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EFFECT OF WAVE FORCES ON STORM SURGE By ROBERT J. WEAVER A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2004 Copyright 2004 by Robert J. Weaver I dedicate this to Jacqueline, Moose and Chaos. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my parents for encouraging me to pursue my goals, giving their support, and being there when I needed an ear to bend. Thanks to Jacqueline for keeping me on track, and tolerating me when I would go off on a tangent. I would like to acknowledge my adviser, Donald Slinn, and my committee members Robert Dean and Max Sheppard for their support and advice. I would like to thank the National Oceanographic Partnership Program, NOPP, partners for their help and contributions. Special acknowledgments to Robert Jensen at Engineer Research and Development Center, ERDC, for his help with the wave fields, Scott Hagen at the University of Central Florida, UCF, for his help in understanding the Advanced Circulation Model for Coasts, Shelves, and Estuaries (ADCIRC) and grid generation, as well as providing the tides for our use in the prediction. I would also like to credit Vince Cardone and Andrew Cox at OceanWeather, Inc. for providing the wind and pressure fields for our model prediction. TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................... .......... iv LIST OF TABLES ................... .............. vii LIST OF FIGURES ................... ............. viii ABSTRACT ........................................ x 1 INTRODUCTION .................. ... 1 1.1 Surge Model ................... .......... 2 1.2 AirSea Coupling ................... ....... 3 1.3 Atmospheric Pressure ...... ........... .. ..... 4 1.4 Coastal Bathymetry ...... ........... ........ 5 1.5 Hurricane Simulation ...... ........... .. ..... 7 2 METHODOLOGY ....... ......... ........ 9 2.1 Numerical Model ................... ........ 9 2.2 Bathymetric Tests ............... ........ 13 2.2.1 Domain ................ ......... 13 2.2.2 Forcings ................... ......... 14 2.2.3 Implementation . . . 17 2.3 Hurricane Georges Hindcast .. . ... 18 2.3.1 Dom ain . . . 19 2.3.2 Forcing . . . 20 2.3.3 Implementation . . . 22 3 RESULTS ..... . ... ............... 24 3.1 Wind Stress . ... .......... 24 3.2 Bathymetric Sensitivity .. . .. 26 3.3 Hurricane Georges . . . 32 4 CONCLUSIONS . . .. .......... 45 4.1 Bathymetry . ... .......... 45 4.2 Hindcast ...... . ...... 46 4.3 Significance of Wave SetUp . . ..... 47 APPENDIX A BATHYMETRY TESTINPUT FILES .. ........... 48 A.1 Wave Model Inputs ................... ....... 48 A.2 Circulation Model Inputs ..... ............ .... 51 B HINDCAST TEST CIRCULATION MODEL INPUT FILES ..... 57 REFERENCES ......................................... 62 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................... ......... 64 LIST OF TABLES Table page 21 Drag coefficient formulations to test model sensitivity . 10 22 Wind strength and wave height for bathymetric sensitivity tests 15 23 Model input domains .. . ... ...... 22 31 Surge generated by forcing components over each bottom profile 28 32 Coordinates of selected locations . ....... 35 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 21 Profiles created for bathymetric sensitivity tests . . 22 Finite Element Grid created for bathymetric sensitivity tests . 23 Wave fields from SWAN . . . 24 F, from SW AN . . .... . 25 NorthWest Atlantic Domain . . . 26 Gulf Coast region of model domain . . . 27 Nested domains for wave field data . . . 31 Drag coefficients plotted vs. wind speed . . 32 Wind stress plotted vs. wind speed . . . 33 Surge profiles for wind stress formulations . . 34 F output from SWAN . . . 35 Surge levels for each forcing group over each bathymetry . Comparison of Model results with analytic solution . Surface contour plots as Georges crosses Gulf . Surface contour plots for each forcing combination at t Time series of maximum surface elevation . Maximum surge predicted at selected locations . Surge at Node13266:Perdido Bay, FL . . Surge at Node11043:Lake Borgne, LA . . NOAA station data for Pensacola Bay, FL . Model results at Pensacola Bay, FL . . NOAA station data for Waveland, MS . . hours page 14 15 16 17 19 20 21 24 25 26 27 28 30 32 33 34 36 37 38 39 40 41 316 Model results at Waveland, MS . . ... 42 317 Grid resolution comparison . . ... .. 43 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science EFFECT OF WAVE FORCES ON STORM SURGE By Robert J. Weaver M\.v 2004 Chair: Donald N. Slinn Major Department: Civil and Coastal Engineering The disastrous effects of hurricanes on coastal communities are well known, and there is a need to better understand the causes of storm surge to prepare for future events. To better understand the mechanisms, we examine the influence of individual factors that produce surge. The total surge depends on wind surface stress, inverted barometer effects, and wave forcing, as well as tidal stage and bathymetry in the path of the storm. We are particularly interested in the effect of wave stresses on overall surge. In the past, many models have neglected the influence of wave induced setup. Wave stresses could be left out of numerical models for computational efficiency, when they are not a significant player. On the other hand, for conditions when wave stresses are significant, it is of interest to know if the total surge is a linear superposition of the wind and wave setup, or if there is a more complicated relationship. Our work is a component of a realtime wind, wave, and surge forecasting system for tropical cyclones being developed under the National Oceanographic Partnership Program. To test the rise in surface elevation, we use the Advanced Circulation Model for Coasts, Shelves, and Estuaries in twodimensional depthintegrated mode (ADCIRC 2DDI). We conduct a suite of model studies including tests of wind stress formulation, grid resolution, and bottom friction. To test sensitivity to coastal bathymetry, we generate three simple finite element grids on idealized coastal topographies. We use these to test three different strengths of storms. The storms range in intensity from a strong gust (10 m/s), to a medium strength tropical storm (30 m/s), to a Category 3 hurricane (56 m/s). Here, steady winds are applied on our coastal domain, and the associated wave fields are predicted using SWAN (Simulating Waves X. lIre). We examine relationships between bathymetry and setup due to wind and waves. These tests aid us in interpreting more complicated results from historical storm events over real bathymetry. Our results indicate that for the same wind forcing and offshore wave conditions, wave generated surge can vary for different coastal bathymetries. The shallower bathymetric profile yields the greater level of windinduced surge, and the steeper profile allows for a greater surge from wave setup for the same forcing levels. We also note that the linear combination of wind and wave forced setup is slightly larger than the model prediction with combined forcing. The final application of our model system is a hindcast of hurricane Georges (1998). When Georges made landfall in the Biloxi, Mississippi area, it was a strong category 2 hurricane on the SaffirSimpson scale. We use the North West Atlantic basin for the model domain. We run the model three times, first with wind and atmospheric pressure forcing. The second time we force the model with wave radiation stresses from the predicted wave fields. The final model run combines wind and pressure fields with wave forcing. The resulting changes in surface elevation are compared with each other and with NOAA station data. We demonstrate that, in this case, to more accurately predict the surge it is necessary to include the wave forcing. Here, the wave forcing contributes approximately 25% to 33% of the total rise in water level. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Tropical cyclones are lowpressure systems that form in the tropics. In the northern hemisphere the wind will rotate around the lowpressure center in a cyclonic pattern, counterclockwise. As this lowpressure system moves over warmer waters, it can intensify. A hurricane is a strong tropical cyclone. By the time the system is classified as a hurricane, there are maximum sustained winds of 74 mph (33 m/s). The surface of the ocean under the storm will react to the pressure and wind. The threat to coastal communities from a hurricane includes high winds causing damage, as well as coastal flooding caused by the storm tide. Storm surge is the rise in water level due to hurricanes. There are three main causes of storm surge: wind setup, wave setup, and the inverse barometric effect of the low central pressure of the storm. The tides will also play a role in the effect of the hurricane on the coast. Storm tide is the combination of the surge with the tide. If the storm makes landfall during high tide, the effect is a higher water level than if the surge hits the shore during low tide. The wind setup is caused by the wind blowing across the surface of the water over hundreds of square kilometers. Wave setup is caused by the generation and then release of wave momentum (or radiation stress) in the water column as waves are formed, shoal, and then break. Radiation stress is the flux of momentum due to waves (LonguettHi:'iii' & Stewart, 1964). It is the transfer of wave momentum to the water column that forces a change in the mean water level. Near the coast, wave momentum flux is balanced by a pressure gradient associated with a change in the local water depth. As wave momentum increases in the presence of nonbreaking waves, the mean water level lowers. As breaking commences, the wave energy and momentum decrease, resulting in a reduction of the radiation stress carried by the waves. These stresses (force per unit area) are imparted into the water column. The rapid reduction of wave radiation stress near the coast forces a rise in mean sea level. The discharged momentum from the waves pushes against the water column, and produces an opposing hydrostatic pressure gradient. During storm events, the resulting rise in water level can play a major role in storm surge. According to linear theory, the effective change in water level from a steady train of linear waves approaching normal to the shore on a gently sloping bottom is about 19% of the breaking wave height (Dean & Dalrymple, 1991). This may increase or decrease as we take into account nonlinear effects, dissipative forces, and wave obliquity. The amount of wave setup is also affected by the bottom contour of the nearshore and beach face. We examine the effect of wave radiation stress on sea surface elevation for complex forcing conditions. Our goal is to increase understanding of the role that waves play in storm surge. Our work is a component of a realtime wind, wave, and surge forecasting system for tropical cyclones being developed under the National Oceanographic Partnership Program (NOPP). This partnership involves four academic institutions and six government agencies, sharing data, models, and resources. 1.1 Surge Model The hydrodynamic model we use to predict the sea surface elevation is the Advanced Circulation Model for Coasts, Shelves, and Estuaries in twodimensional depthintegrated mode (ADCIRC 2DDI) (Luettich et al., 1992). It is a finite element model that solves the conservation laws for mass and momentum through a Generalized Wave Continuity Equation in nonconservative form. We predict water level changes by driving the hydrodynamics with Wind stress and atmospheric pressure only Wave radiation stress only A combination of wind and wave stresses and atmospheric pressure fields. From this series of predictions we determine the significance of including wave stresses in our model system. As a test case, we perform hindcasts of hurricane Georges (1998) with each of the forcing options. We compare the results with waterlevel data for that time period, and evaluate the predictive value of including the wave forces in the model inputs. Domain sensitivity studies have been performed using the ADCIRC model (Blain, 1997; Blain et al., 1994; Brebbia et al., 1995; Blain et al., 1998). It was found that selecting an appropriate sized domain was an important factor in the development of an accurate prediction. With a large enough domain, the key features of resonance and circulation are captured (in our case, the domain includes the Northwest Atlantic Basin with the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico). A benefit to such a large domain is the simplicity of the boundary conditions. The open boundaries are primarily located in the deep ocean, minimizing boundary effects on the coastal region of interest. Hagen et al. (2000, 2001) showed that sufficient grid resolution over regions of varying bathymetry is important. In these regions, a finer mesh is required to capture the evolution of the water elevation. 