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Developing a Basis for Predicting and Assessing Trends in Core Tracking in the Boiling Water Reactor Commercial Power In...


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DEVELOPING A BASIS FOR PR EDICTING AND ASSESSING TRENDS IN CORE TRACKING IN THE BOILING WATER REACTOR COMMERCIAL POWER INDUSTRY By ANNA SMOLINSKA A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2004

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Copyright 2004 by Anna Smolinska

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To my family that has always been th ere for me. Thank you for your support and encouragement throughout my education.

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iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I recognize Global Nuclear Fuel-Americas (GNF-A) for sponsoring this research and providing all the necessary resources for the study. It was a grea t opportunity to do research that focuses on an immediate challenge in the BWR industry today. I specifically want to thank John Rea, an engi neer at GNF-A, for realizing the need and importance of this study, and mentoring me throughout the process. I learned a lot and also had an opportunity to contribute useful knowledge to the BWR industry. Additional GNF-A engineers that I want to recognize for giving advi ce and guidance throughout the study are Ken Gardner and Atul Karve. It wa s very helpful to work with experienced engineers in the nuclear field. I acknowledge all the faculty of the University of Flor ida Nuclear and Radiological Engineering Department for providing me with guidance and knowledge throughout my education there. I particularly thank Pr ofessor James Tulenko for being my committee chair and graduate advisor. I also want to thank Dr. Edward Dugan and Dr. Jacob Chung for being on my advisory committee. I acknowledge all of the organizations that provided me scholarships and fellowships during my pursuit to acquire my nuclear engineering degrees. These organizations include the University of Fl orida Nuclear and Radi ological Engineering Department, the National Academy for Nuclear Training (NANT), the American Nuclear Society (ANS), and the Depart ment of Energy (DOE).

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v Finally, I want to thank my family for their support and encouragement throughout my education.

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vi TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES...........................................................................................................viii LIST OF FIGURES...........................................................................................................ix ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... xv CHAPTER 1 BACKGROUND..........................................................................................................1 Nuclear Basics..............................................................................................................1 Characteristics of Nuclear Power.................................................................................4 Safety.....................................................................................................................4 Economics.............................................................................................................5 Environmental Benefits.........................................................................................6 Nuclear Waste.......................................................................................................7 Reprocessing and Recycling..................................................................................9 Introduction to US Commercial Nuclear Reactors.....................................................10 The PWR.............................................................................................................10 The BWR.............................................................................................................12 The BWR Reactor Assembly......................................................................................14 BWR Cycle Design.....................................................................................................21 2 INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................25 3 METHODS.................................................................................................................29 4 REFERENCE MULTICYCLE...................................................................................32 Cycle Characteristics..................................................................................................32 Reference Bundle........................................................................................................35 Cold Criticals..............................................................................................................36 5 PLANT MEASUREMENT PERTURBATIONS......................................................39 6 FUEL MANUFACTURING PERTURBATIONS.....................................................47

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vii 7 CONCLUSION...........................................................................................................58 APPENDIX A REFERENCE CYCLE SPECIFICS...........................................................................60 Cycle N Characteristics..............................................................................................60 Cycle N Rod Pattern Results...............................................................................66 Cycle N Hot Excess and SDM............................................................................76 Cycle N TIP Plots................................................................................................77 Cycle N+1 Characteristics..........................................................................................80 Cycle N+1 Rod Pattern Results...........................................................................86 Cycle N+1 Hot Excess and SDM........................................................................96 Cycle N+1 TIP Plots............................................................................................97 Cycle N+2 Characteristics........................................................................................100 Cycle N+2 Rod Pattern Results.........................................................................106 Cycle N+2 Hot Excess and SDM......................................................................117 Cycle N+2 TIP Plots..........................................................................................118 Cycle N+3 Characteristics........................................................................................121 Cycle N+3 Rod Pattern Results.........................................................................127 Cycle N+3 Hot Excess and SDM......................................................................137 Cycle N+3 TIP Plots..........................................................................................138 B FUEL BUNDLE FIGURES.....................................................................................141 LIST OF REFERENCES.................................................................................................153 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...........................................................................................155

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viii LIST OF TABLES Table page 4-1 General Cycle Parameters........................................................................................33 5-1 Description of Plant Measurement Perturbations.....................................................40 5-2 Summary of Results from Pl ant Measurement Perturbations..................................40 6-1 Description of Fuel Manufacturing Perturbations....................................................48 6-2 Summary of Results from Fu el Manufacturing Perturbations.................................48 A-1 Bundle Information Cycle N....................................................................................60 A-2 Cycle N Cold Critical Data......................................................................................75 A-3 Cycle N Hot Excess and SDM Data.........................................................................76 A-4 Bundle Information Cycle N+1................................................................................80 A-5 Cycle N+1 Cold Critical Data..................................................................................95 A-6 Cycle N+1 Hot Excess and SDM Data....................................................................96 A-7 Bundle Information Cycle N+2..............................................................................100 A-8 Cycle N+2 Cold Critical Data................................................................................116 A-9 Cycle N+2 Hot Excess and SDM Data..................................................................117 A-10 Bundle Information Cycle N+3..............................................................................121 A-11 Cycle N+3 Cold Critical Data................................................................................136 A-12 Cycle N+3 Hot Excess and SDM Data..................................................................137

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ix LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1 PWR System............................................................................................................12 1-2 The BWR System.....................................................................................................13 1-3 BWR Reactor Vessel Assembly...............................................................................14 1-4 A. Cross-Sectional View of BWR Core, B. Control Rod Banks.............................17 1-5 Cross-Sectional View of BWR Fuel Module...........................................................18 1-6 BWR Fuel Assemblies and Control Rod Module....................................................19 1-7 Cross-Sectional View of BWR Fuel Bundle............................................................20 1-8 Bias Eigenvalue Trend.............................................................................................22 2-1 Energy per Bundle as a Function of Number of Bundles in BWR Core.................27 2-2 Change in the Number of Bundles Needed for a 0.003 Error in Eigenvalue...........27 2-3 Change in the Total Fuel Cost for 0.003 Error in Eigenvalue (BWR).....................27 4-1 Thermal Margins for Cycles N to N+3....................................................................33 4-2 Reactor Power and Core Flow for Cycles N to N+3................................................34 4-3 Normalized Axial Core Parameters for Cycle N+3.................................................34 4-5 Cold Critical Rod Patterns for MOC N+1................................................................37 5-1 Hot Delta Keff for Varied Flow by 5.0% Compared to Base Case..........................41 5-2 Hot Delta Keff for Varied Pressure by 2.0% Compared to Base Case....................41 5-3 Hot Delta Keff for Varied Temperat ure by 0.4% Compared to Base Case.............42 5-4 Hot Delta Keff for Varied Powe r by 1.25% Compared to Base Case.....................42 5-5 Hot Delta Keff for Varied Power by 2.5% in Cycle N Compared to Base Case.....43

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x 5-6 Hot Delta Keff for Varied Powe r by 2.50% Compared to Base Case.....................43 5-7 Delta Keff for Distributed Cold Critical Eigenvalues Compared to Base Case.......44 5-8 Delta Keff for Local Cold Critical Eige nvalues Compared to Base Case for the Power Increased 2.50% Case....................................................................................44 5-9 Maximum Delta Keff Between Distri buted and Any Local Cold Critical Eigenvalue Compared to Base Case..........................................................................45 5-10 Average Axial TIP Dist ributions for EOC N+3.......................................................46 6-1 Hot Delta Keff for Channel Geometry Va riation Cases Compared to Base Case...49 6-2 Hot Delta Keff for Clad Geometry Variation Cases Compared to Base .................49 6-3 Hot Delta Keff for Fuel Density Vari ation Cases Compared to Base Case.............50 6-4 Hot Delta Keff for Enrichment Vari ation Cases Compared to Base Case...............50 6-5 Delta Keff for Distributed Cold Critical Eigenvalues Compared to Base Case.......51 6-6 Delta Keff for Local Cold Critical Eige nvalues Compared to Base Case for Average Bundle Enrichment Increased 1.5% Case...................................................52 6-7 Maximum Delta Keff Between Distri buted and Any Local Cold Critical Eigenvalue Compared to Base Case..........................................................................52 6-8 Average Axial TIP Dist ributions for BOC N+3.......................................................53 6-9 Average Axial TIP Dist ributions for BOC N+3.......................................................53 6-10 Hot Delta Keff for Gadolinium Concentr ation Variation Cases Compared to Base Case................................................................................................................54 6-11 Delta Keff for Distributed Cold Critical Eigenvalues Compared to Base Case.......55 6-12 Delta Keff for Local Cold Critical Ei genvalues Compared to Base Case for Decreased Gadolinium Case...................................................................................55 6-13 Maximum Delta Keff Between Distri buted and Any Local Cold Critical Eigenvalue Compared to Base Case........................................................................56 6-14 Average Axial TIP Distributi ons for Cycle N+2 at 9811 MWd/MT.......................56 6-15 Average Axial TIP Distributions for EOC N...........................................................57 A-1 Cycle N Assembly Locations by Bundle Type Number..........................................60

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xi A-2 BOC Cycle N Exposure Distribution (GWD/T)......................................................61 A-3 EOC Cycle N Exposure Distribution (GWD/T)......................................................61 A-4 Cycle N Hot keff......................................................................................................62 A-5 Cycle N Thermal Margins........................................................................................62 A-6 Cycle N Reactor Power and Core Flow...................................................................63 A-7 Cycle N Core Pressure.............................................................................................63 A-8 Cycle N Core Inlet Temperature..............................................................................64 A-9 Cycle N Core Bypass Flow......................................................................................64 A-10 Cycle N BOC Axial Core Parameters......................................................................65 A-11 Cycle N EOC Axial Core Parameters......................................................................65 A-12 Cycle N BOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns................................................................72 A-13 Cycle N MOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns...............................................................73 A-14 Cycle N EOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns................................................................74 A-15 Cycle N Predicted Hot Excess and SDM.................................................................76 A-16 Cycle N TIP results for 0 MWd/ST (BOC)..............................................................77 A-17 Cycle N TIP results for 4600 MWd/ST...................................................................77 A-18 Cycle N TIP results for 8900 MWd/ST...................................................................78 A-19 Cycle N TIP results for 15000 MWd/ST (EOR)......................................................78 A-20 Cycle N TIP results for 16450 MWd/ST (EOC)......................................................79 A-21 Cycle N+1 Assembly Locations by Bundle Type Number......................................80 A-22 BOC Cycle N+1 Exposur e Distribution (GWD/T)..................................................81 A-23 EOC Cycle N+1 Exposure Distribution (GWD/T)..................................................81 A-24 Cycle N+1 Hot keff..................................................................................................82 A-25 Cycle N+1 Thermal Margins....................................................................................82 A-26 Cycle N+1 Reactor Power and Core Flow...............................................................83

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xii A-27 Cycle N+1 Core Pressure.........................................................................................83 A-28 Cycle N+1 Core Inlet Temperature..........................................................................84 A-29 Cycle N+1 Core Bypass Flow..................................................................................84 A-30 Cycle N+1 BOC Axial Core Parameters..................................................................85 A-31 Cycle N+1 EOC Axial Core Parameters..................................................................85 A-32 Cycle N+1 BOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns............................................................92 A-33 Cycle N+1 MOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns...........................................................93 A-34 Cycle N+1 EOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns............................................................94 A-35 Cycle N+1 Predicted Hot Excess and SDM.............................................................96 A-36 Cycle N+1 TIP results for 0 MWd/ST (BOC).........................................................97 A-37 Cycle N+1 TIP results for 4600 MWd/ST...............................................................97 A-38 Cycle N+1 TIP results for 8900 MWd/ST...............................................................98 A-39 Cycle N+1 TIP results for 15000 MWd/ST (EOR)..................................................98 A-40 Cycle N+1 TIP results for 16250 MWd/ST (EOC)..................................................99 A-41 Cycle N+2 Assembly Locations by Bundle Type Number....................................100 A-42 BOC Cycle N+2 Exposur e Distribution (GWD/T)................................................101 A-43 EOC Cycle N+2 Exposure Distribution (GWD/T)................................................101 A-44 Cycle N+2 Hot keff................................................................................................102 A-45 Cycle N+2 Thermal Margins..................................................................................102 A-46 Cycle N+2 Reactor Power and Core Flow.............................................................103 A-47 Cycle N+2 Core Pressure.......................................................................................103 A-48 Cycle N+2 Core Inlet Temperature........................................................................104 A-49 Cycle N+2 Core Bypass Flow................................................................................104 A-50 Cycle N+2 BOC Axial Core Parameters................................................................105 A-51 Cycle N+2 EOC Axial Core Parameters................................................................105

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xiii A-52 Cycle N+2 BOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns..........................................................113 A-53 Cycle N+2 MOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns.........................................................114 A-54 Cycle N+2 EOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns..........................................................115 A-55 Cycle N+2 Predicted Hot Excess and SDM...........................................................117 A-56 Cycle N+2 TIP results for 0 MWd/ST (BOC).......................................................118 A-57 Cycle N+2 TIP results for 4600 MWd/ST.............................................................118 A-58 Cycle N+2 TIP results for 8900 MWd/ST.............................................................119 A-59 Cycle N+2 TIP results for 15000 MWd/ST (EOR)................................................119 A-60 Cycle N+2 TIP results for 16250 MWd/ST (EOC)................................................120 A-61 Cycle N+3 Assembly Locations by Bundle Type Number....................................121 A-62 BOC Cycle N+3 Exposur e Distribution (GWD/T)................................................122 A-63 EOC Cycle N+3 Exposure Distribution (GWD/T..................................................122 A-64 Cycle N+3 Hot keff................................................................................................123 A-65 Cycle N+3 Thermal Margins..................................................................................123 A-66 Cycle N+3 Reactor Power and Core Flow.............................................................124 A-67 Cycle N+3 Core Pressure.......................................................................................124 A-68 Cycle N+3 Core Inlet Temperature........................................................................125 A-69 Cycle N+3 Core Bypass Flow................................................................................125 A-70 Cycle N+3 BOC Axial Core Parameters................................................................126 A-71 Cycle N+3 EOC Axial Core Parameters................................................................126 A-72 Cycle N+3 BOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns..........................................................133 A-73 Cycle N+3 MOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns.........................................................134 A-74 Cycle N+3 EOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns..........................................................135 A-75 Cycle N+3 Predicted Hot Excess and SDM...........................................................137 A-76 Cycle N+3 TIP results for 0 MWd/ST (BOC).......................................................138

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xiv A-77 Cycle N+3 TIP results for 4600 MWd/ST.............................................................138 A-78 Cycle N+3 TIP results for 8900 MWd/ST.............................................................139 A-79 Cycle N+3 TIP results for 15000 MWd/ST (EOR)................................................139 A-80 Cycle N+3 TIP results for 16250 MWd/ST (EOC)................................................140 B-1 Fuel Bundle A........................................................................................................142 B-2 Fuel Bundle B.........................................................................................................143 B-3 Fuel Bundle C.........................................................................................................144 B-4 Fuel Bundle D........................................................................................................145 B-5 Fuel Bundle E.........................................................................................................146 B-6 Fuel Bundle F.........................................................................................................147 B-7 Fuel Bundle G........................................................................................................148 B-8 Fuel Bundle H........................................................................................................149 B-9 Fuel Bundle I..........................................................................................................150 B-10 Fuel Bundle J..........................................................................................................151 B-11 Fuel Bundle K........................................................................................................152

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xv Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Engineering DEVELOPING A BASIS FOR PR EDICTING AND ASSESSING TRENDS IN CORE TRACKING IN THE BOILING WATER REACTOR COMMERCIAL POWER INDUSTRY By Anna Smolinska May 2004 Chair: James S. Tulenko Major Department: Nuclear and Radiological Engineering The commercial nuclear industry produces a bout 20% of the electrical power in the United States. Currently, there are104 nuclear power plants licensed to operate in the United States. All of these reactors are referred to as light water reactors (LWRs). Of the 104 LWRs, 69 are pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and 35 are boiling water reactors (BWRs). Since the coolant boils in the core BWRs are more complicated than PWRs in the aspect of designing a cycle. This st udy contributes knowledge and insight to the cycle design process of a BWR. When designing a BWR cycle, it is necessary to estimate the bias eigenvalue trend or nuclear design basis (NDB). The NDB, which has a large effect on cycle parameters and is plant and cycle specific, is used to co mpensate for any bias ar ising from the use of the nuclear computer code package to perf orm core calculations combined with other uncertainties that are discussed in this thesis Currently, history of previous cycles of a plant or similar plants is used as a basi s for predicting the NDB. However, due to

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xvi constant demands of higher energy output pe r cycle, and unexpected events during a cycle, predictions become challenging. In addition to known varia tions, there may also be unrecognized events that may cause the eige nvalue and other plant parameters to vary. Considering that safety and cost can be gr eatly affected by incorre ct predictions, it is important to understand the NDB trends when doing calculations for a future cycle, or evaluating eigenvalue drift for a current cycle. To aid in developing a basis for making predictions, various perturbations in the areas of fuel manufacturing and plant measurement were studied in a multicycle analysis. These perturbations have a range of effects on several different cycle parameters. The results of this study are intended to assist in the prediction and assessm ent of trends in the BWR industry.

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1 CHAPTER 1 BACKGROUND Electricity is an essentia l part of everyday life. People depend on electricity constantly, and expect it to be readily available. There are many different energy sources, which all have individual advantages and disadvantages. These energy sources include coal, natural gas, nuc lear, hydropower, geothermal, solar, wind, and biomass. Out of all commercial energy sources, the sec ond largest contributor of electricity in the United States is nuclear power. The commerc ial nuclear industry produced about 20% of the electricity generated in the United States in 2002, only behind the coal contribution of 50% [1]. Nuclear reactors also supplie d about 16% of the world’s power in 2002, making them the third largest contributor after coal and hydr opower [2]. In the United States, the first genera tion of commercial nuclear reacto rs began operation in the late 1950s, early 1960s. Currently, there are104 nuclear power plants licensed to operate in the United States. All of these reactors are referred to as light water reactors (LWRs) because of their use of regular water as oppos ed to heavy water. Of the 104 LWRs, 69 are pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and 35 are boiling water reactors (BWRs) [1]. As a result of the significant contribution from nuclear reactors to both the United States and the world’s electricity market, nuclear power is extremely valuable and has potential for significant technological advances. Nuclear Basics Nuclear energy comes from a process calle d nuclear fission. Fission is the energy releasing process, where a heavy nucleus sp lits into nuclei with smaller mass numbers.

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2 The fission process occurs when a heavy fissi onable nucleus captures a neutron. The captured neutron puts the nucleus in an excited state, which causes it to split. When the nucleus splits, it produces smalle r nuclei that are called fissi on products. In addition to these fission products, there is also a releas e of additional neutrons and energy during the event. The additional neutrons may then go on and cause more fissions to result in a self sustaining fission chain reaction. This process occurs when neutrons that are released from one fission event proceed to ca use another fission event and so on. The only naturally occurring isotope that undergoes fission is uranium-235. Since uranium-235 can fission following the absorption of a zero energy neutron, it is said to be fissile. Other fissile isotopes are ur anium-233, plutonium-239, and plutonium-241. Nuclei like uranium-238 that can only fissi on when struck by energetic neutrons are called fissionable but not fissile. There are al so isotopes that are re ferred to as fertile. Fertile isotopes are not fissile themselves, bu t can become fissile af ter neutron absorption. Uranium-238 and thorium-232 are fertile isot opes [3]. These different isotopes have certain probabilities or cro ss sections that are associated with the fission process, depending on the energy of the incoming neut ron. When neutrons are released from a fission reaction they are high en ergy or fast neutrons, howev er, low energy or thermal neutrons are the ones that ha ve very high probability of causing fission in uranium-235. As a result of the necessary characteristics to sustain the fission pr ocess, there are two main ingredients to a light water thermal r eactor. The ingredients include having enough uranium-235 and sustaining a sufficient population of thermal neutrons. Since the natural element of uranium contains 0.72 atom percen t of uranium-235, with the remaining part made up of uranium-238 and a tr ace of uranium-234, the process of enrichment is used to increase the amount of uranium-235 for LWR nuclear fuel. To maintain a sufficient

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3 population of thermal neutrons, nuclear power plants use a moderator to slow down the fast neutrons produced by fission. In LWRs, water is used as both the moderator and the coolant. Due to the high popul ation of thermal neutrons in the reactor, which cause an elevated occurrence of fission in the fuel, the fuel becomes used up or depleted. As the fuel depletes, the number of uranium-235 atom s is decreased and the amount of fission products is increased. Also, other isot opes are created by neutron absorption like plutonium-239 and uranium-236. Fission products end up acting like a poison in the fuel because they absorb neutrons without resulting in a fission and releasing energy. The parameter that describes the intensity of the fission process is called the multiplication factor or eigenvalue, designated by k This factor is defined as the number of fissions or fission neutrons in one generation divided by the number of fissions or fission neutrons in the preceding generation. The eigenvalue can be used to describe three different cases. One case is when k is less than 1, and the process is said to be subcritical because the number of fissions de creases with time. The second case is when k is greater than 1; the process is then de scribed as supercritical because the number of fissions increases with time. The final case is when k is equal to 1; this last condition is described as critical and occurs when the chai n reaction continues at a constant rate. The nuclear industry utilizes this final condition to produce electr icity from the energy that is released from the controlled fiss ion process. This energy is released within fuel pellets, which are located in fuel rods, which are part of the fuel bundles in the core of a nuclear plant. The released energy is converted to heat which is transferred from the fuel rods to water, which is then used to make steam, and finally goes through a turbine that creates electricity.

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4 Nuclear reactors enhance and control th e fission chain reaction to maintain a critical system, which is a complicated proce ss that requires very detailed calculations. The calculations take into account every process in the system and its physical environment. In nuclear reactors the eigenvalue is referred to as keff ( k effective) since the power reactor is a finite system, which a llows for the leakage of neutrons. Another parameter that is used in the i ndustry is reactivity, designated by Reactivity is a measure of the change in the eigenvalue and is defined as the ratio of the eigenvalue minus one, the quantity divided by the eigenvalue. Also, the neutron flux is a parameter used to describe the distribu tion of neutrons in the core and approximates the number of neutrons per cm^3/sec. (It is advantageous to maintain a flat or constant flux in the reactor core to burn the fuel evenly.) These parameters are among the many that are calculated when assessing a nuclear system. Besides reactivity based calculations, many thermal hydraulic parameters are also calculate d. There is a necessary coupling that has to exist between the reactiv ity and thermal hydraulic calculations. To accomplish this task, extensive computer codes have been de veloped throughout the history of the nuclear industry. Characteristics of Nuclear Power Nuclear power seems to be controversial among the general public. This view is largely due to the public’s lack of knowledge ab out the facts of the technology. In effect, nuclear power is a reliable and beneficial s ource of electricity that is safe, economical, and environmentally friendly. Safety There are many factors that contribute to th e safety of nuclear power plants. These factors include: having a s ecurity program and an operati onal review process regulated

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5 by the federal government, continual plant m odernization or upgrading, and advanced containment structures, which act as a final sh ield to prevent the re lease of radiation. Resulting from the efficient design and operation of U.S. nuclear plants, a negligible amount of radiation is emitted. You receiv e more radiation flying roundtrip from New York to Los Angeles, than you would receiv e living next door to a nuclear power plant for a year [4]. The statistical field of risk assessment was used in the development of the safety standards used in nuclear power plants As a result, nuclea r power plants have extremely extensive safety features that were developed to satisfy very strict safety standards. Safety systems proved to be effective during the one major nuclear power plant accident in the United States, which o ccurred at the Three Mile Island Unit in 1979. After scientific studies, the results showed th at there was no serious reactivity release, even though one third of the fuel in the r eactor core melted. Although the accident did not have any serious effect on the environment and did not endanger the public, the industry took steps to further improve the alr eady stringent safety systems and procedures in nuclear power plants to ensure that a similar accident would not occur again [4]. Economics Nuclear energy has apparent economic adva ntages. These advantages include: abundant fuel with low cost and stable pr ice, improving plant performance, and plant longevity through license renewal. Currently, nuclear power is competitive with coal and natural gas in price, while having higher pr ice stability. When comparing the average nuclear reactor and fossil steam (includes coal and fossil fuel) plant production expenses (in dollars per megawatt-hour) in 2001, the expenses for nuclear power were 17.98 (13.31 for operation and maintenance and 4.67 for fuel) and 23.14 (5.01 for operation and maintenance and 18.13 for fuel) for fossil steam.[1] Even though operation and

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6 maintenance is expensive for nuclear reactors which is an area that could always be improved with new procedures and equipment, the price of the fuel is very competitive. The fuel used in nuclear power plants is en riched uranium, which is produced from the common and abundant natural elem ent of uranium. One uraniu m fuel pellet, the size of the tip of your little finger, is comparab le to 17,000 cubic feet of natural gas, 1,780 pounds of coal, or 140 gallons of oil [4]. The improving performance and continual modernization of nuclear power plants results in more electricity for a lower price. Another important factor in the economic fu ture of nuclear power is the opportunity to receive license renewal. The in itial operating license that wa s given to the nuclear plants at their start of operation was for a time pe riod of 40 years. Since the first commercial nuclear plants started to opera te in the late 1950s, the license for many plants is about to or has already expired. There is an opportunity for a renewal of that license, which many plants have already received or are in the process of applying for. If approved, this renewal can extend plant operation for another 20 years, creating signi ficant savings in the nuclear industry by avoiding the immediate expense of building new power plants. Finally, given that nuclear power plants ha ve no green house gas emissions, they do not have compliance costs like the fossil fuel industry [4]. Environmental Benefits Out of all energy sources, nuclear ener gy has one of the lowest impacts on the environment. Nuclear plants do not emit ha rmful gasses; they occupy a small amount of land; and the water they releas e contains no harmful pollutants. Since no harmful gasses are emitted, nuclear power plants do not c ontribute to problems like global warming, ground-level ozone formation, smog, and acid rain. The only product given off by a nuclear plant, besides electrici ty, is heat. Additionally, natu ral external water sources are

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7 used in some nuclear power plants for cooli ng, and because this wate r is kept so clean, it is not unusual to have nature parks on plan t sites. Also, the small area required by nuclear power plants leaves the enviro nment in the surround ing area practically undisturbed, while producing a large amount of elect ricity. This is a beneficial aspect to the undisturbed plant life a nd wildlife in the area. Nuclear Waste Although there are many benefits to nuclear power, an existi ng challenge is the disposal of the nuclear waste. On the positiv e side, the risks that nuclear wastes pose to man decrease with time, and the volume of nuclear waste produced is much smaller than the volume of waste produced by other industrie s, per amount of pr oduct (electricity). There are several classes of radioactive wast e and there are severa l possible methods of disposal. In decreasing severi ty, the different classes of nuc lear waste are: high-level wastes, transuranic wastes, low-level wast es, and uranium mill tailings. The most problematic classes are the high-level and tr ansuranic (elements with Z > 92) wastes. High-level nuclear wastes were also gene rated from the country’s nuclear weapons program. The disposal methods that have been considered include: deep geologic disposal, transmutation (the use of nuclear re actions to alter the wa ste into isotopes that are either stable or very reactive to cause them to decay to stable isotopes), ice sheet disposal, outer space, and sub-seabed dispos al [5]. Though a few of these concepts may be farfetched, geologic disposal is very realistic and is in the process of being completed. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act was pa ssed by Congress in December 1982 and signed into law by the president in January 1983. This act included detailed procedures and corresponding dates for the completion of all tasks leading to the disposal of highlevel nuclear waste. The contents of the ac t included: establishing a repository site

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8 screening process, establ ishing the Nuclear Waste F und, requiring that licensed repositories will use environmental protec tion standards set by the Environmental Protection Agency, and establishing a schedule that leads to federal waste acceptance for disposal starting in 1998 [6]. The Nuclear Waste Fund required the utilities to pay 1 mill ($0.001) per kilowatt-hour of nuclear electricit y generated after April 7, 1983, as well as paying a one time fee per kilogram of heavy metal in spent fuel (an amount equivalent to 1 mill/kWh(e) generated by that spent fuel) discharged before April 7, 1983. The government guaranteed the utilities that if th ey paid the fee they would have no other responsibility for the waste disposal, besides storing it prior to disposal. Through this fund the government collected a bout $2.3 billion for the waste discharged before April 7, 1983 and collects about $300 to $400 million per year. As estimated in 1984, the total cost for high-level waste di sposal would cost between $25 and $35 billion dollars [5]. After some arising problems, the Congre ss drafted and adopted the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act in late 1987, which wa s supposed to put the repository program “back on track”. The amendments act mainly named Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the only site to be considered for the developmen t of a repository, linked the development of monitored retrievable storag e with the repository licensi ng, established the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board to review th e work done by the Department of Energy (DOE) relating to the repository and transpor tation of the waste, and offered Nevada financial benefits if the stat e agrees to permit the developm ent of the repository at Yucca Mountain. The prediction of the opening of the Yucca Mountain repository is currently 2010 [6]. If the repository act ually does open by 2010 it will be 12 years delayed at that time, which is a significant inc onvenience to the nuclear industry.

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9 Reprocessing and Recycling The reprocessing and recycling of nuclear materials has many benefits. Some of these benefits are that less uranium would ha ve to be mined, and that there would be less high-level waste being produced. The nucle ar materials that could be used for reprocessing and recycling include the spent fuel discharged from nuclear reactors and the highly enriched material from nuclear weapons that are being disassembled. Fresh fuel that goes into nuclear reactors consists of UO2 enriched in uranium-235. After this fuel is used, it exits the nucl ear reactor with almost all of its original uranium-238, onethird of the uranium-235 originally in the fuel, plutonium, fission products, and transuranics. Reprocessing allows for the r ecovery of the uranium and plutonium from the spent fuel. The left over spent fuel is then considered high-level waste, and the recovered uranium and plutonium is recycled back into the reactor. This fuel that contains a mixture of UO2 and PuO2 is called mixed-oxide fuel or MOX fuel [5]. In the mid 1970s, the nuclear power indus try was ready to add reprocessing and recycling to the nuclear fuel cycle. Unfortuna tely, at the same time, the issue of weapons proliferation was a big debate during th e presidential campaign. Gerald Ford, the president at the time, announced that reproces sing and recycling of civilian spent fuel should not proceed unless the risks of prolifer ation are reduced to an acceptable level. Later, President Jimmy Carter deferred repr ocessing and recycling in definitely. In 1981, President Regan lifted the ban; however, since there were no re processing facilities in the U.S., the technology was never fully developed, and since the materials to make nuclear fuel were abundant, there was not incentive to pursue reprocessing. Despite its lack of success in the United States, reprocessing and r ecycling is a part of the nuclear cycle in countries such as France, Japan, Engl and, the Soviet Union, and China [5].

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10 Introduction to US Commercial Nuclear Reactors Made to withstand a very harsh envir onment, nuclear power plants are very complicated structures that ha ve an extensive amount of safety features. Both the PWR and BWR operate continuously for a period of 18 to 24 months, after which, a portion of the fuel in the core has to be replaced. Th e period of time from when new fuel is added to the core until the next refueling is called a cycle. There are extensive calculations that go into the design of a cycle. The cycle has to meet the customer/utility needs, as well as maintain all safety requiremen ts. Cycle calculations are done to determine the type of fresh fuel that will be used, the amount of fresh fuel necessary for the cycle, the arrangement of the fuel within the core, wh ether the core meets reactivity and thermal hydraulic limits, and the operation characteris tics for the cycle. Extensive calculations are also done to perform a full safety analys is. Although the primar y objectives of PWRs and BWRs are they same, they are very different systems, each having their own advantages and disadvantages. The basi c method of operation for each system is described in the following paragraphs. The PWR The physical structure of the PWR is more complicated than that of a BWR. This is primarily due to the fact that the PWR ope rates with one primary loop that is connected by heat exchangers to a sec ondary loop. Connected by large pipes, the components of the primary loop include: the reactor vessel, the coolant pumps, the pressurizer and the steam generators. The primary loop is maintained at about 15 MPa (~2175 psi) to prevent boiling. In the primary loop, water is heated up in the pressure vessel, where the core containing the nuclear fuel is located. The water is pumped into the pressure vessel at about 290C (~550F) and exits at a bout 325C (~615F). The water in a PWR

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11 contains boron, which acts as a primary contro l of the power in the reactor. After the water exits the pressure vessel, it travels through large pipes to the steam generators. The steam generators are very large heat excha ngers, which serve the purpose of transferring the heat from the water of the primary loop to the water of the sec ondary loop. There are several thousand tubes within the steam generator that carry the water of the primary loop. The tubes in a U-tube steam generator enter at the bottom of the steam generator and exit at the bottom of the steam genera tor (having a U shape). These tubes are externally cooled by water from the secondary loop that enters n ear the bottom of the steam generator and is heated up to the state of boiling to produce steam. At the top of the steam generator there are various steam se parators that separate the water from the steam, and as a result, improve the quality of the steam. The steam has to be of high quality in order to minimize damage to the blad es of the turbine generator. After leaving the steam generator, the steam passes through the turbine. When the steam exits the turbine, it passes through condenser s, and then is pumped back to the steam generator. In this system the steam is not radioactive sin ce the secondary loop contains coolant that is not radioactive. Even though the structure of a PWR is more complicated than that of a BWR, the plant calculations and cycle design are much simpler because of the fact that the fuel within the core is much less comple x. The PWR produces steam that is at about 293C (~560F) and at 6 MPa (~870 psi), which re sults in an overall efficiency in the range of 32-33 percent [3]. Below, in Figure 1-1, is a simplified illustration of the PWR system.

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12 Figure 1-1. PWR System The BWR The BWR is a structurally simplified sy stem with only one major loop, as opposed to a primary and secondary loop. Because boiling of the coolant/moderator is permitted in the BWR core, pressure is maintained at approximately 7 MPa (~1015 psi), about half of the pressure that is maintained in the pr imary loop of the PWR. In a BWR, the water enters the core at about 280C (~536F) a nd the portion that exits is at about 290C (~554F).[3] Since steam is produced in th e pressure vessel of the BWR, no steam generators are necessary. To improve th e steam quality, the steam passes through the steam separators at the top of the vessel, and th en it goes straight to the turbine. In this case, the steam that reaches the turbine is ra dioactive because it comes straight from the

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13 core. After passing through the turbine, the steam goes thro ugh condensers and then it is pumped back into the reactor vessel through large pipes. The BWR produces steam that is at about 290C (~554F) and 7MPa (~1015 psi) which results in an overall efficiency of 33-34 percent [3]. Since there is boiling in the core, the fuel design and the plant calculations of a BWR become more complicat ed than that of a PWR. Below is a simplified illustration of the BWR system. This study contributes knowledge and insight to the cycle design process of a BWR system, which will be further discussed in the following sections and chapters. Figure 1-2. The BWR System

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14 The BWR Reactor Assembly The BWR reactor assembly consists of the reactor vessel, the co re shroud, the top guide assembly, the core plate assembly, the steam separator and dryer assemblies, the jet pumps, and the core components. The core components include the control rods and the fuel. An illustration of the reactor assembly can be seen in Figure 1-3 below. Figure 1-3. BWR Reactor Vessel Assembly [7]

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15 The reactor vessel is a pressure vessel th at is made of low alloy steel with the interior coated with stainless steel to prevent corrosion. It is mounted on a skirt that is bolted to a concrete pedestal, which is pa rt of the reactor bui lding foundation. The material composition of the ve ssel is critical since it is exposed to a neutron flux throughout its lifetime. The r eactor vessel has a removable he ad, which is necessary for refueling. The head closure seal consists of two concentric O-rings The vessel and its internal and external attach ments are designed to withsta nd combined loads [7]. The core shroud is a barrier located between the pressure vessel and the core. The shroud is made out of stainless steel and is cy lindrical in shape. The main purpose of the core shroud is to separate the downward flow (consisting of the main feed water and recirculating water) that proceeds to the re circulation loops (containing recirculation pumps) from the upward flow in the core. The shroud has a peripheral shelf that is welded to the pressure vessel itself. Th e shroud structure also supports the steam separators and jet pump system. The jet pumps penetrate the shelf of the shroud and eject the water from the recirculation loop s to the bottom of the core [7]. The steam separator assembly and the steam dryer assembly are both used to improve the quality of the steam before it en ters the turbine. The steam separators are located above the discharge plenum region of the core. They have no moving parts and are made of stainless steel. When wet steam enters the separators it passes through three stages, each stage containing parts that put a spin on the steam. Centrifugal forces separate the water from the steam and the wate r exits from the lower end of each stage. When the steam exits the steam separators, it enters the steam dryers. The steam dryers have many wavy metal plates or vanes that the steam passes through. The moisture

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16 collects on these plates and drips down through a system of drains to the pool of water surrounding the separators [7]. The cruciform control rods in a BWR are an operations feature and a safety feature in the reactor. The control rods enter fr om the bottom of the r eactor since the steam separators and dryers are at th e top of the reactor. They are inserted and withdrawn by the hydraulic control rod drive system, c onsisting of locking piston-type drive mechanisms [7]. The control rods are made of a boron carbide material. Boron is a neutron absorber and is used to control th e fission chain reaction. If neutrons are absorbed in the boron, they will not go on to cause fission reactions in uranium-235, and this will reduce the eigenvalue and power in th e reactor. Everywhere that there is a group of four fuel bundles, which is called a fuel m odule, there is a cruciform control rod. An illustration of a fuel module is shown in Figure 1-4 and is shown in more detail in Figure 1-5 and Figure 1-6. There are a few fuel bundl es on the outside of the core that are not part of a fuel module and do not interact with a control rod. An a rrangement of a typical BWR core and a description of the control rod grouping patt ern can both be seen in the cross-sectional view shown in Figure 1-4. The grouping pattern is necessary because control rods are separated in to different banks, which are labeled A1, A2, B1, and B2. These banks or groups of control rods are in serted and withdrawn in alternating order throughout the cycle. Also, Figure 1-4 shows in-core monitor locations. Looking at the four quadrants, it can be seen that the in -core monitor locations are not symmetric throughout the core. The core is usually designed to have one quarter symmetry, so having the monitor locations in different locat ions in each of the quarter cores mimics having the core monitors in all of the locations in the core. The instrumentation locations contain local power range neutron flux m onitors (LPRMs), which are fixed in-core

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17 fission chambers that provide continuous monitoring. Also, a guide tube in each in-core instrumentation position is used for the tr aversing in-core probes (TIPs). The TIPs measure the flux at different axial positions in the core, and are used for both normalizing LPRM gain readings and to correct the cal culated thermal margin predictions. TIP measurements are taken severa l times throughout the cycle. Figure 1-4. A. Cross-Sectional View of BWR Core [7], B. Control Rod Banks The fuel bundles in the BWR core are made up of fuel rods, tie rods, water rods, spacer grids, tie plates, and a surrounding metal rectangular can. The fuel rods are pressure vessels made of a Zirc aloy cladding tube filled with UO2 cylindrical pellets. The pellets are inserted into the cladding tube which is then sealed and pressurized with helium. The pressurization prevents the tubes fr om collapsing when in the high pressure environment of the reactor. The tie rods are fuel rods that are scre wed into the lower tie

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18 plate and attached to the upper tie plate to hold the bundle together during refueling. The water rods are diagonally adjacent empty rods in the center of the fuel bundle that allow water to pass through. In between the tie plat es there are several spacer grids which serve to keep the fuel rods separated, and additionally to cause some turbulence in the flow for increased heat exchange. The fuel rods, tie rods, and water rods, supported by spacer girds and upper and lower tie plates, are arrange d into a square array. The original fuel bundles in commercial Genera l Electric (GE) BWRs had a 7x7 array of fuel rods. Currently the newest fuel bundles are up to a 10x10 array of fuel rods. This increase in fuel rods was accomplished by decreasing fuel rod diameter, while keeping the actual size of the fuel bundle constant The increased fuel rod design adds a significant amount of surface area for increased heat exchange [7]. Illustrations of fuel modules are shown in Figures 1-5 and 1-6. Figure 1-5 shows a cr oss-sectional view of a fuel module of the old 8x8 fuel assemblies, and Figur e 1-6 shows a three dimensional view of a fuel module. Figure 1-5. Cross-Sectional View of BWR Fuel Module [7]

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19 Figure 1-6. BWR Fuel Assemb lies and Control Rod Module The fuel rods in the BWR fuel bundle can be either standard, contain gadolinium, or be part-length. The enrichment of the fuel rods in a BWR fuel bundle is varied radially, which can be seen in Figure 1-7. In the figure, each cell represents a fuel rod except for the middle adjacent large cells, wh ich represent two water rods. The water rods have a much larger diameter than fuel rods, and are empty to allow for water to pass through. The values in each wh ite cell and the top values in each gray cell represent the enrichment of the fuel rod in weight per cent. The bottom values in each gray cell represent the concentration of gadolinium in the fuel rod in weight percent. The cells

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20 labeled “E” represent fuel rods that are empty or have no fuel in that zone, these rods then become designated by “V” in a higher zone, wh ich stands for vanished or partial length rods. This figure only shows a single axial zone in a fuel bundle. There are several different axial zones within the fuel bundle. The different axial zones are necessary because of the part-length rods and other axial variations. A more detailed illustration of a fuel bundle, with all of the zones included can be seen in Figure 4-4. ABCDEFGHJK 11.602.003.203.603.954.403.953.603.202.40 22.00E3.60E3.95 4.40 7.00 E4.40E3.60 33.203.604.904.904.404.904.904.90 4.40 7.00 4.40 43.60E4.90 4.90 6.00 4.90WR-4.90E4.90 53.953.954.404.90E-4.90 7.00 4.904.90 64.40 4.40 7.00 4.90WR-E4.904.90 4.90 6.00 4.90 73.95E4.90--4.904.90 4.90 6.00 E4.90 83.604.404.904.90 4.90 7.00 4.90 4.90 6.00 4.90 4.40 7.00 4.90 93.20E 4.40 7.00 E4.90 4.90 6.00 E 4.40 7.00 E4.40 102.403.604.404.904.904.904.904.904.403.60 Figure 1-7. Cross-Sectional View of BWR Fuel Bundle In BWR fuel bundles, the fuel rods on the outer edge need special consideration. For example, row 1 and column A are sides of the fuel bundle that both face the blades of the cruciform control rod and are exposed to a higher volume of moderator when the control rod is withdrawn. These outer edge fuel rods have lower enrichments because of their location. If a control rod is inserted during beginning of cycle (BOC), it is shielding these outside fuel rods from thermal neut rons, causing a decreased amount of fission. However, the fuel rods are not being shie lded from energetic neutrons, allowing for energetic neutron absorpti on by uranium-238, which produces plutonium-239. Later in the cycle, when the control rods are rem oved, the fuel rods are exposed to a higher amount of moderator, while having a high am ount of uranium-235 and now also a higher

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21 amount of plutonium-239 than the other rods. This combination cause s the fission rate in these rods to be much higher than the surrounding rods, which is an unfavorable condition. To compensate for this phenomenon, the rods in these outer rows have lower enrichments. Also, row 10 and column K may have lower enrichments, since these fuel rods are also surrounded by a higher volume of moderator, which causes an increase in the amount of fission, especially at BOC. BWR Cycle Design The BWR core has many important design parameters. Some of these parameters are: the moderator to fuel volume ratio, co re power density, fuel exposure level, flow distribution, operating pressure, vo id content, heat transfer, an d cladding stress [7]. Since each plant is unique, the design of the cycle depends on the specific plant, and the energy plan of the utility. The cycle design also depends on the nuclear computer code package used for the analysis. As a result of the coolant boiling in the core, the BWR is very complicated to model completely and there is always a bias associated with the code calculated values. While each code package in use today has the same basic structure and uses the same principals, each code also uses unique approximations and methods, therefore having its own bias. Due to the co mplexity of modeling BWR plants, the bias of each nuclear code package also depends on th e specific plant and even a specific cycle. Even if the plant was on an equilibrium cycl e, where the cycle design is identical from one cycle to the next, the bias would still vary for that plant due to non-code related uncertainties further discussed later in this pa per. In addition to uncertainties, there are almost always planned as well as unexpected variations from cycle to cycle, causing an added change to the bias.

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22 The main bias in the nuclear code packages is on the eigenvalue. An example of what the code calculated eigenvalue may l ook like is shown if Figure 1-8. While the code calculates a certain eigenvalue tre nd, the actual, physical core criticality (represented by keff ) throughout the cycle is maintained at exactly one during steady state plant operation. Steady state plant operation is maintained during the majority of the cycle. In order to design a cycle, it is necessary to “guess” what this eigenvalue bias is going to be, based on previous cycles of the pl ant or similar plants. This guess of the eigenvalue trend for the cycle is called the nuclear design ba sis (NDB). The chosen NDB is used to normalize the code calculated result s to the actual values. Unless the plant is on a perfect equilibrium cycle, it is not possi ble to exactly guess the NDB. As mentioned earlier, even if a plant is put on an equilibri um cycle, the NDB still cannot be determined exactly due to non code related uncertaintie s, which are discussed in this thesis. 0.998 0.999 1.000 1.001 1.002 1.003 1.004 1.005 1.006 1.007 1.008 1.009 1.010 1.011 1.012 02000400060008000100001200014000160001800020000 Cycle Exposure MWd/MTKef f Code Calculated Hot Eigenvalue Actual Plant Criticality Figure 1-8. Bias Eigenvalue Trend The cycle is designed to meet the utiliti es energy plan, as well as all of the reactivity and thermal-hydraulic limits that ha ve been determined for that specific plant and for the fuel used. Once the NDB is determined, the amount of fuel and type of fuel is

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23 chosen depending on the utilities energy plan for the cycle. If the NDB is very far off, then the amount and type of fuel chosen will be incorrect for the planned cycle and other problems may arise. When a cycle is designe d, the fuel amount, type, and position in the core are determined, as well as operating char acteristics like the fl ow variation and the control rod patterns th roughout the cycle. The amount of flow and the control rod patterns are specifics of a cycle design and can be modified during the cycle. Each plant has an on-line core monitoring system that work s with the core instrumentation to record the activity of the plant throughout the cycle. Usually, this core monitoring system comes from the same nuclear code package as was used to do calculations for the cycle and, therefore, has the same bias. When it is noticed that the eigenvalue throughout the cycle is drifting away from th e predicted NDB trend, then changes are made in the core flow and control rod patterns to compensa te and keep the core within limits. If significant adjusting of the cont rol rod patterns and fl ow occurs in the cycle, the future cycle being designed also has to be adjuste d, therefore, it crucia l to predict a good NDB for the cycle. Also, TIP measurements are done throughout the cycle and are checked with code calculated values. TIP comparisons can also be used as an indicator of certain variations in the core. However, if th e measured and calculated power shapes are substantially different, it might also be exp ected that projected or planned control rod inventory and eigenvalue may not be ach ieved because the thermal margins are sufficiently different than exp ected. At that point, operati onal changes from the plan may be used to take advantage of extra margin or recover margin for continued safety. There are several limits that are looked at during typical cycle desi gn calculations. Thermal-mechanical limits are based on ther mal-mechanical, as well as, emergency core cooling system (ECCS) and loss of coolant accident (LOCA) aspects. There are two

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24 thermal-mechanical aspects that are considere d. The first is a mechanical aspect that includes placing a limit on the peak fuel pi n power level, which would result in a 1% plastic strain on the clad. The second is a thermal aspect that includes limiting the power to prevent centerline melting in the fuel. The ECCS/LOCA aspect is to place a limit on the power level, which would result in a p eak clad temperature of 2200F during a design basis LOCA. There are three major limits that are derived from the aspects mentioned previously. One limit is the maximum aver age planar ratio (MAPRAT). The MAPRAT is the ratio of the maximum average planar linear heat generation rate (MAPLHGR), in units of the average KW/ft for that latti ce, for a particular node divided by the MAPLHGR limit (ECCS limiting average KW/ft). A second limit is the maximum fraction of limiting power density (MFLPD). The MFLPD is the most limiting value of the fraction of limiting power density (FLPD) which is the maximum rod power density (MRPD) or the peak KW/ft value in a node divided by the exposure dependant steady state thermal-mechanical limit. Also, there is the critical power ra tio (CPR), which is a bundle quantity. The minimum critical power ratio (MCPR) is the ratio of the bundle power required to produce th e onset of transition boili ng somewhere in the bundle, divided by the actual bundle average power. The CPRRAT is the ratio of the operating limit critical power ratio (OLMCPR) divided by the MC PR. The MAPRAT, MFLPD, and CPRRAT should all be less than one for thermal limits to be met.

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25 CHAPTER 2 INTRODUCTION It is beneficial to have the ability to pr edict and evaluate changes in bias eigenvalue trends, thermal margin trends, and TIP bias tr ends when variations occur in a BWR core from one cycle to another. Currently the NDB is the predicted cycle eigenvalue bias, as discussed previously. The NDB prediction is usually based on previous knowledge from experimental data of the core or related cores, and it invo lves engineering judgment for interpreting the available experience base. Howe ver, it may be difficult to develop a firm NDB for an initial core, or wh en the history data is not fu lly relevant due to significant changes in the core characteristics. This problem is amplified by the introduction of new fuel designs, power up rates, longer oper ating cycles, changes in operating philosophy, and operation in regimes without substantial pr ior experience. For example, BWR plants are running at increasingly higher capacity factors, with fewer opportunities to benchmark cold calculation models because ou tage schedules continue to be minimized. Since BWR analysis models are quite sensitive to past history, the in tegral value of the effect of a perturbation can be larger than e xpected later in future cycles. Also, if the previous recorded history of the core is in correct, the calculated values for the power distribution can be different than the actual values. To enable this study a multicycle benc hmark model created by Global Nuclear Fuel–Americas (GNF-A) was used [8]. It is a reference BWR three-dimensional multicycle rodded core simulation model, which in cludes all basic details that a BWR core designer requires from an actual operating reacto r, i.e. detailed core loading patterns for

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26 four cycles, varying operating c onditions, rod patterns, and cold critical “measurements” at BOC, middle of cycle (MOC) and end of cy cle (EOC). Since it is not a real cycle, “measurements” refers to code calculated cold critical values at the various points in the cycle. Various perturbations in the area of fuel manufacturing and plant measurement were studied using this model. The effects on hot eigenvalue trend, distributed and local cold critical predictions, thermal margins, a nd changes in TIP bias are evaluated in this study for the transition from the original cy cle through a future equilibrium cycle. Interesting results have been obtained through these efforts, and further investigations would result in even more insights. The basis of these studies involves pertur bations. The perturba tions are done to evaluate the effects of varying certain i nput parameters, which are used in cycle calculations, within realistic uncertainties. These uncertainties are related to manufacturing, methods, instrument readings, and other possible components. This type of analysis is useful when considering that typical BWR industry uncertainty on the core eigenvalue is 0.003, which in large plants r oughly translates into 6 assemblies in a reload batch (or 15 days of operation) [8]. Therefore, it is valuable to minimize the uncertainties on the eigenvalue trends and ot her parameters (e.g. thermal margin trends and TIP bias trends), due to their large imp act on financial and safety considerations. Below are a few figures 2-1, 2-2, and 2-3, which illustrate the financial impact of incorrectly predicting the eigenvalu e. It can be seen that in larger cores each individual bundle has a smaller effect than in smaller core s. As a result, to correct the problem it takes more bundles in a larger core and therefore the cost is greater.

