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Identification of Micropterus salmoides floridanus Populations in Barrow Pit Ponds Using Cellulose Acetate Electrophoresis


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IDENTIFICATION OF Micropterus salmoides floridanus POPULATIONS IN BARROW PIT PONDS USING CELLU LOSE ACETATE ELECTROPHORESIS By JASON R. CHILDRESS A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2004

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Copyright 2004 by Jason R. Childress

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This document is dedicated to my wife Sa mantha for her constant love and support.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank the members of my committee, Dr. Daniel E. Canfield, Jr. (University of Florida), Dr. Chuck Cichra (University of Florida), and Mr. Jim Estes (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission), for their advice and critical review that were so vital to the completion of this thesis. I thank Ginger Clark (University of Florida) for her teaching me the electrophoresis process and for her advice and ideas that enabled me to get this project off the ground. She was kind enough to allow me the use of her laboratory and equipment, without which this project could not have been completed. She also provided me with important references and proved to be an invaluable source of knowledge, answering many question and helping to troubleshoot as problems arose. I thank Mark Hoyer (University of Florida) for his input of knowledge and critical reviews that were extremely beneficial for the completion of this thesis. Mr. Hoyers contribution to the design of the project and field procedure was crucial. I greatly appreciate the advice of Wes Porak, Rich Cailteaux, and Richard Krause (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission). Their willingness to assist and give advice was extremely valuable. They also provided me with fish that were known M. s. floridanus and known intergrade. Last, but certainly not least, I thank all of my fellow students who helped in the field: Steve Caton, Patrick Cooney, Will Strong, Ephraim Tavares, and Troy Thompson. iv

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES.............................................................................................................vi LIST OF FIGURES..........................................................................................................vii ABSTRACT.....................................................................................................................viii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1 2 METHODS...................................................................................................................3 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.................................................................................13 4 MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS..........................................................................25 LIST OF REFERENCES...................................................................................................30 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.............................................................................................33 v

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 1 Location and size of barrow pit ponds sampled in Florida......................................12 2 Genotypes of the individual largemouth bass obtained from the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission.........................................................................18 3 Number of largemouth bass caught, amount of electrofishing effort, and catch per unit effort of electrofishing measured as pedal time at each barrow pit pond.........21 4 Allele frequencies of largemouth bass populations sampled from barrow pit ponds in Florida. N indicates number of fish sampled......................................................22 5 Allele frequencies of largemouth bass populations sampled from barrow pit ponds in Florida grouped together as northern largemouth bass and Florida largemouth bass alleles. N indicates number of fish sampled....................................................23 6 Genotype frequencies of largemouth bass populations sampled from barrow pit ponds in Florida. N indicates the number of fish sampled......................................24 vi

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 A general diagram of the electrophoresis process....................................................10 2 Location of highway barrow pits sampled in Florida. The dark line indicates the approximate line of distinction between the Micropterus salmoides floridanus range and the intergrade zone...................................................................................11 3 Allelic variants at the sAAT-B* locus. Lanes 1,2, and 3 contain fish that are known to be Micropterus salmoides floridanus. Lanes 4, 5, and 6 contain fish that are known to be intergrades...........................................................................................19 4 Allelic variants at the sIDHP* locus. Lanes 1, 2, and 3 contain fish that are known to be Micropterus salmoides floridanus. Lanes 4,5, and 6 contain fish that are known to be intergrades...........................................................................................20 5 Estimated Sample Sizes needed to detect intergrades..............................................29 vii

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Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science IDENTIFICATION OF Micropterus salmoides floridanus POPULATIONS IN BARROW PIT PONDS USING CELLULOSE ACETATE ELECTROPHORESIS By Jason R. Childress May 2004 Chair: Daniel Canfield, Jr. Major Department: Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Barrow pit ponds in Florida are an attractive potential source for fish that could be utilized in stocking programs. However, implementing such fish management programs on a large scale in Florida could be problematic because of concerns about adversely affecting the genetics of the Florida largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) with indiscriminant stocking of intergrade or pure northern largemouth bass (M. s. salmoides). A cellulose acetate electrophoresis method (a relatively easy and inexpensive method) was used to differentiate known M. s. floridanus from known intergrade largemouth bass obtained from a Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission hatchery. Known diagnostic alleles were identified at the sAAT-B* and sIDHP* loci. The cellulose acetate electrophoresis method was then used to identify Florida and intergrade largemouth bass populations in barrow pit ponds in Florida. Highway barrow pit ponds in Orange and Sumter Counties had largemouth bass populations for which 100% of the alleles at two diagnostic loci were specific for M. s. floridanus. Barrow pit viii

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ponds in Alachua and Jackson Counties were found to have intergrade populations. Two barrow pit ponds in St. Johns County had largemouth bass populations for which 100% of the alleles at two diagnostic loci were specific for M. s. floridanus. But, two other barrow pit ponds in St. Johns County had low frequencies (0.03 in Pond F, 0.04 in Pond B at sAAT-B*, and 0.02 in Pond F at sIDHP*) of northern alleles. ix

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Bailey and Hubbs (1949) first described the Florida largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) as a separate subspecies in 1949 using taxonomic features (e.g., scale counts). They described the natural range of the northern largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides salmoides) as north and west of the Choctawhatchee River and Apalachicola River drainages in Florida, Alabama, and Georgia, and north and east of the Savannah River drainage in South Carolina. The Florida subspecies was thought to reside in peninsular Florida to the south and east of the Suwannee River drainage, including the St. Johns River system. The area between these two regions was found to contain intergrade (genes from both subspecies) fish populations. Philipp et al. (1983), using genetic techniques, redefined the geographic boundaries of the two subspecies and the extent of the intergrade zone in the 1980s. They found that the range of the Florida subspecies was similar to that originally proposed by Bailey and Hubbs (1949), but the intergrade zone had extended greatly to include the east coast north to Maryland, as well as most of Alabama and Mississippi. They further concluded that the expansion of the intergrade zone was due primarily to the stocking of Florida largemouth bass by state fish and wildlife agencies (Philipp et al. 1983). Since the late 1990s, there have been concerns that stocking wild and hatchery-reared largemouth bass may be adversely affecting the genetics of native Florida and northern largemouth bass populations (Philipp et al. 1981, Fields et al. 1987, Philip 1991, Philipp and Whitt 1991, Maceina et al. 1992). During 1999, 2000, and 2001, Florida 1

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2 experienced major drought conditions. Due to the prolonged drought, many lakes in north Florida completely dried or experienced extremely low water levels. This caused a loss/reduction of largemouth bass populations and a decline in fishing effort. This has lead some individuals to propose that adult or juvenile largemouth bass be stocked to provide immediate relief (stocking for economic mitigation) to local fisheries (Harris Chain of Lakes Restoration Council [HCOLRC] 2004). Highway barrow pit ponds or other types of pit ponds such as quarry ponds are a potential source for large fish in Florida. Fish stocked from barrow pit ponds can provide the larger largemouth bass that cannot be raised in large numbers in fish hatcheries and could reduce the demands on hatcheries for advanced-fingerling largemouth bass. Barrow pit ponds could also provide sufficient numbers of largemouth bass to ultimately allow for more water bodies in Florida to be stocked when needed. However, implementing such stocking programs on a large scale in Florida could be problematic because the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FFWCC) has concerns about adversely altering the genetics of pure Florida largemouth bass populations with stocking of intergrade or pure northern fish. The objectives of this project were (1) to assess if the cellulose acetate electrophoresis method (a relatively easy and inexpensive technique) could be used to differentiate known Micropterus salmoides floridanus from known intergrade largemouth bass, and (2) use cellulose acetate electrophoresis to determine the sub-specific genetic status of Florida and intergrade largemouth bass populations from barrow pit ponds in Florida.

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CHAPTER 2 METHODS Allozyme electrophoresis (cellulose acetate electrophoresis method) analysis was performed on tissue samples obtained from the FFWCC to determine the specific allele genotypes of known Florida largemouth bass and known intergrade largemouth bass. An allele is the form of a gene located at a specific locus. Loci are specific locations on a chromosome where genes reside. A genotype is the actual alleles present at the locus. The Florida and northern subspecies of largemouth bass are fixed for different alleles at two loci; those loci being sIDHP* (Isocitrate dehydrogenase) and sAAT-B* (Aspartate aminotransferase). Consequently, the two subspecies can be distinguished by use of electrophoretic techniques based on the fact that the Florida largemouth bass is fixed for the sIDHP*3 allele and a combination of the sAAT-B*3 and *4 alleles, whereas the northern largemouth bass is fixed for the sIDHP*1 allele and a combination of the sAAT-B*1 and *2 alleles (Philipp et al. 1983). (Nomenclature follows that of Shaklee et al. 1990) By comparing the known genotypes of the Florida and intergrade largemouth bass to the genotypes obtained from the liver samples taken from largemouth bass collected from the barrow pit ponds, it should be possible to assess the allele frequencies of the largemouth bass populations in each pond. Largemouth bass from 16 barrow pit ponds and one limerock quarry pond were collected by boat electrofishing using a 5000-Watt AC generator, a Smithroot model VI-A pulsator, and a bow mounted cathode probe to supply the electrical output to the water. One person operated the boat and pulsator, while one to two individuals netted fish from 3

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4 the bow of the boat. The sampling goal was to obtain 50 largemouth bass from each pond. A sample size of 50 fish was chosen as an adequate sample size based upon time in the field, effort involved in sampling, relative size of the pond, and past studies (Philipp et al. 1983, Dunham et al. 1992, Gelwick et al. 1995, Forshage and Fries 1995). However, it was not always possible to collect 50 fish due to environmental conditions. Once collected, the fish were either transported live to the laboratory or processed in the field. At the laboratory, the fish were put in an ice-water bath until movement stopped. Liver tissue was extracted by making an incision through the abdominal cavity, locating the liver, removing a portion of the liver, and placing it into a cryogenic vial. The samples were then placed into a C freezer until analyzed. For ponds that were long distances from the laboratory, the tissue removal process was performed in the field. The field procedure was identical to that of the laboratory except that samples were stored in a cooler of dry ice until returned to the laboratory and stored in a -70 C freezer until analyzed. Liver tissues were manually ground in Eppendorf tubes that contained 100-200g of a grinding solution. Tris-Glycin was diluted with deionized (DI) water to a ratio of 1:9 and used as the grinding solution for samples that were to be stained for asportate aminotransferase (sAAT-B*). Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) was used as the grinding solution for samples that were to be stained for isocitrate dehydrogenase (sIDHP*) (Sigma-Aldrich, Cat No: 2934.90.3900). While grinding tissues, the tubes were placed into ice to prevent enzyme degradation due to heat. Once homogenized, samples were centrifuged (Qualitron, Cat No: DW-41) for approximately 1 to 2 minutes. After centrifugation, 10-l aliquots of the resulting supernatant were added

