Saint-Denis,
and Saint Peter: The Reception of the Roman Liturgy in Ledn-Castille in 1 080 (New York: Fordham
University Press, 1985), pp. 121-130.

SHenry Jenner, "Mozarabic Rite," Catholic Enqvclopedia. www.newadvent.org/cathenl0611a.htm,


bIbid.

SB. F. Reilly, The Kingdom ofLedn-Castille under King 4lfonso VI7, 1065-1109, p. 183.

SHenry Jenner, "Mozarabic Rite," Catholic Enqvclopedia. www.newadvent.org/cathenl0611a.htm


9 Ibid.

'o Joseph F. O'Callaghan, "The Integration of Christian Spain into Europe: The Role of Alfonso VI of
Le6n-Castile," inl La noses;l. Saint-Denis, and Saint Peter: The Reception of the Roman Liturgy in Ledn-
Castile in 1080 (New York: Fordham University Press, 1985), p. 109.










VII' s initial letter to the king of Le6n-Castile in 1074 includes some justification for his

efforts to rid Spain of its Mozarabic liturgical tradition because it is an attempt to cleanse

Priscillianism and Arianism from the liturgy witnessed by papal legates.ll The

concentration of this thesis upon the heresy of Arianism instead of Priscillianism is based

upon the signifiers that the pope used for his campaign and that are related to the south

portal. These signifiers have already been broached in previous chapters, but to

recapitulate they include the dual nature program of the portal and the use of spolia like

that seen on the Arch of Constantine (Fig. 20) and the Church of Old St. Peter' s. As the

first caesaropapist Eigure, Constantine called the Council of Nicaea in 325 to address the

emergence of the Arian heresy in the early Christian world. Pope Gregory VII may have

seen himself as following in the steps of Constantine and as referenced earlier, Ernst

Kitzinger supports prototypes for Pope Gregory's renovatio that relate to Constantine and

Galla Placidia while Helen Toubert recognizes general early Christian themes in

Gregory's campaign.12

H. E. J. Cowdrey and Ram6n Gonzalvez propose a possible use of the document

forged in the Carolingian era, the Donation of Constantine, as influential in Pope Gregory

VII's campaign.13 Supposedly dating from the early Christian period, this forged

document unjustly made a claim that asserted papal control over many territories


11 Serafin Moralejo, "On the Road, the Camino to Santiago" in 4rt ofidedieval Spain (New York:
Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1993), p. 175.

12 See Ernst Kitzinger, "The Gregorian Reform and the Visual Arts: A Problem of Method (The Prothero
Lecture)," Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, p. 98 and H616ne Toubert, Un art dirige: Reforme
gregorienne et iconographie (Paris: Les editions du cerf, 1990).

13 RamC~n Gonzilvez, "The Persistence of the Mozarabic Liturgy in Toledo after A.D. 1080," inl ten I,;r..~
Saint-Denis, and Saint Peter: The Reception of the Roman Liturgy in Leon-Castile in 1080 (New York:
Fordham University Press, 1985), p. 158; H.E.J. Cowdrey, The Cluniacs and the Gregorian Reform
(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970), p. 220.










including Spain. Interestingly, this document was included in a group of false decrees

called the Pseudo-Isidorian decretals. This set of documents, which were organized in

the Carolingian period, possibly by a member of the diocese of Hincmar of Rheims (845-

882), was not known to have existed in Spain during the eleventh century.14 But the

original attribution of the decretals to Isidore of Seville, the same person believed to have

composed or revised the Mozarabic liturgy, seems to open the possibility that Pope

Gregory VII had some access to this document."

Thus, the Pseudo-Isidorian decretals and their inclusion of the Donation of

Constantine make the period of the decretals' forging, the Carolingian period, and the

period of the Donation' s supposed creation, the reign of Constantine, important to Pope

Gregory VII's claim. The revival of the early Christian Eight against Arianism in the

south portal's dual nature program has been explored, but the Carolingian revival of this

early Christian Eight against heresy needs some introduction.

The Pseudo-Isidorian decretals appeared in the Carolingian period that is known for

Alcuin and Charlemagne's fight against Hispanic Adoptionism. Hispanic Adoptionism

was primarily classified as reflecting Arian tendencies to diminish the dual nature of

Christ. However, historically, the Pseudo-Isidorian decretals date to the reign of Charles

the Bald (843-877) and relate more to this Carolingian ruler. As stated earlier, this


14 Though Hincmar of Rheims is reported to have used the decretals on at least one occasion, it is believed
that they were created under his authority by a disgruntled bishop. Philip Schaff, "60. The Pseudo-
Isidorian Decretals," History of the Christian Church, Vohane IV: M~ediaeval Christianity. 4.D.590-1073.
htt \\ \\ lccel.org/s/schaff/hcc4/htm/i.iv.xiii.htm , Louis Saltet, "False Decretals,"
Catholic Enqvclopedia. h'lip un \\ \ newadvent.org/cathen/05773 a. htm,

15 "False Decretals," Britannica Concise Enqvclopedia.
http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/articleu=844 The decretals, which was
created in mid-ninth century, supports the primacy of the pope and elevates bishops to have more rights
than usually given them by the archbishops. Louis Saltet, "False Decretals," Catholic Enqvclopedia
http1 un \\\\.newadvent.org/cathen/05773a.htm,










document may have been a product of the diocese of Hincmar of Rheims, who

reprimanded Charles the Bald on numerous occasions for his interest in practices

regarded as heretical.16 Between 860 and 870, Hincmar wrote a treatise to Charles the

Bald entitled De cavendis vitiis et virtutibus exercendis. This work emphasized the

necessity of the transubstantiation of the Eucharistic sacraments. In supporting the actual

consumption of the flesh and blood of Christ through the sacraments, this work not only

supports the dual nature of Christ, but it also advocates the necessity of contrition,

humility, and particularly, the practice of orthodox faith to engaging in this

transubstantiation. 1 Hincmar' s emphasis of these requirements may have been an effort

to counter Charles the Bald' s behavior. This is especially true because of the king' s

interest in unorthodox traditions. For example, Charles the Bald invited emissaries from

Spain to his court in 870 to perform the Mozarabic rite for him.xs

More interesting is the fact that the reputed author/compiler of the Pseudo-Isidorian

decretals in the Carolingian period used the canons of Isidore of Seville, the believed

writer or reviser of the Mozarabic liturgy.19 At this time, the writer, whose pseudonym






16 Philip Schaff, "60. The Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals," History of the Christian Church, Volume If :
M~ediaeval Christianity. 4.D. 590-1073. http://www.ccel.org/s/schaff/hcc4/htm/i.ixiihm 1/12/04>

17 Celia Chazelle, The Crucified God in the Carolingian Era (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
2001), pp. 288, 290.