1.2 AirSea Coupling Storm surge is dependent on wind surface stress, inverted barometer effects, tidal stage, bathymetry, and changes in wave radiation stresses. Momentum transfer at the airsea interface produces windgenerated waves and has been studied extensively (Geernaert & Plant, 1990; Donelan et al., 1993; Donelan, 1998). The wind stress is usually approximated as T = pCdUIU where p is the density of air, U is the mean wind speed taken at 10 meters above the surface, and Cd is the drag coefficient. The drag coefficient depends on sea surface roughness and atmospheric stratification, and has a magnitude on the order of 103. There are many different recommended forms for the drag coefficient, Cd. The range of validity of the different formulas for Cd depend on wind conditions, and other factors. There has been relatively little research, however, into what formulation would best suit hurricane wind and sea conditions. It is difficult to make open ocean measurements during hurricane conditions. Most equations produce (by extrapolating from data) an increasing drag coefficient with increasing wind speed. This formulation fits data sets at lower wind speeds. But, when the strength of the winds becomes large, the tops of the waves can be sheared and the relative wave surface roughness changes. This is analogous to a slip boundary condition. One possibility, currently being debated, is that at higher wind speeds the drag coefficient may level off as the waves are sheared off at the crests, and the net momentum imparted to the water column begins to level off. With such complicated possible scenarios, one must be aware of the sensitivity of the surge predictions to the choice of the coefficient of drag in the wind stress formulation. We pursue such sensitivity tests below and then proceed with our hindcasts using one of the standard ADCIRC formulas (Garratt, 1977) for drag coefficient (Eq. 11), with a maximum allowable drag coefficient of 0.003. The corresponding formulas for wind stress are given by Eqs. 12, 13. Cd = 0.001 (0.75 + 0.067 U) (11) ,. = Cd 0.001293 v,(n) *U (12) , =Cd 0.001293 vy(n) U (13) where U = [v,(n)2 + Vy(n)'2 wind speed ., horizontal wind stress in xdirection horizontal wind stress in ydirection v1(n) horizontal wind velocity in xdirection vy(n) horizontal wind velocity in ydirection 1.3 Atmospheric Pressure Ambient atmospheric pressures are around 1012 mb. The lowpressure center of a tropical storm causes a local rise in the sea surface. This inverted barometer 5 effect is important when attempting to predict water levels. One can expect around 1 cm of water rise for each millibar of pressure drop in deep water (Anthes, 1982). Though this effect may seem small, hurricane Georges had a minimum recorded central pressure of 938 mb while in the Atlantic, corresponding to a 0.75 m rise in sea surface elevation. Georges weakened by the time it made landfall on the Gulf Coast. The central pressure increased to 964 mb, corresponding to an approximate 0.5 m rise in sea level in deep water. As a storm approaches land, the height of the sea level rise associated with the inverse barometer effect can increase due to the horizontal convergence of the water. The convergence and reflection against the coastline can increase the surge level. If the barometric effect is neglected, the prediction of surge would be less than the actual rise in elevation measured at the coast. 1.4 Coastal Bathymetry The bathymetry of the shelf and nearshore region will also play a role in the level of storm surge measured at the coastline. The magnitude of the wind blowup is dependent on the depth and width of the continental shelf. Wind stress over a shallow wide shelf will produce a larger setup than the same wind stress over a narrower or deeper shelf. The steady state, onedimensional solution for windinduced sea level rise (Dean & Dalrymple, 1991) is shown in Eq. 14. a9 nw ) (14) ax pg(h + r) where h mean water depth q displacement free surface about the mean x crossshore location n = I x(h) and n is greater than 1 Tx(') wind surface stress in xdirection Tx(h) bottom shear stress in xdirection p reference density of water g gravity As seen in Eq. 14, in the deeper waters when h > 7, the setup goes to zero. In the depthaveraged approximation, near a coast in steady state, the horizontal velocity is zero and the bottom shear stress vanishes and n = 1. We present results below of experiments concerning wave setup on a variety of profiles. The simplest beach model is a planar beach. Many planar beach models were used to derive the approximate formulas for wave setup (Saville, 1961; LonguettHii>in. 1983; Stive & Wind, 1982; James, 1974; Dean & Dalrymple, 1991). For a planar beach, the mean water surface displacement from small amplitude normally incident waves is about 0.19Hb (Dean & Dalrymple, 1991). Komar (1998) empirically fits a more complex relationship between the slope of the foreshore and the maximum setup elevation at the shoreline, Eq. 15, based on the Irribaren number, Eq. 16 (ratio of beach face slope to wave steepness). 77m =. 0.18g'SH T (15) Coo (16) Where S is the slope of the bottom, Ho and L, are the significant wave height and wavelength of the incident waves in deep water, and T is the wave period. Additional studies have been performed on beaches with a concaveup Equilibrium Beach Profile, (EBP) (Dean & Dalrymple, 2002). h = AX3 (17) The results of these tests are compared to the case of a planar beach, and it was found that the setup on a concaveup beach will mirror the bottom curvature (\I. I)ougal & Hudspeth, 1981). Smaller waves will break closer to the shoreline and the overall breaking pattern is inversely proportional to the water depth. To a first approximation, the maximum surge level will be the same at the shoreline as for a plane beach. Farther offshore, however, the planar beach will allow for a greater increase in elevation, as the mean water level mimics the bottom contour. The EBP allows waves to propagate closer to the shoreline before breaking, imparting their momentum to the water column closer to shore than on a planar beach. The first set of tests described below were performed using the Equilibrium Beach Profile as the bathymetric contour. Guza and Thornton (1981) developed a relation based on measurements of irregular wave setup on beaches in Southern California, Eq. 18. The study was performed on a beach with a mild slope (0.02), where the waves break across a wide surf zone. This would be classified as a dissipative beach (Komar, 1998). The incident wave heights ranged from 0.6 m to 1.6 m. maO = 0.17H, (18) This relation yields a result approximately 10% less than the linear solution. Our research focuses on much more powerful wave events, with time varying wave fields and complex shorelines. Our domain is the Gulf of Mexico shelf. This region has a much milder sloping beach and nearshore region than that of California. We expect more dissipation from nonlinear effects and bottom friction in our test due to this bathymetric difference. 1.5 Hurricane Simulation For our most comprehensive numerical experiment, we perform a hindcast of hurricane Georges. Hurricane Georges made landfall in the Biloxi, Mississippi area on September 28, 1998 (Guiney, 1999). At the time of landfall the storm was rated a strong Category 2 hurricane on the SaffirSimpson scale, with estimated maximum sustained one minute winds of 90 knots (103.6 mph, 46.3 m/s). During previous days, as the storm made its way across the Caribbean, Georges peaked as a Category 4 hurricane with estimated top wind speeds of 135 knots (155.4 mph, 69.5 m/s). The storm caused extensive damage and loss of life. The relief effort is estimated to have cost $2.5 Billion and 602 lives were lost, predominantly in Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the Caribbean islands. We model the last 6 days of the storm, from the 25th September, 1998 until the 1st of October, 1998. After this time, the storm is well over land. The domain of our model predictions encompasses the North West Atlantic Basin. The finite element grid was provided by Dr. Rick Luettich, of the University of North Carolina. Wind, wave, and barometric pressure data was provided within the domain by our NOPP partners, including NOAA, the National Hurricane Center, the National Weather Service, and OceanWeather Inc. Our results will be compared to tidal station data at different locations on the Gulf Coast. CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGY 2.1 Numerical Model To predict the rise in surface elevation, we use the Advanced Circulation Model for Coasts, Shelves, and Estuaries in twodimensional depthintegrated mode (ADCIRC 2DDI). ADCIRC was developed by the Army Corps of Engineers Dredging Research Program (DRP). The principal developers were J.J. Westerink and Rick Luettich (Luettich et al., 1992). One of the purposes of the research was to develop a model that could compute storm surge hydrographs and provide surface elevation data. There are four main inputs for the ADCIRC model. These include the finite element grid and bathymetry file, the numerical parameter set, the meteorological forcing and the wave forcing files. The grid is defined by node numbers and locations, element neighbors and boundary information. The input parameters include the time step, duration of the model run, coordinate system definitions, friction coefficient, horizontal eddy viscosity, output parameters, input file parameters, etc. (Luettich et al., 1992). Two other main input fields are necessary to force the model run, the meteorologic (wind stress and atmospheric pressure) and the wave stress forcing files. The meteorological forcing file contains the wind stress and pressure data at specified time intervals. Wind stress is computed from the wind speed and direction using Eqs. 12 and 13. In order to make this conversion, we must decide on the formula to use for drag coefficient. There are numerous relationships that attempt to parameterize the drag coefficient, Cd. We tested seven different formulations, six given in Table 21 (Geernaert & Plant, 1990) and a constant value of Cd = 0.003. Garratt's (1977) formula represents a compilation of results Table 21: Drag coefficient formulations used to test model sensitivity Authors Cd 103 Garratt (1977) 0.75 + 0.067UI Miller (1964) 4.0 Klapstov (1983) 0.49 + 0.07U + 58 1.06Wi T Geernaert (1987) 0.58 + 0.085UI Smith (1980) 0.61 + 0.063UI Large & Pond (1981) 0.44 + 0.063 U calibrated for wind speeds between 4 and 21 m/sec. The ADCIRC model uses Garratt's formula; however, the model puts a cap on the maximum value at Cd = 0.003. We remove this maximum requirement for the sensitivity tests. Miller (1964) proposed a maximum drag coefficient of 4.0 103, for wind speeds of 52 m/sec. The value was inferred using the ageostrophic technique. This method assumes a transfer of angular momentum in a cyclonic system which results in a crossisobaric flow. Klapstov (1983) provides a comprehensive formulation determined from 214 records of data for wind speeds ranging from 2 to 21 m/sec. Geernaert's (1987) formula, for wind speeds of 5 to 25 m/sec, was fit to 116 data points. The Large & Pond (1981) formula is a fit to 1001 data points, for wind speeds of 10 to 26 m/sec. Smith (1980) fit 120 points for wind speeds ranging from 6 to 22 m/sec. There have been no direct measurements of drag formula for wind speeds over 26 m/sec. When Georges made landfall the estimated one minute winds were 90 knots (46.3 m/sec). Holding all other variables constant, we ran the ADCIRC model for each of the drag coefficient formulations, and determined the sensitivity of the model. Once we have decided on a satisfactory formulation, we generate the wind and pressure input file, fort.22. The wave forcing fields specify the x and y directed wave stresses. These are also provided for every node at predetermined time intervals. We will discuss the generation of the wave fields in more detail for each test case below. Once calculated, we generate the wave forcing input file, fort.23. The ADCIRC model output includes surface elevation and depth averaged current velocities for every node at user specified time intervals. One can also prescribe recording stations for time series of velocity and sea level at predefined time intervals for any location in the domain. The model also has the ability to perform harmonic analysis of the surface elevation. This finite element model solves the conservation laws for mass and momentum. Conservation of mass is implemented by way of the Generalized Wave Continuity Equation (GWCE) (Luettich et al., 1992) derived from Eq. 21. The momentum equations in nonconservative form are derived from the turbulent incompressible NavierStokes (Reynolds averaged) equations. First the three dimensional equations are simplified using the Boussinesq approximation and the