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5 to individual wells of the sample loading plate (Helena Laboratories, Cat. No. 4096, Beaumont, TX). Samples were transferred from the wells of the sample plate onto a cellulose acetate gel (Helena Laboratories, Cat. No. 3033, Titan III, 76 mm x 76 mm, Beaumont, TX) with the use of a Helena Super Z-12 applicator (Helena Laboratories, Cat. No. 4090, Beaumont, TX). Prior to sample application, the cellulose acetate gels were soaked in a buffer solution (Tris-Glycin diluted 1:9 with DI water) for at least 20 minutes (Prepared according to Hebert and Beaton 1993). Tissues from fish with known allele genotypes (i.e., obtained from FFWCC) were placed into the first two wells of every gel and used as benchmarks for comparison with fish of unknown genetic makeup. The gels were then placed onto wicks in an electrophoresis tank with Tris-Glycin diluted 1:9 with DI water used as a buffering solution (Hebert and Beaton 1993). Electrophoresis was performed at room temperature at 200 volts for 15 to 20 minutes (Figure 1). After the appropriate amount of time (15 to 20 minutes), the gels were removed and histochemically stained with solutions specific for the diagnostic enzymes (sIDHP* and sAAT-B*) according to Hebert and Beaton (1993). Enzymes were resolved with stain solutions, producing banding patterns that were used to determine the expressed genotype. Once the gel had stained sufficiently (4-8 min) to resolve the enzyme, the stain was rinsed from the gel with tap water. The gel was then scored (banding patterns observed to distinguish the expressed genotype) by being compared to the known largemouth bass benchmarks. All samples were stained for both diagnostic loci (sIDHP* and sAAT-B*). When scored, alleles were given a numerical designation according to their migration speed; those alleles migrating farther anodally from the origin (from negative

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6 to positive) were given a greater numerical designation, following Philipp et al. (1983). Based on the banding patterns observed, the genotype of each fish was determined. For sIDHP*, banding patterns for M. s. floridanus alleles are homozygous and further from the origin. For M. s. salmoides, alleles are homozygous and closer to the origin, while first generation (F 1 ) intergrades are heterozygous and show banding patterns of both previously described locations. For sAAT-B*, banding patterns for M. s. floridanus are homozygous at the 3 location, or homozygous at the 4 location, or heterozygous at the 3 and 4 locations. For M. s. salmoides, the banding patterns are homozygous at the 1 location, or homozygous at the 2 location, or heterozygous at the 1 and 2 locations. Since aspartate aminotransferase is a heterodimeric isozyme some intergrades display a third intermediate banding pattern (Phillip et. al 1983). First generation intergrades will have some combination of M. s. floridanus and M. s. salmoides alleles. It is important to note that second generation (F 2 ) and later generatons (F x ) of intergrades have the potential to backcross, in which a percentage of the fish sampled will show banding patterns that will indicate that they are M. s. floridanus or M. s. salmoides, when in fact they are intergrades. For this reason, electrophoresis data is used primarily to assess allele frequencies within a population and not individual fish. The frequency of each expressed genotype was calculated by summing the number of alleles at a particular loci and then dividing by the number of total alleles. Allele frequencies were calculated for each barrow pit pond largemouth bass population by summing the frequency of homozygous alleles and one-half the frequency of the heterozygous alleles. For both the sIDHP* and sAAT-B* alleles, the following general equations were used:

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7 1. f(A) = f(AA)+1/2f(Aa) 2. f(a) = f(aa)+1/2f(Aa) 3. f(A)+f(a) = 1.0 In equation (1), f(A) is the frequency of a particular allele, f(AA) is the frequency of the alleles that are homozygous for that allele, and f(Aa) is the frequency of the alleles that are heterozygous for A and a. For example, the frequency of the allele sAAT-B*3 was calculated by summing the homozygous alleles (B*3B*3) and one half of the heterozygous alleles (B*3B*4). In equation (2), f(a) is the frequency of a second allele, f(aa) is the frequency of the alleles that are homozygous for a, and f(Aa) is the frequency of the alleles that are heterozygous for A and a. For example, the frequency of the allele sAAT-B*4 was calculated by summing the homozygous alleles (B*4B*4) and one half of the heterozygous alleles (B*3B*4). In equation (3), f(A) is the frequency of A and f(a) is the frequency of a. The sum of all the alleles at a particular locus will equal 1.0. For example, at the sAAT-B* locus, the total of all the B*3 alleles and all the B*4 alleles will equal 1.0. Following this pattern of summing the homozygous alleles with one half of all heterozygous alleles, allele frequencies were calculated for each the diagnostic loci (sAAT-B*1, sAAT-B*2, sAAT-B*3, sAAT-B*4, sIDHP*1, and sIDHP*3). Allele frequencies were then grouped together for those specific for M. s. floridanus (sAAT-B*3, sAAT-B*4, and sIDHP*3) and those specific for M. s. salmoides (sAAT-B*1, sAAT-B*2, and sIDHP*1).

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8 Seventeen pit ponds were sampled for this study (Table 1, Figure 2). They were chosen based upon their geographic potential to contain M. s. floridanus, M. s. salmoides, or intergrade populations. The ponds ranged in size from 0.4 to 11 ha. Nine Orange County barrow pit ponds (Table 1, Figure 2) were used in this study. These ponds were constructed and are maintained by the Orlando Expressway Authority (OEA). They range in area from 0.4 to 5.6 ha. There are no records to indicate that the pits were intentionally stocked (personal communication with OEA personnel). The pits, however, are not fenced, and they are located alongside State Highway 417. Although the barrow pit areas are patrolled by the Florida Highway Patrol and individuals are not allowed to stop, individuals could stop and put fish into these ponds. Two study ponds were located in Sumter County (Table 1, Figure 2). These are relatively older (>20 years) barrow pit ponds and are 1.8 and 1.6 ha in area. The pits are fenced, gated, and locked by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT). The ponds were not intentionally stocked by FDOT. The Orange County and Sumter County barrow pit ponds were selected because these waters represent pits that were likely to contain M. s. floridanus populations because they are within the natural range of M. s. floridanus described by Philipp et al. (1983). The Alachua County pit pond (Table 1, Figure 2) that was selected for this study is fenced, gated, and locked by Gainesville Regional Utilities (GRU). It is 11 ha in area. This pond receives minimal fishing pressure by GRU employees during an annual fishing tournament that the company conducts. This pit was chosen for its potential to have an intergrade population because it lies on the border between the ranges of M. s. floridanus

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9 and its intergrade (Philip et al. 1983) and employees of GRU are known to have released fish from local waters into this pond. The four ponds in St. Johns County (Table 1, Figure 2) were constructed in 1999 on the border between the intergrade and M. s. floridanus ranges defined by Philipp et al. (1983). The ponds range from 0.4 to 4.4 ha. The St. Johns County barrow pits are gated and locked by the FDOT. Access and fishing are not permitted. The St. Johns County ponds were chosen because the ponds were stocked with fish from other barrow pit ponds located in the intergrade zone and M. s. floridanus range. The four ponds in St. Johns County were stocked in the fall of 2000 with bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and in the spring of 2001 with adult largemouth bass. The fish were obtained from barrow pit ponds located in three peninsular Florida counties (Orange County, Sumter County, and Alachua County). Bluegill were stocked at a rate of 50 fish per ha and largemouth bass were stocked at a rate of 20 fish per ha (personal communication, Mark Hoyer, Florida LAKEWATCH). The Jackson County barrow pit pond (Table 1, Figure 2) differs from the other ponds in morphology. It is a deep, steep-sided, 10.9-ha dolomite quarry. It is on the property of Dolomite, Inc. and is fenced, gated, and locked. This pond is located within the intergrade zone (Philipp et al. 1983) and was chosen to determine if largemouth bass in a barrow pit pond would express both northern and Florida alleles.

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10 cathode anode origin Tissue extract Specific staining procedures origin Figure 1. A general diagram of the electrophoresis process. (Modified from Ryman and Utter, Population Genetics & Fishery Management, University of Washington, 1987)

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11 Figure 2. Location of highway barrow pits sample d in Florida. The dark line indicates the approximate line of distinction between the Micropterus salmoides floridanus range and the intergrade zone. Based on Phillipp et. al (1983) and Bailey and Hubbs (1949). Sumter County (2 ponds) Jackson County (1 pond) Alachua County (1 pond) St. Johns County (4 ponds) Orange County (9 ponds)

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12 Table 1. Location and size of barrow pit ponds sampled in Florida. Water Body Latitude Longitude Size (hectares) St. Johns County Pond B N 29 50.754' W 081 21.805' 1.0 St. Johns County Pond D N 29 51.181' W 081 21.434' 0.8 St. Johns County Pond E N 29 51.687' W 081 20.851' 0.4 St. Johns County Pond F N 29 51.288' W 081 20.468' 4.4 Orange County Pond 1 N 28 33.934' W 081 11.538' 3.3 Orange County Pond 5 N 28 24.236' W 081 14.330' 1.1 Orange County Pond 7 N 28 22.258' W 081 18.363' 5.6 Orange County Pond 8 N 28 22.221' W 081 18.528' 1.6 Orange County Pond 9 N 28 22.040' W 081 19.849' 1.5 Orange County Pond 10 N 28 22.022' W 081 19.162' 4.2 Orange County Pond 11 N 28 22.676' W 081 16.785' 0.4 Orange County Pond 12 N 28 22.814' W 081 16.426' 0.4 Orange County Pond 13 N 28 23.500' W 081 15.247' 0.6 Sumter County East Pond N 28 52.273' W 082 05.494' 1.8 Sumter County West Pond N 28 52.574' W 082 06.174' 1.6 Alachua County Pond N 29 45.522' W 082 24.016' 11.0 Jackson County Pond N 30 39.281' W 085 09.907' 10.9

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CHAPTER 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Numerous researchers have used starch gel electrophoresis to describe differences in the electrophoretic mobility of isozymes from tissues of Florida largemouth bass and northern largemouth bass (Philipp et al. 1983; Maceina et al. 1988; Dunham et al. 1992; Bulak et al. 1995). By observing the mobility of isozymes, specific alleles in largemouth bass can be determined. Philipp et al. (1983) described alleles that were diagnostic of the Florida (sAAT-B*3, sAAT-B*4, and sIDHP*3) and northern largemouth bass (sAAT-B*1, sAAT-B*2, and sIDHP*1). Cellulose acetate electrophoresis is a similar method for genetic analysis that also has the potential to distinguish Florida largemouth bass from northern largemouth bass, but this technique has not been evaluated for largemouth bass prior to this study. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis differs from the starch gel electrophoresis process used in previous largemouth bass studies by use of a different medium. The cellulose acetate requires much shorter run times (10 to 20 minutes versus 1 hour or longer), and limited gel preparation, and is comparatively simple (Hebert and Beaton 1983). These aspects make it ideal for assessing the genetic make-up of largemouth bass. Six largemouth bass were obtained from FFWCCs Richloam hatchery. Total length of the fish ranged from 296 to 591 mm. Of the six fish, three were brood fish that had previously been certified to be M. s. floridanus by starch gel electrophoresis using liver tissue taken from a biopsy. The other three were known intergrades because they 13

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14 were offspring (F x ) of known intergrades and known Florida largemouth bass (Personal communication, Richard Krause, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission). The known M. s. floridanus fish expressed M. s. floridanus specific alleles using cellulose acetate electrophoresis (Table 2, Figures 3 and 4). The known intergrade fish expressed alleles that are diagnostic for both the M. s. floridanus and the M. s. salmoides (Table 2, Figures 3 and 4). Since the intergrade fish were not first generation offspring their banding patterns indicate that backcrosses have likely occurred, this is the reason that fish number 2 and 3 appear to be M. s. salmoides (Table 2, Figures 3 and 4). These results demonstrate that the cellulose acetate electrophoresis method can be used to distinguish the diagnostic alleles of northern and Florida largemouth bass. The cellulose acetate electrophoresis results of the known fish were used as benchmarks to assess the genetic make-up of largemouth bass from the barrow pit ponds. A total of 592 largemouth bass, ranging in total length from 92 to 497 mm, were collected from barrow pit ponds. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) in the ponds ranged from 0.24 to 3.75 fish/min (Table 3). Frequency of the M. s. floridanus specific alleles in the barrow pit pond populations ranged from 0.25 to 1.00 at the sAAT-B* locus and 0.48 to 1.00 at the sIDHP* locus. Measured frequency of M. s. salmoides specific alleles in the barrow pit pond populations ranged from 0.00 to 0.75 at the sAAT-B* loci and 0.00 to 0.52 at the sIDHP* loci (Table 5). In the nine Orange County barrow pit ponds and two Sumter County barrow pit ponds (the southern most pit ponds), a total of 291 largemouth bass were sampled and 100% of the alleles at both the sAAT-B* and sIDHP* loci were identified as being specific for M. s. floridanus (Tables 4, 5, and 6). Largemouth bass from these waters