1s See Henry Jenner, "Mozarabic Rite," Catholic Enqvclopedia. www.newadvent.org/cathenl0611a.htm,


19 Philip Schaff. "Isidore of Seville," New \. Inr-Hlerzog Enqvclopedia ofReligious Knowledge, Vol. VI:
Innocents- Liudger. http://www.ccel.org/s/schaff/encyc/encyc6/tiixihm ;
Henry Jenner. "Mozarabic Rite," in Catholic Enqvclopedia. www.newadvent.org/cathenl0611la.htm,











was Isidore Mercator, was erroneously identified with Isidore of Seville.20 If Charles the

Bald was showing interest in the liturgical creation of Isidore of Seville, namely the

Mozarabic liturgy, Pope Nicholas I (d.867) could use a forged document believed to be

by the same individual who wrote this liturgy to counter the king's attempt to claim

ecclesiastical authority. Hincmar of Rheims was likely trying to distance the king from

the Mozarabic liturgy, its unorthodoxy, and any ties to Isidore of Seville. Additionally,

the Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals' inclusion of the Donation of Constantine establishes

Gregory VII's papal claim to the fourth century. This claim is said to be made by none

other than the legalizer of Christianity himself, Constantine the Great. Thus, this

document and the Pseudo-Isidorian decretals attempt to show any divergence from

Roman Orthodoxy as heretical in lands that had supposedly belonged to the united

Roman Empire in the fourth century.

The nomenclature which associates Isidore of Seville with the decretals would

seem to be orchestrated to suggest this church father' s recognition of the primacy of

Rome and the pope as well as the surprising admission of the unorthodox nature of what

may have been his Mozarabic liturgy. In this way, the decretals would seem to play an

important role in Pope Gregory VII' s renovatio because they quote earlier sources that

asserted papal primacy and do so in the name of the Mozarabic liturgy's most prominent

figurehead.21 However, interestingly, Pope Gregory VII never mentions Hispanic

Adoptionism in his reasons for obj ecting to the liturgy. In fact, the pope wavers in his



20Philip Schaff. "Isidore Mercator," New \, Inr-Herzog Encyclopedia ofReligious Knowledge, Vol. VI7:
Innocents- Liudger. http://www.ccel.org/s/schaff/encyc/encycO6hmiixxiihm

21Louis Saltet, "False Decretals," Catholic Encyclopedia. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05773a.htm











reasons for the reform citing the possible tainting of Spain from Arian influences to

pagan influences and Muslim influences. Finally, when the installment of the Roman rite

was ensured in Le6n-Castille, Pope Gregory VII issued a bull in 1081 that stated his

approval in relation to the amending of unnamed formal heresies by the reinstatement of

the Roman liturgy.22

When examining the Pope's vacillation in reasoning, the question becomes: did the

identification of the heresy in the Mozarabic liturgy precede Gregory's campaign, or was

the Visigothic history of Spain an excuse to feign discovery of Arianism in the Mozarabic

liturgy, which would fit perfectly into the Pope's Constantinian propaganda? Was the

Donation of Constantine an instrument to further reform, or was it the reason for reform?

The Pseudo-Isidorian decretals are instrumental in asserting the primacy of the

pope while giving the bishops more independence.23 Interestingly, after the deposition of

Bishop Pelaez in 1088, no representative of the pope in the form of a bishop was named

at Santiago de Compostela until 1094.24 Part of the reasoning for this vacancy was

possibly to enable the pope to enact a strict control over the region of Galicia himself and

thus assert a personal role in removing the Mozarabic liturgy so near and dear to the

Spanish people and monastics. As seen in the strong resistance of the monastics at


22RamC~n Gonzilvez, "The Persistence of the Mozarabic Liturgy in Toledo after A.D. 1080," inl ten I,;r,..~
Saint-Denis, and Saint Peter: The Reception of the Roman Litw-gy in Leon-Castile in 1080, pp. 160-161.

23 Karen Mathews, who examines the Puerta de las Platerias as a program organized by Archbishop Diego
Gelmirez, mentions the commonly held opinion of the people of Santiago de Compostela that Bishop
Gelmirez conducted himself in a pope-like manner that seems to hint at the influence of the Pseudo-
Isidorian decretals. Karen Matthews, ""They wished to destroy the temple of God": Responses to Diego
Gelmirez's Cathedral Construction in Santiago de Compostela, 1100-1140," (PhD-University of Chicago,
1995), p. 67

24Georges Gaillard, Les Debuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Leon-Jaca-Compostelle (Paris, 1938),
p.162; John Howard Barnes Knowlton, "The Romanesque Sculpture of the Platerias Portal of the Cathedral
of Santiago de Compostela" (Thesis-M.A., New York University, 1939), p. 12.










Sahagun and in the monks' manipulation of the medium of manuscripts, Spanish

monastics would have required intense scrutiny before identifying an individual that

would prove resistant to any agenda except the supporting of Roman orthodoxy. While

Knowlton sees this period without a bishop as involving artistic inactivity, it seems that

this would have been the perfect opportunity for the pope to exercise complete control

over what was visually communicated.25

This general heretical theme extracted by Pope Gregory VII takes on a very

specific form. He distills the specifically Spanish heresy into a generalized category of

heresy visually and conceptually associated with Judaism. Pope Gregory VII likely took

his cue in the use of a Jewish metaphor for heresy from Alcuin, who in his fight against

Spanish Adoptionism reprimands Bishop Felix of Urgel and Archbishop Elipandus of

Toledo (717-800). Referring to the bishop and archbishop's support of Spanish

Adoptionism, Alcuin states .with the Jews you still do not believe."26 As previously

described, Arianism itself has also been associated with Judaism.

So how is this Jewish idiom expressed? There are elements including the title of

the south portal, the cathedral's position within the town center, and iconographic

qualities, which assert this comparison. First, the title of the south portal, Puerta de las

Platerias, means the portal of the silversmiths. Interestingly, though throughout the

Middle Ages there were prohibitions on Jewish artistic production, the silversmiths in

Spain were Jewish.27 Though the unwritten assumption about the title of the south portal


25Ibid. 12.

26Chazelle, The Crucified God in the Carolingian Era, p. 59.

27Bernard Bemstein, Sanctification and the 4rt of Cil setteri,,,,; Processes and Techniques: 4 Handbook
for Museums (New York: The Judaica Museum, 1994), p. 6.









has been that the portal faces the shops of the silversmiths, as seen in the medieval city

plan of Marilyn Stokstad (Fig. 8), there seems to be some further ideas being fostered in

this title. Since the Pilgrim's Guide asserts that the French only entered from the north,

the south portal's audience was the town of Santiago de Compostela. From this idea,

Karen Mathews asserts that the south portal was predominantly used by the townspeople

and that this was the portal's intended audience.28 Though this makes sense

geographically, the title of the portal as being for the silversmiths seems to suggest that

the townspeople were being associated with the label of non-believers seen as heretics,

expressed in this case by association with Judaism. Further support for this idea is that

the pilgrimage route to Santiago that moves only through the Iberian Peninsula and not

through the rest of Europe is called Ruta de la Plata or the Silver Route. This route was

also known as the Camino Mozarabe. It is by this same route that the relics of Isidore of

Seville, the writer or reviser of the Mozarabic liturgy, were brought to Le6n.29

In terms of contrasts in planning, the cruciform shape of the cathedral has the Plaza

de la Inmaculada on the north arm of the cathedral while the Plaza de las Platerias is on

the south. This idea seems to evoke Carolingian Crucifixion imagery with Ecclesia on

the right of the cross and Synagogue on the left of the cross. The designations of the

cathedral and its relationship to city planning and naming seem to express this idea of the

orthodox and the heretical. In fact, the bishop's palace is located on the north side of the

cathedral while the cloisters are located on the south side. This seems to further express

the resistance of the Spanish monastics to the Roman liturgy and orthodoxy.