hydrostatic pressure approximation, yielding Eqs. 2224. Ou Ov Ow +5 + o 0 (21) ox oy oz 9u 9u 9u 9u 9 p 1 87,x 87,x 87z S+ u + v +w fv=  [ F + + ] (22) ot ox ay oz ox po po ox ay oz Ov ov Ov Ov O p 1r Owxv __ 8zv S+ t + v +w + fu = + [x + + (23) ot ox oy oz oy po po x oy oz Spg (24) where f = 2Qsinr = Coriolis parameter g = acceleration due to gravity F = tide generating parameter v = molecular viscosity p(x, y, z, t) = timeaveraged pressure p(x, y, z, t) = density of water po = reference density of water t = time T = integration time scale for separating turbulent and timeaveraged quantities Tx,(x, y, z, t) v= [2 ] f u'u'dt combined viscous and turbulent Reynolds stress ,y(x, y, z, t) = v[4 + ] { oT u'v'dt combined viscous and turbulent Reynolds stress T,,(x, y, z, t) = v[V + 2] foT u'w'dt combined viscous and turbulent Reynolds stress ,xy(x, y, z, t) = v[j + ] { oT v'u'dt combined viscous and turbulent Reynolds stress Tyy(x, y, z, t) = v[2#] 4 o v'v'dt combined viscous and turbulent Reynolds stress rzy (xy, Z, zt) = v[ + ] oT v'w'dt combined viscous and turbulent Reynolds stress 9 = degrees latitude u(x, y, z, t), v(x y, y, z, t), w(x, y, z, t) = timeaveraged velocities in the x, y and z directions u'(x, y, z, t), v'(x y, y, z, t), w'(x, y, z, t) = departures of the instantaneous turbulent velocities from the timeaveraged velocities x, y = horizontal coordinate direction z = vertical coordinate direction S= angular speed of the Earth (7.29212x105 rad/s) After eliminating pressure as a dependent variable using 24 and defining the top and bottom boundary conditions, Eqs. 21, 22 and 23 are vertically integrated to yield twodimensional equations for free surface displacement and depthaveraged velocity. The depthintegrated form of the continuity equation is given by Eq. 25. The vertically integrated momentum conservation equations are given by Eq. 26 and 27. a( OUH aVH ot Ox ay (25) OU OU OU ap 1 TsI Tb + U + V fu V [+ g(( a)]+ [M+ D, +1] (26) at Ox ay Ox po H po po aV aV V P s 1 Ts Tb + U +V + fU = + (( aq)] + .+D,+ ] (27) at ax ay fy po H po po where a = effective Earth elasticity factor (a = 0.69) Dx D  momentum dispersion D O D momentum dispersion Duu ft uudz, Duu, f vuDdz, Duu _fh v dz rq(x, y, z) Newtonian equilibrium tidal potential Sdz + L (dz depthintegrated, horizontal momentum diffusion , f_ dz + b 7J dz depthintegrated, horizontal momentum diffusion U(x, y, t) k j, udz depthaveraged horizontal velocity V(x, y, t) f_ vdz depthaveraged horizontal velocity ui(x, y, z,t) 1u U departure of horizontal velocity from depthaveraged velocity v(x, y, z, t) v V departure of horizontal velocity from depthaveraged velocity H(x, y, t) (+ h total water depth to free surface ( free surface h(x, y) bathymetric depth relative to geoid Tsx Ty applied free surface stresses Tbx, Tby applied bottom stresses The bottom stresses are replaced by a quadratic friction term. The equations are differentiated and combined to get the GWCE. DSRP926, Report 1: Theory and Methodology (Luettich et al., 1992) gives a complete derivation. 2.2 Bathymetric Tests The first set of tests we perform are a series of experiments examining setup over idealized bathymetric conditions for different wind and wave conditions. Our purpose is to determine the model response to separate and combined influences of variations in wind speed, wave height, and water depth. 2.2.1 Domain We generate wind and wave fields over three bathymetries. Contours are created, Figure 21, using the equilibrium beach profile method (Dean & Dalrymple, 2002): h = Ax A = 0.2, 0.1, 0.05 (28) Where A is a parameter based on the average grain size of the nearshore sediment, x is the crossshore distance and h is water depth. We define the average nearshore slope as the slope from the shore, x = 0, to the water depth at x = 1 km. The beach profiles have average nearshore slopes of 0.017, 0.0091 and 0.004, from steepest to mildest. Farther offshore, in the region 2 km to 20 km, the average slopes are 0.0065, 0.0028 and 0.0017, respectively. The profile is uniform 20 0 20 S40 60 I 80 100 120 h=0.20*x"' Sh = 0.10 x"' h = 0.05*x"' MWL 140 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 Crossshore Distance (meters) Figure 21: Bathymetric contours created to test the wave and wind setup in the alongshore. We generate a finite element grid, Figure 22, for the model domains using ACE/gredit (Turner & Baptista, 1999). Resolution at the shoreline is on the order of 20 meters, and decreases as the depth increases. 2.2.2 Forcings Three different strength shore normal winds are chosen. The weakest wind forcing is a 10 m/s wind that corresponds to a strong gust. The intermediate case is a 30 m/s wind, corresponding to a medium strength tropical storm. The strongest wind used corresponds to a Category 3 hurricane on the SaffirSimpson scale, with a 56 m/s wind speed. The associated wave forces were generated using SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore) (Holthuijsen, 2000). The offshore wave heights specified are 1.0 m, 5.0 m, and 7.0 m, corresponding to the wind speeds of 10, 30 and 56 m/s respectively (Table 22). These offshore wave heights were selected after a series of iterations with SWAN, keeping the wind speed constant. 10000 S8000 6000 4000 2000 2500 5000 7500 10000 Crossshore (meters) Figure 22: Finite Element Grid created with ACE/gredit (resolution at the shoreline is 20 m) Table 22: Wind intensity and offshore wave height used to force the circulation model for the bathymetry tests Strength Wind(m/s) Wave(m) Weak 10 1.0 Medium 30 5.0 Strong 56 7.0 Our applied winds are uniform in time and space. The domain SWAN uses to compute the wave fields is 20 km crossshore and 50 km alongshore. We make sure that the alongshore direction is large enough that the center line of the domain will be unaffected by boundary effects. SWAN uses a Cartesian computational grid with 5 m spacing. The wave fields generated in SWAN are based on a JONSWAP distribution with directional spreading of 5 degrees. Bottom friction is turned on, as is whitecapping. The SETUP function is also turned on. SWAN outputs the momentum transfer from the wave field to the depth averaged currents by integrating the radiation stresses over the wave direction and frequency spectrum. The x and y components of the momentum transfer are F = s[ as (2 p Ox ay asyx drJ where S,, = pg f [ncos20 +n ]EdadO S, = Sy = p9 f [nsinOcoso] EdadO Syy pg f [nsin20 +n ]EdadO C The wave heights and forcing output by SWAN are shown in Figure 23 and Figure 24, respectively, for the three bathymetric contours and three specified wind fields. The wind speed is converted into a wind stress for ADCIRC as 8 2 Steep Slope Mild Slope Shallow Slope 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 Crossshore Distance (meters) 10 Steep Slope Mild Slope Shallow Slope 4 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 Crossshore Distance (meters) Steep Slope Mild Slope 1:! Shallow Slopej s \ Figure 23: The wave fields output by SWAN over the three bathymetric contours. A) Strong forcing. B) Medium forcing. C) Weak forcing. 9) (210) 1 OS F,= [ p By 0 0 O B ) 1 0 0 0 "0 0 ;O 0 0 0 0 0 S Strong Forcing 1 Medium Forcing Weak Forcing ,8  6 4 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 1 OOOC Crossshore Distance (meters) S Strong Forcing 04 Medium Forcing S Weak Forcing 03  Oil d 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10 OOOC Crossshore Distance (meters) Strong Forcing 04 Medium Forcing S Weak Forcing 03  02  01  01 500 600 7000 800 9000 10 00 Crossshore Distance (meters) Figure 24: The F, output field from SWAN for each of the three forcing strengths (the value of the forcing is given by Equation 29). A) Steep slope. B) Mild slope. C) Shallow slope. described previously and then interpolated to the finite element grid, Figure 22. Using ADCIRC, we test the change in sea level for three scenarios atmosphere forcing only wave forcing only combined wind and wave forcing. 2.2.3 Implementation The time step for ADCIRC is determined by the Courant number and is set such that C# < 1.5. The Courant number is given as C# (gh)1At CW = (211) On the finely resolved grid, a time step of 0.10 sec is necessary to ensure reliable, stable results. With such a small time step, the total run length needs to be as short as possible, but long enough for the system to reach equilibrium. We use 1000 2000 3000 400 time weighting factors for the free surface terms in the GWCE of 0.35, 0.30 and 0.35. The free surface terms at the Kth time level are weighted by g (0.35 + 0.30). These terms at the K 1 time level are weighted by g 0.35. These factors are chosen such that the sum is 1.0. The initial conditions are u = v = 0q = 0. In order to damp out the wave created by the initial overshoot of the equilibrium position, the model is ramped up by gradually introducing the forcing over 6 hours and the bottom friction is increased to 0.06. This is acceptable because we are interested in obtaining a steady state solution in which the depth averaged currents and associated bottom stresses are zero. In SWAN, for the wave fields, we used the more realistic default bottom friction, the semiempirical formula derived from the JONSWAP results (Holthuijsen, 2000). The factor that weights the wave and primitive continuity contributions to the GWCE is set to match the value of the friction coefficient as recommended in the ADCIRC manual, To = 0.06. Without these steps an overshoot wave will seiche through the basin, potentially introducing a numerical instability or requiring a smaller time step and take much longer to achieve steady state conditions. Taking the rampup time into consideration, we obtain a steady state setup by running the model for a period of 1 day. For this grid resolution, a model run takes approximately 2 days of CPU time on a 3.0 GHz Pentium processor. After inspecting the output, we notice that the system equilibrates after approximately 0.75 day. Appendix A gives sample ADCIRC input files for the bathymetric test. 2.3 Hurricane Georges Hindcast We conducted a hindcast of a historical storm event. The landfall of hurricane Georges on the Mississippi coast was chosen as the subject storm. In order to accomplish this we needed to decide on the proper model domain and forcing to be used. We also obtained historical data to compare to our surge predictions from the NOAA National Ocean Service Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services, (NOAA NOS COOPS) web site. 2.3.1 Domain It is important to ensure that the domain is large enough to capture the true resonant characteristics of a basin (Blain et al., 1998). We also want to formulate our modeling system to accommodate the majority of tropical cyclones so we can have a general use domain for future model forecasts. The model domain is the North West Atlantic Basin, including the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, Figure 25. This grid was provided by Rick Leuttich. With such a large domain, S25 J 20 15 10 90 80 70 60 Longitude Figure 25: Finite Element Grid of the Northwest Atlantic Domain consisting ov 31435 Nodes and 58369 Elemants. The nodal spacing is 0.03 to 0.06 degree at the coast, 0.016 degree in the inlets, and about 0.5 deg maximum spacing in the Gulf of Mexico. we have the ability to model any storm that enters the western Atlantic, not just the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, the only open boundary is at the easternmost wall. This is far enough from the coastlines of interest that boundary effects will be minimized. In the case of hurricane Georges, our simulation starts as the storm enters the Gulf of Mexico between Florida and Cuba, and lasts until after landfall. The region of landfall is shown in Figure 26. From this perspective we are able to see the relatively high resolution in the coastal region. 30.5  30  29.5 29 .2.3.2 Forcin5 J 28 27.5 27 26.5 Longitude Figure 26: The Gulf Coast region of our model domain (Louisiana to Florida). This is where hurricane Georges made landfall in the Continental U.S. 2.3.2 Forcing Our forcing for hurricane Georges are provided by the NOPP partners. The wind and pressure inputs are a product of satellite, aircraft flight level, and buoy data from the National Hurricane Center, assimilated by OceanWeather Inc. (Cardone and Cox). The data are given over the whole domain, 5N53N and 99W50W, in 30 minute intervals, on a 0.20 degree Cartesian grid. The wind and pressure fields are then interpolated onto the finite element grid, Figure 25. The wind speed is converted into a wind stress as described previously. The wind stress and pressure are then written out to the meteorological forcing file, fort.22, to be read by ADCIRC. Wave fields were generated by Robert Jensen at the US Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC). The assimilated wind and pressure data are used to force WAM3G (Wave Action Model, Third Generation) (Komen et al., 1996). Wave fields are calculated at two resolutions over the portion of the domain shown in Figure 27 The coarser resolution data set, 30 " 25 20 20 Longitude Figure 27: The wave fields are provided at two levels of resolution. Near the region of landfall the waves are given at every 0.1 degree. In the Gulf of Mexico basin the waves are given at every 0.2 degree. 