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15 could, therefore, be stocked into other Florida waters with little concern for possible negative genetic impacts to the native M. s. floridanus populations. In the Alachua County barrow pit pond, 50 fish were sampled, but only 68% of the alleles at the sAAT-B* locus and 48% of the alleles at the sIDHP* locus were identified as being specific for M. s. floridanus (Tables 4, 5, and 6). These findings clearly show that this barrow pit pond, which is located near the historic intergrade zone, does not support a pure M. s. floridanus population. The GRU pit pond, therefore, would not be suitable for obtaining largemouth bass to stock into water bodies that are in the M. s. floridanus range. However, this pit would be a suitable site from which to obtain fish for stocking into areas that are outside of the M. s. floridanus range. In two of the St. Johns County ponds (D and E), 50 fish were sampled. In each pond, 100% of the alleles at both the sAAT-B* and sIDHP* loci were identified as being specific for M. s. floridanus (Tables 4, 5, and 6). At the two other St. Johns County ponds (B and F), 50 fish were also sampled (Tables 4, 5, and 6). In pond B, 96% of the alleles at the sAAT-B* locus and 100% of the alleles at the sIDHP* locus were identified as being specific for M. s. floridanus. Two of the sampled fish from this pond were homozygous for sAAT-B*2, but both were homozygous for sIDHP*3. At pond F, 97% of the alleles at the sAAT-B* locus and 98% of the alleles at the sIDHP* locus were identified as being specific for M. s. floridanus. One fish was homozygous for sAAT-B*2, but homozygous for sIDHP*3. One fish was heterozygous for sAAT-B*2 and B*4, but was homozygous for sIDHP*3. Another fish was homozygous for sIDHP*1, but was homozygous for sAAT-B*4. These results show that largemouth bass in two of the St. Johns County ponds (B and F) had northern alleles.

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16 The presence of northern alleles in largemouth bass from two of the St. Johns County barrow pit ponds (B and F) were likely due to the introduction of largemouth bass from the Alachua County pond (a pond later found to have intergrades) during the initial stocking of these ponds in 2000 and 2001 (Tables 4 and 5). The St. Johns County barrow pit ponds with M. s. floridanus populations (D and E), were stocked in 2000 and 2001 from the southern most ponds which have M. s. floridanus populations (Tables 4 and 5). Consequently, the results from these ponds show that barrow pit ponds can be stocked with Florida largemouth bass to develop a pure M. s. floridanus population. St. Johns County Pond B and F indicate that if an intergrade population is used to obtain fish for stocking (ie., Alachua County Pond), northern alleles can be detected in the new populations using cellulose acetate electrophoresis. In the Jackson County barrow pit pond, 51 largemouth bass were sampled, but only 25% of the alleles at the sAAT-B* locus were identified as being specific for M. s. floridanus. Fifty-three percent of the alleles at the sIDHP* locus were identified as being specific for M. s. floridanus (Tables 4, 5, and 6). The largemouth bass population in this pond contained the lowest percentage of M. s. floridanus specific alleles at the sAAT-B* locus and the second lowest percentage of M. s. floridanus specific alleles at the sIDHP* locus, which should be expected because this pond is the farthest from the pure M. s. floridanus range. This also suggests that using cellulose acetate electrophoresis does find allele frequency in accordance to the historical ranges of the subspecies of largemouth bass. There, however, may be another reason for the occurrence of a low frequency of M. s. floridanus alleles in largemouth bass from the Jackson County limestone quarry pond.

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17 This pond presents a different situation than the other barrow pit ponds sampled during this study because it could discharge into Rock Creek, which is a tributary to the Chipola River. More importantly, topographical maps and water level data, from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) monitoring station near Marianna, Florida, indicate that during flood events, the Chipola River floods Rock Creek causing it to flow into the quarry. The pit is also within 0.5 mile of the Chipola River. Because the Chipola River contains shoal bass (Micropterus coosae), there is a possibility that shoal bass have entered this Jackson County pit pond. Some of the fish sampled from the Jackson County quarry pond could have been shoal bass. Known shoal bass were not obtained during this study to compare with the other fish, so the allele frequencies for this pond may not represent a typical intergrade largemouth bass population for that region of Florida. Consequently, any largemouth bass stocking program, in this area of panhandle Florida, would need to consider the potential impact of stocking not only pure Florida largemouth bass, but intergrade, northern largemouth bass, or even shoal bass.

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18 Table 2. Genotypes of the individual largemouth bass obtained from the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. Known Micropterus salmoides floridanus fish sAAT-B* sIDHP* 1 4/4 3/3 2 3/3 3/3 3 3/4 3/3 Known Intergrades fish sAAT-B* sIDHP* 1 1/3 1/1 2 1/1 1/1 3 1/1 1/1

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19 B 4 B 4 B 3 B 3 B 3 B 4 B 1 B 3 B 1 B 1 B 1 B 1 (+) (-) origin 1 2 3 4 5 6 Figure 3. Allelic variants at the sAAT-B* locus. Lanes 1,2, and 3 contain fish that are known to be Micropterus salmoides floridanus. Lanes 4, 5, and 6 contain fish that are known to be intergrades.

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20 B 3 B 3 B 3 B 3 B 3 B 3 B 1 B 1 B 1 B 1 B 1 B 1 (+) (-) ori g in 1 2 3 4 5 6 Figure 4. Allelic variants at the sIDHP* locus. Lanes 1, 2, and 3 contain fish that are known to be Micropterus salmoides floridanus. Lanes 4,5, and 6 contain fish that are known to be intergrades.

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21 Table 3 Number of largemouth bass caught, amount of electrofishing effort, and catch per unit effort of electrofishing measured as pedal time at each barrow pit pond. Water Body Catch Electrofishing Effort Catch Per Unit Effort (# of fish) (seconds) (minutes) (fish/minute) (fish/10 min) St. Johns County Pond B 116 3000 50.0 2.32 23.20 St. Johns County Pond D 68 St. Johns County Pond E 75 1200 20.0 3.75 37.50 St. Johns County Pond F 56 Orange County Pond 1 26 2030 33.8 0.77 7.68 Orange County Pond 5 27 4081 68.0 0.40 3.97 Orange County Pond 7 29 3520 58.7 0.49 4.94 Orange County Pond 8 7 1249 20.8 0.34 3.36 Orange County Pond 9 10 2513 41.9 0.24 2.39 Orange County Pond 10 32 3110 51.8 0.62 6.17 Orange County Pond 11 18 1697 28.3 0.64 6.36 Orange County Pond 12 6 1340 22.3 0.27 2.69 Orange County Pond 13 35 2324 38.7 0.90 9.04 Sumter County East Pond 50 2716 45.3 1.10 11.05 Sumter County West Pond 50 2647 44.1 1.13 11.33 Alachua County Pond 1 50 8049 134.2 0.37 3.73 Jackson County Pond 1 52 2884 48.1 1.08 10.82

PAGE 31

Table 4. Allele frequencies of largemouth bass populations sampled from barrow pit ponds in Florida. N indicates number of fish sampled 22 Water Body N sAAT-B*1 sAAT-B*2 sAAT-B*3 sAAT-B*4 sIDHP*1 sIDHP*3 St. Johns County Pond B 50 0.00 0.04 0.59 0.37 0.00 1.00 St. Johns County Pond D 50 0.00 0.00 0.23 0.77 0.00 1.00 St. Johns County Pond E 50 0.00 0.00 0.65 0.35 0.00 1.00 St. Johns County Pond F 50 0.01 0.02 0.62 0.35 0.02 0.98 Orange County Pond 1 26 0.00 0.00 0.69 0.31 0.00 1.00 Orange County Pond 5 27 0.00 0.00 0.08 0.92 0.00 1.00 Orange County Pond 7 29 0.00 0.00 0.59 0.41 0.00 1.00 Orange County Pond 8 7 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 Orange County Pond 9 10 0.00 0.00 0.70 0.30 0.00 1.00 Orange County Pond 10 32 0.00 0.00 0.91 0.09 0.00 1.00 Orange County Pond 11 18 0.00 0.00 0.56 0.44 0.00 1.00 Orange County Pond 12 6 0.00 0.00 0.83 0.17 0.00 1.00 Orange County Pond 13 36 0.00 0.00 0.94 0.06 0.00 1.00 Sumter County East Pond 50 0.00 0.00 0.77 0.23 0.00 1.00 Sumter County West Pond 50 0.00 0.00 0.97 0.03 0.00 1.00 Alachua County Pond 1 50 0.02 0.30 0.36 0.32 0.52 0.48 Jackson County Pond 1 51 0.49 0.26 0.25 0.00 0.47 0.53

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23 Table 5. Allele frequencies of largemouth bass populations sampled from barrow pit ponds in Florida grouped together as northern largemouth bass and Florida largemouth bass alleles. N indicates number of fish sampled. sAAT-B* sIDHP* Water Body N northern Florida northern Florida St. Johns County Pond B 50 0.04 0.96 0.00 1.00 St. Johns County Pond D 50 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 St. Johns County Pond E 50 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 St. Johns County Pond F 50 0.03 0.97 0.02 0.98 Orange County Pond 1 26 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 Orange County Pond 5 27 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 Orange County Pond 7 29 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 Orange County Pond 8 7 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 Orange County Pond 9 10 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 Orange County Pond 10 32 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 Orange County Pond 11 18 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 Orange County Pond 12 6 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 Orange County Pond 13 36 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 Sumter County East Pond 50 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 Sumter County West Pond 50 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 Alachua County Pond 1 50 0.32 0.68 0.52 0.48 Jackson County Pond 1 51 0.75 0.25 0.47 0.53

PAGE 33

Table 6. Genotype frequencies of largemouth bass populations sampled from barrow pit ponds in Florida. N indicates the number of fish sampled Water Body sAAT-B* sIDHP* N 1/1 1/2 2/2 3/3 3/4 4/4 1/1 1/3 3/3 St. Johns County Pond B 50 0 0 0.04 0.46 0.26 0.24 0 0 1 St. Johns County Pond D 50 0 0 0 0.16 0.14 0.7 0 0 1 St. Johns County Pond E 50 0 0 0 0.58 0.14 0.28 0 0 1 St. Johns County Pond F 50 0.01 0 0.02 0.61 0.02 0.34 0.02 0 0.98 Orange County Pond 1 26 0 0 0 0.65 0.08 0.27 0 0 1 Orange County Pond 5 27 0 0 0 0.04 0.07 0.89 0 0 1 Orange County Pond 7 29 0 0 0 0.59 0 0.41 0 0 1 Orange County Pond 8 7 00000 1001 Orange County Pond 9 10 0 0 0 0.70 0 0.30 0 0 1 Orange County Pond 10 32 0 0 0 0.91 0 0.09 0 0 1 Orange County Pond 11 18 0 0 0 0.56 0 0.44 0 0 1 Orange County Pond 12 6 0 0 0 0.83 0 0.17 0 0 1 Orange County Pond 13 36 0 0 0 0.94 0 0.06 0 0 1 Sumter County East Pond 50 0 0 0 0.68 0.18 0.14 0 0 1 Sumter County West Pond 50 0 0 0 0.96 0.02 0.02 0 0 1 Alachua County Pond 1 50 0.02 0 0.3 0.35 0.02 0.31 0.50 0.04 0.46 Jackson County Pond 1 52 0.42 0.15 0.18 0.25 0 0 0.47 0 0.53 24