28 Matthews, ""They wished to destroy the temple of God": responses to Diego Gelmirez's cathedral
construction in Santiago de Compostela, 1100-1140," p. 151.

29 Alison Raju, The Way ofSt. James: Via de la Plata (Cumbria: Cicerone, 2001), p. 10.









These ideas may not have been solidified until the appointment of Diego Gelmirez

as archbishop of Santiago de Compostela in 1100, under whose leadership the Ruta de la

Plata was popularized. But the generalization of heresy in Jewish terms, which may have

originated with Pope Gregory VII and his quotation of Carolingian sources, also finds

expression on the two tympana. As stated earlier, Figure 15 and the horizontal figure

above the healing of the blind (Fig. 5, Stone T) depict Jewish figures whose designation

as such are verifiable by the round cap that they are wearing. The blessing apostle (Fig.

12 [Fig. 3, Stone J]) on the left tympanum may be proselytizing the capped figure on his

right. Even the unidentifiable creature, possibly dog, being restrained by a snake (Fig. 3,

Stone L) on the left tympanum may reflect the suppression of the Spanish by the heresy

of the Old Law while the dog or wolf with the snake between its teeth (Fig. 5, Stone N)

on the right tympanum may reflect the triumph of the New Law over the Old Law.

In the referencing of Arian heresy in his letter to Alfonso VI, Pope Gregory VII

opened a theological gold mine of Spanish historical connections that include the

Visigoths, the Carolingians, and Constantine. Through the use of the Donation of

Constantine within the Pseudo-Isidorian decretals, Pope Gregory VII was likely

connecting his campaign to a long, but fabricated, history of papal suzerainty in Spain.

Through iconography and metaphors of heresy in terms of Judaism, he asserted this

connection and perhaps even exploited what would become a legend.

This legend originated in the Woman with the Skull's (Fig. 6 [Fig. 3, Stone G])

designation as the "Adulterous Woman" by Aymery Picaud. This description of the

woman may be intended to relay a connection between the woman and Jerusalem, which

is the adulterous woman in the Bible in the books of Ezekiel and Jeremiah. However,









what may be the most telling association comes from the most important Spanish figure

in this thesis, Isidore of Seville. He opens his History of the Goths, Vandals, and Suevi

by calling Spain an adulterous woman.30 This description will be explored in detail in

Chapter 4 in which the "Woman with Skull" will be examined in depth in regard to

various scholars' identifications of her iconography and with regard to iconographic

precedents that have eluded scholars up to this point.


30 Isidore ofSeville 's History of the Goths, Vandals, and Suevi (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1970), pp. 1-2.















CHAPTER 5
THE ICONOGRAPHY OF THE WOMAN WITH THE SKULL

As the largest figure on the two tympana of the south portal sculpture of Santiago

de Compostela (Fig. 1), all of which lack an original context, the classically rendered

Woman with the Skull (Fig. 6) presents an interesting art historical challenge. For this

reason, her iconography was discussed briefly in Chapter 2 with the intention of devoting

all of Chapter 4 to the figure that Walter Cahn labels as one of the most enigmatic in

Romanesque sculpture.l This chapter will begin by giving a description of the piece and

continue by considering the various identities that scholars have attempted to assign as

the piece's iconography. While Cahn's statements concerning the piece express a certain

resignation and ultimate acceptance that the woman's identity is lost due to a lack of

iconographic evidence, this study will propose an iconographic tradition for the piece

revealing the woman's identity as found in Carolingian and Late Imperial Roman

iconography. Many of the scholarly ideas about the Woman with the Skull will be shown

to be relevant only when these scholars' choices for her identity are interrelated to one

another and in the service of her iconographic precursor, the Penitent Roma. Ultimately,

this composite identity will be related to Pope Gregory VII' s campaign to reform the

Spanish Mozarabic liturgy by reasserting the Roman rite. In this campaign, the Woman

with the Skull embodies the message of the south portal intended to act as a self-

reflective image of the Spanish people to the south portal.


SWalter Cahn, "Romanesque Sculpture and the Spectator," in The Romanesque Frieze and its Spectator
(London: The Dean and Chapter of Lincoln Cathedral, 1992), p. 59.









Beyond the overtly prominent scale of the Woman with the Skull (Fig. 6 [Fig.3,

Stone G]), she is one of the most artistically skilled pieces of spolia on the portal. There

is a visual as well as thematic dichotomy expressed by the positive mass and negative

space in the sculpting of this figure. The empty space veiled between the woman's legs

is characterized by drapery folds which are defined and dominated by deep furrows while

the mass of her bare left leg counterbalances this in emphasizing the subtractive

technique that pushes the plasticity of her shin forward into space. The folds below the

waist produce an equal emphasis on the furrows' stark shadowed depressions that in turn

create a positive convex contrast in the dramatic yin and yang of their Zen sand curves.

The sculptor uses subtle indentations to allude to the hemline of her dress while a similar

though vertical line lightly defines the shin of her robe-covered leg that is quite

pronounced in the proj ecting mass of her bare leg. In contrast, the upper torso of the

woman has her right breast exposed, while her left breast is implied through the drapery

folds. The diagonal of her bare body and the diagonal of her clothed body imply the

crisscross of the faldestorium/sella curulis upon which she is seated. And, like the

drapery folds of her robe, her hair resembles a braided mass of sinuous vines offset by

thin swells on some strands. Ultimately, the sculptural result is dramatically fat folds of

drapery and organically, intertwining tresses of hair. Her abundant hair and full face are

in glaring contrast to the death skull on her lap.

None of the other pieces in the two tympana either formalistically or stylistically

replicate the sculptural drama enacted in the Woman with the Skull. Additionally, none

of them have as much drama surrounding their iconographic interpretations. The first

record of an iconographical identification of the woman is often considered the most










sensationalistic and it comes from Aymery Picaud's early twelfth century Pilgrim 's

Guide which states:

Nec est oblivioni tradendum quod miller quedam juxta dominicam Temptacionem
stat, tenens inter manus suas caput lecatoris sui fetidum, a marito proprio abscisum,
osculans illut bis per diem, coacta a viro suo. O quam ingentem et admirabilem
justiciam mulieris adulterate, omnibus narrandam!2

[Nor ought we to forget the female Eigure set near the Temptation of Our Lord: she
holds in her hands the rotting head of her lover, cut off by her husband, who forces
her to kiss it twice a day. What a great and admirable judgment upon an adulterous
woman, which should be recounted to everyone!]3

George Zarnecki's translation of this passage specifies that the head' s former owner is

the woman's seducer, a translated meaning that will have important connotations as this

chapter progresses.4

Picaud' s interpretation has elicited a wide range of responses from that of Philip

Verdier who Einds Picaud' s assessment of the image no more than a roman to Serafin

Moralejo's re-evaluation and endorsement of Picaud's description.5 Moralejo justifies

Picaud's interpretation, less on visual evidence and more by the contemporaneousness of

the interpretation with the sculpture's placement in the tympanum. 6 The Pilgrim's Guide

dates from 1135, and was probably written within sixty years following the creation of

the program of the south portal, which could not predate 1075 and that this study

2 Jeanne Vielliard, Le Guide du Pelerin de Saint-Jacques de Contpostelle (Mlacon: Imprimerie Protat
Frbres, 1969), p. 102.