0.2 degree, is given over a basin domain consisting of the Gulf of Mexico, portions of the Caribbean and Northwest Atlantic. A finer resolution grid, 0.1 degree, is provided for the region of interest near landfall along the Gulf Coast, including the coastal regions of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida. The domains Table 23: Model and forcing domains Domain SN WE NW Atlantic FE Grid 8N46N 98W60W Wind and Pressure 5N53N 99W50W Wave Basin 18N31N 98W75W Wave Region 28N30.4N 97W82W for the inputs are given in Table 23. The finer resolution wave field is the wave region. The resolution for the wave region is 0.1 degree. The resolution for the wave basin and wind and pressure fields is 0.2 degree. Wave data is provided as wave height, peak period, and mean direction on the Cartesian grid. The gradients of the radiation stresses are calculated using 2"d order central differences everywhere except at the boundaries where a first order forward difference is implemented. The forcing is then calculated from the gradients using Eqs. 212,213. F, + sY] (212) F 1[ SYY + ] (213) p 9y Ox where S, = (2n2 (2nc 1)) Sxy = Sy = EncosOsinO S,, Y (2nsin2 (2n )) C The momentum forcing is then interpolated to the finite element grid, Figure 25. The finer domain data is nested in the coarser set during the interpolation process. This data set is output to the wave forcing file, fort.23, to be read by the ADCIRC model. 2.3.3 Implementation Due to the larger grid resolution used for the hurricane predictions, the Courant number stability does not play such a restrictive role as in the idealized beach experiments. For the hurricane Georges hindcast, we use a time step of 30.0 seconds. Our friction coefficient is set to a more realistic value of 0.006, as is the GWCE weighting factor, To = 0.006. The time weighting factors for the GWCE are 0.35, 0.30 and 0.35. We run the model for 6 days, ramping the forcing up over 0.5 day. The input data is provided at 30 minute intervals, and the initial conditions are u = v = 0r = 0. Additional details and sample ADCIRC input files (fort.15) for the hurricane Georges experiments are given in Appendix B. This defines our problem and our method for developing a solution. We run the models for the two geometries and each input parameter that we have set. We report on the results of our numerical experiments below. CHAPTER 3 RESULTS 3.1 Wind Stress The first test we perform using the Advanced Circulation Model for Coasts, Shelves, and Estuaries (ADCIRC), is a test of the drag coefficient and wind stress formulation. We test seven drag coefficient formulations, the six given in Table 21, and the constant value, Cd = 0.003. Figure 31 shows how each of the drag coefficient formulations responds to wind speed. The Miller coefficient, 4.0 103, 7  0 IIo I(1 0354) S WIND SP ED (m/s) Figure 31: The seven drag coefficient formulations plotted vs. wind speed. was developed for wind speeds over 50 m/sec. The plot of 3.0 103 represents the maximum value for Cd that is usually allowed in ADCIRC. Other formulas are fitted to data sets for which wind speeds vary from 2 to 26 m/sec. Garratt's formula fits the middle of the spread of the remaining formulas. The resulting wind stress magnitudes are plotted in Figure 32. Notice that at high wind speeds each of the formulas keeps incre.'iin. passing the, Cd = 0.003 cutoff. Geernaert's formula increases more rapidly than the others, reaching the cutoff value sooner. Garratt's, the standard formulation in ADCIRC, and IVIIi(1 9S40) o  Figure 32: Wind stress calculated using the different drag formulas and the cutoff value, plotted vs. wind speed. Klapstov's formulas produce results that lie in the middle of the other plots. At lower wind speeds all the formulations, except the two constants, behave similarly. The wind stress values are calculated for hurricane Georges. These stress values are used as inputs to force the ADCIRC model. The results of maximum setup and setdown during the storm from the seven tests are shown in Figure 33. Early in the simulation, as the storm enters the domain and makes its way across deeper waters, all but the two constant formulations are in close agreement. We would expect Miller's approximation to be greater than the others throughout the domain. During the time associated with the simulation, hurricane Georges was a Category 2 storm with winds less than 50 m/sec. We also see that the surge level associated with the cutoff value for Cd is greater than the results associated with the other formulations. The surge driven by Geernaert's formula comes close to that forced by the cutoff value, but only for a short period of time. The water elevation predicted using the wind stresses generated by Garratt's simple formula and Klapstov's more complicated formula, lie in the middle of the other predictions. Our purpose of conducting these tests was to quantify the sensitivity of the surge response to the wind stress parameterization, and to estimate error bars associated with this uncert.iiil1 v. Without further insight into the optimal 3  Milermin  max 0.003 cutoff min 2.5 max I Geernaert min * max 2 ^ Garratt min max Klapstov min Large & Pond min / max 1 Smith min max Co 0.5 > Time (hours) 2 Figure 33: Maximum and minimum surge generated for each of the wind stress formulations using the seven different drag coefficients. drag coefficient response to high winds, we accept the Garratt formulation; as it is simple and seems to capture the middle of the road solution. We recognize that the resulting surge prediction can vary as much as 0.5 meter depending on the choice of drag coefficient formulation. Similar sensitivity tests were conducted for the coefficient of bottom friction, and a moderate value of 0.006 was selected. 3.2 Bathymetric Sensitivity Now we examine the results of the bathymetric sensitivity tests with varied forcing. The wave heights and forcing components output by SWAN are shown in Figure 23 and Figure 24, respectively, for each bathymetric profile and forcing pair. From these results we calculate the integral F = foshore Fxdx, for Fx > 0. The magnitude of F will give us an idea of what to expect for the surge. Figure 34 shows the magnitude of the integrals for each forcing level over 60 SSteep m Mild Shallow 50 40 LL b 30 20 10 10 30 56 Forcing Level (wind speed in m/sec) Figure 34: The integral sum of F output by SWAN for the three different forcing over the three bathymetric profiles. The value of the forcing is given by equation 29 each profile. We see a trend of decreased F as the profiles get shallower. This difference in F becomes more pronounced as the forcing level increases. The larger waves associated with the stronger forcing, will have a greater interaction with the bottom boundary. Dissipative effects of bottom friction will play a larger role for these cases. Across the shallower domains, the waves will break farther from shore. The wind stress imparted on the water column prior to breaking will therefore be smaller than over a steeper profile. It follows that the wave height at breaking will be smaller, as shown in Figure 23. Breaking farther offshore also allows more dissipation in a wider surf zone than the steep domain. Having obtained our wave forcing components with SWAN, we use ADCIRC to test the change in sea level for each set of forcing : wind, wave, wind and wave. The results are summarized in Table 31 and Figure 35. Table 31: Maximum calculated bathymetric profile surge for forcing components over each Bathy Strength Wave(m) Wind(m) Wind&Wave(m) Linear Combination(m) Shallow Weak 0.079 0.02 0.10 0.10 Shallow Medium 0.27 0.30 0.53 0.56 Shallow Strong 0.40 1.00 1.33 1.40 Mild Weak 0.085 0.01 0.09 0.09 Mild Medium 0.31 0.16 0.45 0.47 Mild Strong 0.51 0.56 1.00 1.07 Steep Weak 0.032 0.005 0.037 0.037 Steep Medium 0.50 0.08 0.56 0.58 Steep Strong 1.29 0.30 1.48 1.59 E1 o wave mwnd 1 5 linear comb 2 *_ni B) 7II I wave O wind O wind wave W linear comb i=nmlE Orni Forcing Level (by Wind Speed in m/s) Figure 35: The surge levels for each forcing group over each bottom topography (data from Table 31) A) Steep slope. B) Mild slope. C) Shallow slope. The windwave entry represents the combined forcing for the model run. The linear combination entry represents the sum of the surge predicted from the wind forcing, and that predicted using only the wave forcing. The level of wind setup varied depending on the steepness of the bathymetric profile. For each level of input for' inr. the wind setup was greatest over the 10 30 56(by nd Spd n s) Forcing Level (by Wind Speed in m.s> 10 30 56 Forcing Level (by Wind Speed in m/s) 1  E shallow bathymetry, and the setup decreased as the profile became steeper (Figure 35). This is in agreement with the governing equation, Eq. 14, for the steady state solution for wind setup. The equilibrium state for the water surface elevation, calculated for the different wave stresses alone, also varied over the different bathymetric profiles. The steady state solution for wave setup over a mildly sloping bottom is given by Eq. 31 (Dean & Dalrymple, 1991). dj 1 dS, A 1 dS (31) dx pg(h +r) dx where 7 mean surface displacement After some simplifications it can be shown that at the shore, the equation for the surface displacement can be approximated by equation 32. 3V2 71(0) = + 32 b (32) where Tb mean surface displacement at breaking hb depth at breaking K breaking constant Thus, by this approximation, the waveinduced setup of identical wave fields at the shore is independent of the profile. The approximation also assumes that the breaking constant (and breaker type) is the same for each profile and each forcing strength, for our tests c = 0.73. We have just shown that our results predict a decrease in wave setup for the same forcing strength (output by SWAN) as the profiles become more shallow. In part this can be attributed to different steady wave fields developing over different bathymetries for the same wind field conditions. To better understand the results we compare the ADCIRC results with the analytic solution, Eq. 31. This comparison, presented in Figure 36, shows that the model results are in close agreement with solution for the mild and strong forcing cases. A) B). K I . the analytic steady state C) eta (analytic) adcirc transect wave I) i Figure 36: Comparison of Model results for wave forcing with the analytic solution for steady state wave setup. Shown are all nine profile and forcing combinations: A) Shallow profile, weak forcing. B) Shallow profile, medium forcing. C) Shallow profile, strong forcing. D) Mild profile, weak forcing. E) Mild profile, medium forcing. F) Mild profile, strong forcing. G) Steep profile, weak forcing. H) Steep profile, medium forcing. I) Steep profile, strong forcing. We see that the cases of the weak wave forcing over the mild and steep bathymetry are not sufficiently resolved on the 20 meter ADCIRC grid to capture the full setup at the shoreline. Though the finite element model and theory agree outside of the breaking region, the model output under predicts the surge level. Grid spacing at the shoreline for the circulation model is too coarse to reasonably resolve the spatial gradients of breaking. For more intense forcing components, the 20 meter spacing adequately resolves the system. In these cases the ADCIRC results agree with the results predicted by Eq. 31 when calculated with the SWAN output. It is the variation in wave forcing fields calculated by SWAN that produces different waveinduced setup for similar wind forcing conditions. This variation is caused by altered breaking wave conditions that develop due to the length differences of the wind fetch prior to breaking. The predicted variation in the level of wave setup over the different bathymetries is dependent on the strength of the forcing. Total dissipative effects are increased for increased wave heights. Large waves feel the bottom more strongly than smaller waves, and the effect of bottom friction in SWAN plays a greater role in the case of larger wave heights. These effects are reflected in the output from SWAN and translated to the results of the circulation model. Figure 35 shows that the surge from the combined forcing is smallest over the mild profile. Peak wind setup occurs over the shallow profile, and the peak wave setup occurs over the steep profile. The level of wind setup is fetch limited. Our domain is only 20 km in the crossshore. We would expect that over a larger crossshore domain, the winds would begin to dominate the storm surge. In summary, the results show that the importance of the waves increases as the profile becomes steeper. Setup due to waves does vary over the different profiles, and the steeper profile allows for a greater waveinduced setup than the shallower profile. In addition, the wind has less of an effect on the steeper profiles, and thus the waves dominate the setup. Winds play a larger role when the domain has a wide shallow shelf. On the shallow profile, the wind induces the majority of the setup. In both cases, our test results indicate that waves make a significant contribution to the resulting surge levels. These results, however, are specific to the present, fetch limited, idealized domains. The next step is to examine what happens when we use realistic temporally and spatially dependent wind fields, include a variable pressure field, compute the associated wave fields, and run the models over a real domain with complex coastal bathymetry. 