PAGE 34

CHAPTER 4 MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS Florida largemouth bass and northern largemouth bass are routinely stocked by state fish and wildlife agencies and private individuals throughout the United States. In Florida, largemouth bass from as far away as Arkansas have been stocked (Porak, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, personal communication). Largemouth bass with northern alleles have been found in Florida waters well within the M. s. floridanus native range (Porak and Krause, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, personal communication). Philipp (1991) proposed that the introduction of largemouth bass from one environment into a population of largemouth bass in another environment, followed by their subsequent interbreeding, will create a new intergrade population with decreased fitness compared to the original native population. Although Philipps hypothesis has not been tested, FFWCC has concerns about the possible effects of stocking any northern largemouth bass or intergrade largemouth bass on the genetic integrity of M. s. floridanus in individual waters. However, FFWCC stocks hatchery-reared M. s. floridanus with variable success throughout Florida. Stocking has also been successful throughout the United States (Smith and Reeves 1986). Therefore, Philipp's hypothesis remains untested. Largemouth bass have been stocked to supplement poor recruitment, expand the species range, and alter the genetic composition of existing populations to enhance fishing (Forshage and Fries 1995). The size of stocked fish is an important consideration 25

PAGE 35

26 because survival tends to be lower for small fish and production costs increase with large fish (Loska 1982). Fingerling fish have typically been used to introduce largemouth bass into new and reclaimed waters (Keith 1986). Fingerling fish can have relatively low survivability and are generally stocked at high rates (100 fingerlings / acre) to increase the chance of success. Consequently, it has been proposed to use advanced (larger) fingerlings to increase survivability and reduce stocking rates. The cost and time of production, however, is higher and problems have been encountered in Florida with survivability once the hatchery-reared advanced fingerling largemouth bass are stocked due to a failure to convert from hatchery food to natural foods (Porak et al. 2002, Heidinger and Brooks 2002). Sub-adult and/or adult largemouth bass may also be stocked to enhance fisheries and such a management program would provide angling opportunities much quicker than lakes stocked with fingerling fish (Buynak et al. 1999). The demand for stocking largemouth bass in Florida after the recent extreme drought is greater than the capacity of the FFWCC hatcheries. Supplemental sources of nonhatchery-reared subadult or adult fish could help meet the demand to stock with fish that could immediately help ailing fisheries. Because highway barrow pit ponds are abundant throughout Florida and many have existing largemouth bass populations, they present a possible source of unexploited fish. This study shows that these fish could be used in stocking programs if care is taken to match the genetic make-up of the source populations with the receiving waters. As new ponds are dug for the construction of highways, appropriate ratios of forage fish and largemouth bass could be stocked to produce, genetically-appropriate largemouth bass populations for relocation.

PAGE 36

27 Stocking is a valuable tool for fisheries management. If the decision is made to stock and there are concerns about the genetic make-up of the fish that will be stocked, it would be prudent to conduct genetic tests to minimize the risk of genetic contamination. There are many types of genetic testing instruments and protocols; each with its own cost per sample. The cost, in this study, ranged from $1.00 to $2.00 per sample, not including cost of equipment or personnel. The cost per sample would decrease when more samples are analyzed. This study has shown that cellulose acetate electrophoresis can be used to determine the genetic makeup of populations of largemouth bass relatively easily and inexpensively before fish from those populations are transported and stocked elsewhere. In this study, the test fish were sacrificed, but cellulose acetate electrophoresis can also be used to identify the genetic composition of a fish by using a non-lethal biopsy needle to extract liver tissue. The cellulose acetate electrophoresis method, therefore, is a tool that fisheries managers can use to minimize the risk of genetic contamination while still effectively managing fish populations. New techniques are currently being developed using different types of DNA analysis. In the future, when these methods are developed, blood samples or fin clips could be used for analysis. But at this time, these methods are still in the developmental stage and their accuracy is being evaluated. These methods could make it easier to sample a population, but the cost will be much greater than that of electrophoresis. No technique, however, can be 100% certain in identifying the genetic composition of an individual fish or the genetic purity of a fish population in an individual water body. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis is a reasonable identification method of the allele frequencies in a water body and large numbers of fish should not have to be sampled to

PAGE 37

28 provide a minimal risk of genetic contamination. However, the greater the sample size, the less risk there is of genetic contamination. Walsh (2000) explains methods used to estimate the probability of drawing a sample in which all individuals show the same state, if individuals with unsampled (hidden) states actually exist in the population at some hypothetical frequency (e.g., 0.05). Using these methods, it can be estimated that when using a sample size of 50 (the sampling goal in this study), there is 92% confidence that hidden character states can be identified if they exist at 5.7% of the population or greater. In order to reject with 95% confidence that 5% of the individuals carry hidden character states, a sample of 59 individuals is necessary. The methods described by Walsh (2000) can be used to evaluate different sample sizes and realize the level of potential risk of genetic contamination that is present (Figure 5). With simple planning, barrow pit ponds could easily be used as a source of fish for stocking largemouth bass into Florida lakes without causing concern for genetic contamination. This study shows good evidence that barrow pit ponds within the historical M. s. floridanus range, can be utilized for procuring fish that are pure M. s. floridanus. Fish from these barrow pit ponds could potentially be stocked into lakes throughout Florida that are in the M. s. floridanus range. This evidence also indicates that newly constructed barrow pit ponds can be stocked from other ponds that have pure M. s. floridanus populations to develop new pure strain M. s. floridanus populations. Barrow pit ponds that contain intergrade populations could be utilized in stocking programs outside of the M. s. floridanus range.

PAGE 38

29 Estimated Sample Sizes Needed to Detect Integrades00.020.040.060.080.10.120.140.160.180.230405060708090Sample SizeAlpha00.010.020.030.040.050.060.070.080.090.1Minimum Proportion of Population Detected Alpha PopulationProportion Figure 5 Estimated Sample Sizes needed to detect intergrades. Modified from Walsh (2000).

PAGE 39

LIST OF REFERENCES Bailey, R. M., and C. L. Hubbs. 1949. The black basses (Micropterus) of Florida, with description of a new species. University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology, Occasional Papers, 51: 1-40. Bulak, J. M., J. Leitner, T. Hilbish, and R. A. Dunham. 1995. Distribution of largemouth bass genotypes in South Carolina: Initial implications. American Fisheries Society Symposium 15:226-235. Buynak, G. L., and B. Mitchell. 1999. Contribution of stocked advanced fingerling largemouth bass to the population and fishery at Taylorsville Lake, Kentucky. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 19:494-503. Dunham, R. A., C. J. Turner, and W. C. Reeves. 1992. Introgression of the Florida largemouth bass genome into native populations in Alabama public lakes. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 12:494-498. Fields, R., S. S. Lowe, C. Kaminski, G. S. Whitt, and D. P. Philipp. 1987. Critical and chronic thermal maxima of northern and Florida largemouth bass and their reciprocal F 1 and F 2 hybrids. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 116:856-863. Forshage, A. A., and L. T. Fries. 1995. Evaluation of the Florida largemouth bass in Texas, 1972-1993. American Fisheries Society Symposium 15:484-491. Gelwick, F. P., E. R. Gilliland, and W. J. Matthews. 1995. Introgression of the Florida largemouth bass genome into stream populations of northern largemouth bass in Oklahoma. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 124:550-562. Harris Chain of Lakes Restoration Council (HCOLRC). 2003. Report to the Florida Legislature. Hebert, P. D. N., and M. J. Beaton. 1993. Methodologies for allozyme analysis using cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Univiversity of Guelph. Guelph, Ontario. Heidinger, R. C., and R. C. Brooks. 2002. Relative contribution of stocked minnow-fed and pellet-fed advanced fingerling largemouth bass to year-classes in Crab Orchard Lake, Illinois. American Fisheries Society Symposium 31:703-714. 30

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31 Keith, W. E. 1986. A review of introduction and maintenance stocking in reservoir fisheries management. Pages 144-148 in G.E. Hall and M. J. Van Den Avyle, editors. Reservoir fisheries management: Strategies for the 80s. Reservoir Committee, Southern Division American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. Loska, P. M., 1982. A literature review on the stocking of black basses (Micropterus spp.) in reservoirs and streams. Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Atlanta, Georgia. Maceina, M. J., B. R. Murphy, and J. J. Isely. 1988. Factors regulating Florida largemouth bass stocking success and hybridization with northern largemouth bass in Aquilla Lake, Texas. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 117:221-231. Maceina, M. J. and B. R. Murphy. 1992. Comment. Stocking Florida largemouth bass outside its native range. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 121:686-688. Philipp, D. P. 1991. Genetic implications of introducing Florida largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides floridanus. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 48:58-65. Philipp, D. P. 1992. Reply. Stocking Florida largemouth bass outside its native range. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 121:688-691. Philipp, D. P., W. F. Childers, and G. S. Whitt. 1981. Management implications for different genetic stocks of largemouth cass (Micropterus salmoides) in the United States. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 38:1715-1723. Philipp, D. P., W. F. Childers, and G. S. Whitt. 1983. A biochemical genetic evaluation of the northern and Florida subspecies of largemouth bass. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 112:1-20. Philipp, D. P., and G. S. Whitt. 1991. Survival and growth of northern, Florida, and reciprocal F 1 hybrid largemouth bass in central Illinois. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 120:58-64. Porak, W. F., W. E. Johnson, S. Crawford, D. J. Renfro, T. R. Schoeb, R. B. Stout, R. A. Krause, and R. A. DeMauro. 2002. Factors affecting survival of largemouth bass raised on artificial diets and stocked into Florida lakes. American Fisheries Society Symposium 31:649-665. Ryman, N, and F. Utter. 1987. Population genetics & fishery mangement, University of Washington, Seattle. Shaklee, J. B., F. W. Allendorf, D. C. Morizot, and G. S. Whitt. 1990. Gene nomenclature for protein-coding loci in fish. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 119:2-15.

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32 Smith, B. W., and W. C. Reeves. 1986. Stocking warm-water species to restore or enhance fisheries. Pages 17-29 in R. H. Stroud, editor. Fish culture in fisheries management. Fish Culture Section and Fisheries Management Section, American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. Walsh, P. D. 2000. Sample size diagnosis of conservation units. Conservation Biology 14(5):1533-1537.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Jason Ryan Childress was born November 30, 1978, and raised in the small Oklahoma town of Wewoka. Jason grew up as an avid fisherman and enjoys the outdoors. He attended Wewoka Public Schools. Jason went on to receive a Bachelor of Science degree from East Central University in Ada, Oklahoma, where he majored in environmental health science and minored in biology. At East Central University, Jason was involved in research at EPAs R.S. Kerr groundwater research laboratory. This is where he realized that he wanted to pursue a graduate degree in aquatic research and management. In the summer of 2001, Jason began work on a masters degree at the University of Florida in the Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences under Dr. Dan Canfield. Jason will receive a Master of Science degree in May 2004 and he plans to pursue a career in the research/management of aquatic resources. 33


Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0004481/00001

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Title: Identification of Micropterus salmoides floridanus Populations in Barrow Pit Ponds Using Cellulose Acetate Electrophoresis
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

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Holding Location: University of Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0004481/00001

Material Information

Title: Identification of Micropterus salmoides floridanus Populations in Barrow Pit Ponds Using Cellulose Acetate Electrophoresis
Physical Description: Mixed Material
Copyright Date: 2008

Record Information

Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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IDENTIFICATION OF Micropterus salmoides floridanus POPULATIONS IN
BARROW PIT PONDS USING CELLULOSE ACETATE ELECTROPHORESIS

















By

JASON R. CHILDRESS


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2004

































Copyright 2004

by

Jason R. Childress
































This document is dedicated to my wife Samantha for her constant love and support.