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27 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 200250300350400450500550600650700750800 Core Size (# of Bundles)MWd/MT per Bundle Figure 2-1. Energy per Bundle as a Functi on of Number of Bundles in BWR Core 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 200250300350400450500550600650700750800 Core Size (# of Bundles)Change in # of Bundles fo r 0.003 Error in Eigenvalue Figure 2-2. Change in the Number of Bundl es Needed for a 0.003 Error in Eigenvalue 0 200,000 400,000 600,000 800,000 1,000,000 1,200,000 1,400,000 1,600,000 1,800,000 2,000,000 200250300350400450500550600650700750800 Core Size (# of Bundles)Dollars ($) Figure 2-3. Change in the Total Fuel Cost for 0.003 Error in Eigenvalue (BWR)

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28 The initial task in this analysis was to provide information on the sensitivity of the core to the chosen perturbations as a func tion of exposure. The resulting information may be applied in new model development act ivities for assessment of model changes on core simulation results. Add itionally, the results of this study can assist in the identification of likely causes for the occasio nal irregularities observe d in core tracking. Even if the lattice physics and core simulator codes were consistent in the past for the evaluation of a particular core, there is no ab solute guarantee that the existing trends will continue. The ability to predict or analyze th e changes in these trends is important. For example, it can provide assistance in more accurately predicting the NDB eigenvalue bias trends. Also, if the NDB trend does not agree with the actual trend during the cycle, this analysis provides a basis to suggest what unrecognized variations might be present, or might have occurred in the core.

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29 CHAPTER 3 METHODS There are various perturbation parameters that were consid ered in this study. Plant measurement perturbation that were done incl ude core flow, core pressure, core inlet temperature, and core power variations. Th e fuel manufacturing pert urbations that were done include variations in burnable poison concentration, enrichment, pellet density, cladding dimensions, and in channel dimensions. In addition to varying these parameters, the reference multicycle created by GNF-A can also be used in the future to study perturbations in core a nd fuel behavior; such as, variations in the fission product model, Xenon model, depletion model (slope of depletion), gadolinium burnout, control rod depletion, control rod design, impact of di fferent types of spacers, impact of plenum regions at bottom / top / middle of the bundle, impact of the use of hot dimensions, and impact of TIP modeling. Studies of the pert urbations in physics assumptions will also be possible with this multicycle mode; for example, variations in core axial leakage, core radial leakage, distribution of flows to bundles calculation of axial void fraction, control rod axial worths, modeling vs. not modeling of spacers, axially varying control rods, and crud build-up. In the future, st udies of the effects of varyi ng all these parameters will assist in the developmen t of a diagnostic tool. The analysis was performed using the cu rrent standard GNF-A analysis package and the reference multicycle created in a pr evious study by GNF-A [8]. The analysis package included the TGBLA06 lattice-physics code and the PANAC11 core-simulator code. TGBLA06 performs the thermal ne utron spectra calculation by a leakage-

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30 dependent integral transport method, and it perf orms a resonance integral calculation for each resonant nuclide using an approximat e one-dimensional geometry. PANAC11 uses a nuclear diffusion model that is an improved 11/2-group physics or quasi-two group method, which uses spectral mismatch c onstants to modify the nodal powers and boundary condition constants to take into acc ount the core leakage [9,10]. Even though other BWR code packages have different bias es and give different results, all codes should show similar changes in the over all characteristic trending for a given perturbation. The way the reference multicycle was used can be analyzed in several different manners. Throughout most of the project, the multicycle was considered to be the calculated prediction for a plant, and each vari ation case was considered as the measured plant data. This method allowed for a c ontrolled experiment where effects from individual perturbations could be evaluated. A comparable real life scenario may be that all of the reload bundles are manufactured to a slightly higher enrich ment, while the cycle calculations are based on the fuel being with in specifications. As a result, the online monitoring system might then track a differe nt eigenvalue trend than predicted. When comparing this real life situation with this study, the calculated cycle would correspond to the reference base case and the online mon itoring system values would correspond to the perturbed case. In order to simplify the calcu lation process used for TIP comparisons, the interpretation is opposite; the base or refere nce case in this stu dy would correspond to the measured case (from the online monitoring system) and the higher enriched core is considered as the calculated core.

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31 In this study the results of selected pert urbations are discussed. First there is a summary of results for pertur bations made on plant measurement parameters, and in the chapter after there is a summary of results for perturbations made on fuel manufacturing parameters. Even though all cases are show n in the summary tables, detailed plots are shown only for selected high imp act perturbations. While revi ewing these results, it is important to realize that these are extrem e cases, which have a low probability of occurring. However, it is also important to note th at each perturbation case only focuses on one parameter, when realistically multiple si tuations may occur in the core and even if they are individually less drastic, it is possibl e that their effects are additive or they can cancel each other. When perturbations are made in the fuel manufacturing aspect of this study, they are introduced with the fresh re load bundles. In most cases the perturbation is introduced into all four cycles. As a result of the reload being about one third of the fuel in the core, the core of Cycle N consists of about one third of the referenc e/perturbed bundles, the core of Cycle N+1 consists of about two thir ds of those bundles, and the cores of Cycles N+2 and N+3 consist almost entirely of t hose bundles, eventually to an approximate equilibrium cycle.

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32 CHAPTER 4 REFERENCE MULTICYCLE Cycle Characteristics As mentioned earlier, the reference multicycl e described in this chapter was created by GNF-A in a previous study [8]. The co re of the reference multicycle is a 764 assembly General Electric BWR/4 plant, utilizi ng two year cycles in a control-cell-core loading, with ~37% batch fraction. There is one GE14 (10x10) fuel assembly type loaded as fresh fuel in all the cycles. Cycle N is the beginning cycle in the study. Although cycle N is a starting cycle from an existing core, the reload assemblies a nd the core loadings do not reflect the actual operation of any operating BWR, but we re constructed to provide some insights on the sensitivity to the methods of variability in the actual data for this mode of operation. It is recognized that the sensitivities for a two-year, high-energy cycle using GNF 10x10 fuel may or may not have any relationship to th e sensitivities that would be seen for an annual cycle operation of a BWR, not loaded with similar fuel or not of the same size. Additional studies would be needed to make that generalization. Some of the input and output characteristic s to describe the reference multicycle are shown in Table 4-1 and Figures 4-1 through 4-3. In Table 41, the parameters that are described as rated, refers to their status when the plant is at 100% flow and 100% power. The values of the cycle describing parameters are typical of a large BWR core, but are set up to approach an equilibrium cycle, which is not typical of actual operating plants. Additional plots and tables that further desc ribe each cycle of the reference multicycle model are provided in Appendix A.

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33 Table 4-1. General Cycle Parameters Figure 4-1 and Figure 4-2 illustrate thermal margin trends, and power and flow maps for the multicycle analysis. Vertical lin es separate each of the cycles, which are labeled as N, N+1, N+2, and N+3. The cumulativ e exposure for all four cycles is used as the parameter for the x-axis. Except where noted, for the purpose of the analysis, the references cycle values represent the base cas e predicted or calculated cycle parameters throughout this study. To make the reference case somewhat realistic, characteristics such as power coast downs are incorporated. Both the power coast downs and percentage of core flow can be seen in Figure 4-2. Figure 4-1. Thermal Margins for Cycles N to N+3 Cycle Rated Power MWt Exposure MWd/MT, Rated Full Cycle Exposure MWd/MT Total Cycle Days Outage Days Operating Days Core Weight MT MWD Rated MWD EOC N 3514 16535 1813372820708135.15 2234674 2450693 N+1 3514 15763 1791372820708136.93 2158432 2452764 N+2 3514 16204 1791372820708136.95 2219197 2453194 N+3 3514 16480 1791372820708137.03 2258240 2454609 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 051015202530354045505560657075 Cumulative Exposure GWd/STThermal Margin MAPRAT CPRRAT MFLPD N N+1 N+2 N+3

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34 Figure 4-2. Reactor Power and Core Flow for Cycles N to N+3 Figure 4-3 illustrates the sh apes of the resulting BOC and EOC core average axial relative power, and axial average exposure for Cycle N+3, which is considered to be close to an equilibrium cycle. From the plot it can be seen that both at BOC and EOC the exposure distribution is relatively flat, whic h the power distribution is bottom peaked at BOC and top peaked at EOC. This plot is normalized, and to obt ain the actual values, there is a multiplier in the legend for each parameter. Figure 4-3. Normalized Axial Co re Parameters for Cycle N+3 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 051015202530354045505560657075 Cumulative Exposure GWd/MTPower (%) / Flow (%) % Flow % Power N N+1 N+2 N+3 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 15913172125Axial NodeNormalized Value BOC Relative Power (Actual x1.451) EOC Relative Power (Actual x1.451) BOC Averave Exposure (Actual x40542.5) EOC Averave Exposure (Actual x40542.5)Bottom Top

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35 Reference Bundle The reference bundle is a GE14 10x10 fuel bundle as shown in Figure 4-4 below. Figure 4-4. Reference Bundle Lattice En richments and Gadolinium Concentrations Enrichment: 4.063 wt% U-235 Legend: enrichment(wt% U-235); Gadolinia(wt% Gd2O3); WR = water rod; V = vanished rod; E = empty rod6 A B C D E F G H J K5 A B C D E F G H J K 1 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 1 1.60 2.00 3.20 3.60 3.95 4.40 3.95 3.60 3.20 2.40 2 0.71 V 0.71 V 0.71 E V 0.71 V 0.71 2 2.00 V 3.60 V 3.95 4.40 7.00 V 4.40 V 3.60 3 0.71 0.71 E 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 E 0.71 3 3.20 3.60 4.90 4.90 4.40 4.90 4.90 4.90 4.40 7.00 4.40 4 0.71 V 0.71 E 0.71 WR 0.71 V 0.71 4 3.60 V 4.90 4.90 6.00 4.90 WR 4.90 V 4.90 5 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 V E 0.71 0.71 5 3.95 3.95 4.40 4.90 V 4.90 7.00 4.90 4.90 6 0.71 E 0.71 WR V 0.71 0.71 E 0.71 6 4.40 4.40 7.00 4.90 WR V 4.90 4.90 4.90 6.00 4.90 7 0.71 V 0.71 0.71 0.71 E V 0.71 7 3.95 V 4.90 4.90 4.90 4.90 6.00 V 4.90 8 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 E 0.71 E 0.71 E 0.71 8 3.60 4.40 4.90 4.90 4.90 7.00 4.90 4.90 6.00 4.90 4.40 7.00 4.90 9 0.71 V E V 0.71 E V E V 0.71 9 3.20 V 4.40 7.00 V 4.90 4.90 6.00 V 4.40 7.00 V 4.40 10 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 10 2.40 3.60 4.40 4.90 4.90 4.90 4.90 4.90 4.40 3.604 A B C D E F G H J K3 A B C D E F G H J K 1 1.60 2.00 3.20 3.60 3.95 4.40 3.95 3.60 3.20 2.40 1 1.60 2.00 3.20 3.60 3.95 4.40 3.95 3.60 3.20 2.40 2 2.00 E 3.60 E 3.95 4.40 7.00 E 4.40 E 3.60 2 2.00 2.80 3.60 4.90 3.95 4.40 7.00 4.90 4.40 4.40 3.60 3 3.20 3.60 4.90 4.90 4.40 4.90 4.90 4.90 4.40 7.00 4.40 3 3.20 3.60 4.90 4.90 4.40 4.90 4.90 4.90 4.40 7.00 4.40 4 3.60 E 4.90 4.90 6.00 4.90 WR 4.90 E 4.90 4 3.60 4.90 4.90 4.90 6.00 4.90 WR 4.90 4.90 4.90 5 3.95 3.95 4.40 4.90 E 4.90 7.00 4.90 4.90 5 3.95 3.95 4.40 4.90 4.90 4.90 7.00 4.90 4.90 6 4.40 4.40 7.00 4.90 WR E 4.90 4.90 4.90 6.00 4.90 6 4.40 4.40 7.00 4.90 WR 4.90 4.90 4.90 4.90 6.00 4.90 7 3.95 E 4.90 4.90 4.90 4.90 6.00 E 4.90 7 3.95 4.90 4.90 4.90 4.90 4.90 6.00 4.90 4.90 8 3.60 4.40 4.90 4.90 4.90 7.00 4.90 4.90 6.00 4.90 4.40 7.00 4.90 8 3.60 4.40 4.90 4.90 4.90 7.00 4.90 4.90 6.00 4.90 4.40 7.00 4.90 9 3.20 E 4.40 7.00 E 4.90 4.90 6.00 E 4.40 7.00 E 4.40 9 3.20 4.40 4.40 7.00 4.90 4.90 4.90 6.00 4.90 4.40 7.00 4.90 4.40 10 2.40 3.60 4.40 4.90 4.90 4.90 4.90 4.90 4.40 3.60 10 2.40 3.60 4.40 4.90 4.90 4.90 4.90 4.90 4.40 3.602 A B C D E F G H J K1 A B C D E F G H J K 1 1.60 2.00 3.20 3.60 3.95 4.40 3.95 3.60 3.20 2.40 1 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 2 2.00 2.80 3.60 4.90 3.95 4.40 7.00 4.90 4.40 4.40 3.60 2 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 3 3.20 3.60 4.90 7.00 4.90 4.40 4.90 4.90 4.90 4.40 7.00 4.40 3 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 4 3.60 4.90 4.90 4.90 7.00 4.90 WR 4.90 4.90 4.90 4 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 WR 0.71 0.71 0.71 5 3.95 3.95 4.40 4.90 4.90 4.90 7.00 4.90 4.90 5 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 6 4.40 4.40 7.00 4.90 WR 4.90 4.90 4.90 4.90 7.00 4.90 6 0.71 0.71 0.71 WR 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 7 3.95 4.90 4.90 4.90 4.90 4.90 7.00 4.90 4.90 7 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 8 3.60 4.40 4.90 4.90 4.90 7.00 4.90 4.90 7.00 4.90 4.40 7.00 4.90 8 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 9 3.20 4.40 4.40 7.00 4.90 4.90 4.90 7.00 4.90 4.40 7.00 4.90 4.40 9 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 10 2.40 3.60 4.40 4.90 4.90 4.90 4.90 4.90 4.40 3.60 10 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 6 5 4 3 2 1

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36 The bundle is composed of six lattices. Latt ices 1 & 6 contain natural uranium fuel and lattices 2-5 contain enriched uranium fuel a nd gadolinium rods. Although this is not an existing fuel bundle, it is typical of what woul d be in an actual core. This is the fuel bundle design that is used as the base case relo ad for all the cycles. Similar figures of the bundles used for the fuel manufacturing pe rturbations are included in Appendix B. Cold Criticals In an actual plant, cold critical measurem ents are attained by starting with all-rodsin (ARI) and then pulling out control rods until criticality is reached ( keff =1). The measure of whether criticality is reached is recorded by the online core monitoring system, which receives readings from the core instrumentation. The cold critical calculations include distributed as well as loca l cold criticals. Distributed cold criticals have a rod pattern distributed throughout the core, and local cold criticals have a rod pattern where the rods are wit hdrawn from only one part of th e core (locally) and are in close proximity of each other. An example of the cold critical r od patterns for MOC of cycle N+1 can be seen in Figure 4-5. In this figure there is one dist ributed cold critical rod pattern and five diffe rent local cold critical rod patterns that were chosen. All of the cold critical rod patterns for BOC, MOC, and EOC for each cycle are provided in Appendix A. The patterns might have slight variations but are very similar for each of the cycles. Cold critical eigenvalues ar e used to calculate the shut down margin (SDM) and the worth of the strongest chosen control rod at different points in the cycle. The SDM is a parameter that basically is used to ensure that the reactor can be shut down by inserting the control rods anytime during the cycle. The control rods have to be worth enough negative reactivity to perform the shutdown, a nd, as an additional safety feature, the

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37 Figure 4-5. Cold Critical Rod Patterns for MOC N+1 Distributed Cold CriticalLocal Cold Critical #11 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 048000480 484848481 248484848 0000000 484848483 4484848 0480480480480 4848483 4484848 000000000 4848485 64848 04800048000480 48485 64848 00000000000 48487 848 0480480480480480480 487 848 0000000000000 489 1004800024000480004809 10000048048048048000011 124804804804804804804804811 1200000480480480000013 1400048000120004800013 140000484484848048000015 164804804804804804804804815 160000048484848480000017 1800048000480004800017 180000480484848048000019 204804804804804804804804819 2000000480480480000021 22048000480004800048021 22000048048048048000023 2448 0480480480480480480 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 04800048000480 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 0480480480480 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 048000480 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848 Local Cold Critical #2Local Cold Critical #31 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 0000000 484848481 248484848 00480000 484848483 4484848 000000000 4848483 4484848 48248000000 4848485 64848 004800000000 48485 64848 4844800000000 48487 848 004824800000000 487 848 00484000000000 489 10000048048000000009 1000000000000000011 12000004800000000011 1200000000000000013 1400000000000000013 1400000000000000015 1600000000000000015 1600000000000000017 1800000000000000017 1800000000000000019 2000000000000000019 2000000000000000021 2200000000000000021 2200000000000000023 2448 0000000000000 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 00000000000 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 000000000 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 0000000 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848 Local Cold Critical #4Local Cold Critical #51 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 0000000 484848481 248484848 0000000 484848483 4484848 000000000 4848483 4484848 000000000 4848485 64848 0048448484848000 48485 64848 00000000000 48487 848 00044864848480000 487 848 0000000000000 489 100000000000000009 1000000000000000011 1200000000000000011 1200000000000000013 1400000000000000013 140000448484848480000015 1600000000000000015 1600004848484848480000017 1800000000000000017 180000048484848480000019 2000000000000000019 2000000000000000021 2200000000000000021 2200000000000000023 2448 0000000000000 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 00000000000 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 000000000 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 0000000 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848

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38 calculation is done with one strongest control rod not inserted in th e core. There are a few steps that are taken to calculate the SDM and worth of the strongest control rod throughout the cycle. First, the cycle desi gn must be finalized in order to run the calculation. The eigenvalue calc ulations are run at different exposure steps in the cycle and include a distributed cold cr itical calculation, a local cold critical calculation, an allrods-in (ARI) calcul ation and a single-rod-out (SRO ) calculation. After these calculations are run, the distri buted cold critical results ar e used to normalize the ARI eigenvalue results and the local cold critic al results are used to normalize the SRO eigenvalue results. Then, the worth of the strongest rod is equal to the difference between the normalized ARI and SRO results, and the SDM is equal to one minus the SRO results.

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39 CHAPTER 5 PLANT MEASUREMENT PERTURBATIONS There is a possibility that the instrumentation used to measure plant parameters may fail or may not be calibrate d correctly during a cycle or even several cycles. In the plant, measurements are taken of parameters such as core flow, pressure, temperature, and power. The plant is run and controlled partially based on these measurements. Considering their importance, these paramete rs were varied to see their impact on the cycle when no other changes were made. R ealistically in the case when the calculated and measured cycles (evaluated by the core monitoring system) do not match, the operations plan is modified and, most likel y, the flow and control rod positions are altered to compensate. This type of compensation is not in cluded in this study, which is another factor that makes these perturba tions extreme cases. The perturbations considered for the plant measurement parameters are listed in the Table 5-1. A summary of the results from the perturbation cases is shown in Table 5-2. In this table the perturbation cases are compared to the base case (reference multicycle), where the delta is a result of the base value being subtracted from the perturbed or modified value. For each perturbation the table lists the maximum and minimum resulting hot delta keff, the maximum impact on any of the three thermal margins, and the maximum and minimum delta keff for the distributed and local cold cr iticals. All of the mentioned deltas are the maximums or minimums at any point during the four cycles. After the summary table there are several plots that illustrate the effects of the perturbation cases.

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40 Table 5-1. Description of Pl ant Measurement Perturbations Case # Description 1 Core flow increased 5% 2 Core flow decreased 5% 3 Core pressure increased 2% 4 Core pressure decreased 2% 5 Core temperature increased 0.4% 6 Core temperature decreased 0.4% 7 Core power increased 1.25% 8 Core power decreased 1.25% 9 Core power increased 2.50% 10 Core power decreased 2.50% 11 Core power increased 2.50% in cycle N only Table 5-2. Summary of Results from Plant Measurement Perturbations Range of Impact: Hot Keff Range of Impact on Distributed Cold Critical Range of Impact on Local Cold Critical Case # Maximum Minimum Maximum Impact on Thermal Margin (%) Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum 1 0.00201 0.00026 -2.9 -0.00096 0.00000 -0.00166 0.00000 2 -0.00203 -0.00042 3.1 0.00095 0.00000 0.00163 0.00000 3 0.00168 0.00059 2.1 -0.00056 0.00000 -0.00082 0.00000 4 -0.00175 -0.00063 -2.2 0.00053 0.00000 0.00072 0.00000 5 -0.00150 -0.00055 -1.8 0.00041 0.00000 0.00051 0.00000 6 0.00148 0.00055 1.8 -0.00042 0.00000 -0.00058 0.00000 7 -0.00331 -0.00067 2.7 -0.00118 0.00000 -0.00211 0.00000 8 0.00342 0.00067 -2.7 0.00114 0.00000 0.00197 0.00000 9 -0.00662 -0.00133 5.4 -0.00240 0.00000 -0.00412 0.00000 10 0.00675 0.00135 -5.5 0.00225 0.00000 0.00389 0.00000 11 -0.00464 -0.00003 4.3 -0.00156 0.00000 -0.00218 0.00000 There are many conclusions that can be ma de from the results above. The first conclusion is that the variati ons in the core flow, pressure and temperature are not as significant as the variations in the power. Figures 5-1, 5-2, and 5-3 show the resulting change in the eigenvalue when the flow, pre ssure, and temperature are varied and Figure 5-4 shows the results when the power is changed by 1.25%. Although these variations are not as significant as the 2.5% change in power variation, for which the eigenvalue change is shown in Figure 5-6, th ey still show specific trends in the eigenvalue. It can be

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41 seen that the flow, pressure, and temperat ure eigenvalue changes are almost perfectly symmetric when varied by up and down by the same amount. The impact is slightly different in cycle N for all these plots. One f actor that may contribute to this is that the cycle only has one reload of the reference bund le fresh fuel; however the plots of the keff for the base case in Appendix A for cycle N and other cycles do not show a significant difference. There seems to be a settling effect after the first cycle. Also, a thing to notice is the delta at EOC, when it is negative it signi fies that the cycle ran out of energy early. Figure 5-1. Hot Delta Keff for Varied Flow by 5.0% Compared to Base Case Figure 5-2. Hot Delta Keff fo r Varied Pressure by 2.0% Compared to Base Case -0.010 -0.008 -0.006 -0.004 -0.002 0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 051015202530354045505560657075 Cumulative Exposure GWd/MTDelta Keff (Modified-Base ) Flow Increased 5.0% Flow Decreased 5.0% N N+1 N+2 N+3 -0.010 -0.008 -0.006 -0.004 -0.002 0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 051015202530354045505560657075 Cumulative Exposure GWd/MTDelta Keff (Modified-Base ) Pressure Increased 2.0% Pressure Decreased 2.0% N N+1 N+2 N+3

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42 Figure 5-3. Hot Delta Keff for Varied Temp erature by 0.4% Compared to Base Case A unique aspect of doing the power pertur bations is that the burnup was modified for the perturbed case in order to make a co mparison with the base or reference case. When considering the scenario of the inst rumentation was giving inaccurate readings, then it would not be know that the burnup is actually different a nd the comparison below is what would be seen. Also, it can be noticed in the figure below that the effect of the power perturbation increases fr om cycle to cycle, especia lly from cycle N to cycle N+1. Figure 5-4. Hot Delta Keff for Varied Power by 1.25% Compared to Base Case -0.010 -0.008 -0.006 -0.004 -0.002 0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 051015202530354045505560657075 Cumulative Exposure GWd/MTDelta Keff (Modified-Base ) Temperature Increased 0.4% Temperature Decreased 0.4% N N+1 N+2 N+3 -0.010 -0.008 -0.006 -0.004 -0.002 0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 051015202530354045505560657075 Cumulative Exposure GWd/MTDelta Keff (Modified-Base ) Power Increased 1.25% Power Decreased 1.25% N N+1 N+2 N+3

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43 Figure 5-5 shows the results of when the pow er perturbation is onl y done in cycle N and not in the rest of the cycles. It is evident that there is a history effect that can be seen in cycle N+1, which later fades away in the remaining two cycles to a negligible amount. Figure 5-5. Hot Delta Keff for Varied Power by 2.5% in Cycle N Compared to Base Case Figures 5-6 through 5-10 illustrate some of the impacts of the case where the power is increased and decreased by 2.50%. Figure 56 shows the change in the hot eigenvalue as a function of continuous burnup. In this extreme case, the delta keff increases towards EOC for each cycle, reachi ng a maximum of 0.00675 and 0.00602. Figure 5-6. Hot Delta Keff for Varied Power by 2.50% Compared to Base Case -0.010 -0.008 -0.006 -0.004 -0.002 0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 051015202530354045505560657075 Cumulative Exposure GWd/MTDelta Keff (Modified-Base ) Power Increased 2.50% (Cycle N Only) N N+1 N+2 N+3 -0.010 -0.008 -0.006 -0.004 -0.002 0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 051015202530354045505560657075 Cumulative Exposure GWd/MTDelta Keff (Modified-Base ) Power Increased 2.50% Power Decreased 2.50% N N+1 N+2 N+3

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44 There are two issues that are of concern when looking at the deltas for the cold critical eigenvalues. The firs t issue is the size of the delt a itself. When the delta is positive, it is an indication that the cold keff for the modified case is higher for the same control rod configuration as in the base case, which means that criticality is reached faster than expected. The opposite effect occurs in the case where th e power is increased 2.50%, which can be seen in figures 5-7 and 5-8 for distributed a nd local cold criticals. Figure 5-7. Delta Keff for Dist ributed Cold Critical Eigenvalues Compared to Base Case Figure 5-8. Delta Keff for Local Cold Critical Eigenvalues Compared to Base Case for the Power Increased 2.50% Case -0.010 -0.008 -0.006 -0.004 -0.002 0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 Point in MulticycleDelta Keff (Modified Base ) Power Increased 2.50% BOC EOC BOC MOC MOC MOC MOC BOC EOC BOC EOC EOC N N+1 N+2 N+3 -0.005 -0.004 -0.003 -0.002 -0.001 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.003 Point in MulticycleDelta Keff (Modified -Base ) Local 1 Local 2 Local 3 Local 4 Local 5 BOC EOC BOC MOC MOC MOC MOC BOC EOC BOC EOC EOC N N+1 N+2 N+3

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45 The second issue is the difference between th e changes in the dist ributed cold criticals compared to the changes in the local cold criticals. This is important because a bias has to be maintained between the two values, a nd when the values vary by different amounts in the perturbation cases then the bias may not be maintained.[11] Figure 5-9 shows the maximum difference between the distributed and any of the five locals within the base case compared to the maximum difference betw een the distributed and any local within the modified case. In the base case the di fference between the distributed cold critical and any local cold critical is roughly designe d to maintain the required bias between the two values. As a result, any point in the plot that is above zero indicates that the delta is larger than what the limiting value of the bias should be by that amount, which may result in problems with maintaini ng SDM within the cycle. Figure 5-9. Maximum Delta Keff Between Distributed and Any Local Cold Critical Eigenvalue Compared to Base Case Figure 5-10 shows the calculated TIP comp arisons between the base case and the perturbation case, where the power is incr eased by 2.50%. All the RMS values are very small, which means that the difference betw een the two cases is very small. This -0.0030 -0.0020 -0.0010 0.0000 0.0010 0.0020 0.0030 0.0040 Point in MulticycleDelta Keff [(Distributed-Local)-Base Delta] Power Increased 2.50% Power Decreased 2.50% BOC EOC BOC MOC MOC MOC MOC BOC EOC BOC EOC EOC N N+1 N+2 N+3

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46 indicates that even if the TIP measurements match the calculated TIPs, the plant is not necessarily operating as expected. Figure 5-10. Average Axial TI P Distributions for EOC N+3 As seen by the discussed results, it is im portant to check the a ccuracy of the plant equipment. Inaccurate measurements used as cycle inputs can greatly affect the way the current cycle is designed and operated, as well as the way future cycles are designed and operated. 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 0510152025 Axial NodeAverage TIP Reading Base Case Power Increased 2.50%Bottom Top Radial RMS Axial RMS Nodal RMS 0.16% 0.54% 0.67%

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47 CHAPTER 6 FUEL MANUFACTURING PERTURBATIONS As there are uncertainties in plant measurem ents, there are also variations in fuel manufacturing. Calculations ar e always made assuming constant fuel parameters for the standard products that are built by manufact uring, however, the as built parameters for the fuel products are usually s lightly different. Even if the fuel is manufactured within tolerances, there may be situations where the majority of the fuel may be either on the upper or lower end of the allowed values. Seve ral perturbations were done in this area to access the effects of fuel manufacturing varia tions. The types of perturbations done are listed in Table 6-1 and the summary of the re sults is listed in Ta ble 6-2. These fuel manufacturing perturbations are introduced into the system with each reload batch. In Table 6-1, the first four cases of enrich ment variations are done by varying the enrichments of entire rods one level up in enrichment or one level down (using the allowable enrichments that are manufactured) to change the average enrichment of a bundle. This is a very unrealistic scenario and because of the wa y the perturbation is done (when lower enriched rods were replaced with higher enriched rods without varying anything else); the thermal margin effect in case 4 is exceptionally high. In cases 7 & 8 the enrichments were uniformly varied in each pellet by the same percentage to change the average enrichment of the bundle. This uni form variation is also used in cases 13 & 14, where the enrichment is varied uniforml y, but by different percentages in different axial zones of the bundle. The corresponding bu ndles listed in Table 6-1 are shown in Appendix B, except for the reference bundle which was previously shown in Figure 4-4.

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48 Table 6-1. Description of Fu el Manufacturing Perturbations Case # Bundle Description 1 A Average bundle enrichment decreased 1.2% (0.05w%) 2 B Average bundle enrichment increased 1.2% (0.05w%) 3 C Average bundle enrichment decreased 2.2% (0.09w%) 4 D Average bundle enrichment increased 2.2% (0.09w%) 5 Reference Fuel Density increased 0.5% 6 Reference Fuel Density decreased 0.5% 7 E Average bundle enrichment uniformly decreased 1.5% (0.06w%) 8 F Average bundle enrichment uniformly increased 1.5% (0.06w%) 9 Reference Clad inside diameter increas ed 0.001 in. and clad thickness decreased 10 Reference Clad inside diameter decreased 0.001 in. and clad thickness increased 11 Reference Channel inside dimension decreased 0.015 in. 12 Reference Channel inside dimension increased 0.030 in. 13 G Enrichment increased 1.8% in zones 4 & 5 and enrichment decreased 1.2% in zones 2 & 3, average bundle enrichment remained constant 14 H Enrichment decreased 1.8% in zones 4 & 5 and enrichment increased 1.2% in zones 2 & 3, average bundle enrichment remained constant 15 I Gadolinium concentration increased 0.5w% in Cycle N only 16 I Gadolinium concentration increased 0.5w% 17 J Gadolinium concentration decreased 0.5w% 18 K Gadolinium concentration increased 0.25w% in Zones 2 & 3 and decreased in zones 4 & 5 sufficiently to preserve total gadolinium Table 6-2. Summary of Results from Fuel Manuf acturing Perturbations Range of Impact: Hot Keff Range of Impact on Distributed Cold Critical Range of Impact on Local Cold Critical Case # Maximum Minimum Maximum Impact on Thermal Margin (%) Maximum Minimum (Absolute Value) Maximum Minimum (Absolute Value) 1 -0.00366 -0.00075 -2.4 -0.00338 0.00102 -0.00349 0.00098 2 0.00374 0.00094 5.2 0.00318 0.00100 0.00335 0.00084 3 -0.00642 -0.00120 4.0 -0.00586 0.00170 -0.00619 0.00161 4 0.00707 0.00186 18.6 0.00640 0.00225 0.00665 0.00180 5 -0.00088 0.00000 -2.7 0.00075 0.00005 0.00109 0.00001 6 -0.00052 0.00000 -0.8 -0.00062 0.00014 -0.00090 0.00002 7 -0.00484 -0.00104 1.8 -0.00432 0.00147 -0.00473 0.00122 8 0.00369 0.00080 1.5 0.00335 0.00111 0.00369 0.00097 9 0.00231 0.00035 1.3 0.00147 0.00013 0.00149 0.00000 10 -0.00190 0.00003 -1.6 -0.00199 0.00009 -0.00204 0.00004 11 0.00082 -0.00001 -0.8 -0.00118 0.00000 -0.00201 0.00001 12 -0.00174 0.00004 1.7 0.00226 0.00001 0.00384 0.00003 13 -0.00128 -0.00002 -6.8 0.00214 0.00049 0.00344 0.00002 14 0.00124 -0.00003 5.2 -0.00172 0.00010 -0.00319 0.00002 15 -0.00521 -0.00002 5.3 -0.00660 0.00000 -0.00646 0.00000 16 -0.00530 -0.00143 6.5 -0.00661 0.00096 -0.00697 0.00078 17 0.00518 0.00118 7.5 0.00692 0.00103 0.00738 0.00080 18 0.00462 -0.00007 -12.4 0.00580 0.00030 0.00735 0.00021

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49 The results of cases 5 and 6, the density variations, and cases 9-12, the clad and channel geometry variations, show much less sensitivity than the enrichment and gadolinium concentration varia tions. Since the channel and clad geometry perturbations are not varied equally up and down, the result s are not symmetric, which is evident in Figure 6-1 and Figure 6-2. However, it is seen in Figure 6-3 that ev en though the density is varied up and down by the same amount, the re sults are still not perfectly symmetric. Figure 6-1. Hot Delta Keff for Channel Geom etry Variation Cases Compared to Base Case Figure 6-2. Hot Delta Keff for Clad Geometry Variation Cases Compared to Base Case -0.010 -0.008 -0.006 -0.004 -0.002 0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 05101520253035404550556065707580 Cumulative Exposure GWd/MTDelta Keff (Modified Base ) Channel Inside Dimension Decreased 0.015 in. (thicker) Channel Inside Dimension Increased 0.030 in. (thinner)N N+1 N+2 N+3 -0.010 -0.008 -0.006 -0.004 -0.002 0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 05101520253035404550556065707580 Cumulative Exposure GWd/MTDelta Keff (Modified Base ) Clad Inside Diameter Increased 0.001 in./Thickness Decreased 0.003 in. Clad Inside Diameter Decreased 0.001 in./Thickness Increased 0.003 in.N N+1 N+2 N+3

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50 Figure 6-3. Hot Delta Keff for Fuel Density Variation Cases Compared to Base Case There are several plots below that illust rate the effects of the more severe perturbation cases. Figures 64 through 6-9 show the results of the enrichment variation cases. In Figure 6-4, the cases where the en richment is varied by 1.5%, show the most variation in the hot eigenvalue. The effect increases as more modified fuel is introduced from cycle N to cycle N+2. The axial variation cases, where the bundle average enrichment is kept constant, show less overall variation in the hot eigenvalue. Figure 6-4. Hot Delta Keff fo r Enrichment Variation Case s Compared to Base Case -0.010 -0.008 -0.006 -0.004 -0.002 0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 05101520253035404550556065707580 Cumulative Exposure GWd/MTDelta Keff (Modified Base ) Pellet Density Increased 0.5% Pellet Density Decreased 0.5%N N+1 N+2 N+3 -0.010 -0.008 -0.006 -0.004 -0.002 0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 051015202530354045505560657075 Cumulative Exposure GWd/MTDelta Keff (Modified Base ) Avg Bundle Enrichment Increased 1.5% Avg Bundle Enrichment Decreased 1.5% Enrichment Increased 1.8% in Zones 4&5/Decreased 1.2% in Zones 2&3 Enrichment Decreased 1.8% in Zones 4&5/Increased 1.2% in Zones 2&3N N+1 N+2 N+3

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51 Figures 6-5 through 6-7 show the changes in the cold critical eigenvalues for the enrichment variation cases. Figure 6-5 s hows that the distributed cold critical eigenvalues vary less in cycle N and then in crease in cycles N+1 to N+3. Also, the cases where the enrichment is uniformly changed by 1.5% show a constant trend in the deltas from cycle to cycle. In the axial variation ca ses there is an alternating trend from cycle to cycle. This alternating trend is probably cau sed by the history effect that is carried on from cycle to cycle. Figure 6-5. Delta Keff for Dist ributed Cold Critical Eigenvalues Compared to Base Case Figure 6-6 shows the change in the local cold critical eigenvalues for the case where the bundle enrichment is increased by 1.5 %. Since the delta is positive in this case, criticality is reached faster by the plotte d delta keff. Figure 6-7 shows that there are very significant cha nges in the maximum difference be tween the distributed and local cold critical eigenvalues comp ared to the base case. Thes e changes are much greater in the cases where the enrichment was axially va ried while the average enrichment was kept constant. This also proves that even t hough the hot eigenvalue might not have been affected as severely in these axially varied cases, there are still existing problems within -0.010 -0.008 -0.006 -0.004 -0.002 0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 Point in MulticycleDelta Keff (Modified Base) Avg Bundle Enrichemnt Decreased 1.5% Avg Bundle Enrichment Increased 1.5% Enrichment Increased 1.8% in Zones 4&5/Decreased 1.2% in Zones 2&3 Enrichment Decreased 1.8% in Zones 4&5/Increased 1.2% in Zones 2&3 BOC EOC BOC MOC MOC MOC MOC BOC EOC BOC EOC EOCN N+1 N+2 N+3

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52 the cycle. As can be seen, there are several indicators to check whether the cycle is on track besides just the eigenvalue trend. Figure 6-6. Delta Keff for Local Cold Critical Eigenvalues Compared to Base Case for Average Bundle Enrichment Increased 1.5% Case Figure 6-7. Maximum Delta Keff Between Di stributed and Any Local Cold Critical Eigenvalue Compared to Base Case Once again, just as in the plant measuremen t power variation case, the TIP results in Figure 6-8 show that there is almost no a pparent variation in the TIP measurements between the base case and the case where the enrichment is decreased 1.5%. This is 0.0000 0.0010 0.0020 0.0030 0.0040 0.0050 0.0060 0.0070 0.0080 Point in MulticycleDelta Keff (Modified -Base) Local 1 Local 2 Local 3 Local 4 Local 5 BOC EOC BOC MOC MOC MOC MOC BOC EOC BOC EOC EOC N N+1 N+2 N+3 -0.002 -0.001 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 Point in MulticycleDelta Keff [(Distributed-Local)-Base Delta] Avg Bundle Enrichemnt Decreased 1.5% Avg Bundle Enrichment Increased 1.5% Enrichment Increased 1.8% in Zones 4&5/Decreased 1.2% in Zones 2&3 Enrichment Decreased 1.8% in Zones 4&5/Increased 1.2% in Zones 2&3 BOC EOC BOC MOC MOC MOC MOC BOC EOC BOC EO C EOC N N+1 N+2 N+3

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53 surprising, since this case showed such a significant change in the hot and cold eigenvalues. Figure 6-8. Average Axial TIP Distributions for BOC N+3 Figure 6-9 shows a recognizable difference in the calculated TIP values between the base case and one of the axially varied enrichment cases. This is an indication that the TIP comparisons are helpful when there is an ax ial variation in the co re as opposed to a uniform variation in the core. The TIP comp arison proves to be an important indicator since the eigenvalue was not drastically differe nt from the base case for this perturbation. Figure 6-9. Average Axial TI P Distributions for BOC N+3 Figures 6-10 through 6-15 illustrate the result s of the gadolinium concentration variation cases. From the summary table, it is evid ent that these perturbations have a very significant impact on the cycle parameters. In Figure 6-10 it is shown that the gadolinium variation has no signifi cant history effect. This can be seen by looking at the 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 0510152025 Axial NodeAverage TIP Reading Base Case Avg Bundle Enrichment Decreased 1.5% Radial RMS Axial RMS Nodal RMS 0.09% 0.62% 0.65% Bottom Top 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 0510152025 Axial NodeAverage TIP Reading .. Base Case Enrichment Decreased 1.8% in Zones 4&5/Increased 1.2% in Zones 2&3 Radial RMS Axial RMS Nodal RMS 0.24% 5.33% 5.53% Bottom To p

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54 case where the gadolinium is varied only in one cycle, after which, the eigenvalue returns to that of the base case. The fact that ther e is no history effect can also be recognized by noticing that the variation from cycle to cycle is constant. In Figure 6-10, where the gadolinium is varied axially while the bundle average gadolinium is kept constant, there again is the phenomenon where there is an alternating trend. Sin ce the trends are not constant from cycle to cycle, the axial vari ation has a history affect on the core. The axial variation also causes the eigenvalue tre nd to first have a positive delta keff and then, towards the end of cycle, a negative delta ke ff. This axial perturbation seems to amplify the already existing axial effects of the varying void concentrations. Figure 6-10. Hot Delta Keff for Gadolinium Co ncentration Variation Cases Compared to Base Case Figures 6-11 through 6-13 show the effects of the gadolinium variations on the cold critical eigenvalues. In Figur e 6-11, the largest changes in the distributed cold critical eigenvalues are seen in the cases where the gadolinium is cha nged by 0.5w% throughout the bundle. -0.010 -0.008 -0.006 -0.004 -0.002 0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 051015202530354045505560657075 Cumulative Exposure GWd/MTDelta Keff (Modified Base ) Gad Increased 0.5w% Gad Increased 0.5w%(only in Cycle N) Gad Decreased 0.5w% Gad Increased 0.25w% in Zones2&3/Decreased in Zones4&5 to Preserve Total GadN N+1 N+2 N+3

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55 Figure 6-11. Delta Keff for Distributed Cold Critical Eigenvalues Compared to Base Case Figure 6-12 shows the changes in the local cold critical ei genvalues for the case where the gadolinium is decreased by 0.5w% in each re load for each cycle. As the results show, these are very drastic changes that would ha ve a big effect on the SDM for the cycles. Figure 6-12. Delta Keff for Local Cold Critic al Eigenvalues Compared to Base Case for Decreased Gadolinium Case Figure 6-13 illustrates the change in the maxi mum delta between the local and distributed cold criticals compared to the base case. Th ese are large changes, but there seems to be no trend in the cases. One recognizable aspect is that there is a sli ght history effect that can be seen in cycle N+1 of the gadolinium decrease d 0.5w% (only in Cycle N) case. This case -0.010 -0.008 -0.006 -0.004 -0.002 0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 Point in MulticycleDelta Keff (Modified Base ) Gad Increased 0.5w% Gad Increased 0.5w% (only in Cycle N) Gad Decreased 0.5w% Gad Increased 0.25w% in Zones2&3/Decreased in Zones4&5 to Preserve Total Gad Si1 BOC EOC BOC MOC MOC MOC MOC BOC EOC BOC EO C EOC N N+1 N+2 N+3 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 Point in MulticycleDelta Keff (Modified Base ) Local 1 Local 2 Local 3 Local 4 Local 5 BOC EOC BOC MOC MOC MOC MOC BOC EOC BOC EOC EOC N N+1 N+2 N+3

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56 did not show history effects previously when looking at other parameters like the hot eigenvalue. Figure 6-13. Maximum Delta Keff Between Distributed and Any Local Cold Critical Eigenvalue Compared to Base Case Figure 6-14 again shows that th ere is no noticeable difference in the TIP comparisons for the case where the gadolinium is uniformly increased by 0.5w%. Even though there is a large effect on the eigenvalues and thermal ma rgins, this is not noticeable in the TIP comparisons, since the perturbati on was uniform throughout the core. Figure 6-14. Average Axial TIP Distributions for Cycle N+2 at 9811 MWd/MT Figure 6-15 shows the TIP comparisons for th e case where the gadolinium was axially varied with the average bundle gadolinium concen tration kept constant. Since this is an -0.002 -0.001 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005Point in MulticycleDelta Keff [(Distributed-Local)-Base Delta] Gad Increased 0.5w% Gad Increased 0.5w% (only in Cycle N) Gad Decreased 0.5w% Gad Increased 0.25w% in Zones2&3/Decreased in Zones4&5 to Preserve Total Gad BOC EOC BOC MOC MOC MOC MOC BOC EOC BOC EO C EOC N N+1 N+2 N+3 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 0510152025 Axial NodeAverage TIP Reading Base Case Gad Increased 0.5w% Radial RMS Axial RMS Nodal RMS 0.41% 0.78% 1.06% Bottom Top

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57 axial change, there is significant variati on between the calculated and “measured” TIP values. Figure 6-15. Average Axial TIP Distributions for EOC N As shown in the discussed results, there are fuel manufacturing variations that can be ignored, while others that have to be r ecognized and accounted for. Also, there are several indications that can show if there is something going on in the core, which are not necessarily complimentary. 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 0510152025 Axial NodeAverage TIP Reading Base Case Gad Increased 0.25w% in Zones2&3/Decreased in Zones4&5 to Preserve Total Gad Radial RMS Axial RMS Nodal RMS 0.47% 11.02% 11.78% Bottom Top

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58 CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION This multicycle analysis contains valuable data that can be used in predictions and assessments of trends in BWR cores. The main conclusion in this study is that the uncertainties in plant measurement values and in fuel manufacturing parameters may have a significant effect on cycle calculations. One has to recognize that no matter how robust the code is, the level of code accuracy becomes irreleva nt if these parameters are not monitored and controlled. However, it also has to be recognized that this study contains extreme individual perturbations. Plant measur ement instruments and fuel manufacturing processes are both monitored in order to prevent such extreme scenarios. There are many additional evaluations nece ssary to further aid the purpose of this study, in order to encompass other possible va riations and phenomenon that occur in the core. As mentioned previously, perturbations can be studied in core and fuel behavior such as: variations in fission product mode l, Xenon model, depletion model (slope of depletion), gadolinium burnout, control rod depletion, control rod design, impact of different types of spacers, impact of plenum regions at bottom / top / middle of the bundle, impact of the use of hot dimensions, and impact of TIP modeling. There are also certain methodologies incorporated into the co des that are separately characterized as methods uncertainties. Studies of the pert urbations in this category may include: variations in core ax ial leakage, core radi al leakage, distribution of flows to bundles, calculation of axial void fracti on, control rod axial worths, modeling vs. not modeling of spacers, axially varying contro l rods, and crud build-up. C onsidering all these possible

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59 perturbations to be studied, there is also th e aspect of what happens when uncertainties are combined. The effects of combinati ons of many perturbations may either be independent, additive, or cancel each other out. Understanding such outcomes would also be a valuable asset to the BWR industry. With the continuation of these types of studies, the phenomenon that occur within the BWR core could be better understood, the codes could be tested and improved, and all the procedures and methods that lead up to the final cycle designs could be refined and enhanced. All these benefits are very important to the world’s nuclear industry and electricity market, ultimately benefiti ng the United States and World population by increasing the supply of electric ity, while decreasing the cost.