3.3 Hurricane Georges We perform a hindcast of hurricane Georges. Elevation output from ADCIRC is converted into a time series of contour plots showing the water level as hurricane Georges makes its way from the Straits of Florida to the Gulf Coast. A series of these plots is shown in Figure 37. Time is measured from t=0 on September 25 at 00:00 hour. The eye of the storm enters the Gulf, t = 30.00 h, and moves northwest. The model captures the inverted barometer effect under the eye, and the setup and blowdown as the eye passes and winds shift direction. Setup is produced on the windward side of barrier islands and in the bays. A) B) C) 32 32 32 30 30 30 28 c 28 o 28 26 26 26 24 24 24 90 88 86 84 82 90 88 86 84 82 90 88 86 84 82 Longitude Longitude Longitude D) E) F) 32 :b 32  32 30 IH 30 I28 I28 !28 26 26 26 24 24 24 90 88 86 84 82 90 88 86 84 82 90 88 86 84 82 Longitude Longitude Longitude Figure 37: A series of surface contour plots shows the surge as hurricane Georges makes its way across the Gulf of Mexico and makes landfall (prediction was made with the combined forcings. A) t = 10 hours into the simulation. B) t = 30 hours. C) t = 50 hours. D) t = 70 hours. E) t = 90 hours. F) t = 110 hours. We compare contour plots at the same time from three different forcing predictions. The difference between wind and pressure only, wave only, and combined wind, pressure and wave forced simulations are evident in Figure 38. The difference in surface elevation in the back of bays is greatest. The hurricane Longitude B) Longitude C) Longitude Figure 38: A series of surface contour plots shows the surge as hurricane Georges make landfall, t=82 h. A) Surface elevation generated from the meteorological forcing. B) Surge created by wave forcing. C) Surge generated from the combined forcing. winds are blowing in a cyclonic (counterclockwise) pattern. Depending on the orientation of the shore to wind direction, we observe either setup or setdown at the land boundary. In the case of waves only, the model predicts an initial setdown just offshore of the barrier islands. The water level then rises closer to the land boundaries. For the combined forcing prediction the effects of wave setup reduce the net setdown at the land boundary caused by the wind and pressure only. Offshore, in the region of wave setdown, the blowup from the wind is reduced. The contour plots give us a general indication of the spatial distribution of the water surface. For a more quantitative representation, we plot the time series of the water elevation at different locations. A time series of the maximum surge predicted over the whole domain is given by Figure 39. The combined, wind, pressure, and wave forced prediction is 3 2.5 E 1.5 LU 1 0.5 0 max Wind & Pressure max Wave max Combined 50 100 Time (hours) Figure 39: For each set of model prediction forcing, the maximum water surface elevation is plotted at every time step. greater than the predictions for separate forcing for nearly the whole time series. There is a point, about 25 hours into the prediction, when the results forced only by the waves exceed the combined results. From approximately t=25 hours to t=35 hours the maximum elevation from combined forcing decreases rapidly, and the wave forced results can be the largest of the three predictions. This surge is not associated with the hurricane making landfall, but with waves reaching the shore while the eye is still in open water. Wind and waves can work with each other forcing in the same direction, and produce a large setup. The two can also oppose each other and reduce the maximum surge, when the wind is blowing down the area where the waves are settingup, as is seen in these time series. These scenarios illustrate the complex nature of the system. We also note that for the combined forcing prediction, the maximum surge in the domain is always greater than or equal to the wind only prediction. The addition of wave forcing to the model produces an increase in the maximum water elevation, over the whole domain, on the order of 0.4 meter over the meteorologic forcing alone (during the peak hours). In the analysis above we compared the maximum surges produced in the model domain. These maximum elevations, however, do not necessarily correspond to the same locations. At specific locations we may observe a greater difference between the meteorological and combined forcing predictions. Therefore, it is of interest to examine the behavior of the sea surface at specific locations. We choose locations where historical water level data is available and associate these with nearest nodes on our grid. In addition to selecting station locations, we also retrieve data at three prescribed locations: Mobile Bay, AL, Perdido Bay, FL, and Lake Borgne, LA. Table 32: Locations of selected tidal stations Node Latitude Longitude Location 4138 29.2915 89.'L2 Grande Isle, LA 5313 29.3551 89.3419 Grande Pass, LA 9552 30.2546 88.1925 Dauphin Island, AL 9965 30.3807 87.2435 Pensacola, FL 9990 30.21'", 89.3807 Waveland, MS 9991 30.2452 89.4003 Waveland, MS 10290 30.3888 87.2261 Pensacola, FL 11020 30.6678 87.9489 Mobile Bay, AL 11043 29.9664 89.7226 Lake Borgne, LA 13266 30.4823 87.4180 Perdido Bay, FL The maximum elevation over the entire duration of the simulation for each forcing combination is plotted, for selected locations given by Table 32, in Figure 310. Also plotted is the maximum difference in water level between the 05 4138 5313 9552 9965 9990 9991 10290 11020 13266 node # Figure 310: For the specified nodes given in Table 32, we plot the maximum surge over the duration of the simulation for combination of each forcing. Also plotted is the maximum difference between the combined forcing and wind only forced elevation. experiment with meteorological forcing and that with combined forcing achieved at any time during the simulation. From this plot we can infer that the difference between the total water elevation and the wind forced setup comes from the addition of wave forcing. The maximum difference is less than the surge predicted by the wave only forced run in all cases shown. This indicates that the effect of combining the forcing in the model run in not simply a linear superposition of the separate surge levels. So far we have looked at spatial maxima and temporal maxima. These have given us an indication of the maximum observed effects of adding wave forcing to wind and pressure and how the sea surface responds. Next we look at the time history of water level at individual locations. The behavior of the sea surface is particularly interesting at the two following locations even though there was no station data available there. 2.5 wind wave linear combination wind wave 2 1.5 L 1 0.5 0.5 0 50 100 150 Time (hours) Figure 311: The water level at Node13266:Perdido Bay, FL. We show the surge as predicted by the meteorological forcing, the wave forcing, and the combined forcing. Also plotted is the linear combination of the two individually forced model results. We start with the location at Perdido Bay, FL, Figure 311, since it had the greatest level of wave setup. The maximum surge due to the waves has a slightly greater magnitude than the surge from the meteorologic forcing. The wind forced case achieves its maxima about 6 hours after the wave forced simulation, consistent with the observation that storm waves often reach the shore before the storm's strongest winds. The combined forcing run is less than the linear combination of the wind and waves separately, yet is approximately 1 meter higher than the wind and pressure forced prediction. A second noteworthy location is Lake Borgne, LA, shown in Figure 312. At 0 2  0 50 100 150 Time (hours) Figure 312: The water level at Node11043:Lake Borgne, LA. We show the surge as predicted by the meteorological forcing, the wave forcing, and the combined forcing. Also plotted is the linear combination of the two individually forced model results. this location we can see the dramatic effect of the eye passing. The drop in water elevation takes place over a 30 hour period, approximately t = 80 h to t = 110 h. During this time the water level goes from being pushed up about 2.4 meters, to being blown down about 2.4 meters. The node at that location is considered 'dry' (Elevation = 0), and oscillates with wetting and drying between approximately t = 135 h and t = 145 h. The peak surge calculated with combined forcing is about 40 centimeters greater than that computed using just the meteorologic forcing. The output from the numerical model is compared to historical data obtained from the NOAA National Oceanographic Data Center, (NODC). We focus on two stations where the surge is greatest. In order to provide the best estimate, we add in the astronomical tides. Our NOPP partner, Scott Hagen, at the University of Central Florida has provided us with a tidal prediction at each of the locations of interest, using ADCIRC on a finer resolution grid over a longer duration simulation. These modeled tides match the observed phase at the stations. With the tides added, we have a comprehensive prediction of the water level. We also rectify the definition of mean sea level between our plots and the station data. ADCIRC defines the mean water level as zero. The station data is referenced to the mean lower low water convention, MLLW (Figures 313 and 315). Figure 313 shows the predicted water level at Pensacola Bay starting four 1.600 1.400   0.000........ ............................. (1U IS1 0 0   I  .   .......... ..... L . Oate/Time (UTC (GMT)) Figure 313: The NOAA station data for Pensacola Bay, FL. referenced to MLLW. 09/30 10/02 00:00 00:00 Water elevation is days before our simulation period. From this we estimate the predicted mean water level for the time of our simulation as +0.3 meter. When we add this offset to our prediction the results can be compared. Figure 314 shows that we improve our prediction of the peak elevations at Pensacola, Florida by 60% with the addition of wave forcing to the wind stress 0 0.8 LI Time (hours) Figure 314: Forced by the combination of wave and meteorological inputs, the output from the ADCIRC model at Pensacola Bay is plotted with the historical data recorded by the station at the same corresponding time period. Our prediction is translated in order to more closely match the start time mean water level at the station. and atmospheric pressure. On either side of the peak, the model underpredicts the water elevations. The prediction is off by as much as 0.44 meter, with the greatest differences occurring 10 to 20 hours on either side of the peak. These coincide with the low tide cycles. The mean difference between the station data and the combined forcing prediction is 0.11 meter. This is 50% less than the mean difference between the station data and the meteorological forcing (0.20 meter). We quantify the error in our prediction by computing the mean square error, (\!SK), and the root mean square error, (RMSE), normalized by the maximum elevation recorded by the station using Eqs. 33, and 34. SN MSE(WL1, WL2) (WL1(i) W2 (i))2 (33) i=1 RMSE(WL1, WL2) Y[ (WL1(i) WL2(i))2 MAX(WL1) where N number of data records WL1 station water level record WL2 model prediction The MSE for the combined forcing is 0.03 m2. For the wind and pressure prediction the MSE is 0.09 m2. In this case, the normalized RMSE improves from 20% to 10% by including the waves in the model prediction, a 50% reduction in error. At the Waveland location, Figure 315 shows the predicted water level four days prior to and during our simulation. From this plot we estimate a mean water 2.000 1 I I I I I I I 1.500 1.000 0.500 Figure 315: The NOAA station referenced to MLLW). 09/24 09/26 09/28 09/30 00:00 00:00 00:00 00:00 Date/Time (UTC (GMT)) data for Waveland, MS (water elevation is (34) level of +0.35 meters. Using this mean water level, we translate the model results. Figure 316 shows good agreement before and during the storm. 