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I thank the members of my committee, Dr. Daniel E. Canfield, Jr. (University of

Florida), Dr. Chuck Cichra (University of Florida), and Mr. Jim Estes (Florida Fish and

Wildlife Conservation Commission), for their advice and critical review that were so vital

to the completion of this thesis.

I thank Ginger Clark (University of Florida) for her teaching me the electrophoresis

process and for her advice and ideas that enabled me to get this project off the ground.

She was kind enough to allow me the use of her laboratory and equipment, without which

this project could not have been completed. She also provided me with important

references and proved to be an invaluable source of knowledge, answering many question

and helping to troubleshoot as problems arose.

I thank Mark Hoyer (University of Florida) for his input of knowledge and critical

reviews that were extremely beneficial for the completion of this thesis. Mr. Hoyer's

contribution to the design of the project and field procedure was crucial.

I greatly appreciate the advice of Wes Porak, Rich Cailteaux, and Richard Krause

(Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission). Their willingness to assist and

give advice was extremely valuable. They also provided me with fish that were known

M. s. floridanus and known intergrade.

Last, but certainly not least, I thank all of my fellow students who helped in the

field: Steve Caton, Patrick Cooney, Will Strong, Ephraim Tavares, and Troy Thompson.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS



A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ................................................................................................. iv

LIST OF TABLES ............ ....................................................... vi

LIST OF FIGURES ......... ....... .................... ............ .... ........... vii

A B STR A C T ................................................................................ ..................... viii

CHAPTER

1 IN TR O D U C TIO N ......................................................................... .... .. ........

2 M E TH O D S .................................................................3

3 RESULTS AND D ISCU SSION ........................................... ............................13

4 MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS ........................................ ........................ 25

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S ...................................... .................................... ....................30

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H ...................................................................... ..................33






















v















LIST OF TABLES


Table page

1 Location and size of barrow pit ponds sampled in Florida. .................................12

2 Genotypes of the individual largemouth bass obtained from the Florida Fish and
W wildlife Conservation Commission. ............................................. ............... 18

3 Number of largemouth bass caught, amount of electrofishing effort, and catch per
unit effort of electrofishing measured as pedal time at each barrow pit pond. ........21

4 Allele frequencies of largemouth bass populations sampled from barrow pit ponds
in Florida. N indicates number of fish sampled ............................................. 22

5 Allele frequencies of largemouth bass populations sampled from barrow pit ponds
in Florida grouped together as northern largemouth bass and Florida largemouth
bass alleles. N indicates number of fish sampled.................................. ............... 23

6 Genotype frequencies of largemouth bass populations sampled from barrow pit
ponds in Florida. N indicates the number of fish sampled...................................24















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure pge

1 A general diagram of the electrophoresis process..................................................10

2 Location of highway barrow pits sampled in Florida. The dark line indicates the
approximate line of distinction between the Micropterus salmoidesfloridanus'
range and the intergrade zone ........... ..... ......... .................. 11

3 Allelic variants at the sAAT-B* locus. Lanes 1,2, and 3 contain fish that are known
to be Micropterus salmoidesfloridanus. Lanes 4, 5, and 6 contain fish that are
know n to be intergrades. ........................................ .......................................... 19

4 Allelic variants at the slDHP* locus. Lanes 1, 2, and 3 contain fish that are known
to be Micropterus salmoidesfloridanus. Lanes 4,5, and 6 contain fish that are
know n to be intergrades. ........................................ ............................................20

5 Estimated Sample Sizes needed to detect intergrades ..........................................29















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

IDENTIFICATION OF Micropterus salmoidesfloridanus POPULATIONS IN
BARROW PIT PONDS USING CELLULOSE ACETATE ELECTROPHORESIS
By

Jason R. Childress

May 2004

Chair: Daniel Canfield, Jr.
Major Department: Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

Barrow pit ponds in Florida are an attractive potential source for fish that could be

utilized in stocking programs. However, implementing such fish management programs

on a large scale in Florida could be problematic because of concerns about adversely

affecting the genetics of the Florida largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoidesfloridanus)

with indiscriminant stocking of intergrade or pure northern largemouth bass (M. s.

salmoides). A cellulose acetate electrophoresis method (a relatively easy and inexpensive

method) was used to differentiate known M. s. floridanus from known intergrade

largemouth bass obtained from a Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission

hatchery. Known diagnostic alleles were identified at the sAAT-B* and slDHP* loci.

The cellulose acetate electrophoresis method was then used to identify Florida and

intergrade largemouth bass populations in barrow pit ponds in Florida. Highway barrow

pit ponds in Orange and Sumter Counties had largemouth bass populations for which

100% of the alleles at two diagnostic loci were specific forM. s. floridanus. Barrow pit









ponds in Alachua and Jackson Counties were found to have intergrade populations. Two

barrow pit ponds in St. Johns County had largemouth bass populations for which 100%

of the alleles at two diagnostic loci were specific forM. s. floridanus. But, two other

barrow pit ponds in St. Johns County had low frequencies (0.03 in Pond F, 0.04 in Pond

B at sAAT-B*, and 0.02 in Pond F at slDHP*) of northern alleles.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Bailey and Hubbs (1949) first described the Florida largemouth bass (Micropterus

salmoidesfloridanus) as a separate subspecies in 1949 using taxonomic features (e.g.,

scale counts). They described the natural range of the northern largemouth bass

(Micropterus salmoides salmoides) as north and west of the Choctawhatchee River and

Apalachicola River drainages in Florida, Alabama, and Georgia, and north and east of the

Savannah River drainage in South Carolina. The Florida subspecies was thought to reside

in peninsular Florida to the south and east of the Suwannee River drainage, including the

St. Johns River system. The area between these two regions was found to contain

intergrade (genes from both subspecies) fish populations.

Philipp et al. (1983), using genetic techniques, redefined the geographic boundaries

of the two subspecies and the extent of the intergrade zone in the 1980s. They found that

the range of the Florida subspecies was similar to that originally proposed by Bailey and

Hubbs (1949), but the intergrade zone had extended greatly to include the east coast north

to Maryland, as well as most of Alabama and Mississippi. They further concluded that

the expansion of the intergrade zone was due primarily to the stocking of Florida

largemouth bass by state fish and wildlife agencies (Philipp et al. 1983).

Since the late 1990s, there have been concerns that stocking wild and hatchery-

reared largemouth bass may be adversely affecting the genetics of native Florida and

northern largemouth bass populations (Philipp et al. 1981, Fields et al. 1987, Philip 1991,

Philipp and Whitt 1991, Maceina et al. 1992). During 1999, 2000, and 2001, Florida









experienced major drought conditions. Due to the prolonged drought, many lakes in

north Florida completely dried or experienced extremely low water levels. This caused a

loss/reduction of largemouth bass populations and a decline in fishing effort. This has

lead some individuals to propose that adult or juvenile largemouth bass be stocked to

provide immediate relief (stocking for economic mitigation) to local fisheries (Harris

Chain of Lakes Restoration Council [HCOLRC] 2004). Highway barrow pit ponds or

other types of pit ponds such as quarry ponds are a potential source for large fish in

Florida. Fish stocked from barrow pit ponds can provide the larger largemouth bass that

cannot be raised in large numbers in fish hatcheries and could reduce the demands on

hatcheries for advanced-fingerling largemouth bass. Barrow pit ponds could also provide

sufficient numbers of largemouth bass to ultimately allow for more water bodies in

Florida to be stocked when needed. However, implementing such stocking programs on

a large scale in Florida could be problematic because the Florida Fish and Wildlife

Conservation Commission (FFWCC) has concerns about adversely altering the genetics

of pure Florida largemouth bass populations with stocking of intergrade or pure northern

fish.

The objectives of this project were (1) to assess if the cellulose acetate

electrophoresis method (a relatively easy and inexpensive technique) could be used to

differentiate known Micropterus salmoidesfloridanus from known intergrade largemouth

bass, and (2) use cellulose acetate electrophoresis to determine the sub-specific genetic

status of Florida and intergrade largemouth bass populations from barrow pit ponds in

Florida.














CHAPTER 2
METHODS

Allozyme electrophoresis (cellulose acetate electrophoresis method) analysis was

performed on tissue samples obtained from the FFWCC to determine the specific allele

genotypes of known Florida largemouth bass and known intergrade largemouth bass. An

allele is the form of a gene located at a specific locus. Loci are specific locations on a

chromosome where genes reside. A genotype is the actual alleles present at the locus.

The Florida and northern subspecies of largemouth bass are fixed for different alleles at

two loci; those loci being slDHP* (Isocitrate dehydrogenase) and sAAT-B* (Aspartate

aminotransferase). Consequently, the two subspecies can be distinguished by use of

electrophoretic techniques based on the fact that the Florida largemouth bass is fixed for

the slDHP*3 allele and a combination of the sAAT-B*3 and *4 alleles, whereas the

northern largemouth bass is fixed for the slDHP*I allele and a combination of the sAAT-

B*1 and *2 alleles (Philipp et al. 1983). (Nomenclature follows that of Shaklee et al.

1990) By comparing the known genotypes of the Florida and intergrade largemouth bass

to the genotypes obtained from the liver samples taken from largemouth bass collected

from the barrow pit ponds, it should be possible to assess the allele frequencies of the

largemouth bass populations in each pond.

Largemouth bass from 16 barrow pit ponds and one limerock quarry pond were

collected by boat electrofishing using a 5000-Watt AC generator, a Smithroot model VI-

A pulsator, and a bow mounted cathode probe to supply the electrical output to the water.

One person operated the boat and pulsator, while one to two individuals netted fish from









the bow of the boat. The sampling goal was to obtain 50 largemouth bass from each

pond. A sample size of 50 fish was chosen as an adequate sample size based upon time in

the field, effort involved in sampling, relative size of the pond, and past studies (Philipp

et al. 1983, Dunham et al. 1992, Gelwick et al. 1995, Forshage and Fries 1995).

However, it was not always possible to collect 50 fish due to environmental conditions.

Once collected, the fish were either transported live to the laboratory or processed

in the field. At the laboratory, the fish were put in an ice-water bath until movement

stopped. Liver tissue was extracted by making an incision through the abdominal cavity,

locating the liver, removing a portion of the liver, and placing it into a cryogenic vial.

The samples were then placed into a -70 C freezer until analyzed. For ponds that were

long distances from the laboratory, the tissue removal process was performed in the field.

The field procedure was identical to that of the laboratory except that samples were

stored in a cooler of dry ice until returned to the laboratory and stored in a -70 C freezer

until analyzed.

Liver tissues were manually ground in Eppendorf tubes that contained 100-200kg

of a grinding solution. Tris-Glycin was diluted with deionized (DI) water to a ratio of 1:9

and used as the grinding solution for samples that were to be stained for asportate

aminotransferase (sAAT-B*). Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) was

used as the grinding solution for samples that were to be stained for isocitrate

dehydrogenase (slDHP*) (Sigma-Aldrich, Cat No: 2934.90.3900). While grinding

tissues, the tubes were placed into ice to prevent enzyme degradation due to heat. Once

homogenized, samples were centrifuged (Qualitron, Cat No: DW-41) for approximately 1

to 2 minutes. After centrifugation, 10-[tl aliquots of the resulting supernatant were added









to individual wells of the sample loading plate (Helena Laboratories, Cat. No. 4096,

Beaumont, TX). Samples were transferred from the wells of the sample plate onto a

cellulose acetate gel (Helena Laboratories, Cat. No. 3033, Titan III, 76 mm x 76 mm,

Beaumont, TX) with the use of a Helena Super Z-12 applicator (Helena Laboratories,

Cat. No. 4090, Beaumont, TX). Prior to sample application, the cellulose acetate gels

were soaked in a buffer solution (Tris-Glycin diluted 1:9 with DI water) for at least 20

minutes (Prepared according to Hebert and Beaton 1993).