3 Translation of the words of Aymery Picaud from his Pilgrim' s Guide in Kenneth Conant, The Early
architectural History of the Cathedral of l,,ne, ;. de Compostela, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press,
1925), p.53.

SGeorge Zarnecki, 4rt of the Medieval World (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1975), p. 224.

5 P. Verdier, "La participation populaire g la creation et g la jouissance de l'oeuvre d'art" in La culture
populaire au Adoven 4ge, Ed. P. Boglioni (Montreal 1979), pp. 63-80, esp. 70-73.

b Serafin Moralejo, "The Codex Calixtinus as an art historical source," in The Codex Calixtinus and the
Shrine ofSt. James. Ed. John Williams and Alison Stones (Tubingen: Gunter NarrVerlag, 1992), p. 218.










maintains as being created in 1078. But Moralejo does not restrict his interpretation of

the piece to only Picaud's words. He also maintains the idea that the image in its

representation of adultery may be an exensphem based on eleventh or twelfth century

sermons.' The idea of the exensphen implies that the piece in its new context as spolia

acquired a new meaning that was not inherent to its iconography. Thus, Moralejo seems

to assert that the piece became a source for creative interpretation without any retention

of its meaning from its former context. Essentially, reading an accurate meaning into the

piece without any iconographic consistency from its first context to this new context

makes a recreation of twelfth century meaning virtually impossible. Another unfortunate

weakness of this argument is its dependence on written sources that are not even

identifiable: there is no specific written sermon with an exensphen to which Moralejo can

relate the story of the "Adulterous Woman." In addition, there is no visual evidence to

support his reading. Moralejo does mention the possible connection of the Woman with

the Skull to a capital in Santa Marta de Tera in Zamora of a seated woman with a

decapitated head in her lap (Fig.29). However, he concedes that the figure on the capital

is probably Salome because of the beard that is shown on the severed head.8

Jose Maria de Azcarate relates the Woman with the Skull to the sculpture found on

the historiated capitals of the south portal found below the tympana. These capitals

depict the expulsion of Adam and Eve from Paradise. Azcarate concludes from these

images that the Woman with the Skull is "Eve as Mother of Death." 9 This is understood


SIbid. 218.

"Ibid. 217.

9 JOs6 Maria de Azcarate, "La Portada de las Platerias y el program iconografico de la Catedral de
Santiago" 4rchivo Espaiiol de 4rte, 36 (1963), pp. 1-20 (Specifically pp.10-12).










based on the skull on the woman's lap as alluding to death. Eve was the instrument of

the devil that brought death into the world through her encouragement of Adam to eat the

fruit of the Tree of Knowledge, thus her association as sin' s bearer and the "mother" of

death. However, the problem with this interpretation is that Azcarate does not create a

very tight interrelationship of this figure to his larger dual nature program.

Karen Mathews's study discusses the Woman with the Skull only in vague terms

that allude to connections with images of fully clothed women originally from the north

portal.10 Although the purposes in this connection remain ambiguous, she is likely trying

to loosely connect the piece to a social event or person in conjunction with her aim to

relate the entire south portal program to Archbishop Diego Gelmirez. While she alludes

to Moralejo's conclusions about the piece being an exemphem and melds this

interpretation with the idea of "Eve as Mother of Death" as also being an exemphem, it

can only be assumed that she concurs with Moralejo's theory, except she is connecting

the exemphem to personages and female stereotypes concurrent with Diego Gelmirez's

retention of the office of archbishop."l She also makes many references to women as

sinful, including Queen Urraca of Le6n-Castile (1109-1126).12 Mathews quotes a

passage from the Historia Compostell anall~~~~1111~~~~ that refers to the Queen as acting in accordance

with "female perversity" in the breaking of a pact with the archbishop.13 However,



'o Karen Mathews, ""They wished to destroy the temple of God": Responses to Diego Gelmirez's
Cathedral Construction in Santiago de Compostela, 1100-1140" (PhD-University of Chicago, 1995), pp.
185-186, 204-205.

11 Ibid. 204-205. Diego Gelmirez's active participation as archbishop at Santiago de Compostela was
between 1100 and 1140.

I2 Ibid.

13 Ibid. 206. makes comparison between the image and Historia Compostellana's statement about the queen
(Urraca) breaking a pact with the archbishop "But whom does female perversity not confront? What do the










Mathews only suggests a general tenor of misogynistic sentiment as influencing the

sculpture and the text and not direct references to particulars. 14 Unfortunately, the only

possible connection between the queen and the Woman with the Skull is possibly the seat

of power, the sella curulis or faldestorium. However, representing the Queen in

slanderous association of the Woman with the Skull would likely have deprived the

archbishop of his office and his head. Mathews also entertains connections between the

figure of the Woman with the Skull and Lust; however, there is a sculptural piece in the

cathedral museum of Santiago de Compostela that was originally on the portal and that

represents Lust. Redundancy, though present in some instances on the portal, makes this

interpretation less plausible."

Ole Naesgaard creates an association between the Woman with the Skull and the

floating head (Fig. 11) that appears to be in the same style. Without any basis, Naesgaard

maintains that the floating head on the upper left of the tympanum is the husband that

decapitated the Woman with the Skull's seducer. He concludes that the story of the

Woman with the Skull is derived from sources like One 7housanda~nd One Nights and

the Decamneron. 16 The problem is that the Decamneron postdates the Pilgrim's Guide by

over two hundred years. Though there was Arab influence in Spain that might have




wiles of the serpent not presume? Whom does this most terrible viper not attack? In sum, what feminine
trickery confronts, presumes, and attacks is indicated clearly by the example of Eve, our first mother. The
most audacious soul of women violates that which is most holy; all is the same, the licit and the
prohibited." (HC, II, 39, 284).

14 Ibid. 206.

1s Ibid. 205.

16 Ole Naesgaard, Saint-Jacques de Compostelle et les debuts de la grande sculptures vers 1100 (Aarhus,
1962), pp. 73-74.










exposed the Spanish to the eighth-century One Thousand and One Nights, there is no

historical reason for connecting the Woman with the Skull with this source.

Chapter 2 of this thesis has connected the Woman with the Skull to the Penitent

Mary Magdalene, a suggestion first made by J. Villa-Amil y Castro and Georges

Gaillard.l7 The official association of the Magdalene with a skull does not occur until the

Council of Trent in the 1560s.ls However, she is shown with this attribute in the

Renaissance paintings of Titian (Fig. 30) and Georges de la Tour (Fig. 31). Rather, I

would like to suggest that there is a larger and more complex melding of iconography and

ideology that is occurring with this iconography of the Woman with the Skull.

As stated earlier, the identification of the piece as an adulterous woman by the

Pilgrim's Guide remains a much-debated interpretation. In fact, Walter Cahn concludes

that "Ultimately, then, we lack in this instance the means to verify the claims of the

Pilgrims' Guide by reference to a stable pictorial tradition or specifiable hermeneutical

practice."19 One of the aims of this chapter is to fill this lacuna.

As the previous chapters have attempted to establish, the themes and texts of the

Carolingian period are just as relevant to the Romanesque period as they are to the ninth

and tenth centuries. Pope Gregory VII' s endeavor to purge Spain of heresy is simply a

renewal of the proj ect of Alcuin and Charlemagne who first interpreted the Mozarabic






17 See J. Villa-Amil y Castro, La Cathedral de ~l oa ;. (Madrid 1909), p.32 and Georges Gaillard "Les
commencements de l'art roman en Espagne" Bulletin Hispanique 37 (1935): 273-308 or Etudes d 'art
roman (Paris 1972), pp. 38-63.