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60 APPENDIX A REFERENCE CYCLE SPECIFICS Cycle N Characteristics Table A-1. Bundle Information Cycle N Bundle Type Average Bundle Enrichment Number of Gad Rods Bundle Type Number Bundle Amount in Core BOC Average Exposure MWD/ST EOC Average Exposure MWD/ST GE14 4.10 1415620272.6 37731.7 GE14 4.11 1428021574.5 39910.7 GE14 4.10 1436820064.3 35845.2 GE14 4.11 144819165.0 37468.9 GE14 4.10 1454820770.0 38687.4 GE14 4.11 1462419959.8 35875.1 GE14 4.06 14111680.021357.4 GE14 4.06 14121080.022085.5 GE13 4.04 131914035223.3 43555.5 GE13 4.07 14206437461.7 44273.2 123456789101112131415 119201919201919 22019191919191920 319191920316653 41920311111511411 520193351121112312 620201933111211121212123 71920312011112111122 820193611365122211115 92019205212112121211311211 10201921111111212121121111115 11191911151221111219191112 12191916111252111191911112 13201961112121111111111111212 1419193431211112113111222 15191961112121111111111111219 Figure A-1. Cycle N Assembly Lo cations by Bundle Type Number

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61 123456789101112131415 139.639.936.538.638.936.738.2239.736.134.134.832.834.632.832.8339.738.635.631.522.618.319.819.822.919.1435.637.319.418.80.00.019.50.019.20.0539.737.217.619.419.30.020.60.00.020.60.0639.739.937.219.419.30.00.00.00.00.00.00.021.0739.037.317.619.331.519.30.00.021.519.30.022.121.2839.735.219.419.80.019.120.220.20.022.121.20.00.022.2939.838.232.719.520.60.00.021.00.00.00.022.20.022.20.01039.834.822.10.00.00.00.00.00.022.70.00.00.00.022.91136.735.218.80.020.20.021.221.50.00.030.929.40.022.022.01236.134.618.320.20.00.019.321.222.00.029.330.90.00.022.11338.934.119.80.00.00.00.019.20.00.00.00.022.80.00.01438.632.822.619.220.60.00.00.022.10.022.20.00.022.021.21536.532.819.30.00.021.320.622.10.022.220.622.10.021.029.3 Figure A-2. BOC Cycle N E xposure Distribution (GWD/T) 123456789101112131415 143.144.241.543.844.342.243.8244.642.542.143.642.244.142.642.7343.244.243.542.035.532.834.835.037.734.5441.545.932.233.817.819.037.319.937.420.0545.745.530.734.836.720.439.621.721.940.221.6643.245.645.632.034.018.320.421.622.022.322.722.540.5744.645.930.734.144.935.421.121.939.637.922.641.838.8844.643.132.235.218.235.337.339.922.340.339.622.622.439.7943.344.543.034.437.820.421.140.522.822.922.442.023.042.322.11044.142.735.117.820.421.622.022.322.942.822.222.122.622.742.21141.644.033.219.039.322.039.439.822.422.246.745.421.841.539.71241.443.933.438.021.922.538.039.741.922.145.246.621.721.839.71344.443.735.120.122.123.022.939.823.122.721.921.742.221.921.31444.142.637.637.640.522.922.722.742.422.841.721.822.041.239.81542.242.734.820.221.941.138.740.022.341.838.739.721.439.744.3 Figure A-3. EOC Cycle N E xposure Distribution (GWD/T)

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62 0.990 0.991 0.992 0.993 0.994 0.995 0.996 0.997 0.998 0.999 1.000 1.001 1.002 1.003 1.004 1.005 1.006 1.007 1.008 1.009 1.010 1.011 1.012 1.013 1.014 1.015 02000400060008000100001200014000160001800020000 Cycle Exposure MWd/MTKef f Figure A-4. Cycle N Hot keff 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 02000400060008000100001200014000160001800020000 Cycle Exposure MWd/MTThermal Margin RAPLHGR CPRRAT MFLPD Figure A-5. Cycle N Thermal Margins

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63 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 02000400060008000100001200014000160001800020000 Cycle Exposure MWd/MTPower (%) / Flow (%) % Power % Flow Figure A-6. Cycle N Reactor Power and Core Flow 1022 1026 1030 1034 1038 1042 1046 1050 1054 1058 1062 1066 1070 1074 1078 1082 1086 1090 02000400060008000100001200014000160001800020000 Cycle Exposure MWd/MTPressure (psi) Figure A-7. Cycle N Core Pressure

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64 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 02000400060008000100001200014000160001800020000 Cycle Exposure MWd/MTTemperature (F) Figure A-8. Cycle N Core Inlet Temperature 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 02000400060008000100001200014000160001800020000 Cycle Exposure MWd/MTBypass Flow (%) Figure A-9. Cycle N Core Bypass Flow

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65 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 15913172125 Axial NodeNormalized Value Normalized Averave Exposure (Actual x20517.9) Normalized Relative Power (Actual x1.584) Normalized Void Fraction (Actual x0.711) Bottom Top Figure A-10. Cycle N BOC Axial Core Parameters 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 15913172125 Axial NodeNormalized Value Normalized Averave Exposure (Actual x39591.1) Normalized Relative Power (Actual x1.469) Normalized Void Fraction (Actual x0.588) Bottom Top Figure A-11. Cycle N EOC Axial Core Parameters

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66 Cycle N Rod Pattern Results DESIGN CRITERIA: FLOW= 85.0% 97.0% MFLCPR=0.930 MFLPD=0.909 MAPRAT=0.909 INDICATOR KEY: *=EXCEEDS CRITERIA, ^=PEAK VALUE, ^^=PEAK VALUE EXCEEDS CRITERIA CYCEXP AXIAL POWER MWD/ST KEFF FLOW-% MFLCPR MFLPD MAPRAT NODE 4 / PEAK 0 1.0077 92.5 0.904(10,14) 0.875(12,14, 8) 0.858(11,15, 8) 1.369 1.584( 8) 200 1.0075 96.4 0.870(10,14) 0.866(11,15, 8) 0.854(11,15, 8) 1.292 1.573( 8) 1000 1.0071 98.2* 0.855(10,14) 0.859( 7,13, 8) 0.849( 8,12, 8) 1.240 1.567( 8) 2000 1.0066 98.2* 0.844( 9,13) 0.840( 8,12, 8) 0.833( 8,12, 8) 1.210 1.541( 9) 2600 1.0062 93.6 0.829( 7,13) 0.881( 9,13, 4) 0.853(13, 7, 4) 1.503 1.510( 5) 2600A 1.0063 99.1* 0.839( 8,14) 0.881( 7,15, 8) 0.844( 7,15, 8) 1.259 1.496( 8) 3600 1.0058 101.2* 0.828( 8,14) 0.859( 7,15, 8) 0.828( 7,15, 8) 1.248 1.466( 8) 4600 1.0053 97.9* 0.832( 8,14) 0.826( 7,15, 8) 0.803( 7,15, 8) 1.250 1.417( 8) 5300 1.0049 97.9* 0.830( 8,14) 0.815( 7,15, 8) 0.796( 7,15, 8) 1.282 1.409( 7) 5300A 1.0049 94.2 0.850( 7,13) 0.844(12, 8, 8) 0.812(12, 8, 8) 1.222 1.438( 8) 6300 1.0044 93.4 0.851( 7,13) 0.834(12, 8, 8) 0.814( 6,13, 5) 1.289 1.427( 7) 7300 1.0038 91.6 0.855( 6,13) 0.870( 6,13, 4) 0.871( 6,13, 4) 1.368 1.418( 7) 7900 1.0035 91.6 0.856( 6,13) 0.891( 6,13, 4) 0.896( 6,13, 4) 1.397 1.419( 5) 7900A 1.0036 94.1 0.842( 7,14) 0.894( 6,13, 4) 0.899( 6,13, 4) 1.407 1.427( 5) 8900 1.0031 94.1 0.842( 7,14) 0.875( 6,13, 4) 0.883( 6,13, 4) 1.377 1.377( 4) 9900 1.0026 94.1 0.830( 7,14) 0.893( 9, 9, 3) 0.904( 9, 9, 3) 1.414 1.414( 4) 10700 1.0022 96.8 0.828( 7,14) 0.837(10, 9, 3) 0.846( 9, 9, 3) 1.354 1.354( 4) 10700A 1.0021 93.2 0.852( 6,12) 0.928(11, 7, 4)* 0.921(10, 9, 3)* 1.405 1.419( 3) 11700 1.0018 96.3 0.853( 8,14) 0.770( 8,15,17) 0.736( 8,15,17) 1.106 1.194(17) 12700 1.0011 99.6* 0.896(10, 9) 0.831( 8,12,17) 0.793( 8,12,17) 0.953 1.265(18) 13700 1.0006 106.6* 0.908(10, 8) 0.874(11, 8,17) 0.832(11, 8,17) 0.859 1.319(17) 13700A 1.0005 106.6* 0.908(10, 8) 0.874(11, 8,17) 0.832(11, 8,17) 0.859 1.319(17) 14200 1.0005 103.4* 0.914( 7,13) 0.888(11, 8,17) 0.847(11, 8,17) 0.822 1.349(18) 14500 1.0001 103.4* 0.914( 7,13) 0.899( 8,15,18) 0.857(11, 8,17) 0.764 1.375(18) 14800 0.9998 110.9* 0.898( 7,13) 0.910(11, 8,17)* 0.868(11, 8,18) 0.728 1.392(18) 15000 0.9999 100.0* 0.926(10, 9)^ 0.915(11,11,19)* 0.893(10,10,18) 0.752 1.389(18) 15400 0.9997 110.0* 0.909(10, 9) 0.944(11,11,19)^^0.921(11,11,19)^^0.681 1.416(18) 15875 0.9992 110.0* 0.882(10, 9) 0.930(11,11,19)* 0.909(11,11,19) 0.656 1.398(19) 16450 0.9993 110.0* 0.812(10, 9) 0.878(11,11,19) 0.860(11,11,19) 0.572 1.469(20) 16450A 0.9993 110.0* 0.812(10, 9) 0.878(11,11,19) 0.860(11,11,19) 1.000 1.469(20)

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67 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | 0 | |36 | | 0 | 7 | | | 4 | |36 | | 4 | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | |36 | | 0 | |36 | 11 | | | |36 | | 4 | |36 | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | 0 | |36 | | 0 | 15 | | | | 4 | |36 | | 4 | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 0 MFLCPR 0.904 (10,14) CYC EXP 200 MFLCPR 0.870 (10,14) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.875 (12,14, 8) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.866 (11,15, 8) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.858 (11,15, 8) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.854 (11,15, 8) FLOW-% 92.5 AXIAL PEAK 1.584 ( 8) FLOW-% 96.4 AXIAL PEAK 1.573 ( 8) K-EFF 1.0077 1.369 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0075 1.292 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | 4 | |36 | | 4 | 7 | | | 4 | |36 | | 4 | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | |36 | | 4 | |36 | 11 | | | |36 | | 4 | |36 | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | 4 | |36 | | 4 | 15 | | | | 4 | |36 | | 4 | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 1000 MFLCPR 0.855 (10,14) CYC EXP 2000 MFLCPR 0.844 ( 9,13) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.859 ( 7,13, 8) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.840 ( 8,12, 8) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.849 ( 8,12, 8) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.833 ( 8,12, 8) FLOW-% 98.2 AXIAL PEAK 1.567 ( 8) FLOW-% 98.2 AXIAL PEAK 1.541 ( 9) K-EFF 1.0071 1.240 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0066 1.210 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | 6 | | | | 6 | 7 | | |36 | | 4 | |36 | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | | 6 | | | 11 | | | | 4 | | | | 4 | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | 6 | | | | 6 | 15 | | | |36 | | 4 | |36 | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 2600 MFLCPR 0.829 ( 7,13) CYC EXP 2600A MFLCPR 0.839 ( 8,14) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.881 ( 9,13, 4) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.881 ( 7,15, 8) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.853 (13, 7, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.844 ( 7,15, 8) FLOW-% 93.6 AXIAL PEAK 1.510 ( 5) FLOW-% 99.1 AXIAL PEAK 1.496 ( 8) K-EFF 1.0062 1.503 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0063 1.259 ( 4)

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68 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | |36 | | 4 | |36 | 7 | | |36 | | 6 | |36 | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | 4 | | | | 4 | 11 | | | | 6 | | | | 6 | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | |36 | | 4 | |36 | 15 | | | |36 | | 6 | |36 | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 3600 MFLCPR 0.828 ( 8,14) CYC EXP 4600 MFLCPR 0.832 ( 8,14) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.859 ( 7,15, 8) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.826 ( 7,15, 8) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.828 ( 7,15, 8) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.803 ( 7,15, 8) FLOW-% 101.2 AXIAL PEAK 1.466 ( 8) FLOW-% 97.9 AXIAL PEAK 1.417 ( 8) K-EFF 1.0058 1.248 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0053 1.250 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | |36 | | 6 | |36 | 7 | | | 6 | |36 | | 6 | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | 6 | | | | 6 | 11 | | | |36 | | 6 | |36 | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | |36 | | 6 | |36 | 15 | | | | 6 | |36 | | 6 | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 5300 MFLCPR 0.830 ( 8,14) CYC EXP 5300A MFLCPR 0.850 ( 7,13) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.815 ( 7,15, 8) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.844 (12, 8, 8) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.796 ( 7,15, 8) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.812 (12, 8, 8) FLOW-% 97.9 AXIAL PEAK 1.409 ( 7) FLOW-% 94.2 AXIAL PEAK 1.438 ( 8) K-EFF 1.0049 1.282 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0049 1.222 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | 6 | |36 | | 6 | 7 | | | 6 | |36 | | 6 | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | |36 | | 6 | |36 | 11 | | | |36 | | 6 | |36 | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | 6 | |36 | | 6 | 15 | | | | 6 | |36 | | 6 | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 6300 MFLCPR 0.851 ( 7,13) CYC EXP 7300 MFLCPR 0.855 ( 6,13) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.834 (12, 8, 8) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.870 ( 6,13, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.814 ( 6,13, 5) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.871 ( 6,13, 4) FLOW-% 93.4 AXIAL PEAK 1.427 ( 7) FLOW-% 91.6 AXIAL PEAK 1.418 ( 7) K-EFF 1.0044 1.289 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0038 1.368 ( 4)

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69 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | 6 | |36 | | 6 | 7 | | |36 | | 6 | |36 | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | |36 | | 6 | |36 | 11 | | | | 6 | |36 | | 6 | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | 6 | |36 | | 6 | 15 | | | |36 | | 6 | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 7900 MFLCPR 0.856 ( 6,13) CYC EXP 7900A MFLCPR 0.842 ( 7,14) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.891 ( 6,13, 4) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.894 ( 6,13, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.896 ( 6,13, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.899 ( 6,13, 4) FLOW-% 91.6 AXIAL PEAK 1.419 ( 5) FLOW-% 94.1 AXIAL PEAK 1.427 ( 5) K-EFF 1.0035 1.397 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0036 1.407 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | |36 | | 6 | |36 | 7 | | | | | 6 | |36 | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | 6 | |36 | | 6 | 11 | | | | 6 | | | | 8 | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | |36 | | 6 | | | 15 | | | |36 | | 8 | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 8900 MFLCPR 0.842 ( 7,14) CYC EXP 9900 MFLCPR 0.830 ( 7,14) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.875 ( 6,13, 4) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.893 ( 9, 9, 3) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.883 ( 6,13, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.904 ( 9, 9, 3) FLOW-% 94.1 AXIAL PEAK 1.377 ( 4) FLOW-% 94.1 AXIAL PEAK 1.414 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0031 1.377 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0026 1.414 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | 6 | | | 7 | | | 6 | | | | 8 | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | 6 | | | | 8 | 11 | | | | | | 6 | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | | | 8 | | | 15 | | | | 8 | | | | 6 | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 10700 MFLCPR 0.828 ( 7,14) CYC EXP 10700A MFLCPR 0.852 ( 6,12) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.837 (10, 9, 3) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.928 (11, 7, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.846 ( 9, 9, 3) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.921 (10, 9, 3) FLOW-% 96.8 AXIAL PEAK 1.354 ( 4) FLOW-% 93.2 AXIAL PEAK 1.419 ( 3) K-EFF 1.0022 1.354 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0021 1.405 ( 4)

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70 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | 8 | | | 7 | | | 8 | | | | 8 | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | 8 | | | | 8 | 11 | | | | | | 8 | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | | | 8 | | | 15 | | | | 8 | | | | 8 | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 11700 MFLCPR 0.853 ( 8,14) CYC EXP 12700 MFLCPR 0.896 (10, 9) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.770 ( 8,15,17) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.831 ( 8,12,17) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.736 ( 8,15,17) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.793 ( 8,12,17) FLOW-% 96.3 AXIAL PEAK 1.194 (17) FLOW-% 99.6 AXIAL PEAK 1.265 (18) K-EFF 1.0018 1.106 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0011 0.953 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | | | 4 | 7 | | | | | | | 4 | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | | 4 | | | 11 | | | | | | 4 | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | 4 | | | | | 15 | | | | 4 | | | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 13700 MFLCPR 0.908 (10, 8) CYC EXP 13700A MFLCPR 0.908 (10, 8) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.874 (11, 8,17) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.874 (11, 8,17) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.832 (11, 8,17) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.832 (11, 8,17) FLOW-% 106.6 AXIAL PEAK 1.319 (17) FLOW-% 106.6 AXIAL PEAK 1.319 (17) K-EFF 1.0006 0.859 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0005 0.859 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | | | | 7 | | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | | 0 | | | 11 | | | | | | 6 | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | | | | | 0 | 15 | | | | | | | |10 | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 14200 MFLCPR 0.914 ( 7,13) CYC EXP 14500 MFLCPR 0.914 ( 7,13) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.888 (11, 8,17) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.899 ( 8,15,18) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.847 (11, 8,17) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.857 (11, 8,17) FLOW-% 103.4 AXIAL PEAK 1.349 (18) FLOW-% 103.4 AXIAL PEAK 1.375 (18) K-EFF 1.0005 0.822 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0001 0.764 ( 4)

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71 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | | | | 7 | | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | | 2 | | | 11 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | | | | | | 15 | | | | | | | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 14800 MFLCPR 0.898 ( 7,13) CYC EXP 15000 MFLCPR 0.926 (10, 9) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.910 (11, 8,17) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.915 (11,11,19) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.868 (11, 8,18) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.893 (10,10,18) FLOW-% 110.9 AXIAL PEAK 1.392 (18) FLOW-% 100.0 AXIAL PEAK 1.389 (18) K-EFF 0.9998 0.728 ( 4) K-EFF 0.9999 0.752 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | | | | 7 | | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | | | | | 11 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | | | | | | 15 | | | | | | | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 15400 MFLCPR 0.909 (10, 9) CYC EXP 15875 MFLCPR 0.882 (10, 9) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.944 (11,11,19) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.930 (11,11,19) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.921 (11,11,19) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.909 (11,11,19) FLOW-% 110.0 AXIAL PEAK 1.416 (18) FLOW-% 110.0 AXIAL PEAK 1.398 (19) K-EFF 0.9997 0.681 ( 4) K-EFF 0.9992 0.656 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | | | | 7 | | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | | | | | 11 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | | | | | | 15 | | | | | | | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 16450 MFLCPR 0.812 (10, 9) CYC EXP 16450A MFLCPR 0.812 (10, 9) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.878 (11,11,19) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.878 (11,11,19) POWER-% 90.6 MAPRAT 0.860 (11,11,19) POWER-% 90.6 MAPRAT 0.860 (11,11,19) FLOW-% 110.0 AXIAL PEAK 1.469 (20) FLOW-% 110.0 AXIAL PEAK 1.469 (20) K-EFF 0.9993 0.572 ( 4) K-EFF 0.9993 1.000 ( 4)

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72 Figure A-12. Cycle N BOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns C y cle N BOCDistributed Cold CriticalLocal Cold Critical #11 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 0800080 484848481 248484848 0000000 484848483 4484848 0480480480480 4848483 4484848 000000000 4848485 64848 08000800040 48485 64848 00000000000 48487 848 0480480480480480480 487 848 0000000000000 489 100800080008000809 100000004804800000011 124804804804804804804804811 1200000480480480000013 1400080008000800013 140000486484848048000015 164804804804804804804804815 16000004848480480000017 1800080008000400017 180000480484848048000019 204804804804804804804804819 2000000480480480000021 2208000800080008021 220000004804800000023 2448 0480480480480480480 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 08000800040 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 0480480480480 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 0800080 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848 Local Cold Critical #2Local Cold Critical #31 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 0000000 484848481 248484848 04800000 484848483 4484848 000000000 4848483 4484848 000000000 4848485 64848 00000000000 48485 64848 4802400000000 48487 848 00004800000000 487 848 00480000000000 489 10000048048000000009 10004800000000000011 12000004800000000011 1200000000000000013 1400000000000000013 1400000000000000015 1600000000000000015 1600000000000000017 1800000000000000017 1800000000000000019 2000000000000000019 2000000000000000021 2200000000000000021 2200000000000000023 2448 0000000000000 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 00000000000 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 000000000 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 0000000 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848 Local Cold Critical #4Local Cold Critical #51 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 0000000 484848481 248484848 0000000 484848483 4484848 000000000 4848483 4484848 000000000 4848485 64848 0000480480000 48485 64848 00000000000 48487 848 00004864836480000 487 848 0000000000000 489 1000000048000000009 1000000000000000011 1200000000000000011 1200000000000000013 1400000000000000013 14000003248484800000015 1600000000000000015 1600000048484800000017 1800000000000000017 1800000048484800000019 2000000000000000019 2000000000000000021 2200000000000000021 2200000000000000023 2448 0000000000000 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 00000000000 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 000000000 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 0000000 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848

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73 Figure A-13. Cycle N MOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns C y cle N MOCDistributed Cold CriticalLocal Cold Critical #11 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 048000480 484848481 248484848 0000000 484848483 4484848 0480480480480 4848483 4484848 000000000 4848485 64848 04800048000480 48485 64848 00000000000 48487 848 0480480480480480480 487 848 0000000000000 489 1004800012000120004809 10000048048048048000011 124804804804804804804804811 1200000480480480000013 1400048000120004800013 140000488484848048000015 164804804804804804804804815 160000048484848480000017 1800048000120004800017 180000480484848048000019 204804804804804804804804819 2000000480480480000021 22048000120001200048021 22000048048048048000023 2448 0480480480480480480 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 04800048000480 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 0480480480480 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 048000480 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848 Local Cold Critical #2Local Cold Critical #31 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 0000000 484848481 248484848 00480000 484848483 4484848 000000000 4848483 4484848 4800000000 4848485 64848 004800000000 48485 64848 4844800000000 48487 848 001004800000000 487 848 00480000000000 489 10000048048000000009 10004800000000000011 12000004800000000011 1200000000000000013 1400000000000000013 1400000000000000015 1600000000000000015 1600000000000000017 1800000000000000017 1800000000000000019 2000000000000000019 2000000000000000021 2200000000000000021 2200000000000000023 2448 0000000000000 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 00000000000 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 000000000 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 0000000 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848 Local Cold Critical #4Local Cold Critical #51 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 0000000 484848481 248484848 0000000 484848483 4484848 000000000 4848483 4484848 000000000 4848485 64848 004804848480000 48485 64848 00000000000 48487 848 00004864848480000 487 848 0000000000000 489 1000001200000000009 1000000000000000011 1200000000000000011 1200000000000000013 1400000000000000013 140000848484848480000015 1600000000000000015 1600004848484848480000017 1800000000000000017 180000048484848480000019 2000000000000000019 2000000000000000021 2200000000000000021 2200000000000000023 2448 0000000000000 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 00000000000 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 000000000 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 0000000 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848

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74 Figure A-14. Cycle N EOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns C y cle N EOCDistributed Cold CriticalLocal Cold Critical #11 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 0600060 484848481 248484848 0000000 484848483 4484848 0480480480480 4848483 4484848 000000000 4848485 64848 06000600060 48485 64848 00000000000 48487 848 0480480480480480480 487 848 0000000000000 489 100600060006000609 100000480481048048000011 124804804804804804804804811 1200000484480480000013 1400060006000600013 140000480484848048000015 164804804804804804804804815 1600000480480480000017 1800060006000600017 18000048048048048000019 204804804804804804804804819 2000000480480480000021 2206000600060006021 22000048048048048000023 2448 0480480480480480480 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 06000600060 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 0480480480480 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 0600060 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848 Local Cold Critical #2Local Cold Critical #31 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 0000000 484848481 248484848 00120000 484848483 4484848 000000000 4848483 4484848 0048000000 4848485 64848 00800000000 48485 64848 4844800000000 48487 848 00004800000000 487 848 00480000000000 489 10000048048000000009 10004800000000000011 12000004800000000011 1200000000000000013 1400000000000000013 1400000000000000015 1600000000000000015 1600000000000000017 1800000000000000017 1800000000000000019 2000000000000000019 2000000000000000021 2200000000000000021 2200000000000000023 2448 0000000000000 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 00000000000 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 000000000 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 0000000 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848 Local Cold Critical #4Local Cold Critical #51 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 0000000 484848481 248484848 0000000 484848483 4484848 000000000 4848483 4484848 000000000 4848485 64848 004804848480000 48485 64848 00000000000 48487 848 00004804848480000 487 848 0000000000000 489 100000000000000009 1000000000000000011 1200000000000000011 12000004800000000013 1400000000000000013 140000048484848480000015 1600000000000000015 160000048484848480000017 1800000000000000017 180000048484848480000019 2000000000000000019 2000000000000000021 2200000000000000021 2200000000000000023 2448 0000000000000 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 00000000000 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 000000000 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 0000000 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848

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75 Table A-2. Cycle N Cold Critical Data Control Rod Pattern Exposure MWd/ST Exposure MWd/MT Temp Deg F Period Sec Notches Control Rod Density Keff Cycle N Distributed BOC 0 0 134 100 6588 0.74189 0.99935 ARI BOC 0 0 68 1000 8880 1.00000 0.94330 Local 1 BOC 0 0 137 62 7722 0.86959 0.99578 Local 2 BOC 0 0 168 82 8688 0.97838 0.99567 Local 3 BOC 0 0 187 35 8664 0.97568 0.99681 Local 4 BOC 0 0 181 88 8550 0.96284 0.99553 Local 5 BOC 0 0 194 72 8416 0.94775 0.99667 Distributed MOC 7900 8708 167 49 5832 0.65676 0.99623 ARI MOC 7900 8708 68 1000 8880 1.00000 0.93133 Local 1 MOC 7900 8708 176 89 7480 0.84234 0.99280 Local 2 MOC 7900 8708 75 100 8630 0.97185 0.99246 Local 3 MOC 7900 8708 134 77 8588 0.96712 0.99235 Local 4 MOC 7900 8708 120 18 8478 0.95473 0.99216 Local 5 MOC 7900 8708 167 300 8104 0.91261 0.99276 Distributed EOC 16450 18133 187 62 6624 0.74595 0.99299 ARI EOC 16450 18133 68 1000 8880 1.00000 0.93757 Local 1 EOC 16450 18133 82 127 7618 0.85788 0.98877 Local 2 EOC 16450 18133 195 114 8680 0.97748 0.98877 Local 3 EOC 16450 18133 224 15 8624 0.97117 0.98876 Local 4 EOC 16450 18133 160 76 8496 0.95676 0.99075 Local 5 EOC 16450 18133 72 1000 8112 0.91351 0.98899

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76 Cycle N Hot Excess and SDM 0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.020 0.022 0.024 0.026 0.028 020004000600080001000012000140001600018000 Exposure (MWD/MT)Delta Kef f Hot Excess Delta Keff SDM Delta Keff Figure A-15. Cycle N Predicted Hot Excess and SDM Table A-3. Cycle N Hot Excess and SDM Data Exposure MWd/ST Exposure MWd/MT Hot Excess Delta Keff SDM Delta Keff 0 0 0.0213 0.01206 200 220.462 0.01936 0.01414 1000 1102.31 0.01886 0.01745 2000 2204.62 0.01882 0.01974 2600 2866.006 0.01863 0.02027 3600 3968.316 0.01815 0.02244 4600 5070.626 0.0179 0.02464 5300 5842.243 0.01791 0.02584 6300 6944.553 0.01824 0.02634 7900 8708.249 0.01883 0.02135 8900 9810.559 0.01853 0.0192 9900 10912.869 0.01767 0.01827 10700 11794.717 0.01677 0.01798 11700 12897.027 0.01512 0.01798 12700 13999.337 0.01261 0.0166 13700 15101.647 0.00872 0.01491 14800 16314.188 0.00227 0.01403 15000 16534.65 0.00082 0.01404

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77 Cycle N TIP Plots Cycle N Exposure: 0 MWd/ST Average Axial Distributions 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 04812162024 NodeAverage TIP Reading Figure A-16. Cycle N TIP results for 0 MWd/ST (BOC) Cycle N Exposure: 4600 MWd/ST Average Axial Distributions 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 04812162024 NodeAverage TIP Reading Figure A-17. Cycle N TIP results for 4600 MWd/ST

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78 Cycle N Exposure: 8900 MWd/ST Average Axial Distributions 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 04812162024 NodeAverage TIP Reading Figure A-18. Cycle N TIP results for 8900 MWd/ST Cycle N Exposure: 15000 MWd/ST Average Axial Distributions 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 04812162024 NodeAverage TIP Reading Figure A-19. Cycle N TIP results for 15000 MWd/ST (EOR)

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79 Cycle N Exposure: 16450 MWd/ST Average Axial Distributions 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 04812162024 NodeAverage TIP Reading Figure A-20. Cycle N TIP results for 16450 MWd/ST (EOC)

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80 Cycle N+1 Characteristics Table A-4. Bundle Information Cycle N+1 123456789101112131415 12.02.01.02.0 2.05.02.023.02.05.06.05.03.03.03.036.05.01.01.03.012.012.03.013.011.042.01.011.011.013.013.011.013.011.013.052.01.011.011.011.013.011.013.014.012.014.062.01.05.011.014.013.014.013.014.014.014.014.012.075.03.011.014.03.012.013.014.011.012.013.011.011.082.03.011.011.013.011.011.012.014.011.012.013.013.011.095.02.01.011.011.014.013.011.014.014.013.012.013.011.013.0101.01.03.013.013.013.014.014.014.012.014.013.011.013.011.0116.04.012.013.011.014.012.012.013.014.011.012.013.012.012.0125.03.012.012.013.014.012.012.011.013.012.011.013.013.011.0135.06.01.013.014.014.013.012.013.011.013.013.014.011.014.0144.06.013.011.011.014.013.013.012.013.011.013.011.014.012.0152.06.011.013.014.011.011.011.013.011.012.012.014.012.03.0 Figure A-21. Cycle N+1 Assembly Locations by Bundle Type Number Bundle Type Average Bundle Enrichment Number of Gad Rods Bundle Type Number Bundle Amount in Core BOC Average Exposure, MWd/ST EOC Avera g e Exposure MWd/ST GE14 4.10 14 1 40 35992.5 43781.1 GE14 4.11 14 2 48 39049.4 43896.4 GE14 4.10 14 3 48 33707.1 43700.0 GE14 4.11 14 4 8 37468.9 43894.1 GE14 4.10 14 5 36 37827.6 43712.7 GE14 4.11 14 6 24 35875.1 42944.0 GE14 4.06 14 11 168 21357.4 38844.9 GE14 4.06 14 12 108 22085.5 40252.6 GE14 4.06 14 13 168 0.0 21018.4 GE14 4.06 14 14 116 0.0 21792.7

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81 123456789101112131415 139.738.839.639.739.636.739.7237.639.637.335.139.334.834.835.3338.038.033.833.232.020.421.332.20.021.8435.135.419.020.40.00.021.10.018.20.0539.834.117.819.921.70.022.10.00.021.90.0637.839.834.420.00.00.0 0.00.00.00.00.00.022.2738.734.517.80.030.722.00.00.021.722.20.022.622.4839.734.019.020.10.021.921.821.60.022.322.30.00.022.7939.739.733.420.421.70.00.021.60.00.00.022.00.022.40.01039.837.932.20.00.00.00.00.00.022.90.00.020.20.022.61137.337.420.40.021.90.022.022.10.00.022.722.50.022.822.71238.735.521.421.90.00.022.022.322.60.022.522.70.00.022.81337.734.832.80.00.00.00.021.90.021.10.00.00.023.10.01437.635.20.018.321.60.00.00.022.90.023.00.022.90.021.91539.435.021.80.00.022.422.122.10.022.722.322.90.023.030.7 Figure A-22. BOC Cycle N+1 Exposure Distribution (GWD/T) 123456789101112131415 142.842.644.044.344.441.844.8242.345.344.342.947.443.443.744.5341.743.641.642.842.833.735.044.715.736.2441.244.231.734.817.018.037.819.035.819.2546.043.031.335.438.620.040.421.121.240.820.9641.445.643.333.116.918.920.721.621.922.122.322.041.1744.243.231.316.845.639.721.722.340.641.022.642.239.9844.241.731.735.518.939.640.741.722.941.441.522.722.440.3942.845.342.934.738.620.621.741.723.423.523.242.423.242.622.21043.644.943.017.019.921.622.322.923.543.723.122.940.922.842.31141.745.233.718.040.221.940.841.223.123.141.040.822.742.641.31243.343.835.138.521.122.240.941.342.822.840.740.922.622.541.21342.543.345.219.021.322.522.642.023.041.522.622.522.842.921.81442.644.015.735.940.822.322.322.442.922.742.822.542.721.840.71544.544.036.319.321.141.639.939.922.142.240.941.321.841.645.7 Figure A-23. EOC Cycle N+1 Exposure Distribution (GWD/T)

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82 0.990 0.991 0.992 0.993 0.994 0.995 0.996 0.997 0.998 0.999 1.000 1.001 1.002 1.003 1.004 1.005 1.006 1.007 1.008 1.009 1.010 1.011 1.012 1.013 1.014 1.015 02000400060008000100001200014000160001800020000 Cycle Exposure MWd/MTKef f Figure A-24. Cycle N+1 Hot keff 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 02000400060008000100001200014000160001800020000 Cycle Exposure MWd/MTThermal Margin RAPLHGR CPRRAT MFLPD Figure A-25. Cycle N+1 Thermal Margins

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83 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 02000400060008000100001200014000160001800020000 Cycle Exposure MWd/MTPower (%) / Flow (%) % Power % Flow Figure A-26. Cycle N+1 Reactor Power and Core Flow 1022 1026 1030 1034 1038 1042 1046 1050 1054 1058 1062 1066 1070 1074 1078 1082 1086 1090 02000400060008000100001200014000160001800020000 Cycle Exposure MWd/MTPressure (psi) Figure A-27. Cycle N+1 Core Pressure

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84 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 02000400060008000100001200014000160001800020000 Cycle Exposure MWd/MTTemperature (F) Figure A-28. Cycle N+1 Core Inlet Temperature 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 02000400060008000100001200014000160001800020000 Cycle Exposure MWd/MTBypass Flow (%) Figure A-29. Cycle N+1 Core Bypass Flow

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85 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 15913172125 Axial NodeNormalized Value Normalized Averave Exposure (Actual x21317.0) Normalized Relative Power (Actual x1.464) Normalized Void Fraction (Actual x0.694) Bottom Figure A-30. Cycle N+1 BOC Axial Core Parameters 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 15913172125 Axial NodeNormalized Value Normalized Averave Exposure (Actual x40048.8) Normalized Relative Power (Actual x1.37) Normalized Void Fraction (Actual x0.577) Bottom Figure A-31. Cycle N+1 EOC Axial Core Parameters

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86 Cycle N+1 Rod Pattern Results DESIGN CRITERIA: FLOW= 85.0% 97.0% MFLCPR=0.930 MFLPD=0.909 MAPRAT=0.909 INDICATOR KEY: *=EXCEEDS CRITERIA, ^=PEAK VALUE, ^^=PEAK VALUE EXCEEDS CRITERIA CYCEXP AXIAL POWER MWD/ST KEFF FLOW-% MFLCPR MFLPD MAPRAT NODE 4 / PEAK 0 1.0077 95.2 0.917(14,12) 0.921(14,10, 4)* 0.879(14,10, 4) 1.464 1.464( 4) 200 1.0076 96.1 0.861( 9, 9) 0.938( 9, 9, 4)^^0.887( 9, 9, 4) 1.530 1.530( 4) 1000 1.0072 97.1* 0.855( 9, 9) 0.905( 9, 9, 4) 0.864( 9, 9, 4) 1.474 1.478( 5) 2000 1.0066 94.9 0.858( 9, 9) 0.869( 9, 9, 4) 0.841( 9, 9, 4) 1.430 1.441( 5) 2600 1.0063 90.1 0.871( 9, 9) 0.839( 9, 9, 4) 0.820( 9, 9, 4) 1.393 1.402( 5) 2600A 1.0064 98.3* 0.875(13,11) 0.804(12,10, 4) 0.769(12,10, 4) 1.305 1.332( 5) 3600 1.0058 98.3* 0.870(13,11) 0.780(11,10, 4) 0.759(11,10, 4) 1.293 1.319( 5) 4600 1.0054 98.9* 0.861(13,11) 0.776(11,10, 4) 0.771(11,10, 4) 1.309 1.328( 5) 5300 1.0050 98.4* 0.857(13,11) 0.796(10, 9, 4) 0.791(11,10, 4) 1.341 1.349( 5) 5300A 1.0050 91.2 0.878( 9, 9) 0.878(10, 9, 4) 0.880( 9, 9, 4) 1.457 1.457( 4) 6300 1.0045 95.7 0.843(13, 9) 0.881(10, 9, 4) 0.880(10, 9, 4) 1.425 1.425( 4) 7300 1.0039 93.9 0.848(11, 9) 0.931(10, 9, 4)* 0.936(12, 6, 4)* 1.500 1.500( 4) 7900 1.0037 92.6 0.856(11, 9) 0.930(12, 6, 4)* 0.942(12, 6, 4)^^1.499 1.499( 4) 7900A 1.0036 92.6 0.867(11,10) 0.917(10, 9, 4)* 0.911( 6,13, 4)* 1.512 1.512( 4) 8900 1.0031 91.0 0.878(11,10) 0.869( 6,14, 4) 0.875( 6,13, 4) 1.424 1.424( 4) 9900 1.0027 91.5 0.887(11,10) 0.789( 6,13, 4) 0.796( 6,13, 4) 1.266 1.266( 4) 10700 1.0025 93.9 0.888(11,10) 0.728(12,11,17) 0.719( 6,13, 4) 1.120 1.173( 7) 10700A 1.0023 89.0 0.917(10, 9) 0.796(10, 7, 4) 0.801(10, 7, 4) 1.229 1.241( 5) 11700 1.0018 94.0 0.910(10, 9) 0.739(11, 7, 9) 0.723(10,10,17) 1.017 1.228(11) 12700 1.0013 103.4* 0.917(10, 9) 0.783( 8,11,17) 0.781(10,10,17) 0.831 1.264(12) 13700 1.0009 103.1* 0.904( 7,13) 0.817( 7,15,17) 0.804(12, 8,17) 0.731 1.316(14) 13700A 1.0008 103.1* 0.904( 7,13) 0.817( 7,15,17) 0.804(12, 8,17) 0.731 1.316(14) 14200 1.0006 98.2* 0.924(11,10)^ 0.851(11,11,17) 0.852(10,10,17) 0.726 1.328(14) 14300 1.0003 100.0* 0.918(10, 9) 0.852(11,11,17) 0.855(10,10,17) 0.715 1.330(14) 14750 1.0001 110.0* 0.893(10, 9) 0.864(11,11,17) 0.877(10,10,17) 0.640 1.340(14) 15250 0.9997 110.0* 0.867(10, 9) 0.842(10,10,17) 0.862(10,10,17) 0.606 1.330(14) 16250 0.9995 110.0* 0.742(10, 9) 0.754(10,10,18) 0.770(10,10,18) 0.478 1.370(20) 16250A 0.9995 110.0* 0.742(10, 9) 0.754(10,10,18) 0.770(10,10,18) 1.000 1.370(20)

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87 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | |10 | | | |10 | 7 | | | | | | | 6 | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | |10 | | | 11 | | | | | | 6 | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | |10 | | | |10 | 15 | | | | 6 | | | | 6 | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 0 MFLCPR 0.917 (14,12) CYC EXP 200 MFLCPR 0.861 ( 9, 9) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.921 (14,10, 4) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.938 ( 9, 9, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.879 (14,10, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.887 ( 9, 9, 4) FLOW-% 95.2 AXIAL PEAK 1.464 ( 4) FLOW-% 96.1 AXIAL PEAK 1.530 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0077 1.464 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0076 1.530 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | | | 6 | 7 | | | | | | | 6 | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | | 6 | | | 11 | | | | | | 6 | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | 6 | | | | 6 | 15 | | | | 6 | | | | 6 | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 1000 MFLCPR 0.855 ( 9, 9) CYC EXP 2000 MFLCPR 0.858 ( 9, 9) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.905 ( 9, 9, 4) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.869 ( 9, 9, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.864 ( 9, 9, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.841 ( 9, 9, 4) FLOW-% 97.1 AXIAL PEAK 1.478 ( 5) FLOW-% 94.9 AXIAL PEAK 1.441 ( 5) K-EFF 1.0072 1.474 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0066 1.430 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | | | 8 | 7 | | | | |10 | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | | 8 | | | 11 | | | |10 | | | |10 | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | 8 | | | | 8 | 15 | | | | | |10 | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 2600 MFLCPR 0.871 ( 9, 9) CYC EXP 2600A MFLCPR 0.875 (13,11) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.839 ( 9, 9, 4) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.804 (12,10, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.820 ( 9, 9, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.769 (12,10, 4) FLOW-% 90.1 AXIAL PEAK 1.402 ( 5) FLOW-% 98.3 AXIAL PEAK 1.332 ( 5) K-EFF 1.0063 1.393 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0064 1.305 ( 4)

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88 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | |10 | | | 7 | | | | |10 | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | |10 | | | |10 | 11 | | | |10 | | | |10 | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | | |10 | | | 15 | | | | | |10 | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 3600 MFLCPR 0.870 (13,11) CYC EXP 4600 MFLCPR 0.861 (13,11) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.780 (11,10, 4) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.776 (11,10, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.759 (11,10, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.771 (11,10, 4) FLOW-% 98.3 AXIAL PEAK 1.319 ( 5) FLOW-% 98.9 AXIAL PEAK 1.328 ( 5) K-EFF 1.0058 1.293 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0054 1.309 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | |10 | | | 7 | | | | | | | 6 | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | |10 | | | |10 | 11 | | | | | | 8 | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | | |10 | | | 15 | | | | 6 | | | | 8 | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 5300 MFLCPR 0.857 (13,11) CYC EXP 5300A MFLCPR 0.878 ( 9, 9) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.796 (10, 9, 4) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.878 (10, 9, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.791 (11,10, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.880 ( 9, 9, 4) FLOW-% 98.4 AXIAL PEAK 1.349 ( 5) FLOW-% 91.2 AXIAL PEAK 1.457 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0050 1.341 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0050 1.457 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | |10 | | | |10 | 7 | | |10 | | | |10 | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | |10 | | | 11 | | | | | |10 | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | |10 | | | |10 | 15 | | | |10 | | | |10 | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 6300 MFLCPR 0.843 (13, 9) CYC EXP 7300 MFLCPR 0.848 (11, 9) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.881 (10, 9, 4) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.931 (10, 9, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.880 (10, 9, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.936 (12, 6, 4) FLOW-% 95.7 AXIAL PEAK 1.425 ( 4) FLOW-% 93.9 AXIAL PEAK 1.500 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0045 1.425 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0039 1.500 ( 4)

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89 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | |10 | | | |10 | 7 | | | | |10 | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | |10 | | | 11 | | | |10 | | | |10 | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | |10 | | | |10 | 15 | | | | | |10 | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 7900 MFLCPR 0.856 (11, 9) CYC EXP 7900A MFLCPR 0.867 (11,10) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.930 (12, 6, 4) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.917 (10, 9, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.942 (12, 6, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.911 ( 6,13, 4) FLOW-% 92.6 AXIAL PEAK 1.499 ( 4) FLOW-% 92.6 AXIAL PEAK 1.512 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0037 1.499 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0036 1.512 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | |10 | | | 7 | | | | |10 | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | |10 | | | |10 | 11 | | | |10 | | | |10 | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | | |10 | | | 15 | | | | | |10 | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 8900 MFLCPR 0.878 (11,10) CYC EXP 9900 MFLCPR 0.887 (11,10) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.869 ( 6,14, 4) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.789 ( 6,13, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.875 ( 6,13, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.796 ( 6,13, 4) FLOW-% 91.0 AXIAL PEAK 1.424 ( 4) FLOW-% 91.5 AXIAL PEAK 1.266 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0031 1.424 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0027 1.266 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | |10 | | | 7 | | | | | | | 6 | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | |10 | | | |10 | 11 | | | | | | 8 | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | | |10 | | | 15 | | | | 6 | | | | 8 | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 10700 MFLCPR 0.888 (11,10) CYC EXP 10700A MFLCPR 0.917 (10, 9) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.728 (12,11,17) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.796 (10, 7, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.719 ( 6,13, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.801 (10, 7, 4) FLOW-% 93.9 AXIAL PEAK 1.173 ( 7) FLOW-% 89.0 AXIAL PEAK 1.241 ( 5) K-EFF 1.0025 1.120 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0023 1.229 ( 4)

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90 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | | | 6 | 7 | | | | | | | 6 | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | | 8 | | | 11 | | | | | | 8 | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | 6 | | | | 8 | 15 | | | | 6 | | | | 8 | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 11700 MFLCPR 0.910 (10, 9) CYC EXP 12700 MFLCPR 0.917 (10, 9) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.739 (11, 7, 9) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.783 ( 8,11,17) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.723 (10,10,17) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.781 (10,10,17) FLOW-% 94.0 AXIAL PEAK 1.228 (11) FLOW-% 103.4 AXIAL PEAK 1.264 (12) K-EFF 1.0018 1.017 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0013 0.831 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | | | | 7 | | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | | 6 | | | 11 | | | | | | 6 | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | | | | | | 15 | | | | | | | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 13700 MFLCPR 0.904 ( 7,13) CYC EXP 13700A MFLCPR 0.904 ( 7,13) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.817 ( 7,15,17) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.817 ( 7,15,17) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.804 (12, 8,17) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.804 (12, 8,17) FLOW-% 103.1 AXIAL PEAK 1.316 (14) FLOW-% 103.1 AXIAL PEAK 1.316 (14) K-EFF 1.0009 0.731 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0008 0.731 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | | | | 7 | | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | | | | | 11 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | | | | | | 15 | | | | | | | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 14200 MFLCPR 0.924 (11,10) CYC EXP 14300 MFLCPR 0.918 (10, 9) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.851 (11,11,17) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.852 (11,11,17) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.852 (10,10,17) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.855 (10,10,17) FLOW-% 98.2 AXIAL PEAK 1.328 (14) FLOW-% 100.0 AXIAL PEAK 1.330 (14) K-EFF 1.0006 0.726 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0003 0.715 ( 4)

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91 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 59 | | | | | 1 59 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 55 | | | | | | 3 55 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 51 | | | | | | | 5 51 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 47 | | | | | | | | 7 47 | | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 43 | | | | | | | | | 9 43 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 39 | | | | | | | | | 11 39 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 35 | | | | | | | | | 13 35 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 31 | | | | | | | | | 15 31 | | | | | | | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 14750 MFLCPR 0.893 (10, 9) CYC EXP 15250 MFLCPR 0.867 (10, 9) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.864 (11,11,17) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.842 (10,10,17) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.877 (10,10,17) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.862 (10,10,17) FLOW-% 110.0 AXIAL PEAK 1.340 (14) FLOW-% 110.0 AXIAL PEAK 1.330 (14) K-EFF 1.0001 0.640 ( 4) K-EFF 0.9997 0.606 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | | | | 7 | | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | | | | | 11 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | | | | | | 15 | | | | | | | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 16250 MFLCPR 0.742 (10, 9) CYC EXP 16250A MFLCPR 0.742 (10, 9) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.754 (10,10,18) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.754 (10,10,18) POWER-% 84.2 MAPRAT 0.770 (10,10,18) POWER-% 84.2 MAPRAT 0.770 (10,10,18) FLOW-% 110.0 AXIAL PEAK 1.370 (20) FLOW-% 110.0 AXIAL PEAK 1.370 (20) K-EFF 0.9995 0.478 ( 4) K-EFF 0.9995 1.000 ( 4)

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92 Figure A-32. Cycle N+1 BOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns C y cle N+1 BOCDistributed Cold CriticalLocal Cold Critical #11 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484812 048000480 124848481 248484848 0000000 484848483 4484848 0480480480480 4848483 4484848 000000000 4848485 64848 024000120012480 48485 64848 00000000000 48487 848 0480480480480480480 487 848 0000000000000 489 1004800012000120004809 100000004804800000011 124804804804804804804804811 1200000480480480000013 1400012000120001200013 140000480482448048000015 164804804804804804804804815 1600000480480480000017 1800012000120001200017 18000048048048048000019 204804804804804804804804819 2000000480480480000021 22012000120001200048021 220000004804800000023 2448 0480480480480480480 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 01200012000120 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 0480480480480 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 048000480 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848 Local Cold Critical #2Local Cold Critical #31 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 0000000 484848481 248484848 04800000 484848483 4484848 000000000 4848483 4484848 0100000000 4848485 64848 00000000000 48485 64848 4864800000000 48487 848 00003600000000 487 848 00480000000000 489 10000048048000000009 10004800000000000011 12000004800000000011 1200000000000000013 1400000000000000013 1400000000000000015 1600000000000000015 1600000000000000017 1800000000000000017 1800000000000000019 2000000000000000019 2000000000000000021 2200000000000000021 2200000000000000023 2448 0000000000000 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 00000000000 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 000000000 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 0000000 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848 Local Cold Critical #4Local Cold Critical #51 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 0000000 484848481 248484848 0000000 484848483 4484848 000000000 4848483 4484848 000000000 4848485 64848 0000480480000 48485 64848 00000000000 48487 848 00004864848480000 487 848 0000000000000 489 10000002484800000009 1000000000000000011 1200000000000000011 1200000000000000013 1400000000000000013 14000003248484800000015 1600000000000000015 1600000048484800000017 1800000000000000017 1800000048484800000019 2000000000000000019 2000000000000000021 2200000000000000021 2200000000000000023 2448 0000000000000 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 00000000000 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 000000000 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 0000000 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848

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93 Figure A-33. Cycle N+1 MOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns C y cle N+1 MOCDistributed Cold CriticalLocal Cold Critical #11 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 048000480 484848481 248484848 0000000 484848483 4484848 0480480480480 4848483 4484848 000000000 4848485 64848 04800048000480 48485 64848 00000000000 48487 848 0480480480480480480 487 848 0000000000000 489 1004800024000480004809 10000048048048048000011 124804804804804804804804811 1200000480480480000013 1400048000120004800013 140000484484848048000015 164804804804804804804804815 160000048484848480000017 1800048000480004800017 180000480484848048000019 204804804804804804804804819 2000000480480480000021 22048000480004800048021 22000048048048048000023 2448 0480480480480480480 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 04800048000480 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 0480480480480 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 048000480 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848 Local Cold Critical #2Local Cold Critical #31 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 0000000 484848481 248484848 00480000 484848483 4484848 000000000 4848483 4484848 48248000000 4848485 64848 004800000000 48485 64848 4844800000000 48487 848 004824800000000 487 848 00484000000000 489 10000048048000000009 1000000000000000011 12000004800000000011 1200000000000000013 1400000000000000013 1400000000000000015 1600000000000000015 1600000000000000017 1800000000000000017 1800000000000000019 2000000000000000019 2000000000000000021 2200000000000000021 2200000000000000023 2448 0000000000000 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 00000000000 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 000000000 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 0000000 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848 Local Cold Critical #4Local Cold Critical #51 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 0000000 484848481 248484848 0000000 484848483 4484848 000000000 4848483 4484848 000000000 4848485 64848 0048448484848000 48485 64848 00000000000 48487 848 00044864848480000 487 848 0000000000000 489 100000000000000009 1000000000000000011 1200000000000000011 1200000000000000013 1400000000000000013 140000448484848480000015 1600000000000000015 1600004848484848480000017 1800000000000000017 180000048484848480000019 2000000000000000019 2000000000000000021 2200000000000000021 2200000000000000023 2448 0000000000000 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 00000000000 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 000000000 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 0000000 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848