Tissues from fish with known allele genotypes (i.e., obtained from FFWCC) were

placed into the first two wells of every gel and used as benchmarks for comparison with

fish of unknown genetic makeup. The gels were then placed onto wicks in an

electrophoresis tank with Tris-Glycin diluted 1:9 with DI water used as a buffering

solution (Hebert and Beaton 1993). Electrophoresis was performed at room temperature

at 200 volts for 15 to 20 minutes (Figure 1). After the appropriate amount of time (15 to

20 minutes), the gels were removed and histochemically stained with solutions specific

for the diagnostic enzymes (slDHP* and sAAT-B*) according to Hebert and Beaton

(1993). Enzymes were resolved with stain solutions, producing banding patterns that

were used to determine the expressed genotype. Once the gel had stained sufficiently (4-

8 min) to resolve the enzyme, the stain was rinsed from the gel with tap water. The gel

was then scored (banding patterns observed to distinguish the expressed genotype) by

being compared to the known largemouth bass benchmarks. All samples were stained for

both diagnostic loci (slDHP* and sAAT-B*).

When scored, alleles were given a numerical designation according to their

migration speed; those alleles migrating farther anodally from the origin (from negative









to positive) were given a greater numerical designation, following Philipp et al. (1983).

Based on the banding patterns observed, the genotype of each fish was determined. For

slDHP*, banding patterns forM. s. floridanus alleles are homozygous and further from

the origin. For M s. salmoides, alleles are homozygous and closer to the origin, while

first generation (Fi) intergrades are heterozygous and show banding patterns of both

previously described locations. For sAAT-B*, banding patterns forM s. floridanus are

homozygous at the 3 location, or homozygous at the 4 location, or heterozygous at the 3

and 4 locations. ForM. s. salmoides, the banding patterns are homozygous at the 1

location, or homozygous at the 2 location, or heterozygous at the 1 and 2 locations. Since

aspartate aminotransferase is a heterodimeric isozyme some intergrades display a third

intermediate banding pattern (Phillip et. al 1983). First generation intergrades will have

some combination of M s. floridanus and M s. salmoides alleles. It is important to note

that second generation (F2) and later generations (Fx) of intergrades have the potential to

backcross, in which a percentage of the fish sampled will show banding patterns that will

indicate that they are M s. floridanus orM. s. salmoides, when in fact they are

intergrades. For this reason, electrophoresis data is used primarily to assess allele

frequencies within a population and not individual fish.

The frequency of each expressed genotype was calculated by summing the number

of alleles at a particular loci and then dividing by the number of total alleles. Allele

frequencies were calculated for each barrow pit pond largemouth bass population by

summing the frequency of homozygous alleles and one-half the frequency of the

heterozygous alleles. For both the slDHP* and sAAT-B* alleles, the following general

equations were used:









1. f(A) = f(AA)+1/2f(Aa)

2. (a) =(aa)+1/2f(Aa)

3. (A)+(a) = 1.0

In equation (1), f(A) is the frequency of a particular allele, f(AA) is the frequency of

the alleles that are homozygous for that allele, andf(Aa) is the frequency of the alleles

that are heterozygous for A and a. For example, the frequency of the allele sAAT-B*3

was calculated by summing the homozygous alleles (B*3B*3) and one half of the

heterozygous alleles (B*3B*4).

In equation (2),f(a) is the frequency of a second allele, f(aa) is the frequency of the

alleles that are homozygous for a, andf(Aa) is the frequency of the alleles that are

heterozygous for A and a. For example, the frequency of the allele sAA T-B*4 was

calculated by summing the homozygous alleles (B*4B*4) and one half of the

heterozygous alleles (B*3B*4).

In equation (3),f(A) is the frequency of A andf(a) is the frequency of a. The sum of

all the alleles at a particular locus will equal 1.0. For example, at the sAAT-B* locus, the

total of all the B*3 alleles and all the B*4 alleles will equal 1.0.

Following this pattern of summing the homozygous alleles with one half of all

heterozygous alleles, allele frequencies were calculated for each the diagnostic loci

(sAAT-B*I, sAAT-B*2, sAAT-B*3, sAAT-B*4, slDHP*I, and slDHP*3). Allele

frequencies were then grouped together for those specific forM s. floridanus (sAA T-B*3,

sAAT-B*4, and slDHP*3) and those specific forM s. salmoides (sAAT-B*1, sAA T-B*2,

and slDHP* 1).









Seventeen pit ponds were sampled for this study (Table 1, Figure 2). They were

chosen based upon their geographic potential to contain M. s. floridanus, M. s. salmoides,

or intergrade populations. The ponds ranged in size from 0.4 to 11 ha.

Nine Orange County barrow pit ponds (Table 1, Figure 2) were used in this study.

These ponds were constructed and are maintained by the Orlando Expressway Authority

(OEA). They range in area from 0.4 to 5.6 ha. There are no records to indicate that the

pits were intentionally stocked (personal communication with OEA personnel). The pits,

however, are not fenced, and they are located alongside State Highway 417. Although

the barrow pit areas are patrolled by the Florida Highway Patrol and individuals are not

allowed to stop, individuals could stop and put fish into these ponds. Two study ponds

were located in Sumter County (Table 1, Figure 2). These are relatively older (>20 years)

barrow pit ponds and are 1.8 and 1.6 ha in area. The pits are fenced, gated, and locked by

the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT). The ponds were not intentionally

stocked by FDOT. The Orange County and Sumter County barrow pit ponds were

selected because these waters represent pits that were likely to contain M s. floridanus

populations because they are within the natural range of M. s. floridanus described by

Philipp et al. (1983).

The Alachua County pit pond (Table 1, Figure 2) that was selected for this study is

fenced, gated, and locked by Gainesville Regional Utilities (GRU). It is 11 ha in area.

This pond receives minimal fishing pressure by GRU employees during an annual fishing

tournament that the company conducts. This pit was chosen for its potential to have an

intergrade population because it lies on the border between the ranges ofM. s. floridanus









and its intergrade (Philip et al. 1983) and employees of GRU are known to have released

fish from local waters into this pond.

The four ponds in St. Johns County (Table 1, Figure 2) were constructed in 1999 on

the border between the intergrade and M. s. floridanus ranges defined by Philipp et al.

(1983). The ponds range from 0.4 to 4.4 ha. The St. Johns County barrow pits are gated

and locked by the FDOT. Access and fishing are not permitted. The St. Johns County

ponds were chosen because the ponds were stocked with fish from other barrow pit ponds

located in the intergrade zone and M. s. floridanus' range. The four ponds in St. Johns

County were stocked in the fall of 2000 with bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and in the

spring of 2001 with adult largemouth bass. The fish were obtained from barrow pit

ponds located in three peninsular Florida counties (Orange County, Sumter County, and

Alachua County). Bluegill were stocked at a rate of 50 fish per ha and largemouth bass

were stocked at a rate of 20 fish per ha (personal communication, Mark Hoyer, Florida

LAKEWATCH).

The Jackson County barrow pit pond (Table 1, Figure 2) differs from the other

ponds in morphology. It is a deep, steep-sided, 10.9-ha dolomite quarry. It is on the

property of Dolomite, Inc. and is fenced, gated, and locked. This pond is located within

the intergrade zone (Philipp et al. 1983) and was chosen to determine if largemouth bass

in a barrow pit pond would express both northern and Florida alleles.
























anode


Tissue H(+)
U. .
extract S S @ @e.
origin

1 23 45 67 8910


cathode


Specific staining
procedures
^II^l^'^- .


Figure 1. A general diagram of the electrophoresis process. (Modified from Ryman and
Utter, Population Genetics & Fishery Management, University of
Washington, 1987)













SSt. Johns County
(4 ponds)


Jackson County
(1 pond) Orange County
Alachua County C (9 ponds)
(1 pond)

Sumter County
(2 ponds)






0 100 200 300 Kilometers




Figure 2. Location of highway barrow pits sampled in Florida. The dark line indicates
the approximate line of distinction between the Micropterus salmoides
floridanus' range and the intergrade zone. Based on Phillipp et. al (1983) and
Bailey and Hubbs (1949).









Table 1. Location and size of barrow pit ponds sampled in Florida.


Water Body
St. Johns County Pond B
St. Johns County Pond D
St. Johns County Pond E
St. Johns County Pond F
Orange County Pond 1
Orange County Pond 5
Orange County Pond 7
Orange County Pond 8
Orange County Pond 9
Orange County Pond 10
Orange County Pond 11
Orange County Pond 12
Orange County Pond 13
Sumter County East Pond
Sumter County West Pond
Alachua County Pond
Jackson County Pond


Latitude
N 290 50.754'
N290 51.181'
N290 51.687'
N290 51.288'
N 280 33.934'
N 280 24.236'
N 280 22.258'
N 280 22.221'
N 280 22.040'
N 280 22.022'
N 280 22.676'
N 280 22.814'
N 280 23.500'
N 280 52.273'
N 280 52.574'
N 290 45.522'
N 300 39.281'


Longitude
W 0810 21.805'
W 0810 21.434'
W 0810 20.851'
W 0810 20.468'
W 0810 11.538'
W 0810 14.330'
W 0810 18.363'
W 0810 18.528'
W 0810 19.849'
W 0810 19.162'
W 0810 16.785'
W 0810 16.426'
W 0810 15.247'
W 0820 05.494'
W 0820 06.174'
W 0820 24.016'
W 0850 09.907'


Size
(hectares)
1.0
0.8
0.4
4.4
3.3
1.1
5.6
1.6
1.5
4.2
0.4
0.4
0.6
1.8
1.6
11.0
10.9














CHAPTER 3
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Numerous researchers have used starch gel electrophoresis to describe differences

in the electrophoretic mobility of isozymes from tissues of Florida largemouth bass and

northern largemouth bass (Philipp et al. 1983; Maceina et al. 1988; Dunham et al. 1992;

Bulak et al. 1995). By observing the mobility ofisozymes, specific alleles in largemouth

bass can be determined. Philipp et al. (1983) described alleles that were diagnostic of the

Florida (sAA T-B*3, sAAT-B*4, and slDHP*3) and northern largemouth bass (sAA T-B*1,

sAAT-B*2, and slDHP*1).

Cellulose acetate electrophoresis is a similar method for genetic analysis that also

has the potential to distinguish Florida largemouth bass from northern largemouth bass,

but this technique has not been evaluated for largemouth bass prior to this study.

Cellulose acetate electrophoresis differs from the starch gel electrophoresis process used

in previous largemouth bass studies by use of a different medium. The cellulose acetate

requires much shorter run times (10 to 20 minutes versus 1 hour or longer), and limited

gel preparation, and is comparatively simple (Hebert and Beaton 1983). These aspects

make it ideal for assessing the genetic make-up of largemouth bass.

Six largemouth bass were obtained from FFWCC's Richloam hatchery. Total

length of the fish ranged from 296 to 591 mm. Of the six fish, three were brood fish that

had previously been certified to be M s. floridanus by starch gel electrophoresis using

liver tissue taken from a biopsy. The other three were known intergrades because they









were offspring (Fx) of known intergrades and known Florida largemouth bass (Personal

communication, Richard Krause, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission).