1s Susan Haskins, Mary Magdalene: Myth and Metaphor (New York: Riverhead Books, 1995), p.236.

19 Cahn, "Romanesque Sculpture and the Spectator," p. 59.










liturgy as being tainted by Arianism.20 However, what is more important is the

continuation of this issue into the reign of Charles the Bald. According to Barton Sholod,

Charles the Bald was regularly apprised of the activities and progress in the pre-

Romanesque church of Santiago de Compostela.21 In 870, the same year that this king

invited emissaries from Spain to perform the Mozarabic liturgy at his court and that

Hincmar of Rheims wrote about the importance of the Eucharist to the king, Hincmar of

Rheims commissioned an ivory that has now been integrated into the Pericopes ofHemry

II (Fig. 32).22 This ivory is one of the most renowned Crucinixion ivories of the

Carolingian period and can be interpreted as supporting the dual nature of Christ. Known

as the Munich ivory or Cover of the Bamberg Evangelistary (Fig. 33), it will be shown as

containing a possible prototype for the Woman with the Skull.

The ivory is composed of three registers with wavy groundlines. The top register

contains the Crucifixion, the middle register depicts the resurrection and three Marys at

the tomb, and the bottom register contains classical personifications amid individuals

being resurrected from their tombs. While the Crucifixion and resurrection seem to

celebrate the dual nature of Christ, the Spanish Mozarabic liturgy may be referenced in

the two Eigures on the far right of the top register of the ivory (Fig. 34). The standing

figure has a knob or horn on her head while her heel touches the jug containing the

vinegar that was offered by Stephano to Christ. This horned Eigure has been associated


"0 Celia Chazelle, The Crucified God in the Carolingian Era: Theology and 4rt of Christ 's Passion
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), p. 55.

21Barton Sholod, C iters I.,;;,,pt..-, in Spain: The Cultural Legacy ofRoncesvalles (Genbre: Librairie Droz,
1966), p.59 n. 77.

22 Amy Vandersall, "The Ivories of the Court School of Charles the Bald" (PhD, Yale University, 1965), p.
83.










with Judaism in figures like Moses while Celia Chazelle has also associated the vinegar

used by Stephano in the Crucifixion with Judaism.23 This is important because Judaism

was considered a general metaphor for heresy and dissent from orthodoxy. This

Synagogue figure or figure of Judaism hands a flat, round disk to the enthroned and

crowned male dressed in royal robes. This round disk may be a missorium and signify

the emissaries that came from Spain to the court of Charles the Bald in 870.24 The

ivory's enthroned and crowned figure with his patterned robes closely resembles the

image of Charles the Bald from the Codex Aureus of Charles the Bald from 870 (Fig.

35).25 Both figures have a patterned border to their garment which in the Codex Aureus

is jeweled and this motifis abstracted in the smaller ivory figure. Thus, the king in the

ivory may represent Charles the Bald accepting Synagogue who would personify the

Spanish Mozarabic liturgy. Celia Chazelle concludes that Hincmar of Rheims

commissioned the ivory as an admonishment to the king against heresy with which I

concur.26 But instead of general heresy, the Synagogue figure and her missorium seem to

connect the ivory to the specific incident of the king's invitation of the emissaries to

perform the Mozarabic liturgy.





23 Celia Chazelle, The Crucified God in the Carolingian Era: Theology and Art of Christ 's Passion, p. 148.

24 Henry Jenner. "Mozarabic Rite," in Catholic Encyclopedia.
Imp un \\ newadvent.org/cathen/10611la.htm,

25 Celia Chazelle, The Crucified God in the Carolingian Era: Theology and Art of Christ 's Passion, p. 283.
The figure of Christ and the knot of his perizoma on the ivory appear to be a direct quotation of this
manuscript as well.

26 Ibid. 299. Chazelle, however, says that the figure on the right of the ivory resembles Charles the Bald
but is actually Tellus. She also does not address her proposal of general heretical admonishment of the
king specifically in terms of the Mozarabic liturgy.










The most significant figure in the ivory to this thesis is one of the classical

personifications in the bottom register of the ivory. The use of classical personifications

illustrates the importance of classical style to the ivory and perhaps is meant to evoke

Constantinian models and prototypes. This would relay a message of christusmimesis

and caesaropapism as well as evoke the importance of Constantine through the

Carolingian document, the Donation of Constantine, which falsely transferred papal

authority over areas such as Spain. This ivory and its style essentially proclaim a

prerequisite of orthodoxy to ownership and jurisdiction of these areas based on this false

Donation of Constantine. Examining the particular figures of the Classical

personifications reveals the presence of Oceanus and Gaia who flank a mysterious central

figure (Fig. 36).27 This central female figure is seated on royal cushions and has a bared

right breast. It is also significant that she is located in a graveyard, creating associations

with death. Ferber identifies this mysterious female figure as a personification of

Roma.28 A similar but more maj estic figure appears in the Late Imperial sculpture at the

base of the column of Antoninus Pius in the apotheosis relief (Fig. 37). Like the ivory

figure, this Late Imperial Roma has a bared right breast, and to her left is a shield

depicting the suckling of Romulus and Remus by the legendary she-wolf (Fig. 38).29 The

emblem of Roma on the base of the column of Antoninus Pius can also be linked to the

seated Roma on Charles the Bald's ivory, based on her compositional location directly


27S. Ferber, "Crucifixion Iconography in a Group of Carolingian Ivory Plaques," 4rt Bulletin
(XLVIII/1966), p. 327.

28Ibid. 327.

29 According to legend, Romulus and Remus were orphaned as babies and were nurtured by the she-wolf.
When they grew to manhood, Romulus kills Remus on April 27, 753 B.C., the date of the founding of
Rome. Thus, the image on the shield of Roma further reinforces her identification.









beneath the cross. The Carolingian iconography of Roma positioned directly beneath the

cross of the Crucifixion is also represented in a second Carolingian Crucifixion ivory

known as the Rambona diptych dated to 900 (Fig. 39). In the Rambona ivory, Roma is

personified by the suckling she-wolf that is depicted directly beneath the cross. The

similarity in placement of the seated woman from the ivory of Charles the Bald and the

suckling she-wolf from the Rambona ivory supports the interpretation, that this seated

woman on the ivory of Charles the Bald is Roma.

The female personification of Roma on the Antoninus Pius monument and the

Roman figure on Charles the Bald's ivory both share the bared right breast found in the

image of the Woman with the Skull (Fig. 6). In addition, the Woman with the Skull has

the death skull in her lap, which creates the same association with death as does the

personification of Roma in the graveyard in Charles the Bald' s ivory. Perhaps even the

positioning of the ivory's Roma Eigure at the base of the cross, the location known as

Golgotha or place of the skull, may be related to the Woman with the Skull's

iconography. Further connections include that neither Eigure is veiled and both have an

upward tilt to their head, the ivory figure to enable her to look on her conversion back to

Rome and the Roman liturgy through the Crucifixion image above her. The Woman with

the Skull possibly has this same position through similar model book iconography or her

original context, which may be similar to the ivory's composition. However, the

important interpretation of the Woman with the Skull is that she is a Roma who is

penitent or who has strayed. She was orthodox and then tainted by heresy, but she

ultimately is converted back to Roman ways.