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94 Figure A-34. Cycle N+1 EOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns C y cle N+1 EOCDistributed Cold CriticalLocal Cold Critical #11 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 0800080 484848481 248484848 0000000 484848483 4484848 0480480480480 4848483 4484848 000000000 4848485 64848 08000600060 48485 64848 00000000000 48487 848 0480480480480480480 487 848 0000000000000 489 100800060008000809 10000048048048048000011 124804804804804804804804811 1200000484480480000013 1400060006000600013 140000480484848048000015 164804804804804804804804815 16000004848480480000017 1800060006000600017 18000048048048048000019 204804804804804804804804819 2000000480480480000021 2208000800060008021 22000048048048048000023 2448 0480480480480480480 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 06000600080 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 0480480480480 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 0800080 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848 Local Cold Critical #2Local Cold Critical #31 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 0000000 484848481 248484848 048480000 484848483 4484848 000000000 4848483 4484848 0448000000 4848485 64848 001800000000 48485 64848 4844800000000 48487 848 00004800000000 487 848 00480000000000 489 10000048048000000009 10004800000000000011 12000004800000000011 1200000000000000013 1400000000000000013 1400000000000000015 1600000000000000015 1600000000000000017 1800000000000000017 1800000000000000019 2000000000000000019 2000000000000000021 2200000000000000021 2200000000000000023 2448 0000000000000 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 00000000000 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 000000000 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 0000000 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848 Local Cold Critical #4Local Cold Critical #51 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 0000000 484848481 248484848 0000000 484848483 4484848 006000000 4848483 4484848 000000000 4848485 64848 004804848480000 48485 64848 00000000000 48487 848 00004804848480000 487 848 0000000000000 489 100000000000000009 1000000000000000011 1200000000000000011 12000004820000000013 1400000000000000013 140000048484848480000015 1600000000000000015 160000048484848480000017 1800000000000000017 180000048484848480000019 2000000000000000019 2000000000000000021 2200000000000000021 2200000000000000023 2448 0000000000000 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 00000000000 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 000000000 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 0000000 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848

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95 Table A-5. Cycle N+1 Cold Critical Data Control Rod Pattern Exposure MWd/ST Exposure MWd/MT Temp Deg F Period Sec Notches Control Rod Density Keff Cycle 16 Distributed BOC 0 0 134 100 6168 0.69459 0.99978 ARI BOC 0 0 68 1000 8880 1.00000 0.93661 Local 1 BOC 0 0 137 62 7848 0.88378 0.99600 Local 2 BOC 0 0 168 82 8700 0.97973 0.99694 Local 3 BOC 0 0 187 35 8624 0.97117 0.99641 Local 4 BOC 0 0 181 88 8488 0.95586 0.99540 Local 5 BOC 0 0 194 72 8416 0.94775 0.99584 Distributed MOC 7900 8708 167 49 5676 0.63919 0.99614 ARI MOC 7900 8708 68 1000 8880 1.00000 0.92742 Local 1 MOC 7900 8708 176 89 7484 0.84279 0.99350 Local 2 MOC 7900 8708 75 100 8590 0.96734 0.99259 Local 3 MOC 7900 8708 134 77 8582 0.96644 0.99417 Local 4 MOC 7900 8708 120 18 8434 0.94977 0.99433 Local 5 MOC 7900 8708 167 300 8108 0.91306 0.99285 Distributed EOC 16250 17913 187 62 6600 0.74324 0.99222 ARI EOC 16250 17913 68 1000 8880 1.00000 0.93523 Local 1 EOC 16250 17913 82 127 7580 0.85360 0.98744 Local 2 EOC 16250 17913 195 114 8670 0.97635 0.98843 Local 3 EOC 16250 17913 224 15 8536 0.96126 0.99075 Local 4 EOC 16250 17913 160 76 8490 0.95608 0.98956 Local 5 EOC 16250 17913 72 1000 8110 0.91329 0.98974

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96 Cycle N+1 Hot Excess and SDM 0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.020 0.022 0.024 0.026 0.028 0.030 0.032 0.034 0.036 020004000600080001000012000140001600018000 Exposure (MWD/MT)Delta Kef f Hot Excess Delta Keff SDM Delta Keff Figure A-35. Cycle N+1 Pr edicted Hot Excess and SDM Table A-6. Cycle N+1 Hot Excess and SDM Data Exposure MWd/ST Exposure MWd/MT Hot Excess Delta Keff SDM Delta Keff 0 0 0.01668 0.01899 200 220.462 0.01468 0.02018 1000 1102.31 0.01441 0.02242 2000 2204.62 0.01471 0.02408 2600 2866.006 0.01463 0.02473 3600 3968.316 0.01433 0.02761 4600 5070.626 0.01412 0.03015 5300 5842.243 0.01413 0.03167 6300 6944.553 0.01443 0.03256 7900 8708.249 0.01517 0.02822 8900 9810.559 0.01534 0.02521 9900 10912.869 0.01505 0.02303 10700 11794.717 0.01421 0.02148 11700 12897.027 0.01236 0.01929 12700 13999.337 0.00923 0.01737 13700 15101.647 0.00462 0.01563 14300 15763.033 0.00094 0.01494

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97 Cycle N+1 TIP Plots Cycle N+1 Exposure: 0 MWd/ST Average Axial Distributions 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 04812162024 NodeAverage TIP Reading Figure A-36. Cycle N+1 TIP results for 0 MWd/ST (BOC) Cycle N+1 Exposure: 4600 MWd/ST Average Axial Distributions 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 04812162024 NodeAverage TIP Reading Figure A-37. Cycle N+1 TIP results for 4600 MWd/ST

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98 Cycle N+1 Exposure: 8900 MWd/ST Average Axial Distributions 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 04812162024 NodeAverage TIP Reading Figure A-38. Cycle N+1 TIP results for 8900 MWd/ST Cycle N+1 Exposure: 15000 MWd/ST Average Axial Distributions 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 04812162024 NodeAverage TIP Reading Figure A-39. Cycle N+1 TIP results for 15000 MWd/ST (EOR)

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99 Cycle N+1 Exposure: 16250 MWd/ST Average Axial Distributions 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 04812162024 NodeAverage TIP Reading Figure A-40. Cycle N+1 TIP results for 16250 MWd/ST (EOC)

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100 Cycle N+2 Characteristics Table A-7. Bundle Information Cycle N+2 Bundle Types Average Bundle Enrichment Number of Gad Rods Bundle Type Number Bundle Amount in Core BOC Average Exposure, MWd/ST EOC Average Exposure MWd/ST GE14 4.11 14 2 8 41292.0 46428.9 GE14 4.06 14 11 124 37623.2 44857.1 GE14 4.06 14 12 64 39091.3 44959.2 GE14 4.06 14 13 168 21018.4 38078.7 GE14 4.06 14 14 116 21792.7 40534.2 GE14 4.06 14 15 168 0.0 20989.5 GE14 4.06 14 16 116 0.0 21853.4 123456789101112131415 112.012.012.011.011.011.012.0211.011.012.011.011.011.011.012.0312.011.011.011.011.013.013.011.015.013.0411.011.013.013.015.015.014.015.014.015.052.011.013.013.013.015.014.015.016.014.016.0611.012.012.013.016.015.016.015.016.016.016.016.013.0711.011.013.016.013.014.015.016.014.013.015.013.013.082.011.013.013.015.014.013.013.016.013.013.015.015.013.0912.011.012.013.014.016.015.014.016.016.015.013.015.014.015.01012.012.011.015.015.015.016.016.016.014.016.015.013.015.014.01111.011.013.015.014.016.014.014.015.016.013.013.015.014.014.01212.012.013.013.015.016.013.013.014.015.014.013.015.015.013.01311.011.011.015.016.016.015.014.015.014.015.015.016.013.016.01411.011.015.014.014.016.015.015.013.015.014.015.014.016.013.01511.012.013.015.016.013.014.014.015.013.014.013.016.013.014.0 Figure A-41. Cycle N+2 Assembly Locations by Bundle Type Number

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101 123456789101112131415 140.940.738.540.240.940.341.3241.240.840.938.637.836.335.833.7341.039.934.833.131.319.019.931.70.021.7440.734.717.019.20.00.020.60.016.80.0541.235.515.718.021.70.021.30.00.021.80.0638.641.535.018.90.00.0 0.00.00.00.00.00.022.3741.039.615.70.022.721.20.00.021.922.50.022.622.4841.435.417.018.00.022.121.121.10.022.522.50.00.022.6941.241.433.719.320.90.00.021.80.00.00.022.10.022.30.01040.740.831.30.00.00.00.00.00.023.10.00.018.90.022.51140.639.919.00.021.10.022.222.00.00.022.622.70.023.122.81240.839.720.021.60.00.022.622.422.90.022.323.10.00.022.91340.436.231.70.00.00.00.022.30.020.70.00.00.023.20.01439.935.90.016.921.80.00.00.023.20.023.40.023.50.022.21540.935.121.60.00.022.721.922.30.022.822.922.80.023.023.5 Figure A-42. BOC Cycle N+2 Exposure Distribution (GWD/T) 123456789101112131415 143.944.342.844.745.545.246.3245.746.447.746.245.944.744.542.8344.645.542.542.742.332.433.844.215.636.1446.543.630.133.917.218.137.519.034.619.2547.244.529.834.038.820.139.821.121.240.720.9642.147.344.032.617.519.521.021.821.922.122.322.041.1746.448.129.717.539.639.622.022.540.741.322.541.939.7845.743.030.134.019.440.440.441.422.941.441.422.622.240.0944.146.943.233.938.120.922.041.923.523.523.142.423.142.422.01044.247.542.317.120.121.722.422.923.443.722.922.739.722.742.01144.847.432.418.139.621.940.941.022.922.840.540.422.542.841.11245.247.633.738.321.122.141.241.242.822.540.040.822.422.441.31345.044.644.219.021.322.422.442.222.740.922.322.322.743.022.01444.744.615.634.640.822.222.122.242.922.542.922.343.222.241.31545.844.036.019.321.141.739.540.021.942.141.141.122.041.940.7 Figure A-43. EOC Cycle N+2 Exposure Distribution (GWD/T)

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102 0.990 0.991 0.992 0.993 0.994 0.995 0.996 0.997 0.998 0.999 1.000 1.001 1.002 1.003 1.004 1.005 1.006 1.007 1.008 1.009 1.010 1.011 1.012 1.013 1.014 1.015 02000400060008000100001200014000160001800020000 Cycle Exposure MWd/MTKef f Figure A-44. Cycle N+2 Hot keff 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 02000400060008000100001200014000160001800020000 Cycle Exposure MWd/MTThermal Margin RAPLHGR CPRRAT MFLPD Figure A-45. Cycle N+2 Thermal Margins

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103 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 02000400060008000100001200014000160001800020000 Cycle Exposure MWd/MTPower (%) / Flow (%) % Power % Flow Figure A-46. Cycle N+2 Reactor Power and Core Flow 1022 1026 1030 1034 1038 1042 1046 1050 1054 1058 1062 1066 1070 1074 1078 1082 1086 1090 02000400060008000100001200014000160001800020000 Cycle Exposure MWd/MTPressure (psi) Figure A-47. Cycle N+2 Core Pressure

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104 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 02000400060008000100001200014000160001800020000 Cycle Exposure MWd/MTTemperature (F) Figure A-48. Cycle N+2 Core Inlet Temperature 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 02000400060008000100001200014000160001800020000 Cycle Exposure MWd/MTBypass Flow (%) Figure A-49. Cycle N+2 Core Bypass Flow

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105 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 15913172125 Axial NodeNormalized Value Normalized Averave Exposure (Actual x21635.1) Normalized Relative Power (Actual x1.592) Normalized Void Fraction (Actual x0.724) Bottom Figure A-50. Cycle N+2 BOC Axial Core Parameters 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 15913172125 Axial NodeNormalized Value Normalized Averave Exposure (Actual x40638.5) Normalized Relative Power (Actual x1.424) Normalized Void Fraction (Actual x0.592) Bottom Figure A-51. Cycle N+2 EOC Axial Core Parameters

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106 Cycle N+2 Rod Pattern Results DESIGN CRITERIA: FLOW= 85.0% 97.0% MFLCPR=0.930 MFLPD=0.909 MAPRAT=0.909 INDICATOR KEY: *=EXCEEDS CRITERIA, ^=PEAK VALUE, ^^=PEAK VALUE EXCEEDS CRITERIA CYCEXP AXIAL POWER MWD/ST KEFF FLOW-% MFLCPR MFLPD MAPRAT NODE 4 / PEAK 0 1.0077 80.4* 0.954( 9, 9)^^0.975( 9, 9, 4)* 0.921( 9, 9, 4)* 1.592 1.592( 4) 200 1.0074 85.9 0.914( 9, 9) 0.941( 9, 9, 4)* 0.891( 9, 9, 4) 1.528 1.535( 5) 1000 1.0071 86.7 0.910( 9, 9) 0.913( 9, 9, 4)* 0.873( 9, 9, 4) 1.480 1.503( 5) 2000 1.0065 85.3 0.911( 9, 9) 0.879( 9, 9, 4) 0.851( 9, 9, 4) 1.439 1.468( 5) 2600 1.0062 85.9 0.908( 9, 9) 0.862( 9, 9, 4) 0.842( 9, 9, 4) 1.422 1.452( 5) 2600A 1.0063 91.1 0.903(13,11) 0.823(12,10, 5) 0.788(12,10, 5) 1.323 1.378( 6) 3600 1.0057 92.0 0.891(13,11) 0.800(11,10, 5) 0.777(12,10, 5) 1.314 1.364( 6) 4600 1.0052 93.1 0.878(13,11) 0.792(11,10, 5) 0.788(11,10, 4) 1.332 1.370( 5) 5300 1.0048 93.1 0.871(13,11) 0.815(10, 9, 4) 0.808(11,10, 4) 1.365 1.392( 5) 5300A 1.0049 87.4 0.908( 9, 9) 0.899(10, 9, 4) 0.901( 9, 9, 4) 1.486 1.489( 5) 6300 1.0044 86.9 0.910( 9, 9) 0.960(10, 9, 4)* 0.960( 9, 9, 4)* 1.556 1.556( 4) 7300 1.0038 85.8 0.914( 9, 9) 0.992(10, 9, 3)^^0.997(10, 9, 3)^^1.605 1.605( 4) 7900 1.0035 85.8 0.914( 9, 9) 0.985(10, 9, 3)* 0.994(10, 9, 3)* 1.592 1.592( 4) 7900A 1.0036 89.3 0.875(11,10) 0.911(10, 9, 4)* 0.909( 6,13, 4)* 1.500 1.500( 4) 8900 1.0031 89.3 0.878(11,10) 0.865( 6,14, 4) 0.870( 6,13, 4) 1.399 1.399( 4) 9900 1.0025 89.8 0.885(11,10) 0.781( 6,13, 4) 0.788( 6,13, 4) 1.233 1.251( 5) 10700 1.0023 91.7 0.888(11,10) 0.731(12,12,17) 0.719(12,12,17) 1.081 1.204(10) 10700A 1.0020 88.9 0.912( 9, 9) 0.778(10, 7, 4) 0.782( 6,10, 4) 1.196 1.257( 8) 11700 1.0016 93.5 0.906( 9, 9) 0.765(11, 7,10) 0.741(10,10,15) 0.977 1.277(12) 12700 1.0012 105.6* 0.889(10, 9) 0.803(12, 8,17) 0.804(13,14,17) 0.735 1.296(14) 13700 1.0006 96.5 0.921( 7,13) 0.843( 8,15,17) 0.821(10,10,17) 0.700 1.349(14) 13700A 1.0006 96.5 0.921( 7,13) 0.843( 8,15,17) 0.821(10,10,17) 0.700 1.349(14) 14200 1.0004 109.0* 0.895( 6,13) 0.867( 8,15,17) 0.853(12, 7,17) 0.626 1.375(14) 14600 1.0003 108.0* 0.896(10, 9) 0.914(12,11,20)* 0.887(10,10,18) 0.555 1.377(18) 14700 0.9999 100.0* 0.925(11,10) 0.904(12,12,17) 0.901(10,10,17) 0.626 1.356(14) 15150 0.9997 110.0* 0.900(10, 9) 0.915(11,11,17)* 0.924(10,10,17)* 0.554 1.381(18) 15650 0.9992 110.0* 0.874(10, 9) 0.891(11,11,18) 0.908(10,10,17) 0.525 1.367(19) 16125 0.9995 110.0* 0.812(10, 9) 0.850(10,10,18) 0.868(10,10,18) 0.462 1.422(19) 16250 0.9991 110.0* 0.797(10, 9) 0.836(10,10,18) 0.853(10,10,18) 0.461 1.424(19) 16250A 0.9991 110.0* 0.796(10, 9) 0.834(10,10,18) 0.851(10,10,18) 0.461 1.424(19) 16250A 0.9991 110.0* 0.796(10, 9) 0.834(10,10,18) 0.851(10,10,18) 1.000 1.424(19)

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107 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | | | 6 | 7 | | | | | | | 6 | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | | 6 | | | 11 | | | | | | 6 | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | 6 | | | | 6 | 15 | | | | 6 | | | |10 | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 0 MFLCPR 0.954 ( 9, 9) CYC EXP 200 MFLCPR 0.914 ( 9, 9) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.975 ( 9, 9, 4) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.941 ( 9, 9, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.921 ( 9, 9, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.891 ( 9, 9, 4) FLOW-% 80.4 AXIAL PEAK 1.592 ( 4) FLOW-% 85.9 AXIAL PEAK 1.535 ( 5) K-EFF 1.0077 1.592 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0074 1.528 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | | | 6 | 7 | | | | | | | 6 | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | | 6 | | | 11 | | | | | | 6 | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | 6 | | | |10 | 15 | | | | 6 | | | |10 | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 1000 MFLCPR 0.910 ( 9, 9) CYC EXP 2000 MFLCPR 0.911 ( 9, 9) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.913 ( 9, 9, 4) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.879 ( 9, 9, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.873 ( 9, 9, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.851 ( 9, 9, 4) FLOW-% 86.7 AXIAL PEAK 1.503 ( 5) FLOW-% 85.3 AXIAL PEAK 1.468 ( 5) K-EFF 1.0071 1.480 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0065 1.439 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | | | 6 | 7 | | | | |10 | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | | 6 | | | 11 | | | |10 | | | |10 | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | 6 | | | |10 | 15 | | | | | |10 | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 2600 MFLCPR 0.908 ( 9, 9) CYC EXP 2600A MFLCPR 0.903 (13,11) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.862 ( 9, 9, 4) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.823 (12,10, 5) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.842 ( 9, 9, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.788 (12,10, 5) FLOW-% 85.9 AXIAL PEAK 1.452 ( 5) FLOW-% 91.1 AXIAL PEAK 1.378 ( 6) K-EFF 1.0062 1.422 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0063 1.323 ( 4)

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108 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | |10 | | | 7 | | | | |10 | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | |10 | | | |10 | 11 | | | |10 | | | |10 | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | | |10 | | | 15 | | | | | |10 | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 3600 MFLCPR 0.891 (13,11) CYC EXP 4600 MFLCPR 0.878 (13,11) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.800 (11,10, 5) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.792 (11,10, 5) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.777 (12,10, 5) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.788 (11,10, 4) FLOW-% 92.0 AXIAL PEAK 1.364 ( 6) FLOW-% 93.1 AXIAL PEAK 1.370 ( 5) K-EFF 1.0057 1.314 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0052 1.332 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | |10 | | | 7 | | | | | | | 6 | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | |10 | | | |10 | 11 | | | | | | 6 | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | | |10 | | | 15 | | | | 6 | | | | 6 | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 5300 MFLCPR 0.871 (13,11) CYC EXP 5300A MFLCPR 0.908 ( 9, 9) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.815 (10, 9, 4) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.899 (10, 9, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.808 (11,10, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.901 ( 9, 9, 4) FLOW-% 93.1 AXIAL PEAK 1.392 ( 5) FLOW-% 87.4 AXIAL PEAK 1.489 ( 5) K-EFF 1.0048 1.365 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0049 1.486 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | | | 6 | 7 | | | | | | | 6 | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | | 6 | | | 11 | | | | | | 6 | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | 6 | | | | 6 | 15 | | | | 6 | | | | 6 | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 6300 MFLCPR 0.910 ( 9, 9) CYC EXP 7300 MFLCPR 0.914 ( 9, 9) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.960 (10, 9, 4) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.992 (10, 9, 3) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.960 ( 9, 9, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.997 (10, 9, 3) FLOW-% 86.9 AXIAL PEAK 1.556 ( 4) FLOW-% 85.8 AXIAL PEAK 1.605 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0044 1.556 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0038 1.605 ( 4)

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109 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | | | 6 | 7 | | | | |10 | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | | 6 | | | 11 | | | |10 | | | |10 | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | 6 | | | | 6 | 15 | | | | | |10 | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 7900 MFLCPR 0.914 ( 9, 9) CYC EXP 7900A MFLCPR 0.875 (11,10) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.985 (10, 9, 3) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.911 (10, 9, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.994 (10, 9, 3) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.909 ( 6,13, 4) FLOW-% 85.8 AXIAL PEAK 1.592 ( 4) FLOW-% 89.3 AXIAL PEAK 1.500 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0035 1.592 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0036 1.500 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | |10 | | | 7 | | | | |10 | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | |10 | | | |10 | 11 | | | |10 | | | |10 | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | | |10 | | | 15 | | | | | |10 | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 8900 MFLCPR 0.878 (11,10) CYC EXP 9900 MFLCPR 0.885 (11,10) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.865 ( 6,14, 4) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.781 ( 6,13, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.870 ( 6,13, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.788 ( 6,13, 4) FLOW-% 89.3 AXIAL PEAK 1.399 ( 4) FLOW-% 89.8 AXIAL PEAK 1.251 ( 5) K-EFF 1.0031 1.399 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0025 1.233 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | |10 | | | 7 | | | | | | | 6 | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | |10 | | | |10 | 11 | | | | | | 6 | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | | |10 | | | 15 | | | | 6 | | | | 6 | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 10700 MFLCPR 0.888 (11,10) CYC EXP 10700A MFLCPR 0.912 ( 9, 9) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.731 (12,12,17) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.778 (10, 7, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.719 (12,12,17) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.782 ( 6,10, 4) FLOW-% 91.7 AXIAL PEAK 1.204 (10) FLOW-% 88.9 AXIAL PEAK 1.257 ( 8) K-EFF 1.0023 1.081 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0020 1.196 ( 4)

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110 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | | | 6 | 7 | | | 8 | | | | 8 | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | | 6 | | | 11 | | | | | | 8 | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | 6 | | | | 6 | 15 | | | | 8 | | | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 11700 MFLCPR 0.906 ( 9, 9) CYC EXP 12700 MFLCPR 0.889 (10, 9) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.765 (11, 7,10) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.803 (12, 8,17) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.741 (10,10,15) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.804 (13,14,17) FLOW-% 93.5 AXIAL PEAK 1.277 (12) FLOW-% 105.6 AXIAL PEAK 1.296 (14) K-EFF 1.0016 0.977 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0012 0.735 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | | | | 7 | | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | | 6 | | | 11 | | | | | | 6 | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | | | | | | 15 | | | | | | | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 13700 MFLCPR 0.921 ( 7,13) CYC EXP 13700A MFLCPR 0.921 ( 7,13) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.843 ( 8,15,17) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.843 ( 8,15,17) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.821 (10,10,17) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.821 (10,10,17) FLOW-% 96.5 AXIAL PEAK 1.349 (14) FLOW-% 96.5 AXIAL PEAK 1.349 (14) K-EFF 1.0006 0.700 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0006 0.700 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | | | | 7 | | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | | 0 | | | 11 | | | | | |10 | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | | | | | | 15 | | | | | | | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 14200 MFLCPR 0.895 ( 6,13) CYC EXP 14600 MFLCPR 0.896 (10, 9) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.867 ( 8,15,17) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.914 (12,11,20) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.853 (12, 7,17) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.887 (10,10,18) FLOW-% 109.0 AXIAL PEAK 1.375 (14) FLOW-% 108.0 AXIAL PEAK 1.377 (18) K-EFF 1.0004 0.626 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0003 0.555 ( 4)

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111 PANAC 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 PANAC 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | | | | 7 | | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | | | | | 11 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | | | | | | 15 | | | | | | | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 14700 MFLCPR 0.925 (11,10) CYC EXP 15150 MFLCPR 0.900 (10, 9) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.904 (12,12,17) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.915 (11,11,17) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.901 (10,10,17) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.924 (10,10,17) FLOW-% 100.0 AXIAL PEAK 1.356 (14) FLOW-% 110.0 AXIAL PEAK 1.381 (18) K-EFF 0.9999 0.626 ( 4) K-EFF 0.9997 0.554 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | | | | 7 | | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | | | | | 11 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | | | | | | 15 | | | | | | | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 15650 MFLCPR 0.874 (10, 9) CYC EXP 16125 MFLCPR 0.812 (10, 9) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.891 (11,11,18) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.850 (10,10,18) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.908 (10,10,17) POWER-% 92.1 MAPRAT 0.868 (10,10,18) FLOW-% 110.0 AXIAL PEAK 1.367 (19) FLOW-% 110.0 AXIAL PEAK 1.422 (19) K-EFF 0.9992 0.525 ( 4) K-EFF 0.9995 0.462 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | | | | 7 | | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | | | | | 11 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | | | | | | 15 | | | | | | | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 16250 MFLCPR 0.797 (10, 9) CYC EXP 16250A MFLCPR 0.796 (10, 9) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.836 (10,10,18) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.834 (10,10,18) POWER-% 90.4 MAPRAT 0.853 (10,10,18) POWER-% 90.2 MAPRAT 0.851 (10,10,18) FLOW-% 110.0 AXIAL PEAK 1.424 (19) FLOW-% 110.0 AXIAL PEAK 1.424 (19) K-EFF 0.9991 0.461 ( 4) K-EFF 0.9991 0.461 ( 4)

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112 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 --------------1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | | | | | | ------------------------------CYC EXP 16250A MFLCPR 0.796 (10, 9) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.834 (10,10,18) POWER-% 90.2 MAPRAT 0.851 (10,10,18) FLOW-% 110.0 AXIAL PEAK 1.424 (19) K-EFF 0.9991 1.000 ( 4)

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113 Figure A-52. Cycle N+2 BOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns C y cle N+2 BOCDistributed Cold CriticalLocal Cold Critical #11 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484812 012000120 124848481 248484848 0000000 484848483 4484848 0480480480480 4848483 4484848 000000000 4848485 64848 0120008000120 48485 64848 00000000000 48487 848 0480480480480480480 487 848 0000000000000 489 1004800012000120004809 100000004804800000011 121204804804804804804801211 1200000300480480000013 140001200080001200013 14000048048048048000015 164804804804804804804804815 1600000480480480000017 180001200080001200017 18000048048048048000019 201204804804804804804801219 2000000480480480000021 22012000120001200048021 220000004804800000023 2448 0480480480480480480 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 0120008000120 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 0480480480480 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 012000120 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848 Local Cold Critical #2Local Cold Critical #31 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 0000000 484848481 248484848 04800000 484848483 4484848 000000000 4848483 4484848 0200000000 4848485 64848 00000000000 48485 64848 4804800000000 48487 848 00002600000000 487 848 00480000000000 489 10000048048000000009 10004800000000000011 12000004800000000011 1200000000000000013 1400000000000000013 1400000000000000015 1600000000000000015 1600000000000000017 1800000000000000017 1800000000000000019 2000000000000000019 2000000000000000021 2200000000000000021 2200000000000000023 2448 0000000000000 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 00000000000 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 000000000 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 0000000 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848 Local Cold Critical #4Local Cold Critical #51 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 0000000 484848481 248484848 0000000 484848483 4484848 000000000 4848483 4484848 000000000 4848485 64848 0000484800000 48485 64848 00000000000 48487 848 00004864848480000 487 848 0000000000000 489 1000000048000000009 1000000000000000011 1200000000000000011 1200000000000000013 1400000000000000013 14000003048484800000015 1600000000000000015 1600000048484800000017 1800000000000000017 1800000048484800000019 2000000000000000019 2000000000000000021 2200000000000000021 2200000000000000023 2448 0000000000000 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 00000000000 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 000000000 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 0000000 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848

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114 Figure A-53. Cycle N+2 MOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns C y cle N+2 MOCDistributed Cold CriticalLocal Cold Critical #11 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 048000480 484848481 248484848 0000000 484848483 4484848 0480480480480 4848483 4484848 000000000 4848485 64848 04800048000480 48485 64848 00000000000 48487 848 0480480480480480480 487 848 0000000000000 489 1004800024000120004809 10000048048048048000011 124804804804804804804804811 1200000480480480000013 1400048000120004800013 140000484484848048000015 164804804804804804804804815 1600004848484848480000017 1800048000480004800017 180000480484848048000019 204804804804804804804804819 2000000480480480000021 22048000120001200048021 22000048048048048000023 2448 0480480480480480480 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 04800048000480 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 0480480480480 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 048000480 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848 Local Cold Critical #2Local Cold Critical #31 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 0000000 484848481 248484848 00480000 484848483 4484848 000000000 4848483 4484848 48048000000 4848485 64848 004800000000 48485 64848 4844800000000 48487 848 003004800000000 487 848 00482000000000 489 10000048048000000009 10004800000000000011 12000004800000000011 1200000000000000013 1400000000000000013 1400000000000000015 1600000000000000015 1600000000000000017 1800000000000000017 1800000000000000019 2000000000000000019 2000000000000000021 2200000000000000021 2200000000000000023 2448 0000000000000 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 00000000000 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 000000000 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 0000000 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848 Local Cold Critical #4Local Cold Critical #51 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 0000000 484848481 248484848 0000000 484848483 4484848 000000000 4848483 4484848 000000000 4848485 64848 004804848480000 48485 64848 00000000000 48487 848 000048144848480000 487 848 0000000000000 489 100000000000000009 1000000000000000011 1200000000000000011 1200000000000000013 1400000000000000013 140000648484848480000015 1600000000000000015 1600004848484848480000017 1800000000000000017 180000048484848480000019 2000000000000000019 2000000000000000021 2200000000000000021 2200000000000000023 2448 0000000000000 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 00000000000 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 000000000 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 0000000 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848

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115 Figure A-54. Cycle N+2 EOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns C y cle N+2 EOCDistributed Cold CriticalLocal Cold Critical #11 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 0600060 484848481 248484848 0000000 484848483 4484848 0480480480480 4848483 4484848 000000000 4848485 64848 06000600060 48485 64848 00000000000 48487 848 0480480480480480480 487 848 0000000000000 489 100600060006000609 10000048048048048000011 124804804804804804804804811 1200000484480480000013 1400060006000600013 140000480484848048000015 164804804804804804804804815 1600000480480480000017 1800060006000600017 18000048048048048000019 204804804804804804804804819 2000000480480480000021 2206000600060006021 22000048048048048000023 2448 0480480480480480480 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 06000600060 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 0480480480480 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 0600060 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848 Local Cold Critical #2Local Cold Critical #31 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 0000000 484848481 248484848 00120000 484848483 4484848 000000000 4848483 4484848 0048000000 4848485 64848 001600000000 48485 64848 4844800000000 48487 848 00004800000000 487 848 00480000000000 489 10000048048000000009 10004800000000000011 12000004800000000011 1200000000000000013 1400000000000000013 1400000000000000015 1600000000000000015 1600000000000000017 1800000000000000017 1800000000000000019 2000000000000000019 2000000000000000021 2200000000000000021 2200000000000000023 2448 0000000000000 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 00000000000 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 000000000 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 0000000 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848 Local Cold Critical #4Local Cold Critical #51 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 0000000 484848481 248484848 0000000 484848483 4484848 006000000 4848483 4484848 000000000 4848485 64848 004804848480000 48485 64848 00000000000 48487 848 00004804848480000 487 848 0000000000000 489 100000000000000009 1000000000000000011 1200000000000000011 1200000800000000013 1400000000000000013 140000048484848480000015 1600000000000000015 160000048484848480000017 1800000000000000017 180000048484848480000019 2000000000000000019 2000000000000000021 2200000000000000021 2200000000000000023 2448 0000000000000 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 00000000000 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 000000000 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 0000000 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848

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116 Table A-8. Cycle N+2 Cold Critical Data Control Rod Pattern Exposure MWd/ST Exposure MWd/MT Temp Deg F Period Sec Notches Control Rod Density Keff Cycle 17 Distributed BOC 17 0 0 134 100 6532 0.73559 0.99991 ARI BOC 0 0 68 1000 8880 1.00000 0.94048 Local 1 BOC 0 0 137 62 7890 0.88851 0.99615 Local 2 BOC 0 0 168 82 8710 0.98086 0.99655 Local 3 BOC 0 0 187 35 8620 0.97072 0.99580 Local 4 BOC 0 0 181 88 4962 0.55878 0.99546 Local 5 BOC 0 0 194 72 8418 0.94797 0.99713 Distributed MOC 7900 8708 167 49 5784 0.65135 0.99645 ARI MOC 7900 8708 68 1000 8880 1.00000 0.92934 Local 1 MOC 7900 8708 176 89 7436 0.83739 0.99270 Local 2 MOC 7900 8708 75 100 8610 0.96959 0.99370 Local 3 MOC 7900 8708 134 77 8538 0.96149 0.99306 Local 4 MOC 7900 8708 120 18 8482 0.95518 0.99365 Local 5 MOC 7900 8708 167 300 8106 0.91284 0.99245 Distributed EOC 16250 17913 187 62 6624 0.74595 0.99150 ARI EOC 16250 17913 68 1000 8880 1.00000 0.93533 Local 1 EOC 16250 17913 82 127 7628 0.85901 0.98770 Local 2 EOC 16250 17913 195 114 8672 0.97658 0.98838 Local 3 EOC 16250 17913 224 15 8624 0.97117 0.98968 Local 4 EOC 16250 17913 160 76 8490 0.95608 0.98905 Local 5 EOC 16250 17913 72 1000 8152 0.91802 0.98970

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117 Cycle N+2 Hot Excess and SDM 0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.011 0.013 0.015 0.017 0.019 0.021 0.023 0.025 0.027 0.029 0.032 0.034 020004000600080001000012000140001600018000 Exposure (MWD/MT)Delta Kef f Hot Excess Delta Keff SDM Delta Keff Figure A-55. Cycle N+2 Pr edicted Hot Excess and SDM Table A-9. Cycle N+2 Hot Excess and SDM Data Exposure MWd/ST Hot Excess Delta Keff SDM Delta Keff 0 0.01901 0.01196 200 0.01715 0.01272 1000 0.01684 0.01535 2000 0.01703 0.01864 2600 0.01680 0.02048 3600 0.01642 0.02402 4600 0.01607 0.02766 5300 0.01599 0.03029 6300 0.01606 0.02986 7900 0.01642 0.02566 8900 0.01635 0.02300 9900 0.01585 0.02150 10700 0.01508 0.02084 11700 0.01347 0.02052 12700 0.01076 0.02000 13700 0.00661 0.01875 14700 0.00073 0.01776

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118 Cycle N+2 TIP Plots Cycle N+2 Exposure: 0 MWd/ST Average Axial Distributions 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 04812162024 NodeAverage TIP Reading Figure A-56. Cycle N+2 TIP results for 0 MWd/ST (BOC) Cycle N+2 Exposure: 4600 MWd/ST Average Axial Distributions 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 04812162024 NodeAverage TIP Reading Figure A-57. Cycle N+2 TIP results for 4600 MWd/ST

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119 Cycle N+2 Exposure: 8900 MWd/ST Average Axial Distributions 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 04812162024 NodeAverage TIP Reading Figure A-58. Cycle N+2 TIP results for 8900 MWd/ST Cycle N+2 Exposure: 15000 MWd/ST Average Axial Distributions0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.604812162024 NodeAverage TIP Reading Figure A-59. Cycle N+2 TIP results for 15000 MWd/ST (EOR)

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120 Cycle N+2 Exposure: 16250 MWd/ST Average Axial Distributions 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 04812162024 NodeAverage TIP Reading Figure A-60. Cycle N+2 TIP results for 16250 MWd/ST (EOC)

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121 Cycle N+3 Characteristics Table A-10. Bundle Information Cycle N+3 Bundle Types Average Bundle Enrichment Number of Gad Rods Bundle Type Number Bundle Amount in Core BOC Average Exposure, MWd/ST EOC Avera g e Exposure MWd/ST GE14 4.06 14 13 128 36861.1 44055.0 GE14 4.06 14 14 68 39350.0 45540.5 GE14 4.06 14 15 168 20989.5 38229.4 GE14 4.06 14 16 116 21853.4 40207.1 GE14 4.06 14 17 168 0.0 20993.4 GE14 4.06 14 18 116 0.0 21732.0 123456789101112131415 114.013.013.013.013.014.013.0213.014.013.014.014.014.014.013.0313.014.013.013.013.015.015.013.017.016.0413.013.015.015.017.017.016.017.016.017.0514.013.015.015.015.017.016.017.018.015.018.0614.014.013.015.018.017.018.017.018.018.018.018.016.0714.013.015.018.016.015.017.018.015.015.017.015.015.0814.013.015.015.017.015.015.015.018.015.015.017.017.016.0913.013.013.015.015.018.017.015.018.018.017.016.017.015.017.01013.013.013.017.017.017.018.018.018.016.018.017.015.017.016.01114.013.015.017.016.018.016.015.017.018.016.015.017.016.015.01213.014.015.016.017.018.015.016.015.017.016.016.017.017.015.01313.013.013.017.018.018.017.016.017.016.017.017.018.016.018.01413.013.017.016.016.018.017.017.015.017.015.017.016.018.016.01514.014.016.017.018.015.016.016.017.015.015.015.018.015.016.0 Figure A-61. Cycle N+3 Assembly Locations by Bundle Type Number

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122 123456789101112131415 141.139.741.341.241.440.739.6239.740.941.238.140.439.634.632.4338.840.034.032.629.719.020.130.10.020.9441.134.017.119.20.00.020.90.017.50.0540.933.815.618.122.00.021.30.00.022.00.0639.841.033.918.10.00.0 0.00.00.00.00.00.022.1740.736.115.60.022.721.70.00.021.922.30.022.422.4839.633.717.219.40.022.121.121.10.022.222.20.00.022.3940.441.332.419.322.00.00.021.80.00.00.022.20.022.30.01040.840.529.80.00.00.00.00.00.022.80.00.019.50.022.21139.540.419.00.022.00.022.122.40.00.022.922.50.022.922.91238.337.520.121.20.00.022.322.022.50.022.922.40.00.022.71341.436.030.10.00.00.00.021.90.021.00.00.00.023.50.01440.033.90.017.522.00.00.00.022.70.023.10.023.40.022.51540.034.621.10.00.022.521.922.40.022.522.623.10.022.723.5 Figure A-62. BOC Cycle N+3 Exposure Distribution (GWD/T) 123456789101112131415 144.143.445.445.646.145.744.7244.346.648.045.848.347.943.541.7342.545.741.942.340.832.433.942.815.835.5447.043.030.333.917.118.137.719.035.219.4547.443.029.734.139.020.039.621.021.240.921.0643.446.943.131.817.419.320.821.521.621.822.222.141.2746.344.829.617.339.439.721.722.139.940.322.342.040.3844.241.530.235.119.240.040.141.122.640.540.422.522.440.5943.546.942.033.938.920.721.741.723.223.322.942.323.142.422.21044.547.340.917.119.921.522.022.523.243.523.022.940.222.741.71143.848.032.418.140.221.540.040.522.723.041.541.122.742.640.71243.045.734.038.021.021.840.240.142.422.741.441.122.622.440.51346.244.642.919.121.322.322.341.722.841.322.622.622.843.221.91445.142.915.835.341.022.322.322.442.622.642.622.343.222.141.61545.243.835.719.521.241.740.140.722.141.840.440.721.841.740.7 Figure A-63. EOC Cycle N+3 Exposure Distribution (GWD/T

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123 0.990 0.991 0.992 0.993 0.994 0.995 0.996 0.997 0.998 0.999 1.000 1.001 1.002 1.003 1.004 1.005 1.006 1.007 1.008 1.009 1.010 1.011 1.012 1.013 1.014 1.015 02000400060008000100001200014000160001800020000 Cycle Exposure MWd/MTKef f Figure A-64. Cycle N+3 Hot keff 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 02000400060008000100001200014000160001800020000 Cycle Exposure MWd/MTThermal Margin RAPLHGR CPRRAT MFLPD Figure A-65. Cycle N+3 Thermal Margins

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124 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 02000400060008000100001200014000160001800020000 Cycle Exposure MWd/MTPower (%) / Flow (%) % Power % Flow Figure A-66. Cycle N+3 Reactor Power and Core Flow 1022 1026 1030 1034 1038 1042 1046 1050 1054 1058 1062 1066 1070 1074 1078 1082 1086 1090 02000400060008000100001200014000160001800020000 Cycle Exposure MWd/MTPressure (psi) Figure A-67. Cycle N+3 Core Pressure

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125 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 02000400060008000100001200014000160001800020000 Cycle Exposure MWd/MTTemperature (F) Figure A-68. Cycle N+3 Core Inlet Temperature 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 02000400060008000100001200014000160001800020000 Cycle Exposure MWd/MTBypass Flow (%) Figure A-69. Cycle N+3 Core Bypass Flow

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126 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 15913172125 Axial NodeNormalized Value Normalized Averave Exposure (Actual x21708.1) Normalized Relative Power (Actual x1.451) Normalized Void Fraction (Actual x0.71) Bottom Figure A-70. Cycle N+3 BOC Axial Core Parameters 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 15913172125 Axial NodeNormalized Value Normalized Averave Exposure (Actual x40542.5) Normalized Relative Power (Actual x1.419) Normalized Void Fraction (Actual x0.602) Bottom Figure A-71. Cycle N+3 EOC Axial Core Parameters

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127 Cycle N+3 Rod Pattern Results DESIGN CRITERIA: FLOW= 85.0% 97.0% MFLCPR=0.930 MFLPD=0.909 MAPRAT=0.909 INDICATOR KEY: *=EXCEEDS CRITERIA, ^=PEAK VALUE, ^^=PEAK VALUE EXCEEDS CRITERIA CYCEXP AXIAL POWER MWD/ST KEFF FLOW-% MFLCPR MFLPD MAPRAT NODE 4 / PEAK 0 1.0076 87.0 0.967(15,13)^^0.914(10,14, 4)* 0.874(14,10, 4) 1.451 1.451( 4) 200 1.0075 86.3 0.898( 9, 9) 0.925( 9, 9, 4)* 0.878( 9, 9, 4) 1.517 1.517( 4) 1000 1.0069 86.3 0.896( 9, 9) 0.895( 9, 9, 4) 0.858( 9, 9, 4) 1.467 1.479( 5) 2000 1.0065 84.5* 0.901( 9, 9) 0.860( 9, 9, 4) 0.835( 9, 9, 4) 1.425 1.441( 5) 2600 1.0062 84.5* 0.900( 9, 9) 0.843( 9, 9, 4) 0.826( 9, 9, 4) 1.406 1.425( 5) 2600A 1.0062 93.3 0.888(14,14) 0.814(12,10, 4) 0.781(12,10, 4) 1.318 1.360( 6) 3600 1.0057 93.9 0.874(13,11) 0.789(11,10, 5) 0.766(12,10, 4) 1.302 1.343( 5) 4600 1.0052 93.9 0.867(13,11) 0.780(11,10, 5) 0.778(11,10, 4) 1.320 1.352( 5) 5300 1.0049 93.9 0.862(13,11) 0.804(10, 9, 4) 0.797(11,10, 4) 1.349 1.371( 5) 5300A 1.0049 83.6* 0.912( 9, 9) 0.876(10, 9, 4) 0.877(10, 8, 4) 1.457 1.457( 4) 6300 1.0042 99.4* 0.821(11, 9) 0.919(10, 9, 4)* 0.917(10, 9, 4)* 1.475 1.475( 4) 7300 1.0038 97.3* 0.827(11, 9) 0.965(10, 9, 4)^^0.967(10, 9, 4)* 1.544 1.544( 4) 7900 1.0035 96.0 0.835(10, 9) 0.958(12, 6, 4)* 0.969( 6,13, 4)^^1.538 1.538( 4) 7900A 1.0034 93.7 0.847(11,10) 0.937(10, 9, 4)* 0.932( 6,13, 4)* 1.540 1.540( 4) 8900 1.0030 92.7 0.855(11,10) 0.883( 6,13, 4) 0.889( 6,13, 4) 1.440 1.440( 4) 9900 1.0026 94.5 0.861(13,12) 0.799( 6,13, 4) 0.806( 6,13, 4) 1.274 1.287( 5) 10700 1.0021 94.5 0.867(11,10) 0.722(12,12,17) 0.720( 6,13, 4) 1.117 1.208( 8) 10700A 1.0021 95.0 0.866(11,10) 0.722(12,12,17) 0.720( 6,13, 4) 1.117 1.208( 8) 11700 1.0018 99.7* 0.861(11,10) 0.764(12,12,17) 0.753(11,11,17) 0.924 1.232(12) 12700 1.0012 93.3 0.951(10, 8)* 0.808(11, 8,17) 0.783(10,10,17) 0.838 1.270(14) 13700 1.0007 89.5 0.941( 7,13)* 0.835( 8,11,17) 0.810(11, 8,17) 0.729 1.311(14) 13700A 1.0007 89.5 0.941( 7,13)* 0.835( 8,11,17) 0.810(11, 8,17) 0.729 1.310(14) 14200 1.0005 87.9 0.966(10, 9)* 0.852(12, 8,17) 0.868(10,10,17) 0.711 1.322(14) 14950 1.0000 100.0* 0.922(10, 9) 0.875(10,10,17) 0.896(10,10,17) 0.600 1.352(18) 15350 0.9998 110.0* 0.900(10, 9) 0.894(10,10,18) 0.913(10,10,18)* 0.545 1.386(19) 15800 0.9997 110.0* 0.873(10, 9) 0.880( 8,11,18) 0.900(10,10,18) 0.517 1.374(19) 16100 0.9995 110.0* 0.840(10, 9) 0.859( 8,11,18) 0.878(10,10,18) 0.486 1.408(20) 16250 0.9993 110.0* 0.819(10, 9) 0.843(10,10,19) 0.860(10,10,18) 0.478 1.419(20) 16250A 0.9992 110.0* 0.819(10, 9) 0.843(10,10,19) 0.860(10,10,18) 0.478 1.419(20) 16250A 0.9992 110.0* 0.819(10, 9) 0.843(10,10,19) 0.860(10,10,18) 1.000 1.419(20)

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128 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | |10 | | | |10 | 7 | | | | | | | 6 | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | |10 | | | 11 | | | | | | 6 | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | |10 | | | |10 | 15 | | | | 6 | | | | 6 | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 0 MFLCPR 0.967 (15,13) CYC EXP 200 MFLCPR 0.898 ( 9, 9) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.914 (10,14, 4) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.925 ( 9, 9, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.874 (14,10, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.878 ( 9, 9, 4) FLOW-% 87.0 AXIAL PEAK 1.451 ( 4) FLOW-% 86.3 AXIAL PEAK 1.517 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0076 1.451 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0075 1.517 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | | | 6 | 7 | | | | | | | 6 | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | | 6 | | | 11 | | | | | | 6 | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | 6 | | | | 6 | 15 | | | | 6 | | | | 6 | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 1000 MFLCPR 0.896 ( 9, 9) CYC EXP 2000 MFLCPR 0.901 ( 9, 9) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.895 ( 9, 9, 4) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.860 ( 9, 9, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.858 ( 9, 9, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.835 ( 9, 9, 4) FLOW-% 86.3 AXIAL PEAK 1.479 ( 5) FLOW-% 84.5 AXIAL PEAK 1.441 ( 5) K-EFF 1.0069 1.467 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0065 1.425 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | | | 6 | 7 | | | | | 8 | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | | 6 | | | 11 | | | | 8 | | | | 8 | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | 6 | | | | 6 | 15 | | | | | | 8 | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 2600 MFLCPR 0.900 ( 9, 9) CYC EXP 2600A MFLCPR 0.888 (14,14) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.843 ( 9, 9, 4) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.814 (12,10, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.826 ( 9, 9, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.781 (12,10, 4) FLOW-% 84.5 AXIAL PEAK 1.425 ( 5) FLOW-% 93.3 AXIAL PEAK 1.360 ( 6) K-EFF 1.0062 1.406 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0062 1.318 ( 4)

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129 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | 8 | | | 7 | | | | | 8 | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | 8 | | | | 8 | 11 | | | | 8 | | | | 8 | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | | | 8 | | | 15 | | | | | | 8 | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 3600 MFLCPR 0.874 (13,11) CYC EXP 4600 MFLCPR 0.867 (13,11) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.789 (11,10, 5) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.780 (11,10, 5) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.766 (12,10, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.778 (11,10, 4) FLOW-% 93.9 AXIAL PEAK 1.343 ( 5) FLOW-% 93.9 AXIAL PEAK 1.352 ( 5) K-EFF 1.0057 1.302 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0052 1.320 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | 8 | | | 7 | | | | | | | 6 | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | 8 | | | | 8 | 11 | | | | | | 6 | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | | | 8 | | | 15 | | | | 6 | | | | 6 | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 5300 MFLCPR 0.862 (13,11) CYC EXP 5300A MFLCPR 0.912 ( 9, 9) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.804 (10, 9, 4) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.876 (10, 9, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.797 (11,10, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.877 (10, 8, 4) FLOW-% 93.9 AXIAL PEAK 1.371 ( 5) FLOW-% 83.6 AXIAL PEAK 1.457 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0049 1.349 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0049 1.457 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | 6 | | | | 6 | 7 | | | 6 | | | | 6 | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | | 6 | | | 11 | | | | | | 6 | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | 6 | | | | 6 | 15 | | | | 6 | | | | 6 | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 6300 MFLCPR 0.821 (11, 9) CYC EXP 7300 MFLCPR 0.827 (11, 9) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.919 (10, 9, 4) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.965 (10, 9, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.917 (10, 9, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.967 (10, 9, 4) FLOW-% 99.4 AXIAL PEAK 1.475 ( 4) FLOW-% 97.3 AXIAL PEAK 1.544 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0042 1.475 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0038 1.544 ( 4)