The known M s. floridanus fish expressed M. s. floridanus specific alleles using

cellulose acetate electrophoresis (Table 2, Figures 3 and 4). The known intergrade fish

expressed alleles that are diagnostic for both the M s. floridanus and the M. s. salmoides

(Table 2, Figures 3 and 4). Since the intergrade fish were not first generation offspring

their banding patterns indicate that backcrosses have likely occurred, this is the reason

that fish number 2 and 3 appear to be M s. salmoides (Table 2, Figures 3 and 4). These

results demonstrate that the cellulose acetate electrophoresis method can be used to

distinguish the diagnostic alleles of northern and Florida largemouth bass.

The cellulose acetate electrophoresis results of the known fish were used as

benchmarks to assess the genetic make-up of largemouth bass from the barrow pit ponds.

A total of 592 largemouth bass, ranging in total length from 92 to 497 mm, were

collected from barrow pit ponds. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) in the ponds ranged from

0.24 to 3.75 fish/min (Table 3). Frequency of the M. s. floridanus specific alleles in the

barrow pit pond populations ranged from 0.25 to 1.00 at the sAAT-B* locus and 0.48 to

1.00 at the slDHP* locus. Measured frequency ofM. s. salmoides specific alleles in the

barrow pit pond populations ranged from 0.00 to 0.75 at the sAAT-B* loci and 0.00 to

0.52 at the slDHP* loci (Table 5).

In the nine Orange County barrow pit ponds and two Sumter County barrow pit

ponds (the southern most pit ponds), a total of 291 largemouth bass were sampled and

100% of the alleles at both the sAAT-B* and slDHP* loci were identified as being

specific forM s. floridanus (Tables 4, 5, and 6). Largemouth bass from these waters









could, therefore, be stocked into other Florida waters with little concern for possible

negative genetic impacts to the native M. s. floridanus populations.

In the Alachua County barrow pit pond, 50 fish were sampled, but only 68% of the

alleles at the sAAT-B* locus and 48% of the alleles at the slDHP* locus were identified

as being specific forM s. floridanus (Tables 4, 5, and 6). These findings clearly show

that this barrow pit pond, which is located near the historic intergrade zone, does not

support a pure M. s. floridanus population. The GRU pit pond, therefore, would not be

suitable for obtaining largemouth bass to stock into water bodies that are in the M. s.

floridanus range. However, this pit would be a suitable site from which to obtain fish for

stocking into areas that are outside of the M. s. floridanus range.

In two of the St. Johns County ponds (D and E), 50 fish were sampled. In each

pond, 100% of the alleles at both the sAAT-B* and slDHP* loci were identified as being

specific forM s. floridanus (Tables 4, 5, and 6). At the two other St. Johns County

ponds (B and F), 50 fish were also sampled (Tables 4, 5, and 6). In pond B, 96% of the

alleles at the sAA T-B* locus and 100% of the alleles at the slDHP* locus were identified

as being specific forM s. floridanus. Two of the sampled fish from this pond were

homozygous for sAAT-B*2, but both were homozygous for slDHP*3. At pond F, 97% of

the alleles at the sAAT-B* locus and 98% of the alleles at the slDHP* locus were

identified as being specific forM s. floridanus. One fish was homozygous for sAAT-

B*2, but homozygous for slDHP*3. One fish was heterozygous for sAAT-B*2 and B*4,

but was homozygous for slDHP*3. Another fish was homozygous for slDHP*I, but was

homozygous for sAAT-B*4. These results show that largemouth bass in two of the St.

Johns County ponds (B and F) had northern alleles.









The presence of northern alleles in largemouth bass from two of the St. Johns

County barrow pit ponds (B and F) were likely due to the introduction of largemouth bass

from the Alachua County pond (a pond later found to have intergrades) during the initial

stocking of these ponds in 2000 and 2001 (Tables 4 and 5). The St. Johns County barrow

pit ponds with M s. floridanus populations (D and E), were stocked in 2000 and 2001

from the southern most ponds which have M s. floridanus populations (Tables 4 and 5).

Consequently, the results from these ponds show that barrow pit ponds can be stocked

with Florida largemouth bass to develop a pure M. s. floridanus population. St. Johns

County Pond B and F indicate that if an intergrade population is used to obtain fish for

stocking (ie., Alachua County Pond), northern alleles can be detected in the new

populations using cellulose acetate electrophoresis.

In the Jackson County barrow pit pond, 51 largemouth bass were sampled, but only

25% of the alleles at the sAAT-B* locus were identified as being specific forM. s.

floridanus. Fifty-three percent of the alleles at the slDHP* locus were identified as being

specific forM. s. floridanus (Tables 4, 5, and 6). The largemouth bass population in this

pond contained the lowest percentage ofM. s. floridanus specific alleles at the sAA T-B*

locus and the second lowest percentage ofM s. floridanus specific alleles at the slDHP*

locus, which should be expected because this pond is the farthest from the pure M. s.

floridanus range. This also suggests that using cellulose acetate electrophoresis does find

allele frequency in accordance to the historical ranges of the subspecies of largemouth

bass.

There, however, may be another reason for the occurrence of a low frequency of M.

s. floridanus alleles in largemouth bass from the Jackson County limestone quarry pond.









This pond presents a different situation than the other barrow pit ponds sampled during

this study because it could discharge into Rock Creek, which is a tributary to the Chipola

River. More importantly, topographical maps and water level data, from the United States

Geological Survey (USGS) monitoring station near Marianna, Florida, indicate that

during flood events, the Chipola River floods Rock Creek causing it to flow into the

quarry. The pit is also within 0.5 mile of the Chipola River. Because the Chipola River

contains shoal bass (Micropterus coosae), there is a possibility that shoal bass have

entered this Jackson County pit pond.

Some of the fish sampled from the Jackson County quarry pond could have been

shoal bass. Known shoal bass were not obtained during this study to compare with the

other fish, so the allele frequencies for this pond may not represent a typical intergrade

largemouth bass population for that region of Florida. Consequently, any largemouth

bass stocking program, in this area of panhandle Florida, would need to consider the

potential impact of stocking not only pure Florida largemouth bass, but intergrade,

northern largemouth bass, or even shoal bass.









Table 2. Genotypes of the individual largemouth bass obtained from the Florida Fish and
Wildlife Conservation Commission.

Known Micropterus salmoides floridanus


fish
1
2
3


sAA T-B *
4/4
3/3
3/4


slDHP*
3/3
3/3
3/3


Known Intergrades


fish


sAA T-B *


sIDHP *
1/1
1/1
1/1




































B'B' BB' BB'


B'B' B'B'


Figure 3. Allelic variants at the sAAT-B* locus. Lanes 1,2, and 3 contain fish that are
known to be Micropterus salmoidesfloridanus. Lanes 4, 5, and 6 contain fish
that are known to be intergrades.


I I r-' 111












1 2 3 4 5 6


origin


aJi.


(+)


B3B3 B3B3 B3B3 B1B1 B1B1 B1B1


Figure 4. Allelic variants at the sIDHP* locus. Lanes 1, 2, and 3 contain fish that are
known to be Micropterus salmoidesfloridanus. Lanes 4,5, and 6 contain fish
that are known to be intergrades.















Table 3 Number of largemouth bass caught, amount of electrofishing effort, and catch per
unit effort of electrofishing measured as pedal time at each barrow pit pond.


Water Body


St. Johns County Pond B
St. Johns County Pond D
St. Johns County Pond E
St. Johns County Pond F
Orange County Pond 1
Orange County Pond 5
Orange County Pond 7
Orange County Pond 8
Orange County Pond 9
Orange County Pond 10
Orange County Pond 11
Orange County Pond 12
Orange County Pond 13
Sumter County East Pond
Sumter County West Pond
Alachua County Pond 1
Jackson County Pond 1


Catch
(# of fish)
116
68
75


Electrofishing Effort
(seconds) (minutes)
3000 50.0


1200

2030
4081
3520
1249
2513
3110
1697
1340
2324
2716
2647
8049
2884


Catch Per Unit Effort
(fish/minute) (fish/10 min)
2.32 23.20


20.0

33.8
68.0
58.7
20.8
41.9
51.8
28.3
22.3
38.7
45.3
44.1
134.2
48.1


37.50

7.68
3.97
4.94
3.36
2.39
6.17
6.36
2.69
9.04
11.05
11.33
3.73
10.82














Table 4. Allele frequencies
sampled
Water Body
St. Johns County Pond B
St. Johns County Pond D
St. Johns County Pond E
St. Johns County Pond F
Orange County Pond 1
Orange County Pond 5
Orange County Pond 7
Orange County Pond 8
Orange County Pond 9
Orange County Pond 10
Orange County Pond 11
Orange County Pond 12
Orange County Pond 13
Sumter County East Pond
Sumter County West Pond
Alachua County Pond 1
Jackson County Pond 1


of largemouth bass populations sampled from barrow pit ponds in Florida. N indicates number of fish


sAA T-B *
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.02
0.49


sAA T-B *2
0.04
0.00
0.00
0.02
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.30
0.26


sAA T-B *3
0.59
0.23
0.65
0.62
0.69
0.08
0.59
0.00
0.70
0.91
0.56
0.83
0.94
0.77
0.97
0.36
0.25


sAA T-B *4
0.37
0.77
0.35
0.35
0.31
0.92
0.41
1.00
0.30
0.09
0.44
0.17
0.06
0.23
0.03
0.32
0.00


sIDHP *1
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.02
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.52
0.47


slDHP*3
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.98
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.48
0.53











Table 5. Allele frequencies of largemouth bass populations sampled from barrow pit
ponds in Florida grouped together as northern largemouth bass and Florida


largemouth bass alleles.


N indicates number of fish sampled.


sAA T-B*


Water Body
St. Johns County Pond B
St. Johns County Pond D
St. Johns County Pond E
St. Johns County Pond F
Orange County Pond 1
Orange County Pond 5
Orange County Pond 7
Orange County Pond 8
Orange County Pond 9
Orange County Pond 10
Orange County Pond 11
Orange County Pond 12
Orange County Pond 13
Sumter County East Pond
Sumter County West Pond
Alachua County Pond 1
Jackson County Pond 1


northern
0.04
0.00
0.00
0.03
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.32
0.75


Florida
0.96
1.00
1.00
0.97
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.68
0.25


slDHP*
northern Florida
0.00 1.00
0.00 1.00
0.00 1.00
0.02 0.98
0.00 1.00
0.00 1.00
0.00 1.00
0.00 1.00
0.00 1.00
0.00 1.00
0.00 1.00
0.00 1.00
0.00 1.00
0.00 1.00
0.00 1.00
0.52 0.48
0.47 0.53













Table 6. Genotype frequencies of largemouth bass populations sampled from
fish sampled


Water Body


barrow pit ponds in Florida. N indicates the number of


sAA T-B*


slDHP *


St. Johns County Pond B
St. Johns County Pond D
St. Johns County Pond E
St. Johns County Pond F
Orange County Pond 1
Orange County Pond 5
Orange County Pond 7
Orange County Pond 8
Orange County Pond 9
Orange County Pond 10
Orange County Pond 11
Orange County Pond 12
Orange County Pond 13
Sumter County East Pond
Sumter County West Pond
Alachua County Pond 1
Jackson County Pond 1


1/1 1/2 2/2
0 0 0.04
0 0 0
0 0 0
0.01 0 0.02
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0.02 0 0.3
0.42 0.15 0.18


3/3
0.46
0.16
0.58
0.61
0.65
0.04
0.59
0
0.70
0.91
0.56
0.83
0.94
0.68
0.96
0.35
0.25


3/4
0.26
0.14
0.14
0.02
0.08
0.07
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.18
0.02
0.02
0


4/4
0.24
0.7
0.28
0.34
0.27
0.89
0.41
1
0.30
0.09
0.44
0.17
0.06
0.14
0.02
0.31
0


1/1 1/3 3/3


0
0
0
0.02
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.50
0.47


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.04
0


1
1
1
0.98
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0.46
0.53














CHAPTER 4
MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS

Florida largemouth bass and northern largemouth bass are routinely stocked by

state fish and wildlife agencies and private individuals throughout the United States. In

Florida, largemouth bass from as far away as Arkansas have been stocked (Porak, Florida

Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, personal communication). Largemouth

bass with northern alleles have been found in Florida waters well within the M. s.

floridanus native range (Porak and Krause, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation

Commission, personal communication).