The importance of rehabilitation instead of recreation is illustrated by Rose Walker,

who makes the all important point in her book that Pope Gregory VII was emphatic that

the Roman Liturgy was the original liturgy of Spain and that the Mozarabic was a

deviation from this original liturgy.30 Without this claim, Pope Gregory VII would have

been supporting innovation, which was heretical.31 With the influence of the Donation of

Constantine, Spain would be categorized among the possessions of Rome long before

Isidore of Seville and the Mozarabic liturgy. By using an image of the Woman with the

Skull, which may now be identifiable as Penitent Roma, the pope would insure that his

message was clear: the Spanish had deviated from their original liturgy and had fallen

into heresy. Thus, in 1074, Spain was being led by the Pope to see the error of her ways

by beginning to embrace her nascent liturgy, that of Rome.32

However, the question becomes how does the idea of papal jurisdiction relate to the

reading of the sculptural piece as the Adulterous Woman in Picaud' s interpretation and

the idea of Villa-Amil y Castro and Gaillard whose thesis connects the piece to the

Penitent Mary Magdalene?

The answer to this question may reside in ideas broached in previous chapters of

this thesis. In Chapter 3, the Mozarabic liturgy was connected to Isidore of Seville who

also wrote a History of the Goths, Vandals, and Suevi. In this text, Isidore of Seville


30 See Rose Walker, Views of Transition: Liturgy and Illumination in Medieval Spain (London: British
Library, 1998), p.21.

31 Ibid. 32-33.

32 The pope may make direct reference to Spain as this adulterous woman in one of his letters of 1080. In
this letter, he refers to the insurrection of the monk Robert at Sahagfmn who supported the Mozarabic liturgy
as being aided by .. his ancient helper, an abandoned woman .. Scholars have assumed that the
woman could only be Constance of Burgundy; however, it seems possible that the woman aiding Robert
was in fact Spain itself. For further information, see P. David, Etud'es historiques sur la Galice et le
Portugal (Paris and Lisbon, 1966), pp. 414-17.










describes Spain as a woman who has broken her betrothal to Rome by illicit relations

with the Goths.

Of all lands which stretch from the West to India, you are the most beautiful, O
Spain, sacred and ever-blessed mother of leaders and of nations. .. Thus rightly
did golden Rome, the head of nations, once desire you, and although the same
Romulaean virtue, first victorious, betrothed you to itself, at last, nevertheless, the
most flourishing nation of the Goths after many victories in the world eagerly
captured and loved you, and enj oys you up to the present amid royal insignia and
abundant wealth, secure in the felicity of empire.33

As seen in Julie Galambush' s study of the personification of Jerusalem in the Bible

and the variations of adultery, sexual indiscretions with a third party during a betrothal

was considered adulterous behavior.34 Thus, under this definition and with Isidore of

Seville's metaphor of Spain as violating her betrothal, Spain could be likened to an

adulterous woman.

Galambush' s dissertation, which concerns the identification of Jerusalem as

adulterous in the Book of Ezekiel, becomes even more important when considering Mary

Magdalene's relationship to the adulterous woman metaphor. Galambush sees Jerusalem

as a larger metaphor for Judaism, which this thesis has shown to be connected with some

of the iconographic representations on the portal and as a metaphor for the Arian

heresy.35 The idea of Jerusalem as being adulterous and Spain as being adulterous may

not have been a metaphor that the Spaniards would have rejected on the basis of their

association of Spain with Judaism. In fact, the connections between the arca santa

"found" at Oviedo and the ark of the covenant seem to support an enthusiasm for the

33 Isidore of Seville 's History of the Goths, Vandals, and Suevi. Trans. Guido Donini and Gordon B. Ford,
Jr. (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1970), pp. 1-2.

34 Julie Galambush, Jerusalem in the Book ofEzekiel: The city as Yahweh 's wife (Atlanta: Scholars Press,
1992), p. 28.

35 Ibid.










Jewish metaphor. After all, the Jews were "the chosen people" and perhaps, the

Spaniards felt that they could become the chosen people who fulfilled the Christian

frenzy for conversion. Additionally, in the left tympanum, Figure 9 (Fig.3, Stone E) has

the inscription of "H[IERV]S[AL]EM CIVITA" which makes a connection between the

Woman with the Skull and Jerusalem through spatial proximity of these sculptural pieces.

While Galambush unites Judaism and adultery, Susan Haskins describes the

Magdalene's association with Judaism and the Synagogue found in Hippolytus of

Rome's Commentary on the Can2ticle of Can2ticles.36 Hippolytus of Rome classifies the

Sponsa or Bride of Christ as being both Mary Magdalene and her sister Martha.37 It is

unclear if he refers to only Mary Magdalene as Synagogue, or the Church of the Jews, or

to both of the women as such. Regardless, the Magdalene is essentially a betrothed

figure who likely was viewed as violating this agreement in her sinful behavior as a

prostitute and a metaphor for the Synagogue or the Church of the Jews.38 This idea is

further traced to possible visual representations in the depiction in the Rabula Gospels

(Fig. 33) of the Virgin Mary and Mary Magdalene at the tomb of Christ. The Rabula

Gospels depicts a similar two-person visitation of the tomb except in this case it is the

Syrian version that has the Virgin Mary accompany the Magdalene.39 Haskins concurs

with other scholars that this is due to a cult to the Virgin in Syria. However, it seems that


36 Haskins, Marv~agdalene: Myth and Metaphor, p. 60.

37Ibid. 60-61.

38It is likely that the misattribution of the Magdalene as a prostitute occurred around the third or fourth
centuries when the commentary on the Mishna, the Talmud began to be circulated. In the Talmud, the
Magdalene is associated with an adulteress. The Hebrew word, znh, was used to refer to both prostitutes
and women engaged in illicit sexual behavior while under the authority of another man. See Galambush,
Jerusalem in the Book ofEzekiel: The city as Tahweh 's wife, pp. 27-35.

39 Ibid. 89-91.










this may be an even more blatant attempt to associate Mary Magdalene with the Church

of the Jews and as the first Eve because of the Virgin' s title of Second or redeeming

Eve.40 The visit to the tomb seems to fuse and express a message of conversion of the

Church of the Jews into Mary-Ecclesia, the Church of Christ.

The Syrian origin of the Rabula Gospels may also reflect a Syrian ideology behind

the association between Mary Magdalene and the Church of the Jews. St. Ephraim the

Syrian, whose sermons were in Castilian manuscripts in the tenth century and also

available at Cluny in the eleventh century, wrote a sermon for Easter Sunday that

identifies the Synagogue as an adulterous woman.41 With the associations of the

Magdalene to the Bride of Christ in Hippolytus of Rome' s Commentary on the Can2ticle

ofCan2ticles, the fourth century relation of St. Ephraim's text of adultery and the Jews,

and the appearance of the Virgin and the Magdalene at the tomb two centuries later in the

Rabula Gospels, these texts may show a progression in the interpretation and role of

Mary Magdalene.

By combining these sources, not only can Villa-Amil y Castro, Gaillard, and

Picaud' s interpretations of the Woman with the Skull take on a new meaning, but the

interpretation of the figure as Eve by Azcarate also gains importance. Zarnecki's

translation of Picaud' s text describes the Adulterous Woman' s sin as being caused by a

seducer instead of a lover. Like Eve, she was seduced into sin. Because the Woman with

the Skull is a penitent Roma Eigure, she represents the same woman who strays and



"0 Ibid. 91.