2.5 station data wind wave wind 2 1.5 E C 1 0.5 0.5 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Time (hours) Figure 316: Forced by the combination of wave and meteorological inputs, the output from the ADCIRC model at Waveland is plotted with the historical data recorded by the station at the same corresponding time period. Our prediction is translated in order to more closely match the start time mean water level at the station. With only the meteorologic forcing, the model underpredicts the water level at t=79 hours by approximately 0.4 meter, in Waveland, MS (Figure 316). When the waves are added, the prediction achieves the peak water level at t=79 hours to within 0.005 meter. The peak water elevation for our predictions, however, does not occur at t=79 hours. The predicted peak water level of 1.98 meters, for the combined forcing case, occurs at t=80 hours. The difference between the station data peak and the combined forcing peak is 0.05 meter. The mean difference between the prediction and the station water level is 0.1 meter. We compute the MSE to be 0.08 m2 with the waves added. This improved from the MSE of the 43 wind and pressure forced run of 0.11 m2. The normalized RMSE, computed with Eq. 34, for the combined forcing case is improved from 17% to 14% by adding the waves. A major source for error at this location occurs after the storm has passed, t > 120 h. Our model overpredicts the amount of setdown by as much as 0.75 meter. The second largest source for error is just before the peak of the surge, when the tidal cycle is low. We perform the same error analysis for the time period of t = 40 h to t = 110 h. During this period, we find that the MSE improves from 0.15 m2 to 0.06 m2 with the addition of the wave forcing. The normalized RMSE improves from 20% to 1;;' .; almost cut in half, by including the waves. Waveland resolved windwave Pensacola resolved windwave max resolved windwave Waveland resolved wave Pensacola resolved wave max resolved wave 2.5 Waveland windwave S Pensacola windwave max windwave . Waveland wave Pensacola wave 2 max wave 1.5 Co SIt U) 0.5 /'N 0.5 0 50 100 Time Hours Figure 317: We compare the surface response to combined forcing and wave only forcing at the Pensacola location and the Waveland location. Also plotted is the maximum surface elevation over the whole domain for the two forcing combinations. For the resolved case, the finite element grid has 121296 nodes, compared to the 31435 nodes of the current grid. Above, our bathymetric sensitivity tests have shown that grid resolution can play a role. In order to be sure that we have resolved the system adequately, we refine the finite element grid, Figure 25, by splitting each element into four. In doing so we increase the number of nodes from 31435 to 121296. The surface response from combined forcing and wave only forcing is compared at the Pensacola location and the Waveland location. We also compare the maximum surface elevation response to the two forcing cases. These comparisons are shown in, Figure 317. We can see from the plot, that the two are in close agreement; however, the computational time for the higher resolution grid is on the order of 5 times longer. We determine that our system is adequately resolved and the model runs in an efficient time frame with the current grid. The results show that the effect of including waves in the model forcing depends on the location. The waves can have a large effect as in the case of Perdido Bay, FL. In the comparisons of our results with historical data, we find that by adding the wave forcing we are better able to predict the peak water level. Alternately, at some locations the addition of wave forcing may not provide a significant improvement to the predictive power of the model. Predictions made by forcing the model with only the meteorologic constituents would suffice at those locations; however, we cannot know which locations those are without the combined forcing prediction results. The implications of the results are discussed Chapter 4. CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSIONS The ADCIRC tests demonstrate that the addition of wave forces can result in a 30% to 50% increase in sea surface elevation. The results are sensitive to the station location with respect to the storm, coastal features such as bays and islands and grid resolution in the nearshore region. The model captures the setup and setdown for idealized bathymetries in close agreement with analytical solutions for steady state conditions. Model sensitivity to the drag coefficient, Cd, formulation has been shown to effect the results by as much as 0.5 meter. We selected the Garratt (1977) formula 11 because it produced results that were close to the mean of the various formulations. However, further research toward the parameterizations of airsea interaction at high winds is needed. 4.1 Bathymetry We observe from the bathymetric tests that the depth profiles have an effect on the waveinduced setup. The wave field is sufficiently altered by dissipative forces to effect a change in the onshore momentum transfer. Wind duration and fetch will also effect the breaking wave height. Wind has a chance to impart more of its energy into the water column before the waves break over the steeper profile, resulting in a larger breaking wave height. We conducted 27 tests for the nine combinations of wind speed and bathymetry with wind, wave and combined forcing. The output from the wave model, SWAN, was converted to input for the circulation model, ADCIRC. We also used the SWAN output in computing the steady state analytical solution. Our ADCIRC domain grid was too coarse to fully resolve nearshore wave breaking in the case of the 1 meter waves; however, we were able to resolve the stronger wave forcing over each of the bathymetries. Upon comparing the ADCIRC results with the analytical solution, we find that with adequate resolution the two are in close agreement. Grid resolution at the shoreline is important. In the cases where the breaking is resolved, the model only slightly underpredicts the analytical solution. The fact that we obtain such close agreement with theory reinforces our confidence in the output of the circulation model. Our results indicate that a reduction in the waveinduced setup occurs when the waves propagate over a wide shallow shelf. As the profile steepens, the wave setup will increase. Wind induced setup is also a function of the bathymetry. Shallow profiles allow for a larger setup for the same wind strength compared to steeper profiles. The level of surge from winds is also influenced by the fetch. In our case we have a relatively short fetch, thus reducing the level of wind setup. Were we to increase the crossshore domain of our simulation, we would expect to see the wind setup increase and dominate the system. For the strongest forcing runs, the combined wind and wave forcing runs for our domain are largest over the steep domain, where the waves dominate. The winds dominate over the shallow profile, and there we have the second highest surge. Over the mild domain, both contribute approximately equally and we see the smallest total setup. These results II.'. 1 that the individual contribution from wind or wave forcing alone could be greater than the combined contributions for bed profiles with extreme slopes. The variability of wave setup and the sensitivity of windinduced setup to bathymetry leads us to the conclusion that the relative importance of the wave forcing increases over steeper coastal profiles. 4.2 Hindcast The addition of wave forcing improves our overall predictive capabilities and can reduce the RMS error by 20% to 50% depending on location. From the contour plots we see that the wave setup acts to offset the blowdown and amplify the setup generated by the wind and pressure. The effect of waves on surge is also evident before the storm makes landfall since the waves reach the shore several hours before the peak winds. Setup is most prominent in the bays and coastal lakes. The model predicts that waves alone can account for more than 1 meter of surge, as is the case in Perdido Bay where the wave setup was more than half the total surge predicted with the combined forcing. Over the whole domain the maximum surge from the waves amounted to more than 30% of the maximum water level predicted in the domain. During the peak of the storm event, the prediction and the recorded water levels are in close agreement when we include the wind, pressure and wave forcing. The addition of waves can allow for as much as a 60% increase in predictive power, as shown by the analysis at Pensacola Bay. 4.3 Significance of Wave SetUp Waves and wave momentum flux are an important part of the natural system responsible for storm surge. The significance of the wave setup, and therefore the inclusion of wave forcing in model predictions, is dependent on the bathymetric profile in the path of the storm. If there is a wide, shallow shelf, there will be greater wind setup at the shoreline. When windinduced setup dominates, the waves are not as significant. However, the wave forces remain an active participant in generating storm surge at different phases of storm passage and in regions farther away from the location of the eye of the storm, and should be kept in the computational models for completeness. Our future plan of research includes griding up the lowland coastal regions, allowing for inundation, and modeling the response. Waves can account for more than 1 meter of setup for our predictions of hurricane Georges. In general we have found that waves provide on the order of onethird of the setup along the coast during hurricane Georges. The wave forcing is an important factor in our case for representing hurricane storm surge. APPENDIX A BATHYMETRY TEST:INPUT FILES A.1 Wave Model Inputs The following files are samples of the input files used to implement SWAN. We show one file for each forcing strength. There will also be separate files for each bottom profile. The only changes in those other cases are the names of the input and output files. The following file is the input used for the strongest of the forcing. $ PROJ 'strongmedium' '0102' TEST 30 0 POOL $ $ PURPOSE OF TEST: to calculate a wave climate on a simple $ bathymetry to input into ADCIRC $ $   $  This SWAN input file is template for all input in future for I $  SWAN. $   $ $***********MODEL INPUT********************************** *** $ CGRID REG 0. 0. 0. 50000. 10200. 25 2040 CIRCLE 90 0.05 0.25 40 $ INPGRID BOTTOM 0. 0. 0. 2 510 25000. 20. READINP BOTTOM 1. 'mild.bot' 1 0 FREE $ BOUN SHAPE JONSWAP 2. PEAK DSPR DEGREES BOUN SIDE S CCW CON PAR 7.0 15.0 90. 5. $ SETUP WIND 56.0 90.0 $ NUMERIC SETUP 3. 0.0001 2 30 $ $************ OUTPUT REQUESTS ************************* $ CURVE TABLE TABLE $ CURVE TABLE TABLE 'CTA11' 'CTA11' 'CTA11' 'CTA12' 'CTA12' 'CTA12' 25000. 0. 2040 25000. 10200. XP YP DEPTH HS HSWELL DIR PDIR TDIR HEAD 'o_strong_mildl.tab' XP YP DEPTH HS DIR PDIR TDIR 25000. 0. 2040 25000. 10200. XP YP RTP FORCE TRANSP VEL DEPTH HEAD 'o_strong_mild2.tab' RTP FORCE TRANSP POOL COMPUTE STOP $ The medium strength forcing in SWAN was input using the next file. $ PROJ 'thesis_01 01' 'test' TEST 30 0 POOL $ $ PURPOSE OF TEST: to calculate a wave climate on a simple $ bathymetry to input into ADCIRC $ $  $  This SWAN input file is template for all input in future for I $  SWAN. $  $ $***********MODEL INPUT********************************** *** $ CGRID REG 0. 0. 0. 50000. 10200. 50 510 CIRCLE 90 0.05 0.25 40 $ INPGRID BOTTOM 0. 0. 0. 2 510 25000. 20. READINP BOTTOM 1. 'shallow.bot' 1 0 FREE $ BOUN SHAPE JONSWAP 2. PEAK DSPR DEGREES BOUN SIDE S CCW CON PAR 5.0 10. 90. 5. $ SETUP WIND 30.0 90.0 $ NUMERIC SETUP 3. 0.0001 2 30 $ $************ OUTPUT REQUESTS ************************* CURVE 'CTA11' TABLE 'CTA11' TABLE 'CTA11' $ 25000. 0. 510 25000. 10200. XP YP DEPTH HS HSWELL DIR PDIR TDIR HEAD 'omildshallowl02.tab' XP YP DEPTH HS DIR PDIR TDIR CURVE 'CTA12' TABLE 'CTA12' TABLE 'CTA12' $ POOL COMPUTE STOP 25000. 0. 510 25000. 10200. XP YP RTP FORCE TRANSP VEL DEPTH HEAD 'omildshallow202.tab' RTP FORCE TRANSP Third is the weakest forcing input file. PROJ 'thesis_01 01' 'test' TEST 30 0 POOL $ $ PURPOSE OF TEST: to calculate a wave climate on a simple $ bathymetry to input into ADCIRC $ $  $  This SWAN input file is template for all input in future for I $  SWAN. $  $ $***********MODEL INPUT********************************** *** $ CGRID REG 0. 0. 0. 50000. 10200. 25 2040 CIRCLE 90 0.05 0.25 40 $ INPGRID BOTTOM 0. 0. 0. 2 510 25000. 20. READINP BOTTOM 1. 'shallow.bot' 1 0 FREE $ BOUN SHAPE JONSWAP 2. PEAK DSPR DEGREES BOUN SIDE S CCW CON PAR 1.0 10. 90. 5. $ SETUP WIND 10.0 90.0 $ NUMERIC SETUP 3. 0.0001 2 30 $ $************ OUTPUT REQUESTS ************************* $ 25000. 0. 2040 25000. 10200. XP YP DEPTH HS HSWELL DIR PDIR TDIR HEAD 'o weak shallowl02.tab' XP YP DEPTH HS DIR PDIR TDIR 25000. 0. 2040 25000. 