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130 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | 6 | | | | 6 | 7 | | | | | 6 | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | | 6 | | | 11 | | | | 6 | | | | 6 | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | 6 | | | | 6 | 15 | | | | | | 6 | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 7900 MFLCPR 0.835 (10, 9) CYC EXP 7900A MFLCPR 0.847 (11,10) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.958 (12, 6, 4) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.937 (10, 9, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.969 ( 6,13, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.932 ( 6,13, 4) FLOW-% 96.0 AXIAL PEAK 1.538 ( 4) FLOW-% 93.7 AXIAL PEAK 1.540 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0035 1.538 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0034 1.540 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | 6 | | | 7 | | | | | 4 | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | 6 | | | | 6 | 11 | | | | 4 | | | | 8 | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | | | 6 | | | 15 | | | | | | 8 | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 8900 MFLCPR 0.855 (11,10) CYC EXP 9900 MFLCPR 0.861 (13,12) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.883 ( 6,13, 4) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.799 ( 6,13, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.889 ( 6,13, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.806 ( 6,13, 4) FLOW-% 92.7 AXIAL PEAK 1.440 ( 4) FLOW-% 94.5 AXIAL PEAK 1.287 ( 5) K-EFF 1.0030 1.440 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0026 1.274 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | 6 | | | 7 | | | | | 6 | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | 6 | | | | 6 | 11 | | | | 6 | | | | 6 | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | | | 6 | | | 15 | | | | | | 6 | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 10700 MFLCPR 0.867 (11,10) CYC EXP 10700A MFLCPR 0.866 (11,10) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.722 (12,12,17) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.722 (12,12,17) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.720 ( 6,13, 4) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.720 ( 6,13, 4) FLOW-% 94.5 AXIAL PEAK 1.208 ( 8) FLOW-% 95.0 AXIAL PEAK 1.208 ( 8) K-EFF 1.0021 1.117 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0021 1.117 ( 4)

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131 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | 6 | | | 7 | | | | | | | 6 | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | 6 | | | | 6 | 11 | | | | | | 6 | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | | | 6 | | | 15 | | | | 6 | | | | 6 | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 11700 MFLCPR 0.861 (11,10) CYC EXP 12700 MFLCPR 0.951 (10, 8) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.764 (12,12,17) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.808 (11, 8,17) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.753 (11,11,17) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.783 (10,10,17) FLOW-% 99.7 AXIAL PEAK 1.232 (12) FLOW-% 93.3 AXIAL PEAK 1.270 (14) K-EFF 1.0018 0.924 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0012 0.838 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | | | | 7 | | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | | 6 | | | 11 | | | | | | 6 | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | | | | | | 15 | | | | | | | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 13700 MFLCPR 0.941 ( 7,13) CYC EXP 13700A MFLCPR 0.941 ( 7,13) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.835 ( 8,11,17) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.835 ( 8,11,17) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.810 (11, 8,17) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.810 (11, 8,17) FLOW-% 89.5 AXIAL PEAK 1.311 (14) FLOW-% 89.5 AXIAL PEAK 1.310 (14) K-EFF 1.0007 0.729 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0007 0.729 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | | | | 7 | | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | | | | | 11 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | | | | | 0 | 15 | | | | | | | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 14200 MFLCPR 0.966 (10, 9) CYC EXP 14950 MFLCPR 0.922 (10, 9) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.852 (12, 8,17) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.875 (10,10,17) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.868 (10,10,17) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.896 (10,10,17) FLOW-% 87.9 AXIAL PEAK 1.322 (14) FLOW-% 100.0 AXIAL PEAK 1.352 (18) K-EFF 1.0005 0.711 ( 4) K-EFF 1.0000 0.600 ( 4)

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132 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | | | | 7 | | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | | | | | 11 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | | | | | | 15 | | | | | | | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 15350 MFLCPR 0.900 (10, 9) CYC EXP 15800 MFLCPR 0.873 (10, 9) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.894 (10,10,18) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.880 ( 8,11,18) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.913 (10,10,18) POWER-% 100.0 MAPRAT 0.900 (10,10,18) FLOW-% 110.0 AXIAL PEAK 1.386 (19) FLOW-% 110.0 AXIAL PEAK 1.374 (19) K-EFF 0.9998 0.545 ( 4) K-EFF 0.9997 0.517 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | | | | 7 | | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | | | | | 11 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | | | | | | 15 | | | | | | | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 16100 MFLCPR 0.840 (10, 9) CYC EXP 16250 MFLCPR 0.819 (10, 9) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.859 ( 8,11,18) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.843 (10,10,19) POWER-% 95.7 MAPRAT 0.878 (10,10,18) POWER-% 93.1 MAPRAT 0.860 (10,10,18) FLOW-% 110.0 AXIAL PEAK 1.408 (20) FLOW-% 110.0 AXIAL PEAK 1.419 (20) K-EFF 0.9995 0.486 ( 4) K-EFF 0.9993 0.478 ( 4) 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 ----------------------------1 | | | | | 1 | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---| 3 | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---| 5 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 7 | | | | | | | | 7 | | | | | | | | ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| ---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 9 | | | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 11 | | | | | | | | | 11 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 13 | | | | | | | | | 13 | | | | | | | | | |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---| 15 | | | | | | | | | 15 | | | | | | | | | ------------------------------------------------------------CYC EXP 16250A MFLCPR 0.819 (10, 9) CYC EXP 16250A MFLCPR 0.819 (10, 9) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.843 (10,10,19) (MWD/ST) MFLPD 0.843 (10,10,19) POWER-% 93.1 MAPRAT 0.860 (10,10,18) POWER-% 93.1 MAPRAT 0.860 (10,10,18) FLOW-% 110.0 AXIAL PEAK 1.419 (20) FLOW-% 110.0 AXIAL PEAK 1.419 (20) K-EFF 0.9992 0.478 ( 4) K-EFF 0.9992 1.000 ( 4)

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133 Figure A-72. Cycle N+3 BOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns C y cle N+3 BOCDistributed Cold CriticalLocal Cold Critical #11 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484812 048000480 124848481 248484848 0000000 484848483 4484848 0480480480480 4848483 4484848 000000000 4848485 64848 01200012000120 48485 64848 00000000000 48487 848 0480480480480480480 487 848 0000000000000 489 1004800012000120004809 100000004804800000011 124804804804804804804804811 1200000480480480000013 1400012000120001200013 1400004804804800000015 164804804804804804804804815 1600000480480480000017 1800012000120001200017 1800004804804800000019 204804804804804804804804819 2000000480240480000021 22012000120001200048021 22000000003600000023 2448 0480480480480480480 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 01200012000120 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 0480480480480 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 048000480 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848 Local Cold Critical #2Local Cold Critical #31 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 0000000 484848481 248484848 04800000 484848483 4484848 000000000 4848483 4484848 060000000 4848485 64848 00000000000 48485 64848 4864800000000 48487 848 00002800000000 487 848 00480000000000 489 10000048048000000009 10004800000000000011 12000004800000000011 1200000000000000013 1400000000000000013 1400000000000000015 1600000000000000015 1600000000000000017 1800000000000000017 1800000000000000019 2000000000000000019 2000000000000000021 2200000000000000021 2200000000000000023 2448 0000000000000 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 00000000000 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 000000000 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 0000000 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848 Local Cold Critical #4Local Cold Critical #51 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 0000000 484848481 248484848 0000000 484848483 4484848 000000000 4848483 4484848 000000000 4848485 64848 0000480480000 48485 64848 00000000000 48487 848 00004864848480000 487 848 0000000000000 489 1000000448000000009 1000000000000000011 1200000000000000011 1200000000000000013 1400000000000000013 14000003048484800000015 1600000000000000015 1600000048484800000017 1800000000000000017 1800000048484800000019 2000000000000000019 2000000000000000021 2200000000000000021 2200000000000000023 2448 0000000000000 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 00000000000 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 000000000 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 0000000 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848

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134 Figure A-73. Cycle N+3 MOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns C y cle N+3 MOCDistributed Cold CriticalLocal Cold Critical #11 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 048000480 484848481 248484848 0000000 484848483 4484848 0480480480480 4848483 4484848 000000000 4848485 64848 04800048000480 48485 64848 00000000000 48487 848 0480480480480480480 487 848 0000000000000 489 1004800020000120004809 10000048048048048000011 124804804804804804804804811 1200000480480480000013 1400048000120004800013 140000484483648048000015 164804804804804804804804815 16000004826480480000017 1800048000120004800017 180000480484848048000019 204804804804804804804804819 2000000480480480000021 22048000120001200048021 22000048048048048000023 2448 0480480480480480480 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 04800048000480 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 0480480480480 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 048000480 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848 Local Cold Critical #2Local Cold Critical #31 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 0000000 484848481 248484848 00480000 484848483 4484848 000000000 4848483 4484848 4804000000 4848485 64848 004800000000 48485 64848 4844800000000 48487 848 002404800000000 487 848 00480000000000 489 10000048048000000009 10004800000000000011 12000004800000000011 1200000000000000013 1400000000000000013 1400000000000000015 1600000000000000015 1600000000000000017 1800000000000000017 1800000000000000019 2000000000000000019 2000000000000000021 2200000000000000021 2200000000000000023 2448 0000000000000 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 00000000000 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 000000000 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 0000000 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848 Local Cold Critical #4Local Cold Critical #51 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 0000000 484848481 248484848 0000000 484848483 4484848 000000000 4848483 4484848 000000000 4848485 64848 004804834480000 48485 64848 00000000000 48487 848 000048104848480000 487 848 0000000000000 489 100000000000000009 1000000000000000011 1200000000000000011 1200000400000000013 1400000000000000013 140000048484848480000015 1600000000000000015 160000048484848480000017 1800000000000000017 180000048484848480000019 2000000000000000019 2000000000000000021 2200000000000000021 2200000000000000023 2448 0000000000000 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 00000000000 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 000000000 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 0000000 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848

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135 Figure A-74. Cycle N+3 EOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns C y cle N+3 EOCDistributed Cold CriticalLocal Cold Critical #11 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 0600060 484848481 248484848 0000000 484848483 4484848 0480480480480 4848483 4484848 000000000 4848485 64848 06000400060 48485 64848 00000000000 48487 848 0480480480480480480 487 848 0000000000000 489 100600040004000609 10000048048048048000011 124804804804804804804804811 1200000484480480000013 1400060004000600013 140000480484848048000015 164804804804804804804804815 1600000480480480000017 1800060006000600017 18000048048048048000019 204804804804804804804804819 2000000480480480000021 2206000400040006021 22000048048048048000023 2448 0480480480480480480 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 06000400060 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 0480480480480 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 0600060 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848 Local Cold Critical #2Local Cold Critical #31 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 0000000 484848481 248484848 0040000 484848483 4484848 000000000 4848483 4484848 0048000000 4848485 64848 001000000000 48485 64848 4824800000000 48487 848 00004800000000 487 848 00480000000000 489 10000048048000000009 10004800000000000011 12000004800000000011 1200000000000000013 1400000000000000013 1400000000000000015 1600000000000000015 1600000000000000017 1800000000000000017 1800000000000000019 2000000000000000019 2000000000000000021 2200000000000000021 2200000000000000023 2448 0000000000000 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 00000000000 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 000000000 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 0000000 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848 Local Cold Critical #4Local Cold Critical #51 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 301 23 45 67 89 1011 1213 1415 1 617 1819 2021 2223 2425 2627 2829 30 1 248484848 0000000 484848481 248484848 0000000 484848483 4484848 000000000 4848483 4484848 000000000 4848485 64848 004804848480000 48485 64848 00000000000 48487 848 00004804848480000 487 848 0000000000000 489 100000000000000009 1000000000000000011 1200000000000000011 1200000600000000013 1400000000000000013 140000048484848480000015 1600000000000000015 160000048484848480000017 1800000000000000017 180000048484848480000019 2000000000000000019 2000000000000000021 2200000000000000021 2200000000000000023 2448 0000000000000 4823 2448 0000000000000 4825 264848 00000000000 484825 264848 00000000000 484827 28484848 000000000 48484827 28484848 000000000 48484829 3048484848 0000000 4848484829 3048484848 0000000 48484848

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136 Table A-11. Cycle N+3 Cold Critical Data Control Rod Pattern Exposure MWd/ST Exposure MWd/M T Temp Deg F Period Sec Notches Control Rod Density Keff Cycle 18 Distributed BOC 0 0 134 100 6228 0.70135 0.99915 ARI BOC 0 0 68 1000 8880 1.00000 0.93888 Local 1 BOC 0 0 137 62 8052 0.90676 0.99618 Local 2 BOC 0 0 168 82 8708 0.98063 0.99617 Local 3 BOC 0 0 187 35 8628 0.97162 0.99610 Local 4 BOC 0 0 181 88 8534 0.96104 0.99458 Local 5 BOC 0 0 194 72 8418 0.94797 0.99599 Distributed MOC 7900 8708 167 49 5824 0.65586 0.99676 ARI MOC 7900 8708 68 1000 8880 1.00000 0.92926 Local 1 MOC 7900 8708 176 89 7566 0.85203 0.99501 Local 2 MOC 7900 8708 75 100 8616 0.97027 0.99359 Local 3 MOC 7900 8708 134 77 8584 0.96667 0.99285 Local 4 MOC 7900 8708 120 18 8500 0.95721 0.99356 Local 5 MOC 7900 8708 167 300 8156 0.91847 0.99327 Distributed EOC 16250 17913 187 62 6638 0.74752 0.99216 ARI EOC 16250 17913 68 1000 8880 1.00000 0.93846 Local 1 EOC 16250 17913 82 127 7628 0.85901 0.99035 Local 2 EOC 16250 17913 195 114 8678 0.97725 0.98939 Local 3 EOC 16250 17913 224 15 8634 0.97230 0.98852 Local 4 EOC 16250 17913 160 76 8496 0.95676 0.98934 Local 5 EOC 16250 17913 72 1000 8154 0.91824 0.98957

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137 Cycle N+3 Hot Excess and SDM 0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.011 0.013 0.015 0.017 0.019 0.021 0.023 0.025 0.027 0.029 0.032 020004000600080001000012000140001600018000 Exposure (MWD/MT)Delta Kef f Hot Excess Delta Keff SDM Delta Keff Figure A-75. Cycle N+3 Pr edicted Hot Excess and SDM Table A-12. Cycle N+3 Hot Excess and SDM Data Exposure MWd/ST Hot Excess Delta Keff SDM Delta Keff 0 0.01903 0.00928 200 0.01712 0.01006 1000 0.01693 0.01146 2000 0.01729 0.01298 2600 0.01723 0.01390 3600 0.01699 0.01769 4600 0.01682 0.02127 5300 0.01684 0.02355 6300 0.01706 0.02571 7900 0.01781 0.02813 8900 0.01801 0.02474 9900 0.01784 0.02275 10700 0.01722 0.02134 11700 0.01566 0.01969 12700 0.01286 0.01752 13700 0.00866 0.01593 14950 0.00083 0.01482

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138 Cycle N+3 TIP Plots Cycle N+3 Exposure: 0 MWd/ST Average Axial Distributions 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 04812162024 NodeAverage TIP Reading Figure A-76. Cycle N+3 TIP results for 0 MWd/ST (BOC) Cycle N+3 Exposure: 4600 MWd/ST Average Axial Distributions 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 04812162024 NodeAverage TIP Reading Figure A-77. Cycle N+3 TIP results for 4600 MWd/ST

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139 Cycle N+3 Exposure: 8900 MWd/ST Average Axial Distributions 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 04812162024 NodeAverage TIP Reading Figure A-78. Cycle N+3 TIP results for 8900 MWd/ST Cycle N+3 Exposure: 15000 MWd/ST Average Axial Distributions 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 04812162024 NodeAverage TIP Reading Figure A-79. Cycle N+3 TIP results for 15000 MWd/ST (EOR)

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140 Cycle N+3 Exposure: 16250 MWd/ST Average Axial Distributions 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 04812162024 NodeAverage TIP Reading Figure A-80. Cycle N+3 TIP results for 16250 MWd/ST (EOC)

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APPENDIX B FUEL BUNDLE FIGURES

PAGE 158

142 Figure B-1. Fuel Bundle A BUNDLE AEnrichment: 4.009 wt% U-235 Legend: enrichment(wt% U-235); Gadolinia(wt% Gd2O3); WR = water rod; V = vanished rod; E = empty rod6ABCDEFGHJK5ABCDEFGHJK 10.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.7111.602.003.203.603.954.403.953.603.202.40 20.71V0.71V0.71EV0.71V0.7122.00V3.60V3.95 4.40 7.00 V4.40V3.60 30.710.71E0.710.710.710.710.71E0.7133.203.604.904.404.404.904.404.90 4.40 7.00 4.40 40.71V0.71E0.71WR-0.71V0.7143.60V4.40 4.90 6.00 4.40WR-4.40V4.90 50.710.710.710.71V--E0.710.7153.953.954.404.40V-4.90 7.00 4.904.90 60.71E0.71WR-V0.710.71E0.7164.40 4.40 7.00 4.90WR-V4.904.90 4.90 6.00 4.90 70.71V0.71--0.710.71EV0.7173.95V4.40--4.904.40 4.90 6.00 V4.90 80.710.710.710.71E0.71E0.71E0.7183.604.404.904.40 4.90 7.00 4.90 4.90 6.00 4.40 4.40 7.00 4.90 90.71VEV0.71EVEV0.7193.20V 4.40 7.00 V4.90 4.90 6.00 V 4.40 7.00 V4.40 100.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71102.403.604.404.904.904.904.904.904.403.60 4 ABCDEFGHJK 3 ABCDEFGHJK 11.602.003.203.603.954.403.953.603.202.4011.602.003.203.603.954.403.953.603.202.40 22.00E3.60E3.95 4.40 7.00 E4.40E3.6022.002.803.604.903.95 4.40 7.00 4.904.404.403.60 33.203.604.904.404.404.904.404.90 4.40 7.00 4.4033.203.604.904.404.404.904.404.90 4.40 7.00 4.40 43.60E4.40 4.90 6.00 4.40WR-4.40E4.9043.604.904.40 4.90 6.00 4.40WR-4.404.904.90 53.953.954.404.40E-4.90 7.00 4.904.9053.953.954.404.404.90-4.90 7.00 4.904.90 64.40 4.40 7.00 4.90WR-E4.904.90 4.90 6.00 4.9064.40 4.40 7.00 4.90WR-4.904.904.90 4.90 6.00 4.90 73.95E4.40--4.904.40 4.90 6.00 E4.9073.954.904.40--4.904.40 4.90 6.00 4.904.90 83.604.404.904.40 4.90 7.00 4.90 4.90 6.00 4.40 4.40 7.00 4.9083.604.404.904.40 4.90 7.00 4.90 4.90 6.00 4.40 4.40 7.00 4.90 93.20E 4.40 7.00 E4.90 4.90 6.00 E 4.40 7.00 E4.4093.204.40 4.40 7.00 4.904.90 4.90 6.00 4.90 4.40 7.00 4.904.40 102.403.604.404.904.904.904.904.904.403.60102.403.604.404.904.904.904.904.904.403.602ABCDEFGHJK1ABCDEFGHJK 11.602.003.203.603.954.403.953.603.202.4010.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 22.002.803.604.903.95 4.40 7.00 4.904.404.403.6020.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 33.203.60 4.90 7.00 4.404.404.904.404.90 4.40 7.00 4.4030.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 43.604.904.40 4.90 7.00 4.40WR-4.404.904.9040.710.710.710.710.71WR-0.710.710.71 53.953.954.404.404.90-4.90 7.00 4.904.9050.710.710.710.710.71--0.710.710.71 64.40 4.40 7.00 4.90WR-4.904.904.90 4.90 7.00 4.9060.710.710.71WR-0.710.710.710.710.71 73.954.904.40--4.904.40 4.90 7.00 4.904.9070.710.710.71--0.710.710.710.710.71 83.604.404.904.40 4.90 7.00 4.90 4.90 7.00 4.40 4.40 7.00 4.9080.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 93.204.40 4.40 7.00 4.904.90 4.90 7.00 4.90 4.40 7.00 4.904.4090.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 102.403.604.404.904.904.904.904.904.403.60100.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 6 5 4 3 2 1

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143 Figure B-2. Fuel Bundle B BUNDLE BEnrichment: 4.114 wt% U-235 Legend: enrichment(wt% U-235); Gadolinia(wt% Gd2O3); WR = water rod; V = vanished rod; E = empty rod6ABCDEFGHJK5ABCDEFGHJK 10.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.7111.602.003.203.603.954.403.953.603.202.40 20.71V0.71V0.71EV0.71V0.7122.00V3.95V4.90 4.40 7.00 V4.90V3.60 30.710.71E0.710.710.710.710.71E0.7133.203.954.904.904.904.904.904.90 4.40 7.00 4.40 40.71V0.71E0.71WR-0.71V0.7143.60V4.90 4.90 6.00 4.90WR-4.90V4.90 50.710.710.710.71V--E0.710.7153.954.904.904.90V-4.90 7.00 4.904.90 60.71E0.71WR-V0.710.71E0.7164.40 4.40 7.00 4.90WR-V4.904.90 4.90 6.00 4.90 70.71V0.71--0.710.71EV0.7173.95V4.90--4.904.90 4.90 6.00 V4.90 80.710.710.710.71E0.71E0.71E0.7183.604.904.904.90 4.90 7.00 4.90 4.90 6.00 4.90 4.40 7.00 4.90 90.71VEV0.71EVEV0.7193.20V 4.40 7.00 V4.90 4.90 6.00 V 4.40 7.00 V4.40 100.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71102.403.604.404.904.904.904.904.904.403.60 4 ABCDEFGHJK 3 ABCDEFGHJK 11.602.003.203.603.954.403.953.603.202.4011.602.003.203.603.954.403.953.603.202.40 22.00E3.95E4.90 4.40 7.00 E4.90E3.6022.002.803.954.904.90 4.40 7.00 4.904.904.403.60 33.203.954.904.904.904.904.904.90 4.40 7.00 4.4033.203.954.904.904.904.904.904.90 4.40 7.00 4.40 43.60E4.90 4.90 6.00 4.90WR-4.90E4.9043.604.904.90 4.90 6.00 4.90WR-4.904.904.90 53.954.904.904.90E-4.90 7.00 4.904.9053.954.904.904.904.90-4.90 7.00 4.904.90 64.40 4.40 7.00 4.90WR-E4.904.90 4.90 6.00 4.9064.40 4.40 7.00 4.90WR-4.904.904.90 4.90 6.00 4.90 73.95E4.90--4.904.90 4.90 6.00 E4.9073.954.904.90--4.904.90 4.90 6.00 4.904.90 83.604.904.904.90 4.90 7.00 4.90 4.90 6.00 4.90 4.40 7.00 4.9083.604.904.904.90 4.90 7.00 4.90 4.90 6.00 4.90 4.40 7.00 4.90 93.20E 4.40 7.00 E4.90 4.90 6.00 E 4.40 7.00 E4.4093.204.40 4.40 7.00 4.904.90 4.90 6.00 4.90 4.40 7.00 4.904.40 102.403.604.404.904.904.904.904.904.403.60102.403.604.404.904.904.904.904.904.403.602ABCDEFGHJK1ABCDEFGHJK 11.602.003.203.603.954.403.953.603.202.4010.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 22.002.803.954.904.90 4.40 7.00 4.904.904.403.6020.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 33.203.95 4.90 7.00 4.904.904.904.904.90 4.40 7.00 4.4030.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 43.604.904.90 4.90 7.00 4.90WR-4.904.904.9040.710.710.710.710.71WR-0.710.710.71 53.954.904.904.904.90-4.90 7.00 4.904.9050.710.710.710.710.71--0.710.710.71 64.40 4.40 7.00 4.90WR-4.904.904.90 4.90 7.00 4.9060.710.710.71WR-0.710.710.710.710.71 73.954.904.90--4.904.90 4.90 7.00 4.904.9070.710.710.71--0.710.710.710.710.71 83.604.904.904.90 4.90 7.00 4.90 4.90 7.00 4.90 4.40 7.00 4.9080.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 93.204.40 4.40 7.00 4.904.90 4.90 7.00 4.90 4.40 7.00 4.904.4090.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 102.403.604.404.904.904.904.904.904.403.60100.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 6 5 4 3 2 1

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144 Figure B-3. Fuel Bundle C BUNDLE CEnrichment: 3.966 wt% U-235 Legend: enrichment(wt% U-235); Gadolinia(wt% Gd2O3); WR = water rod; V = vanished rod; E = empty rod6ABCDEFGHJK5ABCDEFGHJK 10.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.7111.602.003.203.603.954.403.953.603.202.40 20.71V0.71V0.71EV0.71V0.7122.00V3.60V3.95 4.40 7.00 V4.40V3.60 30.710.71E0.710.710.710.710.71E0.7133.203.604.904.403.954.904.404.90 4.40 7.00 4.40 40.71V0.71E0.71WR-0.71V0.7143.60V4.40 4.90 6.00 4.40WR-4.40V4.90 50.710.710.710.71V--E0.710.7153.953.953.954.40V-4.90 7.00 4.404.90 60.71E0.71WR-V0.710.71E0.7164.40 4.40 7.00 4.90WR-V4.404.40 4.90 6.00 4.90 70.71V0.71--0.710.71EV0.7173.95V4.40--4.404.40 4.90 6.00 V4.90 80.710.710.710.71E0.71E0.71E0.7183.604.404.904.40 4.90 7.00 4.40 4.90 6.00 4.40 4.40 7.00 4.90 90.71VEV0.71EVEV0.7193.20V 4.40 7.00 V4.40 4.90 6.00 V 4.40 7.00 V4.40 100.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71102.403.604.404.904.904.904.904.904.403.60 4 ABCDEFGHJK 3 ABCDEFGHJK 11.602.003.203.603.954.403.953.603.202.4011.602.003.203.603.954.403.953.603.202.40 22.00E3.60E3.95 4.40 7.00 E4.40E3.6022.002.803.604.903.95 4.40 7.00 4.904.404.403.60 33.203.604.904.403.954.904.904.40 4.40 7.00 4.4033.203.604.904.403.954.904.404.90 4.40 7.00 4.40 43.60E4.40 4.90 6.00 4.40WR-4.40E4.9043.604.904.40 4.90 6.00 4.40WR-4.404.904.90 53.953.953.954.40E-4.90 7.00 4.404.9053.953.953.954.404.90-4.90 7.00 4.404.90 64.40 4.40 7.00 4.90WR-E4.404.40 4.90 6.00 4.9064.40 4.40 7.00 4.90WR-4.904.404.40 4.90 6.00 4.90 73.95E4.90--4.404.40 4.90 6.00 E4.9073.954.904.40--4.404.40 4.90 6.00 4.904.90 83.604.404.404.40 4.90 7.00 4.40 4.90 6.00 4.40 4.40 7.00 4.9083.604.404.904.40 4.90 7.00 4.40 4.90 6.00 4.40 4.40 7.00 4.90 93.20E 4.40 7.00 E4.40 4.90 6.00 E 4.40 7.00 E4.4093.204.40 4.40 7.00 4.904.40 4.90 6.00 4.90 4.40 7.00 4.904.40 102.403.604.404.904.904.904.904.904.403.60102.403.604.404.904.904.904.904.904.403.602ABCDEFGHJK1ABCDEFGHJK 11.602.003.203.603.954.403.953.603.202.4010.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 22.002.803.604.903.95 4.40 7.00 4.904.404.403.6020.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 33.203.60 4.90 7.00 4.403.954.904.404.90 4.40 7.00 4.4030.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 43.604.904.40 4.90 7.00 4.40WR-4.404.904.9040.710.710.710.710.71WR-0.710.710.71 53.953.953.954.404.90-4.90 7.00 4.404.9050.710.710.710.710.71--0.710.710.71 64.40 4.40 7.00 4.90WR-4.904.404.40 4.90 7.00 4.9060.710.710.71WR-0.710.710.710.710.71 73.954.904.40--4.404.40 4.90 7.00 4.904.9070.710.710.71--0.710.710.710.710.71 83.604.404.904.40 4.90 7.00 4.40 4.90 7.00 4.40 4.40 7.00 4.9080.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 93.204.40 4.40 7.00 4.904.40 4.90 7.00 4.90 4.40 7.00 4.904.4090.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 102.403.604.404.904.904.904.904.904.403.60100.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 6 5 4 3 2 1

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145 Figure B-4. Fuel Bundle D BUNDLE DEnrichment: 4.151 wt% U-235 Legend: enrichment(wt% U-235); Gadolinia(wt% Gd2O3); WR = water rod; V = vanished rod; E = empty rod6ABCDEFGHJK5ABCDEFGHJK 10.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.7111.602.003.203.603.954.403.953.953.202.80 20.71V0.71V0.71EV0.71V0.7122.00V4.90V4.90 4.40 7.00 V4.90V3.60 30.710.71E0.710.710.710.710.71E0.7133.204.904.904.904.904.904.904.90 4.40 7.00 4.40 40.71V0.71E0.71WR-0.71V0.7143.60V4.90 4.90 6.00 4.90WR-4.90V4.90 50.710.710.710.71V--E0.710.7153.954.904.904.90V-4.90 7.00 4.904.90 60.71E0.71WR-V0.710.71E0.7164.40 4.40 7.00 4.90WR-V4.904.90 4.90 6.00 4.90 70.71V0.71--0.710.71EV0.7173.95V4.90--4.904.90 4.90 6.00 V4.90 80.710.710.710.71E0.71E0.71E0.7183.954.904.904.90 4.90 7.00 4.90 4.90 6.00 4.90 4.40 7.00 4.90 90.71VEV0.71EVEV0.7193.20V 4.40 7.00 V4.90 4.90 6.00 V 4.40 7.00 V4.40 100.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71102.803.604.404.904.904.904.904.904.403.60 4 ABCDEFGHJK 3 ABCDEFGHJK 11.602.003.203.603.954.403.953.953.202.8011.602.003.203.603.954.403.953.953.202.80 22.00E4.90E4.90 4.40 7.00 E4.90E3.6022.002.804.904.904.90 4.40 7.00 4.904.904.403.60 33.204.904.904.904.904.904.904.90 4.40 7.00 4.4033.204.904.904.904.904.904.904.90 4.40 7.00 4.40 43.60E4.90 4.90 6.00 4.90WR-4.90E4.9043.604.904.90 4.90 6.00 4.90WR-4.904.904.90 53.954.904.904.90E-4.90 7.00 4.904.9053.954.904.904.904.90-4.90 7.00 4.904.90 64.40 4.40 7.00 4.90WR-E4.904.90 4.90 6.00 4.9064.40 4.40 7.00 4.90WR-4.904.904.90 4.90 6.00 4.90 73.95E4.90--4.904.90 4.90 6.00 E4.9073.954.904.90--4.904.90 4.90 6.00 4.904.90 83.954.904.904.90 4.90 7.00 4.90 4.90 6.00 4.90 4.40 7.00 4.9083.954.904.904.90 4.90 7.00 4.90 4.90 6.00 4.90 4.40 7.00 4.90 93.20E 4.40 7.00 E4.90 4.90 6.00 E 4.40 7.00 E4.4093.204.40 4.40 7.00 4.904.90 4.90 6.00 4.90 4.40 7.00 4.904.40 102.803.604.404.904.904.904.904.904.403.60102.803.604.404.904.904.904.904.904.403.602ABCDEFGHJK1ABCDEFGHJK 11.602.003.203.603.954.403.953.953.202.8010.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 22.002.804.904.904.90 4.40 7.00 4.904.904.403.6020.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 33.204.90 4.90 7.00 4.904.904.904.904.90 4.40 7.00 4.4030.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 43.604.904.90 4.90 7.00 4.90WR-4.904.904.9040.710.710.710.710.71WR-0.710.710.71 53.954.904.904.904.90-4.90 7.00 4.904.9050.710.710.710.710.71--0.710.710.71 64.40 4.40 7.00 4.90WR-4.904.904.90 4.90 7.00 4.9060.710.710.71WR-0.710.710.710.710.71 73.954.904.90--4.904.90 4.90 7.00 4.904.9070.710.710.71--0.710.710.710.710.71 83.954.904.904.90 4.90 7.00 4.90 4.90 7.00 4.90 4.40 7.00 4.9080.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 93.204.40 4.40 7.00 4.904.90 4.90 7.00 4.90 4.40 7.00 4.904.4090.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 102.803.604.404.904.904.904.904.904.403.60100.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 6 5 4 3 2 1

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146 Figure B-5. Fuel Bundle E BUNDLE EEnrichment: 3.997 wt% U-235 Legend: enrichment(wt% U-235); Gadolinia(wt% Gd2O3); WR = water rod; V = vanished rod; E = empty rod6ABCDEFGHJK5ABCDEFGHJK 10.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.7111.571.973.153.543.884.333.883.543.152.36 20.71V0.71V0.71EV0.71V0.7121.97V3.54V3.88 4.33 7.00 V4.33V3.54 30.710.71E0.710.710.710.710.71E0.7133.153.544.824.824.334.824.824.82 4.33 7.00 4.33 40.71V0.71E0.71WR-0.71V0.7143.54V4.82 4.82 6.00 4.82WR-4.82V4.82 50.710.710.710.71V--E0.710.7153.883.884.334.82V-4.82 7.00 4.824.82 60.71E0.71WR-V0.710.71E0.7164.33 4.33 7.00 4.82WR-V4.824.82 4.82 6.00 4.82 70.71V0.71--0.710.71EV0.7173.88V4.82--4.824.82 4.82 6.00 V4.82 80.710.710.710.71E0.71E0.71E0.7183.544.334.824.82 4.82 7.00 4.82 4.82 6.00 4.82 4.33 7.00 4.82 90.71VEV0.71EVEV0.7193.15V 4.33 7.00 V4.82 4.82 6.00 V 4.33 7.00 V4.33 100.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71102.363.544.334.824.824.824.824.824.333.54 4 ABCDEFGHJK 3 ABCDEFGHJK 11.571.973.153.543.884.333.883.543.152.3611.571.973.153.543.884.333.883.543.152.36 21.97E3.54E3.88 4.33 7.00 E4.33E3.5421.972.753.544.823.88 4.33 7.00 4.824.334.333.54 33.153.544.824.824.334.824.824.82 4.33 7.00 4.3333.153.544.824.824.334.824.824.82 4.33 7.00 4.33 43.54E4.82 4.82 6.00 4.82WR-4.82E4.8243.544.824.82 4.82 6.00 4.82WR-4.824.824.82 53.883.884.334.82E-4.82 7.00 4.824.8253.883.884.334.824.82-4.82 7.00 4.824.82 64.33 4.33 7.00 4.82WR-E4.824.82 4.82 6.00 4.8264.33 4.33 7.00 4.82WR-4.824.824.82 4.82 6.00 4.82 73.88E4.82--4.824.82 4.82 6.00 E4.8273.884.824.82--4.824.82 4.82 6.00 4.824.82 83.544.334.824.82 4.82 7.00 4.82 4.82 6.00 4.82 4.33 7.00 4.8283.544.334.824.82 4.82 7.00 4.82 4.82 6.00 4.82 4.33 7.00 4.82 93.15E 4.33 7.00 E4.82 4.82 6.00 E 4.33 7.00 E4.3393.154.33 4.33 7.00 4.824.82 4.82 6.00 4.82 4.33 7.00 4.824.33 102.363.544.334.824.824.824.824.824.333.54102.363.544.334.824.824.824.824.824.333.542ABCDEFGHJK1ABCDEFGHJK 11.571.973.153.543.884.333.883.543.152.3610.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 21.972.753.544.823.88 4.33 7.00 4.824.334.333.5420.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 33.153.54 4.82 7.00 4.824.334.824.824.82 4.33 7.00 4.3330.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 43.544.824.82 4.82 7.00 4.82WR-4.824.824.8240.710.710.710.710.71WR-0.710.710.71 53.883.884.334.824.82-4.82 7.00 4.824.8250.710.710.710.710.71--0.710.710.71 64.33 4.33 7.00 4.82WR-4.824.824.82 4.82 7.00 4.8260.710.710.71WR-0.710.710.710.710.71 73.884.824.82--4.824.82 4.82 7.00 4.824.8270.710.710.71--0.710.710.710.710.71 83.544.334.824.82 4.82 7.00 4.82 4.82 7.00 4.82 4.33 7.00 4.8280.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 93.154.33 4.33 7.00 4.824.82 4.82 7.00 4.82 4.33 7.00 4.824.3390.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 102.363.544.334.824.824.824.824.824.333.54100.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 6 5 4 3 2 1

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147 Figure B-6. Fuel Bundle F BUNDLE FEnrichment: 4.115 wt% U-235 Legend: enrichment(wt% U-235); Gadolinia(wt% Gd2O3); WR = water rod; V = vanished rod; E = empty rod6ABCDEFGHJK5ABCDEFGHJK 10.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.7111.622.033.243.654.004.464.003.653.242.43 20.71V0.71V0.71EV0.71V0.7122.03V3.65V4.00 4.46 7.00 V4.46V3.65 30.710.71E0.710.710.710.710.71E0.7133.243.654.964.964.464.964.964.96 4.46 7.00 4.46 40.71V0.71E0.71WR-0.71V0.7143.65V4.96 4.96 6.00 4.96WR-4.96V4.96 50.710.710.710.71V--E0.710.7154.004.004.464.96V-4.96 7.00 4.964.96 60.71E0.71WR-V0.710.71E0.7164.46 4.46 7.00 4.96WR-V4.964.96 4.96 6.00 4.96 70.71V0.71--0.710.71EV0.7174.00V4.96--4.964.96 4.96 6.00 V4.96 80.710.710.710.71E0.71E0.71E0.7183.654.464.964.96 4.96 7.00 4.96 4.96 6.00 4.96 4.46 7.00 4.96 90.71VEV0.71EVEV0.7193.24V 4.46 7.00 V4.96 4.96 6.00 V 4.46 7.00 V4.46 100.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71102.433.654.464.964.964.964.964.964.463.65 4 ABCDEFGHJK 3 ABCDEFGHJK 11.622.033.243.654.004.464.003.653.242.4311.622.033.243.654.004.464.003.653.242.43 22.03E3.65E4.00 4.46 7.00 E4.46E3.6522.032.843.654.964.00 4.46 7.00 4.964.464.463.65 33.243.654.964.964.464.964.964.96 4.46 7.00 4.4633.243.654.964.964.464.964.964.96 4.46 7.00 4.46 43.65E4.96 4.96 6.00 4.96WR-4.96E4.9643.654.964.96 4.96 6.00 4.96WR-4.964.964.96 54.004.004.464.96E-4.96 7.00 4.964.9654.004.004.464.964.96-4.96 7.00 4.964.96 64.46 4.46 7.00 4.96WR-E4.964.96 4.96 6.00 4.9664.46 4.46 7.00 4.96WR-4.964.964.96 4.96 6.00 4.96 74.00E4.96--4.964.96 4.96 6.00 E4.9674.004.964.96--4.964.96 4.96 6.00 4.964.96 83.654.464.964.96 4.96 7.00 4.96 4.96 6.00 4.96 4.46 7.00 4.9683.654.464.964.96 4.96 7.00 4.96 4.96 6.00 4.96 4.46 7.00 4.96 93.24E 4.46 7.00 E4.96 4.96 6.00 E 4.46 7.00 E4.4693.244.46 4.46 7.00 4.964.96 4.96 6.00 4.96 4.46 7.00 4.964.46 102.433.654.464.964.964.964.964.964.463.65102.433.654.464.964.964.964.964.964.463.652ABCDEFGHJK1ABCDEFGHJK 11.622.033.243.654.004.464.003.653.242.4310.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 22.032.843.654.964.00 4.46 7.00 4.964.464.463.6520.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 33.243.65 4.96 7.00 4.964.464.964.964.96 4.46 7.00 4.4630.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 43.654.964.96 4.96 7.00 4.96WR-4.964.964.9640.710.710.710.710.71WR-0.710.710.71 54.004.004.464.964.96-4.96 7.00 4.964.9650.710.710.710.710.71--0.710.710.71 64.46 4.46 7.00 4.96WR-4.964.964.96 4.96 7.00 4.9660.710.710.71WR-0.710.710.710.710.71 74.004.964.96--4.964.96 4.96 7.00 4.964.9670.710.710.71--0.710.710.710.710.71 83.654.464.964.96 4.96 7.00 4.96 4.96 7.00 4.96 4.46 7.00 4.9680.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 93.244.46 4.46 7.00 4.964.96 4.96 7.00 4.96 4.46 7.00 4.964.4690.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 102.433.654.464.964.964.964.964.964.463.65100.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 6 5 4 3 2 1

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148 Figure B-7. Fuel Bundle G BUNDLE GEnrichment: 4.065 wt% U-235 Legend: enrichment(wt% U-235); Gadolinia(wt% Gd2O3); WR = water rod; V = vanished rod; E = empty rod6ABCDEFGHJK5ABCDEFGHJK 10.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.7111.632.043.263.664.024.484.023.663.262.44 20.71V0.71V0.71EV0.71V0.7122.04V3.66V4.02 4.48 7.00 V4.48V3.66 30.710.71E0.710.710.710.710.71E0.7133.263.664.994.994.484.994.994.99 4.48 7.00 4.48 40.71V0.71E0.71WR-0.71V0.7143.66V4.99 4.99 6.00 4.99WR-4.99V4.99 50.710.710.710.71V--E0.710.7154.024.024.484.99V-4.99 7.00 4.994.99 60.71E0.71WR-V0.710.71E0.7164.48 4.48 7.00 4.99WR-V4.994.99 4.99 6.00 4.99 70.71V0.71--0.710.71EV0.7174.02V4.99--4.994.99 4.99 6.00 V4.99 80.710.710.710.71E0.71E0.71E0.7183.664.484.994.99 4.99 7.00 4.99 4.99 6.00 4.99 4.48 7.00 4.99 90.71VEV0.71EVEV0.7193.26V 4.48 7.00 V4.99 4.99 6.00 V 4.48 7.00 V4.48 100.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71102.443.664.484.994.994.994.994.994.483.66 4 ABCDEFGHJK 3 ABCDEFGHJK 11.632.043.263.664.024.484.023.663.262.4411.581.983.163.563.904.353.903.563.162.37 22.04E3.66E4.02 4.48 7.00 E4.48E3.6621.982.773.564.843.90 4.35 7.00 4.844.354.353.56 33.263.664.994.994.484.994.994.99 4.48 7.00 4.4833.163.564.844.844.354.844.844.84 4.35 7.00 4.35 43.66E4.99 4.99 6.00 4.99WR-4.99E4.9943.564.844.84 4.84 6.00 4.84WR-4.844.844.84 54.024.024.484.99E-4.99 7.00 4.994.9953.903.904.354.844.84-4.84 7.00 4.844.84 64.48 4.48 7.00 4.99WR-E4.994.99 4.99 6.00 4.9964.35 4.35 7.00 4.84WR-4.844.844.84 4.84 6.00 4.84 74.02E4.99--4.994.99 4.99 6.00 E4.9973.904.844.84--4.844.84 4.84 6.00 4.844.84 83.664.484.994.99 4.99 7.00 4.99 4.99 6.00 4.99 4.48 7.00 4.9983.564.354.844.84 4.84 7.00 4.84 4.84 6.00 4.84 4.35 7.00 4.84 93.26E 4.48 7.00 E4.99 4.99 6.00 E 4.48 7.00 E4.4893.164.35 4.35 7.00 4.844.84 4.84 6.00 4.84 4.35 7.00 4.844.35 102.443.664.484.994.994.994.994.994.483.66102.373.564.354.844.844.844.844.844.353.562ABCDEFGHJK1ABCDEFGHJK 11.581.983.163.563.904.353.903.563.162.3710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 21.982.773.564.843.904.354.844.354.353.5620.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 33.163.56 4.84 7.00 4.844.35 8 47.4.844.84 4.35 7.00 4.3530.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 43.564.844.84 4.84 7.00 4.84WR-4.844.844.8440.710.710.710.710.71WR-0.710.710.71 53.903.904.354.844.84-4.84 7.00 4.844.8450.710.710.710.710.71--0.710.710.71 64.354.35 8 47.WR-4.844.844.84 4.84 7.00 4.8460.710.710.71WR-0.710.710.710.710.71 73.904.844.84--4.844.84 4.84 7.00 4.844.8470.710.710.71--0.710.710.710.710.71 83.564.354.844.84 4.84 7.00 4.84 4.84 7.00 4.84 4.35 7.00 4.8480.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 93.164.35 4.35 7.00 4.844.84 4.84 7.00 4.84 4.35 7.00 4.844.3590.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 102.373.564.354.844.844.844.844.844.353.56100.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 6 5 4 3 2 1

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149 Figure B-8. Fuel Bundle H BUNDLE H Enrichment: 4.064 wt% U-235Legend: enrichment(wt% U-235); Gadolinia(wt% Gd2O3); WR = water rod; V = vanished rod; E = empty rod6ABCDEFGHJK5ABCDEFGHJK 10.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.7111.571.963.143.543.884.323.883.543.142.3620.71V0.71V0.71EV0.71V0.7121.96V3.54V3.88 4.32 7.00 V4.32V3.5430.710.71E0.710.710.710.710.71E0.7133.143.544.814.814.324.814.814.81 4.32 7.00 4.3240.71V0.71E0.71WR-0.71V0.7143.54V4.81 4.81 6.00 4.81WR-4.81V4.8150.710.710.710.71V--E0.710.7153.883.884.324.81V-4.81 7.00 4.814.8160.71E0.71WR-V0.710.71E0.7164.32 4.32 7.00 4.81WR-V4.814.81 4.81 6.00 4.8170.71V0.71--0.710.71EV0.7173.88V4.81--4.814.81 4.81 6.00 V4.8180.710.710.710.71E0.71E0.71E0.7183.544.324.814.81 4.81 7.00 4.81 4.81 6.00 4.81 4.32 7.00 4.8190.71VEV0.71EVEV0.7193.14V 4.32 7.00 V4.81 4.81 6.00 V 4.32 7.00 V4.32100.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71102.363.544.324.814.814.814.814.814.323.54 4 ABCDEFGHJK 3 ABCDEFGHJK 11.571.963.143.543.884.323.883.543.142.3611.622.023.243.644.004.454.003.643.242.4321.96E3.54E3.88 4.32 7.00 E4.32E3.5422.022.833.644.964.00 4.45 7.00 4.964.454.453.6433.143.544.814.814.324.814.814.81 4.32 7.00 4.3233.243.644.964.964.454.964.964.96 4.45 7.00 4.4543.54E4.81 4.81 6.00 4.81WR-4.81E4.8143.644.964.96 4.96 6.00 4.96WR-4.964.964.9653.883.884.324.81E-4.81 7.00 4.814.8154.004.004.454.964.96-4.96 7.00 4.964.9664.32 4.32 7.00 4.81WR-E4.814.81 4.81 6.00 4.8164.45 4.45 7.00 4.96WR-4.964.964.96 4.96 6.00 4.9673.88E4.81--4.814.81 4.81 6.00 E4.8174.004.964.96--4.964.96 4.96 6.00 4.964.9683.544.324.814.81 4.81 7.00 4.81 4.81 6.00 4.81 4.32 7.00 4.8183.644.454.964.96 4.96 7.00 4.96 4.96 6.00 4.96 4.45 7.00 4.9693.14E 4.32 7.00 E4.81 4.81 6.00 E 4.32 7.00 E4.3293.244.45 4.45 7.00 4.964.96 4.96 6.00 4.96 4.45 7.00 4.964.45102.363.544.324.814.814.814.814.814.323.54102.433.644.454.964.964.964.964.964.453.642ABCDEFGHJK1ABCDEFGHJK 11.622.023.243.644.004.454.003.643.242.4310.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 22.022.833.644.964.00 4.45 7.00 4.964.454.453.6420.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 33.243.64 4.96 7.00 4.964.454.964.964.96 4.45 7.00 4.4530.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 43.644.964.96 4.96 7.00 4.96WR-4.964.964.9640.710.710.710.710.71WR-0.710.710.71 54.004.004.454.964.96-4.96 7.00 4.964.9650.710.710.710.710.71--0.710.710.71 64.45 4.45 7.00 4.96WR-4.964.964.96 4.96 7.00 4.9660.710.710.71WR-0.710.710.710.710.71 74.004.964.96--4.964.96 4.96 7.00 4.964.9670.710.710.71--0.710.710.710.710.71 83.644.454.964.96 4.96 7.00 4.96 4.96 7.00 4.96 4.45 7.00 4.9680.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 93.244.45 4.45 7.00 4.964.96 4.96 7.00 4.96 4.45 7.00 4.964.4590.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 102.433.644.454.964.964.964.964.964.453.64100.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 6 5 4 3 2 1