41 Andre Grabar, "Les illustrations des Beatus mozarabes et les miniatures orientales chretiennes et juices,"
Cahiers archcieologiques XXVIII (1979), pp. 8-10: G. Bardy, "Le Souvenir de Saint Ephrem dans le Haut
Moyen Age Latin," Revue du Moven Age Latin 2 (1946), p. 300.









triumphs. So essentially, she represents the ultimate Biblical conflation that the Eigures

of Eve, Mary Magdalene, and the Virgin Mary may be intended to represent. Especially

for the Carolingians and Pope Gregory VII, it was important to represent these various

figures as one Eigure so that she would simultaneously represent pre-fallen Eve and Rome

in her orthodoxy as the original betrothed church, the Magdalene in her adultery as the

heretical Mozarabic liturgy, and Einally, the triumphant church who had always existed

despite the "heresies" of Judaism and Mozarabic Arianism. Ultimately, the Woman with

the Skull would represent the woman who Einally triumphs in her orthodoxy as the pre-

fallen Eve and the Eve restored from Original Sin brought on by her seduction. This idea

is further reinforced when taking into consideration that the primary audience of the

Puerta de las Platerias was the town of Santiago and the pilgrims on the Ruta de la Plata.

As established in Chapter 3, the silversmith portal and the Route of the Silver may refer

to the Jewish silversmiths. This connection may have been intended to address the

audience of the south portal--the townspeople of Santiago de Compostela, with their

Jewish artisans. The adulterous metaphor of the Jews that extended to the heretical

Spanish people of the town and the Spanish pilgrims on the Ruta de la Plata is sustained

in the image of the Woman with the Skull. This image was likely intended as a self-

reflective symbol of a liturgically prodigal return of Spain and her people to their

betrothed, Rome, and the ultimate triumph of the papacy.

The Eigure of the Woman with the Skull was related in Chapter 2 to the angel on

the opposite side of the tympanum so as to create a scene of the resurrection. By

integrating the Eigure of the Penitent Roma that is an emblem of Spain into the scene of

the resurrection, the program of the Puerta de las Platerias placed the Arian disbelievers









in the divine nature of Christ directly in association with the scene from Christian

theology that declares his divinity. In this way, Spain is placed in the role of witness to

Christ' s display of the divinity that accompanied his humanity. Within this role, the

Woman with the Skull drew the citizens of Santiago de Compostela and the pilgrims of

the Ruta de la Plata as a group who were likened to the Jews who also denied the divinity

of Christ, into orthodoxy by forcefully positioning them, like the spolia figure, into the

scene of the resurrection. Through the multivalent meanings of the Woman with the

Skull as a conflation of the fallen and the redeemed and in her association with Spain, the

papacy created a propagandistic tool that may have been essential to refute the Mozarabic

Arian heresy.















CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION

As this study has attempted to show, the urgency to fulfill Pope Gregory VII's

demands in his 1074 letter urging the reform of the Mozarabic liturgy initiated the

building of the Romanesque church of Santiago de Compostela. But more significant to

this study is that it likely dictated the program of the south portal, the Puerta de las

Platerias, which was the portal of the Spanish townspeople and pilgrims. Through the

pope's letter and through inscription evidence, this study derives a terminus postquem of

1075 for the cathedral. The confusion related to the date of July 11, 1078, on the Puerta

de las Platerias is taken by this study to mark Cardinal Richard's arrival in Spain. This

papal legate likely served as the bearer of the dual nature program for the south portal,

explaining that date's placement on the Puerta de las Platerias. The manuscript of the

Codex Calixtinus is the primary source that can be used to isolate a terminus antequem

for the cathedral's south portal. This document describes the tympana arrangement as it

exists today and can be used to conclude the sculptural program's placement by 1135.

As seen in Chapter 2, even without geological testing, the different stones used for

the various sculptures on the two tympana, the different scale of the pieces and their

mutilation to be fit into the composition of the tympana seems to make spolia use a

natural conclusion for the portal. The tympana, which are composed completely of spolia,

become an important example of spolia use in medieval Spain, a topic that has not

received much attention. The use of spolia in medieval Spain may connect the Spanish

churches with Gregory VII' s reform and its orthodoxy. This may indicate that spolia use









in medieval Spain not only acted as a reference to the iconography and past structures

from which the art was taken, but that it was also intended to act as a declarative

statement of orthodox liturgical practice. This orthodoxy becomes aesthetically

connected to the first emperor openly supportive of Christianity, Constantine, who also

used spolia in his monuments like the Arch of Constantine. Pope Gregory VII, who in

1073 was making a papal claim on Spain, is believed to have based this claim on the

forged medieval document, the Donation of Constantine. Though scholars of medieval

Spain dispute the outcome of this claim, the use of spolia seems to create a declarative

statement of Roman control over the Iberian Peninsula at this time. The use of spolia not

only referenced Constantine and the forged assertion of Roman authority over the Iberian

Peninsula, it actively, combatted the assertion in manuscripts that the instigation of the

Roman liturgy was an act of innovation. The actual reuse of spolia was likely a visual

way of representing not innovation but reordering.

I support the argument of Jose Maria de Azcarate that the iconographic program in

the two tympana of the Puerta de las Platerias can be understood as the dual nature of

Christ based on the primary events depicted. These events include the Adoration of the

Magi, the Temptations, the Betrayal, the Flagellation, the Crucifixion, and Mary

Magdalene at the Tomb. Karen Mathews's complaint about the missing scene of

resurrection has been reconciled by the backward-turned magus toward Herod's kingdom

and the vacant cross at the end of the flagellation panel. The two pieces on either end of

the left tympanum, the angel in the doorway and the Woman with the Skull, have also

been argued as representing resurrection. The angel in the doorway holds a censer. From

the doorway of the sepulcher, the angel looks across the tympanum to the Woman with









the Skull, who this study relates to the Penitent Mary Magdalene and the Penitent Roma.

The motif that combines an angel, the Magdalene, and an incense pot appears in a

Carolingian ivory and a Carolingian manuscript, further supporting the Carolingian

iconographic allusions that this thesis has identified.

Chapter 3 takes the dual nature program's importance and relates it to the Arian

influences brought to Spain by the downfall of the Roman Empire and the invasions of

the Goths. The Visigoths who practiced the Arian heresy took control of the land and the

religion of Spain. Because Spain had a particularly influential historical connection with

Arianism, Spanish Christian tradition provoked various suspicions concerning its

orthodoxy. The primary target of critical inspection fell upon its most public displays,

the Mozarabic Liturgy. This rite was also called the Isidorian Rite because the liturgy

was revised or possibly written by Isidore of Seville.

Not only the dual nature program of the portal but also the use of spolia may relate

to the detection of Arianism in the Mozarabic liturgy. As the first caesaropapist figure,

Constantine called the Council of Nicaea in 325 to address the emergence of the Arian

heresy in the early Christian world. Pope Gregory VII may have seen himself as

following in the steps of Constantine. The forged Donation of Constantine was included

in a group of false decrees called the Pseudo-Isidorian decretals. The mistaken

attribution of the decretals to Isidore of Seville, the same person believed to have

composed or revised the Mozarabic liturgy, seems to open the possibility that Pope

Gregory VII had some access to this document.