10200. XP YP RTP FORCE TRANSP VEL DEPTH HEAD 'oweakshallow202.tab' RTP FORCE TRANSP 'CTA11' 'CTA11' 'CTA11' 'CTA12' 'CTA12' 'CTA12' CURVE TABLE TABLE $ CURVE TABLE TABLE $ POOL COMPUTE STOP A.2 Circulation Model Inputs ADCIRC is run using an input file, fort.15. As mentioned before, control variables are defined in this file. The two tests, varied forcing over bathymetries and the hurricane Georges hindcast, will have different fort.15 files. These tests have different temporal and spacial scales. These scales determine such variables as time step and duration. The time step should not exceed a value such that the Courant number is greater than 1.5. The Courant number is given as (gh)2At A c, = (A1) The fort.15 files will be slightly different for each run of each test. Most of the parameters will be the same for each run. We rename our meteorological, wind stress and pressure, forcing file to the ADCIRC convention of fort.22. We also create a fort.22 file with every value at all nodes for each time step set to zero. This zero forcing is used when the wave forced model prediction is run. The wave forcing file is renamed to fort.23. This file is only read when the NWS flag is set to 102 in the fort.15 file. The NWS variable indicates which forcing are to be read and the format of those forcing. The NWS flag is set to match the format of the meteorological forcing file and the wave forcing file. We set NWS = 2 or 102. NWS = 2, corresponds to a model run with meteorological forcing only. NWS = 102, corresponds to a run with meteorological forcing and wave stress forcing. The NWS parameter and the RSTIMINC are the only input variables that change between the separate runs. RSTIMINC is the variable which tells the model the time increment at which the wave forcing, fort.23, input file is to be read, if wave forces are used. Both runs that involve wave radiation stress forcing have NWS set to 102 and the RSTIMINC variable is set to 1800, the same as the wtiminc variable. All other input variables in the fort.15 file are set to recommended values, as found in the ADCIRC manual. The output consists of a file with the elevation at every node at selected time step intervals. We choose to not output the current or the wind and pressure as a time and space saving measure. As discussed above the intervals were decided on after initial runs were completed. These files are then read to extract the maximum surface elevation time history. The following files are input files, fort.15, for ADCIRC. This file is used when the only input to the model is meteorologic forcing, (ie. wind and pressure). Thesis_01_01.wind 32 CHARACTER ALPHANUMERIC RUN DESCRIPTION 01 01 01 24 CHARACTER ALPHANUMERIC RUN IDENTIFICATION 1 NFOVER NONFATAL ERROR OVERRIDE OPTION 0 ABOUT ABREVIATED OUTPUT OPTION PARAMETER 1 SCREEN UNIT 6 OUTPUT OPTION PARAMETER 0 IHOT HOT START PARAMETER 1 ICS COORDINATE SYSTEM SELECTION PARAMETER 0 IM MODEL TYPE (0 INDICATES STANDARD 2DDI MODEL) 1 NOLIBF BOTTOM FRICTION TERM SELECTION PARAMETER 2 NOLIFA FINITE AMPLITUDE TERM SELECTION PARAMETER 1 NOLICA SPATIAL DERIVATIVE CONVECTIVE TERM SELECTION PARAMETER 1 NOLICAT TIME DERIVATIVE CONVECTIVE TERM SELECTION PARAMETER 0 NWP VARIABLE BOTTOM FRICTION AND LATERAL VISCOSITY OPTION PARAMETER 0 NCOR VARIABLE CORIOLIS IN SPACE OPTION PARAMETER 0 NTIP TIDAL POTENTIAL OPTION PARAMETER 2 NWS WIND STRESS AND BAROMETRIC PRESSURE OPTION PARAMETER 1 NRAMP RAMP FUNCTION OPTION 9.81 G ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY DETERMINES UNITS 0.06 TAUO WEIGHTING FACTOR IN GWCE 0.10 DT TIME STEP (IN SECONDS) 0.0 STATIM STARTING TIME (IN DAYS) 0.0 REFTIM REFERENCE TIME (IN DAYS) 1800. WTIMINCRSTIMINC TIME INTERVALWIND & RAD.STRESS VALUES (seconds) 1.00 RNDAY TOTAL LENGTH OF SIMULATION (IN DAYS) 0.25 DRAMP DURATION OF RAMP FUNCTION (IN DAYS) 0.35 0.30 0.35 TIME WEIGHTING FACTORS FOR THE GWCE EQUATION 0.1 10 10 0.1 HO MINIMUM CUTOFF DEPTH nodedrymin nodewetmin velmin 265.5 29.0 SLAMO,SFEAO CENTER OF CPP PROJECTION (NOT USED IF ICS=1) 0.06 FACTOR HOMOGENEOUS LINEAR OR NONLINEAR BOTTOM FRICTION COEFFICIENT 0.0 EVM LATERAL EDDY VISCOSITY COEFFICIENT; IGNORED IF NWP =1 0.0 CORI CORIOLIS PARAMETER IGNORED IF NCOR = 1 0 NTIF NUMBER OF TIDAL POTENTIAL CONSTITUENTS BEING FORCED 0 NBFR TOTAL NUMBER OF FORCING FREQUENCIES ON OPEN BOUNDARIES 45.0 ANGINN INNER ANGLE THRESHOLD 0 0.0 .75 10000 NOUTE,TOUTSE,TOUTFE,NSPOOLE:ELEV STATION OUTPUT INFO(UNIT 61) 16 !# of recording stations 100.0 5000.0 120.0 5000.0 140.0 5000.0 160.0 5000.0 180.0 5000.0 200.0 5000.0 220.0 5000.0 240.0 5000.0 260.0 5000.0 280.0 5000.0 300.0 5000.0 320.0 5000.0 340.0 5000.0 360.0 5000.0 380.0 5000.0 400.0 5000.0 0 0.0 .75 10000 NOUTV,TOUTSV,TOUTFV,NSPOOLV:VEL STATION OUTPUT INFO(UNIT 62) 16 !#of recording stations 100.0 5000.0 120.0 5000.0 140.0 5000.0 160.0 5000.0 180.0 5000.0 200.0 5000.0 220.0 5000.0 240.0 5000.0 260.0 5000.0 280.0 5000.0 300.0 5000.0 320.0 5000.0 340.0 5000.0 360.0 5000.0 380.0 5000.0 400.0 5000.0 0 0.0 .750 10000 NOUTM,TOUTSM,TOUTFM,NSPOOLM:VEL STAT OUTPUT INFO(UNIT 71&72) 16 !#of recording stations 100.0 5000.0 120.0 5000.0 140.0 5000.0 160.0 5000.0 180.0 5000.0 200.0 5000.0 220.0 5000.0 240.0 5000.0 260.0 5000.0 280.0 5000.0 300.0 5000.0 320.0 5000.0 340.0 5000.0 360.0 5000.0 380.0 5000.0 400.0 5000.0 1 0.0 1.00 1000 NOUTGE,TOUTSGE,TOUTFGE,NSPOOLGE:GLOBAL ELV OUT INFO(UNIT 63) 1 0.0 1.00 1000 NOUTGV,TOUTSGV,TOUTFGV,NSPOOLGV:GLOBAL VEL OUT INFO(UNIT 64) 1 0.0 1.00 1000 NOUTGM,TOUTSGM,TOUTFGM,NSPOOLGM:GLOBALVEL OUTINFO(UNIT73&74) 0 NHARFR NUMBER OF CONSTITUENTS TO BE INCLUDED IN THE HARMONIC ANALYSIS 0.50 .75 10000 0. THAS,THAF,NHAINC,FMV HARMONIC ANALYSIS PARAMETERS 0 0 0 0 NHASE,NHASV,NHAGE,NHAGV HARMONIC ANALY & OUTPUT TO UNITS 51,52,53,54 1 10000 NHSTAR,NHSINC HOT START FILE GENERATION PARAMETERS 1 2 0.000015 25 ITITER, ISLDIA, CONVCR, ITMAXALGEBRAIC SOLUTION PARAMETERS This input file is used to include the waves in the model prediction. Thesis_01_01.wave.wind 32 CHARACTER ALPHANUMERIC RUN DESCRIPTION 01 01 01 24 CHARACTER ALPHANUMERIC RUN IDENTIFICATION 1 NFOVER NONFATAL ERROR OVERRIDE OPTION 0 ABOUT ABREVIATED OUTPUT OPTION PARAMETER 1 SCREEN UNIT 6 OUTPUT OPTION PARAMETER 0 IHOT HOT START PARAMETER 1 ICS COORDINATE SYSTEM SELECTION PARAMETER 0 IM MODEL TYPE (0 INDICATES STANDARD 2DDI MODEL) 1 NOLIBF BOTTOM FRICTION TERM SELECTION PARAMETER 2 NOLIFA FINITE AMPLITUDE TERM SELECTION PARAMETER 1 NOLICA SPATIAL DERIVATIVE CONVECTIVE TERM SELECTION PARAMETER 1 NOLICAT TIME DERIVATIVE CONVECTIVE TERM SELECTION PARAMETER 0 NWP VARIABLE BOTTOM FRICTION AND LATERAL VISCOSITY OPTION PARAMETER 0 NCOR VARIABLE CORIOLIS IN SPACE OPTION PARAMETER 0 NTIP TIDAL POTENTIAL OPTION PARAMETER 102 NWS WIND STRESS AND BAROMETRIC PRESSURE OPTION PARAMETER 1 NRAMP RAMP FUNCTION OPTION 9.81 G ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY DETERMINES UNITS 0.06 TAUO WEIGHTING FACTOR IN GWCE 0.10 DT TIME STEP (IN SECONDS) 0.0 STATIM STARTING TIME (IN DAYS) 0.0 REFTIM REFERENCE TIME (IN DAYS) 1800. 1800. WTIMINCRSTIMINC TIME INTERVALWIND & RAD.STRESS VALUES (seconds) 1.00 RNDAY TOTAL LENGTH OF SIMULATION (IN DAYS) 0.25 DRAMP DURATION OF RAMP FUNCTION (IN DAYS) 0.35 0.30 0.35 TIME WEIGHTING FACTORS FOR THE GWCE EQUATION 0.1 10 10 0.1 HO MINIMUM CUTOFF DEPTH nodedrymin nodewetmin velmin 265.5 29.0 SLAMO,SFEAO CENTER OF CPP PROJECTION (NOT USED IF ICS=1) 0.06 FACTOR HOMOGENEOUS LINEAR OR NONLINEAR BOTTOM FRICTION 0.0 EVM LATERAL EDDY VISCOSITY COEFFICIENT; IGNORED IF NWP 0.0 CORI CORIOLIS PARAMETER IGNORED IF NCOR = 1 0 NTIF NUMBER OF TIDAL POTENTIAL CONSTITUENTS BEING FORCED 0 NBFR TOTAL NUMBER OF FORCING FREQUENCIES ON OPEN BOUNDARIES 45.0 ANGINN INNER ANGLE THRESHOLD 0 0.0 .75 10000 NOUTE,TOUTSE,TOUTFE,NSPOOLE:ELEV STATION OUTPUT 16 !# of recording stations 100.0 5000.0 120.0 5000.0 140.0 5000.0 160.0 5000.0 180.0 5000.0 200.0 5000.0 220.0 5000.0 240.0 5000.0 260.0 5000.0 280.0 5000.0 300.0 5000.0 320.0 5000.0 340.0 5000.0 360.0 5000.0 380.0 5000.0 400.0 5000.0 0 0.0 .75 10000 NOUTV,TOUTSV,TOUTFV,NSPOOLV:VEL STATION OUTPUT 16 !#of recording stations 100.0 5000.0 120.0 5000.0 140.0 5000.0 160.0 5000.0 180.0 5000.0 200.0 5000.0 220.0 5000.0 240.0 5000.0 260.0 5000.0 280.0 5000.0 300.0 5000.0 320.0 5000.0 340.0 5000.0 360.0 5000.0 380.0 5000.0 400.0 5000.0 0 0.0 .750 10000 NOUTM,TOUTSM,TOUTFM,NSPOOLM:VEL STAT OUT INFO(1 16 !#of recording stations 100.0 5000.0 120.0 5000.0 140.0 5000.0 COEFFICIENT =1 INFO(UNIT 61) INFO(UNIT 62) UNIT 71&72) 160.0 5000.0 180.0 5000.0 200.0 5000.0 220.0 5000.0 240.0 5000.0 260.0 5000.0 280.0 5000.0 300.0 5000.0 320.0 5000.0 340.0 5000.0 360.0 5000.0 380.0 5000.0 400.0 5000.0 1 0.0 1.00 1000 NOUTGE,TOUTSGE,TOUTFGE,NSPOOLGE:GLOBAL ELE OUT INFO(UNIT 63) 1 0.0 1.00 1000 NOUTGV,TOUTSGV,TOUTFGV,NSPOOLGV:GLOBAL VEL OUT INFO(UNIT 64) 1 0.0 1.00 1000 NOUTGM,TOUTSGM,TOUTFGM,NSPOOLGM:GLOBALVEL OUTINFO(UNIT73&74) 0 NHARFR NUMBER OF CONSTITUENTS TO BE INCLUDED IN THE HARMONIC ANALYSIS 0.50 .75 10000 0. THAS,THAF,NHAINC,FMV HARMONIC ANALYSIS PARAMETERS 0 0 0 0 NHASE,NHASV,NHAGE,NHAGV HARMONIC ANALY&OUTPUT TO UNITS 51,52,53,54 1 10000 NHSTAR,NHSINC HOT START FILE GENERATION PARAMETERS 1 2 0.000015 25 ITITER, ISLDIA, CONVCR, ITMAXALGEBRAIC SOLUTION PARAMETERS APPENDIX B HINDCAST TEST:CIRCULATION MODEL INPUT FILES As in the Bathymetry tests the NWS flag is set depending on which forcing are to be read into the model. For the meteorological forced run, NWS is set to 2 and there is no RSTIMINC variable. Both runs that involve wave radiation stress forcing have NWS set to 102 and the RSTIMINC variable is set to 1800.0, the same as the wtiminc variable. Again, a fort.22 file consisting of all zero values for the wind stress and the pressure has been generated to be used in the wave only forcing prediction. Output is written to the respective files every hour. Using this file, we can generate a time series of the water level during the storm at any location in the domain. Again, the NWS parameter and the RSTIMINC are the only input variables that change between the separate runs. The following files are input files, fort.15, for ADCIRC. This file is used when the only input to the model is meteorologic forcing (i.e., wind and pressure). Georges_OFCL 32 CHARACTER ALPHANUMERIC RUN DESCRIPTION allruns 24 CHARACTER ALPHANUMERIC RUN IDENTIFICATION 1 NFOVER NONFATAL ERROR OVERRIDE OPTION 0 ABOUT ABREVIATED OUTPUT OPTION PARAMETER 1 SCREEN UNIT 6 OUTPUT OPTION PARAMETER 0 IHOT HOT START PARAMETER 2 ICS COORDINATE SYSTEM SELECTION PARAMETER 0 IM MODEL TYPE (0 INDICATES STANDARD 2DDI MODEL) 1 NOLIBF BOTTOM FRICTION TERM SELECTION PARAMETER 2 NOLIFA FINITE AMPLITUDE TERM SELECTION PARAMETER 1 NOLICA SPATIAL DERIVATIVE CONVECTIVE TERM SELECTION PARAMETER 1 NOLICAT TIME DERIVATIVE CONVECTIVE TERM SELECTION PARAMETER 0 NWP VARIABLE BOTTOM FRICTION AND LATERAL VISCOSITY OPTION PARAMETER 1 NCOR VARIABLE CORIOLIS IN SPACE OPTION PARAMETER 0 NTIP TIDAL POTENTIAL OPTION PARAMETER 102 NWS WIND STRESS AND BAROMETRIC PRESSURE OPTION PARAMETER 1 NRAMP RAMP FUNCTION OPTION 9.81 G ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY DETERMINES UNITS 0.006 TAUO WEIGHTING FACTOR IN GWCE 30.0 DT TIME STEP (IN SECONDS) 0.0 STATIM STARTING TIME (IN DAYS) 0.0 REFTIM REFERENCE TIME (IN DAYS) 1800.0 1800.0 wtiminc rtiminc seconds 30min 6.0000 RNDAY TOTAL LENGTH OF SIMULATION (IN DAYS) 0.5 DRAMP DURATION OF RAMP FUNCTION (IN DAYS) 0.35 0.30 0.35 TIME WEIGHTING FACTORS FOR THE GWCE EQUATION 0.1 10 10 0.1 HO MINIMUM CUTOFF DEPTH nodedrymin nodewetmin velmin 265.5 29.0 SLAMO,SFEAOCENTER OF CPP PROJ(NOT USED IF ICS=1,NTIP=0,NCOR=0) 0.006 FACTOR HOMOGENEOUS LINEAR OR NONLINEAR BOTTOM FRICTION COEFF 0.0 ESL LATERAL EDDY VISCOSITY COEFFICIENT; IGNORED IF NWP =1 0.0 CORI CORIOLIS PARAMETER IGNORED IF NCOR = 1 0 NTIF NUMBER OF TIDAL POTENTIAL CONSTITUENTS BEING FORCED 0 NBFR TOTAL NUMBER OF FORCING FREQUENCIES ON OPEN BOUNDARIES 45.0 ANGINN INNER ANGLE THRESHOLD 1 0.0 6.0 120 NOUTE,TOUTSE,TOUTFE,NSPOOLE:ELEV STATION OUTPUT INFO(UNIT 61) 5 TOTAL NUMBER OF ELEVATION RECORDING STATIONS 8.9366667e+01 3.0281700e+01 waveland ms 8.9140000e+01 2.8999000e+01 South Pass LA 8.9418330e+01 2.8925000e+01 SW pass LA 8.7211667e+01 3.0405300e+01 pensacola FL 8.9956667e+01 2.9263333e+01 Grand Isle LA 1 0.0 6.0 120 NOUTV,TOUTSV,TOUTFV,NSPOOLV:VEL. STATION OUTPUT INFO(UNIT 62) 5 TOTAL NUMBER OF VELOCITY RECORDING STATIONS 8.9366667e+01 3.0281700e+01 waveland ms 8.9140000e+01 2.8999000e+01 South Pass LA 8.9418330e+01 2.8925000e+01 SW pass LA 8.7211667e+01 3.0405300e+01 pensacola FL 8.9956667e+01 2.9263333e+01 Grand Isle LA 1 0.0 6.0 120 NOUTM,TOUTSM,TOUTFM,NSPOOLM:VEL STATION OUT INFO(UNIT 71&72) 5 TOTAL NUMBER OF VELOCITY RECORDING STATIONS 8.9366667e+01 3.0281700e+01 waveland ms 8.9140000e+01 2.8999000e+01 South Pass LA 8.9418330e+01 2.8925000e+01 SW pass LA 8.7211667e+01 3.0405300e+01 pensacola FL 8.9956667e+01 2.9263333e+01 Grand Isle LA 1 0.0 6.0 120 NOUTGE,TOUTSGE,TOUTFGE,NSPOOLGE:GLOBAL ELEV OUT INFOUNIT 63) 1 0.0 6.0 120 NOUTGV,TOUTSGV,TOUTFGV,NSPOOLGV:GLOBAL VEL OUT