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150 Figure B-9. Fuel Bundle I BUNDLE IEnrichment: 4.063 wt% U-235 Legend: enrichment(wt% U-235); Gadolinia(wt% Gd2O3); WR = water rod; V = vanished rod; E = empty rod6ABCDEFGHJK5ABCDEFGHJK 10.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.7111.602.003.203.603.954.403.953.603.202.4020.71V0.71V0.71EV0.71V0.7122.00V3.60V3.95 4.40 7.50 V4.40V3.6030.710.71E0.710.710.710.710.71E0.7133.203.604.904.904.404.904.904.90 4.40 7.50 4.4040.71V0.71E0.71WR-0.71V0.7143.60V4.90 4.90 6.50 4.90WR-4.90V4.9050.710.710.710.71V--E0.710.7153.953.954.404.90V-4.90 7.50 4.904.9060.71E0.71WR-V0.710.71E0.7164.40 4.40 7.50 4.90WR-V4.904.90 4.90 6.50 4.9070.71V0.71--0.710.71EV0.7173.95V4.90--4.904.90 4.90 6.50 V4.9080.710.710.710.71E0.71E0.71E0.7183.604.404.904.90 4.90 7.50 4.90 4.90 6.50 4.90 4.40 7.50 4.9090.71VEV0.71EVEV0.7193.20V 4.40 7.50 V4.90 4.90 6.50 V 4.40 7.50 V4.40100.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71102.403.604.404.904.904.904.904.904.403.60 4 ABCDEFGHJK 3 ABCDEFGHJK 11.602.003.203.603.954.403.953.603.202.4011.602.003.203.603.954.403.953.603.202.4022.00E3.60E3.95 4.40 7.50 E4.40E3.6022.002.803.604.903.95 4.40 7.50 4.904.404.403.6033.203.604.904.904.404.904.904.90 4.40 7.50 4.4033.203.604.904.904.404.904.904.90 4.40 7.50 4.4043.60E4.90 4.90 6.50 4.90WR-4.90E4.9043.604.904.90 4.90 6.50 4.90WR-4.904.904.9053.953.954.404.90E-4.90 7.50 4.904.9053.953.954.404.904.90-4.90 7.50 4.904.9064.40 4.40 7.50 4.90WR-E4.904.90 4.90 6.50 4.9064.40 4.40 7.50 4.90WR-4.904.904.90 4.90 6.50 4.9073.95E4.90--4.904.90 4.90 6.50 E4.9073.954.904.90--4.904.90 4.90 6.50 4.904.9083.604.404.904.90 4.90 7.50 4.90 4.90 6.50 4.90 4.40 7.50 4.9083.604.404.904.90 4.90 7.50 4.90 4.90 6.50 4.90 4.40 7.50 4.9093.20E 4.40 7.50 E4.90 4.90 6.50 E 4.40 7.50 E4.4093.204.40 4.40 7.50 4.904.90 4.90 6.50 4.90 4.40 7.50 4.904.40102.403.604.404.904.904.904.904.904.403.60102.403.604.404.904.904.904.904.904.403.602ABCDEFGHJK1ABCDEFGHJK 11.602.003.203.603.954.403.953.603.202.4010.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 22.002.803.604.903.95 4.40 7.50 4.904.404.403.6020.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 33.203.60 4.90 7.50 4.904.404.904.904.90 4.40 7.50 4.4030.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 43.604.904.90 4.90 7.50 4.90WR-4.904.904.9040.710.710.710.710.71WR-0.710.710.71 53.953.954.404.904.90-4.90 7.50 4.904.9050.710.710.710.710.71--0.710.710.71 64.40 4.40 7.50 4.90WR-4.904.904.90 4.90 7.50 4.9060.710.710.71WR-0.710.710.710.710.71 73.954.904.90--4.904.90 4.90 7.50 4.904.9070.710.710.71--0.710.710.710.710.71 83.604.404.904.90 4.90 7.50 4.90 4.90 7.50 4.90 4.40 7.50 4.9080.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 93.204.40 4.40 7.50 4.904.90 4.90 7.50 4.90 4.40 7.50 4.904.4090.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 102.403.604.404.904.904.904.904.904.403.60100.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 6 5 4 3 2 1

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151 Figure B-10. Fuel Bundle J BUNDLE JEnrichment: 4.064 wt% U-235 Legend: enrichment(wt% U-235); Gadolinia(wt% Gd2O3); WR = water rod; V = vanished rod; E = empty rod6ABCDEFGHJK5ABCDEFGHJK 10.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.7111.602.003.203.603.954.403.953.603.202.4020.71V0.71V0.71EV0.71V0.7122.00V3.60V3.95 4.40 6.75 V4.40V3.6030.710.71E0.710.710.710.710.71E0.7133.203.604.904.904.404.904.904.90 4.40 6.75 4.4040.71V0.71E0.71WR-0.71V0.7143.60V4.90 4.90 5.00 4.90WR-4.90V4.9050.710.710.710.71V--E0.710.7153.953.954.404.90V-4.90 6.75 4.904.9060.71E0.71WR-V0.710.71E0.7164.40 4.40 6.75 4.90WR-V4.904.90 4.90 5.00 4.9070.71V0.71--0.710.71EV0.7173.95V4.90--4.904.90 4.90 5.00 V4.9080.710.710.710.71E0.71E0.71E0.7183.604.404.904.90 4.90 6.75 4.90 4.90 5.00 4.90 4.40 6.75 4.9090.71VEV0.71EVEV0.7193.20V 4.40 6.75 V4.90 4.90 5.00 V 4.40 6.75 V4.40100.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71102.403.604.404.904.904.904.904.904.403.60 4 ABCDEFGHJK 3 ABCDEFGHJK 11.602.003.203.603.954.403.953.603.202.4011.602.003.203.603.954.403.953.603.202.4022.00E3.60E3.95 4.40 6.75 E4.40E3.6022.002.803.604.903.95 4.40 7.25 4.904.404.403.6033.203.604.904.904.404.904.904.90 4.40 6.75 4.4033.203.604.904.904.404.904.904.90 4.40 7.25 4.4043.60E4.90 4.90 5.00 4.90WR-4.90E4.9043.604.904.90 4.90 6.25 4.90WR-4.904.904.9053.953.954.404.90E-4.90 6.75 4.904.9053.953.954.404.904.90-4.90 7.25 4.904.9064.40 4.40 6.75 4.90WR-E4.904.90 4.90 5.00 4.9064.40 4.40 7.25 4.90WR-4.904.904.90 4.90 6.25 4.9073.95E4.90--4.904.90 4.90 5.00 E4.9073.954.904.90--4.904.90 4.90 6.25 4.904.9083.604.404.904.90 4.90 6.75 4.90 4.90 5.00 4.90 4.40 6.75 4.9083.604.404.904.90 4.90 7.25 4.90 4.90 6.25 4.90 4.40 7.25 4.9093.20E 4.40 6.75 E4.90 4.90 5.00 E 4.40 6.75 E4.4093.204.40 4.40 7.25 4.904.90 4.90 6.25 4.90 4.40 7.25 4.904.40102.403.604.404.904.904.904.904.904.403.60102.403.604.404.904.904.904.904.904.403.602ABCDEFGHJK1ABCDEFGHJK 11.602.003.203.603.954.403.953.603.202.4010.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 22.002.803.604.903.95 4.40 7.25 4.904.404.403.6020.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 33.203.60 4.90 7.25 4.904.404.904.904.90 4.40 7.25 4.4030.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 43.604.904.90 4.90 7.25 4.90WR-4.904.904.9040.710.710.710.710.71WR-0.710.710.71 53.953.954.404.904.90-4.90 7.25 4.904.9050.710.710.710.710.71--0.710.710.71 64.40 4.40 7.25 4.90WR-4.904.904.90 4.90 7.25 4.9060.710.710.71WR-0.710.710.710.710.71 73.954.904.90--4.904.90 4.90 7.25 4.904.9070.710.710.71--0.710.710.710.710.71 83.604.404.904.90 4.90 7.25 4.90 4.90 7.25 4.90 4.40 7.25 4.9080.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 93.204.40 4.40 7.25 4.904.90 4.90 7.25 4.90 4.40 7.25 4.904.4090.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 102.403.604.404.904.904.904.904.904.403.60100.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 6 5 4 3 2 1

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152 Figure B-11. Fuel Bundle K BUNDLE KEnrichment: 4.064 wt% U-235 Legend: enrichment(wt% U-235); Gadolinia(wt% Gd2O3); WR = water rod; V = vanished rod; E = empty rod6ABCDEFGHJK5ABCDEFGHJK 10.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.7111.602.003.203.603.954.403.953.603.202.4020.71V0.71V0.71EV0.71V0.7122.00V3.60V3.95 4.40 6.75 V4.40V3.6030.710.71E0.710.710.710.710.71E0.7133.203.604.904.904.404.904.904.90 4.40 6.75 4.4040.71V0.71E0.71WR-0.71V0.7143.60V4.90 4.90 5.00 4.90WR-4.90V4.9050.710.710.710.71V--E0.710.7153.953.954.404.90V-4.90 6.75 4.904.9060.71E0.71WR-V0.710.71E0.7164.40 4.40 6.75 4.90WR-V4.904.90 4.90 5.00 4.9070.71V0.71--0.710.71EV0.7173.95V4.90--4.904.90 4.90 5.00 V4.9080.710.710.710.71E0.71E0.71E0.7183.604.404.904.90 4.90 6.75 4.90 4.90 5.00 4.90 4.40 6.75 4.9090.71VEV0.71EVEV0.7193.20V 4.40 6.75 V4.90 4.90 5.00 V 4.40 6.75 V4.40100.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71102.403.604.404.904.904.904.904.904.403.60 4 ABCDEFGHJK 3 ABCDEFGHJK 11.602.003.203.603.954.403.953.603.202.4011.602.003.203.603.954.403.953.603.202.4022.00E3.60E3.95 4.40 6.75 E4.40E3.6022.002.803.604.903.95 4.40 7.25 4.904.404.403.6033.203.604.904.904.404.904.904.90 4.40 6.75 4.4033.203.604.904.904.404.904.904.90 4.40 7.25 4.4043.60E4.90 4.90 5.00 4.90WR-4.90E4.9043.604.904.90 4.90 6.25 4.90WR-4.904.904.9053.953.954.404.90E-4.90 6.75 4.904.9053.953.954.404.904.90-4.90 7.25 4.904.9064.40 4.40 6.75 4.90WR-E4.904.90 4.90 5.00 4.9064.40 4.40 7.25 4.90WR-4.904.904.90 4.90 6.25 4.9073.95E4.90--4.904.90 4.90 5.00 E4.9073.954.904.90--4.904.90 4.90 6.25 4.904.9083.604.404.904.90 4.90 6.75 4.90 4.90 5.00 4.90 4.40 6.75 4.9083.604.404.904.90 4.90 7.25 4.90 4.90 6.25 4.90 4.40 7.25 4.9093.20E 4.40 6.75 E4.90 4.90 5.00 E 4.40 6.75 E4.4093.204.40 4.40 7.25 4.904.90 4.90 6.25 4.90 4.40 7.25 4.904.40102.403.604.404.904.904.904.904.904.403.60102.403.604.404.904.904.904.904.904.403.602ABCDEFGHJK1ABCDEFGHJK 11.602.003.203.603.954.403.953.603.202.4010.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 22.002.803.604.903.95 4.40 7.25 4.904.404.403.6020.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 33.203.60 4.90 7.25 4.904.404.904.904.90 4.40 7.25 4.4030.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 43.604.904.90 4.90 7.25 4.90WR-4.904.904.9040.710.710.710.710.71WR-0.710.710.71 53.953.954.404.904.90-4.90 7.25 4.904.9050.710.710.710.710.71--0.710.710.71 64.40 4.40 7.25 4.90WR-4.904.904.90 4.90 7.25 4.9060.710.710.71WR-0.710.710.710.710.71 73.954.904.90--4.904.90 4.90 7.25 4.904.9070.710.710.71--0.710.710.710.710.71 83.604.404.904.90 4.90 7.25 4.90 4.90 7.25 4.90 4.40 7.25 4.9080.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 93.204.40 4.40 7.25 4.904.90 4.90 7.25 4.90 4.40 7.25 4.904.4090.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 102.403.604.404.904.904.904.904.904.403.60100.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.710.71 6 5 4 3 2 1

PAGE 169

153 LIST OF REFERENCES 1. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), (2003), Information Digest 2003 Edition, NRC, http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doccollections/nuregs/staff/sr1350/#toc (February 2004). 2. Uranium Information Centre Ltd, (2004) Nuclear Power in the World Today, http://www.uic.com.au/nip07.htm (February 2004). 3. J. R. Lamarsh, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Reading, (1983). 4. Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), 2004, Benefits of Nuclear Energy, NEI, http://www.nei.org/doc.a sp?catnum=2&catid=118 (February 2004). 5. R. G. Cochran and N. Tsoulfanidis, Th e Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Analysis and Management, American Nuclear Soci ety, La Grange Park, 210 (1990). 6. State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects, (1999), Nuclear Waste Policy Dilemma The First Fift y Years: A Chronology, http://www.state.nv.us/nucwa ste/yucca/nwchron1.htm (February 2004). 7. General Electric Company Nuclear Ener gy Group, BWR/6 General Description of a Boiling Water Reactor, San Jose, (1980). 8. J. P. Rea and V. W. Mills, Multi-Cycle Three-Dimensional Core Simulation Sensitivity Analysis, Proc. Intl. Conf. on Advances in Nuclear Fuel Management III, presentation at conference, Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, October 5-8 (2003). 9. A. A. Karve, B. R. Moore, J. J. Tusar, and W. E. Correll, Methods Comparisons for Hot Eigenvalue and TIP Predictions, Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc., 87, 409 (2002). 10. B. R. Moore, H. Zhang, and S. P. Congdon, Comparison of Methods for BWR Prediction Accuracy as Applied to a Small BWR/4, Proc. Intl. Conf. on Mathematics and Computation, Reactor P hysics and Environmental Analysis in Nuclear Applications, Vol. 1, pp. 679, Senda Editorial, Madrid, Spain, September 27-30 (1999).

PAGE 170

154 11. A.A. Karve, B. R. Moore, V. W. Mills, G. N. Marrotte, Uncertainty Estimates in Cold Critical Eigenvalue Predictions, Proc. Intl. Conf. on Advances in Nuclear Fuel Management III, presentation at confer ence, Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, October 5-8 (2003).

PAGE 171

155 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Anna Smolinska was born in Gdansk, Poland, on July 23, 1979. In 1987 her family immigrated to the United States and arrived in Florida on January 20th. She attended part of elementary school in Miami, Florida, after which her family moved to the Orlando area where she finished elementary school, middle school, and high school. She attended Lake Howell High School in Winter Springs, Fl orida, and graduated in 1998. After high school, Anna attended the University of Flor ida and received her Bachelor of Science degree in nuclear engineering in December 2002. She decided to stay at the University of Florida to pursue a Master of Engineering degree in nuclear engineering. In September of 2003, Anna started her several month internsh ip at Global Nuclear Fuel – Americas in Wilmington, North Carolina, where she completed her research work for this thesis. With this thesis as the final part to her graduate education, Anna plans to receive her master’s degree in May of 2004. Anna will then begin her career at the Westinghouse Electric Company in Monroeville, Pennsylvania.


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Full Text











DEVELOPING A BASIS FOR PREDICTING AND ASSESSING
TRENDS IN CORE TRACKING IN THE BOILING WATER REACTOR
COMMERCIAL POWER INDUSTRY
















By

ANNA SMOLINSKA


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
2004

































Copyright 2004

by

Anna Smolinska



































To my family that has always been there for me. Thank you for your support and
encouragement throughout my education.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I recognize Global Nuclear Fuel-Americas (GNF-A) for sponsoring this research

and providing all the necessary resources for the study. It was a great opportunity to do

research that focuses on an immediate challenge in the BWR industry today. I

specifically want to thank John Rea, an engineer at GNF-A, for realizing the need and

importance of this study, and mentoring me throughout the process. I learned a lot and

also had an opportunity to contribute useful knowledge to the BWR industry. Additional

GNF-A engineers that I want to recognize for giving advice and guidance throughout the

study are Ken Gardner and Atul Karve. It was very helpful to work with experienced

engineers in the nuclear field.

I acknowledge all the faculty of the University of Florida Nuclear and Radiological

Engineering Department for providing me with guidance and knowledge throughout my

education there. I particularly thank Professor James Tulenko for being my committee

chair and graduate advisor. I also want to thank Dr. Edward Dugan and Dr. Jacob Chung

for being on my advisory committee.

I acknowledge all of the organizations that provided me scholarships and

fellowships during my pursuit to acquire my nuclear engineering degrees. These

organizations include the University of Florida Nuclear and Radiological Engineering

Department, the National Academy for Nuclear Training (NANT), the American Nuclear

Society (ANS), and the Department of Energy (DOE).









Finally, I want to thank my family for their support and encouragement throughout

my education.




















TABLE OF CONTENTS


page


ACKNOWLEDGMENT S .............. .................... iv


LI ST OF T ABLE S ................. ................. viii............


LIST OF FIGURES .............. .................... ix


AB S TRAC T ......_ ................. ............_........x


CHAPTER


1 BACKGROUND ................. ...............1....._.._ ......


Nuclear Basics ..........._..._ ........... ...............1......
Characteristics of Nuclear Power .............. ...............4.....

Safety ................ ...............4.......... ......
Econom ics .................. ...............5...
Environmental Benefits ................. ...............6.................
Nuclear W aste .............. .. ...............7....

Reprocessing and Recycling................. ...............
Introduction to US Commercial Nuclear Reactors ........._...__ ......._._ ...............10
The PW R ................. ...............10......... ......
The BW R ............... ...... .._ ...............12...

The BWR Reactor Assembly ............. ...... .__ ...............14..
BWR Cycle Design............... ...............21.


2 INTRODUCTION ................. ...............25.......... ......


3 METHODS .............. ...............29....


4 REFERENCE MULTICY CLE............. .....___ ...............32...


Cycle Characteristics .............. ...............32....
Reference Bundle............... ...............35.
Cold Critical s............... ...............3


5 PLANT MEASUREMENT PERTURBATIONS .............. ...............39....


6 FUEL MANUFACTURING PERTURBATIONS ........................... ...............47











7 CONCLU SION................ ..............5

APPENDIX


A REFERENCE CYCLE SPECIFICS .............. ...............60....


Cycle N Characteristics .............. ...............60....
Cycle N Rod Pattemn Results ................ ...............66........... ...
Cycle N Hot Excess and SDM .............. ...............76....
Cycle N TIP Plots ................. ...............77...___ .....
Cycle N+1 Characteristics ........._.___..... .__ ...............80...
Cycle N+1 Rod Pattemn Results ......__....._.__._ ......._._. ............8
Cycle N+1 Hot Excess and SDM ................. ....__. ....__. ...........9
Cycle N+1 TIP Plots............... ...............97.
Cycle N+2 Characteristics ............ ..... ._ ...............100..
Cycle N+2 Rod Pattemn Results .....__.....___ ..........._ ............0
Cycle N+2 Hot Excess and SDM ................. ........._.__......117.__ ...
Cycle N+2 TIP Plots ............ ..... ._ ...............118..
Cycle N+3 Characteristics ........._.___..... .__ ...............121...
Cycle N+3 Rod Pattemn Results ......__....._.__._ ......._._. ............2
Cycle N+3 Hot Excess and SDM ................. ........._.__......137.__ ...
Cycle N+3 TIP Plots ........._.___..... ._ __ ...............138...

B FUEL BUNDLE FIGURES .............. ...............141....


LIST OF REFERENCES ........._.___......___ ...............153....


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ........._.___..... .__. ...............155....


















LIST OF TABLES

Table pg

4-1 General Cycle Parameters .............. ...............33....

5-1 Description of Plant Measurement Perturbations ................. ................ ...._..40

5-2 Summary of Results from Plant Measurement Perturbations .........._.... ...............40

6-1 Description of Fuel Manufacturing Perturbations ................. ................. ......48

6-2 Summary of Results from Fuel Manufacturing Perturbations ..........._..._ ..............48

A-1 Bundle Information Cycle N ................. ......... ...............60.....

A-2 Cycle N Cold Critical Data .............. ...............75....

A-3 Cycle N Hot Excess and SDM Data............... ...............76..

A-4 Bundle Information Cycle N+1 .............. ...............80....

A-5 Cycle N+1 Cold Critical Data ........... __.. ...._ ...............95

A-6 Cycle N+1 Hot Excess and SDM Data ...........__...... __ ...............96

A-7 Bundle Information Cycle N+2 .....__.....___ ..........._ ............0

A-8 Cycle N+2 Cold Critical Data ............_......__ ......... ......116.

A-9 Cycle N+2 Hot Excess and SDM Data ...........__...... __ .. ....___.......17

A-10 Bundle Information Cycle N+3 .....__.....___ .........._ ..........12

A-11 Cycle N+3 Cold Critical Data ........... __.. ...._ ...............13

A-12 Cycle N+3 Hot Excess and SDM Data ...........__...... __ ... ..__.........3


















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure pg

1-1 PW R System .............. ...............12....

1-2 The BW R System ........... .......__ ...............13..

1-3 BWR Reactor Vessel Assembly ................. ...............14........... ...

1-4 A. Cross-Sectional View of BWR Core, B. Control Rod Banks ................... ..........17

1-5 Cross-Sectional View of BWR Fuel Module ................. ................. ......... 18

1-6 BWR Fuel Assemblies and Control Rod Module ................. .........................19

1-7 Cross-Sectional View of BWR Fuel Bundle ................. ............... ......... ...20

1-8 Bias Eigenvalue Trend .............. ...............22....

2-1 Energy per Bundle as a Function of Number of Bundles in BWR Core .................27

2-2 Change in the Number of Bundles Needed for a 0.003 Error in Eigenvalue ...........27

2-3 Change in the Total Fuel Cost for 0.003 Error in Eigenvalue (BWR) ................... ..27

4-1 Thermal Margins for Cycles N to N+3 .............. ...............33....

4-2 Reactor Power and Core Flow for Cycles N to N+3 ................... ...............3

4-3 Normalized Axial Core Parameters for Cycle N+3 .............. .....................3

4-5 Cold Critical Rod Patterns for MOC N+1 ........._.._.. ...._... ....._.._........3

5-1 Hot Delta Keff for Varied Flow by 5.0% Compared to Base Case..............._.._. ......41

5-2 Hot Delta Keff for Varied Pressure by 2.0% Compared to Base Case ....................41

5-3 Hot Delta Keff for Varied Temperature by 0.4% Compared to Base Case .............42

5-4 Hot Delta Keff for Varied Power by 1.25% Compared to Base Case .................. ...42

5-5 Hot Delta Keff for Varied Power by 2.5% in Cycle N Compared to Base Case .....43










5-6 Hot Delta Keff for Varied Power by 2.50% Compared to Base Case .................. ...43

5-7 Delta Keff for Distributed Cold Critical Eigenvalues Compared to Base Case.......44

5-8 Delta Keff for Local Cold Critical Eigenvalues Compared to Base Case for the
Power Increased 2.50% Case .............. ...............44....

5-9 Maximum Delta Keff Between Distributed and Any Local Cold Critical
Eigenvalue Compared to Base Case............... ...............45..

5-10 Average Axial TIP Distributions for EOC N+3 ................... ............... 4

6-1 Hot Delta Keff for Channel Geometry Variation Cases Compared to Base Case ...49

6-2 Hot Delta Keff for Clad Geometry Variation Cases Compared to Base ........._.....49

6-3 Hot Delta Keff for Fuel Density Variation Cases Compared to Base Case.............50

6-4 Hot Delta Keff for Enrichment Variation Cases Compared to Base Case ...............50

6-5 Delta Keff for Distributed Cold Critical Eigenvalues Compared to Base Case.......51

6-6 Delta Keff for Local Cold Critical Eigenvalues Compared to Base Case for
Average Bundle Enrichment Increased 1.5% Case ................. ........................52

6-7 Maximum Delta Keff Between Distributed and Any Local Cold Critical
Eigenvalue Compared to Base Case............... ...............52..

6-8 Average Axial TIP Distributions for BOC N+3 ................. ......... ................53

6-9 Average Axial TIP Distributions for BOC N+3 ................. ......... ................53

6-10 Hot Delta Keff for Gadolinium Concentration Variation Cases Compared to
Base Case .............. ...............54....

6-11 Delta Keff for Distributed Cold Critical Eigenvalues Compared to Base Case.......55

6-12 Delta Keff for Local Cold Critical Eigenvalues Compared to Base Case for
Decreased Gadolinium Case .............. ...............55....

6-13 Maximum Delta Keff Between Distributed and Any Local Cold Critical
Eigenvalue Compared to Base Case............... ...............56..

6-14 Average Axial TIP Distributions for Cycle N+2 at 9811 MWd/MT............._._......56

6-15 Average Axial TIP Distributions for EOC N............... ...............57...

A-1 Cycle N Assembly Locations by Bundle Type Number ........._.._.. .. ......._.._.. ....60











A-2 BOC Cycle N Exposure Distribution (GWD/T) .............. ...............61....

A-3 EOC Cycle N Exposure Distribution (GWD/T) .............. ...............61....

A-4 Cycle N Hot keff ................. ...............62.......... ....

A-5 Cycle N Thermal Margins ................. ...............62........... ...

A-6 Cycle N Reactor Power and Core Flow .............. ...............63....

A-7 Cycle N Core Pressure .............. ...............63....

A-8 Cycle N Core Inlet Temperature .............. ...............64....

A-9 Cycle N Core Bypass Flow ................. ...............64..............

A-10 Cycle N BOC Axial Core Parameters ................ ...............65........... .

A-11 Cycle N EOC Axial Core Parameters .............. ...............65....

A-12 Cycle N BOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns .............. ...............72....

A-13 Cycle N MOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns .............. ...............73....

A-14 Cycle N EOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns .............. ...............74....

A-15 Cycle N Predicted Hot Excess and SDM ................. ...............76.............

A-16 Cycle N TIP results for 0 MWd/ST (BOC)............... ...............77.

A-17 Cycle N TIP results for 4600 MWd/ST .............. ...............77....

A-18 Cycle N TIP results for 8900 MWd/ST .............. ...............78....

A-19 Cycle N TIP results for 15000 MWd/ST (EOR) ......................... ................78

A-20 Cycle N TIP results for 16450 MWd/ST (EOC) ................. .......... ...............79

A-21 Cycle N+1 Assembly Locations by Bundle Type Number ............... ................. 80

A-22 BOC Cycle N+1 Exposure Distribution (GWD/T) ................ ........................81

A-23 EOC Cycle N+1 Exposure Distribution (GWD/T) .............. .....................8

A-24 Cycle N+1 Hot keff ............... ...............82..

A-25 Cycle N+1 Thermal Margins............... ...............82

A-26 Cycle N+1 Reactor Power and Core Flow ................. ...............83........... .











A-27 Cycle N+1 Core Pressure ........._..._... ...............83........ ...

A-28 Cycle N+1 Core Inlet Temperature ........_... ..................._. ..........8

A-29 Cycle N+1 Core Bypass Flow ........._..._... ...............84....._.. ...

A-30 Cycle N+1 BOC Axial Core Parameters............... ...............8

A-31 Cycle N+1 EOC Axial Core Parameters ........._..._... ........._..._...85......_. .

A-32 Cycle N+1 BOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns ........._..._... ........._..._... 92......_. .

A-33 Cycle N+1 MOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns ................ .............................93

A-34 Cycle N+1 EOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns .............. ...............94....

A-3 5 Cycle N+1 Predicted Hot Excess and SDM ................. ...............96.............

A-36 Cycle N+1 TIP results for 0 MWd/ST (BOC) .............. ...............97....

A-37 Cycle N+1 TIP results for 4600 MWd/ST .............. ...............97....

A-38 Cycle N+1 TIP results for 8900 MWd/ST .............. ...............98....

A-39 Cycle N+1 TIP results for 15000 MWd/ST (EOR)............... ...............98.

A-40 Cycle N+1 TIP results for 16250 MWd/ST (EOC)............... ...............99.

A-41 Cycle N+2 Assembly Locations by Bundle Type Number ................. ................1 00

A-42 BOC Cycle N+2 Exposure Distribution (GWD/T) ................ .......................101

A-43 EOC Cycle N+2 Exposure Distribution (GWD/T) .............. ....................10

A-44 Cycle N+2 Hot keff ................. ...............102.......... ....

A-45 Cycle N+2 Thermal Margins............... ...............102

A-46 Cycle N+2 Reactor Power and Core Flow ................. ...............103.............

A-47 Cycle N+2 Core Pressure ................ ...............103........... ...

A-48 Cycle N+2 Core Inlet Temperature ................. ...............104..............

A-49 Cycle N+2 Core Bypass Flow ................. ...............104..............

A-50 Cycle N+2 BOC Axial Core Parameters ................. ...............105........... ..

A-51 Cycle N+2 EOC Axial Core Parameters ................. ...............105.............











A-52 Cycle N+2 BOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns ................. .............................113

A-53 Cycle N+2 MOC Cold Critical Rod Pattemns ................ ............................114

A-54 Cycle N+2 EOC Cold Critical Rod Pattemns ...........__.......__ ................115

A-5 5 Cycle N+2 Predicted Hot Excess and SDM ................. ................. ......... 11

A-56 Cycle N+2 TIP results for 0 MWd/ST (BOC) ................. ......... ................11 8

A-57 Cycle N+2 TIP results for 4600 MWd/ST ................. ...............118.............

A-58 Cycle N+2 TIP results for 8900 MWd/ST ................. ...............119.............

A-59 Cycle N+2 TIP results for 15000 MWd/ST (EOR) ................. ............ .........119

A-60 Cycle N+2 TIP results for 16250 MWd/ST (EOC)............... ...............120.

A-61 Cycle N+3 Assembly Locations by Bundle Type Number ................. ................12 1

A-62 BOC Cycle N+3 Exposure Distribution (GWD/T) ................ .......................122

A-63 EOC Cycle N+3 Exposure Distribution (GWD/T ................. ................ ...._.122

A-64 Cycle N+3 Hot keff ................. ...............123.......... ....

A-65 Cycle N+3 Thermal Margins............... ...............123

A-66 Cycle N+3 Reactor Power and Core Flow ................. ...............124.............

A-67 Cycle N+3 Core Pressure ................ ...............124........... ...

A-68 Cycle N+3 Core Inlet Temperature ................. ...............125..............

A-69 Cycle N+3 Core Bypass Flow ................. ...............125..............

A-70 Cycle N+3 BOC Axial Core Parameters............... ..............12

A-71 Cycle N+3 EOC Axial Core Parameters ................. ...............126.............

A-72 Cycle N+3 BOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns ................. .............................133

A-73 Cycle N+3 MOC Cold Critical Rod Pattemns ................ ............................134

A-74 Cycle N+3 EOC Cold Critical Rod Pattemns ................. .............................135

A-75 Cycle N+3 Predicted Hot Excess and SDM ................. .............................137

A-76 Cycle N+3 TIP results for 0 MWd/ST (BOC) .............. ...............138....












A-77 Cycle N+3 TIP results for 4600 MWd/ST .............. ...............138....


A-78 Cycle N+3 TIP results for 8900 MWd/ST .............. ...............139....


A-79 Cycle N+3 TIP results for 15000 MWd/ST (EOR)............... ...............139.


A-80 Cycle N+3 TIP results for 16250 MWd/ST (EOC)............... ...............140.


B-1 Fuel Bundle A .............. ...............142....


B-2 Fuel Bundle B ................. ...............143...............


B-3 Fuel Bundle C............... ...............144...


B-4 Fuel Bundle D .............. ...............145....


B-5 Fuel Bundle E ................. ...............146...............


B-6 Fuel Bundle F .............. ...............147....


B-7 Fuel Bundle G .............. ...............148....


B-8 Fuel Bundle H .............. ...............149....


B-9 Fuel Bundle I............... ...............150...


B-10 Fuel Bundle J............... ...............151...


B-11 Fuel Bundle K .............. ...............152....















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Engineering

DEVELOPING A BASIS FOR PREDICTING AND ASSESSING
TRENDS IN CORE TRACKING IN THE BOILING WATER REACTOR
COMMERCIAL POWER INDUSTRY

By

Anna Smolinska

May 2004

Chair: James S. Tulenko
Major Department: Nuclear and Radiological Engineering

The commercial nuclear industry produces about 20% of the electrical power in the

United States. Currently, there arel04 nuclear power plants licensed to operate in the

United States. All of these reactors are referred to as light water reactors (LWRs). Of the

104 LWRs, 69 are pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and 35 are boiling water reactors

(BWRs). Since the coolant boils in the core, BWRs are more complicated than PWRs in

the aspect of designing a cycle. This study contributes knowledge and insight to the

cycle design process of a BWR.

When designing a BWR cycle, it is necessary to estimate the bias eigenvalue trend

or nuclear design basis (NDB). The NDB, which has a large effect on cycle parameters

and is plant and cycle specific, is used to compensate for any bias arising from the use of

the nuclear computer code package to perform core calculations combined with other

uncertainties that are discussed in this thesis. Currently, history of previous cycles of a

plant or similar plants is used as a basis for predicting the NDB. However, due to









constant demands of higher energy output per cycle, and unexpected events during a

cycle, predictions become challenging. In addition to known variations, there may also

be unrecognized events that may cause the eigenvalue and other plant parameters to vary.

Considering that safety and cost can be greatly affected by incorrect predictions, it is

important to understand the NDB trends when doing calculations for a future cycle, or

evaluating eigenvalue drift for a current cycle. To aid in developing a basis for making

predictions, various perturbations in the areas of fuel manufacturing and plant

measurement were studied in a multicycle analysis. These perturbations have a range of

effects on several different cycle parameters. The results of this study are intended to

assist in the prediction and assessment of trends in the BWR industry.















CHAPTER 1
BACKGROUND

Electricity is an essential part of everyday life. People depend on electricity

constantly, and expect it to be readily available. There are many different energy

sources, which all have individual advantages and disadvantages. These energy sources

include coal, natural gas, nuclear, hydropower, geothermal, solar, wind, and biomass.

Out of all commercial energy sources, the second largest contributor of electricity in the

United States is nuclear power. The commercial nuclear industry produced about 20% of

the electricity generated in the United States in 2002, only behind the coal contribution of

50% [1]. Nuclear reactors also supplied about 16% of the world' s power in 2002,

making them the third largest contributor after coal and hydropower [2]. In the United

States, the first generation of commercial nuclear reactors began operation in the late

1950s, early 1960s. Currently, there arel04 nuclear power plants licensed to operate in

the United States. All of these reactors are referred to as light water reactors (LWRs)

because of their use of regular water as opposed to heavy water. Of the 104 LWRs, 69

are pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and 35 are boiling water reactors (BWRs) [1]. As

a result of the significant contribution from nuclear reactors to both the United States and

the world's electricity market, nuclear power is extremely valuable and has potential for

significant technological advances.

Nuclear Basics

Nuclear energy comes from a process called nuclear fission. Fission is the energy

releasing process, where a heavy nucleus splits into nuclei with smaller mass numbers.










The fission process occurs when a heavy fissionable nucleus captures a neutron. The

captured neutron puts the nucleus in an excited state, which causes it to split. When the

nucleus splits, it produces smaller nuclei that are called fission products. In addition to

these fission products, there is also a release of additional neutrons and energy during the

event. The additional neutrons may then go on and cause more missions to result in a self

sustaining Eission chain reaction. This process occurs when neutrons that are released

from one fission event proceed to cause another fission event and so on.

The only naturally occurring isotope that undergoes fission is uranium-23 5. Since

uranium-23 5 can fission following the absorption of a zero energy neutron, it is said to be

fissile. Other fissile isotopes are uranium-233, plutonium-239, and plutonium-241.

Nuclei like uranium-23 8 that can only fission when struck by energetic neutrons are

called fissionable but not fissile. There are also isotopes that are referred to as fertile.

Fertile isotopes are not fissile themselves, but can become fissile after neutron absorption.

Uranium-23 8 and thorium-232 are fertile isotopes [3]. These different isotopes have

certain probabilities or cross sections that are associated with the fission process,

depending on the energy of the incoming neutron. When neutrons are released from a

fission reaction they are high energy or fast neutrons, however, low energy or thermal

neutrons are the ones that have very high probability of causing fission in uranium-23 5.

As a result of the necessary characteristics to sustain the fission process, there are two

main ingredients to a light water thermal reactor. The ingredients include having enough

uranium-23 5 and sustaining a sufficient population of thermal neutrons. Since the natural

element of uranium contains 0.72 atom percent of uranium-23 5, with the remaining part

made up of uranium-23 8 and a trace of uranium-234, the process of enrichment is used to

increase the amount of uranium-23 5 for LWR nuclear fuel. To maintain a sufficient










population of thermal neutrons, nuclear power plants use a moderator to slow down the

fast neutrons produced by fission. In LWRs, water is used as both the moderator and the

coolant. Due to the high population of thermal neutrons in the reactor, which cause an

elevated occurrence of fission in the fuel, the fuel becomes used up or depleted. As the

fuel depletes, the number of uranium-23 5 atoms is decreased and the amount of fission

products is increased. Also, other isotopes are created by neutron absorption like

plutonium-239 and uranium-236. Fission products end up acting like a poison in the fuel

because they absorb neutrons without resulting in a fission and releasing energy.

The parameter that describes the intensity of the fission process is called the

multiplication factor or eigenvalue, designated by k. This factor is defined as the number

of fissions or fission neutrons in one generation divided by the number of fissions or

fission neutrons in the preceding generation. The eigenvalue can be used to describe

three different cases. One case is when k is less than 1, and the process is said to be

subcritical because the number of fissions decreases with time. The second case is when

k is greater than 1; the process is then described as supercritical because the number of

fissions increases with time. The final case is when k is equal to 1; this last condition is

described as critical and occurs when the chain reaction continues at a constant rate. The

nuclear industry utilizes this final condition to produce electricity from the energy that is

released from the controlled fission process. This energy is released within fuel pellets,

which are located in fuel rods, which are part of the fuel bundles in the core of a nuclear

plant. The released energy is converted to heat, which is transferred from the fuel rods to

water, which is then used to make steam, and finally goes through a turbine that creates

electricity.









Nuclear reactors enhance and control the fission chain reaction to maintain a

critical system, which is a complicated process that requires very detailed calculations.

The calculations take into account every process in the system and its physical

environment. In nuclear reactors the eigenvalue is referred to as keff (k effective), since

the power reactor is a finite system, which allows for the leakage of neutrons. Another

parameter that is used in the industry is reactivity, designated by p. Reactivity is a

measure of the change in the eigenvalue and is defined as the ratio of the eigenvalue

minus one, the quantity divided by the eigenvalue. Also, the neutron flux is a parameter

used to describe the distribution of neutrons in the core and approximates the number of

neutrons per cm^'3/sec. (It is advantageous to maintain a flat or constant flux in the

reactor core to burn the fuel evenly.) These parameters are among the many that are

calculated when assessing a nuclear system. Besides reactivity based calculations, many

thermal hydraulic parameters are also calculated. There is a necessary coupling that has

to exist between the reactivity and thermal hydraulic calculations. To accomplish this

task, extensive computer codes have been developed throughout the history of the nuclear

industry.

Characteristics of Nuclear Power

Nuclear power seems to be controversial among the general public. This view is

largely due to the public' s lack of knowledge about the facts of the technology. In effect,

nuclear power is a reliable and beneficial source of electricity that is safe, economical,

and environmentally friendly.

Safety

There are many factors that contribute to the safety of nuclear power plants. These

factors include: having a security program and an operational review process regulated










by the federal government, continual plant modernization or upgrading, and advanced

containment structures, which act as a final shield to prevent the release of radiation.

Resulting from the efficient design and operation of U. S. nuclear plants, a negligible

amount of radiation is emitted. You receive more radiation flying roundtrip from New

York to Los Angeles, than you would receive living next door to a nuclear power plant

for a year [4]. The statistical field of risk assessment was used in the development of the

safety standards used in nuclear power plants. As a result, nuclear power plants have

extremely extensive safety features that were developed to satisfy very strict safety

standards. Safety systems proved to be effective during the one major nuclear power

plant accident in the United States, which occurred at the Three Mile Island Unit in 1979.

After scientific studies, the results showed that there was no serious reactivity release,

even though one third of the fuel in the reactor core melted. Although the accident did

not have any serious effect on the environment and did not endanger the public, the

industry took steps to further improve the already stringent safety systems and procedures

in nuclear power plants to ensure that a similar accident would not occur again [4].

Economics

Nuclear energy has apparent economic advantages. These advantages include:

abundant fuel with low cost and stable price, improving plant performance, and plant

longevity through license renewal. Currently, nuclear power is competitive with coal and

natural gas in price, while having higher price stability. When comparing the average

nuclear reactor and fossil steam (includes coal and fossil fuel) plant production expenses

(in dollars per megawatt-hour) in 2001, the expenses for nuclear power were 17.98 (13.31

for operation and maintenance and 4.67 for fuel) and 23.14 (5.01 for operation and

maintenance and 18.13 for fuel) for fossil steam.[1] Even though operation and










maintenance is expensive for nuclear reactors, which is an area that could always be

improved with new procedures and equipment, the price of the fuel is very competitive.

The fuel used in nuclear power plants is enriched uranium, which is produced from the

common and abundant natural element of uranium. One uranium fuel pellet, the size of

the tip of your little finger, is comparable to 17,000 cubic feet of natural gas, 1,780

pounds of coal, or 140 gallons of oil [4]. The improving performance and continual

modernization of nuclear power plants results in more electricity for a lower price.

Another important factor in the economic future of nuclear power is the opportunity to

receive license renewal. The initial operating license that was given to the nuclear plants

at their start of operation was for a time period of 40 years. Since the first commercial

nuclear plants started to operate in the late 1950s, the license for many plants is about to

or has already expired. There is an opportunity for a renewal of that license, which many

plants have already received or are in the process of applying for. If approved, this

renewal can extend plant operation for another 20 years, creating significant savings in

the nuclear industry by avoiding the immediate expense of building new power plants.

Finally, given that nuclear power plants have no green house gas emissions, they do not

have compliance costs like the fossil fuel industry [4].

Environmental Benefits

Out of all energy sources, nuclear energy has one of the lowest impacts on the

environment. Nuclear plants do not emit harmful gasses; they occupy a small amount of

land; and the water they release contains no harmful pollutants. Since no harmful gasses

are emitted, nuclear power plants do not contribute to problems like global warming,

ground-level ozone formation, smog, and acid rain. The only product given off by a

nuclear plant, besides electricity, is heat. Additionally, natural external water sources are









used in some nuclear power plants for cooling, and because this water is kept so clean, it

is not unusual to have nature parks on plant sites. Also, the small area required by

nuclear power plants leaves the environment in the surrounding area practically

undisturbed, while producing a large amount of electricity. This is a beneficial aspect to

the undisturbed plant life and wildlife in the area.

Nuclear Waste

Although there are many benefits to nuclear power, an existing challenge is the

disposal of the nuclear waste. On the positive side, the risks that nuclear wastes pose to

man decrease with time, and the volume of nuclear waste produced is much smaller than

the volume of waste produced by other industries, per amount of product (electricity).

There are several classes of radioactive waste and there are several possible methods of

disposal. In decreasing severity, the different classes of nuclear waste are: high-level

wastes, transuranic wastes, low-level wastes, and uranium mill tailings. The most

problematic classes are the high-level and transuranic (elements with Z > 92) wastes.

High-level nuclear wastes were also generated from the country's nuclear weapons

program. The disposal methods that have been considered include: deep geologic

disposal, transmutation (the use of nuclear reactions to alter the waste into isotopes that

are either stable or very reactive to cause them to decay to stable isotopes), ice sheet

disposal, outer space, and sub-seabed disposal [5]. Though a few of these concepts may

be farfetched, geologic disposal is very realistic and is in the process of being completed.

The Nuclear Waste Policy Act was passed by Congress in December 1982 and

signed into law by the president in January 1983. This act included detailed procedures

and corresponding dates for the completion of all tasks leading to the disposal of high-

level nuclear waste. The contents of the act included: establishing a repository site









screening process, establishing the Nuclear Waste Fund, requiring that licensed

repositories will use environmental protection standards set by the Environmental

Protection Agency, and establishing a schedule that leads to federal waste acceptance for

disposal starting in 1998 [6]. The Nuclear Waste Fund required the utilities to pay 1 mill

($0.001) per kilowatt-hour of nuclear electricity generated after April 7, 1983, as well as

paying a one time fee per kilogram of heavy metal in spent fuel (an amount equivalent to

1 mill/kWh(e) generated by that spent fuel) discharged before April 7, 1983. The

government guaranteed the utilities that if they paid the fee they would have no other

responsibility for the waste disposal, besides storing it prior to disposal. Through this

fund the government collected about $2.3 billion for the waste discharged before April 7,

1983 and collects about $300 to $400 million per year. As estimated in 1984, the total

cost for high-level waste disposal would cost between $25 and $35 billion dollars [5].

After some arising problems, the Congress drafted and adopted the Nuclear Waste

Policy Amendments Act in late 1987, which was supposed to put the repository program

"back on track". The amendments act mainly named Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the

only site to be considered for the development of a repository, linked the development of

monitored retrievable storage with the repository licensing, established the Nuclear

Waste Technical Review Board to review the work done by the Department of Energy

(DOE) relating to the repository and transportation of the waste, and offered Nevada

financial benefits if the state agrees to permit the development of the repository at Yucca

Mountain. The prediction of the opening of the Yucca Mountain repository is currently

2010 [6]. If the repository actually does open by 2010 it will be 12 years delayed at that

time, which is a significant inconvenience to the nuclear industry.










Reprocessing and Recycling

The reprocessing and recycling of nuclear materials has many benefits. Some of

these benefits are that less uranium would have to be mined, and that there would be less

high-level waste being produced. The nuclear materials that could be used for

reprocessing and recycling include the spent fuel discharged from nuclear reactors and

the highly enriched material from nuclear weapons that are being disassembled. Fresh

fuel that goes into nuclear reactors consists of UO2 enriched in uranium-23 5. After this

fuel is used, it exits the nuclear reactor with almost all of its original uranium-23 8, one-

third of the uranium-23 5 originally in the fuel, plutonium, fission products, and

transuranics. Reprocessing allows for the recovery of the uranium and plutonium from

the spent fuel. The left over spent fuel is then considered high-level waste, and the

recovered uranium and plutonium is recycled back into the reactor. This fuel that

contains a mixture of UO2 and PuO2 is called mixed-oxide fuel or MOX fuel [5].

In the mid 1970s, the nuclear power industry was ready to add reprocessing and

recycling to the nuclear fuel cycle. Unfortunately, at the same time, the issue of weapons

proliferation was a big debate during the presidential campaign. Gerald Ford, the

president at the time, announced that reprocessing and recycling of civilian spent fuel

should not proceed unless the risks of proliferation are reduced to an acceptable level.

Later, President Jimmy Carter deferred reprocessing and recycling indefinitely. In 1981,

President Regan lifted the ban; however, since there were no reprocessing facilities in the

U.S., the technology was never fully developed, and since the materials to make nuclear

fuel were abundant, there was not incentive to pursue reprocessing. Despite its lack of

success in the United States, reprocessing and recycling is a part of the nuclear cycle in

countries such as France, Japan, England, the Soviet Union, and China [5].









Introduction to US Commercial Nuclear Reactors

Made to withstand a very harsh environment, nuclear power plants are very

complicated structures that have an extensive amount of safety features. Both the PWR

and BWR operate continuously for a period of 18 to 24 months, after which, a portion of

the fuel in the core has to be replaced. The period of time from when new fuel is added

to the core until the next refueling is called a cycle. There are extensive calculations that

go into the design of a cycle. The cycle has to meet the customer/utility needs, as well as

maintain all safety requirements. Cycle calculations are done to determine the type of

fresh fuel that will be used, the amount of fresh fuel necessary for the cycle, the

arrangement of the fuel within the core, whether the core meets reactivity and thermal

hydraulic limits, and the operation characteristics for the cycle. Extensive calculations

are also done to perform a full safety analysis. Although the primary objectives of PWRs

and BWRs are they same, they are very different systems, each having their own

advantages and disadvantages. The basic method of operation for each system is

described in the following paragraphs.

The PWR

The physical structure of the PWR is more complicated than that of a BWR. This

is primarily due to the fact that the PWR operates with one primary loop that is connected

by heat exchangers to a secondary loop. Connected by large pipes, the components of the

primary loop include: the reactor vessel, the coolant pumps, the pressurizer and the

steam generators. The primary loop is maintained at about 15 MPa (~2175 psi) to

prevent boiling. In the primary loop, water is heated up in the pressure vessel, where the

core containing the nuclear fuel is located. The water is pumped into the pressure vessel

at about 2900C (~5500F) and exits at about 3250C (~6150F). The water in a PWR










contains boron, which acts as a primary control of the power in the reactor. After the

water exits the pressure vessel, it travels through large pipes to the steam generators. The

steam generators are very large heat exchangers, which serve the purpose of transferring

the heat from the water of the primary loop to the water of the secondary loop. There are

several thousand tubes within the steam generator that carry the water of the primary

loop. The tubes in a U-tube steam generator enter at the bottom of the steam generator

and exit at the bottom of the steam generator (having a U shape). These tubes are

externally cooled by water from the secondary loop that enters near the bottom of the

steam generator and is heated up to the state of boiling to produce steam. At the top of

the steam generator there are various steam separators that separate the water from the

steam, and as a result, improve the quality of the steam. The steam has to be of high

quality in order to minimize damage to the blades of the turbine generator. After leaving

the steam generator, the steam passes through the turbine. When the steam exits the

turbine, it passes through condensers, and then is pumped back to the steam generator. In

this system the steam is not radioactive since the secondary loop contains coolant that is

not radioactive. Even though the structure of a PWR is more complicated than that of a

BWR, the plant calculations and cycle design are much simpler because of the fact that

the fuel within the core is much less complex. The PWR produces steam that is at about

2930C (~5600F) and at 6 MPa (~870 psi), which results in an overall efficiency in the

range of 32-33 percent [3]. Below, in Figure 1-1, is a simplified illustration of the PWR

sy stem.







































Figure 1-1. PWR System

The BWR

The BWR is a structurally simplified system with only one maj or loop, as opposed

to a primary and secondary loop. Because boiling of the coolant/moderator is permitted

in the BWR core, pressure is maintained at approximately 7 MPa (~1015 psi), about half

of the pressure that is maintained in the primary loop of the PWR. In a BWR, the water

enters the core at about 2800C (~5360F) and the portion that exits is at about 2900C

(~5540F).[3] Since steam is produced in the pressure vessel of the BWR, no steam

generators are necessary. To improve the steam quality, the steam passes through the

steam separators at the top of the vessel, and then it goes straight to the turbine. In this

case, the steam that reaches the turbine is radioactive because it comes straight from the









core. After passing through the turbine, the steam goes through condensers and then it is

pumped back into the reactor vessel through large pipes. The BWR produces steam that

is at about 2900C (~5540F) and 7MPa (~1015 psi), which results in an overall efficiency

of 33-34 percent [3]. Since there is boiling in the core, the fuel design and the plant

calculations of a BWR become more complicated than that of a PWR. Below is a

simplified illustration of the BWR system. This study contributes knowledge and insight

to the cycle design process of a BWR system, which will be further discussed in the

following sections and chapters.


Containment Structure


Figure 1-2. The BWR System











The BWR Reactor Assembly

The BWR reactor assembly consists of the reactor vessel, the core shroud, the top

guide assembly, the core plate assembly, the steam separator and dryer assemblies, the jet

pumps, and the core components. The core components include the control rods and the

fuel. An illustration of the reactor assembly can be seen in Figure 1-3 below.