The Pseudo-Isidorian decretals appeared in the Carolingian period, known for

Alcuin's and Charlemagne's fight against Hispanic Adoptionism. Hispanic Adoptionism










was primarily classified as portraying Arian tendencies to diminish the dual nature of

Christ. However, historically, the Pseudo-Isidorian decretals date to the reign of Charles

the Bald and relate more to this Carolingian ruler. This is especially important because of

the king' s interest in unorthodox traditions as seen in the emissaries from Spain who

came to his court in 870 to perform the Mozarabic rite for him.

The heretical theme, that the Carolingian period identified and that was expunged

by Pope Gregory VII, takes on a very specific form through a visual and conceptual

association with Judaism. There are elements including the title of the south portal, the

cathedral's position within the town center, and iconographic qualities that assert this

comparison. While the Pilgrim's Guide maintains that the French only entered from the

north, the south portal's audience was the town of Santiago de Compostela. From this

idea, Mathews asserts that the south portal was predominantly used by the townspeople

and that this was the portal's intended audience. Though this makes sense

geographically, the title of the portal as being for the silversmiths, an occupation of Jews,

seems to suggest that the townspeople were being associated with the label of heretics

expressed in this case by association with Judaism. Further supportive of this idea is that

the route to Santiago through the Iberian Peninsula is called Ruta de la Plata or the Silver

Route .

Additionally, as seen in Chapter 4, the enigmatic piece in the left tympanum that

the twelfth century Pilgrim's Guide calls the "Adulterous Woman," may also reflect this

Jewish theme. The Book of Ezekiel identifies the Jews as adulterous in chapter sixteen.

This designation was a larger metaphor for Spain seen in the works of Isidore of Seville.

The adulterous woman interpretation seems to be accurate for the sculptural piece









because of this literary reference and its author' s connection and the portal's

programmatic relationship to the Mozarabic liturgy. The idea of heresy as adultery

reflected the idea of the Roman rite as not innovation, but the original liturgy from which

adulterous Spain strayed. This same type of iconography and meaning is read into the

ivory from the Pericopes of Henry H that dates to the Carolingian rule of Charles the

Bald. This ivory, or a model book version of its figure of Roma, was likely the prototype

for the Woman with the Skull.

Due to limitations such as language proficiency and time constraints, this study,

whose title bears the word "preliminary," has excluded many of the Spanish studies done

on Santiago de Compostela. As a master' s thesis, there is further work and exploration

that can be done to expand this study, as has been done in the work of Jose Maria de

Azcarate. Further investigations of the Woman with the Skull in terms of 1) her

enthroned position on a sella curulis/faldestorium, 2) her bared breast and its relationship

to the Virgin suckling the Christ Child, and 3) ideas of the woman' s relationship to the

theotokos as the new Eve and the woman's relationship to Original Sin are avenues of

exploration that would require further inquiry. However, many of the questions

surrounding the identity of the "Woman with the Skull" have been narrowed through the

iconographic traditions broached by this study.





























































Figure 1. Puerta de las Platerias, Santiago de Compostela, (Gaillard, Les Debuts de la
Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Leo~n-Jaca-Composte~lle pl. LXXXIX).


































figure 2. Le~tt lympanum, Puerta cle las PJlaterias, (Photo: Karen Webb).


Figure 3. Diagram superimposed over the Left Tympanum, Puerta de las Platerias,
(Photo: Karen Webb).



























































Figure 5. Diagram superimposed on Right Tympanum, Puerta de las Platerias, Santiago
de Compostela (Photo: Karen Webb).


Figure 4. Right Tympanum, Puerta de las Platerias, Santiago de Compostela (Photo:
Karen Webb).







86







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-C L'~r` IC

~r6~-


_-r

B'

~-~
h-l ~


Figure 6. Woman with the Skull, Left Tympanum, Puerta de las Platerias, Santiago de
Compostela, (Gaillard, Les Dibuts de la Sculpture Romane Espagnole: Leon-
Jaca-Compostelle, pl. CI).







87












Plm~ de lot L~w~i~s
.,.. ~. fy7

~~ 71i
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r I~
~ rrtu
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1- Chapel ofthe; Chidliil
Pkanddl Hosatal -
Figure 7. Plan of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, (Conant, The Early
Architectural History of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela).
[Black=Romanesque; Green=Romanico-Gothic; Red= Gothic;
Yellow=Renaissance, Baroque; White=Modern]








88



















to LnaCOm jio

18c 17 1. Cathedral of St. James
.I 2,2. Pallace of the Archbishop, with mint and school
/: p p3. Parabo squir h fountain andl markuetplace
r(33 4i. Church of the Corticelp, incorpo~-rate into the pnsent cathedral
as achapel
5. 1Monastery and hospital of San Pelayo Ante--altares
6i. F-ilgrims' hospital, now site of Ihe ChurchI of St. Martin
?'1 7. Monastery of St. Martin
r P 8. Church of the Hboly Trinity, hospital and cemetery for pilgrims
7 16 9B Cloister of rhe Cathedral
.~~~ ~ ** *-- ..1. Canons' residence
19 23 .12 11. Platerias square, marker
4 ,1.FenhRa Va rniea
1 34 13. Via Sacra
'-7 14. Site of ho~usesi belongicngtMastrMat

m 15. Porta F~rancigena, gate of the French Road, manrket square and
h :f junction of the Vial Sacra and Via F~rancigena
I i h,16. Gate of thoes relnchi Roadlaster loatihon Pet e awo
f direction: Lugo)
: ~Otber Rates noted in the Guride.
/ ~17. Porta Penne 20. Forta de Falg~ueriis (dir~e-
111 m 24 8. Portade Subfratribus~dime- tion. Padrdin andi Vigo)
A 4p tion. L~a Curaila) 21. Porta de Surannis
I~r JZ19. Portu deSancto Peregrino 22. Parra d~e Macerellis
to2 & / Other churchesi mentioned in the Guidle.
.;s~t I' "23. Sta. Suranna, originally dedl 29. St. Mary ty thre Sar
icated to the Horly Sepu~lchre 30. Church of the Conjo
,,, (top of he Quen and 3t. Jewrish qualter
20~ Archbishop assembled here 32, Ancient and early Medieval
5 ~22 in II17) fortifications
gliP24. St. Febl 33. IMedieval and 16th ce~ntury

oP 21 ll~ 26. St. Michel 34. Leyproarium of l~a armc
27. Priory of Sr. Peter 31. Leprosarium of St. Martha
Plua of Santiago de Compostela 28. Salomre
WValls: Ilith century ,.... a, poinr of entry of aqueducts;
Extensrion inl mid-lI th centuru- h father hospitals
Medieval wualls, restored and altered in the 13th. 16th and m other market square~s
19lth centuries, Mnow n avenue ------ otr ae


Figure 8. Plan of Santiago de Compostela, (Stokstad, Santiago de C~ompostela: hI the Age

of the Great Pilgrimages, pp.2-3).




























Figure 9. Left portion of Left Tympanum, Puerta de las Platerias, Santiago de
Compostela (Photo: Karen Webb).



















Figur 10 ih oto fLf ypnm Pet elsPaeis ataod
Comostla(Po: Kar~en~ Webb). ~