Philipp (1991) proposed that the introduction of largemouth bass from one

environment into a population of largemouth bass in another environment, followed by

their subsequent interbreeding, will create a new intergrade population with decreased

fitness compared to the original native population. Although Philipp's hypothesis has not

been tested, FFWCC has concerns about the possible effects of stocking any northern

largemouth bass or intergrade largemouth bass on the genetic integrity of M. s. floridanus

in individual waters. However, FFWCC stocks hatchery-reared M. s. floridanus with

variable success throughout Florida. Stocking has also been successful throughout the

United States (Smith and Reeves 1986). Therefore, Philipp's hypothesis remains

untested.

Largemouth bass have been stocked to supplement poor recruitment, expand the

species range, and alter the genetic composition of existing populations to enhance

fishing (Forshage and Fries 1995). The size of stocked fish is an important consideration









because survival tends to be lower for small fish and production costs increase with large

fish (Loska 1982). Fingerling fish have typically been used to introduce largemouth bass

into new and reclaimed waters (Keith 1986). Fingerling fish can have relatively low

survivability and are generally stocked at high rates (100 fingerlings / acre) to increase

the chance of success. Consequently, it has been proposed to use advanced (larger)

fingerlings to increase survivability and reduce stocking rates. The cost and time of

production, however, is higher and problems have been encountered in Florida with

survivability once the hatchery-reared advanced fingerling largemouth bass are stocked

due to a failure to convert from hatchery food to natural foods (Porak et al. 2002,

Heidinger and Brooks 2002).

Sub-adult and/or adult largemouth bass may also be stocked to enhance fisheries

and such a management program would provide angling opportunities much quicker than

lakes stocked with fingerling fish (Buynak et al. 1999). The demand for stocking

largemouth bass in Florida after the recent extreme drought is greater than the capacity of

the FFWCC hatcheries. Supplemental sources of nonhatchery-reared subadult or adult

fish could help meet the demand to stock with fish that could immediately help ailing

fisheries. Because highway barrow pit ponds are abundant throughout Florida and many

have existing largemouth bass populations, they present a possible source of unexploited

fish. This study shows that these fish could be used in stocking programs if care is taken

to match the genetic make-up of the source populations with the receiving waters. As

new ponds are dug for the construction of highways, appropriate ratios of forage fish and

largemouth bass could be stocked to produce, genetically-appropriate largemouth bass

populations for relocation.









Stocking is a valuable tool for fisheries management. If the decision is made to

stock and there are concerns about the genetic make-up of the fish that will be stocked, it

would be prudent to conduct genetic tests to minimize the risk of genetic contamination.

There are many types of genetic testing instruments and protocols; each with its own cost

per sample. The cost, in this study, ranged from $1.00 to $2.00 per sample, not including

cost of equipment or personnel. The cost per sample would decrease when more samples

are analyzed. This study has shown that cellulose acetate electrophoresis can be used to

determine the genetic makeup of populations of largemouth bass relatively easily and

inexpensively before fish from those populations are transported and stocked elsewhere.

In this study, the test fish were sacrificed, but cellulose acetate electrophoresis can also be

used to identify the genetic composition of a fish by using a non-lethal biopsy needle to

extract liver tissue. The cellulose acetate electrophoresis method, therefore, is a tool that

fisheries managers can use to minimize the risk of genetic contamination while still

effectively managing fish populations. New techniques are currently being developed

using different types of DNA analysis. In the future, when these methods are developed,

blood samples or fin clips could be used for analysis. But at this time, these methods are

still in the developmental stage and their accuracy is being evaluated. These methods

could make it easier to sample a population, but the cost will be much greater than that of

electrophoresis.

No technique, however, can be 100% certain in identifying the genetic composition

of an individual fish or the genetic purity of a fish population in an individual water body.

Cellulose acetate electrophoresis is a reasonable identification method of the allele

frequencies in a water body and large numbers of fish should not have to be sampled to









provide a minimal risk of genetic contamination. However, the greater the sample size,

the less risk there is of genetic contamination. Walsh (2000) explains methods used to

estimate the probability of drawing a sample in which all individuals show the same state,

if individuals with unsampled (hidden) states actually exist in the population at some

hypothetical frequency (e.g., 0.05). Using these methods, it can be estimated that when

using a sample size of 50 (the sampling goal in this study), there is 92% confidence that

hidden character states can be identified if they exist at 5.7% of the population or greater.

In order to reject with 95% confidence that 5% of the individuals carry hidden character

states, a sample of 59 individuals is necessary. The methods described by Walsh (2000)

can be used to evaluate different sample sizes and realize the level of potential risk of

genetic contamination that is present (Figure 5).

With simple planning, barrow pit ponds could easily be used as a source of fish for

stocking largemouth bass into Florida lakes without causing concern for genetic

contamination. This study shows good evidence that barrow pit ponds within the

historical M. s. floridanus range, can be utilized for procuring fish that are pure M. s.

floridanus. Fish from these barrow pit ponds could potentially be stocked into lakes

throughout Florida that are in the M. s. floridanus range. This evidence also indicates

that newly constructed barrow pit ponds can be stocked from other ponds that have pure

M. s. floridanus populations to develop new pure strain M. s. floridanus populations.

Barrow pit ponds that contain intergrade populations could be utilized in stocking

programs outside of the M. s. floridanus range.











Estimated Sample Sizes Needed to Detect Integrades


0.2
0.18 ,
0.16
0.14 "
0.12
0.1
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0 -
30 40 50 60 70
Sample Size


0.1
0.09
0.08
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
S 0
80 90


--Alpha

....... Population
Proportion


Figure 5 Estimated Sample
(2000).


Sizes needed to detect intergrades. Modified from Walsh















LIST OF REFERENCES


Bailey, R. M., and C. L. Hubbs. 1949. The black basses (Micropterus) of Florida, with
description of a new species. University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology,
Occasional Papers, 51: 1-40.

Bulak, J. M., J. Leitner, T. Hilbish, and R. A. Dunham. 1995. Distribution of largemouth
bass genotypes in South Carolina: Initial implications. American Fisheries Society
Symposium 15:226-235.

Buynak, G. L., and B. Mitchell. 1999. Contribution of stocked advanced fingerling
largemouth bass to the population and fishery at Taylorsville Lake, Kentucky.
North American Journal of Fisheries Management 19:494-503.

Dunham, R. A., C. J. Turner, and W. C. Reeves. 1992. Introgression of the Florida
largemouth bass genome into native populations in Alabama public lakes. North
American Journal of Fisheries Management 12:494-498.

Fields, R., S. S. Lowe, C. Kaminski, G. S. Whitt, and D. P. Philipp. 1987. Critical and
chronic thermal maxima of northern and Florida largemouth bass and their
reciprocal Fi and F2 hybrids. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society
116:856-863.

Forshage, A. A., and L. T. Fries. 1995. Evaluation of the Florida largemouth bass in
Texas, 1972-1993. American Fisheries Society Symposium 15:484-491.

Gelwick, F. P., E. R. Gilliland, and W. J. Matthews. 1995. Introgression of the Florida
largemouth bass genome into stream populations of northern largemouth bass in
Oklahoma. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 124:550-562.

Harris Chain of Lakes Restoration Council (HCOLRC). 2003. Report to the Florida
Legislature.

Hebert, P. D. N., and M. J. Beaton. 1993. Methodologies for allozyme analysis using
cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Univiversity of Guelph. Guelph, Ontario.

Heidinger, R. C., and R. C. Brooks. 2002. Relative contribution of stocked minnow-fed
and pellet-fed advanced fingerling largemouth bass to year-classes in Crab Orchard
Lake, Illinois. American Fisheries Society Symposium 31:703-714.









Keith, W. E. 1986. A review of introduction and maintenance stocking in reservoir
fisheries management. Pages 144-148 in G.E. Hall and M. J. Van Den Avyle,
editors. Reservoir fisheries management: Strategies for the 80s. Reservoir
Committee, Southern Division American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland.

Loska, P. M., 1982. A literature review on the stocking of black basses (Micropterus
spp.) in reservoirs and streams. Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Atlanta,
Georgia.

Maceina, M. J., B. R. Murphy, and J. J. Isely. 1988. Factors regulating Florida
largemouth bass stocking success and hybridization with northern largemouth bass
in Aquilla Lake, Texas. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 117:221-
231.

Maceina, M. J. and B. R. Murphy. 1992. Comment. Stocking Florida largemouth bass
outside its native range. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 121:686-
688.

Philipp, D. P. 1991. Genetic implications of introducing Florida largemouth bass,
Micropterus salmoidesfloridanus. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic
Sciences 48:58-65.

Philipp, D. P. 1992. Reply. Stocking Florida largemouth bass outside its native range.
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 121:688-691.

Philipp, D. P., W. F. Childers, and G. S. Whitt. 1981. Management implications for
different genetic stocks of largemouth cass (Micropterus salmoides) in the United
States. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 38:1715-1723.

Philipp, D. P., W. F. Childers, and G. S. Whitt. 1983. A biochemical genetic evaluation
of the northern and Florida subspecies of largemouth bass. Transactions of the
American Fisheries Society 112:1-20.

Philipp, D. P., and G. S. Whitt. 1991. Survival and growth of northern, Florida, and
reciprocal Fi hybrid largemouth bass in central Illinois. Transactions of the
American Fisheries Society 120:58-64.

Porak, W. F., W. E. Johnson, S. Crawford, D. J. Renfro, T. R. Schoeb, R. B. Stout, R. A.
Krause, and R. A. DeMauro. 2002. Factors affecting survival of largemouth bass
raised on artificial diets and stocked into Florida lakes. American Fisheries Society
Symposium 31:649-665.

Ryman, N, and F. Utter. 1987. Population genetics & fishery management, University of
Washington, Seattle.

Shaklee, J. B., F. W. Allendorf, D. C. Morizot, and G. S. Whitt. 1990. Gene
nomenclature for protein-coding loci in fish. Transactions of the American
Fisheries Society 119:2-15.






32


Smith, B. W., and W. C. Reeves. 1986. Stocking warm-water species to restore or
enhance fisheries. Pages 17-29 in R. H. Stroud, editor. Fish culture in fisheries
management. Fish Culture Section and Fisheries Management Section, American
Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland.

Walsh, P. D. 2000. Sample size diagnosis of conservation units. Conservation Biology
14(5):1533-1537.















BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Jason Ryan Childress was born November 30, 1978, and raised in the small

Oklahoma town of Wewoka. Jason grew up as an avid fisherman and enjoys the

outdoors. He attended Wewoka Public Schools. Jason went on to receive a Bachelor of

Science degree from East Central University in Ada, Oklahoma, where he majored in

environmental health science and minored in biology. At East Central University, Jason

was involved in research at EPA's R.S. Kerr groundwater research laboratory. This is

where he realized that he wanted to pursue a graduate degree in aquatic research and

management. In the summer of 2001, Jason began work on a master's degree at the

University of Florida in the Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences under Dr. Dan

Canfield. Jason will receive a Master of Science degree in May 2004 and he plans to

pursue a career in the research/management of aquatic resources.