4 Steam Dry~er Assemblyy

II l|In n n n nI Steam Seperator Assembly



2 4 Fuel Assembliies

5 Core Plate

6 Co~ntrol Rd Diriv

7 JetPump

8 Recircullation WJater inlet

9E Feed Water Inlet

SO0 Steam Outlet

it Vent and Hiead Spray

13 4 Core Shroudi

13 Vessel S~upport Skirt

14 Shield WllVI


Figure 1-3. BWR Reactor Vessel Assembly [7]









The reactor vessel is a pressure vessel that is made of low alloy steel with the

interior coated with stainless steel to prevent corrosion. It is mounted on a skirt that is

bolted to a concrete pedestal, which is part of the reactor building foundation. The

material composition of the vessel is critical since it is exposed to a neutron flux

throughout its lifetime. The reactor vessel has a removable head, which is necessary for

refueling. The head closure seal consists of two concentric O-rings. The vessel and its

internal and external attachments are designed to withstand combined loads [7].

The core shroud is a barrier located between the pressure vessel and the core. The

shroud is made out of stainless steel and is cylindrical in shape. The main purpose of the

core shroud is to separate the downward flow (consisting of the main feed water and

recirculating water) that proceeds to the recirculation loops (containing recirculation

pumps) from the upward flow in the core. The shroud has a peripheral shelf that is

welded to the pressure vessel itself. The shroud structure also supports the steam

separators and j et pump system. The j et pumps penetrate the shelf of the shroud and ej ect

the water from the recirculation loops to the bottom of the core [7].

The steam separator assembly and the steam dryer assembly are both used to

improve the quality of the steam before it enters the turbine. The steam separators are

located above the discharge plenum region of the core. They have no moving parts and

are made of stainless steel. When wet steam enters the separators it passes through three

stages, each stage containing parts that put a spin on the steam. Centrifugal forces

separate the water from the steam and the water exits from the lower end of each stage.

When the steam exits the steam separators, it enters the steam dryers. The steam dryers

have many wavy metal plates or vanes that the steam passes through. The moisture










collects on these plates and drips down through a system of drains to the pool of water

surrounding the separators [7].

The cruciform control rods in a BWR are an operations feature and a safety feature

in the reactor. The control rods enter from the bottom of the reactor since the steam

separators and dryers are at the top of the reactor. They are inserted and withdrawn by

the hydraulic control rod drive system, consisting of locking piston-type drive

mechanisms [7]. The control rods are made of a boron carbide material. Boron is a

neutron absorber and is used to control the fission chain reaction. If neutrons are

absorbed in the boron, they will not go on to cause fission reactions in uranium-23 5, and

this will reduce the eigenvalue and power in the reactor. Everywhere that there is a group

of four fuel bundles, which is called a fuel module, there is a cruciform control rod. An

illustration of a fuel module is shown in Figure 1-4 and is shown in more detail in Figure

1-5 and Figure 1-6. There are a few fuel bundles on the outside of the core that are not

part of a fuel module and do not interact with a control rod. An arrangement of a typical

BWR core and a description of the control rod grouping pattern can both be seen in the

cross-sectional view shown in Figure 1-4. The grouping pattern is necessary because

control rods are separated into different banks, which are labeled Al, A2, B l, and B2.

These banks or groups of control rods are inserted and withdrawn in alternating order

throughout the cycle. Also, Figure 1-4 shows in-core monitor locations. Looking at the

four quadrants, it can be seen that the in-core monitor locations are not symmetric

throughout the core. The core is usually designed to have one quarter symmetry, so

having the monitor locations in different locations in each of the quarter cores mimics

having the core monitors in all of the locations in the core. The instrumentation locations

contain local power range neutron flux monitors (LPRMs), which are fixed in-core








fission chambers that provide continuous monitoring. Also, a guide tube in each in-core

instrumentation position is used for the traversing in-core probes (TIPs). The TIPs

measure the flux at different axial positions in the core, and are used for both normalizing

LPRM gain readings and to correct the calculated thermal margin predictions. TIP

measurements are taken several times throughout the cycle.

FuerlModule @ In-DrereMnitor



F~ii~iiii~I


-- -- -- I


b1 8~


tt~f~f~B2 A2
A. B.,

Figure 1-4. A. Cross-Sectional View of BWR Core [7], B. Control Rod Banks
The fuel bundles in the BWR core are made up of fuel rods, tie rods, water rods,

spacer grids, tie plates, and a surrounding metal rectangular can. The fuel rods are

pressure vessels made of a Zircaloy cladding tube filled with UO2 cylindrical pellets.

The pellets are inserted into the cladding tube, which is then sealed and pressurized with

helium. The pressurization prevents the tubes from collapsing when in the high pressure

environment of the reactor. The tie rods are fuel rods that are screwed into the lower tie










plate and attached to the upper tie plate to hold the bundle together during refueling. The

water rods are diagonally adj acent empty rods in the center of the fuel bundle that allow

water to pass through. In between the tie plates there are several spacer grids which serve

to keep the fuel rods separated, and additionally to cause some turbulence in the flow for

increased heat exchange. The fuel rods, tie rods, and water rods, supported by spacer

girds and upper and lower tie plates, are arranged into a square array. The original fuel

bundles in commercial General Electric (GE) BWRs had a 7x7 array of fuel rods.

Currently the newest fuel bundles are up to a 10x10 array of fuel rods. This increase in

fuel rods was accomplished by decreasing fuel rod diameter, while keeping the actual

size of the fuel bundle constant. The increased fuel rod design adds a significant amount

of surface area for increased heat exchange [7]. Illustrations of fuel modules are shown

in Figures 1-5 and 1-6. Figure 1-5 shows a cross-sectional view of a fuel module of the

old 8x8 fuel assemblies, and Figure 1-6 shows a three dimensional view of a fuel module.


ggogooooo ZoQoooooo
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Figure 1-5. Cross-Sectional View of BWR Fuel Module [7]


























1,TOP FUEL GUIDE
2 sr CHANNELL
3 UPPER TIE PLATE
4. CONTROL ROD
!iFUEL ROD0S
r. SPAC=ER











Figure 1-6. BWR Fuel Assemblies and Control Rod Module

The fuel rods in the BWR fuel bundle can be either standard, contain gadolinium,

or be part-length. The enrichment of the fuel rods in a BWR fuel bundle is varied

radially, which can be seen in Figure 1-7. In the figure, each cell represents a fuel rod

except for the middle adj acent large cells, which represent two water rods. The water

rods have a much larger diameter than fuel rods, and are empty to allow for water to pass

through. The values in each white cell and the top values in each gray cell represent the

enrichment of the fuel rod in weight percent. The bottom values in each gray cell

represent the concentration of gadolinium in the fuel rod in weight percent. The cells












labeled "E" represent fuel rods that are empty or have no fuel in that zone, these rods then


become designated by "V" in a higher zone, which stands for vanished or partial length


rods. This figure only shows a single axial zone in a fuel bundle. There are several


different axial zones within the fuel bundle. The different axial zones are necessary


because of the part-length rods and other axial variations. A more detailed illustration of


a fuel bundle, with all of the zones included can be seen in Figure 4-4.

ABCDEFGHJK
S1 1.60 2.00 3.20 3.60 3.95 4.40 3.95 3.60 32 24
4.40
2 12.001 E 13.60 E 13.95 E 4.40 E 13.60
7.00
4.40
3 13.20 3.60 4.90 4.90 4.40 4.90 4.90 4.90 4.40
7.00
4.90
4 13.601 E 14.90 4.90 WR 14.90 E 14.90
6.00
4.90
5 13.95 3.95 4.401 4.901 E 4.901 4.90
7.00
4.40 4.90
6 14.4 4.90 WR -E 4.90 4.90 4.90
7.00 6.00
4.90
7 13.951 E 14.901 14.90 4.90 E 14.90
6.00
4.90 4.90 4.40
8 13.60 4.40 4.90 4.90 4.90 4.90 4.90
7.00 6.00 7.00
4.40 4.90 4.40
9 13.201 E E 4.90 E E 14.40
7.00 6.00 7.00
10 12.40 3.60 4.40 4904.90 4904.90 04.90 49 .036


Figure 1-7. Cross-Sectional View of BWR Fuel Bundle

In BWR fuel bundles, the fuel rods on the outer edge need special consideration.


For example, row 1 and column A are sides of the fuel bundle that both face the blades of


the cruciform control rod and are exposed to a higher volume of moderator when the


control rod is withdrawn. These outer edge fuel rods have lower enrichments because of


their location. If a control rod is inserted during beginning of cycle (BOC), it is shielding


these outside fuel rods from thermal neutrons, causing a decreased amount of fission.


However, the fuel rods are not being shielded from energetic neutrons, allowing for


energetic neutron absorption by uranium-238, which produces plutonium-239. Later in


the cycle, when the control rods are removed, the fuel rods are exposed to a higher


amount of moderator, while having a high amount of uranium-23 5 and now also a higher









amount of plutonium-23 9 than the other rods. This combination causes the fission rate in

these rods to be much higher than the surrounding rods, which is an unfavorable

condition. To compensate for this phenomenon, the rods in these outer rows have lower

enrichments. Also, row 10 and column K may have lower enrichments, since these fuel

rods are also surrounded by a higher volume of moderator, which causes an increase in

the amount of Ession, especially at BOC.

BWR Cycle Design

The BWR core has many important design parameters. Some of these parameters

are: the moderator to fuel volume ratio, core power density, fuel exposure level, flow

distribution, operating pressure, void content, heat transfer, and cladding stress [7]. Since

each plant is unique, the design of the cycle depends on the specific plant, and the energy

plan of the utility. The cycle design also depends on the nuclear computer code package

used for the analysis. As a result of the coolant boiling in the core, the BWR is very

complicated to model completely and there is always a bias associated with the code

calculated values. While each code package in use today has the same basic structure and

uses the same principals, each code also uses unique approximations and methods,

therefore having its own bias. Due to the complexity of modeling BWR plants, the bias

of each nuclear code package also depends on the specific plant and even a specific cycle.

Even if the plant was on an equilibrium cycle, where the cycle design is identical from

one cycle to the next, the bias would still vary for that plant due to non-code related

uncertainties further discussed later in this paper. In addition to uncertainties, there are

almost always planned as well as unexpected variations from cycle to cycle, causing an

added change to the bias.













































, -o- Code Calculated Hot Eigenvalue
-- -Actual Plant Criticality


The main bias in the nuclear code packages is on the eigenvalue. An example of

what the code calculated eigenvalue may look like is shown if Figure 1-8. While the

code calculates a certain eigenvalue trend, the actual, physical core criticality

(represented by keff) throughout the cycle is maintained at exactly one during steady state

plant operation. Steady state plant operation is maintained during the majority of the

cycle. In order to design a cycle, it is necessary to "guess" what this eigenvalue bias is

going to be, based on previous cycles of the plant or similar plants. This guess of the

eigenvalue trend for the cycle is called the nuclear design basis (NDB). The chosen NDB

is used to normalize the code calculated results to the actual values. Unless the plant is

on a perfect equilibrium cycle, it is not possible to exactly guess the NDB. As mentioned

earlier, even if a plant is put on an equilibrium cycle, the NDB still cannot be determined

exactly due to non code related uncertainties, which are discussed in this thesis.


0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000

Cycle Exposure MWd/MT

Figure 1-8. Bias Eigenvalue Trend

The cycle is designed to meet the utilities energy plan, as well as all of the

reactivity and thermal-hydraulic limits that have been determined for that specific plant

and for the fuel used. Once the NDB is determined, the amount of fuel and type of fuel is


1.012
1.011
1.010
1.000
1.008
1.007
S1.006
1.005,
1.004
1.003
1.002
1.001

10008









chosen depending on the utilities energy plan for the cycle. If the NDB is very far off,

then the amount and type of fuel chosen will be incorrect for the planned cycle and other

problems may arise. When a cycle is designed, the fuel amount, type, and position in the

core are determined, as well as operating characteristics like the flow variation and the

control rod patterns throughout the cycle. The amount of flow and the control rod

patterns are specifies of a cycle design and can be modified during the cycle. Each plant

has an on-line core monitoring system that works with the core instrumentation to record

the activity of the plant throughout the cycle. Usually, this core monitoring system

comes from the same nuclear code package as was used to do calculations for the cycle

and, therefore, has the same bias. When it is noticed that the eigenvalue throughout the

cycle is drifting away from the predicted NDB trend, then changes are made in the core

flow and control rod patterns to compensate and keep the core within limits. If

significant adjusting of the control rod patterns and flow occurs in the cycle, the future

cycle being designed also has to be adjusted, therefore, it crucial to predict a good NDB

for the cycle. Also, TIP measurements are done throughout the cycle and are checked

with code calculated values. TIP comparisons can also be used as an indicator of certain

variations in the core. However, if the measured and calculated power shapes are

substantially different, it might also be expected that proj ected or planned control rod

inventory and eigenvalue may not be achieved because the thermal margins are

sufficiently different than expected. At that point, operational changes from the plan may

be used to take advantage of extra margin or recover margin for continued safety.

There are several limits that are looked at during typical cycle design calculations.

Thermal-mechanical limits are based on thermal-mechanical, as well as, emergency core

cooling system (ECCS) and loss of coolant accident (LOCA) aspects. There are two









thermal-mechanical aspects that are considered. The first is a mechanical aspect that

includes placing a limit on the peak fuel pin power level, which would result in a 1%

plastic strain on the clad. The second is a thermal aspect that includes limiting the power

to prevent centerline melting in the fuel. The ECCS/LOCA aspect is to place a limit on

the power level, which would result in a peak clad temperature of 22000F during a design

basis LOCA.

There are three maj or limits that are derived from the aspects mentioned

previously. One limit is the maximum average planar ratio (MAPRAT). The MAPRAT

is the ratio of the maximum average planar linear heat generation rate (MAPLHGR), in

units of the average KW/ft for that lattice, for a particular node divided by the

MAPLHGR limit (ECCS limiting average KW/ft). A second limit is the maximum

fraction of limiting power density (MFLPD). The MFLPD is the most limiting value of

the fraction of limiting power density (FLPD), which is the maximum rod power density

(MRPD) or the peak KW/ft value in a node, divided by the exposure dependant steady

state thermal-mechanical limit. Also, there is the critical power ratio (CPR), which is a

bundle quantity. The minimum critical power ratio (MCPR) is the ratio of the bundle

power required to produce the onset of transition boiling somewhere in the bundle,

divided by the actual bundle average power. The CPRRAT is the ratio of the operating

limit critical power ratio (OLMCPR) divided by the MCPR. The MAPRAT, MFLPD,

and CPRRAT should all be less than one for thermal limits to be met.















CHAPTER 2
INTRODUCTION

It is beneficial to have the ability to predict and evaluate changes in bias eigenvalue

trends, thermal margin trends, and TIP bias trends when variations occur in a BWR core

from one cycle to another. Currently the NDB is the predicted cycle eigenvalue bias, as

discussed previously. The NDB prediction is usually based on previous knowledge from

experimental data of the core or related cores, and it involves engineering judgment for

interpreting the available experience base. However, it may be difficult to develop a firm

NDB for an initial core, or when the history data is not fully relevant due to significant

changes in the core characteristics. This problem is amplified by the introduction of new

fuel designs, power up rates, longer operating cycles, changes in operating philosophy,

and operation in regimes without substantial prior experience. For example, BWR plants

are running at increasingly higher capacity factors, with fewer opportunities to

benchmark cold calculation models because outage schedules continue to be minimized.

Since BWR analysis models are quite sensitive to past history, the integral value of the

effect of a perturbation can be larger than expected later in future cycles. Also, if the

previous recorded history of the core is incorrect, the calculated values for the power

distribution can be different than the actual values.

To enable this study a multicycle benchmark model created by Global Nuclear

Fuel-Americas (GNF-A) was used [8]. It is a reference BWR three-dimensional multi-

cycle rodded core simulation model, which includes all basic details that a BWR core

designer requires from an actual operating reactor, i.e. detailed core loading patterns for









four cycles, varying operating conditions, rod patterns, and cold critical "measurements"

at BOC, middle of cycle (MOC) and end of cycle (EOC). Since it is not a real cycle,

"measurements" refers to code calculated cold critical values at the various points in the

cycle. Various perturbations in the area of fuel manufacturing and plant measurement

were studied using this model. The effects on hot eigenvalue trend, distributed and local

cold critical predictions, thermal margins, and changes in TIP bias are evaluated in this

study for the transition from the original cycle through a future equilibrium cycle.

Interesting results have been obtained through these efforts, and further investigations

would result in even more insights.

The basis of these studies involves perturbations. The perturbations are done to

evaluate the effects of varying certain input parameters, which are used in cycle

calculations, within realistic uncertainties. These uncertainties are related to

manufacturing, methods, instrument readings, and other possible components. This type

of analysis is useful when considering that typical BWR industry uncertainty on the core

eigenvalue is & 0.003, which in large plants roughly translates into a 6 assemblies in a

reload batch (or a 15 days of operation) [8]. Therefore, it is valuable to minimize the

uncertainties on the eigenvalue trends and other parameters (e.g. thermal margin trends

and TIP bias trends), due to their large impact on financial and safety considerations.

Below are a few figures 2-1, 2-2, and 2-3, which illustrate the financial impact of

incorrectly predicting the eigenvalue. It can be seen that in larger cores each individual

bundle has a smaller effect than in smaller cores. As a result, to correct the problem it

takes more bundles in a larger core and therefore the cost is greater.












IOU





140

2 20


60



200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800

Core Size (# of Bundles)

Figure 2-1. Energy per Bundle as a Function of Number of Bundles in BWR Core


200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800


'
,,,,....****
,,,,,,.....
******
....****
,,,,,...--
,,,,,,,..... ****
aw..****


L

cnco


mw

#L
w
a,

coo
50:


Core Size (# of Bundles)

Figure 2-2. Change in the Number of Bundles Needed for a 0.003 Error in Eigenvalue


2,000,000
1 ,8 00 ,O0 0
1, 600,O0 0
1, 400, 000
GE1,200,000
r 1,000,000
-08 00,0 0 0
8 600,000
400,000
200,000
0


200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800
Core Size (# of Bundles)

Figure 2-3. Change in the Total Fuel Cost for 0.003 Error in Eigenvalue (BWR)









The initial task in this analysis was to provide information on the sensitivity of the

core to the chosen perturbations as a function of exposure. The resulting information

may be applied in new model development activities for assessment of model changes on

core simulation results. Additionally, the results of this study can assist in the

identification of likely causes for the occasional irregularities observed in core tracking.

Even if the lattice physics and core simulator codes were consistent in the past for the

evaluation of a particular core, there is no absolute guarantee that the existing trends will

continue. The ability to predict or analyze the changes in these trends is important. For

example, it can provide assistance in more accurately predicting the NDB eigenvalue bias

trends. Also, if the NDB trend does not agree with the actual trend during the cycle, this

analysis provides a basis to suggest what unrecognized variations might be present, or

might have occurred in the core.















CHAPTER 3
IVETHOD S

There are various perturbation parameters that were considered in this study. Plant

measurement perturbation that were done include core flow, core pressure, core inlet

temperature, and core power variations. The fuel manufacturing perturbations that were

done include variations in burnable poison concentration, enrichment, pellet density,

cladding dimensions, and in channel dimensions. In addition to varying these

parameters, the reference multicycle created by GNF-A can also be used in the future to

study perturbations in core and fuel behavior; such as, variations in the fission product

model, Xenon model, depletion model (slope of depletion), gadolinium burnout, control

rod depletion, control rod design, impact of different types of spacers, impact of plenum

regions at bottom / top / middle of the bundle, impact of the use of hot dimensions, and

impact of TIP modeling. Studies of the perturbations in physics assumptions will also be

possible with this multicycle mode; for example, variations in core axial leakage, core

radial leakage, distribution of flows to bundles, calculation of axial void fraction, control

rod axial worths, modeling vs. not modeling of spacers, axially varying control rods, and

crud build-up. In the future, studies of the effects of varying all these parameters will

assist in the development of a diagnostic tool.

The analysis was performed using the current standard GNF-A analysis package

and the reference multicycle created in a previous study by GNF-A [8]. The analysis

package included the TGBLAO6 lattice-physics code and the PANAC 11 core-simulator

code. TGBLAO6 performs the thermal neutron spectra calculation by a leakage-










dependent integral transport method, and it performs a resonance integral calculation for

each resonant nuclide using an approximate one-dimensional geometry. PANAC11 uses

a nuclear diffusion model that is an improved 1 /2-grOup physics or quasi-two group

method, which uses spectral mismatch constants to modify the nodal powers and

boundary condition constants to take into account the core leakage [9,10]. Even though

other BWR code packages have different biases and give different results, all codes

should show similar changes in the overall characteristic trending for a given

perturbation.

The way the reference multicycle was used can be analyzed in several different

manners. Throughout most of the proj ect, the multicycle was considered to be the

calculated prediction for a plant, and each variation case was considered as the measured

plant data. This method allowed for a controlled experiment where effects from

individual perturbations could be evaluated. A comparable real life scenario may be that

all of the reload bundles are manufactured to a slightly higher enrichment, while the cycle

calculations are based on the fuel being within specifications. As a result, the online

monitoring system might then track a different eigenvalue trend than predicted. When

comparing this real life situation with this study, the calculated cycle would correspond to

the reference base case and the online monitoring system values would correspond to the

perturbed case. In order to simplify the calculation process used for TIP comparisons, the

interpretation is opposite; the base or reference case in this study would correspond to the

measured case (from the online monitoring system) and the higher enriched core is

considered as the calculated core.









In this study the results of selected perturbations are discussed. First there is a

summary of results for perturbations made on plant measurement parameters, and in the

chapter after there is a summary of results for perturbations made on fuel manufacturing

parameters. Even though all cases are shown in the summary tables, detailed plots are

shown only for selected high impact perturbations. While reviewing these results, it is

important to realize that these are extreme cases, which have a low probability of

occurring. However, it is also important to note that each perturbation case only focuses

on one parameter, when realistically multiple situations may occur in the core and even if

they are individually less drastic, it is possible that their effects are additive or they can

cancel each other.

When perturbations are made in the fuel manufacturing aspect of this study, they

are introduced with the fresh reload bundles. In most cases the perturbation is introduced

into all four cycles. As a result of the reload being about one third of the fuel in the core,

the core of Cycle N consists of about one third of the reference/perturbed bundles, the

core of Cycle N+1 consists of about two thirds of those bundles, and the cores of Cycles

N+2 and N+3 consist almost entirely of those bundles, eventually to an approximate

equilibrium cycle.















CHAPTER 4
REFERENCE MULTICYCLE

Cycle Characteristics

As mentioned earlier, the reference multicycle described in this chapter was created

by GNF-A in a previous study [8]. The core of the reference multicycle is a 764

assembly General Electric BWR/4 plant, utilizing two year cycles in a control-cell-core

loading, with ~37% batch fraction. There is one GE14 (10x10) fuel assembly type loaded

as fresh fuel in all the cycles. Cycle N is the beginning cycle in the study. Although cycle

N is a starting cycle from an existing core, the reload assemblies and the core loadings do

not reflect the actual operation of any operating BWR, but were constructed to provide

some insights on the sensitivity to the methods of variability in the actual data for this

mode of operation. It is recognized that the sensitivities for a two-year, high-energy

cycle using GNF 10x10 fuel may or may not have any relationship to the sensitivities that

would be seen for an annual cycle operation of a BWR, not loaded with similar fuel or

not of the same size. Additional studies would be needed to make that generalization.

Some of the input and output characteristics to describe the reference multicycle are

shown in Table 4-1 and Figures 4-1 through 4-3. In Table 4-1, the parameters that are

described as rated, refers to their status when the plant is at 100% flow and 100% power.

The values of the cycle describing parameters are typical of a large BWR core, but are set

up to approach an equilibrium cycle, which is not typical of actual operating plants.

Additional plots and tables that further describe each cycle of the reference multicycle

model are provided in Appendix A.























Figure 4-1 and Figure 4-2 illustrate thermal margin trends, and power and flow

maps for the multicycle analysis. Vertical lines separate each of the cycles, which are

labeled as N, N+1, N+2, and N+3. The cumulative exposure for all four cycles is used as

the parameter for the x-axis. Except where noted, for the purpose of the analysis, the

references cycle values represent the base case predicted or calculated cycle parameters

throughout this study. To make the reference case somewhat realistic, characteristics

such as power coast downs are incorporated. Both the power coast downs and percentage

of core flow can be seen in Figure 4-2.


1.05 -*-MAPRAT ~---CPRRAT-
a MFLPD
1.00
0.95 u~

0.90

S0.85 ..



0.70
N N+1 N+2 N+3
0.65
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75
Cumulative Exposure GWd/ST

Figure 4-1. Thermal Margins for Cycles N to N+3


--C


N+1 3514 15763
N+2 3514 16204
N+3 3514 16480


1713 ~
17913
17913


728( 20
728 20
728 20


136.93 2158432 2452764
136.95 2219197 2453194
137.03 2258240 2454609











120 -=% Flow -% Power
115
110
~105







80
N N+1 N+2 N+3
75
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75
Cumulative Exposure GWd/MT

Figure 4-2. Reactor Power and Core Flow for Cycles N to N+3

Figure 4-3 illustrates the shapes of the resulting BOC and EOC core average axial

relative power, and axial average exposure for Cycle N+3, which is considered to be

close to an equilibrium cycle. From the plot it can be seen that both at BOC and EOC the


exposure distribution is relatively flat, which the power distribution is bottom peaked at

BOC and top peaked at EOC. This plot is normalized, and to obtain the actual values,

there is a multiplier in the legend for each parameter.


1.1


0.7

0.4 t


S0.



1 5. 9 3 7212


Bottom Axial Node Top
-m-- BOC Relative Power (Actual x1.451) -m- EOC Relative Power (Actual x1.451)
-* BOC Averave Exp~osure (Actual x40542.5) -*- EOC Averave Exp~osure (Actual x40542.5)

Figure 4-3. Normalized Axial Core Parameters for Cycle N+3
























6 AB C D E F GHJK

1 071 071 071 071 071 071 071 071 071 071

2 071 V 0711 V 071 E V 071 V 071

3 0 71 0 71 E 1071 071 071 071 071 E 071

4 071 V 0711 E 071 WR 1071 V 071

5 071 071 071 071 VI E 071 071

6 071 E 071 VWR V 071 071 E 071

7 071 V 0711 1071 0711 E V 071

8 071 071 071 071 E 071 E 1071 E 071

9 071 V E IV 071 E V E V 071

10 071 071 071 071 071 071 071 071 071 071

4 A C E F G H J K

1 160 200 320 360 395 440 395 360 320 240
440
2 200 E 3601 E 395 70E 1440 E 360

3 320 360 490 490 440 490 490 490 70440

4 360 E 490 60490 VWR 1490 E 490

5 395 395 440 490 E 70490 490
440 490
6 440 70490 VWR E 490 490 60490

7 395 E 4901 4949090490 E 490
600
490 490 440
8 360 440 490 490 490 490 490
700 600 700
440 490 440
9 320 E E 490 E E 440
700 600 700
10 240 360 440 490 490 490 490 490 440 360


2 A C E F G H J K

1 160 200 320 360 395 440 395 360 320 240

2 200 280 360 490 3951 40490 440 440 360
700
3 320 360 490490 440 490 490 4901 40440
700 700
4 360 490 490 90490 VWR 1490 490 490
700
5 395 395 440 490 4901 49049 490
700
6 440 70490 VWR 1490 490490 70490
490
7 395 490 4901 1490 490 700490 490

8 360 440 490 490 70490 700490 70490

9 320 440 70490 490 70490 70490 440

10 240 360 440 490 490 490 490 490 440 360


5 A B C D E F G J

1 1160 200 320 360 395 440 395 360 320 240
440
2 1200 V 3601 V 1395 70V 14401 V 360

3 1320 360 490 490 440 490 490 490 70440

4 1360 V 490 49049 WR 14901 V 490
600
490
5 1395 395 440 4901 V 490 490
700
440 490
6 1440 70490 VWR V 490 490 60490

7 1395 V 4901 1490 4901 V 490
600
8 1360 440 404490 90490 490 490 40490
700 600 700
440 490 440
9 1320 V V 490 V V 440
700 600 700
10 1240 360 440 490 490 490 490 490 440 360

3 A C E F G J

1 1160 200 320 360 395 440 395 360 320 240

2 1200 280 360 490 395 70490 440 440 360

3 1320 360 490 490 440 490 490 490 70440

4 1360 490 490 60490 VWR 1490 490 490
6490
5 1395 395 440 490 490 70490 490
440 490
6 1440 70490 VWR -490 490 490 60490

7 1395 490 4901 490490 490 490 490
600
490 490 440
8 1360 440 490 490 490 490 490
700 600 700
440 490 440
9 1320 440 490 490 490 490 440
700 600 700
10 1240 360 440 490 490 490 490 490 440 360


1 A C E F G J

1 1071 071 071 071 071 071 071 071 071 071

2 1071 071 071 071 071 071 071 071 071 071

3 1071 071 071 071 071 071 071 071 071 071

4 1071 071 071 071 071 VWR 1071 071 071

5 1071 071 071 071 0711 1071 071 071

6 1071 071 071 VWR 1071 071 071 071 071

7 1071 071 0711 1071 071 071 071 071

8 1071 071 071 071 071 071 071 071 071 071

9 1071 071 071 071 071 071 071 071 071 071

10 1071 071 071 071 071 071 071 071 071 071


Figure 4-4. Reference Bundle Lattice Enrichments and Gadolinium Concentrations


Reference Bundle


The reference bundle is a GE14 10x10 fuel bundle as shown in Figure 4-4 below.


Enrichment: 4.063 wt% U-235

Legend: enrichment(wt% U-235); Gadolinia(wt% Gd203); WR = water rod; V = vanished rod; E = empty rod









The bundle is composed of six lattices. Lattices 1 & 6 contain natural uranium fuel and

lattices 2-5 contain enriched uranium fuel and gadolinium rods. Although this is not an

existing fuel bundle, it is typical of what would be in an actual core. This is the fuel

bundle design that is used as the base case reload for all the cycles. Similar figures of the

bundles used for the fuel manufacturing perturbations are included in Appendix B.

Cold Criticals

In an actual plant, cold critical measurements are attained by starting with all-rods-

in (ARI) and then pulling out control rods until criticality is reached (keff-1). The

measure of whether criticality is reached is recorded by the online core monitoring

system, which receives readings from the core instrumentation. The cold critical

calculations include distributed as well as local cold critical. Distributed cold critical

have a rod pattern distributed throughout the core, and local cold critical have a rod

pattern where the rods are withdrawn from only one part of the core (locally) and are in

close proximity of each other. An example of the cold critical rod patterns for MOC of

cycle N+1 can be seen in Figure 4-5. In this figure there is one distributed cold critical

rod pattern and five different local cold critical rod patterns that were chosen. All of the

cold critical rod patterns for BOC, MOC, and EOC for each cycle are provided in

Appendix A. The patterns might have slight variations but are very similar for each of

the cycles.

Cold critical eigenvalues are used to calculate the shut down margin (SDM) and the

worth of the strongest chosen control rod at different points in the cycle. The SDM is a

parameter that basically is used to ensure that the reactor can be shut down by inserting

the control rods anytime during the cycle. The control rods have to be worth enough

negative reactivity to perform the shutdown, and, as an additional safety feature, the












I


080004 8 800080
080448 804848 804880
00 48 0 8 0 0 24 0 48 0 0 0 48 0
480480848084808480848048 048 8
0 08 04 8280 0 0 12 048 0 0 0 4
48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48
0 0 0 4808 0 08 0 02 0 480 0 0
480848084808480848084808480848
04 84 8 880 0 048 0 0 80 0 0480
0048848084808480848084808480 4


058480 0 0 8480 0 0 8480
28 80480848084808480
30 80480 0 0 480


100 0 0 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 48 048 048 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 48 448 48 48 0480 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 48 48 48 48 48 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 48 048 48 48 0480 0 0 0
200 0 0 0 0 48 048 048 0 0 0 0 0
220 0 0 0 48 048 048 048 0 0 0 0
0 0 00 00 00 00 00 0
00000000000


I I I I I I I I I I


I I I I I I I I I I


004824800000000
0000480480000000 0
000004800000000 0
00000000000000 0
00000000000000 0
00000000000000 0
00000000000000 0
00000000000000 0
0 00 00 00 00 00 0 0


00484000000000
000000000000000
000000000000000
000000000000000
000000000000000
000000000000000
000000000000000
000000000000000
00 00 00 00 00 00 0


I


000000000
0 048 4 48 4848 48 0 0 0
0 0 0 448 648 4848 0 0 0 0
000000000000000
0 00 00 00 00 00 00 0 0
000000000000000
000000000000000
000000000000000
0 00 00 00 00 00 00 0 0
0 00 00 00 00 00 00 0 0


IIIIIIII II


0000000000000000
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 0
0 0 0 0 448 4848 4848 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 04848 4848 4848 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 048 4848 4848 0 0 0 0 0
200 00 00 00 00 00 00 0
200 00 00 00 00 00 00 0


I I I I I I I I I I I I


III II II I I


Distributed Cold Critical
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 2122 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30


Local Cold Critical #1
34 56 789 10 1112 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 2122 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30


1 2 3 4


1 2


0000000
0 00 00 00 0


0000
00 0 0


0 0 0 0 0


0 0


Local Cold Critical #2
5 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 2122
|0|0|0|0|0|0|0


Local Cold Critical #3
56 7 89 10 1112 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 2122 23 24 25 26 27 28
|0|0|48 000 0


1 2 3 4


23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30


1 2 3 4


010


010


481 2 1481011 8


010


014800O1


0010


01010


0010


010010


48414810


ololo


ololo


ololo


olololo


ololo


olololo


00000
0000


~t~t~
000


0000
000


0000
0000


Local Cold Critical #4
7 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 2122

|o 00o00o00o


Local Cold Critical #5
56 78 9 10 1112 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 2122 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

|o 00o00o00o


1 2 3 45 6


23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30


1 2 3 4


0010


001010


010010


0010


0010010


ololo


ololo


olololo


olo0 0 0 0


ololo


olo a olo


0010


01010


010010


0010


010010


000000
00000


00000
0000


~t~t~
000


Figure 4-5. Cold Critical Rod Patterns for MOC N+1









calculation is done with one strongest control rod not inserted in the core. There are a

few steps that are taken to calculate the SDM and worth of the strongest control rod

throughout the cycle. First, the cycle design must be finalized in order to run the

calculation. The eigenvalue calculations are run at different exposure steps in the cycle

and include a distributed cold critical calculation, a local cold critical calculation, an all-

rods-in (ARI) calculation and a single-rod-out (SRO) calculation. After these

calculations are run, the distributed cold critical results are used to normalize the ARI

eigenvalue results and the local cold critical results are used to normalize the SRO

eigenvalue results. Then, the worth of the strongest rod is equal to the difference

between the normalized ARI and SRO results, and the SDM is equal to one minus the

SRO results.















CHAPTER 5
PLANT IVEASURE1VENT PERTURBATIONS

There is a possibility that the instrumentation used to measure plant parameters

may fail or may not be calibrated correctly during a cycle or even several cycles. In the

plant, measurements are taken of parameters such as core flow, pressure, temperature,

and power. The plant is run and controlled partially based on these measurements.

Considering their importance, these parameters were varied to see their impact on the

cycle when no other changes were made. Realistically in the case when the calculated

and measured cycles (evaluated by the core monitoring system) do not match, the

operations plan is modified and, most likely, the flow and control rod positions are

altered to compensate. This type of compensation is not included in this study, which is

another factor that makes these perturbations extreme cases. The perturbations

considered for the plant measurement parameters are listed in the Table 5-1. A summary

of the results from the perturbation cases is shown in Table 5-2. In this table the

perturbation cases are compared to the base case (reference multicycle), where the delta

is a result of the base value being subtracted from the perturbed or modified value. For

each perturbation the table lists the maximum and minimum resulting hot delta keff, the

maximum impact on any of the three thermal margins, and the maximum and minimum

delta keff for the distributed and local cold critical. All of the mentioned deltas are the

maximums or minimums at any point during the four cycles. After the summary table

there are several plots that illustrate the effects of the perturbation cases.










Table 5-1. Descri tion of Plant Measurement Perturbations


1 Core flow increased 5%
2 Core flow decreased 5%
3 Core prsure increased 2%
4 Core prsure decreased 2%
5 Core temprtre increased 0.4%
6 Core tempeatre decreased 0.4%
7 Core pwrincreased 1.25%
8 Core pwrdecreased 1.25%
9 Core pwrincreased 2.50%
10 Core power decreased 2.50%
11 Core power increased 2.50% in cycle N only


4 -0.00175 -0.00063 -2.2 0.00053 0.00000 0.00072 0.00000
5 -0.00150 -0.00055 -1.8 0.00041 0.00000 0.00051 0.00000
6 0.00148 0.00055 1.8 -0.00042 0.00000 -0.00058 0.00000
7 -0.00331 -0.00067 2.7 -0.00118 0.00000 -0.00211 0.00000
8 0.00342 0.00067 -2.7 0.00114 0.00000 0.00197 0.00000
9 -0.00662 -0.00133 5.4 -0.00240 0.00000 -0.00412 0.00000
10 0.00675 0.00135 -5.5 0.00225 0.00000 0.00389 0.00000
11 -0.00464 -0.00003 4.3 -0.00156 0.00000 -0.00218 0.00000



There are many conclusions that can be made from the results above. The first

conclusion is that the variations in the core flow, pressure, and temperature are not as


significant as the variations in the power. Figures 5-1, 5-2, and 5-3 show the resulting

change in the eigenvalue when the flow, pressure, and temperature are varied and Figure

5-4 shows the results when the power is changed by 1.25%. Although these variations

are not as significant as the 2.5% change in power variation, for which the eigenvalue


change is shown in Figure 5-6, they still show specific trends in the eigenvalue. It can be











































N N+1 N+2 N+3


N I N+1 N+2 I N+3


seen that the flow, pressure, and temperature eigenvalue changes are almost perfectly

symmetric when varied by up and down by the same amount. The impact is slightly

different in cycle N for all these plots. One factor that may contribute to this is that the


cycle only has one reload of the reference bundle fresh fuel; however the plots of the keff

for the base case in Appendix A for cycle N and other cycles do not show a significant

difference. There seems to be a settling effect after the first cycle. Also, a thing to notice

is the delta at EOC, when it is negative it signifies that the cycle ran out of energy early.


-a- Flow Decreased 5.0%


-m- Flow Increased 5.0%


0.010
S0.008
g 0.006
9 0.004
i& 0.002
o 0.000

-000
-0.006

o -0.008
0- 010


0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75
Cumulative Exposure GWd/MT

Figure 5-1. Hot Delta Keff for Varied Flow by 5.0% Compared to Base Case


0.010
0.008
S0.006
0.0


S0.004

-0.006

n -0.008
0010i


- -Pressure Decreased 2.0% -


-m-Pressure Increased 2.0%


0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75
Cumulative Exposure GWd/MT

Figure 5-2. Hot Delta Keff for Varied Pressure by 2.0% Compared to Base Case


























N N+1 N+2 N+3


N N+1 N+2 N+3


-- -Temperature Increased 0.4% -ATemperature Decreased 0.4% -


0.010
0.008
S0.006
S0.004
i0 0.002

S0.000
-0.006

n -0.008
0n010


0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75
Cumulative Exposure GWd/MT

Figure 5-3. Hot Delta Keff for Varied Temperature by 0.4% Compared to Base Case

A unique aspect of doing the power perturbations is that the burnup was modified

for the perturbed case in order to make a comparison with the base or reference case.

When considering the scenario of the instrumentation was giving inaccurate readings,

then it would not be know that the burnup is actually different and the comparison below

is what would be seen. Also, it can be noticed in the figure below that the effect of the

power perturbation increases from cycle to cycle, especially from cycle N to cycle N+1.


0.010
0.008
S0.006
S0.004

-~0.002

-0.004

~ 0.006
n -0.008
0010i


S-m-Power Increased 1.25%


-A-Power Decreased 1.25%


0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75
Cumulative Exposure GWd/MT

Figure 5-4. Hot Delta Keff for Varied Power by 1.25% Compared to Base Case






























































N N+1 N+2 N+3


43


Figure 5-5 shows the results of when the power perturbation is only done in cycle N and

not in the rest of the cycles. It is evident that there is a history effect that can be seen in

cycle N+1, which later fades away in the remaining two cycles to a negligible amount.


0.010

a~~- 0.0 mPower Increased 2.50% (Cycle N Only)
g 0.006
9 0.004
i& 0.002
B 0.000 -- ---- m a m imnmmmme
-0.002
~ 0.004
~ 0.006
n -0.008
N N+1 N+2 N+3
-0.010
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75
Cumulative Exposure GWd/MT

Figure 5-5. Hot Delta Keff for Varied Power by 2.5% in Cycle N Compared to Base Case

Figures 5-6 through 5-10 illustrate some of the impacts of the case where the power

is increased and decreased by 2.50%. Figure 5-6 shows the change in the hot eigenvalue

as a function of continuous burnup. In this extreme case, the delta keff increases towards

EOC for each cycle, reaching a maximum of 0.00675 and 0.00602.


-m-Power Increased 2.50% -Power Decreased 2.50%


0.010
0.008

S0.002
0 0.000


n~ 0.008
0010,,


0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75
Cumulative Exposure GWd/MT

Figure 5-6. Hot Delta Keff for Varied Power by 2.50% Compared to Base Case





0.003

S0.002
m -o- Local 1 -m- Local 2 -A- Local 3
9 0.001Local 4 Local 5
c~0.000
-000


-0.004


-0.005

BOC MOC BC MOC BC MOC BC MOC EOC
EOC EOC EOC
Point in Multicycle

Figure 5-8. Delta Keff for Local Cold Critical Eigenvalues Compared to Base Case for
the Power Increased 2.50% Case


a Power Increased 2.50%










N N+1 N+2 N+3


44


There are two issues that are of concern when looking at the deltas for the cold

critical eigenvalues. The first issue is the size of the delta itself. When the delta is


positive, it is an indication that the cold keff for the modified case is higher for the same

control rod configuration as in the base case, which means that criticality is reached faster

than expected. The opposite effect occurs in the case where the power is increased

2.50%, which can be seen in Eigures 5-7 and 5-8 for distributed and local cold critical.


0.010
0.008
0.006
0.004
0.002
0.000
-0.002
-0.004
-0.006
-0.008
-0.010


BOC MOC BO
BOC MOC MOC MO O O
EOC EOC EOC
Point in Multicycle

Figure 5-7. Delta Keff for Distributed Cold Critical Eigenvalues Compared to Base Case















































-c -Power Increased 2.50% -A-Power Decreased 2.50%











N N+1 N+2 N+3


The second issue is the difference between the changes in the distributed cold critical


compared to the changes in the local cold critical. This is important because a bias has


to be maintained between the two values, and when the values vary by different amounts


in the perturbation cases then the bias may not be maintained.[11] Figure 5-9 shows the


maximum difference between the distributed and any of the five locals within the base


case compared to the maximum difference between the distributed and any local within


the modified case. In the base case the difference between the distributed cold critical


and any local cold critical is roughly designed to maintain the required bias between the


two values. As a result, any point in the plot that is above zero indicates that the delta is


larger than what the limiting value of the bias should be by that amount, which may result


in problems with maintaining SDM within the cycle.


BOC MOC BC MOC BC MOC BC MOC EO
EOC EOC EOC
Point in Multicycle

Figure 5-9. Maximum Delta Keff Between Distributed and Any Local Cold Critical
Eigenvalue Compared to Base Case


Figure 5-10 shows the calculated TIP comparisons between the base case and the


perturbation case, where the power is increased by 2.50%. All the RMS values are very


small, which means that the difference between the two cases is very small. This


0.0040

0.0030

0.0020

0.0010



-0.0010

-0.0020

00030~


B
a,
o
a,
v,
co
a,

80
mS
S
3
n

O







46


indicates that even if the TIP measurements match the calculated TIPs, the plant is not

necessarily operating as expected.


1.6 -Base Case - Power Increased 2.50%-

1.4 -
1.2 *






S0.4 Radial RMS Axial RMS Nodal RMS
0.2


0 5 10 15 20 25
Bottom Axial Node Top

Figure 5-10. Average Axial TIP Distributions for EOC N+3

As seen by the discussed results, it is important to check the accuracy of the plant

equipment. Inaccurate measurements used as cycle inputs can greatly affect the way the

current cycle is designed and operated, as well as the way future cycles are designed and

operated.















CHAPTER 6
FUEL MANUFACTURING PERTURBATIONS

As there are uncertainties in plant measurements, there are also variations in fuel

manufacturing. Calculations are always made assuming constant fuel parameters for the

standard products that are built by manufacturing, however, the as built parameters for

the fuel products are usually slightly different. Even if the fuel is manufactured within

tolerances, there may be situations where the majority of the fuel may be either on the

upper or lower end of the allowed values. Several perturbations were done in this area to

access the effects of fuel manufacturing variations. The types of perturbations done are

listed in Table 6-1 and the summary of the results is listed in Table 6-2. These fuel

manufacturing perturbations are introduced into the system with each reload batch. In

Table 6-1, the first four cases of enrichment variations are done by varying the

enrichments of entire rods one level up in enrichment or one level down (using the

allowable enrichments that are manufactured) to change the average enrichment of a

bundle. This is a very unrealistic scenario and because of the way the perturbation is

done (when lower enriched rods were replaced with higher enriched rods without varying

anything else); the thermal margin effect in case 4 is exceptionally high. In cases 7 & 8

the enrichments were uniformly varied in each pellet by the same percentage to change

the average enrichment of the bundle. This uniform variation is also used in cases 13 &

14, where the enrichment is varied uniformly, but by different percentages in different

axial zones of the bundle. The corresponding bundles listed in Table 6-1 are shown in

Appendix B, except for the reference bundle which was previously shown in Figure 4-4.
















3 C Averae bundle enrichment decreased 2.2% (0.09w%)
4 D Averae bundle enrichment increased 2.2% (.09w%)
5 Reference Fuel Densit increased 0.5%
6 Reference Fuel Densit decreased 0.5%
7 E Averae bundle enrichment uniformly decreased 1.5% (0.06w%)
8 F Averae bundle enrichment uniformly increased 1.5% (0.06w%)
9 Reference Clad inside diameter increased 0.001 in, and clad thickness decreased
10 Reference Clad inside diameter decreased 0.001 in, and clad thickness increased
11 Reference Channel inside dimension decreased 0.015 in.
12 Reference Channel inside dimension increased 0.030 in.
Enrichment increased 1.8% in zones 4 & 5 and enrichment decreased
13 G 1.2% in zones 2 & 3, averae bundle enrichment remained constant
Enrichment decreased 1.8% in zones 4 & 5 and enrichment increased
14 H 1.2% in zones 2 & 3, averae bundle enrichment remained constant
15 I Gadolinium concentration increased 0.5w% in Cycle N onl
16 IGadolinium concentration increased 0.5w%
17 J Gadolinium concentration decreased 0.5w%
Gadolinium concentration increased 0.25w% in Zones 2 & 3 and
18 K decreased in zones 4 & 5 sufficient to prsrvetotal gadolinium



Table 6-2. Summary of Results from Fuel Manufacturing Perturbations







1 -0.00366 -0.00075 -2.4 -0.00338 0.00102 -0.00349 0.00098
2 0.00374 0.00094 5.2 0.00318 0.00100 0.00335 0.00084
3 -0.00642 -0.00120 4.0 -0.00586 0.00170 -0.00619 0.00161
4 0.00707 0.00186 18.6 0.00640 0.00225 0.00665 0.00180
5 -0.00088 0.00000 -2.7 0.00075 0.00005 0.00109 0.00001
6 -0.00052 0.00000 -0.8 -0.00062 0.00014 -0.00090 0.00002
7 -0.00484 -0.00104 1.8 -0.00432 0.00147 -0.00473 0.00122
8 0.00369 0.00080 1.5 0.00335 0.00111 0.00369 0.00097
9 0.00231 0.00035 1.3 0.00147 0.00013 0.00149 0.00000
10 -0.00190 0.00003 -1.6 -0.00199 0.00009 -0.00204 0.00004
11 0.00082 -0.00001 -0.8 -0.00118 0.00000 -0.00201 0.00001
12 -0.00174 0.00004 1.7 0.00226 0.00001 0.00384 0.00003
13 -0.00128 -0.00002 -6.8 0.00214 0.00049 0.00344 0.00002
14 0.00124 -0.00003 5.2 -0.00172 0.00010 -0.00319 0.00002
15 -0.00521 -0.00002 5.3 -0.00660 0.00000 -0.00646 0.00000
16 -0.00530 -0.00143 6.5 -0.00661 0.00096 -0.00697 0.00078
17 0.00518 0.00118 7.5 0.00692 0.00103 0.00738 0.00080
18 0.00462 -0.00007 -12.4 0.00580 0.00030 0.00735 0.00021


Table 6-1. Description of Fuel Manufacturing. Perturbations


1 A IAverage bundle enrichment decreased 1.2% (0.05w%)


2 B


Average bundle enrichment increased 1.2% (0.05w%)






































N N+1 N+2 N+3


I I I I


-- -Clad Inside Diameter Increased 0.001 in./Thickness Decreased 0.003 in.
-0- Clad Inside Diameter Decreased 0.001 in.rrhickness Increased 0.003 in.










N N+1 N+2 N+3


The results of cases 5 and 6, the density variations, and cases 9-12, the clad and

channel geometry variations, show much less sensitivity than the enrichment and

gadolinium concentration variations. Since the channel and clad geometry perturbations

are not varied equally up and down, the results are not symmetric, which is evident in

Figure 6-1 and Figure 6-2. However, it is seen in Figure 6-3 that even though the density

is varied up and down by the same amount, the results are still not perfectly symmetric.


0.010~ AChannel Inside Dimension Decreased 0.015 in. (thicker)
0008-a- Channel Inside Dimension Increased 0.030 in. (thinner)


8 0.006
' 0.004
E 0.002

0.0
0.006
~ 0.008


-0.010


0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80
Cumulative Exposure GWd/MT

Figure 6-1. Hot Delta Keff for Channel Geometry Variation Cases Compared to Base
Case


0.010
~0.008
~0.006
0.0


S0.004
S0.006
0.008


-0.010


0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80
Cumulative Exposure GWd/MT

Figure 6-2. Hot Delta Keff for Clad Geometry Variation Cases Compared to Base Case











, .