INFO(UNIT 64) 1 0.0 6.0 120 NOUTGM,TOUTSGM,TOUTFGM,NSPOOLGM:GLOBAL VEL OUT INFO(UNIT 73&74) 8 NHARFR NUMBER OF CONSTITUENTS TO BE INCLUDED IN THE HARMONIC ANALYSIS STEADY HAFNAM(I) ALHPANUMERIC DESCRIPTION OF HARMONIC CONSTITUENT I=1 0.00000000000000 1.0 0.0 HAFREQ(I=1),HAFF(I=1),HAFACE(I=1) K1 HAFNAM(I) ALHPANUMERIC DESCRIPTION OF HARMONIC CONSTITUENT I=3 0.000072921165921 0.903 4.685423643 HAFREQ(I=3),HAFF(I=3),HAFACE(I=3) 01 HAFNAM(I) ALHPANUMERIC DESCRIPTION OF HARMONIC CONSTITUENT 1=4 0.000067597751162 0.841 6.254177935 HAFREQ(I=4),HAFF(I=4),HAFACE(I=4) M2 HAFNAM(I) ALHPANUMERIC DESCRIPTION OF HARMONIC CONSTITUENT I=8 0.000140518917083 1.033 0.607861211 HAFREQ(I=8),HAFF(I=8),HAFACE(I=8) S2 HAFNAM(I) ALHPANUMERIC DESCRIPTION OF HARMONIC CONSTITUENT 1=9 0.000145444119418 1.0 0.0 HAFREQ(I=9),HAFF(I=9),HAFACE(I=9) M4 HAFNAM(I) ALHPANUMERIC DESCRIPTION OF HARMONIC CONSTITUENT 1=16 0.000281037834166 1.066 2.932537116 HAFREQ(I=16),HAFF(I=16),HAFACE(I=16) M6 HAFNAM(I) ALHPANUMERIC DESCRIPTION OF HARMONIC CONSTITUENT I=18 0.000421556751249 1.101 1.25721302 HAFREQ(I=18),HAFF(I=18),HAFACE(I=18) N2 HAFNAM(I) ALHPANUMERIC DESCRIPTION OF HARMONIC CONSTITUENT I=18 0.000138000000000 1.033 1.128599708 HAFREQ(I=18),HAFF(I=18),HAFACE(I=18) 0.00 6.00 120 1.0 THAS,THAF,NHAINC,FMV HARMONIC ANALYSIS PARAMETERS 1 1 1 1 NHASE,NHASV,NHAGE,NHAGVHARMONIC ANALY & OUTPUT TO UNITS 51,52,53,54 1 200 NHSTAR,NHSINC HOT START FILE GENERATION PARAMETERS 1 0 1.E5 25 ITITER, ISLDIA, CONVCR, ITMAXALGEBRAIC SOLUTION PARAMETERS This input file is used to include the waves in the model prediction. Georges_OFCL 32 CHARACTER ALPHANUMERIC RUN DESCRIPTION allruns 24 CHARACTER ALPHANUMERIC RUN IDENTIFICATION 1 NFOVER NONFATAL ERROR OVERRIDE OPTION 0 ABOUT ABREVIATED OUTPUT OPTION PARAMETER 1 SCREEN UNIT 6 OUTPUT OPTION PARAMETER 0 IHOT HOT START PARAMETER 2 ICS COORDINATE SYSTEM SELECTION PARAMETER 0 IM MODEL TYPE (0 INDICATES STANDARD 2DDI MODEL) 1 NOLIBF BOTTOM FRICTION TERM SELECTION PARAMETER 2 NOLIFA FINITE AMPLITUDE TERM SELECTION PARAMETER 1 NOLICA SPATIAL DERIVATIVE CONVECTIVE TERM SELECTION PARAMETER 1 NOLICAT TIME DERIVATIVE CONVECTIVE TERM SELECTION PARAMETER 0 NWP VARIABLE BOTTOM FRICTION AND LATERAL VISCOSITY OPTION PARAMETER 1 NCOR VARIABLE CORIOLIS IN SPACE OPTION PARAMETER 0 NTIP TIDAL POTENTIAL OPTION PARAMETER 102 NWS WIND STRESS AND BAROMETRIC PRESSURE OPTION PARAMETER 1 NRAMP RAMP FUNCTION OPTION 9.81 G ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY DETERMINES UNITS 0.006 TAUO WEIGHTING FACTOR IN GWCE 30.0 DT TIME STEP (IN SECONDS) 0.0 STATIM STARTING TIME (IN DAYS) 0.0 REFTIM REFERENCE TIME (IN DAYS) 1800.0 1800.0 wtiminc rtiminc seconds 30min 6.0000 RNDAY TOTAL LENGTH OF SIMULATION (IN DAYS) 0.5 DRAMP DURATION OF RAMP FUNCTION (IN DAYS) 0.35 0.30 0.35 TIME WEIGHTING FACTORS FOR THE GWCE EQUATION 0.1 10 10 0.1 HO MINIMUM CUTOFF DEPTH nodedrymin nodewetmin velmin 265.5 29.0 SLAMO,SFEAOCENTER OF CPP PROJEC(NOT USED IF ICS=1,NTIP=0,NCOR=0) 0.006 FACTOR HOMOGENEOUS LINEAR OR NONLINEAR BOTTOM FRICTION COEFF 0.0 ESL LATERAL EDDY VISCOSITY COEFFICIENT; IGNORED IF NWP =1 0.0 CORI CORIOLIS PARAMETER IGNORED IF NCOR = 1 0 NTIF NUMBER OF TIDAL POTENTIAL CONSTITUENTS BEING FORCED 0 NBFR TOTAL NUMBER OF FORCING FREQUENCIES ON OPEN BOUNDARIES 45.0 ANGINN INNER ANGLE THRESHOLD 1 0.0 6.0 120 NOUTE,TOUTSE,TOUTFE,NSPOOLE:ELEV STATION OUTPUT INFO(UNIT 61) 5 TOTAL NUMBER OF ELEVATION RECORDING STATIONS 8.9366667e+01 3.0281700e+01 waveland ms 8.9140000e+01 2.8999000e+01 South Pass LA 8.9418330e+01 2.8925000e+01 SW pass LA 8.7211667e+01 3.0405300e+01 pensacola FL 8.9956667e+01 2.9263333e+01 Grand Isle LA 1 0.0 6.0 120 NOUTV,TOUTSV,TOUTFV,NSPOOLV:VEL. STATION OUTPUT INFO(UNIT 62) 5 TOTAL NUMBER OF VELOCITY RECORDING STATIONS 8.9366667e+01 3.0281700e+01 waveland ms 8.9140000e+01 2.8999000e+01 South Pass LA 8.9418330e+01 2.8925000e+01 SW pass LA 8.7211667e+01 3.0405300e+01 pensacola FL 8.9956667e+01 2.9263333e+01 Grand Isle LA 1 0.0 6.0 120 NOUTM,TOUTSM,TOUTFM,NSPOOLM:VEL STATION OUT INFO(UNIT 71&72) 5 TOTAL NUMBER OF VELOCITY RECORDING STATIONS 8.9366667e+01 3.0281700e+01 waveland ms 8.9140000e+01 2.8999000e+01 South Pass LA 8.9418330e+01 2.8925000e+01 SW pass LA 8.7211667e+01 3.0405300e+01 pensacola FL 8.9956667e+01 2.9263333e+01 Grand Isle LA 1 0.0 6.0 120 NOUTGE,TOUTSGE,TOUTFGE,NSPOOLGE:GLOBAL ELEOUTPUT INFO(UNIT 63) 1 0.0 6.0 120 NOUTGV,TOUTSGV,TOUTFGV,NSPOOLGV:GLOBAL VELOUTPUT INFO(UNIT 64) 1 0.0 6.0 120 NOUTGM,TOUTSGM,TOUTFGM,NSPOOLGM:GLOBAL VELOUT INFO(UNIT 71&74) 8 NHARFR NUMBER OF CONSTITUENTS TO BE INCLUDED IN THE HARMONIC ANALYSIS STEADY HAFNAM(I) ALHPANUMERIC DESCRIPTION OF HARMONIC CONSTITUENT I=1 0.00000000000000 1.0 0.0 HAFREQ(I=1),HAFF(I=1),HAFACE(I=1) K1 HAFNAM(I) ALHPANUMERIC DESCRIPTION OF HARMONIC CONSTITUENT I=3 0.000072921165921 0.903 4.685423643 HAFREQ(I=3),HAFF(I=3),HAFACE(I=3) 01 HAFNAM(I) ALHPANUMERIC DESCRIPTION OF HARMONIC CONSTITUENT 1=4 0.000067597751162 0.841 6.254177935 HAFREQ(I=4),HAFF(I=4),HAFACE(I=4) M2 HAFNAM(I) ALHPANUMERIC DESCRIPTION OF HARMONIC CONSTITUENT I=8 0.000140518917083 1.033 0.607861211 HAFREQ(I=8),HAFF(I=8),HAFACE(I=8) S2 HAFNAM(I) ALHPANUMERIC DESCRIPTION OF HARMONIC CONSTITUENT 1=9 0.000145444119418 1.0 0.0 HAFREQ(I=9),HAFF(I=9),HAFACE(I=9) M4 HAFNAM(I) ALHPANUMERIC DESCRIPTION OF HARMONIC CONSTITUENT 1=16 0.000281037834166 1.066 2.932537116 HAFREQ(I=16),HAFF(I=16),HAFACE(I=16) M6 HAFNAM(I) ALHPANUMERIC DESCRIPTION OF HARMONIC CONSTITUENT I=18 0.000421556751249 1.101 1.25721302 HAFREQ(I=18),HAFF(I=18),HAFACE(I=18) N2 HAFNAM(I) ALHPANUMERIC DESCRIPTION OF HARMONIC CONSTITUENT I=18 0.000138000000000 1.033 1.128599708 HAFREQ(I=18),HAFF(I=18),HAFACE(I=18) 0.00 6.00 120 1.0 THAS,THAF,NHAINC,FMV HARMONIC ANALYSIS PARAMETERS 61 1 1 1 1 NHASE,NHASV,NHAGE,NHAGV HARMONIC ANALY&OUT TO UNITS 51,52,53,54 1 200 NHSTAR,NHSINC HOT START FILE GENERATION PARAMETERS 1 0 1.E5 25 ITITER, ISLDIA, CONVCR, ITMAXALGEBRAIC SOLUTION PARAMETERS REFERENCES ANTHES, R. A. 1982 Tropical C;i, /.o:, .. Ti .T .1r Evolution Structure and Effects. American Meterological Society, Boston, Mass. 1.3 BLAIN, C. A. 1997 Modeling methodologies for the prediction of hurricane storm surge. Recent Advances In Marine Science and T 1./,1...'; 96, 177189. 1.1 BLAIN, C. A., WESTERINK, J. J. & LUETTICH, R. A. 1994 The influence of domain size on the response characteristics of a hurricane storm surge model. Journal of G. ../,.1;l.:, ,/ Research 99, 18,46718,479. 1.1 BLAIN, C. A., WESTERINK, J. J. & LUETTICH, R. A. 1998 Grid convergence studies for the prediction of hurricane storm surge. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids 26, 369401. 1.1, 2.3.1 BREBBIA, C. A., TRAVERSONI, L. & WROBEL, L. C., ed. 1995 Application of a Domain Size and Gridding Strategy for the Prediction of Hurricane Storm Surge. In: Computer Modelling of Seas and Coastal Regions II, pp. 301308. Computational Mechanics Publications, Southampton, UK. 1.1 DEAN, R. G. & DALRYMPLE, R. A. 1991 Water Wave Mechanice for Engineers and Scientists. World Scientific Press, River Edge, New Jersey. 1, 1.4, 1.4, 3.2 DEAN, R. G. & DALRYMPLE, R. A. 2002 Coastal Processes with Engineering Applications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 1.4, 2.2.1 DONELAN, M. A. 1998 Airwater exchange processes. Coastal and Estuarine Studies 54, 1936. 1.2 DONELAN, M. A., DOBSON, F. W., SMITH, S. D. & ANDERSON, R. J. 1993 On the dependence of sea surface roughness on wave development. Journal of Physical O(, i.,1..;',i,,,/ 23, 21432149. 1.2 GARRATT, J. R. 1977 Review of drag coefficients over oceans and continents. VM.,I11J;i Weather Review 105, 915929. 1.2, 4 GEERNAERT, G. L. & PLANT, W. J., ed. 1990 Bulk Parameterizations for the Wind Stress and Heat Fluxes. In: Surface Waves and Fluxes I, chap. 5, pp. 91172. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands. 1.2, 2.1 GUINEY, J. L. 1999 Preliminary Report, Hurricane Georges, 15 September 01 October 1998. Tech. Rep.. NOAA, National Hurricane Center, Miami, Florida. URL http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1998georges.html, 08/2002. 1.5 HAGEN, S. C., WESTERINK, J. J. & KOLAR, R. L. 2000 Onedimensional finite element grids on a localized truncation error analysis. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids 32, 241261. 1.1 HAGEN, S. C., WESTERINK, J. J., KOLAR, R. L. & HORSTMANN, 0. 2001 Twodimensional, unstructured mesh generation for tidal models. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids 35, 669686. 1.1 HOLTHUIJSEN, L. H. 2000 SWAN Cycle III version 40.11 User Manual (Not the Short Version). Delft University, NL. 2.2.2, 2.2.3 JAMES, I. D. 1974 Nonlinear waves in the nearshore region: Shoaling and setup. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science 2, 207234. 1.4 KOMAR, P. D. 1998 Beach Processes and Sedimentation, 2nd edn. PrenticeHall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. 1.4 KOMEN, G. J., CAVALERI, L., DONELAN, M., HASSELMANN, K., HASSELMANN, S. & JANSSEN, P. 1996 Dwin ii, and Modelling of Ocean Waves. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 2.3.2 LONGUETTHIGGINS, M. S. 1983 Wave setup, percolation and undertow in the surf zone. Proceedings of the Royal Scociety of London, Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences 390, 283291. 1.4 LONGUETTHIGGINS, M. S. & STEWART, R. W. 1964 Radiation stresses in water waves; a 1]li',i .l1 discussion with applications. DeepSea Research 11, 529562. 1 LUETTICH, R. A., WESTERINK, J. J. & SHEFFNER, N. W. 1992 ADCIRC: An Advanced ThreeDimensional Circulation Model for W, Ih Coasts and Estuaries. Report 1: Theory and Methodology of ADCIRC2DDI and ADCIRC3DL with Applications. Tech. Rep. DRP926. Department of the Army, Washington, DC. 1.1, 2.1, 2.1, 2.1 MCDOUGAL, W. G. & HUDSPETH, R. T. 1981 NonPlanar Beaches: Wave Induced Setup/Setdown and Longshore Current. Tech. Rep. ORESUR81016. Oregon State University Sea Grant College Program, Corvalis, Oregon. 1.4 SAVILLE, T. 1961 Experimental determination of wave setup. National Hurricane Research Project Report 50, 242252. 1.4 STIVE, M. J. F. & WIND, H. G. 1982 A study of radiation stress and setup in the nearshore region. Coastal Engineering 6, 125. 1.4 TURNER, P. J. & BAPTISTA, A. M. 1999 ACE/gredit Online Documentation. Oregon Health & Science University, Center for Coastal and LandMargin Research (CCALMR), Beaverton, Oregon. URL http://www.ccalmr.ogi.edu/software/xmgredit5/, 11/2002. 2.2.1 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Born in Oklahoma during the year 1973, I was raised in North Carolina. Growing up, my parents would take my brother and sister and myself on all kinds of travels. I recall visiting many of the National Parks and camping out of our 1971 Dodge van. These experiences culminated in a monthlong trip around the United States when I was 10 years old, which included hiking the Grand C.iir. 11 Through these experiences I gained respect for nature and an ability to cope, adapt and accomplish what I put my mind to finishing. I became certified in SCUBA diving at the age of 16 while carving my path through high school. I spent my 18th birtlil.1v in England, traveling outside the USA for the first time. The experience was eyeopening. In 1992, I found my way to college at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. As an undergrad, I served as president of the Society of Physics Students (SPS), and was inducted to HUE and HME (the 1.1ir, i. and mathematics honor societies). I spent 2 weeks during the summer of 1997 in Hawaii as a research diver for the Pacific Whale Foundation, cataloging fish and coral life at 4 reef sites around Maui. My last semester was spent abroad, studying at the University of Stuttgart in Germany and learning the German language and culture. While in Europe, I was able to travel and experience different cultures, and broaden my world view. I graduated from UNCG in December 1999, cum laude, with a Bachelor of Science degree in mathematics and a minor in ]'li i.  After graduation I spent 2 years in Connecticut, working at a local newspaper and teaching at a local high school. Though I enjoyed t.' liiir. I felt that I was not reaching my full potential. Looking for a way to bring together my love of the sea and my educational background, I decided it was time to go back to school. 65 I applied to graduate school at the University of Florida department of Coastal Engineering. In addition to the past 2.5 years of research and graduate course work, I have also been certified as a NAUI Divemaster and cleared as a Science Diver for the University of Florida. My love of the ocean, nature and science brought me to this point in my life, and will continue to drive the decisions I make. For now, I have taken steps toward a Ph.D.,with tentative plans onpursuing a career in the storm prediction / damage mitigation / community organization. In the future I could see myself at some point teaching again. Where there are good teachers there is hope for society. 