N N+1 N+2 N+3


I


0.010
0.008
S0.006
0.0
0.002

-~0.002
S0.004
-0.006


-0.008
-0.010


-A- Pellet Density Increased 0.5%
-0- Pellet Density Decreased 0.5%


0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80
Cumulative Exposure GWd/MT

Figure 6-3. Hot Delta Keff for Fuel Density Variation Cases Compared to Base Case

There are several plots below that illustrate the effects of the more severe


perturbation cases. Figures 6-4 through 6-9 show the results of the enrichment variation

cases. In Figure 6-4, the cases where the enrichment is varied by 1.5%, show the most

variation in the hot eigenvalue. The effect increases as more modified fuel is introduced

from cycle N to cycle N+2. The axial variation cases, where the bundle average

enrichment is kept constant, show less overall variation in the hot eigenvalue.


0.010 -m-Avg Bundle Enrichment Increased 1.5%
-oAvg Bundle Enrichment Decreased 1.5%
0.008 -a- Enrichment Increased 1.8% in Zones 4&5/Decreased 1.2% in Zones 2&3
-6- Enrichment Decreased 1.8% in Zones 4&5/Increased 1.2% in Zones 2&3
0.006
0.004






S-0.004
d 0.006
-0.008
0.10N N+1 N+2 N+3
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75
Cumulative Exposure GWd/MT
Figure 6-4. Hot Delta Keff for Enrichment Variation Cases Compared to Base Case










































N N+1 N+2 N+3


Figures 6-5 through 6-7 show the changes in the cold critical eigenvalues for the

enrichment variation cases. Figure 6-5 shows that the distributed cold critical

eigenvalues vary less in cycle N and then increase in cycles N+1 to N+3. Also, the cases

where the enrichment is uniformly changed by 1.5% show a constant trend in the deltas

from cycle to cycle. In the axial variation cases there is an alternating trend from cycle to

cycle. This alternating trend is probably caused by the history effect that is carried on

from cycle to cycle.


0.010 -- -C-Avg Bundle Enrichem nt Decreased 1.5%
O Avg Bundle Enrichment Increased 1.5%
0.008 -- -K Enrichment Increased 1.8% in Zones 4&5/Decreased 1.2% in Zones 2&3
9 & Enrichment Decreased 1.8% in Zones 4&5/Increased 1.2% in Zones 2&3
Pi0.006-


BOC MOC BC MOC BC MOC BC MOC EOC
EOC EOC EOC
Point in Multicycle

Figure 6-5. Delta Keff for Distributed Cold Critical Eigenvalues Compared to Base Case

Figure 6-6 shows the change in the local cold critical eigenvalues for the case

where the bundle enrichment is increased by 1.5%. Since the delta is positive in this

case, criticality is reached faster by the plotted delta keff. Figure 6-7 shows that there are

very significant changes in the maximum difference between the distributed and local

cold critical eigenvalues compared to the base case. These changes are much greater in

the cases where the enrichment was axially varied while the average enrichment was kept

constant. This also proves that even though the hot eigenvalue might not have been

affected as severely in these axially varied cases, there are still existing problems within


a 0.002



S0.006
n 0.008


-0.010







52


the cycle. As can be seen, there are several indicators to check whether the cycle is on

track besides just the eigenvalue trend.


0.0080

0.0070

0.0060

0.0050

0.0040

0.0030

0.0020

0.0010


0.0000 |
BOC MOC


BOC MCBOC MCBOC
EOC EOC EOC


MOC EOC


Point in Multicycle

Figure 6-6. Delta Keff for Local Cold Critical Eigenvalues Compared to Base Case for
Average Bundle Enrichment Increased 1.5% Case


-C-Avg Bundle Enrichemnt Decreased 1.5%
0.005 --l O Avg Bundle Enrichment Increased 1.5%
J Enrichment Increased 1.8% in Zones 4&5/Decreased 1.2% in Zones 2&3
~j0.004 -- a Enrichment Decreased 1.8% in Zones 4&5/Increased 1.2% in Zones 2&3

S0.003
~m N N+1 N+2 f\N+3
Y `0.002
a~~0.001 1



S-0.001^

-0.002
BOC MOC BOC MOC BOC MOC BOC MOC EOC
EOC EOC EOC
Point in Multicycle

Figure 6-7. Maximum Delta Keff Between Distributed and Any Local Cold Critical
Eigenvalue Compared to Base Case

Once again, just as in the plant measurement power variation case, the TIP results in


Figure 6-8 show that there is almost no apparent variation in the TIP measurements

between the base case and the case where the enrichment is decreased 1.5%. This is



























0 5 10 15 20 25
Bottom Axial Node Top
Figure 6-8. Average Axial TIP Distributions for BOC N+3

Figure 6-9 shows a recognizable difference in the calculated TIP values between the base

case and one of the axially varied enrichment cases. This is an indication that the TIP

comparisons are helpful when there is an axial variation in the core as opposed to a

uniform variation in the core. The TIP comparison proves to be an important indicator

since the eigenvalue was not drastically different from the base case for this perturbation.


1.6 -Base Case
- Enrichment Decreased 1.8% in Zones 4&5/Increased 1.2% in Zones 2&3
n 1.4



- 0.8
0.6
a, Radial RMS Axial RMS NodalRM
e 0.40.24% 5.33% 5.53%
> 0.2

0 5 10 15 20 25
Bottom Axial Node Top
Figure 6-9. Average Axial TIP Distributions for BOC N+3

Figures 6-10 through 6-15 illustrate the results of the gadolinium concentration variation

cases. From the summary table, it is evident that these perturbations have a very

significant impact on the cycle parameters. In Figure 6-10 it is shown that the

gadolinium variation has no significant history effect. This can be seen by looking at the


Radial RMS Axial RMS Nodal RMS
0.09% 0.62% 0.65%


surprising, since this case showed such a significant change in the hot and cold

eigenvalues.

1.6 -Base Case
-Avg Bundle Enrichment Decreased 1.5%


t? 1.4
S1.2

0- 0.8
a, 0.6
E 0.4
S0.2
0










case where the gadolinium is varied only in one cycle, after which, the eigenvalue returns

to that of the base case. The fact that there is no history effect can also be recognized by

noticing that the variation from cycle to cycle is constant. In Figure 6-10, where the

gadolinium is varied axially while the bundle average gadolinium is kept constant, there

again is the phenomenon where there is an alternating trend. Since the trends are not

constant from cycle to cycle, the axial variation has a history affect on the core. The

axial variation also causes the eigenvalue trend to first have a positive delta keff and then,

towards the end of cycle, a negative delta keff. This axial perturbation seems to amplify

the already existing axial effects of the varying void concentrations.

0.010 -r -gg-Gad Increased 0.5w%
-o-Gad Increased 0.5w%(onlyin Cycle N)
0.008 Gad Decreased 0.5wof
~-Gad Increased 0.25w% in Zones2&3/Decreased in Zones4&5 to Preserve Total Ga
S0.006

$I0.004
i~0.002 '

E0.000
S-0.002
S-0.004
n -0.006
-0.008
N N+1 N+2 N+3
-0.010
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75
Cumulative Exposure GWd/MT
Figure 6-10. Hot Delta Keff for Gadolinium Concentration Variation Cases Compared to
Base Case

Figures 6-11 through 6-13 show the effects of the gadolinium variations on the cold

critical eigenvalues. In Figure 6-11, the largest changes in the distributed cold critical

eigenvalues are seen in the cases where the gadolinium is changed by 0.5w% throughout

the bundle.











-t-Gad Increased 0.5w%
o Gad Increased 0.5w% (onlyinCycle N)
SGad Decreased 0.5w%
000 a Gad Increased 0.25w% in Zones2&3/Decreased in Zones4&5 to Preserve Total Gad


S0.000
-~0.002
0.004
-f0.006

-0.008

o N N+1 N+2 N+3
-0.010
BOC MOC BOC MOC BOC MOC BOC MOC EOC
EOC EOC EOC
Point in Multicycle

Figure 6-11. Delta Keff for Distributed Cold Critical Eigenvalues Compared to Base
Case


Figure 6-12 shows the changes in the local cold critical eigenvalues for the case where

the gadolinium is decreased by 0.5w% in each reload for each cycle. As the results show,

these are very drastic changes that would have a big effect on the SDM for the cycles.


-oa-Locl 1 '-A-Local 2 Local 3
I -us- tLocal 4 *-Local 5
IN N+1 N+2 N+3


- 0.008


co0.004
0.0
0.002

S0.001
0 0.00


.
BOC MOC BOC MOC BOC MOC BOC MOC EOC
EOC EOC EOC
Point in Multicycle
Figure 6-12. Delta Keff for Local Cold Critical Eigenvalues Compared to Base Case for
Decreased Gadolinium Case


Figure 6-13 illustrates the change in the maximum delta between the local and distributed

cold critical compared to the base case. These are large changes, but there seems to be no

trend in the cases. One recognizable aspect is that there is a slight history effect that can be

seen in cycle N+1 of the gadolinium decreased 0.5w% (only in Cycle N) case. This case



























































0 5 10 15 20 25
Bottom Axial Node Top
Figure 6-14. Average Axial TIP Distributions for Cycle N+2 at 9811 MWd/MT

Figure 6-15 shows the TIP comparisons for the case where the gadolinium was axially

varied with the average bundle gadolinium concentration kept constant. Since this is an


0U3
002


)000
001
002 NN+1 N+2 N+3
BOC MOC BC MOC BC MOC BC MOC EOC
EOC EOC EOC
Point mn Multicycle
,-13. Maximum Delta Keff Between Distributed and Any Local Cold Critical
Eigenvalue Compared to Base Case

,-14 again shows that there is no noticeable difference in the TIP comparisons for

where the gadolinium is uniformly increased by 0.5w%/. Even though there is a

fect on the eigenvalues and thermal margins, this is not noticeable in the TIP

sons, since the perturbation was uniform throughout the core.

-Base Case -Gad Increased 0.5w%






Radial RMS Axial RMS Nodal RMS
0.41% 0.78% 1.06%


did not show history effects previously when looking at other parameters like the hot

eigenvalue.

-gg-Gad Increased 0.5w%
O Gad Increased 0.5w% (onlyin Cycle N)
J Gad Decreased 0.5w%
0.00 Gad Increased 0.25w% in Zones2&3/Decreased in Zones4&5 to Preserve Total Gad
0.004


r


0 .e
0 .e
0.(






Figure 6



Figure 6

the case


large ef

compari


1.6



0.6

S0.4

a, 0.2
k 0







57


axial change, there is significant variation between the calculated and "measured" TIP

values.

-Base Case
1.6 - Gad Increased 0.25w% in Zones2&3/Decreased in Zones4&5 to Preserve Total Gad
S1.4



0.6 ,Radial RMS Axial RMS Nodal RMS
0.4 0.47% 11.02% 11.78%

0.

0 Bottom 5 0Axial Node 120 Top 2
Figure 6-15. Average Axial TIP Distributions for EOC N

As shown in the discussed results, there are fuel manufacturing variations that can

be ignored, while others that have to be recognized and accounted for. Also, there are

several indications that can show if there is something going on in the core, which are not

necessarily complimentary.















CHAPTER 7
CONCLUSION

This multicycle analysis contains valuable data that can be used in predictions and

assessments of trends in BWR cores. The main conclusion in this study is that the

uncertainties in plant measurement values and in fuel manufacturing parameters may

have a significant effect on cycle calculations. One has to recognize that no matter how

robust the code is, the level of code accuracy becomes irrelevant if these parameters are

not monitored and controlled. However, it also has to be recognized that this study

contains extreme individual perturbations. Plant measurement instruments and fuel

manufacturing processes are both monitored in order to prevent such extreme scenarios.

There are many additional evaluations necessary to further aid the purpose of this

study, in order to encompass other possible variations and phenomenon that occur in the

core. As mentioned previously, perturbations can be studied in core and fuel behavior

such as: variations in fission product model, Xenon model, depletion model (slope of

depletion), gadolinium burnout, control rod depletion, control rod design, impact of

different types of spacers, impact of plenum regions at bottom / top / middle of the

bundle, impact of the use of hot dimensions, and impact of TIP modeling. There are also

certain methodologies incorporated into the codes that are separately characterized as

methods uncertainties. Studies of the perturbations in this category may include:

variations in core axial leakage, core radial leakage, distribution of flows to bundles,

calculation of axial void fraction, control rod axial worths, modeling vs. not modeling of

spacers, axially varying control rods, and crud build-up. Considering all these possible










perturbations to be studied, there is also the aspect of what happens when uncertainties

are combined. The effects of combinations of many perturbations may either be

independent, additive, or cancel each other out. Understanding such outcomes would

also be a valuable asset to the BWR industry.

With the continuation of these types of studies, the phenomenon that occur within

the BWR core could be better understood, the codes could be tested and improved, and

all the procedures and methods that lead up to the final cycle designs could be refined and

enhanced. All these benefits are very important to the world's nuclear industry and

electricity market, ultimately benefiting the United States and World population by

increasing the supply of electricity, while decreasing the cost.
























~rrro~l~l~
)Illlllllill)


GE14 4.10 14 1 56 20272.6 37731.7
GE14 4.11 14 2 80 21574.5 39910.7
GE14 4.10 14 3 68 20064.3 35845.2
GE14 4.11 14 4 8 19165.0 37468.9
GE14 4.10 14 5 48 20770.0 38687.4
GE14 4.11 14 6 24 19959.8 35875.1
GE14 4.06 14 11 168 0.0 21357.4
GE14 4.06 14 12 108 0.0 22085.5
GE13 4.04 13 19 140 35223.3 43555.5
GE13 4.07 14 20 64 37461.7 44273.2


~ICCDI I~~~
)Illlllllil~ )


7 19 20 3 1 20 1 11 12 1 1 11 2 2
8 20 19 3 6 11 3 6 5 12 2 2 11 11 5
9 20 19 20 5 2 12 11 2 12 12 11 3 11 2 11
10 20 19 2 11 11 11 12 12 12 1 12 11 11 11 5
11 19 19 1 11 5 12 2 1 11 12 19 19 11 1 2
12 19 19 1 6 11 12 5 2 1 11 19 19 11 11 2
13 20 19 6 11 12 12 11 1 11 11 11 11 1 12 12
14 19 19 3 4 3 12 11 11 2 11 3 11 12 2 2
15 19 19 6 11 12 12 11 1 11 11 11 11 1 12 19


Figure A-1. Cycle N Assembly Locations by Bundle Type Number


APPENDIX A
REFERENCE CYCLE SPECIFICS


Cycle N Characteristics


Table A-1. Bundle Information Cycle N


20 19 19
19 19 20
653


3 3
3 11


5 11
12 11


12 13
12 12


20 20













1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

1 139.6 39.9 36.5 38.6 38.9 36.7 38.2

2 1 39.7 36.1 3.14813283.1 34.1.83284.3.828

3 1 39.7 38. 6 35. 6 31.5 22.6 18.3 19.8 19.82.911

4 1 35.61 37.3 19.4 18.8 0.0 0.0 19.5 0.0 19.2 0.0


7 39.0 37. 17.6 19.3 31.5 19.3 0.0 0.0 21.5 19. 0.0 22.1 21.2

8 39.7 35.2 19.4 19.8 0.0 19.1 20.2 20.2 0.0 22.1 21.2 0.0 0.0 22.2

9 39.8 38.2 32.7 19.5 20.6 0.0 0.0 21.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 22.2 0.0 22.2 0.0

10 39.8 34.8 22.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 22.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 22.9

11 36.7 35.2 18. 0.0 20.2 0.0 21. 21.5 0.0 0.0 30.9 29.4 0.0 22.0 22.0

12 36.1 34.6 18.3 20.2 0.0 0.0 19.3 21.2 22.0 0.0 29.3 30.9 0.0 0.0 22.1

13 38.9 34.1 19.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 19.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 22.8 0.0 0.0

14 38.6 32.8 22.6 19.2 20.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 22.1 0.0 22.2 0.0 0.0 22.0 21.

15 36. 32.8 19. 0.0 0.0 21.3 20. 22.1 0.0 22.2 20.6 22.1 0.0 21.0 29.



Figure A-2. BOC Cycle N Exposure Distribution (GWD/T)





1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

1 43.1 44.2 41.51 43.8 44.3 42.2 43.

2 44.6 42.5 42.1 43.61 42.2 44.1 42.6 42.7

3 43.2 44.2 43.5 42.0 35.5 32.8 34.8 35.0 37.7 34.5

4 41.5 45.9 32.2 33.8 17.8 19.0 37.3 19.9 37.4 20.0


7 44.61 45. 30.7 34.1 44.9 35.4 21.1 21.9 39.6 37.91 22.61 41.8 38.

8 44.6 43.1 32.2 35.2 18.2 35.3 37.3 39.9 22.3 40.3 39.6 22.6 22.4 39.7

9 43.3 44.5 43.0 34.4 37.8 20.4 21.1 40.5 22.8 22.9 22.4 42.0 23.0 42.3 22.1

10 44.1 42.7 35.1 17. 20.4 21.6 22.01 22.3 22.9 42.8 22.2 22.1 22.6 22.7 42.2

11 41.6 44.0 33. 19. 39.3 22.0 39.4 39.8 22.41 22.2 46.71 45.4 21.8 41.5 39.7

12 41.4 43.9 33.4 38. 21.9 22.5 38.0 39.7 41.9 22.1 45.2 46.6 21.7 21.8 39.7

13 44.4 43.7 35.1 20.1 22.1 23.0 22939.8 23.1 22.7 21.9 21.7 42.2 21.9 21.3

14 44.1 42.6 37.6 37. 40.5 22.9 22.7 22.7 42.41 22.8 41.71 21.8 22.0 41.2 39.8

15 42.2 42.7 34. 20.2 21.9 41.1 38.7 40.0 22.31 41.8 38.71 39.7 21.4 39.7 44.



Figure A-3. EOC Cycle N Exposure Distribution (GWD/T)


39.7 37.2 17.61 19.4 19.3 0 10.61 0 0.0 120.6 .

37.2r 19.411. 01.1.10.0 0.0 0.0 0.012.


39.71 39.9


45.7 45.5 30.7 34.8 36.7 20.4 21.9 40.21

45.6 3.14.18320.4 21.6 22.7 22.5


4321 2 .6





-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-


1.015
1.014
1.013
1.012
1.011
1.010
1.009
1.008
1.007
1.006
1.005
1.004
1.003
1.002
1.001

0.008
0.997
0.996
0.995
0.004
0.003
0.992
0.991
0.990


0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000
Cycle Exposure MWd/MT


Figure A-4. Cycle N Hot keff


1.05


1.00


0.95


0.90


0.85


0.80


0.75


0.70


0.65


0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000
Cycle Exposure MWd/MT


Figure A-5. Cycle N Thermal Margins

















-- %-V Power -- -r--- o/ Flow


.r AAA


0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000
Cycle Exposure MWd/MT


Figure A-6. Cycle N Reactor Power and Core Flow


* ?


0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000
Cycle Exposure MWd/MT


-


120

115

110

S105




00


0 0


r


-
-
-
-
-


1090
1086
1082
1078
1074
1070
1066
S1062
1058
S1054
S1050
- 1046
1042
1038
1034
1030
1026
1022


Figure A-7. Cycle N Core Pressure



















a *


533
532
531
E 530




E527
526


0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000
Cycle Exposure MWd/MT


Figure A-8. Cycle N Core Inlet Temperature


rL ki~~~~ ~~*~f ~i~


16

u- 15

0- 14

13


0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000
Cycle Exposure MWd/MT

Figure A-9. Cycle N Core Bypass Flow





-* Normalized Averave Exposure (Actual x20517.9)
-m- Normalized Relative Fbw er (Actual x1.584)
-A- Normalized Void Fraction (Actual x0.711)


Axial Node


Bottom


Figure A-10. Cycle N BOC Axial Core Parameters



-o Normalized Averave Exposure (Actual x39591.1)
-m- Normalized Relative Pow er (Actual x1.469)
-A- Normalized Void Fraction (Actual x0.588)


1 5 9 13 17 21 25
Bottom Axial Node Top


Figure A-11. Cycle N EOC Axial Core Parameters









66




Cycle ft Iod Pattern Results

DESIGN CRITERIA: FLOW= 85.0% 97.0% MFLCPR=0.930 MFLPD=0.9
INDICATOR KEY: *=EXCEEDS CRITERIA, ^=PEAK VALUE, ^^=PEAK VALU
CYCEXP
MWD/ST KEFF FLOW-% MFLCPR MFLPD MAPRAT
0 1.0077 92.5 0.904(10,14) 0.875(12,14, 8) 0.858(11,15,

200 1.0075 96.4 0.870(10,14) 0.866(11,15, 8) 0.854(11,15,

1000 1.0071 98.2* 0.855(10,14) 0.859( 7,13, 8) 0.849( 8,12,

2000 1.0066 98.2* 0.844( 9,13) 0.840( 8,12, 8) 0.833( 8,12,

2600 1.0062 93.6 0.829( 7,13) 0.881( 9,13, 4) 0.853(13, 7,

2600A 1.0063 99.1* 0.839( 8,14) 0.881( 7,15, 8) 0.844( 7,15,

3600 1.0058 101.2* 0.828( 8,14) 0.859( 7,15, 8) 0.828( 7,15,

4600 1.0053 97.9* 0.832( 8,14) 0.826( 7,15, 8) 0.803( 7,15,

5300 1.0049 97.9* 0.830( 8,14) 0.815( 7,15, 8) 0.796( 7,15,

5300A 1.0049 94.2 0.850( 7,13) 0.844(12, 8, 8) 0.812(12, 8,

6300 1.0044 93.4 0.851( 7,13) 0.834(12, 8, 8) 0.814( 6,13,

7300 1.0038 91.6 0.855( 6,13) 0.870( 6,13, 4) 0.871( 6,13,

7900 1.0035 91.6 0.856( 6,13) 0.891( 6,13, 4) 0.896( 6,13,

7900A 1.0036 94.1 0.842( 7,14) 0.894( 6,13, 4) 0.899( 6,13,

8900 1.0031 94.1 0. (2 7,14) 0.875( 6,13, 4) .83 6,13


ir~Jy





































CYC EXP 0
(MWD/ST)
POWER-% 100.0
FLOW-% 92.5
K-EFF 1.0077
































11 I






CYC EXP 2600
(MWD/ST)
POWER-% 100.0
FLOW-% 93.6
K-EFF 1.0062


MFLCPR 0.904
MFLPD 0.875
MAPRAT 0.858
AXIAL PEAK



i 7 911












MFLCPR 0.855

MFLPD 0.859 -






















MFLCPR 0.829
MFLPD 0.881
MAPRAT 0.853
AXIAL PEAK


(10,14)
(12,14,

1.584 (
1.369 (

13 1






















(10,14)
( 7,13,
( 8,12,
1.567 (
1.240 (

13 1











I I ( -










( 7,13)
( 9,13,
(13, 7,
1.510 (
1.503 (


CYC EXP 200
(MWD/ST)
POWER-% 100.0
FLOW-% 96.4
K-EFF 1.0075

1 3






















CYC EXP 2000
(MWD/ST)
POWER-% 100.0
FLOW-% 98.2
K-EFF 1.0066

1 3














11


I I I I



CYC EXP 2600A
(MWD/ST)
POWER-% 100.0
FLOW-% 99.1
K-EFF 1.0063


MFLCPR 0.870
MFLPD 0.866
MAPRAT 0.854
AXIAL PEAK























1 3














I 3r

MFLCPR 0.839
MFLPD 0.881
MAPRAT 0.844
AXIAL PEAK


(10,14)


1.573 (
1.292 (

13 1






















( 9,13)
( 8,12,
( 8,12,
1.541 (
1.210 (

13 1












( 8,14)-

( 7,15,-








( 7,15,

1.496 (
1.259 (




































CYC EXP 3600
(MWD/ST)
POWER-% 100.0
FLOW-% 101.2
K-EFF 1.0058

1 3














11 | |

13 I |

15 | |

CYC EXP 5300
(MWD/ST)
POWER-% 100.0
FLOW-% 97.9
K-EFF 1.0049


MFLCPR 0.828
MFLPD 0.859
MAPRAT 0.828
AXIAL PEAK



5 7 9 11









36











MFLCPR 0.830
MFLPD 0.815
MAPRAT 0.796
AXIAL PEAK


( 8,14)
( 7,15,
( 7,15,
1.466 (
1.248 (

13 12






6 36t-



| | ( -











( 8,14)
( 7,15,
( 7,15,
1.409 (
1.282 (


CYC EXP 4600
(MWD/ST)
POWER-% 100.0
FLOW-% 97.9
K-EFF 1.0053

1 3














11 |

13

15

CYC EXP 5300A
(MWD/ST)
POWER-% 100.0
FLOW-% 94 2
K-EFF 1.0049


MFLCPR 0.832
MFLPD 0.826
MAPRAT 0.803
AXIAL PEAK



5 7 9 1














36






MFLCPR 0.850
MFLPD 0.844
MAPRAT 0.812
AXIAL PEAK


( 8,14)
( 7,15,
( 7,15,
1.417 (
1.250 (

13 1






















( 7,13)
(12, 8,
(12, 8,
1.438 (
1.222 (


).834 (12, 8,
).814 ( 6,13,


.870 ( 6,
.871 ( 6,




































CYC EXP 7900
(MWD/ST)
POWER-% 100.0
FLOW-% 91.6
K-EFF 1.0035

1 3














11 | |

13 I |

15 | |

CYC EXP 8900
(MWD/ST)
POWER-% 100.0
FLOW-% 94 1
K-EFF 1.0031

1 3














11 I

13 I

15 I I

CYC EXP 10700
(MWD/ST)
POWER-% 100.0
FLOW-% 96.8
K-EFF 1.0022


MFLCPR 0.856
MFLPD 0.891
MAPRAT 0.896
AXIAL PEAK



5 7 9 11









36











MFLCPR 0.842
MFLPD 0.875
MAPRAT 0.883
AXIAL PEAK



5 7 9 11





















MFLCPR 0.828
MFLPD 0.837
MAPRAT 0.846
AXIAL PEAK


( 6,13)
( 6,13,
( 6,13,
1.419 (
1.397 (

13 12






















( 7,14)
( 6,13,
( 6,13,
1.377 (
1.377 (

13 12






















( 7,14)
(10, 9,
( 9, 9,
1.354 (
1.354 (


CYC EXP 7900A
(MWD/ST)
POWER-% 100.0
FLOW-% 94 1
K-EFF 1.0036

1 3














11

13

15 | |

CYC EXP 9900
(MWD/ST)
POWER-% 100.0
FLOW-% 94 1
K-EFF 1.0026

1 3














11

13

15

CYC EXP 10700A
(MWD/ST)
POWER-% 100.0
FLOW-% 93.2
K-EFF 1.0021


MFLCPR 0.842
MFLPD 0.894
MAPRAT 0.899
AXIAL PEAK



5 7 9 1



















|36|

MFLCPR 0.830
MFLPD 0.893
MAPRAT 0.904
AXIAL PEAK



5 7 9 1





















MFLCPR 0.852
MFLPD 0.928
MAPRAT 0.921
AXIAL PEAK


( 7,14)
( 6,13,
( 6,13,
1.427 (
1.407 (

13 1






















( 7,14)
( 9, 9,
( 9, 9,
1.414 (
1.414 (

13 1






















( 6,12)

(10, 9,
1.419 (
1.405 (




































CYC EXP 11700
(MWD/ST)
POWER-% 100.0
FLOW-% 96.3
K-EFF 1.0018

1 3














11 I

13 I

15 I I

CYC EXP 13700
(MWD/ST)
POWER-% 100.0
FLOW-% 106.6
K-EFF 1.0006

1 3














11 I

13 I

15 | |

CYC EXP 14200
(MWD/ST)
POWER-% 100.0
FLOW-% 103.4
K-EFF 1.0005


MFLCPR 0.853
MFLPD 0.770
MAPRAT 0.736
AXIAL PEAK



5 7 9 11





















MFLCPR 0.908
MFLPD 0.874
MAPRAT 0.832
AXIAL PEAK



5 7 9 11





















MFLCPR 0.914
MFLPD 0.888
MAPRAT 0.847
AXIAL PEAK


( 8,14)
( 8,15,17)
( 8,15,17)
1.194 (17)
1.106 ( 4)

13 15






















(10, 8)


1.319 (17)
0.859 ( 4)

13 15








0 I t--

| ----










( 7,13)


1.349 (18)
0.822 ( 4)


CYC EXP 12700
(MWD/ST)
POWER-% 100.0
FLOW-% 99.6
K-EFF 1.0011

1 3














11

13

15

CYC EXP 13700A
(MWD/ST)
POWER-% 100.0
FLOW-% 106.6
K-EFF 1.0005

1 3














11

13

15 | | |

CYC EXP 14500
(MWD/ST)
POWER-% 100.0
FLOW-% 103.4
K-EFF 1.0001


MFLCPR 0.896
MFLPD 0.831
MAPRAT 0.793
AXIAL PEAK



5 7 9 1





















MFLCPR 0.908
MFLPD 0.874
MAPRAT 0.832
AXIAL PEAK



5 7 9 1





















MFLCPR 0.914
MFLPD 0.899
MAPRAT 0.857
AXIAL PEAK


(10, 9)
( 8,12,17)
( 8,12,17)
1.265 (18)
0.953 ( 4)

13 15






















(10, 8)


1.319 (17)
0.859 ( 4)

13 15



















| 10 |

( 7,13)
( 8,15,18)

1.375 (18)
0.764 ( 4)




































CYC EXP 14800
(MWD/ST)
POWER-% 100.0
FLOW-% 110.9
K-EFF 0.9998

1 3














11 I

13 I

15 I

CYC EXP 15400
(MWD/ST)
POWER-% 100.0
FLOW-% 110.0
K-EFF 0.9997

1 3














11 I

13 I

15 I I

CYC EXP 16450
(MWD/ST)
POWER-% 90.6
FLOW-% 110.0
K-EFF 0.9993


MFLCPR 0.898
MFLPD 0.910
MAPRAT 0.868
AXIAL PEAK



5 7 9 11





















MFLCPR 0.909
MFLPD 0.944
MAPRAT 0.921
AXIAL PEAK



5 7 9 11





















MFLCPR 0.812
MFLPD 0.878
MAPRAT 0.860
AXIAL PEAK


( 7,13)


1.392 (18)
0.728 ( 4)

13 15






















(10, 9)


1.416 (18)
0.681 ( 4)

13 15








I ----

| ----










(10, 9)


1.469 (20)
0.572 ( 4)


CYC EXP 15000
(MWD/ST)
POWER-% 100.0
FLOW-% 100.0
K-EFF 0.9999

1 3














11

13

15

CYC EXP 15875
(MWD/ST)
POWER-% 100.0
FLOW-% 110.0
K-EFF 0.9992

1 3














11

13

15

CYC EXP 16450A
(MWD/ST)
POWER-% 90.6
FLOW-% 110.0
K-EFF 0.9993


MFLCPR 0.926
MFLPD 0.915
MAPRAT 0.893
AXIAL PEAK



5 7 9 1





















MFLCPR 0.882
MFLPD 0.930
MAPRAT 0.909
AXIAL PEAK



5 7 9 1





















MFLCPR 0.812
MFLPD 0.878
MAPRAT 0.860
AXIAL PEAK


(10, 9)

(10,10,18)
1.389 (18)
0.752 ( 4)

13 15






















(10, 9)


1.398 (19)
0.656 ( 4)

13 15






















(10, 9)


1.469 (20)
1.000 ( 4)
















Cycle N BOC


08000800040
0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0
08000800080008 0
48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48
0 0 08 00 08 00 08 00 0
48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48
0 0 08 00 08 00 04 00 0
48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48
0 8 00 08 00 08 00 08 0
0 48 048 048 048 048 048 0
08000800040
0 48 048 048 048 0
0800080


Local Cold Critical #1



0 1 11 J1 S1 ~1 92022 J2 52 ~2 9J


r2 0 0 0 0 0 480 48 0 48 0 0 0 0 0
14 0 0 0 0 48 6 4 84 0 4
is 0 0 0 0 0 48 48 48 0 48 0 0 0 0 0
is 0 0 0 0 4 84 8 0 4
20 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 4 48 0 8 0 4 0 0 0 0
22 0 0 0 0 0 08 48 0 8 0 4 0 0 0 0 0

200 0 0 0 0 08 0 08 0 08 0 0 0 0

~ 000000000000
2s0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
000000000


00004800000000
00 0 048 048 00 00 00 0 0
000004800000000 0
000000000000000 0
000000000000000 0
000000000000000 0
000000000000000 0
000000000000000 0
0000000000000

00000000000


S00480000000000

1200~0000000000000
14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1.000000000000000
10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
20000000000000000
22000000000000000


00000000000
000000000
0000000


0 0 0 048 048 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 048 648 3648 0 0 0 0
00000480000000
0000000000000
0000000000000
0 00 00 00 00 00 0 0
0 00 00 00 00 00 0 0
0000000000000
0000000000000
0000000000000


00000 10010010000


0
0
0
0
0
0
0


0
0
0
0
0
0
0


10000000000000000



rs 0 0 0 0 0 02 48 48 48 0 0 0 0 0 0

rs 0 0 0 0 0 0 48 48 48 0 0 0 0 0 0
20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
22000000000000000

S0000000000000


Distributed Cold Critical


1 251


ZJ 21 25 26 2~ 28 29 JO


1 2


Local Cold Critical #2


Local Cold Critical #3


1 251


ZJ 21 25 26 2~ 28 29 JO


h


1 251


25 26 2~ 28 29 JO


0 0 0 0 0 0 0


0 0 0


0 0 0


4801O1240 0 0 0 I


0010


0010010


0010


Local Cold Critical #4


Local Cold Critical #5


ZJ 21 25 26 2~ 28 29 JO


1 251


25 26 2~ 28 29 JO


0010010


0010


0010


0010010


01010


0010010


0010


0000000
0000000


0000000
0000000


Figure A-12. Cycle N BOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns
















Cycle N MOC


0 48 0 0 0 48 0 0 0 48 08
0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0
0 48 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 48 0
48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48
0 0 0 48 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 48 0 0 0
48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48
0 0 0 48 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 48 0 0 0
48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48
0 48 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 48 0
0 48084808480848084808480
0 48 0 0 0 8 48 0 0 0 8 48 0
0 480848084808480
0 480 0 0 8480


Local Cold Critical #1



0 1 11 J1 S1 ~1 92022 J2 52 ~2 9J


r2 0 0 0 0 048 0 48 0 48 0 4 0 0 0 0
14 0 0 0 0 48 8 4 84 0 4
is 0 0 0 0 0 48 48 48 48 48 0 0 0 0 0
is 0 0 0 0 4 84 8 0 4
20 0 0 0 0 0 48 08 48 0 8 0 4 0 0 0 0
22 0 0 0 048 08 4 40 48048 0 0 0 0

200 0 0 0 0 08 0 08 0 08 0 0 0 0

~ 000000000000
2s0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
000000000


001004800000000
00 0 048 048 00 00 00 0 0
000004800000000 0
000000000000000 0
000000000000000 0
000000000000000 0
000000000000000 0
000000000000000 0
0000000000000

00000000000


S00480000000000

1200~0000000000000
14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1.000000000000000
10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
20000000000000000
22000000000000000


00000000000
000000000
0000000


0 048 048 4848 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 048 648 4848 0 0 0 0
00012000000000
0000000000000
0 00 00 00 00 00 0 0
0 00 00 00 00 00 0 0
0 00 00 00 00 00 0 0
0000000000000
0000000000000
0000000000000


00000 10010010000


0
0
0
0
0
0
0


0
0
0
0
0
0
0


10000000000000000

rzl 0 0 0 0 8 48 48 48 484 0 0 0 0 0
is0 0 0 0 484 484 484 0 0 0 0 0
rs 0 0 0 0 0 48 48 48 48 48 0 0 0 0 0



22000000000000000

S0000000000000


Distributed Cold Critical


1 251


ZJ 21 25 26 2~ 28 29 JO


1 2


Local Cold Critical #2


Local Cold Critical #3


1 251


ZJ 21 25 26 2~ 28 29 JO


h


1 251


25 26 2~ 28 29 JO


014810 0 0 0 0


0 0 0


0 0 0


48 4 1480 0 0 0 I


0010


0010010


0010


Local Cold Critical #4


Local Cold Critical #5


ZJ 21 25 26 2~ 28 29 JO


1 251


25 26 2~ 28 29 JO


0010010


0010


0010


0010010


01010


0010010


0010


0000000
0000000


0000000
0000000


Figure A-13. Cycle N MOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns















Cycle N EOC


06000600060
0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0
060006000600060
48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48
000600060006000
48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48
000600060006000
48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48
060006000600060
0 48 048 048 048 048 048 0
0 6 000 6 000 6 0
0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0
0 6 000 6 0


Local Cold Critical #1



0 1 11 s1 S1 ~1 92022 J2 52 ~2 9J


0 0 0 048 048 1048 0480 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 48 4 48 0 48 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 048 04848 48 0480 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 048 048 048 0480 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 048 048 048 0480 0 0 0
00 00 00 00 00 00 0
00 00 00 00 00 0
00 00 00 00 0
00 00 00 0


00004800000000
00 0 048 048 00 00 00 0 0
0000048000000000
000000000000000
000000000000000
000000000000000






00000000000


10 0 0 48 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 4 1 100000 0 00100100 0 0 0 0 0

u 010000000 00100100 000 00
20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
22 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0


01010101010101010101O
01010101010101010
0101010101010


0 048 048 4848 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 048 048 4848 0 0 0 0
0000000000000
0000000000000
0000000000000
0000000000000
0000000000000
0 00 00 00 00 00 0 0
0 00 00 00 00 00 0 0
0000000000000


00000 10010010000


0
0
0
0
0
0
0


0
0
0
0
0
0
0


a 010000000 00100100 000 00

rzl0 0 0101048484848480 0 0 001O1
rl O0 0 0 0 0O148 148 148 148 148 0 0 0 00I I
.01010101004 48848 48 1480 0 0 00IIO
20 0 0 0 0 0184 41 08 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0

22 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0


Distributed Cold Critical


1 251


ZJ 21 25 26 2~ 28 29 JO


1 2


Local Cold Critical #2


Local Cold Critical #3


1 251


ZJ 21 25 26 2~ 28 29 JO


h


1 251


25 26 2~ 28 29 JO


0810010


01001010


0010010
0010010


48 4148010
014810010


0 0 0


0 0 0


0 0 0 0 0


Local Cold Critical #4


Local Cold Critical #5


ZJ 21 25 26 2~ 28 29 JO


1 251


25 26 2~ 28 29 JO


0010


0010010


0010


0010


01001010


0010


0010010


-'P+++++" 01


-'P+++++"01


Figure A-14. Cycle N EOC Cold Critical Rod Patterns









Table A-2. Cycle N Cold Critical Data


MM


Ditributed BOC 0 0 134 100 6588 0.74189 0.99935
ARI BOC 0 0 68 1000 8880 1.00000 0.94330
Lcl1 BOC 0 0 137 62 7722 0.86959 0.99578
Lcl2 BOC 0 0 168 82 8688 0.97838 0.99567
Lcl3 BOC 0 0 187 35 8664 0.97568 0.99681
Lcl4 BOC 0 0 181 88 8550 0.96284 0.99553
Lcl5 BOC 0 0 194 72 8416 0.94775 0.99667
Ditributed MOC 7900 8708 167 49 5832 0.65676 0.99623
ARI MOC 7900 8708 68 1000 8880 1.00000 0.93133
Lcl1 MOC 7900 8708 176 89 7480 0.84234 0.99280
Lcl2 MOC 7900 8708 75 100 8630 0.97185 0.99246
Lcl3 MOC 7900 8708 134 77 8588 0.96712 0.99235
Lcl4 MOC 7900 8708 120 18 8478 0.95473 0.99216
Lcl5 MOC 7900 8708 167 300 8104 0.91261 0.99276
Distributed EOC 16450 18133 187 62 6624 0.74595 0.99299
ARI EOC 16450 18133 68 1000 8880 1.00000 0.93757
Lcl1 EOC 16450 18133 82 127 7618 0.85788 0.98877
Lcl2 EOC 16450 18133 195 114 8680 0.97748 0.98877
Lcl3 EOC 16450 18133 224 15 8624 0.97117 0.98876
Lcl4 EOC 16450 18133 160 76 8496 0.95676 0.99075
Lcl5 EOC 16450 18133 72 1000 8112 0.91351 0.98899













































200 220.462 0.01936 0.01414
1000 1102.31 0.01886 0.01745
2000 2204.62 0.01882 0.01974
2600 2866.006 0.01863 0.02027
3600 3968.316 0.01815 0.02244
4600 5070.626 0.0179 0.02464
5300 5842.243 0.01791 0.02584
6300 6944.553 0.01824 0.02634
7900 8708.249 0.01883 0.02135
8900 9810.559 0.01853 0.0192
9900 10912.869 0.01767 0.01827
10700 11794.717 0.01677 0.01798
11700 12897.027 0.01512 0.01798
12700 13999.337 0.01261 0.0166
13700 15101.647 0.00872 0.01491
14800 16314.188 0.00227 0.01403
15000 16534.65 0.00082 0.01404


0.028
0.026
0. 024 Hot Excess Delta Keff
0. 022 n -m- SDM Delta Keff
0.020
0.018 -+ ~
0.016
0 0.014
B 0.012
B 0.010
0.008
0.006
0.004
0.002
0.000
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000

Exposure (MWD/MT)

Figure A-15. Cycle N Predicted Hot Excess and SDM

Table A-3. Cycle N Hot Excess and SDM Data


Cycle N Hot Excess and SDM


0.0213


0.01206








































Cycle N
Exposure: 4600 MWd/ST
Average Axial Distributions












4 8 12 16 20 24


Cycle N TIP Plots


Cycle N
Exposure: 0 MWd/ST
Average Axial Distributions


0 4 8 12


16 20 24


Node

Figure A-16. Cycle N TIP results for 0 MWd/ST (BOC)


Node


Figure A-17. Cycle N TIP results for 4600 MWd/ST



































Cycle N
Exposure: 15000 MWd/ST
Average Axial Distributions


Cycle N
Exposure: 8900 MWd/ST
Average Axial Distributions


0 4 8 12 16 20 24
Node

Figure A-18. Cycle N TIP results for 8900 MWd/ST


16 20 24


Node


Figure A-19. Cycle N TIP results for 15000 MWd/ST (EOR)











Cycle N
Exposure: 16450 MWd/ST
Average Axial Distributions












4 8 12 16 20 24


Node


Figure A-20. Cycle N TIP results for 16450 MWd/ST (EOC)


















Cye


cle N+1


GE14 4.10 14 1 40 35992.5 43781.1
GE14 4.11 14 2 48 39049.4 43896.4
GE14 4.10 14 3 48 33707.1 43700.0
GE14 4.11 14 4 8 37468.9 43894.1
GE14 4.10 14 5 36 37827.6 43712.7
GE14 4.11 14 6 24 35875.1 42944.0
GE14 4.06 14 11 168 21357.4 38844.9
GE14 4.06 14 12 108 22085.5 40252.6
GE14 4.06 14 13 168 0.0 21018.4
GE14 4.06 14 14 116 0.0 21792.7


I


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
1 2.0 2.0 1.0 2.0 2.0 5.0 2.0
2 3.0 2.0 5.0 6.0 5.0 3.0 3.0 3.0
3 6.0 5.0 1.0 1.0 3.0 12.0 12.0 3.0 13.0 11.0
4 2.0 1.0 11.0 11.0 13.0 13.0 11.0 13.0 11.0 13.0
5 2.0 1.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 13.0 11.0 13.0 14.0 12.0 14.0
6 2.0 1.0 5.0 11.0 14.0 13.0 14.0 13.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 12.0
7 5.0 3.0 11.0 14.0 3.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 11.0 11.0
8 2.0 3.0 11.0 11.0 13.0 11.0 11.0 12.0 14.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 13.0 11.0
9 5.0 2.0 1.0 11.0 11.0 14.0 13.0 11.0 14.0 14.0 13.0 12.0 13.0 11.0 13.0
10 1.0 1.0 3.0 13.0 13.0 13.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 12.0 14.0 13.0 11.0 13.0 11.0
11 6.0 4.0 12.0 13. 11.0 14.012. 12.0 13.0 14.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 12.0 12.0
12 5.0 3.0 12.0 12. 13.0 14.0 12.0 12.0 11.0 13.0 12.0 11.0 13.0 13.0 11.0
13 5.0 6.0 1.0 13.0 14.0 14.013. 12.0 13.0 11.0 13.0 13.0 14.0 11.0 14.0
14 4.0 6.0 13.0 11. 11.0 14.0 13.0 13.0 12.0 13.0 11.0 13.0 11.0 14.0 12.0


Cycle N+1 Characteristics


Bundle Information


1512.016.0111.0j 13.0


laof11n0


11.01 11.0113.0111.0112.01 12.0114.0112.0 3.0


Figure A-21. Cycle N+1 Assembly Locations by Bundle Type Number


4.


Table A-~













1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

1 139.7 38.8 39.6 39.7 39.6 36.7 39.7

2 1 37.6 39. 6 37. 3 35. 1 39.3 34.8 34.8 35.3

31 38.01 38.0 33.81 33.21 32.01 20.4 21.3 32.21 0.0 121.8

4 1 35.1 35.4 19.0 20.4 0.0 0.0 21.1 0.0 18.2 0.0


7 38.7 34. 17. 0.0 30.7 22.0 0.0 0.0 21.7 22.2 0.0 22.6 22.4

8 39.7 34.0 19.0 20.1 0.0 21.9 21.8 21.6 0.0 22.3 22.3 0.0 0.0 22.7

9 39.7 39.7 33.4 20.4 21.7 0.0 0.0 21.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 22.0 0.0 22.4 0.0

10 39.8 37.9 32.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 22.9 0.0 0.0 20.2 0.0 22.6

11 37. 37.4 20.4 0.0 21.9 0.0 22022.1 0.0 0.0 22.7 22.5 0.0 22.8 22.7

12 38.7 35.5 21.4 21. 0.0 0.0 22.0 22.3 22.6 0.0 22.5 22.7 0.0 0.0 22.8

13 37.7 34.8 32.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 21.9 0.0 21.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 23.1 0.0

14 37.6 35.2 0.0 18. 21.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 22.9 0.0 23.0 0.0 22.9 0.0 21.9

15 39.4 35.0 21. 0.0 0.0 22.4 22.1 22.1 0.0 22.7 22.3 22.9 0.0 23.0 30.7


Figure A-22. BOC Cycle N+1 Exposure Distribution (GWD/T)


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

1I I 42.8 42.61 44.01 44.3 44.4 41.8 44.

2 1 42.3 45. 3 44. 3 42. 9 47.4 43.4 43.7 44.5

3 1 41.7 43.6 41.64.1283 .6 3 014.8 283. 504. 573.

4 1 41.2 44. 2 31. 7 34. 8 17.0 18.0 37.8 19.03581.


71 1 44.21 43.21 31.3 16.8 45.6 39.7 21.71 22.31 40.61 41.0 22.61 42.2 39.

8 44.2 41.7 31.7 35.51 18.9 39.6 40.7 41.7 22.9 4.441.4 12.5 272244.


11 41.7 45.2 33.7j 18.0 40.2 21.9 40.8 41.2 23.1 123.1 41.0 40.81 22.7 42.6 41.3

12 43.3 43.8 35.11 38.5 21.1 22.21 40.9] 41.3 42.81 22.81 40.71 40.9 22.61 22.5 41.

13 42.5 43.3 45.2] 19.0 21.31 22.51 22.6~ 42.01 23.01 41.5 22.61 22.5 22.81 42.9 21.

14 42.6 44.0 15.71 35.91 40.81 22.31 22.3] 22.41 42.91 22.71 42.81 22.5 42.7 21.8 40.7

15 44.5 44.0 36.3j 19.3 21.1 41.6 39.9 39.9 22.1 142.2 40.91 41.3 21.8 41.6 45.7


Figure A-23. EOC Cycle N+1 Exposure Distribution (GWD/T)


17.8 19.9


21.7[ 0.0
01.0 .0


22.11 0.0
02.0 .0


0021.9

0.0 0.0


0.0

22.21


37.8 1 39.8


38.6 20.0

20.7 21.6


40.4 21.1

21.91 22.1


21.2 40.8

22.3 22.0


20.9[

41.11


41.41 45.6


42.8 45.3

43. 144.9


42.91 34.7

43.0 17.0


23.4 23.5

23.5 43.7


23.2 42.4

23.1 22.9


23.2 42.6

40.9 22.8


22.2

42.3























I


*


1.05


1.00
-m- RAPLHGR CPRRAT

0.95 -o MFLPD


S0.90


i~0.85


S0.80


0.75


0.70


0.65
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000

Cycle Exposure MWd/MT


Figure A-25. Cycle N+1 Thermal Margins


-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-


1.015
1.014
1.013
1.012
1.011
1.010
1.009
1.008
1.007
1.006
1.005
1.004

1.001

0.008
0.006
0.005
0.004
0.003
0.992
0.991
0.000


0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000

Cycle Exposure MWd/MT


Figure A-24. Cycle N+1 Hot keff





120

115

110

S105

LL100

95

S90


0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000
Cycle Exposure MWd/MT

Figure A-26. Cycle N+1 Reactor Power and Core Flow


1090
1086
1082
1078
1074
1070

1058

S1054
S1050
0- 1046
1042
1038
1034
1030
1026
1022


0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000
Cycle Exposure MWd/MT


Figure A-27. Cycle N+1 Core Pressure















533
532





s 527


526
525


IU
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000
Cycle Exposure MWd/MT

Figure A-29. Cycle N+1 Core Bypass Flow


0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000
Cycle Exposure MWd/MT


Figure A-28. Cycle N+1 Core Inlet Temperature




20

19

18


~
1l


- i---r~--t-..l---r -~1C~,


.0
u- 15

a. 14

13